WorldWideScience

Sample records for produce persistent gastric

  1. Mucosal injury and γ-irradiation produce persistent gastric ulcers in the rabbit. Evaluation of antiulcer drug binding to experimental ulcer sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokel, R.A.; Dickey, K.M.

    1991-01-01

    A method producing persistent gastric ulcers in the rhesus monkey by combined mucosal injury and γ-irradiation was modified and evaluated in the rabbit. γ-Irradiation (800-1000 cGy) immediately after removal of 2-mm-diameter sections of antral mucosa resulted in ulcer craters 5-7 days later. Ulcer sites were characterized by loss of the mucosa, muscularis mucosa, and much of the submucosa. The exposed submucosa was coated with fibrin and necrotic debris infiltrated with heterophils, the rabbit equivalent of neutrophils. These ulcers strongly resemble human chronic gastric ulcers. Binding of Carafate (sucralfate; Marion Laboratories, Inc., Kansas City, MO) and Maalox (magnesia-alumina oral suspension; Wm. H. Rorer, Inc., Ft. Washington, PA) to ulcer and nearby nonulcer sites in the antrum was assessed 1 hour after drug dosing. Drug binding was determined by aluminum quantitation of stomach wall punch biopsies at necropsy. Both drugs significantly increased aluminum bound to the stomach wall compared with vehicle treatment. Significantly more antiulcer drug was bound to ulcer sites than to nearby nonulcer sites only after sucralfate administration. This model of persistent gastric ulcer should be useful to further study gastric ulcer pathogenesis and treatment

  2. [AFP-producing gastric cancer and hepatoid gastric cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y K; Zhang, X T

    2017-11-23

    AFP-producing gastric cancer(AFPGC) and hepatoid adenocarcinoma of the stomach (HAS) are two special subtypes of gastric cancer. There are both correlation and difference between them. AFPGC is usually identified as primary gastric cancer with serum AFP level more than 20 ng/ml or showed AFP positive staining by immunohistochemistry. The diagnosis of HAS is mainly dependent on the pathological character of hepatocellular carcinoma-like differentiation of gastric cancer. The morbidity of AFPGC and HAS are rather low, especially the incidence of HAS is about 1%. The prognoses of these two subtypes are poorer than that of common gastric adenocarcinoma, due to a high incidence rate of liver metastasis and lymph node metastasis. With the development of next-generation sequencing and other genomic technologies, gastric cancers, including these two rare subtypes, are now being investigated in more detail at the molecular level. Treatment remains the biggest challenge, early diagnosis and radical resection can dramatically improve patients'prognosis. Monitoring serum AFP and abdominal imaging examination during follow-up is important for early detection of liver metastasis. In combination with local treatment methods such as transarterial chemoembolization and radiofrequency ablation of liver may further extend patients'survival time. Targeted therapy owes a great potential value in the future.

  3. Alpha-fetoprotein-producing Gastric Cancer with Metastasis to the Scrotum: Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Young Joon; Chung, Jae Joon; Yu, Jeong Sik; Kim, Joo Hee; Kim, Dae Jung; Ahn, Jhii Hyun; Cho, Eun Suk

    2010-01-01

    An alpha-fetoprotein-producing gastric cancer is rare, making up only about 3% of all gastric cancers. Further, gastric cancer with metastasis to the scrotum via a transperitoneal route is extremely rare. We report a case of metastatic scrotal mass in a 68-year-old man who had undergone a subtotal gastrectomy and gastroduodenostomy due to signet ring cell type gastric cancer with a description focusing on the radiologic findings

  4. Alpha-fetoprotein-producing Gastric Cancer with Metastasis to the Scrotum: Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Young Joon [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Jae Joon; Yu, Jeong Sik; Kim, Joo Hee; Kim, Dae Jung; Ahn, Jhii Hyun; Cho, Eun Suk [Gangnam Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-11-15

    An alpha-fetoprotein-producing gastric cancer is rare, making up only about 3% of all gastric cancers. Further, gastric cancer with metastasis to the scrotum via a transperitoneal route is extremely rare. We report a case of metastatic scrotal mass in a 68-year-old man who had undergone a subtotal gastrectomy and gastroduodenostomy due to signet ring cell type gastric cancer with a description focusing on the radiologic findings

  5. Persistent producer-scrounger relationships in bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harten, Lee; Matalon, Yasmin; Galli, Naama; Navon, Hagit; Dor, Roi; Yovel, Yossi

    2018-02-01

    Social foraging theory suggests that group-living animals gain from persistent social bonds, which lead to increased tolerance in competitive foraging and information sharing. Bats are among the most social mammals, often living in colonies of tens to thousands of individuals for dozens of years, yet little is known about their social foraging dynamics. We observed three captive bat colonies for over a year, quantifying >13,000 social foraging interactions. We found that individuals consistently used one of two foraging strategies, either producing (collecting) food themselves or scrounging it directly from the mouth of other individuals. Individual foraging types were consistent over at least 16 months except during the lactation period when females shifted toward producing. Scroungers intentionally selected whom to interact with when socially foraging, thus generating persistent nonrandom social relationships with two to three specific producers. These persistent producer-scrounger relationships seem to reduce aggression over time. Finally, scrounging was highly correlated with vigilance, and we hypothesize that vigilant-prone individuals turn to scrounging in the wild to mitigate the risk of landing on a potentially unsafe fruit tree. We find the bat colony to be a rich and dynamic social system, which can serve as a model to study the role that social foraging plays in the evolution of mammalian sociality. Our results highlight the importance of considering individual tendencies when exploring social behavior patterns of group-living animals. These tendencies further emphasize the necessity of studying social networks over time.

  6. Mesentero-axial gastric volvulus after removal of laparoscopic adjustable gastric band.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirmadjid, N; Pournaras, D J; Huan, S; Sujendran, V

    2017-02-01

    Despite the decreasing popularity of gastric banding, a large number of patients still have a band in situ. Although immediate postoperative complications are relatively rare, long-term complications of gastric banding are more common but are not reported to occur after band removal. We report a case of gastric volvulus and subsequent ischaemic perforation in a patient shortly after band removal, resulting in emergency laparotomy and total gastrectomy. Severe continuing pain persisting after band deflation and even gastric band removal should be treated as an emergency and urgent investigation should not be delayed.

  7. Clinicopathologic and prognostic characteristics of alpha-fetoprotein-producing gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ruji; Yang, Qinyi; Dong, Xuqiang; Wang, Yao; Zhang, Weiming; Shen, Lizong; Zhang, Zhihong

    2017-04-04

    Alpha-fetoprotein-producing gastric cancer (AFPGC) accounts for 1.5%-7.1% of all gastric cancer cases. Compared with other types of gastric cancer, AFPGC is more aggressive and prone to liver and lymph node (LN) metastasis, with extremely poor prognosis. To improve understanding of AFPGC we reviewed a consecutive series of 82 AFPGC patients and investigated the prognostic factors. The incidence of AFPGC among our gastric cancer patients was 1.95%, and 29.27% of AFPGCs were diagnosed with metastasis at the time of presentation, mainly liver metastasis. The serum AFP level of patients with AFPGC was significantly associated with tumor differentiation. Histologically, these AFPGC patients were composed of 34.55% hapatiod type, 58.18% fetal gastrointestinal type, 9.09% yolk sac tumor-like type, and 14.55% mixed type. Patient gender, tumor differentiation, Lauren classification, and number of metastatic lymph nodes showed significant differences among these four subtypes. The overall survival time was 42.02 months and the 3-year cumulative survival rate was 53.13%. Age, American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) TNM staging classification (TNM stage), serum AFP level, and surgery were prognostic factors for overall survival; however, TNM stage was the only independent risk factor for prognosis of AFPGC. In short, AFPGC is a rare, unique, and heterogeneous entity, and its proper identification and treatment remain a challenge. More attention should be paid to AFPGC to improve patient care and the dismal prognosis.

  8. Clinicopathologic and prognostic characteristics of alpha-fetoprotein–producing gastric cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xuqiang; Wang, Yao; Zhang, Weiming; Shen, Lizong; Zhang, Zhihong

    2017-01-01

    Alpha-fetoprotein–producing gastric cancer (AFPGC) accounts for 1.5%–7.1% of all gastric cancer cases. Compared with other types of gastric cancer, AFPGC is more aggressive and prone to liver and lymph node (LN) metastasis, with extremely poor prognosis. To improve understanding of AFPGC we reviewed a consecutive series of 82 AFPGC patients and investigated the prognostic factors. The incidence of AFPGC among our gastric cancer patients was 1.95%, and 29.27% of AFPGCs were diagnosed with metastasis at the time of presentation, mainly liver metastasis. The serum AFP level of patients with AFPGC was significantly associated with tumor differentiation. Histologically, these AFPGC patients were composed of 34.55% hapatiod type, 58.18% fetal gastrointestinal type, 9.09% yolk sac tumor-like type, and 14.55% mixed type. Patient gender, tumor differentiation, Lauren classification, and number of metastatic lymph nodes showed significant differences among these four subtypes. The overall survival time was 42.02 months and the 3-year cumulative survival rate was 53.13%. Age, American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) TNM staging classification (TNM stage), serum AFP level, and surgery were prognostic factors for overall survival; however, TNM stage was the only independent risk factor for prognosis of AFPGC. In short, AFPGC is a rare, unique, and heterogeneous entity, and its proper identification and treatment remain a challenge. More attention should be paid to AFPGC to improve patient care and the dismal prognosis. PMID:28423604

  9. A Burkholderia pseudomallei colony variant necessary for gastric colonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, C R; Goodyear, A W; Bartek, I L; Stewart, A; Sutherland, M D; Silva, E B; Zweifel, A; Vitko, N P; Tuanyok, A; Highnam, G; Mittelman, D; Keim, P; Schweizer, H P; Vázquez-Torres, A; Dow, S W C; Voskuil, M I

    2015-02-03

    Diverse colony morphologies are a hallmark of Burkholderia pseudomallei recovered from infected patients. We observed that stresses that inhibit aerobic respiration shifted populations of B. pseudomallei from the canonical white colony morphotype toward two distinct, reversible, yet relatively stable yellow colony variants (YA and YB). As accumulating evidence supports the importance of B. pseudomallei enteric infection and gastric colonization, we tested the response of yellow variants to hypoxia, acidity, and stomach colonization. Yellow variants exhibited a competitive advantage under hypoxic and acidic conditions and alkalized culture media. The YB variant, although highly attenuated in acute virulence, was the only form capable of colonization and persistence in the murine stomach. The accumulation of extracellular DNA (eDNA) was a characteristic of YB as observed by 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining of gastric tissues, as well as in an in vitro stomach model where large amounts of eDNA were produced without cell lysis. Transposon mutagenesis identified a transcriptional regulator (BPSL1887, designated YelR) that when overexpressed produced the yellow phenotype. Deletion of yelR blocked a shift from white to the yellow forms. These data demonstrate that YB is a unique B. pseudomallei pathovariant controlled by YelR that is specifically adapted to the harsh gastric environment and necessary for persistent stomach colonization. Seemingly uniform populations of bacteria often contain subpopulations that are genetically identical but display unique characteristics which offer advantages when the population is faced with infrequent but predictable stresses. The pathogen Burkholderia pseudomallei is capable of forming several reversible colony types, and it interconverted between one white type and two yellow types under certain environmental stresses. The two yellow forms exhibited distinct advantages in low-oxygen and acidic environments. One yellow

  10. Immune Evasion Strategies and Persistence of Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejías-Luque, Raquel; Gerhard, Markus

    Helicobacter pylori infection is commonly acquired during childhood, can persist lifelong if not treated, and can cause different gastric pathologies, including chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, and eventually gastric cancer. H. pylori has developed a number of strategies in order to cope with the hostile conditions found in the human stomach as well as successful mechanisms to evade the strong innate and adaptive immune responses elicited upon infection. Thus, by manipulating innate immune receptors and related signaling pathways, inducing tolerogenic dendritic cells and inhibiting effector T cell responses, H. pylori ensures low recognition by the host immune system as well as its persistence in the gastric epithelium. Bacterial virulence factors such as cytotoxin-associated gene A, vacuolating cytotoxin A, or gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase have been extensively studied in the context of bacterial immune escape and persistence. Further, the bacterium possesses other factors that contribute to immune evasion. In this chapter, we discuss in detail the main evasion and persistence strategies evolved by the bacterium as well as the specific bacterial virulence factors involved.

