WorldWideScience

Sample records for producing bioethanol bioenergy

  1. Bioethanol produced from Moringa oleifera seeds husk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, E. N.; Kemat, S. Z.

    2017-06-01

    This paper presents the potential of bioethanol production from Moringa oleifera seeds husk which contains lignocellulosic through Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation (SSF) process by using Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This paper investigates the parameters which produce optimum bioethanol yield. The husk was hydrolyzed using NaOH and fermented using Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast. Batch fermentation was performed with different yeast dosage of 1, 3, and 5 g/L, pH value was 4.5, 5.0 and 5.5, and fermentation time of 3, 6, 9 and 12 hours. The temperature of fermentation process in incubator shaker is kept constant at 32ºC. The samples are then filtered using a 0.20 μm nylon filter syringe. The yield of bioethanol produced was analysed using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The results showed that the highest yield of 29.69 g/L was obtained at 3 hours of fermentation time at pH of 4.5 and using 1g/L yeast. This research work showed that Moringa oleifera seeds husk can be considered to produce bioethanol.

  2. Bioethanol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenestijn, J.W. van; Abubackar, H.N.; Veiga, M.C.; Kennes, C.

    2013-01-01

    Production of bioethanol from cellulosic biomass plays an important role to support energy policies. To produce cellulosic ethanol via fermentation it is required to first break the lignocellulosic complex. Numerous technologies for such pretreatment are under development or in a pilot plant stage.

  3. Evaluating environmental consequences of producing herbaceous crops for bioenergy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaughlin, S.B.

    1995-01-01

    The environmental costs and benefits of producing bioenergy crops can be measured both in kterms of the relative effects on soil, water, and wildlife habitat quality of replacing alternate cropping systems with the designated bioenergy system, and in terms of the quality and amount of energy that is produced per unit of energy expended. While many forms of herbaceous and woody energy crops will likely contribute to future biofuels systems, The Dept. of Energy's Biofuels Feedstock Development Program (BFDP), has chosen to focus its primary herbaceous crops research emphasis on a perennial grass species, switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), as a bioenergy candidate. This choice was based on its high yields, high nutrient use efficiency, and wide geographic distribution, and also on its poistive environmental attributes. The latter include its positive effects on soil quality and stabiity, its cover value for wildlife, and the lower inputs of enerty, water, and agrochemicals required per unit of energy produced. A comparison of the energy budgets for corn, which is the primary current source of bioethanol, and switchgrass reveals that the efficiency of energy production for a perennial grass system can exceed that for an energy intensive annual row crop by as much as 15 times. In additions reductions in CO 2 emission, tied to the energetic efficiency of producing transportation fuels, are very efficient with grasses. Calculated carbon sequestration rates may exceed those of annual crops by as much as 20--30 times, due in part to carbon storage in the soil. These differences have major implications for both the rate and efficiency with which fossil energy sources can be replaced with cleaner burning biofuels

  4. Evaluating environmental consequences of producing herbaceous crops for bioenergy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLaughlin, S.B.

    1995-12-31

    The environmental costs and benefits of producing bioenergy crops can be measured both in kterms of the relative effects on soil, water, and wildlife habitat quality of replacing alternate cropping systems with the designated bioenergy system, and in terms of the quality and amount of energy that is produced per unit of energy expended. While many forms of herbaceous and woody energy crops will likely contribute to future biofuels systems, The Dept. of Energy`s Biofuels Feedstock Development Program (BFDP), has chosen to focus its primary herbaceous crops research emphasis on a perennial grass species, switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), as a bioenergy candidate. This choice was based on its high yields, high nutrient use efficiency, and wide geographic distribution, and also on its poistive environmental attributes. The latter include its positive effects on soil quality and stabiity, its cover value for wildlife, and the lower inputs of enerty, water, and agrochemicals required per unit of energy produced. A comparison of the energy budgets for corn, which is the primary current source of bioethanol, and switchgrass reveals that the efficiency of energy production for a perennial grass system can exceed that for an energy intensive annual row crop by as much as 15 times. In additions reductions in CO{sub 2} emission, tied to the energetic efficiency of producing transportation fuels, are very efficient with grasses. Calculated carbon sequestration rates may exceed those of annual crops by as much as 20--30 times, due in part to carbon storage in the soil. These differences have major implications for both the rate and efficiency with which fossil energy sources can be replaced with cleaner burning biofuels.

  5. Bioethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Charles; Larsen, Jan; Morgan, K. [DONG Energy, Fredericia (Denmark)

    2007-05-15

    Security of supply, sustainability and the market are controlling parameters for developing the energy system. Bioethanol is part of the solution to the question about security of supply and the demand for a sustainable development, and all over Europe 1st generation bioethanol plants are being established. Market demands on existing power plants and the simultaneous wish for establishing a capacity for the production of bioethanol with at first 1st generation technology and starchy biomass and then with 2nd generation technology and lignocellulose is the reason for DONG Energy's development of the concept IBUS (Integrated Biomass Utilisation System). In the IBUS concept the production of bioethanol with 1st and 2nd generation technology has been joined and integrated with the power and heat production of the central power plant. Until the summer of 2006 the IBUS straw plant at Skaerbaekvaerket was established by means of a EURO 15 mill. EU project. In addition to being a demonstration facility the plant is being upscaled to a 4 tonne straw per hour plant in preparation for demonstrating the process at a size which forms the basis of upscaling to fullscale 20 tonne per hour in 2008. The process includes continued hydrothermal pre-treatment, enzymatic hydrolysis at high dry matter concentrations, fermentation and distillation. The raw materials are wheat and maize straw. The perspective for DONG Energy is that the IBUS concept, in which bioethanol and CHP production are to be joined, is a step towards materialising the vision that a central power plant can be developed into an energy refinery. The presented development work within 2nd generation bioethanol technology will be carried out in cooperation with leading international players and Danish universities and knowledge centres Risoe National Laboratory, The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Technical University of Denmark (DTU) and Novozymes. (au)

  6. Bioethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poitrat, Etienne

    1994-01-01

    Bioethanol or its deriviatives (ethers), are mixed with petrol for use in combustion engines. Suitably adapted diesel or spark ignition engines can be used with pure ethanol. Several years of experience, in the USA (since 1978) and in France, have proved that bioethanol can be added to gasoline up to 5-10% without modification of engines or of their performances. In France, ethyl alcohol or ethanol is obtained mainly by fermentation of farm crops which have a high sugar content (beet) or starch content (cereals, potatoes). In future, it will be possible to obtain ethanol by using the whole plant (wood and straw) and transforming the cellulose and hemicellulose into elementary sugars (C5,C6) by enzymatic hydrolysis. Research work is underway in this field. The ether considered here is ETBE (ethyl-tertio-butyl-ether), obtained from the reaction between isobutylene and ethanol. (author)

  7. 76 FR 64839 - Sugar Program; Feedstock Flexibility Program for Bioenergy Producers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-19

    ... sugar to ethanol and other bioenergy production. Surplus Determination As required by the 2008... with selling sugar for ethanol, if FFP is activated, are significantly lower than if sales could be... eligible sugar buyer, the bioenergy producer must produce bioenergy products, including fuel grade ethanol...

  8. Climate, economic, and environmental impacts of producing wood for bioenergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birdsey, Richard; Duffy, Philip; Smyth, Carolyn; Kurz, Werner A.; Dugan, Alexa J.; Houghton, Richard

    2018-05-01

    Increasing combustion of woody biomass for electricity has raised concerns and produced conflicting statements about impacts on atmospheric greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations, climate, and other forest values such as timber supply and biodiversity. The purposes of this concise review of current literature are to (1) examine impacts on net GHG emissions and climate from increasing bioenergy production from forests and exporting wood pellets to Europe from North America, (2) develop a set of science-based recommendations about the circumstances that would result in GHG reductions or increases in the atmosphere, and (3) identify economic and environmental impacts of increasing bioenergy use of forests. We find that increasing bioenergy production and pellet exports often increase net emissions of GHGs for decades or longer, depending on source of feedstock and its alternate fate, time horizon of analysis, energy emissions associated with the supply chain and fuel substitution, and impacts on carbon cycling of forest ecosystems. Alternative uses of roundwood often offer larger reductions in GHGs, in particular long-lived wood products that store carbon for longer periods of time and can achieve greater substitution benefits than bioenergy. Other effects of using wood for bioenergy may be considerable including induced land-use change, changes in supplies of wood and other materials for construction, albedo and non-radiative effects of land-cover change on climate, and long-term impacts on soil productivity. Changes in biodiversity and other ecosystem attributes may be strongly affected by increasing biofuel production, depending on source of material and the projected scale of biofuel production increases.

  9. Bioethanol: industrial world perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grassi, G.

    2000-01-01

    An overview of the production of bioethanol from biomass is presented, and the future for bioethanol in the transport, cogeneration, domestic appliances, and chemicals markets are examined. Bioethanol economics are considered, and yields and estimated prices for bioethanol produced from different crops are tabulated. Specific uses of bioethanol in the different markets are highlighted including the blending of ethanol with petrol in the transport market, the use of bioethanol for cooking in the domestic market, and the production of chemicals from bioethanol

  10. Bioenergy

    CERN Document Server

    Wall, Judy; Demain, Arnold L

    2008-01-01

    Given the limited supply of fossil fuels and the devastating effects of ever-increasing greenhouse gases, researchers have been committed to finding alternative fuel sources. Perhaps one of the least explored areas is bioenergy from microbes. In this landmark volume, world-renowned experts explore the possible contributions of microbes to the next generation of fuels. In 31 detailed chapters, Bioenergy provides thorough explanations of the current knowledge and future areas for research on microbial energy conversions. The volume begins with 10 chapters on ethanol production from cellulosic fe

  11. Water for bioenergy: A global analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerbens-Leenes, Winnie; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert; van der Meer, Theodorus H.; Gasparatos, A.; Stromberg, P.

    2012-01-01

    Agriculture is by far the largest water user. This chapter reviews studies on the water footprints (WFs) of bioenergy (in the form of bioethanol, biodiesel, and heat and electricity produced from biomass) and compares their results with the WFs of fossil energy and other types of renewables (wind

  12. Dilute Ionic Liquids Pretreatment of Palm Empty Bunch and Its Impact to Produce Bioethanol

    OpenAIRE

    Lucy Arianie; Utin Dewi Pebriyana; Yudiansyah; Nora Idiawati; Deana Wahyuningrum

    2014-01-01

    Ethanol production through ionic liquids pretreatment of palm empty bunch (PEB) was carried out. This research aims to investigate impact of ionic liquids synthetic i.e 1-butyl-3-methyl imidazoliumbromide or [BMIM]bromide toward cellulose’s palm empty bunch and convert its cellulose into bioethanol. Ionic liquid was synthesized  through reflux and microwave assisted synthesis methods. Research investigation showed that microwave assisted synthesis produce [BMIM]bromide 90% faster than reflux ...

  13. Can we produce carbon and climate neutral forest bioenergy?

    OpenAIRE

    Repo, Anna; Tuovinen, Juha Pekka; Liski, Jari

    2015-01-01

    Harvesting branches, stumps and unmercantable tops, in addition to stem wood, decreases the carbon input to the soil and consequently reduces the forest carbon stock. We examine the changes in the forest carbon cycle that would compensate for this carbon loss over a rotation period and lead to carbon neutral forest residue bioenergy systems. In addition, we analyse the potential climate impact of these carbon neutral systems. In a boreal forest, the carbon loss was compensated for with a 10% ...

  14. Performance and emission analysis of single cylinder SI engine using bioethanol-gasoline blend produced from Salvinia Molesta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Priyank; Protim Das, Partha; Mubarak, M.; Shaija, A.

    2018-01-01

    Rapid depletion of world’s crude oil reserve, rising global energy demand and concerns about greenhouse gases emission have led to the high-level interest in biofuels. The biofuel, bioethanol is found as an alternative fuel for SI engines as it has similar properties those of gasoline. Higher areal productivity with fast growth rate of microalgae and aquatic weeds makes them promising alternative feedstocks for bioethanol production. In this study, bioethanol produced from S.molesta (aquatic weed) using combined pre-treatment and hydrolysis followed by fermentation with yeast was used to make bioethanol-gasoline blend. The quantity of bioethanol produced from S.molesta was 99.12% pure. The physical properties such as density and heating value of bioethanol were 792.2 kg/m3 and 26.12 MJ/kg, respectively. In this work, the effects of bioethanol-gasoline (E5) fuel blends on the performance and combustion characteristics of a spark ignition (SI) engine were investigated. In the experiments, a single-cylinder, four-stroke SI engine was used. The tests were performed using electric dynamometer while running the engine at the speed (3200 rpm), and seven different load (0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5 and 3 kW). The results obtained from the use of bioethanol-gasoline fuel blends were compared to those of gasoline fuel. The test results showed an increase of 0.3% in brake thermal efficiency for E5. From the emission analysis, reduced emissions of 39 ppm unburned hydrocarbon, 1.55% carbon monoxide and 2% smoke opacity, respectively was observed with E5 at full load. An increase in CO2 by 0.17% and NOx by 86.7 ppm was observed for E5 at full load.

  15. Dilute Ionic Liquids Pretreatment of Palm Empty Bunch and Its Impact to Produce Bioethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Arianie

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Ethanol production through ionic liquids pretreatment of palm empty bunch (PEB was carried out. This research aims to investigate impact of ionic liquids synthetic i.e 1-butyl-3-methyl imidazoliumbromide or [BMIM]bromide toward cellulose’s palm empty bunch and convert its cellulose into bioethanol. Ionic liquid was synthesized  through reflux and microwave assisted synthesis methods. Research investigation showed that microwave assisted synthesis produce [BMIM]bromide 90% faster than reflux method. The characterization of synthesized product using FTIR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and LC-MS showed that these reactions have been carried out successfully. Scanning electron microscope figure out changes morphological surface of palm empty bunch caused by ionic liquid pretreatment. Crystallinity index of PEB milled and cellulose of PEFB after [BMIM]bromide dissolution were identified using comparison of PEB FTIR spectrum. Cellulose without dilute [BMIM]bromide have higher LOI number than cellulose after [BMIM]bromide dissolution. It indicated that a large part of cellulose after dissolution has been changed into amorf. Hydrolysis residue of palm empty bunch hydrolyzed by sulfuric acids 5%, 100 0C for 5 hours and produce 685 ppm of reducing sugar. Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation using Trichoderma viride and Saccharomyce cerevisiae  for 5 days produce 0,69% of bioethanol.

  16. Dilute Ionic Liquids Pretreatment of Palm Empty Bunch and Its Impact to Produce Bioethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Arianie

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Ethanol production through ionic liquids pretreatment of palm empty bunch (PEB was carried out. This research aims to investigate impact of ionic liquids synthetic i.e 1-butyl- 3-methyl imidazoliumbromide or [BMIM]bromide toward cellulose’s palm empty bunch and convert its cellulose into bioethanol. Ionic liquid was synthesized through reflux and microwave assisted synthesis methods. Research investigation showed that microwave assisted synthesis produce [BMIM]bromide 90% faster than reflux method. The characterization of synthesized product using FTIR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and LC-MS showed that these reactions have been carried out successfully. Scanning electron microscope figure out changes morphological surface of palm empty bunch caused by ionic liquid pretreatment. Crystallinity index of PEB milled and cellulose of PEFB after [BMIM]bromide dissolution were identified using comparison of PEB FTIR spectrum. Cellulose without dilute [BMIM]bromide have higher LOI number than cellulose after [BMIM]bromide dissolution. It indicated that a large part of cellulose after dissolution has been changed into amorf. Hydrolysis residue of palm empty bunch hydrolyzed by sulfuric acids 5%, 100 0C for 5 hours and produce 685 ppm of reducing sugar. Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation using Trichoderma viride and Saccharomyce cerevisiae for 5 days produce 0,69% of bioethanol.

  17. Environmental impacts of producing bioethanol and biobased lactic acid from standalone and integrated biorefineries using a consequential and an attributional life cycle assessment approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parajuli, Ranjan; Knudsen, Marie Trydeman; Birkved, Morten

    2017-01-01

    : a standalone system producing bioethanol from winter wheat-straw (system A), a standalone system producing biobased lactic acid from alfalfa (system B), and an integrated biorefinery system (system C) combining the two standalone systems and producing both bioethanol and lactic acid. The synergy...

  18. Phenotypic characterisation of Saccharomyces spp. yeast for tolerance to stresses encountered during fermentation of lignocellulosic residues to produce bioethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background During industrial fermentation of lignocellulose residues to produce bioethanol, microorganisms are exposed to a number of factors that influence productivity. These include inhibitory compounds produced by the pre-treatment processes required to release constituent carbohydrates from biomass feed-stocks and during fermentation, exposure of the organisms to stressful conditions. In addition, for lignocellulosic bioethanol production, conversion of both pentose and hexose sugars is a pre-requisite for fermentative organisms for efficient and complete conversion. All these factors are important to maximise industrial efficiency, productivity and profit margins in order to make second-generation bioethanol an economically viable alternative to fossil fuels for future transport needs. Results The aim of the current study was to assess Saccharomyces yeasts for their capacity to tolerate osmotic, temperature and ethanol stresses and inhibitors that might typically be released during steam explosion of wheat straw. Phenotypic microarray analysis was used to measure tolerance as a function of growth and metabolic activity. Saccharomyces strains analysed in this study displayed natural variation to each stress condition common in bioethanol fermentations. In addition, many strains displayed tolerance to more than one stress, such as inhibitor tolerance combined with fermentation stresses. Conclusions Our results suggest that this study could identify a potential candidate strain or strains for efficient second generation bioethanol production. Knowledge of the Saccharomyces spp. strains grown in these conditions will aid the development of breeding programmes in order to generate more efficient strains for industrial fermentations. PMID:24670111

  19. Price determination for hydrogen produced from bio-ethanol in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregorini, V.A.; Pasquevich, D.; Laborde, M.

    2010-01-01

    A massive penetration for hydrogen as a fuel vector requires a price reduction against fossil fuels (up to lower or at less equal to current prices). That is why it is important to calculate the current prices, so that we can determinate the gap between them and work in reducing them. In order to follow properly prices evolution it is necessary been able to compare data generated by Universities, Laboratories and Industries. So that, DOE creates in 2003 a tool (H2A) to determine prices for hydrogen, with some assumptions and pre defined values, to facilitate transparency and consistency of data. In this work we will use the H2A tool to calculate de price of hydrogen produced in a bio-ethanol semi-industrial Plant in Argentina, and we will compare it with the prices of USA studies. (author)

  20. Thermotolerant yeasts capable of producing bioethanol: isolation from natural fermented sources, identification and characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Azam Talukder

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the demands of biofuels have increased, because of their significant role in reducing various pollutants created by fossil fuels. Here, we have collected 25 samples containing various thermotolerant microorganisms from the nine natural fermented sources of Bangladesh, such as Boiled potato (Bp, Decomposed foods (Df, Municipal liquid waste (Mlw, Municipal solid waste (Msw, Sugarcane juice (Sc, Pantavat (Pv, Sugar molasses (Sm, Tari (Tari and Watermelon juice (Wm for bioethanol production. Among them, 18 isolates are capable of producing bioethanol. Cultural, morphological, physiological, biochemical and genetic analyses were carried out under various physiological conditions. Ethanol fermentation was checked by different carbon sources, temperatures and pH. All of the isolates could grow well in the medium containing Dextrose and Arabinose and only two strains Pv-1 and Bp-2 could ferment Xylose as a sole carbon source. At 42 °C, the highest ethanol concentration 6.58% (v/v was obtained by a strain Wm-1 isolated from Watermelon juice. At 37 °C, maximal ethanol concentrations of 6.74% (v/v, 6.50% (v/v and 6.22% (v/v were obtained by the strains Bp-2, Wm-l and Pv-1, respectively. Among the various pH tested, the highest ethanol concentration 6.6% (v/v was obtained at pH 4.5 by a strain named Tari-2. Finally, yeast 26S rDNA sequencing information identified the strains Sc-2 as Saccharomyces cerevisiae Pv-2, Tari-2 and Df-1 as Pichia kudriavzevii, Mlw-l and Bp-2 as Candida tropicalis, Pv-1 as Pichia guilliermondii and Df-2 as Candida rugosa.

  1. Development of a Solid-State Fermentation System for Producing Bioethanol from Food Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Hiroaki; Ohnishi, Akihiro; Fujimoto, Naoshi; Suzuki, Masaharu

    Liquid fermentation is the a conventional method of producing bioethanol. However, this method results in the formation of high concentrations waste after distillation and futher treatment requires more energy and is costly(large amounts of costly energy).Saccharification of dried raw garbage was tested for 12 types of Koji starters under the following optimum culture conditions: temperature of 30°C and initial moisture content of 50%.Among all the types, Aspergillus oryzae KBN650 had the highest saccharifying power. The ethanol-producing ability of the raw garbage was investigated for 72 strains of yeast, of which Saccharomyces cerevisiae A30 had the highest ethanol production(yield)under the following optimum conditions: 1 :1 ratio of dried garbage and saccharified garbage by weight, and initial moisture content of 60%. Thus, the solid-state fermentation system consisted of the following 4 processes: moisture control, saccharification, ethanol production and distillation. This system produced 0.6kg of ethanol from 9.6kg of garbage. Moreover the ethanol yield from all sugars was calculated to be 0.37.

  2. Systemic analysis of production scenarios for bioethanol produced from ligno-cellulosic biomass [abstract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghysel, F.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Defining alternatives for non-renewable energy sources constitutes a priority to the development of our societies. One of these alternatives is biofuels production starting from energy crops, agricultural wastes, forest products or wastes. In this context, a "second generation" biofuels production, aiming at utilizing the whole plant, including ligno-cellulosic (hemicelluloses, cellulose, lignin fractions (Ogier et al., 1999 that are not used for human food, would allow the reduction of the drawbacks of bioethanol production (Schoeling, 2007. However, numerous technical, economical, ethical and environmental questions are still pending. One of the aims of the BioEtha2 project, directed by the Walloon Agricultural Research Centre, is to define the position of bioethanol produced from ligno-cellulosic biomass among the different renewable energy alternatives that could be developed in Wallonia towards 2020. With this aim, and in order to answer the numerous questions in this field, the project aims at using tools and methods coming from the concept of "forecasting scenarios" (Sebillotte, 2002; Slegten et al., 2007; For-learn, 2008. This concept, based on a contemporary reality, aims to explore different possible scenarios for the future development of alternative sources of energy production. The principle is to evaluate, explore, possible futures of the studied problematic, through the establishment of possible evolution trajectories. We contribute to this prospective through a systemic approach (Vanloqueren, 2007 that allows lightening the existing interactions within the system "ligno-cellulosic biomass chain" without isolating it from its environment. We explain and sketch the two contexts needed to identify primary stakes. The global context includes inter-dependant and auto-regulating fields such as society, politics, technology and economy. These four fields influence each part of the "chain" with specific tools. However, the interest and

  3. Tungsten effect over co-hydrotalcite catalysts to produce hydrogen from bio-ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contreras, J.L.; Ortiz, M.A.; Luna, R.; Nuno, L. [Univ. Autonoma Metropolitana-Azcapozalco, Mexico City (Mexico). Dept. de Energia; Fuentes, G.A. [Univ. Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Mexico City (Mexico). Dept. de IPH; Salmones, J.; Zeifert, B. [Inst. Politecnico Nacional, Mexico City (Mexico); Vazquez, A. [Inst. Mexicano del Petroleo, Mexico City (Mexico)

    2010-07-15

    The use of bioethanol has been considered for generating hydrogen via catalytic reforming. The reaction of ethanol with stream is strongly endothermic and produces hydrogen (H{sub 2}) and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). However, undesirable products such as carbon monoxide (CO) and methane (CH{sub 4}) may also form during the reaction. This paper reported on the newly found stabilization effect of tungsten over the Co-hydrotalcite catalysts to produce H{sub 2} from ethanol in steam reforming. The catalysts were characterized by nitrogen (N{sub 2}) physisorption (BET area), X-ray diffraction, Infrared, Raman and UV-vis spectroscopies. Catalytic evaluations were determined using a fixed bed reactor with a water/ethanol mol ratio of 4 at 450 degrees C. The tungsten concentration studied was from 0.5 to 3 wt percent. The intensity of crystalline reflections of the Co-hydrotalcite catalysts decreased as tungsten concentration increased. Infrared spectroscopy was used to determine the superficial chemical groups, notably -OH, H{sub 2}O, Al-OH, Mg-OH, W-O-W and CO{sub 3}{sup 2.} The highest H{sub 2} production and the best catalytic stability was found in catalysts with low tungsten. The smallest pore volume of this catalyst could be related with long residence times of ethanol in the pores. Tungsten promoted the conversion for the Co-hydrotalcite catalysts. The reaction products were H{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 3}CHO, CH{sub 4} and C{sub 2}H{sub 4} and the catalysts did not produce CO. 33 refs., 2 tabs., 10 figs.

  4. Bioethanol: fuel or feedstock?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rass-Hansen, Jeppe; Falsig, Hanne; Jørgensen, Betina

    2007-01-01

    Increasing amounts of bioethanol are being produced from fermentation of biomass, mainly to counteract the continuing depletion of fossil resources and the consequential escalation of oil prices. Today, bioethanol is mainly utilized as a fuel or fuel additive in motor vehicles, but it could also...

  5. Selecting elephant grass families and progenies to produce bioenergy through mixed models (REML/BLUP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, E V; Daher, R F; Dos Santos, A; Vivas, M; Machado, J C; Gravina, G do A; de Souza, Y P; Vidal, A K; Rocha, A Dos S; Freitas, R S

    2017-05-18

    Brazil has great potential to produce bioenergy since it is located in a tropical region that receives high incidence of solar energy and presents favorable climatic conditions for such purpose. However, the use of bioenergy in the country is below its productivity potential. The aim of the current study was to select full-sib progenies and families of elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum S.) to optimize phenotypes relevant to bioenergy production through mixed models (REML/BLUP). The circulating diallel-based crossing of ten elephant grass genotypes was performed. An experimental design using the randomized block methodology, with three repetitions, was set to assess both the hybrids and the parents. Each plot comprised 14-m rows, 1.40 m spacing between rows, and 1.40 m spacing between plants. The number of tillers, plant height, culm diameter, fresh biomass production, dry biomass rate, and the dry biomass production were assessed. Genetic-statistical analyses were performed through mixed models (REML/BLUP). The genetic variance in the assessed families was explained through additive genetic effects and dominance genetic effects; the dominance variance was prevalent. Families such as Capim Cana D'África x Guaçu/I.Z.2, Cameroon x Cuba-115, CPAC x Cuba-115, Cameroon x Guaçu/I.Z.2, and IAC-Campinas x CPAC showed the highest dry biomass production. The family derived from the crossing between Cana D'África and Guaçu/I.Z.2 showed the largest number of potential individuals for traits such as plant height, culm diameter, fresh biomass production, dry biomass production, and dry biomass rate. The individual 5 in the family Cana D'África x Guaçu/I.Z.2, planted in blocks 1 and 2, showed the highest dry biomass production.

  6. Feasibility studies on selected bioenergy concepts producing electricity, heat, and liquid fuel. IEA Bioenergy, Techno-economic analysis activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solantausta, Y.; Koljonen, T. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Podesser, E. [Joanneum Research (Austria); Beckman, D. [Zeton Inc. (Canada); Overend, R. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (United States)

    1999-07-01

    The IEA Bioenergy Techno-Economic Analysis Activity reported here, had the following objectives: To assist companies working with technologies and products related to bioenergy applications in their efforts to demonstrate these; To promote bioenergy technologies, processes and applications; To build and maintain a network for R and D organisations and industry. The objectives were pursued 1995 - 1997 through carrying out site-specific prefeasibility studies in participating countries. Both electricity and liquid fuel applications were studied, utilising gasification, pyrolysis, and combustion technologies. Studies were carried out in collaboration with companies developing new products or services from participating countries (Austria, Canada, Finland, and the United States of America) in the bioenergy field. Cases are: Austria: Power production at a district heating station, Stirling-engine driven by unclean boiler flue gases, 50 kWe; Canada - Bio-oil production for a boiler power plant, Fast pyrolysis of sawmill wastes and bark, 11 MWe; Finland: Co-generation of power and heat at a pulp and paper mill, Pressurised integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) using bark and wood, 34 MWe; Sweden: Bio-oil production for heating fuel, Fast pyrolysis of forest residues, 20 000 t/a; USA - Case 1: Co-firing in a coal boiler, Combustion of plantation willow, 15 MWe; USA - Case 2: Condensing power production, Pressurised IGCC using alfalfa stems, 75 MWe All of the cases studied are at different stages of development. Results from these case studies are reported together with technical uncertainties and future development needs, which are required for all the systems. In general, the results showed that for most of the cases studied economic conditions are possible, through existing subsidies or tax incentives, for feasible industrial operation. Specially designed Stirling engines have a short amortisation time integrated to biomass district heating plants in Austria

  7. Bioethanol Production From Cellulose by Candida tropicalis, as An Alternative Microbial Agent to Produce Ethanol from Lignocellulosic Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermansyah

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Candida tropicalis isolated from Tuak is a potentially useful microorganism for the ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass and it can be alterbative agent replacing Saccharomyces cerevisae for fermentation process. Although C.tropicalis could not convert all carbohydrates content of lignocellulosic into bioethanol, however it is able to grow on medium in the presence of either xylose or arabinose as carbon source. Our result showed that fermentation of 10 % (w/v cellulosic as sole carbon source produced 2.88% (v/v ethanol by C.tropicalis. This ethanol production was lower than usage of 10% (w/v dextrose as sole carbon source medium which producing 5.51% (v/v ethanol. Based upon our expreiment indicated that C.tropicalis is able to conduct two main process in converting of cellulosic material- to ethanol which is hydrolysis the degradation of cellulose into glucose, and fermentation the process the conversion glucose into bioethanol. Keywords : Candida tropicalis, bioethanol, fermentation, cellulosic Abstrak (Indonesian: Candida tropicalis yang diisiolasi dari Tuak adalah agen yang berpotensi dalam produksi etanol dari biomasa lignoselulosa dan dapat dijadikan agen alternatif menggantikan Saccharomyces cerevisiae pada proses fernentasi. Walaupun C.tropicalis tidak dapat mengkonversi semua kandungan karbohidrat lignoselulosamenjadi etanol, akan tetapi C.tropicalis mampu tumbuh pada media dengan xilosa atau arabinosa sebagaisumber karbon. Hasil kami menunjukkan bahwa dengan mengguankan C.tropicalis fermentasi 10% (w/v selulosa sebagai satu-satunya sumber karbon menghasilkan 2,88% (v/v etanol, Produksi etanol ini lebih rendah jika menggunakan 10% (w/v dekstrosa sebagai satu satunya sumber karbon yang menghasilkan 5,51% (v/v etanol. Berdasarkan percobaan menunjukkan bahwa C.tropicalis mampu melakukan dua proses utama dalam mengkonversi material selulosa menjadi etanol yaitu hidrolisis degradasi selulosa menjadi glukosa, dan

  8. Bio-Ethanol Production from Poultry Manure

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    john

    ethanol. Fuel ethanol is known as bio-ethanol, since it is produced from plant materials by biological processes. Bioethanol is mainly produced by fermentation of sugar containing crops like corn, maize, wheat, sugar cane, sugar beet, potatoes, ...

  9. A techno-economic and environmental evaluation of the life cycle of bioethanol produced from rice straw by RT-CaCCO process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, Poritosh; Tokuyasu, Ken; Orikasa, Takahiro; Nakamura, Nobutaka; Shiina, Takeo

    2012-01-01

    Japan has set an ambitious goal to produce bioethanol from abundant biomass in views to offset some of her greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This study attempts to evaluate the life cycle of bioethanol produced from the most common variety of rice straw in Japan (cv. Koshihikari) by enzymatic hydrolysis. Three scenarios are established in the evaluation process. The net energy consumption, CO 2 emission and production costs are estimated to determine if environmentally friendly and economically viable bioethanol can be produced from rice straw in Japan. The net energy consumption, CO 2 emission and production costs are estimated to be 10.43–11.56 GJ/m 3 , 1106.34–1144.94 kg/L and 88.54–137.55 k¥/m 3 (1 US$≈100¥), respectively depending on the scenarios of this study. This study reveals that despite a bit of environmental benefits, the economic viability is doubtful unless innovative technologies along with the renewable energy policy and stakeholders participation are considered. A shift in scenarios not only reduces the production cost, but may also minimize the risk of soil degradation and productivity loss and encourage more stakeholder participation and investment in the bioethanol industry in Japan. -- Highlights: ► Three scenarios are considered to evaluate the life cycle of bioethanol produced from rice straw. ► The net energy consumption, CO 2 emission and production cost are estimated. ► The net energy consumption, CO 2 emission and production cost are dependent on the scenarios. ► A shift in scenarios reduces the emission and production cost of bioethanol.

  10. The Public Acceptance of Biofuels and Bioethanol from Straw- how does this affect Geoscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäger, Alexander; Ortner, Tina; Kahr, Heike

    2015-04-01

    The Public Acceptance of Biofuels and Bioethanol from Straw- how does this affect Geoscience The successful use of bioethanol as a fuel requires its widespread acceptance by consumers. Due to the planned introduction of a 10 per cent proportion of bioethanol in petrol in Austria, the University of Applied Sciences Upper Austria carried out a representative opinion poll to collect information on the population's acceptance of biofuels. Based on this survey, interviews with important stakeholders were held to discuss the results and collect recommendations on how to increase the information level and acceptance. The results indicate that there is a lack of interest and information about biofuels, especially among young people and women. First generation bioethanol is strongly associated with the waste of food resources, but the acceptance of the second generation, produced from agricultural remnants like straw from wheat or corn, is considerably higher. The interviewees see more transparent, objective and less technical information about biofuels as an essential way to raise the information level and acceptance rate. As the production of bioethanol from straw is now economically feasible, there is one major scientific question to answer: In which way does the withdrawal of straw from the fields affect the formation of humus and, therefore, the quality of the soil? An interdisciplinary approach of researchers in the fields of bioethanol production, geoscience and agriculture in combination with political decision makers are required to make the technologies of renewable bioenergy acceptable to the population.

  11. Developments in international bioenergy trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junginger, Martin; Faaij, Andre; Wit, Marc de; Bolkesjoe, Torjus; Bradley, Douglas; Dolzan, Paulo; Piacente, Erik; Walter, Arnaldo da Silva; Heinimoe, Jussi; Hektor, Bo; Leistad, Oeyvind; Ling, Erik; Perry, Miles; Rosillo-Calle, Frank; Ryckmans, Yves; Schouwenberg, Peter-Paul; Solberg, Birger; Troemborg, Erik

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a synthesis of the main developments and drivers of international bioenergy trade in IEA Bioenergy Task 40 member countries, based on various country reports written by Task 40 members. Special attention is given to pellet and ethanol trade. In many European countries such as Belgium, Finland, the Netherlands, Sweden and the UK, imported biomass contributes already significantly (between 21% and 43%) to total biomass use. Wood pellets are currently exported by Canada, Finland and (to a small extent) Brazil and Norway, and imported by Sweden, Belgium, the Netherlands, and the UK. In the Netherlands and Belgium, pellet imports nowadays contribute to a major share to total renewable electricity production. Trade in bio-ethanol is another example of a rapidly growing international market. With the EU-wide target of 5.75% biofuels for transportation in 2010 (and 10% in 2020), exports from Brazil and other countries to Europe are likely to rise as well. Major drivers for international bioenergy trade in general are the large resource potentials and relatively low production costs in producing countries such as Canada and Brazil, and high fossil fuel prices and various policy incentives to stimulate biomass use in importing countries. However, the logistic infrastructure both in exporting and importing countries needs to be developed to access larger physical biomass volumes and to reach other (i.e. smaller) end-consumers. It is concluded that international bioenergy trade is growing rapidly, far beyond what was deemed possible only a few years ago, and may in the future in some Task 40 countries surpass domestic biomass use, especially for specific applications (e.g. transport fuels). (author)

  12. Bioenergy from sisal residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jungersen, G. [Dansk Teknologisk Inst. (Denmark); Kivaisi, A.; Rubindamayugi, M. [Univ. of Dar es Salaam (Tanzania, United Republic of)

    1998-05-01

    The main objectives of this report are: To analyse the bioenergy potential of the Tanzanian agro-industries, with special emphasis on the Sisal industry, the largest producer of agro-industrial residues in Tanzania; and to upgrade the human capacity and research potential of the Applied Microbiology Unit at the University of Dar es Salaam, in order to ensure a scientific and technological support for future operation and implementation of biogas facilities and anaerobic water treatment systems. The experimental work on sisal residues contains the following issues: Optimal reactor set-up and performance; Pre-treatment methods for treatment of fibre fraction in order to increase the methane yield; Evaluation of the requirement for nutrient addition; Evaluation of the potential for bioethanol production from sisal bulbs. The processing of sisal leaves into dry fibres (decortication) has traditionally been done by the wet processing method, which consumes considerable quantities of water and produces large quantities of waste water. The Tanzania Sisal Authority (TSA) is now developing a dry decortication method, which consumes less water and produces a waste product with 12-15% TS, which is feasible for treatment in CSTR systems (Continously Stirred Tank Reactors). (EG)

  13. Bioenergy for District Bioheating System (DBS) from eucalyptus residues in a European coal-producing region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paredes-Sánchez, José P.; López-Ochoa, Luis M.; López-González, Luis M.; Xiberta-Bernat, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The paper introduces a combined method to evaluate bioenergy. • Forest biomass needs to be studied as a fuel supplier and carbon sink. • The forests under study produce about 28 kt dry and 0.15 Mt CO 2 per year. • Examined a District Bioheating System (DBS) with the available biomass. - Abstract: Since forest biomass can substitute for CO 2 -emitting fossil fuels in the energy sector, forest management can greatly affect the global carbon cycle. Eucalyptus globulus has adapted very well in the coal region of the Principality of Asturias (Northwestern Spain) and has become highly regarded as a valuable raw material for the pulp and paper industry. In the present work, the Eucalyptus globulus is studied as a key natural energy source in order to improve existing methods and develop new ways of optimizing the evaluation and use of both forest biomass and woody residue in energy systems, in accordance with sustainable forestry industry safety and environmental requirements. The feasibility of utilizing forest biomass instead of natural gas in a District Bioheating System (DBS) has been examined based on an analysis of its economical and environmental impacts.

  14. Isolation and characterization of novel 1,3-propanediol-producing Lactobacillus panis PM1 from bioethanol thin stillage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Nurul H; Kang, Tae Sun; Grahame, Douglas A S; Haakensen, Monique C; Ratanapariyanuch, Kornsulee; Reaney, Martin J; Korber, Darren R; Tanaka, Takuji

    2013-01-01

    Conversion of glycerol to 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PDO) is an attractive option to increase the economic efficiency of the biofuel industry. A bacterial strain that produced 1,3-PDO in the presence of glycerol was isolated from thin stillage, the fermentation residue of bioethanol production. This 1,3-PDO-producing organism was identified as Lactobacillus panis through biochemical characteristics and by 16S rRNA sequencing. Characterization of the L. panis strain hereafter designated as PM1 revealed it was an aerotolerant acidophilic anaerobe able to grow over a wide range of temperatures; tolerant to high concentrations of sodium chloride, ethanol, acetic acid, and lactic acid; and resistant to many common antibiotics. L. panis PM1 could utilize glucose, lactose, galactose, maltose, xylose, and arabinose, but could not grow on sucrose or fructose. Production of 1,3-PDO by L. panis PM1 occurred only when glucose was available as the carbon source in the absence of oxygen. These metabolic characteristics strongly suggested NADH recycling for glucose metabolism is achieved through 1,3-PDO production by this strain. These characteristics classified L. panis PM1 within the group III heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria, which includes the well-characterized 1,3-PDO-producing strain, Lactobacillus reuteri. Metabolite production profiles showed that L. panis PM1 produced considerable amounts of succinic acid (~11-12 mM) from normal MRS medium, which distinguishes this strain from L. reuteri strains.

  15. Ethanol dehydration via azeotropic distillation with gasoline fraction mixtures as entrainers: A pilot-scale study with industrially produced bioethanol and naphta

    OpenAIRE

    Gomis Yagües, Vicente; Pedraza Berenguer, Ricardo; Saquete Ferrándiz, María Dolores; Font, Alicia; Garcia-Cano, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Various hydrocarbons (n-hexane, cyclohexane, toluene, isooctane) and mixtures of them (binary, ternary or quaternary), as well as two different types of industrially produced naphtha (one obtained by direct distillation and the other from a catalytic cracking process), have been tested as candidate entrainers to dehydrate ethanol. The tests were carried out in an azeotropic distillation column on a semi pilot plant. The results show that it is possible to dehydrate bioethanol using naphtha as...

  16. Environmental impacts of producing bioethanol and biobased lactic acid from standalone and integrated biorefineries using a consequential and an attributional life cycle assessment approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parajuli, Ranjan; Knudsen, Marie Trydeman; Birkved, Morten; Djomo, Sylvestre Njakou; Corona, Andrea; Dalgaard, Tommy

    2017-11-15

    This study evaluates the environmental impacts of biorefinery products using consequential (CLCA) and attributional (ALCA) life cycle assessment (LCA) approaches. Within ALCA, economic allocation method was used to distribute impacts among the main products and the coproducts, whereas within the CLCA system expansion was adopted to avoid allocation. The study seeks to answer the questions (i) what is the environmental impacts of process integration?, and (ii) do CLCA and ALCA lead to different conclusions when applied to biorefinery?. Three biorefinery systems were evaluated and compared: a standalone system producing bioethanol from winter wheat-straw (system A), a standalone system producing biobased lactic acid from alfalfa (system B), and an integrated biorefinery system (system C) combining the two standalone systems and producing both bioethanol and lactic acid. The synergy of the integration was the exchange of useful energy necessary for biomass processing in the two standalone systems. The systems were compared against a common reference flow: "1MJ EtOH +1kg LA ", which was set on the basis of products delivered by the system C. Function of the reference flow was to provide service of both fuel (bioethanol) at 99.9% concentration (wt. basis) and biochemical (biobased lactic acid) in food industries at 90% purity; both products delivered at biorefinery gate. The environmental impacts of interest were global warming potential (GWP 100 ), eutrophication potential (EP), non-renewable energy (NRE) use and the agricultural land occupation (ALO). Regardless of the LCA approach adopted, system C performed better in most of the impact categories than both standalone systems. The process wise contribution to the obtained environmental impacts also showed similar impact pattern in both approaches. The study also highlighted that the recirculation of intermediate materials, e.g. C 5 sugar to boost bioethanol yield and that the use of residual streams in the energy

  17. Relating N2O emissions from energy crops to the avoided fossil fuel-derived CO2 – a study on bioethanol and biogas produced from organically managed maize, rye, vetch and grass-clover

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Mette Sustmann; Hauggard-Nielsen, Henrik; Thomsen, Sune Tjalfe

    2010-01-01

    ‐derived CO2, where the N2O emission has been subtracted. This value does not account for farm machinery CO2 emissions and fuel consumption during biofuel production. We obtained the greatest net reduction in greenhouse gas emissions by co‐production of bioethanol and biogas or by biogas alone produced from...... fuel‐derived CO2, which is obtained when energy crops are used for biofuel production. The analysis includes five organically managed crops (viz. maize, rye, rye‐vetch, vetch and grass‐clover) and three scenarios for conversion of biomass to biofuel. The scenarios are 1) bioethanol production, 2......) biogas production and 3) co‐production of bioethanol and biogas, where the energy crops are first used for bioethanol fermentation and subsequently the residues from this process are utilized for biogas production. The net reduction in greenhouse gas missions is calculated as the avoided fossil fuel...

  18. Life cycle assessment of various cropping systems utilized for producing biofuels: Bioethanol and biodiesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seungdo; Dale, Bruce E.

    2005-01-01

    A life cycle assessment of different cropping systems emphasizing corn and soybean production was performed, assuming that biomass from the cropping systems is utilized for producing biofuels (i.e., ethanol and biodiesel). The functional unit is defined as 1 ha of arable land producing biomass for biofuels to compare the environmental performance of the different cropping systems. The external functions are allocated by introducing alternative product systems (the system expansion allocation approach). Nonrenewable energy consumption, global warming impact, acidification and eutrophication are considered as potential environmental impacts and estimated by characterization factors given by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA-TRACI). The benefits of corn stover removal are (1) lower nitrogen related environmental burdens from the soil, (2) higher ethanol production rate per unit arable land, and (3) energy recovery from lignin-rich fermentation residues, while the disadvantages of corn stover removal are a lower accumulation rate of soil organic carbon and higher fuel consumption in harvesting corn stover. Planting winter cover crops can compensate for some disadvantages (i.e., soil organic carbon levels and soil erosion) of removing corn stover. Cover crops also permit more corn stover to be harvested. Thus, utilization of corn stover and winter cover crops can improve the eco-efficiency of the cropping systems. When biomass from the cropping systems is utilized for biofuel production, all the cropping systems studied here offer environmental benefits in terms of nonrenewable energy consumption and global warming impact. Therefore utilizing biomass for biofuels would save nonrenewable energy, and reduce greenhouse gases. However, unless additional measures such as planting cover crops were taken, utilization of biomass for biofuels would also tend to increase acidification and eutrophication, primarily because large nitrogen (and phosphorus

  19. Improved fermentation performance to produce bioethanol from Gelidium amansii using Pichia stipitis adapted to galactose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukwong, Pailin; Ra, Chae Hun; Sunwoo, In Yung; Tantratian, Sumate; Jeong, Gwi-Taek; Kim, Sung-Koo

    2018-03-23

    This study employed a statistical method to obtain optimal hyper thermal acid hydrolysis conditions using Gelidium amansii (red seaweed) as a source of biomass. The optimal hyper thermal acid hydrolysis using G. amansii as biomass was determined as 12% (w/v) slurry content, 358.3 mM H 2 SO 4 , and temperature of 142.6 °C for 11 min. After hyper thermal acid hydrolysis, enzymatic saccharification was carried out. The total monosaccharide concentration was 45.1 g/L, 72.2% of the theoretical value of the total fermentable monosaccharides of 62.4 g/L based on 120 g dry weight/L in the G. amansii slurry. To increase ethanol production, 3.8 g/L 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) in the hydrolysate was removed by treatment with 3.5% (w/v) activated carbon for 2 min and fermented with Pichia stipitis adapted to high galactose concentrations via separate hydrolysis and fermentation. With complete HMF removal and the use of P. stipitis adapted to high galactose concentrations, 22 g/L ethanol was produced (yield 0.50). Fermentation with total HMF removal and yeast adapted to high galactose concentrations increased the fermentation performance and decreased the fermentation time from 96 to 36 h compared to traditional fermentation.

  20. Comparing environmental consequences of anaerobic mono- and co-digestion of pig manure to produce bio-energy – A life cycle perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de J.W.; Vinken, T.M.W.J.; Hamelin, L.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work was to assess the environmental consequences of anaerobic mono- and co-digestion of pig manure to produce bio-energy, from a life cycle perspective. This included assessing environmental impacts and land use change emissions (LUC) required to replace used co-substrates for

  1. DOE-INES New Planet Bioenergy Technical Report Final Public Version 7-22-16

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niederschulte, Mark [INEOS New Planet BioEnergy LLC, Vero Beach, FL (United States); Russell, Kelly [INEOS New Planet BioEnergy LLC, Vero Beach, FL (United States); Connors, Keith [INEOS New Planet BioEnergy LLC, Vero Beach, FL (United States)

    2016-07-22

    INEOS Bio and New Planet Energy Florida formed a joint venture company called INEOS New Planet BioEnergy (“INPB”) in 2009. This venture’s intent was to demonstrate at commercial scale INEOS Bio’s third-generation technology (the “Bio Process”) that converts a variety of lignocellulosic feedstocks into bioethanol and renewable electricity. INPB applied for and was awarded a $50,000,000 Department of Energy (“DOE”) grant in 2009 to support the construction of the commercial demonstration plant. The grant was a cost-sharing arrangement requiring at least 50% equity participation by the grantee. INPB completed construction of the Indian River BioEnergy Center in Vero Beach, Florida in June, 2012. The facility is designed to produce 8 million gallons per year of fuel-grade bioethanol and 6MW of electrical power, with upwards of 2MW exported to the electrical grid. Construction of the Indian River BioEnergy Center was completed on-time and within its capital budget of $121 million.

  2. Bioenergy industries development in China. Dilemma and solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peidong, Zhang; Yanli, Yang; Xutong, Yang; Yonghong, Zheng; Lisheng, Wang; Yongsheng, Tian; Yongkai, Zhang

    2009-01-01

    Having 2.8 x 10 8 -3.0 x 10 8 t/a of wood energy, 4.0 x 10 6 t/a of oil seeds, 7.7 x 10 8 t/a of crops straw, 3.97 x 10 9 t/a of poultry and livestock manure, 1.48 x 10 8 t/a of municipal waste, and 4.37 x 10 10 t/a of organic wastewater, China is in possession of good resource condition for the development of bioenergy industries. Until the end of 2007, China has popularized 2.65 x 10 7 rural household biogas, established 8318 large and middle-scale biogas projects, and produced 1.08 x 10 10 m 3 /a of biogas; the production of bioethanol, biodiesel, biomass briquettes fuel and biomass power generation reached to 1.5 x 10 6 t/a, 3.0 x 10 5 t/a, 6.0 x 10 4 t/a and 6.42 x 10 9 kWh, respectively. In recent years, bioenergy industries developed increasingly fast in China. However, the industrial base was weak with some dilemma existing in raw material supply, technological capability, industry standards, policy and regulation, and follow-up services, etc. From the viewpoint of long-term effective development system for bioenergy industries in China, a series of policy suggestions have been offered, such as strengthening strategy research, improving bioenergy industries development policies and plan, enhancing scientific research input, persisting in technology innovation, establishing product quality standard, improving industrial standard system, opening market and accelerating commercialization, etc. It is expected that the advices mentioned above could be helpful for the improvement of bioenergy industries development. (author)

  3. Life-cycle greenhouse gas emission and energy use of bioethanol produced from corn stover in China: Current perspectives and future prospectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Lili; Ou, Xunmin; Chang, Shiyan

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a life cycle analysis (LCA) of bioethanol production from corn stover is carried out under Chinese context. Three scenarios were developed and assessed based on current and future technology levels of the ethanol conversion process. Well-to-pump (WTP) and well-to-wheels (WTW) results are presented in this paper via functional units of 1 MJ of ethanol produced, 1 MJ of E100 produced and used, and 1 km of distance driven by a light-duty vehicle on E10 fuel, respectively. It was calculated that for 1 MJ of E100, the WTW Greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction relative to gasoline reaches 52%–55%, and the savings of fossil fuel and petroleum fuel reach 72%–76% and 74%–85%, respectively. For 1 MJ of ethanol produced, GHG emissions occurred in ethanol conversion process account for 51%–55%, and the contribution of chemical inputs reaches 36%–37% of the total life cycle GHG emissions. Furthermore, the life cycle results were found to be highly sensitive to allocation methods. - Highlights: • The study is focused on 2 G bioethanol derived from corn stover in Chinese context. • LCA is based on both current and future technology levels for ethanol conversion. • The life cycle GHG emission reduction of E100 relative to gasoline reaches 52%–55%. • Contributions of chemicals account for 36%–37% of life cycle GHG emissions. • E100 saves 74%–85% of petroleum fuel during its life cycle production and use.

  4. Perspectives on bioenergy and biotechnology in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessoa, Adalberto; Roberto, Inês Conceição; Menossi, Marcelo; dos Santos, Raphael Revert; Filho, Sylvio Ortega; Penna, Thereza Christina Vessoni

    2005-01-01

    Brazil is one of the world's largest producers of alcohol from biomass at low cost and is responsible for more than 1 million direct jobs. In 1973, the Brazilian Program of Alcohol (Proalcool) stimulated the creation of a bioethanol industry that has led to large economic, social, and scientific improvements. In the year 1984, 94.5% of Brazil's cars used bioethanol as fuel. In 2003/2004, 350.3 million of sugarcane produced 24.2 million t of sugar and 14.4 billion L of ethanol for an average 4.3 million cars using ethanol. Since its inception, cumulative investment in Proalcool totals US$11 billion, and Brazil has saved US$27 billion in oil imports. The ethanol production industry from sugarcane gene-rates 152 times more jobs than would have been the case if the same amount of fuel was produced from petroleum, and the use of ethanol as a fuel is advantageous for environmental reasons. In 2003, one of the biggest Brazilian ethanol industries started consuming 50% of the residual sugarcane bagasse to produce electrical energy (60 MW), a new alternative use of bioenergy for the Brazilian market. Other technologies for commercial uses of bagasse are in development, such as in the production of natural fibers, sweeteners (glucose and xylitol), single-cell proteins, lactic acid, microbial enzymes, and many other products based on fermentations (submerged and semisolid). Furthermore, studies aimed at the increase in the biosynthesis of sucrose and, consequently, ethanol productivity are being conducted to understand the genetics of sugarcane. Although, at present, there remain technical obstacles to the economic use of some ethanol industry residues, several research projects have been carried out and useful data generated. Efficient utilization of ethanol industry residues has created new opportunities for new value-added products, especially in Brazil, where they are produced in high quantities.

  5. Switchgrass-Based Bioethanol Productivity and Potential Environmental Impact from Marginal Lands in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xun Zhang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Switchgrass displays an excellent potential to serve as a non-food bioenergy feedstock for bioethanol production in China due to its high potential yield on marginal lands. However, few studies have been conducted on the spatial distribution of switchgrass-based bioethanol production potential in China. This study created a land surface process model (Environmental Policy Integrated Climate GIS (Geographic Information System-based (GEPIC model coupled with a life cycle analysis (LCA to explore the spatial distribution of potential bioethanol production and present a comprehensive analysis of energy efficiency and environmental impacts throughout its whole life cycle. It provides a new approach to study the bioethanol productivity and potential environmental impact from marginal lands based on the high spatial resolution GIS data, and this applies not only to China, but also to other regions and to other types of energy plant. The results indicate that approximately 59 million ha of marginal land in China are suitable for planting switchgrass, and 22 million tons of ethanol can be produced from this land. Additionally, a potential net energy gain (NEG of 1.75 x 106 million MJ will be achieved if all of the marginal land can be used in China, and Yunnan Province offers the most significant one that accounts for 35% of the total. Finally, this study obtained that the total environmental effect index of switchgrass-based bioethanol is the equivalent of a population of approximately 20,300, and a reduction in the global warming potential (GWP is the most significant environmental impact.

  6. Cellulosic bioethanol production from Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) using hydrogen peroxide-acetic acid (HPAC) pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Younho; Wi, Seung Gon; Kim, Ho Myeong; Bae, Hyeun-Jong

    2016-08-01

    Jerusalem artichoke (JA) is recognized as a suitable candidate biomass crop for bioethanol production because it has a rapid growth rate and high biomass productivity. In this study, hydrogen peroxide-acetic acid (HPAC) pretreatment was used to enhance the enzymatic hydrolysis and to effectively remove the lignin of JA. With optimized enzyme doses, synergy was observed from the combination of three different enzymes (RUT-C30, pectinase, and xylanase) which provided a conversion rate was approximately 30% higher than the rate with from treatment with RUT-C30 alone. Fermentation of the JA hydrolyzates by Saccharomyces cerevisiae produced a fermentation yield of approximately 84%. Therefore, Jerusalem artichoke has potential as a bioenergy crop for bioethanol production. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Metabolic engineering of a glycerol-oxidative pathway in Lactobacillus panis PM1 for utilization of bioethanol thin stillage: potential to produce platform chemicals from glycerol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Tae Sun; Korber, Darren R; Tanaka, Takuji

    2014-12-01

    Lactobacillus panis PM1 has the ability to produce 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PDO) from thin stillage (TS), which is the major waste material after bioethanol production, and is therefore of significance. However, the fact that L. panis PM1 cannot use glycerol as a sole carbon source presents a considerable problem in terms of utilization of this strain in a wide range of industrial applications. Accordingly, L. panis PM1 was genetically engineered to directly utilize TS as a fermentable substrate for the production of valuable platform chemicals without the need for exogenous nutrient supplementation (e.g., sugars and nitrogen sources). An artificial glycerol-oxidative pathway, comprised of glycerol facilitator, glycerol kinase, glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, triosephosphate isomerase, and NADPH-dependent aldehyde reductase genes of Escherichia coli, was introduced into L. panis PM1 in order to directly utilize glycerol for the production of energy for growth and value-added chemicals. A pH 6.5 culture converted glycerol to mainly lactic acid (85.43 mM), whereas a significant amount of 1,3-propanediol (59.96 mM) was formed at pH 7.5. Regardless of the pH, ethanol (82.16 to 83.22 mM) was produced from TS fermentations, confirming that the artificial pathway metabolized glycerol for energy production and converted it into lactic acid or 1,3-PDO and ethanol in a pH-dependent manner. This study demonstrates the cost-effective conversion of TS to value-added chemicals by the engineered PM1 strain cultured under industrial conditions. Thus, application of this strain or these research findings can contribute to reduced costs of bioethanol production. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  8. Bioethanol Production from Indigenous Algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhuka Roy

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Enhanced rate of fossil fuel extraction is likely to deplete limited natural resources over short period of time. So search for alternative fuel is only the way to overcome this problem of upcoming energy crisis. In this aspect biofuel is a sustainable option. Agricultural lands cannot be compromised for biofuel production due to the requirement of food for the increasing population. Certain species of algae can produce ethanol during anaerobic fermentation and thus serve as a direct source for bioethanol production. The high content of complex carbohydrates entrapped in the cell wall of the microalgae makes it essential to incorporate a pre-treatment stage to release and convert these complex carbohydrates into simple sugars prior to the fermentation process. There have been researches on production of bioethanol from a particular species of algae, but this work was an attempt to produce bioethanol from easily available indigenous algae. Acid hydrolysis was carried out as pre-treatment. Gas Chromatographic analysis showed that 5 days’ fermentation by baker’s yeast had yielded 93% pure bioethanol. The fuel characterization of the bioethanol with respect to gasoline showed comparable and quite satisfactory results for its use as an alternative fuel.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v4i1.12182International Journal of Environment Volume-4, Issue-1, Dec-Feb 2014/15, page: 112-120  

  9. How can accelerated development of bioenergy contribute to the future UK energy mix? Insights from a MARKAL modelling exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anandarajah Gabrial

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This work explores the potential contribution of bioenergy technologies to 60% and 80% carbon reductions in the UK energy system by 2050, by outlining the potential for accelerated technological development of bioenergy chains. The investigation was based on insights from MARKAL modelling, detailed literature reviews and expert consultations. Due to the number and complexity of bioenergy pathways and technologies in the model, three chains and two underpinning technologies were selected for detailed investigation: (1 lignocellulosic hydrolysis for the production of bioethanol, (2 gasification technologies for heat and power, (3 fast pyrolysis of biomass for bio-oil production, (4 biotechnological advances for second generation bioenergy crops, and (5 the development of agro-machinery for growing and harvesting bioenergy crops. Detailed literature searches and expert consultations (looking inter alia at research and development needs and economic projections led to the development of an 'accelerated' dataset of modelling parameters for each of the selected bioenergy pathways, which were included in five different scenario runs with UK-MARKAL (MED. The results of the 'accelerated runs' were compared with a low-carbon (LC-Core scenario, which assesses the cheapest way to decarbonise the energy sector. Results Bioenergy was deployed in larger quantities in the bioenergy accelerated technological development scenario compared with the LC-Core scenario. In the electricity sector, solid biomass was highly utilised for energy crop gasification, displacing some deployment of wind power, and nuclear and marine to a lesser extent. Solid biomass was also deployed for heat in the residential sector from 2040 in much higher quantities in the bioenergy accelerated technological development scenario compared with LC-Core. Although lignocellulosic ethanol increased, overall ethanol decreased in the transport sector in the bioenergy

  10. Biodiesel from microalgae beats bioethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisti, Yusuf

    2008-03-01

    Renewable biofuels are needed to displace petroleum-derived transport fuels, which contribute to global warming and are of limited availability. Biodiesel and bioethanol are the two potential renewable fuels that have attracted the most attention. As demonstrated here, biodiesel and bioethanol produced from agricultural crops using existing methods cannot sustainably replace fossil-based transport fuels, but there is an alternative. Biodiesel from microalgae seems to be the only renewable biofuel that has the potential to completely displace petroleum-derived transport fuels without adversely affecting supply of food and other crop products. Most productive oil crops, such as oil palm, do not come close to microalgae in being able to sustainably provide the necessary amounts of biodiesel. Similarly, bioethanol from sugarcane is no match for microalgal biodiesel.

  11. Emerging bio-ethanol projects in Nigeria. Their opportunities and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohimain, Elijah I.

    2010-01-01

    Despite being a major petroleum producing and exporting country, Nigeria has for a long time imported refined petroleum products for domestic consumption. The country has recently made an entrance into the bio-energy sector by seeding the market with imported ethanol until enough capability exists for the domestic production of ethanol. The Nigerian Biofuel Policy was released in 2007 calling for the domestic production of bio-ethanol to meet the national demand of 5.14 billion litres/year. Some investors have responded by investing over $3.86 billion for the construction of 19 ethanol bio-refineries, 10,000 units of mini-refineries and feedstock plantations for the production of over 2.66 billion litres of fuel grade ethanol per annum. Also, another 14 new projects are in the offing. Of the 20 pioneer projects, 4 are at the conception phase, 8 are in the planning phase, and 7 are under construction with only 1 operational. The potential benefits of the emerging bio-ethanol projects include investment in the economy, employment, energy security and boost rural infrastructure, while the major challenge is land take (859,561 ha). This is the first time an attempt is been made to document the emerging bio-ethanol projects in Nigeria. (author)

  12. Anaerobic digestion of stillage to produce bioenergy in the sugarcane-to-ethanol industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuess, Lucas Tadeu; Garcia, Marcelo Loureiro

    2014-01-01

    Stillage is the main wastewater from ethanol production, containing a high chemical oxygen demand in addition to acidic and corrosive characteristics. Though stillage may be used as a soil fertilizer, its land application may be considered problematic due its high polluting potential. Anaerobic digestion represents an effective alternative treatment to reduce the pollution load of stillage. In addition, the methane gas produced within the process may be converted to energy, which can be directly applied to the treatment plant. The objective of this paper was to investigate the energetic potential of anaerobic digestion applied to stillage in the sugarcane ethanol industry. An overall analysis of the results indicates energy recovery capacity (ERC) values for methane ranging from 3.5% to 10%, respectively, for sugarcane juice and molasses. The processes employed to obtain the fermentable broth, as well as the distillation step, represent the main limiting factors to the energetic potential feasibility. Considering financial aspects the annual savings could reach up to US$ 30 million due to anaerobic digestion of stillage in relatively large-scale distilleries (365,000 m3 of ethanol per year). The best scenarios were verified for the association between anaerobic digestion of stillage and combustion of bagasse. In this case, the fossil fuels consumption in distilleries could be fully ceased, such the ERC of methane could reach values ranging from 140% to 890%.

  13. Bioenergy to save the world. Producing novel energy plants for growth on abandoned land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Peter; Herzig, Rolf; Bojinov, Bojin; Ruttens, Ann; Nehnevajova, Erika; Stamatiadis, Stamatis; Memon, Abdul; Vassilev, Andon; Caviezel, Mario; Vangronsveld, Jaco

    2008-05-01

    Following to the 2006 climate summit, the European Union formally set the goal of limiting global warming to 2 degrees Celsius. But even today, climate change is already affecting people and ecosystems. Examples are melting glaciers and polar ice, reports about thawing permafrost areas, dying coral reefs, rising sea levels, changing ecosystems and fatal heat periods. Within the last 150 years, CO2 levels rose from 280 ppm to currently over 400 ppm. If we continue on our present course, CO2 equivalent levels could approach 600 ppm by 2035. However, if CO2 levels are not stabilized at the 450-550 ppm level, the consequences could be quite severe. Hence, if we do not act now, the opportunity to stabilise at even 550 ppm is likely to slip away. Long-term stabilisation will require that CO2 emissions ultimately be reduced to more than 80% below current levels. This will require major changes in how we operate. Reducing greenhouse gases from burning fossil fuels seems to be the most promising approach to counterbalance the dramatic climate changes we would face in the near future. It is clear since the Kyoto protocol that the availability of fossil carbon resources will not match our future requirements. Furthermore, the distribution of fossil carbon sources around the globe makes them an even less reliable source in the future. We propose to screen crop and non-crop species for high biomass production and good survival on marginal soils as well as to produce mutants from the same species by chemical mutagenesis or related methods. These plants, when grown in adequate crop rotation, will provide local farming communities with biomass for the fermentation in decentralized biogas reactors, and the resulting nitrogen rich manure can be distributed on the fields to improve the soil. Such an approach will open new economic perspectives to small farmers, and provide a clever way to self sufficient and sustainable rural development. Together with the present economic reality

  14. Phytochemical analysis and assessment of bioethanol production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , all having fuel potential and are good source of gasoline. These are produced as a result of fermentation and enzymatic activities of the organic compound present in the biomass sample. Keywords: Bioethanol, Cymbopogon schoenanthus, ...

  15. phytochemical analysis and assessment of bioethanol production

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    userpc

    Bioethanol was produced using enzymatic hydrolysis ... tolerance, less cost and biofuel potential same ..... industries for the production of biofuel would play a greater role in boosting the nation's economy, reduce over reliance on fossil fuel,.

  16. Marine Enzymes and Microorganisms for Bioethanol Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, M R; Natarajan, V; Krishnan, C

    Bioethanol is a potential alternative fuel to fossil fuels. Bioethanol as a fuel has several economic and environmental benefits. Though bioethanol is produced using starch and sugarcane juice, these materials are in conflict with food availability. To avoid food-fuel conflict, the second-generation bioethanol production by utilizing nonfood lignocellulosic materials has been extensively investigated. However, due to the complexity of lignocellulose architecture, the process is complicated and not economically competitive. The cultivation of lignocellulosic energy crops indirectly affects the food supplies by extensive land use. Marine algae have attracted attention to replace the lignocellulosic feedstock for bioethanol production, since the algae grow fast, do not use land, avoid food-fuel conflict and have several varieties to suit the cultivation environment. The composition of algae is not as complex as lignocellulose due to the absence of lignin, which renders easy hydrolysis of polysaccharides to fermentable sugars. Marine organisms also produce cold-active enzymes for hydrolysis of starch, cellulose, and algal polysaccharides, which can be employed in bioethanol process. Marine microoorganisms are also capable of fermenting sugars under high salt environment. Therefore, marine biocatalysts are promising for development of efficient processes for bioethanol production. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. World Bioenergy 2012. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-11-01

    The conference of 2012 had contributions on the following themes: A: World Pellets 2012, B: Market outlook, C: Energy systems, D: Transportation, E: World biorefinery 2012, F: Sustainable bioenergy day. 52 contributions in A - D. A: World Pellets 2012 is an integrated part of World Bioenergy 2012. A three day 'conference in the conference' covering all aspects of pellets: raw material potentials, innovative pellets production systems, torrefaction, new combustion technologies, trade and market development, health and safety aspects, etc. B) Market outlook: Policy and targets for renewable energy to find an alternative to fossil energy are being put in place, increasing the demand for sustainable modern bioenergy. Global trade and improved logistics open up to the markets. To facilitate international trade in bioenergy commodities, new trading places and indexes are needed, as well as generally accepted standards. Supply and demand must meet to guarantee stable prices. In this session you learn all about current market development, including drivers like incentives and policies. C) Energy Systems: Modern bioenergy is a young industry. Therefore, technical development is rapid, with many new innovations. This session focuses on technical development in the whole bioenergy chain, from harvesting of forest residues to combustion technologies and co-firing. Optimal use of biomass through district heating or cooling - small scale and large scale - and CHP technology for electricity production. D) Transportation: Sustainable transports are one of the key challenges of tomorrow. Can we transport biomass as well as other products sustainably and at what costs? Which are the future fuels for transports and when will biofuels be viewed as profitable? Biofuels for transport are under rapid development with new methods, producers and feedstock entering the markets. The future biofuels will be produced in biorefineries, to increase profitability and optimize feed

  18. Spatial variation in environmental impacts of bioenergy supply chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilst, F. van der; Dam, J.M.C. van; Verweij, P.A.; Riksen, M.J.P.M.; Sanders, J.P.M.; Faaij, A.P.C.

