WorldWideScience

Sample records for producer gas generation

  1. Agricultural residues as fuel for producer gas generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeglund, C

    1981-01-01

    This paper reports on results from a series of tests with four different types of agricultural residues as fuel for producer gas generation. The fuels are coconut shells, coconut husks, pelletized wheat-straw and pressed sugar cane. The tests were made with a 73 Hp (50 kW) agricultural tractor diesel engine equipped with a standard gasifier developed for wood chips in Sweden, and run on a testbed at the Swedish National Machinery Testing Institute. The engine was operated on approximately 10% diesel oil and 90% producer gas. The gas composition, its calorific value and temperature, the pressure drop and the engine power were monitored. Detailed elementary analysis of the fuel and gas were carried out. Observations were also made regarding the important aspects of bridging and slagging in the gasifier. The tests confirmed that coconut shells make an excellent fuel for producer gas generation. After 8 hours of running no problems with slags and bridging were experienced. Coconut husks showed no bridging but some slag formation. The gasifier operated satisfactorily for this fuel. Pelletized wheat straw and pressed sugar cane appeared unsuitable as fuel in the unmodified test gasifier (Type F 300) due to slag formation. It is important to note, however, that the present test results are not optimal for any of the fuels used, the gasifier being designed for wood-chips and not for the test-fuels used. Tests using approximately modified gasifiers are planned for the future.

  2. Power generation using coir-pith and wood derived producer gas in diesel engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramadhas, A.S.; Jayaraj, S.; Muraleedharan, C. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Institute of Technology Calicut, Calicut-673 601, Kerala State (India)

    2006-10-15

    Partial combustion of biomass in the gasifier generates producer gas that can be used for heating purposes and as supplementary or sole fuel in internal combustion engines. In this study, the potential of coir-pith and wood chips as the feedstock for gasifier is analyzed. The performance of the gasifier-engine system is analyzed by running the engine for various producer gas-air flow ratios and at different load conditions. The system is experimentally optimized with respect to maximum diesel savings and lower emissions in the dual fuel mode operation while using coir-pith and wood chips separately. The performance and emission characteristics of the dual fuel engine are compared with that of diesel engine at different load conditions. Specific energy consumption in the dual fuel mode of operation is found to be in the higher side at all load conditions. The brake thermal efficiency of the engine while using wood chips in the dual mode operation is higher than that of coir-pith. The CO emission is higher in the case of dual fuel mode of operation as compared to that of diesel mode. In the dual fuel mode of operation, the higher diesel savings is achieved while using wood chips as compared to that of coir-pith. The comparison of the performance and emission characteristics of the dual fuel engine with diesel engine is also described. (author)

  3. Generation of low-Btu fuel gas from agricultural residues experiments with a laboratory scale gas producer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, R O

    1977-01-01

    Two successive laboratory-scale, downdraft gas producers were fabricated and tested. Agricultural and food processing residues including walnut shells, corn cobs, tree prunings, and cotton gin waste, were converted to a low Btu producer gas. The performance of 2 spark ignition engines, when running on producer gas, was highly satisfactory. The ability of the producer to maintain a continuous supply of good quality gas was determined largely by firebox configuration. Fuel handling and fuel flow control problems tended to be specific to individual types of residues. During each test run, air input, firebox temperature, fuel consumption rate, and pressure differential across the producer were monitored. An overall conversion efficiency of 65% was achieved.

  4. Two generators to produce SI-traceable reference gas mixtures for reactive compounds at atmospheric levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascale, C.; Guillevic, M.; Ackermann, A.; Leuenberger, D.; Niederhauser, B.

    2017-12-01

    To answer the needs of air quality and climate monitoring networks, two new gas generators were developed and manufactured at METAS in order to dynamically generate SI-traceable reference gas mixtures for reactive compounds at atmospheric concentrations. The technical features of the transportable generators allow for the realization of such gas standards for reactive compounds (e.g. NO2, volatile organic compounds) in the nmol · mol-1 range (ReGaS2), and fluorinated gases in the pmol ṡ mol-1 range (ReGaS3). The generation method is based on permeation and dynamic dilution. The transportable generators have multiple individual permeation chambers allowing for the generation of mixtures containing up to five different compounds. This mixture is then diluted using mass flow controllers, thus making the production process adaptable to generate the required amount of substance fraction. All parts of ReGaS2 in contact with the gas mixture are coated to reduce adsorption/desorption processes. Each input parameter required to calculate the generated amount of substance fraction is calibrated with SI-primary standards. The stability and reproducibility of the generated amount of substance fractions were tested with NO2 for ReGaS2 and HFC-125 for ReGaS3. They demonstrate stability over 1-4 d better than 0.4% and 0.8%, respectively, and reproducibility better than 0.7% and 1%, respectively. Finally, the relative expanded uncertainty of the generated amount of substance fraction is smaller than 3% with the major contributions coming from the uncertainty of the permeation rate and/or of the purity of the matrix gas. These relative expanded uncertainties meet then the needs of the data quality objectives fixed by the World Meteorological Organization.

  5. A dual fired downdraft gasifier system to produce cleaner gas for power generation: Design, development and performance analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raman, P.; Ram, N.K.; Gupta, Ruchi

    2013-01-01

    The existing biomass gasifier systems have several technical challenges, which need to be addressed. They are reduction of impurities in the gas, increasing the reliability of the system, easy in operation and maintenance. It is also essential to have a simple design of gasifier system for power generation, which can work even in remote locations. A dual fired downdraft gasifier system was designed to produce clean gas from biomass fuel, used for electricity generation. This system is proposed to overcome a number of technical challenges. The system is equipped with dry gas cleaning and indirect gas cooling equipment. The dry gas cleaning system completely eliminates wet scrubbers that require large quantities of water. It also helps to do away with the disposal issues with the polluted water. With the improved gasifier system, the tar level in the raw gas is less than 100 mg Nm −3 .Cold gas efficiency has improved to 89% by complete gasification of biomass and recycling of waste heat into the reactor. Several parameters, which are considered in the design and development of the reactors, are presented in detail with their performance indicators. - Highlights: • Hot air injection in dual fired reactor reduces the tar content to less than 100 mg Nm −3 . • In clean gas the tar content is 35 mg Nm −3 and the dust content is nil. • The specific gasification rate is 2.8 Nm 3 kg −1 of fuel wood and cold gas efficiency is 89.7%. • CV of the gas: 5.3 MJ Nm −3 , SFC: 1.1 kg kWh −1 and wood to power efficiency: 21%. • Cold gas efficiency is improved by optimizing the reactor's design and recycling the waste heat from hot gas

  6. The future of UK gas producers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallas, P.A.

    1991-01-01

    Traditionally, an oil company wishing to develop UK gas reserves almost always faced a protracted gas sales negotiation with British Gas. British Gas then had an effective monopoly in the resale of that gas to final consumers. This traditional pattern is now in a process of fundamental change, as a result of recent UK gas market re-regulation and the emergence of a new large scale opportunity to sell gas for power generation. The impact of these changes is still not very well understood outside a relatively small group of gas specialists but is likely to be significant for British Gas, consumers and UK gas producers. This paper outlines the background to the recent changes, the possible future of UK gas marketing and the likely impact on gas producers in the North Sea

  7. Cracked gas generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abthoff, J; Schuster, H D; Gabler, R

    1976-11-17

    A small cracked-gas generator in a vehicle driven, in particular, by an air combustion engine has been proposed for the economic production of the gases necessary for low toxicity combustion from diesel fuel. This proceeds via catalytic crack-gasification and exploitation of residual heat from exhaust gases. This patent application foresees the insertion of one of the catalysts supporting the cracked-gas reaction in a container through which the reacting mixture for cracked-gas production flows in longitudinal direction. Further, air ducts are embedded in the catalyst through which exhaust gases and fresh air flow in counter direction to the cracked gas flow in the catalyst. The air vents are connected through heat conduction to the catalyst. A cracked gas constituting H/sub 2//CO/CO/sub 2//CH/sub 4/ and H/sub 2/O can be produced from the air-fuel mixture using appropriate catalysts. By the addition of 5 to 25% of cracked gas to the volume of air drawn in by the combustion engine, a more favourable combustion can be achieved compared to that obtained under normal combustion conditions.

  8. Effects of biomass-generated producer gas constituents on cell growth, product distribution and hydrogenase activity of Clostridium carboxidivorans P7{sup T}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Asma [Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK (United States). School of Chemical Engineering; Cateni, Bruno G.; Huhnke, Raymond L. [Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK (United States). Department of Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering; Lewis, Randy S. [Brigham Young University, Provo, UT (United States). Chemical Engineering Department

    2006-07-15

    In our previous work, we demonstrated that biomass-generated producer gas can be converted to ethanol and acetic acid using a microbial catalyst Clostridium carboxidivorans P7{sup T}. Results showed that the producer gas (1) induced cell dormancy, (2) inhibited H{sub 2} consumption, and (3) affected the acetic acid/ethanol product distribution. Results of this work showed that tars were the likely cause of cell dormancy and product redistribution and that the addition of a 0.025{mu}m filter in the gas cleanup negated the effects of tars. C. carboxidivorans P7{sup T} can adapt to the tars (i.e. grow) only after prolonged exposure. Nitric oxide, present in the producer gas at 150ppm, is an inhibitor of the hydrogenase enzyme involved in H{sub 2} consumption. We conclude that significant conditioning of the producer gas will be required for the successful coupling of biomass-generated producer gas with fermentation to produce ethanol and acetic acid. (author)

  9. Effects of biomass-generated producer gas constituents on cell growth, product distribution and hydrogenase activity of Clostridium carboxidivorans P7T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Asma; Cateni, Bruno G.; Huhnke, Raymond L.; Lewis, Randy S.

    2006-01-01

    In our previous work, we demonstrated that biomass-generated producer gas can be converted to ethanol and acetic acid using a microbial catalyst Clostridium carboxidivorans P7 T . Results showed that the producer gas (1) induced cell dormancy, (2) inhibited H 2 consumption, and (3) affected the acetic acid/ethanol product distribution. Results of this work showed that tars were the likely cause of cell dormancy and product redistribution and that the addition of a 0.025μm filter in the gas cleanup negated the effects of tars. C. carboxidivorans P7 T can adapt to the tars (i.e. grow) only after prolonged exposure. Nitric oxide, present in the producer gas at 150ppm, is an inhibitor of the hydrogenase enzyme involved in H 2 consumption. We conclude that significant conditioning of the producer gas will be required for the successful coupling of biomass-generated producer gas with fermentation to produce ethanol and acetic acid. (author)

  10. De-carbonisation of electricity generation in an oil and gas producing country: 'A sensitivity analysis over the power sector in Egypt'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farnoosh, Arash; Lantza, Frederic

    2015-07-01

    Fossil fuel are used in power generation in oil and gas producing countries due to the resource availability. However, the growing electricity demand, the potential exports revenues associated to hydrocarbons as well as the environmental policies have to be taken into account for the definition of the electricity generation mix. Thus, the development of the power generation capacities according to the resource availability and the economic factors (demand and costs) is investigated through a modeling approach. Over the past ten years, Egypt has become an important gas producer and a strategic gas supplier for Europe. Moreover, natural gas represents around eighty percent of the Egyptian power sector mix. However, this extensive share of natural gas in power generation mix could not be sustainable in long-term due to the limited hydrocarbons' resources of Egypt. In this study, the current and future power generation situation of the country is analyzed through a dynamic linear programming model. Finally, a power generation strategy based on a gradual integration of nuclear and renewable is suggested. (authors)

  11. Gas marketing strategies for Ontario producers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, P.R. [Energy Objective Ltd., London, ON (Canada)

    2000-07-01

    Activity in natural gas exploration and production in the province of Ontario has recently increased due to higher natural gas prices. This paper discussed the issue of how the gas from the new reserves should be marketed. A review of historical pricing and consumption patterns was also presented to better identify how prices of natural gas are determined in Ontario and to forecast the future demand for natural gas. The first trend of interest is the increased use of natural gas in generating electricity to meet cooling needs in the summer months. The second trend is the increase in gas consumption by the industrial sector resulting from increases in process load. Several marketing options are available to Ontario natural gas producers. They can market their gas to third parties at various trading points in the province or they can market it directly to Union Gas Limited, the local gas utility. This paper briefly described how a gas supply contract works with the union, how gas marketing agreement is conducted with a gas marketer, and how a gas marketing arrangement works with a consultant. Some of the pitfalls of marketing natural gas were also described and some recommended some strategies for selling natural gas in the future were presented. 7 figs.

  12. Gas marketing strategies for Ontario producers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walsh, P.R.

    2000-01-01

    Activity in natural gas exploration and production in the province of Ontario has recently increased due to higher natural gas prices. This paper discussed the issue of how the gas from the new reserves should be marketed. A review of historical pricing and consumption patterns was also presented to better identify how prices of natural gas are determined in Ontario and to forecast the future demand for natural gas. The first trend of interest is the increased use of natural gas in generating electricity to meet cooling needs in the summer months. The second trend is the increase in gas consumption by the industrial sector resulting from increases in process load. Several marketing options are available to Ontario natural gas producers. They can market their gas to third parties at various trading points in the province or they can market it directly to Union Gas Limited, the local gas utility. This paper briefly described how a gas supply contract works with the union, how gas marketing agreement is conducted with a gas marketer, and how a gas marketing arrangement works with a consultant. Some of the pitfalls of marketing natural gas were also described and some recommended some strategies for selling natural gas in the future were presented. 7 figs

  13. Agricultural residues as fuel for producer gas generation. Report from a test series with coconut shells, coconut husks, wheat straw and sugar cane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeglund, C

    1981-08-01

    This paper reports on results from a series of tests with four different types of agricultural residues as fuel for producer gas generation. The fuels are coconut shells, coconut husks, pelletized wheat straw and pressed sugar cane. The tests were made with a 73 Hp agricultural tractor diesel engine equipped with a standard gasifier developed for wood chips in Sweden, and run on a testbed at the Swedish National Machinery Testing Institute. The engine was operated on approximately 10 per cent diesel oil and 90 per cent producer gas. The gas composition, its calorific value and temperature, the pressure drop and the engine power were monitored. Detailed elementary analysis of the fuel and gas were carried out. Observations were also made regarding the important aspects of bridging and slagging in the gasifier. The tests confirmed that coconut shells make an excellent fuel for producer gas generation. After 8 hours of running no problems with slags and bridging were experienced. Coconut husks showed no bridging but some slag formation. The gasifier operated satisfactorily for this fuel. Pelletized wheat straw and pressed sugar cane appeared unsuitable as fuel in the unmodified test gasifier (Type F 300) due to slag formation. It is important to note, however, that the present results are not optimal for any of the fuel used, the gasifier being designed for wood-chips and not for the test-fuels used. Tests using appropriately modified gasifiers are planned for the future.

  14. Natural gas for utility generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, T.

    1992-01-01

    Forecasters predict that natural gas will be the dominant fuel choice for utility capacity additions in the coming decade and that power generation will be by far the largest growth market for gas sales. While gas's low emissions, high efficiency potential, and present low cost argue persuasively for a surge in gas-fired generation, many utilities have been slow to commit to a gas future, citing reasoned concern about long-term price trends and the ability of gas suppliers to deliver the fuel where and when it will be needed. Meanwhile, the relatively low cost of gas-fired units is providing an opportunity for independent power producers to compete strongly with utilities for generation contracts. EPRI studies suggest that a sound, competitive strategy will be based not on how much gas a utility burns, but rather on how this capacity fits into its overall generating mix at various fuel price levels. Gas suppliers will need to pay special attention to the operating needs of power generators if they are to solidify this important market

  15. How much will BC rely on incoming LNG and locally produced natural gas to fuel future generation capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boychuk, L.A.

    2005-01-01

    The British Columbia Utilities Commission (BCUC) works with public utilities to determine where resource additions are needed in order to ensure safe, reliable and convenient service to utility customers. All public utilities in the province are required to file resource plans in order to enhance the effectiveness of the BCUC and to protect ratepayers from poor utility expenditure decisions. The BCUC also ensures that utilities have adequate supply to meet demand. This paper outlined energy policy actions plans for the province of British Columbia. The BCUC will regulate BC hydro rates and will review the Vancouver Island Generation Project (VIGP) to determine if it is the most cost-effective means to reliably meet power needs on the island. Electricity distributors will acquire new supply on a least-cost basis, with regulatory oversight by BCUC. The role of the private sector in developing new electricity generation was also discussed, along with alternative energy development opportunities, such as the potential liquefied natural gas (LNG) import project by Galveston at Kitimat and WestPac Terminals' project at Prince Rupert

  16. Gas compression infrared generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hug, W.F.

    1980-01-01

    A molecular gas is compressed in a quasi-adiabatic manner to produce pulsed radiation during each compressor cycle when the pressure and temperature are sufficiently high, and part of the energy is recovered during the expansion phase, as defined in U.S. Pat. No. 3,751,666; characterized by use of a cylinder with a reciprocating piston as a compressor

  17. Gas turbine electric generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemoto, Masaaki; Yuhara, Tetsuo.

    1993-01-01

    When troubles are caused to a boundary of a gas turbine electric generator, there is a danger that water as an operation medium for secondary circuits leaks to primary circuits, to stop a plant and the plant itself can not resume. Then in the present invention, helium gases are used as the operation medium not only for the primary circuits but also for the secondary circuits, to provide so-called a direct cycle gas turbine system. Further, the operation media of the primary and secondary circuits are recycled by a compressor driven by a primary circuit gas turbine, and the turbine/compressor is supported by helium gas bearings. Then, problems of leakage of oil and water from the bearings or the secondary circuits can be solved, further, the cooling device in the secondary circuit is constituted as a triple-walled tube structure by way of helium gas, to prevent direct leakage of coolants into the reactor core even if cracks are formed to pipes. (N.H.)

  18. Gas generation in repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biddle, P.; Rees, J.H.; McGahan, D.; Rushbrook, P.E.

    1987-09-01

    The nature and quantities of gases likely to be produced by various processes in repositories for low level and intermediate level radioactive wastes are examined in this preliminary study. Many simplifying assumptions are made where published or experimental data is unavailable. The corrosion of the canisters and metallic components in wastes is likely to be the major gas production process in both types of repository. A significant contribution from microbiological activity is expected to occur in low level repositories, predominantly where no cement grouting of the cans has been carried out. A number of areas for further research, required before a more comprehensive study could be carried out, have been identified. (author)

  19. An essay pertaining to the supply and price of natural gas as fuel for electric utilities and independent power producers; and, the related growth of non-utility generators to meet capacity shortfalls in the next decade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clements, J.R.

    1990-01-01

    This paper addresses the impact natural gas and petroleum prices have on how the electric power industry decides to meet increasing demand for electric power. The topics of the paper include the pricing impact of the Iraq-Kuwait conflict, the BTU parity argument, electric utility capacity shortfalls in 1993, the growth of the non-utility generator and the independent power developer market, natural gas as the desired fuel of the decade, the financial strategy in acquiring natural gas reserves, the cost and availability of natural gas supplies for non-utility generators, and the reluctance of the gas producers to enter long term contracts

  20. Natural gas supply - a producer's perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papa, M.G.

    1994-01-01

    The supply of natural gas from the producers standpoint is discussed. The following factors in the marketing demand for natural gas are considered to be important: gas demand is growing, U.S. gas resource base is large, chronic gas bubble has shrunk, and North American supply is more resilient than expected

  1. A range of newly developed mobile generators to dynamically produce SI-traceable reference gas mixtures for reactive compounds at atmospheric concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuenberger, Daiana; Pascale, Céline; Guillevic, Myriam; Ackermann, Andreas; Niederhauser, Bernhard

    2017-04-01

    Three new mobile facilities have been developed at METAS to dynamically generate SI-traceable reference gas mixtures for a variety of reactive compounds at atmospheric amount of substance fractions and at very low levels of uncertainty (Ux balance. The carrier gas is previously purified from the compounds of interest using commercially available purification cartridges. The permeation chambers of ReGaS2 and ReGaS3 have multiple individual cells allowing for the generation of mixtures containing up to 5 different components if required. ReGaS1 allows for the generation of one-component mixtures only. These primary mixtures are then diluted to the required amount of substance fractions using thermal mass flow controllers for full flexibility and adaptability of the generation process over the entire range of possible concentrations. In order to considerably reduce adsorption/desorption processes and thus stabilisation time, all electro-polished stainless steel parts of ReGaS1 and ReGaS2 in contact with the reference gas mixtures are passivated with SilcoNert2000® surface coating. These three state-of-the-art mobile reference gas generators are applicable under both, laboratory and field conditions. Moreover the dynamic generation method can be adapted and applied to a large variety of molecules (e.g. BTEX, CFCs, HCFCs, HFCs and other refrigerants) and is particularly suitable for reactive gas species and/or at concentration ranges which are unstable when stored in pressurised cylinders. Acknowledgement: This work was supported by the European Metrology Research Programme (EMRP). The EMRP is jointly funded by the EMRP participating countries within EURAMET and the European Union

  2. 21 CFR 866.2580 - Gas-generating device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2580 Gas-generating device. (a) Identification. A gas-generating device is a device intended for medical purposes that produces...

  3. A summary of volatile impurity measurements and gas generation studies on MISSTD-1, a high-purity plutonium oxide produced by low-temperature calcination of plutonium oxalate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, John M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Narlesky, Joshua E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Veirs, Douglas K. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-08

    Plutonium dioxide of high specific surface area was subjected to long-term tests of gas generation in sealed containers. The material preparation and the storage conditions were outside the bounds of acceptable parameters defined by DOE-STD-3013-2012 in that the material was stabilized to a lower temperature than required and had higher moisture content than allowed. The data provide useful information for better defining the bounding conditions for safe storage. Net increases in internal pressure and transient increases in H{sub 2} and O{sub 2} were observed, but were well within the bounds of gas compositions previously shown to not threaten integrity of 3013 containers.

  4. A summary of volatile impurity measurements and gas generation studies on MISSTD-1, a high-purity plutonium oxide produced by low-temperature calcination of plutonium oxalate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, John M.; Narlesky, Joshua E.; Veirs, Douglas K.

    2012-01-01

    Plutonium dioxide of high specific surface area was subjected to long-term tests of gas generation in sealed containers. The material preparation and the storage conditions were outside the bounds of acceptable parameters defined by DOE-STD-3013-2012 in that the material was stabilized to a lower temperature than required and had higher moisture content than allowed. The data provide useful information for better defining the bounding conditions for safe storage. Net increases in internal pressure and transient increases in H 2 and O 2 were observed, but were well within the bounds of gas compositions previously shown to not threaten integrity of 3013 containers.

  5. Dry radon gas generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandrish, G.

    1979-10-01

    A radon gas standard with a source strength of 120037 pCi capable of delivering 121 pCi of radon gas successively to a large number of cells has been developed. The absolute source strength has been calibrated against two radium solution standards and is accurate to 4 percent. A large number of cells (approxiiately 50) may be calibrated conveniently on a daily basis with appropriate corrections for sequential changes in the amount of gas delivered, and a correction for the growth of radon in the standard on successive days. Daily calibration of ten cells or less does not require these corrections. The standard is suitable for field use and the source emanation rate is stable over extreme temperatue and pressure ranges and over six months

  6. CO Emissions from Gas Engines Operating on Biomass Producer Gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahrenfeldt, Jesper; Jensen, T. K.; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk

    2004-01-01

    High carbon monoxide (CO) emission from gas engines fueled by producer gas is a concerning problem in the struggle to make biomass gasification for heat and power production a success. CO emissions from engines operating on biomass producer gases are high, especially at very lean conditions where...

  7. Signal generation in gas detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stillman, A.

    1993-01-01

    This tutorial describes the generation of electrical signals in gas detectors. Ionization of the gas by the passage of charged particles generates these signals. Starting with the Bethe-Bloch equation, the treatment is a general introduction to the production of ion-pairs in gas devices. I continue with the characterization of the ionization as an electrical signal, and calculate the signal current in a simple example. Another example demonstrates the effect of space charge on the design of a detector. The AGS Booster ionization profile monitor is a model for this calculation

  8. Financial instruments help producers hedge gas deals in volatile market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawnin, J.N.; Kupiec, S.L.

    1993-01-01

    The Natural Gas Policy Act (NGPA) of 1978 and more recently the U.S. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's Order 636 have changed gas marketing from a totally regulated industry to one that responds to free-market forces. The stable but controlled market in which producers once sold gas has become highly competitive and more efficient. Consequently, prices have become more volatile; they respond more quickly than they did before to changes in supply of and demand for natural gas. Prior to deregulation of the natural gas industry, producers had fewer marketing options than they do today. Under a typical gas sales contract, producers sold gas to the nearest pipeline at regulated prices, which remained relatively stable along the interstate distribution chain. The system, however, failed to generate adequate supply of gas. In an effort to realign supply and demand, Congress initiated the deregulation of natural gas with NGPA, which phased out most wellhead price controls. A series of FERC actions culminating in Order 636 extended the process. Now, independent producers can sell gas directly to end users. Under Order 636, interstate pipelines no longer offer merchant services to gas customers. The paper discusses the change in risk profiles, price protection, futures and options, hedged exposure, setting price floors, off-exchange contracts, risk considerations, types of risks, business controls, back office controls, and credit monitoring

  9. The external costs of electricity generation. A comparison of environmental damage of silicon photovoltaic electricity, produced with different electricity mixes, vs natural gas and coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, C.L.; Veltkamp, A.C.; Sinke, W.C. [ECN Solar Energy, Petten (Netherlands)

    2012-09-15

    In this paper the environmental damages of crystalline silicon photovoltaics are calculated, using the most recent photovoltaics data, and compared with those of the prevalent conventional energy technologies. A life cycle assessment of selected environmental impacts of 1kWh of electricity generated by various technologies was performed using Simapro software (version 7.2.4) in conjunction with the Ecoinvent database (version 2.2). The environmental impacts were assessed using the ReCiPe methodology. Because of the important role of coal and natural gas in the global electricity generation portfolio, special attention is given to the comparison of PV with those technologies. The environmental consequences of manufacturing PV modules with renewable, UCTE or 100% coal electricity mixes are explored. A brief update of the estimated monetarization of damages due to coal and climate change is included. A rough estimate of the true cost of coal and PV electricity is made in 2011.

  10. A Flue Gas Tube for Thermoelectric Generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The invention relates to a flue gas tube (FGT) (1) for generation of thermoelectric power having thermoelectric elements (8) that are integrated in the tube. The FTG may be used in combined heat and power (CHP) system (13) to produce directly electricity from waste heat from, e.g. a biomass boiler...

  11. Alberta producers' gas export prices slip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandrasekharaiah, M.N.; Dubben, G.; Kolster, B.H.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that Alberta gas producers have approved a new contract with California buyers that includes slightly lower wellhead prices and more flexible pricing terms. The 1 year agreement, will apply a flexible price formula to gas sales. A basic volume of 212 MMcfd will receive $1.52 (U.S.)/Mcf. A and S also will buy 200 MMcfd at prices paid for other Alberta gas in the California market. It will have the right to buy added volumes at prices indexed to gas sold into California from the U.S. Southwest. Ballots cast by producers were to be verified by regulatory agencies in Alberta and British Columbia. The more flexible price terms in the new contract are seen as a positive development for negotiations in a dispute over long term contracts

  12. Dry syngas purification process for coal gas produced in oxy-fuel type integrated gasification combined cycle power generation with carbon dioxide capturing feature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Makoto; Akiho, Hiroyuki

    2017-12-01

    Electricity production from coal fuel with minimizing efficiency penalty for the carbon dioxide abatement will bring us sustainable and compatible energy utilization. One of the promising options is oxy-fuel type Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (oxy-fuel IGCC) power generation that is estimated to achieve thermal efficiency of 44% at lower heating value (LHV) base and provide compressed carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) with concentration of 93 vol%. The proper operation of the plant is established by introducing dry syngas cleaning processes to control halide and sulfur compounds satisfying tolerate contaminants level of gas turbine. To realize the dry process, the bench scale test facility was planned to demonstrate the first-ever halide and sulfur removal with fixed bed reactor using actual syngas from O 2 -CO 2 blown gasifier for the oxy-fuel IGCC power generation. Design parameter for the test facility was required for the candidate sorbents for halide removal and sulfur removal. Breakthrough test was performed on two kinds of halide sorbents at accelerated condition and on honeycomb desulfurization sorbent at varied space velocity condition. The results for the both sorbents for halide and sulfur exhibited sufficient removal within the satisfactory short depth of sorbent bed, as well as superior bed conversion of the impurity removal reaction. These performance evaluation of the candidate sorbents of halide and sulfur removal provided rational and affordable design parameters for the bench scale test facility to demonstrate the dry syngas cleaning process for oxy-fuel IGCC system as the scaled up step of process development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Gas generation from transuranic waste degradation: an interim assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molecke, M.A.

    1979-10-01

    A review of all available, applicable data pertaining to gas generation from the degradation of transuranic waste matrix material and packaging is presented. Waste forms are representative of existing defense-related TRU wastes and include cellulosics, plastics, rubbers, concrete, process sludges, and mild steel. Degradation mechanisms studied were radiolysis, thermal, bacterial, and chemical corrosion. Gas generation rates are presented in terms of moles of gas produced per year per drum, and in G(gas) values for radiolytic degradation. Comparison of generation rates is made, as is a discussion of potential short- and long-term concerns. Techniques for reducing gas generation rates are discussed. 6 figures, 10 tables

  14. WWW expert system on producer gas cleaning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schouten, E.J.; Lammers, G.; Beenackers, A.A.C.M. [University of Groningen (Netherlands)

    1999-07-01

    The University of Groningen (RUG) has developed an expert system on cleaning of biomass producer gas. This work was carried out in close co-operation with the Biomass Technology Group B.V. (BTG) in Enschede, The Netherlands within the framework of the EC supported JOR3-CT95-0084 project. The expert system was developed as a tool for the designer-engineer of downstream gas cleaning equipment and consists of an information package and a flowsheet package. The packages are integrated in a client/server system. The flowsheeting package of the expert system has been designed for the evaluation of different gas cleaning methods. The system contains a number of possible gas cleaning devices such as: cyclone, fabric filter, ceramic filter, venturi scrubber and catalytic cracker. The user can select up to five cleaning steps in an arbitrary order for his specific gas cleaning problem. After specification of the required design parameters, the system calculates the main design characteristics of the cleaning device. The information package is a collection of HTML{sup TM} files. It contains a large amount of information, tips, experience data, literature references and hyperlinks to other interesting Internet sites. This information is arranged per cleaning device. (orig.)

  15. Treatment of Oil & Gas Produced Water.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dwyer, Brian P. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Production of oil and gas reserves in the New Mexico Four Corners Region results in large volumes of "produced water". The common method for handling the produced water from well production is re-injection in regulatory permitted salt water disposal wells. This is expensive (%7E $5/bbl.) and does not recycle water, an ever increasingly valuable commodity. Previously, Sandia National Laboratories and several NM small business tested pressure driven membrane-filtration techniques to remove the high TDS (total dissolved solids) from a Four Corners Coal Bed Methane produced water. Treatment effectiveness was less than optimal due to problems with pre-treatment. Inadequate pre-treatment allowed hydrocarbons, wax and biological growth to foul the membranes. Recently, an innovative pre-treatment scheme using ozone and hydrogen peroxide was pilot tested. Results showed complete removal of hydrocarbons and the majority of organic constituents from a gas well production water. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This report was made possible through funding from the New Mexico Small Business Administration (NMSBA) Program at Sandia National Laboratories. Special thanks to Juan Martinez and Genaro Montoya for guidance and support from project inception to completion. Also, special thanks to Frank McDonald, the small businesses team POC, for laying the ground work for the entire project; Teresa McCown, the gas well owner and very knowledgeable- fantastic site host; Lea and Tim Phillips for their tremendous knowledge and passion in the oil & gas industry.; and Frank Miller and Steve Addleman for providing a pilot scale version of their proprietary process to facilitate the pilot testing.

  16. ADVANCED STRIPPER GAS PRODUCED WATER REMEDIATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray W. Sheldon

    2001-01-01

    Natural gas and oil production from stripper wells also produces water contaminated with hydrocarbons, and in most locations, salts and trace elements. The hydrocarbons are not generally present in concentrations that allow the operator to economically recover these liquids. Produced liquids, (stripper gas water) which are predominantly water, present the operator with two options; purify the water to acceptable levels of contaminates, or pay for the disposal of the water. The project scope involves testing SynCoal as a sorbent to reduce the levels of contamination in stripper gas well produced water to a level that the water can be put to a productive use. Produced water is to be filtered with SynCoal, a processed sub-bituminous coal. It is expected that the surface area of and in the SynCoal would sorb the hydrocarbons and other contaminates and the effluent would be usable for agricultural purposes. Test plan anticipates using two well locations described as being disparate in the level and type of contaminates present. The loading capacity and the rate of loading for the sorbent should be quantified in field testing situations which include unregulated and widely varying liquid flow rates. This will require significant flexibility in the initial stages of the investigation. The scope of work outlined below serves as the guidelines for the testing of SynCoal carbon product as a sorbent to remove hydrocarbons and other contaminants from the produced waters of natural gas wells. A maximum ratio of 1 lb carbon to 100 lbs water treated is the initial basis for economic design. While the levels of contaminants directly impact this ratio, the ultimate economics will be dictated by the filter servicing requirements. This experimental program is intended to identify those treatment parameters that yield the best technological practice for a given set of operating conditions. The goal of this research is to determine appropriate guidelines for field trials by accurately

  17. Method and apparatus for producing synthesis gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmings, John William; Bonnell, Leo; Robinson, Earl T.

    2010-03-03

    A method and apparatus for reacting a hydrocarbon containing feed stream by steam methane reforming reactions to form a synthesis gas. The hydrocarbon containing feed is reacted within a reactor having stages in which the final stage from which a synthesis gas is discharged incorporates expensive high temperature materials such as oxide dispersed strengthened metals while upstream stages operate at a lower temperature allowing the use of more conventional high temperature alloys. Each of the reactor stages incorporate reactor elements having one or more separation zones to separate oxygen from an oxygen containing feed to support combustion of a fuel within adjacent combustion zones, thereby to generate heat to support the endothermic steam methane reforming reactions.

  18. Mn nanoparticles produced by inert gas condensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, M B; Brydson, R; Cochrane, R F

    2006-01-01

    The results from experiments using the inert gas condensation method to produce nanoparticles of manganese are presented. Structural and compositional data have been collected through electron diffraction, EDX (energy dispersive X-ray) and EELS (electron energy loss spectroscopy). Both Mn 3 O 4 and pure Mn particles have been produced. Moisture in untreated helium gas causes the particles to oxidize, whereas running the helium through a liquid nitrogen trap removes the moisture and produces β-Mn particles in a metastable state. The particle sizes and the size distribution have been determined. Particle sizes range from 2nm to above 100 nm, however the majority of particles lie in the range below 20 nm with a modal particle size of 6 nm. As well as the modal particle size of 6 nm, there is another peak in the frequency curve at 16 nm that represents another group particles that lie in the range 12 to 20 nm. The smaller particles are single crystals, but the larger particles appear to have a dense region around their edge with a less dense centre. Determination of their exact nature is ongoing

  19. Lithium recovery from shale gas produced water using solvent extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Eunyoung; Jang, Yunjai; Chung, Eunhyea

    2017-01-01

    Shale gas produced water is hypersaline wastewater generated after hydraulic fracturing. Since the produced water is a mixture of shale formation water and fracturing fluid, it contains various organic and inorganic components, including lithium, a useful resource for such industries as automobile and electronics. The produced water in the Marcellus shale area contains about 95 mg/L lithium on average. This study suggests a two-stage solvent extraction technique for lithium recovery from shale gas produced water, and determines the extraction mechanism of ions in each stage. All experiments were conducted using synthetic shale gas produced water. In the first-stage, which was designed for the removal of divalent cations, more than 94.4% of Ca"2"+, Mg"2"+, Sr"2"+, and Ba"2"+ ions were removed by using 1.0 M di-(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (D2EHPA) as an extractant. In the second-stage, for lithium recovery, we could obtain a lithium extraction efficiency of 41.2% by using 1.5 M D2EHPA and 0.3 M tributyl phosphate (TBP). Lithium loss in the first-stage was 25.1%, and therefore, the total amount of lithium recovered at the end of the two-step extraction procedure was 30.8%. Through this study, lithium, one of the useful mineral resources, could be selectively recovered from the shale gas produced water and it would also reduce the wastewater treatment cost during the development of shale gas. - Highlights: • Lithium was extracted from shale gas produced water using an organic solvent. • Two-stage solvent extraction technique was applied. • Divalent cations were removed in the first stage by D2EHPA. • Lithium was selectively recovered in the second stage by using TBP with D2EHPA.

  20. Gas Discharge Produced by Strong Microwaves of Nanosecond Duration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vikharev, A.L.

    2000-01-01

    The results of the investigation of nanosecond microwave discharge are reviewed. Nanosecond microwave discharge is a new branch of gas discharge physics. The paper lists base types of microwave generators used to produce nanosecond discharge and classifies the discharges relative to their base parameters: the way the discharge gets localized in a limited space, amplitude and frequency of microwave field, gas pressure, duration of microwave pulses. The laboratory experiments performed and the new effects which appear in nanosecond microwave discharge are briefly summarized. Different applications of such a discharge are analyzed on the basis of the experimental modelling. (author)

  1. Lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions of coal, conventional and unconventional natural gas for electricity generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    An analysis of the lifecycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with natural gas use recently published by Howarth et al. (2011) stated that use of natural gas produced from shale formations via hydraulic fracturing would generate greater lifecycle GHG emissions than petro...

  2. Gas generation from Hanford grout samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonah, C.D.; Kapoor, S.; Matheson, M.S.; Mulac, W.A.; Meisel, D.

    1996-01-01

    In an extension of our work on the radiolytic processes that occur in the waste tanks at the Hanford site, we studied the gas generation from grout samples that contained nuclear waste simulants. Grout is one option for the long-term storage of low-level nuclear waste solutions but the radiolytic effects on grout have not been thoroughly defined. In particular, the generation of potentially flammable and hazardous gases required quantification. A research team at Argonne examined this issue and found that the total amount of gases generated radiolytically from the WHC samples was an order of magnitude higher than predicted. This implies that novel pathways fro charge migration from the solid grout to the associated water are responsible for gas evolution. The grout samples produced hydrogen, nitrous oxide, and carbon monoxide as well as nitrogen and oxygen. Yields of each of these substances were determined for doses that are equivalent to about 80 years storage of the grout. Carbon monoxide, which was produced in 2% yield, is of particular importance because even small amounts may adversely affect catalytic conversion instrumentation that has been planned for installation in the storage vaults

  3. Heat Recovery From Tail Gas Incineration To Generate Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tawfik, Tarek

    2010-09-15

    Many industrial processes result in tail gas wastes that must be flared or incinerated to abide with environmental guidelines. Tail gas incineration occurs in several chemical processes resulting in high-temperature exhaust gas that simply go to the stack, thus wasting all that valuable heat! This paper discusses useful heat recovery and electric power generation utilizing available heat in exhaust gas from tail gas incinerators. This heat will be recovered in a waste-heat recovery boiler that will produce superheated steam to expand in a steam turbine to generate power. A detailed cost estimate is presented.

  4. Centralized power generation: what share for gas?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honore, A.; Pharabod, E.; Lecointe, O.; Poyer, L.

    2007-01-01

    Up to a recent past, most energy scenarios were foreseeing a fast growth of natural gas consumption thanks to an assumed strong penetration of gas-fueled power plants. The share of natural gas in the centralized power generation has been the subject of a meeting of the French gas association (AFG) which aimed at answering the following questions: today's position of gas power generation in Europe in the present day context of gas prices (level, volatility), the share of natural gas in the French power mix in the coming years, the strategies of development of gas power plants by historical operators and newcomers, the gas arbitration between its sale to end-users and its use for power generation, and the integration of the CO 2 risk. (J.S.)

  5. WIPP panel simulations with gas generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeVries, K.L.; Callahan, G.D.; Munson, D.E.

    1996-01-01

    An important issue in nuclear waste repository performance is the potential for fracture development resulting in pathways for release of radionuclides beyond the confines of the repository. A series of demonstration calculations using structural finite element analyses are presented here to examine the effect of internal gas generation on the response of a sealed repository. From the calculated stress fields, the most probable location for a fracture to develop was determined to be within the pillars interior to the repository for the range of parameter values considered. If a fracture interconnects the rooms and panels of the repository, fracture opening produces significant additional void volume to limit the excess gas pressure to less than 1.0 MPa above the overburden pressure. Consequently, the potential for additional fracture development into the barrier pillar is greatly reduced, which provides further confidence that the waste will be contained within the repository

  6. Gas Generation from Actinide Oxide Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George Bailey; Elizabeth Bluhm; John Lyman; Richard Mason; Mark Paffett; Gary Polansky; G. D. Roberson; Martin Sherman; Kirk Veirs; Laura Worl

    2000-12-01

    This document captures relevant work performed in support of stabilization, packaging, and long term storage of plutonium metals and oxides. It concentrates on the issue of gas generation with specific emphasis on gas pressure and composition. Even more specifically, it summarizes the basis for asserting that materials loaded into a 3013 container according to the requirements of the 3013 Standard (DOE-STD-3013-2000) cannot exceed the container design pressure within the time frames or environmental conditions of either storage or transportation. Presently, materials stabilized and packaged according to the 3013 Standard are to be transported in certified packages (the certification process for the 9975 and the SAFKEG has yet to be completed) that do not rely on the containment capabilities of the 3013 container. Even though no reliance is placed on that container, this document shows that it is highly likely that the containment function will be maintained not only in storage but also during transportation, including hypothetical accident conditions. Further, this document, by summarizing materials-related data on gas generation, can point those involved in preparing Safety Analysis Reports for Packages (SARPs) to additional information needed to assess the ability of the primary containment vessel to contain the contents and any reaction products that might reasonably be produced by the contents.

  7. Gas Generation from Actinide Oxide Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, George; Bluhm, Elizabeth; Lyman, John; Mason, Richard; Paffett, Mark; Polansky, Gary; Roberson, G. D.; Sherman, Martin; Veirs, Kirk; Worl, Laura

    2000-01-01

    This document captures relevant work performed in support of stabilization, packaging, and long term storage of plutonium metals and oxides. It concentrates on the issue of gas generation with specific emphasis on gas pressure and composition. Even more specifically, it summarizes the basis for asserting that materials loaded into a 3013 container according to the requirements of the 3013 Standard (DOE-STD-3013-2000) cannot exceed the container design pressure within the time frames or environmental conditions of either storage or transportation. Presently, materials stabilized and packaged according to the 3013 Standard are to be transported in certified packages (the certification process for the 9975 and the SAFKEG has yet to be completed) that do not rely on the containment capabilities of the 3013 container. Even though no reliance is placed on that container, this document shows that it is highly likely that the containment function will be maintained not only in storage but also during transportation, including hypothetical accident conditions. Further, this document, by summarizing materials-related data on gas generation, can point those involved in preparing Safety Analysis Reports for Packages (SARPs) to additional information needed to assess the ability of the primary containment vessel to contain the contents and any reaction products that might reasonably be produced by the contents

  8. Gas target neutron generator studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatoorgoon, V.

    1978-01-01

    The need for an intense neutron source for the study of radiation damage on materials has resulted in the proposal of various solid, liquid, and gas targets. Among the gas targets proposed have been the transonic gas target, two types of hypersonic gas target, and the subsonic gas target (SGT). It has been suggested that heat deposition in a subsonic channel might create a gas density step which would constitute an attractive gas target type. The first part of the present study examines this aspect of the SGT and shows that gas density gradients are indeed formed by heat deposition in subsonic flow. The variation of beam voltage, gas density, gas pressure, and gas temperature within the channel have been calculated as functions of the system parameters: beam voltage, beam current, channel diameter, stagnation tank temperature and pressure. The analysis is applicable to any beam particle and target gas. For the case of T + on D 2 , which is relevant to the fusion application, the 14 MeV neutron profiles are presented as a function of system parameters. It is found that the SGT is compatible with concentrated intense source operation. The possibility of instability was investigated in detail using a non-linear analysis which made it possible to follow the complete time development of the SGT. It was found that the SGT is stable against all small perturbations and certain types of large perturbations. It appears that the SGT is the most advantageous type of gas target, operating at a lower mass flow and less severe stagnation tank conditions than the other types. The second part of the thesis examines a problem associated with the straight hypersonic target, the deuterium spill into the tritium port. The regime of practical operation for this target is established. (auth)

  9. Energetic evaluation of low potential biomass gasifier coupled with a burner of the produced gas for generation of heat; Avaliacao energetica de um gaseificador de biomassa de baixa potencia, associado a um combustor do gas produzido, para geracao de calor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Samuel [Universidade de Brasilia (FAV/UNB), DF (Brazil). Fac. de Agronomia e Medicina Veterinaria], email: samuelmartin@unb.nr; Silva, Jadir Nogueira [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Agricola; Machado, Cassio Silva; Zanatta, Fabio Luis; Galvarro, Svetlana F.S. [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    In the search of alternatives for sustainable socio-economic development, this study had the objective of evaluating the energetic performance of a concurrent flow biomass gasifier associated with a burner for the gas produced which was of low potential for air heating using a renewable energy source (substituting non-renewable). In this system 4 tests were performed using eucalyptus chips (tests 1 and 2) and logs (tests 3 and 4) as fuel, for the two fan motor frequencies of 60 and 50 hertz. Temperature in the combustion chamber was monitored, along with fuel consumption and other variables. In the tests, the average exhaust air temperature was maintained between 92.7 and 100.4 deg C, and the reduction in the motor frequency from 60 to 50 Hz caused an increase in the duration of the tests. The system presented the best energetic performance when utilizing a frequency of 60 Hz for both fuel types. However, the results of energy efficiency varied very little when comparing tests performed at the same fan frequency. Thus, the gasification process was little affected by variation in the physical characteristics of the tested fuels, and it was recommended that the equipment operate with a frequency of 60 Hz. (author)

  10. Gas in electricity generation [In New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devine, K.

    1995-01-01

    Gas is New Zealand's major thermal fuel for electricity generation. This paper describes what influences the volumes of gas burnt by ECNZ, and forecasts future gas demands for electricity generation. It also reviews the uncertainties associated with these forecasts and likely competition in building new electricity generating stations and outlines the strategy now being formulated to accommodate them. Because ECNZ's generation system is hydro-based, relatively small rapid changes in hydrological conditions can significantly affect the amount of gas used. This situation will change over time with major increases in thermal generation likely to be needed over the next 20 years. However, there are considerable uncertainties on gas supply and electricity demand levels in the long run, which will complicate investment and fuel decisions. (Author)

  11. The Chemistry of Flammable Gas Generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ZACH, J.J.

    2000-01-01

    The document collects information from field instrumentation, laboratory tests, and analytical models to provide a single source of information on the chemistry of flammable gas generation at the Hanford Site. It considers the 3 mechanisms of formation: radiolysis, chemical reactions, and thermal generation. An assessment of the current models for gas generation is then performed. The results are that the various phenomena are reasonably understood and modeled compared to field data

  12. The Chemistry of Flammable Gas Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ZACH, J.J.

    2000-10-30

    The document collects information from field instrumentation, laboratory tests, and analytical models to provide a single source of information on the chemistry of flammable gas generation at the Hanford Site. It considers the 3 mechanisms of formation: radiolysis, chemical reactions, and thermal generation. An assessment of the current models for gas generation is then performed. The results are that the various phenomena are reasonably understood and modeled compared to field data.

  13. The greenhouse impact of unconventional gas for electricity generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hultman, Nathan; Ramig, Christopher [School of Public Policy, University of Maryland, 2101 Van Munching Hall, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Rebois, Dylan [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Maryland, 2181 Glenn L Martin Hall, Building 088, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Scholten, Michael [Joint Quantum Institute, University of Maryland, 2207 Computer and Space Sciences Building, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)

    2011-10-15

    New techniques to extract natural gas from unconventional resources have become economically competitive over the past several years, leading to a rapid and largely unanticipated expansion in natural gas production. The US Energy Information Administration projects that unconventional gas will supply nearly half of US gas production by 2035. In addition, by significantly expanding and diversifying the gas supply internationally, the exploitation of new unconventional gas resources has the potential to reshape energy policy at national and international levels-altering geopolitics and energy security, recasting the economics of energy technology investment decisions, and shifting trends in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. In anticipation of this expansion, one of the perceived core advantages of unconventional gas-its relatively moderate GHG impact compared to coal-has recently come under scrutiny. In this paper, we compare the GHG footprints of conventional natural gas, unconventional natural gas (i.e. shale gas that has been produced using the process of hydraulic fracturing, or 'fracking'), and coal in a transparent and consistent way, focusing primarily on the electricity generation sector. We show that for electricity generation the GHG impacts of shale gas are 11% higher than those of conventional gas, and only 56% that of coal for standard assumptions.

  14. The greenhouse impact of unconventional gas for electricity generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hultman, Nathan; Ramig, Christopher; Rebois, Dylan; Scholten, Michael

    2011-01-01

    New techniques to extract natural gas from unconventional resources have become economically competitive over the past several years, leading to a rapid and largely unanticipated expansion in natural gas production. The US Energy Information Administration projects that unconventional gas will supply nearly half of US gas production by 2035. In addition, by significantly expanding and diversifying the gas supply internationally, the exploitation of new unconventional gas resources has the potential to reshape energy policy at national and international levels—altering geopolitics and energy security, recasting the economics of energy technology investment decisions, and shifting trends in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. In anticipation of this expansion, one of the perceived core advantages of unconventional gas—its relatively moderate GHG impact compared to coal—has recently come under scrutiny. In this paper, we compare the GHG footprints of conventional natural gas, unconventional natural gas (i.e. shale gas that has been produced using the process of hydraulic fracturing, or 'fracking'), and coal in a transparent and consistent way, focusing primarily on the electricity generation sector. We show that for electricity generation the GHG impacts of shale gas are 11% higher than those of conventional gas, and only 56% that of coal for standard assumptions.

  15. Survey of landfill gas generation potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauntlett, W.D.

    1992-09-01

    This project identifies all the landfill sites in each of the 50 states capable of producing 750,000 SCFD of mixed landfill gas for a period of at least 10 years. The study identified 749 landfill sites nationally, with an aggregate gas production rate sufficient to fuel approximately 6000 MW of fuel cell power plants

  16. CO and PAH emissions from engines operating on producer gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahrenfeldt, Jesper

    2005-01-01

    High carbon monoxide (CO) emission from gas engines fueled by producer gas is a concerning problem in the struggle to make biomass gasification for heat and power production a success. The standing regulations concerning CO emissions from gas engine based power plants in most EU countries are so ...

  17. How is Order 636 affecting the gas producing industry?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    This paper is an interview with an energy representative for a major gas-producing company regarding the impact of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) Order 636. This legislation was suppose to streamline the interstate transportation of natural gas unhindered by local distribution company (LCD) interference. Many times these LCD's owned a portion of the necessary pipeline route used to transport natural gas, and as a result, had a priority on purchasing pipeline gas whenever they needed. This could, in turn, result in a depletion of contract gas which was in-route to a specified contract market. Such interferences caused problems with the contract markets, but could boost the net profits to natural gas companies who had excess gas that could be sold in-route to other markets. This paper addresses both the pro's and cons' of this new regulation on both the pipeline and gas producing companies

  18. Producer gas and its use for the manufacture of lime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, A K; Kumar, S

    1976-04-01

    An analysis of available data indicates that coal-based producer gas is superior to coal or wood as a fuel for lime kilns and much more readily available than oil or natural gas. With producer gas, chemical-grade lime is obtained, and the kiln capacity is increased, so that a smaller unit can be used or more lime obtained. With a mixture of coal and wood as the fuel, the lime produced is contaminated with ash. The added cost of the gas-producer unit can be paid out in one year owing to the greater demand for and the consequent higher prices obtainable for the chemical-grade product. In addition, the flue gases from the kiln can be used in place of steam to heat the gas producer, but experimental studies are needed to determine the magnitude of the savings in fuel consumption. 15 references.

  19. Water management technologies used by Marcellus Shale Gas Producers.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veil, J. A.; Environmental Science Division

    2010-07-30

    Natural gas represents an important energy source for the United States. According to the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Energy Information Administration (EIA), about 22% of the country's energy needs are provided by natural gas. Historically, natural gas was produced from conventional vertical wells drilled into porous hydrocarbon-containing formations. During the past decade, operators have increasingly looked to other unconventional sources of natural gas, such as coal bed methane, tight gas sands, and gas shales.

  20. Modelling gas generation in radioactive waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agg, P.J.

    1993-02-01

    In a repository containing low- and intermediate-level waste, gas generation will occur principally by the coupled processes of metal corrosion and microbial degradation of cellulosic waste. This Paper describes a mathematical model design to address gas generation by these mechanisms. The metal corrosion model incorporates a three-stage process encompassing both aerobic and anaerobic corrosion regimes; the microbial degradation model simulates the activities of eight different microbial populations, which are maintained as functions both of pH and of the concentrations of particular chemical species. Gas concentrations have been measured over a period of three years in large-scale drum experiments designed to simulate repository conditions. Model predictions are confirmed against the experimental measurements, and a prediction is then made of gas concentrations and generation rates over an assessment period of one million years in a radioactive waste repository. (author)

  1. Modelling gas generation in radioactive waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agg, P.J.

    1992-07-01

    In a repository containing low- and intermediate-level waste, gas generation will occur principally by the coupled processes of metal corrosion and microbial degradation of cellulosic waste. This paper describes a mathematical model designed to address gas generation by these mechanisms. The metal corrosion model incorporates a three-stage process encompassing both aerobic and anaerobic corrosion regimes; the microbial degradation model simulates the activities of eight different microbial populations, which are maintained as functions both of pH and of the concentrations of particular chemical species. Gas concentrations have been measured over a period of three years in large-scale drum experiments designed to simulate repository conditions. Model predictions are confirmed against the experimental measurements, and a prediction is then made of gas concentrations and generation rates over an assessment period of one million years in a radioactive waste repository. (Author)

  2. Natural gas poised to penetrate deeper into electric generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swanekamp, R.

    1995-01-01

    This article describes how advancements in gas supply, distribution and storage, coupled with new options in combustion equipment, continue to expand the use of natural gas for electric generation. The challenge is to meet the increasing demand while keeping prices competitive with other fuels--and keep a small band of skeptics at bay. To prepare for the projected growth in gas consumption, the natural-gas industry has invented in new infrastructure and technologies. Pipelines have been built; storage facilities have been expanded; and highly precise flow measurement stations have been installed. To mitigate supply and price risk, suppliers are offering short-, mid-, or long-term contracts which include service options and guarantees. In spite of these preparations, not all power producers are comfortable with the potential tidal wave of gas-fired capacity. Reason: It limits the electric-generation resource base to one fuel for future capacity

  3. Power-generation method using combined gas and steam turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, C; Radtke, K; Keller, H J

    1997-03-20

    The invention concerns a method of power generation using a so-called COGAS (combined gas and steam) turbine installation, the aim being to improve the method with regard to the initial costs and energy consumption so that power can be generated as cheaply as possible. This is achieved by virtue of the fact that air taken from the surrounding atmosphere is splint into an essentially oxygen-containing stream and an essentially nitrogen-containing stream and the two streams fed further at approximately atmospheric pressure. The essentially nitrogen-containing stream is mixed with an air stream to form a mixed nitrogen/air stream and the mixed-gas stream thus produced is brought to combustion chamber pressure in the compressor of the gas turbine, the combustion of the combustion gases in the combustion chamber of the gas turbine being carried out with the greater part of this compressed mixed-gas stream. (author) figs.

  4. Investigation of Continuous Gas Engine CHP Operation on Biomass Producer Gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahrenfeldt, Jesper; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk; Jensen, Torben Kvist

    2005-01-01

    More than 2000 hours of gas engine operation with producer gas from biomass as fuel has been conducted on the gasification CHP demonstration and research plant, named “Viking” at the Technical University of Denmark. The gas engine is an integrated part of the entire gasification plant. The excess...... operates with varying excess of air due to variation in gas composition and thus stoichiometry, and a second where the excess of air in the exhaust gas is fixed and the flow rate of produced gas from the gasifier is varying. The interaction between the gas engine and the gasification system has been...... investigated. The engine and the plant are equipped with continuously data acquisition that monitors the operation including the composition of the producer gas and the flow. Producer gas properties and contaminations have been investigated. No detectable tar or particle content was observed...

  5. New generation of gas infrared point heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schink, Damian [Pintsch Aben B.V., Dinslaken (Germany)

    2011-11-15

    It is more than thirty years since gas infrared heating for points was introduced on the railway network of what is now Deutsche Bahn. These installations have remained in service right through to the present, with virtually no modifications. More stringent requirements as regards availability, maintainability and remote monitoring have, however, led to the development of a new system of gas infrared heating for points - truly a new generation. (orig.)

  6. Natural gas and electricity generation in Queensland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, G.

    2001-01-01

    The focus of this article is on electricity generation in Queensland. Black coal accounted for 97 percent, while natural gas made up only 1 percent of the fuel used in thermal power generation in 1997-98. The share of natural gas in thermal electricity generation is expected to rise to 21 percent by 2014-2015, because of the emphasis on natural gas in Queensland's new energy policy. Since 1973-1974, Queensland has led the way in electricity consumption, with an average annual growth rate of 6.8 percent but the average thermal efficiency has fallen from 38.0 percent in 1991-1992, to 36.6 percent in 1997-1998

  7. System and method for producing substitute natural gas from coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Raymond [Avondale, AZ

    2012-08-07

    The present invention provides a system and method for producing substitute natural gas and electricity, while mitigating production of any greenhouse gasses. The system includes a hydrogasification reactor, to form a gas stream including natural gas and a char stream, and an oxygen burner to combust the char material to form carbon oxides. The system also includes an algae farm to convert the carbon oxides to hydrocarbon material and oxygen.

  8. One billion cubic meters of gas produced in Kikinda area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vicicevic, M; Duric, N

    1969-10-01

    The Kikinda gas reservoir has just passed a milestone in producing one billion cubic meters of natural gas. The reservoir was discovered in 1962, and its present production amounts to 26 million cu m. One of the biggest problems was formation of hydrates, which has successfully been solved by using methanol. Four tables show production statistics by years and productive formations.

  9. Gas-fired electric power generating technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    The workshop that was held in Madrid 25-27 May 1994 included participation by experts from 16 countries. They represented such diverse fields and disciplines as technology, governmental regulation, economics, and environment. Thus, the participants provided an excellent cross section of key areas and a diversity of viewpoints. At the workshop, a broad range of topics regarding gas-fired electric power generation was discussed. These included political, regulatory and financial issues as well as more specific technical questions regarding the environment, energy efficiency, advanced generation technologies and the status of competitive developments. Important technological advances in gas-based power and CHP technologies have already been achieved including higher energy efficiency and lower emissions, with further improvements expected in the near future. Advanced technology trends include: (a) The use of gas technology to reduce emissions from existing coal-fired power plants. (b) The wide-spread application of combined-cycle gas turbines in new power plants and the growing use of aero-derivative gas turbines in CHP applications. (c) Phosphoric acid fuel cells that are being introduced commercially. Their market penetration will grow over the next 10 years. The next generation of fuel cells (solid oxide and molten carbonate) is expected to enter the market around the year 2000. (EG)

  10. ELECTRICITY GENERATION FROM LANDFILL GAS IN TURKEY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salihoglu, Nezih Kamil

    2018-05-08

    Landfill gas (LFG)-to-energy plants in Turkey were investigated, and the LFG-to-energy plant of a metropolitan municipal landfill was monitored for 3 years. Installed capacities and actual gas engine working hours were determined. An equation was developed to estimate the power capacity for LFG-to-energy plants for a given amount of landfilled waste. Monitoring the actual gas generation rates enabled determination of LFG generation factors for Turkish municipal waste. A significant relationship (R = 0.524, p kitchen waste generation behaviors influenced by the ambient temperature. However, no significant correlation was found between the ambient temperature and the generated LFG. A temperature buffering capacity was inferred to exist within the landfill, which enables the anaerobic reactions to continue functioning even during cold seasons. The average LFG and energy generation rates were 45 m 3 LFG/ton waste landfilled and 0.08 MWh/ton waste landfilled, respectively. The mean specific LFG consumption for electricity generation was 529 ± 28 m 3 /MWh.

  11. Radiolytic gas generation in plutonium contaminated waste materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazanjian, A.R.

    1976-01-01

    Many plutonium contaminated waste materials decompose into gaseous products because of exposure to alpha radiation. The gases generated (usually hydrogen) over long-storage periods may create hazardous conditions. To determine the extent of such hazards, knowing the gas generation yields is necessary. These yields were measured by contacting some common Rocky Flats Plant waste materials with plutonium and monitoring the enclosed atmospheres for extensive periods of time. The materials were Plexiglas, polyvinyl chloride, glove-box gloves, machining oil, carbon tetrachloride, chlorothene VG solvent, Kimwipes (dry and wet), polyethylene, Dowex-1 resin, and surgeon's gloves. Both 239 Pu oxide and 238 Pu oxide were used as radiation sources. The gas analyses were made by mass spectrometry and the results obtained were the total gas generation, the hydrogen generation, the oxygen consumption rate, and the gas composition over the entire storage period. Hydrogen was the major gas produced in most of the materials. The total gas yields varied from 0.71 to 16 cm 3 (standard temperature pressure) per day per curie of plutonium. The oxygen consumption rates varied from 0.0088 to 0.070 millimoles per day per gram of plutonium oxide-239 and from 0.0014 to 0.0051 millimoles per day per milligram 238 Pu

  12. Gas condensate--raw material for producing liquid paraffin hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aliyeva, R.B.; Alikishi-Zade, G.Yu.; Kuliyev, A.M.; Leonidov, A.N.; Pereverzev, A.N.

    1980-01-01

    The problem of efficient utilization of gas condensates as raw material for removal of a valuable product, liquid paraffins, is examined. A classification of gas condensates is given which is used as raw material for removing these hydrocarbons: gas condensate with high content of n-alkanes (25-40 mass percent), with average content (18-25 mass percent), with low content (12-18 mass percent), light weight fractions compositions, which do not contain fractions up to 200/sup 0/, and also, content ofless than 12% n-alkanes. Gas condensate I-III groups are 30% of the total reserve of gas condensate. Liquid paraffins hydrocarbons, produced from fractions of diesel fuel, which has been removed from Shatlyk gas condensate under conditions which simulate virtual processes of caramide deparaffinization meet all requirements without additional refining.

  13. Marketing advisors and their role for junior gas producers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maffitt, D.W.