  11. A serosa-searing apparatus for producing gastric ulcer in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagoshima, M; Suzuki, T; Katagiri, S; Shimada, H

    1994-12-01

    Chronic ulcer models produced by serosa-searing method are very similar histologically to the ulcer healing process occurring in humans. In an effort to produce a serosa-searing chronic ulcer model in rats, we devised a new balance-type apparatus. This searing apparatus is capable of changing adequately both temperature and duration of time. Furthermore, the pressure which serves to bring the searing iron tip into contact with the stomach serosa surface can also be precisely changed. Optimal conditions for reproducing the serosa-searing ulcer model were at 65 degrees C and in 5 sec. Moreover, in order to evaluate the effects of pressure, various pressure levels (A: 5 g, 17.68 g/cm2; B: 10 g, 35.37 g/cm2; C: 15 g, 53.05 g/cm2; D: 20 g, 70.74 g/cm2; E: 25 g, 88.42 g/cm2; F: 30 g, 106.10 g/cm2; G: 35 g, 123.79 g/cm2 (+/- 1 g, 0.149 g/cm2)) of 5-sec duration at 65 +/- 0.1 degrees C were used. Macroscopically, gastric mucosal lesions were most clearly observed in a pressure-related manner 7 days after the procedure. Histologically, definite deep ulcerations (UI-III or UI-IV) were observed at pressure level C (15 g, 53.05 g/cm2) or more. The highest incidence (87%) of histological gastric ulcers (UI-IV) was observed in pressure level E (25 g, 88.42 g/cm2). The healing process was observed at 40 to 60 days postoperatively. At 100 days after the procedure, recurrences were observed both macroscopically and histologically. In conclusion, this new apparatus is very useful for reproducing a chronic ulcer model for observing the healing and recurrence process.

  12. Persistent monoclonality after histological remission in gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma treated with chemotherapy and/or surgery: influence of t(11;18)(q21;q21).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santón, Almudena; García-Cosio, Mónica; Bellosillo, Beatriz; Rodríguez, Patricia; Cristóbal, Eva; Serrano, Sergio; Besses, Carlos; Abraira, Victor; Salar, Antonio; Montalbán, Carlos

    2008-08-01

    The purpose of this work was to study retrospectively the molecular response and outcome of 19 gastric mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma patients achieving histological remission after chemotherapy or surgery. Immunoglobulin heavy chain variable (IgV(H)) gene rearrangements were studied by PCR in biopsies obtained at diagnosis and follow-up. Presence of t(11;18)(q21;q21) was studied by FISH or RT-PCR. Sequencing analysis of three t(11;18)(q21;q21) positive and two negative lymphomas with persistent monoclonal IgV(H) rearrangements was also performed. Long-term IgV(H) monoclonality was demonstrated in 11/19 patients (58%); in five of them monoclonal rearrangements were present in all samples throughout the follow-up. Persistent IgV(H) monoclonality was detected a median of 49 months after the achievement of histological response and did not condition histological relapse in most cases. All three t(11;18)(q21;q21) positive patients had maintained IgV(H) monoclonality and sequencing analyses revealed the same mutated IgV(H) alleles in the diagnostic and the follow-up samples. Over half of the patients with gastric MALT lymphoma with histological response after chemotherapy and/or surgery have long-term persistent monoclonality. The presence of t(11;18)(q21;q21) seems to condition long-term persistence of the initial lymphoma clone.trade mark.

  13. Gastric Composite Tumor of Alpha Fetoprotein-Producing Carcinoma/Hepatoid Adenocarcinoma and Endocrine Carcinoma with Reference to Cellular Phenotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Suzuki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Alpha-fetoprotein-producing carcinoma (AFPC/hepatoid adenocarcinoma (HAC and neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC are uncommon in the stomach. Composite tumors consisting of these carcinomas and their histologic phenotypes are not well known. Between 2002 and 2007, to estimate the prevalence of composite tumors consisting of tubular adenocarcinoma, AFPC/HAC and NEC, we reviewed specimens obtained from 294 consecutive patients treated surgically for gastric cancer. We examined histological phenotype of tumors of AFPC or NEC containing the composite tumor by evaluating immunohistochemical expressions of MUC2, MUC5AC, MUC6, CDX2, and SOX2. Immunohistochemically, AFPC/HAC dominantly showed the intestinal or mixed phenotype, and NEC frequently showed the gastric phenotype. In the composite tumor, the tubular and hepatoid components showed the gastric phenotype, and the neuroendocrine component showed the mixed type. The unique composite tumor predominantly showed the gastric phenotype, and the hepatoid and neuroendocrine components were considered to be differentiated from the tubular component.

  14. Effects of cholelithiasis and cholecystectomy on gastric emptying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köksoy, F N; Bulut, T; Köse, H; Soybir, G; Yalçin, O; Aker, Y

    1994-06-01

    In this prospective, clinical study, four groups, each consisting of 12 patients were established to determine how gastric emptying is influenced in cholelithiasis with accompanied flatulent dyspepsia and the relationship of symptoms and gastric emptying after cholecystectomy: group 1--healthy people; group 2--patients with dyspeptic cholelithiasis; group 3--patients with no dyspepsia after cholecystectomy; group 4--patients with dyspepsia after cholecystectomy. Groups are compared according to solid phase gastric emptying scintigraphies performed with Tc 99m sulphur colloid bound with scrambled eggs. Gastric emptying delayed in groups 2 (P 0.005). These results demonstrate that dyspepsia, in cholelithiasis and persisting after cholecystectomy, has a close relation with delay in gastric emptying.

  15. Functionality of exopolysaccharides produced by lactic acid bacteria in an in vitro gastric system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozzi, F; Gerbino, E; Font de Valdez, G; Torino, M I

    2009-07-01

    To evaluate whether slime-exopolysaccharides (EPS) or capsular-polysaccharide (CPS) production could protect the polymer-producing strains Streptococcus thermophilus CRL 1190 and Lactobacillus casei CRL 87 against the harsh conditions of an in vitro gastric system (GS). EPS stability on the GS was studied. An in vitro GS model containing human saliva and gastric juice was standardized. Polymer functionality on the cell viability and metabolic activity of the EPS-producing strains in the GS acidic conditions was evaluated. Two isogenic EPS/CPS deficient mutants were used for comparison. EPS or CPS conferred no significant protection on the cell viability of the studied strains after passage through the GS conditions. However, the phospho- and beta-galactosidase activities of the EPS(+) strains were higher than those of the EPS(-). Cytoplasmic alterations in the wild-type and mutant strains and partial degradation of both EPS were detected. The presence of EPS/CPS protected the metabolic activity of the assayed LAB strains, but had no effect on survival at low pH. The presence of EPS/CPS as well as polymer resistance to the harsh conditions of the human GS could impact positively in probiotic strains to exert their properties in the host.

  16. Ethyl nitrite is produced in the human stomach from dietary nitrate and ethanol, releasing nitric oxide at physiological pH: potential impact on gastric motility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Bárbara S; Gago, Bruno; Barbosa, Rui M; Cavaleiro, Carlos; Laranjinha, João

    2015-05-01

    Nitric oxide ((∙)NO), a ubiquitous molecule involved in a plethora of signaling pathways, is produced from dietary nitrate in the gut through the so-called nitrate-nitrite-NO pathway. In the stomach, nitrite derived from dietary nitrate triggers a network of chemical reactions targeting endogenous and exogenous biomolecules, thereby producing new compounds with physiological activity. The aim of this study was to ascertain whether compounds with physiological relevance are produced in the stomach upon consumption of nitrate- and ethanol-rich foods. Human volunteers consumed a serving of lettuce (source of nitrate) and alcoholic beverages (source of ethanol). After 15 min, samples of the gastric headspace were collected and ethyl nitrite was identified by GC-MS. Wistar rats were used to study the impact of ethyl nitrite on gastric smooth muscle relaxation at physiological pH. Nitrogen oxides, produced from nitrite in the stomach, induce nitrosation of ethanol from alcoholic beverages in the human stomach yielding ethyl nitrite. Ethyl nitrite, a potent vasodilator, is produced in vivo upon the consumption of lettuce with either red wine or whisky. Moreover, at physiological pH, ethyl nitrite induces gastric smooth muscle relaxation through a cGMP-dependent pathway. Overall, these results suggest that ethyl nitrite is produced in the gastric lumen and releases (∙)NO at physiological pH, which ultimately may have an impact on gastric motility. Systemic effects may also be expected if ethyl nitrite diffuses through the gastric mucosa reaching blood vessels, therefore operating as a (∙)NO carrier throughout the body. These data pinpoint posttranslational modifications as an underappreciated mechanism for the production of novel molecules with physiological impact locally in the gut and highlight the notion that diet may fuel compounds with the potential to modulate gastrointestinal welfare. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Gastric emptying in morbid obesity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venzina, W.; Chamberlain, M.; Carruthers, S.G.; Grace, D.M.; King, M.; Mowbray, R.D.; Bondy, D.C.

    1984-01-01

    Weight loss following gastroplasty had no correlation with gastric emptying rate. Patients who showed transient prolongation of gastric emptying returned to normal one year later and showed no significant difference in weight loss from those who did not have temporary delayed gastric emptying. Perhaps gatroplasty (at least temporarily) reduces the gastric volume producing early satiation without affecting the gastric emptying rate as tested by a small volume radiolabelled test meal. Longer follow-up is indicated to see if delayed weight gain occurs because of gastric pouch stretching and if this has any correlation with gastric emptying rate. (Author)

  18. The effects of cholelithiasis and cholecystectomy on gastric emptying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köksoy, F N; Bulut, T; Köse, H; Soybir, G; Yalçin, O; Aker, Y

    In this clinical study, four groups, each consisting of 12 patients are established to determine how gastric emptying is influenced in cholelithiasis with accompanied flatulent dyspepsia and the relationship of symptoms and gastric emptying after cholecystectomy. 1. group: healthy people, 2. group: patients with dyspeptic cholelithiasis, 3. group: patients who have no dyspepsia after cholecystectomy, 4. group: patients whose dyspepsia is continued after cholecystectomy. Groups are compared according to solid phase gastric emptying scintigraphies performed with Tc 99m sulfur colloid bound with scrambled eggs. Gastric emptying delayed in second (p 0.005). These results demonstrate that dyspepsia, in cholelithiasis and persisting after cholecystectomy have a close relation with delay in gastric emptying.

  19. Gastric cancer-derived MSC-secreted PDGF-DD promotes gastric cancer progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Feng; Wang, Mei; Yang, Tingting; Cai, Jie; Zhang, Qiang; Sun, Zixuan; Wu, Xiaodan; Zhang, Xu; Zhu, Wei; Qian, Hui; Xu, Wenrong

    2014-11-01

    This study was designed to investigate the role of PDGF-DD secreted by gastric cancer-derived mesenchymal stem cells (GC-MSCs) in human gastric cancer progression. Gastric cancer cells were indirectly co-cultured with GC-MSCs in a transwell system. The growth and migration of gastric cancer cells were evaluated by cell colony formation assay and transwell migration assay, respectively. The production of PDGF-DD in GC-MSCs was determined by using Luminex and ELISA. Neutralization of PDGFR-β by su16f and siRNA interference of PDGF-DD in GC-MSCs was used to demonstrate the role of PDGF-DD produced by GC-MSCs in gastric cancer progression. GC-MSC conditioned medium promoted gastric cancer cell proliferation and migration in vitro and in vivo. Co-culture with GC-MSCs increased the phosphorylation of PDGFR-β in SGC-7901 cells. Neutralization of PDGFR-β by su16f blocked the promoting role of GC-MSC conditioned medium in gastric cancer cell proliferation and migration. Recombinant PDGF-DD duplicated the effects of GC-MSC conditioned medium on gastric cancer cells. Knockdown of PDGF-DD in GC-MSCs abolished its effects on gastric cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. PDGF-DD secreted by GC-MSCs is capable of promoting gastric cancer cell progression in vitro and in vivo. Targeting the PDGF-DD/PDGFR-β interaction between MSCs and gastric cancer cells may represent a novel strategy for gastric cancer therapy.

  20. Gastric emptying abnormal in duodenal ulcer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holt, S.; Heading, R.C.; Taylor, T.V.; Forrest, J.A.; Tothill, P.

    1986-07-01

    To investigate the possibility that an abnormality of gastric emptying exists in duodenal ulcer and to determine if such an abnormality persists after ulcer healing, scintigraphic gastric emptying measurements were undertaken in 16 duodenal ulcer patients before, during, and after therapy with cimetidine; in 12 patients with pernicious anemia, and in 12 control subjects. No difference was detected in the rate or pattern of gastric emptying in duodenal ulcer patients before and after ulcer healing with cimetidine compared with controls, but emptying of the solid component of the test meal was more rapid during treatment with the drug. Comparison of emptying patterns obtained in duodenal ulcer subjects during and after cimetidine treatment with those obtained in pernicious anemia patients and controls revealed a similar relationship that was characterized by a tendency for reduction in the normal differentiation between the emptying of solid and liquid from the stomach. The similarity in emptying patterns in these groups of subjects suggests that gastric emptying of solids may be influenced by changes in the volume of gastric secretion. The failure to detect an abnormality of gastric emptying in duodenal ulcer subjects before and after ulcer healing calls into question the widespread belief that abnormally rapid gastric emptying is a feature with pathogenetic significance in duodenal ulcer disease.

  1. Gastric emptying abnormal in duodenal ulcer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holt, S.; Heading, R.C.; Taylor, T.V.; Forrest, J.A.; Tothill, P.