    In this study, the spatial variation of potential environmental impacts of bioenergy crops is quantitatively assessed. The cultivation of sugar beet and Miscanthus for bioethanol production in the North of the Netherlands is used as a case study. The environmental impacts included are greenhouse gas

  19. Bioethanol Production from Iles-Iles (Amorphopallus campanulatus Flour by Fermentation using Zymomonas mobilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusmiyati Kusmiyati

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Due to the depletion of fossil oil sources, Indonesia attempts to search new source of bioenergy including bioethanol. One of this sources is Iles-iles tubers (Amorphophallus campanulatus, which is abundantly available in Java Indonesia. The carbohydrate content in Iles-Iles tuber flour was 77% and it can be converted to ethanol by three consecutive steps methods consist of liquefaction-saccharification using α and β-amylase, respectively and then followed by fermentation by using Z. mobilis. The objective of this research was to convert the Iles-iles flour to bioethanol by fermentation process with Z.mobilis. The ethanol production process was studied at various starch concentration 15-30% g/L, Z. mobilis concentration (10-40% and pH fermentation of (4-6. The result showed that the yield of bioethanol (10.33% was the highest at 25% starch concentration and 25% of Z.mobilis concentration. The optimum conditions was found at 4.5, 30°C, 10%, 120 h for pH, temperature, Z. mobilis concentration and fermentation time, respectively  at which  ACT tuber flour produced a maximum ethanol of 10.33 % v/v.Article History: Received November 12nd 2015; Received in revised form January 25th 2016; Accepted January 29th 2016; Available online How to Cite This Article: Kusmiyati , Hadiyanto,H  and Kusumadewi, I (2016. Bioethanol Production from Iles-Iles (Amorphopallus campanulatus Flour by Fermentation using Zymomonas mobilis. Int. Journal of Renewable Energy Development, 9(1, 9-14 http://dx.doi.org/10.14710/ijred.5.1.9-14 

  20. Bioethanol Quality Improvement of Coffee Fruit Leather

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edahwati Luluk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, Indonesia’s dependence on petroleum is to be reduced and even eliminated. To overcome the problem of finding the needed alternative materials that can produce ethanol, in this case as a substitute material or a transport fuel mix, boosting the octane number, and gasoline ethanol (gasohol can be conducted. In the red coffee processing (cooking that will produce 65% and 35% of coffee beans, coffee leather waste is a source of organic material with fairly high cellulose content of 46.82%, 3.01% of pectin and 7.68% of lignin. In this case, its existence is abundant in Indonesia and optimally utilized. During the coffee fruit peeling, the peel waste is only used as a mixture of animal feed or simply left to rot. The purpose of this study was to produce and improve the quality of the fruit skin of bioethanol from coffee cellulose. However, to improve the quality of bioethanol, the production of the lignin content in the skin of the coffee fruit should be eliminated or reduced. Hydrolysis process using organosolve method is expected to improve the quality of bioethanol produced. In particular, the use of enzyme Saccharomyces and Zymmomonas will change the resulting sugar into bioethanol. On one hand, by using batch distillation process for 8 hours with Saccharomyces, bioethanol obtains high purity which is 39.79%; on the other hand, by using the same batch distillation process with Zymmomonas, the bioethanol obtains 38.78%.

  1. Sustainable intensification of agricultural systems in combination with biorefinery processing can produce more biomass for bioenergy without imposing indirect land use change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Uffe; Larsen, S.; Olesen, Jørgen Eivind

    2016-01-01

    EERA Bioenergy Workshops. SP4: Land Use Aspects in Relation to Biomass Development. London, June 2nd, 2016.......EERA Bioenergy Workshops. SP4: Land Use Aspects in Relation to Biomass Development. London, June 2nd, 2016....

  2. Designing optimal bioethanol networks with purification for integrated biorefineries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shenoy, Akshay U.; Shenoy, Uday V.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • An analytical method is devised for bioethanol network integration with purification. • Minimum fresh bioethanol flow and pinch are found by the Unified Targeting Algorithm. • Optimal bioethanol networks are then synthesized by the Nearest Neighbors Algorithm. • Continuous targets and networks are developed over the purifier inlet flowrate range. • Case study of a biorefinery producing bioethanol from wheat shows large savings. - Abstract: Bioethanol networks with purification for processing pathways in integrated biorefineries are targeted and designed in this work by an analytical approach not requiring graphical constructions. The approach is based on six fundamental equations involving eight variables: two balance equations for the stream flowrate and the bioethanol load over the total network system; one equation for the above-pinch bioethanol load being picked up by the minimum fresh resource and the purified stream; and three equations for the purification unit. A solution strategy is devised by specifying the two variables associated with the purifier inlet stream. Importantly, continuous targeting is then possible over the entire purifier inlet flowrate range on deriving elegant formulae for the remaining six variables. The Unified Targeting Algorithm (UTA) is utilized to establish the minimum fresh bioethanol resource flowrate and identify the pinch purity. The fresh bioethanol resource flowrate target is shown to decrease linearly with purifier inlet flowrate provided the pinch is held by the same point. The Nearest Neighbors Algorithm (NNA) is used to methodically synthesize optimal networks matching bioethanol demands and sources. A case study of a biorefinery producing bioethanol from wheat with arabinoxylan (AX) coproduction is presented. It illustrates the versatility of the approach in generating superior practical designs with up to nearly 94% savings for integrated bioethanol networks, both with and without process

  3. A strategy for introducing modern bioenergy into developing Asia to avoid dangerous climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeshita, Takayuki

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the cost-effective strategy for introducing modern bioenergy into developing Asia through the 21st century under a 400 ppmv CO 2 stabilization constraint using a global energy model that treats the bioenergy sector in detail. The major conclusions are the following. First, under the 400 ppmv CO 2 stabilization constraint, it is cost-effective to use modern bioenergy largely to generate heat and replace direct coal use in developing Asia in the first half of the century, because direct heat generation from modern biomass is efficient and expected to achieve large CO 2 reduction. As second-generation bioenergy conversion technologies (mainly gasification-based technologies) become mature in the second half of the century, it becomes cost-effective to introduce biomass-derived hydrogen, electricity, and Fischer-Tropsch synfuels and bioethanol produced using these technologies into developing Asia instead of modern biomass-derived heat. All biomass gasification-based conversion technologies are combined with CO 2 capture and storage from 2060, which enables negative CO 2 emissions and makes a substantial contribution to achieving the stringent climate stabilization target. Second, due to its small availability of biomass resources, large-scale import of biofuels and wood pellets is inevitable in developing Asia except southeastern Asia under the CO 2 constraint used here. It is shown that this contributes to diversifying liquid fuel import sources and improving energy security in developing Asia. Third, sensitivity analysis shows that these findings are robust to bioenergy-related cost parameters. (author)

  4. Production of bioethanol from fermented sugars of sugarcane bagasse produced by lignocellulolytic enzymes of Exiguobacterium sp. VSG-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayalaxmi, S; Anu Appaiah, K A; Jayalakshmi, S K; Mulimani, V H; Sreeramulu, K

    2013-09-01

    Exiguobacterium sp. VSG-1 was isolated from the soil sample and characterized for the production of lignocellulolytic enzymes. Production of these enzymes by the strain VSG-1 was carried out using steam-exploded sugarcane bagasse (SCB) and found to secrete cellulase, pectinase, mannanase, xylanase, and tannase. The growth and enzyme production were found to be optimum at pH 9.0 and 37 °C. Upon steam explosion of SCB, the cellulose increased by 42 %, whereas hemicelluloses and lignin decreased by 40 and 62 %, respectively. Enzymatic hydrolysis of steam-exploded SCB yielded 640 g/l of total sugars. Fermentation of sugars produced from pretreated SCB was carried out by using Saccharomyces cerevisiae at pH 5.0 and 30 °C. The alcohol produced was calculated and found to be 62.24 g/l corresponding to 78 % of the theoretical yield of ethanol. Hence, the strain VSG-1 has an industrial importance for the production of fermentable sugars for biofuels.

  5. Environmental life cycle assessment of producing willow, alfalfa and straw from spring barley as feedstocks for bioenergy or biorefinery systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parajuli, Ranjan; Knudsen, Marie Trydeman; Djomo, Sylvestre Njakou

    2017-01-01

    The current study aimed at evaluating potential environmental impacts for the production of willow, alfalfa and straw from spring barley as feedstocks for bioenergy or biorefinery systems. A method of Life Cycle Assessment was used to evaluate based on the following impact categories: Global...... and land occupation. Environmental impacts for straw were economically allocated from the impacts obtained for spring barley. The results obtained per ton dry matter showed a lower carbon footprint for willow and alfalfa compared to straw. It was due to higher soil carbon sequestration and lower N2O...... emissions. Likewise, willow and alfalfa had lower EP than straw. Straw had lowest NRE use compared to other biomasses. PFWTox was lower in willow and alfalfa compared to straw. A critical negative effect on soil quality was found with the spring barley production and hence for straw. Based on the energy...

  6. Bioenergy Sustainability Analysis | Bioenergy | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    large scale since bioenergy coupled with carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) could provide negative technologies followed by CCS is illustrated below. Coal and natural gas can reduce emissions with CCS but transport and power generation technologies both with and without CCS. Values are uncertain and depend on

  7. Bioethanol production from Asphodelus aestivus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polycarpou, Polycarpos [Agricultural Research Institute, Soils Science Department, P.O. Box 22016, 1516 Lefkosia (Cyprus)

    2009-12-15

    The increase on the price of fossil fuels and the need to protect the environment from greenhouse gases urge the investigation of the possibility of using biofuels to replace them. Cyprus is faced with severe water shortage and unavailability of agricultural land that limit the cultivation of energy crops that supply the feedstock for biofuel production. A possibility would be to use Asphodelus aestivus L. that is encountered in Cyprus and other Mediterranean countries, growing wild in pastures. Its tubers contain starch that was measured to be 10.1%. The bioethanol is produced by fermentation of the mash produced by crashing the tubers of the plant. The first stage of the process was cooking the mash at a temperature of 95 C, combined by liquefaction and saccharification of the starch using enzymes, like alpha-amylase and glucoamylase. The process was followed by fermentation of the mash for three days and finally distillation of bioethanol. The alcohol yield per kilogram tubers was 49.52 ml/kg, compared to the theoretical value of 83.72 ml/kg, mainly due to the incomplete fermentation of the sugars. The plant seems to be a potential energy plant for bioethanol production in arid regions cultivated on degraded land. (author)

  8. Comparing environmental consequences of anaerobic mono- and co-digestion of pig manure to produce bio-energy – A life cycle perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Vries, J.W.; Vinken, T.M.W.J; Hamelin, Lorie

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work was to assess the environmental consequences of anaerobic mono- and co-digestion of pig manure to produce bio-energy, from a life cycle perspective. This included assessing environmental impacts and land use change emissions (LUC) required to replace used co-substrates for an...... (up to 568%), but at expense of increasing climate change (through LUC), marine eutrophication, and land use. Codigestion with wastes or residues like roadside grass gave the best environmental performance.......-substrates for anaerobic digestion. Environmental impact categories considered were climate change, terrestrial acidification, marine and freshwater eutrophication, particulate matter formation, land use, and fossil fuel depletion. Six scenarios were evaluated: mono-digestion of manure, co-digestion with: maize silage...

  9. Bioethanol production from crops - recent developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalton, Colin

    1992-01-01

    The author notes much higher rates of ethanol production in Brazil and the United States of America than in the European Economic Community. While bioethanol from arable crops makes environmental sense there is, at present, a sizeable difference between the value of fuel ethanol (Pound 100-130/t) and the cost of producing it (Pound 236-Pound 450/t). This gap could be remedied using excise duty. Farmers would like to change crop production but await a political initiative. The technology for bioethanol production still needs some fine tuning, with ETBE (an ether produced from reacting isobutylene with ethanol) being preferred to other methods. (UK)

  10. Hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tasnadi-Asztalos, Zs., E-mail: tazsolt@chem.ubbcluj.ro; Cormos, C. C., E-mail: cormos@chem.ubbcluj.ro; Agachi, P. S. [Babes-Bolyai University, Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, 11 Arany Janos, Postal code: 400028, Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2015-12-23

    This paper is evaluating two power generation concepts based on hydrogen produced from bioethanol steam reforming at industrial scale without and with carbon capture. The power generation from bioethanol conversion is based on two important steps: hydrogen production from bioethanol catalytic steam reforming and electricity generation using a hydrogen-fuelled gas turbine. As carbon capture method to be assessed in hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming, the gas-liquid absorption using methyl-di-ethanol-amine (MDEA) was used. Bioethanol is a renewable energy carrier mainly produced from biomass fermentation. Steam reforming of bioethanol (SRE) provides a promising method for hydrogen and power production from renewable resources. SRE is performed at high temperatures (e.g. 800-900°C) to reduce the reforming by-products (e.g. ethane, ethene). The power generation from hydrogen was done with M701G2 gas turbine (334 MW net power output). Hydrogen was obtained through catalytic steam reforming of bioethanol without and with carbon capture. For the evaluated plant concepts the following key performance indicators were assessed: fuel consumption, gross and net power outputs, net electrical efficiency, ancillary consumptions, carbon capture rate, specific CO{sub 2} emission etc. As the results show, the power generation based on bioethanol conversion has high energy efficiency and low carbon footprint.

  11. Hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tasnadi-Asztalos, Zs.; Cormos, C. C.; Agachi, P. S.

    2015-01-01

    This paper is evaluating two power generation concepts based on hydrogen produced from bioethanol steam reforming at industrial scale without and with carbon capture. The power generation from bioethanol conversion is based on two important steps: hydrogen production from bioethanol catalytic steam reforming and electricity generation using a hydrogen-fuelled gas turbine. As carbon capture method to be assessed in hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming, the gas-liquid absorption using methyl-di-ethanol-amine (MDEA) was used. Bioethanol is a renewable energy carrier mainly produced from biomass fermentation. Steam reforming of bioethanol (SRE) provides a promising method for hydrogen and power production from renewable resources. SRE is performed at high temperatures (e.g. 800-900°C) to reduce the reforming by-products (e.g. ethane, ethene). The power generation from hydrogen was done with M701G2 gas turbine (334 MW net power output). Hydrogen was obtained through catalytic steam reforming of bioethanol without and with carbon capture. For the evaluated plant concepts the following key performance indicators were assessed: fuel consumption, gross and net power outputs, net electrical efficiency, ancillary consumptions, carbon capture rate, specific CO 2 emission etc. As the results show, the power generation based on bioethanol conversion has high energy efficiency and low carbon footprint

  12. Hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasnadi-Asztalos, Zs.; Cormos, C. C.; Agachi, P. S.

    2015-12-01

    This paper is evaluating two power generation concepts based on hydrogen produced from bioethanol steam reforming at industrial scale without and with carbon capture. The power generation from bioethanol conversion is based on two important steps: hydrogen production from bioethanol catalytic steam reforming and electricity generation using a hydrogen-fuelled gas turbine. As carbon capture method to be assessed in hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming, the gas-liquid absorption using methyl-di-ethanol-amine (MDEA) was used. Bioethanol is a renewable energy carrier mainly produced from biomass fermentation. Steam reforming of bioethanol (SRE) provides a promising method for hydrogen and power production from renewable resources. SRE is performed at high temperatures (e.g. 800-900°C) to reduce the reforming by-products (e.g. ethane, ethene). The power generation from hydrogen was done with M701G2 gas turbine (334 MW net power output). Hydrogen was obtained through catalytic steam reforming of bioethanol without and with carbon capture. For the evaluated plant concepts the following key performance indicators were assessed: fuel consumption, gross and net power outputs, net electrical efficiency, ancillary consumptions, carbon capture rate, specific CO2 emission etc. As the results show, the power generation based on bioethanol conversion has high energy efficiency and low carbon footprint.

  13. Production of Hydrogen from Bio-ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrice Giroudiere; Christophe Boyer; Stephane His; Robert Sanger; Kishore Doshi; Jijun Xu

    2006-01-01

    IFP and HyRadix are collaborating in the development of a new hydrogen production system from liquid feedstock such as bio-ethanol. Reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions along with high hydrogen yield are the key objectives. Market application of the system will be hydrogen refueling stations as well as medium scale hydrogen consumers including the electronics, metals processing, and oils hydrogenation industries. The conversion of bio-ethanol to hydrogen will be performed within a co-developed process including an auto-thermal reformer working under pressure. The technology will produce high-purity hydrogen with ultralow CO content. The catalytic auto-thermal reforming technology combines the exothermic and endothermic reaction and leads to a highly efficient heat integration. The development strategy to reach a high hydrogen yield target with the bio-ethanol hydrogen generator is presented. (authors)

  14. Opportunities and barriers for international bioenergy trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junginger, Martin; Dam, Jinke van; Zarrilli, Simonetta; Ali Mohamed, Fatin; Marchal, Didier; Faaij, Andre

    2011-01-01

    Recently, the international trade of various bioenergy commodities has grown rapidly, yet this growth is also hampered by some barriers. The aim of this paper is to obtain an overview of what market actors currently perceive as major opportunities and barriers for the development of international bioenergy trade. The work focuses on three bioenergy commodities: bioethanol, biodiesel and wood pellets. Data were collected through an internet-based questionnaire. The majority of the 141 respondents had an industrial background. Geographically, two-thirds were from (mainly Western) Europe, with other minor contributions from all other continents. Results show that import tariffs and the implementation of sustainability certification systems are perceived as (potentially) major barriers for the trade of bioethanol and biodiesel, while logistics are seen mainly as an obstacle for wood pellets. Development of technical standards was deemed more as an opportunity than a barrier for all commodities. Most important drivers were high fossil fuel prices and climate change mitigation policies. Concluding, to overcome some of the barriers, specific actions will be required by market parties and policy makers. Import tariffs for biofuels could be reduced or abolished, linked to multinational trade agreements and harmonization (including provisions on technical standards and sustainability requirements). - Research highlights: → We analyze main barriers for global trade of wood pellets, ethanol and biodiesel. → Import tariffs can be a major barrier for liquid biofuels trade. → Implementation of sustainability certification systems may hamper biofuels trade. → Logistics are seen mainly as an obstacle for the trade of wood pellets. → Development of technical standards are deemed an opportunity for bioenergy trade.

  15. Finnish bioenergy research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malinen, H. [Technical Research Centre of Finland, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1993-12-31

    Finland is one of the leading countries in the use of biofuels. The share of wood derived fuels of the total primary energy requirement was about 14% (ca. 4 million toe) and peat about 5% (1.4 million toe). The possibilities for increasing the use of biofuels in Finland are significant. There is theoretically about 10 million m{sup 3}/a (about 2 million toe/a) of harvestable wood. Areas suitable for fuel peat production (0.5 million ha) could produce ca. 420 million toe of peat. At present rates of use, the peat reserves are adequate for centuries. During the next few years 0.5--1 million hectares of fields withdrawn from farming could be used for biofuel production. The production potential of this field area is estimated to be about 0.2--0.5 million toe. In addition, the use of wastes in energy production could be increased. The aim of the new Bioenergy Research Programme is to increase the use of economically profitable and environmentally sound bioenergy by improving the competitiveness of present peat and wood fuels. New economically competitive biofuels, new equipment and methods for production, handling and use of biofuels will also be developed. The main research areas are production of wood fuels, peat production, use of bioenergy and conversion of biomass.

  16. The availability and economic analyses of using marginal land for bioenergy production in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuqi, Chen; Xudong, Guo; Chunyan, Lv

    2017-04-01

    In recent years, China has witnessed rapid increase in the dependence of foreign oil import. In 2015, the primary energy consumption of China is 543 million tons, of which 328 million tons was imported. The total amount of imported foreign oil increased from 49.8% in 2008 to 60.41% in 2016. To address the national energy security and GHG emission reduction, China has made considerable progress in expanding renewable energy portfolio, especially liquid biofuels. However, under the pressure of high population and vulnerable food security, China's National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC) ruled that bioenergy is only allowed to be produced using non-cereal feedstock. In addition, the energy crops can only be planted on marginal land, which is the land not suitable for growing field crops due to edaphic and/or climatic limitations, and other environmental risks. Although there have been a number of studies about estimating the marginal land for energy plants' cultivation in China, as to the different definition of marginal land and land use data, the results are quite different. Furthermore, even if there is enough marginal land suitable for energy plants' cultivation, economic viability of cultivating energy plants on marginal land is critical. In order to analyze the availability and economic analyses of the marginal land for bioenergy production strategy, firstly, by using of the latest and most authoritative land use data, this study focused on the assessment of marginal land resources and bioenergy potential by planting five species of energy plants including Cassava, Jatropha curcas, Helianthus tuberous L, Pistacia chinensis, Xanthoceras sorbifolia Bunge. The results indicate that there are 289.71 million ha marginal land can be used for these five energy plants' cultivation, which can produce 24.45 million tons bioethanol and 8.77 million tons of biodiesel. Secondly, based on field survey data and literature reviews, we found that, from the farmers

  17. Bioethanol sources in Pakistan: A renewable energy resource

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-12-30

    Dec 30, 2011 ... Biofuel in form of bioethanol can be produced using agricultural wastes by the use of enzymes, and hence the main objective of this approach is to get benefit of the agricultural wastes. .... mango peels, beans and banana.

  18. Scientific challenges of bioethanol production in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amorim, Henrique V.; Lopes, Mario Lucio [Fermentec, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Castro Oliveira, Juliana Velasco de [Laboratorio Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia do Bioetanol (CTBE), Sao Paulo (Brazil); Buckeridge, Marcos S. [Laboratorio Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia do Bioetanol (CTBE), Sao Paulo (Brazil); Universidade de Sao Paulo, INCT do Bioetanol (Brazil). Dept. de Botanica; Goldman, Gustavo Henrique [Laboratorio Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia do Bioetanol (CTBE), Sao Paulo (Brazil); Universidade de Sao Paulo, INCT do Bioetanol (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Farmaceuticas

    2011-09-15

    Bioethanol (fuel alcohol) has been produced by industrial alcoholic fermentation processes in Brazil since the beginning of the twentieth century. Currently, 432 mills and distilleries crush about 625 million tons of sugarcane per crop, producing about 27 billion liters of ethanol and 38.7 million tons of sugar. The production of bioethanol from sugarcane represents a major large-scale technology capable of producing biofuel efficiently and economically, providing viable substitutes to gasoline. The combination of immobilization of CO{sub 2} by sugarcane crops by photosynthesis into biomass together with alcoholic fermentation of this biomass has allowed production of a clean and high-quality liquid fuel that contains 93% of the original energy found in sugar. Over the last 30 years, several innovations have been introduced to Brazilian alcohol distilleries resulting in the improvement of plant efficiency and economic competitiveness. Currently, the main scientific challenges are to develop new technologies for bioethanol production from first and second generation feedstocks that exhibit positive energy balances and appropriately meet environmental sustainability criteria. This review focuses on these aspects and provides special emphasis on the selection of new yeast strains, genetic breeding, and recombinant DNA technology, as applied to bioethanol production processes. (orig.)

  19. Utilizing thermophilic microbe in lignocelluloses based bioethanol production: Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriharti, Agustina, Wawan; Ratnawati, Lia; Rahman, Taufik; Salim, Takiyah

    2017-01-01

    The utilization of thermophilic microbe has attracted many parties, particularly in producing an alternative fuel like ethanol. Bioethanol is one of the alternative energy sources substituting for earth oil in the future. The advantage of using bioethanol is that it can reduce pollution levels and global warming because the result of bioethanol burning doesn't bring in a net addition of CO2 into environment. Moreover, decrease in the reserves of earth oil globally has also contributed to the notion on searching renewable energy resources such as bioethanol. Indonesia has a high biomass potential and can be used as raw material for bioethanol. The utilization of these raw materials will reduce fears of competition foodstuffs for energy production. The enzymes that play a role in degrading lignocelluloses are cellulolytic, hemicellulolytic, and lignolytic in nature. The main enzyme with an important role in bioethanol production is a complex enzyme capable of degrading lignocelluloses. The enzyme can be produced by the thermophilik microbes of the groups of bacteria and fungi such as Trichoderma viride, Clostridium thermocellum, Bacillus sp. Bioethanol production is heavily affected by raw material composition, microorganism type, and the condition of fermentation used.

  20. 2015 Bioenergy Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warner, Ethan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Moriarty, Kristi [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lewis, John [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Milbrandt, Anelia [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Schwab, Amy [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-02-28

    This report is an update to the 2013 report and provides a status of the markets and technology development involved in growing a domestic bioenergy economy as it existed at the end of 2015. It compiles and integrates information to provide a snapshot of the current state and historical trends influencing the development of bioenergy markets. This version features details on the two major bioenergy markets: biofuels and biopower and an overview of bioproducts that enable bioenergy production. The information is intended for policy-makers as well as technology developers and investors tracking bioenergy developments. It also highlights some of the key energy and regulatory drivers of bioenergy markets.

  1. Bioethanol, the rest of the breakfast; Bioethanol: Was vom Fruehstueck uebrig bleibt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, A.

    2007-11-30

    Maize, wheat and sugar cane are raw materials for producing cornflakes, bread and sugar but also bioethanol. The fuel is competing with foods for growth areas and water. On the other hand, it could also be produced from residues, e.g. dairy residues or orange peels. (orig.)

  2. Assessment of renewable bioenergy application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronborg Jensen, Jesper; Govindan, Kannan

    2014-01-01

    into biogas. In order to validate the proposed options of bioenergy application, we considered a food processing company in Denmark as a case company in a single in-depth case study. In the case studied, the produced biogas is to be utilized in one of two options at a bakery site: To substitute natural gas...... to realize financial benefits in terms of additional profits and cost savings, but that challenging conditions can be problematic from a company perspective and provide challenges for the promotion of bioenergy investments. Specifically, substituting natural gas for processes and boilers is identified...

  3. Optimization of bioenergy yield from cultivated land in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callesen, Ingeborg; Grohnheit, Poul Erik; Østergård, Hanne

    2010-01-01

    A cost minimization model for supply of starch, oil, sugar, grassy and woody biomass for bioenergy in Denmark was developed using linear programming. The model includes biomass supply from annual crops on arable land, short rotation forestry (willow) and plantation forestry. Crop area distributions...... and feed production, or e) on site carbon sequestration. In addition, two oil price levels were considered. The crop area distributions differed between scenarios and were affected by changing fossil oil prices up to index 300 (using 55$ per barrel in 2005 as index = 100). The bioenergy supply (district...... heating, electric power, biogas, RME or bioethanol) varied between 56 PJ in the “2005” scenario at oil index 100 and 158 PJ at oil index 300 in the groundwater scenario. Our simple model demonstrates the effect of prioritizing multiple uses of land resources for food, feed or bioenergy, while maintaining...

  4. 2013 Bioenergy Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwab, Amy [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Moriarty, Kristi [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Milbrandt, Anelia [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Geiger, Jesse [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lewis, John [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-03-28

    This report provides a status of the markets and technology development involved in growing a domestic bioenergy economy as it existed at the end of 2013. It compiles and integrates information to provide a snapshot of the current state and historical trends influencing the development of bioenergy markets. This information is intended for policy-makers as well as technology developers and investors tracking bioenergy developments. It also highlights some of the key energy and regulatory drivers of bioenergy markets.

  5. Bioenergy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, C.P.

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to demonstrate that a bioenergy system has to be considered as an integrated process in which each stage or step interacts with other steps in the overall process. There are a number of stages in the supply and conversion of woody biomass for energy. Each step in the chain has implications for the next step and for overall system efficiency. The resource can take many forms and will have varying physical and chemical characteristics which will influence the efficiency and cost of conversion. The point in the supply chain at which size and moisture content is reduced and the manner in which it is done is influential in determining feedstock delivered cost and overall system costs. To illustrate the interactions within the overall system, the influence of the nature, size and moisture content of delivered feedstocks on costs of generating electricity via thermal conversion processes is examined using a model developed to investigate the inter-relationships between the stages in the supply chain. (author)

  6. Bioenergy 93 conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    In this report the presentations given in the Bioenergy 93 Conference are published. The papers are grouped as follows: Opening addresses, biomass implementation strategies, nordic bioenergy research programs, production, handling and conversion of biofuels, combustion technology of biofuels and bioenergy visions

  7. Mixtures of bioethanol and gasoline as a fuel for SI engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojiljković Dragoslava D.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of alternative fuels, especially bioethanol and biodiesel, rises due to the limited oil sources, secure supply, prices changes, and environment pollution. Bioethanol is an alternative fuel which will be important in future, as a fuel produced from different crops and lignocelluloses materials. The quality of bioethanol has significant influence on the characteristics of mixtures with gasoline and engine performance. The investigations were performed with the bioethanol obtained as by-product from sugar industry, which is not denaturated and produced according the requests prescribed by standards for ethanol used in mixtures with gasoline. Main target was to examine the possibility of utilisation of bioethanol obtained as by-product and without additional technologies for purification and additional costs. The results of standard and non-standard investigations and engine tests of bioethanol and gasoline mixtures are presented.

  8. Yeasts in sustainable bioethanol production: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Azhar, Siti Hajar; Abdulla, Rahmath; Jambo, Siti Azmah; Marbawi, Hartinie; Gansau, Jualang Azlan; Mohd Faik, Ainol Azifa; Rodrigues, Kenneth Francis

    2017-07-01

    Bioethanol has been identified as the mostly used biofuel worldwide since it significantly contributes to the reduction of crude oil consumption and environmental pollution. It can be produced from various types of feedstocks such as sucrose, starch, lignocellulosic and algal biomass through fermentation process by microorganisms. Compared to other types of microoganisms, yeasts especially Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the common microbes employed in ethanol production due to its high ethanol productivity, high ethanol tolerance and ability of fermenting wide range of sugars. However, there are some challenges in yeast fermentation which inhibit ethanol production such as high temperature, high ethanol concentration and the ability to ferment pentose sugars. Various types of yeast strains have been used in fermentation for ethanol production including hybrid, recombinant and wild-type yeasts. Yeasts can directly ferment simple sugars into ethanol while other type of feedstocks must be converted to fermentable sugars before it can be fermented to ethanol. The common processes involves in ethanol production are pretreatment, hydrolysis and fermentation. Production of bioethanol during fermentation depends on several factors such as temperature, sugar concentration, pH, fermentation time, agitation rate, and inoculum size. The efficiency and productivity of ethanol can be enhanced by immobilizing the yeast cells. This review highlights the different types of yeast strains, fermentation process, factors affecting bioethanol production and immobilization of yeasts for better bioethanol production.

  9. Yeasts in sustainable bioethanol production: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Hajar Mohd Azhar

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Bioethanol has been identified as the mostly used biofuel worldwide since it significantly contributes to the reduction of crude oil consumption and environmental pollution. It can be produced from various types of feedstocks such as sucrose, starch, lignocellulosic and algal biomass through fermentation process by microorganisms. Compared to other types of microoganisms, yeasts especially Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the common microbes employed in ethanol production due to its high ethanol productivity, high ethanol tolerance and ability of fermenting wide range of sugars. However, there are some challenges in yeast fermentation which inhibit ethanol production such as high temperature, high ethanol concentration and the ability to ferment pentose sugars. Various types of yeast strains have been used in fermentation for ethanol production including hybrid, recombinant and wild-type yeasts. Yeasts can directly ferment simple sugars into ethanol while other type of feedstocks must be converted to fermentable sugars before it can be fermented to ethanol. The common processes involves in ethanol production are pretreatment, hydrolysis and fermentation. Production of bioethanol during fermentation depends on several factors such as temperature, sugar concentration, pH, fermentation time, agitation rate, and inoculum size. The efficiency and productivity of ethanol can be enhanced by immobilizing the yeast cells. This review highlights the different types of yeast strains, fermentation process, factors affecting bioethanol production and immobilization of yeasts for better bioethanol production.

  10. Performance indicators of bioethanol distillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marriaga, Nilson

    2009-01-01

    The increase of biofuels demand accelerates the construction of new production plants and technological improvements in the process so the development of versatile tools for evaluating alternatives becomes an undeniable challenge. It was established through heuristic rules, thermodynamic analysis and simulation computer the energy consumption and performance indicators that govern, from fermented mash (ethanol 8.5 % v/v), the distillation of various capacities for bioethanol production: 20, 60, 100 and 150 KLD (kiloliters / day) through Aspen PlusTM simulator. It was found that the distillation demand nearly 30% of heat that would be obtained by burning alcohol fuel produced thus it is necessary the use of raw materials that generate enough biomass to produce the steam required. In addition, correlations were found to allow for easy diameters of distillation columns in terms of production capacity.

  11. An overview of key pretreatment processes for biological conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to bioethanol

    OpenAIRE

    Maurya, Devendra Prasad; Singla, Ankit; Negi, Sangeeta

    2015-01-01

    Second-generation bioethanol can be produced from various lignocellulosic biomasses such as wood, agricultural or forest residues. Lignocellulosic biomass is inexpensive, renewable and abundant source for bioethanol production. The conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to bioethanol could be a promising technology though the process has several challenges and limitations such as biomass transport and handling, and efficient pretreatment methods for total delignification of lignocellulosics. P...

  12. Production of bioethanol from lignocellulosic materials via the biochemical pathway: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balat, Mustafa

    2011-01-01

    Bioethanol is by far the most widely used biofuel for transportation worldwide. Production of bioethanol from biomass is one way to reduce both consumption of crude oil and environmental pollution. Bioethanol can be produced from different kinds of raw materials. These raw materials are classified into three categories of agricultural raw materials: simple sugars, starch and lignocellulose. The price of the raw materials is highly volatile, which can highly affect the production costs of the bioethanol. One major problem with bioethanol production is the availability of raw materials for the production. Lignocellulosic biomass is the most promising feedstock considering its great availability and low cost, but the large-scale commercial production of fuel bioethanol from lignocellulosic materials has still not been implemented.

  13. Bioethanol development in China and the potential impacts on its agricultural economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, Huanguang; Huang, Jikun; Yang, Jun [Center for Chinese Agricultural Policy, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Jia 11, Datun Road, Anwai, Beijing 100101 (China); Rozelle, Scott [Shorenstein Asia Pacific Research Center, Stanford University, Stanford, California 95305 (United States); Zhang, Yuhua; Zhang, Yanli [Institute of Rural Energy and Environmental Protection, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Engineering, No. 41, Maizidian Street, Chaoyang, Beijing 100026 (China); Zhang, Yahui [Center of International Cooperative, Ministry of Agriculture of China, No. 55, Nongzhan Beilu, Chaoyang, Beijing 100026 (China)

    2010-01-15

    China is now the third largest bioethanol producer in the world after the United State and Brazil. The overall goals of this paper are to provide an overview of China's current bioethanol program, its future trend, and the likely impacts on its agricultural economy in the future. The analysis shows that China has developed an ambitious long-run biofuel program with a series of financial and institutional supports. While there are several potential feedstock crops available for bioethanol production, lack of land for feedstock production is one of major constraints in China's bioethanol expansion. The results show that although China's bioethanol expansion will have little impacts on overall agricultural prices in international markets, it will have significant impacts on the prices, productions, and trade of those energy crops being used for bioethanol production in China. (author)

  14. The Enzymatic Conversion of Major Algal and Cyanobacterial Carbohydrates to Bioethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al Abdallah, Qusai, E-mail: qalabdal@uthsc.edu [Department of Clinical Pharmacy, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN (United States); Nixon, B. Tracy [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA (United States); Fortwendel, Jarrod R. [Department of Clinical Pharmacy, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN (United States)

    2016-11-04

    The production of fuels from biomass is categorized as first-, second-, or third-generation depending upon the source of raw materials, either food crops, lignocellulosic material, or algal biomass, respectively. Thus far, the emphasis has been on using food crops creating several environmental problems. To overcome these problems, there is a shift toward bioenergy production from non-food sources. Algae, which store high amounts of carbohydrates, are a potential producer of raw materials for sustainable production of bioethanol. Algae store their carbohydrates in the form of food storage sugars and structural material. In general, algal food storage polysaccharides are composed of glucose subunits; however, they vary in the glycosidic bond that links the glucose molecules. In starch-type polysaccharides (starch, floridean starch, and glycogen), the glucose subunits are linked together by α-(1→4) and α-(1→6) glycosidic bonds. Laminarin-type polysaccharides (laminarin, chrysolaminarin, and paramylon) are made of glucose subunits that are linked together by β-(1→3) and β-(1→6) glycosidic bonds. In contrast to food storage polysaccharides, structural polysaccharides vary in composition and glycosidic bond. The industrial production of bioethanol from algae requires efficient hydrolysis and fermentation of different algal sugars. However, the hydrolysis of algal polysaccharides employs more enzymatic mixes in comparison to terrestrial plants. Similarly, algal fermentable sugars display more diversity than plants, and therefore more metabolic pathways are required to produce ethanol from these sugars. In general, the fermentation of glucose, galactose, and glucose isomers is carried out by wild-type strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Zymomonas mobilis. In these strains, glucose enters glycolysis, where is it converted to pyruvate through either Embden–Meyerhof–Parnas pathway or Entner–Doudoroff pathway. Other monosaccharides must be converted to

  15. The Enzymatic Conversion of Major Algal and Cyanobacterial Carbohydrates to Bioethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Abdallah, Qusai; Nixon, B. Tracy; Fortwendel, Jarrod R.

    2016-01-01

    The production of fuels from biomass is categorized as first-, second-, or third-generation depending upon the source of raw materials, either food crops, lignocellulosic material, or algal biomass, respectively. Thus far, the emphasis has been on using food crops creating several environmental problems. To overcome these problems, there is a shift toward bioenergy production from non-food sources. Algae, which store high amounts of carbohydrates, are a potential producer of raw materials for sustainable production of bioethanol. Algae store their carbohydrates in the form of food storage sugars and structural material. In general, algal food storage polysaccharides are composed of glucose subunits; however, they vary in the glycosidic bond that links the glucose molecules. In starch-type polysaccharides (starch, floridean starch, and glycogen), the glucose subunits are linked together by α-(1→4) and α-(1→6) glycosidic bonds. Laminarin-type polysaccharides (laminarin, chrysolaminarin, and paramylon) are made of glucose subunits that are linked together by β-(1→3) and β-(1→6) glycosidic bonds. In contrast to food storage polysaccharides, structural polysaccharides vary in composition and glycosidic bond. The industrial production of bioethanol from algae requires efficient hydrolysis and fermentation of different algal sugars. However, the hydrolysis of algal polysaccharides employs more enzymatic mixes in comparison to terrestrial plants. Similarly, algal fermentable sugars display more diversity than plants, and therefore more metabolic pathways are required to produce ethanol from these sugars. In general, the fermentation of glucose, galactose, and glucose isomers is carried out by wild-type strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Zymomonas mobilis. In these strains, glucose enters glycolysis, where is it converted to pyruvate through either Embden–Meyerhof–Parnas pathway or Entner–Doudoroff pathway. Other monosaccharides must be converted to

  16. The enzymatic conversion of major algal and cyanobacterial carbohydrates to bioethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qusai Al Abdallah

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The production of fuels from biomass is categorized as first-, second- or third-generation depending upon the source of raw materials, either food crops, lignocellulosic material, or algal biomass, respectively. Thus far, the emphasis has been on using food crops creating several environmental problems. To overcome these problems, there is a shift toward bioenergy production from non-food sources. Algae, which store high amounts of carbohydrates, are a potential producer of raw materials for sustainable production of bioethanol. Algae store their carbohydrates in the form of food storage sugars and structural material. In general, algal food storage polysaccharides are composed of glucose subunits, however they vary in the glycosidic bond that links the glucose molecules. In starch-type polysaccharides (starch, floridean starch, and glycogen, the glucose subunits are linked together by α-(1→4 and α-(1→6 glycosidic bonds. Laminarin-type polysaccharides (laminarin, chrysolaminarin, and paramylon are made of glucose subunits that are linked together by β-(1→3 and β-(1→6 glycosidic bonds. In contrast to food storage polysaccharides, structural polysaccharides vary in composition and glycosidic bond. The industrial production of bioethanol from algae requires efficient hydrolysis and fermentation of different algal sugars. However, the hydrolysis of algal polysaccharides employs more enzymatic mixes in comparison to terrestrial plants. Similarly, algal fermentable sugars display more diversity than plants, and therefore more metabolic pathways are required to produce ethanol from these sugars. In general, the fermentation of glucose, galactose, and glucose isomers is carried out by wild type strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Zymomonas mobilis. In these strains, glucose enters glycolysis, where is it converted to pyruvate through either Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway or Entner-Doudoroff pathway. Other monosaccharides must be

  17. The Vermont Bioenergy Initiative: Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callahan, Chris [Vermont Sustainable Jobs Fund, Montpelier, VT (United States); Sawyer, Scott [Vermont Sustainable Jobs Fund, Montpelier, VT (United States); Kahler, Ellen [Vermont Sustainable Jobs Fund, Montpelier, VT (United States)

    2016-11-30

    The purpose of the Vermont Bioenergy Initiative (VBI) was to foster the development of sustainable, distributed, small-scale biodiesel and grass/mixed fiber industries in Vermont in order to produce bioenergy for local transportation, agricultural, and thermal applications, as a replacement for fossil fuel based energy. The VBI marked the first strategic effort to reduce Vermont’s dependency on petroleum through the development of homegrown alternatives.

  18. Bioenergy Project Development and Biomass Supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    Modern biomass, and the resulting useful forms of bioenergy produced from it, are anticipated by many advocates to provide a significant contribution to the global primary energy supply of many IEA member countries during the coming decades. For non-member countries, particularly those wishing to achieve economic growth as well as meet the goals for sustainable development, the deployment of modern bioenergy projects and the growing international trade in biomass-based energy carriers offer potential opportunities.

  19. Bio-ethanol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenzel, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    , there is not enough biomass for 'everyone', not physically and not in terms of money to promote its use. This leads to the conclusion that any use of biomass for energy purposes will have to compare to the lost opportunity of using it for something else. In this perspective, the choice to use biomass for bio......-ethanol production will not lead to reduction but to increase in CO2 emission and fossil fuel dependency. Both first and second generation bio-ethanol suffer from a biomass-to-ethanol energy conversion efficiency as low as 30-40 %, and moreover external fossil fuels are used to run the conversion. There is only......, but they do not improve the energy balance enough for bio-ethanol to compete with alternative uses of the biomass. When using biomass to substitute fossil fuels in heat & power production, a close to 100% substitution efficiency is achieved. The best alternative for CO2 reduction and oil saving is, therefore...

  20. Bioethanol Fuel Production Concept Study: Topline Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marketing Horizons, Inc.

    2001-11-19

    The DOE is in the process of developing technologies for converting plant matter other than feed stock, e.g., corn stover, into biofuels. The goal of this research project was to determine what the farming community thinks of ethanol as a fuel source, and specifically what they think of bioethanol produced from corn stover. This project also assessed the image of the DOE and the biofuels program and determined the perceived barriers to ethanol-from-stover production.

  1. Risoe energy report 2. New and emerging bioenergy technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, H.; Kossmann, J.; Soenderberg Petersen, L. (eds.)

    2003-11-01

    Three growing concerns - sustainability (particularly in the transport sector), security of energy supply and climate change - have combined to increase interest in bioenergy. The trend towards bioenergy has been further encouraged by technological advances in biomass conversion and significant changes in energy markets. We even have a new term, 'modern bioenergy', to cover those areas of bioenergy technology - traditional as well as emerging - that could expand the role of bioenergy. Besides its potential to be carbon-neutral if produced sustainable, modern bioenergy shows the promise of covering a considerable part of the world's energy needs, increasing the security of energy supply through the use of indigenous resources, and improving local employment and land-use. To make these promises, however, requires further R and D. This report provides a critical examination of modern bioenergy, and describes current trends in both established and emerging bioenergy technologies. As well as examining the implications for the global energy scene, the report draws national conclusions for European and Danish energy supply, industry and energy research. The report presents the status of current R and D in biomass resources, supply systems, end products and conversion methods. A number of traditional and modern bioenergy technologies are assessed to show their current status, future trends and international R and D plans. Recent studies of emerging bioenergy technologies from international organisations and leading research organisations are reviewed. (BA)

  2. Risoe energy report 2. New and emerging bioenergy technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, H; Kossmann, J; Soenderberg Petersen, L [eds.

    2003-11-01

    Three growing concerns - sustainability (particularly in the transport sector), security of energy supply and climate change - have combined to increase interest in bioenergy. The trend towards bioenergy has been further encouraged by technological advances in biomass conversion and significant changes in energy markets. We even have a new term, 'modern bioenergy', to cover those areas of bioenergy technology - traditional as well as emerging - that could expand the role of bioenergy. Besides its potential to be carbon-neutral if produced sustainable, modern bioenergy shows the promise of covering a considerable part of the world's energy needs, increasing the security of energy supply through the use of indigenous resources, and improving local employment and land-use. To make these promises, however, requires further R and D. This report provides a critical examination of modern bioenergy, and describes current trends in both established and emerging bioenergy technologies. As well as examining the implications for the global energy scene, the report draws national conclusions for European and Danish energy supply, industry and energy research. The report presents the status of current R and D in biomass resources, supply systems, end products and conversion methods. A number of traditional and modern bioenergy technologies are assessed to show their current status, future trends and international R and D plans. Recent studies of emerging bioenergy technologies from international organisations and leading research organisations are reviewed. (BA)

  3. Bioenergy and African transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynd, Lee R; Sow, Mariam; Chimphango, Annie Fa; Cortez, Luis Ab; Brito Cruz, Carlos H; Elmissiry, Mosad; Laser, Mark; Mayaki, Ibrahim A; Moraes, Marcia Afd; Nogueira, Luiz Ah; Wolfaardt, Gideon M; Woods, Jeremy; van Zyl, Willem H

    2015-01-01

    Among the world's continents, Africa has the highest incidence of food insecurity and poverty and the highest rates of population growth. Yet Africa also has the most arable land, the lowest crop yields, and by far the most plentiful land resources relative to energy demand. It is thus of interest to examine the potential of expanded modern bioenergy production in Africa. Here we consider bioenergy as an enabler for development, and provide an overview of modern bioenergy technologies with a comment on application in an Africa context. Experience with bioenergy in Africa offers evidence of social benefits and also some important lessons. In Brazil, social development, agricultural development and food security, and bioenergy development have been synergistic rather than antagonistic. Realizing similar success in African countries will require clear vision, good governance, and adaptation of technologies, knowledge, and business models to myriad local circumstances. Strategies for integrated production of food crops, livestock, and bioenergy are potentially attractive and offer an alternative to an agricultural model featuring specialized land use. If done thoughtfully, there is considerable evidence that food security and economic development in Africa can be addressed more effectively with modern bioenergy than without it. Modern bioenergy can be an agent of African transformation, with potential social benefits accruing to multiple sectors and extending well beyond energy supply per se. Potential negative impacts also cut across sectors. Thus, institutionally inclusive multi-sector legislative structures will be more effective at maximizing the social benefits of bioenergy compared to institutionally exclusive, single-sector structures.

  4. Energy analysis of using macroalgae from eutrophic waters as a bioethanol feedstock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seghetta, Michele; Østergård, Hanne; Bastianoni, Simone

    2014-01-01

    , and in KB runoff from agricultural land constitutes 86%. The environmental support needed for producing one Joule of bioethanol is somewhat more than for a number of other bioethanol feedstocks being 2.12 x 106 solar equivalent Joules (seJ) for OL and 2.56 x 106 seJ for KB. However, a high percentage...

  5. Improvement of bioethanol yield by pervaporation

    OpenAIRE

    Nongauza, Sinethemba Aubrey

    2010-01-01

    Due to the depletion of petroleum reserves and environmental concerns, bioethanol has been identified as an alternative fuel to petrol. Bioethanol is a fuel of bio-origin derived from renewable biomass. Starch and sugar containing materials are the primary sources of carbon for bioethanol production. Starch is firstly hydrolysed into simple sugars which are later fermented to bioethanol using Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae). The fermentation of sugars to bioethanol is however limited...

  6. Fuel consumption and emission on fuel mixer low-grade bioethanol fuelled motorcycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abikusna Setia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Bioethanol is currently used as an alternative fuel for gasoline substitute (fossil fuel because it can reduce the dependence on fossil fuel and also emissions produced by fossil fuel which are CO2, HO, NOx. Bioethanol is usually used as a fuel mixed with gasoline with certain comparison. In Indonesia, the usage is still rare. Bioethanol that is commonly used is bioethanol anhydrous 99.5%. In the previous studies, bioethanol was distilled from low to high grade to produce ethanol anhydrous. But the result is only able to reach 95% or ethanol hydrous. This study is objected to design a simple mechanism in the mixing of bioethanol hydrous with the gasoline using a fuel mixer mechanism. By this mechanism, the fuel consumption and the resulting emissions from combustion engine can be analyzed. The fuel blend composition is prepared as E5, E10, and E15/E20, the result of fuel consumption and emission will be compared with pure gasoline. The using of bioethanol hydrous as a fuel mixture was tended to produce more stable bioethanol fuel consumption. However, the utilization of the mixture was found able to reduce the exhaust emissions (CO, HC, and NOx.

  7. Wheat straw, household waste and hay as a source of lignocellulosic biomass for bioethanol and biogas production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomczak, Anna; Bruch, Magdalena; Holm-Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2010-01-01

    To meet the increasing need for bioenergy three lignocellulosic materials: raw hay, pretreated wheat straw and pretreated household waste were considered for the production of bioethanol and biogas. Several mixtures of household waste supplemented with different fractions of wheat straw and hay...... in fermentation process with Saccharomyces cerevisiae were investigated. Wheat straw and household wastes were pretreated using IBUS technology, patented by Dong Energy, which includes milling, stem explosion treatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. Methane production was investigated using stillages, the effluents...... from bioethanol fermentation experiment. Previous trial of biogas production from above mentioned household wastes was enclosed....

  8. Market survey Austria. Bio-energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    Austria has a well developed bioenergy infrastructure as regards solid biomass and a strong growth in the biogas and biofuel sector. The results of a SWOT analysis show the major issues for the development in each of these sectors now and in the short to medium-term future. Based on the SWOT analyses the following conclusions are formulated: (1)The development of the wood biomass sector in Austria is successful. This can be seen from the point of view of the end user, biomass for heating in single houses as well in district heating systems is very widely spread. This created opportunities for Austrian firms producing biomass technology, now having a large market and expending abroad. This development creates, however, major challenges for players from other countries like the Netherlands. It may be difficult to enter this market, unless one offers a cheaper product with the same quality or finding a niche market with a new unique product; (2) The growth of the wood biomass application for heat and electricity has led to the occurrence of another problem, a competition for wood as resource between the energy sector and other applications as pulp and paper industry. Wood imports are nowadays increasing but in the longer term Austria cannot rely on that because of the growing biomass use in neighbouring countries. Austria will therefore have to look for ways how to optimise biomass use for the energy sector and increasing the use of other fuels like straw and other forms of agricultural waste: (3) The production of biogas presents a number of new applications, production of renewable electricity, production of biogas for the transport sector as well as the possibility to inject cleaned biogas into the natural gas grid. In the short term, production of renewable electricity is the most promising for investors as feed-in tariffs are available for these projects. The other applications are still in a pilot phase but may become interesting in the coming years; (4) The

  9. Research Staff | Bioenergy | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research Staff Research Staff Photo of Adam Bratis, Ph.D. Adam Bratis Associate Lab Director-Bio research to accomplish the objectives of the Department of Energy's Bioenergy Technologies Office, and to serve as a spokesperson for the bioenergy research effort at NREL, both internally and externally. This

  10. Bio-ethanol production from waste biomass of Pogonatherum crinitum phytoremediator: an eco-friendly strategy for renewable energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waghmare, Pankajkumar R; Watharkar, Anuprita D; Jeon, Byong-Hun; Govindwar, Sanjay P

    2018-03-01

    In this study, we have described three steps to produce ethanol from Pogonatherum crinitum , which was derived after the treatment of textile wastewater. (a) Production of biomass: biomass samples collected from a hydroponic P. crinitum phytoreactor treating dye textile effluents and augmented with Ca-alginate immobilized growth-promoting bacterium, Bacillus pumilus strain PgJ (consortium phytoreactor), and waste sorghum husks were collected and dried. Compositional analysis of biomass (consortium phytoreactor) showed that the concentration of cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin was 42, 30 and 17%, respectively, whereas the biomass samples without the growth-promoting bacterium (normal phytoreactor) was slightly lower, 40, 29 and 16%, respectively. (b) Hydrolysate (sugar) production: a crude sample of the fungus, Phanerochaete chrysosporium containing hydrolytic enzymes such as endoglucanase (53.25 U/ml), exoglucanase (8.38 U/ml), glucoamylase (115.04 U/ml), xylanase (83.88 U/ml), LiP (0.972 U/ml) and MnP (0.459 U/ml) was obtained, and added to consortium, normal and control phytoreactor derived biomass supplemented with Tween-20 (0.2% v/v). The hydrolysate of biomass from consortium phytoreactor produced maximum reducing sugar (0.93 g/l) than hydrolysates of normal phytoreactor biomass (0.82 g/l) and control phytoreactor biomass (0.79 g/l). FTIR and XRD analysis confirmed structural changes in treated biomass. (c) Ethanol production: the bioethanol produced from enzymatic hydrolysates of waste biomass of consortium and normal phytoreactor using Saccharomyces cerevisiae (KCTC 7296) was 42.2 and 39.4 g/l, respectively, while control phytoreactor biomass hydrolysate showed only 25.5 g/l. Thus, the amalgamation of phytoremediation and bioethanol production can be the truly environment-friendly way to eliminate the problem of textile dye along with bioenergy generation.

  11. Renewable and sustainable bioenergies production from palm oil mill effluent (POME): win-win strategies toward better environmental protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Man Kee; Lee, Keat Teong

    2011-01-01

    Palm oil industry is one of the leading agricultural industries in Malaysia with average crude palm oil production of more than 13 million tonne per year. However, production of such huge amount of crude palm oil has consequently resulted to even larger amount of palm oil mill effluent (POME). POME is a highly polluting wastewater with high chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) in which can caused severe pollution to the environment, typically pollution to water resources. On the other hand, POME was identified as a potential source to generate renewable bioenergies such as biomethane and biohydrogen through anaerobic digestion. In other words, a combination of wastewater treatment and renewable bioenergies production would be an added advantage to the palm oil industry. In line with the world's focus on sustainability concept, such strategy should be implemented immediately to ensure palm oil is produced in an environmental friendly and sustainable manner. This review aims to discuss various technologies to convert POME to biomethane and biohydrogen in a commercial scale. Furthermore, discussion on using POME to culture microalgae for biodiesel and bioethanol production was included in the present paper as a new remedy to utilize POME with a greater beneficial return. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The addition of zeolite adsorbents and calcium oxide on purification of bioethanol from sugar palm (arenga pinnata merr)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herlina, Netti; Siska Dewi Harahap, Ici

    2018-03-01

    Bioethanol (C2H5OH) is a biochemical liquid produced by microorganisms through fermentation process on sugar molecules from carbohydrates. Bioethanol is a fuel of vegetable oil that has similar properties to premium. With its main product of palm juice, Sugar palm (Arenga pinnata) is a potential source of sugar and carbohydrate for bioethanol production. Production of palm juice can reach up to 12-14 liters/tree/day with total sugar content in palm juice ranges from 12-15%. The purpose of this research was to produce highly-concentrated bioethanol from palm juice through fermentation proccess to subtitude fossil fuel. This study was conducted with three stages of treatment, namely: the fermentation of palm juice, distillation of bioethanol, and purification of bioethanol with the addition of adsorbent zeolite and calcium oxide.

  13. Investigations of the pre-treatment and the conversion of energy crops into biogas and bioethanol; Untersuchungen zur Aufbereitung und Umwandlung von Energiepflanzen in Biogas und Bioethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schumacher, Britt

    2008-07-01

    the measured and calculated values showed no correlation. Whether the biogas tests can be replaced, by other methods or techniques of analysis of the components and the determination of additional components for the estimation of the potential of new cultivars, should be subject of further investigations. Bioethanol yields The energy yields on the conversion pathway bioethanol without using the by-products are lower than the yields via conversion into biogas, because the ethanol fermentation is limited on material that can be converted into sugar first. The advantage of the ethanol production is a fluid fuel as result of the process. Combining the ethanol production with a biogas plant, the by-products also can be used energetically and a gaseous energy carrier can be produced. There are high potentials for the bioprocess engineering, for instance in breeding of microorganisms for the degradation of lignocellulosic biomass or of C5-sugar. Furthermore a process optimization of water and energy input is recommended. Energy and environmental balance Biogas as well as bioethanol (combined with biogas) is able to reduce the consumption of non-renewable energy carrier and its emission under the investigated scenarios and the scoop set. A future task will be the development of differentiated and well-adapted concepts on the basis of a decision between (liquid) fuels or stationary supply of thermal and electrical energy out of biomass. The aim is an efficient use of the limited areas of arable land and forests for the supply with bioenergy carriers by a useful combination of biomass, paths of utilization and conversion technique depending on natural local and regional conditions as well as the anthropogenic needs. (orig.)

  14. Pinch analysis for bioethanol production process from lignocellulosic biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimoto, S.; Yanagida, T.; Nakaiwa, M.; Tatsumi, H.; Minowa, T.

    2011-01-01

    Bioethanol produced from carbon neutral and renewable biomass resources is an attractive process for the mitigation of greenhouse gases from vehicle exhaust. This study investigated energy utilization during bioethanol production from lignocellulose while avoiding competition with food production from corn and considering the potential mitigation of greenhouse gases. Process design and simulations were performed for bioethanol production using concentrated sulfuric acid. Mass and heat balances were obtained by process simulations, and the heat recovery ratio was determined by pinch analysis. An energy saving of 38% was achieved. However, energy supply and demand were not effectively utilized in the temperature range from 95 to 100 o C. Therefore, a heat pump was used to improve the temperature range of efficient energy supply and demand. Results showed that the energy required for the process could be supplied by heat released during the process. Additionally, the power required was supplied by surplus power generated during the process. Thus, pinch analysis was used to improve the energy efficiency of the process. - Highlights: → Effective energy utilization of bioethanol production was studied by using pinch analysis. → It was found that energy was not effectively utilized in the temperature range from 95 to 100 o C. → Use of a heat pump was considered to improve the ineffective utilization. → Then, remarkable energy savings could be achieved by it. → Pinch analysis effectively improved the energy efficiency of the bioethanol production.

  15. Recent trends in bioethanol production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semenčenko Valentina V.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The rapid depletion of the world petroleum supply and the increasing problem of greenhouse gas effects have strenghtened the worldwide interest in alternative, nonpetroleum sources of energy. Bioethanol accounts for the majority of biofuel use worldwide, either as a fuel or a gasoline enhancer. Utilization of bioethanol can significantly reduce petroleum use and exhaust greenhouse gas emission. The production of this fuel is increasing over the years, and has reached the level of 73.9 billion liters during the year 2009. Even though ethanol production for decades mainly depended on energy crops containing starch and sugar (corn, sugar cane etc., new technologies for converting lignocellulosic biomass into ethanol are under development today. The use of lignocellulosic biomass, such as agricultural residues, forest and municipial waste, for the production of biofuels will be unavoidable if liquid fossil fuels are to be replaced by renewable and sustainable alternatives. For biological conversion of lignocellulosic biomass, pretreatment plays a central role affecting all unit operations in the process and is also an important cost deterrent to the comercial viability of the process. The key obstacles are: pretreatment selection and optimization; decreasing the cost of the enzymatic hydrolysis; maximizing the conversion of sugars (including pentoses to ethanol; process scale-up and integration to minimize energy and water demand; characterization and evaluation of the lignin co-product; and lastly, the use of the representative and reliable data for cost estimation, and the determination of environmental and socio-economic impacts. Currently, not all pretreatments are capable of producing biomass that can be converted to sugars in high enough yield and concentration, while being economically viable. For the three main types of feedstocks, the developement of effective continuous fermentation technologies with near to 100% yields and elevated

  16. Advancing Bioenergy in Europe. Exploring bioenergy systems and socio-political issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCormick, Kes

    2007-09-15

    and private sectors are observed as influential in the development of bioenergy systems. Energy crops: This research investigates the perspective of farmers on energy crops. The Common Agricultural Policy reforms that aim to facilitate investments in energy crops, include: the introduction of the single payment scheme; the aid of 45 Euro/ha for energy crops on agricultural land; and the permission to harvest energy crops on set aside land. However, farmers and agricultural associations in the case studies from Sweden, Italy and Austria communicate a range of obstacles for shifting agricultural land to energy crops. It is difficult to generalize for Europe from a selection of case studies. However, there are valuable insights from the case studies into the 'real-life' issues confronting farmers and agricultural associations. Clearly, shifting from food crops to energy crops is a significant economic and psychological risk for farmers. Agricultural cooperatives appear to demonstrate that collaboration between many farmers is a way to share the risk and facilitate the diffusion of energy crops. However, further support is necessary. To accelerate the diffusion of energy crops, the author proposes that the Common Agricultural Policy could act as the main policy framework to co-ordinate support for farmers on a number of fronts, including: introduce establishment subsidies; expand information campaigns; initiate demonstration projects; support agricultural cooperatives; subsidise (small-scale) conversion technologies; evaluate landscape changes; and promote multiple benefits. This research work has derived general conclusions from the assessment of the German and British experiences with biodiesel and bioethanol that are particularly relevant for the early stages of a biofuels industry

  17. Biomass for bioenergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentsen, Niclas Scott

    Across the range of renewable energy resources, bioenergy is probably the most complex, as using biomass to support energy services ties into a number of fields; climate change, food production, rural development, biodiversity and environmental protection. Biomass offer several options...... for displacing fossil resources and is perceived as one of the main pillars of a future low-carbon or no-carbon energy supply. However, biomass, renewable as it is, is for any relevant, time horizon to be considered a finite resource as it replenishes at a finite rate. Conscientious stewardship of this finite...... the undesirable impacts of bioenergy done wrong. However, doing bioenergy right is a significant challenge due to the ties into other fields of society. Fundamentally plant biomass is temporary storage of solar radiation energy and chemically bound energy from nutrients. Bioenergy is a tool to harness solar...

  18. Production of Bioethanol from Waste Potato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merve Duruyurek

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Using primary energy sources in World as fossil fuels, causes air pollution and climate change. Because of these reasons, people looking for renewable energy suppliers which has less carbondioxide and less pollution. Carbon in biofuels is producing from photosynthesis. For this, burning biofuels don’t increase carbondioxide in atmosphere. Scientists predict that plants with high carbonhydrate and protein contents are 21. centuries biofuels. Potatoes are producing over 280 million in whole world and Turkey is 6th potato producer. Turkey produces 5250000 tonne of potatoes. Approximately 20% of potatoes are waste in Niğde. Our study aimed to produce bioethanol from Solanum tuberosum by using the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. As a result renewable energy sources can be produced from natural wastes.

  19. Review on Bamboo Utilization as Biocomposites, Pulp and Bioenergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusuf, Sulaeman; Syamani, F. A.; Fatriasari, W.; Subyakto

    2018-03-01

    One of potential non wood bioresources utilized in industrial application is bamboos. Bamboos are include in graminae family which have high biomass productivity, easy and rapid production, wide avability and high holocellulose content. Indonesia has a huge potential of bamboos, more than 162 bamboo species are found however only some of them are planted that have a high economic value. Bamboos have some advantages such as can be harvested at 3 years, straight culm, high strength, easy to be processed, and relatively cheap. Research Center for Biomaterials has developed utilization of bamboo culm for ply bamboo product as alternative of plywood since 1995, using gombong bamboo, tali bamboo, sembilang bamboo, andong bamboo with PF resin as adhesive. Other biocomposite products from bamboos include particle board, cement board and polymer-bamboo fiber composites. In term of processing technique and final product quality, bamboo composites from ply bamboo are the most prospectable material to be utilized in industrial application. Yellow bamboo and betung bamboo have also been developed as pulp and paper. Biopulping using soda and kraft pulping after biological pretreatment using white rot fungi to remove lignin was used as pulping method in this conversion. Biokraft pulping with Trametes versicolor for 45 days with inoculum loading of 10% resulted better pulp quality compared to the other fungi. Betung bamboo had good morphological characteristics and chemical component content to be converted into bioenergy such as bioethanol. Several pretreatment methods have been developed in order to result high sugar yield. Microwave assisted acid hydrolysis was preferedin producing higher yield from the pretreated bamboo compared to enzymatic hydrolysis. By using this method, the bamboo pretreated by biological-microwave pretreatment results higher improvement to increase sugar yield.

  20. Bioethanol productions from rice polish by optimization of dilute acid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lignocellulose materials are abundant renewable resource for the production of biofuel from fermentative organism (Sacchromyces cervesiae). Rice polish is cheapest and abundant lignocelluloses resource and has potential to produce bioethanol. The main steps for the conversion of biomass into glucose required dilute ...

  1. Bioenergy Status Document 2012; Statusdocument Bio-energie 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bles, M.; Schepers, B.; Van Grinsven, A.; Bergsma, G.; Croezen, H. [CE Delft, Delft (Netherlands)

    2013-05-15

    In addition to a review and characterisation of the current situation, the report contains an update on government policies on bio-energy and a review of the sources and sustainability of the biomass used in the Netherlands [Dutch] Het statusdocument bio-energie 2012 geeft de huidige status weer van bio-energie in Nederland, inclusief trends en verwachtingen voor de toekomst. Het doel van dit document is inzicht verstrekken in de ontwikkelingen van bio-energie, voor overheden en marktpartijen.

  2. Bioenergy. A sustainable and reliable energy source. A review of status and prospects. Executive Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauen, A.; Vuille, F.; Berndes, G.; Junginger, M.; Londo, M.

    2009-08-01

    This publication is the Executive Summary of a report prepared for IEA Bioenergy. The full report 'Bioenergy - a Sustainable and Reliable Energy Source' will be available on the website of IEA Bioenergy in digital form and in hard copy in a few months time. The purpose of the project was to produce an authoritative review of the entire bioenergy sector aimed at policy and investment decision makers. The brief to the contractors was to provide a global perspective of the potential for bioenergy, the main opportunities for deployment in the short and medium term and the principal issues and challenges facing the development of the sector.

  3. 8. Rostock bioenergy forum. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelles, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This conference volume contains lectures and poster contributions with the following main topics: integrated biomass utilisation concepts; Solid bioenergy carrier; Bioenergy in the transport sector; Biogas. Seven papers are separately analyzed for this database. [de

  4. Critical factors to bioenergy implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roos, A.; Hektor, B.; Rakos, C.