    1997-01-01

    The role of marketing advisors in the new deregulated natural gas industry was discussed. These producer-oriented marketing consultants are specialists in providing affordable marketing services to junior gas producers on an 'as-needed' basis. The most important service provided by marketing advisors is helping the client identify management problems, analyze such problems and recommend solutions. Accordingly, the marketing advisor should be independent and objective, with no conflict of interests. He/she should be prepared to invest a lot of time and effort in providing the junior producer with a customized diagnosis of its marketing problems. 5 refs., 3 figs

  14. Marketing advisors and their role for junior gas producers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maffitt, D.W. [Phoenix Gas Marketing Consultants Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    1997-05-01

    The role of marketing advisors in the new deregulated natural gas industry was discussed. These producer-oriented marketing consultants are specialists in providing affordable marketing services to junior gas producers on an `as-needed` basis. The most important service provided by marketing advisors is helping the client identify management problems, analyze such problems and recommend solutions. Accordingly, the marketing advisor should be independent and objective, with no conflict of interests. He/she should be prepared to invest a lot of time and effort in providing the junior producer with a customized diagnosis of its marketing problems. 5 refs., 3 figs.

  15. Certification of power generation from sewage gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ronchetti, C.

    2004-01-01

    This article discusses the certification of power generated from sewage gas in packaged co-generation units in Switzerland. Since 2003, such electricity can be sold as 'green power' to consumers, who pay an additional charge for this ecologically generated power. Since the eco-balance of this electricity generated in wastewater treatment plant is considered as being excellent, the prestigious 'Naturemade Star' label has been awarded to it. This label sets most stringent requirements. The Canius wastewater treatment plant in the 'Lenzerheide' in eastern Switzerland is taken as an example to illustrate the procedure that has to be gone through to receive certification. This certification is carried out by independent auditors and guarantees that the 'green' electricity offered by the utility meets the high ecological criteria set by the label

  16. Compositional simulations of producing oil-gas ratio behaviour in low permeable gas condensate reservoir

    OpenAIRE

    Gundersen, Pål Lee

    2013-01-01

    Master's thesis in Petroleum engineering Gas condensate flow behaviour below the dew point in low permeable formations can make accurate fluid sampling a difficult challenge. The objective of this study was to investigate the producing oil-gas ratio behaviour in the infinite-acting period for a low permeable gas condensate reservoir. Compositional isothermal flow simulations were performed using a single-layer, radial and two-dimensional, gas condensate reservoir model with low permeabili...

  17. New European context for gas producers/operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deyirmendjian, J.

    2008-01-01

    The development of the European Union towards more integration would enter a new phase if the draft Third Directive regarding the natural gas industry and the deregulation of gas markets would be validated as it stands. The stakes for gas producing/operating companies are very high: they must position themselves either as networks and installations companies or as production and trading companies - meaning regulation and recurring revenues or the opportunities and risks of production and trade. Changes such these, added to the globalisation of gas flows linked to the development of liquefied natural gas (LNG), require more investments than in the past. These additional investments and this technological progress nevertheless give hope that this transformation will not noticeably weaken the security of gas supplies within the European Union (EU) despite the greater volatility of the markets, which are increasingly dominated by the strategies of financial operators. The author reviews the history of the development of the gas distribution networks in Europe and discusses details of the new draft directive aiming at more competition on a market that has been dominated so far by vertical structures. Similarities and differences to the deregulation of the European electricity market are discussed. The divergent attitudes of the EU Member States and the negotiation strategy of the European Commission are discussed. Merges of gas and electricity utilities are on the agenda. The author then reviews the current situation of natural gas consumption and supplies and the transportation and distribution facilities. Political factors influencing the security of supply are discussed. Underground gas storage facilities are crucial in this context. Several projects for new main gas pipelines are discussed. Diversification of supply sources is considered as of strategic relevance. The article is richly illustrated and includes several maps and diagrams.

  18. Gas generation from the irradiation of mortar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, M.A.; Warren, D.W.

    1989-01-01

    A mortar formulation capable of immobilizing chloride salts with high levels of radioactivity is being developed. As part of the developmental effort, radiation effects are being investigated. The radiolytic generation of gas(es) from irradiated mortar formulations was determined for several formulations with variable salt loadings at several test temperatures. The irradiation of a mortar formulation consisting of cement, slag, fly ash, water and 0 to 10 wt % salt led to the generation of hydrogen. The rate of generation was approximately constant, steady state pressures were not attained and final pressures were comparatively high. Higher salt concentrations were correlated with higher hydrogen generation rates for experiments at ambient temperature while lower rates were observed at 120/degree/C. The irradiation of a mortar consisting of cement, fly ash, water and salt led to the radiolytic generation of both oxygen and hydrogen. The addition of 2 wt % FeS or CaS inhibited oxygen generation and changed the hydrogen production rate. 10 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  19. Tar Removal from Biomass Producer Gas by Using Biochar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravenni, Giulia; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk; Ahrenfeldt, Jesper

    2017-01-01

    The biomass-derived char (biochar) produced in the gasifier as a residue, is a potential solution for removing tars from producer gas. This work investigates the interaction between tar compounds and biochar. Residual biochar from a TwoStage gasifier was tested as bed material in a laboratory setup....... Phenol and naphthalene were chosen as model tars, and entrained in a nitrogen flow. The gaseous stream was sampled before and after the biochar bed to evaluate the extent of conversion. The biochar bed (30g) was tested at 250°C, 500°C and 600°C, with for 3 consecutive hours. The compounds concentration...... in the gas phase was quantified by stable isotope dilution analysis, using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). Results showed a significant effect of biochar on the removal of phenol, at all temperatures. Naphthalene was removed less efficiently at higher temperature, and this trend was even more...

  20. Organic Pollutants in Shale Gas Flowback and Produced Waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Butkovskyi, Andrii; Bruning, Harry; Kools, Stefan A.E.; Rijnaarts, Huub H.M.; Wezel, van Annemarie P.

    2017-01-01

    Organic contaminants in shale gas flowback and produced water (FPW) are traditionally expressed as total organic carbon (TOC) or chemical oxygen demand (COD), though these parameters do not provide information on the toxicity and environmental fate of individual components. This review addresses

  1. Comparative funding consequences of large versus small gas-fired power generation units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, N.G.

    1995-01-01

    Gas producers are increasingly looking to privately-owned gas-fired power generation as a major growth market to support the development of new fields being discovered across Australia. Gas-fired generating technology is more environmentally friendly than coal-fired power stations, has lower unit capital costs and has higher efficiency levels. With the recent downward trends in gas prices for power generation (especially in Western Australia) it is likely that gas will indeed be the consistently preferred fuel for generation in Australia. Gas producers should be sensitive to the different financial and risk characteristics of the potential market represented by large versus small gas-fired private power stations. These differences are exaggerated by the much sharper focus given by the private sector to quantify risk and to its allocation to the parties best able to manage it. The significant commercial differences between classes of generation projects result in gas producers themselves being exposed to diverging risk profiles through their gas supply contracts with generating companies. Selling gas to larger generation units results in gas suppliers accepting proportionately (i.e. not just prorata to the larger installed capacity) higher levels of financial risk. Risk arises from the higher probability of a project not being completed, from the increased size of penalty payments associated with non-delivery of gas and from the rising level of competition between gas suppliers. Gas producers must fully understand the economics and risks of their potential electricity customers and full financial analysis will materially help the gas supplier in subsequent commercial gas contract negotiations. (author). 1 photo

  2. A novel method for producing multiple ionization of noble gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Li; Li Haiyang; Dai Dongxu; Bai Jiling; Lu Richang

    1997-01-01

    We introduce a novel method for producing multiple ionization of He, Ne, Ar, Kr and Xe. A nanosecond pulsed electron beam with large number density, which could be energy-controlled, was produced by incidence a focused 308 nm laser beam onto a stainless steel grid. On Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer, using this electron beam, we obtained multiple ionization of noble gas He, Ne, Ar and Xe. Time of fight mass spectra of these ions were given out. These ions were supposed to be produced by step by step ionization of the gas atoms by electron beam impact. This method may be used as a ideal soft ionizing point ion source in Time of Flight Mass Spectrometer

  3. Seeded inert gas driven disk generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, N.K.; Venkatramani, N.; Rohatgi, V.K.

    1987-01-01

    This report outlines the present status of work being carried out in closed cycle MHD and disk generators. It gives the basic principles and discusses a proposal for setting up an experimental facility to study nonequilibrium plasmas using an inert gas driven disk generator. Disk geometry is a near ideal geometry for plasma studies since it has single or few pair electrodes combined with near perfect insulating walls. The proposed outlay of facility with components and subsystem is given. The facility may also be used to study the concept of fully ionized seed and to develop advanced diagnostic techniques. The absic equation describing the working parameters of such a system is also given in the Appendix. (author). 57 refs

  4. Common ground : bitumen and gas producers come together to find gas-over-bitumen solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, E.

    2005-08-01

    The gas-over-bitumen issue has meant that hundreds of natural gas wells remain closed while regulatory hearings and research activities continue. The Alberta Energy and Utilities Board should soon reach a final decision on the status of gas wells considered to be a threat to thermal extraction of underlying oil sands. This article discussed collaborative efforts by oil and gas companies to resolve these issues, including the use of fluid injection technology, low pressure Steam-Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) and artificial lift. The objective of the Gas Reinjection and Production Experiment (GRIPE) is to reinject gas to displace natural gas being produced. The pilot project, conducted by Paramount Resources Ltd., consists of 2 injector wells, 4 producers and 12 observation wells that measure gas pressure in the reservoir. The project also includes a 2 stage compressor modified to handle flue gas. According to reservoir simulations, Paramount should be able to recover between 50 to 60 per cent of the remaining gas in place. Results from the pilot suggest that the technique could result in more than half the currently shut-in pools being re-opened. It was suggested that gas-by-gas displacement may result in higher recovery rates because there is usually more remaining gas in place. It was noted that EnCana Corporation has also been repressurizing a depleted natural gas pool by injecting compressed air rather than flue gas. Various other projects were reviewed, including the use of electric submersible pumps, low pressure SAGD and new SAGD well pair configurations. It was concluded that the artificial lift and low pressure SAGD technical sub-committee have now filed 10 applications for funding under the Alberta Energy Department's Innovative Energy Technology Program.

  5. Gas supply planning for new gas-fired electricity generation facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slocum, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    This paper explores several key issues in gas supply planning for new gas fired electric generation facilities. This paper will have two main sections, as follows: developing the gas supply plan for a gas-fired electricity generation facility and exploring key gas supply contract pricing issues

  6. Miniature Gas-Turbine Power Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiberg, Dean; Vargo, Stephen; White, Victor; Shcheglov, Kirill

    2003-01-01

    A proposed microelectromechanical system (MEMS) containing a closed- Brayton-cycle turbine would serve as a prototype of electric-power generators for special applications in which high energy densities are required and in which, heretofore, batteries have been used. The system would have a volume of about 6 cm3 and would operate with a thermal efficiency >30 percent, generating up to 50 W of electrical power. The energy density of the proposed system would be about 10 times that of the best battery-based systems now available, and, as such, would be comparable to that of a fuel cell. The working gas for the turbine would be Xe containing small quantities of CO2, O2, and H2O as gaseous lubricants. The gas would be contained in an enclosed circulation system, within which the pressure would typically range between 5 and 50 atm (between 0.5 and 5 MPa). The heat for the Brayton cycle could be supplied by any of a number of sources, including a solar concentrator or a combustor burning a hydrocarbon or other fuel. The system would include novel heat-transfer and heat-management components. The turbine would be connected to an electric power generator/starter motor. The system would include a main rotor shaft with gas bearings; the bearing surfaces would be made of a ceramic material coated with nanocrystalline diamond. The shaft could withstand speed of 400,000 rpm or perhaps more, with bearing-wear rates less than 10(exp -)4 those of silicon bearings and 0.05 to 0.1 those of SiC bearings, and with a coefficient of friction about 0.1 that of Si or SiC bearings. The components of the system would be fabricated by a combination of (1) three-dimensional xray lithography and (2) highly precise injection molding of diamond-compatible metals and ceramic materials. The materials and fabrication techniques would be suitable for mass production. The disadvantages of the proposed system are that unlike a battery-based system, it could generate a perceptible amount of sound, and

  7. Produced water management - clean and safe oil and gas production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The conference contains 22 presentations on topics within pollution sources and abatement, discharge reductions, water analysis and monitoring, water production, treatment and injection, enhanced recovery, condensate water, produced water markets, separation technologies for oil/gas/condensate and water, oil removal from solids, environmental risks of oil and gas production and environmental impacts on ecosystems and fisheries. Some oil field case histories are presented. The main focus is on the northern areas such as the North Sea, the north Atlantic Ocean and the Barents Sea, and technological aspects (tk)

  8. Produced water management - clean and safe oil and gas production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The conference contains 22 presentations on topics within pollution sources and abatement, discharge reductions, water analysis and monitoring, water production, treatment and injection, enhanced recovery, condensate water, produced water markets, separation technologies for oil/gas/condensate and water, oil removal from solids, environmental risks of oil and gas production and environmental impacts on ecosystems and fisheries. Some oil field case histories are presented. The main focus is on the northern areas such as the North Sea, the north Atlantic Ocean and the Barents Sea, and technological aspects (tk)

  9. Refining Bio-Gas Produced from Biomass: An Alternative to Cooking Gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. ABDULKAREEM

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Our life is completely dependent on a reliable and adequate supply of energy. In other to reduce dependence on fossil fuels, the use of animal dung in producing a renewable alternative source of energy has been proved using cow dung. This work is aimed at produced and refined bio - gas from animal dung by reduces the H2S and CO2 content of bio - gas in other to improved the quality of the bio - gas to be used as an alternative to the petroleum based produces in use now. The sample of gas produced was passed through the gas chromatography to determine the percentage composition (mol % dry basis of the bio - gas contents. The results of the bio - gas before refinement were 54.09% mole dry CH4, 40.02mole % dry CO2 and 0.80mole % dry H2S which conformed with the literature values of 50 - 65 % mole dry CH4, 35 - 50 % mole dry CO2 and 0.1 - 1.0 % mole dry H2S. After refining, the composition of bio - gas on dry basis were 54.09% mole dry CH4, 4.01% mole dry CO2, 0.02% mole dry O2, 0.05% mole dry NH3, 0.01% mole dry H2S, 0.5% mole dry H2 and 2.54% mole dry N2. Analysis of the remnant indicated that it could be used for plant nutrient.

  10. Less greenhouse gas is being produced; Es entstehen weniger Treibhausgase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grassl, W [Messer Griesheim GmbH, Krefeld (Germany)

    1995-08-09

    The use of natural gas as fuel for vehicles has the advantage that much less ozone is produced compared to other fossil fuel sources. Also, considerably less CO, NO{sub x} and other hydrocarbons are released. However, natural gas drives have not succeeded so far. Compressed natural gas (CNG) or LPG (liquid petroleum gas) have been used so far, which also have disadvantages. This article deals with important questions on the use of gas fuels and their consequences for the car engine. (BWI) [Deutsch] Die Verwendung von Erdgas als Treibstoff fuer Kraftfahrzeuge hat den Vorteil, dass im Vergleich zu anderen fossilen Energietraegern sehr viel weniger Ozon entsteht. Aussderdem werden deutlich weniger Emissionen von CO, NO{sub x} und Kohlenwasserstoffen freigesetzt. Allerdings konnten sich Erdgas-Antriebe bislang nicht durchsetzen. Bislang wird verdichtetes Erdgas (CNG) bzw. LPG (Liquefied Petrol Gas) eingesetzt, die jedoch auch Nachteile in sich bergen. Der vorliegende Artikel geht auf die wesentlichen Fragen der Nutzung von Gastreibstoffen und deren Folgen fuer den Automobilmotor ein. (BWI)

  11. A small capacity co generative gas-turbine plant in factory AD 'Komuna' - Skopje (Macedonia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimitrov, Konstantin; Armenski, Slave; Tashevski, Done

    2000-01-01

    The factory AD 'Komuna' -Skopje (Macedonia), has two steam block boilers, type ST 800 for steam production for process and space heating. The factory satisfies the electricity needs from the national grid. By the use of natural gas like fuel it is possible to produce electrical energy in its own co generative gas turbine plant. In this article, a co generative plant with small-scale gas turbine for electricity production is analyzed . The gas from gas turbine have been introduce in the steam block boiler. Also, a natural gas consumption, the electricity production, total investment and payback period of investment are determined. (Authors)

  12. Can producer currency pricing models generate volatile real exchange rates?

    OpenAIRE

    Povoledo, L.

    2012-01-01

    If the elasticities of substitution between traded and nontraded and between Home and Foreign traded goods are sufficiently low, then the real exchange rate generated by a model with full producer currency pricing is as volatile as in the data.

  13. Study of laser-generated debris free x-ray sources produced in a high-density linear Ar, Kr, Xe, Kr/Ar and Xe/Kr/Ar mixtures gas jets by 2 ω, sub-ps LLNL Titan laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantsyrev, V. L.; Schultz, K. A.; Shlyaptseva, V. V.; Safronova, A. S.; Cooper, M. C.; Shrestha, I. K.; Petkov, E. E.; Stafford, A.; Moschella, J. J.; Schmidt-Petersen, M. T.; Butcher, C. J.; Kemp, G. E.; Andrews, S. D.; Fournier, K. B.

    2016-10-01

    The study of laser-generated debris-free x-ray sources in an underdense plasma produced in a high-density linear gas-puff jet was carried out at the LLNL Titan laser (2 ω, 45 J, sub-ps) with an intensity in the 10 um focal spot of 7 x 1019 W/cm2. A linear nozzle with a fast valve was used for the generation of a clusters/gas jet. X-ray diagnostics for the spectral region of 0.7 - 9 keV include: two spectrometers and pinhole cameras, and 3 groups of fast filtered detectors. Electron beams were measured with the EPPS magnetic spectrometer (>1 MeV) and Faraday cups (>72 keV). Spectralon/spectrometer devices were also used to measure absorption of laser radiation in the jets. New results were obtained on: anisotropic generation of x-rays (laser to x-ray conversion coefficient was >1%) and characteristics of laser-generated electron beams; evolution of x-ray generation with the location of the laser focus in a cluster-gas jet, and observations of a strong x-ray flash in some focusing regimes. Non-LTE kinetic modeling was used to estimate plasma parameters. UNR work supported by the DTRA Basic Research Award # HDTRA1-13-1-0033. Work at LLNL was performed under the auspices of the U.S. DOE by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  14. Catalytic destruction of tar in biomass derived producer gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Ruiqin; Brown, Robert C.; Suby, Andrew; Cummer, Keith

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate catalytic destruction of tar formed during gasification of biomass, with the goal of improving the quality of the producer gas. This work focuses on nickel based catalysts treated with alkali in an effort to promote steam gasification of the coke that deposits on catalyst surfaces. A tar conversion system consisting of a guard bed and catalytic reactor was designed to treat the producer gas from an air blown, fluidized bed biomass gasifier. The guard bed used dolomite to crack the heavy tars. The catalytic reactor was used to evaluate three commercial steam reforming catalysts. These were the ICI46-1 catalyst from Imperial Chemical Industry and Z409 and RZ409 catalysts from Qilu Petrochemical Corp. in China. A 0.5-3 l/min slipstream from a 5 tpd biomass gasifier was used to test the tar conversion system. Gas and tar were sampled before and after the tar conversion system to evaluate the effectiveness of the system. Changes in gas composition as functions of catalytic bed temperature, space velocity and steam/TOC (total organic carbon) ratio are presented. Structural changes in the catalysts during the tests are also described

  15. Greenhouse gas emissions from shale gas and coal for electricity generation in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett Cohen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available There is increased interest, both in South Africa and globally, in the use of shale gas for electricity and energy supply. The exploitation of shale gas is, however, not without controversy, because of the reported environmental impacts associated with its extraction. The focus of this article is on the greenhouse gas footprint of shale gas, which some literature suggests may be higher than what would have been expected as a consequence of the contribution of fugitive emissions during extraction, processing and transport. Based on some studies, it has been suggested that life-cycle emissions may be higher than those from coal-fired power. Here we review a number of studies and analyse the data to provide a view of the likely greenhouse gas emissions from producing electricity from shale gas, and compare these emissions to those of coal-fired power in South Africa. Consideration was given to critical assumptions that determine the relative performance of the two sources of feedstock for generating electricity � that is the global warming potential of methane and the extent of fugitive emissions. The present analysis suggests that a 100-year time horizon is appropriate in analysis related to climate change, over which period the relative contribution is lower than for shorter periods. The purpose is to limit temperature increase in the long term and the choice of metric should be appropriate. The analysis indicates that, regardless of the assumptions about fugitive emissions and the period over which global warming potential is assessed, shale gas has lower greenhouse gas emissions per MWh of electricity generated than coal. Depending on various factors, electricity from shale gas would have a specific emissions intensity between 0.3 tCO2/MWh and 0.6 tCO2/MWh, compared with about 1 tCO2/MWh for coal-fired electricity in South Africa.

  16. Modelling of gas generation in deep geological repositories after closure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poller, A.; Mayer, G.; Darcis M; Smith, P.

    2016-12-01

    In deep geological repositories for radioactive waste, significant quantities of gases will be generated in the long term as a result of various processes, notably the anaerobic corrosion of metals and the degradation of organic materials. Therefore, the impact of gas production on post-closure safety of the repositories needs to be assessed as part of a safety case. The present report provides a comprehensive description of the quantitative modelling of gas generation and associated water consumption during the post-closure phase of deep geological repositories in Opalinus Clay based on current scientific knowledge and on current preliminary repository designs. This includes a presentation of the modelling basis, namely the conceptual and mathematical models, the input data used, the computer tools developed, the relevant uncertainties and principal programme / design options, as well as the derivation, analysis and discussion of specific assessment cases. The modelling is carried out separately for the two main sources of gas, which are the emplaced waste including the disposal containers; and the construction materials. The contribution of construction materials to gas generation rates in emplacement tunnels for spent fuel (SF) and vitrified high-level waste (HLW) is significant during several thousand years after closure. In the long term, however, the corrosion of the disposal canisters, which are in the reference case assumed to be fabricated of carbon steel, accounts for the vast majority of the total gas produced in these tunnels. The contribution of construction materials in emplacement caverns for long lived intermediate-level waste (ILW) and low- and intermediate-level waste (L/ILW) to gas generation is generally small. In ILW emplacement caverns, gas generation is generally dominated by hydrogen generation from the corrosion of cast iron Mosaik-II waste containers for PWR internals and from the corrosion of aluminium in operational waste from the

  17. Modelling of gas generation in deep geological repositories after closure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poller, A. [National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste (NAGRA), Wettingen (Switzerland); Mayer, G.; Darcis M [AF-Consult Switzerland Ltd, Baden-Dättwil, (Switzerland); Smith, P. [Safety Assessment Management Ltd, Henley-On-Thames, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom)

    2016-12-15

    In deep geological repositories for radioactive waste, significant quantities of gases will be generated in the long term as a result of various processes, notably the anaerobic corrosion of metals and the degradation of organic materials. Therefore, the impact of gas production on post-closure safety of the repositories needs to be assessed as part of a safety case. The present report provides a comprehensive description of the quantitative modelling of gas generation and associated water consumption during the post-closure phase of deep geological repositories in Opalinus Clay based on current scientific knowledge and on current preliminary repository designs. This includes a presentation of the modelling basis, namely the conceptual and mathematical models, the input data used, the computer tools developed, the relevant uncertainties and principal programme / design options, as well as the derivation, analysis and discussion of specific assessment cases. The modelling is carried out separately for the two main sources of gas, which are the emplaced waste including the disposal containers; and the construction materials. The contribution of construction materials to gas generation rates in emplacement tunnels for spent fuel (SF) and vitrified high-level waste (HLW) is significant during several thousand years after closure. In the long term, however, the corrosion of the disposal canisters, which are in the reference case assumed to be fabricated of carbon steel, accounts for the vast majority of the total gas produced in these tunnels. The contribution of construction materials in emplacement caverns for long lived intermediate-level waste (ILW) and low- and intermediate-level waste (L/ILW) to gas generation is generally small. In ILW emplacement caverns, gas generation is generally dominated by hydrogen generation from the corrosion of cast iron Mosaik-II waste containers for PWR internals and from the corrosion of aluminium in operational waste from the

  18. 30 CFR 250.1157 - How do I receive approval to produce gas-cap gas from an oil reservoir with an associated gas cap?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I receive approval to produce gas-cap gas from an oil reservoir with an associated gas cap? 250.1157 Section 250.1157 Mineral Resources... do I receive approval to produce gas-cap gas from an oil reservoir with an associated gas cap? (a...

  19. Gas Generation from Solids in Aqueous Suspensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meisel, D.; Schatz, T.

    1999-01-01

    The presence of solid particles suspended in solution may change the radiation-induced chemistry of a system in many ways. Catalytic surface effects may manifest themselves through the acceleration or inhibition of various reactions. As importantly, the yield of primary radiolysis products may be affected as the solids absorb a significant fraction of the radiation energy. The latter is the subject of this study. We explore the possibility that absorption of radiation by the solid particles may initiate chemistry in the water. This is a question of fundamental as well as practical significance. On the fundamental side we ask whether electron-hole pairs generated in the solid phase can escape and cross into the aqueous phase and initiate chemical reactions such as gas generation and how this possibility depends on the energy levels of the material and on particle size. From a practical angle, such questions are directly relevant to any heterogeneous system exposed to radiation. High-level waste temporarily stored in underground tanks, low-level waste permanently stored in humid grout, or soil particles migrating in geological formations are but a few examples

  20. Study of physical properties, gas generation and gas retention in simulated Hanford waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryan, S.A.; Pederson, L.R.; Scheele, R.D.

    1993-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish the chemical and physical processes responsible for the generation and retention of gases within high-level waste from Tank 101-SY on the Hanford Site. This research, conducted using simulated waste on a laboratory scale, supports the development of mitigation/remediation strategies for Tank 101-SY. Simulated waste formulations are based on actual waste compositions. Selected physical properties of the simulated waste are compared to properties of actual Tank 101-SY waste samples. Laboratory studies using aged simulated waste show that significant gas generation occurs thermally at current tank temperatures (∼60 degrees C). Gas compositions include the same gases produced in actual tank waste, primarily N 2 , N 2 O, and H 2 . Gas stoichiometries have been shown to be greatly influenced by several organic and inorganic constituents within the simulated waste. Retention of gases in the simulated waste is in the form of bubble attachment to solid particles. This attachment phenomenon is related to the presence of organic constituents (HEDTA, EDTA, and citrate) of the simulated waste. A mechanism is discussed that relates the gas bubble/particle interactions to the partially hydrophobic surface produced on the solids by the organic constituents

  1. Gas generation in deep radioactive waste repositories: a review of processes, controls and models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, M.A.

    1990-10-01

    Gas generation within radioactive waste repositories may produce two general problems: 1) breaching of engineered and natural barriers due to high gas pressures; 2) enhanced radiological risk due to reduced groundwater travel times and/or greater aqueous or gaseous activities reaching the biosphere. As a result of these concerns, HMIP must be aware of the current status of relevant research, together with any associated deficiencies. This report addresses the current status of published research on near-field gas generation from worldwide sources and documents the important gas generating processes, the factors controlling them and models available to simulate them. In the absence of suitable models, outline technical specifications for corrosion and microbial degradation gas generation models are defined and the deficiencies in the current understanding of gas generation are highlighted; a conceptual research programme to correct these deficiencies is presented. (author)

  2. The Integration of Gasification Systems with Gas Engine to Produce Electrical Energy from Biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siregar, K.; Alamsyah, R.; Ichwana; Sholihati; Tou, S. B.; Siregar, N. C.

    2018-05-01

    The need for energy especially biomass-based renewable energy continues to increase in Indonesia. The objective of this research was to design downdraft gasifier machine with high content of combustible gas on gas engine. Downdraft gasifier machine was adjusted with the synthetic gas produced from biomass. Besides that, the net energy ratio, net energy balance, renewable index, economic analysis, and impact assessment also been conducted. Gas engine that was designed in this research had been installed with capacity of 25 kW with diameter and height of reactor were 900 mm and 1000 mm respectively. The method used here were the design the Detailed Engineering Design (DED), assembly, and performance test of gas engine. The result showed that gas engine for biomass can be operated for 8 hours with performance engine of 84% and capacity of 25 kW. Net energy balance, net energy ratio, and renewable index was 30 MJ/kWh-electric; 0.89; 0.76 respectively. The value of GHG emission of Biomass Power Generation is 0.03 kg-CO2eq/MJ. Electrical production cost for Biomass Power Generation is about Rp.1.500,/kWh which is cheaper than Solar Power Generation which is about of Rp. 3.300,-/kWh.

  3. Natural gas for electric power generation: Strategic issues, risks and opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linderman, C.

    1992-01-01

    Natural gas is again being regarded as a significant fuel for electric power generation. It was once a predominant fuel for utilities in gas-producing areas, but natural gas consumption declined greatly after the 1973 oil shock because of reduced electricity demand and increased coal and nuclear generation. Moreover, wellhead price and other forms of regulation produced gas shortages in the 1970s. The resurgence of natural gas in future resource plans stems from its inherent ideal fuel characteristics: short lead time; low capital costs; small increments of modular capacity; delivered close to load centers; environmentally benign, preferable to oil and coal; and potential for high thermal efficiency in gas turbines. Natural gas, if available and attractively priced, is an ideal fuel for electric power generation. No other fuel shares these attractive characteristics, and utilities, facing higher than expected load growth, are relying on an increasing proportion of gas-fired combustion turbines, combined cycle plants, and cogeneration to meet a growing, yet uncertain, future demand for electricity. Despite these desirable operating characteristics, the varied past and uncertain future of natural gas markets raise legitimate concerns about the riskiness of current utility natural gas strategies. This report, which summarizes the major findings from research efforts, is intended to help utility decision-makers understand the full range of risks they face with natural gas electric power generation and to identify actions they can take to mitigate those risks

  4. Storing the Electric Energy Produced by an AC Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, P. Simeao; Lima, Ana Paula; Carvalho, Pedro Simeao

    2010-01-01

    Producing energy from renewable energy sources is nowadays a priority in our society. In many cases this energy comes as electric energy, and when we think about electric energy generators, one major issue is how we can store that energy. In this paper we discuss how this can be done and give some ideas for applications that can serve as a…

  5. Development of biomass gasification systems for gas turbine power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, E.D.; Svenningsson, P.

    1991-01-01

    Gas turbines are of interest for biomass applications because, unlike steam turbines, they have relatively high efficiencies and low unit capital costs in the small sizes appropriate for biomass installations. Gasification is a simple and efficient way to make biomass usable in gas turbines. The authors evaluate here the technical requirements for gas turbine power generation with biomass gas and the status of pressurized biomass gasification and hot gas cleanup systems. They also discuss the economics of gasifier-gas turbine cycles and make some comparisons with competing technologies. Their analysis indicates that biomass gasifiers fueling advanced gas turbines are promising for cost-competitive cogeneration and central station power generation. Gasifier-gas turbine systems are not available commercially, but could probably be developed in 3 to 5 years. Extensive past work related to coal gasification and pressurized combustion of solid fuels for gas turbines would be relevant in this effort, as would work on pressurized biomass gasification for methanol synthesis

  6. Producing ammonium sulfate from flue gas desulfurization by-products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, I.-Ming; Bruinius, J.A.; Benig, V.; Chou, S.-F.J.; Carty, R.H.

    2005-01-01

    Emission control technologies using flue gas desulfurization (FGD) have been widely adopted by utilities burning high-sulfur fuels. However, these technologies require additional equipment, greater operating expenses, and increased costs for landfill disposal of the solid by-products produced. The financial burdens would be reduced if successful high-volume commercial applications of the FGD solid by-products were developed. In this study, the technical feasibility of producing ammonium sulfate from FGD residues by allowing it to react with ammonium carbonate in an aqueous solution was preliminarily assessed. Reaction temperatures of 60, 70, and 80??C and residence times of 4 and 6 hours were tested to determine the optimal conversion condition and final product evaluations. High yields (up to 83%) of ammonium sulfate with up to 99% purity were achieved under relatively mild conditions. The optimal conversion condition was observed at 60??C and a 4-hour residence time. The results of this study indicate the technical feasibility of producing ammonium sulfate fertilizer from an FGD by-product. Copyright ?? Taylor & Francis Inc.

  7. Dutch gas amendment throws open market to generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    An analysis of the text of an amendment to European Union legislation on gas power production rules from the Dutch government is set out. Its pro-liberalisation stance has profound implications for the French, Belgian and Austrian gas power producers. Reactions to the Dutch proposals are noted and data on gas markets in various Member States is presented in table form. (UK)

  8. Power generation potential using landfill gas from Ontario municipal solid waste landfills. Appendix B2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Twenty-six landfill sites have been identified in Ontario with potential gas production rates suitable for recovery and use in power plant applications. If 70% of the gas naturally generated from these sites was collected and utilized, ca 88 MW could be produced in 1991 (declining to 74 MW by 2001) from the gas generated. Assuming the current average generation rate of one tonne per capita, an estimated nine million tonnes of municipal refuse is produced annually in Ontario, and landfilling is expected to continue to play a major role. It is suggested that the level of gas generation identified for the year 1991 will be sustainable given that as old landfills are spent, new ones are built. The accuracy of the prediction depends largely on future government policies regarding incineration, the effects of present waste reduction programs, and approval of new landfill sites. Due to the combined costs of the gas collection system, auxiliary equipment, and gas processing system, installed cost of a landfill-gas fired power plant is high relative to that of conventional natural gas-fired plants. For landfills presently without a gas collection system, the high initial capital investment for gas field test programs and for the installation of a collection system is a barrier that deters municipalities from tapping this energy potential. 2 figs., 3 tabs

  9. Managing produced water from coal seam gas projects: implications for an emerging industry in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Peter J; Gore, Damian B; Khan, Stuart J

    2015-07-01

    This paper reviews the environmental problems, impacts and risks associated with the generation and disposal of produced water by the emerging coal seam gas (CSG) industry and how it may be relevant to Australia and similar physical settings. With only limited independent research on the potential environmental impacts of produced water, is it necessary for industry and government policy makers and regulators to draw upon the experiences of related endeavours such as mining and groundwater extraction accepting that the conclusions may not always be directly transferrable. CSG is widely touted in Australia as having the potential to provide significant economic and energy security benefits, yet the environmental and health policies and the planning and regulatory setting are yet to mature and are continuing to evolve amidst ongoing social and environmental concerns and political indecision. In this review, produced water has been defined as water that is brought to the land surface during the process of recovering methane gas from coal seams and includes water sourced from CSG wells as well as flowback water associated with drilling, hydraulic fracturing and gas extraction. A brief overview of produced water generation, its characteristics and environmental issues is provided. A review of past lessons and identification of potential risks, including disposal options, is included to assist in planning and management of this industry.

  10. Gazprom vs. other Russian gas producers: The evolution of the Russian gas sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lunden, Lars Petter; Fjaertoft, Daniel; Overland, Indra; Prachakova, Alesia

    2013-01-01

    The non-Gazprom gas producers (NGPs) doubled their share of the Russian domestic gas market between 2000 and 2010 and have continued growing since then. For several years especially Novatek expanded. More recently, Rosneft has emerged as a key player, not least through its purchase of TNK-BP. This article begins with an overview of the companies in the Russian gas sector, their resource bases and capacities, and subsequently examines whether differences in field development costs and export market access may make it rational for Gazprom to continue ceding market share to the NGPs. With rising costs of Gazprom's queue of greenfield developments, any delays in Gazprom's investment program may be compensated through increased NGP production. The article argues that the NGPs are ready to fill the gap, may be allowed to do so and are already increasing their market share in an increasingly competitive market. The stage may now be set for a continued gradual transformation of the Russian gas market, in which the interests of Gazprom and the NGPs may be complementary or may be pitted against each other, but those of the Russian Federation are in any case likely to be better fulfilled than in the past. - Highlights: • Other Russian gas producers, especially Novatek and Rosneft, are taking market shares from Gazprom. • Gazprom has a monopoly on exports and has had a de facto monopoly on the domestic pipeline grid through its control over trunk pipelines. • Gazprom's greenfield projects are more expensive than those of other producers. • Gazprom's loss of market shares to other producers in the domestic market may actually be in Gazprom's interest

  11. The potential for gas fired generation in Atlantic Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDonald, T.

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this presentation was to stimulate discussion regarding the potential for Maritimes based gas fired power generation. It was noted that although the subject is complex, simplified assumptions are presented. The topics of discussion include the move to restructure the electric power industry in Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, the interest in gas fired generation in Atlantic Canada, the expected increase in natural gas consumption, and the issue of whether there is sufficient supply and adequate infrastructure to support demand. Other topics of discussion included the impact of regulations on the industry, and the future outlook of natural gas supply as it relates to power generation. The efforts of the natural gas industry to meet US natural gas generating requirements were also discussed. 3 tabs., 8 figs

  12. The closure of European nuclear power plants: a commercial opportunity for the gas-producing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pauwels, J-P.; Swartenbroekx, C.

    2000-01-01

    The planned closure of nuclear power plants in Sweden, Germany, Belgium, Spain and the Netherlands and their hypothetical closure in the United Kingdom and Switzerland - two countries where this question remains open - will require their replacement by other types of production capacity, mainly gas turbine combined-cycle power stations (GTCCs). The increase in efficiency of GTCCs and the lower carbon content of natural gas favour the use of gas for electricity generation over coal. However, carbon dioxide emissions are unavoidable and, in the context of the Kyoto Protocol, supplementary measures must be taken to compensate, where possible, for the resulting increases in emissions. The replacement of nuclear plants with a 35-40 year lifetime by up-to-date GTCCs will require some 62 billion cubic metres per year of natural gas, resulting in an emissions increase of about 130 million tonnes per year of CO 2 . The replacement of polluting coal-fired and oil-fired plants by GTCCs will reduce CO 2 emissions, but will also require some extra 42 bcm/y of natural gas, at an (unrealistic) high cost. In short, gas-producing countries will benefit from the market breakthrough of their 'clean' fuel, thanks to the GTCCs, and gas demand will be reinforced by the abandonment of nuclear power. (author)

  13. 46 CFR 154.908 - Inert gas generator: Location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Inert gas generator: Location. 154.908 Section 154.908 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY... Atmospheric Control in Cargo Containment Systems § 154.908 Inert gas generator: Location. (a) Except as...

  14. NEXT GENERATION GAS TURBINE (NGGT) SYSTEMS STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    2001-12-05

    to how they could serve multiple applications, both in terms of incorporation of technology into current products, as well as to an NGGT product. In summary, potential program costs are shown for development of the candidate systems along with the importance of future DOE enabling participation. Three main conclusions have been established via this study: (1) Rapid recent changes within the power generation regulatory environment and the resulting ''bubble'' of gas turbine orders has altered the timing and relative significance associated with the conclusions of the ADL study upon which the original DOE NGGT solicitation was based. (2) Assuming that the relevant technologies were developed and available for an NGGT market opportunity circa 2010, the top candidate system that meets or exceeds the DOE PRDA requirements was determined to be a hybrid aero-derivative/heavy duty concept. (3) An investment by DOE of approximately $23MM/year to develop NGGT technologies near/mid term for validation and migration into a reasonable fraction of the installed base of GE F-class products could be leveraged into $1.2B Public Benefit, with greatest benefits resulting from RAM improvements. In addition to the monetary Public Benefit, there is also significant benefit in terms of reduced energy consumption, and reduced power plant land usage.

  15. Control of microbially generated hydrogen sulfide in produced waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burger, E.D.; Vance, I.; Gammack, G.F.; Duncan, S.E.

    1995-12-31

    Production of hydrogen sulfide in produced waters due to the activity of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) is a potentially serious problem. The hydrogen sulfide is not only a safety and environmental concern, it also contributes to corrosion, solids formation, a reduction in produced oil and gas values, and limitations on water discharge. Waters produced from seawater-flooded reservoirs typically contain all of the nutrients required to support SRB metabolism. Surface processing facilities provide a favorable environment in which SRB flourish, converting water-borne nutrients into biomass and H{sub 2}S. This paper will present results from a field trial in which a new technology for the biochemical control of SRB metabolism was successfully applied. A slip stream of water downstream of separators on a produced water handling facility was routed through a bioreactor in a side-steam device where microbial growth was allowed to develop fully. This slip stream was then treated with slug doses of two forms of a proprietary, nonbiocidal metabolic modifier. Results indicated that H{sub 2}S production was halted almost immediately and that the residual effect of the treatment lasted for well over one week.

  16. Outlook for gas sales for electricity generation in the Northeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linderman, C.W.

    1998-01-01

    Issues regarding future supply and demand of natural gas as opposed to coal in the electric power generation sector, generation performance standards of coal plants, new combined cycle applications, distributed generation, and the advantages of natural gas over coal are discussed. The electricity demand and supply situation in the Northeast, present and future, and the growing movement toward green power, green power certification programs, the need and demand for disclosure of emissions and fuel source of supply, price and other customer information were summarized. Nuclear power generation and the chances of it being replaced by natural gas-fuelled generation are assessed. Some pipeline siting issues and the need for careful coordination with the electric system to minimize new corridors, are also reviewed. The advantages of natural gas in terms of technology and reduced pollution, hence cleaner air, were cited as the reasons why natural gas has almost unlimited potential as the fuel of choice well into the 21. century

  17. GE`s worldwide experience with IFO based gypsum producing flue gas desulfurization systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saleem, A. [GE Environmental Systems, Lebanon, PA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The In-Situ Forced Oxidation (IFO) process to produce gypsum in a commercial scale flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system was first demonstrated by GE Environmental Systems in 1980 at the Monticello Generating Station of Texas Utilities. Since then, the IFO technology developed and demonstrated by GE has become the industry standard and is used extensively on a world-wide basis to produce both commercial and disposable-grade gypsum. The paper gives an overview of the development, demonstration, commercial design and current status of the IFO technology.

  18. Hydrogen generation from water using Mg nanopowder produced by arc plasma method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Uda, Hideo Okuyama, Tohru S Suzuki and Yoshio Sakka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report that hydrogen gas can be easily produced from water at room temperature using a Mg nanopowder (30–1000 nm particles, average diameter 265 nm. The Mg nanopowder was produced by dc arc melting of a Mg ingot in a chamber with mixed-gas atmosphere (20% N2–80% Ar at 0.1 MPa using custom-built nanopowder production equipment. The Mg nanopowder was passivated with a gas mixture of 1% O2 in Ar for 12 h in the final step of the synthesis, after which the nanopowder could be safely handled in ambient air. The nanopowder vigorously reacted with water at room temperature, producing 110 ml of hydrogen gas per 1 g of powder in 600 s. This amount corresponds to 11% of the hydrogen that could be generated by the stoichiometric reaction between Mg and water. Mg(OH2 flakes formed on the surface of the Mg particles as a result of this reaction. They easily peeled off, and the generation of hydrogen continued until all the Mg was consumed.

  19. Safe Management of Waste Generated during Shale Gas Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukulska-Zając, Ewa; Król, Anna; Holewa-Rataj, Jadwiga

    2017-04-01

    Exploration and exploitation of hydrocarbon deposits, regardless of their type, are connected with the generation of waste, which may have various environmental effects. Such wastes may pose a serious risk to the surrounding environment and public health because they usually contain numerous potentially toxic chemicals. Waste associated with exploration and exploitation of unconventional hydrocarbon deposits is composed of a mixture of organic and inorganic materials, the qualitative and quantitative composition of which changes widely over time, depending on numerous factors. As a result the proper characteristic of this type of waste is very important. Information gained from detailed chemical analyses of drilling chemicals, drilling wastes, and flowback water can be used to manage shale gas-related wastes more appropriately, to develop treatment methods, to store the waste, and assess the potential environmental and health risk. The following paper will focus mainly on the results of research carried out on waste samples coming from the unconventional hydrogen exploration sites. Additionally, regulatory frameworks applicable to the management of wastes produced during this type of works will be discussed. The scope of research concerning physicochemical parameters for this type of wastes will also be presented. The presented results were obtained during M4ShaleGas project realization. The M4ShaleGas project has received funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement no. 640715.

  20. Leveled cost of the generation in a power station of combined cycle with integrated gas producer (CCGI); Costo nivelado de la generacion en una central de ciclo combinado con gasificador integrado (CCGI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiriart Le Bert, Gerardo [Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE), (Mexico); Beltran Mora, Hector [Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2004-06-15

    A brief description of a combined cycle power station that uses synthesis gas, better known as CCGI, is presented. The costs of the initial investment of several plants of this type, that have been described in literature, are analyzed and the predictions that different experts do on the costs that are expected in the near future are reviewed. Also the maintenance expenses that would be expected during the normal operation and the main maintenance are examined. The availability factors that reasonably must be considered based on the recent experiences are analyzed. Afterwards the sense which that the plant factor has in one of natural gas and one of synthesis, where generally are used as base plant. The costs of the different fuels that can be used in a CCGI are examined. Finally the leveled cost of the energy for both cases is calculated and the sensitivity of both to the cost of the respective fuels is examined. The result is presented in graphical form to show in a first attempt, the circumstances under which one or another technology could be preferable. It is made clear that the data used in this brief study are the best reasoned estimation and in no way they must be considered as definitive, in special in those of investment and maintenance of the CCGI where the operation history is still short. [Spanish] Se presenta una breve descripcion de una Central de Ciclo Combinado que utiliza Gas de Sintesis o mejor conocidas como CCGI. Se analizan los costos de la inversion inicial de varias plantas de este tipo que han sido descritas en la literatura y se resenan las predicciones que hacen diferentes expertos sobre los costos que se esperan para el futuro cercano. Tambien se examinan los gastos de mantenimiento que se esperarian durante la operacion normal y durante los mantenimientos mayores. Se analizan los factores de disponibilidad que razonablemente deben considerarse, basados en las experiencias recientes. Luego se discute el sentido que tiene el factor de

  1. 18 CFR 270.303 - Natural gas produced from Devonian shale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Natural gas produced... DETERMINATION PROCEDURES Requirements for Filings With Jurisdictional Agencies § 270.303 Natural gas produced from Devonian shale. A person seeking a determination that natural gas is produced from Devonian shale...

  2. Framing scenarios of electricity generation and gas use: EPRI report series on gas demands for power generation. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thumb, S.; Glover, W.; Hughes, W.R.

    1996-07-01

    Results of three EPRI projects have been combined to analyze power industry consumption of gas and other generating fuels. The report's capstone is a scenario analysis of power industry generation and fuel consumption. The Utility Fuel Consumption Model (UFCM), developed for the project, predicts generating capacity and generation by region and fuel through 2015, based on load duration curves, generation dispatch, and expected capacity additions. Scenarios embody uncertain factors, such as electricity demand growth, fuel switching, coal-gas competition, the merit order of gas-coal dispatch, and retirement of nuclear units, that substantially affect gas consumption. Some factors, especially electricity demand have very large effects. The report includes a consistent database on NUG (non-utility generation) capacity and generation and assesses historical and prospective trends in NUG generation. The report shows that NUG capacity growth will soon decline substantially. The study assesses industry capability for price-induced fuel switching from gas to oil and coal, documenting conversions of coal units to dual coal-gas capability and determining that gas-to-oil switching remains a strong influence on fuel availability and gas prices, though regulation and taxation have increased trigger prices for switching. 61 tabs

  3. Gold nanoparticles and films produced by a laser ablation/gas deposition (LAGD) method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawakami, Yuji; Seto, Takafumi; Yoshida, Toshinobu; Ozawa, Eiichi

    2002-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles have great potential for various nanoelectronic applications such as single electron transistors, an infrared absorption sensor and so on. It is very important to understand and control the size distribution of the particles for such a variety of applications. In this paper, we report the size distribution of gold nanoparticles and the relationship between the nanoparticle-films and the electrical property produced by a laser ablation method. Gold nanoparticle-films were prepared by a technique, which sprays nanoparticles on the substrate through a nozzle. We call it a gas deposition method. The nanoparticles were generated by the nanosecond pulsed Nd:YAG laser ablation of a gold substrate under a low-pressure inert gas atmosphere. The ambient pressure was changed to control the average size and their distribution. The particles produced in the generation chamber were transported by a helium carrier gas to the deposition chamber and deposited on a substrate to form the films composed of gold nanoparticles. The electrical resistivity of the generated gold nanoparticle-films on the glass substrates was measured using a four-probe method. The size distribution of the nanoparticles was examined using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and a low-pressure differential mobility analyzer (LP-DMA). The relationship between the particle size and the electrical properties of each film made by the different synthesis conditions were analyzed. The electrical resistivity changed from the order of 10 -5 to 10 -1 Ω cm depending on the ambient pressure and the size distribution

  4. Generation and Perceptual Implicit Memory: Different Generation Tasks Produce Different Effects on Perceptual Priming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Neil W.; Dew, Ilana T. Z.

    2009-01-01

    The generation manipulation has been critical in delineating differences between implicit and explicit memory. In contrast to past research, the present experiments indicate that generating from a rhyme cue produces as much perceptual priming as does reading. This is demonstrated for 3 visual priming tasks: perceptual identification, word-fragment…

  5. Natural gas as a public utilities' generator for market orientation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delnoij, J.

    1995-01-01

    The forthcoming free market for the energy sector in Europe is discussed. The author (retiring chairman of KVGN) advocates strengthening the collective market position of energy distribution companies and of the total gas sector, e.g. by continuing the combination of gas distribution and gas purchase and by increased tuning of research and market developments. Energy distribution companies have to strengthen the relation with their customers and set explicit quality objectives. The author also supported competition between the different forms of energy on the energy market and the strive of the gas sector to substitute polluting energy carriers, and electricity generated from these low-efficient energy carriers, by gas

  6. Israel-New natural gas producer in the Mediterranean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaffer, Brenda

    2011-01-01

    In 2009 and 2010, major offshore natural gas reserves were discovered near the State of Israel. This article examines Israel's newly discovered natural gas reserves and the implications of this discovery for Israel, the Middle East, and the Mediterranean region. The article will discuss Israel's energy security approach; the role of natural gas in Israel's energy consumption patterns; the organization of Israel's natural gas sector; regional political and security implications of the natural gas discoveries; the prospects for export, and the outlook for various natural gas markets. These new discoveries significantly improve Israel's energy security. They may also spur Israel to develop technologies related to utilization of natural gas in a variety of sectors, such as transportation. The discoveries may contribute to the emergence of a number of maritime border delimitation conflicts in the Eastern Mediterranean. At current volumes, the Israeli discoveries will not be a game-changer for gas markets in southern Europe or liquefied natural gas (LNG) markets. However, they will lead to expanded natural gas consumption in the region. In addition, offshore exploration efforts in Israel and in neighboring countries are intensifying. Additional discoveries may turn the Eastern Mediterranean region into a new source of natural gas and oil. - Highlights: → In 2009 and 2010, major natural gas deposits were discovered offshore of Israel's port city of Haifa. → They will satisfy a large portion of Israel's domestic energy consumption needs for a number of decades. → The gas discoveries have created an opportunity to fundamentally change the country's energy policies. → Additional discoveries may turn the Eastern Mediterranean region into a new source of natural gas and oil. → Israel could become a supplier of natural gas to neighbors in the Middle East region, such as Jordan.

  7. Advanced Combustion Systems for Next Generation Gas Turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joel Haynes; Jonathan Janssen; Craig Russell; Marcus Huffman

    2006-01-01

    Next generation turbine power plants will require high efficiency gas turbines with higher pressure ratios and turbine inlet temperatures than currently available. These increases in gas turbine cycle conditions will tend to increase NOx emissions. As the desire for higher efficiency drives pressure ratios and turbine inlet temperatures ever higher, gas turbines equipped with both lean premixed combustors and selective catalytic reduction after treatment eventually will be unable to meet the new emission goals of sub-3 ppm NOx. New gas turbine combustors are needed with lower emissions than the current state-of-the-art lean premixed combustors. In this program an advanced combustion system for the next generation of gas turbines is being developed with the goal of reducing combustor NOx emissions by 50% below the state-of-the-art. Dry Low NOx (DLN) technology is the current leader in NOx emission technology, guaranteeing 9 ppm NOx emissions for heavy duty F class gas turbines. This development program is directed at exploring advanced concepts which hold promise for meeting the low emissions targets. The trapped vortex combustor is an advanced concept in combustor design. It has been studied widely for aircraft engine applications because it has demonstrated the ability to maintain a stable flame over a wide range of fuel flow rates. Additionally, it has shown significantly lower NOx emission than a typical aircraft engine combustor and with low CO at the same time. The rapid CO burnout and low NOx production of this combustor made it a strong candidate for investigation. Incremental improvements to the DLN technology have not brought the dramatic improvements that are targeted in this program. A revolutionary combustor design is being explored because it captures many of the critical features needed to significantly reduce emissions. Experimental measurements of the combustor performance at atmospheric conditions were completed in the first phase of the program

  8. Gas-fired Power Generation in India: Challenges and opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    India's fast growing economy needs to add 100,000 MW power generating capacity between 2002-2012. Given limitations to the use of coal in terms of environmental considerations, quality and supply constraints, gas is expected to play an increasingly important role in India's power sector. This report briefs NMC Delegates on the potential for gas-fired power generation in India and describes the challenges India faces to translate the potential for gas-fired power generation into reality.

  9. Performance Study of Dual Fuel Engine Using Producer Gas as Secondary Fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepika Shaw

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, development of producer gas fuelled 4 stroke diesel engine has been investigated. Producer gas from biomass has been examined and successfully operated with 4 stroke diesel engine. The effects of higher and lower loads were investigated on the dual fuel mode. The experimental investigations revealed that at lower loads dual fuel operation with producer gas shows lower efficiency due to lower combustion rate cause by low calorific value of the producer gas. Beyond 40% load the brake thermal efficiency of dual fuel operation improved due to faster combustion rate of producer gas and higher level of premixing. It can be observed that at lower load and 20% opening of producer gas the gaseous fuel substitution found to be 56% whereas at 100% opening of producer gas it reaches 78% substitution. The CO2 emission increased at high producer gas opening and high load because at 100% producer gas maximum atoms of carbons were there and at high load condition the diesel use increased. At 80% load and producer gas varying from 20% to 100. Power output was almost comparable to diesel power with marginal higher efficiency. Producer gas is one such technology which is environmentally benign and holds large promise for future.

  10. Characterization of biomass producer gas as fuel for stationary gas engines in combined heat and power production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahrenfeldt, Jesper

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this project has been the characterization of biomass producer gas as a fuel for stationary gas engines in heat and power production. More than 3200 hours of gas engine operation, with producer gas as fuel, has been conducted at the biomass gasification combined heat and power (CHP...... different measuring methods. Likewise, no particles were detected in the gas. Considerable amounts of NH3 were measured in the produced gas.An analysis of engine operation at varying load has been carried out. Standard emissions, load and efficiency have been measured at varying operating conditions ranging...... from 50% to 90% load. Biomass producer gas is an excellent lean burn engine fuel: Operation of a natural aspirated engine has been achieved for 1.2...

  11. Effects of microbial processes on gas generation under expected WIPP repository conditions: Annual report through 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, A.J.; Gillow, J.B.

    1993-09-01

    Microbial processes involved in gas generation from degradation of the organic constituents of transuranic waste under conditions expected at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) repository are being investigated at Brookhaven National Laboratory. These laboratory studies are part of the Sandia National Laboratories -- WIPP Gas Generation Program. Gas generation due to microbial degradation of representative cellulosic waste was investigated in short-term ( 6 months) experiments by incubating representative paper (filter paper, paper towels, and tissue) in WIPP brine under initially aerobic (air) and anaerobic (nitrogen) conditions. Samples from the WIPP surficial environment and underground workings harbor gas-producing halophilic microorganisms, the activities of which were studied in short-term experiments. The microorganisms metabolized a variety of organic compounds including cellulose under aerobic, anaerobic, and denitrifying conditions. In long-term experiments, the effects of added nutrients (trace amounts of ammonium nitrate, phosphate, and yeast extract), no nutrients, and nutrients plus excess nitrate on gas production from cellulose degradation

  12. Process gas generator feeding internal combustion piston engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwantscheff, G; Kostka, H; Henkel, H J

    1978-10-26

    The invention relates to a process gas generator feeding gaseous fuel to internal combustion piston engines. The cylinder linings of the internal combustion engine are enclosed by the catalytic reaction chamber of the process gas generator which contains perforated sintered nozzle bricks as carriers of the catalysts needed for the conversion. The reaction chamber is surrounded by the exhaust gas chamber around which a tube coil is ound which feeds the fuel charge to the reaction chamber after evaporation and mixing with exhaust gas and air. The fuel which may be used for this purpose, e.g., is low-octane gasoline or diesel fuel. In the reaction chamber the fuel is catalytically converted at temperatures above 200/sup 0/C, e.g., into low-molecular paraffins, carbon monoxide and hydrogen. Operation of the internal combustion engine with a process gas generator greatly reduces the pollutant content of the exhaust gases.

  13. Gas Generation from K East Basin Sludges - Series II Testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryan, Samuel A.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Sell, Rachel L.; Silvers, Kurt L.; Gano, Susan R.; Thornton, Brenda M.

    2001-01-01

    This report describes work to examine the gas generation behavior of actual K East (KE) Basin floor, pit and canister sludge. Mixed and unmixed and fractionated KE canister sludge were tested, along with floor and pit sludges from areas in the KE Basin not previously sampled. The first report in this series focused on gas generation from KE floor and canister sludge collected using a consolidated sampling technique. The third report will present results of gas generation testing of irradiated uranium fuel fragments with and without sludge addition. The path forward for management of the K Basin Sludge is to retrieve, ship, and store the sludge at T Plant until final processing at some future date. Gas generation will impact the designs and costs of systems associated with retrieval, transportation and storage of sludge

  14. RAETRAD MODEL OF RADON GAS GENERATION, TRANSPORT, AND INDOOR ENTRY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report describes the theoretical basis, implementation, and validation of the Radon Emanation and Transport into Dwellings (RAETRAD) model, a conceptual and mathematical approach for simulating radon (222Rn) gas generation and transport from soils and building foundations to ...

  15. Advanced On Board Inert Gas Generation System (OBBIGS), Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Valcor Engineering Corporation proposes to develop an advanced On Board Inert Gas Generation System, OBIGGS, for aircraft fuel tank inerting to prevent hazardous...

  16. Power generation from landfill gas workshop discussion of Session 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loning, A.; Bevan, G.; Moss, H.

    1992-01-01

    The discussion following presentations on the UK Dept. of Energy's involvement with power generation form landfill gas and the UK Government's attitude to pollution prevention from landfill gas power production is presented. The discussion focusses particularly on the Non-Fossil Fuel Obligation. (UK)

  17. Advanced Membrane Filtration Technology for Cost Effective Recovery of Fresh Water from Oil & Gas Produced Brine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David B. Burnett

    2004-09-29

    Produced water is a major waste generated at the oil and natural gas wells in the state of Texas. This water could be a possible source of new fresh water to meet the growing demands of the state after treatment and purification. Treatment of brine generated in oil fields or produced water with an ultrafiltration membranes were the subject of this thesis. The characterization of ultrafiltration membranes for oil and suspended solids removal of produced water, coupled with the reverse osmosis (RO) desalination of brine were studied on lab size membrane testing equipment and a field size testing unit to test whether a viable membrane system could be used to treat produced water. Oil and suspended solids were evaluated using turbidity and oil in water measurements taken periodically. The research considered the effect of pressure and flow rate on membrane performance of produced water treatment of three commercially available membranes for oily water. The study also analyzed the flux through the membrane and any effect it had on membrane performance. The research showed that an ultrafiltration membrane provided turbidity removal of over 99% and oil removal of 78% for the produced water samples. The results indicated that the ultrafiltration membranes would be asset as one of the first steps in purifying the water. Further results on selected RO membranes showed that salt rejection of greater than 97% could be achieved with satisfactory flux and at reasonable operating cost.

  18. Gas generation and migration analysis for TRU waste disposal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, Kenichi; Noda, Masaru; Yamamoto, Mikihiko; Mihara, Morihiro

    2005-09-01

    In TRU waste disposal system, significant quantities of gases may be generated due to metal corrosion, radiolysis effect and microorganism activities. It is therefore recommended that the potential impact of gas generation and migration on TRU waste repository should be evaluated. In this study, gas generation rates were calculated in the repository and gas migration analysis in the disposal system were carried out using two phase flow model with results of gas generation rates. First, the time dependencies of gas generation rate in each TRU waste repositories were evaluated based on amounts of metal, organic matter and radioactivity. Next, the accumulation pressure of gases and expelled pore water volume nuclides in the repository were calculated by TOUGH2 code. After that, the results showed that the increase of gas pressure was the range of 1.3 to 1.4 MPa. In the repository with and without buffer, the rate of expelled pore water was 0.006 - 0.009 m 3 /y and 0.018 - 0.24m 3 /y, respectively. In addition, the radioactive gas migration through the repository and geosphere are evaluated. And re-saturation analysis is also performed to evaluate the initial condition of the system. (author)

  19. Producer gas production of Indonesian biomass in fixed-bed downdraft gasifier as an alternative fuels for internal combustion engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simanjuntak, J. P.; Lisyanto; Daryanto, E.; Tambunan, B. H.

    2018-03-01

    downdraft biomass gasification reactors, coupled with reciprocating internal combustion engines (ICE) are a viable technology for small scale heat and power generation. The direct use of producer gas as fuel subtitution in an ICE could be of great interest since Indonesia has significant land area in different forest types that could be used to produce bioenergy and convert forest materials to bioenergy for use in energy production and the versatility of this engine. This paper will look into the aspect of biomass energie as a contributor to energy mix in Indonesia. This work also contains information gathered from numerous previews study on the downdraft gasifier based on experimental or simulation study on the ability of producer gas as fuels for internal combustion engines aplication. All data will be used to complement the preliminary work on biomass gasification using downdraft to produce producer gas and its application to engines.

  20. CO and PAH Emissions from Engines Operating on Biomass Producer Gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahrenfeldt, Jesper; Jensen, Torben Kvist; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk

    2003-01-01

    High carbon monoxide (CO) emission from gas engines fueled by producer gas is a concerning problem in the struggle to make biomass gasification for heat and power production a success. The standing regulations concerning CO emissions from producer gas engine based power plants in most EU countrie...

  1. Combustion Chamber Deposits and PAH Formation in SI Engines Fueled by Producer Gas from Biomass Gasification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahrenfeldt, Jesper; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk; Schramm, Jesper

    2003-01-01

    Investigations were made concerning the formation of combustion chamber deposits (CCD) in SI gas engines fueled by producer gas. The main objective was to determine and characterise CCD and PAH formation caused by the presence of the light tar compounds phenol and guaiacol in producer gas from an...