    1986-01-01

    To investigate the possibility that an abnormality of gastric emptying exists in duodenal ulcer and to determine if such an abnormality persists after ulcer healing, scintigraphic gastric emptying measurements were undertaken in 16 duodenal ulcer patients before, during, and after therapy with cimetidine; in 12 patients with pernicious anemia, and in 12 control subjects. No difference was detected in the rate or pattern of gastric emptying in duodenal ulcer patients before and after ulcer healing with cimetidine compared with controls, but emptying of the solid component of the test meal was more rapid during treatment with the drug. Comparison of emptying patterns obtained in duodenal ulcer subjects during and after cimetidine treatment with those obtained in pernicious anemia patients and controls revealed a similar relationship that was characterized by a tendency for reduction in the normal differentiation between the emptying of solid and liquid from the stomach. The similarity in emptying patterns in these groups of subjects suggests that gastric emptying of solids may be influenced by changes in the volume of gastric secretion. The failure to detect an abnormality of gastric emptying in duodenal ulcer subjects before and after ulcer healing calls into question the widespread belief that abnormally rapid gastric emptying is a feature with pathogenetic significance in duodenal ulcer disease

  2. Effect of combined treatment with preoperative. gamma. -therapy on function of gastrin producing cells in patients with gastric cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berdov, B A; Vedzizheva, T B; Bassalyk, L S; Zagrebin, V M [Akademiya Meditsinskikh Nauk SSSR, Obninsk. Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij Inst. Meditsinskoj Radiologii; Akademiya Meditsinskikh Nauk SSSR, Moscow. Onkologicheskij Nauchnyj Tsentr)

    1982-04-01

    It is stated that preoperative irradiation with the dose of 20 Gy doesn't produce any considerable effect on function of the extragastric gastrin producing cells. Despite the decrease of reserve potentialities of gastrin producing cells in patients with stomach cancer the basal level of gastrin in the group of gastric cancer patients on the whole is higher than in practically healthy people. Radiotherapy results in the pronounced inhiibition of gastrin synthesis and secretion of gastrin producing cells.

  3. Inhibitory effect of GLP-1 on gastric motility persists after vagal deafferentation in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nagell, Carl Frederik; Wettergren, André; Ørskov, Cathrine

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) is an intestinal hormone that is secreted in response to meal ingestion. GLP-1 inhibits gastric emptying and reduces postprandial gastric secretion and may play a physiological regulatory role in controlling appetite and energy intake in humans. The GLP-1...

  4. Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV)-associated Gastric Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iizasa, Hisashi; Nanbo, Asuka; Nishikawa, Jun; Jinushi, Masahisa; Yoshiyama, Hironori

    2012-01-01

    The ubiquitous Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is associated with several human tumors, which include lymphoid and epithelial malignancies. It is known that EBV persistently infects the memory B cell pool of healthy individuals by activating growth and survival signaling pathways that can contribute to B cell lymphomagenesis. Although the monoclonal proliferation of EBV-infected cells can be observed in epithelial tumors, such as nasopharyngeal carcinoma and EBV-associated gastric carcinoma, the precise role of EBV in the carcinogenic progress is not fully understood. This review features characteristics and current understanding of EBV-associated gastric carcinoma. EBV-associated gastric carcinoma comprises almost 10% of all gastric carcinoma cases and expresses restricted EBV latent genes (Latency I). Firstly, definition, epidemiology, and clinical features are discussed. Then, the route of infection and carcinogenic role of viral genes are presented. Of particular interest, the association with frequent genomic CpG methylation and role of miRNA for carcinogenesis are topically discussed. Finally, the possibility of therapies targeting EBV-associated gastric carcinoma is proposed. PMID:23342366

  5. Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV-associated Gastric Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hironori Yoshiyama

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The ubiquitous Epstein-Barr virus (EBV is associated with several human tumors, which include lymphoid and epithelial malignancies. It is known that EBV persistently infects the memory B cell pool of healthy individuals by activating growth and survival signaling pathways that can contribute to B cell lymphomagenesis.  Although the monoclonal proliferation of EBV-infected cells can be observed in epithelial tumors, such as nasopharyngeal carcinoma and EBV-associated gastric carcinoma, the precise role of EBV in the carcinogenic progress is not fully understood. This review features characteristics and current understanding of EBV-associated gastric carcinoma. EBV-associated gastric carcinoma comprises almost 10% of all gastric carcinoma cases and expresses restricted EBV latent genes (Latency I. Firstly, definition, epidemiology, and clinical features are discussed. Then, the route of infection and carcinogenic role of viral genes are presented.  Of particular interest, the association with frequent genomic CpG methylation and role of miRNA for carcinogenesis are topically discussed. Finally, the possibility of therapies targeting EBV-associated gastric carcinoma is proposed. 

  6. Efficacy and safety of SOX chemotherapy with or without surgery in AFP-producing advanced gastric cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Zhu; Hou, Xu; Chen, Juan; Sun, Huidong; Mi, Yuetang; Sui, Yongling; Li, Yuhong; Xie, Jiaping; Qiao, Yingli; Lei, Xiaofeng; Che, Xiaoshuang; Liu, Jun

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigated the clinical efficacy of S-1 plus oxaliplatin (SOX) regimen, with or without surgery in ?-fetoprotein-producing gastric cancer (APGC) with liver metastasis. A total of 24 patients with APGC treated at the Liaocheng People's Hospital between January 2011 and December 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. Clinical efficacy and patient safety were compared between the two groups. The median progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in the SOX group we...

  7. A method for establishing human primary gastric epithelial cell culture from fresh surgical gastric tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Faisal; Yang, Xuesong; Wen, Qingping; Yan, Qiu

    2015-08-01

    At present, biopsy specimens, cancer cell lines and tissues obtained by gastric surgery are used in the study and analysis of gastric cancer, including the molecular mechanisms and proteomics. However, fibroblasts and other tissue components may interfere with these techniques. Therefore, the present study aimed to develop a procedure for the isolation of viable human gastric epithelial cells from gastric surgical tissues. A method was developed to culture human gastric epithelial cells using fresh, surgically excised tissues and was evaluated using immunocytochemistry, periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) staining and cell viability assays. Low cell growth was observed surrounding the gastric tissue on the seventh day of tissue explant culture. Cell growth subsequently increased, and at 12 days post-explant a high number of pure epithelial cells were detected. The gastric cancer cells exhibited rapid growth with a doubling time of 13-52 h, as compared to normal cells, which had a doubling time of 20-53 h. Immunocytochemical analyses of primary gastric cells revealed positive staining for cytokeratin 18 and 19, which indicated that the culture was comprised of pure epithelial cells and contained no fibroblasts. Furthermore, PAS staining demonstrated that the cultured gastric cells produced neutral mucin. Granulin and carbohydrate antigen 724 staining confirmed the purity of gastric cancer and normal cells in culture. This method of cell culture indicated that the gastric cells in primary culture consisted of mucin-secreting gastric epithelial cells, which may be useful for the study of gastric infection with Helicobacter pylori and gastric cancer.

  8. Effects of sucralfate on gastric irritant-induced necrosis and apoptosis in cultured guinea pig gastric mucosal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshino, Tatsuya; Takano, Tatsunori; Tomisato, Wataru; Tsutsumi, Shinji; Hwang, Hyun-Jung; Koura, Yuko; Nishimoto, Kiyo; Tsuchiya, Tomofusa; Mizushima, Tohru

    2003-01-01

    We previously reported that several gastric irritants, including ethanol, hydrogen peroxide, and hydrochloric acid, induced both necrosis and apoptosis in cultured gastric mucosal cells. In the present study, we examined the effects of sucralfate, a unique gastroprotective drug, on gastric irritant-induced necrosis and apoptosis produced in vitro. Sucralfate strongly inhibited ethanol-induced necrosis in primary cultures of guinea pig gastric mucosal cells. The preincubation of cells with sucralfate was not necessary for its cytoprotective effect to be observed, thus making its mechanism of action different from that of other gastroprotective drugs. Necrosis of gastric mucosal cells induced by hydrogen peroxide or indomethacin was also suppressed by sucralfate. On the other hand, sucralfate only weakly inhibited ethanol-induced apoptosis. These results suggest that the cytoprotective effect of sucralfate on gastric mucosa in vivo can be explained, at least in part, by its inhibitory effect on gastric irritant-induced necrosis.

  9. The number of Foxp3-positive regulatory T cells is increased in Helicobacter pylori gastritis and gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Tae Jung

    2010-01-15

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) colonization induces vigorous innate and specific immune responses; however, the infection is not removed, a state of chronic active gastritis persists for life if untreated. Recent studies have shown that CD4(+) CD25(+) Foxp3-positive regulatory T cells (Tregs) suppress the immune response to H. pylori. Persistent H. pylori-associated gastritis is closely associated with gastric carcinogenesis. We investigated the number of Tregs in the context of H. pylori colonization in chronic gastritis, examined the relationship between it and histopathological findings and compared it with that of gastric dysplasia and adenocarcinoma. This study was based on the analysis of gastric biopsy specimens from 126 cases of H. pylori-associated gastritis, 16 cases of H. pylori-negative gastritis, 17 cases of gastric dysplasia, and 25 cases of gastric adenocarcinoma. The number of Tregs was elevated in H. pylori-associated gastritis, where it was positively correlated with the grade of chronic inflammation and the number of lymphoid follicles. It was significantly elevated in adenocarcinomas compared to chronic gastritis and gastric dysplasia. In summary, the number of Tregs is increased in H. pylori-associated gastritis and gastric cancer. Copyright 2009 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Gastric intestinal metaplasia: an intermediate precancerous lesion in the cascade of gastric carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, T.H.; Hong, X.; Sayahan, M.Y.A.

    2017-01-01

    Gastric intestinal metaplasia, an intermediate lesion in the development of intestinal-type gastric cancer, is observed in the milieu of long standing non-atrophic gastritis and atrophic gastritis. Most patients with intestinal metaplasia remain asymptomatic unless cobalamin deficiency occurs secondary to loss of glands (that produce intrinsic factor and acid). Genetic events that predispose to development of gastric intestinal metaplasia remains an enigma. Mechanisms leading to the progression of atrophy to metaplasia still needs to be comprehensively explored. Many studies in the literature describe a positive effect of typing intestinal metaplasia and concluded that intestinal metaplasia type III carries the highest risk for developing gastric cancer while others refute it. It is well established that Helicobacter pylori infection is the most important factor for the development of chronic gastritis, gastric intestinal metaplasia as well as gastric cancer. Countries with a higher prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection and gastric cancer also have a high tendency of being prevalent for intestinal metaplasia. However, it remains elusive whether eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection tends to regress gastric intestinal metaplasia or reduce the subsequent risk of cancer development. Putting together, more prospective cohort studies should be designed to identify factors (antioxidants; anti-inflammatory drugs; food therapy) that may contribute in the regression of intestinal metaplasia, when used simultaneously with eradication therapy. Furthermore, molecular markers for evaluation of intestinal metaplasia, and the potential point-of-no-return should be further investigated. Consensus is also required to advocate a timeframe for surveillance of patients with gastric intestinal metaplasia. (author)

  11. History of Helicobacter pylori, duodenal ulcer, gastric ulcer and gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, David Y

    2014-05-14

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection underlies gastric ulcer disease, gastric cancer and duodenal ulcer disease. The disease expression reflects the pattern and extent of gastritis/gastric atrophy (i.e., duodenal ulcer with non-atrophic and gastric ulcer and gastric cancer with atrophic gastritis). Gastric and duodenal ulcers and gastric cancer have been known for thousands of years. Ulcers are generally non-fatal and until the 20th century were difficult to diagnose. However, the presence and pattern of gastritis in past civilizations can be deduced based on the diseases present. It has been suggested that gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer both arose or became more frequent in Europe in the 19th century. Here, we show that gastric cancer and gastric ulcer were present throughout the 17th to 19th centuries consistent with atrophic gastritis being the predominant pattern, as it proved to be when it could be examined directly in the late 19th century. The environment before the 20th century favored acquisition of H. pylori infection and atrophic gastritis (e.g., poor sanitation and standards of living, seasonal diets poor in fresh fruits and vegetables, especially in winter, vitamin deficiencies, and frequent febrile infections in childhood). The latter part of the 19th century saw improvements in standards of living, sanitation, and diets with a corresponding decrease in rate of development of atrophic gastritis allowing duodenal ulcers to become more prominent. In the early 20th century physician's believed they could diagnose ulcers clinically and that the diagnosis required hospitalization for "surgical disease" or for "Sippy" diets. We show that while H. pylori remained common and virulent in Europe and the United States, environmental changes resulted in changes of the pattern of gastritis producing a change in the manifestations of H. pylori infections and subsequently to a rapid decline in transmission and a rapid decline in all H. pylori-related diseases.