    1999-01-01

    Barriers to bioenergy technology implementation have received increased attention in recent years. This paper contributes to the identification and analysis of barriers and drivers behind bioenergy market growth, here labelled c ritical factors . It presents a framework for the analysis of both existing and projected bioenergy market potential, using economic concepts and models from transaction cost theory and industrial organization. The framework can be used for assessments of the potential for market growth of different bioenergy systems by decision makers in administration and industry. The following critical factors are identified: Integration with other economic activity, Scale effects on bioenergy markets, Competition in bioenergy markets, Competition with other business, National policy, Local policy and local opinion. The framework is demonstrated with five cases of real bioenergy markets: Pellet residential heating in USA, bioenergy power in USA, pellet residential heating in Sweden, biomass district heating in Sweden, and biomass district heating in Austria. Different applications of the framework are discussed

  5. The Emergence and Challenging Growth of the Bio-Ethanol Innovation System in Taiwan (1949–2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Chao-Chen; Yang, Siang-Cing

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the bio-ethanol innovation system in Taiwan from the perspective of a technology innovation system (TIS). Taiwan is a newly industrialized country and is not currently a main producer of bio-ethanol. This study analyzes the evolution of bio-ethanol innovation system in Taiwan and places a particular emphasis on challenges that present policies face in the context of potential long-term bio-ethanol development. Through an evaluation of the consistency of the present research, technology, development and innovation (RTDI) policies as well as the influence of these policies on the functional dynamics of bio-ethanol innovation system, mechanisms prohibiting the system from flourishing are determined. It is suggested that the production of bio-ethanol in Taiwan would be achieved if the government: (1) fixes long-term targets for both domestic bio-ethanol development and emission reduction; and (2) comprehensively designs a set of interrelated RTDI policies in accordance with the functional pattern of the bio-ethanol innovation system and consistently implements these policies. If such measures were implemented, it is considered that the bio-ethanol innovation system in Taiwan would flourish. PMID:26907306

  6. The Emergence and Challenging Growth of the Bio-Ethanol Innovation System in Taiwan (1949-2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Chao-Chen; Yang, Siang-Cing

    2016-02-19

    This study explores the bio-ethanol innovation system in Taiwan from the perspective of a technology innovation system (TIS). Taiwan is a newly industrialized country and is not currently a main producer of bio-ethanol. This study analyzes the evolution of bio-ethanol innovation system in Taiwan and places a particular emphasis on challenges that present policies face in the context of potential long-term bio-ethanol development. Through an evaluation of the consistency of the present research, technology, development and innovation (RTDI) policies as well as the influence of these policies on the functional dynamics of bio-ethanol innovation system, mechanisms prohibiting the system from flourishing are determined. It is suggested that the production of bio-ethanol in Taiwan would be achieved if the government: (1) fixes long-term targets for both domestic bio-ethanol development and emission reduction; and (2) comprehensively designs a set of interrelated RTDI policies in accordance with the functional pattern of the bio-ethanol innovation system and consistently implements these policies. If such measures were implemented, it is considered that the bio-ethanol innovation system in Taiwan would flourish.

  7. The Emergence and Challenging Growth of the Bio-Ethanol Innovation System in Taiwan (1949–2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Chen Chung

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the bio-ethanol innovation system in Taiwan from the perspective of a technology innovation system (TIS. Taiwan is a newly industrialized country and is not currently a main producer of bio-ethanol. This study analyzes the evolution of bio-ethanol innovation system in Taiwan and places a particular emphasis on challenges that present policies face in the context of potential long-term bio-ethanol development. Through an evaluation of the consistency of the present research, technology, development and innovation (RTDI policies as well as the influence of these policies on the functional dynamics of bio-ethanol innovation system, mechanisms prohibiting the system from flourishing are determined. It is suggested that the production of bio-ethanol in Taiwan would be achieved if the government: (1 fixes long-term targets for both domestic bio-ethanol development and emission reduction; and (2 comprehensively designs a set of interrelated RTDI policies in accordance with the functional pattern of the bio-ethanol innovation system and consistently implements these policies. If such measures were implemented, it is considered that the bio-ethanol innovation system in Taiwan would flourish.

  8. Co-fermentation using Recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae Yeast Strains Hyper-secreting Different Cellulases for the Production of Cellulosic Bioethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Cho-Ryong; Sung, Bong Hyun; Lim, Kwang-Mook; Kim, Mi-Jin; Sohn, Min Jeong; Bae, Jung-Hoon; Sohn, Jung-Hoon

    2017-06-30

    To realize the economical production of ethanol and other bio-based chemicals from lignocellulosic biomass by consolidated bioprocessing (CBP), various cellulases from different sources were tested to improve the level of cellulase secretion in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae by screening an optimal translational fusion partner (TFP) as both a secretion signal and fusion partner. Among them, four indispensable cellulases for cellulose hydrolysis, including Chaetomium thermophilum cellobiohydrolase (CtCBH1), Chrysosporium lucknowense cellobiohydrolase (ClCBH2), Trichoderma reesei endoglucanase (TrEGL2), and Saccharomycopsis fibuligera β-glucosidase (SfBGL1), were identified to be highly secreted in active form in yeast. Despite variability in the enzyme levels produced, each recombinant yeast could secrete approximately 0.6-2.0 g/L of cellulases into the fermentation broth. The synergistic effect of the mixed culture of the four strains expressing the essential cellulases with the insoluble substrate Avicel and several types of cellulosic biomass was demonstrated to be effective. Co-fermentation of these yeast strains produced approximately 14 g/L ethanol from the pre-treated rice straw containing 35 g/L glucan with 3-fold higher productivity than that of wild type yeast using a reduced amount of commercial cellulases. This process will contribute to the cost-effective production of bioenergy such as bioethanol and biochemicals from cellulosic biomass.

  9. The potential for bioethanol production from wheat in the U.K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batchelor, S.; Booth, E.J.; Walker, K.C.; Cook, P.

    1994-06-01

    Ethanol, currently widely used in cosmetic chemical and pharmaceutical applications, can be manufactured either from petroleum deriviatives (synthetic ethanol), or by the biological fermentation of carbohydrate. This report looks at the United Kingdom potential for production of the latter, so called, bioethanol from wheat. Ethanol from wheat is already produced for the grain spirit industry, and two such bioethanol plants operating in Sweden and France are described. Although there is, at present, no overall cost advantage in using bioethanol from wheat over synthetic ethanol, environmental benefits may sway the balance in its failure. (UK)

  10. Bioenergy overview for Portugal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Sergio; Moreira, Nuno Afonso; Monteiro, Eliseu

    2009-01-01

    Bioenergy is seen as one of the key options to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions and substitute fossil fuels. Bioenergy is also an atypical energy source due to its diversity and inter-linkages with many other technological and policy areas. The goal of this paper is to analyze the Portuguese possibilities for bioenergy provision from biomass. The potentials of biomass, conversion technologies and legal framework are analysed and discussed. The result of this analysis shows that there are still unused potentials especially from forestry, which can contribute significantly to cover the bioenergy targets. However, the Portuguese experience with conversion technologies is limited to combustion, which is a drawback that must be solved so as to the bioenergy potential can be used. Research and Development projects, as well as demonstration projects are needed in order to improve the efficiency of the technological processes. At political level, Portuguese governments have been following the policies and strategies of the European Commission in the energy sector. However, energy crops market, due to the inter-linkage with agricultural policy, seems to need some additional political push. (author)

  11. Finnish Bioenergy Association - Finbio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sopo, R.

    1999-01-01

    The Finnish Bioenergy Association, was founded in November 1991 in the city of Jyvaeskylae. In November 1996, the membership of FINBIO consisted of 17 contributing collective members and 75 individual members. Members of the organization include e.g. the Association of Finnish Peat Industries, Wood Energy Association and Finnish Biogas Centre, all of which represent specific bioenergy fields in Finland. The Finnish Bioenergy Association is a private, non-profit organization the objectives of which are to promote and develop harvesting, transportation and processing of biofuels and other biomass (wood-based biofuels, non-food crops, peat, biowaste); to promote the use of biomass in energy production and in other applications, in accordance with environmentally sound and sustainable development. The objectives of FINBIO is to promote the production and application of all forms of bioenergy in Finland. FINBIO acts as a coordinator for AEBIOM (the European Biomass Association) and its member associations, as well as for other international bioenergy-related organizations

  12. Bioenergy overview for Portugal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Sergio [Tecaprod S.A., 5000 Vila Real (Portugal); Moreira, Nuno Afonso; Monteiro, Eliseu [CITAB, University of Tras-os-Montes and Alto Douro, Quinta de Prados, 5000 Vila Real (Portugal)

    2009-11-15

    Bioenergy is seen as one of the key options to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions and substitute fossil fuels. Bioenergy is also an atypical energy source due to its diversity and inter-linkages with many other technological and policy areas. The goal of this paper is to analyze the Portuguese possibilities for bioenergy provision from biomass. The potentials of biomass, conversion technologies and legal framework are analysed and discussed. The result of this analysis shows that there are still unused potentials especially from forestry, which can contribute significantly to cover the bioenergy targets. However, the Portuguese experience with conversion technologies is limited to combustion, which is a drawback that must be solved so as to the bioenergy potential can be used. Research and Development projects, as well as demonstration projects are needed in order to improve the efficiency of the technological processes. At political level, Portuguese governments have been following the policies and strategies of the European Commission in the energy sector. However, energy crops market, due to the inter-linkage with agricultural policy, seems to need some additional political push. (author)

  13. 11. Rostock bioenergy forum. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelles, Michael

    2017-01-01

    The seven main focus of the bioenergy forum were: 1. Political regulation and its consequences; 2. Flexible energy supply; 3. Biorefineries for the use of residues from bioenergy production; 4. Process optimization biogas; 5. Alternative substrates for biogas production; 6. Cross-sectoral bioenergy concept; 7. Transport sector (biofuels). Five lectures are separately analyzed for this database. [de

  14. Mobilizing Sustainable Bioenergy Supply Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Tat; Lattimore, Brenna; Berndes, Göran

    This report summarizes the results of an IEA Bioenergy inter-Task project involving collaborators from Tasks 37 (Energy from Biogas), 38 (Climate Change Effects of Biomass and Bioenergy Systems), 39 (Commercialising Conventional and Advanced Liquid Biofuels from Biomass), 40 (Sustainable Internat......-scale mobilization of major bioenergy resources through five case studies that determine the factors critical to their sustainable mobilization....

  15. Study of Wastewaters Contaminated with Heavy Metals in Bioethanol Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartošová, Alica; Blinová, Lenka

    2017-06-01

    Bioethanol as a substitute for traditional sources of energy, especially oil transport, is currently one of the most researched alternative motor fuels. Normally, bioethanol is produced from agricultural crops such as sugar cane or corn. However, this is counter-productive, because agriculture is primarily serving to ensure enough food for the people. It is therefore necessary to look for new production of appropriate non-food crops or find an added value to this process. Utilisation of contaminated water from metal industry could be one of them. Based on the hypothesis of reduction of some toxic metals with higher oxidation number is opening the possibility of using this wastewater in alcohol fermentation of any kind of biomass. In this study, hexavalent chromium Cr(VI) was used as a model contaminant in the process of aerobic fermentation of corn to bioethanol. To determine the reduction potential of glucose to Cr(VI), and to quantitatively determinate the glucose content after saccharification, UV/VIS spectrophotometry was used. As a method of qualitative determination of fermentation product, gas chromatography with mass detection was used. Infrared spectrometry was used for qualitative analyses of produced ethanol. Based on the established results shown in this paper, we can conclude that the presence of hexavalent chromium in the fermentation process does not have a significant negative impact, while offering the opportunity of using the industrial wastewaters for the production of bioethanol fuel.

  16. Recent Advances on Bioethanol Dehydration using Zeolite Membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makertihartha, I. G. B. N.; Dharmawijaya, P. T.; Wenten, I. G.

    2017-07-01

    Renewable energy has gained increasing attention throughout the world. Bioethanol has the potential to replace existing fossil fuel usage without much modification in existing facilities. Bioethanol which generally produced from fermentation route produces low ethanol concentration. However, fuel grade ethanol requires low water content to avoid engine stall. Dehydration process has been increasingly important in fuel grade ethanol production. Among all dehydration processes, pervaporation is considered as the most promising technology. Zeolite possesses high potential in pervaporation of bioethanol into fuel grade ethanol. Zeolite membrane can either remove organic (ethanol) from aqueous mixture or water from the mixture, depending on the framework used. Hydrophilic zeolite membrane, e.g. LTA, can easily remove water from the mixture leaving high ethanol concentration. On the other hand, hydrophobic zeolite membrane, e.g. silicate-1, can remove ethanol from aqueous solution. This review presents the concept of bioethanol dehydration using zeolite membrane. Special attention is given to the performance of selected pathway related to framework selection.

  17. Study of Wastewaters Contaminated with Heavy Metals in Bioethanol Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartošová Alica

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Bioethanol as a substitute for traditional sources of energy, especially oil transport, is currently one of the most researched alternative motor fuels. Normally, bioethanol is produced from agricultural crops such as sugar cane or corn. However, this is counter-productive, because agriculture is primarily serving to ensure enough food for the people. It is therefore necessary to look for new production of appropriate non-food crops or find an added value to this process. Utilisation of contaminated water from metal industry could be one of them. Based on the hypothesis of reduction of some toxic metals with higher oxidation number is opening the possibility of using this wastewater in alcohol fermentation of any kind of biomass. In this study, hexavalent chromium Cr(VI was used as a model contaminant in the process of aerobic fermentation of corn to bioethanol. To determine the reduction potential of glucose to Cr(VI, and to quantitatively determinate the glucose content after saccharification, UV/VIS spectrophotometry was used. As a method of qualitative determination of fermentation product, gas chromatography with mass detection was used. Infrared spectrometry was used for qualitative analyses of produced ethanol. Based on the established results shown in this paper, we can conclude that the presence of hexavalent chromium in the fermentation process does not have a significant negative impact, while offering the opportunity of using the industrial wastewaters for the production of bioethanol fuel.

  18. Potential development of bioethanol production in Vojvodina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodic, Sinisa N.; Popov, Stevan D.; Dodic, Jelena M.; Rankovic, Jovana A.; Zavargo, Zoltan Z. [Department of Biotechnology and Pharmaceutical Engineering, Faculty of Technology, University of Novi Sad, Bul. cara Lazara 1, Novi Sad 21000, Vojvodina (RS)

    2009-12-15

    The Autonomous Province of Vojvodina is an Autonomous Province in Serbia, containing about 27% of its total population according to the 2002 Census. Contribution of renewable energy sources in total energy consumption of Vojvodina contemporary amounts to less than 1%, apropos 280 GWh/year. By combining of methods of introduction of new and renewable sources, systematic application of methods for increasing of energetic efficacy, as well as of introduction of the new technologies, percentage of contribution of the non-conventional energy sources in Vojvodina could be increased to as much as 20%. This paper presents the potential of development of bioethanol production in Vojvodina. Production of bioethanol on small farms can be successfully applied for processing of only 30 kg of corn per day, with obtaining of crude ethanol in the so-called 'brandy ladle' and use of lygnocellulosic agricultural wastes as an energy source. In a case of construction of a larger number of such plants, the only possible solution is seen in the principle of construction of the so-called 'satellite plants', which will on small farm produce crude ethanol, with obtaining and consumption of stillage for animal feeding, and consumption of agricultural wastes as energetic fuels. If stillage is to be used as feed in wet feeding, it is estimated that, because of restrictions established by the magnitude of animal farm, the upper limit of capacity of such enterprises that process is at some 10-15 tons of corn per day, and production of 3000-3500 hL of absolute ethanol per day. In such a case, for animal feeding necessary is to have herd with 1300-1700 of milking cows or 5000-25,000 heads of sheep and/or pigs. Technological model of separate grain processing ad bioethanol production from dextrose hydrolysates of starch is interesting for countries possessing plants for bioethanol production from molasses and plants for cereals processing into starch and dextrose hydrolysates

  19. Dynamic Analysis of Bioethanol Production from Corn Stover and Immobilized Yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang-Qi Tian

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The use of low cost and abundant corn stover in yeast fermentation can reduce product costs. In this study, bioethanol was produced from a hydrolysate of corn stover using immobilized yeast. A kinetic model was established for the total reducing sugar consumption and the production of bioethanol. The parameter estimation for kinetic modeling considered the main process variables during bioethanol production from corn stover. Total reducing sugar concentrations decreased exponentially in the bioethanol fermentation for 6 h; consumption was more than 90%. To use kinetic modelling of yeast growth for bioethanol fermentation, the value of μmax reached 0.2891 h-1, and the matrix inhibition constant (KIS and production inhibition constant (KIP were 8.9154 g/dm3 and 0.00676 g/dm3, respectively. To use kinetic modelling of fermentation time on bioethanol, the maximum ratio of bioethanol production rate (qmax reached 1.427 g/g•L. However, KIS was 2.813 g/dm3, and KIP was 0.0149 g/dm3.

  20. DSMZ 24726 for second generation bioethanol production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    The present invention relates to a novel anaerobic, extreme thermophilic, ethanol high- yielding bacterium. The invention is based on the isolation of the bacterial strain referred to herein as "DTU01", which produces ethanol as the main fermentation product, followed by acetate and lactate. The ....... The isolated organism is an extremely interesting and very promising organism for the establishment of a sustainable bioethanol production process. The invention further relates to a method for producing a fermentation product such as ethanol.......The present invention relates to a novel anaerobic, extreme thermophilic, ethanol high- yielding bacterium. The invention is based on the isolation of the bacterial strain referred to herein as "DTU01", which produces ethanol as the main fermentation product, followed by acetate and lactate...

  1. Possibilities and limitations for sustainable bioenergy production systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smeets, Edward Martinus Wilhelmus Utrecht University

    2008-05-01

    The main objective of this thesis is to investigate the possibilities and limitations of sustainable bioenergy production. To this end, the following research questions have been formulated: (1). What is the potential of different world regions to produce biomass for energy generation in the year 2050, taking account of biological and climatological limitations, the use of biomass to produce food, materials and traditional bioenergy, as well as the need to maintain existing forests and thus protect biodiversity?; (2) What are the main bottlenecks to formulating and implementing sustainability criteria for bioenergy production?; (3) To what extent does complying with sustainability criteria have impacts on the costs and potential of bioenergy production?; (4) To what extent do fertilizer- and manure-induced nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions due to energy crop production have an impact on the reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions when conventional transportation fuels are replaced by first-generation biofuels?; (5) In terms of economic and environmental performance, how does Europe's production, storage and transport of miscanthus and switchgrass in 2004 compare to that in 2030? Throughout this thesis, specific attention is paid to knowledge gaps and their potential impact on results, the aim being to identify priorities for future research and development. Another key element of our research is that we evaluate the possibilities and limitations of strategies that are designed to improve the performance of bioenergy production systems and that may be incorporated in bioenergy certification schemes and bioenergy promoting policies

  2. Algal Biomass from Wastewater and Flue Gases as a Source of Bioenergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Lage

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Algae are without doubt the most productive photosynthetic organisms on Earth; they are highly efficient in converting CO2 and nutrients into biomass. These abilities can be exploited by culturing microalgae from wastewater and flue gases for effective wastewater reclamation. Algae are known to remove nitrogen and phosphorus as well as several organic contaminants including pharmaceuticals from wastewater. Biomass production can even be enhanced by the addition of CO2 originating from flue gases. The algal biomass can then be used as a raw material to produce bioenergy; depending on its composition, various types of biofuels such as biodiesel, biogas, bioethanol, biobutanol or biohydrogen can be obtained. However, algal biomass generated in wastewater and flue gases also contains contaminants which, if not degraded, will end up in the ashes. In this review, the current knowledge on algal biomass production in wastewater and flue gases is summarized; special focus is given to the algal capacity to remove contaminants from wastewater and flue gases, and the consequences when converting this biomass into different types of biofuels.

  3. Autohydrolysis Pretreatment of Lignocellulosic Biomass for Bioethanol Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Qiang

    Autohydrolysis, a simple and environmental friendly process, has long been studied but often abandoned as a financially viable pretreatment for bioethanol production due to the low yields of fermentable sugars at economic enzyme dosages. The introduction of mechanical refining can generate substantial improvements for autohydrolysis process, making it an attractive pretreatment technology for bioethanol commercialization. In this study, several lignocellulosic biomass including wheat straw, switchgrass, corn stover, waste wheat straw have been subjected to autohydrolysis pretreatment followed by mechanical refining to evaluate the total sugar recovery at affordable enzyme dosages. Encouraging results have been found that using autohydrolysis plus refining strategy, the total sugar recovery of most feedstock can be as high as 76% at 4 FPU/g enzymes dosages. The mechanical refining contributed to the improvement of enzymatic sugar yield by as much as 30%. Three non-woody biomass (sugarcane bagasse, wheat straw, and switchgrass) and three woody biomass (maple, sweet gum, and nitens) have been subjected to autohydrolysis pretreatment to acquire a fundamental understanding of biomass characteristics that affect the autohydrolysis and the following enzymatic hydrolysis. It is of interest to note that the nonwoody biomass went through substantial delignification during autohydrolysis compared to woody biomass due to a significant amount of p-coumaric acid and ferulic acid. It has been found that hardwood which has a higher S/V ratio in the lignin structure tends to have a higher total sugar recovery from autohydrolysis pretreatment. The economics of bioethanol production from autohydrolysis of different feedstocks have been investigated. Regardless of different feedstocks, in the conventional design, producing bioethanol and co-producing steam and power, the minimum ethanol revenues (MER) required to generate a 12% internal rate of return (IRR) are high enough to

  4. Canada report on bioenergy 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Canada possesses significant forest resources. This paper reviewed Canada's bioenergy potential and market. Biomass in Canada is used to produce heat and power, as well as to produce ethanol and biodiesel. Biomass is also used to produce pyrolysis oil and wood pellets. Biomass resources included woody biomass; annual residue production; hog fuel piles; forest harvest waste and urban wood residues; agricultural residues; and municipal solid wastes. Trends in biomass production and consumption were discussed, and current biomass users were identified. A review of biomass prices was presented, and imports and exports for ethanol, biodiesel, pyrolysis oil, and wood pellets were discussed. Barriers and opportunities for trade were also outlined. 6 tabs., 6 figs. 1 appendix.

  5. Municipal Solid Waste Management in a Low Income Economy Through Biogas and Bioethanol Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miezah, Kodwo; Obiri-Danso, Kwasi; Kádár, Zsófia

    2017-01-01

    The biodegradable fraction of municipal solid wastes generated from households in Ghana has favourable characteristics worth considering for bioenergy production. The suitability of this biodegradable portion for biogas and bioethanol production was assessed in this study. The assessment...... was performed on both untreated and hydrothermally treated unsorted and sorted fractions of the waste using standard methods for biomass conversion to bioenergy. Compositional analysis of the waste indicated that unsorted biodegradable municipal solid wastes (BMSW) consisted of 38.7 % dry matter (DM) glucan, 8.......3 % DM hemicellulose, 10.1 % DM lignin and 7.6 % DM ash. The sorted fractions with the highest glucan but least lignin and hemicellulose were the pool of cassava, yam and plantain peeling wastes (CYPPW) with 84 % DM glucan much of which was starch, 5.6 % DM lignin and 0.5 % DM hemicellulose. The highest...

  6. Thermodynamic evaluation of hydrogen production via bioethanol steam reforming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tasnadi-Asztalos, Zsolt; Cormos, Ana-Maria; Imre-Lucaci, Árpád; Cormos, Călin C. [Babes-Bolyai University, Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Arany Janos 11, RO-400028, Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2013-11-13

    In this article, a thermodynamic analysis for bioethanol steam reforming for hydrogen production is presented. Bioethanol is a newly proposed renewable energy carrier mainly produced from biomass fermentation. Reforming of bioethanol provides a promising method for hydrogen production from renewable resources. Steam reforming of ethanol (SRE) takes place under the action of a metal catalyst capable of breaking C-C bonds into smaller molecules. A large domain for the water/bioethanol molar ratio as well as the temperature and average pressure has been used in the present work. The interval of investigated temperature was 100-800°C, the pressure was in the range of 1-10 bar and the molar ratio was between 3-25. The variations of gaseous species concentration e.g. H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} were analyzed. The concentrations of the main products (H{sub 2} and CO) at lower temperature are smaller than the ones at higher temperature due to by-products formation (methane, carbon dioxide, acetylene etc.). The concentration of H2 obtained in the process using high molar ratio (>20) is higher than the one at small molar ratio (near stoichiometric). When the pressure is increased the hydrogen concentration decreases. The results were compared with literature data for validation purposes.

  7. Sustainable bioethanol production combining biorefinery principles and intercropping strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomsen, M.H.; Haugaard-Nielsen, H.; Petersson, A.; Thomsen, A.B.; Jensen, E.S. [Risoe National Lab., DTU, Biosystems Dept., Roskilde (Denmark)

    2007-05-15

    Ethanol produced from pretreatment and microbial fermentation of biomass has great potential to become a sustainable transportation fuel in the near future. First generation biofuel focus on starch (from grain) fermentation, but in the present study that is regarded as a too important food source. In recent years 2nd generation technologies are developed utilizing bulk residues like wheat straw, woody materials, and corn stover. However, there is a need for integrating the biomass starting point into the energy manufacturing steps to secure that bioenergy is produced from local adapted raw materials with limited use of non-renewable fossil fuels. Produced crops can be transformed into a number of useful products using the concept of biorefining, where no waste streams are produced. An advantage of intercropping is that the intercrop components composition can be designed to produce a medium (for microbial fermentation) containing all essential nutrients. Thereby addition of e.g. urea and other fermentation nutrients produced from fossil fuels can be avoided. Intercropping, defined as the growing of two or more species simultaneously on the same area of land, is a cropping strategy based on the manipulation of plant interactions in time and space to maximize growth and productivity. Cereal-legume intercropping data from field trials show the possibility to improve the use of nitrogen resources, because the non fixing species (e.g. wheat) efficiently exploits soil mineral N sources while at the same time atmospheric N from the N{sub 2}-fixing species (e.g. pea) enter the cropping system reducing the need for N fertilizer application. Nitrogen fertilization is responsible for more than 85 % of the greenhouse gas emissions from wheat grain production in Denmark. Increase of fertilizer N supply promotes the growth of wheat and results in a decreased pea N accumulation and a different proportion of intercrop components. Intercropping introduce a dynamic change of plant

  8. Bird communities and biomass yields in potential bioenergy grasslands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J Blank

    Full Text Available Demand for bioenergy is increasing, but the ecological consequences of bioenergy crop production on working lands remain unresolved. Corn is currently a dominant bioenergy crop, but perennial grasslands could produce renewable bioenergy resources and enhance biodiversity. Grassland bird populations have declined in recent decades and may particularly benefit from perennial grasslands grown for bioenergy. We asked how breeding bird community assemblages, vegetation characteristics, and biomass yields varied among three types of potential bioenergy grassland fields (grass monocultures, grass-dominated fields, and forb-dominated fields, and assessed tradeoffs between grassland biomass production and bird habitat. We also compared the bird communities in grassland fields to nearby cornfields. Cornfields had few birds compared to perennial grassland fields. Ten bird Species of Greatest Conservation Need (SGCN were observed in perennial grassland fields. Bird species richness and total bird density increased with forb cover and were greater in forb-dominated fields than grass monocultures. SGCN density declined with increasing vertical vegetation density, indicating that tall, dense grassland fields managed for maximum biomass yield would be of lesser value to imperiled grassland bird species. The proportion of grassland habitat within 1 km of study sites was positively associated with bird species richness and the density of total birds and SGCNs, suggesting that grassland bioenergy fields may be more beneficial for grassland birds if they are established near other grassland parcels. Predicted total bird density peaked below maximum biomass yields and predicted SGCN density was negatively related to biomass yields. Our results indicate that perennial grassland fields could produce bioenergy feedstocks while providing bird habitat. Bioenergy grasslands promote agricultural multifunctionality and conservation of biodiversity in working landscapes.

  9. World Bioenergy 2006. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-07-01

    The conference and exhibition had over 1000 participants from 60 different countries. Subject areas covered by the conference were: Conversion, CHP; Innovative Applications; Resources; Logistics and Distribution; Agricultural Energy; Transport Fuels; Gasification; Steering Instruments; Market and Policy; Fuel Production including Refining; Bioenergy in a Sustainable Society. 75 contributions have been separately indexed for the database

  10. Recent trends in global production and utilization of bio-ethanol fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balat, Mustafa; Balat, Havva

    2009-01-01

    Bio-fuels are important because they replace petroleum fuels. A number of environmental and economic benefits are claimed for bio-fuels. Bio-ethanol is by far the most widely used bio-fuel for transportation worldwide. Production of bio-ethanol from biomass is one way to reduce both consumption of crude oil and environmental pollution. Using bio-ethanol blended gasoline fuel for automobiles can significantly reduce petroleum use and exhaust greenhouse gas emission. Bio-ethanol can be produced from different kinds of raw materials. These raw materials are classified into three categories of agricultural raw materials: simple sugars, starch and lignocellulose. Bio-ethanol from sugar cane, produced under the proper conditions, is essentially a clean fuel and has several clear advantages over petroleum-derived gasoline in reducing greenhouse gas emissions and improving air quality in metropolitan areas. Conversion technologies for producing bio-ethanol from cellulosic biomass resources such as forest materials, agricultural residues and urban wastes are under development and have not yet been demonstrated commercially.

  11. Production of bio-energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurtler, J.L.; Femenias, A.; Blondy, J.

    2009-01-01

    After having indicated the various possible origins of biomass, this paper considers the issue of bio-energies, i.e., energies produced with biomass related to forest or agriculture production. Some indicators are defined (share of renewable energies, share of biomass in the energy production and consumption, number of production units). Stake holders are identified. Then, major and emerging trends are identified and discussed. The major trends are: development and diversification of renewable energies, development of bio-fuels with the support of incentive policies, prevalence of the wood-energy sector on the whole renewable energies, increase of surfaces dedicated to bio-fuels since the end of the 1990's, a French biogas sector which is late with respect to other countries. The emerging trends are: the important role of oil price in the development of bio-fuels, a necessary public support for the development of biogas, mobilization of research and development of competitiveness poles for bio-industries. Some prospective issues are also discussed in terms of uncertainties (soil availabilities, environmental performance of bio-fuels, available biomass resource, need of a technological advance, and evolution of energy needs on a medium term, tax and public policy). Three hypotheses of bio-energy evolutions are discussed

  12. Chemometric methods and near-infrared spectroscopy applied to bioenergy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liebmann, B.

    2010-01-01

    The present work examines bioenergy production from different viewpoints. The three main objectives are: (1) to reveal the relation of technology, sustainability and economy in bioenergy processes; (2) to investigate spectroscopic methods as a tool for analytical monitoring of bioenergy processes; and (3) to develop new chemometric methods for advanced analysis of spectroscopic data. At the first stage, this thesis investigates the technological, ecological, and economic features of renewable-resource-based and de-centralized bioenergy production systems. In different scenarios, small-scale bioethanol production is combined with other technologies that provide renewable energy from residuals of the bioethanol process. The general aim is to substitute fossil energy conventionally used within the bioethanol process. The investigated technologies are biogas production and straw incineration. Agricultural aspects are introduced by sustainable crop rotation concepts that reconcile food, feed, and biofuel production. The sustainability of small-scale bioethanol production in the different scenarios is quantified by an ecological footprint method, the sustainable process index, SPI, and compared to conventional fuels. The main findings are: (i) small-scaled bioethanol production can be operated with 100 % renewable energy supply, (ii) the SPI of bioethanol can be reduced up to 92 % compared to conventional fuels, (iii) a complex trade-off between ecology-of-scale and economy-of-scale is necessary. At the second stage, this thesis approaches bioenergy production processes from an analytical perspective, and presents near-infrared spectroscopy (NIR) as promising method for fast process monitoring of bioethanol production and biomass characterization. In addition, new analytical methods are presented for a fast determination of the heating value of solid biomass fuel, based on IR and NIR spectroscopy. The main findings are that NIR spectroscopy and appropriate chemometric

  13. Postharvest residues from grass seed crops for bioenergy

    OpenAIRE

    Simić, Aleksandar; Čolić, Vladislava; Vučković, Savo; Dželetović, Željko; Bijelić, Zorica; Mandić, Violeta

    2016-01-01

    During grass seed production, a large amount of low forage quality biomass has been produced. Tall growing perennial grasses such as tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea L.) and Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) can be used as an alternative source for bioenergy production as they can be grown in less cultivated areas, their residues in seed production could be valuable energy source and can be potentially used as a dual purpose crop (bioenergy and forage). In this research, potentials o...

  14. Assessing the sustainability of bioethanol production in Nepal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khatiwada, Dilip

    2010-10-15

    Access to modern energy services derived from renewable sources is a prerequisite, not only for economic growth, rural development and sustainable development, but also for energy security and climate change mitigation. The least developed countries (LDCs) primarily use traditional biomass and have little access to commercial energy sources. They are more vulnerable to problems relating to energy security, air pollution, and the need for hard-cash currency to import fossil fuels. This thesis evaluates sugarcane-molasses bioethanol, a renewable energy source with the potential to be used as a transport fuel in Nepal. Sustainability aspects of molasses-based ethanol have been analyzed. Two important indicators for sustainability, viz. net energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) balances have been used to assess the appropriateness of bioethanol in the life cycle assessment (LCA) framework. This thesis has found that the production of bioethanol is energy-efficient in terms of the fossil fuel inputs required to produce it. Life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from production and combustion are also lower than those of gasoline. The impacts of important physical and market parameters, such as sugar cane productivity, the use of fertilizers, energy consumption in different processes, and price have been observed in evaluating the sustainability aspects of bioethanol production. The production potential of bioethanol has been assessed. Concerns relating to the fuel vs. food debate, energy security, and air pollution have also been discussed. The thesis concludes that the major sustainability indicators for molasses ethanol in Nepal are in line with the goals of sustainable development. Thus, Nepal could be a good example for other LDCs when favorable governmental policy, institutional set-ups, and developmental cooperation from donor partners are in place to strengthen the development of renewable energy technologies

  15. Haeme bioethanol and biogasification plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kymaelaeinen, M.; Laine, V.; Kautola, H. (HAMK University of Applied Sciences, Degree Programme in Biotechnology and Food Engineering, Haemeenlinna (Finland)); Siukola, K.; Naesi, J. (Suomen Biojalostus Oy, Renko (Finland)); Enwald, H. (Insinoeoeritoimisto Valcon Oy, Valkeakoski (Finland))

    2007-07-01

    In Haeme, located in southern part of Finland, local possibilities of bioethanol production have been studied since 2002. The study, initiated by local farmers, was first aimed to find out alternative use of the sugar beet which was unprofitable to utilize in sugar production. Later on, the study extended to cover the use of barley and to find out a sustainable and cost effective solution for the utilization of agro based raw materials in the bioethanol fuel production. The Haeme plant, according to present plans, utilizes barley and sugar beet (optional) as raw materials. The plant has been designed without feed dryers thus achieving considerable savings both in investment and operational (energy) costs compared to conventional grain based bioethanol plant with DDGS (Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles) as a predominant by product. Local markets for wet feed fractions wet distillers grains (DWG) and wet condensed distillers solubles (CDS) - have been found to be ready. The capacity of the plant, around 50-60 000 tons of ethanol per year, has been adjusted for local raw material supply, as well as for the local feed markets. In addition to production of wet feed fractions, another special feature of the plant is the integration with biogasification. A part of the stillage (distillation residue) can be utilized in the production of biogas which in turn is used to increase the energy self sufficiency of the plant. In overall, the Haeme plant has been designed to fit into local circumstances, aiming to improve the energy balance and reduce GHG-emissions of agro based bioethanol production. (orig.)

  16. Importance of rural bioenergy for developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demirbas, Ayse Hilal; Demirbas, Imren

    2007-01-01

    Energy resources will play an important role in the world's future. Rural bioenergy is still the predominant form of energy used by people in the less developed countries, and bioenergy from biomass accounts for about 15% of the world's primary energy consumption and about 38% of the primary energy consumption in developing countries. Furthermore, bioenergy often accounts for more than 90% of the total rural energy supplies in some developing countries. Earth life in rural areas of the world has changed dramatically over time. Industrial development in developing countries, coming at a time of low cost plentiful oil supplies, has resulted in greater reliance on the source of rural bioenergy than is true in the developed countries. In developed countries, there is a growing trend towards employing modern technologies and efficient bioenergy conversion using a range of biofuels, which are becoming cost wise competitive with fossil fuels. Currently, much attention has been a major focus on renewable alternatives in the developing countries. Renewable energy can be particularly appropriate for developing countries. In rural areas, particularly in remote locations, transmission and distribution of energy generated from fossil fuels can be difficult and expensive. Producing renewable energy locally can offer a viable alternative. Renewable energy can facilitate economic and social development in communities but only if the projects are intelligently designed and carefully planned with local input and cooperation. Particularly in poor rural areas, the costs of renewable energy projects will absorb a significant part of participants' small incomes. Bio-fuels are important because they replace petroleum fuels. Biomass and biofuels can be used as a substitute for fossil fuels to generate heat, power and/or chemicals. Generally speaking, biofuels are generally considered as offering many benefits, including sustainability, reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, regional

  17. Bioenergy good practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birse, J.; Chambers, K.

    2000-07-01

    This report gives details of a project to make the Good Practice Guidelines, which were developed to help the UK Bioenergy industry, the national and local governments, and the public, more widely available. Details concerning the designing of a Good Practice Programme, and the proposed codes of Good Practice programme are given, and general relevant good practice guidance documents are discussed. The stakeholder survey and workshop, and the proposed codes of a Good Practice Programme are presented in Annexes. (UK)

  18. Finnish bioenergy research programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asplund, D. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Finland is a leading country in the use of biofuels and has excellent opportunities to increase the use of biofuels by up to 25-30 %. The Finnish Government has set an objective for the promotion of bioenergy. The aim is to increase the use of bioenergy by about 25 % from the present level by 2005, and the increment corresponds to 1.5 million tonnes of oil equivalent (toe) per year. The R and D work has been considered as an important factor to achieve this ambitious goal. Energy research was organised into a series of research programmes in 1988 in accordance with the proposal of Finnish Energy Research Committee. The object of the research programmes is to enhance research activities and to bundle individual projects together into larger research packages. The common target of the Finnish energy research programmes is to proceed from basic and applied research to product development and pilot operation, and after that to the first commercial applications, e.g. demonstrations. As the organisation of energy research to programmes has led to good results, the Finnish Ministry of Trade and Industry decided to go on with this practice by launching new six-year programmes in 1993-1998. One of these programmes is the Bioenergy Research Programme and the co-ordination of this programme is carried out by VTT Energy. Besides VTT Energy the Finnish Forest Research Institute, Work Efficiency Institute, Metsaeteho and University of Joensuu are participating in the programme 7 refs.

  19. Finnish bioenergy research programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asplund, D [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    Finland is a leading country in the use of biofuels and has excellent opportunities to increase the use of biofuels by up to 25-30 %. The Finnish Government has set an objective for the promotion of bioenergy. The aim is to increase the use of bioenergy by about 25 % from the present level by 2005, and the increment corresponds to 1.5 million tonnes of oil equivalent (toe) per year. The R and D work has been considered as an important factor to achieve this ambitious goal. Energy research was organised into a series of research programmes in 1988 in accordance with the proposal of Finnish Energy Research Committee. The object of the research programmes is to enhance research activities and to bundle individual projects together into larger research packages. The common target of the Finnish energy research programmes is to proceed from basic and applied research to product development and pilot operation, and after that to the first commercial applications, e.g. demonstrations. As the organisation of energy research to programmes has led to good results, the Finnish Ministry of Trade and Industry decided to go on with this practice by launching new six-year programmes in 1993-1998. One of these programmes is the Bioenergy Research Programme and the co-ordination of this programme is carried out by VTT Energy. Besides VTT Energy the Finnish Forest Research Institute, Work Efficiency Institute, Metsaeteho and University of Joensuu are participating in the programme 7 refs.

  20. Challenges in bioethanol production: Utilization of cotton fabrics as a feedstock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Svetlana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bioethanol, as a clean and renewable fuel with its major environmental benefits, represents a promising biofuel today which is mostly used in combination with gasoline. It can be produced from different kinds of renewable feedstocks. Whereas the first generation of processes (saccharide-based have been well documented and are largely applied, the second and third generation of bioethanol processes (cellulose- or algae-based need further research and development since bioethanol yields are still too low to be economically viable. In this study, the possibilities of bioethanol production from cotton fabrics as valuable cellulosic raw material were investigated and presented. Potential lignocellulosic biomass for bioethanol production and their characteristics, especially cotton-based materials, were analyzed. Available lignocellulosic biomass, the production of textile and clothing and potential for sustainable bioethanol production in Serbia is presented. The progress possibilities are discussed in the domain of different pretreatment methods, optimization of enzymatic hydrolysis and different ethanol fermentation process modes. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 31017

  1. Microwave pretreatment of switchgrass for bioethanol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshwani, Deepak Radhakrishin

    Lignocellulosic materials are promising alternative feedstocks for bioethanol production. These materials include agricultural residues, cellulosic waste such as newsprint and office paper, logging residues, and herbaceous and woody crops. However, the recalcitrant nature of lignocellulosic biomass necessitates a pretreatment step to improve the yield of fermentable sugars. The overall goal of this dissertation is to expand the current state of knowledge on microwave-based pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass. Existing research on bioenergy and value-added applications of switchgrass is reviewed in Chapter 2. Switchgrass is an herbaceous energy crop native to North America and has high biomass productivity, potentially low requirements for agricultural inputs and positive environmental impacts. Based on results from test plots, yields in excess of 20 Mg/ha have been reported. Environmental benefits associated with switchgrass include the potential for carbon sequestration, nutrient recovery from run-off, soil remediation and provision of habitats for grassland birds. Published research on pretreatment of switchgrass reported glucose yields ranging from 70-90% and xylose yields ranging from 70-100% after hydrolysis and ethanol yields ranging from 72-92% after fermentation. Other potential value-added uses of switchgrass include gasification, bio-oil production, newsprint production and fiber reinforcement in thermoplastic composites. Research on microwave-based pretreatment of switchgrass and coastal bermudagrass is presented in Chapter 3. Pretreatments were carried out by immersing the biomass in dilute chemical reagents and exposing the slurry to microwave radiation at 250 watts for residence times ranging from 5 to 20 minutes. Preliminary experiments identified alkalis as suitable chemical reagents for microwave-based pretreatment. An evaluation of different alkalis identified sodium hydroxide as the most effective alkali reagent. Under optimum pretreatment

  2. Comparative study of bioethanol production from sugarcane ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was designed to compare the bioethanol production from Zymomonas mobilis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae using molasses as production medium. The focus was on the retention time at lab scale. Bioethanol and petroleum blend can be used in existing gasoline engines. Present study showed a more ...

  3. Sugarcane for Bioethanol: Soil and Environmental Issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartemink, A.E.

    2008-01-01

    Cultivation of sugarcane for bioethanol is increasing and the area under sugarcane is expanding. Much of the sugar for bioethanol comes from large plantations where it is grown with relatively high inputs. Sugarcane puts a high demands on the soil because of the use of heavy machinery and because

  4. Bioethanol from poplar: a commercially viable alternative to fossil fuel in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littlewood, Jade; Guo, Miao; Boerjan, Wout; Murphy, Richard J

    2014-01-01

    The European Union has made it a strategic objective to develop its biofuels market in order to minimize greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, to help mitigate climate change and to address energy insecurity within the transport sector. Despite targets set at national and supranational levels, lignocellulosic bioethanol production has yet to be widely commercialized in the European Union. Here, we use techno-economic modeling to compare the price of bioethanol produced from short rotation coppice (SRC) poplar feedstocks under two leading processing technologies in five European countries. Our evaluation shows that the type of processing technology and varying national costs between countries results in a wide range of bioethanol production prices (€0.275 to 0.727/l). The lowest production prices for bioethanol were found in countries that had cheap feedstock costs and high prices for renewable electricity. Taxes and other costs had a significant influence on fuel prices at the petrol station, and therefore the presence and amount of government support for bioethanol was a major factor determining the competitiveness of bioethanol with conventional fuel. In a forward-looking scenario, genetically engineering poplar with a reduced lignin content showed potential to enhance the competitiveness of bioethanol with conventional fuel by reducing overall costs by approximately 41% in four out of the five countries modeled. However, the possible wider phenotypic traits of advanced poplars needs to be fully investigated to ensure that these do not unintentionally negate the cost savings indicated. Through these evaluations, we highlight the key bottlenecks within the bioethanol supply chain from the standpoint of various stakeholders. For producers, technologies that are best suited to the specific feedstock composition and national policies should be optimized. For policymakers, support schemes that benefit emerging bioethanol producers and allow renewable fuel to be

  5. Thermophilic amylase from Thermus sp. isolation and its potential application for bioethanol production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Fatoni

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Limited reserves of fossil energy stimulate researchers to explore for a new alternative energy, such as bioethanol.A thermophilic amylase producing bacterium was isolated from local hot-springs and its characteristic and potential applicationfor bioethanol production was determined. The obtained amylase was studied to determine its optimum temperature, pH,enzymatic reaction time, and substrate concentration. Tapioca waste was used as the substrate to find the potential of theamylase for degrading starch into glucose, and then the process was continued by fermentation to produce bioethanol. Theamylase producer bacterium was proposed as genus Thermus sp. The crude amylase that was obtained has the optimumtemperature of 60°C and optimum pH of 8.0, optimum substrate concentration at 10% (w/w and optimum enzymatic reactiontime of 45 minutes. These enzymes convert the starches of waste tapioca at optimum conditions, with the result of 2.9%ethanol produced from raw materials.

  6. Case study: Preliminary assessment of integrated palm biomass biorefinery for bioethanol production utilizing non-food sugars from oil palm frond petiole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdullah, Sharifah Soplah Syed; Shirai, Yoshihito; Ali, Ahmad Amiruddin Mohd; Mustapha, Mahfuzah; Hassan, Mohd Ali

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Fermentable sugars production from oil palm frond by integrated technology concept. • Bioethanol production from oil palm frond sugars in a biorefinery. • Palm oil mills have sufficient excess energy and steam to support biorefinery. • The net energy ratio of bioethanol from oil palm frond petiole is 7.48. - Abstract: In this case study, a preliminary assessment on the bioethanol production from oil palm frond (OPF) petiole sugars within an integrated palm biomass biorefinery was carried out. Based on the case study of 4 neighbouring palm oil mills, approximately 55,600 t/y of fermentable sugars could be obtained from OPF petiole. The integrated biorefinery will be located at one of the 4 mills. The mill has potential excess energy comprising 3.64 GW h/y of electricity and 177,000 t/y of steam which are sufficient to run the biorefinery. With 33.9 million litres/y of bioethanol production, the specific production cost of bioethanol is estimated at $ 0.52/l bioethanol, compared to $ 0.31–0.34/l bioethanol produced from sugarcane and $ 0.49–0.60/l bioethanol from other lignocellulosics. The net energy ratio of 7.48 for bioethanol production from OPF provides a promising alternative for OPF utilization as a non-food sugar feedstock.

  7. Bioethanol as a major source of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anagha, Phani

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Achieving sustainability in agriculture requires taking into account many different factors: global climate, pollution, better use of industrial water, options regarding the use of fertilizers, pesticides, and herbicides, and also economic sustainability in terms of costs, competitiveness, and the number and quality of jobs created. The sugarcane industry is a good example of the integration of such concerns. It also illustrates what can be attained when people in developing countries receive the training they need to develop their own technologies. Bioethanol has taken precedence as Prime Biofuel after lot of controversy erupted on international food shortages and spiraling food prices. In spite of all the controversy Shrouding Biofuels, there has been universal acceptance and understanding that we need to continually look at alternate sources of fuels and feed stock's which are non food and this has seen visible interest for Sugarcane based Bioethanol to wheat, Maize and other food crops. In July 2008 alone, big investments in sugarcane/ethanol production were announced across the globe in sugar producing countries in the order of over 500 million dollars. The preceding months saw planned investment in the billions of dollars in the sector. The International Energy Agency sees world Biofuels production rising from 1.35 million barrels a day in 2008 to 1.95 million barrels a day in 2013- only five years away- and it is a safe bet that most of this increase will come from sugarcane ethanol. Dow Jones notes the sector seems impervious to the liquidity crunch with new investment being announced in Brazil despite high levels of existing debt. Pressure is also mounting on the developed countries to free up current import. (author)

  8. LCA Study of Oleaginous Bioenergy Chains in a Mediterranean Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Cocco

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports outcomes of life cycle assessments (LCAs of three different oleaginous bioenergy chains (oilseed rape, Ethiopian mustard and cardoon under Southern Europe conditions. Accurate data on field practices previously collected during a three-year study at two sites were used. The vegetable oil produced by oleaginous seeds was used for power generation in medium-speed diesel engines while the crop residues were used in steam power plants. For each bioenergy chain, the environmental impact related to cultivation, transportation of agricultural products and industrial conversion for power generation was evaluated by calculating cumulative energy demand, acidification potential and global warming potential. For all three bioenergy chains, the results of the LCA study show a considerable saving of primary energy (from 70 to 86 GJ·ha−1 and greenhouse gas emissions (from 4.1 to 5.2 t CO2·ha−1 in comparison to power generation from fossil fuels, although the acidification potential of these bioenergy chains may be twice that of conventional power generation. In addition, the study highlights that land use changes due to the cultivation of the abovementioned crops reduce soil organic content and therefore worsen and increase greenhouse gas emissions for all three bioenergy chains. The study also demonstrates that the exploitation of crop residues for energy production greatly contributes to managing environmental impact of the three bioenergy chains.

  9. Characterization of an organic solvent-tolerant thermostable glucoamylase from a halophilic isolate, Halolactibacillus sp. SK71 and its application in raw starch hydrolysis for bioethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hui-Ying; Li, Xin

    2014-01-01

    A halophilic bacterium Halolactibacillus sp. SK71 producing extracellular glucoamylase was isolated from saline soil of Yuncheng Salt Lake, China. Enzyme production was strongly influenced by the salinity of growth medium with maximum in the presence of 5% NaCl. The glucoamylase was purified to homogeneity with a molecular mass of 78.5 kDa. It showed broad substrate specificity and raw starch hydrolyzing activity. Analysis of hydrolysis products from soluble starch by thin-layer chromatography revealed that glucose was the sole end-product, indicating the enzyme was a true glucoamylase. Optimal enzyme activity was found to be at 70°C, pH 8.0, and 7.5% NaCl. In addition, it was highly active and stable over broad ranges of temperature (0-100°C), pH (7.0-12.0), and NaCl concentration (0-20%), showing excellent thermostable, alkali stable, and halotolerant properties. Furthermore, it displayed high stability in the presence of hydrophobic organic solvents. The purified glucoamylase was applied for raw corn starch hydrolysis and subsequent bioethanol production using Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The yield in terms of grams of ethanol produced per gram of sugar consumed was 0.365 g/g, with 71.6% of theoretical yield from raw corn starch. This study demonstrated the feasibility of using enzymes from halophiles for further application in bioenergy production. © 2014 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  10. Re-impact: forest based bioenergy for sustainable development in developing countries

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Amezaga, JM

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available for biodiesel and bioethanol. In late 2006, the Draft Biofuels Industrial Strategy compiled by a biofuels task team was released for public comment. This document emphasized that the main focus of the biofuel industry within South Africa is not only... and in schemes for the production of biodiesel from tree borne oilseed (TBO) crops like Jatropha curcas. However, in spite of the high potential of bioenergy as a mechanism for rural development, its sustainability has become an issue of global debate...

  11. Bioenergy Research Programme, Yearbook 1995. Utilization of bioenergy and biomass conversion; Bioenergian tutkimusohjelma, vuosikirja 1995. Bioenergian kaeyttoe ja biomassan jalostus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alakangas, E. [ed.

    1996-12-31

    Bioenergy Research Programme is one of the energy technology research programmes of the Technology Development Centre TEKES. The aim of the bioenergy Research Programme is to increase, by using technical research and development, the economically profitable and environmentally sound utilisation of bioenergy, to improve the competitiveness of present peat and wood fuels, and to develop new competitive fuels and equipment related to bioenergy. The funding for 1995 was nearly 52 million FIM and the number of projects 66. The research area of biomass conversion consisted of 8 projects in 1995, and the research area of bioenergy utilization of 14 projects. The results of these projects carried out in 1995 are presented in this publication. The aim of the biomass conversion is to produce more bio-oils and electric power as well as wood processing industry as at power plants than it is possible at present appliances. The conversion research was pointed at refining of the waste liquors of pulping industry and the extracts of them into fuel-oil and liquid engine fuels, on production of wood oil via flash pyrolysis, and on combustion tests. Other conversion studies dealt with production of fuel-grade ethanol. For utilization of agrobiomass in various forms of energy, a system study is introduced where special attention is how to use rapeseed oil unprocessed in heating boilers and diesel engines. The main aim of the research in bioenergy utilization is to create the technological potential for increasing the bioenergy use. The aim is further defined as to get into commercial phase 3-4 new techniques or methods and to start several demonstrations, which will have 0.2-0.3 million toe bioenergy utilization potential

  12. Bioenergy yield from cultivated land in Denmark - competition between food, bioenergy and fossil fuels under physical and environmental constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callesen, I.; OEstergaard, H. (Technical Univ. of Denmark, Risoe National Lab. for Sustainable Energy. Biosystems Div., Roskilde (Denmark)); Grohnheit, P.E. (Technical Univ. of Denmark, Risoe National Lab. for Sustainable Energy. Systems Analysis Div., Roskilde (Denmark))

    2011-07-15

    Globally, bioenergy is emphasized as an important contributor to reach strategic goals of energy security. The commodity markets for energy, bioenergy and food are interdependent and interacting through the energy dependency of agriculture, an increasing demand for both food and energy, and the option to replace fossil energy resources with bioenergy resources. A model for supply of biomass for bioenergy in Denmark was developed using linear programming. The model includes biomass supply from annual crops on arable land, short rotation forestry (willow) and plantation forestry, and minimizes production costs of an energy mix consisting of bioenergy and fossil diesel oil. Here, we analyze the possibilities of substituting domestic bioenergy for fossil energy under the constraint of a given food supply and environmental constraints on land use. Crop area distributions of a total area of 3200 kha were simulated in two sets of scenarios, each examining a range of fossil oil prices. Both scenarios were based on cost and production data of the year 2005. Scenario (a) required a total food and feed energy yield similar to that produced in the year 2005; scenario (b) addressed high prioritization of dedicated bioenergy crops. This was secured by relaxing the food and feed supply to 50% of the 2005 production level. Further, a maximum limit of 25% cultivation area with willow in short rotation was set, and the area reserved for permanent grassland was set to 275 kha (+100 kha compared to 2005). The trade-based animal husbandry sector was excluded from the analysis and the forest area was fixed to 600 kha. The crop area distributions were affected by fossil oil prices varying from oil index 25 to 200. Oil index 100approx9.4 Euro GJ-1 corresponded with a crude oil price of 55$ per barrel in 2005. The woody biofuels, especially high-yielding willow in short rotation, were competitive with fossil oil from around oil index 40 and occupied the maximum allowed area in all crop

  13. Bioenergy, Land Use Change and Climate Change Mitigation. Report for Policy Advisors and Policy Makers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berndes, Goran [Chalmers Univ. of Technology (Sweden); Bird, Nell [Joanneum Research (Austria); Cowle, Annette [National Centre for Rural Greenhouse Gas Research (Australia)

    2010-07-01

    The report addresses a much debated issue - bioenergy and associated land use change, and how the climate change mitigation from use of bioenergy can be influenced by greenhouse gas emissions arising from land use change. The purpose of the report was to produce an unbiased, authoritative statement on this topic aimed especially at policy advisors and policy makers.

  14. Samfunds- og selskabsøkonomisk analyse af bioethanol-produktion i Danmark i samproduktion med kraftvarme. Fase I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lars Henrik; van Maarschalkerweerd, Christian

    Aims of the project are to carry out combined socio-economic and corporate-economic analyses of concepts for bioethanol production in Denmark. The project is split into two phases and will in total analyze 3 different plant concepts for bioethanol production based on biomass inputs comprising straw...... fuel. Bioethanol co-produced with CHP and biogas (Risø-DTU concept). The biomass inputs to the process are straw, whole crop, biomass residues, domestic waste etc... By-products from the production are re-circled to agriculture as well-declared fertilizer products. These two concepts will be analyzed...... and compared based on the same input biomass materials. The present project information concerns phase I of the total project, and comprises the socio-economic and corporate-economic analysis of bioethanol production co-produced with CHP (IBUS concept). Due to difficulties in achieving data, consistency...

  15. Energy analysis of biochemical conversion processes of biomass to bioethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakari, M.; Ngadi, M.; Bergthorson, T. [McGill Univ., Ste-Anne-de-Bellevue, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Bioresource Engineering

    2010-07-01

    Bioethanol is among the most promising of biofuels that can be produced from different biomass such as agricultural products, waste and byproducts. This paper reported on a study that examined the energy conversion of different groups of biomass to bioethanol, including lignocelluloses, starches and sugar. Biochemical conversion generally involves the breakdown of biomass to simple sugars using different pretreatment methods. The energy needed for the conversion steps was calculated in order to obtain mass and energy efficiencies for the conversions. Mass conversion ratios of corn, molasses and rice straw were calculated as 0.3396, 0.2300 and 0.2296 kg of bioethanol per kg of biomass, respectively. The energy efficiency of biochemical conversion of corn, molasses and rice straw was calculated as 28.57, 28.21 and 31.33 per cent, respectively. The results demonstrated that lignocelluloses can be efficiently converted with specific microorganisms such as Mucor indicus, Rhizopus oryzae using the Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation (SSF) methods.

  16. Brosimum Alicastrum as a Novel Starch Source for Bioethanol Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Olguin-Maciel

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Ramon (Brosimum alicastrum is a forest tree native to the Mesoamerican region and the Caribbean. The flour obtained from Ramon seeds is 75% carbohydrate, of which 63% is starch, indicating its potential as a novel raw material for bioethanol production. The objective of this study was to produce ethanol from Ramon flour using a 90 °C thermic treatment for 30 min and a native yeast strain (Candida tropicalis for the fermentation process. In addition, the structure of the flour and the effects of pretreatment were observed via scanning electron microscopy. The native yeast strain was superior to the commercial strain, fermenting 98.8% of the reducing sugar (RS at 48 h and generating 31% more ethanol than commercial yeast. One ton of flour yielded 213 L of ethanol. These results suggest that Ramon flour is an excellent candidate for ethanol production. This is the first report on bioethanol production using the starch from Ramon seed flour and a native yeast strain isolated from this feedstock. This alternative material for bioethanol production minimizes the competition between food and energy production, a priority for Mexico that has led to significant changes in public policies to enhance the development of renewable energies.

  17. Environmental sustainability analysis of UK whole-wheat bioethanol and CHP systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez-Hernandez, Elias; Ibrahim, Muhammad H.; Leach, Matthew; Sinclair, Phillip; Campbell, Grant M.; Sadhukhan, Jhuma

    2013-01-01

    The UK whole-wheat bioethanol and straw and DDGS-based combined heat and power (CHP) generation systems were assessed for environmental sustainability using a range of impact categories or characterisations (IC): cumulative primary fossil energy (CPE), land use, life cycle global warming potential over 100 years (GWP 100 ), acidification potential (AP), eutrophication potential (EP) and abiotic resources use (ARU). The European Union (EU) Renewable Energy Directive's target of greenhouse gas (GHG) emission saving of 60% in comparison to an equivalent fossil-based system by 2020 seems to be very challenging for stand-alone wheat bioethanol system. However, the whole-wheat integrated system, wherein the CHP from the excess straw grown in the same season and from the same land is utilised in the wheat bioethanol plant, can be demonstrated for potential sustainability improvement, achieving 85% emission reduction and 97% CPE saving compared to reference fossil systems. The net bioenergy from this system and from 172,370 ha of grade 3 land is 12.1 PJ y −1 providing land to energy yield of 70 GJ ha −1 y −1 . The use of DDGS as an animal feed replacing soy meal incurs environmental emission credit, whilst its use in heat or CHP generation saves CPE. The hot spots in whole system identified under each impact category are as follows: bioethanol plant and wheat cultivation for CPE (50% and 48%), as well as for ARU (46% and 52%). EP and GWP 100 are distributed among wheat cultivation (49% and 37%), CHP plant (26% and 30%) and bioethanol plant (25%, and 33%), respectively. -- Highlights: ► UK whole-wheat energy system can achieve 85% GHG emission reduction. ► UK whole-wheat energy system can achieve 97% primary energy saving. ► The land to energy yield of the UK whole-wheat system is 70 GJ ha −1 y −1 . ► Fertiliser production is the hotspot. ► DDGS and straw-based CHP system integration to wheat bioethanol is feasible

  18. Bioethanol, biohydrogen and biogas production from wheat straw in a biorefinery concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaparaju, Prasad Laxmi-Narasimha; Serrano, Maria; Thomsen, Anne Belinda

    2009-01-01

    fermentation of cellulose yielded 0.41 g-ethanol/g-glucose, while dark fermentation of hydrolysate produced 178.0 ml-H-2/g-sugars. The effluents from both bioethanol and biohydrogen processes were further used to produce methane with the yields of 0.324 and 0.381 m(3)/kg volatile solids (VS)added, respectively....... Additionally, evaluation of six different wheat straw-to-biofuel production scenaria showed that either use of wheat straw for biogas production or multi-fuel production were the energetically most efficient processes compared to production of mono-fuel such as bioethanol when fermenting C6 sugars alone. Thus...

  19. Bioethanol a Microbial Biofuel Metabolite; New Insights of Yeasts Metabolic Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled A. Selim

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Scarcity of the non-renewable energy sources, global warming, environmental pollution, and raising the cost of petroleum are the motive for the development of renewable, eco-friendly fuels production with low costs. Bioethanol production is one of the promising materials that can subrogate the petroleum oil, and it is considered recently as a clean liquid fuel or a neutral carbon. Diverse microorganisms such as yeasts and bacteria are able to produce bioethanol on a large scale, which can satisfy our daily needs with cheap and applicable methods. Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pichia stipitis are two of the pioneer yeasts in ethanol production due to their abilities to produce a high amount of ethanol. The recent focus is directed towards lignocellulosic biomass that contains 30–50% cellulose and 20–40% hemicellulose, and can be transformed into glucose and fundamentally xylose after enzymatic hydrolysis. For this purpose, a number of various approaches have been used to engineer different pathways for improving the bioethanol production with simultaneous fermentation of pentose and hexoses sugars in the yeasts. These approaches include metabolic and flux analysis, modeling and expression analysis, followed by targeted deletions or the overexpression of key genes. In this review, we highlight and discuss the current status of yeasts genetic engineering for enhancing bioethanol production, and the conditions that influence bioethanol production.

  20. Our Commitment to Bioenergy Sustainability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-06-18

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) is committed to developing the resources, technologies, and systems needed to support a thriving bioenergy industry that protects natural resources and ad- vances environmental, economic, and social benefits. BETO’s Sustainability Technology Area proactively identifies and addresses issues that affect the scale-up potential, public acceptance, and long-term viability of advanced bioenergy systems; as a result, the area is critical to achieving BETO’s overall goals.

  1. Bioethanol production from residual lignocellulosic materials: A review – Part 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRISTIAN-TEODOR BURUIANA

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Lignocellulosic material (LCM can be employed as feedstock for biorefineries, a concept related to industries designed to process biomass for producing chemicals, fuels and/or electrical power. According to this philosophy, LCM can be fractionated and the resulting fractions employed for specific applications. Bioethanol production from cellulosic fraction of LCM involves: hydrolysis of polysaccharides and fermentation of the monomers into bioethanol. Enzymatic hydrolysis is catalyzed by cellulolytic enzymes and fermentation is carried out by bacteria, yeasts or fungi. The main objective of this article is to review different process integration technologies for bioethanol production from LCM. This paper include: separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF, simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF, and simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation (SSCF methods. Furthermore, the fermentation process and a comparative data of cellulases, hemicellulases and ethanol producing-microorganisms were presented.

  2. Bioenergy '97: Nordic Bioenergy Conference, market, environment and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    (Leading abstract). The conference ''Bioenergy '97: Nordic Bioenergy Conference, market, environment and technology'' took place in Oslo, Norway, 7-8 Oct 1997. The conference papers are grouped under three headings: (1) The nordic energy market. 12 papers. (2) Production and sale of biofuels. 8 papers. (3) Conversion and utilization of biofuels. With subsections New technologies, 4 papers, and Power/heat production from biofuels, 4 papers

  3. Optimization of bioethanol production from simultaneous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    fermentation of pineapple peels using Saccharomyces cerevisiae ... ABSTRACT: In this study, bioethanol production from the simultaneous ... in turn has resulted in the need to find a source of ... fruit in the world after Banana and Citrus and.

  4. 2016 Bioenergy Industry Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriarty, Kristen L. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Milbrandt, Anelia R. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Warner, Ethan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lewis, John E. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Schwab, Amy A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-03-03

    This report provides a snapshot of the bioenergy industry status at the end of 2016. The report compliments other annual market reports from the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy offices and is supported by DOE’s Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO). The 2016 Bioenergy Industry Status Report focuses on past year data covering multiple dimensions of the bioenergy industry and does not attempt to make future market projections. The report provides a balanced and unbiased assessment of the industry and associated markets. It is openly available to the public and is intended to compliment International Energy Agency and industry reports with a focus on DOE stakeholder needs.

  5. 10. Rostock bioenergy forum. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelles, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Biomass energy not only contributes to the energy transition, but also for climate and resource protection. The main topics of the conference are: Alternative solid bioenergy sources; Optimizing the use of heat; Prospects for biofuels; Emission reduction through use of biofuels; Alternative biomass for biogas; Optimization and adjustment in the biogas sector; Flexibility of biogas plants; New uses of bioenergy. 12 contributions were recorded separately for the INIS database. [de

  6. Solid-state fermentation from dried sweet sorghum stalk for bioethanol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almodares, A.; Etemadifar, Z.; Omidi, A. [Univ. of Isfahan, Biology Dept., Univ. of Isfahan, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], e-mail: aalmodares@yahoo.com

    2012-11-01

    Due to depletion of global crude oil, countries are interested to alternate fuel energy resources. Presently bioethanol as a source of energy has been a subject of great interest for the industrialized countries. Therefore, there is need for efficient bioethanol production with low cost raw material and production process. Among energy crops, sweet sorghum is the best candidate for bioethanol production. It has been identified as having higher drought tolerance, lower input cost and higher biomass yield than other energy crops. In addition it has wide adoptability and tolerance to abiotic stresses. Moreover due to the shortage of water in dry and hot countries there is a need to reduce water requirement for bioethanol production and solid state fermentation could be the best process for making bioethanol in these countries. The purpose of this study is to achieve the highest ethanol production with lowest amount of water in solid state fermentation using sweet sorghum stalk. In this study the sweet sorghum particles were used for solid state fermentation. Fermentation medium were: sweet sorghum particles with nutrient media, active yeast powder and different moisture contents. The fermentation medium was incubated for 2-3 days at 30 deg C temperature. The results showed sweet sorghum particles (15% w/w) fermented in medium containing 0.5% yeast inoculums, 73.5% moisture content and 3 days incubation period produced the highest amount of ethanol (13% w/w sorghum)

  7. Sequential ethanol fermentation and anaerobic digestion increases bioenergy yields from duckweed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calicioglu, O; Brennan, R A

    2018-06-01

    The potential for improving bioenergy yields from duckweed, a fast-growing, simple, floating aquatic plant, was evaluated by subjecting the dried biomass directly to anaerobic digestion, or sequentially to ethanol fermentation and then anaerobic digestion, after evaporating ethanol from the fermentation broth. Bioethanol yields of 0.41 ± 0.03 g/g and 0.50 ± 0.01 g/g (glucose) were achieved for duckweed harvested from the Penn State Living-Filter (Lemna obscura) and Eco-Machine™ (Lemna minor/japonica and Wolffia columbiana), respectively. The highest biomethane yield, 390 ± 0.1 ml CH 4 /g volatile solids added, was achieved in a reactor containing fermented duckweed from the Living-Filter at a substrate-to-inoculum (S/I) ratio (i.e., duckweed to microorganism ratio) of 1.0. This value was 51.2% higher than the biomethane yield of a replicate reactor with raw (non-fermented) duckweed. The combined bioethanol-biomethane process yielded 70.4% more bioenergy from duckweed, than if anaerobic digestion had been run alone. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Bioethanol Production from Empty Fruit Bunch using Direct Fermentation by an Actinomycete Streptosporangium roseum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nik Him, N. R.; Huda, T.