  2. Reference price of natural gas produced in Bacia dos Solimoes; Preco de referencia do gas natural produzido na Bacia do Solimoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valim, Leandro S.; Ferreira, Leticia P.; Correia, Irina S.; Guimaraes, Maria Jose de O.C.; Seidl, Peter R. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica; Bispo, Luiz Henrique de Oliveira [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica; Agencia Nacional do Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis (ANP), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Oil and natural gas are exhaustible resources. Thus, exploitation of these energy sources can lead to shortages and even the absence for future generations. In this context, royalties are included as a way to financially compensate future generations through a monthly payment made by the explorer. In Brazil, the control of the royalties and their distribution is charge of the National Agency of Petroleum, Natural Gas and Biofuels (ANP). Its function is to establish reference prices used for the payment of royalties on oil and natural gas. In this study, three methods were used to calculate royalties, using data from Leste do Urucu field, located in Solimoes Basin. The first one is imposed by Resolution ANP No. 40/2009 that uses the calculation of the reference price of natural gas produced in Brazil. The second one is an alternative method of calculating royalties produced by Bispo, 2011, considering the different compositions of the gas produced and injected. And finally, the Resolution ANP RD No. 983/2011 that uses the calculation of the price of gas injected, considering this as the price of gas processed. When performing the calculation of royalties through the proposed methodologies by Bispo, 2011, and the ANP (Resolution No. 40/2009 and RD 983/2011), the results were similar to each other, and the methodology proposed by Resolution No. 40/2009 was the most different from the others. (author)

  3. An overview on exploration and environmental impact of unconventional gas sources and treatment options for produced water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Tânia L S; Morales-Torres, Sergio; Castro-Silva, Sérgio; Figueiredo, José L; Silva, Adrián M T

    2017-09-15

    Rising global energy demands associated to unbalanced allocation of water resources highlight the importance of water management solutions for the gas industry. Advanced drilling, completion and stimulation techniques for gas extraction, allow more economical access to unconventional gas reserves. This stimulated a shale gas revolution, besides tight gas and coalbed methane, also causing escalating water handling challenges in order to avoid a major impact on the environment. Hydraulic fracturing allied to horizontal drilling is gaining higher relevance in the exploration of unconventional gas reserves, but a large amount of wastewater (known as "produced water") is generated. Its variable chemical composition and flow rates, together with more severe regulations and public concern, have promoted the development of solutions for the treatment and reuse of such produced water. This work intends to provide an overview on the exploration and subsequent environmental implications of unconventional gas sources, as well as the technologies for treatment of produced water, describing the main results and drawbacks, together with some cost estimates. In particular, the growing volumes of produced water from shale gas plays are creating an interesting market opportunity for water technology and service providers. Membrane-based technologies (membrane distillation, forward osmosis, membrane bioreactors and pervaporation) and advanced oxidation processes (ozonation, Fenton, photocatalysis) are claimed to be adequate treatment solutions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Micro generation of electricity with gasification gas in a engine generator in dual mode; Microgeracao de eletricidade com gas de gaseificacao num motor gerador dual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Marcelo Jose da; Souza, Samuel Nelson Melegari de; Souza, Abel Alves de; Ricieri, Reinaldo P. [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Cascavel, PE (Brazil)], E-mail: marcelo_js07@hotmail.com

    2010-07-01

    Among the alternatives to the increase of world energy demand the use of biomass as energy source is one of the most promising as it contributes to reducing emissions of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Gasification is a process technology of biomass energy in a gaseous biofuel. The fuel gas got a low calorific value that can be used in diesel engine in dual mode for power generation in isolated communities. This study aimed to evaluate the reduction in the consumption of oil diesel an engine generator, using gas from gasification of wood. The engine generator brand used, it was a BRANCO, with direct injection power of 10 hp and mated to an electric generator 5,5 kW. The fuel gas was produced in a gasifier type co-current. The engine generator was put on load system from 0.5 kW to 3.5 kW through electric bank of heaters. For the oil diesel savings, the gas was injected mixed with intake air, as the oil diesel was normally injected by the injector of the engine (motor dual). The consumption od diesel was measured diesel by means of a precision scale. It was concluded that the engine converted to dual mode when using the gas for the gasification of wood showed a decrease in diesel consumption by up to 57%. (author)

  5. Gas Generation of Heated PBX 9502

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmes, Matthew David [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Parker, Gary Robert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-10-07

    Uniaxially pressed samples of PBX 9502 were heated until self-ignition (cookoff) in order to collect pressure and temperature data relevant for model development. Samples were sealed inside a small gas-tight vessel, but were mechanically unconfined. Long-duration static pressure rise, as well as dynamic pressure rise during the cookoff event, were recorded. Time-lapse photography of the sample was used to measure the thermal expansion of the sample as a function of time and temperature. High-speed videography qualitatively characterized the mechanical behavior and failure mechanisms at the time of cookoff. These results provide valuable input to modeling efforts, in order to improve the ability to predict pressure output during cookoff as well as the effect of pressure on time-toignition.

  6. Power generation from landfill gas, Middleton Broom, UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    A power station is fuelled by gas from a landfill site at Middleton Broom, West Yorkshire in the North of England. The plant was commissioned in January 1993 and has a Declared Net Capacity of about 1.2 MW (enough power for about 700 homes). The electricity produced is exported to the National Grid. After various possible uses of the landfill gas were explored, it was decided that a power station fuelled by the gas was the most commercially viable prospect. Because of the proximity of housing to the landfill site, gas is pumped to the power station, located about 1,500 m from the landfill. (UK)

  7. Gas quality prediction in ligno-cellulosic biomass gasification in a co-current gas producer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.; Nganhou, J.; Amie Assouh, A.

    2008-01-01

    Our research covers the energetic valuation of the biomass for electricity production. As electrical energy production is the main drive behind a modern economy, we wanted to make our contribution to the debate by describing a tried technique, whose use on an industrial scale can still be perfected, failing control over the basic principles that support the gasification processes called upon in this industry. Our study describes gasification, which is a process to transform a solid combustible into a gas combustible. The resulting gas can be used as combustible in an internal combustion motor and produce electricity. Our work interprets the experimental results of gasification tests conducted on an available and functional experimental centre and the ENSPY's Decentralized Energy Production Lab. The work involved developing a tool to appreciate the results of the gasification of the ligneous biomass from the stoichiometric composition of the combustible to be gasified and the chemical and mathematical bases of the gasification process. It is an investigation with a view to elaborating a mathematical model based on the concept of compatibility. Its original lies in the quality prediction method for the gas obtained through the gasification of a biomass whose chemical composition is known. (authors)

  8. Gas-Generator Augmented Expander Cycle Rocket Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, William D. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    An augmented expander cycle rocket engine includes first and second turbopumps for respectively pumping fuel and oxidizer. A gas-generator receives a first portion of fuel output from the first turbopump and a first portion of oxidizer output from the second turbopump to ignite and discharge heated gas. A heat exchanger close-coupled to the gas-generator receives in a first conduit the discharged heated gas, and transfers heat to an adjacent second conduit carrying fuel exiting the cooling passages of a primary combustion chamber. Heat is transferred to the fuel passing through the cooling passages. The heated fuel enters the second conduit of the heat exchanger to absorb more heat from the first conduit, and then flows to drive a turbine of one or both of the turbopumps. The arrangement prevents the turbopumps exposure to combusted gas that could freeze in the turbomachinery and cause catastrophic failure upon attempted engine restart.

  9. Radiolytic gas generation in salt cake technical task plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, D.D.; Crawford, C.L.; Bibler, N.E.

    1993-01-01

    High-level radioactive wastes are stored in large, steel tanks in the Savannah River Site Tank Farms. The liquid levels in these tanks are monitored to detect leakage of waste out of tanks or leakage of liquids into the tanks. Recent unexplained level fluctuations in high-level waste (HLW) tanks have caused High Level Waste Engineering (HLWE) to develop a program to better understand tank level behavior. Interim Waste Technology (IWT) has been requested by HLWE to obtain data which will lead to a better understanding of the radiolytic generations of gases in salt cake. The task described below will provide data from laboratory experiments with simulated wastes which can be used in tank level fluctuation modeling. The following experimental programs have been formulated to meet the task requirements of the customer: (A) determine whether radiolytically generated gas bubbles can be trapped in salt cake; (B) determine the composition of gases produced by radiolysis; (C) determine the yield of radiolysis gases as a function of radiation dose; (D) determine bubble distribution

  10. Chemical looping reforming of generator gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendiara, T.; Jensen, Anker; Glarborg, P.

    2010-02-15

    The main objective of this work is to investigate the carbon deposition during reforming of hydrocarbons in a Chemical Looping Reformer (CLR). This knowledge is needed to asses the viability of the CLR technology in reforming tar from biomass gasification preserving lighter hydrocarbons and minimizing the carbon formation during the process. Two different setups were used to test the reactivity of the different samples in the conditions of interest for the tar reforming process: 1) Fixed bed flow reactor (FR), and 2) Thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA). In the experiments, the gas atmosphere was switched from reducing to oxidizing atmosphere in every cycle. During the oxidizing cycle, the carrier was regenerated using a mixture of oxygen and nitrogen. Four different oxygen carriers based on nickel (Ni40 and Ni60), manganese (Mn) and ilmenite (Fe) were tested. In the tests, toluene was used to simulate the tars. The Fe and the Mn carrier reacted to a small extent with methane at the highest temperature studied, 800 degrees C. The Ni-carriers did not react at 600 degrees C at first, but they showed some reactivity after having been activated at the higher temperature. Carbon formation occurred with the Ni-carriers, more so with the Ni60 than the Ni40. Ni40, Mn and Fe were activated at the higher temperature. However, Fe showed only low capacity. Ni60 showed no capability of tar reforming. Ni40 showed a high tendency to carbon formation at 800 degrees C, but the formation could be lowered by changing some parameters. Mn formed almost no carbon. Ni40 and Mn were chosen for further studies. Carbon deposition occurred for both Ni40 and Mn, but the amount deposited for Ni40 was about 10 times bigger. Ni40 reacted with the methane and toluene only at 800 degrees C. The conversion over Mn was not as big as for toluene alone. Carbon was formed from carbon monoxide on the Ni40 carrier and on the Mn, but to a much less extent on the latter one. The presence of hydrogen decreased

  11. 18 CFR 270.302 - Occluded natural gas produced from coal seams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... produced from coal seams. 270.302 Section 270.302 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... produced from coal seams. A person seeking a determination that natural gas is occluded natural gas produced from coal seams must file an application with the jurisdictional agency which contains the...

  12. Generator gas as a fuel to power a diesel engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tutak Wojciech

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of gasification process of dried sewage sludge and use of generator gas as a fuel for dual fuel turbocharged compression ignition engine are presented. The results of gasifying showed that during gasification of sewage sludge is possible to obtain generator gas of a calorific value in the range of 2.15  2.59 MJ/m3. It turned out that the generator gas can be effectively used as a fuel to the compression ignition engine. Because of gas composition, it was possible to run engine with partload conditions. In dual fuel operation the high value of indicated efficiency was achieved equal to 35%, so better than the efficiency of 30% attainable when being fed with 100% liquid fuel. The dual fuel engine version developed within the project can be recommended to be used in practice in a dried sewage sludge gasification plant as a dual fuel engine driving the electric generator loaded with the active electric power limited to 40 kW (which accounts for approx. 50% of its rated power, because it is at this power that the optimal conditions of operation of an engine dual fuel powered by liquid fuel and generator gas are achieved. An additional advantage is the utilization of waste generated in the wastewater treatment plant.

  13. Gas generation in incinerator ash; Gasbildning i aska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arm, Maria; Lindeberg, Johanna; Rodin, Aasa; Oehrstroem, Anna; Backman, Rainer; Oehman, Marcus; Bostroem, Dan

    2006-02-15

    In recent years, explosions have occurred in certain phases of ash handling in Sweden. Investigations have revealed that hydrogen may have been present in all cases. The hydrogen is believed to be generated by chemical reactions of aluminium and other metals within the ash in the presence of water. The purpose with this study is to increase the knowledge of gas generation of incinerator ash. Thereby, guides for appropriate ash management can be introduced and the risk for further explosions prevented. The study has comprised analyses of the ash properties, such as chemical and physical composition and the pH, of ash from 14 incineration plants (mostly waste incineration plants). Different fractions of ash materials representing different parts of the process in each plant have been analysed. Furthermore, the fuel and the technical differences between the plants have been analysed. A tool for measuring the gas generation in the laboratory has been developed and the gas generation of the different ash materials at natural and increased pH was measured. Gas analyses and thermodynamic calculations have also been performed. The results showed that: bottom ash from fluidised bed boilers generated small amounts of gas at increased pH, much smaller amounts than the idle pass, cyclone and filter ash did, bottom ash from grate fired boilers generated more gas at increased pH than their cyclone ash and filter ash, with exception of the Linkoeping plant, all bio waste incineration plants generated ash with low gas generation potential, all fly ash materials with a gas generation potential of more than 10 l/kg originated from municipal waste incineration plants, filter ash that had been stored in oxygen rich environment generated significant less gas than fresh filter ash of the same origin, hardly any other gases were generated apart from hydrogen (very small amounts of acetone, furane, benzene and most likely methane were detected in some of the ash materials), there were no

  14. Reactive intermediates in the gas phase generation and monitoring

    CERN Document Server

    Setser, D W

    2013-01-01

    Reactive Intermediates in the Gas Phase: Generation and Monitoring covers methods for reactive intermediates in the gas phase. The book discusses the generation and measurement of atom and radical concentrations in flow systems; the high temperature flow tubes, generation and measurement of refractory species; and the electronically excited long-lived states of atoms and diatomic molecules in flow systems. The text also describes the production and detection of reactive species with lasers in static systems; the production of small positive ions in a mass spectrometer; and the discharge-excite

  15. High pressure gas driven liquid metal MHD homopolar generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Yasuyuki

    1988-01-01

    A liquid metal MHD homopolar generator is proposed to be used as a high repetition rate pulsed power supply. In the generator, the thermal energy stored in a high pressure gas (He) reservoir is rapidly converted into kinetic energy of a rotating liquid metal (NaK) cylinder which is contracted by a gas driven annular free piston. The rotational kinetic energy is converted into electrical energy by making use of the homopolar generator principle. The conversion efficiency is calculated to be 47% in generating electrical energy of 20 kJ/pulse (1.7 MW peak power) at a repetition rate of 7 Hz. From the viewpoint of energy storage, the high pressure gas reservoir with a charging pressure of 15 MPa is considered to ''electrically'' store the energy at a density of 10 MJ/m 3 . (author)

  16. BIOMASS GASIFICATION AND POWER GENERATION USING ADVANCED GAS TURBINE SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Liscinsky

    2002-10-20

    A multidisciplined team led by the United Technologies Research Center (UTRC) and consisting of Pratt & Whitney Power Systems (PWPS), the University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC), KraftWork Systems, Inc. (kWS), and the Connecticut Resource Recovery Authority (CRRA) has evaluated a variety of gasified biomass fuels, integrated into advanced gas turbine-based power systems. The team has concluded that a biomass integrated gasification combined-cycle (BIGCC) plant with an overall integrated system efficiency of 45% (HHV) at emission levels of less than half of New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) is technically and economically feasible. The higher process efficiency in itself reduces consumption of premium fuels currently used for power generation including those from foreign sources. In addition, the advanced gasification process can be used to generate fuels and chemicals, such as low-cost hydrogen and syngas for chemical synthesis, as well as baseload power. The conceptual design of the plant consists of an air-blown circulating fluidized-bed Advanced Transport Gasifier and a PWPS FT8 TwinPac{trademark} aeroderivative gas turbine operated in combined cycle to produce {approx}80 MWe. This system uses advanced technology commercial products in combination with components in advanced development or demonstration stages, thereby maximizing the opportunity for early implementation. The biofueled power system was found to have a levelized cost of electricity competitive with other new power system alternatives including larger scale natural gas combined cycles. The key elements are: (1) An Advanced Transport Gasifier (ATG) circulating fluid-bed gasifier having wide fuel flexibility and high gasification efficiency; (2) An FT8 TwinPac{trademark}-based combined cycle of approximately 80 MWe; (3) Sustainable biomass primary fuel source at low cost and potentially widespread availability-refuse-derived fuel (RDF); (4) An overall integrated

  17. Seeding High Gain Harmonic Generation with Laser Harmonics produced in Gases

    CERN Document Server

    Lambert, Guillaume; Couprie, Marie Emmanuelle; Garzella, David; Doria, Andrea; Giannessi, Luca; Hara, Toru; Kitamura, Hideo; Shintake, Tsumoru

    2004-01-01

    Free electron Lasers employing High Gain Harmonic generation (HGHG) schemes are very promising coherent ligth sources for the soft X-ray regime. They offer both transverse and longitudinal coherence, while Self Amplified Spontaneous Emission schemes have a longitudinal coherence limited. We propose here to seed HGHG with high harmonics produced by a Ti:Sa femtosecond laser focused on a gas jet, tuneable in the 100-10 nm spectral region. Specifities concerning the implementation of this particular laser source as a seed for HGHG are investigated. Semi analytical , numerical 1D and 3D calculations are given, for the cases of the SCSS, SPARC and ARC-EN-CIEL projects.

  18. The price of the natural gas in the producing states: Espirito Santo case; O preco do gas natural nos estados produtores: caso Espirito Santo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cometi, Darcy Lannes

    2008-07-01

    The State of the Espirito Santo will become until the end of 2008, one of the main producers and natural gas exporters of Brazil, where, according to PETROBRAS, the State will produce about 20 million /day m{sup 3}, what it will go to contribute significantly for reduction of the dependence of the Bolivian gas, and still to give support to the natural gas sector in Brazil. The Intention of this work, is to identify proposals so that it has left of the gas produced in the State of the Espirito Santo, has a differentiated price. It does not make sensible the State to pay for the gas that is removed in its proper territory the same price that paid Sao Paulo for the gas that consumes imported of national Bolivia. With the markdown of the gas the State will be able to attract investments of great transport, to generate job and income and to advance in the question of the regional development that is of great importance for the developed cities less. Important to stand out that this study it will present proposals to try to sensitize PETROBRAS, initiating a quarrel on the subject. (author)

  19. Process and plant for obtaining producer gas from fossil fuels. Verfahren und Anlage zur Gewinnung von Generatorgas aus fossilen Brennstoffen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon,

    1983-12-01

    In a plant for generating producer gas from fossil fuels with relatively high humidity, there is predrying of the wet material in two drying chambers situated above the actual reactor shaft. The drying air required for this purpose is drawn off via blowers and heat exchangers preheated from the area of the combustion zone. The preparation of the crude gases produced first in the process is done by a socalled bypass gas system, i.e. the reintroduction of the crude gases enriched with tar oil and steam and diverting prepared hot gases via an annular pipe from the area of the reduction zone.

  20. Recovery Act: Brea California Combined Cycle Electric Generating Plant Fueled by Waste Landfill Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galowitz, Stephen

    2012-12-31

    The primary objective of the Project was to maximize the productive use of the substantial quantities of waste landfill gas generated and collected at the Olinda Landfill near Brea, California. An extensive analysis was conducted and it was determined that utilization of the waste gas for power generation in a combustion turbine combined cycle facility was the highest and best use. The resulting Project reflected a cost effective balance of the following specific sub-objectives: • Meeting the environmental and regulatory requirements, particularly the compliance obligations imposed on the landfill to collect, process and destroy landfill gas • Utilizing proven and reliable technology and equipment • Maximizing electrical efficiency • Maximizing electric generating capacity, consistent with the anticipated quantities of landfill gas generated and collected at the Olinda Landfill • Maximizing equipment uptime • Minimizing water consumption • Minimizing post-combustion emissions • The Project produced and will produce a myriad of beneficial impacts. o The Project created 360 FTE construction and manufacturing jobs and 15 FTE permanent jobs associated with the operation and maintenance of the plant and equipment. o By combining state-of-the-art gas clean up systems with post combustion emissions control systems, the Project established new national standards for best available control technology (BACT). o The Project will annually produce 280,320 MWh’s of clean energy o By destroying the methane in the landfill gas, the Project will generate CO2 equivalent reductions of 164,938 tons annually. The completed facility produces 27.4 MWnet and operates 24 hours a day, seven days a week.

  1. Farm effluent plant produces gas for domestic heat and power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1963-01-01

    A plant for treating farm waste waters, developed by Wright Rain Ltd. and based on a prototype plant invented by J. Fry which has been in continuous use for 5 years on a pig farm at Rietvlei, Johannesburg, is described. Manure is pumped into one end of the digestion tank about one-third of the way up the tank, and anaerobic decomposition occurs at a controlled temperature (optimum 35/sup 0/C); the gas rises to the top and is collected in gas holders to be utilized for domestic heat and power, while an outlet near the bottom of the tank allows decomposed matter to be drawn off for spreading. Results with pig manure suggest that a digestion tank should be planned for a 60-day cycle. Cow and pig manure can be digested without difficulty, but it would be necessary to add water to chicken manure for successful digestion.

  2. Physical and chemical characterization of particles in producer gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hindsgaul, Claus; Henriksen, Ulrik B.; Bentzen, Jens Dall

    2000-01-01

    ) engines fueled by the gas. The implications of the findings on engine wear are discussed.The majority (85%) of the total particulate matter (TPM) mass was identified, using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), as mono-sized spherical primary soot particles with diameters of 70 nm. Soot agglomerates, up...... to 30 um were present. 77% of the TPM was determined, by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) to be carbon structures.The dichloromethane (DCM)-soluble fraction (11% of the TPM) was extracted, separated into fractions of varying polarities using adsorption column chromatography and analyzed using gas...... of the particles showed that a 3-7% of the DCM-insoluble TPM was dissolved using this solvent....

  3. Gas generation matrix depletion quality assurance project plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is to provide the necessary expertise, experience, equipment and instrumentation, and management structure to: Conduct the matrix depletion experiments using simulated waste for quantifying matrix depletion effects; and Conduct experiments on 60 cylinders containing simulated TRU waste to determine the effects of matrix depletion on gas generation for transportation. All work for the Gas Generation Matrix Depletion (GGMD) experiment is performed according to the quality objectives established in the test plan and under this Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPjP)

  4. Measurement of thorium content in gas mantles produced in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaur, P K [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India). Radiological Physics Div.; Chury, A J; Venkataraman, G [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India). Radiation Protection Services Div.

    1994-04-01

    Incandescent gas mantles, processed with thorium nitrate, were monitored for thorium content, using a 2 inch thick Nal(Tl) detector and detecting medium energy gamma radiations emitted by thorium daughters. Thirty different brands, manufactured in the country have been counted and most of them were found to contain thorium within the permissible limit specified by Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB). (author). 5 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  5. Low Temperature Particle Filtration of Producer Gas with Low Tar Content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hindsgaul, Claus

    This report describes the tests of different techniques for removing the particulates from producer gas from the 100 kW two-stage down-draft gasifier at DTU1 . The goal of the tests was to identify and implement methods to remove soot particles from producer gas with low tar content. During the f...

  6. Recovery of Fresh Water Resources from Desalination of Brine Produced During Oil and Gas Production Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David B. Burnett; Mustafa Siddiqui

    2006-12-29

    Management and disposal of produced water is one of the most important problems associated with oil and gas (O&G) production. O&G production operations generate large volumes of brine water along with the petroleum resource. Currently, produced water is treated as a waste and is not available for any beneficial purposes for the communities where oil and gas is produced. Produced water contains different contaminants that must be removed before it can be used for any beneficial surface applications. Arid areas like west Texas produce large amount of oil, but, at the same time, have a shortage of potable water. A multidisciplinary team headed by researchers from Texas A&M University has spent more than six years is developing advanced membrane filtration processes for treating oil field produced brines The government-industry cooperative joint venture has been managed by the Global Petroleum Research Institute (GPRI). The goal of the project has been to demonstrate that treatment of oil field waste water for re-use will reduce water handling costs by 50% or greater. Our work has included (1) integrating advanced materials into existing prototype units and (2) operating short and long-term field testing with full size process trains. Testing at A&M has allowed us to upgrade our existing units with improved pre-treatment oil removal techniques and new oil tolerant RO membranes. We have also been able to perform extended testing in 'field laboratories' to gather much needed extended run time data on filter salt rejection efficiency and plugging characteristics of the process train. The Program Report describes work to evaluate the technical and economical feasibility of treating produced water with a combination of different separation processes to obtain water of agricultural water quality standards. Experiments were done for the pretreatment of produced water using a new liquid-liquid centrifuge, organoclay and microfiltration and ultrafiltration membranes

  7. Produce More Oil Gas via eBusiness Data Sharing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul Jehn; Mike Stettner

    2004-09-30

    GWPC, DOGGR, and other state agencies propose to build eBusiness applications based on a .NET front-end user interface for the DOE's Energy 100 Award-winning Risk Based Data Management System (RBDMS) data source and XML Web services. This project will slash the costs of regulatory compliance by automating routine regulatory reporting and permit notice review and by making it easier to exchange data with the oil and gas industry--especially small, independent operators. Such operators, who often do not have sophisticated in-house databases, will be able to use a subset of the same RBDMS tools available to the agencies on the desktop to file permit notices and production reports online. Once the data passes automated quality control checks, the application will upload the data into the agency's RBDMS data source. The operators also will have access to state agency datasets to focus exploration efforts and to perform production forecasting, economic evaluations, and risk assessments. With the ability to identify economically feasible oil and gas prospects, including unconventional plays, over the Internet, operators will minimize travel and other costs. Because GWPC will coordinate these data sharing efforts with the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), this project will improve access to public lands and make strides towards reducing the duplicative reporting to which industry is now subject for leases that cross jurisdictions. The resulting regulatory streamlining and improved access to agency data will make more domestic oil and gas available to the American public while continuing to safeguard environmental assets.

  8. by shale gas producers in USA and Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Galimska

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is analysis and comparison of the standards used for preparation of financial statementsby enterprises looking for and extracting shale gas in Poland and in the USA. The author reviewsthe different accounting regulations underlying financial reporting of companies operating in this field.Nowadays, globalization and constant development of financial markets cause intensified expectations ofshareholders regarding the attributes of financial statements. The author points out the high level of specializationand comprehensiveness of American regulations. In contrast, international accounting standardsaddress only the initial phase of the process of alternative hydrocarbons extraction, which results ina lack of financial reports’ consistency and decline of investors’ interest.

  9. The Integration of Gasification Systems with Gas Engine by Developing Wet Tar Scrubbers and Gas Filter to Produce Electrical Energy from Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siregar Kiman

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The need for energy especially biomass-based renewable energy continues to increase in Indonesia. The objective of this research was to design downdraft gasifier machine with high content of combustible gas on gas engine. Downdraft gasifier machine was adjusted with the synthetic gas produced from biomass. Besides that, the net energy ratio, net energy balance, renewable index, economic analysis and impact assessment also been conducted. Gas engine that was designed in this research had been installed with capacity of 25 kW with diameter and height of reactorwere 900 mm and 1 000 mm respectively. The method used here werethe design the Detailed Engineering Design, assembly, and performance test of gas engine. The result showed that gas engine for biomass can be operated for 8 h with performance engine of 84 % and capacity of 25 kW. Net energy balance, net energy ratio, and renewable index was 30 MJ/kW h electric; 0.89; 0.76 respectively. The value of GHG emission of Biomass Power Generation is 0.03 kg-CO2 eq per MJ. Electrical production cost for Biomass Power Generation is about IDR 1 500 per kW h which is cheaper than solar power generation which is about of IDR 3 300 per kW h.

  10. Combination gas producing and waste-water disposal well

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinchak, Raymond M.

    1984-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a waste-water disposal system for use in a gas recovery well penetrating a subterranean water-containing and methane gas-bearing coal formation. A cased bore hole penetrates the coal formation and extends downwardly therefrom into a further earth formation which has sufficient permeability to absorb the waste water entering the borehole from the coal formation. Pump means are disposed in the casing below the coal formation for pumping the water through a main conduit towards the water-absorbing earth formation. A barrier or water plug is disposed about the main conduit to prevent water flow through the casing except for through the main conduit. Bypass conduits disposed above the barrier communicate with the main conduit to provide an unpumped flow of water to the water-absorbing earth formation. One-way valves are in the main conduit and in the bypass conduits to provide flow of water therethrough only in the direction towards the water-absorbing earth formation.

  11. Utilization of hydrogen gas production for electricity generation in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Utilization of hydrogen gas production for electricity generation in fuel cell by Enterobacter aerogenes ADH 43 with many kinds of carbon sources in batch stirred tank reactor. MA Rachman, LD Eniya, Y Liasari, MM Nasef, A Ahmad, H Saidi ...

  12. High-brightness high-order harmonic generation at 13 nm with a long gas jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyung Taek; Kim, I Jong; Lee, Dong Gun; Park, Jong Ju; Hong, Kyung Han; Nam, Chang Hee

    2002-01-01

    The generation of high-order harmonics is well-known method producing coherent extreme-ultraviolet radiation with pulse duration in the femtosecond regime. High-order harmonics have attracted much attention due to their unique features such as coherence, ultrashort pulse duration, and table-top scale system. Due to these unique properties, high-order harmonics have many applications of atomic and molecular spectroscopy, plasma diagnostics and solid-state physics. Bright generation of high-order harmonics is important for actual applications. Especially, the generation of strong well-collimated harmonics at 13 nm can be useful for the metrology of EUV lithography optics because of the high reflectivity of Mo-Si mirrors at this wavelength. The generation of bright high-order harmonics is rather difficult in the wavelength region below 15nm. Though argon and xenon gases have large conversion efficiency, harmonic generation from these gases is restricted to wavelengths over 20 nm due to low ionization potential. Hence, we choose neon for the harmonic generation around 13 nm; it has larger conversion efficiency than helium and higher ionization potential than argon. In this experiment, we have observed enhanced harmonic generation efficiency and low beam divergence of high-order harmonics from a elongated neon gas jet by the enhancement of laser propagation in an elongated gas jet. A uniform plasma column was produced when the gas jet was exposed to converging laser pulses.

  13. Injury to crops by gas as produced from plastic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inden, T; Tachibana, S

    1971-01-01

    The effects of gas formations of phthalate and epoxy plasticizers on crops were studied at room temperature and 100 to 200 C. The materials were tested either alone Or as products including polyvinyl chloride and a stabilizer. At room temperature, dioctylphthalate (DOP) did not injure the cucumber leaves, whereas diisobutyl phthalate (DIBF) injured 74.1%, and dibutyl phthalate injured 36.5% of the surface of the leaves. Among many stabilizers tested, triphenyl phosphite injured 80% of the surface area of cucumber leaves. At 100 C to 200 C for 48 hours DIBP and CLP injured the Chinese cabbage leaves most, about 80% of the surface area. The following chemicals for the manufacturing of the plasticizers were also found to injure Chinese cabbage leaves, isobutanol 18.3%, 2-ethyl-hexanol 98.3%, isodecanol 98.5%, phthalic acid 40.0, and adipic acid 6.6%.

  14. Producing hydrogen from coke-oven gas: the Solmer project. [PSA process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, G; Vidal, J

    1984-05-01

    After presenting the energy situation at the Solmer plant, where coke-oven gas is produced to excess, the authors examine the technical and economic possibilities of utilizing this gas for hydrogen extraction. They describe a project (based on the PSA process) for producing some 65 t/d of hydrogen and present the technical features of the scheme. An evaluation of the energy and financial costs of producing the hydrogen confirms the competitive status of the process.

  15. Gas Generation from K East Basin Sludges - Series I Testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delegard, Calvin H.; Bryan, Samuel A.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Bredt, Paul R.; King, Christopher M.; Sell, Rachel L.; Burger, Leland L.; Silvers, Kurt L.

    2000-01-01

    This report describes work to examine the gas generation behavior of actual K East (KE) Basin floor and canister sludge. The path forward for management of the K Basin Sludge is to retrieve, ship, and store the sludge at T Plant until final processing at some future date. Gas generation will impact the designs and costs of systems associated with retrieval, transportation and storage of sludge. The overall goals for this testing were to collect detailed gas generation rate and composition data to ascertain the quantity and reactivity of the metallic uranium (and other reactive species) present in the K Basin sludge. The gas generation evaluation included four large-scale vessels (850 ml) and eight small-scale vessels (30 ml) in an all-metal, leak tight system. The tests were conducted for several thousand hours at ambient and elevated temperatures (32 C, 40 C, 60 C, 80 C, and 95 C) to accelerated the reactions and provide conclusive gas generation data within a reasonable testing period. The sludge used for these tests was collected from the KE Basin floor and canister barrels (containing damaged spent fuel elements) using a consolidated sampling technique (i.e., material from several locations was combined to form ''consolidated samples''). Portions of these samples were sieved to separate particles greater than 250 m (P250) from particle less than 250 m (M250). This separation was performed to mimic the separation operations that are planned during the retrieval of certain K Basin sludge types and to gain a better understanding of how uranium metal is distributed in the sludge. The corrosion rate of the uranium metal particles in the sludge was found to agree reasonably well with corrosion rates reported in the literature

  16. Development of a micro-turbine plant to run on gasifier producer gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This report presents the results of a work programme to test a Capstone micro gas turbine using producer gas (1) in a test facility using synthetic producer gas at Advantca's research laboratories and (2) at the premises of Biomass Engineering Ltd where the micro gas turbine was coupled to an existing 80 kWe downdraft gasifier operating on clean wood and wood wastes. The initial tests at Advantica achieved successful operation of the Capstone micro gas turbine on 100% producer gas at a net electrical output of 5.5 kWe and with very low NOx emissions (<2 ppm). The micro turbine was then moved and recommissioned at a site belonging to Biomass Engineering where 350 hours of operation were achieved using producer gas and over 800 hours using natural gas. Problems were experienced during start-up due to limited access to control software and late delivery of the gas compressor for the micro turbine. Gas emissions and performance were deemed satisfactory. The report describes the test work at Advantica and at Biomass Engineering and discusses the technical and economic aspects of biomass gasification and micro turbine systems.

  17. Development of indigenous laboratory scale gas atomizer for producing metal powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, K.K.; Qasim, A.M.; Ahmed, P.

    2011-01-01

    Gas atomization is one of the methods for production of clean metal powders at relatively moderate cost. A laboratory scale gas atomizer was designed and fabricated indigenously to produce metal powders with a batch capacity of 500 g of copper (Cu). The design includes several features regarding fabrication and operation to provide optimum conditions for atomization. The inner diameter of atomizing chamber is 440 mm and its height is 1200 mm. The atomizing nozzle is of annular confined convergent type with an angle of 25 degree. Argon gas at desired pressure has been used for atomizing the metals to produce relatively clean powders. A provision has also been made to view the atomization process. The indigenous laboratory scale gas atomizer was used to produce tin (Sn) and copper (Cu) powders with different atomizing gas pressures ranging from 2 to 10 bar. The particle size of different powders produced ranges from 40 to 400 im. (author)

  18. First Study of Helium Gas Purification System as Primary Coolant of Co-Generation Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piping Supriatna

    2009-01-01

    The technological progress of NPP Generation-I on 1950’s, Generation-II, Generation-III recently on going, and Generation-IV which will be implemented on next year 2025, concept of nuclear power technology implementation not only for generate electrical energy, but also for other application which called cogeneration reactor. Commonly the type of this reactor is High Temperature Reactor (HTR), which have other capabilities like Hydrogen production, desalination, Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR), etc. The cogeneration reactor (HTR) produce thermal output higher than commonly Nuclear Power Plant, and need special Heat Exchanger with helium gas as coolant. In order to preserve heat transfer with high efficiency, constant purity of the gas must be maintained as well as possible, especially contamination from its impurities. In this report has been done study for design concept of HTR primary coolant gas purification system, including methodology by sampling He gas from Primary Coolant and purification by using Physical Helium Splitting Membrane. The examination has been designed in physical simulator by using heater as reactor core. The result of study show that the of Primary Coolant Gas Purification System is enable to be implemented on cogeneration reactor. (author)

  19. Natural gas and electricity generation in New South Wales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, G.

    2001-01-01

    In its Profile of the Australian Electricity Industry, ABARE noted that NSW was the first State in Australia to unbundle the operations of its State owned electricity industry. The process commenced in 1991, when the Electricity Commission of NSW was renamed Pacific Power and reorganised into six generation and transmission sectors. The power generation fuel mix for NSW in 1999-2000 was as follows: black coal, 97 percent and natural gas, 3 percent. NSW has also imported some brown coal generated electricity from Victoria in recent years. The import of cheap brown coal power from this State due to a marked increase in the availability of brown coal base-load generators in the Latrobe Valley forced some surplus black coal generating capacity in NSW to be withdrawn from the marketplace. Four generating units were closed down in 1998 two 500 MW units at Liddell and two 300 MW units at Munmorah. Further prospects for natural gas are reported to be good; its share in the thermal electricity generation market is forecasted to rise from 3 percent in 1999-2000 to 12 percent in 2014-1015

  20. Theoretical study on composition of gas produced by coal gasification; Sekitan gas ka de seiseisuru gas no sosei ni kansuru kosatsu (HYCOL data no doteki kaiseki)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaiho, M.; Yasuda, H.; Kobayashi, M.; Yamada, O.; Soneda, Y.; Makino, M. [National Institute for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    In relation to considerations on composition of gas produced by coal gasification, the HYCOL hydrogen generation process data were analyzed. From the fact that CO concentration (Y) decreases linearly with CO2 concentration (X), element balance of gasification of reacted coal was used to introduce a reaction analysis equation. The equation includes a term of oxygen excess {Delta}(amount of oxygen consumed for combustion of CO and H2 in excess of the theoretical amount), derived by subtracting the stoichiometric oxygen amount used to gasify coal into CO and H2 from the consumed oxygen amount. The {Delta} can be used as a reference to oxygen utilization efficiency. An equation for the {Delta} was introduced. Also introduced was a term for steam decomposition amount derived by subtracting the generated steam from the supplied steam. These terms may be used as a clue to permeate into the gasifying reaction process. This suggestion was discussed by applying the terms to gas composition value during operation. According to the HYCOL analysis, when a gasification furnace is operated at higher than the reference oxygen amount, coal supply variation is directly reflected to the combustion reaction, making the {Delta} distribution larger. In an inverse case, unreacted carbon remains in the furnace due to oxygen shortage, and shift reaction may occur more easily even if oxygen/coal supply ratio varies. 6 figs., 1 ref.

  1. Innovation generation: how to produce creative and useful scientific ideas

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ness, Roberta B

    2012-01-01

    ... innovative. In Innovation Generation, internationally renowned physician and scientist Roberta Ness provides all the tools you need to cast aside your habitual ways of navigating the every-day world and to think "outside the box...

  2. Process for water-gas generation from degassed combustibles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1906-05-23

    A process for water-gas generation in a continuous operation from degassed combustibles in the lower part of a vertical exterior-heated retort, whose middle part can serve to degas the combustibles, is described. It is characterized in that the water vapor employed is obtained by vaporizing water in the upper part of the retort by means of the waste heat from the heating gases, which had effected the coking of the combustibles before the water-gas recovery or after the latter.

  3. Investigation of Productivity of Brown’s (HHO Gas Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrius Brazdžiūnas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available There were made tests of productivity of Brown’s gas generator using different potassium hydroxide (KOH concentration changing voltage and amperage. It is described experimental stand that is used to do researches and methodology of experiments performance. Brown’s gas production in electrolyser (electrolyser – the device that is going electrolysis to use stainless steel (AISI 316 electrodes. It was determined after researches that increasing the potassium hydroxide (KOH concentration in the solution and using the same amperage and voltage of the all concentration results are similar. The highest productivity 1.429 l/min was obtained by using a 120 A amperage and 15 V voltage.

  4. Use of gas for new generating capacity - The customer's view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linderman, C.W.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reviews the future gas demand for electric power generation in the US. It shows substantial growth along the eastern seaboard which will require pipeline capacity additions in order to serve the load. Many of the existing gas-fired plants fuel will switch to a commodity which will probably not comply with many of the new emissions requirements and that the alternate fuel for new units will be distillate oil. The demand for gas appears to be at the upper end of some of the gas supply scenarios. In serving the industry, there are a number of considerations that the gas transportation sector of the gas industry must identify. Pipelines will be dealing with a new group of organizations which they may or may not be familiar. Some of the real time operational differences that are seen at this point, especially dealing with load response and reliability, are crucial to a successful interface. This paper concludes that the previous levels of interaction must be replaced by a greater level of coordination than both industries have had previously

  5. Generation of synthesis gas by partial oxidation of natural gas in a gas turbine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelissen, R.; Tober, E.; Kok, Jacobus B.W.; van der Meer, Theodorus H.

    2006-01-01

    The application of partial oxidation in a gas turbine (PO-GT) in the production of synthesis gas for methanol production is explored. In PO-GT, methane is compressed, preheated, partial oxidized and expanded. For the methanol synthesis a 12% gain in thermal efficiency has been calculated for the

  6. Study of electrons distribution produced by laser-plasma interaction on x-ray generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikzad, L.; Sadighi-Bonabi, R.

    2010-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. In the present work, X-ray beams are generated from interaction of relativistic electron beams produced by interaction of 500 mJ, 30 femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser pulses with thin solid targets such as lead, molybdenum and tungsten. After interaction of an intense pulsed laser with He gas-jet, a micron-scale laser produced plasma, creates and accelerates electron bunches, which propagate in the ion channel produced in the wake of the laser pulse. When an electron bunch is injected into the bubble in phase with its field, it will gain relativistic energies within very short distance. These accelerated electrons with Megaelectron-Volt energy and different distributions, can interact with targets to generate X-ray radiation with Kiloelectron-Volt energy, providing to be close enough to the gas-jet, where the relativistic accelerated electrons exist. Here, to determine the results, Monte Carlo simulation (MCNP-4C code) is employed to present Bremsstrahlung and characteristic X-ray production by quasi-Maxwellian and quasi-monoenergetic electron beams for three samples with different thicknesses. The outcome shows that for one specific electron spectrum and one definite target, the energy which the maximum characteristic x-ray flux takes place, varies with thickness. Also, for each material the energy which this maximum happens is constant for all thicknesses, for both produced electron spectra. For each sample, x-ray flux is calculated for different thicknesses and the thickness which the maximum characteristic x-ray flux occurs is obtained. Besides, it is concluded that by increasing the atomic number of the target, maximum X-ray flux moves towards higher energy. Also, comparison of the results for three targets and two electron distributions shows that by using quasi-monoenergetic electron spectra, more intense and narrower characteristic X-ray can be produced compared to the quasi-Maxwellian electron distribution, almost for all

  7. TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER TO U.S. INDEPENDENT OIL AND NATURAL GAS PRODUCERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donald F. Duttlinger; E. Lance Cole

    2003-12-15

    confirms that producers are taking action with the information they receive. RLO Directors captured examples demonstrating how PTTC activities influenced industry activity. Additional follow-up in all regions explored industry's awareness of PTTC and the services it provides. PTTC publishes monthly case studies in the ''Petroleum Technology Digest in World Oil'' and monthly Tech Connections columns in the ''American Oil and Gas Reporter''. Email Tech Alerts are utilized to notify the O&G community of DOE solicitations and demonstration results, PTTC key technical information and meetings, as well as industry highlights. Workshop summaries are posted online at www.pttc.org. PTTC maintains an active exhibit schedule at national industry events. The national communications effort continues to expand the audience PTTC reaches. The network of national and regional websites has proven effective for conveying technology-related information and facilitating user's access to basic oil and gas data, which supplement regional and national newsletters. The regions frequently work with professional societies and producer associations in co-sponsored events and there is a conscious effort to incorporate findings from DOE-supported research, development and demonstration (RD&D) projects within events. The level of software training varies by region, with the Rocky Mountain Region taking the lead. Where appropriate, regions develop information products that provide a service to industry and, in some cases, generate moderate revenues. Data access is an on-going industry priority, so all regions work to facilitate access to public source databases. Various outreach programs also emanate from the resource centers, including targeted visits to producers.

  8. Method to produce a sup(99m)Tc generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, J.L.; Harris, O.A.

    1977-01-01

    A 400 millicurie Tc generator for medical application is made on the basis of chromatographic Al 2 O3 plased in a glass generator clumn. The Al 2 O 3 is subjected to thermal activation at 394K. A charge with sodium molybdate 99 solution training a pH value of 3.5 fallowe. After washing the generator with acetic, a 0.9% NaCl solution is added. The remaining solution is sucked off by introducing air through the column. The eluate has a molybdenum cost ent of 0.001 to 0.005 μCi Mo/mCi Tc 99m. The pH-value of the eluate is between 5.0 and 5.3. The aluminium ion content is less than 0.3 g/ml. (DG) [de

  9. Morphology of magnetic fields generated in laser-produced plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, T.J.M.; Cooke, D.

    1988-01-01

    Magnetic fields in the megagauss range have been measured in experiments on plasmas generated by irradiating targets with high power lasers. A study of the morphology of these self-generated fields is important not only for its intrinsic interest but for possible implications in laser--target physics. In this paper work on the numerical modeling of large magnetic fields generated in target experiments is reported. The results show generally satisfactory agreement with the fields measured experimentally both in terms of the magnitude of the peak fields and their morphology. In the numerical model the contribution from the Hall term in describing the evolution of the magnetic field is shown to be important especially in short pulse (≅100 psec) experiments

  10. An investigation of noise produced by unsteady gas flow through silencer elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawhinney, Graeme Hugh

    This thesis presents an investigation of the noise produced by unsteady gas flow through silencer elements. The central aim of the research project was to produce a tool for assistance in the design of the exhaust systems of diesel powered electrical generator sets, with the modelling techniques developed having a much wider application in reciprocating internal combustion engine exhaust systems. An automotive cylinder head was incorporated in a purpose built test rig to supply exhaust pulses, typical of those found in the exhaust system of four stroke diesel engines, to various experimental exhaust systems. Exhaust silencer elements evaluated included expansion, re- entrant, concentric tube resonator and absorptive elements. Measurements taken on the test rig included, unsteady superposition pressure in the exhaust ducting, cyclically averaged mass flow rate through the system and exhaust noise levels radiated into a semi-anechoic measurement chamber. The entire test rig was modelled using the 1D finite volume method developed previously developed at Queen's University Belfast. Various boundary conditions, developed over the years, were used to model the various silencer elements being evaluated. The 1D gas dynamic simulation thus estimated the mass flux history at the open end of the exhaust system. The mass flux history was then broken into its harmonic components and an acoustic radiation model was developed to model the sound pressure level produced by an acoustic monopole over a reflecting plane. The accuracy of the simulation technique was evaluated by correlation of measured and simulated superposition pressure and noise data. In general correlation of superposition pressure was excellent for all of the silencer elements tested. Predicted sound pressure level radiated from the open end of the exhaust tailpipe was seen to be accurate in the 100 Hz to 1 kHz frequency range for all of the silencer elements tested.

  11. Wage Inequality and Violent Protests in Oil/Gas Producing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuraliyev, Nurlan

    This work examines contrasting claims made by academic scholars on the relationship between income inequality and political discontent. Does income inequality directly cause social unrest or is this relationship conditional on the level of democratic development? Using the data from 55 oil/gas producing countries between 2010-2013, the author finds: 1) income disparity between an average income per capita of local population and an average income of foreign labor employed in the oil/gas industry results in higher number of violent protests in more democratic oil/gas producing societies; 2) wage disparity between local and foreign labor in the oil/gas industry is associated with higher number of protests in this industry in more democratic oil/gas producing states.

  12. Combustion of producer gas from gasification of south Sumatera lignite coal using CFD simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidian Fajri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The production of gasses from lignite coal gasification is one of alternative fuel for the boiler or gas turbine. The prediction of temperature distribution inside the burner is important for the application and optimization of the producer gas. This research aims to provide the information about the influence of excess air on the temperature distribution and combustion product in the non-premixed burner. The process was carried out using producer gas from lignite coal gasification of BA 59 was produced by the updraft gasifier which is located on Energy Conversion Laboratory Mechanical Engineering Department Universitas Sriwijaya. The excess air used in the combustion process were respectively 10%, 30% and 50%. CFD Simulations was performed in this work using two-dimensional model of the burner. The result of the simulation showed an increase of excess air, a reduction in the gas burner temperature and the composition of gas (carbon dioxide, nitric oxide and water vapor.

  13. Continuous organic waste digester and methane gas generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araneta, V.A.

    1979-01-01

    A patent on the construction of a utility model of an industrial product of a continuous organic-waste digester and methane-gas generator is described. It comprises an airtight chamber to receive slurry of organic waste; a gas-water scrubber to purge carbon dioxide, odor-omitting gases and froth or scrum from newly formed methane gas evolving from said slurry of organic wastes; and two dually functioning slurry-feed and -discharge pipes connected to a reversible pump. It has one pipe with an opening at the base of an airtight chamber and the other pipe with up-ended openings below the fluid level of the slurry to be accumulated in the airtight chamber.

  14. Power import or domestic power generation using gas?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saettler, M.; Bohnenschaefer, W.; Schlesinger, M.

    2001-01-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents expert opinion on the question of how Switzerland could meet its demands for power in the future. The results of the analysis of two options - the import of electrical power or its generation using natural-gas-fired power stations - made in the light of gas market liberalisation are presented. These include the assessment of the use of 'GuD' (combined gas and steam-turbine) power stations in the 100 MW e l to 400 MW e l class regarding their cost, their emissions and primary energy consumption. The authors discuss the assessments from the political and economic points of view. An appendix supplies characteristic data for 'GuD' power stations and an example of a model calculation for a 400 MW e l 'GuD' power station

  15. Distinguishing the Source of Natural Gas Accumulations with a Combined Gas and Co-produced Formation Water Geochemical Approach: a Case Study from the Appalachian Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this study is to discuss the use of gas and co-produced formation water geochemistry for identifying the source of natural gas and present gas geochemistry for the northern Appalachian Basin.

  16. Competition between coal and gas for large scale power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howieson, B.

    1997-01-01

    The relative competitiveness of coal- and gas-fired generation will be affected by distinctive country and market factors as well as site specific considerations, regarding such factors as environment, market structure and economics (such as fuel and plant costs). National and international politics have an impact on all three factors and any decision on the development of generation plant must take into account both current and future political climates. An analysis suggests that, at the present time, upgrading existing coal stations is attractive compared with new combined cycle gas turbines (CCGTs). However, this conclusion is highly dependent on the site specific nature of existing plant and the anticipated future environmental regime. Increased environmental pressure, particularly in the area of CO 2 emissions, would result in CCGTs being the first choice plant option. (R.P.)

  17. Natural gas power generation in Brazil: New window of opportunity?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorini de Oliveira, Ricardo; Moraes Marreco, Juliana de

    2006-01-01

    This survey analyses the need as well as the attractiveness of private investment in natural gas thermal power generation under the Brazilian new power sector reform. Providing a scenario analysis from 2004 to 2014, this paper focuses on the investor perspective, and concludes that investments in natural gas thermal power plants in Brazil are not feasible, without financial subsidies stimulating investors. The more wary of risk both government and society are, and the more averse to risk the investor is, the higher the probability of higher capacity payment to provide incentives to investors. The alternative would be a lower capacity payment combined with higher thermal power tariffs; meaning that generators would receive much more payment when operating, despite assuming higher risks. Additionally, the improvement in safety supply cost is estimated and a sensibility analysis on the actual variables is performed

  18. Electricity generation from landfill gas: a commercial view revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limbrick, A.J.

    1992-01-01

    Wapsey's Wood power station has been generating electricity from landfill gas since 1987. Despite a good technical track record, the project did not secure a fair price for the electricity it sold until it was included in the 1991 Non-Fossil Fuel Obligation (NFFO). The NFFO has served to bring forward approximately 560 MW of renewable energy generating capacity, of which 15 per cent is fuelled by landfill gas. However, case histories such as that of Wapsey's Wood highlight the weaknesses of the current arrangements. To secure the continued steady growth of commercially robust renewable energy projects, there is a need to boost the business confidence of potential developers. The paper proposes two ways to remove the present uncertainty: simplify the application procedures, and remove the December 1998 expiry date that currently applies to power purchase agreements under the NFFO. (author)

  19. New generation enrichment monitoring technology for gas centrifuge enrichment plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ianakiev, Kiril D.; Alexandrov, Boian S.; Boyer, Brian D.; Hill, Thomas R.; Macarthur, Duncan W.; Marks, Thomas; Moss, Calvin E.; Sheppard, Gregory A.; Swinhoe, Martyn T.

    2008-01-01

    The continuous enrichment monitor, developed and fielded in the 1990s by the International Atomic Energy Agency, provided a go-no-go capability to distinguish between UF 6 containing low enriched (approximately 4% 235 U) and highly enriched (above 20% 235 U) uranium. This instrument used the 22-keV line from a 109 Cd source as a transmission source to achieve a high sensitivity to the UF 6 gas absorption. The 1.27-yr half-life required that the source be periodically replaced and the instrument recalibrated. The instrument's functionality and accuracy were limited by the fact that measured gas density and gas pressure were treated as confidential facility information. The modern safeguarding of a gas centrifuge enrichment plant producing low-enriched UF 6 product aims toward a more quantitative flow and enrichment monitoring concept that sets new standards for accuracy stability, and confidence. An instrument must be accurate enough to detect the diversion of a significant quantity of material, have virtually zero false alarms, and protect the operator's proprietary process information. We discuss a new concept for advanced gas enrichment assay measurement technology. This design concept eliminates the need for the periodic replacement of a radioactive source as well as the need for maintenance by experts. Some initial experimental results will be presented.

  20. Gas jet structure influence on high harmonic generation

    OpenAIRE

    Grant-Jacob, James; Mills, Benjamin; Butcher, Thomas J.; Chapman, Richard T.; Brocklesby, William S.; Frey, Jeremy G.

    2011-01-01

    Gas jets used as sources for high harmonic generation (HHG) have a complex three-dimensional density and velocity profile. This paper describes how the profile influences the generation of extreme-UV light. As the position of the laser focus is varied along the jet flow axis, we show that the intensity of the output radiation varies by approximately three times, with the highest flux being observed when the laser is focused into the Mach disc. The work demonstrated here will aid in the optimi...

  1. Automation of steam generator services at public service electric & gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruickshank, H.; Wray, J.; Scull, D. [Public Service Electric & Gas, Hancock`s Bridge, NJ (United States)

    1995-03-01

    Public Service Electric & Gas takes an aggressive approach to pursuing new exposure reduction techniques. Evaluation of historic outage exposure shows that over the last eight refueling outages, primary steam generator work has averaged sixty-six (66) person-rem, or, approximately tewenty-five percent (25%) of the general outage exposure at Salem Station. This maintenance evolution represents the largest percentage of exposure for any single activity. Because of this, primary steam generator work represents an excellent opportunity for the development of significant exposure reduction techniques. A study of primary steam generator maintenance activities demonstrated that seventy-five percent (75%) of radiation exposure was due to work activities of the primary steam generator platform, and that development of automated methods for performing these activities was worth pursuing. Existing robotics systems were examined and it was found that a new approach would have to be developed. This resulted in a joint research and development project between Westinghouse and Public Service Electric & Gas to develop an automated system of accomplishing the Health Physics functions on the primary steam generator platform. R.O.M.M.R.S. (Remotely Operated Managed Maintenance Robotics System) was the result of this venture.

  2. Innovation generation how to produce creative and useful scientific ideas

    CERN Document Server

    Ness, Roberta B

    2012-01-01

    Whether you are a student or an established scientist, researcher, or engineer, you can learn to be more innovative. In Innovation Generation, internationally renowned physician and scientist Roberta Ness provides all the tools you need to cast aside your habitual ways of navigating the every-day world and to think "outside the box." Based on an extraordinarily successful program at the University of Texas, this book provides proven techniques to expand your ability to generate original ideas. These tools include analogy, expanding assumptions, pulling questions apart, changing your point of view, reversing your thinking, and getting the most out of multidisciplinary groups, to name a few. Woven into the discussion are engaging stories of famous scientists who found fresh paths to innovation, including groundbreaking primate scientist Jane Goodall, father of lead research Herb Needleman, and physician Ignaz Semmelweis, whose discovery of infection control saved millions. Finally, the book shows how to combine...

  3. Electricity generation with natural gas or with uranium?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villanueva M, C.

    2009-10-01

    The program of works and investments of electric sector that actualize each year the Federal Commission of Electricity, include to the projects of electric power generating stations that will begin its commercial operation inside the horizon of the next ten years, in order to satisfy opportunely with appropriate reservation margins the demand of power and energy in the national interconnected system that grows year to year. In spite of its inherent advantages, in the electric sector prospective 2008-2017 are not considered explicitly to the nuclear power plants, except for the small amplification of capacity of nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde, that already is executing. In this context, the objective of this work is to present and to discuss arguments to favor and against the combined cycle and nuclear technologies, to indicate the risks and disadvantages in that it incurs the electric sector when leaning on so disproportionately on the fossil fuels for the electricity generation, in particular the natural gas, deferring to an indefinite future the installation of nuclear plants whose proven technology is economic, sure, clean and reliable and it contributes decisively to the national energy security. To mitigate the harmful effects of excessive dependence on natural gas to generate electric power, was propose alternatives to the expansion program of electric sector to year 2017, which would have as benefits the decrease of the annual total cost of electric power supply for public service, the significant reduction of natural gas imports and emissions reduction of CO 2 to the atmosphere. (Author)

  4. Process for producing synthetic ammonia gas. Verfahren zur Erzeugung von Ammoniak-Synthesegas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meckel, J F; Messerschmidt, D; Wagener, D

    1984-01-12

    The invention refers to a process for producing synthetic ammonia gas from gases containing hydrocarbons, which is reformed catalytically and autothermally with a synthesis gas containing oxygen and then subjected to conversion to synthesis gas containing carbon dioxide and hydrogen. In order to simplify the plant required for such a process, the invention provides that part of the gas main flow is subjected to a multistage alternating pressure absorption plant (PSA plant) in a bypass of the gas main flow and the separated hydrogen is returned to the remaining gas main flow, in order to set the required H/sub 2/N/sub 2/ ratio and that the fission gas is subject to carbon dioxide washing and methanizing after conversion. This process therefore does not need a pipe splitting furnace and enrichment of the air with oxygen.

  5. Characterization of the gas-puff imploding plasma on the NRL Gamble II generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephanakis, S.J.; Boller, J.R.; Cooperstein, G.

    1984-01-01

    Recently, an experimental and theoretical effort has been undertaken at NRL aimed at contributing to understanding the physics of the implosion dynamics and of the resulting highly localized plasma pinch in such experiments. Supersonic nozzles producing a cylindrical gas flow provide the load for the Gamble II generator operating at the 1.5 TW level. The gas jet is preionized and then imploded to the axis by the machine electrical pulse in a very short time scale. During the implosion process, the attained kinetic energy is efficiently converted to plasma thermal energy and produces the desired radiation. Preliminary experimental results are presented from the study of the conditions necessary in order to efficiently couple such loads to the Gamble II generator. These results are correlated to existing scaling laws and are compared with theoretical models

  6. Study of gas generation in drum L/ILW packages using hermetic containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molnar, M.; Palcsu, L.; Svingor, E.; Futo, I.; Major, Z.; Veres, M.

    2005-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. During the storage of low and intermediate level radioactive waste (L/ILW) significant quantities of gas may be produced. It is likely that a small proportion of the generated gas will be radioactive as a result of the incorporation of the isotopes 3 H and 14 C that are present within the waste. To obtain reliable estimates of the quantities and rates of the gas production in L/ILWa series of measurements was carried out of waste packages produced and temporarily stored at the site of Paks Nuclear Power Plant (NPP). Ten drums filled with selected original L/ILW were placed into hermetic containers equipped with sampling valves for repeated sampling. These hermetic containers were stored at the same site where the L/ILW is stored primarily in the Paks NPP. The pressure and the temperature of the headspace gas in the containers were monitored continuously. Qualitative gas component analyses of headspace gases of drums and their containers were executed by quadrupole mass spectrometer. The gas generation rate in the stored L/ILW was calculated by the measured state parameters and the composition variation of the gas in the closed containers. Stable isotope measurements were executed from the CO 2 , CH 4 and N 2 fractions by stable isotope ratio mass spectrometer. Helium measurements were done by noble gas mass spectrometer. The tritium content of the vapour, H 2 and CH 4 fractions was measured by a low background liquid scintillation counter. 14 C content of the CO 2 and CH 4 fractions was measured by a low background gas proportional counter system (ATOMKI). Our results showed that the main generated gases in L/ILW are carbon dioxide, methane, hydrogen and nitrogen. The typical rates were 0.05-0.2 normal litre gas/day for CO 2 and CH 4 generation, and less than 0.02 normal litre gas/day for H 2 . Because of the typical vanishing of the O 2 from the headspace gases no explosive gas mixture was indicated in the L/ILW drums during

  7. Combustion Chamber Deposits and PAH Formation in SI Engines Fueled by Producer Gas from Biomass Gasification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahrenfeldt, Jesper; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk; Schramm, Jesper

    2003-01-01

    Investigations were made concerning the formation of combustion chamber deposits (CCD) in SI gas engines fueled by producer gas. The main objective was to determine and characterise CCD and PAH formation caused by the presence of the light tar compounds phenol and guaiacol in producer gas from...... on filters and a sorbent was used for collection of vapour phase aromatic compounds. The filters and sorbent were analysed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) formed during combustion. The measurements showed that there was no significant increase in particulate PAH emissions due to the tar compounds...

  8. Desalination and reuse of high-salinity shale gas produced water: drivers, technologies, and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Devin L; Arias Chavez, Laura H; Ben-Sasson, Moshe; Romero-Vargas Castrillón, Santiago; Yip, Ngai Yin; Elimelech, Menachem

    2013-09-03

    In the rapidly developing shale gas industry, managing produced water is a major challenge for maintaining the profitability of shale gas extraction while protecting public health and the environment. We review the current state of practice for produced water management across the United States and discuss the interrelated regulatory, infrastructure, and economic drivers for produced water reuse. Within this framework, we examine the Marcellus shale play, a region in the eastern United States where produced water is currently reused without desalination. In the Marcellus region, and in other shale plays worldwide with similar constraints, contraction of current reuse opportunities within the shale gas industry and growing restrictions on produced water disposal will provide strong incentives for produced water desalination for reuse outside the industry. The most challenging scenarios for the selection of desalination for reuse over other management strategies will be those involving high-salinity produced water, which must be desalinated with thermal separation processes. We explore desalination technologies for treatment of high-salinity shale gas produced water, and we critically review mechanical vapor compression (MVC), membrane distillation (MD), and forward osmosis (FO) as the technologies best suited for desalination of high-salinity produced water for reuse outside the shale gas industry. The advantages and challenges of applying MVC, MD, and FO technologies to produced water desalination are discussed, and directions for future research and development are identified. We find that desalination for reuse of produced water is technically feasible and can be economically relevant. However, because produced water management is primarily an economic decision, expanding desalination for reuse is dependent on process and material improvements to reduce capital and operating costs.