  12. Gastric mucosal electrical potential difference, pH, blood flow, and morphology during hypoxia and selective gastric ischaemia with and without allopurinol pretreatment in anaesthetized dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højgaard, L; Bülow, J B; Madsen, J

    1990-01-01

    Ischaemia has been implicated in the pathogenesis of gastric mucosal disorders. The aim of this investigation was to study the gastric mucosal electrical potential difference (PD), pH, blood flow and morphology during hypoxia, gastric ischaemia, and gastric ischaemia following inhibition of free...... radical formation with allopurinol. PD and pH were measured simultaneously with an intragastric microelectrode, and the PD values were corrected for the liquid junction potentials created by the intragastric pH variation. Blood flow was measured by the radiolabelled microsphere technique in 18...... anaesthetized dogs. Short general hypoxia and short ischaemia caused reversible declines in PD, increases in pH, and no morphological damage. Ischaemia for 1 h caused a significant decline in PD persistent after reperfusion, an increase in pH, and morphological PD, but after reperfusion PD was normalized. Gross...

  13. Environmental persistence of OXA-48-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in a French intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantel, Alix; Richaud-Morel, Brigitte; Cazaban, Michel; Bouziges, Nicole; Sotto, Albert; Lavigne, Jean-Philippe

    2016-03-01

    The spread of carbapenemase-producing Gram-negative rods is an emerging global problem. This study describes the epidemiologic features of an outbreak caused by an environmental reservoir of OXA-48-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae caused by persistence of the bacteria during 20 months in an intensive care unit in France. This report emphasizes the importance of early environmental screening to interrupt the transmission of carbapenemase-producingEnterobacteriaceae. Copyright © 2016 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Ghrelin stimulates gastric emptying and hunger in normal-weight humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levin, F; Edholm, T; Schmidt, P T

    2006-01-01

    CONTEXT: Ghrelin is produced primarily by enteroendocrine cells in the gastric mucosa and increases gastric emptying in patients with gastroparesis. MAIN OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of ghrelin on gastric emptying, appetite, and postprandial hormone secretion i...

  15. PERSISTENCE IN SOIL OF TRANSGENIC PLANT PRODUCED BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS VAR. KURSTAKI O-ENDOTOXIN1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transgenic plants that produce pesticidal proteins will release these proteins into the soil when these plants are incorporated into the soil by tillage or as leaf litter. Little is known about the fate and persistence of transgenic plant pesticidal products in the soil. We used ...

  16. Definitive proton beam radiation therapy for inoperable gastric cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibuya, Susumu; Takase, Yasuhiro; Aoyagi, Hiroyuki; Orii, Kazuo; Sharma, N.; Iwasaki, Yoji; Tsujii, Hirohiko; Tsujii, Hiroshi.

    1991-01-01

    Proton beam radiation therapy using 250 MeV protons was carried out on two patients with early gastric cancer (T1, N0, M0). One patient was an 85-year-old man with early gastric cancer of type IIa + IIc. The other one was a 70-year-old man with early gastric cancer of type IIc. In both cases histological examination of biopsy specimens showed differential adenocarcinoma; distant metastasis was not found by other examinations. Both patients were considered inoperable due to their poor cardiac and/or respiratory functions. Therefore, it was decided to treat them by definitive proton irradiation, delivering total doses of 86 Gy and 83 Gy, respectively. In both patients, skin erythema that did not require any special treatment was found in the irradiation field. Hematobiological examinations did not show any abnormality. Although endoscopic examination at two years after irradiation in the former case and at seven months in the latter case showed persistent gastric ulcer at the site of the cancerous lesions, cancer cells were not found histologically. Therefore, we concluded that proton irradiation therapy was useful for inoperable early gastric cancers. (author)

  17. Drain tube migration into the anastomotic site of an esophagojejunostomy for gastric small cell carcinoma: short report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Peng-Sheng; Lo, Chiao; Lin, Long-Wei; Lee, Po-Chu

    2010-05-21

    Intraluminal migration of a drain through an anastomotic site is a rare complication of gastric surgery. We herein report the intraluminal migration of a drain placed after a lower esophagectomy and total gastrectomy with Roux-en-Y anastomosis for gastric small cell carcinoma. Persistent drainage was noted 1 month after surgery, and radiographic studies were consistent with drain tube migration. Endoscopy revealed the drain had migrated into the esophagojejunostomy anastomotic site. The drain was removed from outside of abdominal wound while observing the anastomotic site endoscopically. The patient was treated with suction via a nasogastric tube drain for 5 days, and thereafter had an uneventful recovery. Though drain tube migration is a rare occurrence, it should be considered in patients with persistent drainage who have undergone gastric surgery.

  18. Immunohistochemical expression profiles of solute carrier transporters in alpha-fetoprotein-producing gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimakata, Takaaki; Kamoshida, Shingo; Kawamura, Jumpei; Ogane, Naoki; Kameda, Yoichi; Yanagita, Emmy; Itoh, Tomoo; Takeda, Risa; Naka, Ayano; Sakamaki, Kuniko; Hayashi, Yurie; Kuwao, Sadahito

    2016-11-01

    Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP)-producing gastric cancer (GC) is an aggressive tumour with high rates of liver metastasis and poor prognosis, and for which a validated chemotherapy regimen has not been established. Drug uptake by solute carrier (SLC) transporters is proposed as one of the mechanisms involved in sensitivity to chemotherapy. In this study, we aimed to develop important insights into effective chemotherapeutic regimens for AFP-producing GC. We evaluated immunohistochemically the expression levels of a panel of SLC transporters in 20 AFP-producing GCs and 130 conventional GCs. SLC transporters examined were human equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 (hENT1), organic anion transporter 2 (OAT2), organic cation transporter (OCT) 2, OCT6 and organic anion-transporting polypeptide 1B3 (OATP1B3). The rates of high expression levels of hENT1 (hENT1 high ) and OAT2 (OAT2 high ) were statistically higher in AFP-producing GC, compared with conventional GC. When analysing hENT1 and OAT2 in combination, hENT1 high /OAT2 high was the most particular expression profile for AFP-producing GC, with a greater significance than hENT1 or OAT2 alone. However, no significant differences in OCT2, OCT6 or OATP1B3 levels were detected between AFP-producing and conventional GCs. However, immunoreactivity for hENT1, OAT2 and OCT6 tended to be increased in GC tissues compared with non-neoplastic epithelia. Because hENT1 and OAT2 are crucial for the uptake of gemcitabine and 5-fluorouracil, respectively, our results suggest that patients with AFP-producing GC could potentially benefit from gemcitabine/fluoropyrimidine combination chemotherapy. Increased expression of hENT1, OAT2 and OCT6 may also be associated with the progression of GC. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Gastric injury induced by hemorrhage, local ischemia, and oxygen radical generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wadhwa, S.S.; Perry, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    Gastric mucosal injury caused by local intra-arterial generation of oxygen-derived free radicals was compared with gastric injury caused by 30 min of hemorrhage-induced ischemia or local ischemia. The index of injury was the loss of 51 Cr-labeled red cells across the gastric mucosa. Generation of oxygen radicals in the celiac artery caused a rapid increase in mucosal blood loss during the period of radical generation, and this loss was maintained after radical production ceased. Local ischemia produced similar mucosal injury; however, this occurred after reperfusion of the stomach and not during the ischemic episode. Hemorrhage-induced ischemia produced a threefold greater mucosal blood loss than local ischemia. The results of this study indicate that (1) oxygen radicals generated enzymatically in the blood supply to the stomach cause mucosal bleeding of similar magnitude to that observed after local ischemia and (2) that gastric ischemia induced by systemic hypotension produces more severe gastric injury than the same level of local hypotension

  20. Internal herniation after laparoscopic antecolic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Sara Danshøj; Jess, Per; Floyd, Andrea Karen

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) is the most common surgical treatment for morbid obesity in Denmark. Internal herniation (IH) or intermittent internal herniation (IIH) is a major late complication after LRYGB due to persistent mesenteric defects. However, the incidence...

  1. Pancreatic invasion of gastric carcinoma in emaciated patients: The value of combined analysis with CT and upper gastrointestinal series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Mun; Kim, Hyun; Kim, Choon Yul; Bahk, Yong Whee [Catholic University Medical College, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1992-03-15

    The obliteration of a fat plane between the gastric carcinoma and the pancreas is a major criterion on CT scan for pancreatic invasion of gastric carcinoma. However, this sign is not always a reliable indicator of invasion, as the patients with gastric carcinoma are often emaciated, producing a false positive CT findings. The purpose of our study is to improve the diagnostic accuracy of pancreatic invasion of gastric carcinoma in cases which the fat plane between the gastric carcinoma and the pancreas is obliterated in conventional CT scan. The authors performed lateral decubitus as well as supine CT scans and upper gastrointestinal series(UGIS) in 49 pathologically proven cases in which the fat plane was obliterated between the gastric carcinoma and the pancreas on conventional supine CT scan. Pancreatic invasion was suggested when the fat plane was obliterated persistently in the lateral decubitus view as well as the spine CT images and the involved gastric wall and adjacent pancreas maintained constant approximation despite postural change(CT+), and when the gastric tumor moved downward on the erect view of the UGIS no more than 1.5 times the height of the first lumbar vertebral body(UGIS+). Among 49 cases in which the fat plane between the gastric carcinoma and the pancreas was obliterated on supine CT scan, pancreatic invasion was confirmed pathologically in 11 cases(22.4%). Eight of 11 cases proven as pancreatic invasion were correctly diagnosed as pancreatic invasion by this combined analysis(CT+/UGIS+, 72.7%). Twenty seven of 38 cases proven as no pancreatic invasion were correctly diagnosed as no pancreatic invasion(CT-/UGIS-, 71.1%). Twelve cases showed CT+/UGIS- or CT-/UGIS+, so it was inconclusive whether there was invasion or not. The overall diagnostic accuracy was 71.4%. In conclusion, combined analysis with supine and lateral decubitus CT and UGIS is useful for improving diagnostic accuracy for pancreatic invasion by gastric carcinoma in patients of

  2. Pancreatic invasion of gastric carcinoma in emaciated patients: The value of combined analysis with CT and upper gastrointestinal series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jae Mun; Kim, Hyun; Kim, Choon Yul; Bahk, Yong Whee

    1992-01-01

    The obliteration of a fat plane between the gastric carcinoma and the pancreas is a major criterion on CT scan for pancreatic invasion of gastric carcinoma. However, this sign is not always a reliable indicator of invasion, as the patients with gastric carcinoma are often emaciated, producing a false positive CT findings. The purpose of our study is to improve the diagnostic accuracy of pancreatic invasion of gastric carcinoma in cases which the fat plane between the gastric carcinoma and the pancreas is obliterated in conventional CT scan. The authors performed lateral decubitus as well as supine CT scans and upper gastrointestinal series(UGIS) in 49 pathologically proven cases in which the fat plane was obliterated between the gastric carcinoma and the pancreas on conventional supine CT scan. Pancreatic invasion was suggested when the fat plane was obliterated persistently in the lateral decubitus view as well as the spine CT images and the involved gastric wall and adjacent pancreas maintained constant approximation despite postural change(CT+), and when the gastric tumor moved downward on the erect view of the UGIS no more than 1.5 times the height of the first lumbar vertebral body(UGIS+). Among 49 cases in which the fat plane between the gastric carcinoma and the pancreas was obliterated on supine CT scan, pancreatic invasion was confirmed pathologically in 11 cases(22.4%). Eight of 11 cases proven as pancreatic invasion were correctly diagnosed as pancreatic invasion by this combined analysis(CT+/UGIS+, 72.7%). Twenty seven of 38 cases proven as no pancreatic invasion were correctly diagnosed as no pancreatic invasion(CT-/UGIS-, 71.1%). Twelve cases showed CT+/UGIS- or CT-/UGIS+, so it was inconclusive whether there was invasion or not. The overall diagnostic accuracy was 71.4%. In conclusion, combined analysis with supine and lateral decubitus CT and UGIS is useful for improving diagnostic accuracy for pancreatic invasion by gastric carcinoma in patients of

  3. Drain tube migration into the anastomotic site of an esophagojejunostomy for gastric small cell carcinoma: short report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Long-Wei

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intraluminal migration of a drain through an anastomotic site is a rare complication of gastric surgery. Case Presentation We herein report the intraluminal migration of a drain placed after a lower esophagectomy and total gastrectomy with Roux-en-Y anastomosis for gastric small cell carcinoma. Persistent drainage was noted 1 month after surgery, and radiographic studies were consistent with drain tube migration. Endoscopy revealed the drain had migrated into the esophagojejunostomy anastomotic site. The drain was removed from outside of abdominal wound while observing the anastomotic site endoscopically. The patient was treated with suction via a nasogastric tube drain for 5 days, and thereafter had an uneventful recovery. Conclusions Though drain tube migration is a rare occurrence, it should be considered in patients with persistent drainage who have undergone gastric surgery.

  4. 67Ga scanning and upper gastrointestinal series for gastric lymphomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichiya, Y.; Oshiumi, Y.; Kamoi, I.; Imoto, T.; Shimoda, Y.; Kitagawa, S.; Matsuura, K.