    2018-05-01

    Study on the production of bioethanol using palm oil empty fruit bunch (EFB) has been performed using actinomycete Streptosporangium roseum. Positive result of bioethanol production was recorded using Iodoform test followed by confirmation with GC-FID using a polar capillary column (PEG-type, 10m x 0.53, with autosampler) and n-propanol as internal standard. The first and second round distillation has produced azeotrope (85-15% ethanol-water) and the third round has concentrated the ethanol to 96.1%. Therefore, the process was accomplished by using molecular sieves that selectively absorbed the final excess water. Direct fermentation using Streptosporangium roseum has shown to be a very potential way to catalyst for the synthesis of bioethanol from EFB.

  9. Upgrading of lignocellulosic biorefinery to value-added chemicals: Sustainability and economics of bioethanol-derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheali, Peam; Posada, John A.; Gernaey, Krist

    2015-01-01

    with a sustainability assessment method is used as evaluation tool. First, an existing superstructure representing the lignocellulosic biorefinery design network is extended to include the options for catalytic conversion of bioethanol to value-added derivatives. Second, the optimization problem for process upgrade...... of operating profit for biorefineries producing bioethanol-derived chemicals (247 MM$/a and 241 MM$/a for diethyl ether and 1,3-butadiene, respectively). Second, the optimal designs for upgrading bioethanol (i.e. production of 1,3-butadiene and diethyl ether) performed also better with respect...... to sustainability compared with the petroleum-based processes. In both cases, the effects of the market price uncertainties were also analyzed by performing quantitative economic risk analysis and presented a significant risk of investment for a lignocellulosic biorefinery (12 MM$/a and 92 MM$/a for diethyl ether...

  10. Bioethanol production from residual lignocellulosic materials: A review – Part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRISTIAN-TEODOR BURUIANA

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Lignocellulosic materials (LCM are produced in large quantities and without clear application and their use as raw material for bioethanol production shows economic and ecologic benefits. LCM are composed mainly of three polymers: cellulose made up of glucose units, hemicellulose made up of several sugars (as xylose or arabinose, and lignin made up of phenylpropane units, interconnected in a strong structure. Pretreatment is an important step for bioethanol production from LCM, causing the solubilisation of hemicellulosic fraction (leading to the recovery of hemicellulose-derived saccharides in order to obtain a solid phase enriched in cellulose and more susceptible to enzymatic attack. This study provides a comparative data regarding the chemical composition of various LCM used for bioethanol production, as well as different pretreatment technologies for improving the enzymatic hydrolysis of LCM.

  11. Sustainability of bioethanol production from wheat with recycled residues as evaluated by Emergy assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coppola, F.; Bastianoni, S.; Østergård, Hanne

    2009-01-01

    , were considered. Material and energy flows were assessed to evaluate the bioethanol yield, the production efficiency in terms of Emergy used compared to energy produced (transformity), and the environmental load (ELR) in terms of use of non-renewable resources. These three indicators varied among......An Emergy assessment study of 24 bioethanol production scenarios was carried out for the comparison of bioethanol production using winter wheat grains and/or straw as feedstock and conversion technologies based on starch (1st generation) and/or lignocellulose (2nd generation). An integrated biomass...... utilization system (IBUS) was used for combining the two kinds of feedstock. The crop was cultivated under four combinations of Danish soil conditions (sand or sandy loam) and crop managements (organic or conventional). For each of the production processes, two scenarios, with or without recycling of residues...

  12. Stabilization of cereal markets by flexible use of cereals for bio-ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helming, J.F.M.; Pronk, A.; Woltjer, G.

    2010-05-01

    This report addresses the question if it is possible to stabilize the grain market and the grain price by means of variation in the deployment of grain for producing bio-ethanol in the Eu-27. The time horizon of this study is 2020, taking into account the blending obligation for biofuels of minimal 10% in the Eu-27. A basic scenarios and several alternative scenarios are developed by means of an economic calculation model. In the alternative scenarios more or less grain is used for own production of bio-ethanol in the Eu-27. The variation depends on the volume of the grain production compared to the basic scenario. The effect of the additional own production of bio-ethanol on the grain price is subsequently addressed. [nl

  13. Life-cycle assessment of straw use in bio-ethanol production: A case study based on biophysical modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabrielle, Benoit; Gagnaire, Nathalie

    2008-01-01

    Cereal straw, a by-product in the production of agricultural crops, is considered as a potentially large source of energy supply with an estimated value of 47 x 10 18 J worldwide. However, there is some debate regarding the actual amounts of straw which could be removed from arable soils without jeopardizing their quality, as well as the potential trade-offs in the overall straw-to-energy chain compared to the use of fossil energy sources. Here, we used a deterministic model of C and N dynamics in soil-crop systems to simulate the effect of straw removal under various sets of soil, climate and crop management conditions in northeastern France. Model results in terms of nitrate leaching, soil C variations, nitrous oxide and ammonia emissions were subsequently inputted into the life-cycle assessment (LCA) of a particular bio-energy chain in which straw was used to generate heat and power in a plant producing bio-ethanol from wheat grains. Straw removal had little influence on simulated environmental emissions in the field, and straw incorporation in soil resulted in a sequestration of only 5-10% of its C in the long term (30 years). The LCA concluded to significant benefits of straw use for energy in terms of global warming and use of non-renewable energy. Only the eutrophication and atmospheric acidification impact categories were slightly unfavourable to straw use in some cases, with a difference of 8% at most relative to straw incorporation. These results based on a novel methodology thereby confirm the environmental benefits of substituting fossil energy with straw. (author)

  14. Bioenergy Research Programme. Yearbook 1994. Utilization of bioenergy and biomass conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alakangas, E.

    1995-01-01

    BIOENERGIA Research Programme is one of energy technology programmes of the Finnish Ministry of Trade and Industry (in 1995 TEKES, Technology Development Center). The aim of Bioenergy Research Programme is to increase the use of economically profitable and environmentally sound bioenergy by improving the competitiveness of present peat and wood fuels. Research and development projects will also develop new economically competitive biofuels and new equipment and methods for production, handling and using of biofuels. The funding for 1994 was nearly 50 million FIM and project numbered 60. The research area of biomass conversion consisted of 8 projects in 1994, and the research area of bioenergy utilization of 13 projects. The results of these projects carried out in 1994 are presented in this publication. The aim of the biomass conversion research is to produce more bio-oils and electric power as well at wood processing industry as at power plants. The conversion research was pointed at refining of the waste liquors of pulping industry and the extracts of them into fuel oil and liquid engine fuels, on production of wood oil via flash pyrolysis, and on combustion tests. Other conversion studies dealt with production of fuel-grade ethanol. For utilization of agrobiomass in various forms of energy, a system study is introduced where special attention is how to use rapeseed oil unprocessed in heating boilers and diesel engines. Possibilities to produce agrofibre in investigated at a laboratory study

  15. Using corngrass1 to engineer poplar as a bioenergy crop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meilan, Richard; Rubinelli, Peter Marius; Chuck, George

    2016-05-10

    Embodiments of the present invention relate generally to new bioenergy crops and methods of creating new bioenergy crops. For example, genes encoding microRNAs (miRNAs) are used to create transgenic crops. In some embodiments, over-expression of miRNA is used to produce transgenic perennials, such as trees, with altered lignin content or composition. In some embodiments, the transgenic perennials are Populus spp. In some embodiments, the miRNA is a member of the miR156 family. In some embodiments, the gene is Zea mays Cg1.

  16. Immobilised Sarawak Malaysia yeast cells for production of bioethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zain, Masniroszaime Mohd; Kofli, Noorhisham Tan; Rozaimah, Siti; Abdullah, Sheikh

    2011-05-01

    Bioethanol production using yeast has become a popular topic due to worrying depleting worldwide fuel reserve. The aim of the study was to investigate the capability of Malaysia yeast strains isolated from starter culture used in traditional fermented food and alcoholic beverages in producing Bioethanol using alginate beads entrapment method. The starter yeast consists of groups of microbes, thus the yeasts were grown in Sabouraud agar to obtain single colony called ST1 (tuak) and ST3 (tapai). The growth in Yeast Potatoes Dextrose (YPD) resulted in specific growth of ST1 at micro = 0.396 h-1 and ST3 at micro = 0.38 h-1, with maximum ethanol production of 7.36 g L-1 observed using ST1 strain. The two strains were then immobilized using calcium alginate entrapment method producing average alginate beads size of 0.51 cm and were grown in different substrates; YPD medium and Local Brown Sugar (LBS) for 8 h in flask. The maximum ethanol concentration measured after 7 h were at 6.63 and 6.59 g L-1 in YPD media and 1.54 and 1.39 g L-1in LBS media for ST1 and ST3, respectively. The use of LBS as carbon source showed higher yield of product (Yp/s), 0.59 g g-1 compared to YPD, 0.25 g g-1 in ST1 and (Yp/s), 0.54 g g-1 compared to YPD, 0.24 g g-1 in ST3 . This study indicated the possibility of using local strains (STI and ST3) to produce bioethanol via immobilization technique with local materials as substrate.

  17. Bioethanol production from cassava peels using different microbial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bioethanol production from cassava peels using different microbial inoculants. ... Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... Abstract. The potential of bioethanol production using different microbial inoculants for the simultaneous ...

  18. Bioethanol production from dried sweet sorghum stalk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almodares, A.; Etemadifar, Z.; Ghoreishi, F.; Yosefi, F. [Biology Dept. Univ. of Isfahan, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], e-mail: aalmodares@yahoo.com

    2012-11-01

    Bioethanol as a renewable transportation fuel has a great potential for energy and clean environment. Among crops sweet sorghum is one of the best feedstock for ethanol production under hot and dry climatic conditions. Because it has higher tolerance to salt and drought comparing to sugarcane and corn that are currently used for bio-fuel production in the world. Generally mills are used to extract the juice from sweet sorghum stalks. Three roller mills extract around nearly 50 percent of the juice and more mills is needed to extract higher percentage of the juice. More over under cold weather the stalks become dry and juice is not extracted from the stalk, therefore reduce harvesting period. In this study stalks were harvested, leaves were stripped from the stalks and the stalks were chopped to nearly 4 mm length and sun dried. The dry stalks were grounded to 60 mesh powder by a mill. Fermentation medium consists of 15-35% (w/w) sweet sorghum powder, micronutrients and active yeast inoculum from 0.5-1% (w/w) by submerge fermentation method. The fermentation time and temperature were 48-72 hours and 30 deg, respectively. The results showed the highest amount of ethanol (14.5 % w/w sorghum) was produced with 10% sweet sorghum powder and 1% of yeast inoculum, three day fermentation at 30 deg.

  19. Net-Energy Analysis of Integrated Food and Bioenergy Systems Exemplified by a Model of a Self-Sufficient System of Dairy Farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markussen, Mads Ville; Pugesgaard, Siri; Oleskowicz-Popiel, Piotr; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye; Østergård, Hanne

    2015-01-01

    Agriculture is expected to contribute in substituting of fossil fuels in the future. This constitutes a paradox as agriculture depends heavily on fossil energy for providing fuel, fodder, nutrients, and machinery. The aim of this paper is to investigate whether organic agriculture is capable of providing both food and surplus energy to the society as evaluated from a model study. We evaluated bioenergy technologies in a Danish dairy-farming context in four different scenarios: (1) vegetable oil based on oilseed rape, (2) biogas based on cattle manure and grass-clover lays, (3) bioethanol from rye grain and whey, and (4) a combination of (1) and (2). When assessing the energetic net-contribution to society from bioenergy systems, two types of problems arise: how to aggregate non-equivalent types of energy services and how to account for non-equivalent types of inputs and coproducts from the farming? To avoid the first type, the net output of liquid fuels, electricity, useful heat, and food were calculated separately. Furthermore, to avoid the second type, all scenarios were designed to provide self-sufficiency with fodder and fertilizer and to utilize coproducts within the system. This approach resulted in a transparent assessment of the net-contribution to society, which is easy to interpret. We conclude that if 20% of land is used for energy crops, farm-gate energy self-sufficiency can be achieved at the cost of 17% reduction in amount of food produced. These results demonstrate the strong limitations for (organic) agriculture in providing both food and surplus energy.

  20. Net-Energy Analysis of Integrated Food and Bioenergy Systems Exemplified by a Model of a Self-Sufficient System of Dairy Farms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markussen, Mads Ville [Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Kgs Lyngby (Denmark); Pugesgaard, Siri [Department of Agroecology, Aarhus University, Tjele (Denmark); Oleskowicz-Popiel, Piotr; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye; Østergård, Hanne, E-mail: haqs@kt.dtu.dk [Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Kgs Lyngby (Denmark)

    2015-11-25

    Agriculture is expected to contribute in substituting of fossil fuels in the future. This constitutes a paradox as agriculture depends heavily on fossil energy for providing fuel, fodder, nutrients, and machinery. The aim of this paper is to investigate whether organic agriculture is capable of providing both food and surplus energy to the society as evaluated from a model study. We evaluated bioenergy technologies in a Danish dairy-farming context in four different scenarios: (1) vegetable oil based on oilseed rape, (2) biogas based on cattle manure and grass-clover lays, (3) bioethanol from rye grain and whey, and (4) a combination of (1) and (2). When assessing the energetic net-contribution to society from bioenergy systems, two types of problems arise: how to aggregate non-equivalent types of energy services and how to account for non-equivalent types of inputs and coproducts from the farming? To avoid the first type, the net output of liquid fuels, electricity, useful heat, and food were calculated separately. Furthermore, to avoid the second type, all scenarios were designed to provide self-sufficiency with fodder and fertilizer and to utilize coproducts within the system. This approach resulted in a transparent assessment of the net-contribution to society, which is easy to interpret. We conclude that if 20% of land is used for energy crops, farm-gate energy self-sufficiency can be achieved at the cost of 17% reduction in amount of food produced. These results demonstrate the strong limitations for (organic) agriculture in providing both food and surplus energy.

  1. Sugar beet for bioethanol production: An approach based on environmental agricultural outputs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salazar-Ordóñez, Melania; Pérez-Hernández, Pedro P.; Martín-Lozano, José M.

    2013-01-01

    The EU imports both bioethanol and the raw material needed to produce it. Thirty percent of bioethanol is produced from sugar beets in the EU. However, sugar beet cultivated area and yields have fallen due to the 2006 sugar regime reform. Given the potential uncertainty about the future for sugar beet farmers, biofuels may represent an alternative market. This paper analyses potential contribution to the efficiency, in terms of environmental output, of the sugar beet crop both when production is oriented toward bioethanol and regarding the use of input. An empirical application is performed in Spain by Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). The results show that 4% of farms have full technical efficiency, while the rest have an average efficiency of 55.9%. The figures show that inputs can be reduced over 40%, and also show the low average level of input-use efficiency. In addition, it cannot be said that there is a relationship between efficiency and farm scale. The consideration of aspects such as the environmental advantages of using sugar beet production for bioethanol can open new lines of action to support this crop in the EU. In addition, boosting sugar beet production may reduce potential dependency on importation. - Highlights: ► Analysing environmental outputs from agricultural input use and production orientation to bioethanol. ► DEA is applied to model farms’ efficiency in GHG emission and nitrous oxides emissions. ► A very low level of efficiency is found in sugar beet farms. ► Efficiency increase should be supported to reduce fertilizers and pesticides. ► Environmental advantages of addressing sugar beet to bioethanol open new lines to support crops

  2. Navigating Bioenergy. Contributing to informed decision making on bioenergy issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vis, M.; Reumerman, P.; Frederiks, B. [BTG Biomass Technology Group, Enschede (Netherlands)

    2009-11-15

    In order to further contribute to sustainable global bioenergy development, UNIDO will this year be launching the Bioenergy Capacity Building Programme (BIOCAB), offering a comprehensive training package to policy makers and entrepreneurs aimed at enhancing their engagement in shaping a sustainable bioenergy industry in developing countries. The training package, disseminated through a network of key institutions and certified trainers, will consist of four modules covering the following subjects: Technologies and Processes, Policy, Socio-Economic and Environmental Issues, Financial and Project Development Issues, Industrial Applications for Productive Use. While designing the training package and its modules at a meeting hosted by UNIDO at headquarters in August 2008, experts reiterated a demand, previously expressed by UNIDO clients at various international fora, for an easy-to-read, practical and user-friendly introduction to certain contentious bioenergy issues. The expert meeting selected the most hotly-debated bioenergy issues and came up with the following eight topics: (1) Jatropha, the feedstock of the future?; (2) Biomethane, is it an underestimated energy source?; (3) Energy from Municipal Solid Waste, can this potential be realized?; (4) The Biorefinery Concept, how relevant is it for developing countries?; (5) Competition with Food, what are the facts in the food versus fuel discussion?; (6) Sustainability and Certification of Biomass, what are the benefits?; (7) Clean Development Mechanism, how does it work?; (8) Success Stories.

  3. Feasibility of Hydrothermal Pretreatment on Maize Silage for Bioethanol Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Jian; Thomsen, Mette Hedegaard; Thomsen, Anne Belinda

    2010-01-01

    The potential of maize silage as a feedstock to produce bioethanol was evaluated in the present study. The hydrothermal pretreatment with five different pretreatment severity factors (PSF) was employed to pretreat the maize silage and compared in terms of sugar recovery, toxic test, and ethanol...... the liquors from the five conditions were not toxic to the Baker’s yeast. Pretreatment under 195°C for 7 min had the similar PSF with that of 185°C for 15 min, and both gave the higher ethanol concentration of 19.92 and 19.98 g/L, respectively. The ethanol concentration from untreated maize silage was only 7...

  4. Sustainability and meanings of farm-based bioenergy production in rural Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huttunen, S.

    2013-06-01

    Rural bioenergy production has accrued interest in recent years. EU pressure for climate change abatement and energy political concerns regarding the availability of fossil fuels, have increased bioenergy production objectives in Finland. In addition, rural regions in Finland have encountered structural changes following EU inclusion, including an emergent interest in auxiliary production lines of which bioenergy production is an example. Local bioenergy production has the potential to increase rural sustainability and provide a model for sustainable rural development and energy production. Focusing on the recent emergence of small-scale farm-related bioenergy production: heat provision from wood fuels and biogas and biodiesel production, this study aims to discover if and how farm-based bioenergy production contributes to sustainable rural development. The study derives from the field of rural studies and evaluates sustainable rural development via the concepts of multifunctionality, embeddedness, ecological modernization and sustainable livelihoods, with a particular focus on social sustainability. The empirical portion of the study is comprised of thematic qualitative interviews of bioenergy producing farmers, and on newspaper and periodical article material. The results demonstrate how rural small-scale bioenergy production can have important positive developmental effects that ameliorate and sustain livelihoods in remote areas. This occurs via the multifunctional benefits of bioenergy production to the producers and local communities. The positive effects include social, economical and environmental aspects and rural bioenergy production can present traits of sustainable rural development, predominantly manifested in the social aspects of increased capabilities and reinforced social networks. There are, however, important differences between the examined production models. As an example of achieving sustainable rural development and livelihoods, heat

  5. Bioethanol production by inherent enzymes from rye and wheat with addition of organic farming cheese whey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kádár, Zsófia; Christensen, Anne Deen; Thomsen, Mette Hedegaard

    2011-01-01

    . Throughout our studies, wheat and rye grain was used as raw material in bioethanol production with the purpose of producing in situ enzymes (during germination) for the hydrolysis of starch in the grains and compared with commercial amylase enzyme preparations. Whey permeate was incorporated into the grain...

  6. Production of bioethanol from papaya and pineapple wastes using marine associated microorganisms

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jayaprakashvel, M.; Akila, S.; Venkatramani, M.; Vinothini, S.; Bhagat, J.; Hussain, A. J.

    and methane are advantageous. In this study, an attempt was made to produce bio-ethanol by marine fungi in fermentation process with the use of fruit wastes (papaya and pine apple) as substrates. A total of 19 marine fungi were isolated from various marine...

  7. Production of bio-ethanol from corncobs using Aspergillus niger and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maize is the most abundant cereal grown in Ghana and is accompanied by enormous amount of agrowastes of which corncobs form 30%. This agrowaste which is currently under utilized was used to produce bio-ethanol. Aspergillus niger isolated from soil sampled from Ejura farms was used to hydrolyze the corncobs into ...

  8. Synergistic effect of pretreatment and fermentation process on carbohydrate-rich Scenedesmus dimorphus for bioethanol production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chng, Lee Muei; Lee, Keat Teong; Chan, Derek Juinn Chieh

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Biomass of Scenedesmus dimorphus is degradable to produce fermentable sugar. • Sugar yield improves with acidic, enzymatic and organosolv pretreatment. • Pretreatment strategies are positively correlated with fermentation process. • SSF with organosolv-treated biomass is promising for bioethanol production. - Abstract: Significant development in conversion technologies to produce bioethanol from microalgae biomass is causing paradigm-shift in energy management. In this study, carbohydrate-rich microalgae, Scenedesmus dimorphus (49% w/w of carbohydrate) is selected with the aim to obtain qualitative correlation between pretreatment and fermentation process. In view of this, separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF) and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) were conducted experimentally. The fermentation behavior were investigated for microalgae biomass treated via organosolv, enzymatic and acidic pretreatment. Fermentation process was carried out by ethanologen microbe, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. From the result, it is observed that a combination of two treatment is found to be the most effective in producing fermentable sugar for the subsequent fermentation process. The organosolv treatment which is followed with the SSF process produced a theoretical yield of bioethanol that exceeded 90%. On the other hand, hydrothermal acid-hydrolyzed fermentation produced the bioethanol yield with 80% of its theoretical yield. Enzymatic-hydrolyzed SHF produced 84% of theoretical yield at longer reaction time compared with others. The results were obtained with constant fermentation parameters conducted at pH 5, temperature of 34 °C, and microalgae biomass loading at 18 g/L. Ultimately, the coupling of organosolv-treated biomass with SSF process is found to be the most cost-effective for S. dimorphus biomass as bioethanol feedstock.

  9. SACCHARIFICATION OF CORNCOB USING CELLULOLYTIC BACTERIA FOR BIOETHANOL PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TITI CANDRA SUNARTI

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The use of cellulose degrading enzyme (cellulases for hydrolysis of lignocellulosic material is a part of bioethanol production process. In this experiment, delignified corncob, its cellulose fraction and alpha cellulose were used as substrates to produce fermentable sugar by using three local isolates of celluloytic bacteria (C5-1, C4-4, C11-1 and Cmix ; mixed cultures of three isolates, and Saccharomyces cereviseae to produce ethanol. The results showed that all isolates of cellulolytic bacteria can grow on cellulose fraction better than on delignified corncob, and alpha cellulose. The highest hydrolytic activity produced from cellulose fraction was by isolate C4-4, which liberated 3.50 g/l of total sugar. Ethanol can be produced by mixed culture of bacteria and yeast, but because of competitive growth, the fermentation only produced 0.39-0.47 g/l of ethanol.

  10. Combining Bioenergy with CCS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    Bioenergy with Carbon Capture and Storage (BECCS) is a carbon reduction technology that offers permanent net removal of carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere. This has been termed negative carbon dioxide emissions, and offers a significant advantage over other mitigation alternatives, which only decrease the amount of emissions to the atmosphere. The benefits inherent within this technology are currently receiving increased attention from policy makers. To facilitate the development of appropriate policy incentives, this paper reviews the treatment of negative carbon dioxide emissions under current and planned international carbon accounting frameworks. It finds that, while current frameworks provide limited guidance, proposed and revised guidelines could provide an environmentally sound reporting framework for BECCS. However, the paper also notes that, as they currently stand, new guidelines do not tackle a critical issue that has implications for all biomass energy systems, namely the overall carbon footprint of biomass production and use. It recommends that, to the best extent possible, all carbon impacts of BECCS are fully reflected in carbon reporting and accounting systems under the UNFCCC and Kyoto Protocol.

  11. Optimization of Bioethanol Production from Coffee Mucilage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio De León-Rodríguez

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A response surface methodology with 2k full factorial design was applied to obtain optimum conditions for bioethanol production using coffee mucilage (CM as the substrate and Saccharomyces cerevisiae NRRL Y-2034 as the inoculum. CM is an agro-industrial residue mainly composed of simple sugars; the product yield and productivity process were analyzed with respect to the fermentation, pH, temperature, and the initial sugar concentration. Employing the following predicted optimum operational conditions attained the highest bioethanol production: pH 5.1, temperature 32 °C, and initial sugar concentration 61.8 g/L. The estimated bioethanol production was 15.02 g/L, and the experimental production was 16.29 g/L ± 0.39 g/L, with a bioethanol yield of 0.27 g/L and a productivity process of 0.34 g/Lh. Glycerol was the predominant byproduct of the fermentative metabolism of S. cerevisiae. The response surface methodology was successfully employed to optimize CM fermentation. In the fermentative processes with yeast, optimizing the conditions of the culture medium is needed to fully exploit the potential of the strains and maximize the production of bioethanol.

  12. International bioenergy transport costs and energy balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamelinck, Carlo N.; Suurs, Roald A.A.; Faaij, Andre P.C.

    2005-01-01

    To supply biomass from production areas to energy importing regions, long-distance international transport is necessary, implying additional logistics, costs, energy consumption and material losses compared to local utilisation. A broad variety of bioenergy chains can be envisioned, comprising different biomass feedstock production systems, pre-treatment and conversion operations, and transport of raw and refined solid biomass and liquid bio-derived fuels. A tool was developed to consistently compare the possible bioenergy supply chains and assess the influence of key parameters, such as distance, timing and scale on performance. Chains of European and Latin American bioenergy carriers delivered to Western Europe were analysed using generic data. European biomass residues and crops can be delivered at 90 and 70 euros/tonne dry (4.7 and 3.7 euros/GJ HHV ) when shipped as pellets. South American crops are produced against much lower costs. Despite the long shipping distance, the costs in the receiving harbour can be as low as 40 euros/tonne dry or 2.1 euros/GJ HHV ; the crop's costs account for 25-40% of the delivered costs. The relatively expensive truck transport from production site to gathering point restricts the size of the production area; therefore, a high biomass yield per hectare is vital to enable large-scale systems. In all, 300 MW HHV Latin American biomass in biomass integrated gasification/combined cycle plants may result in cost of electricity as little as 3.5 euros cent/kWh, competitive with fossil electricity. Methanol produced in Latin America and delivered to Europe may cost 8-10 euros/GJ HHV , when the pellets to methanol conversion is done in Europe the delivered methanol costs are higher. The energy requirement to deliver solid biomass from both crops and residues from the different production countries is 1.2-1.3 MJ primary /MJ delivered (coal ∼ 1.1 MJ/MJ). International bioenergy trade is possible against low costs and modest energy loss

  13. Bioenergy research advances and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, Vijai G; Kubicek, Christian P; Saddler, Jack; Xu, Feng

    2014-01-01

    Bioenergy Research: Advances and Applications brings biology and engineering together to address the challenges of future energy needs. The book consolidates the most recent research on current technologies, concepts, and commercial developments in various types of widely used biofuels and integrated biorefineries, across the disciplines of biochemistry, biotechnology, phytology, and microbiology. All the chapters in the book are derived from international scientific experts in their respective research areas. They provide you with clear and concise information on both standard and more recent bioenergy production methods, including hydrolysis and microbial fermentation. Chapters are also designed to facilitate early stage researchers, and enables you to easily grasp the concepts, methodologies and application of bioenergy technologies. Each chapter in the book describes the merits and drawbacks of each technology as well as its usefulness. The book provides information on recent approaches to graduates, post...

  14. Bio-energy Alliance High-Tonnage Bio-energy Crop Production and Conversion into Conventional Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capareda, Sergio [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Biological & Agricultural Engineering; El-Halwagi, Mahmoud [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Hall, Kenneth R. [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Holtzapple, Mark [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Searcy, Royce [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Biological & Agricultural Engineering; Thompson, Wayne H. [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Soil and Crop Sciences; Baltensperger, David [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Soil and Crop Sciences; Myatt, Robert [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Soil and Crop Sciences; Blumenthal, Jurg [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Soil and Crop Sciences

    2012-11-30

    Maintaining a predictable and sustainable supply of feedstock for bioenergy conversion is a major goal to facilitate the efficient transition to cellulosic biofuels. Our work provides insight into the complex interactions among agronomic, edaphic, and climatic factors that affect the sustainability of bioenergy crop yields. Our results provide science-based agronomic response measures that document how to better manage bioenergy sorghum production from planting to harvest. We show that harvest aids provide no significant benefit as a means to decrease harvest moisture or improve bioenergy yields. Our efforts to identify optimal seeding rates under varied edaphic and climatological conditions reinforce previous findings that sorghum is a resilient plant that can efficiently adapt to changing population pressures by decreasing or increasing the numbers of additional shoots or tillers – where optimal seeding rates for high biomass photoperiod sensitive sorghum is 60,000 to 70,000 seeds per acre and 100,000 to 120,000 seeds per acre for sweet varieties. Our varietal adaptability trials revealed that high biomass photoperiod sensitive energy sorghum consistently outperforms conventional photoperiod insensitive sweet sorghum and high biomass forage sorghum as the preferred bioenergy sorghum type, with combined theoretical yields of both cellulosic and fermentable water-soluble sugars producing an average yield of 1,035 gallons of EtOH per acre. Our nitrogen trials reveal that sweet sorghums produce ample amounts of water-soluble sugars with minimal increases in nitrogen inputs, and that excess nitrogen can affect minor increases in biomass yields and cellulosic sugars but decrease bioenergy quality by decreasing water-soluble sugar concentrations and increasing ash content, specifically when plant tissue nitrogen concentrations exceed 0.6 %, dry weight basis. Finally, through our growth and re-growth trials, we show that single-cut high biomass sorghum bioenergy yields

  15. Biogas and Bioethanol Production in Organic Farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oleskowicz-Popiel, Piotr

    The thesis consists of two parts. First one is an introduction providing background information on organic farming, ethanol and anaerobic digestion processes, and concept of on‐farm bioenergy production. Second part consists of 8 papers....

  16. Comparism of the Properties and Yield of Bioethanol from Mango and Orange Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. B. Maina

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The excessive consumption of fossil fuel particularly in urban areas due to transportation and industrial activities has greatly contributed to generation of high levels of pollution; therefore, a renewable eco-friendly energy source is required. The production of bioethanol from sugar extracted from waste fruit peels as an energy supply is renewable as the non-fossil carbon source used is readily replenished. Laboratory experiments were conducted to evaluate the chemical composition of fruit wastes of orange and Mango in order to explore their potential application in bio-ethanol production. Experimental production of Bioethanol from waste fruits of mango and orange was carried out after dilute acid pretreatment followed by enzymatic saccharification using saccharomyces cerevisiae for the fermentation process. Three samples of (mango waste fruit, orange waste fruit and mixture of mango and orange waste fruit 100g each was used for the same method of bio-ethanol extraction. A one factor factorial design involving fruit type was used to statistically analyze the fuel properties of the ethanol produced from the fruits waste. Analysis of variance (ANOVA shows that the observed difference were not significant for all the properties except that of the flash point which showed that the flash point of the produced bioethanol differ from that of the standard ethanol, which may be due to percentage of moisture present in the samples used. The highest yield of ethanol from sample A (mango waste was 19.98%, sample B (orange waste produced 19.17% while least yield of ethanol was from sample C (mango and orange waste which produced 17.38%.

  17. Energy Management Strategy for a Bioethanol Isolated Hybrid System: Simulations and Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Gabriel Rullo

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy sources have significant advantages both from the environmental and the economic point of view. Additionally, renewable energy sources can contribute significantly to the development of isolated areas that currently have no connection to the electricity supply network. In order to make efficient use of these energy sources, it is necessary to develop appropriate energy management strategies. This work presents an energy management strategy for an isolated hybrid renewable energy system with hydrogen production from bioethanol reforming. The system is based on wind-solar energy, batteries and a bioethanol reformer, which produces hydrogen to feed a fuel cell system. Bioethanol can contribute to the development of isolated areas with surplus agricultural production, which can be used to produce bioethanol. The energy management strategy takes the form of a state machine and tries to maximize autonomy time while minimizing recharging time. The proposed rule-based strategy has been validated both by simulation and experimentally in a scale laboratory station. Both tests have shown the viability of the proposed strategy complying with the specifications imposed and a good agreement between experimental and simulation results.

  18. IEA bioenergy annual report 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    The report describes the organization and the results of the recently completed and the ongoing tasks. Ongoing tasks 1995 were: Biomass Production, Harvesting and Supply (Task XII); Biomass Utilization (Task XIII); Energy Recovery from Municipal Waste (Task XIV) and Greenhouse Gas Balances of Bioenergy Systems (Task XV). Lists of publications from the different tasks are given. 151 refs

  19. IEA bioenergy annual report 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The report describes the organization and the results of the recently completed and the ongoing tasks. Ongoing tasks 1995 were: Biomass Production, Harvesting and Supply (Task XII); Biomass Utilization (Task XIII); Energy Recovery from Municipal Waste (Task XIV) and Greenhouse Gas Balances of Bioenergy Systems (Task XV). Lists of publications from the different tasks are given. 151 refs

  20. IEA Bioenergy. Annual report 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The report describes the organization and the results of the recently completed and the ongoing tasks. Ongoing tasks 1995 were: Biomass Production, Harvesting and Supply (Task XII); Biomass Utilization (Task XIII); Energy Recovery from Municipal Waste (Task XIV) and Greenhouse Gas Balances of Bioenergy Systems (Task XV). Lists of publications from the different tasks are given

  1. IEA Bioenergy. Annual report 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    The report describes the organization and the results of the recently completed and the ongoing tasks. Ongoing tasks 1995 were: Biomass Production, Harvesting and Supply (Task XII); Biomass Utilization (Task XIII); Energy Recovery from Municipal Waste (Task XIV) and Greenhouse Gas Balances of Bioenergy Systems (Task XV). Lists of publications from the different tasks are given

  2. BIOENERGIA - Focus on wood in bioenergy research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asplund, D. [Jyvaeskylae Science Park, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    The most important area of research on wood fuel production is the development of various methods, machines and systems connected to this area, in order to produce economically competitive fuels. The integrated harvesting methods, which supply both raw material to wood products industry and wood fuel for energy production, have been chosen the main research area because they seem to be most promising. The growing amount of small-sized trees ant the need of their first thinnings have created a demand for new harvesting methods. At the moment the economical aspects restrict the harvesting of the first thinning trees either for industrial use or energy production. Research on peat production focuses on the complete use of a bog and on the development of peat production methods and machines. Development work in this area aims at decreasing production costs and also at reducing the drainage water and other elements in environmental load around the peat production sites. The use of bioenergy research will be focused on the small-scale (<20 MW{sub th},) applications. In the long term, the increase of bioenergy in heating of small houses and farms and buildings, as well as in the production of heat and power has been estimated. Research into the conversion of biomass is concentrated on the production of biomass-based liquid fuels

  3. PRODUCTION OF BIOETHAN niger UCTION OF BIOETHANOL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    userpc

    call by government and other organizations fo conversion of waste to wealth. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Collection of Samples. Rice husk (fito rice) was collected from rice processer at Dawanau, Dawakin tofa loc. , November, 2017 urnal of Pure and Applied Sciences: 10(1): 280 - 284. UCTION OF BIOETHANOL FROM ...

  4. MICROALGAE AS AN ALTERNATIVE TO BIOFUELS PRODUCTION. PART 1: BIOETHANOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maiara Priscilla de Souza

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The demand from the energy sector is one of the culminating factors to do researches that enable innovations in the biotechnology sector and to boost biofuel production. The variability of the existing feedstocks provides benefits to energy production, however, we must choose the ones that present plausible characteristics depending on the type of product that we want to obtained. In this context, it is noted that the microalgae have suitable characteristics to producing different types of fuels, depending on the type of treatment are subjected, the species being analyzed as well as the biochemical composition of the biomass. Bioethanol production from microalgae is a promising and growing energy alternative under a view that biomass of these microorganisms has an enormous biodiversity and contain high levels of carbohydrates, an indispensable factor for the bioconversion of microalgae in ethanol. Due to these factors, there is a constant search for more viable methods for pretreatment of biomass, hydrolysis and fermentation, having as one of the major aspects the approach of effectives methodologies in the ambit of quality and yield of ethanol. Therefore, we have to search to increase the interest in the developing of biofuels reconciling with the importance of using microalgae, analyzing whether these micro-organisms are capable of being used in bioethanol production.

  5. Energy from whey - comparison of the biogas and bioethanol processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fruteau de Laclos, H.; Membrez, Y.

    2004-01-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a project which investigated how energy could be generated from the whey produced in the cheese-making process. The first part of the project aimed to validate a concept for on-site production and use of biogas at a medium-sized cheese factory. The results of the first step, an experimental study carried out using a down-flow fixed-film bio-reactor, are discussed. This allowed the determination of the optimal working parameters as well as providing an estimate of the performance of the process. The second part of the project aimed to compare the bio-ethanol and biogas production processes. It was carried out in collaboration with AlcoSuisse and the Energy Systems Laboratory at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL) in Lausanne. The results of a life-cycle assessment (LCA) are discussed, which compared the two processes from an environmental point of view. Here, two impacts were considered: fossil fuel consumption and greenhouse effect. The replacement of fuel-oil with biogas for heat production and the replacement of conventional petrol with mixture including 5% bio-ethanol were examined. The results are presented that show that there was no significant difference between the two processes. According to the authors, the treatment of one cubic meter of cheese-whey allows savings of more than 20 litres of oil equivalent and 60 kg of CO 2 emissions

  6. Multistage process for the production of bioethanol from almond shell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacem, Imen; Koubaa, Mohamed; Maktouf, Sameh; Chaari, Fatma; Najar, Taha; Chaabouni, Moncef; Ettis, Nadia; Ellouz Chaabouni, Semia

    2016-07-01

    This work describes the feasibility of using almond shell as feedstock for bioethanol production. A pre-treatment step was carried out using 4% NaOH for 60min at 121°C followed by 1% sulfuric acid for 60min at 121°C. Enzymatic saccharification of the pre-treated almond shell was performed using Penicillium occitanis enzymes. The process was optimized using a hybrid design with four parameters including the incubation time, temperature, enzyme loads, and polyethylene glycol (PEG) concentration. The optimum hydrolysis conditions led to a sugar yield of 13.5%. A detoxification step of the enzymatic hydrolysate was carried out at pH 5 using 1U/ml of laccase enzyme produced by Polyporus ciliatus. Fermenting efficiency of the hydrolysates was greatly improved by laccase treatment, increasing the ethanol yield from 30% to 84%. These results demonstrated the efficiency of using almond shell as a promising source for bioethanol production. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Second-generation bioethanol from industrial wood waste of South American species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María E. Vallejos

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available There is a global interest in replacing fossil fuels with renewable sources of energy. The present review evaluates the significance of South-American wood industrial wastes for bioethanol production. Four countries have been chosen for this review, i.e., Argentina, Brazil, Chile, and Uruguay, based on their current or potential forestry industry. It should be noted that although Brazil has a global bioethanol market share of 25%, its production is mainly first-generation bioethanol from sugarcane. The situation in the other countries is even worse, in spite of the fact that they have regulatory frameworks in place already allowing the substitution of a percentage of gasoline by ethanol. Pines and eucalyptus are the usually forested plants in these countries, and their industrial wastes, as chips and sawdust, could serve as promising raw materials to produce second-generation bioethanol in the context of a forest biorefinery. The process to convert woody biomass involves three stages: pretreatment, enzymatic saccharification, and fermentation. The operational conditions of the pretreatment method used are generally defined according to the physical and chemical characteristics of the raw materials and subsequently determine the characteristics of the treated substrates. This article also reviews and discusses the available pretreatment technologies for eucalyptus and pines applicable to South-American industrial wood wastes, their enzymatic hydrolysis yields, and the feasibility of implementing such processes in the mentioned countries in the frame of a biorefinery.

  8. Life cycle environmental impacts of bioethanol production from sugarcane molasses in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahani, Saeid Shahvarooghi; Asoodar, Mohammad Amin

    2017-10-01

    In recent years, bioethanol from sugarcane molasses has been produced on an industrial scale in Iran. The aim of this study was to evaluate molasses-based bioethanol production from an environmental point of view. Data were collected from Debel Khazai agro-industry situated in southern region of Iran by using face-to-face interviews and annual statistics of 2010 to 2016 (6-year life cycle of sugarcane cultivation). Ten impact categories including abiotic depletion (AD), acidification (AC), eutrophication (EP), global warming potential (GWP), ozone layer depletion (OLD), human toxicity (HT), freshwater aquatic ecotoxicity (FE), marine aquatic ecotoxicity (ME), terrestrial ecotoxicity (TE), and photochemical oxidation (PO) were selected based on CML methodology. Inventory data for production of the inputs were taken from Ecoinvent, BUWAL 250, and IDMAT 2001 databases. The results revealed that in sugarcane cultivation process, electricity and trash burning were the most important contributors to all impact categories except OLD and TE. In industrial phase, natural gas had the highest contribution to the most impact categories. Greenhouse gas (GHG) emission for production of 1000 L molasses-based bioethanol was 1322.78 kg CO 2  eq. By comparing total GHG emissions from 1000 L bioethanol to gasoline, the net avoided GHG emissions came out at 503.17 kg CO 2  eq. According to results, it is clear that with increasing irrigation efficiency and improving performance of heating systems in industrial phase, environmental burdens would be significantly reduced.

  9. Potential contribution of bioethanol fuel to the transport sector of Vojvodina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodic, Sinisa N.; Popov, Stevan D.; Dodic, Jelena M.; Rankovic, Jovana A.; Zavargo, Zoltan Z.

    2009-01-01

    The Autonomous Province of Vojvodina is an Autonomous Province in Serbia and it is an energy-deficient country. The indigenous reserves of oil and gas are limited and the country is heavily dependent on the import of oil. The oil import bill is a serious strain on the country's economy and has been deteriorating the balance of payments situation. The country has become increasingly more dependent on fossil fuels and its energy security hangs on the fragile supply of imported oil that is subject to disruptions and price volatility. The transport sector has a 26% share in the total commercial energy consumption in Vojvodina. About 0.62 million tons of gasoline were consumed by this sector in 2008. Gasoline consumption in the transport sector is also a major source of environmental degradation especially in urban areas. Consequently, Vojvodina needs to develop indigenous, environment-friendly energy resources, such as bioethanol, to meet its transport sector's energy needs. Vojvodina produces about 3 million tons of sugar beet every year. There is a vast potential for bioethanol production from molasses of sugar beet in the country. Bioethanol can be used in transport sector after blending with gasoline, in order to minimize gasoline consumption and associated economical and environmental impacts. This paper presents the assessment of the potential contribution of bioethanol in the transport sector of Vojvodina. It is concluded that 20% of annual gasoline consumption in transport sector could be met from ethanol by the year 2026. (author)

  10. Technology Roadmaps: Bioenergy for Heat and Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    The Technology Roadmap Bioenergy for Heat and Power highlights the importance of bioenergy in providing heat in the buildings sector and in industry, and shows what contribution it could make to meeting steadlily growing world electricity demand. The critical role of sustainability as well as the importance of international trade in meeting the projected demand for bioenergy, are highlighted in the roadmap, as well as the need for large-scale biomass plants in providing The roadmap identifies key actions by different stakeholders in the bioenergy sector, and sets out milestones for technology development in order to achieve a doubling of global bioenergy supply by 2050. It addresses the need for further R&D efforts, highlights measures to ensure sustainability of biomass production, and underlines the need for international collaboration to enhance the production and use of sustainable, modern bioenergy in different world regions.

  11. Technology Roadmaps: Bioenergy for Heat and Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-08-01

    The Technology Roadmap Bioenergy for Heat and Power highlights the importance of bioenergy in providing heat in the buildings sector and in industry, and shows what contribution it could make to meeting steadlily growing world electricity demand. The critical role of sustainability as well as the importance of international trade in meeting the projected demand for bioenergy, are highlighted in the roadmap, as well as the need for large-scale biomass plants in providing The roadmap identifies key actions by different stakeholders in the bioenergy sector, and sets out milestones for technology development in order to achieve a doubling of global bioenergy supply by 2050. It addresses the need for further R&D efforts, highlights measures to ensure sustainability of biomass production, and underlines the need for international collaboration to enhance the production and use of sustainable, modern bioenergy in different world regions.

  12. The future of bioenergy; Die Zukunft der Bioenergie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-07-01

    This volume contains the following five contributions: 1. The impact of the governmental biogas production on agricultural rents in Germany. An econometric study (Hendrik Garvert); 2. Biogas as price drivers on the land and rental market? An Empirical Analysis (Uwe Latacz-Lohmann); 3. Analysis of comparative advantage of bioenergy in electricity and heat production. Greenhouse gas abatement and mitigation costs in Brandenburg (Lukas Scholz); 4. Flexibility potential of biogas and biomethane CHP in the investment portfolio (Matthias Edel); 5. Legal possibilities and limitations of a reform of the system for the promotion of bioenergy (Jose Martinez). [German] Dieser Band enthaelt folgende fuenf Themenbeitraege: 1. Die Auswirkungen der staatlichen Biogasfoerderung auf landwirtschaftliche Pachtpreise in Deutschland. Eine oekonometrische Untersuchung (Hendrik Garvert); 2. Biogas als Preistreiber am Bodenmarkt und Pachtmarkt? Eine empirische Analyse (Uwe Latacz-Lohmann); 3. Analyse komparativer Kostenvorteile von Bioenergielinien in der Strom- und Waermeproduktion Treibhausgasvermeidung und Vermeidungskosten in Brandenburg (Lukas Scholz); 4. Flexibilisierungspotenzial von Biogas- und Biomethan-BHKWs im Anlagenbestand (Matthias Edel); 5. Rechtliche Moeglichkeiten und Grenzen einer Reform des Systems zur Foerderung der Bioenergie (Jose Martinez).

  13. Dynamic integrated assessment of bioenergy technologies for energy production utilizing agricultural residues: An input–output approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Junnian; Yang, Wei; Higano, Yoshiro; Wang, Xian’en

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A dynamic input–output model is developed with bioenergy technologies complemented. • Availability of agricultural residues for bioenergy technologies is evaluated. • Trends in electricity and biofuel production are simulated dynamically. • Net profit and GHG mitigation contribution of bioenergy technologies are assessed. • Combustion power generation and briquette fuel are more advantageous. - Abstract: In order to facilitate regional agricultural residue utilization for energy production through bioenergy technologies, a dynamic input–output model is developed to estimate and assess the energy, economic and environmental performances of industrialization of five bioenergy technologies within a 15-year time horizon. Electricity and solid, gaseous and liquid biofuels are energy products of bioenergy technologies. Bioenergy technologies are complemented into regional input–output framework and combined with socioeconomic activities aided by their bottom-up economic and energy parameters. The simulation results for the target area indicate that the agricultural residues available for bioenergy technologies could amount to 55.16 million t, facilitating to 8.38 million t coal-equivalent bioenergy production by 2025. A 3.1% net reduction in accumulative greenhouse gas emission compared with the “business as usual” case could be achieved owing to substitution of fossil energy with electricity and biofuels produced by bioenergy technologies. From energy production, economic benefits and greenhouse gas mitigation three aspects integratedly, direct-combustion power generation and briquette fuel are more advantageous in the target area. The quantified energy, economic and environmental performances of bioenergy technologies are expected to give recommendations for their industrial development.

  14. Bioenergy. The manifold renewable energy. 4. compl. rev. ed.; Bioenergie. Die vielfaeltige erneuerbare Energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-06-15

    Bioenergy is the most important renewable energy source in Germany. With about 70 percent bioenergy contributes to the largest share of energy supply from renewable energy sources. This brochure provides an overview of the various possibilities, advantages and opportunities in the use of biomass and bioenergy.

  15. The characteristics of bioethanol fuel made of vegetable raw materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhaji; Sutjahjo, D. H.

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this research is to identify the most potential vegetable raw as the material to make a bioethanol fuel as the alternative energy for gasoline. This study used experimental method. The high-level bioethanol was obtained through the process of saccharification, fermentation and stratified distillation. ASTM standards were used as the method of testing the chemical element (D 5501, D 1744, D 1688, D 512, D 2622, D 381), and physical test (D 1613, D 240, D 1298-99, D 445, and D 93). The result of the analysis showed that from the seven bioethanols being studied there is one bioethanol from Saccharum of icinarum linn that has physical and chemical properties close to the standard of bioethanol. Meanwhile, the others only meet some of the physical and chemical properties of the standard bioethanol.

  16. Bioenergy Knowledge Discovery Framework Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2017-07-01

    The Bioenergy Knowledge Discovery Framework (KDF) supports the development of a sustainable bioenergy industry by providing access to a variety of data sets, publications, and collaboration and mapping tools that support bioenergy research, analysis, and decision making. In the KDF, users can search for information, contribute data, and use the tools and map interface to synthesize, analyze, and visualize information in a spatially integrated manner.

  17. Use of bioenergy in the Baltic Sea region. Conference proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barz, M; Ahlhaus, M [eds.

    2006-07-01

    The actual situation in our world can shortly be characterized by growing population and increasing energy demand, mainly covered by fossil fuels. This results in environmental as well as climate change problems. Renewable energies offer many opportunities to overcome these problems - they can provide heat and electricity as well as automotive fuels in environmentally friendly systems and thus contribute to lower the fossil fuels dependency. Biomass as the oldest renewable energy of mankind is still playing a dominant role as an energy carrier in some African and Asian regions, where biofuels are still used in traditional ways - mainly for cooking. On the other hand biomass has a huge potential to become a more important energy resource even in industrialized countries. All over the world the opportunities of biomass are accepted and biomass has become a common term in politics resulting in new strategic analyses, political documents, legislative actions and funding programs. A lot of modern and new high-tech solutions for bioenergy systems are already developed and others are under research. Aims of the actual developments are new bioenergy systems on the basis of regional biomass potentials in rural regions. The Baltic Sea Region offers a high potential to produce biofuels for different applications to fit the growing demand of heat, electricity and fuels. In combination with its industry and engineering skills the Baltic Sea Region is predestinated as a nucleus for further development and demonstration of advanced bioenergy solutions. In the result of the conference ''Contribution of Agriculture to Energy Production'', held in Tallinn, Estonia in October 2005 representatives from policy, economy and science identified a high potential and demand for bioenergy solutions and realized the necessity of establishment of an international network (Baltic Bioenergy Net - BaBEt) for information and know-how transfer between the Baltic States to foster the energetic use

  18. Use of bioenergy in the Baltic Sea region. Conference proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barz, M.; Ahlhaus, M. (eds.)

    2006-07-01

    The actual situation in our world can shortly be characterized by growing population and increasing energy demand, mainly covered by fossil fuels. This results in environmental as well as climate change problems. Renewable energies offer many opportunities to overcome these problems - they can provide heat and electricity as well as automotive fuels in environmentally friendly systems and thus contribute to lower the fossil fuels dependency. Biomass as the oldest renewable energy of mankind is still playing a dominant role as an energy carrier in some African and Asian regions, where biofuels are still used in traditional ways - mainly for cooking. On the other hand biomass has a huge potential to become a more important energy resource even in industrialized countries. All over the world the opportunities of biomass are accepted and biomass has become a common term in politics resulting in new strategic analyses, political documents, legislative actions and funding programs. A lot of modern and new high-tech solutions for bioenergy systems are already developed and others are under research. Aims of the actual developments are new bioenergy systems on the basis of regional biomass potentials in rural regions. The Baltic Sea Region offers a high potential to produce biofuels for different applications to fit the growing demand of heat, electricity and fuels. In combination with its industry and engineering skills the Baltic Sea Region is predestinated as a nucleus for further development and demonstration of advanced bioenergy solutions. In the result of the conference ''Contribution of Agriculture to Energy Production'', held in Tallinn, Estonia in October 2005 representatives from policy, economy and science identified a high potential and demand for bioenergy solutions and realized the necessity of establishment of an international network (Baltic Bioenergy Net - BaBEt) for information and know-how transfer between the Baltic States to foster

  19. Environmental impact of converting Conservation Reserve Program land to perennial bioenergy crops in Illinois.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanc-Betes, E.; Hudiburg, T. W.; Khanna, M.; DeLucia, E. H.

    2017-12-01

    Reducing dependence on fossil fuels by the 20% by 2022 mandated by the Energy Independence and Security Act would require 35 billion Ga of ethanol and the loss of 9 to 12 Mha of food producing land to biofuel production, challenging our ability to develop a sustainable bioenergy source while meeting the food demands of a growing population. There are currently 8.5 Mha of land enrolled in the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP), a US government funded program to incentivize the retirement of environmentally sensitive cropland out of conventional crop production. About 63% of CRP land area could potentially be converted to energy crops, contributing to biofuel targets without displacing food. With high yields and low fertilization and irrigation requirements, perennial cellulosic crops (e.g. switchgrass and Miscanthus) not only would reduce land requirements by up to 15% compared to prairies or corn-based biofuel, but also serve other conservation goals such as C sequestration in soils, and water and air quality improvement. Here, we use the DayCent biogeochemical model to assess the potential of CRP land conversion to switchgrass or Miscanthus to provide a sustainable source of biofuel, reduce GHG emissions and increase soil organic carbon (SOC) storage in the area of Illinois, which at present contributes to 10% of the biofuel production in the US. Model simulations indicate that the replacement of traditional corn-soy rotation with CRP reduces GHG emissions by 3.3 Mg CO2-eq ha-1 y-1 and increases SOC storage at a rate of 0.5 Mg C ha-1 y-1. Conversion of CRP land to cellulosic perennials would further reduce GHG emissions by 1.1 Mg CO2-eq ha-1 y-1 for switchgrass and 6.2 Mg CO2-eq ha-1 y-1 for Miscanthus, and increase C sequestration in soils (1.7 Tg C for switchgrass and 7.7 Tg C for Miscanthus in 30 years). Cellulosic energy crops would increase average annual yields by approximately 5.6 Mg ha-1 for switchgrass and 13.6 Mg ha-1 for Miscanthus, potentially

  20. BioEnergy transport systems. Life cycle assessment of selected bioenergy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsberg, Goeran

    1999-07-01

    Biomass for energy conversion is usually considered as a local resource. With appropriate logistic systems, access to biomass can be improved over a large geographical area. In this study, life cycle assessment (LCA) has been used as method to investigate the environmental impacts of selected bioenergy transport chains. As a case study, chains starting in Sweden and ending in Holland have been investigated. Biomass originates from tree sections or forest residues, the latter upgraded to bales or pellets. The study is concentrated on production of electricity, hot cooling water is considered as a loss. Electricity is, as the main case, produced from solid biomass in the importing country. Electricity can also be produced in the country of origin and exported via the trans-national grid as transportation media. As an alternative, a comparison is made with a coal cycle. The results show that contribution of emissions from long-range transportation is of minor importance. The use of fuels and electricity for operating machines and transportation carriers requires a net energy input in bioenergy systems which amounts to typically 7-9% of delivered electrical energy from the system. Emissions of key substances such as NO{sub x}, CO, S, hydrocarbons, and particles are low. Emissions of CO{sub 2} from biocombustion are considered to be zero since there is approximately no net contribution of carbon to the biosphere in an energy system based on biomass. A method to quantify non-renewability is presented. For coal, the non-renewability factor is calculated to be 110%. For most of the cases with bioenergy, the non-renewability factor is calculated to be between 6 and 11%. Reclamation of biomass results in certain losses of nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorus and base cations such as K, Ca and Mg. These are balanced by weathering, vitalisation or ash recirculation procedures. Withdrawal of N from the ecological system is approximately 10 times the load from the technical

  1. IEA Bioenergy. Annual report 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The report describes the organization and the results of recently completed and ongoing tasks. Ongoing tasks in 1997 were: Biomass Production, Harvesting and Supply (Task XII); Biomass Utilization (Task XIII); Energy Recovery from Municipal Solid Waste (Task XIV); Greenhouse Gas Balances of Bioenergy Systems (Task XV); and Technology Assessment Studies for the Conversion of Cellulosic Materials to Ethanol in Sweden (Task XVI). Lists of publications from the different tasks are given

  2. IEA Bioenergy. Annual report 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The report describes the organization and the results of recently completed and ongoing tasks. Ongoing tasks in 1997 were: Biomass Production, Harvesting and Supply (Task XII); Biomass Utilization (Task XIII); Energy Recovery from Municipal Solid Waste (Task XIV); Greenhouse Gas Balances of Bioenergy Systems (Task XV); and Technology Assessment Studies for the Conversion of Cellulosic Materials to Ethanol in Sweden (Task XVI). Lists of publications from the different tasks are given

  3. IEA Bioenergy. Annual report 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    The report describes the organization and the results of recently completed and ongoing tasks. Ongoing tasks in 1997 were: Biomass Production, Harvesting and Supply (Task XII); Biomass Utilization (Task XIII); Energy Recovery from Municipal Solid Waste (Task XIV); Greenhouse Gas Balances of Bioenergy Systems (Task XV); and Technology Assessment Studies for the Conversion of Cellulosic Materials to Ethanol in Sweden (Task XVI). Lists of publications from the different tasks are given

  4. Economics of herbaceous bioenergy crops for electricity generation: Implications for greenhouse gas mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khanna, M.; Onal, H.; Dhungana, B.; Wander, M. [University of Illinois Urbana Champaign, Urbana, IL (United States)

    2011-04-15

    This paper examines the optimal land allocation for two perennial crops, switchgrass and miscanthus that can be co-fired with coal for electricity generation. Detailed spatial data at county level is used to determine the costs of producing and transporting biomass to power plants in Illinois over a 15-year period. A supply curve for bioenergy is generated at various levels of bioenergy subsidies and the implications of production for farm income and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are analyzed. GHG emissions are estimated using lifecycle analysis and include the soil carbon sequestered by perennial grasses and the carbon emissions displaced by these grasses due to both conversion of land from row crops and co-firing the grasses with coal. We find that the conversion of less than 2% of the cropland to bioenergy crops could produce 5.5% of the electricity generated by coal-fired power plants in Illinois and reduce carbon emissions by 11% over the 15-year period. However, the cost of energy from biomass in Illinois is more than twice as high as that of coal. Costly government subsidies for bioenergy or mandates in the form of Renewable Portfolio Standards would be needed to induce the production and use of bioenergy for electricity generation. Alternatively, a modest price for GHG emissions under a cap-and-trade policy could make bioenergy competitive with coal without imposing a fiscal burden on the government.

  5. Synergistic microbial consortium for bioenergy generation from complex natural energy sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Victor Bochuan; Yam, Joey Kuok Hoong; Chua, Song-Lin; Zhang, Qichun; Cao, Bin; Chye, Joachim Loo Say; Yang, Liang

    2014-01-01

    Microbial species have evolved diverse mechanisms for utilization of complex carbon sources. Proper combination of targeted species can affect bioenergy production from natural waste products. Here, we established a stable microbial consortium with Escherichia coli and Shewanella oneidensis in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) to produce bioenergy from an abundant natural energy source, in the form of the sarcocarp harvested from coconuts. This component is mostly discarded as waste. However, through its usage as a feedstock for MFCs to produce useful energy in this study, the sarcocarp can be utilized meaningfully. The monospecies S. oneidensis system was able to generate bioenergy in a short experimental time frame while the monospecies E. coli system generated significantly less bioenergy. A combination of E. coli and S. oneidensis in the ratio of 1:9 (v:v) significantly enhanced the experimental time frame and magnitude of bioenergy generation. The synergistic effect is suggested to arise from E. coli and S. oneidensis utilizing different nutrients as electron donors and effect of flavins secreted by S. oneidensis. Confocal images confirmed the presence of biofilms and point towards their importance in generating bioenergy in MFCs.

  6. Bioenergy Status Document 2011; Statusdocument Bio-energie 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bles, M.; Schepers, B.; Van Grinsven, A.; Bergsma, G.

    2011-03-15

    The Dutch status document on bio-energy has been updated with data for the year 2011. This document provides an overview of the amount of energy derived from biomass, a description of the current bio-energy policy framework and a discussion of the extent to which the Netherlands is on track for securing European renewable energy targets. The status document shows there has been a slight increase in the share of bio-energy in overall energy consumption as well as in the total amount of renewable energy generated (which now stands at a little over 4% of gross final consumption). The question, however, is whether this growth is sufficient to meet the European target of 14% renewables in 2020. The limited growth is due partly to the decrease in the amount of energy generated in the category 'other incineration'. In addition, there was a decline in the physical delivery of transport biofuels because certain types of fuel can be 'double-counted' in the records, although they do not contribute to the 14% target. This document provides an overview of the amount of energy derived from biomass, a description of the current bio-energy policy framework and a discussion of the extent to which the Netherlands is on track for securing European renewable energy targets [Dutch] Het statusdocument bio-energie 2011 geeft de huidige status weer van bioenergie in Nederland, inclusief trends en verwachtingen voor de toekomst. Het doel van dit document is inzicht verstrekken aan overheden en marktpartijen in de ontwikkelingen van bio-energie. De kabinetsdoelstellingen voor hernieuwbare energie zijn conform de doelstellingen uit de richtlijn voor hernieuwbare energie (2009/28/EG), die is vastgesteld door de EC. In 2020 moet 14% van het nationale bruto finaal eindgebruik afkomstig zijn van hernieuwbare bronnen, de Nederlandse overheid schat dat dat overeenkomt met 300 PJ. Naar schatting is in 2011 ongeveer 88 PJ aan hernieuwbare energie geproduceerd, ongeveer evenveel

  7. Canada report on bioenergy 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, D.

    2008-06-01

    Canada is a nation rich in fossil fuel resources. Canada has a large, well-developed forest sector and is one of the world's largest exporters of wood products. Although national bioenergy policies exist, provincial policies regarding forest resources are necessary because 77 per cent of Canada's forests are under provincial jurisdiction. This report presented an update on Canada's bioenergy policy and resources. The report discussed biomass resources such as woody biomass; agricultural residues; and municipal waste. The use of biomass was presented with particular reference to heat and power; biofuels production; pyrolysis oil; wood pellets; and trends in biomass production and consumption. Current biomass users and biomass prices were also examined. Last, the report addressed imports and exports of ethanol, biodiesel, pyrolysis oil, and wood pellets as well as barriers and opportunities to trade. A list of Canadian bioenergy initiatives and programs was also provided. It was concluded that the greatest opportunities for trade are to succeed in research on super-densified pellets; raise ocean shipping capacity to bring down rates; and to establish and entire biomass industry in Newfoundland Labrador. 20 tabs., 8 figs., 1 appendix

  8. Alkaline pretreatment of Mexican pine residues for bioethanol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alkaline pretreatment of Mexican pine residues for bioethanol production. ... Keywords: Lignocellulosic biomass, alkaline pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis, fermentable sugars, fermentation. African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 12(31), pp.

  9. Bioenergy Research Programme. Yearbook 1997. Utilization of bioenergy and biomass conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikku, P.

    1998-01-01

    The aim of the research programme is to increase the use of economically profitable and environmentally sound bioenergy, by improving the competitiveness of present peat and wood fuels. Research and development projects will also develop new economically competitive biofuels, new equipment and methods for production, handling and using of biofuels. The total funding for 1997 was 33.5 million FIM, and the number of projects 62. The number of projects concerning bioenergy use was 17 and biomass conversion 4. Results from the projects that were going on in 1997 are presented in this publication. The aim of the bioenergy use is to develop and demonstrate at least 3-4 new equipment or methods for handling and use of biofuels. The equipment and/or methods should provide economically competitive and environmentally sound energy production. The second aim is to demonstrate at least 2-3 large-scale biofuel end-use technologies. Each of these should have a potential of 0.2-0.3 million toe per year till the year 2000. The aims have been achieved in the field of fuel handling technologies and small scale combustion concepts, but the large scale demonstration projects before the year 2000 seem to be a very challenging goal. The aim of the biomass conversion is to produce basic information on biomass conversion, to evaluate the quality of products, their usability, environmental effects of the use as well as the total economy of the production. The objective of the biomass conversion is to develop 2-3 new methods, which could be demonstrated, for the production and utilization of liquefied, gasified and other converted biofuels. The production target is 0.2-0.3 million toe per year by 2005 at a competitive price level. The studies focused on the development of flash pyrolysis technology for biomass, and on the study of the storage stability of imported wood oils and their suitability for use in oil-fired boilers and diesel power plants

  10. Comparasion of iles-iles and cassava tubers as a Saccharomyces cerevisiae substrate fermentation for bioethanol production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KUSMIYATI

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Kusmiyati (2010 Comparasion of iles-iles and cassava tubers as a Saccharomyces cerevisiae substrate fermentation for bioethanol production. Nusantara Bioscience 2: 7-13. The production of bioethanol increase rapidly because it is renewable energy that can be used to solve energy crisis caused by the depleting of fossil oil. The large scale production bioethanol in industry generally use feedstock such as sugarcane, corn, and cassava that are also required as food resouces. Therefore, many studies on the bioethanol process concerned with the use raw materials that were not competing with food supply. One of the alternative feedstock able to utilize for bioethanol production is the starchy material that available locally namely iles-iles (Amorphophallus mueller Blum. The contain of carbohydrate in the iles-iles tubers is around 71.12 % which is slightly lower as compared to cassava tuber (83,47%. The effect of various starting material, starch concentration, pH, fermentation time were studied. The conversion of starchy material to ethanol have three steps, liquefaction and saccharification were conducted using α-amylase and amyloglucosidase then fermentation by yeast S.cerevisiaie. The highest bioethanol was obtained at following variables starch:water ratio=1:4 ;liquefaction with 0.40 mL α-amylase (4h; saccharification with 0.40 mL amyloglucosidase (40h; fermentation with 10 mL S.cerevisiae (72h producing bioethanol 69,81 g/L from cassava while 53,49 g/L from iles-iles tuber. At the optimum condition, total sugar produced was 33,431 g/L from cassava while 16,175 g/L from iles-iles tuber. The effect of pH revealed that the best ethanol produced was obtained at pH 5.5 during fermentation occurred for both cassava and iles-iles tubers. From the results studied shows that iles-iles tuber is promising feedstock because it is producing bioethanol almost similarly compared to cassava.

  11. Bioenergy as a Mitigation Measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dass, P.; Brovkin, V.; Müller, C.; Cramer, W.