  9. Development and Test of a new Concept for Biomass Producer Gas Engines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahrenfeldt, Jesper; Foged, Esben Vendelbo; Strand, Rune

    The technical requirements and the economical assessment of converting commercial diesel engine gen-sets into high compression spark ignition operation on biomass producer gas have been investigated. Assessments showed that for a 200 kWe gen-set there would be a financial benefit of approximately...... 600.000 DKK corresponding to a reduction of 60% in investment costs compared to the price of a conventional gas engine gen-set. Experimental investigations have been conducted on two identical small scale SI gas engine gen-sets operating on biomass producer gas from thermal gasification of wood....... The engines were operated with two different compression ratios, one with the original compression ratio for natural gas operation 9.5:1, and the second with a compression ratio of 18.5:1 (converted diesel engine). It was shown that high compression ratio SI engine operation was possible when operating...

  10. Partial oxidation process for producing a stream of hot purified gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leininger, T.F.; Robin, A.M.; Wolfenbarger, J.K.; Suggitt, R.M.

    1995-03-28

    A partial oxidation process is described for the production of a stream of hot clean gas substantially free from particulate matter, ammonia, alkali metal compounds, halides and sulfur-containing gas for use as synthesis gas, reducing gas, or fuel gas. A hydrocarbonaceous fuel comprising a solid carbonaceous fuel with or without liquid hydrocarbonaceous fuel or gaseous hydrocarbon fuel, wherein said hydrocarbonaceous fuel contains halides, alkali metal compounds, sulfur, nitrogen and inorganic ash containing components, is reacted in a gasifier by partial oxidation to produce a hot raw gas stream comprising H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, CH{sub 4}, NH{sub 3}, HCl, HF, H{sub 2}S, COS, N{sub 2}, Ar, particulate matter, vapor phase alkali metal compounds, and molten slag. The hot raw gas stream from the gasifier is split into two streams which are separately deslagged, cleaned and recombined. Ammonia in the gas mixture is catalytically disproportionated into N{sub 2} and H{sub 2}. The ammonia-free gas stream is then cooled and halides in the gas stream are reacted with a supplementary alkali metal compound to remove HCl and HF. Alkali metal halides, vaporized alkali metal compounds and residual fine particulate matter are removed from the gas stream by further cooling and filtering. The sulfur-containing gases in the process gas stream are then reacted at high temperature with a regenerable sulfur-reactive mixed metal oxide sulfur sorbent material to produce a sulfided sorbent material which is then separated from the hot clean purified gas stream having a temperature of at least 1000 F. 1 figure.

  11. FY 2000 report on the research cooperation project - Research cooperation in developmental support for oil producing countries. Development of the new field of usage of Orinoco oil for fuel of gas turbine combined power generation; 2000 nendo san'yukoku kaihatsu shien kenkyu kyoryoku jigyo seika hokokusho. Gasu tabin fukugo hatsuden nenryo muke Orinoko oil no shin yoto kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-09-01

    For the purpose of spreading the usage of Orinoco crude oil which is suffering from sluggishness in the export and heightening the economical efficiency in Venezuela, research cooperation was made for a project for reduction of the power cost and environmental loads in Japan by producing the advanced gas turbine use fuel oil from Orinoco oil and exporting it to Japan. In this project, conducted were the technical verification that the gas turbine use fuel oil (GTF) can be produced from Orinoco oil and the economical verification based on the result thereof. As a result of the technical verification, it was confirmed that from the Orinoco crude oil which is heavy, high in sulfur and high in heavy metal concentration, a refined oil satisfying the following properties of the advanced gas turbine fuel oil could be trial-produced using the distilling unit, SDA unit, desulfurizer and de-metaling unit: vanadium concentration: 0.5 wtppm or below; sodium + potassium concentration: 1.0 wtppm or below; viscosity: 20 cSt or below at 135 degrees C. Further, from the economical verification, the good result was obtained that the price was lower than the LNG price and the domestic price of A heavy oil/C heavy oil. (NEDO)

  12. Prediction of small spark ignited engine performance using producer gas as fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Homdoung

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Producer gas from biomass gasification is expected to contribute to greater energy mix in the future. Therefore, effect of producer gas on engine performance is of great interest. Evaluation of engine performances can be hard and costly. Ideally, they may be predicted mathematically. This work was to apply mathematical models in evaluating performance of a small producer gas engine. The engine was a spark ignition, single cylinder unit with a CR of 14:1. Simulation was carried out on full load and varying engine speeds. From simulated results, it was found that the simple mathematical model can predict the performance of the gas engine and gave good agreement with experimental results. The differences were within ±7%.

  13. FEBEX. Investigations on gas generation, release and migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jockwer, Norbert; Wieczorek, Klaus

    2008-06-01

    The FEBEX project is based on the Spanish reference concept for the disposal of radioactive waste in crystalline rock, which considers the emplacement of the canisters enclosing the conditioned waste surrounded by clay barriers constructed of high-compacted bentonite blocks in horizontal drifts /ENR 957. The whole project consisted of an experimental and a modelling part. The experimental part itself was divided into the in-situ test, a mock-up test performed at the CIEMAT laboratory, and various small-scale laboratory tests. In the modelling part it was expected to develop and validate the thermo-hydro-mechanical (THM) and the thermo-hydro-chemical (THC) processes for the performance assessment of the near-field behaviour. GRS was only involved in the in-situ test and some additional laboratory work with regard to gas generation, gas migration, and pore pressure build-up in the buffer constructed of high-compacted bentonite blocks around the electrical heaters simulating the waste containers. The following topics are covered: installation and dismantling of the heater pipes; methods of gas generation and release measurement, summary of results and discussion

  14. Generation and characterization of gas bubbles in liquid metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckert, S.; Gerbeth, G.; Witke, W.

    1996-01-01

    There is an ongoing research performed in the RCR on local transport phenomena in turbulent liquid metal (LM) duct flows exposed to external magnetic fields. In this context so-called MHD flow phenomena can be observed, which are unknown in usual hydraulic engineering. The field of interest covers also the influence of magnetic fields on the behaviour of liquid metal - gas mixtures. Profound knowledge on these LMMHD two-phase flow plays an important role in a variety of technological applications, in particular, in the design of Liquid-Metal MHD generators or for several metallurgical processes employing gas-stirred reactors. However, the highly empirical nature of two-phase flow analysis gives little hope for the prediction of MHD two-phase flows without extensive experimental data. A summary is given about the authors research activities focussing on two directions: (a) Momentum transfer between gas and liquid metal in a bubbly flow regime to investigate the influence of the external magnetic field on the velocity slip ration S (b) Peculiarities of the MHD turbulence to use small gas bubbles as local tracers in order to study the turbulent mass transfer

  15. Gas dynamic virtual nozzle for generation of microscopic droplet streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DePonte, D P; Weierstall, U; Schmidt, K; Warner, J; Starodub, D; Spence, J C H; Doak, R B [Department of Physics, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-1504 (United States)], E-mail: dandeponte@gmail.com

    2008-10-07

    As shown by Ganan-Calvo (1998 Phys. Rev. Lett. 80 285-8), a free liquid jet can be compressed in diameter through gas dynamic forces exerted by a coaxially co-flowing gas, obviating the need for a solid nozzle to form a microscopic liquid jet and thereby alleviating the clogging problems that plague conventional droplet sources of small diameter. We describe in this paper a novel form of droplet beam source based on this principle. The source is miniature, robust, dependable, easily fabricated, essentially immune to clogging and eminently suitable for delivery of microscopic liquid droplets, including hydrated biological samples, into vacuum for analysis using vacuum instrumentation. Monodisperse, single-file droplet streams are generated by triggering the device with a piezoelectric actuator.

  16. PBX 9502 Gas Generation Progress Report FY17

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmes, Matthew David [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Erickson, Michael Andrew Englert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-10-03

    The self-ignition (“cookoff”) behavior of PBX 9502 depends on the dynamic evolution of gas permeability and physical damage in the material. The time-resolved measurement of product gas generation yields insight regarding the crucial properties that dominate cookoff behavior. We report on small-scale laboratory testing performed in FY17, in which small unconfined samples of PBX 9502 were heated in a small custom-built sealed pressure vessel to self-ignition. We recorded time-lapse video of the evolving physical changes in the sample, quasi-static long-duration pressure rise, then high-speed video and dynamic pressure rise of the cookoff event. We report the full pressure attained during the cookoff of a 1.02g sample in a free volume of 62.5 cm3.

  17. Gas generation and release from the VLJ repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieno, T.; Valkiainen, M.

    1992-01-01

    The VLJ repository is an underground disposal facility located at the Olkiluoto nuclear power plant site on the west coast of Finland. The repository will house low (LLW) and intermediate level radioactive wastes (MLW) from the TVO I and TVO II BWR's and the spent fuel interim store at Olkiluoto. The disposal rooms have been excavated at a depth of 60... 100 meters in the crystalline bedrock. They consist of two rock silos - one for the LLW and the other for MLW. Low level waste is usually packed in steel drums and steel boxes. Medium level wastes consists of bituminized resins in steel drums. Wastes packages are emplaced in concrete boxes before transportation into the repository. Low level wastes are emplaced in the shotcreted rock silo where no backfilling will used. For medium level wastes, a separate silo of reinforced concrete has been constructed inside the rock silo. No backfilling will be used inside the concrete silo and an opening will be made in the lid of the concrete silo for gas release. The microbial degradation of low level wastes is the principle gas generation process in the repository. The gas transport though the bedrock covering the repository is evaluated with the help of ground water flow study. It is recommended that the shotcrete lining on the ceiling of the repository cavern is partly removed before the final sealing of the repository. Provided that dissipation of gases from the disposal cavern into the rock can been assured, the overall effects of gas generation on the long-term safety of the repository are insignificant. 10 refs., 6 figs

  18. Dual fuel mode operation in diesel engines using renewable fuels: Rubber seed oil and coir-pith producer gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramadhas, A.S.; Jayaraj, S.; Muraleedharan, C. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Institute of Technology Calicut, Calicut-673601 (India)

    2008-09-15

    Partial combustion of biomass in the gasifier generates producer gas that can be used as supplementary or sole fuel for internal combustion engines. Dual fuel mode operation using coir-pith derived producer gas and rubber seed oil as pilot fuel was analyzed for various producer gas-air flow ratios and at different load conditions. The engine is experimentally optimized with respect to maximum pilot fuel savings in the dual fuel mode operation. The performance and emission characteristics of the dual fuel engine are compared with that of diesel engine at different load conditions. Specific energy consumption in the dual-fuel mode of operation with oil-coir-pith operation is found to be in the higher side at all load conditions. Exhaust emission was found to be higher in the case of dual fuel mode of operation as compared to neat diesel/oil operation. Engine performance characteristics are inferior in fully renewable fueled engine operation but it suitable for stationary engine application, particularly power generation. (author)

  19. Energy consumption in desalinating produced water from shale oil and gas extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Tow, Emily W.; Chung, Hyung Won; Lienhard, John H.; Thiel, Gregory Parker; Banchik, Leonardo David

    2014-01-01

    On-site treatment and reuse is an increasingly preferred option for produced water management in unconventional oil and gas extraction. This paper analyzes and compares the energetics of several desalination technologies at the high salinities and diverse compositions commonly encountered in produced water from shale formations to guide technology selection and to inform further system development. Produced water properties are modeled using Pitzer's equations, and emphasis is placed on how t...

  20. Assessing the difference. Greenhouse gas emissions of electricity generation chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spadaro, J.V.; Langlois, L.; Hamilton, B.

    2000-01-01

    Greenhouse gases have to the potential to influence global climate change by interfering with the natural process of heat exchange between the earth's atmosphere and outer space. Reducing atmospheric GHG concentrations have become an international priority as evidenced by the signing of the Kyoto Protocol, which would reduce emissions from industrialized countries (Annex 1) by about 5% below 1990 levels during the commitment period 2008-12. There are a number of technical options that could be implemented in order to achieve the proposed reduction target. As for emissions related to electricity generation, perhaps the most important factor over the near term is the improvement in efficiency of using energy at all the stages of the fuel cycle, including fuel preparation and transportation, fuel-to-electricity conversion at the power plant and at the point of end-use (which has not been considered here). Strategies for reducing methane releases during fuel mining and during gas transmission are very relevant. Switching to less carbon intensive or low carbon fuels, such as gas, nuclear power and renewables, will play a major role in reducing emissions. These changes are technically feasible using present day knowledge and experience, require minimal changes in consumer lifestyle, and represent reasonable capital turnover (gas and nuclear for baseload generation and renewables in niche markets or for peak load applications). This article has presented information on GHG emission factors for different fuels using a Full Energy Chain approach, which attempts to quantify the environmental emissions from all stages of electricity generation, i.e. 'cradle-to-grave'. Fossil-fueled technologies have the highest emission factors, with coal typically twice as high as natural gas. Considering the large variations in fuel- to-electricity conversion technology, it can be said that GHG emission factors can be an order of magnitude higher than current solar PV systems and up to two

  1. Utilization of stable isotopes for characterizing an underground gas generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirard, J.P.; Antenucci, D.; Renard, X.; Letolle, R.

    1994-01-01

    The principles of isotopic exchange and isotope ratio result interpretation are first reviewed; then, in the framework of an underground coal gasification project in Belgium, experiments and modelling of the underground gas generator have been carried out: isotopic abundances of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen have been measured in the gasifying agent (O 2 , H 2 O) and in the effluent (CO 2 , CO, H 2 , H 2 O, CH 4 , O 2 , heavy oils and various organic and mineral substances). Gasification kinetics and temperatures have been evaluated and isotope application to thermometry is discussed. 1 fig., 9 refs

  2. Study of compressor systems for a gas-generator engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sather, Bernard I; Tauschek, Max J

    1950-01-01

    Various methods of providing compressor-capacity and pressure-ratio control in the gas-generator type of compound engine over a range of altitudes from sea level to 50,000 feet are presented. The analytical results indicate that the best method of control is that in which the first stage of compression is carried out in a variable-speed supercharger driven by a hydraulic slip coupling. The constant-speed second stage could be either a mixed-flow rotary compressor or a piston-type compressor. A variable-area turbine nozzle is shown to be unnecessary for cruising operation of the engine.

  3. Gas generation in pure and impure plutonium-bearing materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, R.; Allen, T.; Eller, P.G.; Hagan, R.; Horrell, D.; Rink, N.

    1999-01-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory's (LANL's) materials identification and surveillance (MIS) project identifies materials to be stored in DOE-STD-3013-96 containers, determines the chemical and physical character of stored materials, and evaluates processing to be used to stabilize materials to meet the standard. The project has completed processing and analysis of 9 Hanford items and 24 Rocky Flats items, representing a substantial portion of the oxides to be packaged for long-term storage. The resultant data provide insight into the physical and chemical characteristics of the materials at the sites. A component of the study was to investigate gas generation for representative materials. These studies included headspace gas measurements over the 9 Hanford items, measurement of gas generation in 10-g surveillance samples of MIS powders, and pressure monitoring. Before examining the Hanford cans, sampling and analysis methods were demonstrated on HRA-905191, an item from the LANL vault. This item was not typical of materials designated to be stored in 3013 cans, as it contained plastic vials, emery cloths, paper towels, and a large percentage of thorium. However, it was one of the items that contained significant hydrogen in the headspace. A mass spectrometer was used to determine the composition of headspace gases. Oxygen was substantially depleted in all cases, and the percent of nitrogen in many items was greater than that found in air. In both cans with a high hydrogen content, the corresponding oxygen content was near zero (HRA905191 and ARF-102-85-365). In some cases, carbon dioxide was generated in the cans. Carbon monoxide was found in item BLO-39-11-85-295. This item has a high americium content, thus higher temperature than other materials examined. The only notable impurities in item BLO-39-11-85-295 were carbon at ≅0.1 wt% and chlorides at 0.2 wt%. Seven long-term surveillance vessels each holding approximately10 g of MIS powders have been monitored

  4. Integrated biomass gasification combined cycle distributed generation plant with reciprocating gas engine and ORC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalina, Jacek

    2011-01-01

    The paper theoretically investigates the performance of a distributed generation plant made up of gasifier, Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) and Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) machine as a bottoming unit. The system can be used for maximization of electricity production from biomass in the case where there is no heat demand for cogeneration plant. To analyze the performance of the gasifier a model based on the thermodynamic equilibrium approach is used. Performance of the gas engine is estimated on the basis of the analysis of its theoretical thermodynamic cycle. Three different setups of the plant are being examined. In the first one the ORC module is driven only by the heat recovered from engine exhaust gas and cooling water. Waste heat from a gasifier is used for gasification air preheating. In the second configuration a thermal oil circuit is applied. The oil transfers heat from engine and raw gas cooler into the ORC. In the third configuration it is proposed to apply a double cascade arrangement of the ORC unit with a two-stage low temperature evaporation of working fluid. This novel approach allows utilization of the total waste heat from the low temperature engine cooling circuit. Two gas engines of different characteristics are taken into account. The results obtained were compared in terms of electric energy generation efficiency of the system. The lowest obtained value of the efficiency was 23.6% while the highest one was 28.3%. These are very favorable values in comparison with other existing small and medium scale biomass-fuelled power generation plants. - Highlights: →The study presents performance analysis of a biomass-fuelled local power plant. →Downdraft wood gasifier, gas engine and ORC module are modelled theoretically. →Method for estimation of the producer gas fired engine performance is proposed. →Two gas engines of different characteristics are taken into account. →Different arrangements of the bottoming ORC cycle ere examined.

  5. Identification, Verification, and Compilation of Produced Water Management Practices for Conventional Oil and Gas Production Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rachel Henderson

    2007-09-30

    The project is titled 'Identification, Verification, and Compilation of Produced Water Management Practices for Conventional Oil and Gas Production Operations'. The Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC), headquartered in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, is the principal investigator and the IOGCC has partnered with ALL Consulting, Inc., headquartered in Tulsa, Oklahoma, in this project. State agencies that also have partnered in the project are the Wyoming Oil and Gas Conservation Commission, the Montana Board of Oil and Gas Conservation, the Kansas Oil and Gas Conservation Division, the Oklahoma Oil and Gas Conservation Division and the Alaska Oil and Gas Conservation Commission. The objective is to characterize produced water quality and management practices for the handling, treating, and disposing of produced water from conventional oil and gas operations throughout the industry nationwide. Water produced from these operations varies greatly in quality and quantity and is often the single largest barrier to the economic viability of wells. The lack of data, coupled with renewed emphasis on domestic oil and gas development, has prompted many experts to speculate that the number of wells drilled over the next 20 years will approach 3 million, or near the number of current wells. This level of exploration and development undoubtedly will draw the attention of environmental communities, focusing their concerns on produced water management based on perceived potential impacts to fresh water resources. Therefore, it is imperative that produced water management practices be performed in a manner that best minimizes environmental impacts. This is being accomplished by compiling current best management practices for produced water from conventional oil and gas operations and to develop an analysis tool based on a geographic information system (GIS) to assist in the understanding of watershed-issued permits. That would allow management costs to be kept in

  6. On- and off-axis spectral emission features from laser-produced gas breakdown plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harilal, S. S.; Skrodzki, P. J.; Miloshevsky, A.; Brumfield, B. E.; Phillips, M. C.; Miloshevsky, G.

    2017-06-01

    Laser-heated gas breakdown plasmas or sparks emit profoundly in the ultraviolet and visible region of the electromagnetic spectrum with contributions from ionic, atomic, and molecular species. Laser created kernels expand into a cold ambient with high velocities during its early lifetime followed by confinement of the plasma kernel and eventually collapse. However, the plasma kernels produced during laser breakdown of gases are also capable of exciting and ionizing the surrounding ambient medium. Two mechanisms can be responsible for excitation and ionization of surrounding ambient: viz. photoexcitation and ionization by intense ultraviolet emission from the sparks produced during the early times of its creation and/or heating by strong shocks generated by the kernel during its expansion into the ambient. In this study, an investigation is made on the spectral features of on- and off-axis emission features of laser-induced plasma breakdown kernels generated in atmospheric pressure conditions with an aim to elucidate the mechanisms leading to ambient excitation and emission. Pulses from an Nd:YAG laser emitting at 1064 nm with 6 ns pulse duration are used to generate plasma kernels. Laser sparks were generated in air, argon, and helium gases to provide different physical properties of expansion dynamics and plasma chemistry considering the differences in laser absorption properties, mass density and speciation. Point shadowgraphy and time-resolved imaging were used to evaluate the shock wave and spark self-emission morphology at early and late times while space and time resolved spectroscopy is used for evaluating the emission features as well as for inferring plasma fundaments at on- and off-axis. Structure and dynamics of the plasma kernel obtained using imaging techniques are also compared to numerical simulations using computational fluid dynamics code. The emission from the kernel showed that spectral features from ions, atoms and molecules are separated in

  7. Counter-Rotatable Fan Gas Turbine Engine with Axial Flow Positive Displacement Worm Gas Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giffin, Rollin George (Inventor); Murrow, Kurt David (Inventor); Fakunle, Oladapo (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A counter-rotatable fan turbine engine includes a counter-rotatable fan section, a worm gas generator, and a low pressure turbine to power the counter-rotatable fan section. The low pressure turbine maybe counter-rotatable or have a single direction of rotation in which case it powers the counter-rotatable fan section through a gearbox. The gas generator has inner and outer bodies having offset inner and outer axes extending through first, second, and third sections of a core assembly. At least one of the bodies is rotatable about its axis. The inner and outer bodies have intermeshed inner and outer helical blades wound about the inner and outer axes and extending radially outwardly and inwardly respectively. The helical blades have first, second, and third twist slopes in the first, second, and third sections respectively. A combustor section extends through at least a portion of the second section.

  8. Sewage sludge based producer gas of rich H{sub 2} content as a fuel for an IC engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szwaja, Stanislaw; Cupial, Karol [Czestochowa Univ. of Technology (Poland)

    2010-07-01

    The manuscript presents investigation on hydrogen rich gas combustion in an internal combustion (IC) engine. The gas is obtained from gasification process of sewage sludge which is by-product of waste water treatment in a municipal sewage treatment plant. Recently introduced EU regulations of environmental protection do not allow to use such sludge as a soil fertilizer or substance for landfilling the ground due to its biological toxicity. On another hand, this sludge contains organic content of approximately 45-55% and from this point of view the sludge looks as an attractive material for fuel production through its gasification. This technology, primarily applied for wood gasification, has been also successfully implemented for gasification of sludge. It was found that the producer gas obtained in this way is rich of hydrogen content even up to 25%. This is because of high water content in the sludge that provides favorable conditions for steam reforming resulting in increase of hydrogen in the products of gasification. The high hydrogen content in the producer gas can lead to improper combustion particularly when the combustion takes place in the internal combustion engine. That improper combustion might appear as combustion knock and it is the main problem for the engine in which hydrogen is used as a fuel [1]. Onset of the knock during combustion contributes to rapid increase in heat transfer to the piston crown causing the piston to be quickly overheated that leads to surface erosion and damages. Additionally, engine body vibration coming from the knock significantly shortens engine durability. Conclusions from this investigation provide good premises for combusting the sludge producer gas in the IC engine without any improper combustion anomalies, thus considers this gas as worthy fuel for a stationary engine driven a power generator. The presentation shows results of producer gas combustion in both the spark-ignited and the compression ignition engine with

  9. Antagonistic effect of Lactobacillus strains against gas-producing coliforms isolated from colicky infants

    OpenAIRE

    Savino, Francesco; Cordisco, Lisa; Tarasco, Valentina; Locatelli, Emanuela; Di Gioia, Diana; Oggero, Roberto; Matteuzzi, Diego

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Infantile colic is a common disturb within the first 3 months of life, nevertheless the pathogenesis is incompletely understood and treatment remains an open issue. Intestinal gas production is thought to be one of the causes of abdominal discomfort in infants suffering from colic. However, data about the role of the amount of gas produced by infants' colonic microbiota and the correlation with the onset of colic symptoms are scanty. The benefit of supplementation with lac...

  10. Ion transport membrane reactor systems and methods for producing synthesis gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repasky, John Michael

    2015-05-12

    Embodiments of the present invention provide cost-effective systems and methods for producing a synthesis gas product using a steam reformer system and an ion transport membrane (ITM) reactor having multiple stages, without requiring inter-stage reactant injections. Embodiments of the present invention also provide techniques for compensating for membrane performance degradation and other changes in system operating conditions that negatively affect synthesis gas production.

  11. Technology on In-Situ Gas Generation to Recover Residual Oil Reserves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sayavur Bakhtiyarov

    2008-02-29

    This final technical report covers the period October 1, 1995 to February 29, 2008. This chapter begins with an overview of the history of Enhanced Oil Recovery techniques and specifically, CO2 flood. Subsequent chapters conform to the manner consistent with the Activities, Tasks, and Sub-tasks of the project as originally provided in Exhibit C1 in the Project Management Plan dated September 20, 1995. These chapters summarize the objectives, status and conclusions of the major project activities performed during the project period. The report concludes by describing technology transfer activities stemming from the project and providing a reference list of all publications of original research work generated by the project team or by others regarding this project. The overall objective of this project was a final research and development in the United States a technology that was developed at the Institute for Geology and Development of Fossil Fuels in Moscow, Russia. Before the technology can be convincingly adopted by United States oil and gas producers, the laboratory research was conducted at Mew Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology. The experimental studies were conducted to measure the volume and the pressure of the CO{sub 2} gas generated according to the new Russian technology. Two experimental devices were designed, built and used at New Mexico Tech facilities for these purposes. The designed setup allowed initiating and controlling the reaction between the 'gas-yielding' (GY) and 'gas-forming' (GF) agents proposed by Russian technology. The temperature was controlled, and the generated gas pressure and volume were recorded during the reaction process. Additionally, the effect of surfactant addition on the effectiveness of the process was studied. An alternative GY reactant was tested in order to increase the efficiency of the CO2 gas generation process. The slim tube and the core flood experimental studies were conducted to define

  12. AN OVERVIEW OF GAS-UPGRADING TECHNOLOGIES FOR BIOHYDROGEN PRODUCED FROM TREATMENT OF PALM OIL MILL EFFLUENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IZZATI NADIA MOHAMAD

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available To date, a high energy demand has led to massive research efforts towards improved gas-separation techniques for more energy-efficient and environmenttally friendly methods. One of the potential alternative energies is biogas produced from the fermentation of liquid waste generated from the oil-extraction process, which is known as palm oil mill effluent (POME. Basically, the gas produced from the POME fermentation process consists mainly of a CO2 and H2 gas mixture. CO2 is known as an anthropogenic greenhouse gas, which contributes towards the climate change phenomenon. Hence, it is crucial to determine a suitable technique for H2 separation and purification with good capability for CO2 capture, as this will reduce CO2 emission to the environment as well. This paper reviewed the current gas-separation techniques that consist of absorption, adsorption and a membrane in order to determine the advantages and disadvantages of these techniques towards the efficiency of the separation system. Crucial aspects for gas-separation techniques such as energy, economic, and environmental considerations are discussed, and a potential biohydrogen and biogas-upgrading technique for industrial POME application is presented and concluded in this paper. Based on the comparison on these aspects, water scrubbing is found to be the best technique to be used in the biogas-upgrading industry, followed by membrane and chemical scrubbing as well as PSA. Hence, these guidelines are justified for selecting the best gas-upgrading technique to be used in palm oil mill industry applications.

  13. Entropy Generation Minimization for Reverse Water Gas Shift (RWGS Reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Thermal design and optimization for reverse water gas shift (RWGS reactors is particularly important to fuel synthesis in naval or commercial scenarios. The RWGS reactor with irreversibilities of heat transfer, chemical reaction and viscous flow is studied based on finite time thermodynamics or entropy generation minimization theory in this paper. The total entropy generation rate (EGR in the RWGS reactor with different boundary conditions is minimized subject to specific feed compositions and chemical conversion using optimal control theory, and the optimal configurations obtained are compared with three reference reactors with linear, constant reservoir temperature and constant heat flux operations, which are commonly used in engineering. The results show that a drastic EGR reduction of up to 23% can be achieved by optimizing the reservoir temperature profile, the inlet temperature of feed gas and the reactor length simultaneously, compared to that of the reference reactor with the linear reservoir temperature. These optimization efforts are mainly achieved by reducing the irreversibility of heat transfer. Optimal paths have subsections of relatively constant thermal force, chemical force and local EGR. A conceptual optimal design of sandwich structure for the compact modular reactor is proposed, without elaborate control tools or excessive interstage equipment. The results can provide guidelines for designing industrial RWGS reactors in naval or commercial scenarios.

  14. Slurry growth, gas retention, and flammable gas generation by Hanford radioactive waste tanks: Synthetic waste studies, FY 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryan, S.A.; Pederson, L.R.; Ryan, J.L.; Scheele, R.D.; Tingey, J.M.

    1992-08-01

    Of 177 high-level waste storage tanks on the Hanford Site, 23 have been placed on a safety watch list because they are suspected of producing flammable gases in flammable or explosive concentrate. One tankin particular, Tank 241-SY-101 (Tank 101-SY), has exhibited slow increases in waste volume followed by a rapid decrease accompanied by venting of large quantities of gases. The purpose of this study is to help determine the processes by which flammable gases are produced, retained, and eventually released from Tank 101-SY. Waste composition data for single- and double-shell waste tanks on the flammable gas watch listare critically reviewed. The results of laboratory studies using synthetic double-shell wastes are summarized, including physical and chemical properties of crusts that are formed, the stoichiometry and rate ofgas generation, and mechanisms responsible for formation of a floating crust

  15. Alternate method for gas measurement to offshore wells producing by plunger lift

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Sergio Jose Goncalves e [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Exploracao e Producao; Mota, Francisco das Chagas [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe an alternate method for gas measurement to wells producing by conventional plunger lift to a two phase separator in offshore production systems. The principle of the plunger lift is basically the use of a free piston acting as a mechanical interface between the formation gas and the produced liquids, greatly increasing the well's lifting efficiency. However, when the piston reaches the surface a liquid slug is produced through the flowline and it propagates into the separator where the phases are measured. Usually, orifice meter is widely used in separators to measure steady-state gas flow rate, but when intermittent flow is present, the gas causes the signal saturation of the differential pressure element ({delta}P), resulting in measurement distortion. The solution proposed in this work to estimate the gas flow rate during the liquid slug it was obtained through the mathematical modeling of the separator and with the use of System Identification Theory. Applying the ARX model it was possible to get the best fit to the collected data. So, with this model and its recursive variant (RARX) it was possible to prove that, with reasonable forecast degree, the signal of the gas flow rate can be recovered by starting from the signal of the pressure control valve of the separator. (author)

  16. Development and test of a new concept for biomass producer gas engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahrenfeldt, J.; Vendelbo Foged, E.; Strand, R.; Birk Henriksen, U.

    2010-02-15

    The technical requirements and the economical assessment of converting commercial diesel engine gen-sets into high compression spark ignition operation on biomass producer gas have been investigated. Assessments showed that for a 200 kW{sub e} gen-set there would be a financial benefit of approximately 600.000 DKK corresponding to a reduction of 60% in investment costs compared to the price of a conventional gas engine gen-set. Experimental investigations have been conducted on two identical small scale SI gas engine gen-sets operating on biomass producer gas from thermal gasification of wood. The engines were operated with two different compression ratios, one with the original compression ratio for natural gas operation 9.5:1, and the second with a compression ratio of 18.5:1 (converted diesel engine). It was shown that high compression ratio SI engine operation was possible when operating on this specific biomass producer gas. The results showed an increase in the electrical efficiency from 30% to 34% when the compression ratio was increased. (author)

  17. Optimisation of continuous gas fermentation by immobilisation of acetate-producing Acetobacterium woodii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steger, Franziska; Rachbauer, Lydia; Windhagauer, Matthias; Montgomery, Lucy F R; Bochmann, Günther

    2017-08-01

    Hydrogen from water electrolysis is often suggested as a way of storing the excess energy from wind and solar power plants. However, unlike natural gas, hydrogen is difficult to store and distribute. One solution is to convert the hydrogen into other fuels or bulk chemicals. In this study we investigated fermentation in which homoacetogenic clostridia apply the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway to generate acetate from H 2 and CO 2 . Acetate can be used as a bulk chemical or further transformed into biofuels. Autotrophic growth with CO 2 as the sole carbon source is slow compared to heterotrophic growth, so the aim of this work was to improve continuous gas fermentation by immobilising the acetate-producing clostridia, thus preventing their wash out from the bioreactor. Two homoacetogenic bacterial strains (Acetobacterium woodii and Moorella thermoacetica) were tested for their acetate production potential, with A. woodii proving to be the better strain with maximum acetate concentration of 29.57 g l -1 . Due to its stability during fermentation and good bacterial immobilisation, linen was chosen as immobilisation material for continuous fermentation. This study demonstrates the successful continuous fermentation of acetate from H 2 and CO 2 using A. woodii immobilised on a low-cost surface at high volumetric productivity of 1.21 ± 0.05 g acetate l -1 d -1 . This has great industrial potential and future studies should focus on the scale-up of this process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Foreign activities of German producers of petroleum and natural gas; Auslandsaktivitaeten deutscher Erdoel-ErdgasProduzenten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2010-04-15

    The contribution under consideration is engaged in the foreign activities of German producers of natural gas and oil: Wintershall Holding AG (Kassel), RWE DEA AG (Hamburg), Petro Canada Germany GmbH (Essen), E.ON Ruhrgas AG (Essen), VNG Norge AG (Leipzig), Bavaria gas GmbH (Munich) and EWE AG (Oldenburg). Data according to the petroleum of petroleum and natural gas abroad are published for the period between 2007 and 2009. Besides this, the activities of these companies in individual countries are specified exactly.

  19. Gas Generation in Radioactive Wastes - MAGGAS Predictive Life Cycle Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streatfield, R.E.; Hebditch, D.J.; Swift, B.T.; Hoch, A.R.; Constable, M.

    2006-01-01

    Gases may form from radioactive waste in quantities posing different potential hazards throughout the waste package life cycle. The latter includes surface storage, transport, placing in an operating repository, storage in the repository prior to backfill, closure and the post-closure stage. Potentially hazardous situations involving gas include fire, flood, dropped packages, blocked package vents and disruption to a sealed repository. The MAGGAS (Magnox Gas generation) model was developed to assess gas formation for safety assessments during all stages of the waste package life cycle. This is a requirement of the U.K. regulatory authorities and Nirex and progress in this context is discussed. The processes represented in the model include: Corrosion, microbial degradation, radiolysis, solid-state diffusion, chemico-physical degradation and pressurisation. The calculation was split into three time periods. First the 'aerobic phase' is used to model the periods of surface storage, transport and repository operations including storage in the repository prior to backfill. The second and third periods were designated 'anaerobic phase 1' and 'anaerobic phase 2' and used to model the waste packages in the post-closure phase of the repository. The various significant gas production processes are modeled in each phase. MAGGAS (currently Version 8) is mounted on an Excel spreadsheet for ease of use and speed, has 22 worksheets and is operated routinely for assessing waste packages (e.g. for ventilation of stores and pressurisation of containers). Ten operational and decommissioning generic nuclear power station waste streams were defined as initial inputs, which included ion exchange materials, sludges and concentrates, fuel element debris, graphite debris, activated components, contaminated items, desiccants and catalysts. (authors)

  20. Producer gas fuelling of a 20kW output engine by gasification of solid biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollingdale, A C; Breag, G R; Pearce, D

    1988-11-01

    Motive power requirements in the range up to 100 kW shaft power are common in developing country processing operations. Producer gas-fuelled systems based upon a relatively cheap and simple manually operated gasifier or reactor using readily available biomass feedstock can offer in some cases an attractive alternative to fossil-fuelled power units. This bulletin outlines research and development work by the Industrial Development Department of the Overseas Development Natural Resources Institute for 20 kW shaft power output from producer gas derived from solid biomass. Biomass materials such as wood or shells can be carbonized to form charcoal or left in the natural uncarbonized state. In this work both carbonized and uncarbonized biomass fuel has been used to provide producer gas to fuel a Ford 2274E engine, an industrial version of a standard vehicle spark-ignition engine. Cross-draught and down-draught reactor designs were evaluated during trials with this engine. Also different gas cleaning and cooling arrangements were tested. Particular emphasis was placed on practical aspects of reactor/engine operation. This work follows earlier work with a 4 kW shaft power output system using charcoal-derived producer gas. (author).

  1. Next Generation Thermal Barrier Coatings for the Gas Turbine Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Nicholas; Markocsan, Nicolaie; Li, Xin-Hai; Tricoire, Aurélien; Dorfman, Mitch

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to develop the next generation of production ready air plasma sprayed thermal barrier coating with a low conductivity and long lifetime. A number of coating architectures were produced using commercially available plasma spray guns. Modifications were made to powder chemistry, including high purity powders, dysprosia stabilized zirconia powders, and powders containing porosity formers. Agglomerated & sintered and homogenized oven spheroidized powder morphologies were used to attain beneficial microstructures. Dual layer coatings were produced using the two powders. Laser flash technique was used to evaluate the thermal conductivity of the coating systems from room temperature to 1200 °C. Tests were performed on as-sprayed samples and samples were heat treated for 100 h at 1150 °C. Thermal conductivity results were correlated to the coating microstructure using image analysis of porosity and cracks. The results show the influence of beneficial porosity on reducing the thermal conductivity of the produced coatings.

  2. Gas Production Generated from Crude Oil Biodegradation: Preliminary Study on its Aplication in Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astri Nugroho

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Gas Production Generated from Crude Oil Biodegradation: Preliminary Study on its Aplication in MicrobialEnhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR. The objective of this study is to observe the capacity of gas production generatedfrom crude oil degradation by the isolated bacteria. The gas in the MEOR could increase pressure in the reservoir,decrease oil viscosity, increase oil permeability-due to the increase of the porosity and viscosity, and also increase oilvolume due to the amount of dissolved gas. A research on gas analysis of oil degradation by 6 isolated bacteria has beenconducted. The bacteria isolates including Bacillus badius (A, Bacillus circulans (B, Bacillus coagulans (C, Bacillusfirmus (D, Pasteurella avium (E and Streptobacillus moniliformis (F. The trial on gas production, gas analysis and oildegradation analysis, was carried out by using SMSS medium. The test of gas production was done by usingmicrorespirometer at 40°C. The result shows that B, C, D, E produce more gas than A and F. Gas of CO2, O2, CO, N2,CH4, and H2 were analyzed by using GC. The results show that only three gases were detected by GC i.e. CO2, N2, andO2. The concentration of CO2 and N2 gas increased while the concentration of O2 decreased over an 8th day ofobservation. CO2 gas producted by mix culture was higher than by the pure culture. On the 8th day of incubation, theproduction of CO2 gas by mix culture was 4,0452% while pure culture C and D only produced 2,4543% and 2,8729%.The mix culture increase simple hydrocarbon by 12.03% and the formation of a complex hydrocarbon by 3.07%. Themix culture (C-D generated the highest concentration of CO2 gas as well as a synergistic concortium that has ability todegrade crude oil.

  3. Organic substances in produced and formation water from unconventional natural gas extraction in coal and shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orem, William H.; Tatu, Calin A.; Varonka, Matthew S.; Lerch, Harry E.; Bates, Anne L.; Engle, Mark A.; Crosby, Lynn M.; McIntosh, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Organic substances in produced and formation water from coalbed methane (CBM) and gas shale plays from across the USA were examined in this study. Disposal of produced waters from gas extraction in coal and shale is an important environmental issue because of the large volumes of water involved and the variable quality of this water. Organic substances in produced water may be environmentally relevant as pollutants, but have been little studied. Results from five CBM plays and two gas shale plays (including the Marcellus Shale) show a myriad of organic chemicals present in the produced and formation water. Organic compound classes present in produced and formation water in CBM plays include: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), heterocyclic compounds, alkyl phenols, aromatic amines, alkyl aromatics (alkyl benzenes, alkyl biphenyls), long-chain fatty acids, and aliphatic hydrocarbons. Concentrations of individual compounds range from gas shale unimpacted by production chemicals have a similar range of compound classes as CBM produced water, and TOC levels of about 8 mg/L. However, produced water from the Marcellus Shale using hydraulic fracturing has TOC levels as high as 5500 mg/L and a range of added organic chemicals including, solvents, biocides, scale inhibitors, and other organic chemicals at levels of 1000 s of μg/L for individual compounds. Levels of these hydraulic fracturing chemicals and TOC decrease rapidly over the first 20 days of water recovery and some level of residual organic contaminants remain up to 250 days after hydraulic fracturing. Although the environmental impacts of the organics in produced water are not well defined, results suggest that care should be exercised in the disposal and release of produced waters containing these organic substances into the environment because of the potential toxicity of many of these substances.

  4. Radionuclides in produced water from Norwegian oil and gas installations - concentrations and bioavailability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksen, D.Oe.; Sidhu, R.; Stralberg, E.; Iden, K.I.; Hylland, K.; Ruus, A.; Roeyset, O.; Berntssen, M.H.G.; Rye, H.

    2006-01-01

    Substantial amounts of produced water, containing elevated levels of radionuclides (mainly 226 Ra and 228 Ra) are discharged to the sea as a result of oil and gas production on the Norwegian Continental Shelf. So far no study has assessed the potential radiological effects on marine biota in connection with radionuclide discharges to the North Sea. The main objective of the project is to establish radiological safe discharge limits for radium, lead and polonium associated with other components in produced water from oil and gas installations on the Norwegian continental shelf. This study reports results indicating that the presence of added chemicals such as scale inhibitors in produced water has a marked influence on the formation of radium and barium sulphates when produced water is mixed with sea water. Thus, the mobility and bioavailability of radium (and barium) will be larger than anticipated. Also, the bioavailability of food-borne radium is shown to increase due to presence of such chemicals. (author)

  5. Radionuclides in produced water from Norwegian oil and gas installations — Concentrations and bioavailability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksen, D. Ø.; Sidhu, R.; Strålberg, E.; Iden, K. I.; Hylland, K.; Ruus, A.; Røyset, O.; Berntssen, M. H. G.; Rye, H.

    2006-01-01

    Substantial amounts of produced water, containing elevated levels of radionuclides (mainly 226Ra and 228Ra) are discharged to the sea as a result of oil and gas production on the Norwegian Continental Shelf. So far no study has assessed the potential radiological effects on marine biota in connection with radionuclide discharges to the North Sea. The main objective of the project is to establish radiological safe discharge limits for radium, lead and polonium associated with other components in produced water from oil and gas installations on the Norwegian continental shelf. This study reports results indicating that the presence of added chemicals such as scale inhibitors in produced water has a marked influence on the formation of radium and barium sulphates when produced water is mixed with sea water. Thus, the mobility and bioavailability of radium (and barium) will be larger than anticipated. Also, the bioavailability of food-borne radium is shown to increase due to presence of such chemicals.

  6. Increasing gas producer profitability with virtual well visibility via an end-to-end, wireless Internet gas monitoring system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDougall, M.; Coleman, K.; Beck, R.; Lyon, R.; Potts, R. [Northrock Resources Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Benterud, K. [Zed.i solutions, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2003-07-01

    Most gas producing companies still use 100-year old technology to measure gas volumes because of the prohibitive costs of implementing corporate wide electronic information systems to replace circular mechanical chart technology. This paper describes how Northrock Resources Ltd. increased profitability using Smart-Alek{sup TM} while avoiding high implementation costs. Smart-Alek is a new type of fully integrated end-to-end electronic gas flow measurement (GFM) system based on Field Intelligence Network and End User Interference (FINE). Smart-Alek can analyze gas production through public wireless communications and a web-browser delivery system. The system has enabled Northrock to increase gas volumes with more accurate measurement and reduced downtime. In addition, operating costs were also decreased because the frequency of well visits was reduced and the administrative procedures of data collection was more efficient. The real-time well visibility of the tool has proven to be very effective in optimizing business profitability. 9 refs., 1 tab., 9 figs.

  7. Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Electricity Generation: A Comparative Analysis of Australian Energy Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert G. Hynes

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Electricity generation is one of the major contributors to global greenhouse gas emissions. Transitioning the World’s energy economy to a lower carbon future will require significant investment in a variety of cleaner technologies, including renewables and nuclear power. In the short term, improving the efficiency of fossil fuel combustion in energy generation can provide an important contribution. Availability of life cycle GHG intensity data will allow decision-makers to move away from overly simplistic assertions about the relative merits of certain fuels, and focus on the complete picture, especially the critical roles of technology selection and application of best practice. This analysis compares the life-cycle greenhouse gas (GHG intensities per megawatt-hour (MWh of electricity produced for a range of Australian and other energy sources, including coal, conventional liquefied natural gas (LNG, coal seam gas LNG, nuclear and renewables, for the Australian export market. When Australian fossil fuels are exported to China, life cycle greenhouse gas emission intensity in electricity production depends to a significant degree on the technology used in combustion. LNG in general is less GHG intensive than black coal, but the gap is smaller for gas combusted in open cycle gas turbine plant (OCGT and for LNG derived from coal seam gas (CSG. On average, conventional LNG burned in a conventional OCGT plant is approximately 38% less GHG intensive over its life cycle than black coal burned in a sub-critical plant, per MWh of electricity produced. However, if OCGT LNG combustion is compared to the most efficient new ultra-supercritical coal power, the GHG intensity gap narrows considerably. Coal seam gas LNG is approximately 13–20% more GHG intensive across its life cycle, on a like-for like basis, than conventional LNG. Upstream fugitive emissions from CSG (assuming best practice gas extraction techniques do not materially alter the life cycle

  8. Pyrolysis of blended animal manures to produce combustible gas and value-added charcoal adsorbent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blended swine solids, chicken litter, and rye grass were pyrolyzed using a skid-mounted sytem. Produced gas composition was analyzed for major hydrocarbons and S-containing compounds. Charcoal was analyzed for its surface functional groups, contact angles, HHV, and total element contents. Some of th...

  9. Olivine, dolomite and ceramic filters in one vessel to produce clean gas from biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapagnà, Sergio; Gallucci, Katia; Foscolo, Pier Ugo

    2018-01-01

    Heavy organic compounds produced during almond shells gasification in a steam and/or air atmosphere, usually called tar, are drastically reduced in the product gas by using simultaneously in one vessel a ceramic filter placed in the freeboard and a mixture of olivine and dolomite particles in the fluidized bed of the gasifier. The content of tar in the product gas during a reference gasification test with air, in presence of fresh olivine particles only, was 8600mg/Nm 3 of dry gas. By gasifying biomass with steam at the same temperature level of 820°C in a bed of olivine and dolomite (20% by weight), and in the presence of a catalytic ceramic filter inserted in the freeboard of the fluidized bed gasifier, the level of tar was brought down to 57mg/Nm 3 of dry producct gas, with a decrease of more than two orders of magnitude. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. U.S., Canadian pipelines producers lining up to meet Mexican gas demand growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koen, A.D.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on prospects for continued strong growth in Mexican demand for natural gas imports that have U.S. and Canadian producers and pipelines queueing up to serve expected demand. In 1991, more than 25 U.S. companies exported a combined 61.7 bcf of gas into Mexico, an increase of more than 390% from 1990's total of 15.7 bcf. According to the Department of Energy Office of Fuels Programs (OFP), about 27.5 bcf of gas left the U.S. for Mexico in fourth quarter 1991 alone, an average 299 MMcfd. DOE has granted short term authorization to more than 65 countries to export gas into Mexico. Another 25 companies have short term export applications pending

  11. Accounting for fuel price risk when comparing renewable to gas-fired generation: the role of forward natural gas prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan; Golove, William

    2006-01-01

    Unlike natural gas-fired generation, renewable generation (e.g., from wind, solar, and geothermal power) is largely immune to fuel price risk. If ratepayers are rational and value long-term price stability, then-contrary to common practice-any comparison of the levelized cost of renewable to gas-fired generation should be based on a hedged gas price input, rather than an uncertain gas price forecast. This paper compares natural gas prices that can be locked in through futures, swaps, and physical supply contracts to contemporaneous long-term forecasts of spot gas prices. We find that from 2000 to 2003, forward gas prices for terms of 2-10 years have been considerably higher than most contemporaneous long-term gas price forecasts. This difference is striking, and implies that comparisons between renewable and gas-fired generation based on these forecasts over this period have arguably yielded results that are biased in favor of gas-fired generation

  12. Natural gas power generation: interruptible gas distribution network regulation; Geracao termoeletrica a gas natural: regulacao do segmento interruptivel de distribuicao de gas canalizado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paula, Claudio Paiva de; Kann, Zevi [Agencia Reguladora de Saneamento e Energia do Estado de Sao Paulo (ARSESP), SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The paper relates studies regarding the natural gas distribution network interruptible branch. This new service can be appropriate for thermal power generation on flexible dispatch mode, as 'take or pay' contracts surplus jobs. The paper indicates no regulatory restraints in an interruptible network implantation. The final conclusion is that interruptible contracts can be an improvement on the distribution business and certainly can accommodate a suitable demand and supply volumes in the long-term gas market balance. (author)

  13. Greenhouse gas mitigation potential of short-rotation-coppice based generation of electricity in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, A.; Meyer-Aurich, A.; Kern, J.; Balasus, A.; Prochnow, A. [Leibniz Inst. of Agricultural Engineering, Potsdam (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    The generation of energy from wood biomass may help secure local energy supplies and reduce the greenhouse effect by substituting fossil resources with bio-based ones. In the case of short rotation coppice (SRC), bio-based resources can be generated by extensive agricultural production systems. They produce less carbon dioxide equivalent (CO{sub 2eq}) emissions than fossil resources. This paper reported on a study in which a model system was developed for a regional supply chain producing second generation bioenergy generated from SRC in eastern Germany. The study focuses on the generation of electricity and was compared to a business-as-usual reference system, based on the latest CO{sub 2} mitigation factors for renewable energies in the German power-generation mix. A life cycle assessment based on greenhouse gas (GHG) inventories was also conducted in which other factors were also considered, such as options for nutrient cycling. The key determinants for GHG mitigation with SRC were also discussed with regards to indirect land-use effects resulting from increased demand for land.

  14. Desalination of Produced Water via Gas Hydrate Formation and Post Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Niu, Jing

    2012-01-01

    This study presents a two-step desalination process, in which produced water is cleaned by forming gas hydrate in it and subsequently dewatering the hydrate to remove the residual produced water trapped in between the hydrate crystals. All experiments were performed with pressure in the range of 450 to 800psi and temperature in the range of -1 to 1°C using CO? as guest molecule for the hydrate crystals. The experiments were conducted using artificial produced waters containing different amoun...

  15. Strategies to diagnose and control microbial souring in natural gas storage reservoirs and produced water systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, E.A.; Derr, R.M.; Pope, D.H.

    1995-12-31

    Hydrogen sulfide production (souring) in natural gas storage reservoirs and produced water systems is a safety and environmental problem that can lead to operational shutdown when local hydrogen sulfide standards are exceeded. Systems affected by microbial souring have historically been treated using biocides that target the general microbial community. However, requirements for more environmentally friendly solutions have led to treatment strategies in which sulfide production can be controlled with minimal impact to the system and environment. Some of these strategies are based on microbial and/or nutritional augmentation of the sour environment. Through research sponsored by the Gas Research Institute (GRI) in Chicago, Illinois, methods have been developed for early detection of microbial souring in natural gas storage reservoirs, and a variety of mitigation strategies have been evaluated. The effectiveness of traditional biocide treatment in gas storage reservoirs was shown to depend heavily on the methods by which the chemical is applied. An innovative strategy using nitrate was tested and proved ideal for produced water and wastewater systems. Another strategy using elemental iodine was effective for sulfide control in evaporation ponds and is currently being tested in microbially sour natural gas storage wells.

  16. Thermoelectric Power Generation System for Future Hybrid Vehicles Using Hot Exhaust Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun-Kook; Won, Byeong-Cheol; Rhi, Seok-Ho; Kim, Shi-Ho; Yoo, Jeong-Ho; Jang, Ju-Chan

    2011-05-01

    The present experimental and computational study investigates a new exhaust gas waste heat recovery system for hybrid vehicles, using a thermoelectric module (TEM) and heat pipes to produce electric power. It proposes a new thermoelectric generation (TEG) system, working with heat pipes to produce electricity from a limited hot surface area. The current TEG system is directly connected to the exhaust pipe, and the amount of electricity generated by the TEMs is directly proportional to their heated area. Current exhaust pipes fail to offer a sufficiently large hot surface area for the high-efficiency waste heat recovery required. To overcome this, a new TEG system has been designed to have an enlarged hot surface area by the addition of ten heat pipes, which act as highly efficient heat transfer devices and can transmit the heat to many TEMs. As designed, this new waste heat recovery system produces a maximum 350 W when the hot exhaust gas heats the evaporator surface of the heat pipe to 170°C; this promises great possibilities for application of this technology in future energy-efficient hybrid vehicles.

  17. Origin of salinity in produced waters from the Palm Valley gas field, Northern Territory, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrew, Anita S.; Whitford, David J.; Berry, Martin D.; Barclay, Stuart A.; Giblin, Angela M.

    2005-01-01

    The chemical composition and evolution of produced waters associated with gas production in the Palm Valley gas field, Northern Territory, has important implications for issues such as gas reserve calculations, reservoir management and saline water disposal. The occurrence of saline formation water in the Palm Valley field has been the subject of considerable debate. There were no occurrences of mobile water early in the development of the field and only after gas production had reduced the reservoir pressure, was saline formation water produced. Initially this was in small quantities but has increased dramatically with time, particularly after the initiation of compression in November 1996. The produced waters range from highly saline (up to 300,000 mg/L TDS), with unusual enrichments in Ca, Ba and Sr, to low salinity fluids that may represent condensate waters. The Sr isotopic compositions of the waters ( 87 Sr/ 86 Sr = 0.7041-0.7172) are also variable but do not correlate closely with major and trace element abundances. Although the extreme salinity suggests possible involvement of evaporite deposits lower in the stratigraphic sequence, the Sr isotopic composition of the high salinity waters suggests a more complex evolutionary history. The formation waters are chemically and isotopically heterogeneous and are not well mixed. The high salinity brines have Sr isotopic compositions and other geochemical characteristics more consistent with long-term residence within the reservoir rocks than with present-day derivation from a more distal pool of brines associated with evaporites. If the high salinity brines entered the reservoir during the Devonian uplift and were displaced by the reservoir gas into a stagnant pool, which has remained near the reservoir for the last 300-400 Ma, then the size of the brine pool is limited. At a minimum, it might be equivalent to the volume displaced by the reservoired gas

  18. Life Cycle Assessment of Producing Electricity in Thailand: A Case Study of Natural Gas Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usapein Parnuwat

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental impacts from natural gas power plant in Thailand was investigated in this study. The objective was to identify the hotspot of environmental impact from electricity production and the allocation of emissions from power plant was studied. All stressors to environment were collected for annual natural gas power plant operation. The allocation of environmental load between electricity and steam was done by WRI/WBCSD method. Based on the annual power plant operation, the highest of environmental impact was fuel combustion, followed by natural gas extraction, and chemical reagent. After allocation, the result found that 1 kWh of electricity generated 0.425 kgCO2eq and 1 ton of steam generated 225 kgCO2eq. When compared based on 1GJ of energy product, the result showed that the environmental impact of electricity is higher than steam product. To improve the environmental performance, it should be focused on the fuel combustion, for example, increasing the efficiency of gas turbine, and using low sulphur content of natural gas. This result can be used as guideline for stakeholder who engage with the environmental impact from power plant; furthermore, it can be useful for policy maker to understand the allocation method between electricity and steam products.

  19. Characterization and calibration of gas sensor systems at ppb level—a versatile test gas generation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leidinger, Martin; Schultealbert, Caroline; Neu, Julian; Schütze, Andreas; Sauerwald, Tilman

    2018-01-01

    This article presents a test gas generation system designed to generate ppb level gas concentrations from gas cylinders. The focus is on permanent gases and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) for applications like indoor and outdoor air quality monitoring or breath analysis. In the design and the setup of the system, several issues regarding handling of trace gas concentrations have been considered, addressed and tested. This concerns not only the active fluidic components (flow controllers, valves), which have been chosen specifically for the task, but also the design of the fluidic tubing regarding dead volumes and delay times, which have been simulated for the chosen setup. Different tubing materials have been tested for their adsorption/desorption characteristics regarding naphthalene, a highly relevant gas for indoor air quality monitoring, which has generated high gas exchange times in a previous gas mixing system due to long time adsorption/desorption effects. Residual gas contaminations of the system and the selected carrier air supply have been detected and quantified using both an analytical method (GC-MS analysis according to ISO 16000-6) and a metal oxide semiconductor gas sensor, which detected a maximum contamination equivalent to 28 ppb of carbon monoxide. A measurement strategy for suppressing even this contamination has been devised, which allows the system to be used for gas sensor and gas sensor system characterization and calibration in the low ppb concentration range.

  20. Frequency and distribution of leakages in steam generators of gas-cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bongratz, R.; Breitbach, G.; Wolters, J.

    1988-01-01

    In gas cooled reactors with graphitic primary circuit structures - such as HTR, AGR or Magnox - the water ingress is an event of great safety concern. Water or steam entering the primary circuit react with the hot graphite and carbon-oxide and hydrogen are produced. As the most important initiating event a leak in a steam generator must be taken into account. From the safety point of view as well as for availability reasons it is necessary to construct reliable boilers. Thus the occurrence of a boiler leak should be a rare event. In the context of a probabilistic safety study for an HTR-Project much effort was invested to get information about the frequency and the size distribution of tube failures in steam generators of gas cooled reactors. The main data base was the boiler tube failure statistics of United Kingdom gas cooled reactors. The data were selected and applied to a modern HTR steam generator design. A review of the data showed that the failure frequency is not connected with the load level (pressures, temperatures) or with the geometric size of the heating surface of the boiler. Design, construction, fabrication, examination and operation conditions have the greatest influence an the failure frequency but they are practically not to be quantified. The typical leak develops from smallest size. By erosion effects of the entering water or steam it is enlarged to perhaps some mm 2 , then usually it is detected by moisture monitors. Sudden tube breaks were not reported in the investigated period. As a rule boiler leaks in gas cooled reactors are much more, rare then leaks in steam generators of light water reactors and fossil fired boilers. (author)

  1. Method for increasing the calorific value of gas produced by the in situ combustion of coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuck, Lowell Z.

    1978-01-01

    The present invention relates to the production of relatively high Btu gas by the in situ combustion of subterranean coal. The coal bed is penetrated with a horizontally-extending borehole and combustion is initiated in the coal bed contiguous to the borehole. The absolute pressure within the resulting combustion zone is then regulated at a desired value near the pore pressure within the coal bed so that selected quantities of water naturally present in the coal will flow into the combustion zone to effect a hydrogen and carbon monoxide-producing steam-carbon reaction with the hot carbon in the combustion zone for increasing the calorific value of the product gas.

  2. Experience in producing LEU fuel elements for the RSG-GAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suripto, A.; Soentono, S.

    1991-01-01

    To achieve a self-reliance in the operation of the 30 MW Multipurpose Research Reactor at Serpong (the RSG-GAS), a fuel element production facility has been constructed nearby. The main task of the facility is to produce MTR type fuel and control elements containing U 3 O 8 -Al dispersion LEU fuel for the RSG-GAS. The hot commissioning activity has started in early 1988 after completion of the cold commissioning using depleted uranium in 1987, marking the beginning of the real production activity. This paper briefly describes the main features of the fuel production facility, the production experience gained so far, and its current production activity. (orig.)

  3. How is Order 636 affecting the gas producing industry? -- Part 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    This paper is an interview with a representative of the natural gas industry regarding the impacts of the new Order 636 recently approved by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission. The regulations are related to natural gas production and regulated pipeline distribution. The goal is to help establish long-term contracts between users and producers with a stable transportation system allowing both competition and price controls. The interview discusses the economic aspects of this regulation, the effects on marketing and production, and the ability of the regulation to actually be a catalyst for long-term contract agreements

  4. Measurements of hydrogen gas stopping efficiency for tin ions from laser-produced plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramenko, D. B.; Spiridonov, M. V.; Krainov, P. V.; Krivtsun, V. M.; Astakhov, D. I.; Medvedev, V. V.; van Kampen, M.; Smeets, D.; Koshelev, K. N.

    2018-04-01

    Experimental studies of stopping of ion fluxes from laser-produced plasma by a low-pressure gas atmosphere are presented. A modification of the time-of-flight spectroscopy technique is proposed for the stopping cross-sectional measurements in the ion energy range of 0.1-10 keV. The application of the proposed technique is demonstrated for Sn ion stopping by H2 gas. This combination of elements is of particular importance for the development of plasma-based sources of extreme ultraviolet radiation for lithographic applications.

  5. U.K., Norway producers push gas exports to mainland Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that producers in Norway and the U.K. are moving toward their goals of increasing natural gas exports to mainland Europe. Troll and Sleipner fields on the Norwegian continental shelf, along with the Zeepipe and Europipe lines linking Norway with mid-Europe, are the main building blocks of the Troll gas sales agreement, the foundation for Norway's plans. Total investment will exceed $11 billion. The Troll agreement involves about 28 billion cu m of gas and is currently the subject of negotiations between Troll field partners and the buyers. In 1986, when the contract was first agreed, it was a buyer's market. Increasing demand in the last 2 years has changed that. Also, new taxes on gas and oil products have driven both parties back to the negotiating table. Adjustments cane be called for every 3 years under the Troll contract; this is the first time parties have invoked the provision. Torstein Indrebo of Norsk Hydro says the contract gas price is based on prices of competing energy sources, such as oil, coal fired electricity, and nuclear power. Because volumes are so large, he says, small adjustments in the gas price have a large effect

  6. Aspects on the gas generation and migration in repositories for high level waste in salt formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruebel, Andre; Buhmann, Dieter; Meleshyn, Artur; Moenig, Joerg; Spiessl, Sabine

    2013-07-01

    In a deep geological repository for high-level waste, gases may be produced during the post-closure phase by several processes. The generated gases can potentially affect safety relevant features and processes of the repository, like the barrier integrity, the transport of liquids and gases in the repository and the release of gaseous radionuclides from the repository into the biosphere. German long-term safety assessments for repositories for high-level waste in salt which were performed prior 2010 did not explicitly consider gas transport and the consequences from release of volatile radionuclides. Selected aspects of the generation and migration of gases in repositories for high-level waste in a salt formation are studied in this report from the viewpoint of the performance assessment. The knowledge on the availability of water in the repository, in particular the migration of salt rock internal fluids in the temperature field of the radioactive waste repository towards the emplacement drifts, was compiled and the amount of water was roughly estimated. Two other processes studied in this report are on the one hand the release of gaseous radionuclides from the repository and their potential impact in the biosphere and on the other hand the transport of gases along the drifts and shafts of the repository and their interaction with the fluid flow. The results presented show that there is some gas production expected to occur in the repository due to corrosion of container material from water disposed of with the backfill and inflowing from the host rock during the thermal phase. If not dedicated gas storage areas are foreseen in the repository concept, these gases might exceed the storage capacity for gases in the repository. Consequently, an outflow of gases from the repository could occur. If there are failed containers for spent fuel, radioactive gases might be released from the containers into the gas space of the backfill and subsequently transported together

  7. Sound produced by an oscillating arc in a high-pressure gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Fedor K.; Shneider, Mikhail N.