    1982-01-01

    67 Ga scanning and upper gastrointestinal (UGI) series were performed in 13 patients with gastric lymphomas before any treatment was initiated. Seven of these patients also underwent both examinations after completing chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy. Prior to treatment, all 13 patients had abnormalities on the UGI examination, and 12 of them had abnormalities on the 67 Ga scans. In 6 patients, more extensive gastric abnormalities were demonstrated by 67 Ga scanning than by UGI examination. Although persistent 67 Ga uptake after treatment was indicative of relatively poor therapeutic response, lack of uptake did not always indicate a good response to treatment

  5. A case report of gastric lymphocytic phlebitis, a rare mimic for malignancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel L. Chan

    Full Text Available Introduction: Lymphocytic phlebitis is a benign condition characterised by inflammation of the veins and rarely affects the gastrointestinal tract. Reported cases present as acute abdomen and involve the colon or small intestine. We report the fourth case of gastric lymphocytic phlebitis in the literature. Presentation of case: A 74-year-old female presented with eight weeks of abdominal pain. Findings at endoscopy were suggestive of a malignant ulcer on the greater curvature of antrum, while biopsies showed chronic gastritis without malignancy. Appearance at diagnostic laparoscopy was consistent with a malignant gastric ulcer with serosal changes. Due to persistent pain and the macroscopic appearance, she proceeded to have an open subtotal gastrectomy and D2 lymph node clearance. Despite macroscopic appearance, the microscopic examination demonstrated no malignancy, and was consistent with lymphocytic phlebitis with overlying ulceration. Discussion: This case was a mimic for gastric malignancy, with the benign diagnosis only being made after surgical resection. Gastric lymphocytic phlebitis is a rare differential diagnosis for gastric ulcers when biopsies are negative, although preoperative diagnosis is difficult given the lesions do not involve the mucosa. Conclusion: If clinical history and endoscopic findings are suspicious for malignancy, despite normal biopsies, an aggressive surgical resection remains reasonable given the rarity gastric lymphocytic phlebitis. Keywords: Lymphocytic phlebitis, Gastrectomy, Gastric vasculitis, Gastric ulcer, Case report

  6. Why is the coexistence of gastric cancer and duodenal ulcer rare? Examination of factors related to both gastric cancer and duodenal ulcer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubukata, Hideyuki; Nagata, Hiroyuki; Tabuchi, Takanobu; Konishi, Satoru; Kasuga, Teruhiko; Tabuchi, Takafumi

    2011-03-01

    The coexistence of gastric cancer with duodenal ulcer has been found empirically to be rare, but why it is rare is difficult to explain satisfactorily. To elucidate this question, we carried out a literature review of the subject. The frequency with which the two diseases coexist is 0.1-1.7%, and the main factor associated with both gastric cancer and duodenal ulcer is Helicobacter pylori infection. However, there are marked differences between the disorders of hyperchlorhydria in duodenal ulcer, and hypochlorhydria in gastric cancer. The most acceptable view of the reason for the difference may be that the acquisition of H. pylori infection occurs mainly in childhood, so that the time of acquisition of atrophic gastritis may be the most important, and if atrophic gastritis is not acquired early, high levels of gastric acid may occur, and consequently acute antral gastritis and duodenal ulcer may occur in youth, whereas, in elderly individuals, persistent H. pylori infections and the early appearance of atrophic gastritis may be the causes of low gastric acid, and consequently gastric cancer may occur. In patients with duodenal ulcer, factors such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and dupA-H. pylori strains may contribute to preventing the early acquisition of atrophic gastritis, while acid-suppressive therapy and vascular endothelial growth factor and other entities may inhibit atrophic gastritis. In contrast, in gastric cancer, factors such as excessive salt intake, acid-suppressive therapy, polymorphisms of inflammatory cytokines, and the homB-H. pylori strain may contribute to the early acquisition of atrophic gastritis, while factors such as NSAIDs; fruits and vegetables; vitamins A, C, and E; and good nutrition may inhibit it.

  7. Incremental diagnostic utility of gastric distension FDG PET/CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Roux, Pierre-Yves [Division of Radiation Oncology and Cancer Imaging, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne (Australia); Brest University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Brest (France); Duong, Cuong P.; Cabalag, Carlos S. [Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Department of Surgical Oncology, East Melbourne, VIC (Australia); Parameswaran, Bimal K.; Callahan, Jason [Division of Radiation Oncology and Cancer Imaging, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne (Australia); Hicks, Rodney J. [Division of Radiation Oncology and Cancer Imaging, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne (Australia); The University of Melbourne, Parkville (Australia)

    2016-04-15

    To assess the diagnostic utility of gastric distension (GD) FDG PET/CT in both patients with known gastric malignancy and those not known to have gastric malignancy but with incidental focal FDG uptake in the stomach. This retrospective analysis included 88 patients who underwent FDG PET/CT following GD with hyoscine N-butylbromide (Buscopan registered) and water ingestion as part of routine clinical evaluation between 2004 and 2014. FDG PET/CT scans before and after GD were reported blinded to the patient clinical details in 49 patients undergoing pretreatment staging of gastric malignancy and 39 patients who underwent GD following incidental suspicious gastric uptake. The PET findings were validated by a composite clinical standard. In the 49 patients undergoing pretreatment staging of gastric malignancy, GD improved PET detection of the primary tumour (from 80 % to 90 %). PET evaluation of tumour extent was concordant with endoscopic/surgical reports in 31 % (interpreter 1) and 45 % (interpreter 2) using pre-GD images and 73 % and 76 % using GD images. Interobserver agreement also improved with GD (κ = 0.29 to 0.69). Metabolic and morphological quantitative analysis demonstrated a major impact of GD in normal gastric wall but no significant effect in tumour, except a minor increase in SUV related to a delayed acquisition time. The tumour to normal stomach SUVmax ratio increased from 3.8 ± 2.9 to 9.2 ± 8.6 (mean ± SD) with GD (p < 0.0001), facilitating detection and improved assessment of the primary tumour. In 25 (64 %) of the 39 patients with incidental suspicious gastric uptake, acquisition after GD correctly excluded a malignant process. In 10 (71 %) of the remaining 14 patients with persistent suspicious FDG uptake despite GD, malignancy was confirmed and in 3 (21 %) an active but benign pathology was diagnosed. GD is a simple way to improve local staging with FDG PET in patients with gastric malignancy. In the setting of incidental suspicious gastric

  8. Incremental diagnostic utility of gastric distension FDG PET/CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Roux, Pierre-Yves; Duong, Cuong P.; Cabalag, Carlos S.; Parameswaran, Bimal K.; Callahan, Jason; Hicks, Rodney J.

    2016-01-01

    To assess the diagnostic utility of gastric distension (GD) FDG PET/CT in both patients with known gastric malignancy and those not known to have gastric malignancy but with incidental focal FDG uptake in the stomach. This retrospective analysis included 88 patients who underwent FDG PET/CT following GD with hyoscine N-butylbromide (Buscopan registered) and water ingestion as part of routine clinical evaluation between 2004 and 2014. FDG PET/CT scans before and after GD were reported blinded to the patient clinical details in 49 patients undergoing pretreatment staging of gastric malignancy and 39 patients who underwent GD following incidental suspicious gastric uptake. The PET findings were validated by a composite clinical standard. In the 49 patients undergoing pretreatment staging of gastric malignancy, GD improved PET detection of the primary tumour (from 80 % to 90 %). PET evaluation of tumour extent was concordant with endoscopic/surgical reports in 31 % (interpreter 1) and 45 % (interpreter 2) using pre-GD images and 73 % and 76 % using GD images. Interobserver agreement also improved with GD (κ = 0.29 to 0.69). Metabolic and morphological quantitative analysis demonstrated a major impact of GD in normal gastric wall but no significant effect in tumour, except a minor increase in SUV related to a delayed acquisition time. The tumour to normal stomach SUVmax ratio increased from 3.8 ± 2.9 to 9.2 ± 8.6 (mean ± SD) with GD (p < 0.0001), facilitating detection and improved assessment of the primary tumour. In 25 (64 %) of the 39 patients with incidental suspicious gastric uptake, acquisition after GD correctly excluded a malignant process. In 10 (71 %) of the remaining 14 patients with persistent suspicious FDG uptake despite GD, malignancy was confirmed and in 3 (21 %) an active but benign pathology was diagnosed. GD is a simple way to improve local staging with FDG PET in patients with gastric malignancy. In the setting of incidental suspicious gastric

  9. Molecular characterization of the stomach microbiota in patients with gastric cancer and controls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dicksved, J.; Lindberg, M.; Rosenquist, M.; Enroth, H.; Jansson, J.K.; Engstrand, L.

    2009-01-15

    Persistent infection of the gastric mucosa by Helicobacter pylori, can initiate an inflammatory cascade that progresses into atrophic gastritis, a condition associated with reduced capacity for secretion of gastric acid and an increased risk in developing gastric cancer. The role of H. pylori as an initiator of inflammation is evident but the mechanism for development into gastric cancer has not yet been proven. A reduced capacity for gastric acid secretion allows survival and proliferation of other microbes that normally are killed by the acidic environment. It has been postulated that some of these species may be involved in the development of gastric cancer, however their identities are poorly defined. In this study, the gastric microbiota from ten patients with gastric cancer was characterized and compared with five dyspeptic controls using the molecular profiling approach, terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP), in combination with 16S rRNA gene cloning and sequencing. T-RFLP analysis revealed a complex bacterial community in the cancer patients that was not significantly different from the controls. Sequencing of 140 clones revealed 102 phylotypes, with representatives from five bacterial phyla (Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Fusobacteria). The data revealed a relatively low abundance of H. pylori and showed that the gastric cancer microbiota was instead dominated by different species of the genera Streptococcus, Lactobacillus, Veillonella and Prevotella. The respective role of these species in development of gastric cancer remains to be determined.

  10. Viscous fingering of HCI through gastric mucin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaskar, K. Ramakrishnan; Garik, Peter; Turner, Bradley S.; Bradley, James Douglas; Bansil, Rama; Stanley, H. Eugene; Lamont, J. Thomas

    1992-12-01

    THE HCI in the mammalian stomach is concentrated enough to digest the stomach itself, yet the gastric epithelium remains undamaged. One protective factor is gastric mucus, which forms a protective layer over the surface epithelium1-4 and acts as a diffusion barrier5,6 Bicarbonate ions secreted by the gastric epithelium7 are trapped in the mucus gel, establishing a gradient from pH 1-2 at the lumen to pH 6-7 at the cell surface8-10. How does HCI, secreted at the base of gastric glands by parietal cells, traverse the mucus layer without acidifying it? Here we demonstrate that injection of HCI through solutions of pig gastric mucin produces viscous fingering patterns11-18 dependent on pH, mucin concentration and acid flow rate. Above pH 4, discrete fingers are observed, whereas below pH 4, HCI neither penetrates the mucin solution nor forms fingers. Our in vitro results suggest that HCI secreted by the gastric gland can penetrate the mucus gel layer (pH 5-7) through narrow fingers, whereas HC1 in the lumen (pH 2) is prevented from diffusing back to the epithelium by the high viscosity of gastric mucus gel on the luminal side.

  11. Gastric Necrosis due to Acute Massive Gastric Dilatation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Aydin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastric necrosis due to acute massive gastric dilatation is relatively rare. Vascular reasons, herniation, volvulus, acute gastric dilatation, anorexia, and bulimia nervosa play a role in the etiology of the disease. Early diagnosis and treatment are highly important as the associated morbidity and mortality rates are high. In this case report, we present a case of gastric necrosis due to acute gastric dilatation accompanied with the relevant literature.

  12. Gastric Necrosis due to Acute Massive Gastric Dilatation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Ibrahim; Pergel, Ahmet; Yucel, Ahmet Fikret; Sahin, Dursun Ali; Ozer, Ender

    2013-01-01

    Gastric necrosis due to acute massive gastric dilatation is relatively rare. Vascular reasons, herniation, volvulus, acute gastric dilatation, anorexia, and bulimia nervosa play a role in the etiology of the disease. Early diagnosis and treatment are highly important as the associated morbidity and mortality rates are high. In this case report, we present a case of gastric necrosis due to acute gastric dilatation accompanied with the relevant literature.

  13. Characterizing lamina propria of human gastric mucosa by multiphoton microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Y C; Yang, H Q; Zhuo, S M [Institute of Laser and Optoelectronics Technology, Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory for Photonics Technology, Key Laboratory of OptoElectronic Science and Technology for Medicine of Ministry of Education, Fujian Normal University, Fuzhou 350007 (China); Chen, G; Chen, J X [Department of Pathology, Fujian Provincial Tumor Hospital, Fuzhou, 350014 (China); Yan, J, E-mail: chenjianxin@fjnu.edu.cn, E-mail: ynjun@yahoo.com [Department of Surgery, Fujian Provincial Tumor Hospital, Fuzhou, 350014 (China)

    2011-01-01

    Lamina propria (LP) of gastric mucosa plays an important role in progression of gastric cancer because of the site at where inflammatory reactions occur. Multiphoton imaging has been recently employed for microscopic examination of intact tissue. In this paper, using multiphoton microscopy (MPM) based on two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) and second harmonic generation (SHG), high resolution multiphoton microscopic images of lamina propria (LP) are obtained in normal human gastric mucosa at excitation wavelength {lambda}{sub ex} = 800 nm. The main source of tissue TPEF originated from the cells of gastric glands, and loose connective tissue, collagen, produced SHG signals. Our results demonstrated that MPM can be effective for characterizing the microstructure of LP in human gastric mucosa. The findings will be helpful for diagnosing and staging early gastric cancer in the clinics.