    2011-12-01

    Numerous studies have shown that bioenergy, being one of the renewable energies with the lowest costs, is expected to play an important role in the near future as climate change mitigation measure. Current practices of converting crop products such as carbohydrates or plant oils to ethanol or biodiesel have limited capabilities to curb emission. Moreover, they compete with food production for the most fertile lands. Thus, second generation bioenergy technologies are being developed to process lignocellulosic plant materials from fast growing tree and grass species. A number of deforestation experiments using Earth System models have shown that in the mid- to high latitudes, deforested surface albedo strongly increases in presence of snow. This biophysical effect causes cooling, which could dominate over the biogeochemical warming effect because of the carbon emissions due to deforestation. In order to find out the global bioenergy potential of extensive plantations in the mid- to high latitudes, and the resultant savings in carbon emissions, we use the dynamic global vegetation model LPJmL run at a high spatial resolution of 0.5°. It represents both natural and managed ecosystems, including the cultivation of cellulosic energy crops. LPJmL is run with 21st century projections of climate and atmospheric CO2 concentration based on the IPCC-SRES business as usual or A2 scenario. Latitudes above 45° in both hemispheres are deforested and planted with crops having the highest bioenergy return for the respective pixels of the model. The rest of the Earth has natural vegetation. The agricultural management intensity values are used such that it results in the best approximation for 1999 - 2003 national yields of wheat and maize as reported by FAOSTAT 2009. Four different scenarios of land management are used ranging from an idealistic or best case scenario, where all limitations of soil and terrain properties are managed to the worst case scenario where none of these

  12. Evaluation of thermostable enzymes for bioethanol processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Pernille Anastasia

    of fermentable sugars (glucose) as cellulose is tightly linked to hemicellulose and lignin. Lignocellulose is disrupted during pretreatment, but to degrade cellulose to single sugars, lignocellulolytic enzymes such as cellulases and hemicellulases are needed. Lignocellulolytic enzymes are costly...... for the ioethanol production, but the expenses can be reduced by using thermostable enzymes, which are known for their increased stability and inhibitor olerance. However, the advantage of using thermostable enzymes has not been studied thoroughly and more knowledge is needed for development of bioethanol processes....... Enzymes are added to the bioethanol process after pretreatment. For an efficient sugar and ethanol yield, the solids content of biomass is normally increased, which results in highly viscous slurries that are difficult to mix. Therefore, the first enzymatic challenge is to ensure rapid reduction...

  13. Production of D-tagatose and bioethanol from onion waste by an intergrating bioprocess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ho Myeong; Song, Younho; Wi, Seung Gon; Bae, Hyeun-Jong

    2017-10-20

    The rapid increase of agricultural waste is becoming a burgeoning problem and considerable efforts are being made by numerous researchers to convert it into a high-value resource material. Onion waste is one of the biggest issues in a world of dwindling resource. In this study, the potential of onion juice residue (OJR) for producing valuable rare sugar or bioethanol was evaluated. Purified Paenibacillus polymyxaL-arabinose isomerase (PPAI) has a molecular weight of approximately 53kDa, and exhibits maximal activity at 30°C and pH 7.5 in the presence of 0.8mM Mn 2+ . PPAI can produce 0.99g D-tagatose from 10g OJR. In order to present another application for OJR, we produced 1.56g bioethanol from 10g OJR through a bioconversion and fermentation process. These results indicate that PPAI can be used for producing rare sugars in an industrial setting, and OJR can be converted to D-tagatose and bioethanol. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Potential of fecal waste for the production of biomethane, bioethanol and biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomaa, Mohamed A; Abed, Raeid M M

    2017-07-10

    Fecal waste is an environmental burden that requires proper disposal, which ultimately becomes also an economic burden. Because fecal waste is nutrient-rich and contains a diverse methanogenic community, it has been utilized to produce biomethane via anaerobic digestion. Carbohydrates and lipids in fecal waste could reach up to 50% of the dry weight, which also suggests a potential as a feedstock for bioethanol and biodiesel production. We measured biomethane production from fecal waste of cows, chickens, goats and humans and compared the microbial community composition before and after anaerobic digestion. We also compared the fecal waste for cellulase production, saccharification and fermentation to produce bioethanol and for lipid content and fatty acid profiles to produce biodiesel. All fecal waste produced biomethane, with the highest yield of 433.4±77.1ml CH 4 /g VS from cow fecal waste. Production of bioethanol was achieved from all samples, with chicken fecal waste yielding as high as 1.6±0.25g/l. Sludge samples exhibited the highest extractable portion of lipids (20.9±0.08wt%) and conversion to fatty acid methyl esters (11.94wt%). Utilization of fecal waste for the production of biofuels is environmentally and economically beneficial. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Catalytic valorization of bioethanol to biobutanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riittonen, Toni [Abo Akademi Univ., Turku (Finland). Lab. of Industrial Chemistry and Reaction Engineering; Mikkola, Jyri-Pekka [Umea Univ. (Sweden). Chemical-Biological Center

    2010-07-01

    Bioethanol, or ethyl alcohol, has several physico-chemical disadvantages as engine fuel, such as it's corrosiveness and low energy content. One way to overcome these shortcomings is to upgrade it to higher bioalcohols like 1-butanol. Several catalysts were screened in isobaric minireactors and the most promising ones were subject to further experiments in a high-pressure autoclave batch-reactor setup. (orig.)

  16. Perspectives for the production of bioethanol from lignocellulosic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrova, Petia; Ivanova, Viara

    2010-01-01

    The most common renewable fuel today and suitable alternative to replace fossil fuels is ethanol that can be blended with petrol or used as neat alcohol in engines. Ethanol is currently produced from sugar (Brazil) or grain (starch, USA). However, this raw material base will not be sufficient because the increasing demand for fuel ethanol and the lower than expected reduction of greenhouse gases. An alternative is the production of bioethanol from agroindustrial wastes containing abundant cellulose fibers and carbohydrates such as grape pomace, sugar beet pomace, barley and rice straw, corncobs, sunflower stalks and heads, cotton waste, brewer's spent grain, forest residues etc. Lignocellulosic raw materials and agroindustrial wastes minimize the potential conflict between land use for food (and feed) production and energy feedstock production. This review summarizes recent developments in the bioconversion processes, the new technologies required and the advances achieved in recent years to bring agricultural feedstock and lignocellulosic ethanol towards industrial production.

  17. PRETREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES IN BIOETHANOL PRODUCTION FROM LIGNOCELLULOSIC BIOMASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanja Janušić

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Bioethanol is today most commonly produced from corn grain and sugar cane. It is expected that there will be limits to the supply of these raw materials in the near future. Therefore, lignocellulosic biomass, namely agricultural and forest waste, is seen as an attractive feedstock for future supplies of ethanol. Lignocellulosic biomass consists of lignin, hemicellulose and cellulose. Indeed, complexicity of the lignocellulosic biomass structure causes a pretreatment to be applied prior to cellulose and hemicellulose hydrolysis into fermentable sugars. Pretreatment technologies can be physical (mechanical comminution, pyrolysis, physico-chemical (steam explosion, ammonia fiber explosion, CO2 explosion, chemical (ozonolysis, acid hydrolysis, alkaline hydrolysis, oxidative delignification, organosolvent process and biological ones.

  18. Optimization of hydrogen production with CO_2 capture by autothermal chemical-looping reforming using different bioethanol purities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García-Díez, E.; García-Labiano, F.; De Diego, L.F.; Abad, A.; Gayán, P.; Adánez, J.; Ruíz, J.A.C.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Autothermal-CLR and WGS have been considered for H_2 production with CO_2 capture. • Bioethanol was used as renewable fuel. • Mass and heat balances allow process optimization. • The use of diluted bioethanol implies energy saves in the bioethanol production. • The use of diluted bioethanol (52 vol.%) produces 4.62 mol H_2/mol ethanol. - Abstract: Autothermal Chemical-Looping Reforming (a-CLR) is a process which allows hydrogen production avoiding the environmental penalty of CO_2 emission typically produced in other processes. The major advantage of this technology is that the heat needed for syngas production is generated by the process itself. The heat necessary for the endothermic reactions is supplied by a Ni-based oxygen-carrier (OC) circulating between two reactors: the air reactor (AR), where the OC is oxidized by air, and the fuel reactor (FR), where the fuel is converted to syngas. Other important advantage is that this process also allows the production of pure N_2 in the AR outlet stream. A renewable fuel such as bioethanol was chosen in this work due to their increasing worldwide production and the current excess of this fuel presented by different countries. In this work, mass and heat balances were done to determine the auto-thermal conditions that maximize H_2 production, assuming that the product gas was in thermodynamic equilibrium. Three different types of bioethanol has been considered according to their ethanol purity; Dehydrated ethanol (≈100 vol.%), hydrated ethanol (≈96 vol.%), and diluted ethanol (≈52 vol.%). It has been observed that the higher H_2 production (4.62 mol of H_2 per mol of EtOH) has been obtained with the use of diluted ethanol and the surplus energy needed could be compensated by the energy save achieved during the purification of ethanol in the production process.

  19. Watershed scale impacts of bioenergy, landscape changes, and ecosystem response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaubey, Indrajeet; Cibin, Raj; Chiang, Li-Chi

    2013-04-01

    In recent years, high US gasoline prices and national security concerns have prompted a renewed interest in alternative fuel sources to meet increasing energy demands, particularly by the transportation sector. Food and animal feed crops, such as corn and soybean, sugarcane, residue from these crops, and cellulosic perennial crops grown specifically to produce bioenergy (e.g. switchgrass, Miscanthus, mixed grasses), and fast growing trees (e.g. hybrid poplar) are expected to provide the majority of the biofeedstock for energy production. One of the grand challenges in supplying large quantities of grain-based and lignocellulosic materials for the production of biofuels is ensuring that they are produced in environmentally sustainable and economically viable manner. Feedstock selection will vary geographically based on regional adaptability, productivity, and reliability. Changes in land use and management practices related to biofeedstock production may have potential impacts on water quantity and quality, sediments, and pesticides and nutrient losses, and these impacts may be exacerbated by climate variability and change. We have made many improvements in the currently available biophysical models (e.g. Soil and Water Assessment Tool or SWAT model) to evaluate sustainability of energy crop production. We have utilized the improved model to evaluate impacts of both annual (e.g. corn) and perennial bioenergy crops (e.g. Miscanthus and switchgrass at) on hydrology and water quality under the following plausible bioenergy crop production scenarios: (1) at highly erodible areas; (2) at agriculturally marginal areas; (3) at pasture areas; (4) crop residue (corn stover) removal; and (5) combinations of above scenarios. Overall results indicated improvement in water quality with introduction of perennial energy crops. Stream flow at the watershed outlet was reduced under energy crop production scenarios and ranged between 0.3% and 5% across scenarios. Erosion and sediment

  20. Evaluation of the biomass potential for the production of lignocellulosic bioethanol from various agricultural residues in Austria and Worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahr, Heike; Steindl, Daniel; Wimberger, Julia; Schürz, Daniel; Jäger, Alexander

    2013-04-01

    Due to the fact that the resources of fossil fuels are steadily decreasing, researchers have been trying to find alternatives over the past few years. As bioethanol of the first generation is based on potential food, its production has become an increasingly controversial topic. Therefore the focus of research currently is on the production of bioethanol of the second generation, which is made from cellulosic and lignocellulosic materials. However, for the production of bioethanol of the second generation the fibres have to be pre-treated. In this work the mass balances of various agricultural residues available in Austria were generated and examined in lab scale experiments for their bioethanol potential. The residues were pretreatment by means of state of the art technology (steam explosion), enzymatically hydrolysed and fermented with yeast to produce ethanol. Special attention was paid the mass balance of the overall process. Due to the pretreatment the proportion of cellulose increases with the duration of the pre-treatment, whereby the amount of hemicellulose decreases greatly. However, the total losses were increasing with the duration of the pre-treatment, and the losses largely consist of hemicellulose. The ethanol yield varied depending on the cellulose content of the substrates. So rye straw 200 °C 20 min reaches an ethanol yield of 169 kg/t, by far the largest yield. As result on the basis of the annual straw yield in Austria, approximately 210 000 t of bioethanol (266 million litres) could be produced from the straw of wheat (Triticum vulgare), rye (Secale cereale), oat (Avena sativa) and corn (Zea mays) as well as elephant grass (Miscanthus sinensis) using appropriate pre-treatment. So the greenhouse gas emissions produced by burning fossil fuels could be reduced significantly. About 1.8 million tons of motor gasoline are consumed in Austria every year. The needed quantity for a transition to E10 biofuels could thus be easily provided by bioethanol

  1. Bioenergy production on degraded and marginal land

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wicke, B.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/306645955

    2011-01-01

    Current global energy supply is primarily based on fossil fuels and is widely considered to be unsustainable. Bioenergy is considered an important option in making future global energy more sustainable. However, increasing global trade and consumption of bioenergy in industrialised countries has

  2. Land-Use Change and Bioenergy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2011-07-01

    This publication describes the Biomass Program’s efforts to examine the intersection of land-use change and bioenergy production. It describes legislation requiring land-use change assessments, key data and modeling challenges, and the research needs to better assess and understand the impact of bioenergy policy on land-use decisions.

  3. Uncertainty in Bioenergy Scenarios for California: Lessons Learned in Communicating with Different Stakeholder Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngs, H.

    2013-12-01

    Projecting future bioenergy use involves incorporating several critical inter-related parameters with high uncertainty. Among these are: technology adoption, infrastructure and capacity building, investment, political will, and public acceptance. How, when, where, and to what extent the various bioenergy options are implemented has profound effects on the environmental impacts incurred. California serves as an interesting case study for bioenergy implementation because it has very strong competing forces that can influence these critical factors. The state has aggressive greenhouse gas reduction goals, which will require some biofuels, and has invested accordingly on new technology. At the same time, political will and public acceptance of bioenergy has wavered, seriously stalling bioenergy expansion efforts. We have constructed scenarios for bioenergy implementation in California to 2050, in conjunction with efforts to reach AB32 GHG reduction goals of 80% below 1990 emissions. The state has the potential to produce 3 to 10 TJ of biofuels and electricity; however, this potential will be severely limited in some scenarios. This work examines sources of uncertainty in bioenergy implementation, how uncertainty is or is not incorporated into future bioenergy scenarios, and what this means for assessing environmental impacts. How uncertainty is communicated and perceived also affects future scenarios. Often, there is a disconnect between scenarios for widespread implementation and the actual development of individual projects, resulting in "artificial uncertainty" with very real impacts. Bringing stakeholders to the table is only the first step. Strategies to tailor and stage discussions of uncertainty to stakeholder groups is equally important. Lessons learned in the process of communicating the Calfornia's Energy Future biofuels assessment will be discussed.

  4. Bioenergy in the national forestry programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heikurainen, M.

    1998-01-01

    The objective of the national forestry programme is to develop the treatment, utilization and protection of forests in order to increase the employment level in the forestry sector as well as enhance the utilization of the forests for recreation purposes. Increment of the utilization of wood energy is one of the means for meeting the objective of the programme. In addition to the silvicultural reasons, one of the main reasons for increasing of the utilization of energy wood is the possibilities of energywood-related small and medium-sized entrepreneurship to employ people. The emission reduction requirements of the Kyoto summit offer also a reason for the increment of the utilization of wood energy, because the carbon dioxide emissions of biofuels are not included in the emission share of the country. The techno-economically viable unutilized wood energy potential of clearcuts has been estimated to 3.7 million m 3 and that of the integrated harvesting of first thinnings 2.3 million m 3 . On the basis of these figures the latest objective of the programme has been set to increase the energy wood harvesting and utilization to 5.0 million m 3 /a up to the year 2010. The main means listed in the programme are: Development of integrated harvesting methods, by which it is possible to produce energy wood economically (price less than 45 FIM/MWh) as a byproduct of commercial timber; The environmental support paid to the forest chips purchasers; Bioenergy capacity developed in the forest industry; Social support for product development and entrepreneurhip in the field of bioenergy; Reduction of the value added taxes of the end users of split firewood and wood briquettes

  5. The Macroalgae Biorefinery for Production of Bioethanol and Fish Feed from the Two Brown Algae: Laminaria Digitata and Saccharina Latissima

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Xiaoru; Bjerre, Anne-Belinda; Hansen, Jonas Høeg

    by ensiling (with lactic acid bacteria) or simple drying. Pretreatment was carried out using wet-milling and enzymatic hydrolysis in accordance with 1G bioethanol technology from corn. Different commercial enzyme mixtures for fully or partly hydrolysis of algae sugar polymers into monomers were tested...... and conversion of the differently pretreated macroalgae biomass into ethanol by fermentation were compared. The protein contents and nutrient salts in residues from ethanol fermentation trials were characterized for potential fish feed. A first-step scenario for sustainability and feasibility assessment...... will be presented for this innovative process of biorefining of value-added algae proteins derived directly through fermentation processes of algae sugars to bioenergy carriers....

  6. Hydrolysis of Miscanthus for bioethanol production using dilute acid presoaking combined with wet explosion pre-treatment and enzymatic treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Annette; Teller, Philip Johan; Hilstrøm, Troels

    2008-01-01

    xylose prior to wet explosion. The acid presoaking extracted 63.2% xylose and 5.2% glucose. Direct enzymatic hydrolysis of the presoaked biomass was found to give only low sugar yields of 24-26% glucose. Wet explosion is a pre-treatment method that combines wet-oxidation and steam explosion. The effect...... of wet explosion on non-presoaked and presoaked Miscanthus was investigated using both atmospheric air and hydrogen peroxide as the oxidizing agent. All wet explosion pre-treatments showed to have a disrupting effect on the lignocellulosic biomass, making the sugars accessible for enzymatic hydrolysis......Miscanthus is a high yielding bioenergy crop. In this study we used acid presoaking, wet explosion, and enzymatic hydrolysis to evaluate the combination of the different pre-treatment methods for bioethanol production with Miscanthus. Acid presoaking is primarily carried out in order to remove...

  7. Forest carbon accounting methods and the consequences of forest bioenergy for national greenhouse gas emissions inventories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKechnie, Jon; Colombo, Steve; MacLean, Heather L.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Forest carbon accounting influences the national GHG inventory impacts of bioenergy. • Current accounting rules may overlook forest carbon trade-offs of bioenergy. • Wood pellet trade risks creating an emissions burden for exporting countries. - Abstract: While bioenergy plays a key role in strategies for increasing renewable energy deployment, studies assessing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from forest bioenergy systems have identified a potential trade-off of the system with forest carbon stocks. Of particular importance to national GHG inventories is how trade-offs between forest carbon stocks and bioenergy production are accounted for within the Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Use (AFOLU) sector under current and future international climate change mitigation agreements. Through a case study of electricity produced using wood pellets from harvested forest stands in Ontario, Canada, this study assesses the implications of forest carbon accounting approaches on net emissions attributable to pellets produced for domestic use or export. Particular emphasis is placed on the forest management reference level (FMRL) method, as it will be employed by most Annex I nations in the next Kyoto Protocol Commitment Period. While bioenergy production is found to reduce forest carbon sequestration, under the FMRL approach this trade-off may not be accounted for and thus not incur an accountable AFOLU-related emission, provided that total forest harvest remains at or below that defined under the FMRL baseline. In contrast, accounting for forest carbon trade-offs associated with harvest for bioenergy results in an increase in net GHG emissions (AFOLU and life cycle emissions) lasting 37 or 90 years (if displacing coal or natural gas combined cycle generation, respectively). AFOLU emissions calculated using the Gross-Net approach are dominated by legacy effects of past management and natural disturbance, indicating near-term net forest carbon increase but

  8. Bioethanol from lignocellulosics: Status and perspectives in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabee, W E; Saddler, J N

    2010-07-01

    Canada has invested significantly in the development of a domestic bioethanol industry, and it is expected that bioethanol from lignocellulosics will become more desirable to the industry as it expands. Development of the Canadian industry to date is described in this paper, as are examples of domestic research programs focused on both bioconversion and thermochemical conversion to generate biofuels from lignocellulosic biomass. The availability of lignocellulosic residues from agricultural and forestry operations, and the potential biofuel production associated with these residues, is described. The policy tools used to develop the domestic bioethanol industry are explored. A residue-based process could greatly extend the potential of the bioethanol industry in Canada. It is estimated that bioethanol production from residual lignocellulosic feedstocks could provide up to 50% of Canada's 2006 transportation fuel demand, given ideal conversion and full access to these feedstocks. Utilizing lignocellulosic biomass will extend the geographic range of the bioethanol industry, and increase the stability and security of this sector by reducing the impact of localized disruptions in supply. Use of disturbance crops could add 9% to this figure, but not in a sustainable fashion. If pursued aggressively, energy crops ultimately could contribute bioethanol at a volume double that of Canada's gasoline consumption in 2006. This would move Canada towards greater transportation fuel independence and a larger role in the export of bioethanol to the global market. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Bioethanol Production from Cachaza as Hydrogen Feedstock: Effect of Ammonium Sulfate during Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nestor Sanchez

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Cachaza is a type of non-centrifugal sugarcane press-mud that, if it is not employed efficiently, generates water pollution, soil eutrophication, and the spread of possible pathogens. This biomass can be fermented to produce bioethanol. Our intention is to obtain bioethanol that can be catalytically reformed to produce hydrogen (H2 for further use in fuel cells for electricity production. However, some impurities could negatively affect the catalyst performance during the bioethanol reforming process. Hence, the aim of this study was to assess the fermentation of Cachaza using ammonium sulfate ((NH42SO4 loadings and Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain to produce the highest ethanol concentration with the minimum amount of impurities in anticipation of facilitating further bioethanol purification and reforming for H2 production. The results showed that ethanol production from Cachaza fermentation was about 50 g·L−1 and the (NH42SO4 addition did not affect its production. However, it significantly reduced the production of branched alcohols. When a 160 mg·L−1 (NH42SO4 was added to the fermentation culture, 2-methyl-1-propanol was reduced by 41% and 3-methyl-1-butanol was reduced by 6%, probably due to the repression of the catabolic nitrogen mechanism. Conversely, 1-propanol doubled its concentration likely due to the higher threonine synthesis promoted by the reducing sugar presence. Afterwards, we employed the modified Gompertz model to fit the ethanol, 2M1P, 3M1B, and 1-propanol production, which provided acceptable fits (R2 > 0.881 for the tested compounds during Cachaza fermentation. To the best of our knowledge, there are no reports of the modelling of aliphatic production during fermentation; this model will be employed to calculate yields with further scaling and for life cycle assessment.

  10. Production of liquid biofuels (biodiesel and bioethanol) from brown marine macroalgae Padina tetrastromatica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashokkumar, Veeramuthu; Salim, Mohd Razman; Salam, Zainal; Sivakumar, Pandian; Chong, Cheng Tung; Elumalai, Sanniyasi; Suresh, Veeraperumal; Ani, Farid Nasir

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Integrated concept of biofuels production from brown macroalgae P. tetrastromatica. • The activation energy was determined as Ea = 34.314 kJ mol"−"1. • Brown marine alga produced 7.8% of biodiesel by acid and alkali transesterification. • The fuel properties of Padina biodiesel meet the ASTM specifications. • Spent biomass of Padina yields 16.1% of bioethanol after fermentation process. - Abstract: In this study, an integrated biomass conversion concept of producing liquid biofuels from brown marine macroalga Padina tetrastromatica was investigated. The algal biomass was collected from the Mandapam coastal region and processed under laboratory. Various parameters were studied to extract crude lipids from the biomass. A kinetic study was conducted for extracting the lipids from the biomass, which follows the first order kinetics and the lipid yield was 8.15 wt.%. The activation energy; Ea = 34.314 kJ mol"−"1 and their thermodynamic parameters were determined. Since the crude algal lipids contain high amount of free fatty acids, a sequential transesterification technique was examined and 7.8% of biodiesel (78 mg/g algal biomass) yield was obtained. The biodiesel was analyzed by "1H and "1"3C–NMR spectroscopy and the conversion yield was estimated. Further, the biodiesel fuel properties were investigated and found that all the features fit the required ASTM D6751 specification limits. The residual biomass after lipid extraction was further explored for bioethanol production through the anaerobic fermentation process. The ethanol yield obtained after saccharification and fermentation were estimated and 161 mg/g residue biomass was reported. The theoretical yield of conversion of hydrolysate to bioethanol was estimated and found to be 83.4%. Therefore, this study demonstrates that macroalga P. tetrastromatica biomass has great potential to produce liquid biofuels such as biodiesel and bioethanol.

  11. IEA Bioenergy Annual Report 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The report describes the work in the Executive Committee and includes short reports from the four tasks which have been in operation 1992-94: Task VIII - Efficient and Environmentally-Sound Biomass Production Systems; Task IX - Harvesting and Supply of Woody Biomass for Energy; Task X - Biomass Utilization; Task XI - The Conversion of Municipal Solid Waste Feedstocks to Energy. The three new tasks (XII-XIV) for the period 1995-97 approved during 1994 are presented in the report. At the end of 1994 there were sixteen Contracting Parties to the IEA Bioenergy Agreement - Fifteen countries plus the European Commission. 164 refs

  12. IEA Bioenergy Annual Report 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-01-31

    The report describes the work in the Executive Committee and includes short reports from the four tasks which have been in operation 1992-94: Task VIII - Efficient and Environmentally-Sound Biomass Production Systems; Task IX - Harvesting and Supply of Woody Biomass for Energy; Task X - Biomass Utilization; Task XI - The Conversion of Municipal Solid Waste Feedstocks to Energy. The three new tasks (XII-XIV) for the period 1995-97 approved during 1994 are presented in the report. At the end of 1994 there were sixteen Contracting Parties to the IEA Bioenergy Agreement - Fifteen countries plus the European Commission. 164 refs

  13. Integrating agronomic factors into energy efficiency assessment of agro-bioenergy production : a case study of ethanol and biogas production from maize feedstock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arodudu, Oludunsin Tunrayo; Helming, Katharina; Voinov, Alexey; Wiggering, Hubert

    2017-01-01

    Previous life cycle assessments for agro-bioenergy production rarely considered some agronomic factors with local and regional impacts. While many studies have found the environmental and socio-economic impacts of producing bioenergy on arable land not good enough to be considered sustainable,

  14. Isolation and characterization of marine bacteria from macroalgae Gracilaria salicornia and Gelidium latifolium on agarolitic activity for bioethanol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaroe, M.; Pratiwi, I.; Sunudin, A.

    2017-05-01

    Gracilaria salicornia and Gelidium latifolium have high content of agar and potential to be use as raw material for bioethanol. In bioethanol production, one of the processes level is enzyme hydrolysis. Various microorganisms, one of which is bacteria, can carry out the enzyme hydrolysis. Bacteria that degrade the cell walls of macroalgae and produce an agarase enzyme called agarolytic bacteria. The purpose of this study was to isolate bacteria from macroalgae G. salicornia and G. latifolium, which has the highest agarase enzyme activities, and to obtain agarase enzyme characteristic for bioethanol production. There are two isolates bacteria resulted from G. salicornia that are N1 and N3 and there are two isolates from G. latifolium that are BSUC2 and BSUC4. The result of agarase enzyme qualitative test showed that isolates bacteria from G. latifolium were greater than G. salicornia. The highest agarolitic index of bacteria from G. salicornia produced by isolate N3 was 2.32 mm and isolate N3 was 2.27 mm. Bacteria from G. latifolium produced by isolate BSUC4 was 4.28 mm and isolate BSUC2 was 4.18 mm, respectively. Agarase enzyme activities from isolates N1 and N3 were optimum working at pH 7 and temperature 30 °C, while from isolates BSUC4 was optimum at pH 7 and temperature 50 °C. This is indicated that the four bacteria are appropriate to hydrolyze macro alga for bioethanol production.

  15. Innovation subject to sustainability: the European policy on biofuels and its effects on innovation in the Brazilian bioethanol industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Pacini

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Biofuels are a suitable complement for fossil energy in the transport sector and bioethanol is the main biofuel traded worldwide. Based on the assumption that innovation can be influenced by regulation, the Brazilian bioethanol industry is facing new requirements from external actors while reaching for international markets. Until 2010, national environmental laws were the main sustainability instrument that the biofuel industry faced. With the introduction of sustainability criteria for biofuels in the European Fuels Quality Directive (FQD and Renewable Energy Directive (RED of 2009, bioethanol producers have been pressured to innovate in respect of the requirements of future markets. Here, the aim is to analyse the case of Brazil, given the potential exports of sugarcane-based ethanol from this country to the EU. Brazil provides an interesting overview of how a bioethanol industry innovated while facing sustainability requirements in the past. A comparison between the European requirements and the industry´s status quo is then explored. The EU criteria are likely to have effects on the Brazilian bioethanol industry and incremental improvements in sustainability levels might take place based on the sustainability requirements. In addition, the industry could follow two other paths, namely risk diversification by engaging in multi-output models; and market leakage towards less-regulated markets. At the same time, an environmental overregulation of the biofuel market may make it more difficult for emerging biofuel industries in other countries, especially in Africa, by creating a barrier rather than contributing to its expansion. The results of this analysis show the main challenges to be addressed and the potential positive and negative impacts of the European Union biofuels policy on the Brazilian bioethanol industry.

  16. Pretreatment Technologies of Lignocellulosic Materials in Bioethanol Production Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Rusdi Hidayat

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Bioethanol is one type of biofuel that developed significantly. The utilization of bioethanol is not only limited for fuel, but also could be used as material for various industries such as pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, and food. With wide utilization and relatively simple production technology has made bioethanol as the most favored biofuel currently. The use of lignocellulosic biomass, microalgae, seaweeds, even GMO (Genetically modified organisms as substrates for bioethanol production has been widely tested. Differences in the materials eventually led to change in the production technology used. Pretreatment technology in the bioethanol production using lignocellulosic currently experiencing rapid development. It is a key process and crucial for the whole next steps. Based on the advantages and disadvantages from all methods, steam explotion and liquid hot water methods are the most promising  pretreatment technology available.

  17. Bioenergy: Resource efficiency and contributions to energy- and climate policy objectives; Bioenergi: Resurseffektivitet och bidrag till energi- och klimatpolitiska maal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berndes, Goeran; Karlsson, Sten [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, SE-412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden). Div. of Physical Resource Theory; Boerjesson, Paal; Rosenqvist, Haakan [Lund Univ., Lund (Sweden). Environmental and Energy Systems Studies

    2008-09-15

    Increasing the use of bioenergy in place of fossil fuels is motivated by a number of energy policy goals. Individual bioenergy systems must be evaluated relative to a particular goal or set of goals. Depending on which specific political goal that is in focus, the attractiveness of different bioenergy systems can vary in relation to even broad objectives such as the resource-efficient use of agricultural and forest land. Furthermore, the outcome of a specific evaluation is sensitive to explicit as well as implicit assumptions and choices regarding, e.g., definition of system boundaries, economic conditions, implementation of policies, byproduct markets, and establishment of new technologies. Several biofuels production chains generate byproducts of value. Energy balance calculations are greatly influenced by how such byproducts are taken into account. Often, the most important factor underlying different results from different energy balance studies is a difference in analytic assumptions, for instance in allocation methods and system borders. Different studies can only be accurately compared if they are based on comparable analytic assumptions. Which methods are justified in a given energy balance study is determined by the current conditions for the specific bioenergy system under analysis. In the future, bioenergy systems may increasingly consist of various generation combinations wherein liquid biofuels may for instance be co-generated with power, heat, and solid biofuels, etc. from a mix of raw biomass. The driving factors are the synergies available with the higher total energy efficiency and resources efficiency obtained by combined approaches, compared to when the energy carriers are produced on their own. These solutions imply that if there is a market for the other energy carriers, and the total net system exchange is high, a lower net value for liquid fuels may be acceptable. The climate efficiency of a bioenergy system also depends on its impact on

  18. Bio-ethanol Production from Green Onion by Yeast in Repeated Batch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robati, Reza

    2013-09-01

    Considered to be the cleanest liquid fuel, bio-ethanol can be a reliable alternative to fossil fuels. It is produced by fermentation of sugar components of plant materials. The common onions are considered to be a favorable source of fermentation products as they have high sugar contents as well as contain various nutrients. This study focused on the effective production of ethanol from Green onion (Allium fistulosum L.) by the yeast "Saccharomyces cerevisiae" in repeated batch. The results showed that the total sugar concentration of onion juice was 68.4 g/l. The maximum rate of productivity, ethanol yield and final bio-ethanol percentage was 7 g/l/h (g ethanol per liter of onion juice per hour), 35 g/l (g ethanol per liter of onion juice) and 90 %, respectively.

  19. Bioethanol Production from Waste Potatoes as a Sustainable Waste-to-energy Resource via Enzymatic Hydrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memon, A. A.; Shah, F. A.; Kumar, N.

    2017-07-01

    Ever increasing demand of energy and corresponding looming depletion of fossil fuels have transpired into a burning need of time to vie for alternative energy resources before the traditional energy sources are completely exhausted. Scientists are continuously working on sustainable energy production as an alternate source of energy to meet the present and future requirements. This research deals with conversion of the starch to fermentable carbon source (sugars) by fermentation through liquefaction by using yeast and alpha- amylase. The results show that the significant bioethanol production was achieved while using the parameters like temperature (30 °C) pH (6) and incubation time of 84 hrs. About 90 ml of bioethanol was produced from potato intake of 800 g. Pakistan being an agricultural country is rich in potato crop and this research bodes well to open new vistas to arrest the energy shortage in this part of the world

  20. Recycling of cellulases in a continuous process for production of bioethanol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haven, Mai Østergaard

    studies, this PhD project investigates enzyme recycling at industrial relevant conditions in the Inbicon process, e.g. high dry matter conditions and process configurations that could be implemented in large scale. The results point towards potential processes for industrial recycling of enzymes......The focus of the work presented in this thesis is recycling of commercial enzymes in a continuous process for production of bioethanol from biomass. To get a deeper understanding of the factors affecting the potential for enzyme recycling, the interactions between enzymes and biomass......, the adsorption and desorption as well as stability and recovery of activity was investigated. More knowledge on these factors have enabled a process adapted for enzyme recycling. The driver being that enzyme consumption remains a major cost when producing bioethanol from lignocellulosic biomass. Unlike previous...

  1. Development and perspective of promising energy plants for bioethanol production in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Sin-Yie; Lin, Chien-Yih

    2009-01-01

    The global energy crisis and continual soaring prices of fossil fuels force people to seek the new and recycled alternative energy sources hard. Biodiesel oil as well as bioethanol fuel, as two new and clean fuels for environmental protection, have already been approved as substitutes for fuel or fuel additive. Some common bottlenecks for production of biodiesel crops have been found. However, developing bioethanol crops in Taiwan has many benefits. Four most promising alcohol crops in Taiwan, i.e., sweet potato, maize, sugarcane, and sweet sorghum have been discussed. Sweet sorghum can be strongly recommended as a key alcohol crop in Taiwan, because of its short growing period, low water requirement, large amount of biomass and alcohol produced, and greater income obtained from sweet sorghum cultivation. (author)

  2. Bioconversion of glycerol for bioethanol production using isolated Escherichia coli SS1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheril Norliana Suhaimi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Bioconverting glycerol into various valuable products is one of glycerol's promising applications due to its high availability at low cost and the existence of many glycerol-utilizing microorganisms. Bioethanol and biohydrogen, which are types of renewable fuels, are two examples of bioconverted products. The objectives of this study were to evaluate ethanol production from different media by local microorganism isolates and compare the ethanol fermentation profile of the selected strains to use of glucose or glycerol as sole carbon sources. The ethanol fermentations by six isolates were evaluated after a preliminary screening process. Strain named SS1 produced the highest ethanol yield of 1.0 mol: 1.0 mol glycerol and was identified as Escherichia coli SS1 Also, this isolated strain showed a higher affinity to glycerol than glucose for bioethanol production.

  3. Potential of bioethanol as a chemical building block for biorefineries: Preliminary sustainability assessment of 12 bioethanol-based products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Posada Duque, J.A.; Patel, A.D.; Roes, A.L.; Blok, K.; Faaij, A.P.C.; Patel, M.K.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to present and apply a quick screening method and to identify the most promising bioethanol derivatives using an early-stage sustainability assessment method that compares a bioethanol-based conversion route to its respective petrochemical counterpart. The method combines,

  4. Biochar-based bioenergy and its environmental impact in Northwestern Ontario Canada:A review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Krish Homagain; Chander Shahi; Nancy Luckai; Mahadev Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Biochar is normally produced as a by-product of bioenergy. However, if biochar is produced as a co-product with bioenergy from sustainably managed forests and used for soil amendment, it could pro-vide a carbon neutral or even carbon negative solution for current envi-ronmental degradation problems. In this paper, we present a comprehen-sive review of biochar production as a co-product of bioenergy and its implications. We focus on biochar production with reference to biomass availability and sustainability and on biochar utilization for its soil amendment and greenhouse gas emissions reduction properties. Past studies confirm that northwestern Ontario has a sustainable and sufficient supply of biomass feedstock that can be used to produce bioenergy, with biochar as a co-product that can replace fossil fuel consumption, increase soil productivity and sequester carbon in the long run. For the next step, we recommend that comprehensive life cycle assessment of bio-char-based bioenergy production, from raw material collection to biochar application, with an extensive economic assessment is necessary for making this technology commercially viable in northwestern Ontario.

  5. Integrating bioenergy into a green economy: identifying opportunities and constraints

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Von Maltitz, Graham P

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available .kashan.co.za] BACKGROUND Bioenergy is a renewable energy option that has the potential to contribute to a low-carbon development path and stimulate a green economy. However, since bioenergy uses land and natural resources, it is in competition with the valuable bio... an analytical framework and decision-support tools to assist in assessing, managing and monitoring the sustainability of bioenergy. IMPROVING THE SUSTAINABILITY OF BIOENERGY THROUGH INTEGRATION WITH OTHER BIO-BASED PRODUCTS Since bioenergy production...

  6. Recent trends and future opportunities in UK bioenergy: Maximising biomass penetration in a centralised energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perry, Miles; Rosillo-Calle, Frank

    2008-01-01

    In the past decade or so, the British government policy support for renewable energy (RE) has been at the core of the rapid growth of bioenergy in the UK rather than genuine market forces. Policy support has been through various instruments which are discussed in this paper, with particular attention given to co-firing and transport fuels. The UK energy sector remains dominated by large fossil fuels power plants and this does not facilitate the introduction of RE. One exception is co-firing which in 2005 generated 2.5 TWh. Another area of considerable potential and interest is the use of biofuels (biodiesel and bioethanol) for transport, although current contribution remains still very small (0.18% of total fuel sales in 2005). In 2005, the UK used 1.4 million tonnes of biomass in co-firing, mostly imported, while considerable potential exists for further expansion should policy incentives continue. It is also generally accepted that the UK will have to rely largely on imports if it is to fulfil its 5% minimum biofuel blends agreed for 2010 and 10% in 2015. Both sectors present excellent opportunities for international bioenergy trade, despite the domestic production potential, as demonstrated in this paper. In addition, the forthcoming introduction of carbon and sustainability reporting should incentivise greater reporting along the supply chain, encouraging trade in the most sustainable biofuels. (author)

  7. Potential bioethanol feedstock availability around nine locations in the Republic of Ireland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deverell, R.; McDonnell, K.; Devlin, G. [Department of Biosystems Engineering, Agriculture and Food Science Building, University College Dublin, Belfield (Ireland)

    2009-07-01

    The Republic of Ireland, like many other countries is trying to diversify energy sources to counteract environmental, political and social concerns. Bioethanol from domestically grown agricultural crops is an indigenously produced alternative fuel that can potentially go towards meeting the goal of diversified energy supply. The Republic of Ireland's distribution of existing soils and agricultural land-uses limit arable crop land to around 10% of total agricultural area. Demand for land to produce arable crops is expected to decrease, which could open the opportunity for bioethanol production. Bioethanol production plants are required to be of a sufficient scale in order to compete economically with other fuel sources, it is important therefore to determine if enough land exists around potential ethanol plant locations to meet the potential demands for feedstock. This study determines, through the use of a developed GIS based model, the potential quantities of feedstock that is available in the hinterlands of nine locations in the Republic of Ireland. The results indicate that three locations can meet all its feedstock demands using indigenously grown sugarbeet, while only one location can meet its demands using a combination of indigenous wheat and straw as the two locally sourced feedstocks. (author)

  8. Role of energy policy in renewable energy accomplishment: The case of second-generation bioethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Kok Tat; Lee, Keat Teong; Mohamed, Abdul Rahman

    2008-01-01

    Renewable energy has been in the limelight ever since the price of crude petroleum oil increases to the unprecedented height of US$96 per barrel recently. This is due to the diminishing oil reserves in the world and political instabilities in some oil-exporting countries. The advantages of renewable energy compared to fossil fuels are enormous in terms of environment and availability. Biofuels like bioethanol and biodiesel are currently being produced from agricultural products such as sugarcane and rapeseed oil, respectively. Collectively, these biofuels from food sources are known as first-generation biofuels. Although first-generation biofuels have the potential to replace fossil fuels as the main source of energy supply, its production is surrounded by certain issues like tropical forests' destruction. Instead, second-generation bioethanol, which utilizes non-edible sources such as lignocellulose biomass to produce ethanol, has been shown to be more suitable as the source of renewable energy. However, there are challenges and obstacles such as cost, technology and environmental issues that need to be overcome. Hence, the introduction of energy policy is crucial in promoting and implementing second-generation bioethanol effectively and subsequently become a major source of renewable energy

  9. Potential bioethanol feedstock availability around nine locations in the Republic of Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deverell, R.; McDonnell, K.; Devlin, G.

    2009-01-01

    The Republic of Ireland, like many other countries is trying to diversify energy sources to counteract environmental, political and social concerns. Bioethanol from domestically grown agricultural crops is an indigenously produced alternative fuel that can potentially go towards meeting the goal of diversified energy supply. The Republic of Ireland's distribution of existing soils and agricultural land-uses limit arable crop land to around 10% of total agricultural area. Demand for land to produce arable crops is expected to decrease, which could open the opportunity for bioethanol production. Bioethanol production plants are required to be of a sufficient scale in order to compete economically with other fuel sources, it is important therefore to determine if enough land exists around potential ethanol plant locations to meet the potential demands for feedstock. This study determines, through the use of a developed GIS based model, the potential quantities of feedstock that is available in the hinterlands of nine locations in the Republic of Ireland. The results indicate that three locations can meet all its feedstock demands using indigenously grown sugarbeet, while only one location can meet its demands using a combination of indigenous wheat and straw as the two locally sourced feedstocks. (author)

  10. Potential Bioethanol Feedstock Availability Around Nine Locations in the Republic of Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rory Deverell

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The Republic of Ireland, like many other countries is trying to diversify energy sources to counteract environmental, political and social concerns. Bioethanol from domestically grown agricultural crops is an indigenously produced alternative fuel that can potentially go towards meeting the goal of diversified energy supply. The Republic of Ireland’s distribution of existing soils and agricultural land-uses limit arable crop land to around 10% of total agricultural area. Demand for land to produce arable crops is expected to decrease, which could open the opportunity for bioethanol production. Bioethanol production plants are required to be of a sufficient scale in order to compete economically with other fuel sources, it is important therefore to determine if enough land exists around potential ethanol plant locations to meet the potential demands for feedstock. This study determines, through the use of a developed GIS based model, the potential quantities of feedstock that is available in the hinterlands of nine locations in the Republic of Ireland. The results indicate that three locations can meet all its feedstock demands using indigenously grown sugarbeet, while only one location can meet its demands using a combination of indigenous wheat and straw as the two locally sourced feedstocks.

  11. Pretreated of banana pseudo-stem as raw material for enzymatic hydrolysis and bioethanol production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusmiyati

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of alternative energy is needed to solve the energy problem, including bioethanol. Banana pseudo-stem is a lignocellulose material that can used to produce bioethanol. Banana pseudo-stem has 28.83% cellulose and 19.39% lignin. The amount of lignin will reduce by pretreatment process. Variations of pretreatment methods by autoclaving of banana-pseudo stem in a steam, 0.5N, 1N, 1.5N, 2N NaOH solutions for 90 minutes were employed. Then the preteated samples were further enzymatic hydrolysed for 24, 48, 72 hours. The fermentation method of simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF was applied using cellulase enzyme and yeast of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for 120 hours. The variation of the pretreatment process by increasing of NaOH concentration solutions led to decreased the lignin content while increased in cellulose content. The lowest lignin content was 11.44% and the highest cellulose was 51.66%. The highest sugar content was 29.8 g/L (at pretreatment 2N NaOH solution, 72 hours hydrolysis. The highest bioethanol amount (4.32 g/L was produced from pretreated banana stem using 2N NaOH solution.

  12. Optimization of enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation conditions for improved bioethanol production from potato peel residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Taher, Imen; Fickers, Patrick; Chniti, Sofien; Hassouna, Mnasser

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this work was the optimization of the enzyme hydrolysis of potato peel residues (PPR) for bioethanol production. The process included a pretreatment step followed by an enzyme hydrolysis using crude enzyme system composed of cellulase, amylase and hemicellulase, produced by a mixed culture of Aspergillus niger and Trichoderma reesei. Hydrothermal, alkali and acid pretreatments were considered with regards to the enhancement of enzyme hydrolysis of potato peel residues. The obtained results showed that hydrothermal pretreatment lead to a higher enzyme hydrolysis yield compared to both acid and alkali pretreatments. Enzyme hydrolysis was also optimized for parameters such as temperature, pH, substrate loading and surfactant loading using a response surface methodology. Under optimized conditions, 77 g L -1 of reducing sugars were obtained. Yeast fermentation of the released reducing sugars led to an ethanol titer of 30 g L -1 after supplementation of the culture medium with ammonium sulfate. Moreover, a comparative study between acid and enzyme hydrolysis of potato peel residues was investigated. Results showed that enzyme hydrolysis offers higher yield of bioethanol production than acid hydrolysis. These results highlight the potential of second generation bioethanol production from potato peel residues treated with onsite produced hydrolytic enzymes. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 33:397-406, 2017. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  13. Sustainability of bioenergy chains. The result is in the details

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Dam, J.M.C.

    2009-05-13

    This thesis investigated how the feasibility and sustainability of large-scale bioenergy production, supply and use for local use or trade can be determined ex ante on a regional level, taking into account the complexities and variabilities of the underlying factors like food demand and land use. Recently, governments, NGOs, companies and international organizations (e.g. Dutch government, Solidaridad, Shell or FAO) have taken initiatives to guarantee the sustainable production and use of biomass. Uncertainties on the feasibility, implementation and costs of international biomass certification systems and the compliance with international laws and agreements have to be resolved. A developed software tool shows that it is possible to allow users from various regions to use one methodology and tool to calculate the GHG balances and cost-effectiveness of biomass energy systems. Core methodological issues are accommodated in the tool. One of the case studies demonstrates e.g. that the allocation procedure should be carefully defined as is shown by the variation in results, which is 35 to 50 kg CO2 eq./GJ delivered in GHG emissions. The technical potentials and cost-supply curves of bioenergy are assessed for Central and Eastern European Countries (CEEC) on a regional level. The more favourable scenarios to 2030 show a highest potential of 11.7 EJ. In most CEEC, bulk of the biomass potential can be produced at costs below 2 euro/GJ. The cost performance of energy carriers supplied from the CEEC is assessed for a set of bioenergy chains. Ethanol can be produced at 12 to 21 euro/GJ if the biomass conversion is performed at selected destinations in Western Europe or at 15 to 18 euro/GJ if biomass to ethanol conversion takes place where the biomass is produced. A case in Argentina shows the potential and economic feasibility of large-scale bioenergy production from soybeans and switchgrass, cultivated in La Pampa province. For the various scenarios to 2030, biodiesel from

  14. The Danish bioenergy programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jungersen, G [Danish Technological Inst., Section for Biotechnology (Denmark)

    1998-12-31

    In Denmark biogas is produced from several different types of facilities: Anaerobic industrial waste and waste water treatment plants, anaerobic sludge stabilization plants, landfill gas plants and single farm and centralized biogas plants. Centralized biogas plants account for approximately 40% of the total production of biogas. In the recent 5 years the single farm plant technology has been considerably improved. Standardized concepts has been developed, which have decreased the construction price of single farm plants, and the introduction of dual fuel gas engines has lowered the cost and increased the efficiency of the energy production unit. Dual fuel gas engines use 7-10% diesel oil together with the gas. They are based on diesel engine principles, often they are modified standard diesel engines, which are cheaper and more simple than ignition gas engines. The construction cost for a typical single farm plant with a 150-200 m{sup 3} reactor is 200,000 USD. As the farmer can obtain a 30% funding from the Danish Energy Agency, the net cost for the farmer is 134,000 USD. The annual income if manure and some industrial waste in co-digested is around 30,000-35,000 USD and the annual running costs is in the level of 5,000-6,000 USD. (EG)

  15. The Danish bioenergy programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jungersen, G. [Danish Technological Inst., Section for Biotechnology (Denmark)

    1997-12-31

    In Denmark biogas is produced from several different types of facilities: Anaerobic industrial waste and waste water treatment plants, anaerobic sludge stabilization plants, landfill gas plants and single farm and centralized biogas plants. Centralized biogas plants account for approximately 40% of the total production of biogas. In the recent 5 years the single farm plant technology has been considerably improved. Standardized concepts has been developed, which have decreased the construction price of single farm plants, and the introduction of dual fuel gas engines has lowered the cost and increased the efficiency of the energy production unit. Dual fuel gas engines use 7-10% diesel oil together with the gas. They are based on diesel engine principles, often they are modified standard diesel engines, which are cheaper and more simple than ignition gas engines. The construction cost for a typical single farm plant with a 150-200 m{sup 3} reactor is 200,000 USD. As the farmer can obtain a 30% funding from the Danish Energy Agency, the net cost for the farmer is 134,000 USD. The annual income if manure and some industrial waste in co-digested is around 30,000-35,000 USD and the annual running costs is in the level of 5,000-6,000 USD. (EG)

  16. The Danish bioenergy programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jungersen, G.

    1997-01-01

    In Denmark biogas is produced from several different types of facilities: Anaerobic industrial waste and waste water treatment plants, anaerobic sludge stabilization plants, landfill gas plants and single farm and centralized biogas plants. Centralized biogas plants account for approximately 40% of the total production of biogas. In the recent 5 years the single farm plant technology has been considerably improved. Standardized concepts has been developed, which have decreased the construction price of single farm plants, and the introduction of dual fuel gas engines has lowered the cost and increased the efficiency of the energy production unit. Dual fuel gas engines use 7-10% diesel oil together with the gas. They are based on diesel engine principles, often they are modified standard diesel engines, which are cheaper and more simple than ignition gas engines. The construction cost for a typical single farm plant with a 150-200 m 3 reactor is 200,000 USD. As the farmer can obtain a 30% funding from the Danish Energy Agency, the net cost for the farmer is 134,000 USD. The annual income if manure and some industrial waste in co-digested is around 30,000-35,000 USD and the annual running costs is in the level of 5,000-6,000 USD. (EG)

  17. Life cycle assessment and life cycle costing of bioethanol from sugarcane in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Lin; Van der Voet, Ester; Huppes, Gjalt

    2009-01-01

    Brazil has always been the pioneer in the application of bioethanol as a main fuel for automobiles, hence environmental and economic analyses of the Brazilian ethanol industries are of crucial importance. This study presents a comparative life cycle assessment (LCA) on gasoline and ethanol as fuels, and with two types of blends of gasoline with bioethanol, all used in a midsize car. The focus is on a main application in Brazil, sugarcane based ethanol. The results of two cases are presented: base case - bioethanol production from sugarcane and electricity generation from bagasse; future case - bioethanol production from both sugarcane and bagasse and electricity generation from wastes. In both cases sugar is co-produced. The life cycles of fuels include gasoline production, agricultural production of sugarcane, ethanol production, sugar and electricity co-production, blending ethanol with gasoline to produce E10 (10% of ethanol) and E85 (85%), and finally the use of gasoline, E10, E85 and pure ethanol. Furthermore, a life cycle costing (LCC) was conducted to give an indication on fuel economy in both cases. The results show that in the base case less GHG is emitted; while the overall evaluation of these fuel options depends on the importance attached to different impacts. The future case is certainly more economically attractive, which has been the driving force for development in the ethanol industry in Brazil. Nevertheless, the outcomes depend very much on the assumed price for crude oil. In LCC a steady-state cost model was used and only the production cost was taken into account. In the real market the prices of fuels are very much dependent on the taxes and subsidies. Technological development can help in lowering both the environmental impact and the prices of the ethanol fuels. (author)

  18. BioEnergy Feasibility in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugo, Wim

    2015-04-01

    The BioEnergy Atlas for South Africa is the result of a project funded by the South African Department of Science and Technology, and executed by SAEON/ NRF with the assistance of a number of collaborators in academia, research institutions, and government. Now nearing completion, the Atlas provides an important input to policy and decision support in the country, significantly strengthens the availability of information resources on the topic, and provides a platform whereby current and future contributions on the subject can be managed, preserved, and disseminated. Bioenergy assessments have been characterized in the past by poor availability and quality of data, an over-emphasis on potentials and availability studies instead of feasibility assessment, and lack of comprehensive evaluation in competition with alternatives - both in respect of competing bioenergy resources and other renewable and non-renewable options. The BioEnergy Atlas in its current edition addresses some of these deficiencies, and identifies specific areas of interest where future research and effort can be directed. One can qualify the potentials and feasible options for BioEnergy exploitation in South Africa as follows: (1) Availability is not a fixed quantum. Availability of biomass and resulting energy products are sensitive to both the exclusionary measures one applies (food security, environmental, social and economic impacts) and the price at which final products will be competitive. (2) Availability is low. Even without allowing for feasibility and final product costs, the availability of biomass is low: biomass productivity in South Africa is not high by global standards due to rainfall constraints, and most arable land is used productively for food and agribusiness-related activities. This constrains the feasibility of purposely cultivated bioenergy crops. (3) Waste streams are important. There are significant waste streams from domestic solid waste and sewage, some agricultural

  19. Bioenergy for sustainable development: An African context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangoyana, Robert Blessing

    This paper assesses the sustainability concerns of bioenergy systems against the prevailing and potential long term conditions in Sub-Saharan Africa with a special attention on agricultural and forestry waste, and cultivated bioenergy sources. Existing knowledge and processes about bioenergy systems are brought into a “sustainability framework” to support debate and decisions about the implementation of bioenergy systems in the region. Bioenergy systems have been recommended based on the potential to (i) meet domestic energy demand and reduce fuel importation (ii) diversify rural economies and create employment (iii) reduce poverty, and (iv) provide net energy gains and positive environmental impacts. However, biofuels will compete with food crops for land, labour, capital and entrepreneurial skills. Moreover the environmental benefits of some feedstocks are questionable. These challenges are, however, surmountable. It is concluded that biomass energy production could be an effective way to achieve sustainable development for bioenergy pathways that (i) are less land intensive, (ii) have positive net energy gains and environmental benefits, and (iii) provide local socio-economic benefits. Feasibility evaluations which put these issues into perspective are vital for sustainable application of agricultural and forest based bioenergy systems in Sub-Saharan Africa. Such evaluations should consider the long run potential of biofuels accounting for demographic, economic and technological changes and the related implications.

  20. Monetization of Environmental Externalities (Emissions from Bioenergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle BROSE

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Bioenergy from agriculture is today in the heart of sustainabledevelopment, integrating its key components: environment and climate change,energy economics and energy supply, agriculture, rural and social development.Each bioenergy production route presents externalities that must be assessed inorder to compare one bioenergy route to another (bioenergy route. The lack ofprimary and reliable data on externalities is, nevertheless, an important nontechnologicalbarrier to the implementation of the best (bioenergy routes. In thisarticle, we want to monetize one environmental externality from bioenergy:emissions (GHG: CO2, CH4, N2O, O3; CO, NOx, SO2, metal, and PM. We have tomonetize emissions on the basis of their effects on health, global warming, and soiland water quality. Emissions will be quantified through Life Cycle Analysis (LCAand ECOINVENT database. Impacts on health will be monetized on the basis ofmortality (number of life expectancy years lost multiplied by Value Of Life Year(VOLY and morbidity (number of ill persons multiplied by Cost Of Illness(COI. Impacts on global warming will be monetized by Benefits Transfers fromthe Stern Review and its critics. Finally, impacts on soil and water quality will bemonetized by Averting Behaviour or Defensive Expenses methods. Monetizationresults will be gathered, weighted, and incorporated in states and firms’ decisionmakingtools. They would enhance capacity of policy makers and managers tochose the best (bioenergy routes.

  1. Regional plan throughout sectional bioenergy of Castilla y Leon (PBCYL)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, R.; Ayuste, R.; Diez, S.; Munoz, M. (Ente Regional de la Energia de Castilla y Leon, Leon (Spain))

    2009-07-01

    The Bioenergy Action Plan of Castilla y Leon (BAPCyL) is a tool of the Regional Government to set up measures for supporting the bioenergy sector. The plan has been elaborated by experts in energy, agriculture, woodlands, residues and economy from the Junta de castilla y Leon (the region government). The BAPCyL designers for 2020, according to European Union: Mobilize local biomass (1.600 ktep). Reach an electrical power of 260 MWe. provide heating for 250.000 people. Substitution of 10% of fossil fuels used in transport. It proposes a strategy with 50 measures and 100 specific actions, from the raw material to the final consumer: Resources: Plan of Mobilization Wood to increase the offer of the resource. Regional Energy crops Program. Complete the use of biogas from dumps. Improve the management of farmer, agricultures and agroofood residues. Inventory all organic residues available. Boost the associations of biomass producers. Users: Planning big projects. Biomass boilers for public buildings. RTDI in equipment, technology and process. Cross measures: Advising for SMEes and professional training. Biomass handbooks. Promotional campaigns. Standardization of biofuels. Regional Observatory for the bioenergy. (orig.)

  2. Air-quality and Climatic Consequences of Bioenergy Crop Cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, William Christian

    Bioenergy is expected to play an increasingly significant role in the global energy budget. In addition to the use of liquid energy forms such as ethanol and biodiesel, electricity generation using processed energy crops as a partial or full coal alternative is expected to increase, requiring large-scale conversions of land for the cultivation of bioenergy feedstocks such as cane, grasses, or short rotation coppice. With land-use change identified as a major contributor to changes in the emission of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs), many of which are known contributors to the pollutants ozone (O 3) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5), careful review of crop emission profiles and local atmospheric chemistry will be necessary to mitigate any unintended air-quality consequences. In this work, the atmospheric consequences of bioenergy crop replacement are examined using both the high-resolution regional chemical transport model WRF/Chem (Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry) and the global climate model CESM (Community Earth System Model). Regional sensitivities to several representative crop types are analyzed, and the impacts of each crop on air quality and climate are compared. Overall, the high emitting crops (eucalyptus and giant reed) were found to produce climate and human health costs totaling up to 40% of the value of CO 2 emissions prevented, while the related costs of the lowest-emitting crop (switchgrass) were negligible.

  3. Biomass production on marginal lands - catalogue of bioenergy crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgarten, Wibke; Ivanina, Vadym; Hanzhenko, Oleksandr

    2017-04-01

    Marginal lands are the poorest type of land, with various limitations for traditional agriculture. However, they can be used for biomass production for bioenergy based on perennial plants or trees. The main advantage of biomass as an energy source compared to fossil fuels is the positive influence on the global carbon dioxide balance in the atmosphere. During combustion of biofuels, less carbon dioxide is emitted than is absorbed by plants during photosynthesis. Besides, 20 to 30 times less sulphur oxide and 3 to 4 times less ash is formed as compared with coal. Growing bioenergy crops creates additional workplaces in rural areas. Soil and climatic conditions of most European regions are suitable for growing perennial energy crops that are capable of rapid transforming solar energy into energy-intensive biomass. Selcted plants are not demanding for soil fertility, do not require a significant amount of fertilizers and pesticides and can be cultivated, therefore, also on unproductive lands of Europe. They prevent soil erosion, contribute to the preservation and improvement of agroecosystems and provide low-cost biomass. A catalogue of potential bioenergy plants was developed within the EU H2020 project SEEMLA including woody and perennial crops that are allowed to be grown in the territory of the EU and Ukraine. The catalogue lists high-productive woody and perennial crops that are not demanding to the conditions of growing and can guarantee stable high yields of high-energy-capacity biomass on marginal lands of various categories of marginality. Biomass of perennials plants and trees is composed of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin, which are directly used to produce solid biofuels. Thanks to the well-developed root system of trees and perennial plants, they are better adapted to poor soils and do not require careful maintenance. Therefore, they can be grown on marginal lands. Particular C4 bioenergy crops are well adapted to a lack of moisture and high

  4. Production of olefins from bioethanol. Catalysts, mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusman Dossumov

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This review describes methods of catalytic obtaining from bioethanol of valuable industrial products – olefins, particularly ethylene. Аmong olefins, ethylene is the most popular key raw material of petrochemical synthesis. The scope of appllication of ethylene is almost unlimited in petrochemical products: polyethylene, ethylbenzene, styrene, ethylene dichloride, vinyl chloride etc. It also examines catalysts for the production of olefins and their properties. The most promising and commercially advantageous process of ethylene production by catalytic dehydration of ethanol on catalysts based on modified alumina. And this review discusses the mechanisms of catalytic conversion of ethanol to ethylene.

  5. 2010 World bio-energy conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    After having evoked the bio-energy price awarded to a Brazilian for his works on the use of eucalyptus as energy source, this report proposes a synthesis of the highlights of the conference: discussions about sustainability, bio-energies as an opportunity for developing countries, the success of bio-energies in Sweden, and more particularly some technological advances in the field of biofuels: a bio-LPG by Biofuel-solution AB, catalysis, bio-diesel from different products in a Swedish farm, a second generation ethanol by the Danish company Inbicon, a large scale methanization in Goteborg, a bio-refinery concept in Sweden, bio-gases

  6. Market survey Slovak Republic. Bio-energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The study presents an overview of Slovakian bioenergy market, its current state and future prospects in terms of size and potentials. In the opening, the basic structure of Slovakian energy sources is presented from IEA energy statistics, then a list of programmes and valid legislation relating to RES follow. Figures from several sources show possible potential accomplishable in biomass utilisation in Slovakia. Some most promising areas containing interesting amounts of unutilised biomass are quoted. Chapter 4 contains overview of programmes supporting the use of RES, examples of already realised projects and some planned projects. In Chapter 5 there is a list of main stakeholders in the bioenergy sector, description of legal requirements and procedures necessary for starting a business in Slovakia and some ways how to promote bioenergy business in Slovakia. As the most promising opportunities identified in Slovakia we can consider projects of biomass utilisation in the form of installation of boilers and creation of distribution channels enabling steady supply of biomass for competitive prices. A lot of waste and other residues from woodworking industries or forestry is available for this purpose. Dutch companies should make maximum use of their technological know-how and try to offer equipment for biomass utilisation. Biogas is produced only on a very limited scale. The reason for that lies in relatively high initial costs that cannot be covered from farming companies and low rentability of realised projects. Still, projects solving disposal of agricultural waste on the one hand and energy production on the other are worth paying attention to. Success stories from the Netherlands could serve as a source of inspiration but doing of thoroughgoing analysis preceding investment itself is of necessity in order to cope with hidden risks and uncertainties. In any case, Dutch companies can offer technological equipment to Slovakian buyers without risks connected with

  7. Market survey Slovakia. Bio-energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The study presents an overview of Slovakian bioenergy market, its current state and future prospects in terms of size and potentials. In the opening, the basic structure of Slovakian energy sources is presented from IEA energy statistics, then a list of programmes and valid legislation relating to RES follow. Figures from several sources show possible potential accomplishable in biomass utilisation in Slovakia. Some most promising areas containing interesting amounts of unutilised biomass are quoted. Chapter 4 contains overview of programmes supporting the use of RES, examples of already realised projects and some planned projects. In Chapter 5 there is a list of main stakeholders in the bioenergy sector, description of legal requirements and procedures necessary for starting a business in Slovakia and some ways how to promote bioenergy business in Slovakia. As the most promising opportunities identified in Slovakia we can consider projects of biomass utilisation in the form of installation of boilers and creation of distribution channels enabling steady supply of biomass for competitive prices. A lot of waste and other residues from woodworking industries or forestry is available for this purpose. Dutch companies should make maximum use of their technological know-how and try to offer equipment for biomass utilisation. Biogas is produced only on a very limited scale. The reason for that lies in relatively high initial costs that cannot be covered from farming companies and low rentability of realised projects. Still, projects solving disposal of agricultural waste on the one hand and energy production on the other are worth paying attention to. Success stories from the Netherlands could serve as a source of inspiration but doing of thoroughgoing analysis preceding investment itself is of necessity in order to cope with hidden risks and uncertainties. In any case, Dutch companies can offer technological equipment to Slovakian buyers without risks connected with

  8. Distribution and potential of bioenergy resources from agricultural activities in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valdez-Vazquez, Idania; Acevedo-Benitez, Jorge A. [Lab. of Environmental Biotechnology and Biofuels, Deparment of Marine Biotechnology, CICESE. Km 107 Carretera Tijuana-Ensenada, 22860 Ensenada, Baja California (Mexico); Hernandez-Santiago, Cuitlahuac [Universidad del Mar, Ciudad Universitaria, Puerto Angel, San Pedro Pochutla 70902, Oaxaca (Mexico)

    2010-09-15

    Biomass is the most abundant and versatile form of renewable energy in the world. The bioenergy production from crop residues is compatible with both food and energy production. Currently, several technologies are available for transforming crop residues into utilizable energy such as direct combustion and fermentation. Mexico is the third largest country in LAC in terms of the cropland area and would become a central focus of attention for the production of biofuels. In this paper we examined the type, location and quantities of various crop residues in Mexico to evaluate their potential for conversion into bioenergy through combustion and fermentation. It was estimated that 75.73 million tons of dry matter was generated from 20 crops in Mexico. From this biomass, 60.13 million tons corresponds to primary crop residues mainly from corn straw, sorghum straw, tops/leaves of sugarcane and wheat straw. The generation of secondary crop residues accounted for 15.60 million tons to which sugarcane bagasse, corncobs, maguey bagasse and coffee pulp were the main contributors. The distribution of this biomass showed that several Mexican municipalities had very high by-product potentials where each municipality could have an installed capacity of 78 MW (via direct combustion) or 0.3 million m{sup 3} of bioethanol per year (via anaerobic fermentation). The identification of these municipalities where the biomass potential is high is important since it constitutes the first step towards evaluating the current biomass availability and accurately estimating the bioenergy production capacity from crop residues. (author)

  9. Yeast Isolation for Bioethanol Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EKA RURIANI

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available We have isolated 12 yeast isolates from five different rotten fruits by using a yeast glucose chloramphenicol agar (YGCA medium supplemented with tetracycline. From pre-screening assay, four isolates exhibited higher substrate (glucose-xylose consumption efficiency in the reaction tube fermentation compared to Saccharomyces cerevisiae dan Saccharomyces ellipsoids as the reference strains. Based on the fermentation process in gooseneck flasks, we observed that two isolates (K and SB showed high fermentation efficiency both in sole glucose and mixed glucose-xylose substrate. Moreover, isolates K and SB produced relatively identical level of ethanol concentration compared to the reference strains. Isolates H and MP could only produce high levels of ethanol in glucose fermentation, while only half of that amount of ethanol was detected in glucose-xylose fermentation. Isolate K and SB were identified as Pichia kudriavzeevii (100% based on large sub unit (LSU ribosomal DNA D1/D2 region.