    2017-08-01

    We suggest a simple theory to describe the sound generated by small periodic perturbations of a cylindrical arc in a dense gas. Theoretical analysis was done within the framework of the non-self-consistent channel arc model and supplemented with time-dependent gas dynamic equations. It is shown that an arc with power amplitude oscillations on the order of several percent is a source of sound whose intensity is comparable with external ultrasound sources used in experiments to increase the yield of nanoparticles in the high pressure arc systems for nanoparticle synthesis.

  8. Greenhouse gas emissions of imported and locally produced fruit and vegetable commodities: A quantitative assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michalský, Marián; Hooda, Peter S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Green house gas (GHG) emission of selected fruit and vegetables (SFVs) estimated. • Production and transport – most energy-intensive life cycle stages considered. • Sourcing SFVs from non-European countries causes much GHG emissions. • Increased UK production of SFVs offers considerable emission savings. • Sourcing SFVs from Europe can help make considerable GHG emission savings. - Abstract: Today considerable efforts are being made in identifying means of further energy efficiencies within the UK food system. Current air importation of fruit and vegetables (FVs) generates large amounts of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions part of which could be avoided. Local food production has been recognized as an environmentally feasible alternative production option and could help reduce GHG emissions, as required under the legally binding emissions targets stipulated by the UK Climate Change Act 2008. Climate change impacts of FVs importation were determined for a selection of five indigenous FV commodities, namely: apples, cherries, strawberries, garlic and peas. Carbon dioxide equivalents (CO 2 e) emissions associated with the production and transport stages were calculated using the sample of selected fruit and vegetables (SFVs). The latter stage includes three diverse geographic locations/regions for emissions comparison, namely the UK, Europe and non-European (NE) countries. On average (across the five SFVs), NE commodities, all in fresh/chilled state, were found to contain embedded (arising from production, air freighting and distribution within the UK) GHG emissions of 10.16 kg CO 2 e/kg. This is 9.66 kg more CO 2 e emissions compared to a kilogram of these commodities produced and supplied locally. A scenario-based approach determined the level of emissions savings that could be achieved by local FVs production in the UK. The least dramatic change of SCENARIO-1 (25% reduction in NE SFVs imports by increasing their local production by the same

  9. Climate change impacts and greenhouse gas mitigation effects on U.S. hydropower generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehlert, Brent; Strzepek, Kenneth M.; Gebretsadik, Yohannes; Swanson, Richard; McCluskey, Alyssa; Neumann, James E.; McFarland, James; Martinich, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Analyze contiguous U.S. hydropower generation under various emissions scenarios. • Employ systems model that allocates water to competing uses in 2119 river basins. • Average U.S. generation increases under climate change, but falls under low flows. • Mitigation benefits are $2-$4 billion/year due to high values of carbon-free energy. - Abstract: Climate change will have potentially significant effects on hydropower generation due to changes in the magnitude and seasonality of river runoff and increases in reservoir evaporation. These physical impacts will in turn have economic consequences through both producer revenues and consumer expenditures. We analyze the physical and economic effects of changes in hydropower generation for the contiguous U.S. in futures with and without global-scale greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation, and across patterns from 18 General Circulation Models. Using a monthly water resources systems model of 2119 river basins that routes simulated river runoff through reservoirs, and allocates water to potentially conflicting and climate dependent demands, we provide a first-order estimate of the impacts of various projected emissions outcomes on hydropower generation, and monetize these impacts using outputs from an electric sector planning model for over 500 of the largest U.S. hydropower facilities. We find that, due to generally increasing river runoff under higher emissions scenarios in the Pacific Northwest, climate change tends to increase overall hydropower generation in the contiguous U.S. During low flow months, generation tends to fall with increasing emissions, potentially threatening the estimated low flow, firm energy from hydropower. Although global GHG mitigation slows the growth in hydropower generation, the higher value placed on carbon-free hydropower leads to annual economic benefits ranging from $1.8 billion to $4.3 billion. The present value of these benefits to the U.S. from global greenhouse gas

  10. Geochemical and strontium isotope characterization of produced waters from Marcellus Shale natural gas extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Elizabeth C; Capo, Rosemary C; Stewart, Brian W; Kirby, Carl S; Hammack, Richard W; Schroeder, Karl T; Edenborn, Harry M

    2012-03-20

    Extraction of natural gas by hydraulic fracturing of the Middle Devonian Marcellus Shale, a major gas-bearing unit in the Appalachian Basin, results in significant quantities of produced water containing high total dissolved solids (TDS). We carried out a strontium (Sr) isotope investigation to determine the utility of Sr isotopes in identifying and quantifying the interaction of Marcellus Formation produced waters with other waters in the Appalachian Basin in the event of an accidental release, and to provide information about the source of the dissolved solids. Strontium isotopic ratios of Marcellus produced waters collected over a geographic range of ~375 km from southwestern to northeastern Pennsylvania define a relatively narrow set of values (ε(Sr)(SW) = +13.8 to +41.6, where ε(Sr) (SW) is the deviation of the (87)Sr/(86)Sr ratio from that of seawater in parts per 10(4)); this isotopic range falls above that of Middle Devonian seawater, and is distinct from most western Pennsylvania acid mine drainage and Upper Devonian Venango Group oil and gas brines. The uniformity of the isotope ratios suggests a basin-wide source of dissolved solids with a component that is more radiogenic than seawater. Mixing models indicate that Sr isotope ratios can be used to sensitively differentiate between Marcellus Formation produced water and other potential sources of TDS into ground or surface waters.

  11. Application of carbon isotopes to detect seepage out of coalbed natural gas produced water impoundments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Shikha; Baggett, Joshua K.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Coalbed natural gas extraction results in large amount of produced water. → Risk of deterioration of ambient water quality. → Carbon isotope natural tracer for detecting seepage from produced water impoundments. - Abstract: Coalbed natural gas (CBNG) production from coal bed aquifers requires large volumes of produced water to be pumped from the subsurface. The produced water ranges from high quality that meets state and federal drinking water standards to low quality due to increased salinity and/or sodicity. The Powder River Basin of northeastern Wyoming is a major coalbed natural gas producing region, where water quality generally decreases moving from the southeastern portion of the basin towards the center. Most produced water in Wyoming is disposed into impoundments and other surface drainages, where it may infiltrate into shallow groundwater. Groundwater degradation caused by infiltration of CBNG produced water holding impoundments into arid, soluble salt-rich soils is an issue of immense importance because groundwater is a major source for stock water, irrigation, and drinking water for many small communities in these areas. This study examines the potential of using stable C isotope signatures of dissolved inorganic C (δ 13 C DIC ) to track the fate of CBNG produced water after it is discharged into the impoundments. Other geochemical proxies like the major cations and major anions were used in conjunction with field water quality measurements to understand the geochemical differences between CBNG produced waters and ambient waters in the study area. Samples were collected from the CBNG discharge outfalls, produced water holding impoundments, and monitoring wells from different parts of the Powder River Basin and analyzed for δ 13 C DIC . The CBNG produced waters from outfalls and impoundments have positive δ 13 C DIC values that fall within the range of +12 per mille to +22 per mille, distinct from the ambient regional surface and

  12. Influence of the characteristic and installation site of wind generator on quantity of produced energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palge, V.; Lepa, J.; Tamm, T.

    2002-01-01

    In Estonia, especially in inland the wind speed is rather low. According to the Master thesis of Tonis Tamm the opportunities of use of several types of wind generators are analysed. It is found out, that the wind generator, beginning to produce energy at wind speed 2 m/s can in such conditions produce about four times more electricity energy than such having 'cut-in' wind speed 4 m/s. (author)

  13. Small Scale Electrical Power Generation from Heat Co-Produced in Geothermal Fluids: Mining Operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, Thomas M. [ElectraTherm Inc., Reno, NV (United States); Erlach, Celeste [ElectraTherm Inc., Reno, NV (United States)

    2014-12-30

    Demonstrate the technical and economic feasibility of small scale power generation from low temperature co-produced fluids. Phase I is to Develop, Design and Test an economically feasible low temperature ORC solution to generate power from lower temperature co-produced geothermal fluids. Phase II &III are to fabricate, test and site a fully operational demonstrator unit on a gold mine working site and operate, remotely monitor and collect data per the DOE recommended data package for one year.

  14. Heat pump cycle by hydrogen-absorbing alloys to assist high-temperature gas-cooled reactor in producing hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satoshi, Fukada; Nobutaka, Hayashi

    2010-01-01

    A chemical heat pump system using two hydrogen-absorbing alloys is proposed to utilise heat exhausted from a high-temperature source such as a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR), more efficiently. The heat pump system is designed to produce H 2 based on the S-I cycle more efficiently. The overall system proposed here consists of HTGR, He gas turbines, chemical heat pumps and reaction vessels corresponding to the three-step decomposition reactions comprised in the S-I process. A fundamental research is experimentally performed on heat generation in a single bed packed with a hydrogen-absorbing alloy that may work at the H 2 production temperature. The hydrogen-absorbing alloy of Zr(V 1-x Fe x ) 2 is selected as a material that has a proper plateau pressure for the heat pump system operated between the input and output temperatures of HTGR and reaction vessels of the S-I cycle. Temperature jump due to heat generated when the alloy absorbs H 2 proves that the alloy-H 2 system can heat up the exhaust gas even at 600 deg. C without any external mechanical force. (authors)

  15. Thermal and Radiolytic Gas Generation Tests on Material from Tanks 241-U-103, 241-AW-101, 241-S-106, and 241-S-102: Status Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, C.M.; Bryan, S.A.

    1999-01-01

    This report summarizes progress in evaluating thermal and radiolytic flammable gas generation in actual Hanford single-shell tank wastes. The work described was conducted at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the Flammable Gas Safety Project, whose purpose is to develop information to support DE and S Hanford (DESH) and Project Management Hanford Contract (PHMC) subcontractors in their efforts to ensure the safe interim storage of wastes at the Hanford Site. This work is related to gas generation studies performed by Numatec Hanford Corporation (formerly Westinghouse Hanford Company). This report describes the results of laboratory tests of gas generation from actual convective layer wastes from Tank 241-U-103 under thermal and radiolytic conditions. Accurate measurements of gas generation rates from highly radioactive tank wastes are needed to assess the potential for producing and storing flammable gases within the tanks. The gas generation capacity of the waste in Tank 241-U-103 is a high priority for the Flammable Gas Safety Program due to its potential for accumulating gases above the flammability limit (Johnson et al, 1997). The objective of this work was to establish the composition of gaseous degradation products formed in actual tank wastes by thermal and radiolytic processes as a function of temperature. The gas generation tests on Tank 241-U-103 samples focused first on the effect of temperature on the composition and rate of gas generation Generation rates of nitrogen, nitrous oxide, methane, and hydrogen increased with temperature, and the composition of the product gas mixture varied with temperature

  16. Gas generation from radiolytic attack of TRU-contaminated hydrogenous waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zerwekh, A.

    1979-06-01

    In 1970, the Waste Management and Transportation Division of the Atomic Energy Commission ordered a segregation of transuranic (TRU)-contaminated solid wastes. Those below a contamination level of 10 nCi/g could still be buried; those above had to be stored retrievably for 20 y. The possibility that alpha-radiolysis of hydrogenous materials might produce toxic, corrosive, and flammable gases in retrievably stored waste prompted an investigation of gas identities and generation rates in the laboratory and field. Typical waste mixtures were synthesized and contaminated for laboratory experiments, and drums of actual TRU-contaminated waste were instrumented for field testing. Several levels of contamination were studied, as well as pressure, temperature, and moisture effects. G (gas) values were determined for various waste matrices, and degradation products were examined

  17. Steam generator materials performance in high temperature gas-cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chafey, J.E.; Roberts, D.I.

    1980-11-01

    This paper reviews the materials technology aspects of steam generators for HTGRs which feature a graphite-moderated, uranium-thorium, all-ceramic core and utilizes high-pressure helium as the primary coolant. The steam generators are exposed to gas-side temperatures approaching 760 0 C and produce superheated steam at 538 0 C and 16.5 MPa (2400 psi). The prototype Peach Bottom I 40-MW(e) HTGR was operated for 1349 EFPD over 7 years. Examination after decommissioning of the U-tube steam generators and other components showed the steam generators to be in very satisfactory condition. The 330-MW(e) Fort St. Vrain HTGR, now in the final stages of startup, has achieved 70% power and generated more than 1.5 x 10 6 MWh of electricity. The steam generators in this reactor are once-through units of helical configuration, requiring a number of new materials factors including creep-fatigue and water chemistry control. Current designs of larger HTGRs also feature steam generators of helical once-through design. Materials issues that are important in these designs include detailed consideration of time-dependent behavior of both base metals and welds, as required by current American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Code rules, evaluation of bimetallic weld behavior, evaluation of the properties of large forgings, etc

  18. Greenhouse Gas Abatement with Distributed Generation in California's Commercial Buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stadler, Michael; Marnay, Chris; Cardoso, Goncalo; Megel, Olivier; Siddiqui, Afzal; Lai, Judy

    2009-01-01

    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBL) is working with the California Energy Commission (CEC) to determine the role of distributed generation (DG) in greenhouse gas reductions. The impact of DG on large industrial sites is well known, and mostly, the potentials are already harvested. In contrast, little is known about the impact of DG on commercial buildings with peak electric loads ranging from 100 kW to 5 MW. We examine how DG with combined heat and power (CHP) may be implemented within the context of a cost minimizing microgrid that is able to adopt and operate various smart energy technologies, such as thermal and photovoltaic (PV) on-site generation, heat exchangers, solar thermal collectors, absorption chillers, and storage systems. We use a mixed-integer linear program (MILP) that has the minimization of a site's annual energy costs as objective. Using 138 representative commercial sites in California (CA) with existing tariff rates and technology data, we find the greenhouse gas reduction potential for California's commercial sector. This paper shows results from the ongoing research project and finished work from a two year U.S. Department of Energy research project. To show the impact of the different technologies on CO2 emissions, several sensitivity runs for different climate zones within CA with different technology performance expectations for 2020 were performed. The considered sites can contribute between 1 Mt/a and 1.8 Mt/a to the California Air Resources Board (CARB) goal of 6.7Mt/a CO2 abatement potential in 2020. Also, with lower PV and storage costs as well as consideration of a CO2 pricing scheme, our results indicate that PV and electric storage adoption can compete rather than supplement each other when the tariff structure and costs of electricity supply have been taken into consideration. To satisfy the site's objective of minimizing energy costs, the batteries will be charged also by CHP systems during off-peak and mid-peak hours and

  19. Development of a nuclear steam generator system for gas-cooled reactors for application in oil sands extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.; Hart, R.; Lazic, L.

    2009-01-01

    Canada has vast energy reserves in the Oil Sands regions of Alberta and Saskatchewan. Present extraction technologies, such as strip mining, where oil deposits are close to the surface, and Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) technologies for deeper deposits consume significant amounts of energy to produce the bitumen and upgraded synthetic crude oil. Studies have been performed to assess the feasibility of using nuclear reactors as primary energy sources to produce, in particular the steam required for the SAGD deeper deposit extraction process. Presently available reactors fall short of meeting the requirements, in two areas: the steam produced in a 'standard' reactor is too low in pressure and temperature for the SAGD process. Requirements can be for steam as high as 12MPa pressure with superheat; and, 'standard' reactors are too large in total output. Ideally, reactors of output in the range of 400 to 500 MWth, in modules are better suited to Oil Sands applications. The above two requirements can be met using gas-cooled reactors. Generally, newer generation gas-cooled reactors have been designed for power generation, using Brayton Cycle gas turbines run directly from the heated reactor coolant (helium). Where secondary steam is required, heat recovery steam generators have been used. In this paper, a steam generating system is described which uses the high temperature helium from the reactor directly for steam generation purposes, with sufficient quantities of steam produced to allow for SAGD steam injection, power generation using a steam turbine-generator, and with potential secondary energy supply for other purposes such as hydrogen production for upgrading, and environmental remediation processes. It is assumed that the reactors will be in one central location, run by a utility type organization, providing process steam and electricity to surrounding Oil Sands projects, so steam produced is at very high pressure (12 MPa), with superheat, in order to

  20. Use of Produced Water in Recirculated Cooling Systems at Power Generating Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. McGowin; M. DiFilippo; L. Weintraub

    2006-06-30

    Tree ring studies indicate that, for the greater part of the last three decades, New Mexico has been relatively 'wet' compared to the long-term historical norm. However, during the last several years, New Mexico has experienced a severe drought. Some researchers are predicting a return of very dry weather over the next 30 to 40 years. Concern over the drought has spurred interest in evaluating the use of otherwise unusable saline waters to supplement current fresh water supplies for power plant operation and cooling and other uses. The U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory sponsored three related assessments of water supplies in the San Juan Basin area of the four-corner intersection of Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico. These were (1) an assessment of using water produced with oil and gas as a supplemental supply for the San Juan Generating Station (SJGS); (2) a field evaluation of the wet-surface air cooling (WSAC) system at SJGS; and (3) the development of a ZeroNet systems analysis module and an application of the Watershed Risk Management Framework (WARMF) to evaluate a range of water shortage management plans. The study of the possible use of produced water at SJGS showed that produce water must be treated to justify its use in any reasonable quantity at SJGS. The study identified produced water volume and quality, the infrastructure needed to deliver it to SJGS, treatment requirements, and delivery and treatment economics. A number of produced water treatment alternatives that use off-the-shelf technology were evaluated along with the equipment needed for water treatment at SJGS. Wet surface air-cooling (WSAC) technology was tested at the San Juan Generating Station (SJGS) to determine its capacity to cool power plant circulating water using degraded water. WSAC is a commercial cooling technology and has been used for many years to cool and/or condense process fluids. The purpose of the pilot test was to

  1. Gas generation phenomena in radioactive waste transportation packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nigrey, P.J.

    1998-01-01

    The interaction of radiation from radioactive materials with the waste matrix can lead to the deterioration of the waste form resulting in the possible of gaseous species. Depending on the type and characteristics of the radiation source, the generation of hydrogen may predominate. Since the interaction of alpha particles with the waste form results in significant energy transfer, other gases such as carbon oxides, methane, nitrogen oxides, oxygen, water, and helium are possible. The type of gases produced from the waste forms is determined by the mechanisms involved in the waste degradation. For transuranic wastes, the identified degradation mechanisms are reported to be caused by radiolysis, thermal decomposition or dewatering, chemical corrosion, and bacterial action. While all these mechanisms may be responsible for the building of gases during the storage of wastes, radiolysis and thermal decomposition appear to be main contributors during waste transport operations. (authors)

  2. Technology of steam generators for gas-cooled reactors. Proceedings of a specialists' meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The activity of the IAEA in the field of the technology of gas-cooled reactors was formalized by formation of an International Working Group on Gas-Cooled Reactors (IWGCR). The gas cooled reactor program considered by the IWGCR includes carbon-dioxide-cooled thermal reactors, helium cooled thermal high temperature reactors for power generation and for process heat applications and gas-cooled fast breeder reactors. This report covers the papers dealing with operating experience, steam generators for next generation of gas-cooled reactors, material development and corrosion problems, and thermohydraulics

  3. Technology of steam generators for gas-cooled reactors. Proceedings of a specialists' meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-07-01

    The activity of the IAEA in the field of the technology of gas-cooled reactors was formalized by formation of an International Working Group on Gas-Cooled Reactors (IWGCR). The gas cooled reactor program considered by the IWGCR includes carbon-dioxide-cooled thermal reactors, helium cooled thermal high temperature reactors for power generation and for process heat applications and gas-cooled fast breeder reactors. This report covers the papers dealing with operating experience, steam generators for next generation of gas-cooled reactors, material development and corrosion problems, and thermohydraulics.

  4. Precision closed bomb calorimeter for testing flame and gas producing initiators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, D. R., Jr.; Taylor, A. C., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    A calorimeter has been developed under this study to help meet the needs of accurate performance monitoring of electrically or mechanically actuated flame and gas producing devices, such as squib-type initiators. A ten cubic centimeter closed bomb (closed volume) calorimeter was designed to provide a standard pressure trace and to measure a nominal 50 calorie output, using the basic components of a Parr Model 1411 calorimeter. Two prototype bombs were fabricated, pressure tested to 2600 psi, and extensively evaluated.

  5. TRU waste transportation -- The flammable gas generation problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connolly, M.J.; Kosiewicz, S.T.

    1997-01-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has imposed a flammable gas (i.e., hydrogen) concentration limit of 5% by volume on transuranic (TRU) waste containers to be shipped using the TRUPACT-II transporter. This concentration is the lower explosive limit (LEL) in air. This was done to minimize the potential for loss of containment during a hypothetical 60 day period. The amount of transuranic radionuclide that is permissible for shipment in TRU waste containers has been tabulated in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP, 1) to conservatively prevent accumulation of hydrogen above this 5% limit. Based on the SARP limitations, approximately 35% of the TRU waste stored at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab (INEEL), Los Alamos National Lab (LANL), and Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) cannot be shipped in the TRUPACT-II. An even larger percentage of the TRU waste drums at the Savannah River Site (SRS) cannot be shipped because of the much higher wattage loadings of TRU waste drums in that site's inventory. This paper presents an overview of an integrated, experimental program that has been initiated to increase the shippable portion of the Department of Energy (DOE) TRU waste inventory. In addition, the authors will estimate the anticipated expansion of the shippable portion of the inventory and associated cost savings. Such projection should provide the TRU waste generating sites a basis for developing their TRU waste workoff strategies within their Ten Year Plan budget horizons

  6. RANDOMNUMBERS, Random Number Sequence Generated from Gas Ionisation Chamber Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frigerio, N.A.; Sanathanan, L.P.; Morley, M.; Tyler, S.A.; Clark, N.A.; Wang, J.

    1989-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: RANDOM NUMBERS is a data collection of almost 2.7 million 31-bit random numbers generated by using a high resolution gas ionization detector chamber in conjunction with a 4096-channel multichannel analyzer to record the radioactive decay of alpha particles from a U-235 source. The signals from the decaying alpha particles were fed to the 4096-channel analyzer, and for each channel the frequency of signals registered in a 20,000-microsecond interval was recorded. The parity bits of these frequency counts, 0 for an even count and 1 for and odd count, were then assembled in sequence to form 31-bit random numbers and transcribed onto magnetic tape. This cycle was repeated to obtain the random numbers. 2 - Method of solution: The frequency distribution of counts from the device conforms to the Brockwell-Moyal distribution which takes into account the dead time of the counter. The count data were analyzed and tests for randomness on a sample indicate that the device is a highly reliable source of truly random numbers. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: The RANDOM NUMBERS tape contains 2,669,568 31-bit numbers

  7. GLOBAL PROSPECTS OF SYNTHETIC DIESEL FUEL PRODUCED FROM HYDROCARBON RESOURCES IN OIL&GAS EXPORTING COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Kurevija

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Production of synthetic diesel fuel through Fischer-Tropsch process is a well known technology which dates from II World War, when Germany was producing transport fuel from coal. This process has been further improved in the South Africa due to period of international isolation. Today, with high crude oil market cost and increased demand of energy from China and India, as well as global ecological awareness and need to improve air quality in urban surroundings, many projects are being planned regarding production of synthetic diesel fuel, known as GTL (Gas To Liquid. Most of the future GTL plants are planned in oil exporting countries, such are Qatar and Nigeria, where natural gas as by-product of oil production is being flared, losing in that way precious energy and profit. In that way, otherwise flared natural gas, will be transformed into synthetic diesel fuel which can be directly used in all modern diesel engines. Furthermore, fossil fuel transportation and distribution technology grid can be used without any significant changes. According to lower emissions of harmful gasses during combustion than fossil diesel, this fuel could in the future play a significant part of EU efforts to reach 23% of alternative fuel share till 2020., which are now mostly relied on biodiesel, LPG (liquefied petroleum gas and CNG (compressed natural gas.

  8. High density flux of Co nanoparticles produced by a simple gas aggregation apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landi, G. T.; Romero, S. A.; Santos, A. D. [Departamento de Fisica dos Materiais e Mecanica, Laboratorio de Materiais Magneticos, Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Caixa Postal 66318, 05314-970 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2010-03-15

    Gas aggregation is a well known method used to produce clusters of different materials with good size control, reduced dispersion, and precise stoichiometry. The cost of these systems is relatively high and they are generally dedicated apparatuses. Furthermore, the usual sample production speed of these systems is not as fast as physical vapor deposition devices posing a problem when thick samples are needed. In this paper we describe the development of a multipurpose gas aggregation system constructed as an adaptation to a magnetron sputtering system. The cost of this adaptation is negligible and its installation and operation are both remarkably simple. The gas flow for flux in the range of 60-130 SCCM (SCCM denotes cubic centimeter per minute at STP) is able to completely collimate all the sputtered material, producing spherical nanoparticles. Co nanoparticles were produced and characterized using electron microscopy techniques and Rutherford back-scattering analysis. The size of the particles is around 10 nm with around 75 nm/min of deposition rate at the center of a Gaussian profile nanoparticle beam.

  9. High density flux of Co nanoparticles produced by a simple gas aggregation apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landi, G. T.; Romero, S. A.; Santos, A. D.

    2010-01-01

    Gas aggregation is a well known method used to produce clusters of different materials with good size control, reduced dispersion, and precise stoichiometry. The cost of these systems is relatively high and they are generally dedicated apparatuses. Furthermore, the usual sample production speed of these systems is not as fast as physical vapor deposition devices posing a problem when thick samples are needed. In this paper we describe the development of a multipurpose gas aggregation system constructed as an adaptation to a magnetron sputtering system. The cost of this adaptation is negligible and its installation and operation are both remarkably simple. The gas flow for flux in the range of 60-130 SCCM (SCCM denotes cubic centimeter per minute at STP) is able to completely collimate all the sputtered material, producing spherical nanoparticles. Co nanoparticles were produced and characterized using electron microscopy techniques and Rutherford back-scattering analysis. The size of the particles is around 10 nm with around 75 nm/min of deposition rate at the center of a Gaussian profile nanoparticle beam.

  10. Ecological balance of power generation from sewage gas; Oekobilanz Klaergasverstromung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronchetti, C.; Bienz, P.; Pridal, R.

    2002-07-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the ecological balance made for the production of electrical power from biogas that is produced in waste water treatment plants. The study was needed as the basis for deciding if power thus generated could be certified to the strict 'Naturemade Star' standards. This label is used to designate 'green' power. The report briefly describes the processes usually used in the treatment of sewage sludge, the energy-intensive aerobic and anaerobic digestion, which produces biogas. The ecological factors of the two processes were assessed using the Eco-Indicator 99 tool. The results are discussed, which showed that a typical modern waste water treatment plant is significantly better as far as energy is concerned than older examples of plant (e.g. those built in 1995) as far as ecological impact is concerned. Also, the study addresses other forms of biogas use, like, for example, its use as a fuel for vehicles.

  11. Power and energy saving in buildings by distributed generation based on gas-engine systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arghandeh, R.; Amidpour, M.; Ghaffari, A. [Khaje Nasir Toosi Univ. of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Joint Program of Energy Systems Engineering; Manchester Univ., Manchester (United Kingdom)

    2008-07-01

    Buildings consume high amounts of energy and produce high amounts of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This paper discussed the use of gas cogeneration distributed generation (DG) technologies as a means of reducing energy consumption from buildings as well as energy losses from transmission lines in Iran. Energy sources and power generation systems were reviewed, and the economical benefits and energy savings resulting from the use of cogeneration systems were outlined. Actual rates of electricity consumption for Iran were estimated. Building power consumption was divided into the following 6 major sections: (1) lighting, (2) home appliances, (3) restaurant and cooking devices, (4) sports facilities, (5) utilities, and (6) electronics. Energy consumption criteria (ECC) and daily consumption charts (DCC) were used to plan and design the cogeneration systems. Energy balances, capital costs, and investment rates of return (IRR) were then calculated for 2 scenarios for a sample building. Results of the study showed that gas engine combined heat and power (CHP) DG systems are a reliable and economic technology for reducing energy consumption in buildings. The IRR of the CHP DG system for the sample building was achieved in 1 year. 13 refs., 10 tabs., 11 figs.

  12. Methane gas generation from waste water extraction process of crude palm oil in experimental digesters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, A.; Penafiel, R.; Garzón, P. V.; Ochoa, V.

    2015-12-01

    Industrial processes to extract crude palm oil, generates large amounts of waste water. High concentrations of COD, ST, SV, NH4 + and low solubility of O2, make the treatment of these effluents starts with anaerobic processes. The anaerobic digestion process has several advantages over aerobic degradation: lower operating costs (not aeration), low sludge production, methane gas generation. The 4 stages of anaerobic digestion are: hydrolysis, acidogenic, acetogenesis and methanogenesis. Through the action of enzymes synthesized by microbial consortia are met. The products of each step to serve as reagents is conducted as follows. The organic load times and cell hydraulic retention, solids content, nutrient availability, pH and temperature are factors that influence directly in biodigesters. The objectives of this presentation is to; characterize the microbial inoculum and water (from palm oil wasted water) to be used in biodigestores, make specific methanogenic activity in bioassays, acclimatize the microorganisms to produce methane gas using basal mineral medium with acetate for the input power, and to determine the production of methane gas digesters high organic load.

  13. Prediction of Non-Equilibrium Kinetics of Fuel-Rich Kerosene/LOX Combustion in Gas Generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Jung Min; Lee, Chang Jin

    2007-01-01

    Gas generator is the device to produce high enthalpy gases needed to drive turbo-pump system in liquid rocket engine. And, the combustion temperature in gas generator should be controlled below around 1,000K to avoid any possible thermal damages to turbine blade by using either fuel rich combustion or oxidizer rich combustion. Thus, nonequilibrium chemical reaction dominates in fuel-rich combustion of gas generator. Meanwhile, kerosene is a compounded fuel with various types of hydrocarbon elements and difficult to model the chemical kinetics. This study focuses on the prediction of the non-equilibrium reaction of fuel rich kerosene/LOX combustion with detailed kinetics developed by Dagaut using PSR (Perfectly Stirred Reactor) assumption. In Dagaut's surrogate model for kerosene, chemical kinetics of kerosene consists of 1,592 reaction steps with 207 chemical species. Also, droplet evaporation time is taken into account in the PSR calculation by changing the residence time of droplet in the gas generator. Frenklach's soot model was implemented along with detailed kinetics to calculate the gas properties of fuel rich combustion efflux. The results could provide very reliable and accurate numbers in the prediction of combustion gas temperature,species fraction and material properties

  14. Piezoelectric transformers for low-voltage generation of gas discharges and ionic winds in atmospheric air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Michael J. [Department of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indianapolis 46556 (United States); Go, David B., E-mail: dgo@nd.edu [Department of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indianapolis 46556 (United States); Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indianapolis 46556 (United States)

    2015-12-28

    To generate a gas discharge (plasma) in atmospheric air requires an electric field that exceeds the breakdown threshold of ∼30 kV/cm. Because of safety, size, or cost constraints, the large applied voltages required to generate such fields are often prohibitive for portable applications. In this work, piezoelectric transformers are used to amplify a low input applied voltage (<30 V) to generate breakdown in air without the need for conventional high-voltage electrical equipment. Piezoelectric transformers (PTs) use their inherent electromechanical resonance to produce a voltage amplification, such that the surface of the piezoelectric exhibits a large surface voltage that can generate corona-like discharges on its corners or on adjacent electrodes. In the proper configuration, these discharges can be used to generate a bulk air flow called an ionic wind. In this work, PT-driven discharges are characterized by measuring the discharge current and the velocity of the induced ionic wind with ionic winds generated using input voltages as low as 7 V. The characteristics of the discharge change as the input voltage increases; this modifies the resonance of the system and subsequent required operating parameters.

  15. Oil and gas technology transfer activities and potential in eight major producing states. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-07-01

    In 1990, the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (the Compact) performed a study that identified the structure and deficiencies of the system by which oil and gas producers receive information about the potential of new technologies and communicate their problems and technology needs back to the research community. The conclusions of that work were that major integrated companies have significantly more and better sources of technology information than independent producers. The majors also have significantly better mechanisms for communicating problems to the research and development (R&D) community. As a consequence, the Compact recommended analyzing potential mechanisms to improve technology transfer channels for independents and to accelerate independents acceptance and use of existing and emerging technologies. Building on this work, the Compact, with a grant from the US Department Energy, has reviewed specific technology transfer organizations in each of eight major oil producing states to identify specific R&D and technology transfer organizations, characterize their existing activities, and identify potential future activities that could be performed to enhance technology transfer to oil and gas producers. The profiles were developed based on information received from organizations,follow-up interviews, site visit and conversations, and participation in their sponsored technology transfer activities. The results of this effort are reported in this volume. In addition, the Compact has also developed a framework for the development of evaluation methodologies to determine the effectiveness of technology transfer programs in performing their intended functions and in achieving desired impacts impacts in the producing community. The results of that work are provided in a separate volume.

  16. Quality Assurance Program Plan for TRUPACT-II Gas Generation Test Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The Gas Generation Test Program (GGTP), referred to as the Program, is designed to establish the concentration of flammable gases and/or gas generation rates in a test category waste container intended for shipment in the Transuranic Package Transporter-II (TRUPACT-II). The phrase 'gas generationtesting' shall refer to any activity that establishes the flammable gas concentration or the flammable gas generation rate. This includes, but is not limited to, measurements performed directly on waste containers or during tests performed on waste containers. This Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP) documents the quality assurance (QA) and quality control (QC) requirements that apply to the Program. The TRUPACT-II requirements and technical bases for allowable flammable gas concentration and gas generation rates are described in the TRUPACT-II Authorized Methods for Payload Control (TRAMPAC).

  17. Economics of herbaceous bioenergy crops for electricity generation: Implications for greenhouse gas mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khanna, M.; Onal, H.; Dhungana, B.; Wander, M. [University of Illinois Urbana Champaign, Urbana, IL (United States)

    2011-04-15

    This paper examines the optimal land allocation for two perennial crops, switchgrass and miscanthus that can be co-fired with coal for electricity generation. Detailed spatial data at county level is used to determine the costs of producing and transporting biomass to power plants in Illinois over a 15-year period. A supply curve for bioenergy is generated at various levels of bioenergy subsidies and the implications of production for farm income and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are analyzed. GHG emissions are estimated using lifecycle analysis and include the soil carbon sequestered by perennial grasses and the carbon emissions displaced by these grasses due to both conversion of land from row crops and co-firing the grasses with coal. We find that the conversion of less than 2% of the cropland to bioenergy crops could produce 5.5% of the electricity generated by coal-fired power plants in Illinois and reduce carbon emissions by 11% over the 15-year period. However, the cost of energy from biomass in Illinois is more than twice as high as that of coal. Costly government subsidies for bioenergy or mandates in the form of Renewable Portfolio Standards would be needed to induce the production and use of bioenergy for electricity generation. Alternatively, a modest price for GHG emissions under a cap-and-trade policy could make bioenergy competitive with coal without imposing a fiscal burden on the government.

  18. Microbial community changes in hydraulic fracturing fluids and produced water from shale gas extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murali Mohan, Arvind; Hartsock, Angela; Bibby, Kyle J; Hammack, Richard W; Vidic, Radisav D; Gregory, Kelvin B

    2013-11-19

    Microbial communities associated with produced water from hydraulic fracturing are not well understood, and their deleterious activity can lead to significant increases in production costs and adverse environmental impacts. In this study, we compared the microbial ecology in prefracturing fluids (fracturing source water and fracturing fluid) and produced water at multiple time points from a natural gas well in southwestern Pennsylvania using 16S rRNA gene-based clone libraries, pyrosequencing, and quantitative PCR. The majority of the bacterial community in prefracturing fluids constituted aerobic species affiliated with the class Alphaproteobacteria. However, their relative abundance decreased in produced water with an increase in halotolerant, anaerobic/facultative anaerobic species affiliated with the classes Clostridia, Bacilli, Gammaproteobacteria, Epsilonproteobacteria, Bacteroidia, and Fusobacteria. Produced water collected at the last time point (day 187) consisted almost entirely of sequences similar to Clostridia and showed a decrease in bacterial abundance by 3 orders of magnitude compared to the prefracturing fluids and produced water samplesfrom earlier time points. Geochemical analysis showed that produced water contained higher concentrations of salts and total radioactivity compared to prefracturing fluids. This study provides evidence of long-term subsurface selection of the microbial community introduced through hydraulic fracturing, which may include significant implications for disinfection as well as reuse of produced water in future fracturing operations.

  19. Producing Daily and Embedded Hourly Rainfall Data Using a Novel Weather Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Pin Tung

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of worldwide extreme drought and flood events has risen significantly in recent years. Many studies confer that climate change may cause more intensive and extreme events. Simulating the impact of climate change often requires weather data as inputs to assessment models. Stochastic weather generators have been developed to produce weather data with the same temporal resolution based on the outputs of GCMs. Reservoir simulation normally uses operational rules in daily and hourly time steps for water supply and flood reduction, respectively. Simulating consecutive drought and flood events simultaneously requires a weather generator to produce different temporal resolution data. This work develops a continuous weather generator to generate daily and hourly precipitation data for regular wet days and severe storms, respectively. Daily rainfall data is generated for regular wet days using Exponential distribution or Weibull distribution, while the total rainfall data for severe storms is generated using the Pearson type III or Log Pearson type III distribution. Moreover, hourly rainfall is determined based on generated hyetographs. Simulation results indicate that the proposed continuous weather generator can generate daily and hourly rainfall reasonably. The proposed weather generator is thus highly promising for use in evaluating how climate change impacts reservoir operations that are significantly influenced by more frequent and intensive consecutive drought and flood events.

  20. DESIGN, FABRICATION, AND TESTING OF AN ADVANCED, NON-POLLUTING TURBINE DRIVE GAS GENERATOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unknown

    2002-01-01

    The objectives of this report period were to complete the development of the Gas Generator design, which was done; fabricate and test of the non-polluting unique power turbine drive gas Gas Generator, which has been postponed. Focus during this report period has been to complete the brazing and bonding necessary to fabricate the Gas Generator hardware, continue making preparations for fabricating and testing the Gas Generator, and continuing the fabrication of the Gas Generator hardware and ancillary hardware in preparation for the test program. Fabrication is more than 95% complete and is expected to conclude in early May 2002. the test schedule was affected by relocation of the testing to another test supplier. The target test date for hot fire testing is now not earlier than June 15, 2002

  1. Regional impacts of expanding gas-fired electric generation in the northeast US and eastern Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, G.

    2002-01-01

    New York, New England, Ontario, Quebec and Canada's Maritime provinces come under the jurisdiction of the Northeast Power Coordinating Committee (NPCC) of the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC). The objective of this Council is to assist with the coordination of electric supply, as well as transmission planning and reliability for the utilities. The annual ten year forecast of electric supply, demand and fuel sources produced by the NERC formed the basis for the data presented. The deregulation of the electricity market in a few jurisdictions in the region resulted in the break-up of several electric utilities into their core components, namely, generation, distribution and transmission. The generation sector is where the fastest break-up activity is taking place, and merchant energy companies are emerging. Each of these merchant energy companies is competing against the other to effect sales into the wholesale power market through the building of at risk generation plants. The deregulation process is subjected to different processes and time tables depending on each state or province regulations. The construction of new power plants in the region is being driven by the merchant energy companies. They are building low capital cost and highly efficient natural gas combined-cycle base load plants as well as lower cost and moderately efficient natural gas/oil-fired simple-cycle peaking plants. This activity is mainly restricted to the United States, since hydroelectric power, coal and nuclear power are the main presence in Canada. New England experiences summer peaks while Canada has winter peak electric demand. To optimize intra-regional peak generation capacity sharing, there is an opportunity for the electric industry to move gas by wire, and a number of projects are being developed. It is expected that pipeline expansion will be lower in Quebec and Ontario and result in more capacity expansions from the Maritimes combined with intra

  2. Biomass gasification hot gas cleanup for power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiant, B.C.; Bachovchin, D.M. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Orlando, FL (United States); Carty, R.H.; Onischak, M. [Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Horazak, D.A. [Gilbert/Commonwealth, Reading, PA (United States); Ruel, R.H. [The Pacific International Center for High Technology Research, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    1993-12-31

    In support of the US Department of Energy`s Biomass Power Program, a Westinghouse Electric led team consisting of the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT), Gilbert/Commonwealth (G/C), and the Pacific International Center for High Technology Research (PICHTR), is conducting a 30 month research and development program. The program will provide validation of hot gas cleanup technology with a pressurized fluidized bed, air-blown, biomass gasifier for operation of a gas turbine. This paper discusses the gasification and hot gas cleanup processes, scope of work and approach, and the program`s status.

  3. Country-Level Life Cycle Assessment of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Liquefied Natural Gas Trade for Electricity Generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasumu, Adebola S; Li, Vivian; Coleman, James W; Liendo, Jeanne; Jordaan, Sarah M

    2018-02-20

    In the determination of the net impact of liquefied natural gas (LNG) on greenhouse gas emissions, life cycle assessments (LCA) of electricity generation have yet to combine the effects of transport distances between exporting and importing countries, country-level infrastructure in importing countries, and the fuel sources displaced in importing countries. To address this, we conduct a LCA of electricity generated from LNG export from British Columbia, Canada with a three-step approach: (1) a review of viable electricity generation markets for LNG, (2) the development of results for greenhouse gas emissions that account for transport to importing nations as well as the infrastructure required for power generation and delivery, and (3) emissions displacement scenarios to test assumptions about what electricity is being displaced in the importing nation. Results show that while the ultimate magnitude of the greenhouse gas emissions associated with natural gas production systems is still unknown, life cycle greenhouse gas emissions depend on country-level infrastructure (specifically, the efficiency of the generation fleet, transmission and distribution losses and LNG ocean transport distances) as well as the assumptions on what is displaced in the domestic electricity generation mix. Exogenous events such as the Fukushima nuclear disaster have unanticipated effects on the emissions displacement results. We highlight national regulations, environmental policies, and multilateral agreements that could play a role in mitigating emissions.

  4. NH4HCO3 gas-generating liposomal nanoparticle for photoacoustic imaging in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia J

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Jizhu Xia, Gang Feng, Xiaorong Xia, Lan Hao, Zhigang Wang Chongqing Key Laboratory of Ultrasound Molecular Imaging, Department of Ultrasound, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, People’s Republic of China Abstract: In this study, we have developed a biodegradable nanomaterial for photoacoustic imaging (PAI. Its biodegradation products can be fully eliminated from a living organism. It is a gas-generating nanoparticle of liposome-encapsulating ammonium bicarbonate (NH4HCO3 solution, which is safe, effective, inexpensive, and free of side effects. When lasers irradiate these nanoparticles, NH4HCO3 decomposes to produce CO2, which can absorb much of the light energy under laser irradiation with a specific wavelength, and then expand under heat to generate a thermal acoustic wave. An acoustic detector can detect this wave and show it as a photoacoustic signal on a display screen. The intensity of the photoacoustic signal is enhanced corresponding to an increase in time, concentration, and temperature. During in vivo testing, nanoparticles were injected into tumor-bearing nude mice through the caudal vein, and photoacoustic signals were detected from the tumor, reaching a peak in 4 h, and then gradually disappearing. There was no damage to the skin or subcutaneous tissue from laser radiation. Our developed gas-generating nanomaterial, NH4HCO3 nanomaterial, is feasible, effective, safe, and inexpensive. Therefore, it is a promising material to be used in clinical PAI. Keywords: Photoacoustic tomography, CO2, NH4HCO3, contrast agent, cancer

  5. Progress Toward a Microfabricated Gas Turbine Generator for Soldier Portable Power Applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jacobson, S. A; Das, S; Savoulides, N; Steyn, J. L; Lang, J; Li, H. Q; Livermore, C; Schmidt, M. A; Teo, C. J; Umans, S. D; Epstein, A. H; Arnold, D. P; Park, J-W; Zana, I; Allen, M. G

    2004-01-01

    Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) turbocharger and electric generator devices have been fabricated and tested as part of a program at MIT to develop a microfabricated gas turbine generator for portable power applications...

  6. Using natural gas generation to improve power system efficiency in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Junfeng; Kwok, Gabe; Xuan, Wang; Williams, James H.; Kahrl, Fredrich

    2013-01-01

    China's electricity sector faces the challenge of managing cost increases, improving reliability, and reducing its environmental footprint even as operating conditions become more complex due to increasing renewable penetration, growing peak demand, and falling system load factors. Addressing these challenges will require changes in how power generation is planned, priced, and dispatched in China. This is especially true for natural gas generation, which is likely to play an important role in power systems worldwide as a flexible generation resource. Although natural gas is commonly perceived to be economically uncompetitive with coal in China, these perceptions are based on analysis that fails to account for the different roles that natural gas generation plays in power systems—baseload, load following, and peaking generation. Our analysis shows that natural gas generation is already cost-effective for meeting peak demand in China, resulting in improved capacity factors and heat rates for coal-fired generators and lower system costs. We find that the largest barrier to using natural gas for peaking generation in China is generation pricing, which could be addressed through modest reforms to support low capacity factor generation. - Highlights: • Using gas generation as a “capacity resource” in China could have multiple benefits. • Benefits include lower total costs, improved efficiency for coal generators. • Price reforms needed to support low capacity factor generation in China

  7. Temperature profile and producer gas composition of high temperature air gasification of oil palm fronds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guangul, F M; Sulaiman, S A; Ramli, A

    2013-01-01

    Environmental pollution and scarcity of reliable energy source are the current pressing global problems which need a sustainable solution. Conversion of biomass to a producer gas through gasification process is one option to alleviate the aforementioned problems. In the current research the temperature profile and composition of the producer gas obtained from the gasification of oil palm fronds by using high temperature air were investigated and compared with unheated air. By preheating the gasifying air at 500°C the process temperature were improved and as a result the concentration of combustible gases and performance of the process were improved. The volumetric percentage of CO, CH4 and H2 were improved from 22.49, 1.98, and 9.67% to 24.98, to 2.48% and 13.58%, respectively. In addition, HHV, carbon conversion efficiency and cold gas efficiency were improver from 4.88 MJ/Nm3, 83.8% and 56.1% to 5.90 MJ/Nm3, 87.3% and 62.4%, respectively.

  8. TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER TO U.S. INDEPENDENT OIL AND NATURAL GAS PRODUCERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    2002-11-01

    The Petroleum Technology Transfer Council (PTTC) continued pursuing its mission of assisting U.S. independent oil and gas producers make timely, informed technology decisions by providing access to information during Fiscal Year 2002 (FY02). Functioning as a cohesive national organization, PTTC has active grassroots programs through its ten Regional Lead Organizations (RLOs) and three satellite offices that efficiently extend the program reach. They bring research and academia to the table via their association with geological surveys and engineering departments. The regional directors interact with independent oil and gas producers through technology workshops, resource centers, websites, newsletters, various technical publications and other outreach efforts. These are guided by regional Producer Advisory Groups (PAGs), who are area operators and service companies working with the regional networks. The role of the national Headquarters (HQ) staff includes planning and managing the PTTC program, conducting nation wide technology transfer activities, and implementing a comprehensive communications effort. The organization effectively combines federal funding through the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy with state and industry funding to achieve important goals for all of these sectors. This integrated funding base is combined with industry volunteers guiding PTTC's activities and the dedication of national and regional staff to achieve notable results. PTTC is increasingly recognized as a critical resource for information and access to technologies, especially for smaller companies without direct contact with R&D efforts. The DOE participation is managed through the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), which deploys a national natural gas program via the Strategic Center for Natural Gas (SCNG) and a national oil program through the National Petroleum Technology Office (NTPO). This technical progress report summarizes PTTC

  9. A model of gas generation and transport within TRU [transuranic] waste drums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, F.G. III.

    1987-01-01

    Gas generation from the radiolytic decomposition of organic material contaminated with plutonium is modeled. Concentrations of gas throughout the waste drum are determined using a diffusional transport model. The model accurately reproduces experimentally measured gas concentrations. With polyethylene waste in unvented drums, the model predicts that hydrogen gas can accumulate to concentrations greater than 4 mole percent (lower flammable limit) with about 5 Ci of plutonium. Polyethylene provides a worst case for combustible waste material. If the drum liner is punctured and a carbon composite filter vent is installed in the drum lid, the plutonium loading can be increased to 240 Ci without generating flammable gas mixtures. 5 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs

  10. DC Linked Hybrid Generation System with an Energy Storage Device including a Photo-Voltaic Generation and a Gas Engine Cogeneration for Residential Houses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lung, Chienru; Miyake, Shota; Kakigano, Hiroaki; Miura, Yushi; Ise, Toshifumi; Momose, Toshinari; Hayakawa, Hideki

    For the past few years, a hybrid generation system including solar panel and gas cogeneration is being used for residential houses. Solar panels can generate electronic power at daytime; meanwhile, it cannot generate electronic power at night time. But the power consumption of residential houses usually peaks in the evening. The gas engine cogeneration system can generate electronic power without such a restriction, and it also can generate heat power to warm up house or to produce hot water. In this paper, we propose the solar panel and gas engine co-generation hybrid system with an energy storage device that is combined by dc bus. If a black out occurs, the system still can supply electronic power for special house loads. We propose the control scheme for the system which are related with the charging level of the energy storage device, the voltage of the utility grid which can be applied both grid connected and stand alone operation. Finally, we carried out some experiments to demonstrate the system operation and calculation for loss estimation.

  11. TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER TO U.S. INDEPENDENT OIL AND NATURAL GAS PRODUCERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    2003-04-30

    The Petroleum Technology Transfer Council (PTTC) continued pursuing its mission of helping U.S. independent oil and natural gas producers make timely, informed technology decisions. Networking opportunities that occur with a Houston Headquarters (HQ) location are increasing name awareness. Focused efforts by Executive Director Don Duttlinger to interact with large independents, national service companies and some majors are continuing to supplement the support base of the medium to smaller industry participants around the country. PTTC is now involved in many of the technology-related activities that occur in high oil and natural gas activity areas. Access to technology remains the driving force for those who do not have in-house research and development capabilities and look to the PTTC to provide services and options for increased efficiency.

  12. Titanium Matrix Composite Ti/TiN Produced by Diode Laser Gas Nitriding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksander Lisiecki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A high power direct diode laser, emitting in the range of near infrared radiation at wavelength 808–940 nm, was applied to produce a titanium matrix composite on a surface layer of titanium alloy Ti6Al4V by laser surface gas nitriding. The nitrided surface layers were produced as single stringer beads at different heat inputs, different scanning speeds, and different powers of laser beam. The influence of laser nitriding parameters on the quality, shape, and morphology of the surface layers was investigated. It was found that the nitrided surface layers consist of titanium nitride precipitations mainly in the form of dendrites embedded in the titanium alloy matrix. The titanium nitrides are produced as a result of the reaction between molten Ti and gaseous nitrogen. Solidification and subsequent growth of the TiN dendrites takes place to a large extent at the interface of the molten Ti and the nitrogen gas atmosphere. The direction of TiN dendrites growth is perpendicular to the surface of molten Ti. The roughness of the surface layers depends strongly on the heat input of laser nitriding and can be precisely controlled. In spite of high microhardness up to 2400 HV0.2, the surface layers are crack free.

  13. Generation of Food-Grade Lactococcal Starters Which Produce the Lantibiotics Lacticin 3147 and Lacticin 481

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Lisa; Ryan, Maire P.; Ross, R. Paul; Hill, Colin

    2003-01-01

    Transconjugant lactococcal starters which produce both lantibiotics lacticin 3147 and lacticin 481 were generated via conjugation of large bacteriocin-encoding plasmids. A representative of one of the resultant strains proved more effective at killing Lactobacillus fermentum and inhibiting the growth of Listeria monocytogenes LO28H than either of the single bacteriocin-producing parental strains, demonstrating the potential of these transconjugants as protection cultures for food safety applications. PMID:12788782

  14. Biomass utilization for green environment: Co-combustion of diesel fuel and producer gas in thermal application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, A.; Ani, F.N.; Mehamed, A.F.

    2007-01-01

    Study of co-combustion of diesel oil and producer gas from a gasifier, individually as well as combined, in an experimental combustion chamber revealed that the producer gas can be co-combusted with liquid fuel. The process produced more CO, NO/sub x/, SO/sub 2/ and CO/sub 2/ as compared to the combustion of diesel oil alone; the exhaust temperature for the process was higher than the diesel combustion alone. (author)

  15. NEXT GENERATION GAS TURBINE (NGGT) SYSTEMS STUDY; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unknown

    2001-01-01

    , both in terms of incorporation of technology into current products, as well as to an NGGT product. In summary, potential program costs are shown for development of the candidate systems along with the importance of future DOE enabling participation. Three main conclusions have been established via this study: (1) Rapid recent changes within the power generation regulatory environment and the resulting ''bubble'' of gas turbine orders has altered the timing and relative significance associated with the conclusions of the ADL study upon which the original DOE NGGT solicitation was based. (2) Assuming that the relevant technologies were developed and available for an NGGT market opportunity circa 2010, the top candidate system that meets or exceeds the DOE PRDA requirements was determined to be a hybrid aero-derivative/heavy duty concept. (3) An investment by DOE of approximately$23MM/year to develop NGGT technologies near/mid term for validation and migration into a reasonable fraction of the installed base of GE F-class products could be leveraged into$1.2B Public Benefit, with greatest benefits resulting from RAM improvements. In addition to the monetary Public Benefit, there is also significant benefit in terms of reduced energy consumption, and reduced power plant land usage

  16. Gas generation by self-radiolysis of tritiated waste materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tadlock, W.E.; Abell, G.C.; Steinmeyer, R.H.

    1980-01-01

    Studies simulating the effect of self-radiolysis in disposal packages containing tritiated waste materials show hydrogen to be the dominant gas-phase product. Pressure buildup and gas composition over various tritiated octane and tritiated water samples are designed to give worst case results. One effect of tritium fixation agents is to reduce pressure buildup. The results show that development of explosive gas mixtures is unlikely and that maximum pressure buildup in typical Mound Facility waste packages can be expected to be <0.25 MPa

  17. High gas dependence for power generation in Thailand: The vulnerability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakawiro, Thanawat; Bhattacharyya, Subhes C.

    2007-01-01

    Thailand uses 74% of its natural gas supply for power generation and 70% of its power comes from gas-based technology. High dependence on natural gas in power generation raises concerns about security of electricity supply that could affect competitiveness of Thai manufacturing and other industries at the global level. The effect of fuel dependence on security of electricity supply has received less emphasis in the literature. Given this gap, this research examines the economic impact of high dependence on natural gas for power generation in Thailand by analyzing the effect of changes in fuel prices (including fuel oil and natural gas) on electricity tariff in Thailand. At the same time, the research quantifies the vulnerability of the Thai economy due to high gas dependence in power generation. Our research shows that for every 10% change in natural gas price, electricity tariff in Thailand would change by 3.5%. In addition, we found that the gas bill for power generation consumed between 1.94% and 3.05% of gross domestic product (GDP) between 2000 and 2004 and in terms of GDP share per unit of energy, gas dependence in power generation is almost similar to that of crude oil import dependence. We also found that the basic metal industry, being an electricity intensive industry, is the most affected industry. Additionally, we find that volatility of gas price is the main factor behind the vulnerability concern. The research accordingly simulates two mitigation options of the problem, namely reducing gas dependence and increasing efficiency of gas-fired power plants, where the results show that these methods can reduce the vulnerability of the country from high gas dependence in power generation

  18. Interdependence of the Electricity Generation System and the Natural Gas System and Implications for Energy Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-15

    installation of natural gas generation or cogeneration plants to increase their energy security from the typical three days using diesel supplies to weeks-to...better quantify the regional impact of natural gas for energy security. Modeling and simulation could identify those regions and DoD installations that...Interdependence of the Electricity Generation System and the Natural Gas System and Implications for Energy Security N. Judson 15 May 2013 Prepared for the

  19. cGAS produces a 2'-5'-linked cyclic dinucleotide second messenger that activates STING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ablasser, Andrea; Goldeck, Marion; Cavlar, Taner; Deimling, Tobias; Witte, Gregor; Röhl, Ingo; Hopfner, Karl-Peter; Ludwig, Janos; Hornung, Veit

    2013-06-20

    Detection of cytoplasmic DNA represents one of the most fundamental mechanisms of the innate immune system to sense the presence of microbial pathogens. Moreover, erroneous detection of endogenous DNA by the same sensing mechanisms has an important pathophysiological role in certain sterile inflammatory conditions. The endoplasmic-reticulum-resident protein STING is critically required for the initiation of type I interferon signalling upon detection of cytosolic DNA of both exogenous and endogenous origin. Next to its pivotal role in DNA sensing, STING also serves as a direct receptor for the detection of cyclic dinucleotides, which function as second messenger molecules in bacteria. DNA recognition, however, is triggered in an indirect fashion that depends on a recently characterized cytoplasmic nucleotidyl transferase, termed cGAMP synthase (cGAS), which upon interaction with DNA synthesizes a dinucleotide molecule that in turn binds to and activates STING. We here show in vivo and in vitro that the cGAS-catalysed reaction product is distinct from previously characterized cyclic dinucleotides. Using a combinatorial approach based on mass spectrometry, enzymatic digestion, NMR analysis and chemical synthesis we demonstrate that cGAS produces a cyclic GMP-AMP dinucleotide, which comprises a 2'-5' and a 3'-5' phosphodiester linkage >Gp(2'-5')Ap(3'-5')>. We found that the presence of this 2'-5' linkage was required to exert potent activation of human STING. Moreover, we show that cGAS first catalyses the synthesis of a linear 2'-5'-linked dinucleotide, which is then subject to cGAS-dependent cyclization in a second step through a 3'-5' phosphodiester linkage. This 13-membered ring structure defines a novel class of second messenger molecules, extending the family of 2'-5'-linked antiviral biomolecules.

  20. Gas and Pressure Dependence for the Mean Size of Nanoparticles Produced by Laser Ablation of Flowing Aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichols, William T.; Malyavanatham, Gokul; Henneke, Dale E.; Brock, James R.; Becker, Michael F.; Keto, John W.; Glicksman, Howard D.

    2000-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles were produced by laser ablation of a continuously flowing aerosol of microparticles entrained in argon, nitrogen and helium at a variety of gas pressures. Nanoparticles produced in this new, high-volume nanoparticle production technique are compared with our earlier experiments using laser ablation of static microparticles. Transmission electron micrographs of the samples show the nanoparticles to be spherical and highly non-agglomerated under all conditions tested. These micrographs were analyzed to determine the effect of carrier gas type and pressure on size distributions. We conclude that mean diameters can be controlled from 4 to 20 nm by the choice of gas type and pressure. The smallest nanoparticles were produced in helium, with mean sizes increasing with increasing molecular weight of the carrier gas. These results are discussed in terms of a model based on cooling via collisional interaction of the nanoparticles, produced in the laser exploded microparticle, with the ambient gas

  1. Natural gas for power generation : issues and implications : an energy market assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-06-01

    This report presented a historical examination of trends in natural gas-fired generation as well as a perspective on the issues and potential implications of increasing reliance on natural gas. Potential changes to Canadian energy consumers were reviewed in addition to natural gas infrastructure and services. Electricity prices relating to natural gas generation were examined. A broad regional and continental perspective was employed to account for energy market integration and the fact that gas trends reflect developments outside of Canada. The report was divided into 2 sections: (1) an examination of the trend toward natural-gas fired generation of electricity in North America; and (2) an examination of issues in closer detail from a regional perspective followed by a discussion of the changes in generation and natural gas markets in western, eastern, and central North America. Questions arising from the analysis of specific regional supply, demand and infrastructure situations were also examined. Recommendations were presented for issues concerning the current gas market and the appropriate role of the government in ensuring adequate generation. Uncertainties in future natural gas supply were also considered. It was concluded that rapid industrial growth will continue to increase demand for natural gas and electricity supply. 5 figs

  2. Fuel Flexibility: Landfill Gas Contaminant Mitigation for Power Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Storey, John Morse [ORNL; Theiss, Timothy J [ORNL; Kass, Michael D [ORNL; FINNEY, Charles E A [ORNL; Lewis, Samuel [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Kaul, Brian C [ORNL; Besmann, Theodore M [ORNL; Thomas, John F [ORNL; Rogers, Hiram [ORNL; Sepaniak, Michael [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

    2014-04-01

    This research project focused on the mitigation of silica damage to engine-based renewable landfill gas energy systems. Characterization of the landfill gas siloxane contamination, combined with characterization of the silica deposits in engines, led to development of two new mitigation strategies. The first involved a novel method for removing the siloxanes and other heavy contaminants from the landfill gas prior to use by the engines. The second strategy sought to interrupt the formation of hard silica deposits in the engine itself, based on inspection of failed landfill gas engine parts. In addition to mitigation, the project had a third task to develop a robust sensor for siloxanes that could be used to control existing and/or future removal processes.

  3. Study on gas turbines. Leading role of high efficiency power generation; Gas turbine kenkyu. Kokoritsu hatsuden no shuyaku wo nerau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-31

    This review summarizes research works of Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry on gas turbines playing a leading role of high efficiency power generation. This article describes historical changes of gas turbine technology, changes and current status from the viewpoint of electric power industry, and development trend in various makers. Increase in the flow-in gas temperature, low NOx combustion technology, use of various fuels, and durability evaluation and improvement technology for high temperature parts are described as technological problems and development trends. The increase in temperature is indispensable for the improvement of efficiency. Materials having heat resistance, anticorrosion and strength are required. Accordingly, Ni-based single crystal super alloy has been developed. Developments of ceramic gas turbine and catalytic combustor are also described. The coal gasification combined power generation is expected as a new power generation technology having availability of various coals, high efficiency, and excellent environmental protection. Development of 1500 {degree}C class combustor for turbines has been promoted. Evaluation and improvement of durability of high temperature parts are also described. For the new utilization technology of gas turbines, repowering and compressed air storage gas turbine power generation technology are introduced. 92 figs., 14 tabs.