  14. Characterizing lamina propria of human gastric mucosa by multiphoton microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y. C.; Yang, H. Q.; Chen, G.; Zhuo, S. M.; Chen, J. X.; Yan, J.

    2011-01-01

    Lamina propria (LP) of gastric mucosa plays an important role in progression of gastric cancer because of the site at where inflammatory reactions occur. Multiphoton imaging has been recently employed for microscopic examination of intact tissue. In this paper, using multiphoton microscopy (MPM) based on two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) and second harmonic generation (SHG), high resolution multiphoton microscopic images of lamina propria (LP) are obtained in normal human gastric mucosa at excitation wavelength λex = 800 nm. The main source of tissue TPEF originated from the cells of gastric glands, and loose connective tissue, collagen, produced SHG signals. Our results demonstrated that MPM can be effective for characterizing the microstructure of LP in human gastric mucosa. The findings will be helpful for diagnosing and staging early gastric cancer in the clinics.

  15. Endoscopic Treatment of Early Gastric Obstruction After Sleeve Gastrectomy: Report of Two Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Nuno Costa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Morbid obesity is an epidemic and complex disease which imposes a multidisciplinary approach. Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy has become a frequent procedure given its efficacy and safety compared to other surgical options. However, it isn’t free from complications. Lax gastric fixation or incorrect positioning of the stomach during surgery can result in early gastric outlet obstruction caused by a volvulus-like mechanism by rotation of the stomach around its anatomic axes. This report refers to two cases of post sleeve gastric torsion resulting in persisting vomiting after initiating oral intake. The diagnosis was confirmed by upper gastrointestinal-contrast study and gastroscopy. In both cases, a fully covered self-expandable metallic stent was inserted which prompted the gastric lumen to become permeable resulting in symptomatic resolution. The stents were removed endoscopically after two and three months. Beyond more than three years of follow-up, the patients remain asymptomatic and no recurring “stenosis” was noticed. In these cases the use of fully covered self-expandable metallic stents demonstrated to be effective and safe in the treatment of post sleeve gastric torsion.

  16. A case report of gastric lymphocytic phlebitis, a rare mimic for malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Daniel L; Ravindran, Praveen; Chua, Dorothy; Smith, Jason D; Wong, King S; Ghusn, Michael A

    2017-01-01

    Lymphocytic phlebitis is a benign condition characterised by inflammation of the veins and rarely affects the gastrointestinal tract. Reported cases present as acute abdomen and involve the colon or small intestine. We report the fourth case of gastric lymphocytic phlebitis in the literature. A 74-year-old female presented with eight weeks of abdominal pain. Findings at endoscopy were suggestive of a malignant ulcer on the greater curvature of antrum, while biopsies showed chronic gastritis without malignancy. Appearance at diagnostic laparoscopy was consistent with a malignant gastric ulcer with serosal changes. Due to persistent pain and the macroscopic appearance, she proceeded to have an open subtotal gastrectomy and D2 lymph node clearance. Despite macroscopic appearance, the microscopic examination demonstrated no malignancy, and was consistent with lymphocytic phlebitis with overlying ulceration. This case was a mimic for gastric malignancy, with the benign diagnosis only being made after surgical resection. Gastric lymphocytic phlebitis is a rare differential diagnosis for gastric ulcers when biopsies are negative, although preoperative diagnosis is difficult given the lesions do not involve the mucosa. If clinical history and endoscopic findings are suspicious for malignancy, despite normal biopsies, an aggressive surgical resection remains reasonable given the rarity gastric lymphocytic phlebitis. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Mastication suppresses initial gastric emptying by modulating gastric activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohmure, H; Takada, H; Nagayama, K; Sakiyama, T; Tsubouchi, H; Miyawaki, S

    2012-03-01

    Because various mastication-related factors influence gastric activity, the functional relationship between mastication and gastric function has not been fully elucidated. To investigate the influence of mastication on gastric emptying and motility, we conducted a randomized trial to compare the effects of mastication on gastric emptying and gastric myoelectrical activity under conditions that excluded the influences of food comminution, taste, and olfaction. A (13)C-acetate breath test with electrogastrography and electrocardiography was performed in 14 healthy men who ingested a test meal with or without chewing gum. Autonomic nerve activity was evaluated by fluctuation analysis of heart rate. Gastric emptying was significantly delayed in the 'ingestion with mastication' group. Gastric myoelectrical activity was significantly suppressed during mastication and increased gradually in the post-mastication phase. A decrease in the high-frequency power of heart rate variability was observed coincidentally with gastric myoelectrical activity suppression. These findings suggest that initial gastric emptying is suppressed by mastication, and that the suppression is caused by mastication-induced inhibition of gastric activity (UMIN Clinical Trial Registration no. UMIN000005351).

  18. Helicobacter pylori as a crucial factor in intestinal metaplasia development of gastric mucosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergii Vernygorodskyi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori is detected on the surface of gastric epithelium and in goblet cells, predominantly in patients with chronic atrophic gastritis and incomplete intestinal metaplasia (IM. H. pylori infection persistence leads to the formation of gastrointestinal phenotype of IM. H. pylori can be considered as an etiological factor of IM. It inhibits the expression of SOX2 in gastric epithelial cells, hence activating transcription factor CDX2 as a counterpart to MUC5AC gene inhibition and MUC2 gene induction. Thus, in metaplastic cells, programming differentiation after intestinal phenotype will develop. The role of H. pylori in the origin of intestinal metaplasia of gastric mucosa was defined in this study to elucidate the probable mechanism of cell reprogramming. The activation of CDX2, with simultaneous inactivation and decreased number of genes (e.g., SHH, SOX2, and RUNX3 responsible for gastric differentiation, was identified to cause the appearance of IM.

  19. Molecular mechanisms and theranostic potential of miRNAs in drug resistance of gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wanli; Ma, Jiaojiao; Zhou, Wei; Cao, Bo; Zhou, Xin; Yang, Zhiping; Zhang, Hongwei; Zhao, Qingchuan; Fan, Daiming; Hong, Liu

    2017-11-01

    Systemic chemotherapy is a curative approach to inhibit gastric cancer cells proliferation. Despite the great progress in anti-cancer treatment achieved during the last decades, drug resistance and treatment refractoriness still extensively persists. Recently, accumulating studies have highlighted the role of miRNAs in drug resistance of gastric cancers by modulating some drug resistance-related proteins and genes expression. Pre-clinical reports indicate that miRNAs might serve as ideal biomarkers and potential targets, thus holding great promise for developing targeted therapy and personalized treatment for the patients with gastric cancer. Areas covered: This review provide a comprehensive overview of the current advances of miRNAs and molecular mechanisms underlying miRNA-mediated drug resistance in gastric cancer. We particularly focus on the potential values of drug resistance-related miRNAs as biomarkers and novel targets in gastric cancer therapy and envisage the future research developments of these miRNAs and challenges in translating the new findings into clinical applications. Expert opinion: Although the concrete mechanisms of miRNAs in drug resistance of gastric cancer have not been fully clarified, miRNA may be a promising theranostic approach. Further studies are still needed to facilitate the clinical applications of miRNAs in drug resistant gastric cancer.

  20. Intake of wine, beer and spirits and risk of gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barstad, B; Sørensen, T I A; Tjønneland, A; Johansen, D; Becker, U; Andersen, I B; Grønbaek, M

    2005-06-01

    The objective was to study prospectively the relation between quantity and type of alcohol and risk of gastric cancer. In a pooled database from three population studies conducted in 1964-1992, a total of 15,236 men and 13,227 women were followed for a total of 389,051 person-years. During follow-up 122 incident cases of gastric cancer were identified. Total alcohol intake itself was not associated with gastric cancer, but type of alcohol seemed to influence risk. Compared with non-wine drinkers, participants who drank 1-6 glasses of wine had a relative risk ratio of 0.76 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.50-1.16), whereas those who drank >13 glasses of wine per week had a relative risk ratio of 0.16 (95% CI 0.02-1.18). Linear trend test showed a significant association with a relative risk ratio of 0.60 (95% CI 0.39-0.93) per glass of wine drunk per day. These relations persisted after adjustment for age, gender, educational level, body mass index, smoking habits, inhalation and physical activity. There was no association between beer or spirits drinking and gastric cancer. In conclusion, the present study suggests that a daily intake of wine may prevent development of gastric cancer.

  1. Studying the effect of different elements in gastric emptying that produce normal variations in `healthy` individuals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauser, L. [Sydney University, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    1999-06-01

    Maintaining the rate of emptying solids and liquids at normal levels, is an essential component for the correct functioning of the entire gastro-intestinal tract. There is no single-test available which provides a `baseline` for all gastric emptying studies. This problem arises due to many elements which normally effect the rate of gastric emptying, such as those dealing with patient factors, the composition of the liquid/solid meal used and also which radiopharmaceutical is chosen. It is therefore recommended that each Nuclear Medicine practice needs to set-up guidelines which are able to be consistently reproduced. One such guideline may be in the form of a `liquid glucose meal` which provides consistent and accurate results for gastric emptying studies 18 refs., 2 figs.

  2. Inactivation of Smad4 in gastric carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, S M; Harper, J C; Hamilton, S R; Robinson, C R; Cummings, O W

    1997-10-01

    Allelic loss of chromosome 18q has been noted in intestinal type gastric adenocarcinomas. Smad4 is a gene located at 18q that was recently cloned in humans and found to be significantly altered in pancreatic cancers. We sought to determine whether Smad4 genetic alterations played a significant role in gastric tumorigenesis by studying 35 gastric adenocarcinomas of all histopathological types and pathological stages. Microdissected specimens were used for mutational analysis of Smad4 at the nucleotide level, including the entire coding region and intron/exon boundaries. Allelic imbalance was also analyzed at the Smad4 locus using two nearby microsatellite markers. One case of apparent biallelic inactivation of Smad4 was found in our study of 35 gastric carcinomas. A nonsense point mutation at codon 334 was demonstrated, which, similar to other Smad4 mutations, is predicted to truncate the conserved COOH-terminal domain of this protein. This Smad4 C to T transition mutation was proven to be somatically acquired. Allelic loss was also noted on chromosome 18q at a marker near Smad4 in this mutated gastric cancer, apparently producing complete inactivation of Smad4 in this tumor. Significant 18q allelic loss (56% of 34 informative cases) was noted in our gastric carcinomas using microsatellite markers near the Smad4 locus, regardless of histological subtype or pathological stage. Additionally, three cases of microsatellite instability were observed. Thus, Smad4 inactivation was noted in our gastric carcinomas; however, this event was rare. The frequent loss of chromosomal arm 18q observed in gastric cancers suggests the presence of other tumor suppressor genes in this region that are involved in gastric tumorigenesis. Further studies are needed to identify these other targets of inactivation during gastric cancer development.

  3. Honey potentiates the gastric protection effects of sucralfate against ammonia-induced gastric lesions in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Abu Taib Mohammad Mobarok; Al Swayeh, Othman Abdullah

    2003-09-01

    Natural honey is widely used all over the world as a complementary and alternative medicine in various disorders including gastrointestinal lesions. To evaluate the effects of combination of low dosage of honey (0.312 g/kg) and sucralfate (0.125 or 0.250 g /kg) on gastric protection and to determine any potentiating interactions between them against ammonia-induced gastric lesions in rats. Twenty-four hours fasted rats were given I ml of ammonium hydroxide 1 % intragastrically and they were killed one hour later under deep ether anesthesia. The gastric lesion index was calculated according to the method of Takaishi et al 1998. Non protein sulthydryls level was determined spectrophotometrically as described by Sedlak and Lindsay 1968. Administration of ammonium hydroxide produced red and black linear lesions and significant depletion of gastric nonprotein sulthydryls level. Oral administration of honey (0.312g/kg) or sucralfate (0.125 and 0.250 g/kg) 30 min before ammonium hydroxide reduced the severity of gastric mucosal lesions by 1 I or 18 and 42 % respectively, and has shown the changes in nonprotein sulfhydryls level induced by ammonium hydroxide. Furthermore, pretreatment with a combination of a low dose of honey (0.312 g /kg) and sucralfate (0.125 g or 0.250 g/kg) afforded significantly greater protection (58 and 77 %) than that obtained with either of them administered alone. The present results suggest potentiation of gastric protection effect of sucralfate by honey and this may have a clinical value in the treatment of peptic ulcer diseases in Helicobacter pylori positive patients.