  10. Bioenergy `97: Nordic Bioenergy Conference, market, environment and technology; Bioenergi `97: nordisk bioenergikonferanse, marked, miljoe og teknikk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    (Leading abstract). The conference ``Bioenergy `97: Nordic Bioenergy Conference, market, environment and technology`` took place in Oslo, Norway, 7-8 Oct 1997. The conference papers are grouped under three headings: (1) The nordic energy market. 12 papers. (2) Production and sale of biofuels. 8 papers. (3) Conversion and utilization of biofuels. With subsections New technologies, 4 papers, and Power/heat production from biofuels, 4 papers

  11. Bioenergy `97: Nordic Bioenergy Conference, market, environment and technology; Bioenergi `97: nordisk bioenergikonferanse, marked, miljoe og teknikk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    (Leading abstract). The conference ``Bioenergy `97: Nordic Bioenergy Conference, market, environment and technology`` took place in Oslo, Norway, 7-8 Oct 1997. The conference papers are grouped under three headings: (1) The nordic energy market. 12 papers. (2) Production and sale of biofuels. 8 papers. (3) Conversion and utilization of biofuels. With subsections New technologies, 4 papers, and Power/heat production from biofuels, 4 papers

  12. The bio-ethanol production with the thin stillage recirculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rakin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the bioethanol production with the thin stillage recirculation in mashing was investigated. The mashing was performed with recirculation of: 0, 10, 20 and 30 % of the thin stillage. The thin stillage recirculation was repeated six times. In the experiment without the thin stillage, the recirculation bioethanol yield (compared to the theoretical yield was 97.96 %, which implicates that the experiment conditions were chosen and performed well. With the addition of the thin stillage, the bioethanol yield increased and was above 100 %. Higher bioethanol yield than 100 % can be explained by the fact that the thin stillage contains carbohydrates, amino acids and yeast cells degradation products. The bioethanol yield increased with the increased number of thin stillage recirculation cycles. Dry matter content in fermenting slurry increased with the increased thin stillage quantity and the number of the thin stillage recirculation cycles (8.04 % for the first and 9.40 % for the sixth cycle. Dry matter content in thin stillage increased with the increased thin stillage quantity and the number of thin stillage recirculation cycles. Based on the obtained results it can be concluded that thin stillage recirculation increased the bioethanol yield. The highest bioethanol yields were obtained with recirculation of 10% thin stillage.

  13. Bioenergy development pathways for Europe. Potentials, costs and environmental impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Wit, M.P.

    2011-09-26

    Fossil resources dominate the global energy system today which cannot be sustained indefinitely. Bioenergy use can meet a large share of future energy supply sustainably. For example, it can substitute fossil fuels including petroleum, and when sustainably produced, bioenergy avoids greenhouse gas emissions. However, with the recent increase of modern bioenergy use several drawbacks have become apparent that may lead to negative ecological impacts. Europe plays an important role in the further sustainable development of bioenergy due to its ambitious renewable energy policies and its state-of-the-art agricultural sector. The main objective of this thesis is to evaluate development pathways for bioenergy in Europe by assessing preconditions for its development, an economic outlook for such development and an assessment of its environmental implications. The technical European biomass potential has a substantial potential to contribute to Europe's energy consumption. Energy crop production on European croplands and grasslands supplemented with agricultural and forestry residues offers an ultimate technical potential of 27.7 EJ y-1. These findings were based on the assumption that agricultural land needs for future domestic food production decrease as productivities per hectare increase. Central and Eastern Europe pose the more attractive region with relatively high potentials and low costs. In European agriculture, it is possible to combine large-scale biomass production with food production sustained at current levels, without direct or indirect land-use changes and while accomplishing significant net cumulative greenhouse gas emission reductions when both bioenergy and agricultural production are considered. To accomplish this situation two preconditions need to be met: a gradual intensification of food production and implementation of structural improvements to agricultural management. Based on the current economic performance and future prospects for

  14. Anaerobic digestion of stillage fractions - estimation of the potential for energy recovery in bioethanol plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drosg, B; Fuchs, W; Meixner, K; Waltenberger, R; Kirchmayr, R; Braun, R; Bochmann, G

    2013-01-01

    Stillage processing can require more than one third of the thermal energy demand of a dry-grind bioethanol production plant. Therefore, for every stillage fraction occurring in stillage processing the potential of energy recovery by anaerobic digestion (AD) was estimated. In the case of whole stillage up to 128% of the thermal energy demand in the process can be provided, so even an energetically self-sufficient bioethanol production process is possible. For wet cake the recovery potential of thermal energy is 57%, for thin stillage 41%, for syrup 40% and for the evaporation condensate 2.5%. Specific issues for establishing AD of stillage fractions are evaluated in detail; these are high nitrogen concentrations, digestate treatment and trace element supply. If animal feed is co-produced at the bioethanol plant and digestate fractions are to be reused as process water, a sufficient quality is necessary. Most interesting stillage fractions as substrates for AD are whole stillage, thin stillage and the evaporation condensate. For these fractions process details are presented.

  15. A two-stage bioprocess for hydrogen and methane production from rice straw bioethanol residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hai-Hsuan; Whang, Liang-Ming; Wu, Chao-Wei; Chung, Man-Chien

    2012-06-01

    This study evaluates a two-stage bioprocess for recovering hydrogen and methane while treating organic residues of fermentative bioethanol from rice straw. The obtained results indicate that controlling a proper volumetric loading rate, substrate-to-biomass ratio, or F/M ratio is important to maximizing biohydrogen production from rice straw bioethanol residues. Clostridium tyrobutyricum, the identified major hydrogen-producing bacteria enriched in the hydrogen bioreactor, is likely utilizing lactate and acetate for biohydrogen production. The occurrence of acetogenesis during biohydrogen fermentation may reduce the B/A ratio and lead to a lower hydrogen production. Organic residues remained in the effluent of hydrogen bioreactor can be effectively converted to methane with a rate of 2.8 mmol CH(4)/gVSS/h at VLR of 4.6 kg COD/m(3)/d. Finally, approximately 75% of COD in rice straw bioethanol residues can be removed and among that 1.3% and 66.1% of COD can be recovered in the forms of hydrogen and methane, respectively. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Practicability of Lignocellulosic Waste Composite in Controlling Air Pollution from Leaves Litter through Bioethanol Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarrsini, Mahadevan; Teoh, Yi Peng; Ng, Qi Hwa; Kunasundari, Balakrishnan; Xian Ooi, Zhong; Siew Shuit, Hoong; Hoo, Peng Yong

    2018-03-01

    Environmental degradation through greenhouse emission have spurred nation’s interest on feedstock-based fuel. Yet, development of this clean biofuel is obstructed by the expensive feedstock which takes up most of the production cost. Therefore, as an alternative, utilization of widely available lignocellulosic residues with relatively no commercial significance has been considered. This present work emphasizes on mango (Mangifera indica) leaves one of the most abundant lignocellulosic waste in Malaysia. Through implementation of this biomass for bioethanol production, continuous allowance of air pollution with a deleterious impact to the country’s environment could be reduced. The high concentration of sugar (16-18%w/v) in the form of cellulose and hemicellulose is ultimately the reason behind the selection of these leaves as a substrate for bioethanol production. Hence, in this study, a comparison of biomass composition in Harum Manis, Sunshine and Chokanan mango leaves were conducted to detect the most suitable substrate source to produce biofuel. At the end of the biomass evaluation, Harum Manis mango leaves turned out to be the most competitive bioethanol crop as these leaves reported to be made up of 34.71% cellulose and 44.02% hemicellulose which summed up to give highest fermentable sugar source with a lignin content of 19.45%.

  17. A review of conversion processes for bioethanol production with a focus on syngas fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamatha Devarapalli

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Bioethanol production from corn is a well-established technology. However, emphasis on exploring non-food based feedstocks is intensified due to dispute over utilization of food based feedstocks to generate bioethanol. Chemical and biological conversion technologies for non-food based biomass feedstocks to biofuels have been developed. First generation bioethanol was produced from sugar based feedstocks such as corn and sugar cane. Availability of alternative feedstocks such as lignocellulosic and algal biomass and technology advancement led to the development of complex biological conversion processes, such as separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF, simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF, simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation (SSCF, consolidated bioprocessing (CBP, and syngas fermentation. SHF, SSF, SSCF, and CBP are direct fermentation processes in which biomass feedstocks are pretreated, hydrolyzed and then fermented into ethanol. Conversely, ethanol from syngas fermentation is an indirect fermentation that utilizes gaseous substrates (mixture of CO, CO2 and H2 made from industrial flue gases or gasification of biomass, coal or municipal solid waste. This review article provides an overview of the various biological processes for ethanol production from sugar, lignocellulosic, and algal biomass. This paper also provides a detailed insight on process development, bioreactor design, and advances and future directions in syngas fermentation.

  18. Developing Switchgrass as a Bioenergy Crop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouton, J.; Bransby, D.; Conger, B.; McLaughlin, S.; Ocumpaugh, W.; Parrish, D.; Taliaferro, C.; Vogel, K.; Wullschleger, S.

    1998-11-08

    The utilization of energy crops produced on American farms as a source of renewable fuels is a concept with great relevance to current ecological and economic issues at both national and global scales. Development of a significant national capacity to utilize perennial forage crops, such as switchgrass (Panicum virgatum, L.) as biofuels could benefit our agricultural economy by providing an important new source of income for farmers. In addition energy production from perennial cropping systems, which are compatible with conventional fining practices, would help reduce degradation of agricultural soils, lower national dependence on foreign oil supplies, and reduce emissions of greenhouse gases and toxic pollutants to the atmosphere (McLaughlin 1998). Interestingly, on-farm energy production is a very old concept, extending back to 19th century America when both transpofiation and work on the farm were powered by approximately 27 million draft animals and fueled by 34 million hectares of grasslands (Vogel 1996). Today a new form of energy production is envisioned for some of this same acreage. The method of energy production is exactly the same - solar energy captured in photosynthesis, but the subsequent modes of energy conversion are vastly different, leading to the production of electricity, transportation fuels, and chemicals from the renewable feedstocks. While energy prices in the United States are among the cheapest in the world, the issues of high dependency on imported oil, the uncertainties of maintaining stable supplies of imported oil from finite reserves, and the environmental costs associated with mining, processing, and combusting fossil fuels have been important drivers in the search for cleaner burning fuels that can be produced and renewed from the landscape. At present biomass and bioenergy combine provide only about 4% of the total primary energy used in the U.S. (Overend 1997). By contrast, imported oil accounts for approximately 44% of the

  19. EVALUATION OF BIOETHANOL PRODUCTION FROM Eucalyptus WOOD WITH Saccharomyces cerevisiae AND SACSV-10 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia Enid Vazquez

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Eucalyptus spp. residues of paper industry are a potential lignocellulosic raw material for production of second-generation bioethanol as an alternative to conventional production from cereal crops. Studying the behavior at 40 ºC of a commercial cellulase (Sunson, Eucalyptus sawdust saccharification was carried out under two pH conditions. With the aim to evaluate the bioethanol production from Eucalyptus wood, a strategy combining saccharification and Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation (SSF was undertaken at 40 ºC with a thermotolerant Saccharomyces cerevisiae with different substrate and inoculum concentrations, and different nitrogen sources. At last, the process was carried out in optimal conditions with Saccharomyces cerevisiae M522 and SacSV-10. Saccharification produced more free glucose at pH 5, reaching a maximum of 1.5 g/L. Encouraging results were obtained with 500 mg/L of ammonium sulphate as a nitrogen source and 10 % v/v initial inoculum at 106 cfu/mL concentration. Yeast SacSV-10 was not inhibited by phenols present in the culture media using a wood concentration of 10 g/L, but when the solids concentration was increased, the bioprocess yield was compromised. When the process was carried out in optimal conditions the bioethanol production, expressed as the conversion percentage of cellulose to ethanol, was 71.5 % and 73.6 % for M522 and the mutant strain respectively. The studied properties of the mutant strain provide added value to it, which pose new challenges to national companies dedicated to the production and sale of inputs for bioethanol industry.

  20. The potential of macroalgae as a source of carbohydrates for use in bioethanol fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nwachukwu, A.N. [School of Earth, Atmospheric and Environmental Sciences, University of Manchester (United Kingdom); Chukwu, M.A. [Department of Sustainable Chemical Engineering, University of Newcastle Upon Tyne (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-01

    Fossil fuel which is the global energy source gives rise to land contamination, air pollution, climate change, fuel crises, hike of price of petroleum products, crises in oil producing nations, dependency on oil producing countries and high risk associated with oil exploitation has led to a search for sustainable and efficient energy sources. Several types and sources of biofuels have been recently studied as potential source of energy to replace the environmentally unfriendly fossil fuels. Bioethanol produced from terrestrial plants have attracted the attention of the global society, though numerous controversies and debates were associated with the technology; such as the issue of food versus fuel competition, which further encouraged more research work on a sustainable renewable bioethanol source. This study aims at determining total carbohydrates from macroalgal specie (Laminaria digitata) for use in bioethanol fermentation, also using wet and analytical chemistry to extract and spectrophotometrically analyse the sample in respect to glucose and sucrose standards. The samples were lyophilized and the resulting powder extracted in a water bath at 100oC in 15minutes. The analysis was performed using anthrone (colorimetric) method and the analyte read in a UV-visible spectrophotometer at 620nm. The result showed that carbohydrates were present in the samples, indicated by green and yellow, colourless pigments. Glucose and sucrose were the main identified sugars from the standards analysed. The concentration of sugars varied with time; months and seasons of the year. Result of the samples showed highest level of sugar concentration in May 2010 and lowest sugar concentration in November 2010. It was observed that the mass of sugars (glucose and sucrose) deposited as a result of photosynthesis, significantly contributed to the weight of biomass. The implication of the result indicated that: the smaller the biomass, the most likely it is to have lower mass of sugars

  1. Metaheuristic Algorithms Applied to Bioenergy Supply Chain Problems: Theory, Review, Challenges, and Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystel K. Castillo-Villar

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Bioenergy is a new source of energy that accounts for a substantial portion of the renewable energy production in many countries. The production of bioenergy is expected to increase due to its unique advantages, such as no harmful emissions and abundance. Supply-related problems are the main obstacles precluding the increase of use of biomass (which is bulky and has low energy density to produce bioenergy. To overcome this challenge, large-scale optimization models are needed to be solved to enable decision makers to plan, design, and manage bioenergy supply chains. Therefore, the use of effective optimization approaches is of great importance. The traditional mathematical methods (such as linear, integer, and mixed-integer programming frequently fail to find optimal solutions for non-convex and/or large-scale models whereas metaheuristics are efficient approaches for finding near-optimal solutions that use less computational resources. This paper presents a comprehensive review by studying and analyzing the application of metaheuristics to solve bioenergy supply chain models as well as the exclusive challenges of the mathematical problems applied in the bioenergy supply chain field. The reviewed metaheuristics include: (1 population approaches, such as ant colony optimization (ACO, the genetic algorithm (GA, particle swarm optimization (PSO, and bee colony algorithm (BCA; and (2 trajectory approaches, such as the tabu search (TS and simulated annealing (SA. Based on the outcomes of this literature review, the integrated design and planning of bioenergy supply chains problem has been solved primarily by implementing the GA. The production process optimization was addressed primarily by using both the GA and PSO. The supply chain network design problem was treated by utilizing the GA and ACO. The truck and task scheduling problem was solved using the SA and the TS, where the trajectory-based methods proved to outperform the population

  2. 2013 Bioenergy Technologies Office Peer Review Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2014-02-01

    This document summarizes the recommendations and evaluations provided by an independent external panel of experts at the 2013 U.S. Department of Energy Bioenergy Technologies Office's Peer Review meeting.

  3. Ethical and legal challenges in bioenergy governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamborg, Christian; Anker, Helle Tegner; Sandøe, Peter

    2014-01-01

    of regulatory measures and options). We present ethical and legal analyses of the current stalemate on bioenergy governance in the EU using two illustrative cases: liquid biofuels for transport and solid biomass-based bioenergy. The two cases disclose some similarities between these two factors......, but the remaining differences may partly explain, or justify, contrasting forms of governance. While there seems to be no easy way in which the EU and national governments can deal with the multiple sustainability issues raised by bioenergy, it is argued that failure to deal explicitly with the underlying value...... disagreements, or to make apparent the regulatory complexity, clouds the issue of how to move forward with governance of bioenergy. We suggest that governance should be shaped with greater focus on the role of value disagreements and regulatory complexity. There is a need for more openness and transparency...

  4. The contribution of bioethanol to sustainable development in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popov Stevan D.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The pollution caused by the use of fossil fuels for the production of mechanical or electrical energy is one of the most important environmental issues nowa­days. In this respect, biofuels represent a viable source of energy. Bioethanol as a renewable energy source is derived from organic material of plant origin, so-called biomass, thus reducing environmental pollution. The aim of this study was to analyze the potential of bioethanol in meeting future energy demands in the Republic of Serbia. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike SRbije, br. TR31002: The improvement of bioethanol production from sugar beet processing products

  5. Production of bioethanol using agricultural waste: banana pseudo stem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snehal Ingale

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available India is amongst the largest banana (Musa acuminata producing countries and thus banana pseudo stem is commonly available agricultural waste to be used as lignocellulosic substrate. Present study focuses on exploitation of banana pseudo stem as a source for bioethanol production from the sugars released due to different chemical and biological pretreatments. Two fungal strains Aspergillus ellipticus and Aspergillus fumigatus reported to be producing cellulolytic enzymes on sugarcane bagasse were used under co-culture fermentation on banana pseudo stem to degrade holocellulose and facilitate maximum release of reducing sugars. The hydrolysate obtained after alkali and microbial treatments was fermented by Saccharomyces cerevisiae NCIM 3570 to produce ethanol. Fermentation of cellulosic hydrolysate (4.1 g% gave maximum ethanol (17.1 g/L with yield (84% and productivity (0.024 g%/h after 72 h. Some critical aspects of fungal pretreatment for saccharification of cellulosic substrate using A. ellipticus and A. fumigatus for ethanol production by S. cerevisiae NCIM 3570 have been explored in this study. It was observed that pretreated banana pseudo stem can be economically utilized as a cheaper substrate for ethanol production.

  6. The position of bioenergy and development possibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asplund, D.

    1997-01-01

    This report is a review of bioenergy in energy economy of Finland and generally a review of bioenergy markets in the world. This review concentrates on wood and peat fuels. Municipal wastes, agro biomass and use of biogas in energy production are also considered in this review but in minor aspect. The significant part of this work is an estimation of bioenergy development prospects. The schedule is strategic to the year 2010, partly to the year 2025. The use of bioenergy in Finland has increased 64 % from the year 1980 and was in 1996 almost 7 million toe. The use of peat was 2,1 million toe and the rest consisted mainly of wood and wood based fuels. The share of bioenergy in the primary energy consumption is over 20 %. As far as the resources are concerned the possibilities to increase the use are very good. The main problem is the competitiveness. The competitiveness of forest biomass has improved as a result of technological research and development but it is still potential to maintain more by systematical R and D. A large target setting of increasing the bioenergy use in Finland is included in this review. The target is to increase the bioenergy use 25 % by the year 2005. This equals to 1,5 million toe. The target for the year 2010 is suggested to increase of 3,5 million toe from the 1995 level. Also the possibilities to develop new bioenergy technology for export markets are considered. A large number of concrete actions and long term activities to achieve these targets are presented. (orig.) 24 refs

  7. Bioenergy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owino, Frederick

    1990-01-01

    The monograph reviews the state of energy research and suggest direction for future research with information required to shape the energy strategies. The monograph covers the following topics: research and development in alternative energy sources; biomass energy development, biomass energy technology ; biomethanation process; biomass as a fuel and health risks associated with it. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately. (original)

  8. Bioenergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-06

    Integration of poly-(MG) modified RVC with NAD+-dependent enzymes immobilized in chitosan /CNTs composite scaffold -0.6 -0.4 -0.2 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6...voltammetry 2D glassy carbon 3D reticulated vitreous carbon 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 0 200 400 600 800 1000 10 cycles 25 cycles 50 cycles 200 cycles

  9. Evaluation of Bioenergy Crop Growth and the Impacts Of Bioenergy Crops on Streamflow, Tile Drain Flow and Nutrient Losses Using SWAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, T.; Raj, C.; Chaubey, I.; Gitau, M. W.; Arnold, J. G.; Srinivasan, R.; Kiniry, J. R.; Engel, B.

    2016-12-01

    Bioenery crops are expected to produce large quantities of biofuel at a national scale to meet US biofuel goals. It is important to study bioenergy crop growth and the impacts on water quantity and quality to identify environment-friendly and productive biofeedstocks. In this study, SWAT2012 with a new tile drainage routine (DRAINMOD routine) and improved perennial grass and tree growth simulation was used to model long-term annual biomass yields, streamflow, tile flow, sediment load, total nitrogen, nitrate load in flow, nitrate in tile flow, soluble nitrogen, organic nitrogen, total phosphorus, mineral phosphorus and organic phosphorus under various bioenergy scenarios in an extensively agricultural watershed in the Midwestern US. The results showed that simulated annual crop yields matched with observed county level values for corn and soybeans, and were reasonable for Miscanthus, switchgrass and hybrid poplar. Removal of 38% of corn stover (66,439 Mg/yr) with Miscanthus production on highly erodible areas and marginal land (19,039 Mg/yr) provided the highest biofeedstock production. Streamflow, tile flow, erosion and nutrient losses were reduced under bioenergy crop scenarios of Miscanthus, switchgrass, and hybrid poplar on highly erodible areas, marginal land. Corn stover removal did not result in significant water quality changes. The increase in sediment load and nutrient losses under corn stover removal could be offset with production of other bioenergy crops. The study showed that corn stover removal with bioenergy crops both on highly erodible areas and marginal land could provide more biofuel production relative to the baseline, and was beneficial to hydrology and water quality at the watershed scale, providing guidance for further research on evaluation of bioenergy crop scenarios in a typical extensively tile-drained watershed in the Midwestern U.S.

  10. Economic-energy-environment analysis of prospective sugarcane bioethanol production in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopes de Carvalho, Ariovaldo; Antunes, Carlos Henggeler; Freire, Fausto

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A Hybrid IO-MOLP model is formulated for energy-economic-environmental analysis. • Scenarios for sugarcane cultivation and 1st- and 2nd-generation bioethanol production. • Higher energy use and GHG emissions due to chemicals in 2G processes. • Lower overall employment level in the 1G + 2G scenarios compared to the 1G scenario. • Policies and technological choices should consider direct and indirect effects of 2G. - Abstract: Bioethanol from sugarcane can be produced using first-generation (1G) or second-generation (2G) technologies. 2G technologies can increase the capacity of production per sugarcane mass input and are expected to have a key role in future reductions of environmental impacts of sugarcane bioethanol. A hybrid Input-Output (IO) framework is developed for Brazil coupling the System of National Accounts and the National Energy Balance, which is extended to assess Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions. Life-cycle based estimates for two sugarcane cultivation systems, two 1G and eight 2G bioethanol production scenarios, are coupled in the IO framework. A multi-objective linear programming (MOLP) model is formulated based on this framework for energy-economic-environmental analysis of the Brazilian economic system and domestic bioethanol supply in prospective scenarios. Twenty-four solutions are computed: four “extreme” solutions resulting from the individual optimization of each objective function (GDP, employment level, total energy consumption and total GHG emissions - 1G scenario), ten compromise solutions minimizing the distance of the feasible region to the ideal solution (1G, 1G-optimized and prospective 1G + 2G scenarios), and ten solutions maximizing the total bioethanol production (1G, 1G-optimized and prospective 1G + 2G scenarios). Higher diesel oil and lubricants consumption in the mechanical harvesting process has counterbalanced the positive effects of more efficient trucks leading to higher energy consumption and GHG

  11. Comparing centralised and decentralised anaerobic digestion of stillage from a large-scale bioethanol plant to animal feed production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drosg, B; Wirthensohn, T; Konrad, G; Hornbachner, D; Resch, C; Wäger, F; Loderer, C; Waltenberger, R; Kirchmayr, R; Braun, R

    2008-01-01

    A comparison of stillage treatment options for large-scale bioethanol plants was based on the data of an existing plant producing approximately 200,000 t/yr of bioethanol and 1,400,000 t/yr of stillage. Animal feed production--the state-of-the-art technology at the plant--was compared to anaerobic digestion. The latter was simulated in two different scenarios: digestion in small-scale biogas plants in the surrounding area versus digestion in a large-scale biogas plant at the bioethanol production site. Emphasis was placed on a holistic simulation balancing chemical parameters and calculating logistic algorithms to compare the efficiency of the stillage treatment solutions. For central anaerobic digestion different digestate handling solutions were considered because of the large amount of digestate. For land application a minimum of 36,000 ha of available agricultural area would be needed and 600,000 m(3) of storage volume. Secondly membrane purification of the digestate was investigated consisting of decanter, microfiltration, and reverse osmosis. As a third option aerobic wastewater treatment of the digestate was discussed. The final outcome was an economic evaluation of the three mentioned stillage treatment options, as a guide to stillage management for operators of large-scale bioethanol plants. Copyright IWA Publishing 2008.

  12. Agronomic Suitability of Bioenergy Crops in Mississippi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemus, Rocky; Baldwin, Brian; Lang, David

    2011-10-01

    In Mississippi, some questions need to be answered about bioenergy crops: how much suitable land is available? How much material can that land produce? Which production systems work best in which scenarios? What levels of inputs will be required for productivity and longterm sustainability? How will the crops reach the market? What kinds of infrastructure will be necessary to make that happen? This publication helps answer these questions: • Which areas in the state are best for bioenergy crop production? • How much could these areas produce sustainably? • How can bioenergy crops impact carbon sequestration and carbon credits? âÂÃÃÂ

  13. Potential Air Quality Impacts of Global Bioenergy Crop Cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, W. C.; Rosenstiel, T. N.; Barsanti, K. C.

    2012-12-01

    The use of bioenergy crops as a replacement for traditional coal-powered electricity generation will require large-scale land-use change, and the resulting changes in emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) may have negative impacts on local to regional air quality. BVOCs contribute to the formation of both ozone (O3) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5), with magnitudes of specific compound emissions governed largely by plant speciation and land coverage. For this reason, large-scale land-use change has the potential to markedly alter regional O3 and PM2.5 levels, especially if there are large differences between the emission profiles of the replacement bioenergy crops (many of which are high BVOC emitters) and the previous crops or land cover. In this work, replacement areas suitable for the cultivation of the bioenergy crops switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) and giant reed (Arundo donax) were selected based on existing global inventories of under-utilized cropland and local climatological conditions. These two crops are among the most popular current candidates for bioenergy production, and provide contrasting examples of energy densities and emissions profiles. While giant reed has been selected in an ongoing large-scale coal-to-biocharcoal conversion in the Northwestern United States due to its high crop yields and energy density, it is also among the highest biogenic emitters of isoprene. On the other hand, switchgrass produces less biomass per acre, but also emits essentially no isoprene and low total BVOCs. The effects of large-scale conversion to these crops on O3 and PM2.5 were simulated using version 1.1 of the Community Earth System Model (CESM) coupled with version 2.1 of the Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN). By comparing crop replacement scenarios involving A. donax and P. virgatum, the sensitivities of O3 and PM2.5 levels to worldwide increases in bioenergy production were examined, providing an initial

  14. Curation and Computational Design of Bioenergy-Related Metabolic Pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karp, Peter D. [SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2014-09-12

    Pathway Tools is a systems-biology software package written by SRI International (SRI) that produces Pathway/Genome Databases (PGDBs) for organisms with a sequenced genome. Pathway Tools also provides a wide range of capabilities for analyzing predicted metabolic networks and user-generated omics data. More than 5,000 academic, industrial, and government groups have licensed Pathway Tools. This user community includes researchers at all three DOE bioenergy centers, as well as academic and industrial metabolic engineering (ME) groups. An integral part of the Pathway Tools software is MetaCyc, a large, multiorganism database of metabolic pathways and enzymes that SRI and its academic collaborators manually curate. This project included two main goals: I. Enhance the MetaCyc content of bioenergy-related enzymes and pathways. II. Develop computational tools for engineering metabolic pathways that satisfy specified design goals, in particular for bioenergy-related pathways. In part I, SRI proposed to significantly expand the coverage of bioenergy-related metabolic information in MetaCyc, followed by the generation of organism-specific PGDBs for all energy-relevant organisms sequenced at the DOE Joint Genome Institute (JGI). Part I objectives included: 1: Expand the content of MetaCyc to include bioenergy-related enzymes and pathways. 2: Enhance the Pathway Tools software to enable display of complex polymer degradation processes. 3: Create new PGDBs for the energy-related organisms sequenced by JGI, update existing PGDBs with new MetaCyc content, and make these data available to JBEI via the BioCyc website. In part II, SRI proposed to develop an efficient computational tool for the engineering of metabolic pathways. Part II objectives included: 4: Develop computational tools for generating metabolic pathways that satisfy specified design goals, enabling users to specify parameters such as starting and ending compounds, and preferred or disallowed intermediate compounds

  15. The time aspect of bioenergy. Climate impacts of bioenergy due to differences in carbon uptake rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zetterberg, Lars [IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Stockholm (Sweden); Chen, Deliang [Dept. of Earth Sciences, Univ. of Gothenburg, Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2011-07-01

    This paper investigates the climate impacts from bioenergy due to how they influence carbon stocks over time and more specifically how fast combustion related carbon emissions are compensated by uptake of atmospheric carbon. A set of fuel types representing different uptake rates are investigated, namely willow, branches and tops, stumps and coal. Net emissions are defined as emissions from utilizing the fuel minus emissions from a reference case of no utilisation. In the case of forest residues, the compensating 'uptake' is avoided emissions from the reference case of leaving the residues to decompose on the ground. Climate impacts are estimated using the measures radiative forcing and global average surface temperature, which have been calculated by an energy balance climate model. We conclude that there is a climate impact from using bioenergy due to how fast the emission pulse is compensated by uptake of atmospheric carbon (or avoided emissions). Biofuels with slower uptake rates have a stronger climate impact than fuels with a faster uptake rate, assuming all other parameters equal. The time perspective over which the analysis is done is crucial for the climate impact of biofuels. If only biogenic fluxes are considered, our results show that over a 100 year perspective branches and tops are better for climate mitigation than stumps which in turn are better than coal. Over a 20 year time perspective this conclusion holds, but the differences between these fuels are relatively smaller. Establishing willow on earlier crop land may reduce atmospheric carbon, provided new land is available. However, these results are inconclusive since we haven't considered the effects, if needed, of producing the traditional agricultural crops elsewhere. The analysis is not a life cycle assessment of different fuels and does therefore not consider the use of fossil fuels for logging, transportation and refining, other greenhouse gases than carbon or energy

  16. Bioenergy Feedstock Development Program Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kszos, L.A.

    2001-02-09

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Bioenergy Feedstock Development Program (BFDP) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is a mission-oriented program of research and analysis whose goal is to develop and demonstrate cropping systems for producing large quantities of low-cost, high-quality biomass feedstocks for use as liquid biofuels, biomass electric power, and/or bioproducts. The program specifically supports the missions and goals of DOE's Office of Fuels Development and DOE's Office of Power Technologies. ORNL has provided technical leadership and field management for the BFDP since DOE began energy crop research in 1978. The major components of the BFDP include energy crop selection and breeding; crop management research; environmental assessment and monitoring; crop production and supply logistics operational research; integrated resource analysis and assessment; and communications and outreach. Research into feedstock supply logistics has recently been added and will become an integral component of the program.

  17. Steam reforming of technical bioethanol for hydrogen production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rass-Hansen, Jeppe; Johansson, Roger; Møller, Martin Hulbek

    2008-01-01

    Essentially all work on ethanol steam reforming so far has been carried out using simulated bioethanol feedstocks, which means pure ethanol mixed with water. However, technical bioethanol consists of a lot of different components including sugars, which cannot be easily vaporized and steam reformed....... For ethanol steam reforming to be of practical interest, it is important to avoid the energy-intensive purification steps to fuel grade ethanol. Therefore, it is imperative to analyze how technical bioethanol, with the relevant impurities, reacts during the steam reforming process. We show how three different...... bioethanol will result in a faster catalyst deactivation than what is observed when using pure ethanol-water mixtures because of contaminants remaining in the feed. However, the initial activity of the catalysts are not affected by this, hence it is important to not only focus on catalyst activity but rather...

  18. Bioethanol fuel production from rambutan fruit biomass as reducing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-09-05

    Sep 5, 2011 ... bioethanol from rotten rambutan was to manage rambutan wastes, cleaning the ... regarding rambutan, mango, banana and pineapple for the ethanol production ... small pieces together with their skin and blended in a Philips.

  19. Optimization of bioethanol production from carbohydrate rich wastes by extreme thermophilic microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomas, A.F.

    2013-05-15

    Second-generation bioethanol is produced from residual biomass such as industrial and municipal waste or agricultural and forestry residues. However, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the microorganism currently used in industrial first-generation bioethanol production, is not capable of converting all of the carbohydrates present in these complex substrates into ethanol. This is in particular true for pentose sugars such as xylose, generally the second major sugar present in lignocellulosic biomass. The transition of second-generation bioethanol production from pilot to industrial scale is hindered by the recalcitrance of the lignocellulosic biomass, and by the lack of a microorganism capable of converting this feedstock to bioethanol with high yield, efficiency and productivity. In this study, a new extreme thermophilic ethanologenic bacterium was isolated from household waste. When assessed for ethanol production from xylose, an ethanol yield of 1.39 mol mol-1 xylose was obtained. This represents 83 % of the theoretical ethanol yield from xylose and is to date the highest reported value for a native, not genetically modified microorganism. The bacterium was identified as a new member of the genus Thermoanaerobacter, named Thermoanaerobacter pentosaceus and was subsequently used to investigate some of the factors that influence secondgeneration bioethanol production, such as initial substrate concentration and sensitivity to inhibitors. Furthermore, T. pentosaceus was used to develop and optimize bioethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass using a range of different approaches, including combination with other microorganisms and immobilization of the cells. T. pentosaceus could produce ethanol from a wide range of substrates without the addition of nutrients such as yeast extract and vitamins to the medium. It was initially sensitive to concentrations of 10 g l-1 of xylose and 1 % (v/v) ethanol. However, long term repeated batch cultivation showed that the strain

  20. Algae biofuels: versatility for the future of bioenergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Carla S; Mayfield, Stephen P

    2012-06-01

    The world continues to increase its energy use, brought about by an expanding population and a desire for a greater standard of living. This energy use coupled with the realization of the impact of carbon dioxide on the climate, has led us to reanalyze the potential of plant-based biofuels. Of the potential sources of biofuels the most efficient producers of biomass are the photosynthetic microalgae and cyanobacteria. These versatile organisms can be used for the production of bioethanol, biodiesel, biohydrogen, and biogas. In fact, one of the most economic methods for algal biofuels production may be the combined biorefinery approach where multiple biofuels are produced from one biomass source. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Bioenergy Technologies Office FY 2017 Budget At-A-Glance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-03-01

    The Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) is accelerating the commercialization of first-of-a-kind technologies that use our nation’s abundant renewable biomass resources for the production of advanced biofuels and biobased products. Non-food sources of biomass, such as algae, agricultural residues and forestry trimmings, and energy crops like switchgrass, are being used in BETO-supported, cutting-edge technologies to produce drop-in biofuels, including renewable gasoline, diesel, and jet fuels. BETO is also investigating how to improve the economics of biofuel production by converting biomass into higher-value chemicals and products that historically have always been derived from petroleum.

  2. Proceedings of the first meeting of IEA, Bioenergy, Task 17

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christersson, L.; Ledin, S. [eds.

    1999-07-01

    The present proceedings are the result of the first meeting of Task 17 within the frame of IEA, Bioenergy. During the meeting the objectives of Task 17 were discussed and determined to be: * to stimulate the full-scale implementation of energy crops in participating countries; * to strengthen the contacts and co-operation between participating countries, scientists, biomass producers, machine developers, entrepreneurs, and end users; * to select the most urgent research and development areas, and to suggest projects of co-operation; * to deliver Proceedings from the meetings, and * to inform Ex-Co-members. Separate abstracts have been prepared for all the 7 papers presented.

  3. The bio-ethanol production with the thin stillage recirculation

    OpenAIRE

    M. Rakin; J. Pejin; O. Grujić; Lj. Mojović; D. Pejin

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the bioethanol production with the thin stillage recirculation in mashing was investigated. The mashing was performed with recirculation of: 0, 10, 20 and 30 % of the thin stillage. The thin stillage recirculation was repeated six times. In the experiment without the thin stillage, the recirculation bioethanol yield (compared to the theoretical yield) was 97.96 %, which implicates that the experiment conditions were chosen and performed well. With the addition of the thin still...

  4. An expose of bioenergy and its potential and utilization in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erdogdu, Erkan

    2008-01-01

    Turkey is heavily dependent on expensive imported energy resources (oil, gas and coal) that place a big burden on the economy. Air pollution is also becoming a great environmental concern in the country. In this regard, renewable energy resources appear to be one of the most efficient and effective solutions for clean and sustainable energy development in Turkey. Turkey's renewable sources are the second largest source for energy production after coal. About two-thirds of the renewable energy produced is obtained from bioenergy, which is used to meet a variety of energy needs, including generating electricity, heating homes, fueling vehicles and providing process heat for industrial facilities. The amount of usable bioenergy potential of Turkey is approximately 17 Mtoe. This article not only presents a review of the potential and utilization of the bioenergy in Turkey but also provides some guidelines for policy makers

  5. Fungal Enzymes and Yeasts for Conversion of Plant Biomass to Bioenergy and High-Value Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Lene

    2017-01-01

    Fungi and fungal enzymes play important roles in the new bioeconomy. Enzymes from filamentous fungi can unlock the potential of recalcitrant lignocellulose structures of plant cell walls as a new resource, and fungi such as yeast can produce bioethanol from the sugars released after enzyme treatm...... contributed to mycology and environmental research? Future perspectives and approaches are listed, highlighting the importance of fungi in development of the bioeconomy.......Fungi and fungal enzymes play important roles in the new bioeconomy. Enzymes from filamentous fungi can unlock the potential of recalcitrant lignocellulose structures of plant cell walls as a new resource, and fungi such as yeast can produce bioethanol from the sugars released after enzyme...... treatment. Such processes reflect inherent characteristics of the fungal way of life, namely, that fungi as heterotrophic organisms must break down complex carbon structures of organic materials to satisfy their need for carbon and nitrogen for growth and reproduction. This chapter describes major steps...

  6. Environmental sustainability assessment of bio-ethanol production in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silalertruksa, Thapat; Gheewala, Shabbir H.

    2009-01-01

    Bio-ethanol is playing an important role in renewable energy for transport according to Thai government policy. This study aims to evaluate the energy efficiency and renewability of bio-ethanol system and identify the current significant environmental risks and availability of feedstocks in Thailand. Four of the seven existing ethanol plants contributing 53% of the total ethanol fuel production in Thailand have been assessed by the net energy balance method and Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). A renewability and net energy ratio portfolio has been used to indicate whether existing bio-ethanol production systems have net energy gain and could help reduce dependency on fossil energy. In addition, LCA has been conducted to identify and evaluate the environmental hotspots of 'cradle to gate' bio-ethanol production. The results show that there are significant differences of energy and environmental performance among the four existing production systems even for the same feedstock. The differences are dependent on many factors such as farming practices, feedstock transportion, fuel used in ethanol plants, operation practices and technology of ethanol conversion and waste management practices. Recommendations for improving the overall energy and environmental performance of the bio-ethanol system are suggested in order to direct the bio-ethanol industry in Thailand towards environmental sustainability.

  7. Effect of wheat gluten proteins on bioethanol yield from grain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buresova, Iva [Agrotest Fyto, Ltd., Havlickova 2787/121, 767 01 Kromeriz (Czech Republic); Hrivna, Ludek [Mendel University in Brno, Zemedelska 1, 613 00 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2011-04-15

    Bioethanol can be used as motor fuel and/or as a gasoline enhancer. A high yield feedstock for bioethanol production is cereal grain. Cereal grains containing less gluten proteins (glutenin and gliadin), but high starch, are favoured by distillers because they increase the bioethanol conversion. The direct effect of wheat gluten proteins on bioethanol yield was studied on triticale grain. Examined triticale Presto 1R.1D{sub 5+10}-2 and Presto Valdy were developed by introducing selected segments of wheat chromosome 1D into triticale chromosome 1R. Even if the samples analysed in this study do not afford to make definitive assumptions, it can be noticed that in analysed cases the presence of gliadin had more significant effect on investigated parameters than the presence of glutenin. Despite the presence of glutenin subunits did not significantly decrease the investigated parameters - specific weight, Hagberg falling number and starch content in grain met the requirements for grain for bioethanol production - protein content was higher than is optimal. The fermentation experiments demonstrated good bioethanol yields but depression in grain yields caused by the presence of wheat gliadin and glutenin decreased the energy balance of Presto Valdy and Presto 1R.1D{sub 5+10}-2. (author)

  8. determination of bio-energy potential of palm kernel shell

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    88888888

    2012-11-03

    Nov 3, 2012 ... most viable application in Renewable Energy options such as bioenergy and biomass utilization. Its higher heating ... enable it release volatile matter necessary for bio-energy production. ..... ment and Efficiency. Ministry of ...

  9. Developing a sustainability framework for assessing bioenergy projects

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Harrison, JA

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Focusing on the situation relating to bioenergy in India, this paper provides analyses of the currently available methodologies for assessing the varied impacts, both positive and negative, of bioenergy production. This contextual information...

  10. Experimental and theoretical study on spray behaviors of modified bio-ethanol fuel employing direct injection system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghahremani Amirreza

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the key solutions to improve engine performance and reduce exhaust emissions of internal combustion engines is direct injection of bio-fuels. A new modified bio-ethanol is produced to be substituted by fossil fuels in gasoline direct injection engines. The key advantages of modified bio-ethanol fuel as an alternative fuel are higher octane number and oxygen content, a long-chain hydro-carbon fuel, and lower emissions compared to fossil fuels. In the present study spray properties of a modified bio-ethanol and its atomization behaviors have been studied experimentally and theoretically. Based on atomization physics of droplets dimensional analysis has been performed to develop a new non-dimensional number namely atomization index. This number determines the atomization level of the spray. Applying quasi-steady jet theory, air entrainment and fuel-air mixing studies have been performed. The spray atomization behaviors such as atomization index number, Ohnesorge number, and Sauter mean diameter have been investigated employing atomization model. The influences of injection and ambient conditions on spray properties of different blends of modified bio-ethanol and gasoline fuels have been investigated performing high-speed visualization technique. Results indicate that decreasing the difference of injection and ambient pressures increases spray cone angle and projected area, and decreases spray tip penetration length. As expected, increasing injection pressure improves atomization behaviors of the spray. Increasing percentage of modified bio-ethanol in the blend, increases spray tip penetration and decreases the projected area as well.

  11. The impact of sustainability criteria on the costs and potentials of bioenergy production. An exploration of the impact of the implementation of sustainability criteria on the costs and potential of bioenergy production, applied for case studies in Brazil and Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smeets, E.; Faaij, A.; Lewandowski, I.

    2005-02-01

    The goal of this study is to make a first attempt to analyse the impact on the potential (quantity) and the costs (per unit) of bioenergy that the compliance with various sustainability criteria brings along. The nature of this work is exploratory. Because of the broad set of issues covered very little work has been published on which we could build. Ukraine and Brazil are used as case studies, because both regions are identified as promising bioenergy producers. This study is part of the FAIR Biotrade project, which is aimed to identify and quantify the impact of sustainability criteria on the potential of bioenergy. Previous work includes an identification of sustainability criteria relevant for bioenergy, an assessment of the environmental and economic costs of long distance biotrade and an assessment of bioenergy production potentials in 2050 in various world regions. In section 2 the approach is presented which is used to select and quantify the impact of sustainability criteria on bioenergy production. In section 3 the selection of the various sustainability criteria is described in detail, followed by a detailed description of how the various socials, ecological and economical sustainability criteria are operationalised. In section 4 (intermediate) results are presented for each sustainability criterium. In section 5 final results are presented, followed by a discussion and by conclusions (section 6)

  12. The development of bioenergy technology in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, C.Z.; Yin, X.L.; Yuan, Z.H.; Zhou, Z.Q.; Zhuang, X.S. [The Renewable Energy and Gas Hydrate Key Laboratory of CAS, Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 2 Nengyuan Road, Tianhe District, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2010-11-15

    Among renewable energy resources, bioenergy is one of the fastest growth energy alternatives with tremendous potential in China. The thermal, physical, and biological processes of conversion of biomass yield a number of products and can be obtained as gases, liquids, solid fuels, and electricity as well as a variety of chemicals. Various bioenergy technologies that have been developed are at the fundamental research, demonstration, and commercialization stages. This review concentrates on the processes that are attracting the most attention in China. This paper presents the important roles bioenergy plays in China. Firstly, the application status of bioenergy technologies are introduced, including biogas, fuel ethanol, biodiesel, and power generation at the commercialization stage. Then, the current research progresses are analyzed of ethanol derived from lignocellulose, sweet sorghum and cassava, biodiesel from jatropha, biomass briquetting, synthesized fuels and pyrolysis technologies at the fundamental research and demonstration stages. Finally, it is concluded that the key areas for developing bioenergy for the future are the exploitation of new biomass resources and R and D in biofuels from non-food biomass resources, as well as the development of commercialization methods suitable for developing countries. (author)

  13. Bioenergy, its present and future competitiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ling, Erik

    1999-01-01

    The thesis deals with aspects of the competitiveness of bioenergy. The central aim is to develop a number of concepts that enables an extended analysis. The thesis is composed of four studies. In study 1 and 2 the emphasis is put on two institutional frameworks within the forest company, i.e. the framework around the forest fuel operations and the framework around the industrial timber operations. Depending on which of the two institutional frameworks that makes up the basis for the understanding of forest fuel operations, the forest fuel operations will be given different roles and different priorities. Different goals and the process of integrating the forest fuel operations into the forest company will therefore be carried out with different means, different feelings and different resources. Study 3 examines the conceptions that the actors of the energy system uphold. The study presents the concept of logic, which is an institutionalised conception of the competitiveness of bioenergy. Logics can be seen as the dominating conceptions within the energy system and are decisive in determining the factors and parameters that state the competitiveness of different forms of energy. Study 4 argues that the strategical work concerning the competitiveness of bioenergy in the long-run to a great extent is about understanding, shaping and utilising the conceptions that affect the bioenergy system. The study problematises strategies that are used to develop bioenergy by introducing the uncertainty of the future into the analysis. The uncertainty of the future is captured in different scenarios

  14. Rostock bioenergy forum. Future technologies for bioenergy. Proceedings; 4. Rostocker Bioenergieforum. Zukunftstechnologien fuer Bioenergie. Tagungsband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    Within the 4th Rostock bioenergy forum 'future technologies for bioenergy' at 27th and 28th October, 2010, in Rostock (Federal Republic of Germany) the following lectures were held: (1) Sustainable supply of biomass from the agriculture (Christian Gienapp); (2) Biogas plants in conflict of different legal regulation systems (Michael Kern); (3) Logistics of biomass - Do you know the real costs? (Nadine Doden); (4) Potentials of wooden biomass from the landscape conservation using the Lower Saale valley (Sachsen-Anhalt) as an example (Karen Runge); (5) Value creation with energy wood in rural area - Results of a potential study (Marco Hahs); (6) Soil ecological evaluation of short rotational plantations on farmland (Christel Baum); (7) Development of moulds and dry weight losses in bulk wood chips (Christine Idler); (8) Logistics of pellets during the harvest of short-term rotation areas with a field chopper (Franz Handler); (9) Concepts of combustion of biomass within the scope of the BMU funding program 'Energetic utilization of biomass' (Diana Pfeiffer); (10) Thermoelectric transformer for biogenic heat (Karl-Ernst Schnorr); (11) Emissions of benzene in the combustion f gases from wood in cogeneration plants (Christian Hirschmeier); (12) Utilization of additives in the combustion of miscanthus pellets in a small-scale furnace < 100 kW{sub N}WL (Thomas Zeng); (13) Practical experiences with dust separators for small-scale furnaces (Peter Turowski); (14) Analysis for gaining the minimum goal of 10 % renewable energy in traffic sector (Karin Naumann); (15) New diesel components from glycerine (E. Paetzold); (16) Challenges and possibilities in the utilization of biofuels in customary auxiliary heatings (Hajo Hoffmann); (17) Demands on biofuels for the use in combustion engines (Volker Wichmann); (18) Alternative fuel dimethyl ether (Martin Werner); (19) Long-term investigation of the stability of rapeseed fuel and field study of modern Common Rail

  15. Effects of reflux ratio and feed conditions for the purification of bioethanol in a continuous distillation column

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasan, Y. K.; Abdullah, M. A.; Bhat, A. H.

    2014-10-01

    Continuous distillation column was used for the purification of bioethanol from fermentation of molasses using Saccharomyces cerevisia. Bioethanol produced was at 8.32% (v/v) level. The efficiency of continuous distillation process was evaluated based on reflux ratio, and feed condition. The lab results were validated using COFE simulation Software. The analyses showed that both reflux ratio and feed condition had significant effects on the distillation process. Stages increased from 1.79 to 2.26 as the reflux ratio was decreased from 90% to 45% and the saturated feed produced lower mole fraction of desired product. We concluded that the lower reflux ratio with cold feed condition was suitable for higher mole fraction of top product.

  16. Non-technical success factors for bioenergy projects—Learning from a multiple case study in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blumer, Yann B.; Stauffacher, Michael; Lang, Daniel J.; Hayashi, Kiyotada; Uchida, Susumu

    2013-01-01

    There is wide agreement in the literature that non-technical factors play a decisive role in the successful implementation of bioenergy projects. One underlying reason is that such projects require the involvement of many stakeholders, such as feedstock producers, engineers, authorities and the concerned public. We analyze the role of bioenergy-specific non-technical factors for the success of bioenergy projects. In a broad literature review we first identify potential success factors belonging to the five dimensions project characteristics, policy framework, regional integration, public perception and stakeholders. Using these factors as conceptual framework, we next analyze six Japanese pilot projects for bioenergy utilization supported by Japans Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries Research Council. We apply Rough Set Analysis, a data mining method that can be used for small sample sizes to identify patterns in a dataset. We find that, by and large, non-technical factors from all five dimensions – such as the stability of the local policy framework – co-occur with project success. Furthermore, we show that there are diverging interpretations as to what success in a bioenergy project means. This requires tradeoffs between various goals, which should be identified and addressed explicitly at early stages of such a project. - Highlights: • We collect a broad list of non-technical success factors for bioenergy projects. • These are applied to six pilot projects in Japan and shown to be relevant. • We acknowledge different aspects of project success and their potential conflicts

  17. Synthesis report: System studies Bioenergy; Syntesrapport Systemstudier bioenergi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berntsson, Thore [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Heat and Power Technology; Gustavsson, Leif [Mid Sweden Univ., Oestersund (Sweden). Dept. of Natural and Environmental Sciences; Hylander, Nippe [Aangpannefoereningen, Stockholm (SE)] (ed.)

    2003-07-01

    The present report marks the end of the research program 'System studies Bioenergy' (1998-2002). The program comprised 17 projects performed at 9 universities or research institutes. All project results were studied in order to identify: contributions to our present knowledge; possible gaps of knowledge, methodology or systems perspective that still exist; and the needs for further research. The projects can be classified into the following groups: Resource potential of forest fuels; Industrial use of biofuels; Potential for synthetic fuels (pellets, bio-oils and transportation fuels); System analysis of efficient use of biofuels; and Socio-economic analyses. The total potential for available biofuel has been estimated to be 125-175 TWh/year (excl. black liquors of paper industry). The potential demand is estimated to about 123 TWh/year, or distributed into the different sectors: Industry: 26 TWh/year, Buildings and services: 35 TWh/year, District heating: 31 TWh/year, and electric power generation (incl. cogeneration in district heating): 31 TWh/year. Further research is needed in the following areas: Systems and methodology of more generic character on optimization of production, refining and use of biofuels in order to substitute fossil fuels directly or indirectly; Heat sinks/district heating in combination with cogeneration vs. other power production in a long term perspective (> 10 years), in the light of new technologies, open markets, economic and political incentives; Energy efficiency in industry, esp. paper and pulp with its unique possibility for process integration, biofuel processing and CO{sub 2} separation; How far should the processing/refinement of biofuels go; Importance of factors of scale; New distributed (small-scale) energy technology; International trade in biofuels; Transport and handling costs for biofuel pellets in Europe; System aspects of implementation and incentives; How are biofuels affected if CO{sub 2} from fossil fuels

  18. Energy and Environmental Performance of Bioethanol from Different Lignocelluloses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Luo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate change and the wish to reduce the dependence on oil are the incentives for the development of alternative energy sources. The use of lignocellulosic biomass together with cellulosic processing technology provides opportunities to produce fuel ethanol with less competition with food and nature. Many studies on energy analysis and life cycle assessment of second-generation bioethanol have been conducted. However, due to the different methodology used and different system boundary definition, it is difficult to compare their results. To permit a direct comparison of fuel ethanol from different lignocelluloses in terms of energy use and environmental impact, seven studies conducted in our group were summarized in this paper, where the same technologies were used to convert biomass to ethanol, the same system boundaries were defined, and the same allocation procedures were followed. A complete set of environmental impacts ranging from global warming potential to toxicity aspects is used. The results provide an overview on the energy efficiency and environmental performance of using fuel ethanol derived from different feedstocks in comparison with gasoline.

  19. Bioethanol from lignocelluloses: Status and perspectives in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soccol, Carlos Ricardo; Vandenberghe, Luciana Porto de Souza; Medeiros, Adriane Bianchi Pedroni; Karp, Susan Grace; Buckeridge, Marcos; Ramos, Luiz Pereira; Pitarelo, Ana Paula; Ferreira-Leitão, Viridiana; Gottschalk, Leda Maria Fortes; Ferrara, Maria Antonieta; da Silva Bon, Elba Pinto; de Moraes, Lidia Maria Pepe; Araújo, Juliana de Amorim; Torres, Fernando Araripe Gonçalves

    2010-07-01

    The National Alcohol Program--PróAlcool, created by the government of Brazil in 1975 resulted less dependency on fossil fuels. The addition of 25% ethanol to gasoline reduced the import of 550 million barrels oil and also reduced the emission CO(2) by 110 million tons. Today, 44% of the Brazilian energy matrix is renewable and 13.5% is derived from sugarcane. Brazil has a land area of 851 million hectares, of which 54% are preserved, including the Amazon forest (350 million hectares). From the land available for agriculture (340 million hectares), only 0.9% is occupied by sugarcane as energy crop, showing a great expansion potential. Studies have shown that in the coming years, ethanol yield per hectare of sugarcane, which presently is 6000 L/ha, could reach 10,000 L/ha, if 50% of the produced bagasse would be converted to ethanol. This article describes the efforts of different Brazilian institutions and research groups on second generation bioethanol production, especially from sugarcane bagasse. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Efficient approach for bioethanol production from red seaweed Gelidium amansii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ho Myeong; Wi, Seung Gon; Jung, Sera; Song, Younho; Bae, Hyeun-Jong

    2015-01-01

    Gelidium amansii (GA), a red seaweed species, is a popular source of food and chemicals due to its high galactose and glucose content. In this study, we investigated the potential of bioethanol production from autoclave-treated GA (ATGA). The proposed method involved autoclaving GA for 60min for hydrolysis to glucose. Separate hydrolysis and fermentation processing (SHF) achieved a maximum ethanol concentration of 3.33mg/mL, with a conversion yield of 74.7% after 6h (2% substrate loading, w/v). In contrast, simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) produced an ethanol concentration of 3.78mg/mL, with an ethanol conversion yield of 84.9% after 12h. We also recorded an ethanol concentration of 25.7mg/mL from SSF processing of 15% (w/v) dry matter from ATGA after 24h. These results indicate that autoclaving can improve the glucose and ethanol conversion yield of GA, and that SSF is superior to SHF for ethanol production. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. State Bioenergy Primer: Information and Resources for States on Issues, Opportunities, and Options for Advancing Bioenergy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byrnett, D. S.; Mulholland, D.; Zinsmeister, E.; Doris, E.; Milbrandt, A.; Robichaud. R.; Stanley, R.; Vimmerstedt, L.

    2009-09-01

    One renewable energy option that states frequently consider to meet their clean energy goals is the use of biomass resources to develop bioenergy. Bioenergy includes bioheat, biopower, biofuels, and bioproducts. This document provides an overview of biomass feedstocks, basic information about biomass conversion technologies, and a discussion of benefits and challenges of bioenergy options. The Primer includes a step-wise framework, resources, and tools for determining the availability of feedstocks, assessing potential markets for biomass, and identifying opportunities for action at the state level. Each chapter contains a list of selected resources and tools that states can use to explore topics in further detail.

  2. The development of bioenergy in Austria and in the EU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, A.

    1999-01-01

    produced from renewable sources including biomass. Austria has facilities to produce 25 000 t/a biogenous motor fuels but the demand is still under expectations. The land availability for bio-energy crops is different for the three groups of European countries: 1. Belgium, Germany, Netherlands and UK; 2. Italy, France, Denmark, Poland, Portugal, Hungary and Switzerland and 3. Ireland, Austria, Bulgaria, Spain, Finland, Sweden, Greece, Romania. Regarding the White Paper 'Energy for the Future - Renewable Sources of Energy' of EC the contribution of 'renewable sources' to the total consumption has to be as high as 12% in 2010

  3. Process design and evaluation of production of bioethanol and β-lactam antibiotic from lignocellulosic biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Bong; Park, Chulhwan; Kim, Seung Wook

    2014-11-01

    To design biorefinery processes producing bioethanol from lignocellulosic biomass with dilute acid pretreatment, biorefinery processes were simulated using the SuperPro Designer program. To improve the efficiency of biomass use and the economics of biorefinery, additional pretreatment processes were designed and evaluated, in which a combined process of dilute acid and aqueous ammonia pretreatments, and a process of waste media containing xylose were used, for the production of 7-aminocephalosporanic acid. Finally, the productivity and economics of the designed processes were compared. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. An assessment of bio-ethanol as a transport fuel in the UK: v. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marrow, J.E. (Energy Technology Support Unit, Harwell (UK)); Coombs, J. (CPL Scientific Ltd., Newbury (GB))

    1990-02-01

    This report evaluates the potential for reducing the cost of producing bio-ethanol from agricultural feedstocks by R and D aimed at reducing production costs. Topics covered include purpose grown biomass as feedstock, lignocellulose wastes and residues and conversion technologies for lignocellulosic materials. It is concluded that enzyme hydrolysis of wood or straw with a lignin by-product could be the most cost effective in the future but even then it would be costing considerably more than ethanol's value as a fuel. (UK).

  5. Bioethanol production from waste bread samples made from mixtures of wheat and buckwheat flours

    OpenAIRE

    Ačanski, Marijana; Pastor, Kristian; Razmovski, Radojka; Vučurović, Vesna; Psodorov, Đorđe

    2014-01-01

    In this paper yields of bioethanol from seven samples of bread were compared. Samples of bread were produced and prepared in a laboratory by mixing wheat and buckwheat flour in amounts of 0, 20, 40, 50, 60, 80 and 100%. At first, the analysis of all seven samples of bread was done (dry matter, starch content and pH value of bread sample suspensions). Then the waste bread suspensions were hydrolyzed by applying commercial hydrolytic enzymes, Termamyl® SC and SAN Extra® L. The fermentation proc...

  6. Integrated Production of Xylonic Acid and Bioethanol from Acid-Catalyzed Steam-Exploded Corn Stover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Junjun; Rong, Yayun; Yang, Jinlong; Zhou, Xin; Xu, Yong; Zhang, Lingling; Chen, Jiahui; Yong, Qiang; Yu, Shiyuan

    2015-07-01

    High-efficiency xylose utilization is one of the restrictive factors of bioethanol industrialization. However, xylonic acid (XA) as a new bio-based platform chemical can be produced by oxidation of xylose with microbial. So, an applicable technology of XA bioconversion was integrated into the process of bioethanol production. After corn stover was pretreated with acid-catalyzed steam-explosion, solid and liquid fractions were obtained. The liquid fraction, also named as acid-catalyzed steam-exploded corn stover (ASC) prehydrolyzate (mainly containing xylose), was catalyzed with Gluconobacter oxydans NL71 to prepare XA. After 72 h of bioconversion of concentrated ASC prehydrolyzate (containing 55.0 g/L of xylose), the XA concentration reached a peak value of 54.97 g/L, the sugar utilization ratio and XA yield were 94.08 and 95.45 %, respectively. The solid fraction was hydrolyzed to produce glucose with cellulase and then fermented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae NL22 to produce ethanol. After 18 h of fermentation of concentrated enzymatic hydrolyzate (containing 86.22 g/L of glucose), the ethanol concentration reached its highest value of 41.48 g/L, the sugar utilization ratio and ethanol yield were 98.72 and 95.25 %, respectively. The mass balance showed that 1 t ethanol and 1.3 t XA were produced from 7.8 t oven dry corn stover.

  7. DEVELOPING STATE POLICIES SUPPORTIVE OF BIOENERGY DEVELOPMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kathryn Baskin

    2005-04-30

    Working within the context of the Southern States Biobased Alliance (SSBA) and with officials in each state, the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) is identifying bioenergy-related policies and programs within each state to determine their impact on the development, deployment or use of bioenergy. In addition, SSEB will determine which policies have impacted industry's efforts to develop, deploy or use biobased technologies or products. As a result, SSEB will work with the Southern States Biobased Alliance to determine how policy changes might address any negative impacts or enhance positive impacts. In addition to analysis of domestic policies and programs, this project will include the development of a U.S.-Brazil Biodiesel Pilot Project. The purpose of this effort is to promote and facilitate the commercialization of biodiesel and bioenergy production and demand in Brazil.

  8. Willow bioenergy plantation research in the Northeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, E.H.; Abrahamson, L.P.; Kopp, R.F. [SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry, Syracuse, NY (United States); Nowak, C.A. [USDA Forest Service, Warren, PA (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Experiments were established in Central New York in the spring of 1987 to evaluate the potential of Salix for biomass production in bioenergy plantations. Emphasis of the research was on developing and refining establishment, tending and maintenance techniques, with complimentary study of breeding, coppice physiology, pests, nutrient use and bioconversion to energy products. Current yields utilizing salix clones developed in cooperation with the University of Toronto in short-rotation intensive culture bioenergy plantations in the Northeast approximate 8 oven dry tons per acre per year with annual harvesting. Successful clones have been identified and culture techniques refined. The results are now being integrated to establish a 100 acre Salix large-scale bioenergy farm to demonstrate current successful biomass production technology and to provide plantations of sufficient size to test harvesters; adequately assess economics of the systems; and provide large quantities of uniform biomass for pilot-scale conversion facilities.

  9. DEVELOPING STATE POLICIES SUPPORTIVE OF BIOENERGY DEVELOPMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kathryn Baskin

    2004-10-31

    Working within the context of the Southern States Biobased Alliance (SSBA) and with officials in each state, the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) is identifying bioenergy-related policies and programs within each state to determine their impact on the development, deployment or use of bioenergy. In addition, SSEB will determine which policies have impacted industry's efforts to develop, deploy or use biobased technologies or products. As a result, SSEB will work with the Southern States Biobased Alliance to determine how policy changes might address any negative impacts or enhance positive impacts. In addition to analysis of domestic policies and programs, this project will include the development of a U.S.-Brazil Biodiesel Pilot Project. The purpose of this effort is to promote and facilitate the commercialization of biodiesel and bioenergy production and demand in Brazil.

  10. An integrated approach for biodiesel and bioethanol production from Scenedesmus bijugatus cultivated in a vertical tubular photobioreactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashokkumar, Veeramuthu; Salam, Zainal; Tiwari, O.N.; Chinnasamy, Senthil; Mohammed, Sudheer; Ani, Farid Nasir

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Alga Scenedesmus bijugatus was explored for biodiesel and bioethanol production. • Tubular photobioreactor was designed and produced 0.26 g L −1 d −1 of dry biomass. • Sequential stages of transesterification produced 0.21 g biodiesel yield/g dry biomass. • The lipid extracted residues of S. bijugatus produced 0.158 g bioethanol/g dry biomass. - Abstract: Algae are considered promising renewable feedstocks for the production of alternative fuels. In this study, an indigenous strain of Scenedesmus bijugatus found commonly in the fresh water bodies was isolated and evaluated for biofuels production. The alga was successfully mass cultivated in the custom made vertical tubular photobioreactor (250 L capacity) at semi-continuous mode. During the cultivation period, the volumetric biomass and lipid productivity were assessed. The alga S. bijugatus produced 0.26 g L −1 d −1 of dry biomass and 63 mg L −1 d −1 of lipids, respectively. Algal biomass was harvested by a combined harvesting process involving coagulation and flocculation using Iron (III) sulfate and an organic polymer which resulted in 98% harvesting efficiency. Lipid extraction using hexane:diethyl ether (1:2 ratio) resulted in maximum extraction of lipids. This study also examined sequential stages of esterification and transesterification to convert lipids to biodiesel. The maximum biodiesel yield of 0.21 g/g of dry biomass was obtained through the acid base catalytic process. The biodiesel fuel properties were tested and observed that most of the properties complying with ASTM D6751 specifications. The lipid extracted residual biomass recorded a yield of 0.158 g of bioethanol per g. This study confirmed the potential of lipid extracted biomass for the production of bioethanol to improve the economic feasibility of microalgal biorefinery

  11. Bioenergy production and forest landscape change in the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costanza, Jennifer K.; Abt, Robert C.; McKerrow, Alexa; Collazo, Jaime A.

    2016-01-01

    Production of woody biomass for bioenergy, whether wood pellets or liquid biofuels, has the potential to cause substantial landscape change and concomitant effects on forest ecosystems, but the landscape effects of alternative production scenarios have not been fully assessed. We simulated landscape change from 2010 to 2050 under five scenarios of woody biomass production for wood pellets and liquid biofuels in North Carolina, in the southeastern United States, a region that is a substantial producer of wood biomass for bioenergy and contains high biodiversity. Modeled scenarios varied biomass feedstocks, incorporating harvest of ‘conventional’ forests, which include naturally regenerating as well as planted forests that exist on the landscape even without bioenergy production, as well as purpose-grown woody crops grown on marginal lands. Results reveal trade-offs among scenarios in terms of overall forest area and the characteristics of the remaining forest in 2050. Meeting demand for biomass from conventional forests resulted in more total forest land compared with a baseline, business-as-usual scenario. However, the remaining forest was composed of more intensively managed forest and less of the bottomland hardwood and longleaf pine habitats that support biodiversity. Converting marginal forest to purpose-grown crops reduced forest area, but the remaining forest contained more of the critical habitats for biodiversity. Conversion of marginal agricultural lands to purpose-grown crops resulted in smaller differences from the baseline scenario in terms of forest area and the characteristics of remaining forest habitats. Each scenario affected the dominant type of land-use change in some regions, especially in the coastal plain that harbors high levels of biodiversity. Our results demonstrate the complex landscape effects of alternative bioenergy scenarios, highlight that the regions most likely to be affected by bioenergy production are also critical for

  12. One-pot bioethanol production from cellulose by co-culture of Acremonium cellulolyticus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Enoch Y

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While the ethanol production from biomass by consolidated bioprocess (CBP is considered to be the most ideal process, simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF is the most appropriate strategy in practice. In this study, one-pot bioethanol production, including cellulase production, saccharification of cellulose, and ethanol production, was investigated for the conversion of biomass to biofuel by co-culture of two different microorganisms such as a hyper cellulase producer, Acremonium cellulolyticus C-1 and an ethanol producer Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Furthermore, the operational conditions of the one-pot process were evaluated for maximizing ethanol concentration from cellulose in a single reactor. Results Ethanol production from cellulose was carried out in one-pot bioethanol production process. A. cellulolyticus C-1 and S. cerevisiae were co-cultured in a single reactor. Cellulase producing-medium supplemented with 2.5 g/l of yeast extract was used for productions of both cellulase and ethanol. Cellulase production was achieved by A. cellulolyticus C-1 using Solka-Floc (SF as a cellulase-inducing substrate. Subsequently, ethanol was produced with addition of both 10%(v/v of S. cerevisiae inoculum and SF at the culture time of 60 h. Dissolved oxygen levels were adjusted at higher than 20% during cellulase producing phase and at lower than 10% during ethanol producing phase. Cellulase activity remained 8–12 FPU/ml throughout the one-pot process. When 50–300 g SF/l was used in 500 ml Erlenmeyer flask scale, the ethanol concentration and yield based on initial SF were as 8.7–46.3 g/l and 0.15–0.18 (g ethanol/g SF, respectively. In 3-l fermentor with 50–300 g SF/l, the ethanol concentration and yield were 9.5–35.1 g/l with their yields of 0.12–0.19 (g/g respectively, demonstrating that the one-pot bioethanol production is a reproducible process in a scale-up bioconversion of cellulose to ethanol

  13. Global warming potential impact of bioenergy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonini, Davide; Hamelin, L.; Wenzel, H.

    environmental consequences related to land use changes. In this study the global warming potential impact associated with six alternative bioenergy systems based on willow and Miscanthus was assessed by means of life-cycle assessment. The results showed that bioenergy production may generate higher global...... warming impacts than the reference fossil fuel system, when the impacts from indirect land use changes are accounted for. In a life-cycle perspective, only highly-efficient co-firing with fossil fuel achieved a (modest) GHG emission reduction....