  4. TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER TO U.S. INDEPENDENT OIL AND NATURAL GAS PRODUCERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    2000-05-01

    During FY00, the Petroleum Technology Transfer Council (PTTC) continued pursuing its mission of helping U.S. independent oil and gas producers make timely, informed technology decisions. PTTC's national organization has active grassroots programs that connect with independents through its 10 Regional Lead Organizations (RLOs). These activities--including technology workshops, resource centers, websites, newsletters, and other outreach efforts--are guided by regional Producer Advisory Groups (PAGs). The role of the national headquarters (HQ) staff includes planning and managing the PTTC program, conducting nation-wide technology transfer activities, and implementing a comprehensive communications effort. This technical progress report summarizes PTTC's accomplishments during FY00, which lay the groundwork for further growth in the future.

  5. TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER TO U.S. INDEPENDENT OIL AND NATURAL GAS PRODUCERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donald Duttlinger

    1999-12-01

    During FY99, the Petroleum Technology Transfer Council (PTTC) continued pursuing its mission of helping U.S. independent oil and gas producers make timely, informed technology decisions. PTfC's national organization has active grassroots programs that connect with independents through its 10 Regional Lead Organizations (RLOs). These activities--including technology workshops, resource centers, websites, newsletters, and other outreach efforts--are guided by regional Producer Advisory Groups (PAGs). The role of the national headquarters (HQ) staff includes planning and managing the PTTC program, conducting nation-wide technology transfer activities, and implementing a comprehensive communications effort. This technical progress report summarizes PTTC's accomplishments during FY99, which lay the groundwork for further growth in the future.

  6. Trace metal distribution and mobility in drill cuttings and produced waters from Marcellus Shale gas extraction: Uranium, arsenic, barium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phan, Thai T.; Capo, Rosemary C.; Stewart, Brian W.; Graney, Joseph R.; Johnson, Jason D.; Sharma, Shikha; Toro, Jaime

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Distributions of U, As, and Ba in Marcellus Shale were determined. • As is primarily associated with sulfide minerals, Ba with exchange sites. • Most U is in the silicate minerals, but up to 20% is partitioned into carbonate. • Low [U] and [As] in produced water are consistent with reducing downhole conditions. • Proper waste management should account for potential mobilization of U and As. - Abstract: Development of unconventional shale gas wells can generate significant quantities of drilling waste, including trace metal-rich black shale from the lateral portion of the drillhole. We carried out sequential extractions on 15 samples of dry-drilled cuttings and core material from the gas-producing Middle Devonian Marcellus Shale and surrounding units to identify the host phases and evaluate the mobility of selected trace elements during cuttings disposal. Maximum whole rock concentrations of uranium (U), arsenic (As), and barium (Ba) were 47, 90, and 3333 mg kg −1 , respectively. Sequential chemical extractions suggest that although silicate minerals are the primary host for U, as much as 20% can be present in carbonate minerals. Up to 74% of the Ba in shale was extracted from exchangeable sites in the shale, while As is primarily associated with organic matter and sulfide minerals that could be mobilized by oxidation. For comparison, U and As concentrations were also measured in 43 produced water samples returned from Marcellus Shale gas wells. Low U concentrations in produced water (<0.084–3.26 μg L −1 ) are consistent with low-oxygen conditions in the wellbore, in which U would be in its reduced, immobile form. Arsenic was below detection in all produced water samples, which is also consistent with reducing conditions in the wellbore minimizing oxidation of As-bearing sulfide minerals. Geochemical modeling to determine mobility under surface storage and disposal conditions indicates that oxidation and/or dissolution of U

  7. Evaluating the biogas yield and design of a biodigester to generate cooking gas from human faeces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olawale Saheed ISMAIL

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Erratic power supply in the halls of residence in the University of Ibadan has been the major source of series of protest and students’ provocation on campus. Electric power is the only cheap source of energy that students use to heat and cook their food. The University claims to incur huge cost on electricity supply. An alternative energy is sought from the biogas generated from the digestion of faeces of members of the halls. The large population of the halls could be taken advantage of, as more quantity of faeces is expected daily. The first batch of the experiment, after a few days has stopped producing gas. This, as was later discovered, was as a result of low moisture content of the systems. Digester II of the batch II experiment yielded 0.00227m3 of biogas, out of which 0.0013 m3 is expected to be methane gas. A 540m3 yearly production of biogas is projected, which gave a payback period of 15 years for the cost of construction of the digester. This could be considered a free renewable energy as human faeces is a waste and readily available. Environmental impact of the methane generated and vented into the atmosphere has higher Global Warming Potential (GWP x21 than Carbon (IV oxide.

  8. Theoretical and experimental results of a mesoscale electric power generation system from pressurized gas flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krähenbühl, D; Kolar, J W; Zwyssig, C; Weser, H

    2009-01-01

    In many process applications where throttling is used to reduce pressure, the potential to obtain net work output is sacrificed to the throttling process. Examples are throttling valves of gas pipelines and conventional throttles in automotive applications or turbo expanders as used in cryogenic plants. With a new pressure reduction system that produces electricity while expanding the gas, the lost potential to obtain work output can be recovered. To achieve a high power density, this energy generation system requires an increased operating speed of the electrical machine and the turbomachinery. This paper presents a miniature compressed-air-to-electric-power system, based on a radial turbine with a rated rotational speed of 490 000 rpm and a rated electric power output of 150 W. A comprehensive description including turbine, diffuser and permanent magnet (PM) generator is given. Finally, measurements of the compressed-air-to-electric-power system with a maximum rotational speed of over 600 000 rpm, a maximum electric output power of 170 W, a maximum torque of 5.2 mN m and a turbine efficiency of 52% are presented

  9. TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER TO U.S. INDEPENDENT OIL AND NATURAL GAS PRODUCERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donald Duttlinger

    2001-11-01

    The Petroleum Technology Transfer Council (PTTC) continued pursuing its mission of helping U.S. independent oil and gas producers make timely, informed technology decisions during Fiscal Year 2001 (FY01). Functioning as a cohesive national organization, PTTC has active grassroots programs through its ten Regional Lead Organizations (RLOs). They bring research and academia to the table via their association with geological surveys and engineering departments. The regional directors interact with independent oil and gas producers through technology workshops, resource centers, websites, newsletters, various technical publications and other outreach efforts. These are guided by regional Producer Advisory Groups (PAGs), who are area operators and service companies working with the regional networks. The role of the national Headquarters (HQ) staff includes planning and managing the PTTC program, conducting nation wide technology transfer activities, and implementing a comprehensive communications effort. The organization effectively combines federal funding through the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy, state, and industry funding to achieve important goals for all of these sectors. This integrated funding base, combined with industry volunteers guiding PTTC's activities and the dedication of national and regional staff, are achieving notable results. PTTC is increasingly recognized as a critical resource for information and access to technologies, especially for smaller companies without direct contact to R&D efforts. This technical progress report summarizes PTTC's accomplishments during FY01, which lays the groundwork for further growth in the future. At a time of many industry changes and wide market movements, the organization itself is adapting to change. PTTC has built a reputation and expectation among producers and other industry participants to quickly distribute information addressing technical needs. The organization

  10. Energy-producing system of the membrane potential generation in γ-irradiated Streptococcus faecalis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fomenko, B.S.

    1976-01-01

    γ-irradiated (20-100 krads) Str. faecalis cells exhibited increased glycolytic and ATPase activity whereas the ATP level remained unaffected by radiation. It is concluded that the radiation-induced reduction of the membrane potential in Str. faecalis, that has been earlier described, is not connected with the impairment of the energy-producing system of the potential generation

  11. Method of Generating Hydrocarbon Reagents from Diesel, Natural Gas and Other Logistical Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herling, Darrell R [Richland, WA; Aardahl, Chris L [Richland, WA; Rozmiarek, Robert T [Middleton, WI; Rappe, Kenneth G [Richland, WA; Wang, Yong [Richland, WA; Holladay, Jamelyn D [Kennewick, WA

    2008-10-14

    The present invention provides a process for producing reagents for a chemical reaction by introducing a fuel containing hydrocarbons into a flash distillation process wherein the fuel is separated into a first component having a lower average molecular weight and a second component having a higher average molecular weight. The first component is then reformed to produce synthesis gas wherein the synthesis gas is reacted catalytically to produce the desire reagent.

  12. Proceedings of the 1999 Oil and Gas Conference: Technology Options for Producer Survival

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None available

    2000-04-12

    The 1999 Oil & Gas Conference was cosponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Fossil Energy, Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC) and National Petroleum Technology Office (NPTO) on June 28 to 30 in Dallas, Texas. The Oil & Gas Conference theme, Technology Options for Producer Survival, reflects the need for development and implementation of new technologies to ensure an affordable, reliable energy future. The conference was attended by nearly 250 representatives from industry, academia, national laboratories, DOE, and other Government agencies. Three preconference workshops (Downhole Separation Technologies: Is it Applicable for Your Operations, Exploring and developing Naturally Fractured Low-Permeability Gas Reservoirs from the Rocky Mountains to the Austin Chalk, and Software Program Applications) were held. The conference agenda included an opening plenary session, three platform sessions (Sessions 2 and 3 were split into 2 concurrent topics), and a poster presentation reception. The platform session topics were Converting Your Resources Into Reserves (Sessions 1 and 2A), Clarifying Your Subsurface Vision (Session 2B), and High Performance, Cost Effective Drilling, Completion, Stimulation Technologies (Session 3B). In total, there were 5 opening speakers, 30 presenters, and 16 poster presentations.

  13. Report on achievements in fiscal 1998. Venture business growing type consortium - small business creating infrastructure (Research on manufacturing next-generation gas generating agent for air bag); 1998 nendo jisedai air bag yo gas hasseizai no seizo kenkyu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Sodium azide has been used for many years as a gas generating agent for automobiles. However, sodium azide has strong toxicity, and is doubted of carcinogenicity. Bistetrazole having no such a drawback is now noticed as the next-generation gas generating agent, and substitution to gas agents having less toxicity is being advanced worldwide. The present research is intended to develop a method to manufacture bistetrazole (BHT) which does not by-produce wastes in a large amount, is friendly to environment, and economical. Research and development works were performed on manufacturing dicyanide as the raw material by using the electrolytic process and by using the catalytic process, while both processes were found successful. In the reaction to synthesize BHT from the manufactured dicyanide and sodium azide, high crystalline purity and yield as high as 94.5% have been achieved. As a result of having discussed improvement on the one-pot process that synthesizes BHT directly, not going through handling of the produced dicyanide, solution was made on a method to remove impurities, and conditions to produce BHT at high yield were discovered. This new catalytic process provides a total yield of 80%, successfully reducing the manufacturing cost. (NEDO)

  14. Bremsstrahlung γ-ray generation by electrons from gas jets irradiated by laser pulses for radiographic testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oishi, Yuji; Nayuki, Takuya; Zhidkov, Alexei; Fujii, Takashi; Nemoto, Koshichi

    2012-01-01

    Electron generation from a gas jet irradiated by low energy femtosecond laser pulses is studied experimentally as a promising source of radiation for radioisotope-free γ-ray imaging systems. The calculated yield of γ-rays in the 0.5-2 MeV range, produced by low-average-power lasers and gas targets, exceeds the yields from solid tape targets up to 60 times. In addition, an effect of quasi-mono energetic electrons on γ-ray imaging is also discussed.

  15. Mathematical modelling of flue gas tempered flames produced from pulverised coal fired with oxygen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breussin, A.; Weber, R.; Kamp, W.L. van de

    1997-10-01

    The combustion of pulverised coal in conventional utility boilers contributes significantly to global CO{sub 2} emissions. Because atmospheric air is used as the combustion medium, the exhaust gases of conventional pulverised coal fired utility boilers contain approximately 15 % CO{sub 2}. This relatively low concentration makes separating and recovering CO{sub 2} a very energy-intensive process. This process can be simplified if N{sub 2} is eliminated from the comburent before combustion by firing the pulverised coal with pure oxygen. However, this concept will result in very high flames temperatures. Flue gas recirculation can be used to moderate the flame temperature, whilst generating a flue gas with a CO{sub 2} concentration of 95 %. In this presentation, both experimental and modelling work will be described. The former deals with identifying the issues related to the combustion of pulverised coal in simulated turbine exhaust gas, particularly with respect to stability, burnout and pollutant emissions. The second part of this presentation describes mathematical modelling of type 2 as well as type 1 swirling pulverised coal flames. Future work will concentrate on high CO{sub 2} levels environments. (orig.)

  16. Performance and emissions of a modified small engine operated on producer gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homdoung, N.; Tippayawong, N.; Dussadee, N.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A small agricultural diesel engine was converted into a spark ignited engine. • The modified engine operated solely on producer gas at various loads and speeds. • It run successfully at high compression ratio, without knocking. • Improvement in efficiency and specific energy consumption at higher CR was evident. - Abstract: Existing agricultural biomass may be upgraded converted to a gaseous fuel via a downdraft gasifier for spark ignition engines. In this work, a 0.6 L, naturally aspirated single cylinder compression ignition engine was converted into a spark ignition engine and coupled to a 5 kW dynamometer. The conventional swirl combustion chamber was replaced by a cavity chamber. The effect of variable compression ratios between 9.7 and 17:1, and engine speeds between 1000 and 2000 rpm and loads between 20% and 100% of engine performance were investigated in terms of engine torque, power output, thermal efficiency, specific fuel consumption and emissions. It was found that the modified engine was able to operate well with producer gas at higher compression ratios than with gasoline. The brake thermal efficiency was lower than the original diesel engine at 11.3%. Maximum brake power was observed to be 3.17 kW, and the best BSFC of 0.74 kg/kWh was achieved. Maximum brake thermal efficiency of 23.9% was obtained. The smoke density of the engine was lower than the diesel engine, however, CO emission was higher with similar HC emission

  17. Emission characteristics and axial flame temperature distribution of producer gas fired premixed burner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhoi, P.R. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, L and T-Sargent and Lundy Limited, L and T Energy Centre, Near Chhani Jakat Naka, Baroda 390 002 (India); Channiwala, S.A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sardar Vallabhbhai National Institute of Technology, Deemed University, Ichchhanath, Surat 395 007, Gujarat (India)

    2009-03-15

    This paper presents the emission characteristics and axial flame temperature distribution of producer gas fired premixed burner. The producer gas fired premixed burner of 150 kW capacity was tested on open core throat less down draft gasifier system in the present study. A stable and uniform flame was observed with this burner. An instrumented test set up was developed to evaluate the performance of the burner. The conventional bluff body having blockage ratio of 0.65 was used for flame stabilization. With respect to maximum flame temperature, minimum pressure drop and minimum emissions, a swirl angle of 60 seems to be optimal. The experimental results also showed that the NO{sub x} emissions are inversely proportional to swirl angle and CO emissions are independent of swirl angle. The minimum emission levels of CO and NO{sub x} are observed to be 0.167% and 384 ppm respectively at the swirl angle of 45-60 . The experimental results showed that the maximum axial flame temperature distribution was achieved at A/F ratio of 1.0. The adiabatic flame temperature of 1653 C was calculated theoretically at A/F ratio of 1.0. Experimental results are in tune with theoretical results. It was also concluded that the CO and UHC emissions decreases with increasing A/F ratio while NO{sub x} emissions decreases on either side of A/F ratio of 1.0. (author)

  18. Fuel prices, emission standards, and generation costs for coal vs natural gas power plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratson, Lincoln F; Haerer, Drew; Patiño-Echeverri, Dalia

    2013-05-07

    Low natural gas prices and stricter, federal emission regulations are promoting a shift away from coal power plants and toward natural gas plants as the lowest-cost means of generating electricity in the United States. By estimating the cost of electricity generation (COE) for 304 coal and 358 natural gas plants, we show that the economic viability of 9% of current coal capacity is challenged by low natural gas prices, while another 56% would be challenged by the stricter emission regulations. Under the current regulations, coal plants would again become the dominant least-cost generation option should the ratio of average natural gas to coal prices (NG2CP) rise to 1.8 (it was 1.42 in February 2012). If the more stringent emission standards are enforced, however, natural gas plants would remain cost competitive with a majority of coal plants for NG2CPs up to 4.3.

  19. Life cycle water consumption and wastewater generation impacts of a Marcellus shale gas well.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Mohan; Hendrickson, Chris T; VanBriesen, Jeanne M

    2014-01-01

    This study estimates the life cycle water consumption and wastewater generation impacts of a Marcellus shale gas well from its construction to end of life. Direct water consumption at the well site was assessed by analysis of data from approximately 500 individual well completion reports collected in 2010 by the Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources. Indirect water consumption for supply chain production at each life cycle stage of the well was estimated using the economic input-output life cycle assessment (EIO-LCA) method. Life cycle direct and indirect water quality pollution impacts were assessed and compared using the tool for the reduction and assessment of chemical and other environmental impacts (TRACI). Wastewater treatment cost was proposed as an additional indicator for water quality pollution impacts from shale gas well wastewater. Four water management scenarios for Marcellus shale well wastewater were assessed: current conditions in Pennsylvania; complete discharge; direct reuse and desalination; and complete desalination. The results show that under the current conditions, an average Marcellus shale gas well consumes 20,000 m(3) (with a range from 6700 to 33,000 m(3)) of freshwater per well over its life cycle excluding final gas utilization, with 65% direct water consumption at the well site and 35% indirect water consumption across the supply chain production. If all flowback and produced water is released into the environment without treatment, direct wastewater from a Marcellus shale gas well is estimated to have 300-3000 kg N-eq eutrophication potential, 900-23,000 kg 2,4D-eq freshwater ecotoxicity potential, 0-370 kg benzene-eq carcinogenic potential, and 2800-71,000 MT toluene-eq noncarcinogenic potential. The potential toxicity of the chemicals in the wastewater from the well site exceeds those associated with supply chain production, except for carcinogenic effects. If all the Marcellus shale well wastewater is

  20. Gas generation and migration in the shallow land disposal and preliminary impact analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakai, Kunihiro

    1996-01-01

    As the latent effect in the case of gas generation in waste repositories, the damage of barriers by gas pressure, the pushing-out of contaminated water by pressure gas in waste repositories, the movement of radioactive gases containing H-3, C-14 and others, the explosion accompanying the release of combustible gas like hydrogen onto ground, and the effect to ground-water flow by gas movement or pressure are conceivable. The mechanism and the rate of gas generation, and the amount of the substances that generate gases in low level radioactive waste are explained. The models for evaluating the generation, accumulation and movement of gases are described. As to the evaluation of gas movement, the conditions for the evaluation, the results of evaluating gas permeation, the sensitivity of various parameters and so on are reported. Also the effects of radioactive gases, the pushing-out of pore water, the explosion of pressure-accumulating gases and the effect to ground-water flow were evaluated. Supposing the gas generation in shallow underground waste repositories, the model for evaluating the behaviors of gases and water in a whole system was made, and the preliminary evaluation was carried out. (K.I.)

  1. Organic and inorganic composition and microbiology of produced waters from Pennsylvania shale gas wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akob, Denise M.; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.; Dunlap, Darren S.; Rowan, Elisabeth L.; Lorah, Michelle M.

    2015-01-01

    Hydraulically fractured shales are becoming an increasingly important source of natural gas production in the United States. This process has been known to create up to 420 gallons of produced water (PW) per day, but the volume varies depending on the formation, and the characteristics of individual hydraulic fracture. PW from hydraulic fracturing of shales are comprised of injected fracturing fluids and natural formation waters in proportions that change over time. Across the state of Pennsylvania, shale gas production is booming; therefore, it is important to assess the variability in PW chemistry and microbiology across this geographical span. We quantified the inorganic and organic chemical composition and microbial communities in PW samples from 13 shale gas wells in north central Pennsylvania. Microbial abundance was generally low (66–9400 cells/mL). Non-volatile dissolved organic carbon (NVDOC) was high (7–31 mg/L) relative to typical shallow groundwater, and the presence of organic acid anions (e.g., acetate, formate, and pyruvate) indicated microbial activity. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were detected in four samples (∼1 to 11.7 μg/L): benzene and toluene in the Burket sample, toluene in two Marcellus samples, and tetrachloroethylene (PCE) in one Marcellus sample. VOCs can be either naturally occurring or from industrial activity, making the source of VOCs unclear. Despite the addition of biocides during hydraulic fracturing, H2S-producing, fermenting, and methanogenic bacteria were cultured from PW samples. The presence of culturable bacteria was not associated with salinity or location; although organic compound concentrations and time in production were correlated with microbial activity. Interestingly, we found that unlike the inorganic chemistry, PW organic chemistry and microbial viability were highly variable across the 13 wells sampled, which can have important implications for the reuse and handling of these fluids

  2. Power-generating process of obtaining gas-energy carrier and reducer from coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tleugabulov, S.; Duncheva, E.; Zubkevich, M.

    1999-01-01

    The manufacture of power-generating gas has the important economic value for Kazakhstan having large territory, raw and fuel resources especially power coal and clean coal wastes. The technology of reception of gas-energy carrier and reducer from power coal is developed. The basic product of technological process is heated reducing gas. Reducing potential of the gas is characterized by a volumetric share of components (CO+H 2 )-RC in relation to volume of whole mix of gases received with gasification of coal. The value of parameter RC is regulated by a degree of enrichment of air by oxygen r 0 , and the temperature - by the charge of a parity of endothermic reaction in the chamber of gas regeneration. The dependence of the gas structure and temperature on the degree of enrichment of air by oxygen is shown and the circuit of the gas generator is given. (author)

  3. Study related to the generation of the conditional intensities of ideal Bose-gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Oklah, H.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we will answer on the following question: Are there any conditions on the chemical potential and temperature of an ideal BOSE gas when generating the conditional intensities of ideal Bose-gas, and will the position distribution of the ideal Bose-gas be a Gibbs-process. The study shows that there should be no conditions on the chemical potential and thermodynamical temperature of an ideal BOSE gas when we generate the conditional intensities of ideal Bose-gas except that the fundamental conditions, the chemical potential is negative and the inverse temperature is positive. Thus the position distribution of the ideal Bose-gas may only be a Gibbs-process, in the special case when the thermodynamical temperature of the ideal BOSE gas tends to the absolute zero. (author)

  4. Concentration of saline produced water from coalbed methane gas wells in multiple-effect evaporator using waste heat from the gas compressor and compressor drive engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadler, L.Y.; George, O.

    1995-01-01

    The use of heat of compression from the gas compressor and waste heat from the diesel compressor drive engine in a triple-effect feed forward evaporator was studied as a means of concentrating saline produced water to facilitate its disposal. The saline water, trapped in deeply buried coal seams, must be continuously pumped from coalbed natural gas wells so that the gas can desorb from the coal and make its way to the wellbore. Unlike conventional natural gas which is associated with petroleum and usually reaches the wellhead at high pressure, coalbed natural gas reaches the wellhead at low pressure, usually around 101 kPa (1 atm), and must be compressed near the well site for injection into gas transmission pipelines. The water concentration process was simulated for a typical 3.93 m 3 /s (500 MCF/h), at standard conditions (101 kPa, 289K), at the gas production field in the Warrior Coal Basin of Alabama, but has application to the coalbed gas fields being brought into production throughout the world. It was demonstrated that this process can be considered for concentrating saline water produced with natural gas in cases where the gas must be compressed near the wellhead for transportation to market. 9 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  5. The origin and fate of arsenic in coalbed natural gas-produced water ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowder, J T; Kelleners, T J; Reddy, K J

    2010-01-01

    Coalbed natural gas (CBNG)-produced water contains small amounts of trace metals that can accumulate over time in produced water retention ponds. Within the Powder River Basin (PRB) of Wyoming, high concentrations of trace metals in pond water and their effect on shallow groundwater are potential concerns. A pond with a maximum As concentration of 146 microg L(-1) was studied in detail to determine the potential for groundwater pollution and to explain the cause for the high concentration of As. Infiltration characteristics, subsurface hydrology, our fall and pond water quality, isotope signatures, and trace metal balances were examined to assess the hydrology and geochemistry of the pond. The results indicated minimum or no infiltration of pond water and no measurable contamination of the shallow groundwater. The high As concentrations in the pond were determined to be the result of semi-continuous inputs of CBNG-produced water with low As concentrations (0.20-0.48 microg L(-1)), exasperated by low pond volumes during drought conditions. Because of reduced infiltration and high evaporation rates, As became concentrated over time. Reduced infiltration was most likely caused by the high sodium concentration and high sodium adsorption ratio of the CBNG-produced water, which disrupt soil structure. The findings for the pond and the techniques used may serve as a template for future impact assessments of other CBNG-produced water ponds and are relevant for the approximately 4000 ponds currently permitted in the PRB and for future ponds. Further studies are recommended in the use of playa landforms to store marginal-quality produced water.

  6. TREATMENT OF PRODUCED OIL AND GAS WATERS WITH SURFACTANT-MODIFIED ZEOLITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynn E. Katz; R.S. Bowman; E.J. Sullivan

    2003-11-01

    Co-produced water from the oil and gas industry accounts for a significant waste stream in the United States. It is by some estimates the largest single waste stream in the country, aside from nonhazardous industrial wastes. Characteristics of produced water include high total dissolved solids content, dissolved organic constituents such as benzene and toluene, an oil and grease component, and chemicals added during the oil-production process. While most of the produced water is disposed via reinjection, some must be treated to remove organic constituents before the water is discharged. Current treatment options are successful in reducing the organic content; however, they cannot always meet the levels of current or proposed regulations for discharged water. Therefore, an efficient, cost-effective treatment technology is needed. Surfactant-modified zeolite (SMZ) has been used successfully to treat contaminated ground water for organic and inorganic constituents. In addition, the low cost of natural zeolites makes their use attractive in water-treatment applications. This report summarizes the work and results of this four-year project. We tested the effectiveness of surfactant-modified zeolite (SMZ) for removal of BTEX with batch and column experiments using waters with BTEX concentrations that are comparable to those of produced waters. The data from our experimental investigations showed that BTEX sorption to SMZ can be described by a linear isotherm model, and competitive effects between compounds were not significant. The SMZ can be readily regenerated using air stripping. We field-tested a prototype SMZ-based water treatment system at produced water treatment facilities and found that the SMZ successfully removes BTEX from produced waters as predicted by laboratory studies. When compared to other existing treatment technologies, the cost of the SMZ system is very competitive. Furthermore, the SMZ system is relatively compact, does not require the storage of

  7. Closed-cycle gas turbine power generating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jubb, A.; Ward, R.G.; Hurst, J.N.; Holliday, J.B.; Ashley, J.W.

    1975-01-01

    The invention deals with a gas-cooled reactor with at least one condenser, one turbin and one off-gas heat exchanger for preheating the coolant arranged in the pressure vessel inside a common supporting structure in the from of a pipe cylinder. This supporting structure can be removed from the pressure vessel independently of the core. The pipe cylinder is connected with the core feeding and recirculation lines. It has axial coolant channels in the cylindrical wall. The heat exchanger consists of a large number of coolant channels in axial direction. The feeding line is surrounded by several interpenetrating elastic ring elements. (HP) [de

  8. Effects of stepwise gas combustion on NOx generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woperane Seredi, A.; Szepesi, E.

    1999-01-01

    To decrease NO x emission from gas boilers, the combustion process of gas has been modified from continuous combustion to step-wise combustion. In this process the combustion temperature, the temperature peaks in the flame, the residence time of combustion products in the high-temperature zone and the oxygen partial pressure are changed advantageously. Experiments were performed using multistage burners, and the NO x emission was recorded. It was found that the air factor of the primary combustion space has a determining effect on the NO x reduction. (R.P.)

  9. Obstacles to the penetration of electric generation markets by natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schleede, G.R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reviews and compares the advantages and disadvantages that electric power generators have in generating electricity from a variety of fuel sources. It then goes on to emphasize the use of natural gas and how it can become more competitive in the electric generation field. The paper is based primarily on experiences by the author during his employment with the New England Electric System (NEES). The author reviews the source of electricity for this utility and describes the percentages of each fuel source. It then goes on to specifically discuss the planned natural gas-fired projects in the utility system. The paper outlines the NEES strategy of diversification with respect to gas suppliers and describes the important considerations it used when planning for electric generation with gas. These include determining pressure requirements needed by the gas distribution system when the gas-generators come on-line; determining the placement of the generators within the overall system (i.e. peak load facilities, base load facilities, etc.); contracting flexibility because of the need to vary the amount of gas taken; and the ability to manage pipeline capacity and gas supplies when they are not needed

  10. Advanced gas turbine cycles a brief review of power generation thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Horlock, JH

    2003-01-01

    Primarily this book describes the thermodynamics of gas turbine cycles. The search for high gas turbine efficiency has produced many variations on the simple ""open circuit"" plant, involving the use of heat exchangers, reheating and intercooling, water and steam injection, cogeneration and combined cycle plants. These are described fully in the text. A review of recent proposals for a number of novel gas turbine cycles is also included. In the past few years work has been directed towards developing gas turbines which produce less carbon dioxide, or plants from which the CO2 can be d

  11. Albany Interim Landfill gas extraction and mobile power system: Using landfill gas to produce electricity. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    The Albany Interim Landfill Gas Extraction and Mobile Power System project served three research objectives: (1) determination of the general efficiency and radius of influence of horizontally placed landfill gas extraction conduits; (2) determination of cost and effectiveness of a hydrogen sulfide gas scrubber utilizing Enviro-Scrub{trademark} liquid reagent; and (3) construction and evaluation of a dual-fuel (landfill gas/diesel) 100 kW mobile power station. The horizontal gas extraction system was very successful; overall, gas recovery was high and the practical radius of influence of individual extractors was about 50 feet. The hydrogen sulfide scrubber was effective and its use appears feasible at typical hydrogen sulfide concentrations and gas flows. The dual-fuel mobile power station performed dependably and was able to deliver smooth power output under varying load and landfill gas fuel conditions.

  12. In vitro comparison of noise levels produced by different CPAP generators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchner, Lieselotte; Wald, Martin; Jeitler, Valerie; Pollak, Arnold

    2012-01-01

    Minimization of noise exposure is an important aim of modern neonatal intensive care medicine. Binasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) generators are among the most important sources of continuous noise in neonatal wards. The aim of this study was to find out which CPAP generator creates the least noise. In an experimental setup, two jet CPAP generators (Infant Flow® generator and MediJet®) and two conventional CPAP generators (Bubble CPAP® and Baby Flow®) were compared. Noise production was measured in decibels in an A-weighted scale [dB(A)] in a closed incubator at 2 mm lateral distance from the end of the nasal prongs. Reproduction of constant airway pressure and air leak was achieved by closure of the nasal prongs with a type of adhesive tape that is semipermeable to air. The noise levels produced by the four generators were significantly different (p CPAP® and 55 dB(A) for the Baby Flow®. Conventional CPAP generators work more quietly than the currently available jet CPAP generators. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Microbial gas generation under expected Waste Isolation Pilot Plant repository conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, A.J.; Gillow, J.B.; Giles, M.R.

    1997-03-01

    Gas generation from the microbial degradation of the organic constituents of transuranic waste under conditions expected at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) repository was investigated at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The biodegradation of mixed cellulosics (various types of paper) and electron-beam irradiated plastic and rubber materials (polyethylene, polyvinylchloride, neoprene, hypalon, and leaded hypalon) was examined. The rate of gas production from cellulose biodegradation in inundated samples incubated for 1,228 days at 30 C was biphasic, with an initial rapid rate up to approximately 600 days incubation, followed by a slower rate. The rate of total gas production in anaerobic samples containing mixed inoculum was as follows: 0.002 mL/g cellulose/day without nutrients; 0.004 mL/g cellulose/day with nutrients; and 0.01 mL/g cellulose/day in the presence of excess nitrate. Carbon dioxide production proceeded at a rate of 0.009 micromol/g cellulose/day in anaerobic samples without nutrients, 0.05 micromol/g cellulose/day in the presence of nutrients, and 0.2 micromol/g cellulose/day with excess nitrate. Adding nutrients and excess nitrate stimulated denitrification, as evidenced by the accumulation of N 2 O in the headspace (200 micromol/g cellulose). The addition of the potential backfill bentonite increased the rate of CO 2 production to 0.3 micromol/g cellulose/day in anaerobic samples with excess nitrate. Analysis of the solution showed that lactic, acetic, propionic, butyric, and valeric acids were produced due to cellulose degradation. Samples incubated under anaerobic humid conditions for 415 days produced CO 2 at a rate of 0.2 micromol/g cellulose/day in the absence of nutrients, and 1 micromol/g cellulose/day in the presence of bentonite and nutrients. There was no evidence of biodegradation of electron-beam irradiated plastic and rubber

  14. R and D programme on generation IV nuclear energy systems: the high temperatures gas-cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carre, F.; Fiorini, G.L.; Billot, P.; Anzieu, P.; Brossard, P.

    2005-01-01

    The Generation IV Technology Roadmap selected, among others, a sequenced development of advanced high temperature gas cooled reactors as one of the main focus for R and D on future nuclear energy systems. The selection of this research objective originates both from the significance of high temperature and fast neutrons for nuclear energy to meet the needs for a sustainable development for the medium-long term (2020/2030 and beyond), and from the significant common R and D pathway that supports both medium term industrial projects and more advanced versions of gas cooled reactors. The first step of the 'Gas Technology Path' aims to support the development of a modular HTR to meet specific international market needs around 2020. The second step is a Very High Temperature Reactor - VHTR (>950 C) - to efficiently produce hydrogen through thermo-chemical or electro-chemical water splitting or to generate electricity with an efficiency above 50%, among other applications of high temperature nuclear heat. The third step of the Path is a Gas Fast Reactor - GFR - that features a fast-spectrum helium-cooled reactor and closed fuel cycle, with a direct or indirect thermodynamic cycle for electricity production and full recycle of actinides. Hydrogen production is also considered for the GFR. The paper succinctly presents the R and D program currently under definition and partially launched within the Generation IV International Forum on this consistent set of advanced gas cooled nuclear systems. (orig.)

  15. Schlieren diagnostics of the Los Alamos hypersonic gas target neutron generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haasz, A.A.; Lever, J.H.

    1981-01-01

    The gasdynamic behaviour of a planar model of the Los Alamos geometry hypersonic gas target neutron generator (GTNG) was investigated using Schlieren flow visualization photographs, static and total pressure and spill flow measurements. The model consisted of two symmetrical expansion nozzles with 220 μm throats producing a combined flow of about Mach 4 in the GTNG channel. Stagnation pressures of 100-800 kPa were used. Two basic flow configurations, spill line closed and spill line open, were studied in order to gain insight into the complex boundary layer development near the nozzle exit planes. Both flow configurations are discussed qualitatively, making use of the pressure measurements and theoretical analysis. (orig.)

  16. Organic richness and gas generation potential of Permian Barren

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The organic geochemistry of shales in terms of its organic richness, hydrocarbon source potential, thermal maturity, depositional environment, etc., are essential stipulations for shale gas resources assessment. In this study, a total of 32 core samples of Permian Barren Measures from four boreholes in Raniganj field of ...

  17. TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER TO U.S. INDEPENDENT OIL AND NATURAL GAS PRODUCERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    2000-11-01

    The Petroleum Technology Transfer Council (PTTC) continued pursuing its mission of helping U.S. independent oil and gas producers make timely, informed technology decisions during Fiscal Year 2000 (FY00). Functioning as a cohesive national organization, PTTC has active grassroots programs through its ten Regional Lead Organizations (RLOs) who bring research and academia to the table via their association with geological surveys and engineering departments. The regional directors connect with independent oil and gas producers through technology workshops, resource centers, websites, newsletters, various technical publications and other outreach efforts. These are guided by regional Producer Advisory Groups (PAGs), who are area operators and service companies working with the Regional Lead Organizations. The role of the national headquarters (HQ) staff includes planning and managing the PTTC program, conducting nation-wide technology transfer activities, and implementing a comprehensive communications effort. The organization effectively combines federal, state, and industry funding to achieve important goals for all of these sectors. This integrated funding base, combined with industry volunteers guiding PTTC's activities and the dedication of national and regional staff, are achieving notable results. PTTC is increasingly recognized as a critical resource for information and access to technologies, especially for smaller companies. This technical progress report summarizes PTTC's accomplishments during FY00, which lays the groundwork for further growth in the future. At a time of many industry changes and market movements, the organization has built a reputation and expectation to address industry needs of getting information distributed quickly which can impact the bottom line immediately.

  18. Performance analysis of a gas turbine for power generation using syngas as a fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong Jun; Cha Kyu Sang; Kim, Tong Seop; Sohn, Jeong Lak; Joo, Yong Jin

    2008-01-01

    Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plant converts coal to syngas, which is mainly composed of hydrogen and carbon monoxide, by the gasification process and produces electric power by the gas and steam turbine combined cycle power plant. The purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of using syngas in a gas turbine, originally designed for natural gas fuel, on its performance. A commercial gas turbine is selected and variations of its performance characteristics due to adopting syngas is analyzed by simulating off-design gas turbine operation. Since the heating value of the syngas is lower, compared to natural gas, IGCC plants require much larger fuel flow rate. This increase the gas flow rate to the turbine and the pressure ratio, leading to far larger power output and higher thermal efficiency. Examination of using two different syngases reveals that the gas turbine performance varies much with the fuel composition

  19. Spectral tomographic analysis of Bremsstrahlung X-rays generated in a laser-produced plasma

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rhee, Y.-J.; Nam, S. M.; Peebles, W.; Sawada, H.; Wei, M.; Vaisseau, X.; Sasaki, T.; Giuffrida, Lorenzo; Hulin, S.; Vauzour, B.; Santos, J.J.; Batani, D.; McLean, H. S.; Patel, P. K.; Li, Y.; Yuan, D. W.; Zhang, K.; Zhong, J. Y.; Fu, C. B.; Hua, N.; Li, K.; Zhang, Y.; Zhu, J. Q.; Kim, I. J.; Jeon, J. H.; Jeong, T.M.; Choi, I.W.; Lee, H. W.; Sung, J.H.; Lee, S.K.; Nam, C.H.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 4 (2016), s. 645-654 ISSN 0263-0346 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LQ1606; GA MŠk EF15_008/0000162 Grant - others:ELI Beamlines(XE) CZ.02.1.01/0.0/0.0/15_008/0000162 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : Bremsstrahlung X-ray * filter stack spectrometer * laser-produced plasma Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.420, year: 2016

  20. Method to produce combustible gas with low tar content out of biomass. Foerfarande foer att ur biomassa framstaella en tjaerfattig braennbar gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindman, N

    1988-01-11

    The gas is led in a controlled flow to a vertical reactor shaft with a circulating fluidized bed containing dispersed calcined limestone. The biomass is pyrolyzed by means of the reactor heat in order to produce tarry gas and charcoal. While the gas flows upward in the reactor shaft the tar is gasified in a heterogeneous catalytic reaction with limestone. Charcoal and limestone are separated from the gas at the top of the reactor shaft and brought back to the fluidized bed for combustion. (L.F.).

  1. Synthesis and morphology of iron-iron oxide core-shell nanoparticles produced by high pressure gas condensation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xing, Lijuan; ten Brink, Gert H.; Chen, Bin; Schmidt, Franz P.; Haberfehlner, Georg; Hofer, Ferdinand; Kooi, Bart J.; Palasantzas, Georgios

    2016-01-01

    Core-shell structured Fe nanoparticles (NPs) produced by high pressure magnetron sputtering gas condensation were studied using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques, electron diffraction, electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS), tomographic reconstruction, and Wulff shape construction

  2. Deposition of NORM generated by the oil and gas industries in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schenato, Flavia; Aguiar, Lais A.; Leal, Marco Aurelio; Ruperti Junior, Nerbe

    2013-01-01

    The natural occurring radioactive material (NORM) produced during E and P activities in the petroleum industry presents important implications for the management of solid wastes. The waste management strategy and final disposal policy regarding NORM should meet general radiation protection principles to ensure the long periods during which control may be necessary. The Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN) is responsible for the final destination of the radioactive waste produced in national territory. The Federal Law 10308/2001 establishes standards for the final destination of the radioactive waste providing information to the installation and operation of storage and disposal facilities. The licensee is responsible for the storage facilities, while CNEN is in charge of design, construction and installation of final disposal facilities, being possible to delegate such activities to a third parties, since preserved its full responsibility. The CNEN's Resolution on licensing of radioactive waste deposits, which is in the final approval stage, classifies the wastes generated by the E and P oil and gas industries and suggests two disposal methods to them, near surface and depth repositories, to be defined by safety analysis, but no formal criteria for disposal is really established. The guidelines for the safety analysis set for the licensing process of this class of waste is applied only to the implementation of interim storage facilities but not to repositories. Considering the large volume of NORM generated by the activities of E and P oil and gas industries and the growing demand of production with the exploration of pre-salt oil deposits in Brazil, this paper aims to discuss the development of national guidelines for the disposal of this class of waste to ensure long term safety and acceptability of disposal methods. (author)

  3. Impacts from oil and gas produced water discharges on the Gulf of Mexico hypoxic zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, M.E.; Satterlee, K.; Veil, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    Shallow water areas of the Gulf of Mexico continental shelf experience low dissolved oxygen (hypoxia) each summer. The hypoxic zone is primarily caused by input of nutrients from the Mississippi and Atchafalaya Rivers. The nutrients stimulate the growth of phytoplankton, which leads to reduction of the oxygen concentration near the sea floor. During the renewal of an offshore discharge permit used by the oil and gas industry in the Gulf of Mexico, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) identified the need to assess the potential contribution from produced water discharges to the occurrence of hypoxia. The EPA permit required either that all platforms in the hypoxic zone submit produced water samples, or that industry perform a coordinated sampling program. This paper, based on a report submitted to EPA in August 2005 (1), describes the results of the joint industry sampling program and the use of those results to quantify the relative significance of produced water discharges in the context of other sources on the occurrence of hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico. In the sampling program, 16 facilities were selected for multiple sampling - three times each at one month intervals-- and another 34 sites for onetime sampling. The goal of the sampling program was to quantify the sources and amount of oxygen demand associated with a variety of Gulf of Mexico produced waters. Data collected included direct oxygen demand measured by BOD5 (5-day biochemical oxygen demand) and TOC (total organic carbon) and indirect oxygen demand measured by nitrogen compounds (ammonia, nitrate, nitrate, and TKN (total Kjeldahl nitrogen)) and phosphorus (total phosphorus and orthophosphate). These data will serve as inputs to several available computer models currently in use for forecasting the occurrence of hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico. The output of each model will be compared for consistency in their predictions and then a semi-quantitative estimate of the relative significance of

  4. An optimization model for natural gas supply portfolios of a power generation company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jirutitijaroen, Panida; Kim, Sujin; Kittithreerapronchai, Oran; Prina, José

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► An optimization model for daily operation of a natural gas-fired generation company is proposed. ► The model considers uncertainties in electricity price and natural gas price. ► The model is formulated to capture the hedging decisions by the company. ► The solution yields quantities of natural gas, generating schedule and purchasing quantities of electricity. ► Higher profit can be achieved by adapting inventory and production to the actual spot prices of natural gas and electricity. - Abstract: This paper considers a deregulated electricity market environment where a natural gas-fired generation company can engage in different types of contracts to manage its natural gas supply as well as trade on the electricity market. If the contracts are properly designed, they can protect the company from fluctuations in electricity price and demand, at some cost to the company’s expected profit. This reduction in profit can be mitigated by trading on the natural gas and electricity spot markets, but this trading activity may also sometimes result in losses. A stochastic programming model is formulated to capture the hedging decisions made by the company, as well as the interactions between the natural gas and electricity markets. The benefits offered by this approach for profit maximization in a variety of business scenarios, such as the case where the company can hold some amount of gas in storage are studied and presented. It is found that the stochastic model enables the company to optimize the electricity generation schedule and the natural gas consumption, including spot price transactions and gas storage management. Several managerial insights into the natural gas market, natural gas storage, and distribution profit are given

  5. Antagonistic effect of Lactobacillus strains against gas-producing coliforms isolated from colicky infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oggero Roberto

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infantile colic is a common disturb within the first 3 months of life, nevertheless the pathogenesis is incompletely understood and treatment remains an open issue. Intestinal gas production is thought to be one of the causes of abdominal discomfort in infants suffering from colic. However, data about the role of the amount of gas produced by infants' colonic microbiota and the correlation with the onset of colic symptoms are scanty. The benefit of supplementation with lactobacilli been recently reported but the mechanisms by which they exert their effects have not yet been fully defined. This study was performed to evaluate the interaction between Lactobacillus spp. strains and gas-forming coliforms isolated from stools of colicky infants. Results Strains of coliforms were isolated from stools of 45 colicky and 42 control breastfed infants in McConkey Agar and identified using PCR with species-specific primers, and the BBL™ Enterotube™ II system for Enterobacteriaceae. Gas-forming capability of coliforms was assessed in liquid cultures containing lactose as sole carbon source. The average count of total coliforms in colicky infants was significantly higher than controls: 5.98 (2.00-8.76 log10 vs 3.90 (2.50-7.10 CFU/g of faeces (p = 0.015. The following strains were identified: Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Klebsiella oxytoca, Enterobacter aerogenes, Enterobacter cloacae and Enterococcus faecalis. Then, 27 Lactobacillus strains were tested for their antagonistic effect against coliforms both by halo-forming method and in liquid co-cultures. Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp.delbrueckii DSM 20074 and L. plantarum MB 456 were able to inhibit all coliforms strains (halo-forming method, also in liquid co-cultures, thus demonstrating an antagonistic activity. Conclusions This study shows that two out of 27 strains of Lactobacillus examined possess an antimicrobial effect against six species of gas-forming coliforms

  6. Antagonistic effect of Lactobacillus strains against gas-producing coliforms isolated from colicky infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savino, Francesco; Cordisco, Lisa; Tarasco, Valentina; Locatelli, Emanuela; Di Gioia, Diana; Oggero, Roberto; Matteuzzi, Diego

    2011-06-30

    Infantile colic is a common disturb within the first 3 months of life, nevertheless the pathogenesis is incompletely understood and treatment remains an open issue. Intestinal gas production is thought to be one of the causes of abdominal discomfort in infants suffering from colic. However, data about the role of the amount of gas produced by infants' colonic microbiota and the correlation with the onset of colic symptoms are scanty. The benefit of supplementation with lactobacilli been recently reported but the mechanisms by which they exert their effects have not yet been fully defined. This study was performed to evaluate the interaction between Lactobacillus spp. strains and gas-forming coliforms isolated from stools of colicky infants. Strains of coliforms were isolated from stools of 45 colicky and 42 control breastfed infants in McConkey Agar and identified using PCR with species-specific primers, and the BBL™ Enterotube™ II system for Enterobacteriaceae. Gas-forming capability of coliforms was assessed in liquid cultures containing lactose as sole carbon source. The average count of total coliforms in colicky infants was significantly higher than controls: 5.98 (2.00-8.76) log10 vs 3.90 (2.50-7.10) CFU/g of faeces (p = 0.015). The following strains were identified: Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Klebsiella oxytoca, Enterobacter aerogenes, Enterobacter cloacae and Enterococcus faecalis. Then, 27 Lactobacillus strains were tested for their antagonistic effect against coliforms both by halo-forming method and in liquid co-cultures. Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. delbrueckii DSM 20074 and L. plantarum MB 456 were able to inhibit all coliforms strains (halo-forming method), also in liquid co-cultures, thus demonstrating an antagonistic activity. This study shows that two out of 27 strains of Lactobacillus examined possess an antimicrobial effect against six species of gas-forming coliforms isolated from colicky infants. Our findings may stimulate

  7. Cost and greenhouse gas emission tradeoffs of alternative uses of lignin for second generation ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourhashem, Ghasideh; Adler, Paul R.; McAloon, Andrew J.; Spatari, Sabrina

    2013-06-01

    Second generation ethanol bioconversion technologies are under demonstration-scale development for the production of lignocellulosic fuels to meet the US federal Renewable Fuel Standards (RFS2). Bioconversion technology utilizes the fermentable sugars generated from the cellulosic fraction of the feedstock, and most commonly assumes that the lignin fraction may be used as a source of thermal and electrical energy. We examine the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emission and techno-economic cost tradeoffs for alternative uses of the lignin fraction of agricultural residues (corn stover, and wheat and barley straw) produced within a 2000 dry metric ton per day ethanol biorefinery in three locations in the United States. We compare three scenarios in which the lignin is (1) used as a land amendment to replace soil organic carbon (SOC); (2) separated, dried and sold as a coal substitute to produce electricity; and (3) used to produce electricity onsite at the biorefinery. Results from this analysis indicate that for life cycle GHG intensity, amending the lignin to land is lowest among the three ethanol production options (-25 to -2 g CO2e MJ-1), substituting coal with lignin is second lowest (4-32 g CO2e MJ-1), and onsite power generation is highest (36-41 g CO2e MJ-1). Moreover, the onsite power generation case may not meet RFS2 cellulosic fuel requirements given the uncertainty in electricity substitution. Options that use lignin for energy do so at the expense of SOC loss. The lignin-land amendment option has the lowest capital cost among the three options due to lower equipment costs for the biorefinery’s thermal energy needs and use of biogas generated onsite. The need to purchase electricity and uncertain market value of the lignin-land amendment could raise its cost compared to onsite power generation and electricity co-production. However, assuming a market value (50-100/dry Mg) for nutrient and soil carbon replacement in agricultural soils, and potentially

  8. Cost and greenhouse gas emission tradeoffs of alternative uses of lignin for second generation ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pourhashem, Ghasideh; Spatari, Sabrina; Adler, Paul R; McAloon, Andrew J

    2013-01-01

    Second generation ethanol bioconversion technologies are under demonstration-scale development for the production of lignocellulosic fuels to meet the US federal Renewable Fuel Standards (RFS2). Bioconversion technology utilizes the fermentable sugars generated from the cellulosic fraction of the feedstock, and most commonly assumes that the lignin fraction may be used as a source of thermal and electrical energy. We examine the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emission and techno-economic cost tradeoffs for alternative uses of the lignin fraction of agricultural residues (corn stover, and wheat and barley straw) produced within a 2000 dry metric ton per day ethanol biorefinery in three locations in the United States. We compare three scenarios in which the lignin is (1) used as a land amendment to replace soil organic carbon (SOC); (2) separated, dried and sold as a coal substitute to produce electricity; and (3) used to produce electricity onsite at the biorefinery. Results from this analysis indicate that for life cycle GHG intensity, amending the lignin to land is lowest among the three ethanol production options (−25 to −2 g CO 2 e MJ −1 ), substituting coal with lignin is second lowest (4–32 g CO 2 e MJ −1 ), and onsite power generation is highest (36–41 g CO 2 e MJ −1 ). Moreover, the onsite power generation case may not meet RFS2 cellulosic fuel requirements given the uncertainty in electricity substitution. Options that use lignin for energy do so at the expense of SOC loss. The lignin–land amendment option has the lowest capital cost among the three options due to lower equipment costs for the biorefinery’s thermal energy needs and use of biogas generated onsite. The need to purchase electricity and uncertain market value of the lignin–land amendment could raise its cost compared to onsite power generation and electricity co-production. However, assuming a market value ($50–$100/dry Mg) for nutrient and soil carbon replacement in

  9. Influence of gas-generation on melt/concrete interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powers, D.A.

    1979-01-01

    Gases formed during the interaction of a high-temperature melt with concrete are shown to stem from the thermal dehydration and decarboxylation of the concrete. The kinetics of these decomposition reactions are described. Gases within the melt cause an apparent swelling of the melt. The observed swelling is not easily correlated to the rate of gas evolution. Metallic melts cause CO 2 /CO and H 2 O liberated from the melt to be reduced to CO and hydrogen. When these gases escape from the melt they assist in aerosol formation. As the gases cool they react along a pathway whose oxygen fugacity is apparently buffered by the iron-Wuestite equilibrium. Methane is a product of the gas-phase reaction. (orig./HP) [de

  10. Evaluation of the Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Hydroelectricity Generation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhil Kadiyala

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG emissions from different hydroelectricity generation systems by first performing a comprehensive review of the hydroelectricity generation system life cycle assessment (LCA studies and then subsequent computation of statistical metrics to quantify the life cycle GHG emissions (expressed in grams of carbon dioxide equivalent per kilowatt hour, gCO2e/kWh. A categorization index (with unique category codes, formatted as “facility type-electric power generation capacity” was developed and used in this study to evaluate the life cycle GHG emissions from the reviewed hydroelectricity generation systems. The unique category codes were labeled by integrating the names of the two hydro power sub-classifications, i.e., the facility type (impoundment (I, diversion (D, pumped storage (PS, miscellaneous hydropower works (MHPW and the electric power generation capacity (micro (µ, small (S, large (L. The characterized hydroelectricity generation systems were statistically evaluated to determine the reduction in corresponding life cycle GHG emissions. A total of eight unique categorization codes (I-S, I-L, D-µ, D-S, D-L, PS-L, MHPW-µ, MHPW-S were designated to the 19 hydroelectricity generation LCA studies (representing 178 hydropower cases using the proposed categorization index. The mean life cycle GHG emissions resulting from the use of I-S (N = 24, I-L (N = 8, D-µ (N = 3, D-S (N = 133, D-L (N = 3, PS-L (N = 3, MHPW-µ (N = 3, and MHPW-S (N = 1 hydroelectricity generation systems are 21.05 gCO2e/kWh, 40.63 gCO2e/kWh, 47.82 gCO2e/kWh, 27.18 gCO2e/kWh, 3.45 gCO2e/kWh, 256.63 gCO2e/kWh, 19.73 gCO2e/kWh, and 2.78 gCO2e/kWh, respectively. D-L hydroelectricity generation systems produced the minimum life cycle GHGs (considering the hydroelectricity generation system categories with a representation of at least two cases.

  11. THE USE OF GENERATING SETS WITH lNG GAS ENGINES IN “SHORE TO SHIP” SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz TARNAPOWICZ

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The main sources of air pollution in ports are ships, on which electrical energy is produced in the autonomous gener-ating sets Diesel-Generator. The most effective way to reduce harmful exhaust emissions from ships is to exclude marine generating sets and provide the shore-side electricity in “Shore to Ship” system. The main problem in the implementa-tion of power supply for ships from land is connected with matching parameters of voltage in onshore network with marine network. Currently, the recommended solution is to supply ships from the onshore electricity network with the use of power electronic converters. This article presents an analysis of the „Shore to Ship” system with the use of gener-ating sets with LNG gas engines. It shows topologies with LNG – Generator sets, environmental benefits of such a solu-tion, advantages and disadvantages.

  12. Gas Supply, Pricing Mechanism and the Economics of Power Generation in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanxin Liu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available During the “13th Five-Year Plan” period, green energy is the top priority for China. China has realized that natural gas, as a low-carbon energy source, fits with the nation’s energy demand and will play a critical role in the energy transition, but the actual industry development is slower than expected. By analyzing the major gas corporations around the world, the paper finds that the key factors of the sector are supply and price of the energy resource. A comprehensive analysis on domestic and foreign imported gas reveals a trend of oversupply in China in the future. Given the critical import dependence, China has introduced a series of gas price reforms since 2013, which have led to negative impacts on important gas consumption sectors including power generation. With the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE model, we find that under the prevailing gas supply structure and price level, the economy of utility gas power generation will remain unprofitable, while combined cooling heating and power (CCHP is only commercially feasible in coastal developed regions. If continuing, such a trend will not only bring forth disastrous consequences to gas power industry, but also damage the upstream gas industry, more importantly, impede the energy transition. We conclude the paper with policy implications on pricing mechanism reform, developing domestic unconventional gas and the R&D of gas turbine.

  13. Accounting for fuel price risk: Using forward natural gas prices instead of gas price forecasts to compare renewable to natural gas-fired generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan; Golove, William

    2003-08-13

    Against the backdrop of increasingly volatile natural gas prices, renewable energy resources, which by their nature are immune to natural gas fuel price risk, provide a real economic benefit. Unlike many contracts for natural gas-fired generation, renewable generation is typically sold under fixed-price contracts. Assuming that electricity consumers value long-term price stability, a utility or other retail electricity supplier that is looking to expand its resource portfolio (or a policymaker interested in evaluating different resource options) should therefore compare the cost of fixed-price renewable generation to the hedged or guaranteed cost of new natural gas-fired generation, rather than to projected costs based on uncertain gas price forecasts. To do otherwise would be to compare apples to oranges: by their nature, renewable resources carry no natural gas fuel price risk, and if the market values that attribute, then the most appropriate comparison is to the hedged cost of natural gas-fired generation. Nonetheless, utilities and others often compare the costs of renewable to gas-fired generation using as their fuel price input long-term gas price forecasts that are inherently uncertain, rather than long-term natural gas forward prices that can actually be locked in. This practice raises the critical question of how these two price streams compare. If they are similar, then one might conclude that forecast-based modeling and planning exercises are in fact approximating an apples-to-apples comparison, and no further consideration is necessary. If, however, natural gas forward prices systematically differ from price forecasts, then the use of such forecasts in planning and modeling exercises will yield results that are biased in favor of either renewable (if forwards < forecasts) or natural gas-fired generation (if forwards > forecasts). In this report we compare the cost of hedging natural gas price risk through traditional gas-based hedging instruments (e

  14. IPR CURVE CALCULATING FOR A WELL PRODUCING BY INTERMITTENT GAS-LIFT METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Mršić

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Master degree thesis (Mršić Z., 2009 shows the detailed procedure of calculating inflow performance curve for intermittent gas lift, based entirely on the data measured at surface. This article explains the detailed approach of the mentioned research and the essence of the results and observations acquired during the study. To evaluate the proposed method of calculating the average bottom hole flowing pressure (BHFP as the key parameter of inflow performance calculation, downhole pressure surveys have been conducted in three producing wells at Šandrovac and Bilogora oil fields: Šandrovac-75α, Bilogora-52 and Šandrovac-34. Absolute difference between measured and calculated values of average BHFP for first two wells was Δp=0,64 bar and Δp=0,06 bar while calculated relative error was εr=0,072 and εr=0,0038 respectively. Due to gas-lift valve malfunction in well Šandrovac-34, noticed during downhole pressure survey, value of calculated BHFP cannot be considered correct to compare with measured value. Based on the measured data the information have been revealed about actual values of a certain intermittent gas lift parameters that are usually assumed based on experience gained values or are calculated using empirical equations given in literature. The significant difference has been noticed for a parameter t2. The length of a minimum pressure period for which the measured values were in range of 10,74 min up to 16 min, while empirical equation gives values in the range of 1,23 min up to 1,75 min. Based on measured values of above mentioned parameter a new empirical equation has been established (the paper is published in Croatian.

  15. Effects of gas produced by degradation of Mg–Zn–Zr Alloy on cancellous bone tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jingbo; Jiang, Hongfeng [Tianjin Hospital, 300211 Tianjin (China); Bi, Yanze; Sun, Jin e; Chen, Minfang; Liu, Debao [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University of Technology, 300384 Tianjin (China)

    2015-10-01

    Mg–Zn–Zr alloy cylinders were implanted into the femoral condyles of Japanese big-ear white rabbits. X-ray showed that by 12 weeks following implantation the implant became obscure, around which the low-density area appeared and enlarged. By 24 weeks, the implant was more obscure and the density of the surrounding cancellous bone increased. Scanning electron microscopy examination showed bone tissue on the surface of the alloy attached by living fibers at 12 weeks. Micro-CT confirmed that new bone tissue on the surface of the residual alloy implant increased from 12 weeks to 24 weeks. By 12 weeks, many cavities in the cancellous bone tissue around the implant were noted with a CT value, similar to gas value, and increasing by 24 weeks (P < 0.01). Histological examination of hard tissue slices showed that bone tissue was visibly attached to the alloy in the femoral condyle at 12 weeks. The trabecular bone tissues became more intact and dense, and the cavities were filled with soft tissue at 24 weeks. In general, gas produced by the degradation of the Mg–Zn–Zr alloy can cause cavitation within cancellous bone, which does not affect osteogenesis of Mg alloy. - Highlights: • The degradation of Mg alloy in cancellous bone causes cavitation around the alloy. • At first, the CT value of the cavities is similar to the gas value. • The area of the cavities enlarges gradually by 12 weeks. • The cavities are filled with bone tissue and soft tissue gradually.

  16. Tribological Characteristic of Titanium Alloy Surface Layers Produced by Diode Laser Gas Nitriding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisiecki A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the tribological properties of titanium alloy Ti6Al4V composite surface layers Ti/TiN were produced during laser surface gas nitriding by means of a novel high power direct diode laser with unique characteristics of the laser beam and a rectangular beam spot. Microstructure, surface topography and microhardness distribution across the surface layers were analyzed. Ball-on-disk tests were performed to evaluate and compare the wear and friction characteristics of surface layers nitrided at different process parameters, base metal of titanium alloy Ti6Al4V and also the commercially pure titanium. Results showed that under dry sliding condition the commercially pure titanium samples have the highest coefficient of friction about 0.45, compared to 0.36 of titanium alloy Ti6Al4V and 0.1-0.13 in a case of the laser gas nitrided surface layers. The volume loss of Ti6Al4V samples under such conditions is twice lower than in a case of pure titanium. On the other hand the composite surface layer characterized by the highest wear resistance showed almost 21 times lower volume loss during the ball-on-disk test, compared to Ti6Al4V samples.

  17. Investigation of produced waters radioactivity of oil and gas deposits in the Dnieper-Donets province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plyatsuk L. D.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The process of radioactive pollution of produced waters, oilfield equipment, oil-contaminated soils and sludge is widely spread and differs within the various oil and gas regions. Formation waters contained radioactive element isotopes become the significant source and cause of elevated level of equivalent dose power and as a consequence, an increase in the incidence among the population. The author's idea is formulation of specific recommendations on the decontamination of the investigated objects by conducting the necessary appropriate experimental studies. The purpose of the article is to determine the content of radionuclides, γ- and α-emitters in technogenic objects of Bugruvate oil and gas fields, and to reveal the relationship with the features of mineralogical composition, geological structure and technological process. The γ-spectrometric analysis was used to determine the radionuclide composition of the natural radiators of the 238U (226Ra, 214Pо, 214Bi and 232Th (228Ac, 212Pb, 212Вi series in samples of technological sludge, oil, individual soil samples and water. The content of radionuclides of α-emitters was determined using separate radiochemical techniques. It was investigated that the radioactivity of the formation water is mainly determined by 226Ra and 228Ra and the products of their decay.

  18. TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER TO U.S. INDEPENDENT OIL AND NATURAL GAS PRODUCERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    2002-05-31

    The Petroleum Technology Transfer Council (PTTC) continued pursuing its mission of helping U.S. independent oil and natural gas producers make timely, informed technology decisions. Networking opportunities that occur with a Houston Headquarters (HQ) location are increasing name awareness. Focused efforts by Executive Director Don Duttlinger to interact with large independents, national service companies and some majors are continuing to supplement the support base of the medium to smaller industry participants around the country. PTTC is now involved in many of the technology-related activities that occur in high oil and natural gas activity areas. Access to technology remains the driving force for those who do not have in-house research and development capabilities and look to the PTTC to provide services and options for increased efficiency. Looking forward to the future, the Board, Regional Lead Organization (RLO) Directors and HQ staff developed a 10-year vision outlining what PTTC needs to accomplish in supporting a national energy plan. This vision has been communicated to Department of Energy (DOE) staff and PTTC looks forward to continuing this successful federal-state-industry partnership. As part of this effort, several more examples of industry using information gained through PTTC activities to impact their bottom line were identified. Securing the industry pull on technology acceptance was the cornerstone of this directional plan.