  4. Drain tube migration into the anastomotic site of an esophagojejunostomy for gastric small cell carcinoma: short report

    OpenAIRE

    Lin Long-Wei; Lo Chiao; Lai Peng-Sheng; Lee Po-Chu

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Intraluminal migration of a drain through an anastomotic site is a rare complication of gastric surgery. Case Presentation We herein report the intraluminal migration of a drain placed after a lower esophagectomy and total gastrectomy with Roux-en-Y anastomosis for gastric small cell carcinoma. Persistent drainage was noted 1 month after surgery, and radiographic studies were consistent with drain tube migration. Endoscopy revealed the drain had migrated into the esophagoj...

  5. Gastric emptying in patients with vitamin B{sub 12} deficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yagci, Muenci; Yamac, Kadri; Acar, Kadir; Haznedar, Rauf [Department of Hematology, Gazi Medical School (Turkey); Cingi, Elif; Kitapci, Mehmet [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Gazi Medical School (Turkey)

    2002-09-01

    The clinical presentation of patients with vitamin B{sub 12} deficiency varies in a spectrum ranging from haematological disorders to neuropsychiatric diseases. In rare cases, orthostatic hypotension, impotence, constipation and urinary retention have been attributed to autonomic nervous system dysfunction due to vitamin B{sub 12} deficiency. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of vitamin B{sub 12} deficiency on autonomic nervous system function by studying gastric emptying times (T{sub 1/2}). Twenty patients with newly diagnosed vitamin B{sub 12} deficiency and 12 control patients with gastritis and normal vitamin B{sub 12} levels were enrolled in this study. Gastroduodenoscopy, endoscopic biopsy, histopathological evaluation of the biopsy specimens and radionuclide gastric emptying studies were performed. After vitamin B{sub 12} replacement therapy for 3 months, radionuclide gastric emptying studies were repeated. Mean gastric emptying T{sub 1/2} in patients before and after treatment and in controls were 103.83{+-}48.80 min, 90.00{+-}17.29 min and 74.55{+-}8.52 min, respectively. The difference in mean gastric emptying T{sub 1/2} between patients before treatment and controls was statistically significant (P<0.01). The statistically significant difference persisted after vitamin B{sub 12} treatment (P<0.05), though mean gastric emptying T{sub 1/2} was somewhat shorter. There were no positive or negative correlations between gastric emptying T{sub 1/2} and the following parameters: haemoglobin, vitamin B{sub 12} level and Helicobacter pylori positivity. In conclusion, gastric emptying T{sub 1/2} was prolonged in patients with vitamin B{sub 12} deficiency and this prolongation was not corrected after vitamin B{sub 12} replacement therapy. Although autonomic nervous system dysfunction due to vitamin B{sub 12} deficiency rarely gives rise to clinical manifestations, latent dysfunction demonstrated by laboratory tests seems to be a frequent phenomenon

  6. Gastric dilatation volvulus: a retrospective study of 203 dogs with ventral midline gastropexy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullmann, B; Seehaus, N; Hungerbühler, S; Meyer-Lindenberg, A

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the recurrence rate of gastric dilatation volvulus and the incidence of complications in subsequent coeliotomies following ventral midline gastropexy. The medical records of dogs treated for gastric dilatation volvulus by ventral midline gastropexy were retrospectively reviewed. Owners were contacted and invited to complete a questionnaire and to return to the clinic for ultrasonographic and radiographic follow-up. The questionnaire was completed by 203 owners 2 to 123 months postoperatively, 24 of whom attended the follow-up examination. Of the 203 dogs, 13 (6 · 4%) underwent subsequent ventral midline coeliotomy and none developed complications related to the gastropexy site. In 23 of the 24 re-evaluated dogs, the stomach was closely associated with the abdominal on radiography and/or ultrasound. The recurrence rate for clinical signs of gastric dilatation or gastric dilatation volvulus after ventral midline gastropexy was 6 · 4%. This study shows that the recurrence of gastric dilatation volvulus after ventral midline gastropexy is low and adhesion of the stomach to the abdominal wall is persistent in almost all dogs that were re-examined. The gastropexy site did not appear to interfere with subsequent coeliotomy. © 2015 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  7. Gastric volvulus with partial and complete gastric necrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Ram Mohan; Mandal, Kartik Chandra; Maitra, Sujay; Ray, Amit; Sarkar, Ruchirendu; Mukhopadhyay, Biswanath; Bhattacharya, Malay

    2014-01-01

    Here, we report two interesting cases of gastric necrosis in acute gastric volvulus due to eventration of the diaphragm. Both the cases presented with a significant challenge and were managed successfully. The management of the cases is presented and relevant literature is discussed. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of gastric volvulus with gastric necrosis requiring complete and partial gastrectomy in the available English literature. PMID:24604987

  8. Gastric volvulus with partial and complete gastric necrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram Mohan Shukla

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Here, we report two interesting cases of gastric necrosis in acute gastric volvulus due to eventration of the diaphragm. Both the cases presented with a significant challenge and were managed successfully. The management of the cases is presented and relevant literature is discussed. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of gastric volvulus with gastric necrosis requiring complete and partial gastrectomy in the available English literature.

  9. Dysbiosis of the microbiome in gastric carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaño-Rodríguez, Natalia; Goh, Khean-Lee; Fock, Kwong Ming; Mitchell, Hazel M; Kaakoush, Nadeem O

    2017-11-21

    The gastric microbiome has been proposed as an etiological factor in gastric carcinogenesis. We compared the gastric microbiota in subjects presenting with gastric cancer (GC, n = 12) and controls (functional dyspepsia (FD), n = 20) from a high GC risk population in Singapore and Malaysia. cDNA from 16S rRNA transcripts were amplified (515F-806R) and sequenced using Illumina MiSeq 2 × 250 bp chemistry. Increased richness and phylogenetic diversity but not Shannon's diversity was found in GC as compared to controls. nMDS clustered GC and FD subjects separately, with PERMANOVA confirming a significant difference between the groups. H. pylori serological status had a significant impact on gastric microbiome α-diversity and composition. Several bacterial taxa were enriched in GC, including Lactococcus, Veilonella, and Fusobacteriaceae (Fusobacterium and Leptotrichia). Prediction of bacterial metabolic contribution indicated that serological status had a significant impact on metabolic function, while carbohydrate digestion and pathways were enriched in GC. Our findings highlight three mechanisms of interest in GC, including enrichment of pro-inflammatory oral bacterial species, increased abundance of lactic acid producing bacteria, and enrichment of short chain fatty acid production pathways.

  10. Do calories or osmolality determine gastric emptying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafer, R.B.; Levine, A.S.; Marlette, J.M.; Morley, J.E.

    1984-01-01

    Recent animal studies suggest that gastric emptying is dependent on the caloric and osmotic content of the ingested food. These studies have involved intubation with infusion of liquid meals into the stomach. Scintigraphic methods, which are non-invasive and do not alter normal physiology, are now available for precise quantitation of gastric emptying. To study the role of calories and osmolality on gastric emptying, the authors employed a standardized /sup 99m/Tc-scrambled egg meal washed with 50 cc tap water in 10 normal human volunteers. A variety of simple and complex sugars, non-absorbable complex carbohydrate (polycose), medium chain fatty acid (MCFA) and gluten were dissolved in water and ingested with the test meal. Each subject acted as his own control. Coefficient of variation in control tests in each subject 12 weeks apart was 9.9%. Results showed that incremental glucose (25-66 gm) produced a linear increase in gastric emptying (T/2 control 50 +- 3, 25 gm 60 +- 3, 50 gm 79 +- 3 and 66 gm 102 +- 3 minutes). 25 gm fructose (T/2 59 +- 3 minutes) and 25 gm polycose (T/2 59 +- 3 minutes) had similar effects to glucose. 25 gm sucrose and 25 gm gluten did not significantly differ from controls. MCFA had an effect similar to 50 gm glucose - suggesting that calories are important in gastric emptying. However, 25 gm xylose markedly prolonged gastric emptying to 80 +- 5 minutes. The rank order for osmolality for substances tested MCFA = gluten < polycose < polycose < fructose < sucrose = glucose < xylose defined no relationship to gastric emptying. The authors' results suggest that neither calories nor osmolality alone determine gastric emptying. A specific food does not necessarily have the same effect on gastric emptying in different individuals

  11. Do calories or osmolality determine gastric emptying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shafer, R.B.; Levine, A.S.; Marlette, J.M.; Morley, J.E.

    1984-01-01

    Recent animal studies suggest that gastric emptying is dependent on the caloric and osmotic content of the ingested food. These studies have involved intubation with infusion of liquid meals into the stomach. Scintigraphic methods, which are non-invasive and do not alter normal physiology, are now available for precise quantitation of gastric emptying. To study the role of calories and osmolality on gastric emptying, the authors employed a standardized /sup 99m/Tc-scrambled egg meal washed with 50 cc tap water in 10 normal human volunteers. A variety of simple and complex sugars, non-absorbable complex carbohydrate (polycose), medium chain fatty acid (MCFA) and gluten were dissolved in water and ingested with the test meal. Each subject acted as his own control. Coefficient of variation in control tests in each subject 12 weeks apart was 9.9%. Results showed that incremental glucose (25-66 gm) produced a linear increase in gastric emptying (T/2 control 50 +- 3, 25 gm 60 +- 3, 50 gm 79 +- 3 and 66 gm 102 +- 3 minutes). 25 gm fructose (T/2 59 +- 3 minutes) and 25 gm polycose (T/2 59 +- 3 minutes) had similar effects to glucose. 25 gm sucrose and 25 gm gluten did not significantly differ from controls. MCFA had an effect similar to 50 gm glucose - suggesting that calories are important in gastric emptying. However, 25 gm xylose markedly prolonged gastric emptying to 80 +- 5 minutes. The rank order for osmolality for substances tested MCFA = gluten < polycose < polycose < fructose < sucrose = glucose < xylose defined no relationship to gastric emptying. The authors' results suggest that neither calories nor osmolality alone determine gastric emptying. A specific food does not necessarily have the same effect on gastric emptying in different individuals.

  12. Prolapsing Gastric Polyp Causing Intermittent Gastric Outlet Obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosai, Nik Ritza; Gendeh, Hardip Singh; Norfaezan, Abdul Rashid; Razman, Jamin; Sutton, Paul Anthony; Das, Srijit

    2015-06-01

    Gastric polyps are often an incidental finding on upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, with an incidence up to 5%. The majority of gastric polyps are asymptomatic, occurring secondary to inflammation. Prior reviews discussed Helicobacter pylori (H pylori)-associated singular gastric polyposis; however, we present a rare and unusual case of recurrent multiple benign gastric polyposis post H pylori eradication resulting in intermittent gastric outlet obstruction. A 70-year-old independent male, Chinese in ethnicity, with a background of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and a simple renal cyst presented with a combination of melena, anemia, and intermittent vomiting of partially digested food after meals. Initial gastroscopy was positive for H pylori; thus he was treated with H pylori eradication and proton pump inhibitors. Serial gastroscopy demonstrated multiple sessile gastric antral polyps, the largest measuring 4 cm. Histopathologic examination confirmed a benign hyperplastic lesion. Computed tomography identified a pyloric mass with absent surrounding infiltration or metastasis. A distal gastrectomy was performed, whereby multiple small pyloric polyps were found, the largest prolapsing into the pyloric opening, thus explaining the intermittent nature of gastric outlet obstruction. Such polyps often develop from gastric ulcers and, if left untreated, may undergo neoplasia to form malignant cells. A distal gastrectomy was an effective choice of treatment, taking into account the polyp size, quantity, and potential for malignancy as opposed to an endoscopic approach, which may not guarantee a complete removal of safer margins and depth. Therefore, surgical excision is favorable for multiple large gastric polyps with risk of malignancy.