  14. DEVELOPING STATE POLICIES SUPPORTIVE OF BIOENERGY DEVELOPMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kathryn Baskin

    2001-01-01

    Working within the context of the Southern States Biobased Alliance (SSBA) and with officials in each state, the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) is identifying bioenergy-related policies and programs within each state to determine their impact on the development, deployment or use of bioenergy. In addition, SSEB will determine which policies have impacted industry's efforts to develop, deploy or use biobased technologies or products. As a result, SSEB will work with the Southern States Biobased Alliance to determine how policy changes might address any negative impacts or enhance positive impacts

  15. DEVELOPING STATE POLICIES SUPPORTIVE OF BIOENERGY DEVELOPMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kathryn Baskin

    2002-01-01

    Working within the context of the Southern States Biobased Alliance (SSBA) and with officials in each state, the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) is identifying bioenergy-related policies and programs within each state to determine their impact on the development, deployment or use of bioenergy. In addition, SSEB will determine which policies have impacted industry's efforts to develop, deploy or use biobased technologies or products. As a result, SSEB will work with the Southern States Biobased Alliance to determine how policy changes might address any negative impacts or enhance positive impacts

  16. Technological learning in bioenergy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junginger, Martin; Visser, Erika de; Hjort-Gregersen, Kurt; Koornneef, Joris; Raven, Rob; Faaij, Andre; Turkenburg, Wim

    2006-01-01

    The main goal of this article is to determine whether cost reductions in different bioenergy systems can be quantified using the experience curve approach, and how specific issues (arising from the complexity of biomass energy systems) can be addressed. This is pursued by case studies on biofuelled combined heat and power (CHP) plants in Sweden, global development of fluidized bed boilers and Danish biogas plants. As secondary goal, the aim is to identify learning mechanisms behind technology development and cost reduction for the biomass energy systems investigated. The case studies reveal large difficulties to devise empirical experience curves for investment costs of biomass-fuelled power plants. To some extent, this is due to lack of (detailed) data. The main reason, however, are varying plant costs due to differences in scale, fuel type, plant layout, region etc. For fluidized bed boiler plants built on a global level, progress ratios (PRs) for the price of entire plants lies approximately between 90-93% (which is typical for large plant-like technologies). The costs for the boiler section alone was found to decline much faster. The experience curve approach delivers better results, when the production costs of the final energy carrier are analyzed. Electricity from biofuelled CHP-plants yields PRs of 91-92%, i.e. an 8-9% reduction of electricity production costs with each cumulative doubling of electricity production. The experience curve for biogas production displays a PR of 85% from 1984 to the beginning of 1990, and then levels to approximately 100% until 2002. For technologies developed on a local level (e.g. biogas plants), learning-by-using and learning-by-interacting are important learning mechanism, while for CHP plants utilizing fluidized bed boilers, upscaling is probably one of the main mechanisms behind cost reductions

  17. Stump torrefaction for bioenergy application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran, Khanh-Quang; Luo, Xun; Seisenbaeva, Gulaim; Jirjis, Raida

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► First study on torrefaction of stump for bioenergy application. ► Stump can achieve higher energy densification factors. ► Torrefied stump requires longer grinding time than torrefied wood. - Abstract: A fixed bed reactor has been developed for study of biomass torrefaction, followed by thermogravimetric (TG) analyses. Norway spruce stump was used as feedstock. Two other types of biomass, poplar and fuel chips were also included in the study for comparison. Effects of feedstock types and process parameters such as torrefaction temperature and reaction time on fuel properties of torrefied solid product were investigated. The study has demonstrated that fuel properties, including heating values and grindability of the investigated biomasses were improved by torrefaction. Both torrefaction temperature and reaction time had strong effects on the torrefaction process, but temperature effects are stronger than effects of reaction time. At the same torrefaction temperature, the longer reaction time, the better fuel qualities for the solid product were obtained. However, too long reaction times and/or too higher torrefaction temperatures would decrease the solid product yield. The torrefaction conditions of 300 °C for 35 min resulted in the energy densification factor of 1.219 for the stump, which is higher than that of 1.162 for the poplar wood samples and 1.145 for the fuel chips. It appears that torrefied stump requires much longer time for grinding, while its particle size distribution is only slightly better than the others. In addition, the TG analyses have shown that untreated biomass was more reactive than its torrefaction products. The stump has less hemicelluloses than the two other biomass types. SEM analyses indicated that the wood surface structure was broken and destroyed by torrefaction process

  18. Synthesis report: System studies Bioenergy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berntsson, Thore

    2003-01-01

    The present report marks the end of the research program 'System studies Bioenergy' (1998-2002). The program comprised 17 projects performed at 9 universities or research institutes. All project results were studied in order to identify: contributions to our present knowledge; possible gaps of knowledge, methodology or systems perspective that still exist; and the needs for further research. The projects can be classified into the following groups: Resource potential of forest fuels; Industrial use of biofuels; Potential for synthetic fuels (pellets, bio-oils and transportation fuels); System analysis of efficient use of biofuels; and Socio-economic analyses. The total potential for available biofuel has been estimated to be 125-175 TWh/year (excl. black liquors of paper industry). The potential demand is estimated to about 123 TWh/year, or distributed into the different sectors: Industry: 26 TWh/year, Buildings and services: 35 TWh/year, District heating: 31 TWh/year, and electric power generation (incl. cogeneration in district heating): 31 TWh/year. Further research is needed in the following areas: Systems and methodology of more generic character on optimization of production, refining and use of biofuels in order to substitute fossil fuels directly or indirectly; Heat sinks/district heating in combination with cogeneration vs. other power production in a long term perspective (> 10 years), in the light of new technologies, open markets, economic and political incentives; Energy efficiency in industry, esp. paper and pulp with its unique possibility for process integration, biofuel processing and CO 2 separation; How far should the processing/refinement of biofuels go; Importance of factors of scale; New distributed (small-scale) energy technology; International trade in biofuels; Transport and handling costs for biofuel pellets in Europe; System aspects of implementation and incentives; How are biofuels affected if CO 2 from fossil fuels can be separated and

  19. Perspectives for the production of bioethanol from wood and straw in Austria: technical, economic, and ecological aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kravanja, Philipp; Friedl, Anton [Vienna University of Technology, Thermal Process Engineering-Process Simulation, Institute of Chemical Engineering, Wien (Austria); Koenighofer, Kurt; Canella, Lorenza; Jungmeier, Gerfried [Joanneum Research Forschungsgesellschaft mbH - Resources, Graz (Austria)

    2012-06-15

    Bioethanol produced from lignocellulosic resources is a promising candidate for the replacement of fossil fuels. In this study, we aim to determine the perspectives to produce lignocellulosic ethanol in Austria. Technical, environmental and economic aspects are being considered. Thirteen biotechnological production concepts using the raw materials straw and softwood were established and simulated with the steady state flowsheeting software IPSEpro. Bioethanol production cost and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for each system were calculated based on mass and energy balances obtained from process simulation. The emission of GHGs along the entire bioethanol process chain (''from well to wheel'') are compared to two reference systems producing the same amounts of by-products. In all concepts, process heat and considerable amounts of the by-products electricity, heat, pellets, C5 molasses, or biomethane could be obtained from residual biomass. Compared to a reference system driven by fossil energy, GHG emissions can be reduced by up to 76%. The production cost of ethanol was found to between 0.66 EUR and 0.94 EUR per liter of gasoline equivalent. The type and amount of by-product influence technical, economic, and environmental performance significantly. Converting all straw and softwood available in Austria to ethanol would result in an annual production of 340 kt. (orig.)

  20. Energy from whey - comparison of the biogas and bioethanol processes; Energie a partir de petit-lait : comparaison des filieres biogaz et bioethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fruteau de Laclos, H.; Membrez, Y. [Erep SA, Aclens (Switzerland)

    2004-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a project which investigated how energy could be generated from the whey produced in the cheese-making process. The first part of the project aimed to validate a concept for on-site production and use of biogas at a medium-sized cheese factory. The results of the first step, an experimental study carried out using a down-flow fixed-film bio-reactor, are discussed. This allowed the determination of the optimal working parameters as well as providing an estimate of the performance of the process. The second part of the project aimed to compare the bio-ethanol and biogas production processes. It was carried out in collaboration with AlcoSuisse and the Energy Systems Laboratory at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL) in Lausanne. The results of a life-cycle assessment (LCA) are discussed, which compared the two processes from an environmental point of view. Here, two impacts were considered: fossil fuel consumption and greenhouse effect. The replacement of fuel-oil with biogas for heat production and the replacement of conventional petrol with mixture including 5% bio-ethanol were examined. The results are presented that show that there was no significant difference between the two processes. According to the authors, the treatment of one cubic meter of cheese-whey allows savings of more than 20 litres of oil equivalent and 60 kg of CO{sub 2} emissions.

  1. Biogas and bioethanol production in organic farming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oleskowicz-Popiel, P

    2010-08-15

    The consumer demand for environmentally friendly, chemical free and healthy products, as well as concern regarding industrial agriculture's effect on the environment has led to a significant growth of organic farming. On the other hand, organic farmers are becoming interested in direct on-farm energy production which would lead them to independency from fossil fuels and decrease the greenhouse gas emissions from the farm. In the presented work, the idea of biogas and bioenergy production at the organic farm is investigated. This thesis is devoted to evaluate such a possibility, starting from the characterization of raw materials, through optimizing new processes and solutions and finally evaluating the whole on-farm biorefinery concept with the help of a simulation software. (LN)

  2. Biogas and bioethanol production in organic farming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oleskowicz-Popiel, P.

    2010-08-15

    The consumer demand for environmentally friendly, chemical free and healthy products, as well as concern regarding industrial agriculture's effect on the environment has led to a significant growth of organic farming. On the other hand, organic farmers are becoming interested in direct on-farm energy production which would lead them to independency from fossil fuels and decrease the greenhouse gas emissions from the farm. In the presented work, the idea of biogas and bioenergy production at the organic farm is investigated. This thesis is devoted to evaluate such a possibility, starting from the characterization of raw materials, through optimizing new processes and solutions and finally evaluating the whole on-farm biorefinery concept with the help of a simulation software. (LN)

  3. Promoting bioethanol production through clean development mechanism: Findings and lessons learnt from ASIATIC project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gnansounou, Edgard; Bedniaguine, Denis; Dauriat, Arnaud

    2005-12-15

    Global climate change mitigation policies call for increasing use of biomass fuels as renewable substitutes to fossil energy resources. Quantified targets for biofuels introduction in to the market exist in the United States, the European Union, and a number of developing countries. In this context, mixing biologically produced ethanol with conventional gasoline represents an attractive technical option allowing for reducing emissions of greenhouse gases and lessening the dependence on non-renewable petrol in the transportation sector. This paper investigates technological and socio-economic aspects of ethanol production in developing countries, particularly in China, with special focus on determining eligibility of bioethanol projects for Clean Development Mechanism. Basing on the findings of the ASIATIC study (Agriculture and Small to Medium Scale Industries in Peri-urban Areas through Ethanol Production for Transport In China), we analyse how alcohol fuels can be produced in a sustainable way with mutual benefits between rural and urban people. The bioethanol production cost and life cycle CO2 eq. emissions were calculated for six different types of feedstock: sugarcane, sugarcane molasses, sweet sorghum juice, cassava, corn, and sorghum bagasse. Implications of the CDM rules and procedures for bioethanol industry were examined under the angles of environmental and economical additionality, and conformity with the principles of sustainable development. It is found that the starch-based (cassava) ethanol production path has the greatest potential for market penetration in China, followed by the conversion route using sugar-based feedstock (sorghum juice, sugarcane molasses). Meanwhile, the lignocelluloses biomass - to - ethanol technology may represent the highest interest for implementation as Clean Development Mechanism project. (Author)

  4. Decentralised bioenergy systems: A review of opportunities and threats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangoyana, Robert B.; Smith, Timothy F.

    2011-01-01

    Decentralised bioenergy systems are receiving increasing attention due to the potential ability to support local development, create local employment, and contribute to climate change mitigation. These issues, along with other bioenergy sustainability issues, are reviewed through eighteen international case studies with the objective of identifying opportunities and threats to decentralised bioenergy systems. The case studies were selected based on feedstock type, bioenergy type, production capacity, synergistic alliances, ownership structure and physical locations. This variation was used to provide a basis for evaluating opportunities and threats from different contexts. Commercial viability remains the primary concern for the sustainability of decentralised bioenergy systems. There are, however, opportunities for compounding benefits through integrating small scale decentralised bioenergy systems with other production systems. Integrated production, including closed loop models, allow waste materials from one process to be used as inputs in other production processes, and thereby increasing economic, social and environmental outcomes. Synergistic opportunities along the bioenergy production chain, which include feedstock production, bioenergy marketing and distribution could also be exploited by communities and other investors to minimise decentralised production risk. - Research Highlights: → Small scale decentralised bioenergy production is a potentially sustainable energy system. →Economic viability limits small scale decentralised bioenergy production. → Synergistic alliances along the bioenergy production chain could enhance viability.

  5. Bioenergy research programme. Yearbook 1996. Utilization of bioenergy and biomass conversion; Bioenergian tutkimusohjelma. Vuosikirja 1996. Bioenergian kaeyttoe ja biomassan jalostus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikku, P [ed.

    1997-12-01

    The aim of the programme is to increase the use of economically profitable and environmentally sound bioenergy by improving the competitiveness of present peat and wood fuels. Research and development projects will also develop new economically competitive biofuels, new equipment and methods for production, handling and utilisation of biofuels. The total funding for 1996 was 27.3 million FIM and the number of projects 63. The number of projects concerning bioenergy use was 10 and biomass conversion 6. Results of the projects carried out in 1996 are presented in this publication. The aim of the bioenergy use is to develop and demonstrate at least 3-4 new equipment or methods for handling and use of biofuels. The equipment and/or methods should provide economically competitive and environmentally sound energy production. The second aim is to demonstrate 2-3 large-scale biofuel end-use technologies. Each of these should have a potential of 0.2- 0.3 million toe/a till the year 2000. The aims have been achieved in the field of fuel handling technologies and small-scale combustion concepts, but large-scale demonstration projects before the year 2000 seems to be a very challenging aim. The aim of the biomass conversion is to produce basic information on biomass conversion, to evaluate the quality of products, their usability, environmental effects of use as well as the total economy of the production. The objective of biomass conversion is to develop 2-3 new methods, which could be demonstrated, for the production and utilisation of liquefied, gasified and other converted biofuels. The production target is 0.2-0.3 million toe/a by the year 2000 at a competitive price level. The studies focused on the development of flash pyrolysis technology for biomass, and on the study of storage stability of imported wood oils and of their suitability for use in oil-fired boilers and diesel power plants

  6. Combined Biogas and Bioethanol Production: Opportunities and Challenges for Industrial Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Cesaro

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades the increasing energy requirements along with the need to face the consequences of climate change have driven the search for renewable energy sources, in order to replace as much as possible the use of fossil fuels. In this context biomass has generated great interest as it can be converted into energy via several routes, including fermentation and anaerobic digestion. The former is the most common option to produce ethanol, which has been recognized as one of the leading candidates to substitute a large fraction of the liquid fuels produced from oil. As the economic competitiveness of bioethanol fermentation processes has to be enhanced in order to promote its wider implementation, the most recent trends are directed towards the use of fermentation by-products within anaerobic digestion. The integration of both fermentation and anaerobic digestion, in a biorefinery concept, would allow the production of ethanol along with that of biogas, which can be used to produce heat and electricity, thus improving the overall energy balance. This work aims at reviewing the main studies on the combination of both bioethanol and biogas production processes, in order to highlight the strength and weakness of the integrated treatment for industrial application.

  7. Two-steps microwave-assisted treatment on acid hydrolysis of sago pith for bioethanol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunarti, T. C.; Yanti, S. D.; Ruriani, E.

    2017-05-01

    Sago is a genus of palm that can be utilized to produce fermentable sugars as substrate for bioethanol. Sago pith is a heterogeneous substrate consists of starch and fiber. Acid hydrolysis by microwave heating radiation can break down starch and fibers together in a very short time, so it is considered to be very efficient process. The use of microwave energy (as power level) and variation of heating time can produce fermentable sugar with certain characteristics. This study included the preparation and analysis of sago pith flour; process of acid hydrolysis (0.3 M and 0.5 M H2SO4) using two steps microwave heating, first with power level 30% (1, 2 and 3 min) and second with power level 70% (3 min); and ethanol production. The conventional treatment (autoclaving at 121°C for 15 min) was carried for the comparison. The highest fermentable sugar (105.7 g/l) was resulted from microwave heating with power level 30% for 2 min followed by the power level 70% for 3 min. This hydrolyzate then used as substrate for bioethanol fermentation and partially neutralized (pH 3, 4, 5) by using yeast Issatchenkia orientalis, and the highest ethanol (2.8 g/l) was produced in pH 5.

  8. Two stage bioethanol refining with multi litre stacked microbial fuel cell and microbial electrolysis cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugnaux, Marc; Happe, Manuel; Cachelin, Christian Pierre; Gloriod, Olivier; Huguenin, Gérald; Blatter, Maxime; Fischer, Fabian

    2016-12-01

    Ethanol, electricity, hydrogen and methane were produced in a two stage bioethanol refinery setup based on a 10L microbial fuel cell (MFC) and a 33L microbial electrolysis cell (MEC). The MFC was a triple stack for ethanol and electricity co-generation. The stack configuration produced more ethanol with faster glucose consumption the higher the stack potential. Under electrolytic conditions ethanol productivity outperformed standard conditions and reached 96.3% of the theoretically best case. At lower external loads currents and working potentials oscillated in a self-synchronized manner over all three MFC units in the stack. In the second refining stage, fermentation waste was converted into methane, using the scale up MEC stack. The bioelectric methanisation reached 91% efficiency at room temperature with an applied voltage of 1.5V using nickel cathodes. The two stage bioethanol refining process employing bioelectrochemical reactors produces more energy vectors than is possible with today's ethanol distilleries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Evolutionary engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for efficient conversion of red algal biosugars to bioethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hye-Jin; Kim, Soo-Jung; Yoon, Jeong-Jun; Kim, Kyoung Heon; Seo, Jin-Ho; Park, Yong-Cheol

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this work was to apply the evolutionary engineering to construct a mutant Saccharomyces cerevisiae HJ7-14 resistant on 2-deoxy-D-glucose and with an enhanced ability of bioethanol production from galactose, a mono-sugar in red algae. In batch and repeated-batch fermentations, HJ7-14 metabolized 5-fold more galactose and produced ethanol 2.1-fold faster than the parental D452-2 strain. Transcriptional analysis of genes involved in the galactose metabolism revealed that moderate relief from the glucose-mediated repression of the transcription of the GAL genes might enable HJ7-14 to metabolize galactose rapidly. HJ7-14 produced 7.4 g/L ethanol from hydrolysates of the red alga Gelidium amansii within 12 h, which was 1.5-times faster than that observed with D452-2. We demonstrate conclusively that evolutionary engineering is a promising tool to manipulate the complex galactose metabolism in S. cerevisiae to produce bioethanol from red alga. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Production of bio-sugar and bioethanol from coffee residue (CR) by acid-chlorite pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ho Myeong; Choi, Yong-Soo; Lee, Dae-Seok; Kim, Yong-Hwan; Bae, Hyeun-Jong

    2017-07-01

    Nowadays, coffee residue (CR) after roasting is recognized as one of the most useful resources in the world for producing the biofuel and bio-materials. In this study, we evaluated the potential of bio-sugar and bioethanol production from acid-chlorite treated CR. Notably, CR treated three times with acid-chlorite after organic solvent extraction (OSE-3), showed the high monosaccharide content, and the efficient sugar conversion yield compared to the other pretreatment conditions. The OSE-3 (6% substrate loading, w/v) can produce bio-sugar (0.568g/g OSE-3). Also, simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) produced ethanol (0.266g/g OSE-3), and showed an ethanol conversion yield of 73.8% after a 72-h reaction period. These results suggest that acid-chlorite pretreatment can improve the bio-sugar and bioethanol production of CR by removing the phenolic and brown compounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. IEA Bioenergy Countries' Report: Bioenergy policies and status of implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacovsky, Dina [Bioenergy 2020+ GmbH, Graz (Austria); Ludwiczek, Nikolaus [Bioenergy 2020+ GmbH, Graz (Austria); Pointner, Christian [Bioenergy 2020+ GmbH, Graz (Austria); Verma, Vijay Kumar [Bioenergy 2020+ GmbH, Graz (Austria)

    2016-08-05

    This report was prepared from IEA statistical data, information from IRENA, and IEA Bioenergy Tasks’ country reports, combined with data provided by the IEA Bioenergy Executive Committee. All individual country reports were reviewed by the national delegates to the IEA Bioenergy Executive Committee, who have approved the content. In the first section of each country report, national renewable energy targets are presented (first table in each country report), and the main pieces of national legislation are discussed. In the second section of each country report the total primary energy supply (TPES) by resources and the contribution of bioenergy are presented. All data is taken from IEA statistics for the year 2014. Where 2014 data was not available, 2013 data was used. It is worth noting that data reported in national statistics can differ from the IEA data presented, as the reporting categories and definitions are different. In the third section of each country report, the research focus related to bioenergy is discussed. Relevant funding programs, major research institutes and projects are described. In the fourth section, recent major bioenergy developments are described. Finally, in the fifth section, links to sources of information are provided.

  12. Bioethanol production from coconut husk fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirelle Márcio Santos Cabral

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Population growth and the increasing search for healthy foods have led to a major consumption of coconut water and, hence, to an environmental impact caused by the inappropriate disposal of green coconut husks. This lignocellulosic biomass has deserved attention of researchers concerning the seeking of new usages, as, for example, in renewable fuels production technologies. This study examines the potential of green coconut husk fibers as a feedstock for the production of bioethanol. The coconut fibers were pretreated through an alkaline method, hydrolyzed enzymatically and submitted to ethanol fermentation with commercial yeasts of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Despite the significant loss of cellulose (4.42% in relation to the fiber and 17.9% concerning the original cellulose content, the alkaline pretreatment promoted an efficient solubilization of lignin (80%, turning the coconut fibers into a feasible raw material for 2G ethanol production studies. Enzymatic hydrolysis converted 87% of the sugars and the ethanolic fermentation consumed 81% of the substrate in the hydrolyzate, leading to a sugar to ethanol convertion efficiency of 59.6%. These results points out that green coconut husks are a promising alternative to the production of renewable energy.

  13. Wood bioenergy and soil productivity research

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Andrew Scott; Deborah S. Page-Dumroese

    2016-01-01

    Timber harvesting can cause both short- and long-term changes in forest ecosystem functions, and scientists from USDA Forest Service (USDA FS) have been studying these processes for many years. Biomass and bioenergy markets alter the amount, type, and frequency at which material is harvested, which in turn has similar yet specific impacts on sustainable productivity....

  14. Bioenergy production and food security in Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ezedom Theresa

    This will in turn, facilitate industrialization in other sectors of economy through provision of affordable ... bioenergy production on food security, land allocation for energy crop production can be regulated. ... bility determines the type of industries, and the cost of ...... African countries, yeast and crude enzyme production.

  15. Social Aspects of Bioenergy Sustainability Workshop Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luchner, Sarah [Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States); Johnson, Kristen [Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States); Lindauer, Alicia [Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States); McKinnon, Taryn [Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States); Broad, Max [Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States)

    2013-05-30

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Bioenergy Technologies Office held a workshop on “Social Aspects of Bioenergy” on April 24, 2012, in Washington, D.C., and convened a webinar on this topic on May 8, 2012. The findings and recommendations from the workshop and webinar are compiled in this report.

  16. Sustainable bioenergy production from Missouri's Ozark forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry E. Stelzer; Chris Barnett; Verel W. Bensen

    2008-01-01

    The main source of wood fiber for energy resides in Missouri's forests. Alternative bioenergy systems that can use forest thinning residues are electrical energy, thermal energy, and liquid bio-fuel. By applying a thinning rule and accounting for wood fiber that could go into higher value wood products to all live biomass data extracted from the U.S. Forest...

  17. Sustainable forest-based bioenergy in Eurasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Kraxner

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the Russian forest biomass-based bioenergy sector. It is shown that presently – although given abundant resources – the share of heat and electricity from biomass is very minor. With the help of two IIASA models (G4M and BeWhere, future green-field bioenergy plants are identified in a geographically explicit way. Results indicate that by using 3.78 Mt (or 6.16 M m3, twice as much heat and electricity than is presently available from forest biomass could be generated. This amount corresponds to 3.3 % of the total annual wood removals or 12 % of the annually harvested firewood, or about 11 % of illegal logging. With this amount of wood, it is possible to provide an additional 444 thousand households with heat and 1.8 M households with electricity; and at the same time to replace 2.7 Mt of coal or 1.7 Mt of oil or 1.8 G m3 of natural gas, reducing emissions of greenhouse gases from burning fossil fuels by 716 Mt of CO2-equivalent per year. A multitude of co-benefits can be quantified for the socio-economic sector such as green jobs linked to bioenergy. The sustainable sourcing of woody biomass for bioenergy is possible as shown with the help of an online crowdsourcing tool Geo-Wiki.org for forest certification.

  18. Fuel-cycle assessment of selected bioethanol production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, M.; Wang, M.; Hong, H.

    2007-01-01

    A large amount of corn stover is available in the U.S. corn belt for the potential production of cellulosic bioethanol when the production technology becomes commercially ready. In fact, because corn stover is already available, it could serve as a starting point for producing cellulosic ethanol as a transportation fuel to help reduce the nation's demand for petroleum oil. Using the data available on the collection and transportation of corn stover and on the production of cellulosic ethanol, we have added the corn stover-to-ethanol pathway in the GREET model, a fuel-cycle model developed at Argonne National Laboratory. We then analyzed the life-cycle energy use and emission impacts of corn stover-derived fuel ethanol for use as E85 in flexible fuel vehicles (FFVs). The analysis included fertilizer manufacturing, corn farming, farming machinery manufacturing, stover collection and transportation, ethanol production, ethanol transportation, and ethanol use in light-duty vehicles (LDVs). Energy consumption of petroleum oil and fossil energy, emissions of greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide [CO 2 ], nitrous oxide [N 2 O], and methane [CH 4 ]), and emissions of criteria pollutants (carbon monoxide [CO], volatile organic compounds [VOCs], nitrogen oxide [NO x ], sulfur oxide [SO x ], and particulate matter with diameters smaller than 10 micrometers [PM 10 ]) during the fuel cycle were estimated. Scenarios of ethanol from corn grain, corn stover, and other cellulosic feedstocks were then compared with petroleum reformulated gasoline (RFG). Results showed that FFVs fueled with corn stover ethanol blends offer substantial energy savings (94-95%) relative to those fueled with RFG. For each Btu of corn stover ethanol produced and used, 0.09 Btu of fossil fuel is required. The cellulosic ethanol pathway avoids 86-89% of greenhouse gas emissions. Unlike the life cycle of corn grain-based ethanol, in which the ethanol plant consumes most of the fossil fuel, farming consumes most

  19. Bioethanol production: Pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of softwood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tengborg, Charlotte

    2000-05-01

    The enzymatic hydrolysis process can be used to produce bioethanol from softwood, which are the dominating raw material in the Northern hemisphere. This thesis deals with the development of the process focusing on the pretreatment and the enzymatic hydrolysis stages. The influence of pretreatment conditions on sugar yield, and the effect of inhibitors on the ethanol yield, were investigated for spruce and pine. The maximum yields of hemicellulose sugars and glucose were obtained under different pretreatment conditions. This indicates that two-stage pretreatment may be preferable. The added catalysts, H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and SO{sub 2}, resulted in similar total sugar yields about 40 g/100 g dry raw material. However, the fermentability of SO{sub 2}-impregnated material was better. This pretreatment resulted in the formation of inhibitors to the subsequent process steps, e.g. sugar and lignin degradation products. The glucose yield in the enzymatic hydrolysis stage was affected by various parameters such as enzyme loading, temperature, pH, residence time, substrate concentration, and agitation. To decrease the amount of fresh water used and thereby waste water produced, the sugar-rich prehydrolysate from the pretreatment step was included in the enzymatic hydrolysis of the solid fraction, resulting in a reduction in the cellulose conversion of up to 36%. Different prehydrolysate detoxification methods, such as treatment with Ca(OH){sub 2}, laccase, and fermentation using yeast, were investigated. The latter was shown to be very efficient. The amount of fresh water used can be further reduced by recycling various process streams. This was simulated experimentally in a bench-scale process. A reduction in fresh water demand of 50% was obtained without any further negative effects on either hydrolysis or fermentation.

  20. Pressurized liquid extraction of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) with bioethanol:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Jiajin; Guo, Zheng; Glasius, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    To develop an efficient green extraction approach for recovery of bioactive compounds from natural plants, we examined the potential of pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) with bioethanol/water as solvents. The advantages of PLE over other extraction...... approaches, in addition to reduced time/solvent cost, the extract of PLE showed a distinct constituent profile from that of Soxhlet extraction, with significantly improved recovery of diarylheptanoids, etc. Among the pure solvents tested for PLE, bioethanol yield the highest efficiency for recovering most...... constituents of gingerol-related compounds; while for a broad concentration spectrum of ethanol aqueous solutions, 70% ethanol gave the best performance in terms of yield of total extract, complete constituent profile and recovery of most gingerol-related components. PLE with 70% bioethanol operated at 1500...

  1. Activity Tests of Macro-Meso Porous Catalysts over Metal Foam Plate for Steam Reforming of Bio-Ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, No-Kuk; Jeong, Yong Han; Kang, Misook; Lee, Tae Jin

    2018-09-01

    The catalytic activity of a macro-mesoporous catalyst coated on a metal foam plate in the reforming of bio-ethanol to synthesis gas was investigated. The catalysts were prepared by coating a support with a noble metal and transition metal. The catalytic activity for the production of synthetic gas by the reforming of bio-ethanol was compared according to the support material, reaction temperature, and steam/carbon ratio. The catalysts coated on the metal foams were prepared using a template method, in which macro-pores and meso-pores were formed by mixing polymer beads. In particular, the thermodynamic equilibrium composition of bio-ethanol reforming with the reaction temperature and steam/carbon ratio to produce synthetic gas was examined using the HSC (Enthalpy-Entropy-Heat capacity) chemistry program in this study. The composition of hydrogen and carbon monoxide in the reformate gas produced by steam reforming over the Rh/Ni-Ce-Zr/Al2O3-based pellet type catalysts and metal foam catalysts that had been coated with the Rh/Al-Ce-Zr-based catalysts was investigated by experimental activity tests. The activity of the metal foam catalyst was higher than that of the pellet type catalyst.

  2. Scenarios of bioenergy development impacts on regional groundwater withdrawals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uden, Daniel R.; Allen, Craig R.; Mitchell, Rob B.; Guan, Qingfeng; McCoy, Tim D.

    2013-01-01

    Irrigation increases agricultural productivity, but it also stresses water resources (Huffaker and Hamilton 2007). Drought and the potential for drier conditions resulting from climate change could strain water supplies in landscapes where human populations rely on finite groundwater resources for drinking, agriculture, energy, and industry (IPCC 2007). For instance, in the North American Great Plains, rowcrops are utilized for livestock feed, food, and bioenergy production (Cassman and Liska 2007), and a large portion is irrigated with groundwater from the High Plains aquifer system (McGuire 2011). Under projected future climatic conditions, greater crop water use requirements and diminished groundwater recharge rates could make rowcrop irrigation less feasible in some areas (Rosenberg et al. 1999; Sophocleous 2005). The Rainwater Basin region of south central Nebraska, United States, is an intensively farmed and irrigated Great Plains landscape dominated by corn (Zea mays L.) and soybean (Glycine max L.) production (Bishop and Vrtiska 2008). Ten starch-based ethanol plants currently service the region, producing ethanol from corn grain (figure 1). In this study, we explore the potential of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), a drought-tolerant alternative bioenergy feedstock, to impact regional annual groundwater withdrawals for irrigation under warmer and drier future conditions. Although our research context is specific to the Rainwater Basin and surrounding North American Great Plains, we believe the broader research question is internationally pertinent and hope that this study simulates similar research in other areas.

  3. Cellulose factories: advancing bioenergy production from forest trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizrachi, Eshchar; Mansfield, Shawn D; Myburg, Alexander A

    2012-04-01

    Fast-growing, short-rotation forest trees, such as Populus and Eucalyptus, produce large amounts of cellulose-rich biomass that could be utilized for bioenergy and biopolymer production. Major obstacles need to be overcome before the deployment of these genera as energy crops, including the effective removal of lignin and the subsequent liberation of carbohydrate constituents from wood cell walls. However, significant opportunities exist to both select for and engineer the structure and interaction of cell wall biopolymers, which could afford a means to improve processing and product development. The molecular underpinnings and regulation of cell wall carbohydrate biosynthesis are rapidly being elucidated, and are providing tools to strategically develop and guide the targeted modification required to adapt forest trees for the emerging bioeconomy. Much insight has already been gained from the perturbation of individual genes and pathways, but it is not known to what extent the natural variation in the sequence and expression of these same genes underlies the inherent variation in wood properties of field-grown trees. The integration of data from next-generation genomic technologies applied in natural and experimental populations will enable a systems genetics approach to study cell wall carbohydrate production in trees, and should advance the development of future woody bioenergy and biopolymer crops.

  4. Genomics:GTL Bioenergy Research Centers White Paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mansfield, Betty Kay [ORNL; Alton, Anita Jean [ORNL; Andrews, Shirley H [ORNL; Bownas, Jennifer Lynn [ORNL; Casey, Denise [ORNL; Martin, Sheryl A [ORNL; Mills, Marissa [ORNL; Nylander, Kim [ORNL; Wyrick, Judy M [ORNL; Drell, Dr. Daniel [Office of Science, Department of Energy; Weatherwax, Sharlene [U.S. Department of Energy; Carruthers, Julie [U.S. Department of Energy

    2006-08-01

    In his Advanced Energy Initiative announced in January 2006, President George W. Bush committed the nation to new efforts to develop alternative sources of energy to replace imported oil and fossil fuels. Developing cost-effective and energy-efficient methods of producing renewable alternative fuels such as cellulosic ethanol from biomass and solar-derived biofuels will require transformational breakthroughs in science and technology. Incremental improvements in current bioenergy production methods will not suffice. The Genomics:GTL Bioenergy Research Centers will be dedicated to fundamental research on microbe and plant systems with the goal of developing knowledge that will advance biotechnology-based strategies for biofuels production. The aim is to spur substantial progress toward cost-effective production of biologically based renewable energy sources. This document describes the rationale for the establishment of the centers and their objectives in light of the U.S. Department of Energy's mission and goals. Developing energy-efficient and cost-effective methods of producing alternative fuels such as cellulosic ethanol from biomass will require transformational breakthroughs in science and technology. Incremental improvements in current bioenergy-production methods will not suffice. The focus on microbes (for cellular mechanisms) and plants (for source biomass) fundamentally exploits capabilities well known to exist in the microbial world. Thus 'proof of concept' is not required, but considerable basic research into these capabilities remains an urgent priority. Several developments have converged in recent years to suggest that systems biology research into microbes and plants promises solutions that will overcome critical roadblocks on the path to cost-effective, large-scale production of cellulosic ethanol and other renewable energy from biomass. The ability to rapidly sequence the DNA of any organism is a critical part of these new

  5. A biorefinery concept using the green macroalgae Chaetomorpha linum for the coproduction of bioethanol and biogas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Yahmed, Nesrine; Jmel, Mohamed Amine; Ben Alaya, Monia; Bouallagui, Hassib; Marzouki, M. Nejib; Smaali, Issam

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Chaetomorpha linum was used as sustainable feedstock for co-production of bioethanol and biomethane. • An eco-friendly process was developed, only generating 0.3 ± 0.01 g/g of waste. • Ethanol yield obtained was 0.41 g/g reducing sugar. • Methane yield obtained was 0.26 ± 0.045 L/gVS. - Abstract: An innovative integrated biorefinery approach using the green macroalgae Chaetomorpha linum was investigated in the present study for the co-production of bioethanol and biogas. Among three pretreatments of C. linum biomass, consisting of acidic, neutral and alkali ones, 3% NaOH pretreatment gave the best result in terms of thallus disintegration, biomass recovery and enzymatic digestibility as demonstrated by scanning electron microscopy and saccharification tests. The hydrolysis of C. linum feedstock with a crude specific enzyme preparation, locally produced from fermentation of Aspergillus awamori, at 45 °C, pH 5 for 30 h gave the maximum yield of fermentable sugar of 0.22 ± 0.02 g/g dry substrate. An ethanol yield of 0.41 g/g reducing sugar corresponding to about 0.093 g/g pretreated algae was obtained after alcoholic fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In the integrated proposed process, mycelium issued from the fungal fermentation, liquid issued from alkali pretreatment, residual from the non-hydrolysable biomass and all effluents and co-products represent a heterogeneous substrate that feed an anaerobic digester for biogas production. GC-analysis of this later showed that the biomethane yield reached 0.26 ± 0.045 L/gVS. This study presents therefore an eco-friendly biorefining process, which efficiently coproduce bioethanol and biomethane and generate only a single waste (0.3 ± 0.01 g/g) allowing an almost complete conversion of the algal biomass.

  6. A low-energy, cost-effective approach to fruit and citrus peel waste processing for bioethanol production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, In Seong; Lee, Yoon Gyo; Khanal, Sarmir Kumar; Park, Bok Jae; Bae, Hyeun-Jong

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Simple bioprocess of bioethanol production from fruit wastes containing D-limonene. • Two in-house enzymatic bioconversion rates were approximately 90%. • Limonene recovery column (LRC) was designed for absorption of D-limonene. • Ethanol production by immobilized yeast fermentation and LRC was 12-fold greater. - Abstract: Large quantities of fruit waste are generated from agricultural processes worldwide. This waste is often simply dumped into landfills or the ocean. Fruit waste has high levels of sugars, including sucrose, glucose, and fructose, that can be fermented for bioethanol production. However, some fruit wastes, such as citrus peel waste (CPW), contain compounds that can inhibit fermentation and should be removed for efficient bioethanol production. We developed a novel approach for converting single-source CPW (i.e., orange, mandarin, grapefruit, lemon, or lime) or CPW in combination with other fruit waste (i.e., banana peel, apple pomace, and pear waste) to produce bioethanol. Two in-house enzymes were produced from Avicel and CPW and were tested with fruit waste at 12–15% (w/v) solid loading. The rates of enzymatic conversion of fruit waste to fermentable sugars were approximately 90% for all feedstocks after 48 h. We also designed a D-limonene removal column (LRC) that successfully removed this inhibitor from the fruit waste. When the LRC was coupled with an immobilized cell reactor (ICR), yeast fermentation resulted in ethanol concentrations (14.4–29.5 g/L) and yields (90.2–93.1%) that were 12-fold greater than products from ICR fermentation alone

  7. Review of China's bioethanol development and a case study of fuel supply, demand and distribution of bioethanol expansion by national application of E10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao, Jing; Yu, Suiran; Wu, Tianxing

    2011-01-01

    The increasing dependence on imported oil and tremendous greenhouse gases (GHG) emission is making the diversification of primary fuel such as petroleum a critical vital energy and environmental issue in China. China is promoting bioethanol by mandatory use in nine provinces and the expansion is on agenda. This paper first reviews China's bioethanol development. Next, suitable feedstock crops for expanded ethanol production are discussed. Particularly, bioethanol expansion by national application of E10 is investigated from perspectives of potential in bioethanol supply, projected ethanol demand, and the possible cost-effective bioethanol distribution system. It is calculated that by making use of un-used land for feedstock planting and introduction of improved feedstock varieties, potential bioethanol production capacity in China will be up to 25.33 million tons per year. Ethanol demand for national application of E10 is projected to be around 7 million tons per year. A linear optimization model is used to consider the economic costs of distributing bioethanol in China. The optimization result suggests that development of bioethanol industry may focus on Henan, Jilin, Anhui, Jiangxi and Sichuan basin. It also estimates 53.79 RMB per ton of bioethanol for downstream rail or truck transportation remain a relatively small fraction of total fuel cost. Thanks to the well developed railway network in China, more bioethanol can be distributed at a relatively modest premium distribution costs and with low environmental influences. -- Highlights: → China's bioethanol development is reviewed. → Ethanol potential, projected demand and efficient distribution system are studied. → We find that nationwide bioethanol application can be commercially viable. → Impacts of oil and feedstock prices on ethanol expansion are discussed. → Ecological impacts of large scale feedstock crop plantation should be inspected.

  8. Bioenergy options. Multidisciplinary participatory method for assessing bioenergy options for rural villages in Tanzania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kauzeni, A S; Masao, H P; Sawe, E N; Shechambo, F C [Dar Es Salaam Univ. (Tanzania). Inst. of Resource Assessment; Ellegaard, A [Stockholm Environment Inst. (Sweden)

    1999-12-31

    In Tanzania, like in many other developing countries in Southern and Eastern Africa, bioenergy planning has received relatively little attention, compared to planning for `modern` energy sources, although it accounts for about 90% of the country`s energy supply. As a result there is less understanding of the complexity and diversity of bioenergy systems. There is a lack of reliable data and information on bio-resources, their consumption and interaction with social, economic, institutional and environmental factors. This is largely due to lack of adequately developed and easily understood methods of data and information development, analysis and methods of evaluating available bioenergy options. In order to address the above constraints a project was initiated where the general objective was to develop and test a multi-disciplinary research method for identifying bioenergy options that can contribute to satisfying the energy needs of the rural household, agricultural and small scale industrial sectors, promote growth and facilitate sustainable development. The decision on the development and testing of a multidisciplinary research method was based on the fact that in Tanzania several bioenergy programmes have been introduced e.g. tree planting, improved cookstoves, biogas, improved charcoal making kilns etc. for various purposes including combating deforestation; promoting economic growth, substitution of imported petroleum fuels, health improvement, and raising standards of living. However efforts made in introducing these programmes or interventions have met with limited success. This situation prevails because developed bioenergy technologies are not being adopted in adequate numbers by the target groups. There are some indications from the study that some of the real barriers to effective bioenergy interventions or adoption of bioenergy technologies lie at the policy level and not at the project level. After the development and testing of the methodology

  9. Bioenergy options. Multidisciplinary participatory method for assessing bioenergy options for rural villages in Tanzania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kauzeni, A.S.; Masao, H.P.; Sawe, E.N.; Shechambo, F.C. [Dar Es Salaam Univ. (Tanzania). Inst. of Resource Assessment; Ellegaard, A. [Stockholm Environment Inst. (Sweden)

    1998-12-31

    In Tanzania, like in many other developing countries in Southern and Eastern Africa, bioenergy planning has received relatively little attention, compared to planning for `modern` energy sources, although it accounts for about 90% of the country`s energy supply. As a result there is less understanding of the complexity and diversity of bioenergy systems. There is a lack of reliable data and information on bio-resources, their consumption and interaction with social, economic, institutional and environmental factors. This is largely due to lack of adequately developed and easily understood methods of data and information development, analysis and methods of evaluating available bioenergy options. In order to address the above constraints a project was initiated where the general objective was to develop and test a multi-disciplinary research method for identifying bioenergy options that can contribute to satisfying the energy needs of the rural household, agricultural and small scale industrial sectors, promote growth and facilitate sustainable development. The decision on the development and testing of a multidisciplinary research method was based on the fact that in Tanzania several bioenergy programmes have been introduced e.g. tree planting, improved cookstoves, biogas, improved charcoal making kilns etc. for various purposes including combating deforestation; promoting economic growth, substitution of imported petroleum fuels, health improvement, and raising standards of living. However efforts made in introducing these programmes or interventions have met with limited success. This situation prevails because developed bioenergy technologies are not being adopted in adequate numbers by the target groups. There are some indications from the study that some of the real barriers to effective bioenergy interventions or adoption of bioenergy technologies lie at the policy level and not at the project level. After the development and testing of the methodology

  10. Genomic reconstruction to improve bioethanol and ergosterol production of industrial yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ke; Tong, Mengmeng; Gao, Kehui; Di, Yanan; Wang, Pinmei; Zhang, Chunfang; Wu, Xuechang; Zheng, Daoqiong

    2015-02-01

    Baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) is the common yeast used in the fields of bread making, brewing, and bioethanol production. Growth rate, stress tolerance, ethanol titer, and byproducts yields are some of the most important agronomic traits of S. cerevisiae for industrial applications. Here, we developed a novel method of constructing S. cerevisiae strains for co-producing bioethanol and ergosterol. The genome of an industrial S. cerevisiae strain, ZTW1, was first reconstructed through treatment with an antimitotic drug followed by sporulation and hybridization. A total of 140 mutants were selected for ethanol fermentation testing, and a significant positive correlation between ergosterol content and ethanol production was observed. The highest performing mutant, ZG27, produced 7.9 % more ethanol and 43.2 % more ergosterol than ZTW1 at the end of fermentation. Chromosomal karyotyping and proteome analysis of ZG27 and ZTW1 suggested that this breeding strategy caused large-scale genome structural variations and global gene expression diversities in the mutants. Genetic manipulation further demonstrated that the altered expression activity of some genes (such as ERG1, ERG9, and ERG11) involved in ergosterol synthesis partly explained the trait improvement in ZG27.

  11. Enhanced Bioethanol Production from Potato Peel Waste Via Consolidated Bioprocessing with Statistically Optimized Medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Tahmina; Miah, Abdul Bathen; Mahmud, Siraje Arif; Mahin, Abdullah-Al-

    2018-04-12

    In this study, an extensive screening was undertaken to isolate some amylolytic microorganisms capable of producing bioethanol from starchy biomass through Consolidated Bioprocessing (CBP). A total of 28 amylolytic microorganisms were isolated, from which 5 isolates were selected based on high α-amylase and glucoamylase activities and identified as Candida wangnamkhiaoensis, Hyphopichia pseudoburtonii (2 isolates), Wickerhamia sp., and Streptomyces drozdowiczii based on 26S rDNA and 16S rDNA sequencing. Wickerhamia sp. showed the highest ethanol production (30.4 g/L) with fermentation yield of 0.3 g ethanol/g starch. Then, a low cost starchy waste, potato peel waste (PPW) was used as a carbon source to produce ethanol by Wickerhamia sp. Finally, in order to obtain maximum ethanol production from PPW, a fermentation medium was statistically designed. The effect of various medium ingredients was evaluated initially by Plackett-Burman design (PBD), where malt extracts, tryptone, and KH 2 PO 4 showed significantly positive effect (p value < 0.05). Using Response Surface Modeling (RSM), 40 g/L (dry basis) PPW and 25 g/L malt extract were found optimum and yielded 21.7 g/L ethanol. This study strongly suggests Wickerhamia sp. as a promising candidate for bioethanol production from starchy biomass, in particular, PPW through CBP.

  12. Progress in the production of bioethanol on starch-based feedstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragiša Savić

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Bioethanol produced from renewable biomass, such as sugar, starch, or lignocellulosic materials, is one of the alternative energy resources, which is both renewable and environmentally friendly. Although, the priority in global future ethanol production is put on lignocellulosic processing, which is considered as one of the most promising second-generation biofuel technologies, the utilizetion of lignocellulosic material for fuel ethanol is still under improvement. Sugar- based (molasses, sugar cane, sugar beet and starch-based (corn, wheat, triticale, potato, rice, etc. feedstock are still currently predominant at the industrial level and they are, so far, economically favorable compared to lingocelluloses. Currently, approx. 80 % of total world ethanol production is obtained from the fermentation of simple sugars by yeast. In Serbia, one of the most suitable and available agricultural raw material for the industrial ethanol production are cereals such as corn, wheat and triticale. In addition, surpluses of this feedstock are being produced in our country constantly. In this paper, a brief review of the state of the art in bioethanol production and biomass availability is given, pointing out the progress possibilities on starch-based production. The progress possibilities are discussed in the domain of feedstock choice and pretreatment, optimization of fermentation, process integration and utilization of the process byproducts.

  13. A Factorial Analysis Study on Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Fiber Pressed Oil Palm Frond for Bioethanol Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, F. S.; Yussof, H. W.; Zahari, M. A. K. M.; Illias, R. M.; Rahman, R. A.

    2016-03-01

    Different technologies have been developed to for the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to suitable fermentation substrates for bioethanol production. The enzymatic conversion of cellulose seems to be the most promising technology as it is highly specific and does not produce substantial amounts of unwanted byproducts. The effects of agitation speed, enzyme loading, temperature, pH and reaction time on the conversion of glucose from fiber pressed oil palm frond (FPOPF) for bioethanol production were screened by statistical analysis using response surface methodology (RSM). A half fraction two-level factorial analysis with five factors was selected for the experimental design to determine the best enzymatic conditions that produce maximum amount of glucose. FPOPF was pre-treated with alkaline prior to enzymatic hydrolysis. The enzymatic hydrolysis was performed using a commercial enzyme Cellic CTec2. From this study, the highest yield of glucose concentration was 9.736 g/L at 72 hours reaction time at 35 °C, pH 5.6, and 1.5% (w/v) of enzyme loading. The model obtained was significant with p-value model had a maximum point which is likely to be the optimum point and possible for the optimization process.

  14. Fenton process combined with coagulation for the treatment of black liquor from bioethanol wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muryanto, Muryanto; Hanifah, Ummu; Amriani, Feni; Ibadurrahman, Ahmad Faiz; Sari, Ajeng Arum

    2017-11-01

    High amounts of black liquor are generated from bioethanol production by using oil palm empty fruit bunches. The black liquor is waste from alkaline pretreatment, it contains high amount of an alkaline solution (NaOH). The black liquor wastewater was highly contaminated with organic materials, and quite toxic for aquatic ecosystems if discharged directly into waters. This study aimed to determine ability of Fenton process combined with coagulation to treat black liquor. The addition 5% of polyaluminium chloride (PAC) could decolorized black liquor, degraded lignin, and produced sludge 70.64%, 68.28%, and 2.76 gram, respectively. Decolorization of black liquor was in line with degradation of black liquor because lignin is the main compound in black liquor. SEM images after addition of PAC of 5% indicated fragmentation of structure. Fenton reagent consist of 0.7 M FeSO4+ 3M H2O2 has able to decolorize black liquor, degrade lignin, and produce sludge 51.67% and 25.44%, and 0.44 gram, respectively. It was concluded that black liquor wastewater from bioethanol can be treated by using Fenton process combined with coagulation. However, these methods still need improvement to obtain the higher degradation rate, and coagulation sludge needs further consideration.

  15. Analysis and decrease of the energy demand of bioethanol-production by process integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfeffer, Martin; Wukovits, Walter; Beckmann, Georg; Friedl, Anton [Vienna University of Technology, Getreidemarkt 9, A-1060 Vienna (Austria)

    2007-11-15

    Process simulation was used to decrease the external heat demand during the production of bioethanol by integration in a network of facilities for heat and power generation. Models for bioethanol fermentation and purification process, the production of DDGS as well as production and utilization of biogas were developed to calculate the heat demand of bioethanol-production and the amount of heat and power generated from residues of the bioethanol process. Depending on the form of biogas utilization (CHP-plant, biogas fired boiler) and the capacity of the bioethanol plant, the conversion of stillage from the bioethanol process to biogas covers a considerable amount of the heat demand necessary for bioethanol-production and purification. (author)

  16. Role of community acceptance in sustainable bioenergy projects in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eswarlal, Vimal Kumar; Vasudevan, Geoffrey; Dey, Prasanta Kumar; Vasudevan, Padma

    2014-01-01

    Community acceptance has been identified as one of the key requirements for a sustainable bioenergy project. However less attention has been paid to this aspect from developing nations and small projects perspective. Therefore this research examines the role of community acceptance for sustainable small scale bioenergy projects in India. While addressing the aim, this work identifies influence of community over bioenergy projects, major concerns of communities regarding bioenergy projects and factors influencing perceptions of communities about bioenergy projects. The empirical research was carried out on four bioenergy companies in India as case studies. It has been identified that communities have significant influence over bioenergy projects in India. Local air pollution, inappropriate storage of by-products and credibility of developer are identified as some of the important concerns. Local energy needs, benefits to community from bioenergy companies, level of trust on company and relationship between company and the community are some of the prime factors which influence community's perception on bioenergy projects. This research sheds light on important aspects related to community acceptance of bioenergy projects, and this information would help practitioners in understanding the community perceptions and take appropriate actions to satisfy them

  17. Stream Health Sensitivity to Landscape Changes due to Bioenergy Crops Expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nejadhashemi, A.; Einheuser, M. D.; Woznicki, S. A.

    2012-12-01

    Global demand for bioenergy has increased due to uncertainty in oil markets, environmental concerns, and expected increases in energy consumption worldwide. To develop a sustainable biofuel production strategy, the adverse environmental impacts of bioenergy crops expansion should be understood. To study the impact of bioenergy crops expansion on stream health, the adaptive neural-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) was used to predict macroinvertebrate and fish stream health measures. The Hilsenhoff Biotic Index (HBI), Family Index of Biological Integrity (Family IBI), and Number of Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera taxa (EPT taxa) were used as macroinvertebrate measures, while the Index of Biological Integrity (IBI) was used for fish. A high-resolution biophysical model built using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool was used to obtain water quantity and quality variables for input into the ANFIS stream health predictive models. Twenty unique crop rotations were developed to examine impacts of bioenergy crops expansion on stream health in the Saginaw Bay basin. Traditional intensive row crops generated more pollution than current landuse conditions, while second-generation biofuel crops associated with less intensive agricultural activities resulted in water quality improvement. All three macroinvertebrate measures were negatively impacted during intensive row crop productions but improvement was predicted when producing perennial crops. However, the expansion of native grass, switchgrass, and miscanthus production resulted in reduced IBI relative to first generation row crops. This study demonstrates that ecosystem complexity requires examination of multiple stream health measures to avoid potential adverse impacts of landuse change on stream health.

  18. Food supply and bioenergy production within the global cropland planetary boundary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, R C; Engström, K; Olin, S; Alexander, P; Arneth, A; Rounsevell, M D A

    2018-01-01

    Supplying food for the anticipated global population of over 9 billion in 2050 under changing climate conditions is one of the major challenges of the 21st century. Agricultural expansion and intensification contributes to global environmental change and risks the long-term sustainability of the planet. It has been proposed that no more than 15% of the global ice-free land surface should be converted to cropland. Bioenergy production for land-based climate mitigation places additional pressure on limited land resources. Here we test normative targets of food supply and bioenergy production within the cropland planetary boundary using a global land-use model. The results suggest supplying the global population with adequate food is possible without cropland expansion exceeding the planetary boundary. Yet this requires an increase in food production, especially in developing countries, as well as a decrease in global crop yield gaps. However, under current assumptions of future food requirements, it was not possible to also produce significant amounts of first generation bioenergy without cropland expansion. These results suggest that meeting food and bioenergy demands within the planetary boundaries would need a shift away from current trends, for example, requiring major change in the demand-side of the food system or advancing biotechnologies.

  19. A meta-analysis of the greenhouse gas abatement of bioenergy factoring in land use changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Akkari, M; Réchauchère, O; Bispo, A; Gabrielle, B; Makowski, D

    2018-06-04

    Non-food biomass production is developing rapidly to fuel the bioenergy sector and substitute dwindling fossil resources, which is likely to impact land-use patterns worldwide. Recent publications attempting to factor this effect into the climate mitigation potential of bioenergy chains have come to widely variable conclusions depending on their scope, data sources or methodology. Here, we conducted a first of its kind, systematic review of scientific literature on this topic and derived quantitative trends through a meta-analysis. We showed that second-generation biofuels and bioelectricity have a larger greenhouse gas (GHG) abatement potential than first generation biofuels, and stand the best chances (with a 80 to 90% probability range) of achieving a 50% reduction compared to fossil fuels. Conversely, directly converting forest ecosystems to produce bioenergy feedstock appeared as the worst-case scenario, systematically leading to negative GHG savings. On the other hand, converting grassland appeared to be a better option and entailed a 60% chance of halving GHG emissions compared to fossil energy sources. Since most climate mitigation scenarios assume still larger savings, it is critical to gain better insight into land-use change effects to provide a more realistic estimate of the mitigation potential associated with bioenergy.

  20. Over production of fermentable sugar for bioethanol production from carbohydrate-rich Malaysian food waste via sequential acid-enzymatic hydrolysis pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafid, Halimatun Saadiah; Nor 'Aini, Abdul Rahman; Mokhtar, Mohd Noriznan; Talib, Ahmad Tarmezee; Baharuddin, Azhari Samsu; Umi Kalsom, Md Shah

    2017-09-01

    In Malaysia, the amount of food waste produced is estimated at approximately 70% of total municipal solid waste generated and characterised by high amount of carbohydrate polymers such as starch, cellulose, and sugars. Considering the beneficial organic fraction contained, its utilization as an alternative substrate specifically for bioethanol production has receiving more attention. However, the sustainable production of bioethanol from food waste is linked to the efficient pretreatment needed for higher production of fermentable sugar prior to fermentation. In this work, a modified sequential acid-enzymatic hydrolysis process has been developed to produce high concentration of fermentable sugars; glucose, sucrose, fructose and maltose. The process started with hydrothermal and dilute acid pretreatment by hydrochloric acid (HCl) and sulphuric acid (H 2 SO 4 ) which aim to degrade larger molecules of polysaccharide before accessible for further steps of enzymatic hydrolysis by glucoamylase. A kinetic model is proposed to perform an optimal hydrolysis for obtaining high fermentable sugars. The results suggested that a significant increase in fermentable sugar production (2.04-folds) with conversion efficiency of 86.8% was observed via sequential acid-enzymatic pretreatment as compared to dilute acid pretreatment (∼42.4% conversion efficiency). The bioethanol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae utilizing fermentable sugar obtained shows ethanol yield of 0.42g/g with conversion efficiency of 85.38% based on the theoretical yield was achieved. The finding indicates that food waste can be considered as a promising substrate for bioethanol production. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Application of lignocellulolytic fungi for bioethanol production from renewable biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jović Jelena M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pretreatment is a necessary step in the process of conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol; by changing the structure of lignocellulose, enhances enzymatic hydrolysis, but, often, it consumes large amounts of energy and/or needs an application of expensive and toxic chemicals, which makes the process economically and ecologically unfavourable. Application of lignocellulolytic fungi (from the class Ascomycetes, Basidiomycetes and Deuteromycetes is an attractive method for pre-treatment, environmentally friendly and does not require the investment of energy. Fungi produce a wide range of enzymes and chemicals, which, combined in a variety of ways, together successfully degrade lignocellulose, as well as aromatic polymers that share features with lignin. On the basis of material utilization and features of a rotten wood, they are divided in three types of wood-decay fungi: white rot, brown rot and soft rot fungi. White rot fungi are the most efficient lignin degraders in nature and, therefore, have a very important role in carbon recycling from lignified wood. This paper describes fungal mechanisms of lignocellulose degradation. They involve oxidative and hydrolytic mechanisms. Lignin peroxidase, manganese peroxidase, laccase, cellobiose dehydrogenase and enzymes able to catalyze formation of hydroxyl radicals (•OH such as glyoxal oxidase, pyranose-2-oxidase and aryl-alcohol oxidase are responsible for oxidative processes, while cellulases and hemicellulases are involved in hydrolytic processes. Throughout the production stages, from pre-treatment to fermentation, the possibility of their application in the technology of bioethanol production is presented. Based on previous research, the advantages and disadvantages of biological pre-treatment are pointed out.

  2. Determining the potential of inedible weed biomass for bio-energy and ethanol production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siripong Premjet

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Surveys of indigenous weeds in six provinces located in the low northern part of Thailand were undertaken to determine the potential of weed biomass for bio-energy and bio-ethanol. The results reveal that most of the weed samples had low moisture contents and high lower heating values (LHVs. The LHVs at the highest level, ranging from 17.7 to 18.9 Mg/kg, and at the second highest level, ranging from 16.4 to 17.6 Mg/kg, were obtained from 11 and 31 weed species, respectively. It was found that most of the collected weed samples contained high cellulose and low lignin contents. Additionally, an estimate of the theoretical ethanol yields based on the amount of cellulose and hemicellulose in each weed species indicated that a high ethanol yield resulted from weed biomasses with high cellulose and hemicellulose contents. Among the collected weed species, the highest level of ethanol yield, ranging from 478.9 to 548.5 L/ton (substrate, was achieved from 11 weed species. It was demonstrated that most of the collected weed species tested have the potential for thermal conversion and can be used as substrates for ethanol production.

  3. Bioenergy and biodiversity: Key lessons from the Pan American region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kline, Keith L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Martinelli, Fernanda Silva [UFRRJ/Conservation International Brazil, Seropedica (Brazil); Mayer, Audrey L. [Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States); Medeiros, Rodrigo [Federal Rural Univ. of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Oliveira, Camila Ortolan F. [Univ. of Campinas, Campinas (Brazil); Sparovek, Gerd [Univ. of Sao Paulo, Piracicaba (Brazil); Walter, Arnaldo [Univ. of Campinas, Campinas (Brazil); Venier, Lisa A. [Canadian Forest Service, Sault Ste. Marie (Canada). Great Lakes Forestry Centre

    2015-06-24

    Understanding how large-scale bioenergy production can affect biodiversity and ecosystems is important if society is to meet current and future sustainable development goals. A variety of bioenergy production systems have been established within different contexts throughout the Pan American region, with wide-ranging results in terms of documented and projected effects on biodiversity and ecosystems. The Pan American region is home to the majority of commercial bioenergy production and therefore the region offers a broad set of experiences and insights on both conflicts and opportunities for biodiversity and bioenergy. This paper synthesizes lessons learned focusing on experiences in Canada, the United States, and Brazil, regarding the conflicts that can arise between bioenergy production and ecological conservation, and benefits that can be derived when bioenergy policies promote planning and more sustainable land management systems. Lastly, we propose a research agenda to address priority information gaps that are relevant to biodiversity concerns and related policy challenges in the Pan American region.

  4. Bioenergy and Biodiversity: Key Lessons from the Pan American Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, Keith L.; Martinelli, Fernanda Silva; Mayer, Audrey L.; Medeiros, Rodrigo; Oliveira, Camila Ortolan F.; Sparovek, Gerd; Walter, Arnaldo; Venier, Lisa A.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding how large-scale bioenergy production can affect biodiversity and ecosystems is important if society is to meet current and future sustainable development goals. A variety of bioenergy production systems have been established within different contexts throughout the Pan American region, with wide-ranging results in terms of documented and projected effects on biodiversity and ecosystems. The Pan American region is home to the majority of commercial bioenergy production and therefore the region offers a broad set of experiences and insights on both conflicts and opportunities for biodiversity and bioenergy. This paper synthesizes lessons learned focusing on experiences in Canada, the United States, and Brazil regarding the conflicts that can arise between bioenergy production and ecological conservation, and benefits that can be derived when bioenergy policies promote planning and more sustainable land-management systems. We propose a research agenda to address priority information gaps that are relevant to biodiversity concerns and related policy challenges in the Pan American region.

  5. Thermodynamic evaluation of hydrogen production for fuel cells by using bio-ethanol steam reforming: Effect of carrier gas addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Liliana; Kafarov, Viatcheslav

    Omitting the influence of the addition of carrier gas to the reaction system for hydrogen production by bio-ethanol steam reforming can lead to wrong conclusions, especially when it is going to be made to scale. The effect of carrier gas addition to produce hydrogen using bio-ethanol steam reforming to feed fuel cells was evaluated. Thermodynamic calculations in equilibrium conditions were made, however the analysis derived from them can also be applied to kinetic conditions. These calculations were made by using the Aspen-HYSYS software at atmospheric pressure and different values of temperature, water/ethanol molar ratios, and inert (argon)/(water/ethanol) molar ratios. The addition of inert carrier gas modifies the concentrations of the reaction products in comparison to those obtained without its presence. This behavior occurs because most of the reactions which take place in bio-ethanol steam reforming have a positive difference of moles. This fact enhances the system sensitivity to inert concentration at low and moderated temperatures (<700 °C). At high values of temperature, the inert addition does not influence the composition of the reaction products because of the predominant effect of inverse WGS reaction.

  6. Thermodynamic evaluation of hydrogen production for fuel cells by using bio-ethanol steam reforming: Effect of carrier gas addition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez, Liliana; Kafarov, Viatcheslav [Universidad Industrial de Santander, Escuela de Ingenieria Quimica, Bucaramanga 678 (Colombia)

    2009-07-01

    Omitting the influence of the addition of carrier gas to the reaction system for hydrogen production by bio-ethanol steam reforming can lead to wrong conclusions, especially when it is going to be made to scale. The effect of carrier gas addition to produce hydrogen using bio-ethanol steam reforming to feed fuel cells was evaluated. Thermodynamic calculations in equilibrium conditions were made, however the analysis derived from them can also be applied to kinetic conditions. These calculations were made by using the Aspen-HYSYS software at atmospheric pressure and different values of temperature, water/ethanol molar ratios, and inert (argon)/(water/ethanol) molar ratios. The addition of inert carrier gas modifies the concentrations of the reaction products in comparison to those obtained without its presence. This behavior occurs because most of the reactions which take place in bio-ethanol steam reforming have a positive difference of moles. This fact enhances the system sensitivity to inert concentration at low and moderated temperatures (<700 C). At high values of temperature, the inert addition does not influence the composition of the reaction products because of the predominant effect of inverse WGS reaction. (author)

  7. Effect of Operating Conditions on Pollutants Concentration Emitted from a Spark Ignition Engine Fueled with Gasoline Bioethanol Blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haroun A. K. Shahad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is an experimental investigation of the effect of bioethanol gasoline blending on exhaust emissions in terms of carbon dioxide CO2, carbon monoxide CO, unburnt hydrocarbons UHC, and nitric oxide NOx of a spark ignition engine. Tests are conducted at controlled throttle and variable speed condition over the range of 1200 to 2000 rpm with intervals 400 rpm. Different compression ratios are tested for each speed, namely (7,8,10, and 11. Pure gasoline and bioethanol gasoline blends are used. The bioethanol used is produced from Iraqi date crop (Zehdi. Blending is done on energy replacement bases. Ethanol energy ratio (EER used is 5%, 10%, and 15%. At each of the three designated engine speeds, the torque is set as 0, 3, 7, 10, and 14 N·m. It is found that ethanol blending reduces CO and UHC concentration in the exhaust gases by about 45% and 40.15%, respectively, and increases NOx and CO2 concentrations in the exhaust gases by about 16.18% and 7.5%, respectively. It is found also that load and speed increase causes an increase in CO2 and NOx concentrations and reduces CO and UHC concentrations. It is also found that increasing the compression ratio causes the emissions of CO2 and NOx to decrease and those of CO and UHC to increase.