  19. Niobium films produced by magnetron sputtering using an Ar-He mixture as discharge gas

    CERN Document Server

    Schucan, G M; Calatroni, Sergio

    1995-01-01

    Superconducting RF accelerating cavities have been produced at CERN by sputter-coating, with a thin niobium layer, cavities made of copper. In the present work, the discharge behaviour and niobium film properties have been investigated when part of the argon sputtering gas is replaced with helium. Helium is chosen because of its low mass, which reduces the energy lost by the niobium atoms colliding with the sputter gas atoms. The higher niobium atom energy should lead to higher adatom mobility on the substrate and, hence, to a larger grain size, a feature which is highly desirable to reduce the cavity surface resistance. It has been found that helium addition effectively helps to maintain the discharge at considerably lower argon pressures, via metastable-neutral ionisation and high secondary electron yield. However, a large amount of helium is trapped in the film, amount which is proportional to the helium partial pressure during the discharge, resulting in a reduction of both Residual Resistivity Ratio and ...

  20. Development of high pressure deuterium gas targets for the generation of intense mono-energetic fast neutron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzek, J.; Richardson, K.; Franklyn, C.B.; Waites, A.; McMurray, W.R.; Watterson, J.I.W.; Tapper, U.A.S.

    1999-01-01

    Two different technical solutions to the problem of generation of mono-energetic fast neutron beams on the gaseous targets are presented here. A simple and cost-effective design of a cooled windowed gas target system is described in the first part of this paper. It utilises a thin metallic foil window and circulating deuterium gas cooled down to 100 K. The ultimate beam handling capability of such target is determined by the properties of the window. Reliable performance of this gas target system was achieved at 1 bar of deuterium gas, when exposed to a 45 μA beam of 5 MeV deuterons, for periods in excess of 6 h. Cooling of the target gas resulted in increased fast neutron output and improved neutron to gamma-ray ratio. The second part of this paper discusses the design of a high pressure, windowless gas target for use with pulsed, low duty cycle accelerators. A rotating seal concept was applied to reduce the gas load in a differentially pumped system. This allows operation at 1.23 bar of deuterium gas pressure in the gas cell region. Such a gas target system is free from the limitations of the windowed target but special attention has to be paid to the heat dissipation capability of the beam dump, due to the use of a thin target. The rotating seal concept is particularly suitable for use with accelerators such as radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) linacs that operate with a very high peak current at low duty cycle. The performance of both target systems was comprehensively characterized using the time-of-flight (TOF) technique. This demonstrated that very good quality mono-energetic fast neutron beams were produced with the slow neutron and gamma-ray component below 10% of the total target output

  1. Calculating computer-generated optical elements to produce arbitrary intensity distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Findlay, S.; Nugent, K.A.; Scholten, R.E.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: We describe preliminary investigation into using a computer to generate optical elements (CGOEs) with phase-only variation, that will produce an arbitrary intensity distribution in a given image plane. An iterative calculation cycles between the CGOE and the image plane and modifies each according to the appropriate constraints. We extend this to the calculation of defined intensity distributions in two separated planes by modifying both phase and intensity at the CGOE

  2. Generating and Synthesizing Information about Risks in Unconventional Oil and Gas Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiseman, H.

    2013-12-01

    site construction and disclosure of all chemicals used at the well site. Governments should also consider requiring air emissions (including methane) monitoring near well sites. Regardless of who conducts monitoring and testing, states and the federal government should agree on the parameters that would be tested for in all water and air quality samples, and they should require reporting in the same units to allow for cross-state comparison. Finally, we must synthesize data produced by industry or states and organize and summarize it in a manner that is understandable to scientists and non-scientists alike. The risks of unconventional oil and gas development are perhaps most easily understood when organized by the stage of well development, and for each stage, specific risks could be identified. The federal government is, once again, the most likely candidate to produce and synthesize this information. Although nonprofit groups, industry actors, and state government could also aid in this task, certain stakeholders might question whether these entities' motives influenced data summaries. Generating and synthesizing information about the technologies and risks involved in unconventional oil and gas development will not be easy, or cheap. But it will be important if we are to sail forward rapidly through waters that no other country has charted.

  3. Generation of a transplantable erythropoietin-producer derived from human mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoo, Takashi; Fukui, Akira; Matsumoto, Kei; Ohashi, Toya; Sado, Yoshikazu; Suzuki, Hideaki; Kawamura, Tetsuya; Okabe, Masataka; Hosoya, Tatsuo; Kobayashi, Eiji

    2008-06-15

    Differentiation of autologous stem cells into functional transplantable tissue for organ regeneration is a promising regenerative therapeutic approach for cancer, diabetes, and many human diseases. Yet to be established, however, is differentiation into tissue capable of producing erythropoietin (EPO), which has a critical function in anemia. We report a novel EPO-producing organ-like structure (organoid) derived from human mesenchymal stem cells. Using our previously established relay culture system, a human mesenchymal stem cell-derived, human EPO-competent organoid was established in rat omentum. The organoid-derived levels of human EPO increased in response to anemia induced by rapid blood withdrawal. In addition, the presence of an organoid in rats suppressed for native (rat) EPO production enhanced recovery from anemia when compared with control animals lacking the organoid. Together these results confirmed the generation of a stem cell-derived organoid that is capable of producing EPO and sensitive to physiological regulation.

  4. Generation of a Chinese Hamster Ovary Cell Line Producing Recombinant Human Glucocerebrosidase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novo, Juliana Branco; Morganti, Ligia; Moro, Ana Maria; Paes Leme, Adriana Franco; Serrano, Solange Maria de Toledo; Raw, Isaias; Ho, Paulo Lee

    2012-01-01

    Impaired activity of the lysosomal enzyme glucocerebrosidase (GCR) results in the inherited metabolic disorder known as Gaucher disease. Current treatment consists of enzyme replacement therapy by administration of exogenous GCR. Although effective, it is exceptionally expensive, and patients worldwide have a limited access to this medicine. In Brazil, the public healthcare system provides the drug free of charge for all Gaucher's patients, which reaches the order of $ 84 million per year. However, the production of GCR by public institutions in Brazil would reduce significantly the therapy costs. Here, we describe a robust protocol for the generation of a cell line producing recombinant human GCR. The protein was expressed in CHO-DXB11 (dhfr−) cells after stable transfection and gene amplification with methotrexate. As expected, glycosylated GCR was detected by immunoblotting assay both as cell-associated (~64 and 59 kDa) and secreted (63–69 kDa) form. Analysis of subclones allowed the selection of stable CHO cells producing a secreted functional enzyme, with a calculated productivity of 5.14 pg/cell/day for the highest producer. Although being laborious, traditional methods of screening high-producing recombinant cells may represent a valuable alternative to generate expensive biopharmaceuticals in countries with limited resources. PMID:23091360

  5. Generation of a Chinese Hamster Ovary Cell Line Producing Recombinant Human Glucocerebrosidase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Branco Novo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Impaired activity of the lysosomal enzyme glucocerebrosidase (GCR results in the inherited metabolic disorder known as Gaucher disease. Current treatment consists of enzyme replacement therapy by administration of exogenous GCR. Although effective, it is exceptionally expensive, and patients worldwide have a limited access to this medicine. In Brazil, the public healthcare system provides the drug free of charge for all Gaucher’s patients, which reaches the order of $ 84 million per year. However, the production of GCR by public institutions in Brazil would reduce significantly the therapy costs. Here, we describe a robust protocol for the generation of a cell line producing recombinant human GCR. The protein was expressed in CHO-DXB11 (dhfr− cells after stable transfection and gene amplification with methotrexate. As expected, glycosylated GCR was detected by immunoblotting assay both as cell-associated (~64 and 59 kDa and secreted (63–69 kDa form. Analysis of subclones allowed the selection of stable CHO cells producing a secreted functional enzyme, with a calculated productivity of 5.14 pg/cell/day for the highest producer. Although being laborious, traditional methods of screening high-producing recombinant cells may represent a valuable alternative to generate expensive biopharmaceuticals in countries with limited resources.

  6. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT: BIOQUELL, INC. CLARIS C HYDROGEN PEROXIDE GAS GENERATOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Environmental Technology Verification report discusses the technology and performance of the Clarus C Hydrogen Peroxide Gas Generator, a biological decontamination device manufactured by BIOQUELL, Inc. The unit was tested by evaluating its ability to decontaminate seven types...

  7. Relative Role of Gas Generation and Displacement Rates in Cavity Nucleation and Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Bachu Narain; Foreman, A. J E.

    1984-01-01

    Problems of helium diffusion and clustering during irradiation are analysed. Using the “homogeneous” nucleation theory , the effect of damage rate on cavity density is calculated for different gas generation to damage rate ratios. The influence of gas mobility on cavity nucleation has been...

  8. Hourly weather forecasts for gas turbine power generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Giunta

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available An hourly short-term weather forecast can optimize processes in Combined Cycle Gas Turbine (CCGT plants by helping to reduce imbalance charges on the national power grid. Consequently, a reliable meteorological prediction for a given power plant is crucial for obtaining competitive prices for the electric market, better planning and stock management, sales and supplies of energy sources. The paper discusses the short-term hourly temperature forecasts, at lead time day+1 and day+2, over a period of thirteen months in 2012 and 2013 for six Italian CCGT power plants of 390 MW each (260 MW from the gas turbine and 130 MW from the steam turbine. These CCGT plants are placed in three different Italian climate areas: the Po Valley, the Adriatic coast, and the North Tyrrhenian coast. The meteorological model applied in this study is the eni-Kassandra Meteo Forecast (e‑kmf™, a multi-model approach system to provide probabilistic forecasts with a Kalman filter used to improve accuracy of local temperature predictions. Performance skill scores, computed by the output data of the meteorological model, are compared with local observations, and used to evaluate forecast reliability. In the study, the approach has shown good overall scores encompassing more than 50,000 hourly temperature values. Some differences from one site to another, due to local meteorological phenomena, can affect the short-term forecast performance, with consequent impacts on gas-to-power production and related negative imbalances. For operational application of the methodology in CCGT power plant, the benefits and limits have been successfully identified.

  9. Methamphetamine generates peroxynitrite and produces dopaminergic neurotoxicity in mice: protective effects of peroxynitrite decomposition catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imam, S Z; Crow, J P; Newport, G D; Islam, F; Slikker, W; Ali, S F

    1999-08-07

    Methamphetamine (METH)-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity is believed to be produced by oxidative stress and free radical generation. The present study was undertaken to investigate if METH generates peroxynitrite and produces dopaminergic neurotoxicity. We also investigated if this generation of peroxynitrite can be blocked by a selective peroxynitrite decomposition catalyst, 5, 10,15, 20-tetrakis(N-methyl-4'-pyridyl)porphyrinato iron III (FeTMPyP) and protect against METH-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity. Administration of METH resulted in the significant formation of 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT), an in vivo marker of peroxynitrite generation, in the striatum and also caused a significant increase in the body temperature. METH injection also caused a significant decrease in the concentration of dopamine (DA), 3, 4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), and homovanillic acid (HVA) by 76%, 53% and 40%, respectively, in the striatum compared with the control group. Treatment with FeTMPyP blocked the formation of 3-NT by 66% when compared with the METH group. FeTMPyP treatment also provided significant protection against the METH-induced hyperthermia and depletion of DA, DOPAC and HVA. Administration of FeTMPyP alone neither resulted in 3-NT formation nor had any significant effect on DA or its metabolite concentrations. These findings indicate that peroxynitrite plays a role in METH-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity and also suggests that peroxynitrite decomposition catalysts may be beneficial for the management of psychostimulant abuse. Copyright 1999 Published by Elsevier Science B.V.

  10. Generation of high-yield insulin producing cells from human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafarian, Arefeh; Taghikhani, Mohammad; Abroun, Saeid; Pourpak, Zahra; Allahverdi, Amir; Soleimani, Masoud

    2014-07-01

    Allogenic islet transplantation is a most efficient approach for treatment of diabetes mellitus. However, the scarcity of islets and long term need for an immunosuppressant limits its application. Recently, cell replacement therapies that generate of unlimited sources of β cells have been developed to overcome these limitations. In this study we have described a stage specific differentiation protocol for the generation of insulin producing islet-like clusters from human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBM-MSCs). This specific stepwise protocol induced differentiation of hMSCs into definitive endoderm, pancreatic endoderm and pancreatic endocrine cells that expressed of sox17, foxa2, pdx1, ngn3, nkx2.2, insulin, glucagon, somatostatin, pancreatic polypeptide, and glut2 transcripts respectively. In addition, immunocytochemical analysis confirmed protein expression of the above mentioned genes. Western blot analysis discriminated insulin from proinsulin in the final differentiated cells. In derived insulin producing cells (IPCs), secreted insulin and C-peptide was in a glucose dependent manner. We have developed a protocol that generates effective high-yield human IPCs from hBM-MSCs in vitro. These finding suggest that functional IPCs generated by this procedure can be used as a cell-based approach for insulin dependent diabetes mellitus.

  11. Size distributions of aerosols produced from substitute materials by the Laskin cold DOP aerosol generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinds, W.; Macher, J.; First, M.W.

    1981-01-01

    Test aerosols of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DOP) produced by Laskin nozzle aerosol generators are widely used for in-place filter testing and respirator fit testing. Concern for the health effects of this material has led to a search for substitute materials for test aerosols. Aerosols were generated with a Laskin generator and diluted 6000-fold with clean air. Size distributions were measured for DOP, di(2-ethylhexyl)sebecate, polyethylene glycol, mineral oil, and corn oil aerosols with a PMS ASAS-X optical particle counter. Distributions were slightly bimodal with count median diameters from 0.22 to 0.30 μm. Size distributions varied little with aerosol material, operating pressure, or liquid level. Mineral oil and corn oil gave the best agreement with the DOP size distribution

  12. Conical flow near singular rays. [shock generation in ideal gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahalak, G. I.; Myers, M. K.

    1974-01-01

    The steady flow of an ideal gas past a conical body is investigated by the method of matched asymptotic expansions, with particular emphasis on the flow near the singular ray occurring in linearized theory. The first-order problem governing the flow in this region is formulated, leading to the equation of Kuo, and an approximate solution is obtained in the case of compressive flow behind the main front. This solution is compared with the results of previous investigations with a view to assessing the applicability of the Lighthill-Whitham theories.

  13. Fast discharging homopolar drum-type generator with gas bearing and flexible copper-fiber brushes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kibardin, A.S.; Komin, A.V.; Sojkin, V.F.; Frolkin, V.I.

    1984-01-01

    The description and results of testing schock-excited homopolar generator (SEHG) with a drum-type rotor, a gas bearing and flexible copper-fiber brushes are presented. SEHG has a magnetic core with two excitation coils with the designed field of 1.8-2 T in the gap. The drum-type titanium rotor has 80 kg, is 0.5 m in diameter, 0.25 m length and 0.05 m thick. SEHG power is 3.6 MJ, overall dimensions are 0.8x1 m. Single- and double-row bearings, representing an aluminium shell of 15 mm thick, established inside an external backward current lead and isolated from it, are used to control serviceability of a radial gas-static bearing, which is a support for an SEHG rotor. The bearing surface was covered with the colloidal graphite and had one or two rows by 24 openings for swelling. Brush units represent a bronze brush ring, containing 44 copper-fiber brushes. Tests results confirm serviceability of copper-fiber brushes with quite large dimensions and permit to count on producing the 2.4 MA electric discharge and 12 ms pulse rise time

  14. Report on power generation potential using manure gas from Ontario farms. Appendix B3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    The potential for manure gas power generation in Ontario is assessed. Since biogas cannot be easily liquefied for reserve use applications, it must be consumed as it is produced, or stored as a gas under low or medium pressure. Simultaneous conversion of fuel into both thermal and electrical energy is known as cogeneration, and offers the potential of electrical power sales through utility interconnection. Typical electrical production results available on a per mature animal basis are: cow, 75 W; swine, 10 W; and poultry, 0.65 W. A supplementary benefit is that digestion greatly reduces manure odour. The potential number of manure biogas power plant units (MBU) by size can be determined from livestock data, farm size and animal type. There are ca 17,000 potential MBU (361 MW continuous power) related to cattle operations, 3,200 MBU (49 MW) associated with swine operations, and 14,000 MBU (42 MW) related to poultry, for a total technical potential of 452 MW. Based on available equipment packages and installation costs, it is estimated that 15 kW is the minimum capacity cogeneration unit worthy of consideration. Estimated cost of an on-farm biogas cogeneration plant ranges from $200,000 for a 15 kW installation to $500,000 for a 150 kW plant. Appendices present properties of manure gases, representative installations, involved groups, a literature search, selected equipment manufacturers, and case study data sheets. 27 refs., 4 figs., 10 tabs

  15. Studi Ketebalan Elektroda Pada Produksi Gas HHO (Hidrogen Hidrogen Oksigen Oleh Generator Hho Tipe Basah Dengan Katalis NaHCO3 (Natrium Bikarbonat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ihsan Sopandi

    2015-12-01

    catalyst in the electrolyte solution. Characteristics that will be observed including the consumption of electrical power used by the generators, produced gas volume, HHO gas production rate and generator efficiency. Results of research and HHO generator wet type (wet cell testing have obtained the best generator at a thickness of 1 mm electrode, testing data obtained with the use of HHO power of 59.11 watts, the rate of production of HHO gas is 0.00054 kg/s and HHO generator efficiency by 9.42%.

  16. Electrophilic acid gas-reactive fluid, proppant, and process for enhanced fracturing and recovery of energy producing materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Carlos A.; Heldebrant, David J.; Bonneville, Alain; Jung, Hun Bok; Carroll, Kenneth C.

    2018-01-23

    An electrophilic acid gas-reactive fracturing fluid, proppant, and process are detailed. The fluid expands in volume to provide rapid and controlled increases in pressure that enhances fracturing in subterranean bedrock for recovery of energy-producing materials. The proppant stabilizes fracture openings in the bedrock to enhance recovery of energy-producing materials.

  17. In situ and laboratory toxicity of coalbed natural gas produced waters with elevated sodium bicarbonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farag, Aïda M.; Harper, David D.; Skaar, Don

    2014-01-01

    Some tributaries in the Powder River Structural Basin, USA, were historically ephemeral, but now contain water year round as a result of discharge of coalbed natural gas (CBNG)-produced waters. This presented the opportunity to study field sites with 100% effluent water with elevated concentrations of sodium bicarbonate. In situ experiments, static renewal experiments performed simultaneously with in situ experiments, and static renewal experiments performed with site water in the laboratory demonstrated that CBNG-produced water reduces survival of fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) and pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus). Age affected survival of fathead minnow, where fish 2 d posthatch (dph) were more sensitive than 6 dph fish, but pallid sturgeon survival was adversely affected at both 4 and 6 dph. This may have implications for acute assays that allow for the use of fish up to 14 dph. The survival of early lifestage fish is reduced significantly in the field when concentrations of NaHCO3 rise to more than 1500 mg/L (also expressed as >1245 mg HCO3 (-) /L). Treatment with the Higgin's Loop technology and dilution of untreated water increased survival in the laboratory. The mixing zones of the 3 outfalls studied ranged from approximately 800 m to 1200 m below the confluence. These experiments addressed the acute toxicity of effluent waters but did not address issues related to the volumes of water that may be added to the watershed.

  18. Utilization of hydrogen gas production for electricity generation in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lecturer

    2012-05-03

    % total sugar concentration of sugar ... 107 cfu/ml, pH was nearly constant at 6.0, and finally the H2 was drifted to fuel cell to generate electrical power until 4 V ..... hybrid system, reverse micelles and by metabolic engi- neering.

  19. Generation of insulin-producing human mesenchymal stem cells using recombinant adeno-associated virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong Hwan; Park, Si-Nae; Suh, Hwal

    2007-02-28

    The purpose of current experiment is the generation of insulin-producing human mesenchymal stem cells as therapeutic source for the cure of type 1 diabetes. Type 1 diabetes is generally caused by insulin deficiency accompanied by the destruction of islet beta-cells. In various trials for the treatment of type 1 diabetes, cell-based gene therapy using stem cells is considered as one of the most useful candidate for the treatment. In this experiment, human mesenchymal stem cells were transduced with AAV which is containing furin-cleavable human preproinsulin gene to generate insulin-producing cells as surrogate beta-cells for the type 1 diabetes therapy. In the rAAV production procedure, rAAV was generated by transfection of AD293 cells. Human mesenchymal stems cells were transduced using rAAV with a various multiplicity of infection. Transduction of recombinant AAV was also tested using beta-galactosidse expression. Cell viability was determined by using MTT assay to evaluate the toxicity of the transduction procedure. Expression and production of Insulin were tested using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and immunocytochemistry. Secretion of human insulin and C-peptide from the cells was assayed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Production of insulin and C-peptide from the test group represented a higher increase compared to the control group. In this study, we examined generation of insulin-producing cells from mesenchymal stem cells by genetic engineering for diabetes therapy. This work might be valuable to the field of tissue engineering for diabetes treatment.

  20. Modeling of microbial gas generation: application to the eastern Mediterranean “Biogenic Play”

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, M.; Dubille, M.; Montadert, L.

    2016-07-01

    Biogenic gas is becoming increasingly important as an exploration target in the petroleum industry because it occurs in geologically predictable circumstances and in large quantities at shallow depths as free gas or gas hydrates. As accumulations of biogenic gas result in a subtle synchronization between early generation and early trapping, we integrated a macroscopic model of microbial gas generation within a 3D basin and petroleum system forward simulator. The macroscopic model is based on a microscopic model, which consists in a 1D sedimentary column that accounts for sedimentation, compaction, Darcy flow and Diffusion flow. The organic carbon is the only non-soluble element considered in this version of the model. The dissolved elements are O2, SO4 2-, H2, CH3COOH, and CH4. Methane is dissolved in water or present as a free phase if its concentration exceeds its solubility at given pressure and temperature. In this microscopic model, the transformation of substrate into biomass is described through a set of logistic equations coupled with the transport equations (advection and diffusion). Based on the microscopic considerations we developed the macroscopic model of low maturity/biogenic gas generation in which hydrocarbons are generated through first order kinetic reactions at low maturity. This macroscopic model is adapted to petroleum system modeling at basin scale with TemisFlow®, which aims to understand and predict hydrocarbon generation, migration, and accumulation. It is composed of: i) A source rock criteria which allow defining the biogenic gas source rocks potential and ii) A kinetic model of methane generation. The previous model has been successfully applied on different basins such as the Carupano Basin from the offshore Venezuela, the Magdalena Delta (offshore Colombia) and the offshore Vietnam where direct observations of low-maturity gas were available. Furthermore, it has been applied in the offshore Lebanon in order to check the viability of

  1. Engineering design and exergy analyses for combustion gas turbine based power generation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sue, D.-C.; Chuang, C.-C.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the engineering design and theoretical exergetic analyses of the plant for combustion gas turbine based power generation systems. Exergy analysis is performed based on the first and second laws of thermodynamics for power generation systems. The results show the exergy analyses for a steam cycle system predict the plant efficiency more precisely. The plant efficiency for partial load operation is lower than full load operation. Increasing the pinch points will decrease the combined cycle plant efficiency. The engineering design is based on inlet air-cooling and natural gas preheating for increasing the net power output and efficiency. To evaluate the energy utilization, one combined cycle unit and one cogeneration system, consisting of gas turbine generators, heat recovery steam generators, one steam turbine generator with steam extracted for process have been analyzed. The analytical results are used for engineering design and component selection

  2. Design considerations: gas turbines for electric power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, D.M.

    1979-01-01

    The gas turbine represents one of the most sophisticated designs from the standpoint of time dependent deformation behavior. The large size of the equipment, which limits the amount of full scale testing, together with the demanding performance requirements and high level of reliability desired places a high degree of emphasis on the high temperature deformation design process. As an example of the various design considerations used in this equipment, a brief overview of the turbine will be given, highlighting the materials, stress, temperatures, and load history experienced by the major components. Particular attention will then be focused on the vane segment design considerations. This component is not only structurally complicated, but experiences steep temperature gradients imposed by internal cooling and large temperature transients during cyclic duty operation which have to be addressed in the design procedure. Based on this discussion the limitations of the current design procedures will be highlighted and the areas requiring additional research inputs will be discussed

  3. Study on economic potential of nuclear-gas combined cycle power generation in Chinese market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Zhiwei; Bian Zhiqiang; Yang Mengjia

    2004-01-01

    Facing the challenges of separation of electric power plant and grid, and the deregulation of Chinese electricity supplying market in near future, nuclear power plants mainly operated as based load at the present regulated market should look for new operation mode. The economics of electric generation with nuclear-natural gas combined cycle is studied based on current conditions of natural gas and nuclear power plants in China. The results indicate that the technology development of nuclear-natural gas combined cycle for power generation is of potential prospects in Chinese electric market. (authors)

  4. Enhanced high harmonic generation driven by high-intensity laser in argon gas-filled hollow core waveguide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassou, Kevin; Daboussi, Sameh; Hort, Ondrej; Descamps, Dominique; Petit, Stephane; Mevel, Eric; Constant, Eric; Guilbaud, Oilvier; Kazamias, Sophie

    2014-01-01

    We show that a significant enhancement of the photon flux produced by high harmonic generation can be obtained through guided configuration at high laser intensity largely above the saturation intensity. We identify two regimes. At low pressure, we observe an intense second plateau in the high harmonic spectrum in argon. At relatively high pressure, complex interplay between strongly time-dependent ionization processes and propagation effects leads to important spectral broadening without loss of spectral brightness. We show that the relevant parameter for this physical process is the product of laser peak power by gas pressure. We compare source performances with high harmonic generation using a gas jet in loose focusing geometry and conclude that the source developed is a good candidate for injection devices such as seeded soft x-ray lasers or free electron lasers in the soft x-ray range. (authors)

  5. Composition, preparation, and gas generation results from simulated wastes of Tank 241-SY-101

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryan, S.A.; Pederson, L.R.

    1994-08-01

    This document reviews the preparation and composition of simulants that have been developed to mimic the wastes temporarily stored in Tank 241-SY-101 at Hanford. The kinetics and stoichiometry of gases that are generated using these simulants are also compared, considering the roles of hydroxide, chloride, and transition metal ions; the identities of organic constituents; and the effects of dilution, radiation, and temperature. Work described in this report was conducted for the Flammable Gas Safety Program at Pacific Northwest Laboratory, (a) whose purpose is to develop information that is necessary to mitigate potential safety hazards associated with waste tanks at the Hanford Site. The goal of this research and of related efforts at the Georgia Institute of Technology (GIT), Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), and Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) is to determine the thermal and thermal/radiolytic mechanisms by which flammable and other gases are produced in Hanford wastes, emphasizing those stored in Tank 241-SY-101. A variety of Tank 241-SY-101 simulants have been developed to date. The use of simulants in laboratory testing activities provides a number of advantages, including elimination of radiological risks to researchers, lower costs associated with experimentation, and the ability to systematically alter simulant compositions to study the chemical mechanisms of reactions responsible for gas generation. The earliest simulants contained the principal inorganic components of the actual waste and generally a single complexant such as N-(2-hydroxyethyl) ethylenediaminetriacetic acid (HEDTA) or ethylenediaminetriacetic acid (EDTA). Both homogeneous and heterogeneous compositional forms were developed. Aggressive core sampling and analysis activities conducted during Windows C and E provided information that was used to design new simulants that more accurately reflected major and minor inorganic components

  6. Heat-pipe assisted thermoelectric generators for exhaust gas applications

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves, L. M.; Martins, Jorge; Antunes, Joaquim; Rocha, Romeu; Brito, F. P.

    2012-01-01

    Millions of hybrid cars are already running on our roads with the purpose of reducing fossil fuel dependence. One of their main advantages is the recovery of wasted energy, namely by brake recovery. However, there are other sources of wasted energy in a car powered by an internal combustion engine, such as the heat lost through the cooling system, lubrication system (oil coolers) and in the exhaust system. These energies can be recuperated by the use of thermoelectric generators (TEG) based o...

  7. Integration of Thermoelectric Generators and Wood Stove to Produce Heat, Hot Water, and Electrical Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudarzi, A. M.; Mazandarani, P.; Panahi, R.; Behsaz, H.; Rezania, A.; Rosendahl, L. A.

    2013-07-01

    Traditional fire stoves are characterized by low efficiency. In this experimental study, the combustion chamber of the stove is augmented by two devices. An electric fan can increase the air-to-fuel ratio in order to increase the system's efficiency and decrease air pollution by providing complete combustion of wood. In addition, thermoelectric generators (TEGs) produce power that can be used to satisfy all basic needs. In this study, a water-based cooling system is designed to increase the efficiency of the TEGs and also produce hot water for residential use. Through a range of tests, an average of 7.9 W was achieved by a commercial TEG with substrate area of 56 mm × 56 mm, which can produce 14.7 W output power at the maximum matched load. The total power generated by the stove is 166 W. Also, in this study a reasonable ratio of fuel to time is described for residential use. The presented prototype is designed to fulfill the basic needs of domestic electricity, hot water, and essential heat for warming the room and cooking.

  8. Generation of oxy-hydrogen gas and its effect on performance of spark ignition engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, N. N.; Chavan, C. B.; More, A. S.; Baskar, P.

    2017-11-01

    Considering the current scenario of petroleum fuels, it has been observed that, they will last for few years from now. On the other hand, the ever increasing cost of a gasoline fuels and their related adverse effects on environment caught the attention of researchers to find a supplementary source. For commercial fuels, supplementary source is not about replacing the entire fuel, instead enhancing efficiency by simply making use of it in lesser amount. From the recent research that has been carried out, focus on the use of Hydrogen rich gas as a supplementary source of fuel has increased. But the problem related to the storage of hydrogen gas confines the application of pure hydrogen in petrol engine. Using oxy-hydrogen gas (HHO) generator the difficulties of storing the hydrogen have overcome up to a certain limit. The present study highlights on performance evaluation of conventional petrol engine by using HHO gas as a supplementary fuel. HHO gas was generated from the electrolysis of water. KOH solution of 3 Molar concentration was used which act as a catalyst and accelerates the rate of generation of HHO gas. Quantity of gas to be supplied to the engine was controlled by varying amount of current. It was observed that, engine performance was improved on the introduction of HHO gas.

  9. Public Policy and the Next Generation of Farmers, Ranchers, Producers, and Agribusiness Leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasperini, Frank A

    2017-01-01

    The emerging, next generation of people engaged as managers in agriculture differs from the "baby boomer" farm generation that relishes certain traditions and an agrarian lifestyle. These futuristic producers and managers have been raised in a society that promulgates safety environment rules. They have witnessed lives saved by automobile seatbelts and lives improved from clean air and water. They know the basic cost of effective safety compliance is relatively fixed, regardless of the number of employees, and they are willing to invest resources that ensure a culture of safety, because it is economically beneficial, socially responsible, and probably required by the companies to whom they need to market their products. These same millennials understand that society and their customers will not continue to tolerate the high rate of agricultural injuries and deaths indefinitely. Public policy as a means to improve agricultural workers' safety and health is likely to be less resisted by the next generation of farmers, ranchers, producers, and agribusiness leaders who, regardless of legal or regulatory pressure, will implement internal business policies emphasizing safety, health, sustainability, and social justness as they understand it.

  10. Status and integration of studies of gas generation in Hanford wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pederson, L.R.; Bryan, S.A.

    1996-10-01

    The purpose of this report is to review recent progress in determining the mechanism, kinetics, and stoichiometry of gas generation in Hanford waste tanks. Information has been gathered from the results of (1) laboratory studies with simulated wastes; (2) laboratory studies with actual waste core samples (Tanks SY-101 and SY-103); (3) studies of thermal and radiolytic reactions in the gas phase; (4) gas solubility evaluations; and (5) in-tank gas composition data. The results of laboratory studies using simulated wastes, which were aimed at determining chemical mechanisms responsible for gas generation, are summarized in Section 2. Emphasized are findings from work performed at the Georgia Institute of Technology (GIT), which was conducted under subcontract to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and completed in FY 1996. Thermally activated pathways for the decomposition of hydroxyethylethylene-diaminetriacetic acid (HEDTA, trisodium salt) in simulated wastes were established by this work, among other accomplishments

  11. Status and integration of studies of gas generation in Hanford wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pederson, L.R.; Bryan, S.A.

    1996-10-01

    The purpose of this report is to review recent progress in determining the mechanism, kinetics, and stoichiometry of gas generation in Hanford waste tanks. Information has been gathered from the results of (1) laboratory studies with simulated wastes; (2) laboratory studies with actual waste core samples (Tanks SY-101 and SY-103); (3) studies of thermal and radiolytic reactions in the gas phase; (4) gas solubility evaluations; and (5) in-tank gas composition data. The results of laboratory studies using simulated wastes, which were aimed at determining chemical mechanisms responsible for gas generation, are summarized in Section 2. Emphasized are findings from work performed at the Georgia Institute of Technology (GIT), which was conducted under subcontract to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and completed in FY 1996. Thermally activated pathways for the decomposition of hydroxyethylethylene-diaminetriacetic acid (HEDTA, trisodium salt) in simulated wastes were established by this work, among other accomplishments.

  12. How Posttranslational Modification of Nitrogenase Is Circumvented in Rhodopseudomonas palustris Strains That Produce Hydrogen Gas Constitutively

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiniger, Erin K.; Oda, Yasuhiro; Samanta, Sudip K.

    2012-01-01

    Nitrogenase catalyzes the conversion of dinitrogen gas (N2) and protons to ammonia and hydrogen gas (H2). This is a catalytically difficult reaction that requires large amounts of ATP and reducing power. Thus, nitrogenase is not normally expressed or active in bacteria grown with a readily utilized nitrogen source like ammonium. nifA* mutants of the purple nonsulfur phototrophic bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris have been described that express nitrogenase genes constitutively and produce H2 when grown with ammonium as a nitrogen source. This raised the regulatory paradox of why these mutants are apparently resistant to a known posttranslational modification system that should switch off the activity of nitrogenase. Microarray, mutation analysis, and gene expression studies showed that posttranslational regulation of nitrogenase activity in R. palustris depends on two proteins: DraT2, an ADP-ribosyltransferase, and GlnK2, an NtrC-regulated PII protein. GlnK2 was not well expressed in ammonium-grown NifA* cells and thus not available to activate the DraT2 nitrogenase modification enzyme. In addition, the NifA* strain had elevated nitrogenase activity due to overexpression of the nif genes, and this increased amount of expression overwhelmed a basal level of activity of DraT2 in ammonium-grown cells. Thus, insufficient levels of both GlnK2 and DraT2 allow H2 production by an nifA* mutant grown with ammonium. Inactivation of the nitrogenase posttranslational modification system by mutation of draT2 resulted in increased H2 production by ammonium-grown NifA* cells. PMID:22179236

  13. Performance and Economics of Catalytic Glow Plugs and Shields in Direct Injection Natural Gas Engines for the Next Generation Natural Gas Vehicle Program: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mello, J. P.; Bezaire, D.; Sriramulu, S.; Weber, R.

    2003-08-01

    Subcontractor report details work done by TIAX and Westport to test and perform cost analysis for catalytic glow plugs and shields for direct-injection natural gas engines for the Next Generation Natural Gas Vehicle Program.

  14. Generation of Attosecond Light Pulses from Gas and Solid State Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanos Chatziathanasiou

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Real-time observation of ultrafast dynamics in the microcosm is a fundamental approach for understanding the internal evolution of physical, chemical and biological systems. Tools for tracing such dynamics are flashes of light with duration comparable to or shorter than the characteristic evolution times of the system under investigation. While femtosecond (fs pulses are successfully used to investigate vibrational dynamics in molecular systems, real time observation of electron motion in all states of matter requires temporal resolution in the attosecond (1 attosecond (asec = 10−18 s time scale. During the last decades, continuous efforts in ultra-short pulse engineering led to the development of table-top sources which can produce asec pulses. These pulses have been synthesized by using broadband coherent radiation in the extreme ultraviolet (XUV spectral region generated by the interaction of matter with intense fs pulses. Here, we will review asec pulses generated by the interaction of gas phase media and solid surfaces with intense fs IR laser fields. After a brief overview of the fundamental process underlying the XUV emission form these media, we will review the current technology, specifications and the ongoing developments of such asec sources.

  15. Numerical study of the generation of runaway electrons in a gas diode with a hot channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisenkov, V. V., E-mail: lisenkov@iep.uran.ru [Institute of Electrophysics UrB RAS, 106 Amundsena St., Ekaterinburg 620012 (Russian Federation); Ural Federal University, 19 Mira St., Ekaterinburg 620002 (Russian Federation); Shklyaev, V. A., E-mail: shklyaev@to.hcei.tsc.ru [Institute of High Current Electronics SD RAS, 2/3 Akademichesky Avenue, 634055 Tomsk (Russian Federation); National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, 30 Lenin Avenue, 634050 Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    2015-11-15

    A new method for increasing the efficiency of runaway electron beam generation in atmospheric pressure gas media has been suggested and theoretically proved. The method consists of creating a hot region (e.g., a spark channel or a laser plume) with a decreased numerical density of gas molecules (N) near the cathode. In this method, the ratio E/N (E—electric field strength) is increased by decreasing N instead of increasing E, as has been done in the past. The numerical model that is used allows the simultaneous calculation of the formation of a subnanosecond gas discharge and the generation of runaway electrons in gas media. The calculations have demonstrated the possibility of obtaining current pulses of runaway electrons with amplitudes of hundred of amperes and durations of more than 100 ps. The influence of the hot channel geometry on the parameters of the generated beam has been investigated.

  16. DESIGN AND LAYOUT CONCEPTS FOR COMPACT, FACTORY-PRODUCED, TRANSPORTABLE, GENERATION IV REACTOR SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mynatt Fred R.; Townsend, L.W.; Williamson, Martin; Williams, Wesley; Miller, Laurence W.; Khan, M. Khurram; McConn, Joe; Kadak, Andrew C.; Berte, Marc V.; Sawhney, Rapinder; Fife, Jacob; Sedler, Todd L.; Conway, Larry E.; Felde, Dave K.

    2003-11-12

    The purpose of this research project is to develop compact (100 to 400 MWe) Generation IV nuclear power plant design and layout concepts that maximize the benefits of factory-based fabrication and optimal packaging, transportation and siting. The reactor concepts selected were compact designs under development in the 2000 to 2001 period. This interdisciplinary project was comprised of three university-led nuclear engineering teams identified by reactor coolant type (water, gas, and liquid metal) and a fourth Industrial Engineering team. The reactors included a Modular Pebble Bed helium-cooled concept being developed at MIT, the IRIS water-cooled concept being developed by a team led by Westinghouse Electric Company, and a Lead-Bismuth-cooled concept developed by UT. In addition to the design and layout concepts this report includes a section on heat exchanger manufacturing simulations and a section on construction and cost impacts of proposed modular designs.

  17. DESIGN AND LAYOUT CONCEPTS FOR COMPACT, FACTORY-PRODUCED, TRANSPORTABLE, GENERATION IV REACTOR SYSTEMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mynatt, Fred R.; Townsend, L.W.; Williamson, Martin; Williams, Wesley; Miller, Laurence W.; Khan, M. Khurram; McConn, Joe; Kadak, Andrew C.; Berte, Marc V.; Sawhney, Rapinder; Fife, Jacob; Sedler, Todd L.; Conway, Larry E.; Felde, Dave K.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this research project is to develop compact (100 to 400 MWe) Generation IV nuclear power plant design and layout concepts that maximize the benefits of factory-based fabrication and optimal packaging, transportation and siting. The reactor concepts selected were compact designs under development in the 2000 to 2001 period. This interdisciplinary project was comprised of three university-led nuclear engineering teams identified by reactor coolant type (water, gas, and liquid metal) and a fourth Industrial Engineering team. The reactors included a Modular Pebble Bed helium-cooled concept being developed at MIT, the IRIS water-cooled concept being developed by a team led by Westinghouse Electric Company, and a Lead-Bismuth-cooled concept developed by UT. In addition to the design and layout concepts this report includes a section on heat exchanger manufacturing simulations and a section on construction and cost impacts of proposed modular designs

  18. Peculiarity of radioactivity pollution of manufacturing environment gas and oil producing firms of the apsheron region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamedov, A.M.; Alekperova, J.A.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Present time protection of the biosphere from technogene pollution is the important problem, having common to all mankind value. In circuits of the technogene pollution of the environment the soil is a carrying on link for through soil the contaminants freely go to air environment, in underground waters in plants and in foodstuff of a vegetative and animal genesis. In subsequent these contaminants on the indicated chains by penetrating in an organism of the people render an ill effect on their health. In this plane the radiological contamination of soil introduces still large dangerous. As the radionuclides of soil can render as external radiation, and by getting in an organism with air, water and foodstuff can cause internal radiation. In this plane, for detection of a role of gas and oil producing firms in radiological contamination soil as object of an environment, we conduct researches by a hygienic estimation of radiological contamination of soil of territory of oil-fields OOGE 'Gum adasi' of the Apsheron region. By spectrometric method were studied a natural background radiation and radioactivity of soil of different territories of shop of complex opening-up of oil. Established, that for the raw tank the specific activity reaches 4438-9967 Bk/kg, close of the product repair shop the radioactivity reached 650- 700 micro R/hour. In territory of the region 'Gum adasi', where the waste from cleaning chisel tubes were accumulated, the radioactivity made 600 micro R/hour. These indexes the superior background level is significant. The analysis of power spectrums a gamma of radiations is model from the indicated sites has shown, that the radioactivity is conditioned by isotopes of a radium. The researches have allowed to demonstrate a radioactivity technogene of impurity of rocks to recommend urgent dumping of above-stated waste in bunkers on sites, retracted by it. Thus, was established, that gas and oil producing firms contributing to radiological

  19. The selective generation of acetic acid directly from synthesis gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knifton, J.F.

    1986-01-01

    The authors conclude that each of the ruthenium, cobalt and iodide-containing catalyst components have very specific roles to play in the ''melt'' catalyzed conversion of synthesis gas to acetic acid. C 1 -Oxygenate formation is only observed in the presence of ruthenium carbonyls - [Ru(CO) 3 I 3 ] - is here the dominant species - and there is a direct relationship between liquid yield, ΣOAc - productivity and [Ru(CO) 3 I 3 ] - content. Controlled quantities of iodide ensure that initially formed MeOH is rapidly converted to the more reactive methyl iodide. Subsequent cobalt-catalyzed carbonylation to acetic acid may be preparatively attractive (>80% selectivity, good yields) relative to competing syntheses, where the [Co(CO) 4 ] - concentration is maximized that is, where the Co/Ru ratio is >1, the syngas feedstock is rich in CO, and the initial iodide/cobalt ratios are ca. unity. Formation of cobalt-iodide species appears to be a competing, inhibitory step in this catalysis

  20. Generation of a lentiviral vector producer cell clone for human Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome gene therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew M Wielgosz

    Full Text Available We have developed a producer cell line that generates lentiviral vector particles of high titer. The vector encodes the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS protein. An insulator element has been added to the long terminal repeats of the integrated vector to limit proto-oncogene activation. The vector provides high-level, stable expression of WAS protein in transduced murine and human hematopoietic cells. We have also developed a monoclonal antibody specific for intracellular WAS protein. This antibody has been used to monitor expression in blood and bone marrow cells after transfer into lineage negative bone marrow cells from WAS mice and in a WAS negative human B-cell line. Persistent expression of the transgene has been observed in transduced murine cells 12–20 weeks following transplantation. The producer cell line and the specific monoclonal antibody will facilitate the development of a clinical protocol for gene transfer into WAS protein deficient stem cells.

  1. Astrophysics of magnetically collimated jets generated from laser-produced plasmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciardi, A; Vinci, T; Fuchs, J; Albertazzi, B; Riconda, C; Pépin, H; Portugall, O

    2013-01-11

    The generation of astrophysically relevant jets, from magnetically collimated, laser-produced plasmas, is investigated through three-dimensional, magnetohydrodynamic simulations. We show that for laser intensities I∼10(12)-10(14) W cm(-2), a magnetic field in excess of ∼0.1  MG, can collimate the plasma plume into a prolate cavity bounded by a shock envelope with a standing conical shock at its tip, which recollimates the flow into a supermagnetosonic jet beam. This mechanism is equivalent to astrophysical models of hydrodynamic inertial collimation, where an isotropic wind is focused into a jet by a confining circumstellar toruslike envelope. The results suggest an alternative mechanism for a large-scale magnetic field to produce jets from wide-angle winds.

  2. Reduction of impurity contamination in a working gas for closed-cycle MHD power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, N.; Yoshikawa, K.; Shioda, S.

    1989-01-01

    The reduction of impurity contamination in a working inert gas for closed-cycle MHD power generation is examined. A conceptual operation system of regenerative heat exchangers is proposed for minimizing the amount of combustion gas which mixes in the working inert gas. Experiments have shown that this mixing can be reduced significantly by evacuating and flushing the heat exchangers after being heated by combustion gas. Calculations have shown that, among the main molecular contaminants in the working inert gas, CO 2 , H 2 O and O 2 can be removed as compounds with the seed material, while N 2 and H 2 can be reduced by a partial purification of the circulating working inert gas. (author)

  3. An Investigation on Gas Lift Performance Curve in an Oil-Producing Well

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deni Saepudin

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective in oil production system using gas lift technique is to obtain the optimum gas injection rate which yields the maximum oil production rate. Relationship between gas injection rate and oil production rate is described by a continuous gas lift performance curve (GLPC. Obtaining the optimum gas injection rate is important because excessive gas injection will reduce production rate, and also increase the operation cost. In this paper, we discuss a mathematical model for gas lift technique and the characteristics of the GLPC for a production well, for which one phase (liquid is flowing in the reservoir, and two phases (liquid and gas in the tubing. It is shown that in certain physical condition the GLPC exists and is unique. Numerical computations indicate unimodal properties of the GLPC. It is also constructed here a numerical scheme based on genetic algorithm to compute the optimum oil production.

  4. Megawatt low-temperature DC plasma generator with divergent channels of gas-discharge tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadzhiev, M. Kh.; Isakaev, E. Kh.; Tyuftyaev, A. S.; Yusupov, D. I.; Sargsyan, M. A.

    2017-04-01

    We have developed and studied a new effective megawatt double-unit generator of low-temperature argon plasma, which belongs to the class of dc plasmatrons and comprises the cathode and anode units with divergent gas-discharge channels. The generator has an efficiency of about 80-85% and ensures a long working life at operating currents up to 4000 A.

  5. Full-energy-chain analysis of greenhouse gas emissions for solar thermal electric power generation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norton, B.; Lawson, W.R.

    1997-01-01

    Technical attributes and environmental impacts of solar thermal options for centralized electricity generation are discussed. In particular, the full-energy-chain, including embodied energy and energy production, is considered in relation to greenhouse gas emission arising from solar thermal electricity generation. Central receiver, parabolic dish, parabolic trough and solar pond systems are considered. (author)

  6. Natural Gas, Wind and Nuclear Options for Generating Electricity in a Carbon Constrained World

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooten, van G.C.

    2012-01-01

    A linear programming model is used to examine the impact of carbon taxes on the optimal generation mix in the Alberta electrical system. The model permits decommissioning of generating assets with high carbon dioxide emissions and investment in new gas-fired, wind and, in some scenarios, nuclear

  7. Automation of labelling of Lipiodol with high-activity generator-produced 188Re

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepareur, Nicolas; Ardisson, Valerie; Noiret, Nicolas; Boucher, Eveline; Raoul, Jean-Luc; Clement, Bruno; Garin, Etienne

    2011-01-01

    This work describes optimisation of the kit formulation for labelling of Lipiodol with high-activity generator-produced rhenium-188. Radiochemical purity (RCP) was 92.52±2.3% and extraction yield was 98.56±1.2%. The synthesis has been automated with a TADDEO module (Comecer) giving a mean final yield of 52.68±9.6%, and reducing radiation burden to the radiochemist by 80%. Radiolabelled Lipiodol ( 188 Re-SSS/Lipiodol) is stable for at least 7 days (RCP=91.07±0.9%).

  8. 99mTc generator preparation using (n, γ)99Mo produced using natural molybdenum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hark Rho; Park, Jin Ho; Lee, Kye Hong

    2003-01-01

    The Mo-99 is a widely used radioisotope in Korea. To fulfill the demand, we are producing Mo-99 using a specially designed and fabricated rig containing MoO 3 target. We are using natural molybdenum so far. But considering the utilization of the enriched molybdenum to increase the specific activity further, we desire the realization of PZC with (n, γ)Mo-99 as early as possible. To make the generator loading facility, we are in progress of construction work for the related hot cell facilities. (author)

  9. Calculation of Spectra of Neutrons and Charged Particles Produced in a Target of a Neutron Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaganov, V. V.

    2017-12-01

    An algorithm for calculating the spectra of neutrons and associated charged particles produced in the target of a neutron generator is detailed. The products of four nuclear reactions 3H( d, n)4He, 2H( d, n)3He, 2H( d, p)3H, and 3He( d, p)4He are analyzed. The results of calculations are presented in the form of neutron spectra for several emission angles and spectra of associated charged particles emitted at an angle of 180° for a deuteron initial energy of 0.13 MeV.

  10. Electrical properties of airborne nanoparticles produced by a commercial spark-discharge generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bau, S., E-mail: sebastien.bau@inrs.fr; Witschger, O. [Laboratoire de Metrologie des Aerosols, Institut National de Recherche et de Securite, INRS (France); Gensdarmes, F. [IRSN, Laboratoire de Physique et de Metrologie des Aerosols, Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (France); Thomas, D. [LSGC/CNRS, Nancy Universite, Laboratoire des Sciences du Genie Chimique (France); Borra, J.-P. [Equipe Decharges Electriques et Procedes Aerosols, Laboratoire de Physique des Gaz et des Plasmas (France)

    2010-08-15

    A nanoparticle generator based on the principle of electrical discharge (PALAS GFG-1000) was used to produce nanoparticles of different chemical natures. The fractions of electrically neutral particles were then measured by means of a Spectrometre de Mobilite Electrique Circulaire (SMEC, i.e. radial-flow mobility analyzer) for different operating conditions. The experimental results were compared with the theoretical values calculated from the Fuchs extended charge equilibrium model for spherical particles and agglomerates. For the smallest particles (below 20 nm), the deviations observed remain below 10%, and tend towards 20% for larger particles (over 35 nm).

  11. Drought Resilience of Water Supplies for Shale Gas Extraction and Related Power Generation in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reedy, R. C.; Scanlon, B. R.; Nicot, J. P.; Uhlman, K.

    2014-12-01

    There is considerable concern about water availability to support energy production in Texas, particularly considering that many of the shale plays are in semiarid areas of Texas and the state experienced the most extreme drought on record in 2011. The Eagle Ford shale play provides an excellent case study. Hydraulic fracturing water use for shale gas extraction in the play totaled ~ 12 billion gallons (bgal) in 2012, representing ~7 - 10% of total water use in the 16 county play area. The dominant source of water is groundwater which is not highly vulnerable to drought from a recharge perspective because water is primarily stored in the confined portion of aquifers that were recharged thousands of years ago. Water supply drought vulnerability results primarily from increased water use for irrigation. Irrigation water use in the Eagle Ford play was 30 billion gallons higher in the 2011 drought year relative to 2010. Recent trends toward increased use of brackish groundwater for shale gas extraction in the Eagle Ford also reduce pressure on fresh water resources. Evaluating the impacts of natural gas development on water resources should consider the use of natural gas in power generation, which now represents 50% of power generation in Texas. Water consumed in extracting the natural gas required for power generation is equivalent to ~7% of the water consumed in cooling these power plants in the state. However, natural gas production from shale plays can be overall beneficial in terms of water resources in the state because natural gas combined cycle power generation decreases water consumption by ~60% relative to traditional coal, nuclear, and natural gas plants that use steam turbine generation. This reduced water consumption enhances drought resilience of power generation in the state. In addition, natural gas combined cycle plants provide peaking capacity that complements increasing renewable wind generation which has no cooling water requirement. However, water

  12. How gas producers can position themselves to take advantage of a deregulated energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, S.D.

    1996-01-01

    An overview of Norcen Energy Resource's finances, their production of oil, natural gas liquids (NGL) and gas, and their approach to marketing was provided in this poster presentation. Formerly owned power projects and current opportunities for Norcen were summarized. The potential role of natural gas in electrical restructuring, and some possible marketing strategies were highlighted

  13. Price elasticity of natural gas demand in the power generation sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McArdle, P.F.

    1990-01-01

    Today, the demand for energy by the electric generation sector is highly competitive and price-responsive. Previous estimates of the price elasticity of natural gas demand in this sector have focused primarily on data from the 1960s and 1970s. Such estimates fail to take full account of economic, regulatory, and legislative developments that have altered the structure of the electric generation market during the 1980s. Structural changes include an increased ability of utilities to choose among generating options, the increase in non-utility generators, the amending of the Fuel Use Act, and a more competitive market for electricity. An accurate estimate of price elasticity requires a refocusing on data from the post-1983 period. The purpose of this paper is to answer two questions: how price responsive (elastic) is natural gas demand in this market; and what changes in natural gas demand elasticity have occurred over time

  14. The Efficiency Improvement by Combining HHO Gas, Coal and Oil in Boiler for Electricity Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Nan Wang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Electricity is an essential energy that can benefit our daily lives. There are many sources available for electricity generation, such as coal, natural gas and nuclear. Among these sources, coal has been widely used in thermal power plants that account for about 41% of the worldwide electricity supply. However, these thermal power plants are also found to be a big pollution source to our environment. There is a need to explore alternative electricity sources and improve the efficiency of electricity generation. This research focuses on improving the efficiency of electricity generation through the use of hydrogen and oxygen mixture (HHO gas. In this research, experiments have been conducted to investigate the combined effects of HHO gas with other fuels, including coal and oil. The results show that the combinations of HHO with coal and oil can improve the efficiency of electricity generation while reducing the pollution to our environment.

  15. Radiolytic gas generation in Salt Cake Quality Assurance Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, D.D.

    1993-01-01

    High-level radioactive wastes are stored in large, steel tanks in the Savannah River Site's Tank Farms. The liquid levels in these tanks are monitored to detect leakage of waste out of tanks or leakage of liquids into the tanks. Recent unexplained level fluctuations in high-level waste (HLW) tanks have caused High Level Waste Engineering (HLWE) to develop a program to better understand tank level behavioral Interim Waste Technology (IWT) has been requested by HLWE to obtain data which will lead to a better understanding of the radiolytic generation of gases in salt cake. A task plan has been written in response to this request. This document details the controls necessary to ensure the quality of the results of the activities described in the task plan

  16. Processing and structure of in situ Fe-Al alloys produced by gas tungsten arc welding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banovic, S.W.; DuPont, J.N.; Marder, A.R. [Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, PA (United States). Energy Research Center

    1997-02-14

    Iron aluminide weld overlays are being investigated for corrosion and erosion protection of boiler tubes in low NOx burners. The primary objective of the research is to identify overlay compositions which can be deposited in a crack-free condition and provide corrosion protection in moderately reducing environments. In the current phase of work, Fe-Al alloy weld overlays were produced by depositing commercially pure aluminum wire on to low carbon steel substrates using Gas Tungsten Arc Welding. A systematic variation of the wire feed speed and current, two major factors affecting dilution, resulted in a variation in aluminum contents of the welds ranging from 3--42 wt% aluminum. The aluminum content was observed to increase with wire feed speed and a decrease in the current. The aluminum content was also found to affect the cracking susceptibility of the overlays. At 10wt% aluminum, few to no cracks were observed in the deposits. Above this value, cracking was prevalent throughout the weld. In addition, two types of microstructures were found correlating to different concentrations of aluminum. A homogeneous matrix with second phase particles consisting of coarse columnar grains was found for low aluminum concentrations. With higher aluminum contents, a two-phase constituent was observed to surround primary dendrites growing from the substrate. The transition of the microstructures occurred between 24 and 32 wt% Al.

  17. Application of colloidal gas aphron suspensions produced from Sapindus mukorossi for arsenic removal from contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Soumyadeep; Mukherjee, Sumona; Hashim, Mohd Ali; Sen Gupta, Bhaskar

    2015-01-01

    Colloidal gas aphron dispersions (CGAs) can be described as a system of microbubbles suspended homogenously in a liquid matrix. This work examines the performance of CGAs in comparison to surfactant solutions for washing low levels of arsenic from an iron rich soil. Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate (SDS) and saponin, a biodegradable surfactant, obtained from Sapindus mukorossi or soapnut fruit were used for generating CGAs and solutions for soil washing. Column washing experiments were performed in down-flow and up flow modes at a soil pH of 5 and 6 using varying concentration of SDS and soapnut solutions as well as CGAs. Soapnut CGAs removed more than 70% arsenic while SDS CGAs removed up to 55% arsenic from the soil columns in the soil pH range of 5-6. CGAs and solutions showed comparable performances in all the cases. CGAs were more economical since it contains 35% of air by volume, thereby requiring less surfactant. Micellar solubilization and low pH of soapnut facilitated arsenic desorption from soil column. FT-IR analysis of effluent suggested that soapnut solution did not interact chemically with arsenic thereby facilitating the recovery of soapnut solution by precipitating the arsenic. Damage to soil was minimal arsenic confirmed by metal dissolution from soil surface and SEM micrograph. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Microbial gas generation under expected Waste Isolation Pilot Plant repository conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francis, A.J.; Gillow, J.B.; Giles, M.R. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Dept. of Applied Science

    1997-03-01

    Gas generation from the microbial degradation of the organic constituents of transuranic waste under conditions expected at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) repository was investigated at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The biodegradation of mixed cellulosics (various types of paper) and electron-beam irradiated plastic and rubber materials (polyethylene, polyvinylchloride, neoprene, hypalon, and leaded hypalon) was examined. The rate of gas production from cellulose biodegradation in inundated samples incubated for 1,228 days at 30 C was biphasic, with an initial rapid rate up to approximately 600 days incubation, followed by a slower rate. The rate of total gas production in anaerobic samples containing mixed inoculum was as follows: 0.002 mL/g cellulose/day without nutrients; 0.004 mL/g cellulose/day with nutrients; and 0.01 mL/g cellulose/day in the presence of excess nitrate. Carbon dioxide production proceeded at a rate of 0.009 {micro}mol/g cellulose/day in anaerobic samples without nutrients, 0.05 {micro}mol/g cellulose/day in the presence of nutrients, and 0.2 {micro}mol/g cellulose/day with excess nitrate. Adding nutrients and excess nitrate stimulated denitrification, as evidenced by the accumulation of N{sub 2}O in the headspace (200 {micro}mol/g cellulose). The addition of the potential backfill bentonite increased the rate of CO{sub 2} production to 0.3 {micro}mol/g cellulose/day in anaerobic samples with excess nitrate. Analysis of the solution showed that lactic, acetic, propionic, butyric, and valeric acids were produced due to cellulose degradation. Samples incubated under anaerobic humid conditions for 415 days produced CO{sub 2} at a rate of 0.2 {micro}mol/g cellulose/day in the absence of nutrients, and 1 {micro}mol/g cellulose/day in the presence of bentonite and nutrients. There was no evidence of biodegradation of electron-beam irradiated plastic and rubber.

  19. Semi-empirical model for the generation of dose distributions produced by a scanning electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nath, R.; Gignac, C.E.; Agostinelli, A.G.; Rothberg, S.; Schulz, R.J.

    1980-01-01

    There are linear accelerators (Sagittaire and Saturne accelerators produced by Compagnie Generale de Radiologie (CGR/MeV) Corporation) which produce broad, flat electron fields by magnetically scanning the relatively narrow electron beam as it emerges from the accelerator vacuum system. A semi-empirical model, which mimics the scanning action of this type of accelerator, was developed for the generation of dose distributions in homogeneous media. The model employs the dose distributions of the scanning electron beams. These were measured with photographic film in a polystyrene phantom by turning off the magnetic scanning system. The mean deviation calculated from measured dose distributions is about 0.2%; a few points have deviations as large as 2 to 4% inside of the 50% isodose curve, but less than 8% outside of the 50% isodose curve. The model has been used to generate the electron beam library required by a modified version of a commercially-available computerized treatment-planning system. (The RAD-8 treatment planning system was purchased from the Digital Equipment Corporation. It is currently available from Electronic Music Industries

  20. Improvement of the decay heat removal characteristics of the generation IV gas-cooled fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epiney, A.S.

    2010-01-01

    Gas cooling in nuclear power plants (NPPs) has a long history, the corresponding reactor types developed in France, the UK and the US having been thermal neutron spectrum systems using graphite as the moderator. The majority of NPPs worldwide, however, are currently light water reactors, using ordinary water as both coolant and moderator. These NPPs - of the so-called second generation - will soon need replacement, and a third generation is now being made available, offering increased safety while still based on light water technology. For the longer-term future, viz. beyond the year 2030, R and D is currently ongoing on Generation IV NPPs, aimed at achieving closure of the nuclear fuel cycle, and hence both drastically improved utilization of fuel resources and minimization of long-lived radioactive wastes. Like the SFR, the GFR is an efficient breeder, also able to work as iso-breeder using simply natural uranium as feed and producing waste which is predominantly in the form of fission products. The main drawback of the GFR is the difficulty to evacuate decay heat following a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) due to the low thermal inertia of the core, as well as to the low coolant density. The present doctoral research focuses on the improvement of decay heat removal (DHR) for the Generation-IV GFR. The reference GFR system design considered in the thesis is the 2006 CEA concept, with a power of 2400 MWth. The CEA 2006 DHR strategy foresees, in all accidental cases (independent of the system pressure), that the reactor is shut down. For high pressure events, dedicated DHR loops with blowers and heat exchangers are designed to operate when the power conversion system cannot be used to provide acceptable core temperatures under natural convection conditions. For de-pressurized events, the strategy relies on a dedicated small containment (called the guard containment) providing an intermediate back-up pressure. The DHR blowers, designed to work under these pressure

  1. Increasing gas producer profitability with virtual well visibility via an end-to-end wireless Internet gas monitoring system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDougall, M. [Northrock Resources Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Benterud, K. [Zed.i solutions, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2003-07-01

    This PowerPoint presentation describes how Northrock Resources Ltd. increased profitability using Smart-Alek{sup TM} while avoiding high implementation costs. Smart-Alek is a new type of fully integrated end-to-end electronic gas flow measurement (GFM) system based on Field Intelligence Network and End User Interference (FINE). Smart-Alek can analyze gas production through public wireless communications and a web-browser delivery system. The system has enabled Northrock to increase gas volumes with more accurate measurement and reduced downtime. In addition, operating costs have decreased because the frequency of well visits has been reduced and the administrative procedures of data collection is more efficient. The real-time well visibility of the tool has proven to be very effective in optimizing business profitability. 7 figs.