  8. BIOETHANOL PRODUCTION BY MISCANTHUS AS A LIGNOCELLULOSIC BIOMASS: FOCUS ON HIGH EFFICIENCY CONVERSION TO GLUCOSE AND ETHANOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minhee Han Mail

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Current ethanol production processes using crops such as corn and sugar cane have been well established. However, the utilization of cheaper lignocellulosic biomass could make bioethanol more competitive with fossil fuels while avoiding the ethical concerns associated with using potential food resources. In this study, Miscanthus, a lignocellulosic biomass, was pretreated using NaOH to produce bioethanol. The pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis conditions were evaluated by response surface methodology (RSM. The optimal conditions were found to be 145.29 °C, 28.97 min, and 1.49 M for temperature, reaction time, and NaOH concentration, respectively. Enzymatic digestibility of pretreated Miscanthus was examined at various enzyme loadings (10 to 70 FPU/g cellulose of cellulase and 30 CbU/g of β-glucosidase. Regarding enzymatic digestibility, 50 FPU/g cellulose of cellulase and 30 CbU/g of β-glucosidase were selected as the test concentrations, resulting in a total glucose conversion rate of 83.92%. Fermentation of hydrolyzed Miscanthus using Saccharomyces cerevisiae resulted in an ethanol concentration of 59.20 g/L at 20% pretreated biomass loading. The results presented here constitute a significant contribution to the production of bioethanol from Miscanthus.

  9. Regulation of Lactobacillus plantarum contamination on the carbohydrate and energy related metabolisms of Saccharomyces cerevisiae during bioethanol fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Shi-Jun; Lin, Xiang-Hua; Li, Hao

    2015-11-01

    During the industrial bioethanol fermentation, Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells are often stressed by bacterial contaminants, especially lactic acid bacteria. Generally, lactic acid bacteria contamination can inhibit S. cerevisiae cell growth through secreting lactic acid and competing with yeast cells for micronutrients and living space. However, whether are there still any other influences of lactic acid bacteria on yeast or not? In this study, Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC 8014 was co-cultivated with S. cerevisiae S288c to mimic the L. plantarum contamination in industrial bioethanol fermentation. The contaminative L. plantarum-associated expression changes of genes involved in carbohydrate and energy related metabolisms in S. cerevisiae cells were determined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction to evaluate the influence of L. plantarum on carbon source utilization and energy related metabolism in yeast cells during bioethanol fermentation. Contaminative L. plantarum influenced the expression of most of genes which are responsible for encoding key enzymes involved in glucose related metabolisms in S. cerevisiae. Specific for, contaminated L. plantarum inhibited EMP pathway but promoted TCA cycle, glyoxylate cycle, HMP, glycerol synthesis pathway, and redox pathway in S. cerevisiae cells. In the presence of L. plantarum, the carbon flux in S. cerevisiae cells was redistributed from fermentation to respiratory and more reducing power was produced to deal with the excess NADH. Moreover, L. plantarum contamination might confer higher ethanol tolerance to yeast cells through promoting accumulation of glycerol. These results also highlighted our knowledge about relationship between contaminative lactic acid bacteria and S. cerevisiae during bioethanol fermentation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Perspectives for RandD in Bioenergy in the Baltic States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmberg, Rurik (Technopolis Group, Stockholm (Sweden) )

    2009-11-15

    This study has identified two almost contradictory trends regarding bioenergy in the Baltic States. On the one hand, RandD performed in bioenergy in the Baltic States is rather limited. This might be somewhat surprising, because on the other hand various forms of bioenergy are either already used on a large scale or are widely assumed to become important in the near future. Bioenergy is explicitly recognized in various policy plans as an important component of the energy system in all the Baltic States. Thus the limited RandD efforts raise a number of questions, which probably lack unequivocal answers, but which would be important to discuss in the Baltic States. In all three Baltic States, bioenergy has a major potential. The present trend with boiler houses using biomass in a district heating systems commenced in the 1990s with significant foreign support. Technology was mainly imported, but in some cases local producers have drawn upon these experiences and become producers in their own right. The result has been that the Baltic States have relatively well developed bioenergy technology in use in district heating. But perhaps more importantly, there is know-how and experience in the Baltic States from the use of bioenergy, which however needs to be constantly upgraded. Regarding interest groups, one question raised by some interviewees was whether the natural gas industry with Russian Gazprom as the key player has a bigger say in the energy policy of the Baltic States than officially admitted. Although this issue remains speculative, the question as such is justified and should not be omitted from the discussion. The interest groups behind bioenergy are relatively weak, at least in comparison with other interest groups in the energy sector. As long as the farmers' organizations are not unambiguously behind bioenergy, the political support for investments in developing new technology is likely to remain lukewarm. Cooperation between the Baltic States in

  11. The potential for second generation bio-ethanol production from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A review of possible bio-sources that can be used for bioethanol production with emphasis on those that have potential of replacing conventional fuels with little or minor modification of existing biomass production capacity and trend is presented. Data analysis indicates that the straw from maize, sorghum and wheat can ...

  12. Microalgal biomass pretreatment for bioethanol production: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Velazquez-Lucio

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Biofuels derived from microalgae biomass have received a great deal of attention owing to their high potentials as sustainable alternatives to fossil fuels. Microalgae have a high capacity of CO2 fixation and depending on their growth conditions, they can accumulate different quantities of lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates. Microalgal biomass can, therefore, represent a rich source of fermentable sugars for third generation bioethanol production. The utilization of microalgal carbohydrates for bioethanol production follows three main stages: i pretreatment, ii saccharification, and iii fermentation. One of the most important stages is the pretreatment, which is carried out to increase the accessibility to intracellular sugars, and thus plays an important role in improving the overall efficiency of the bioethanol production process. Diverse types of pretreatments are currently used including chemical, thermal, mechanical, biological, and their combinations, which can promote cell disruption, facilitate extraction, and result in the modification the structure of carbohydrates as well as the production of fermentable sugars. In this review, the different pretreatments used on microalgae biomass for bioethanol production are presented and discussed. Moreover, the methods used for starch and total carbohydrates quantification in microalgae biomass are also briefly presented and compared.

  13. The water footprint of sweeteners and bio-ethanol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerbens-Leenes, Winnie; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    2012-01-01

    An increasing demand for food together with a growing demand for energy crops result in an increasing demand for and competition over water. Sugar cane, sugar beet and maize are not only essential food crops, but also important feedstock for bio-ethanol. Crop growth requires water, a scarce

  14. Bioethanol production from date palm fruit waste fermentation using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CDPW is a renewable and sustainable resource of energy that is not greatly used in industries. The date is rich in biodegradable sugars, providing bioethanol after fermentation during 72 h at 30°C in the presence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast and the distillation of date's juice obtained. In the first experience, a solar ...

  15. Sugar beet genotype effect on potential of bioethanol production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Variation on ethanol production were intensively related to the chemical composition of root, especially sugar content, potassium impurity, syrup purity and some characteristics such as root dry matter and root length. Bioethanol production was enhanced by increasing the sugar content and root yield in sugar beet. Sugar ...

  16. Bioethanol production from Curcubita pepo and Opilia amentacea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Subsequently, the highest outputs of 60.72 ± 0.68 and 50.93 ± 1.61 g ethanol/kg were obtained respectively with O. amentacea and C. pepo. In the same time, 460.97 ± 8.66 g ethanol/kg were got as maximum output from sucrose (NG). Keywords: Fruit juices, enrichment, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, fermentation, bioethanol

  17. Energy Efficient Bioethanol Purification by Heat Pump Assisted Extractive Distillation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiss, Anton A.; Luo, Hao; Bildea, Costin Sorin

    2015-01-01

    The purification of bioethanol fuel requires an energy demanding separation process to concentrate the diluted streams obtained in the fermentation stage and to overcome the azeotropic behaviour of ethanol-water mixture. The classic separation sequence consists of three distillation columns that

  18. Novel heat-pump-assisted extractive distillation for bioethanol purification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luo, Hao; Bildea, Costin Sorin; Kiss, Anton A.

    2015-01-01

    The purification of bioethanol fuel involves an energy-intensive separation process to concentrate the diluted streams obtained in the fermentation stage and to overcome the azeotropic behavior of the ethanol-water mixture. The conventional separation sequence employs three distillation columns that

  19. Integrated decision making for the optimal bioethanol supply chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corsano, Gabriela; Fumero, Yanina; Montagna, Jorge M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Optimal allocation, design and production planning of integrated ethanol plants is considered. • Mixed Integer Programming model is presented for solving the integration problem. • Different tradeoffs can be assessed and analyzed. • The modeling framework represents an useful tool for guiding decision making. - Abstract: Bioethanol production poses different challenges that require an integrated approach. Usually previous works have focused on specific perspectives of the global problem. On the contrary, bioethanol, in particular, and biofuels, in general, requires an integrated decision making framework that takes into account the needs and concerns of the different members involved in its supply chain. In this work, a Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) model for the optimal allocation, design and production planning of integrated ethanol/yeast plants is considered. The proposed formulation addresses the relations between different aspects of the bioethanol supply chain and provides an efficient tool to assess the global operation of the supply chain taking into account different points of view. The model proposed in this work simultaneously determines the structure of a three-echelon supply chain (raw material sites, production facilities and customer zones), the design of each installed plant and operational considerations through production campaigns. Yeast production is considered in order to reduce the negative environmental impact caused by bioethanol residues. Several cases are presented in order to assess the approach capabilities and to evaluate the tradeoffs among all the decisions

  20. Evaluation and Modification of Processes for Bioethanol Separation and Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnner P Sitompul

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper concerns on process evaluation and modification for bioethanol separation and production by applying pinch technology. Further, the paper is also focused on obtaining a most energy-efficient process among several processes. Three basic process configurations of bioethanol separation and production were selected for this study. The three separations and production systems are Othmer process, Barbet process and a separation process that operates under vacuum condition. Basically, each process is combination of Danish Distilleries process with a separation system yielding 95% (v/v bioethanol. The production capacity of the plant is estimated about 4 x 107 litre of bioethanol 95% (v/v per year. The result of the studies shows that the most energy efficient process among the three processes evaluated is the Othmer process, followed by the Barbet process and the process involving vacuum operation. The evaluation also shows that further energy saving can be carried for Barbet and Othmer process configuration when Tmin = 10oC for heat exchange possible.

  1. Incorporating Bioenergy in Sustainable Landscape Designs Workshop Two: Agricultural Landscapes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-08-01

    The Bioenergy Technologies Office hosted two workshops on Incorporating Bioenergy in Sustainable Landscape Designs with Oak Ridge and Argonne National Laboratories in 2014. The second workshop focused on agricultural landscapes and took place in Argonne, IL from June 24—26, 2014. The workshop brought together experts to discuss how landscape design can contribute to the deployment and assessment of sustainable bioenergy. This report summarizes the discussions that occurred at this particular workshop.

  2. Emerging role of Geographical Information System (GIS), Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and spatial LCA (GIS-LCA) in sustainable bioenergy planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiloidhari, Moonmoon; Baruah, D C; Singh, Anoop; Kataki, Sampriti; Medhi, Kristina; Kumari, Shilpi; Ramachandra, T V; Jenkins, B M; Thakur, Indu Shekhar

    2017-10-01

    Sustainability of a bioenergy project depends on precise assessment of biomass resource, planning of cost-effective logistics and evaluation of possible environmental implications. In this context, this paper reviews the role and applications of geo-spatial tool such as Geographical Information System (GIS) for precise agro-residue resource assessment, biomass logistic and power plant design. Further, application of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) in understanding the potential impact of agro-residue bioenergy generation on different ecosystem services has also been reviewed and limitations associated with LCA variability and uncertainty were discussed. Usefulness of integration of GIS into LCA (i.e. spatial LCA) to overcome the limitations of conventional LCA and to produce a holistic evaluation of the environmental benefits and concerns of bioenergy is also reviewed. Application of GIS, LCA and spatial LCA can help alleviate the challenges faced by ambitious bioenergy projects by addressing both economics and environmental goals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Construction of novel Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains for bioethanol active dry yeast (ADY) production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Daoqiong; Zhang, Ke; Gao, Kehui; Liu, Zewei; Zhang, Xing; Li, Ou; Sun, Jianguo; Zhang, Xiaoyang; Du, Fengguang; Sun, Peiyong; Qu, Aimin; Wu, Xuechang

    2013-01-01

    The application of active dry yeast (ADY) in bioethanol production simplifies operation processes and reduces the risk of bacterial contamination. In the present study, we constructed a novel ADY strain with improved stress tolerance and ethanol fermentation performances under stressful conditions. The industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain ZTW1 showed excellent properties and thus subjected to a modified whole-genome shuffling (WGS) process to improve its ethanol titer, proliferation capability, and multiple stress tolerance for ADY production. The best-performing mutant, Z3-86, was obtained after three rounds of WGS, producing 4.4% more ethanol and retaining 2.15-fold higher viability than ZTW1 after drying. Proteomics and physiological analyses indicated that the altered expression patterns of genes involved in protein metabolism, plasma membrane composition, trehalose metabolism, and oxidative responses contribute to the trait improvement of Z3-86. This work not only successfully developed a novel S. cerevisiae mutant for application in commercial bioethanol production, but also enriched the current understanding of how WGS improves the complex traits of microbes.

  4. Study of Application of Vinasse from Bio-ethanol Production to Farmland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan; Shinogi, Yoshiyuki

    During bio-ethanol production from sugarcane molasses, large amounts of vinasse, which is strongly acidic with high COD and BOD, is produced as a by-product. Disposal of vinasse is one restrictive problem for sustainable bio-ethanol production. In this study, possible application of vinasse to farmland was investigated. First, the staple characteristics of vinasse were determined. Second, availability of nutrients such as nitrogen and potassium to crops and dynamics in the soil environment were studied in the laboratory, and crop growth experiments were carried out in the field. Farmland application of vinasse as a substitute for one third of the potassium showed no significant damage to the growth of red-radishes and tomatoes. When large amounts of vinasse are applied to farmland as a substitution for the nitrogen in traditional chemical fertilizers, nitrogen-hunger especially immediately after application is expected. In addition, it is necessary to take into consideration the leaching of ions and the dark material in the vinasse for proper timing of application and soil conditions.

  5. Process design and economic analysis of a hypothetical bioethanol production plant using carob pod as feedstock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Segado, S; Lozano, L J; de Los Ríos, A P; Hernández-Fernández, F J; Godínez, C; Juan, D

    2012-01-01

    A process for the production of ethanol from carob (Ceratonia siliqua) pods was designed and an economic analysis was carried out for a hypothetical plant. The plant was assumed to perform an aqueous extraction of sugars from the pods followed by fermentation and distillation to produce ethanol. The total fixed capital investment for a base case process with a capacity to transform 68,000 t/year carob pod was calculated as 39.61 millon euros (€) with a minimum bioethanol production cost of 0.51 €/L and an internal rate of return of 7%. The plant was found to be profitable at carob pod prices lower than 0.188 €/kg. An increase in the transformation capacity of the plant from 33,880 to 135,450 t/year was calculated to result in an increase in the internal rate of return from 5.50% to 13.61%. The obtained results show that carob pod is a promising alternative source for bioethanol production. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Statistical screening and selection of sweet sorghum varieties for bioethanol production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehmood, S.; Aqil, T.; Tahir, M.S.

    2014-01-01

    This study aims at the screening of four cultivars of sorghums as a feedstock for bioethanol production. The straw of these varieties were subjected to pretreatment (dilute sulfuric acid) followed by enzyme hydrolysis to evaluate their potential to produce sugars. Four factor full factorial experimental design (2*2*2*4=32) was used to investigate the effects of experimental factors; sorghum varieties (84-Y-01, 85-G-86, Mr. Buster and RARI S-3), acid concentration (1 and 2%), temperature (121 and 140 degree C) and pretreatment time (30 and 60 min). The tested sorghum varieties follow the order 85-G-86 (47 g/100g) > Mr. Buster (44.6 g/100g) > 84-Y-01 (42 g/100g) > RARI S-3 (36 g/100g) for their sugar yield. The factors followed given order of significance; variety > temperature > acid concentration > pretreatment time. Sorghum variety (85-G-86) was selected as an appropriate feedstock for bioethanol production due to its higher sugar yield and lower concentration of by-products and furans. (author)

  7. Isolation and characterization of lignin from the oak wood bioethanol production residue for adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soo Jung; Kim, Hyun Joo; Cho, Eun Jin; Song, Younho; Bae, Hyeun-Jong

    2015-01-01

    Lignin was isolated from the residue of bioethanol production with oak wood via alkaline and catalyzed organosolv treatments at ambient temperature to improve the purity of lignin for the materials application. The isolated lignins were analyzed for their chemical composition by nitrobenzene oxidation method and their functionality was characterized via wet chemistry method, element analysis, (1)H NMR, GPC and FTIR-ATR. The isolated lignin by acid catalyzed organosolv treatment (Acid-OSL) contained a higher lignin content, aromatic proton, phenolic hydroxyl group and a lower nitrogen content that is more reactive towards chemical modification. The lignin-based adhesives were prepared and the bond strength was measured to evaluate the enhanced reactivity of lignin by the isolation. Two steps of phenolation and methylolation were applied for the modification of the isolated lignins and their tensile strengths were evaluated for the use as an adhesive. The acid catalyzed organosolv lignin-based adhesives had comparable bond strength to phenol-formaldehyde adhesives. The analysis of lignin-based adhesives by FTIR-ATR and TGA showed structural similarity to phenol adhesive. The results demonstrate that the reactivity of lignin was enhanced by isolation from hardwood bioethanol production residues at ambient temperature and it could be used in a value-added application to produce lignin-based adhesives. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The Potential in Bioethanol Production From Waste Fiber Sludges in Pulp Mill-Based Biorefineries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjöde, Anders; Alriksson, Björn; Jönsson, Leif J.; Nilvebrant, Nils-Olof

    Industrial production of bioethanol from fibers that are unusable for pulp production in pulp mills offers an approach to product diversification and more efficient exploitation of the raw material. In an attempt to utilize fibers flowing to the biological waste treatment, selected fiber sludges from three different pulp mills were collected, chemically analyzed, enzymatically hydrolyzed, and fermented for bioethanol production. Another aim was to produce solid residues with higher heat values than those of the original fiber sludges to gain a better fuel for combustion. The glucan content ranged between 32 and 66% of the dry matter. The lignin content varied considerably (1-25%), as did the content of wood extractives (0.2-5.8%). Hydrolysates obtained using enzymatic hydrolysis were found to be readily fermentable using Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Hydrolysis resulted in improved heat values compared with corresponding untreated fiber sludges. Oligomeric xylan fragments in the solid residue obtained after enzymatic hydrolysis were identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight and their potential as a new product of a pulp mill-based biorefinery is discussed.

  9. Production of hydrogen from bio-ethanol in catalytic membrane reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gernot, E.; Aupretre, F.; Deschamps, A.; Etievant, C.; Epron, F.; Marecot, P.; Duprez, D.

    2006-01-01

    Production of hydrogen from renewable energy sources offers a great potential for CO 2 emission reduction, responsible for global warming. Among renewable energies, liquid biofuels are very convenient hydrogen carriers for decentralized applications such as micro-cogeneration and transports. Ethanol, produced from sugar plants and cereals, allows a reduction of more than 60% of CO 2 emissions in comparison to gasoline. BIOSTAR is an R and D project, co-funded by the French Agency for Environment and Energy Management (ADEME) which aims at developing an efficient source of hydrogen from bio-ethanol, suitable for proton exchange membrane fuel cell systems. The objectives are to obtain, through catalytic process at medium temperature range, an efficient conversion of bio-ethanol into pure hydrogen directly usable for PEMFC. CETH has developed a catalytic membrane reformer (CMR), based on a patented technology, integrating a steam reforming catalyst as well as a combustion catalyst. Both catalysts have been developed and optimized for membrane reactor in partnership with the University of Poitiers. The composite metallic membrane developed by CETH allows hydrogen extraction near the hydrogen production sites, which enhances both efficiency and compactness. (authors)

  10. Construction of novel Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains for bioethanol active dry yeast (ADY production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daoqiong Zheng

    Full Text Available The application of active dry yeast (ADY in bioethanol production simplifies operation processes and reduces the risk of bacterial contamination. In the present study, we constructed a novel ADY strain with improved stress tolerance and ethanol fermentation performances under stressful conditions. The industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain ZTW1 showed excellent properties and thus subjected to a modified whole-genome shuffling (WGS process to improve its ethanol titer, proliferation capability, and multiple stress tolerance for ADY production. The best-performing mutant, Z3-86, was obtained after three rounds of WGS, producing 4.4% more ethanol and retaining 2.15-fold higher viability than ZTW1 after drying. Proteomics and physiological analyses indicated that the altered expression patterns of genes involved in protein metabolism, plasma membrane composition, trehalose metabolism, and oxidative responses contribute to the trait improvement of Z3-86. This work not only successfully developed a novel S. cerevisiae mutant for application in commercial bioethanol production, but also enriched the current understanding of how WGS improves the complex traits of microbes.

  11. Optimization of simultaneous saccharification and fermentation conditions with amphipathic lignin derivatives for concentrated bioethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ningning; Koda, Keiichi; Tamai, Yutaka; Yamamoto, Yoko; Takasuka, Taichi E; Uraki, Yasumitsu

    2017-05-01

    Amphipathic lignin derivatives (A-LDs) prepared from the black liquor of soda pulping of Japanese cedar are strong accelerators for bioethanol production under a fed-batch simultaneous enzymatic saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process. To improve the bioethanol production concentration, conditions such as reaction temperature, stirring program, and A-LDs loadings were optimized in both small scale and large scale fed-batch SSF. The fed-batch SSF in the presence of 3.0g/L A-LDs at 38°C gave the maximum ethanol production and a high enzyme recovery rate. Furthermore, a jar-fermenter equipped with a powerful mechanical stirrer was designed for 1.5L-scale fed-batch SSF to achieve rigorous mixing during high substrate loading. Finally, the 1.5L fed-batch SSF with a substrate loading of 30% (w/v) produced a high ethanol concentration of 87.9g/L in the presence of A-LDs under optimized conditions. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Forest bioenergy or forest carbon? Assessing trade-offs in greenhouse gas mitigation with wood-based fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKechnie, Jon; Colombo, Steve; Chen, Jiaxin; Mabee, Warren; MacLean, Heather L

    2011-01-15

    The potential of forest-based bioenergy to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions when displacing fossil-based energy must be balanced with forest carbon implications related to biomass harvest. We integrate life cycle assessment (LCA) and forest carbon analysis to assess total GHG emissions of forest bioenergy over time. Application of the method to case studies of wood pellet and ethanol production from forest biomass reveals a substantial reduction in forest carbon due to bioenergy production. For all cases, harvest-related forest carbon reductions and associated GHG emissions initially exceed avoided fossil fuel-related emissions, temporarily increasing overall emissions. In the long term, electricity generation from pellets reduces overall emissions relative to coal, although forest carbon losses delay net GHG mitigation by 16-38 years, depending on biomass source (harvest residues/standing trees). Ethanol produced from standing trees increases overall emissions throughout 100 years of continuous production: ethanol from residues achieves reductions after a 74 year delay. Forest carbon more significantly affects bioenergy emissions when biomass is sourced from standing trees compared to residues and when less GHG-intensive fuels are displaced. In all cases, forest carbon dynamics are significant. Although study results are not generalizable to all forests, we suggest the integrated LCA/forest carbon approach be undertaken for bioenergy studies.

  13. Bioenergy from agricultural residues in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Sune Tjalfe

    and biomethane under Ghanaian conditions. Detailed characterisations of thirteen of the most common agricultural residues in Ghana are presented, enabling estimations of theoretical bioenergy potentials and identifying specific residues for future biorefinery applications. When aiming at residue-based ethanol...... to pursue increased implementation of anaerobic digestion in Ghana, as the first bioenergy option, since anaerobic digestion is more flexible than ethanol production with regard to both feedstock and scale of production. If possible, the available manure and municipal liquid waste should be utilised first....... A novel model for estimating BMP from compositional data of lignocellulosic biomasses is derived. The model is based on a statistical method not previously used in this area of research and the best prediction of BMP is: BMP = 347 xC+H+R – 438 xL + 63 DA , where xC+H+R is the combined content of cellulose...

  14. Modeling pollinator community response to contrasting bioenergy scenarios.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley B Bennett

    Full Text Available In the United States, policy initiatives aimed at increasing sources of renewable energy are advancing bioenergy production, especially in the Midwest region, where agricultural landscapes dominate. While policy directives are focused on renewable fuel production, biodiversity and ecosystem services will be impacted by the land-use changes required to meet production targets. Using data from field observations, we developed empirical models for predicting abundance, diversity, and community composition of flower-visiting bees based on land cover. We used these models to explore how bees might respond under two contrasting bioenergy scenarios: annual bioenergy crop production and perennial grassland bioenergy production. In the two scenarios, 600,000 ha of marginal annual crop land or marginal grassland were converted to perennial grassland or annual row crop bioenergy production, respectively. Model projections indicate that expansion of annual bioenergy crop production at this scale will reduce bee abundance by 0 to 71%, and bee diversity by 0 to 28%, depending on location. In contrast, converting annual crops on marginal soil to perennial grasslands could increase bee abundance from 0 to 600% and increase bee diversity between 0 and 53%. Our analysis of bee community composition suggested a similar pattern, with bee communities becoming less diverse under annual bioenergy crop production, whereas bee composition transitioned towards a more diverse community dominated by wild bees under perennial bioenergy crop production. Models, like those employed here, suggest that bioenergy policies have important consequences for pollinator conservation.

  15. Evolution and Ecology of Actinobacteria and Their Bioenergy Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewin, Gina R; Carlos, Camila; Chevrette, Marc G; Horn, Heidi A; McDonald, Bradon R; Stankey, Robert J; Fox, Brian G; Currie, Cameron R

    2016-09-08

    The ancient phylum Actinobacteria is composed of phylogenetically and physiologically diverse bacteria that help Earth's ecosystems function. As free-living organisms and symbionts of herbivorous animals, Actinobacteria contribute to the global carbon cycle through the breakdown of plant biomass. In addition, they mediate community dynamics as producers of small molecules with diverse biological activities. Together, the evolution of high cellulolytic ability and diverse chemistry, shaped by their ecological roles in nature, make Actinobacteria a promising group for the bioenergy industry. Specifically, their enzymes can contribute to industrial-scale breakdown of cellulosic plant biomass into simple sugars that can then be converted into biofuels. Furthermore, harnessing their ability to biosynthesize a range of small molecules has potential for the production of specialty biofuels.

  16. FOOD VS. FUEL – A TURNING POINT FOR BIOETHANOL?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Harlander

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently concerns have been raised that biofuels would affect food prices. Bioethanol is made from sugar or starch containing plants that are also used in food production. In public perception this led to an emotional resistance against biofuels that in real terms is not substantiated. Generally, biofuels are a political product. Triggered by the oil crisis in the early 1970ies national fuel ethanol programmes were first launched in Brazil and in the United States. Concerns regarding energy security and sustainability together with the option of new markets for surplus agricultural production in recent years led to similar policy measures in the European Union and in numerous countries around the globe. Accordingly the industry invested heavily in new bioethanol plants - especially in the US – and created an additional demand for corn and wheat with some record-breaking prices noted in late 2007. A look back into statistics shows a drastic decline of real prices for decades and by now they are only back at the level of 30 years ago. One important detail is the real portion of grain used for bioethanol, which is still only 1.6 percent in the EU and therefore unlikely to be the real driver for the price development. Moreover the share of raw material is up to 70% of bioethanol production cost that makes the bioethanol industry itself a victim of price increases. Subsequently investor interest in this field slowed down, a development also watched in the US. The prospects of the agricultural markets of the European Commission conclude that Europe can do both, nutrition and biofuels.

  17. Response surface optimization of the thermal acid pretreatment of sugar beet pulp for bioethanol production using Trichoderma viride and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Gendy, Nour Sh; Madian, Hekmat R; Nassar, Hussein N; Amr, Salem S Abu

    2015-09-15

    Worldwide nowadays, relying on the second generation bioethanol from the lignocellulosic feedstock is a mandatory aim. However, one of the major drawbacks for high ethanol yield is the physical and chemical pretreatment of this kind of feedstock. As the pretreatment is a crucial process operation that modifies the lignocellulosic structure and enhances its accessibility for the high cost hydrolytic enzymes in an attempt to maximize the yield of the fermentable sugars. The objective of this work was to optimize and integrate a physicochemical pretreatment of one of the major agricultural wastes in Egypt; the sugar beet pulp (SBP) and the enzymatic saccharification of the pretreated SBP using a whole fungal cells with a separate bioethanol fermentation batch processes to maximize the bioethanol yield. The response surface methodology was employed in this study to statistically evaluate and optimize the conditions for a thermal acid pretreatment of SBP. The significance and the interaction effects of the concentrations of HCl and SBP and the reaction temperature and time were studied using a three-level central composite design of experiments. A quadratic model equation was obtained to maximize the production of the total reducing sugars. The validity of the predicted model was confirmed. The thermally acid pretreated SBP was further subjected to a solid state fermentation batch process using Trichoderma viride F94. The thermal acid pretreatment and fungal hydrolyzes were integrated with two parallel batch fermentation processes of the produced hydrolyzates using Saccharomyces cerevisiae Y39, that yielded a total of ≈ 48 g/L bioethanol, at a conversion rate of ≈ 0.32 g bioethanol/ g SBP. Applying the proposed integrated process, approximately 97.5 gallon of ethanol would be produced from a ton (dry weight) of SBP.

  18. Proceedings of the IEA Bioenergy Task 39 conference : biofuels and bioenergy, a changing climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this conference was to showcase the advancements that have been made in bioenergy development. The presentations addressed several issues, including biorefinery integration; thermochemical technologies; biochemical technologies; feedstock harvest, pretreatment and logistics; biomass production and management; policy, strategies and trade; and greenhouse gas and life cycle assessment. Discussions focused on recent innovations in bioenergy and the feasibility of biofuels in the commercial marketplace with the aim to advance bioenergy development and reduce fossil fuel dependency. A two-day forest management and supply chain field trip was organized in conjunction with the conference. The conference featured 152 presentations, of which 30 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs.

  19. Proceedings of the 2008 Atlantic bioenergy conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    A number of new technologies are now being developed to ensure the economic viability of using renewable resources to generate electricity and heat. This conference examined ways of increasing the use of bioenergy resources in the Maritimes region. It provided a forum for industry representatives, researchers, and policy-makers to discuss methods of ensuring the sustainable development of biomass and waste residue resources. The current state of the industry in Atlantic Canada was reviewed on a provincial basis, and government policies related to the use of renewable fuels were outlined. North America's bioenergy resources were assessed and new bio-energy, bio-chemicals, and pyrolysis techniques were reviewed along with newly developed co-products at small-scale ethanol plants. New closed loop biofuels projects and their benefits to rural communities were discussed with reference to air quality issues. New forest bioproducts research was also presented, including highlights from the Canadian Biomass Innovation Network (CBIN). These included innovations in commercial biogas, and new biorefinery and biomass co-firing models. A total of 23 papers were presented at the conference. tabs., figs

  20. Potential of bioethanol as a chemical building block for biorefineries: Preliminary sustainability assessment of 12 bioethanol-based products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Posada Duque, J.A.; Patel, A.D.; Roes, A.L.; Blok, K.; Faaij, A.P.C.; Patel, M.K.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to present and apply aquick screening method and to identify the most promising bioethanol derivatives using an early- stage sustainability assessment method that compares abioetha- nol-base d conversion route to its respective petrochemical counterpart. The method

  1. Bioethanol production from the nutrient stress-induced microalga Chlorella vulgaris by enzymatic hydrolysis and immobilized yeast fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoung Hyoun; Choi, In Seong; Kim, Ho Myeong; Wi, Seung Gon; Bae, Hyeun-Jong

    2014-02-01

    The microalga Chlorella vulgaris is a potential feedstock for bioenergy due to its rapid growth, carbon dioxide fixation efficiency, and high accumulation of lipids and carbohydrates. In particular, the carbohydrates in microalgae make them a candidate for bioethanol feedstock. In this study, nutrient stress cultivation was employed to enhance the carbohydrate content of C. vulgaris. Nitrogen limitation increased the carbohydrate content to 22.4% from the normal content of 16.0% on dry weight basis. In addition, several pretreatment methods and enzymes were investigated to increase saccharification yields. Bead-beating pretreatment increased hydrolysis by 25% compared with the processes lacking pretreatment. In the enzymatic hydrolysis process, the pectinase enzyme group was superior for releasing fermentable sugars from carbohydrates in microalgae. In particular, pectinase from Aspergillus aculeatus displayed a 79% saccharification yield after 72h at 50°C. Using continuous immobilized yeast fermentation, microalgal hydrolysate was converted into ethanol at a yield of 89%. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Legal framework for a sustainable biomass production for bioenergy on Marginal Lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgarten, Wibke; Pelikan, Vincent

    2017-04-01

    authorities and principal laws in the field of bioenergy is given, supplemented by national biomass potentials and bioenergy use as well as by the German, Greek, Italian and Ukrainian NREAP. The overall target of all EU-28 countries - and Ukraine - is to create a more efficient bioeconomy, to increase the amount of biomass produced for bioenergy purposes, to avoid an increased competition between food/feed production on arable land and energy plant production, and decrease imports of fossil energy sources, i.e. [crude] oil, aiming at an independent, domestically based (bio)energy supply. Whereas in Germany the national policy framework regarding bioenergy is well-defined, there are only few specific national and/or regional policies in Greece, Italy or Ukraine. Moreover, the German legislation offers a higher potential for designing and modifying already existing regulations and laws, e.g. soil protection, EEG, etc. with respect to the use of MagL for bioenergy production, than in other SEEMLA partner countries. Although the biomass potential of each SEEMLA partner country varies a lot and the 2020 targets remain ambitious, the exploitation of sustainable biomass production on MagL may offer a suitable approach to fill the gaps of future biomass demands and accelerate the growth of an independent bioenergy based society.

  3. Wood biomass : fuel for wildfires or feedstock for bioenergy ?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, C.S. [Miller Dewulf Corp., Studio City, CA (United States)

    2007-07-01

    The clean conversion of woody biomass-to-energy has been touted as an alternative to fossil fuel energy and as a solution to environmental challenges. This presentation discussed the state of forest health in North America with particular reference to the higher incidence of megafires, such as recent fires in Colorado, San Diego, Lake Arrowhead, Lake Tahoe, Zaca, and Okefenokee. Federal authorities have an increased responsibility to preserve old forest stands; sustain and increase biodiversity; protect habitats; fight fires to protect real estate; and, contain and suppress wildfires. It was noted that while healthy forests absorb greenhouse gases (GHGs), burning forests release them. The Colorado Hayman fire alone emitted more carbon dioxide in one day than all the cars in the United States in one week. It was cautioned that unharvested fire residues contribute 300 per cent more GHG during decay. The problem of forest density was also discussed, noting that many forests on public lands have grown dangerously overcrowded due to a century of fire suppression and decades of restricted timber harvesting. A sustainable solution was proposed in which decaying biomass can be harvested in order to pay for forest management. Other solutions involve reforesting to historic models and mechanically thinning vulnerable forests for bioenergy. In California's Eagle Lake Ranger District, there are 8 stand-alone wood fired power plants with 171 MWh generating capacity. In addition, there are 5 small log sawmills with cogeneration facilities. A review of feedstock for bioenergy was also included in this presentation, along with an ethanol feedstock comparison of corn and woody biomass. Technologies to produce biofuels from biomass were also reviewed with reference to traditional conversion using sugar fermentation as well as biochemical enzymatic acid hydrolysis. It was concluded that woody biomass stores abundant energy that can be used to create heat, produce steam and

  4. The role of renewable bioenergy in carbon dioxide sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinoshita, C.M. [Hawaii Natural Energy Inst., Honolulu, HI (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The use of renewable resources represents a sound approach to producing clean energy and reducing the dependence on diminishing reserves of fossil fuels. Unfortunately, the widespread interest in renewable energy in the 1970s, spurred by escalating fossil fuel prices, subsided with the collapse of energy prices in the mid 1980s. Today, it is largely to reverse alarming environmental trends, particularly the buildup of atmospheric carbon dioxide, rather than to reduce the cost of energy, that renewable energy resources are being pursued. This discussion focuses on a specific class of renewable energy resources - biomass. Unlike most other classes of renewable energy touted for controlling atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations, e.g., hydro, direct solar, wind, geothermal, and ocean thermal, which produce usable forms of energy while generating little or no carbon dioxide emissions, bioenergy almost always involves combustion and therefore generates carbon dioxide; however, if used on a sustained basis, bio-energy would not contribute to the build-up of atmospheric carbon dioxide because the amount released in combustion would be balanced by that taken up via photosynthesis. It is in that context, i.e., sustained production of biomass as a modern energy carrier, rather than reforestation for carbon sequestration, that biomass is being discussed here, since biomass can play a much greater role in controlling global warming by displacing fossil fuels than by being used strictly for carbon sequestration (partly because energy crop production can reduce fossil carbon dioxide emissions indefinitely, whereas under the reforestation strategy, carbon dioxide abatement ceases at forest maturity).

  5. White paper on perspectives of biofuels in Denmark - with focus on 2nd generation bioethanol; Hvidbog om perspektiver for biobraendstoffer i Danmark - med fokus paa 2. generations bioethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, Gy.; Foghmar, J.

    2009-11-15

    The white paper presents the perspectives - both options and barriers - for a Danish focus on production and use of biomass, including sustainable 2nd generation bioethanol, for transport. The white paper presents the current knowledge of biofuels and bioethanol and recommendations for a Danish strategy. (ln)

  6. Pre-genomic, genomic and post-genomic study of microbial communities involved in bioenergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rittmann, Bruce E; Krajmalnik-Brown, Rosa; Halden, Rolf U

    2008-08-01

    Microorganisms can produce renewable energy in large quantities and without damaging the environment or disrupting food supply. The microbial communities must be robust and self-stabilizing, and their essential syntrophies must be managed. Pre-genomic, genomic and post-genomic tools can provide crucial information about the structure and function of these microbial communities. Applying these tools will help accelerate the rate at which microbial bioenergy processes move from intriguing science to real-world practice.

  7. The basis for a Platform Bio-Energy. Combining forces for the Dutch bio-energy business

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Halen, C.J.G.

    1998-02-01

    It appears that there is a need for a community of interests in the field of bio-energy to solve numerous problems and to answer many questions with respect to the development of businesses that are active in the field of bio-energy. The title study was carried out in the third and fourth quarter of 1997 by means of surveys and depth interviews among representatives of bio-energy businesses, interest groups and research institutes. The majority of the respondents supports the foundation of the Platform Bio-Energy and suggests many different activities

  8. Technological trends, global market, and challenges of bio-ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mussatto, Solange I; Dragone, Giuliano; Guimarães, Pedro M R; Silva, João Paulo A; Carneiro, Lívia M; Roberto, Inês C; Vicente, António; Domingues, Lucília; Teixeira, José A

    2010-01-01

    Ethanol use as a fuel additive or directly as a fuel source has grown in popularity due to governmental regulations and in some cases economic incentives based on environmental concerns as well as a desire to reduce oil dependency. As a consequence, several countries are interested in developing their internal market for use of this biofuel. Currently, almost all bio-ethanol is produced from grain or sugarcane. However, as this kind of feedstock is essentially food, other efficient and economically viable technologies for ethanol production have been evaluated. This article reviews some current and promising technologies for ethanol production considering aspects related to the raw materials, processes, and engineered strains development. The main producer and consumer nations and future perspectives for the ethanol market are also presented. Finally, technological trends to expand this market are discussed focusing on promising strategies like the use of microalgae and continuous systems with immobilized cells. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Bioenergy production systems and biochar application in forests: potential for renewable energy, soil enhancement, and carbon sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristin McElligott; Debbie Dumroese; Mark Coleman

    2011-01-01

    Bioenergy production from forest biomass offers a unique solution to reduce wildfire hazard fuel while producing a useful source of renewable energy. However, biomass removals raise concerns about reducing soil carbon and altering forest site productivity. Biochar additions have been suggested as a way to mitigate soil carbon loss and cycle nutrients back into forestry...

  10. Net-energy analysis of integrated food and bioenergy systems exemplified by a model of a self-sufficinet system of dairy farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Mads Ville; Pugesgaard, Siri; Oleskowicz-Popiel, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    the farming? To avoid the first type, the net output of liquid fuels, electricity, useful heat, and food were calculated separately. Furthermore, to avoid the second type, all scenarios were designed to provide self-sufficiency with fodder and fertilizer and to utilize coproducts within the system......Agriculture is expected to contribute in substituting of fossil fuels in the future. This constitutes a paradox as agriculture depends heavily on fossil energy for providing fuel, fodder, nutrients, and machinery. The aim of this paper is to investigate whether organic agriculture is capable...... of providing both food and surplus energy to the society as evalu - ated from a model study. We evaluated bioenergy technologies in a Danish dairy-farming context in four different scenarios: (1) vegetable oil based on oilseed rape, (2) biogas based on cattle manure and grass-clover lays, (3) bioethanol from...

  11. Effects of bioethanol ultrasonic generated aerosols application on diesel engine performances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariasiu Florin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the effects of an experimental bioethanol fumigation application using an experimental ultrasound device on performance and emissions of a single cylinder diesel engine have been experimentally investigated. Engine performance and pollutant emissions variations were considered for three different types of fuels (biodiesel, biodiesel-bioethanol blend and biodiesel and fumigated bioethanol. Reductions in brake specific fuel consumption and NOx pollutant emissions are correlated with the use of ultrasonic fumigation of bioethanol fuel, comparative to use of biodiesel-bioethanol blend. Considering the fuel consumption as diesel engine’s main performance parameter, the proposed bioethanol’s fumigation method, offers the possibility to use more efficient renewable biofuels (bioethanol, with immediate effects on environmental protection.

  12. Fuel-cycle assessment of selected bioethanol production.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, M.; Wang, M.; Hong, H.; Energy Systems

    2007-01-31

    A large amount of corn stover is available in the U.S. corn belt for the potential production of cellulosic bioethanol when the production technology becomes commercially ready. In fact, because corn stover is already available, it could serve as a starting point for producing cellulosic ethanol as a transportation fuel to help reduce the nation's demand for petroleum oil. Using the data available on the collection and transportation of corn stover and on the production of cellulosic ethanol, we have added the corn stover-to-ethanol pathway in the GREET model, a fuel-cycle model developed at Argonne National Laboratory. We then analyzed the life-cycle energy use and emission impacts of corn stover-derived fuel ethanol for use as E85 in flexible fuel vehicles (FFVs). The analysis included fertilizer manufacturing, corn farming, farming machinery manufacturing, stover collection and transportation, ethanol production, ethanol transportation, and ethanol use in light-duty vehicles (LDVs). Energy consumption of petroleum oil and fossil energy, emissions of greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide [CO{sub 2}], nitrous oxide [N{sub 2}O], and methane [CH{sub 4}]), and emissions of criteria pollutants (carbon monoxide [CO], volatile organic compounds [VOCs], nitrogen oxide [NO{sub x}], sulfur oxide [SO{sub x}], and particulate matter with diameters smaller than 10 micrometers [PM{sub 10}]) during the fuel cycle were estimated. Scenarios of ethanol from corn grain, corn stover, and other cellulosic feedstocks were then compared with petroleum reformulated gasoline (RFG). Results showed that FFVs fueled with corn stover ethanol blends offer substantial energy savings (94-95%) relative to those fueled with RFG. For each Btu of corn stover ethanol produced and used, 0.09 Btu of fossil fuel is required. The cellulosic ethanol pathway avoids 86-89% of greenhouse gas emissions. Unlike the life cycle of corn grain-based ethanol, in which the ethanol plant consumes most of the fossil

  13. Impact evaluation of integrated food-bioenergy systems: A comparative LCA of peach nectar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Menna, Fabio; Vittuari, Matteo; Molari, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Processed food products present high energy intensity, along with a large amount of food losses and waste. The recovery of residual biomass as integrated renewable energy source could represent an interesting option for the substitution of fossil energy, contributing to the transition of agro-food sector towards a low-carbon economy. Two scenarios were compared, in order to evaluate the impacts of a fossil fuel-based food chain and the potential benefits of the integration of bioenergy production, using peach nectar as case study. In the first scenario, peach nectar is produced, distributed and consumed using fossil energy, while residuals are wasted. In the second scenario, byproducts from the nectar chain are used to produce bioenergy from combustion or anaerobic digestion, which is then consumed to substitute electricity and heat. A comparative life cycle assessment (LCA) based on the same functional unit was performed. Main results show that, in the conventional scenario, most of the damage derives from land use, especially for sugar and glucose production, from the fossil energy consumption of about 15 MJ l −1 , and the related greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of 0.91 kg CO 2  eq l −1 . Food waste leads to a loss of about 20 kcal l −1 . Bioenergy integration would allow a 13–15% damage reduction, mainly due to the substitution of indirect energy consumption. The effects on human health and ecosystem quality are limited. - Highlights: • Up to 15 MJ l −1 of fossil energy are needed to produce 2.7 MJ of peach nectar. • About 20 out of 648 kcal l −1 of peach and nectar are wasted along the supply chain. • Added ingredients (sugar and glucose) cause a large share of land use impact. • Bioenergy from waste reduces up to 37% of non-renewable energy consumption

  14. Purification of bioethanol effluent in an UASB reactor system with simultaneous biogas formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torry-Smith, Mads Peter; Sommer, Peter; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2003-01-01

    of these compounds were removed from the BEE in the reactor. Implementation of a UASB purification step was found to be a promising approach to detoxify process water from bioethanol production allowing for recirculation of the process water and reduced production costs.......In this study, the prospect of using an Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) reactor for detoxification of process water derived from bioethanol production has been investigated. The bioethanol effluent (BEE) originated from wet oxidized wheat straw fermented by Saccharomyces cerevisiae...

  15. Study of the environmental impacts of large scale bioethanol production in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    The report provides an analysis of the energy balance, the carbon dioxide balance, and other environmental effects. Four crops which might be used as bioethanol feedstock were considered. These were: wheat, sugar beet, sweet sorghum and Jerusalem artichoke. Given the current agricultural capabilities in Europe, wheat and sugar beet could be cultivated immediately for bioethanol production whilst sweet sorghum and Jerusalem artichoke represent crops which are under investigation as potential bioethanol feedstock in the longer term. (author).

  16. Study of the environmental impacts of large scale bioethanol production in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    The report provides an analysis of the energy balance, the carbon dioxide balance, and other environmental effects. Four crops which might be used as bioethanol feedstock were considered. These were: wheat, sugar beet, sweet sorghum and Jerusalem artichoke. Given the current agricultural capabilities in Europe, wheat and sugar beet could be cultivated immediately for bioethanol production whilst sweet sorghum and Jerusalem artichoke represent crops which are under investigation as potential bioethanol feedstock in the longer term. (author)

  17. Purification Simulation With Vapor Permeation and Distillation-Adsorption In Bioethanol Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Misri Gozan; Mia Sari Setiawan; Kenny Lischer

    2017-01-01

    High purity of Bioethanol is required in biofuel mixing with gasoline (EXX). In bioethanol production line, the azeotropic property of ethanol-water becomes the barrier for purification process. This study examined two bioethanol separation processes by support of simulation tools, Superpro Designer 9.0 software. Ethanol purity and a low costeconomical process were the major considerations. Purification method of vapor permeation membrane technology was compared with distillation-adsorption m...

  18. Preparation and Characterization of Zeolite Membrane for Bioethanol Purification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aprilina Purbasari

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of bioethanol as an alternative fuel with a purity of more than 99.5% wt has prompted research on bioethanol purification. One of the promising methods used for bioethanol purification is pervaporation membrane. This research is aimed to prepare and characterize zeolite membranes for pervaporation membrane. The membrane preparation consisted of two stages, namely support preparation and zeolite deposition on the support. In support preparation, α- alumina and kaolin with specific composition (50:30; 40:40; 50:30 was mixed with additives and water. After pugging and aging process, the mixture became paste and extruded into tubular shape. The tube was then calcined at temperature of 1250 °C for 3 hours. After that, zeolite 4A was deposited on the tubes using clear solution made of 10 %wt zeolite and 90 %wt water and heated at temperature of 80 °C for 3 hours. Furthermore, the resulting zeolite membranes was washed with deionized water for 5 minutes and dried in oven at temperature of 100 °C for 24 hours. Characterization of zeolite membranes included mechanical strength test, XRD, and SEM. In the mechanical strength test, the membrane sample with α- alumina:kaolin = 50:30 (membrane A has the highest mechanical strength of 46.65 N/mm2. Result of XRD analysis for the membrane A indicated that mullite and corundum phases were formed, which mullite phase was more dominant. Meanwhile the result of SEM analysis shows that zeolite crystals have been formed and covered the pores support, but the deposition of zeolite has not been optimal yet. The performance examination for bioethanol purification showed that the membrane could increase the purity of bioethanol from 95% to 98.5% wt. © 2013 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reservedReceived: 23rd October 2012; Revised: 15th February 2013; Accepted: 16th February 2013[How to Cite: Purbasari, A., Istirokhatun, T., Devi, A.M., Mahsunnah, L. , Susanto, H. (2013. Preparation and Characterization of Zeolite

  19. Production of raw starch-degrading enzyme by Aspergillus sp. and its use in conversion of inedible wild cassava flour to bioethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshi, Anselm P; Hosea, Ken M M; Elisante, Emrode; Mamo, Gashaw; Önnby, Linda; Nges, Ivo Achu

    2016-04-01

    The major bottlenecks in achieving competitive bioethanol fuel are the high cost of feedstock, energy and enzymes employed in pretreatment prior to fermentation. Lignocellulosic biomass has been proposed as an alternative feedstock, but because of its complexity, economic viability is yet to be realized. Therefore, research around non-conventional feedstocks and deployment of bioconversion approaches that downsize the cost of energy and enzymes is justified. In this study, a non-conventional feedstock, inedible wild cassava was used for bioethanol production. Bioconversion of raw starch from the wild cassava to bioethanol at low temperature was investigated using both a co-culture of Aspergillus sp. and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and a monoculture of the later with enzyme preparation from the former. A newly isolated strain of Aspergillus sp. MZA-3 produced raw starch-degrading enzyme which displayed highest activity of 3.3 U/mL towards raw starch from wild cassava at 50°C, pH 5.5. A co-culture of MZA-3 and S. cerevisiae; and a monoculture of S. cerevisiae and MZA-3 enzyme (both supplemented with glucoamylase) resulted into bioethanol yield (percentage of the theoretical yield) of 91 and 95 at efficiency (percentage) of 84 and 96, respectively. Direct bioconversion of raw starch to bioethanol was achieved at 30°C through the co-culture approach. This could be attractive since it may significantly downsize energy expenses. Copyright © 2015 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. 75 FR 11836 - Bioenergy Program for Advanced Biofuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    ... Biofuels AGENCY: Rural Business-Cooperative Service (RBS), USDA. ACTION: Notice of Contract for Proposal... Year 2009 for the Bioenergy Program for Advanced Biofuels under criteria established in the prior NOCP... Bioenergy Program for Advanced Biofuels. In response to the previously published NOCP, approximately $14.5...

  1. Bioenergy sector needs professionals - how to do it?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savolainen, V.; Aeaenismaa, P. (JAMK Univ. of Applied Sciences, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)), Email: varpu.savolainen@jamk.fi, Email: pekka.aanismaa@jamk.fi; Wihersaari, M. (Jyvaeskylae Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Bio-and Environmantal Sciences), Email: margareta.wihersaari@jyu.fi; Lehtonen, M. (Vocational Education Institute of Northern Central Finland (POKE), Tarvaala (Finland)), Email: maija.lehtonen@poke.fi

    2009-07-01

    A model of networking and cooperation in different levels of bio energy education is being developed jointly by Jam University of Applied Sciences (Jam), University of Jyvaeskylae (JYU) and the Vocational Education Institute of Northern Central Finland (POKE). In this three-year project scientific approach will be combined with a pragmatic perspective to ensure the sustainable future of the bioenergy sector in Central Finland. The idea of the project is to identify the educational needs and bottlenecks and to develop new education packages to promote the whole bioenergy sector, to increase the competitiveness of the bioenergy business in the region, to ensure life-long learning and to make round-the-year employment possible. For example, new models of bioenergy entrepreneurship will be determined and tested. The objective is also to increase bioenergy know-how among manufactures of machinery and equipment and, on the other hand, to increase the number of 'bioenergy masters' and 'bioenergy doctors' in Central Finland. The project is a part of the bioenergy cluster programme of Central Finland. (orig.)

  2. Potential Bioenergy Options in Developed and Developing Countries

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plant –based energy production (energy crops, forest growth) and residue and waste based fuels can substitute fossil fuels in a sustainable and environmental friendly way. In this study, bioenergy includes bio-resources that can be potentially used for modern energy production. Modern bioenergy options offer significant, ...

  3. IEA Bioenergy Task 40 country report for the Netherlands 2011

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goh, C.S.; Junginger, H.M.; Jonker, J.G.G.; Faaij, A.P.C.

    2011-01-01

    This country report was written within the frame of IEA Bioenergy Task 40. In summary, the aims of this country report are: (1) To provide a concise overview of biomass policy, domestic resources, biomass users, biomass prices and biomass trade, and (2) To analyse bioenergy trends, and reasons for

  4. Analysis of growth dynamics of Mediterranean bioenergy crops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Archontoulis, S.V.

    2011-01-01

    In spite of the rapidly growing bioenergy production worldwide, there is lack of field experience and experimental data on the cultivation of bioenergy crops. This study aims to advance crop management operations and modelling studies by providing essential information on phenology, agronomy and

  5. Future Perspectives of International Bioenergy Trade – Summary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kranzl, L.; Matzenberger, J.; Junginger, H.M.; Daioglou, V.; Tromborg, E.; Keramidas, K.

    2013-01-01

    According to the IEA World Energy Outlook 2012, primary demand for bioenergy will strongly increase up to the year 2035: the demand for biofuels and biomass for electricity is expected to triple. These changes will have an impact on the regional balance of demand and supply of bioenergy leading to

  6. A bioenergy feedstock/vegetable double-cropping system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Certain warm-season vegetable crops may lend themselves to bioenergy double-cropping systems, which involve growing a winter annual bioenergy feedstock crop followed by a summer annual crop. The objective of the study was to compare crop productivity and weed communities in different pumpkin product...

  7. Possibilities and limitations for sustainable bioenergy production systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, E.M.W.

    2008-01-01

    The focus of this thesis is on the possibilities and limitations of sustainable bioenergy production systems. First, the potential contribution of bioenergy to the energy supply in different world regions in the year 2050 from different biomass sources (dedicated woody energy crops, residues and

  8. SRWC bioenergy productivity and economic feasibility on marginal lands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghezehei, Solomon B; Shifflett, Shawn D; Hazel, Dennis W; Nichols, Elizabeth Guthrie

    2015-09-01

    Evolving bioenergy markets necessitate consideration of marginal lands for woody biomass production worldwide particularly the southeastern U.S., a prominent wood pellet exporter to Europe. Growing short rotation woody crops (SRWCs) on marginal lands minimizes concerns about using croplands for bioenergy production and reinforces sustainability of wood supply to existing and growing global biomass markets. We estimated mean annual aboveground green biomass increments (MAIs) and assessed economic feasibility of various operationally established (0.5 ha-109 ha) SRWC stands on lands used to mitigate environmental liabilities of municipal wastewater, livestock wastewater and sludge, and subsurface contamination by petroleum and pesticides. MAIs (Mg ha(-1) yr(-1)) had no consistent relationship with stand density or age. Non-irrigated Populus, Plantanus occidentalis L. and Pinus taeda L. stands produced 2.4-12.4 Mg ha(-1) yr(-1). Older, irrigated Taxodium distchum L., Fraxinus pennsylvanica L., and coppiced P. occidentalis stands had higher MAIs (10.6-21.3 Mg ha(-1) yr(-1)) than irrigated Liquidambar styraciflua L. and non-coppiced, irrigated P. occidentalis (8-18 Mg ha(-1) yr(-1)). Natural hardwood MAIs at 20-60 years were less than hardwood and P. taeda productivities at 5-20 years. Unlike weed control, irrigation and coppicing improved managed hardwood productivity. Rotation length affected economic outcomes although the returns were poor due to high establishment and maintenance costs, low productivities and low current stumpage values, which are expected to quickly change with development of robust global markets. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Development and Testing the Technology of Complex Transformation of Carbohydrates from Vegetable Raw Materials into Bioethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.P. Tsygankov

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Results of development and testing the tentative technology of sweet sorghum and finger millet processing into bioethanol are described. The carbohydrates content and range of the studied vegetable biomass as the raw material is defined. Bioethanol potential output from sugar sorghum and finger millet carbohydrates and key technological parameters of preparation of both types of vegetable raw material for alcohol fermentation are defined. The concept of the tentative technology of bioethanol production from carbohydrate raw material of the first and second generations is offered. Testing of complex transformation of carbohydrates from vegetable raw materials into bioethanol is performed.

  10. The bioethanol industry in sub-Saharan Africa: history, challenges, and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deenanath, Evanie Devi; Iyuke, Sunny; Rumbold, Karl

    2012-01-01

    Recently, interest in using bioethanol as an alternative to petroleum fuel has been escalating due to decrease in the availability of crude oil. The application of bioethanol in the motor-fuel industry can contribute to reduction in the use of fossil fuels and in turn to decreased carbon emissions and stress of the rapid decline in crude oil availability. Bioethanol production methods are numerous and vary with the types of feedstock used. Feedstocks can be cereal grains (first generation feedstock), lignocellulose (second generation feedstock), or algae (third generation feedstock) feedstocks. To date, USA and Brazil are the leading contributors to global bioethanol production. In sub-Saharan Africa, bioethanol production is stagnant. During the 1980s, bioethanol production has been successful in several countries including Zimbabwe, Malawi, and Kenya. However, because of numerous challenges such as food security, land availability, and government policies, achieving sustainability was a major hurdle. This paper examines the history and challenges of bioethanol production in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and demonstrates the bioethanol production potential in SSA with a focus on using bitter sorghum and cashew apple juice as unconventional feedstocks for bioethanol production.

  11. The Bioethanol Industry in Sub-Saharan Africa: History, Challenges, and Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evanie Devi Deenanath

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, interest in using bioethanol as an alternative to petroleum fuel has been escalating due to decrease in the availability of crude oil. The application of bioethanol in the motor-fuel industry can contribute to reduction in the use of fossil fuels and in turn to decreased carbon emissions and stress of the rapid decline in crude oil availability. Bioethanol production methods are numerous and vary with the types of feedstock used. Feedstocks can be cereal grains (first generation feedstock, lignocellulose (second generation feedstock, or algae (third generation feedstock feedstocks. To date, USA and Brazil are the leading contributors to global bioethanol production. In sub-Saharan Africa, bioethanol production is stagnant. During the 1980s, bioethanol production has been successful in several countries including Zimbabwe, Malawi, and Kenya. However, because of numerous challenges such as food security, land availability, and government policies, achieving sustainability was a major hurdle. This paper examines the history and challenges of bioethanol production in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA and demonstrates the bioethanol production potential in SSA with a focus on using bitter sorghum and cashew apple juice as unconventional feedstocks for bioethanol production.

  12. Harmonising bioenergy resource potentials - Methodological lessons from review of state of the art bioenergy potential asessments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batidzirai, B.; Smeets, E.M.W.; Faaij, A.P.C.

    2012-01-01

    Published estimates of the potential of bioenergy vary widely, mainly due to the heterogeneity of methodologies, assumptions and datasets employed. These discrepancies are confusing for policy and it is thus important to have scientific clarity on the basis of the assessment outcomes. Such clear

  13. Bio-energy. Innovators talking; Bio-energie. Innovators aan het woord

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-02-15

    Qualitative studies have been conducted of the results of completed projects focused on energy innovation, spread over the seven themes of the top sector Energy: Energy saving in industry, Energy conservation in the built environment, Gas, Bio-energy, Smart grids, Offshore Wind, Solar PV. This provides insight into the follow-up activities and lessons of some EOS (Energy Research Subsidy) completed projects with the aim to inspire, connect and strengthen the TKIs (Topconsortia for Knowledge and Innovation) and individual companies and researchers working on energy innovation. This report concerns the research on bio-energy [Dutch] Er is een kwalitatief onderzoek uitgevoerd naar de resultaten van afgeronde projecten gericht op energie-innovatie, verdeeld over de zeven thema's van de topsector Energie: Energiebesparing in de industrie; Energiebesparing in de gebouwde omgeving; Gas; Bio-energie; Smart grids; Wind op zee; Zon-pv. Daarmee wordt inzicht gegeven in de vervolgactiviteiten en lessen van een aantal afgesloten EOS-projecten (Energie Onderzoek Subsidie) met het oog op het inspireren, verbinden en versterken van de TKI's (Topconsortia voor Kennis en Innovatie) en individuele bedrijven en onderzoekers die werken aan energie-innovatie. Dit rapport betreft het onderzoek naar bio-energie.

  14. Bio-energy. Innovators talking; Bio-energie. Innovators aan het woord

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-02-15

    Qualitative studies have been conducted of the results of completed projects focused on energy innovation, spread over the seven themes of the top sector Energy: Energy saving in industry, Energy conservation in the built environment, Gas, Bio-energy, Smart grids, Offshore Wind, Solar PV. This provides insight into the follow-up activities and lessons of some EOS (Energy Research Subsidy) completed projects with the aim to inspire, connect and strengthen the TKIs (Topconsortia for Knowledge and Innovation) and individual companies and researchers working on energy innovation. This report concerns the research on bio-energy [Dutch] Er is een kwalitatief onderzoek uitgevoerd naar de resultaten van afgeronde projecten gericht op energie-innovatie, verdeeld over de zeven thema's van de topsector Energie: Energiebesparing in de industrie; Energiebesparing in de gebouwde omgeving; Gas; Bio-energie; Smart grids; Wind op zee; Zon-pv. Daarmee wordt inzicht gegeven in de vervolgactiviteiten en lessen van een aantal afgesloten EOS-projecten (Energie Onderzoek Subsidie) met het oog op het inspireren, verbinden en versterken van de TKI's (Topconsortia voor Kennis en Innovatie) en individuele bedrijven en onderzoekers die werken aan energie-innovatie. Dit rapport betreft het onderzoek naar bio-energie.

  15. EU's forest fuel resources, energy technology market and international bioenergy trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asikainen, A.; Laitila, J.; Parikka, H.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the project is to provide for the Finnish bioenergy technology, machine and appliance manufactures information about forest fuel resources in the EU and international bioenergy trade mechanisms. The projects results act as an instrument for market potential assessments and provide information to the local energy producer about biomass as an energy source. The possibilities to use forest chips in CHP and heating plants will be investigated in the case studies. Total number of case studies will be 3-4, and they will mainly be located in Eastern Europe, where also large forest resources and utilisation potential are found. Case studies include three main tasks: 1) Assessment of forest fuel resources around the CHP or heating plant. 2) Forest fuel procurement cost study and 3) Study on the economics forest fuel based energy production. The project will be carried out as cooperation between Finnish research institutes and companies, and local actors. First case study was carried out at Poland. (orig.)

  16. Sustainable Process Design of Biofuels: Bioethanol Production from Cassava rhizome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mangnimit, S.; Malakul, P.; Gani, Rafiqul

    2013-01-01

    This study is focused on the sustainable process design of bioethanol production from cassava rhizome. The study includes: process simulation, sustainability analysis, economic evaluation and life cycle assessment (LCA). A steady state process simulation if performed to generate a base case design........ Also, simultaneously with sustainability analysis, the life cycle impact on environment associated with bioethanol production is performed. Finally, candidate alternative designs are generated and compared with the base case design in terms of LCA, economics, waste, energy usage and enviromental impact...... in order to identify the most sustainable design for the production of ethanol. The capacity for ethanol production from cassava rhizome is set to 150,000 liters/day, which is about 1.3 % of the total demand of ethanol in Thailand. LCA on the base case design pointed to large amounts of CO2 and CO...

  17. The role of bioenergy in the UK's energy future formulation and modelling of long-term UK bioenergy scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jablonski, Sophie; Bauen, Ausilio; Strachan, Neil; Brand, Christian

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the prospects and policy implications for bioenergy to contribute to a long-term sustainable UK energy system. The UK MARKAL technology-focused energy systems dynamic cost optimisation model - which has been used to quantify the costs and benefits of alternative energy strategies in UK policy making - is enhanced with detailed representation of bio-energy chains and end-uses. This provides an important advance in linking bioenergy expert-knowledge with a whole system modelling approach, in order to better understand the potential role of bioenergy in an evolving energy system. The new BIOSYS-MARKAL model is used to run four scenarios constructed along the pillars of UK energy policy objectives (low carbon and energy security). The results are analysed in terms of bioenergy resources use and bioenergy pathways penetration in different end use sectors. The main findings suggest that the complexity of different bioenergy pathways may have been overlooked in previous modelling exercises. A range of bioenergy pathways - notably bio-heat and biofuels for transport - may have a much wider potential role to play. The extent to which this potential is fulfilled will be further determined by resources availability, and market segment constraints, as well as policy measures to improve deployment. (author)

  18. Production of bioethanol from agricultural waste | Braide | Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maximum yields of ethanol were obtained at pH 3.60, 3.82, 4.00, 3.64 and 3.65. These findings show/prove that ethanol can be made from the named agricultural waste and the process is recommended as a means of generating wealth from waste. Keywords: bioethanol; fermentation; agro waste; Zea mays; sugar cane ...

  19. Pretreatments employed in lignocellulosic materials for bioethanol production: an overview

    OpenAIRE

    Danay Carrillo-Nieves; Lourdes Zumalacárregui-de Cárdenas; Olga Sánchez-Collazo; Georgina Michelena-Alvarez; Hector Yznaga-Blanco; José Luis Martínez-Hernández; Cristóbal Noé-Aguilar

    2014-01-01

    Lignocellulosic materials are raw materials with high cellulose content and they constitute the most abun- dant sources of biomass on planet. They are attractive for their low cost and high availability in diverse climates and places for the bioethanol production, however, the main impediment for its use is the appro- priate selection from the technological and economic point of view of the stages of pretreatments and hydrolysis, that allow the breaking down of the lignocellulosic matrix to o...

  20. Prospects for Hybrid Breeding in Bioenergy Grasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aguirre, Andrea Arias; Studer, Bruno; Frei, Ursula

    2012-01-01

    , we address crucial topics to implement hybrid breeding, such as the availability and development of heterotic groups, as well as biological mechanisms for hybridization control such as self-incompatibility (SI) and male sterility (MS). Finally, we present potential hybrid breeding schemes based on SI...... of different hybrid breeding schemes to optimally exploit heterosis for biomass yield in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) and switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), two perennial model grass species for bioenergy production. Starting with a careful evaluation of current population and synthetic breeding methods...