  2. Technologies applied to wells producing gas in Bolivia; Tecnologias aplicadas aos pocos produtores de gas em Bolivia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nobrega, Fernando R.B. [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Carrillo, Marco A.; Barrerro, Dennys A. [PETROBRAS Bolivia S.A., La Paz (Bolivia)

    2012-07-01

    The This paper seeks to highlight the engineering, lessons learned and topics for improvement of the technologies used in gas wells drilled between November 2008 and October 2011 in an environment of Bolivian' subandino. Among technologies employed and commented hereunder has the drilling gas reservoirs in near balance using a dual phase fluid, with nitrogen; carrying out multilateral wells equipped with intelligent completion in such environment; as well as other technologies presented herein. This document was prepared on drilling operations performed in SAL-15, SAL-17, SBLSBL- 7 and SBL-8, comprising the period from November 2008 to October 2011. (author)

  3. Calculating the flue gas dew point for raw brown coal fired steam generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schinkel, W.

    1977-01-01

    The paper analyzes parameters influencing the sulfuric acid dew point in flue gas of steam generators. Sulfur content and alkaline earths content in the fuel air ratio during combustion, fly ash content in the flue gas (which absorbs sulfur dioxide and sulfur trioxide) and combustion conditions in steam generators are relevant parameters in the combustion process. A thermodynamic and reaction kinetic calculation of the sulfuric acid dew point is, however, not yet possible. A statistical evaluation of dew point measurements in steam generators is, therefore, employed. Various diagrams show results of dew point measurements carried out at generators with steam capacities ranging from 40 to 660 t/h, which demonstrate relations of these parameters to flue gas dew points, in particular the relative sulfur content (sulfur content in the raw brown coal compared to coal ash content and alkaline earths content). A function is derived for the conversion of fuel sulfur to sulfur trioxide. A diagram presents the relation of the flue gas dew point to partial pressures of sulfuric acid and steam. Direct calculation of the flue gas dew point was achieved by the proposed method. It is applied in steam generator design. (17 refs.)

  4. Baseload wind energy: modeling the competition between gas turbines and compressed air energy storage for supplemental generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenblatt, Jeffery B.; Succar, Samir; Denkenberger, David C.; Williams, Robert H.; Socolow, Robert H.

    2007-01-01

    The economic viability of producing baseload wind energy was explored using a cost-optimization model to simulate two competing systems: wind energy supplemented by simple- and combined cycle natural gas turbines ('wind+gas'), and wind energy supplemented by compressed air energy storage ('wind+CAES'). Pure combined cycle natural gas turbines ('gas') were used as a proxy for conventional baseload generation. Long-distance electric transmission was integral to the analysis. Given the future uncertainty in both natural gas price and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions price, we introduced an effective fuel price, p NGeff , being the sum of the real natural gas price and the GHG price. Under the assumption of p NGeff =$5/GJ (lower heating value), 650 W/m 2 wind resource, 750 km transmission line, and a fixed 90% capacity factor, wind+CAES was the most expensive system at cents 6.0/kWh, and did not break even with the next most expensive wind+gas system until p NGeff =$9.0/GJ. However, under real market conditions, the system with the least dispatch cost (short-run marginal cost) is dispatched first, attaining the highest capacity factor and diminishing the capacity factors of competitors, raising their total cost. We estimate that the wind+CAES system, with a greenhouse gas (GHG) emission rate that is one-fourth of that for natural gas combined cycle plants and about one-tenth of that for pulverized coal plants, has the lowest dispatch cost of the alternatives considered (lower even than for coal power plants) above a GHG emissions price of $35/tC equiv. , with good prospects for realizing a higher capacity factor and a lower total cost of energy than all the competing technologies over a wide range of effective fuel costs. This ability to compete in economic dispatch greatly boosts the market penetration potential of wind energy and suggests a substantial growth opportunity for natural gas in providing baseload power via wind+CAES, even at high natural gas prices

  5. Mitigation of Hydrogen Gas Generation from the Reaction of Water with Uranium Metal in K Basins Sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinkov, Sergey I.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmidt, Andrew J.

    2010-01-01

    Means to decrease the rate of hydrogen gas generation from the chemical reaction of uranium metal with water were identified by surveying the technical literature. The underlying chemistry and potential side reactions were explored by conducting 61 principal experiments. Several methods achieved significant hydrogen gas generation rate mitigation. Gas-generating side reactions from interactions of organics or sludge constituents with mitigating agents were observed. Further testing is recommended to develop deeper knowledge of the underlying chemistry and to advance the technology aturation level. Uranium metal reacts with water in K Basin sludge to form uranium hydride (UH3), uranium dioxide or uraninite (UO2), and diatomic hydrogen (H2). Mechanistic studies show that hydrogen radicals (H·) and UH3 serve as intermediates in the reaction of uranium metal with water to produce H2 and UO2. Because H2 is flammable, its release into the gas phase above K Basin sludge during sludge storage, processing, immobilization, shipment, and disposal is a concern to the safety of those operations. Findings from the technical literature and from experimental investigations with simple chemical systems (including uranium metal in water), in the presence of individual sludge simulant components, with complete sludge simulants, and with actual K Basin sludge are presented in this report. Based on the literature review and intermediate lab test results, sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, Nochar Acid Bond N960, disodium hydrogen phosphate, and hexavalent uranium [U(VI)] were tested for their effects in decreasing the rate of hydrogen generation from the reaction of uranium metal with water. Nitrate and nitrite each were effective, decreasing hydrogen generation rates in actual sludge by factors of about 100 to 1000 when used at 0.5 molar (M) concentrations. Higher attenuation factors were achieved in tests with aqueous solutions alone. Nochar N960, a water sorbent, decreased hydrogen

  6. Mitigation of Hydrogen Gas Generation from the Reaction of Water with Uranium Metal in K Basins Sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinkov, Sergey I.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmidt, Andrew J.

    2010-01-29

    Means to decrease the rate of hydrogen gas generation from the chemical reaction of uranium metal with water were identified by surveying the technical literature. The underlying chemistry and potential side reactions were explored by conducting 61 principal experiments. Several methods achieved significant hydrogen gas generation rate mitigation. Gas-generating side reactions from interactions of organics or sludge constituents with mitigating agents were observed. Further testing is recommended to develop deeper knowledge of the underlying chemistry and to advance the technology aturation level. Uranium metal reacts with water in K Basin sludge to form uranium hydride (UH3), uranium dioxide or uraninite (UO2), and diatomic hydrogen (H2). Mechanistic studies show that hydrogen radicals (H·) and UH3 serve as intermediates in the reaction of uranium metal with water to produce H2 and UO2. Because H2 is flammable, its release into the gas phase above K Basin sludge during sludge storage, processing, immobilization, shipment, and disposal is a concern to the safety of those operations. Findings from the technical literature and from experimental investigations with simple chemical systems (including uranium metal in water), in the presence of individual sludge simulant components, with complete sludge simulants, and with actual K Basin sludge are presented in this report. Based on the literature review and intermediate lab test results, sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, Nochar Acid Bond N960, disodium hydrogen phosphate, and hexavalent uranium [U(VI)] were tested for their effects in decreasing the rate of hydrogen generation from the reaction of uranium metal with water. Nitrate and nitrite each were effective, decreasing hydrogen generation rates in actual sludge by factors of about 100 to 1000 when used at 0.5 molar (M) concentrations. Higher attenuation factors were achieved in tests with aqueous solutions alone. Nochar N960, a water sorbent, decreased hydrogen

  7. An ICF system based on Z-pinch radiation produced by an explosive magnetic generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garanin, S.G.; Ivanovsky, A.V.; Mkhitariyan, L.S.

    2011-01-01

    It is known that a thermonuclear target can be ignited by an implosion accomplished with X-radiation generated by means of laser radiation conversion or by a Z pinch formed by a high-power current pulse. For these purposes laser facility NIF has been constructed in the USA, 'Megajoule' is being constructed in France and there is a project of laser facility UFL in Russia. The project of stationary facility X has been developed in SNL USA to produce a Z pinch capable of generating an x-ray pulse with parameters close to the ignition threshold. There is a great chance, however, that the already tested technologies, including disc explosive magnetic generators (DEMG), systems of current peaking based on electrically exploded foil opening switches and high-voltage switching devices, allow the intriguing problem of the ignition feasibility to be solved and the quickest and cheapest way to accomplish this to be provided. To explore this possibility, the paper will sequentially analyse the ignition conditions. The required parameters of Z pinch X-radiation and the size of the DEMG-based facility to obtain these parameters will be evaluated. Capabilities of the new current sources based on the DEMG and of the devices shaping a current pulse will be presented and compared with those required for the ignition.

  8. Microbial Gas Generation Under Expected Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Repository Conditions: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillow, J.B.; Francis, A.

    2011-07-01

    Gas generation from the microbial degradation of the organic constituents of transuranic (TRU) waste under conditions expected in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) was investigated. The biodegradation of mixed cellulosic materials and electron-beam irradiated plastic and rubber materials (polyethylene, polyvinylchloride, hypalon, leaded hypalon, and neoprene) was examined. We evaluated the effects of environmental variables such as initial atmosphere (air or nitrogen), water content (humid ({approx}70% relative humidity, RH) and brine inundated), and nutrient amendments (nitogen phosphate, yeast extract, and excess nitrate) on microbial gas generation. Total gas production was determined by pressure measurement and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and methane (CH{sub 4}) were analyzed by gas chromatography; cellulose degradation products in solution were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Microbial populations in the samples were determined by direct microscopy and molecular analysis. The results of this work are summarized.

  9. Microbial Gas Generation Under Expected Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Repository Conditions: Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillow, J.B.; Francis, A.

    2011-01-01

    Gas generation from the microbial degradation of the organic constituents of transuranic (TRU) waste under conditions expected in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) was investigated. The biodegradation of mixed cellulosic materials and electron-beam irradiated plastic and rubber materials (polyethylene, polyvinylchloride, hypalon, leaded hypalon, and neoprene) was examined. We evaluated the effects of environmental variables such as initial atmosphere (air or nitrogen), water content (humid (∼70% relative humidity, RH) and brine inundated), and nutrient amendments (nitogen phosphate, yeast extract, and excess nitrate) on microbial gas generation. Total gas production was determined by pressure measurement and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and methane (CH 4 ) were analyzed by gas chromatography; cellulose degradation products in solution were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Microbial populations in the samples were determined by direct microscopy and molecular analysis. The results of this work are summarized.

  10. Gas Generators and Their Potential to Support Human-Scale HIADS (Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerators)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodkin, Richard J.; Cheatwood, F. M.; Dillman, Robert A; Dinonno, John M.; Hughes, Stephen J.; Lucy, Melvin H.

    2016-01-01

    As HIAD technology progresses from 3-m diameter experimental scale to as large as 20-m diameter for human Mars entry, the mass penalties of carrying compressed gas has led the HIAD team to research current state-of-the-art gas generator approaches. Summarized below are several technologies identified in this survey, along with some of the pros and cons with respect to supporting large-scale HIAD applications.

  11. Rapid generation of recombinant Pseudomonas putida secondary metabolite producers using yTREX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Domröse

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Microbial secondary metabolites represent a rich source of valuable compounds with a variety of applications in medicine or agriculture. Effective exploitation of this wealth of chemicals requires the functional expression of the respective biosynthetic genes in amenable heterologous hosts. We have previously established the TREX system which facilitates the transfer, integration and expression of biosynthetic gene clusters in various bacterial hosts. Here, we describe the yTREX system, a new tool adapted for one-step yeast recombinational cloning of gene clusters. We show that with yTREX, Pseudomonas putida secondary metabolite production strains can rapidly be constructed by random targeting of chromosomal promoters by Tn5 transposition. Feasibility of this approach was corroborated by prodigiosin production after yTREX cloning, transfer and expression of the respective biosynthesis genes from Serratia marcescens. Furthermore, the applicability of the system for effective pathway rerouting by gene cluster adaptation was demonstrated using the violacein biosynthesis gene cluster from Chromobacterium violaceum, producing pathway metabolites violacein, deoxyviolacein, prodeoxyviolacein, and deoxychromoviridans. Clones producing both prodigiosin and violaceins could be readily identified among clones obtained after random chromosomal integration by their strong color-phenotype. Finally, the addition of a promoter-less reporter gene enabled facile detection also of phenazine-producing clones after transfer of the respective phenazine-1-carboxylic acid biosynthesis genes from Pseudomonas aeruginosa. All compounds accumulated to substantial titers in the mg range. We thus corroborate here the suitability of P. putida for the biosynthesis of diverse natural products, and demonstrate that the yTREX system effectively enables the rapid generation of secondary metabolite producing bacteria by activation of heterologous gene clusters, applicable for

  12. Improvement of the decay heat removal characteristics of the generation IV gas-cooled fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epiney, A. S.

    2010-09-01

    The majority of NPPs worldwide are currently light water reactors, using ordinary water as both coolant and moderator. (...) For the longer-term future, viz. beyond the year 2030, Research and Development is currently ongoing on Generation IV NPPs, aimed at achieving closure of the nuclear fuel cycle, and hence both drastically improved utilization of fuel resources and minimization of long-lived radioactive wastes. Since the very beginning of the international cooperation on Generation IV, viz. the year 2000, the main research interest in Europe as regards the advanced fast-spectrum systems needed for achieving complete fuel cycle closure, has been for the Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (SFR). However, the Gas-cooled Fast Reactor (GFR) is currently considered as the main back-up solution. Like the SFR, the GFR is an efficient breeder, also able to work as iso-breeder using simply natural uranium as feed and producing waste which is predominantly in the form of fission products. The main drawback of the GFR is the difficulty to evacuate decay heat following a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) due to the low thermal inertia of the core, as well as to the low coolant density. The present doctoral research focuses on the improvement of decay heat removal (DHR) for the Generation-IV GFR. The reference GFR system design considered in the thesis is the 2006 CEA concept, with a power of 2400 MWth. The CEA 2006 DHR strategy foresees, in all accidental cases (independent of the system pressure), that the reactor is shut down. For high pressure events, dedicated DHR loops with blowers and heat exchangers are designed to operate when the power conversion system cannot be used to provide acceptable core temperatures under natural convection conditions. For depressurized events, the strategy relies on a dedicated small containment (called the guard containment) providing an intermediate back-up pressure. The DHR blowers, designed to work under these pressure conditions, need to be

  13. Discharge characteristics and hydrodynamics behaviors of atmospheric plasma jets produced in various gas flow patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setsuhara, Yuichi; Uchida, Giichiro; Nakajima, Atsushi; Takenaka, Kosuke; Koga, Kazunori; Shiratani, Masaharu

    2015-09-01

    Atmospheric nonequilibrium plasma jets have been widely employed in biomedical applications. For biomedical applications, it is an important issue to understand the complicated mechanism of interaction of the plasma jet with liquid. In this study, we present analysis of the discharge characteristics of a plasma jet impinging onto the liquid surface under various gas flow patterns such as laminar and turbulence flows. For this purpose, we analyzed gas flow patters by using a Schlieren gas-flow imaging system in detail The plasma jet impinging into the liquid surface expands along the liquid surface. The diameter of the expanded plasma increases with gas flow rate, which is well explained by an increase in the diameter of the laminar gas-flow channel. When the gas flow rate is further increased, the gas flow mode transits from laminar to turbulence in the gas flow channel, which leads to the shortening of the plasm-jet length. Our experiment demonstrated that the gas flow patterns strongly affect the discharge characteristics in the plasma-jet system. This study was partly supported by a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research on Innovative Areas ``Plasma Medical Innovation'' (24108003) from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan (MEXT).

  14. Layout of an internally heated gas generator for the steam gasification of coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feistel, P.P.; Duerrfeld, R.; Heck, K.H. van; Juentgen, H.

    1975-01-01

    Industrial-scale steam gasification of coal using heat from high temperature reactors requires research and development on allothermal gas generators. Bergbau-Forschung GmbH, Essen, does theoretical and experimental work in this field. The experiments deal with reaction kinetics, heat transfer and material tests. Their significance for the layout of a full-scale gas generator is shown. Including material specifications, the feasibility of a gasifier, characterized by a fluid bed volume of 318 m 3 and a heat transferring area of 4000 m 2 , results. The data, now available, are used to determine the gasification throughput from the heat balance, i.e. the equality of heat consumed and heat transferred. Throughputs of about 50 t/hr of coal are possible for a single gas generator, the helium outlet temperature of the HTR being 950 0 C/ Bergbau-Forschung has commissioned a medium-scale pilot plant (200 kg/hr). (Auth.)

  15. The effects of introducing natural gas in the Canary Islands for electricity generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos-Real, Francisco Javier; Moreno-Piquero, Juan Carlos; Ramos-Henriquez, Jose Manuel

    2007-01-01

    This study analyses the economic effects of introducing natural gas in the Canary Islands to generate electricity in combined cycle gas turbine (CCGT) plants. To this end we will evaluate how this measure contributes to achieving the objectives of the islands' energy policy and we calculate the cost of generating a kWh from this technology. For this calculation we obtain the net present value (NPV) of the total production costs during the economic lifetime of the plant so as to subsequently find the unitary cost per kWh generated. The result obtained indicates that the kWh cost is some 25% lower than the cost of using petroleum derivatives. Additionally, if we consider the positive effect of CO 2 emissions reductions, the cost is 41% lower. The introduction of natural gas will also be a decisive factor in complying with Kyoto requirements and in diversifying supply sources in the Canaries

  16. Dynamics of Dispersive Wave Generation in Gas-Filled Photonic Crystal Fiber with the Normal Dispersion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhixiang Deng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The absence of Raman and unique pressure-tunable dispersion is the characteristic feature of gas-filled photonic crystal fiber (PCF, and its zero dispersion points can be extended to the near-infrared by increasing gas pressure. The generation of dispersive wave (DW in the normal group velocity dispersion (GVD region of PCF is investigated. It is demonstrated that considering the self-steepening (SS and introducing the chirp of the initial input pulse are two suitable means to control the DW generation. The SS enhances the relative average intensity of blue-shift DW while weakening that of red-shift DW. The required propagation distance of DW emission is markedly varied by introducing the frequency chirp. Manipulating DW generation in gas-filled PCF by the combined effects of either SS or chirp and three-order dispersion (TOD provides a method for a concentrated transfer of energy into the targeted wavelengths.

  17. Nondestructive Evaluation of the J-2X Direct Metal Laser Sintered Gas Generator Discharge Duct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esther, Elizabeth A.; Beshears, Ronald D.; Lash, Rhonda K.

    2012-01-01

    The J-2X program at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) procured a direct metal laser sintered (DMLS) gas generator discharge duct from Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne and Morris Technologies for a test program that would evaluate the material properties and durability of the duct in an engine-like environment. DMLS technology was pursued as a manufacturing alternative to traditional techniques, which used off nominal practices to manufacture the gas generator duct's 180 degree turn geometry. MSFC's Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) Team performed radiographic, ultrasonic, computed tomographic, and fluorescent penetrant examinations of the duct. Results from the NDE examinations reveal some shallow porosity but no major defects in the as-manufactured material. NDE examinations were also performed after hot-fire testing the gas generator duct and yielded similar results pre and post-test and showed no flaw growth or development.

  18. Quality Assurance Project Plan for the Gas Generation Testing Program at the INEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-10-01

    The data quality objectives (DQOs) for the Program are to evaluate compliance with the limits on total gas generation rates, establish the concentrations of hydrogen and methane in the total gas flow, determine the headspace concentration of VOCs in each drum prior to the start of the test, and obtain estimates of the concentrations of several compounds for mass balance purposes. Criteria for the selection of waste containers at the INEL and the parameters that must be characterized prior to and during the tests are described. Collection of gaseous samples from 55-gallon drums of contact-handled transuranic waste for the gas generation testing is discussed. Analytical methods and calibrations are summarized. Administrative quality control measures described in this QAPjP include the generation, review, and approval of project documentation; control and retention of records; measures to ensure that personnel, subcontractors or vendors, and equipment meet the specifications necessary to achieve the required data quality for the project

  19. Spin Start Line Effects on the J2X Gas Generator Chamber Acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, R. Jeremy

    2011-01-01

    The J2X Gas Generator engine design has a spin start line connected near to the turbine inlet vanes. This line provides helium during engine startup to begin turbomachinery operation. The spin start line also acts as an acoustic side branch which alters the chamber's acoustic modes. The side branch effectively creates 'split modes' in the chamber longitudinal modes, in particular below the first longitudinal mode and within the frequency range associated with the injection-coupled response of the Gas Generator. Interaction between the spin start-modified chamber acoustics and the injection-driven response can create a higher system response than without the spin start attached to the chamber. This work reviews the acoustic effects of the spin start line as seen throughout the workhorse gas generator test program. A simple impedance model of the spin start line is reviewed. Tests were run with no initial spin start gas existing in the line, as well as being initially filled with nitrogen gas. Tests were also run with varying spin start line lengths from 0" to 40". Acoustic impedance changes due to different spin start gas constituents and line lengths are shown. Collected thermocouple and static pressure data in the spin start line was used to help estimate the fluid properties along the line length. The side branch impedance model was coupled to a chamber impedance model to show the effects on the overall chamber response. Predictions of the spin start acoustic behavior for helium operation are shown and compared against available data.

  20. The chronic toxicity of sodium bicarbonate, a major component of coal bed natural gas produced waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farag, Aïda M.; Harper, David D.

    2014-01-01

    Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) is the principal salt in coal bed natural gas produced water from the Powder River Structural Basin, Wyoming, USA, and concentrations of up to 3000 mg NaHCO3/L have been documented at some locations. No adequate studies have been performed to assess the chronic effects of NaHCO3 exposure. The present study was initiated to investigate the chronic toxicity and define sublethal effects at the individual organism level to explain the mechanisms of NaHCO3 toxicity. Three chronic experiments were completed with fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas), 1 with white suckers (Catostomus commersoni), 1 with Ceriodaphnia dubia, and 1 with a freshwater mussel, (Lampsilis siliquoidea). The data demonstrated that approximately 500 mg NaHCO3/L to 1000 mg NaHCO3/L affected all species of experimental aquatic animals in chronic exposure conditions. Freshwater mussels were the least sensitive to NaHCO3 exposure, with a 10-d inhibition concentration that affects 20% of the sample population (IC20) of 952 mg NaHCO3/L. The IC20 for C. dubia was the smallest, at 359 mg NaHCO3/L. A significant decrease in sodium–potassium adenosine triphosphatase (Na+/K+ ATPase) together with the lack of growth effects suggests that Na+/K+ ATPase activity was shut down before the onset of death. Several histological anomalies, including increased incidence of necrotic cells, suggested that fish were adversely affected as a result of exposure to >450 mg NaHCO3/L.

  1. Inquiry on the valorisation of heat produced by methanization with co-generation in France. Energy and territory: Valorisation of heat produced by methanization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazin, Florian; David, Laura; Heuraux, Thalie; Jeziorny, Thibaud; Massazza, Michael; Mosse, Noemie; Nguyen Dai, Kim Yen; Pruvost, Paul; Regimbart, Amelie; Rogee, Pierre-Emmanuel; Roy, Samuel; Segret, Emilien

    2014-01-01

    A leaflet first proposes graphs which illustrate the valorisation of heat produced by methanization with co-generation in France: material and methods, farm characterisation, plant sources, valorisation modes. The second document proposes detailed and discussed presentations of the various involved processes. Contributions address methanization as a whole, valorisation of heat produced by co-generation through heating of agricultural and domestic buildings or through digestate dehydration, digestate hygienisation, and other types of valorisation such as fodder drying, cereal drying, wood drying, compost drying, fabrication of rape seed, greenhouse crops, cultures of micro algae, and mushroom farming

  2. Development of the Next Generation Gas Trap for the Space Station Internal Thermal Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leimkuehler, Thomas O.; Spelbring, Chris; Reeves, Daniel R.; Holt, James M.

    2003-01-01

    The current dual-membrane gas trap is designed to remove non-condensed gases (NCG) from the Internal Thermal Control System (ITCS) coolant on board the International Space Station (ISS). To date it has successfully served its purpose of preventing depriming, overspeed, and shutdown of the ITCS pump. However, contamination in the ITCS coolant has adversely affected the gas venting rate and lifetime of the gas trap, warranting a development effort for a next-generation gas trap. Design goals are to meet or exceed the current requirements to (1) include greater operating ranges and conditions, (2) eliminate reliance on the current hydrophilic tube fabrication process, and (3) increase operational life and tolerance to particulate and microbial growth fouling. In addition, the next generation gas trap will essentially be a 'dropin" design such that no modifications to the ITCS pump package assembly (PPA) will be required, and the implementation of the new design will not affect changes to the ITCS operational conditions, interfaces, or software. This paper will present the initial membrane module design and development work which has included (1) a trade study among several conceptual designs, (2) performance modeling of a hydrophobic-only design, and (3) small-scale development test data for the hydrophobic-only design. Testing has shown that the hydrophobic-only design is capable of performing even better than the current dual-membrane design for both steady-state gas removal and gas slug removal.

  3. Oil and gas development in the United States in the early 1990`s: An expanded role for independent producers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    Since 1991, the major petroleum companies` foreign exploration and development expenditures have exceeded their US exploration and development expenditures. The increasing dependence of US oil and gas development on the typically much smaller nonmajor companies raises a number of issues. Did those companies gain increased prominence largely through the reduced commitments of the majors or have they been significantly adding to the US reserve base? What are the characteristics of surviving and growing producers compared with companies exiting the US oil and gas business? Differences between majors` development strategies and those of other US oil and gas producers appear considerable. As the mix of exploration and development strategies in US oil and gas increasingly reflects the decisions of smaller, typically more specialized producers, what consequences can be seen regarding the costs of adding to US reserves? How are capital markets accessed? Are US oil and gas investments by the nonmajors likely to be undertaken only with higher costs of capital? This report analyzes these issues. 20 figs., 6 tabs.

  4. Status and integration of the gas generation studies performed for the Hydrogen Safety Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pederson, L.R.; Strachan, D.M.

    1993-02-01

    Waste in Tank 241-SY-101 on the Hanford Site generates and periodically releases hydrogen, nitrous oxide, and nitrogen gases. Studies have been conducted at several laboratories to determine the chemical mechanisms for the gas generation and release. Results from these studies are presented and integrated in an attempt to describe current understanding of the physical properties of the waste and the mechanisms of gas generation and retention. Existing tank data are consistent with the interpretation that gases are uniformly generated in the tank, released continuously from the convecting layer, and stored in the nonconvecting layer. Tank temperature measurements suggest that the waste consists of ''gobs'' of material that reach neutral buoyancy at different times. The activation energy of the rate limiting step of the gas generating process was calculated to be about 7 kJ/mol but measured in the laboratory at 80 to 100 kJ/mol. Based on observed temperature changes in the tank the activation energy is probably not higher than about 20 kJ/mol. Several simulated waste compositions have been devised for use in laboratory studies in the place of actual waste from Tank 241-SY-101. Data from these studies can be used to predict how the actual waste might behave when heated or diluted. Density evaluations do not confirm that heating waste at the bottom of the tank would induce circulation within the waste; however, heating may release gas bubbles by dissolving the solids to which the bubbles adhere. Gas generation studies on simulated wastes indicated that nitrous oxide and hydrogen yields are not particularly coupled. Solubility studies of nitrous oxide, the most soluble of the principal gaseous products, indicate it is unlikely that dissolved gases contribute substantially to the quantity of gas released during periodic events

  5. Genetic algorithm to optimize the design of main combustor and gas generator in liquid rocket engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Min; Ko, Sangho; Koo, Jaye

    2014-06-01

    A genetic algorithm was used to develop optimal design methods for the regenerative cooled combustor and fuel-rich gas generator of a liquid rocket engine. For the combustor design, a chemical equilibrium analysis was applied, and the profile was calculated using Rao's method. One-dimensional heat transfer was assumed along the profile, and cooling channels were designed. For the gas-generator design, non-equilibrium properties were derived from a counterflow analysis, and a vaporization model for the fuel droplet was adopted to calculate residence time. Finally, a genetic algorithm was adopted to optimize the designs. The combustor and gas generator were optimally designed for 30-tonf, 75-tonf, and 150-tonf engines. The optimized combustors demonstrated superior design characteristics when compared with previous non-optimized results. Wall temperatures at the nozzle throat were optimized to satisfy the requirement of 800 K, and specific impulses were maximized. In addition, the target turbine power and a burned-gas temperature of 1000 K were obtained from the optimized gas-generator design.

  6. Using Probability of Exceedance to Compare the Resource Risk of Renewable and Gas-Fired Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolinger, Mark [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-08-01

    Of the myriad risks surrounding long-term investments in power plants, resource risk is one of the most difficult to mitigate, and is also perhaps the risk that most-clearly distinguishes renewable generation from natural gas-fired generation. For renewable generators like wind and solar projects, resource risk manifests as a quantity risk—i.e., the risk that the quantity of wind and insolation will be less than expected.i For gas-fired generators (i.e., a combined-cycle gas turbine or “CCGT”), resource risk manifests primarily as a price risk—i.e., the risk that natural gas will cost more than expected. Most often, resource risk—and natural gas price risk in particular—falls disproportionately on utility ratepayers, who are typically not well-equipped to manage this risk. As such, it is incumbent upon utilities, regulators, and policymakers to ensure that resource risk is taken into consideration when making or approving resource decisions, or enacting policies that influence the development of the electricity sector more broadly.

  7. Gas generation from low-level radioactive waste: Concerns for disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siskind, B.

    1992-01-01

    The Advisory Committee on Nuclear Waste (ACNW) has urged the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to reexamine the topic of hydrogen gas generation from low-level radioactive waste (LLW) in closed spaces to ensure that the slow buildup of hydrogen from water-bearing wastes in sealed containers does not become a problem for long-term safe disposal. Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has prepared a report, summarized in this paper, for the NRC to respond to these concerns. The paper discusses the range of values for G(H 2 ) reported for materials of relevance to LLW disposal; most of these values are in the range of 0.1 to 0.6. Most studies of radiolytic hydrogen generation indicate a leveling off of pressurization, probably because of chemical kinetics involving, in many cases, the radiolysis of water within the waste. Even if no leveling off occurs, realistic gas leakage rates (indicating poor closure by gaskets on drums and liners) will result in adequate relief of pressure for radiolytic gas generation from the majority of commercial sector LLW packages. Biodegradative gas generation, however, could pose a pressurization hazard even at realistic gas leakage rates. Recommendations include passive vents on LLW containers (as already specified for high integrity containers) and upper limits to the G values and/or the specific activity of the LLW

  8. Laser-produced plasma-extreme ultraviolet light source for next generation lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishihara, Katsunobu; Nishimura, Hiroaki; Gamada, Kouhei; Murakami, Masakatsu; Mochizuki, Takayasu; Sasaki, Akira; Sunahara, Atsushi

    2005-01-01

    Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography is the most promising candidate for the next generation lithography for the 45 nm technology node and below. EUV light sources under consideration use 13.5 nm radiations from multicharged xenon, tin and lithium ions, because Mo/Si multiplayer mirrors have high reflectivity at this wavelength. A review of laser-produced plasma (LPP) EUV light sources is presented with a focus on theoretical and experimental studies under the auspices of the Leading Project promoted by MEXT. We discuss three theoretical topics: atomic processes in the LPP-EUV light source, conversion efficiency from laser light to EUV light at 13.5 nm wave-length with 2% bound width, and fast ion spectra. The properties of EUV emission from tin and xenon plasmas are also shown based on experimental results. (author)

  9. LOCALIZED STARBURSTS IN DWARF GALAXIES PRODUCED BY THE IMPACT OF LOW-METALLICITY COSMIC GAS CLOUDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sánchez Almeida, J.; Muñoz-Tuñón, C.; Filho, M. E.; Elmegreen, B. G.; Elmegreen, D. M.; Pérez-Montero, E.; Vílchez, J. M.; Amorín, R.; Ascasibar, Y.; Papaderos, P.

    2015-01-01

    Models of galaxy formation predict that gas accretion from the cosmic web is a primary driver of star formation over cosmic history. Except in very dense environments where galaxy mergers are also important, model galaxies feed from cold streams of gas from the web that penetrate their dark matter halos. Although these predictions are unambiguous, the observational support has been indirect so far. Here, we report spectroscopic evidence for this process in extremely metal-poor galaxies (XMPs) of the local universe, taking the form of localized starbursts associated with gas having low metallicity. Detailed abundance analyses based on Gran Telescopio Canarias optical spectra of 10 XMPs show that the galaxy hosts have metallicities around 60% solar, on average, while the large star-forming regions that dominate their integrated light have low metallicities of some 6% solar. Because gas mixes azimuthally in a rotation timescale (a few hundred Myr), the observed metallicity inhomogeneities are only possible if the metal-poor gas fell onto the disk recently. We analyze several possibilities for the origin of the metal-poor gas, favoring the metal-poor gas infall predicted by numerical models. If this interpretation is correct, XMPs trace the cosmic web gas in their surroundings, making them probes to examine its properties

  10. LOCALIZED STARBURSTS IN DWARF GALAXIES PRODUCED BY THE IMPACT OF LOW-METALLICITY COSMIC GAS CLOUDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sánchez Almeida, J.; Muñoz-Tuñón, C.; Filho, M. E. [Instituto Astrofísica de Canarias, E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Elmegreen, B. G. [IBM Research Division, T. J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, NY 10598 (United States); Elmegreen, D. M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vassar College, Poughkeepsie, NY 12604 (United States); Pérez-Montero, E.; Vílchez, J. M. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía, CSIC, Granada (Spain); Amorín, R. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, Monte Porzio Catone (Italy); Ascasibar, Y. [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Madrid (Spain); Papaderos, P., E-mail: jos@iac.es [Centro de Astrofísica da Universidade do Porto, Porto (Portugal)

    2015-09-10

    Models of galaxy formation predict that gas accretion from the cosmic web is a primary driver of star formation over cosmic history. Except in very dense environments where galaxy mergers are also important, model galaxies feed from cold streams of gas from the web that penetrate their dark matter halos. Although these predictions are unambiguous, the observational support has been indirect so far. Here, we report spectroscopic evidence for this process in extremely metal-poor galaxies (XMPs) of the local universe, taking the form of localized starbursts associated with gas having low metallicity. Detailed abundance analyses based on Gran Telescopio Canarias optical spectra of 10 XMPs show that the galaxy hosts have metallicities around 60% solar, on average, while the large star-forming regions that dominate their integrated light have low metallicities of some 6% solar. Because gas mixes azimuthally in a rotation timescale (a few hundred Myr), the observed metallicity inhomogeneities are only possible if the metal-poor gas fell onto the disk recently. We analyze several possibilities for the origin of the metal-poor gas, favoring the metal-poor gas infall predicted by numerical models. If this interpretation is correct, XMPs trace the cosmic web gas in their surroundings, making them probes to examine its properties.

  11. Aeroderivative Pratt & Whitney FT8-3 gas turbine – an interesting solution for power generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorinel-Gicu TALIF

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The intermediate load electric power stations become more and more interesting for theelectric power market in Romania. In this context, the Combined Cycle Power Plants came as a veryattractive solution. This paper presents the results of a study regarding the use of the aeroderivativePratt & Whitney FT8-3 gas turbine, available in Romania, for the electric power generation in aCombined Cycle Power Plant. It is also analyzed the Combined Heat in Power generation with FT8-3gas turbine when saturated steam or hot water are required.

  12. Power Generation and Transportation Systems Research Department: 1992 annual status report (Gas Research Institute)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benedict, A.

    1992-09-01

    Activities of Gas Research Institute's Power Generation and Transportation Systems subprogram for the period between October 1, 1991 and September 30, 1992 are summarized. The particular project areas covered in the report are Cogeneration and Power Systems, Engine Technology and Component Development, Natural Gas Vehicles Research, and Electric Power Generation. For each project area a separate chapter is provided. Each chapter includes a rationale for funding the research effort, the goals and objectives to be achieved, a general statement on research accomplishments, and the strategy employed in the project area. Each chapter also contains a series of summary reports on the status of each contract

  13. Variation in excess oxidant factor in combustion products of MHD generator. [Natural gas fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinkhasik, M S; Mironov, V D; Zakharko, Yu A; Plavinskii, A I

    1977-12-01

    Methods and difficulties associated with determining the excess oxidant factor for natural gas-fired MHD generators are discussed. The measurement of this factor is noted to be essential for the optimization of the combustion chamber and operation of MHD generators. A gas analyzer of electrochemical type is considered as a quick - response sensor capable of analyzing the composition of the combustion products and thus determining accurately the excess oxidant factor. The principle of operation of this sensor is discussed and the dependence of the electrochemical sensor emf on excess oxidant factor is shown. Three types of sensors are illustrated and tables of test results are provided.

  14. Organic pollutants in shale gas flowback and produced waters : identification, potential ecological impact and implications for treatment strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Butkovskyi, Andrii; Bruning, Harry; Kools, Stefan A E; Rijnaarts, Huub H M; van Wezel, Annemarie P

    2017-01-01

    Organic contaminants in shale gas flowback and produced water (FPW) are traditionally expressed as total organic carbon (TOC) or chemical oxygen demand (COD), though these parameters do not provide information on the toxicity and environmental fate of individual components. This review addresses

  15. Plant-wide Control for Better De-oiling of Produced Water in Offshore Oil & Gas Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Zhenyu; Stigkær, Jens Peter; Løhndorf, Bo

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the application of plant-wide control philosophy to enhance the performance and capacity of the Produced Water Treatment (PWT) in offshore oil & gas production processes. Different from most existing facility- or material-based PWT innovation methods, the objective of this work...

  16. Thermodynamic modelling of an onsite methanation reactor for upgrading producer gas from commercial small scale biomass gasifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakalis, S; Malamis, D; Moustakas, K

    2018-06-15

    Small scale biomass gasifiers have the advantage of having higher electrical efficiency in comparison to other conventional small scale energy systems. Nonetheless, a major drawback of small scale biomass gasifiers is the relatively poor quality of the producer gas. In addition, several EU Member States are seeking ways to store the excess energy that is produced from renewables like wind power and hydropower. A recent development is the storage of energy by electrolysis of water and the production of hydrogen in a process that is commonly known as "power-to-gas". The present manuscript proposes an onsite secondary reactor for upgrading producer gas by mixing it with hydrogen in order to initiate methanation reactions. A thermodynamic model has been developed for assessing the potential of the proposed methanation process. The model utilized input parameters from a representative small scale biomass gasifier and molar ratios of hydrogen from 1:0 to 1:4.1. The Villar-Cruise-Smith algorithm was used for minimizing the Gibbs free energy. The model returned the molar fractions of the permanent gases, the heating values and the Wobbe Index. For mixtures of hydrogen and producer gas on a 1:0.9 ratio the increase of the heating value is maximized with an increase of 78%. For ratios higher than 1:3, the Wobbe index increases significantly and surpasses the value of 30 MJ/Nm 3 . Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. 17 CFR 210.4-10 - Financial accounting and reporting for oil and gas producing activities pursuant to the Federal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Financial accounting and... of General Application § 210.4-10 Financial accounting and reporting for oil and gas producing... section prescribes financial accounting and reporting standards for registrants with the Commission...

  18. Optimising hard X-ray generation from laser-produced plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindheimer, C.

    1995-04-01

    The aim of this work is to increase the X-ray yield for a laser produced plasma by optimising the focusing conditions and temporal shape of the laser pulses. The focusing conditions are improved by introducing a control system that secures the laser target surface to exact focus within a range of a few micrometers, allowing continuously high laser intensity for plasma generation. The temporal shape of the laser pulses is changed by introducing a saturable absorber in the laser beam. The laser produces a substantial pre-pulse that heats and expands the target material prior to main pulse arrival. The saturable absorber can increase the main pulse/pre-pulse ratio of the laser pulse up to four orders of magnitude and consequently reduce expansion of the target material before the main pulse. The belief is that an increase in target density at the time of main pulse arrival will change the energy distribution of the X-rays, towards a more efficient X-ray production in the hard X-ray region. This report and the work connected to it, includes the preliminary measurements and results for these improvements. 17 refs

  19. Efficient soft x-ray generation in short wavelength laser produced plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mochizuki, T.; Yamanaka, C.

    1987-01-01

    Intense x-ray generation in 1.053, 0.53, 0.26 μm laser-produced plasma has been investigated in the photon energy range of 0.1 to 3keV. The x-ray spectrum is found to have several humps which move to the higher energy side as the atomic number of the target increases. This atomic dependence is explained by a semi-Moseley's law and allows us to predict a target material most suitable for generating the photons of desired energies. Conversion efficiencies of 1.5 -- 3keV x-rays are obtained also as a function of laser wavelength at the intensity of 10/sup 13/W/cm/sup 2/. The conversion efficiency of keV x rays has been enhanced by a factor of 2 -- 3 with a controlled prepulse laser. From the semi-Moseley's law we find that cryogenic targets using either Xe or Kr in a liquid or solid phase may be most useful for a number of applications because they radiate 1 -- 3 keV x rays efficiently and never deposit on the x-ray optical components and the objects to be exposed

  20. Reinforcement of LENRA film by in-situ generated silica produced by sol gel process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahathir Mohamed; Eda Yuhana Ariffin; Dahlan Mohd; Ibrahim Abdullah

    2008-08-01

    Liquid epoxidised natural rubber acrylate (LENRA) film was reinforced with silica-siloxane structures formed in-situ via sol gel process. Combination of these two components produces organic-inorganic composites. Tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) was used as precursor material for silica generation. Sol gel reaction was carried out at different concentrations of TEOS i.e. between 10 and 50 phr. Instrumental analysis was carried out by dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), thermogravimetry analysis (TGA) and FTIR. It was found that miscibility between organic and inorganic components improved with the presence of silanol groups (Si-OH) and polar solvent i.e. THF, via hydrogen bonding formation between siloxane and LENRA. In this work, the effects of TEOS composition on mechanical properties and interaction that occurs between fillers and matrix have also been studied. It was observed that increasing the concentration of TEOS improved the scratch and stress properties of the film. Morphology study by the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed in-situ generated silica particles were homogenous and well dispersed at low concentrations of TEOS. (Author)

  1. Outlook of natural gas thermal generation; A geracao termeletrica a gas natural e o PPT (Programa Prioritario de Termoeletricidade)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felix, Makyo A.; Correia Junior, Clovis [Bahiagas - Companhia de Gas da Bahia, Salvador, BA (Brazil); Garcia, Celestino B. [Agencia Nacional do Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis (ANP), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The national integrated system has always had hydroelectricity as its main source of energy supply. However, a long period of lack of investment in sector put the country in a complacent position in which there was an overabundance of energy supply. The subsequent power shortage of 2001, led to a long term strategy of assuring supply with perspective of attending demand quickly and guaranteeing the security of the system by exploiting a source of energy rarely used in the country: thermal energy using natural gas. For this reason, the federal government launched the PPT Program (Priority Program of Thermoelectricity) with the aim of stimulating investment in thermo electrical plants, utilizing natural gas which is cheaper and less polluting. However, investment by the private sector did not fulfill expectations even with regular production, financial incentives of the government and favourable points through thermal generation using natural gas. Therefore, PETROBRAS decided to assume the risk and form partnerships to assure investments in thermo electrical plants. In the strategy of implanting thermal plants, who would be responsible to carry out this process along with guarantees of supply, was not properly defined. The establishment of thermal plants without a regulatory framework and undefined investment plan, compromises the essence of its creation. It is from this angle, that evaluates the recent collapse of energy of the Northeast region and the effective implantation of thermoelectricity utilizing natural gas. (author)

  2. Produced water ponds are an important source of aromatics and alcohols in Rocky Mountain oil and gas basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyman, S. N.

    2017-12-01

    Most of the water extracted with oil and natural gas (i.e., produced water) is disposed of by injection into the subsurface. In the arid western United States, however, a significant portion of produced water is discharged in ponds for evaporative disposal, and produced water is often stored in open ponds prior to subsurface injection. Even though they are common in the West (Utah's Uinta Basin has almost 200 ha), produced water ponds have been excluded from oil and gas emissions inventories because little information about their emission rates and speciation is available. We used flux chambers and inverse plume modeling to measure emissions of methane, C2-C11 hydrocarbons, light alcohols, carbonyls, and carbon dioxide from oil and gas produced water storage and disposal ponds in the Uinta Basin and the Upper Green River Basin, Wyoming, during 2013-2017. Methanol was the most abundant organic compound in produced water (91 ± 2% of the total volatile organic concentration; mean ± 95% confidence interval) but accounted for only 25 ± 30% of total organic compound emissions from produced water ponds. Non-methane hydrocarbons, especially C6-C9 alkanes and aromatics, accounted for the majority of emitted organics. We were able to predict emissions of individual compounds based on water concentrations, but only to within an order of magnitude. The speciation and magnitude of emissions varied strongly across facilities and was influenced by water age, the presence or absence of oil sheens, and with meteorological conditions (especially ice cover). Flux chamber measurements were lower than estimates from inverse modeling techniques.Based on our flux chamber measurements, we estimate that produced water ponds are responsible for between 3 and 9% of all non-methane organic compound emissions in the Uinta Basin (or as much as 18% if we rely on our inverse modeling results). Emissions from produced water ponds contain little methane and are more reactive (i.e., they have

  3. Comparison between landfill gas and waste incineration for power generation in Astana, Kazakhstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inglezakis, Vassilis J; Rojas-Solórzano, Luis; Kim, Jong; Aitbekova, Aisulu; Ismailova, Aizada

    2015-05-01

    The city of Astana, the capital of Kazakhstan, which has a population of 804,474, and has been experiencing rapid growth over the last 15 years, generates approximately 1.39 kg capita(-1) day(-1) of municipal solid waste (MSW). Nearly 700 tonnes of MSW are collected daily, of which 97% is disposed of at landfills. The newest landfill was built using modern technologies, including a landfill gas (LFG) collection system.The rapid growth of Astana demands more energy on its path to development, and the viability analysis of MSW to generate electricity is imperative. This paper presents a technical-economic pre-feasibility study comparing landfill including LFG utilization and waste incineration (WI) to produce electricity. The performance of LFG with a reciprocating engine and WI with steam turbine power technologies were compared through corresponding greenhouse gases (GHG) reduction, cost of energy production (CEP), benefit-cost ratio (BCR), net present value (NPV) and internal rate of return (IRR) from the analyses. Results demonstrate that in the city of Astana, WI has the potential to reduce more than 200,000 tonnes of GHG per year, while LFG could reduce slightly less than 40,000 tonnes. LFG offers a CEP 5.7% larger than WI, while the latter presents a BCR two times higher than LFG. WI technology analysis depicts a NPV exceeding 280% of the equity, while for LFG, the NPV is less than the equity, which indicates an expected remarkable financial return for the WI technology and a marginal and risky scenario for the LFG technology. Only existing landfill facilities with a LFG collection system in place may turn LFG into a viable project. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Comparison of Gross Greenhouse Gas Fluxes from Hydroelectric Reservoirs in Brazil with Thermopower Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogerio, J. P.; Dos Santos, M. A.; Matvienko, B.; dos Santos, E.; Rocha, C. H.; Sikar, E.; Junior, A. M.

    2013-05-01

    Widespread interest in human impacts on the Earth has prompted much questioning in fields of concern to the general public. One of these issues is the extent of the impacts on the environment caused by hydro-based power generation, once viewed as a clean energy source. From the early 1990s onwards, papers and studies have been challenging this assumption through claims that hydroelectric dams also emit greenhouse gases, generated by the decomposition of biomass flooded by filling these reservoirs. Like as other freshwater bodies, hydroelectric reservoirs produce gases underwater by biology decomposition of organic matter. Some of these biogenic gases are effective in terms of Global Warming. The decomposition is mainly due by anaerobically regime, emitting methane (CH4), nitrogen (N2) and carbon dioxide (CO2). This paper compare results obtained from gross greenhouse fluxes in Brazilian hydropower reservoirs with thermo power plants using different types of fuels and technology. Measurements were carried in the Manso, Serra da Mesa, Corumbá, Itumbiara, Estreito, Furnas and Peixoto reservoirs, located in Cerrado biome and in Funil reservoir located at Atlantic forest biome with well defined climatologically regimes. Fluxes of carbon dioxide and methane in each of the reservoirs selected, whether through bubbles and/or diffusive exchange between water and atmosphere, were assessed by sampling. The intensity of emissions has a great variability and some environmental factors could be responsible for these variations. Factors that influence the emissions could be the water and air temperature, depth, wind velocity, sunlight, physical and chemical parameters of water, the composition of underwater biomass and the operational regime of the reservoir. Based in this calculations is possible to conclude that the large amount of hydro-power studied is better than thermopower source in terms of atmospheric greenhouse emissions. The comparisons between the reservoirs studied

  5. Spatial distribution of ion energy related on electron density in a plasma channel generated in gas clusters by a femtosecond laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, S. M.; Han, J. M.; Cha, Y. H.; Lee, Y. W.; Rhee, Y. J.; Cha, H. K.

    2008-01-01

    Neutron generation through Coulomb explosion of deuterium contained gas clusters is known as one of the very effective methods to produce fusion neutrons using a table top terawatt laser. The energy of ions produced through Coulomb explosions is very important factor to generate neutrons efficiently. Until the ion energy reaches around∼MeV level, the D D fusion reaction probability increases exponentially. The understanding of laser beam propagation and laser energy deposition in clusters is very important to improve neutron yields. As the laser beam propagates through clusters medium, laser energy is absorbed in clusters by ionization of molecules consisting clusters. When the backing pressure of gas increases, the average size of clusters increases and which results in higher energy absorption and earlier termination of laser propagation. We first installed a Michelson interferometer to view laser beam traces in a cluster plume and to measure spatial electron density profiles of a plasma channel which was produced by a laser beam. And then we measured the energy of ions distributed along the plasma channel with a translating slit to select ions from narrow parts of a plasma channel. In our experiments, methane gas was used to produce gas clusters at a room temperature and the energy distribution of proton ions for different gas backing pressure were measured by the time of flight method using dual micro channel plates. By comparing the distribution of ion energies and electron densities, we could understand the condition for effective laser energy delivery to clusters

  6. Integration of steam injection and inlet air cooling for a gas turbine generation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, F.J.; Chiou, J.S.

    2004-01-01

    The temperature of exhaust gases from simple cycle gas turbine generation sets (GENSETs) is usually very high (around 500 deg. C), and a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) is often used to recover the energy from the exhaust gases and generate steam. The generated steams can be either used for many useful processes (heating, drying, separation etc.) or used back in the power generation system for enhancing power generation capacity and efficiency. Two well-proven techniques, namely steam injection gas turbine (STIG) and inlet air cooling (IAC) are very effective features that can use the generated steam to improve the power generation capacity and efficiency. Since the energy level of the generated steam needed for steam injection is different from that needed by an absorption chiller to cool the inlet air, a proper arrangement is required to implement both the STIG and the IAC features into the simple cycle GENSET. In this study, a computer code was developed to simulate a Tai power's Frame 7B simple cycle GENSET. Under the condition of local summer weather, the benefits obtained from the system implementing both STIG and IAC features are more than a 70% boost in power and 20.4% improvement in heat rate

  7. Testing various types of agricultural wastes for the production of generator gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjellstroem, B

    1982-05-08

    The aim of the project was to get an improved basis for the assessment of aretes which was required for use in a Swedish gas generator. It was found that waste which possessed high contents of ashes with a low melting point were unsuitable as a fuel. Four types of waste were tested. The shells of coconuts were applicable as fuel. The design of the generator had to be modified in order to use pellets of straw or compressed sugar-canes.

  8. Hydrogen generation from natural gas for the fuel cell systems of tomorrow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dicks, Andrew L.

    In most cases hydrogen is the preferred fuel for use in the present generation of fuel cells being developed for commercial applications. Of all the potential sources of hydrogen, natural gas offers many advantages. It is widely available, clean, and can be converted to hydrogen relatively easily. When catalytic steam reforming is used to generate hydrogen from natural gas, it is essential that sulfur compounds in the natural gas are removed upstream of the reformer and various types of desulfurisation processes are available. In addition, the quality of fuel required for each type of fuel cell varies according to the anode material used, and the cell temperature. Low temperature cells will not tolerate high concentrations of carbon monoxide, whereas the molten fuel cell (MCFC) and solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) anodes contain nickel on which it is possible to electrochemically oxidise carbon monoxide directly. The ability to internally reform fuel gas is a feature of the MCFC and SOFC. Internal reforming can give benefits in terms of increased electrical efficiency owing to the reduction in the required cell cooling and therefore parasitic system losses. Direct electrocatalysis of hydrocarbon oxidation has been the elusive goal of fuel cell developers over many years and recent laboratory results are encouraging. This paper reviews the principal methods of converting natural gas into hydrogen, namely catalytic steam reforming, autothermic reforming, pyrolysis and partial oxidation; it reviews currently available purification techniques and discusses some recent advances in internal reforming and the direct use of natural gas in fuel cells.

  9. Study on incineration technology of oil gas generated during the recovery process of oil spill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, Shuhn-Shyurng [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kun Shan University, Tainan 71003 (China); Ko, Yung-Chang [China Steel Corporation, Kaohsiung 81233 (China); Lin, Ta-Hui [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101 (China)

    2011-03-15

    The objective of this study is to design, set up and operate an incinerator system capable of providing clean exhaust and safety control for burning oil gas generated during the recovery process of oil spill in Taiwan. In this study, we successfully develop a vertical-type incinerator, which consists of five oil gas burners with entrained primary air, a pilot burner, and an auxiliary burner. The incinerator system is equipped with necessary control units in order to achieve safe, easy, fast, and efficient operation. Flame appearance, flue gas temperature and CO emission of the incinerator system for burning oil gas are reported and discussed. Under the long-term operation, it is found that the new designed incinerator is satisfactory for burning oil gas with low supply pressure at various compositions and supply rates during the recovery process of oil spill. It is noteworthy that the results obtained herein are of great significance to provide a good guidance for those who need to design, set up and operate an incinerator system providing clean exhaust and safety control for burning oil gas generated during the recovery process of oil spill in a polluted site with a large area. (author)

  10. Study on incineration technology of oil gas generated during the recovery process of oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou, Shuhn-Shyurng; Ko, Yung-Chang; Lin, Ta-Hui

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study is to design, set up and operate an incinerator system capable of providing clean exhaust and safety control for burning oil gas generated during the recovery process of oil spill in Taiwan. In this study, we successfully develop a vertical-type incinerator, which consists of five oil gas burners with entrained primary air, a pilot burner, and an auxiliary burner. The incinerator system is equipped with necessary control units in order to achieve safe, easy, fast, and efficient operation. Flame appearance, flue gas temperature and CO emission of the incinerator system for burning oil gas are reported and discussed. Under the long-term operation, it is found that the new designed incinerator is satisfactory for burning oil gas with low supply pressure at various compositions and supply rates during the recovery process of oil spill. It is noteworthy that the results obtained herein are of great significance to provide a good guidance for those who need to design, set up and operate an incinerator system providing clean exhaust and safety control for burning oil gas generated during the recovery process of oil spill in a polluted site with a large area.

  11. Investigation of secondary formation of formic acid: urban environment vs. oil and gas producing region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, B.; Veres, P. R.; Warneke, C.; Roberts, J. M.; Gilman, J. B.; Koss, A.; Edwards, P. M.; Graus, M.; Kuster, W. C.; Li, S.-M.; Wild, R. J.; Brown, S. S.; Dubé, W. P.; Lerner, B. M.; Williams, E. J.; Johnson, J. E.; Quinn, P. K.; Bates, T. S.; Lefer, B.; Hayes, P. L.; Jimenez, J. L.; Weber, R. J.; Zamora, R.; Ervens, B.; Millet, D. B.; Rappenglück, B.; de Gouw, J. A.

    2015-02-01

    Formic acid (HCOOH) is one of the most abundant carboxylic acids in the atmosphere. However, current photochemical models cannot fully explain observed concentrations and in particular secondary formation of formic acid across various environments. In this work, formic acid measurements made at an urban receptor site (Pasadena) in June-July 2010 during CalNex (California Research at the Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change) and a site in an oil and gas producing region (Uintah Basin) in January-February 2013 during UBWOS 2013 (Uintah Basin Winter Ozone Studies) will be discussed. Although the VOC (volatile organic compounds) compositions differed dramatically at the two sites, measured formic acid concentrations were comparable: 2.3 ± 1.3 in UBWOS 2013 and 2.0 ± 1.0 ppb in CalNex. We determine that concentrations of formic acid at both sites were dominated by secondary formation (> 99%). A constrained box model using the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM v3.2) underestimates the measured formic acid concentrations drastically at both sites (by a factor of > 10). Compared to the original MCM model that includes only ozonolysis of unsaturated organic compounds and OH oxidation of acetylene, when we updated yields of ozonolysis of alkenes and included OH oxidation of isoprene, vinyl alcohol chemistry, reaction of formaldehyde with HO2, oxidation of aromatics, and reaction of CH3O2 with OH, the model predictions for formic acid were improved by a factor of 6.4 in UBWOS 2013 and 4.5 in CalNex, respectively. A comparison of measured and modeled HCOOH/acetone ratios is used to evaluate the model performance for formic acid. We conclude that the modified chemical mechanism can explain 19 and 45% of secondary formation of formic acid in UBWOS 2013 and CalNex, respectively. The contributions from aqueous reactions in aerosol and heterogeneous reactions on aerosol surface to formic acid are estimated to be 0-6 and 0-5% in UBWOS 2013 and CalNex, respectively. We observe that

  12. Climate Change Impacts and Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Effects on U.S. Hydropower Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climate change will have potentially significant effects on hydropower generation due to changes in the magnitude and seasonality of river runoff and increases in reservoir evaporation. These physical impacts will in turn have economic consequences through both producer revenues ...

  13. Natural gas facility methane emissions: measurements by tracer flux ratio in two US natural gas producing basins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara I. Yacovitch

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Methane (CH4 emission rates from a sample of natural gas facilities across industry sectors were quantified using the dual tracer flux ratio methodology. Measurements were conducted in study areas within the Fayetteville shale play, Arkansas (FV, Sept–Oct 2015, 53 facilities, and the Denver-Julesburg basin, Colorado, (DJ, Nov 2014, 21 facilities. Distributions of methane emission rates at facilities by type are computed and statistically compared with results that cover broader geographic regions in the US (Allen et al., 2013, Mitchell et al., 2015. DJ gathering station emission rates (kg CH4 hr–1 are lower, while FV gathering and production sites are statistically indistinguishable as compared to these multi-basin results. However, FV gathering station throughput-normalized emissions are statistically lower than multi-basin results (0.19% vs. 0.44%. This implies that the FV gathering sector is emitting less per unit of gas throughput than would be expected from the multi-basin distribution alone. The most common emission rate (i.e. mode of the distribution for facilities in this study is 40 kg CH4 hr–1 for FV gathering stations, 1.0 kg CH4 hr–1 for FV production pads, and 11 kg CH4 hr–1 for DJ gathering stations. The importance of study design is discussed, including the benefits of site access and data sharing with industry and of a scientist dedicated to measurement coordination and site choice under evolving wind conditions.

  14. Considerations for reduction of gas generation in a low-level radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Chan Hee; Son, Jung Kwon; Lee, Myung Chan; Song, Myung Jae

    1997-01-01

    In a low-level radioactive waste repository, H 2 , CO 2 , and CH 4 will be generated principally by the coupled processes of metal corrosion and microbial degradation of cellulosic waste. The metal corrosion model incorporates a three-stage process encompassing aerobic and anaerobic corrosion regimes; the microbial degradation model simulates the activities of eight different microbial populations, which are maintained as functions both of pH and of the concentrations of particular chemical species. A prediction is made for gas concentrations and generation rates over an assessment period of ten thousand years in a radioactive waste repository. The results suggest that H 2 is the principal gas generated within the radioactive waste cavern. The generation rates of CO 2 and CH 4 are likely to be insignificant by comparison with H 2 . Therefore, an effective way to decrease gas generation in a radioactive waste repository seems to be to reduce metal content since the generation rate of H 2 is most sensitive to the concentration of steel

  15. Modelling gas migration in compacted bentonite. A report produced for the GAMBIT club

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nash, P.J.; Swift, B.T.; Goodfield, M.; Rodwell, W.R.

    1998-08-01

    This report describes the first phase of a programme of work that has as its overall objective the development of a computational model that can simulate the results of experiments on gas migration through highly compacted bentonite, and will provide the basis of a model suitable to assess the effects of bentonite barriers on the build-up of pressure and the escape of hydrogen gas from disposal canisters in a radioactive waste repository. In this first phase of the project, the possible mechanisms and controlling features of gas migration through compacted bentonite have been reviewed, and a preliminary computational model of the process has been implemented and evaluated. In the model it is assumed that gas invasion of the clay occurs by induced microfissuring, and that the permeability of the pathways thus created depends on the gas pressure (or the effective stress). Experimental data on gas migration in compacted bentonite that was collected under well controlled conditions by Horseman and Harrington was used in a preliminary evaluation of the new model. The model was able to reproduce qualitatively all the features seen in the subset of the experimental data used in the evaluation, and to provide quantitative agreement to substantial sections of the results of test sequences, but quantitative agreement between simulation and experimental results over a whole test sequence was not obtained. As part of the model evaluation, the dependence of the results obtained on key model parameters is reported. Outline plans for a further phase of work are suggested. (orig.)

  16. Modelling gas migration in compacted bentonite. A report produced for the GAMBIT club

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nash, P.J.; Swift, B.T.; Goodfield, M.; Rodwell, W.R. [AEA Technology plc, Dorchester (United Kingdom)

    1998-08-01

    This report describes the first phase of a programme of work that has as its overall objective the development of a computational model that can simulate the results of experiments on gas migration through highly compacted bentonite, and will provide the basis of a model suitable to assess the effects of bentonite barriers on the build-up of pressure and the escape of hydrogen gas from disposal canisters in a radioactive waste repository. In this first phase of the project, the possible mechanisms and controlling features of gas migration through compacted bentonite have been reviewed, and a preliminary computational model of the process has been implemented and evaluated. In the model it is assumed that gas invasion of the clay occurs by induced microfissuring, and that the permeability of the pathways thus created depends on the gas pressure (or the effective stress). Experimental data on gas migration in compacted bentonite that was collected under well controlled conditions by Horseman and Harrington was used in a preli