  13. Clinicopathological features of alpha-fetoprotein producing early gastric cancer with enteroblastic differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Kohei; Ueyama, Hiroya; Matsumoto, Kenshi; Akazawa, Yoichi; Komori, Hiroyuki; Takeda, Tsutomu; Murakami, Takashi; Asaoka, Daisuke; Hojo, Mariko; Tomita, Natsumi; Nagahara, Akihito; Kajiyama, Yoshiaki; Yao, Takashi; Watanabe, Sumio

    2016-09-28

    To investigate clinicopathological features of early stage gastric cancer with enteroblastic differentiation (GCED). We retrospectively investigated data on 6 cases of early stage GCED and 186 cases of early stage conventional gastric cancer (CGC: well or moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma) who underwent endoscopic submucosal dissection or endoscopic mucosal resection from September 2011 to February 2015 in our hospital. GCED was defined as a tumor having a primitive intestine-like structure composed of cuboidal or columnar cells with clear cytoplasm and immunohistochemical positivity for either alpha-fetoprotein, Glypican 3 or SALL4. The following were compared between GCED and CGC: age, gender, location and size of tumor, macroscopic type, ulceration, depth of invasion, lymphatic and venous invasion, positive horizontal and vertical margin, curative resection rate. Six cases (5 males, 1 female; mean age 75.7 years; 6 lesions) of early gastric cancer with a GCED component and 186 cases (139 males, 47 females; mean age 72.7 years; 209 lesions) of early stage CGC were investigated. Mean tumor diameters were similar but rates of submucosal invasion, lymphatic invasion, venous invasion, and non-curative resection were higher in GCED than CGC (66.6% vs 11.4%, 33.3% vs 2.3%, 66.6% vs 0.4%, 83.3% vs 11% respectively, P < 0.01). Deep submucosal invasion was not revealed endoscopically or by preoperative biopsy. Histologically, in GCED the superficial mucosal layer was covered with a CGC component. The GCED component tended to exist in the deeper part of the mucosa to the submucosa by lymphatic and/or venous invasion, without severe stromal reaction. In addition, Glypican 3 was the most sensitive marker for GCED (positivity, 83.3%), immunohistochemically. Even in the early stage GCED has high malignant potential, and preoperative diagnosis is considered difficult. Endoscopists and pathologists should know the clinicopathological features of this highly malignant type

  14. Gastric Adenocarcinoma Presenting with Gastric Outlet Obstruction in a Child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrahman Al-Hussaini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastric carcinoma is extremely rare in children representing only 0.05% of all gastrointestinal malignancies. Here, we report the first pediatric case of gastric cancer presenting with gastric outlet obstruction. Upper endoscopy revealed a markedly thickened antral mucosa occluding the pylorus and a clean base ulcer 1.5 cm × 2 cm at the lesser curvature of the stomach. The narrowed antrum and pylorus underwent balloon dilation, and biopsy from the antrum showed evidence of Helicobacter pylori gastritis. The biopsy taken from the edge of the gastric ulcer demonstrated signet-ring-cell type infiltrate consistent with gastric adenocarcinoma. At laparotomy, there were metastases to the liver, head of pancreas, and mesenteric lymph nodes. Therefore, the gastric carcinoma was deemed unresectable. The patient died few months after initiation of chemotherapy due to advanced malignancy. In conclusion, this case report underscores the possibility of gastric adenocarcinoma occurring in children and presenting with gastric outlet obstruction.

  15. Xylitol vs glucose: Effect on the rate of gastric emptying and motilin, insulin, and gastric inhibitory polypeptide release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salminen, E.K.; Salminen, S.J.; Porkka, L.; Kwasowski, P.; Marks, V.; Koivistoinen, P.E.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of xylitol and glucose on the rate of gastric emptying and intestinal transit and on motilin, gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP), and insulin release were studied in human volunteers. A single oral dose of 200 mL water containing 30 g glucose or 30 g xylitol, mixed with a 99m technetium-tin (99mTc-Sn) colloid, was used. Similar dosing without the label was used in motilin, GIP, and insulin studies. Xylitol decreased the rate of gastric emptying but concomitantly accelerated intestinal transit compared with glucose. The half-times for gastric emptying were 77.5 +/- 4.6 and 39.8 +/- 3.4 min after ingestion of xylitol and glucose solutions, respectively. Glucose suppressed motilin and stimulated GIP secretion; xylitol stimulated motilin secretion but had no effect on GIP, which is currently the main candidate for the role of enterogastrone. The accelerated intestinal transit and increase in plasma motilin observed after xylitol ingestion were thought to be causally related to the diarrhea and gastrointestinal discomfort produced by it

  16. Gastric emptying in patients with gastric ulcer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harding, L.K.; Anselmi, M.; Donovan, I.A.; Alexander-Williams, J. (Dudley Road Hospital, Birmingham (UK); Birmingham General Hospital (UK))

    1982-06-01

    The estimated volume of meal in the stomach 30 mins after sup(113m)In-DTPA administration was determined in patients with gastric ulcer and normal controls by 1) relating counts in the stomach to those in the whole field of view of the gamma camera and 2) aspirations. In the normal controls there was no significant difference between the two methods but in the gastric ulcer patients, the gamma camera method predicted significantly more meal in the stomach than was recovered by aspiration. It was suggested that the large low lying stomach found in gastric ulcer disease causes extensive overlap of the small bowel and invalidates measurements of gastric emptying made by a gamma camera.

  17. Gastric emptying in patients with gastric ulcer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harding, L.K.; Anselmi, M.; Donovan, I.A.; Alexander-Williams, J.

    1982-01-01

    The estimated volume of meal in the stomach 30 mins after sup(113m)In-DTPA administration was determined in patients with gastric ulcer and normal controls by 1) relating counts in the stomach to those in the whole field of view of the gamma camera and 2) aspirations. In the normal controls there was no significant difference between the two methods but in the gastric ulcer patients, the gamma camera method predicted significantly more meal in the stomach than was recovered by aspiration. It was suggested that the large low lying stomach found in gastric ulcer disease causes extensive overlap of the small bowel and invalidates measurements of gastric emptying made by a gamma camera. (U.K.)

  18. Diversity of the Gastric Microbiota in Thoroughbred Racehorses Having Gastric Ulcer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Hee-Jin; Ho, Hungwui; Hwang, Hyeshin; Kim, Yongbaek; Han, Janet; Lee, Inhyung; Cho, Seongbeom

    2016-04-28

    Equine gastric ulcer syndrome is one of the most frequently reported diseases in thoroughbred racehorses. Although several risk factors for the development of gastric ulcers have been widely studied, investigation of microbiological factors has been limited. In this study, the presence of Helicobacter spp. and the gastric microbial communities of thoroughbred racehorses having mild to severe gastric ulcers were investigated. Although Helicobacter spp. were not detected using culture and PCR techniques from 52 gastric biopsies and 52 fecal samples, the genomic sequences of H. pylori and H. ganmani were detected using nextgeneration sequencing techniques from 2 out of 10 representative gastric samples. The gastric microbiota of horses was mainly composed of Firmicutes (50.0%), Proteobacteria (18.7%), Bacteroidetes (14.4%), and Actinobacteria (9.7%), but the proportion of each phylum varied among samples. There was no major difference in microbial composition among samples having mild to severe gastric ulcers. Using phylogenetic analysis, three distinct clusters were observed, and one cluster differed from the other two clusters in the frequency of feeding, amount of water consumption, and type of bedding. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the gastric microbiota of thoroughbred racehorses having gastric ulcer and to evaluate the microbial diversity in relation to the severity of gastric ulcer and management factors. This study is important for further exploration of the gastric microbiota in racehorses and is ultimately applicable to improving animal and human health.

  19. Gastric cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douglass, H.O.

    1988-01-01

    This book contains 10 selections. Some of the titles are: Radiation therapy for gastric cancer; Experimental stomach cancer: Drug selection based on in vitro testing; Western surgical adjuvant trials in gastric cancers: Lessons from current trials to be applied in the future; and Chemotherapy of gastric cancer

  20. Analysis of Gastric Body Microbiota by Pyrosequencing: Possible Role of Bacteria Other Than Helicobacter pylori in the Gastric Carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Sung-Hwa; Kim, Nayoung; Jo, Hyun Jin; Kim, Jaeyeon; Park, Ji Hyun; Nam, Ryoung Hee; Seok, Yeong-Jae; Kim, Yeon-Ran; Lee, Dong Ho

    2017-06-01

    Gastric microbiota along with Helicobacter pylori (HP) plays a key role in gastric disease. The aim of our study is to investigate the difference of human gastric microbiota between antrum and body according to disease (control vs. gastric cancer) and HP status. Each antrum and body biopsy was collected from 12 subjects at Seoul National University Bundang Hospital. Gastric microbiota was analyzed by bar-coded 454 pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Twelve subjects consisted of HP-negative control (n = 2), HP-negative cancer (n = 2), HP-positive control (n = 3), and HP-positive cancer (n = 5). The analysis was focused on non-HP urease-producing bacteria (UB) and non-HP nitrosating or nitroreducing bacteria (NB) between antrum and body. Gastric body samples showed higher diversity compared to gastric antrum mucosa samples but there was no significant difference. The mean of operational taxonomic units was higher in HP(-) cancer than HP(+) cancer (antrum, 273.5 vs. 228.2, P = 0.439; body, 585.5 vs. 183.2, P = 0.053). The number of non-HP UB and non-HP NB was higher in HP(-) cancer groups than the others. These differences were more pronounced in the body ( P = 0.051 and P = 0.081, respectively). Analysis of overlap of non-HP UB and non-HP NB revealed the higher composition of Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae, S. parasanguinis , and S. oralis in HP(-) cancer groups than the others, only in the body ( P = 0.030) but not in the antrum ( P = 0.123). Higher diversity and higher composition of S. pseudopneumoniae, S. parasanguinis , and S. oralis in HP(-) cancer group than the other groups in the body suggest that analysis of microbiota from body mucosa could be beneficial to identify a role of non-HP bacteria in the gastric carcinogenesis.

  1. Gastroscopic treatment of gastric band penetrating the gastric wall

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jess, Per; Fonnest, G

    1999-01-01

    Gastric wall penetration of a gastric band after operation for morbid obesity is a well known late complication. The treatment is usually reoperation. In this case report we show that a band penetrating the gastric wall can be successfully treated by gastroscopic operation. This technique is more...

  2. Gastric diverticulum causing gastric outlet obstruction in the setting of duodenal atresia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devashis Mukherjee

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Duodenal obstruction due to duodenal atresia occurs in 1 in 10,000 live births and is the most common type of intestinal obstruction in neonates [1–3]. Gastric outlet obstruction in the newborn period from causes other than hypertrophic pyloric stenosis is very uncommon [3]. Potential etiologies include gastric volvulus, antral web, and duplication cysts. Gastric diverticula in the infant is even more rare, with only a few case reports published, and only one describes a gastric diverticulum in the presence of a duodenal atresia [4–8]. In this report, we describe the first case of a gastric outlet obstruction due to a gastric diverticulum in the presence of duodenal atresia. Keywords: Duodenal atresia, Gastric diverticulum, Gastric outlet obstruction

  3. Gastric pseudolymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blum, U.; Hellerich, U.; Bodendoerfer, G.; Wimmer, B.; Ruf, G.; Freiburg Univ.; Freiburg Univ.

    1989-01-01

    Gastric pseudolymphoma is an uncommon benign lesion which poses a difficult problem in diagnosis and management. Lymphoid hyperplasia of the stomach, however, may occasionally precede true gastric lymphoma. Endoscopic, radiologic and pathological findings are not generally helpful in establishing the diagnosis preoperatively. Benign gastric lymphoid hyperplasia could be mistaken radiologically for ulcerated gastric carcinoma and pathologically for malignant lymphoma. Recognition of this condition is important to prevent unnecessary treatment by surgery or radiotherapy. About 140 case reports have been published to date. This paper describes the cases of two further patients. (orig.) [de

  4. Comparative genomics and proteomics of Helicobacter mustelae, an ulcerogenic and carcinogenic gastric pathogen

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Toole, Paul W

    2010-03-10

    Abstract Background Helicobacter mustelae causes gastritis, ulcers and gastric cancer in ferrets and other mustelids. H. mustelae remains the only helicobacter other than H. pylori that causes gastric ulceration and cancer in its natural host. To improve understanding of H. mustelae pathogenesis, and the ulcerogenic and carcinogenic potential of helicobacters in general, we sequenced the H. mustelae genome, and identified 425 expressed proteins in the envelope and cytosolic proteome. Results The H. mustelae genome lacks orthologs of major H. pylori virulence factors including CagA, VacA, BabA, SabA and OipA. However, it encodes ten autotransporter surface proteins, seven of which were detected in the expressed proteome, and which, except for the Hsr protein, are of unknown function. There are 26 putative outer membrane proteins in H. mustelae, some of which are most similar to the Hof proteins of H. pylori. Although homologs of putative virulence determinants of H. pylori (NapA, plasminogen adhesin, collagenase) and Campylobacter jejuni (CiaB, Peb4a) are present in the H. mustelae genome, it also includes a distinct complement of virulence-related genes including a haemagglutinin\\/haemolysin protein, and a glycosyl transferase for producing blood group A\\/B on its lipopolysaccharide. The most highly expressed 264 proteins in the cytosolic proteome included many corresponding proteins from H. pylori, but the rank profile in H. mustelae was distinctive. Of 27 genes shown to be essential for H. pylori colonization of the gerbil, all but three had orthologs in H. mustelae, identifying a shared set of core proteins for gastric persistence. Conclusions The determination of the genome sequence and expressed proteome of the ulcerogenic species H mustelae provides a comparative model for H. pylori to investigate bacterial gastric carcinogenesis in mammals, and to suggest ways whereby cag minus H. pylori strains might cause ulceration and cancer. The genome sequence was

  5. Helicobacter pylori infection, glandular atrophy and intestinal metaplasia in superficial gastritis, gastric erosion, erosive gastritis, gastric ulcer and early gastric cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Chuan; Yamada, Nobutaka; Wu, Yun-Lin; Wen, Min; Matsuhisa, Takeshi; Matsukura, Norio

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the histological features of gastric mucosa, including Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with early gastric cancer and endoscopically found superficial gastritis, gastric erosion, erosive gastritis, gastric ulcer.

  6. Radiological diagnosis of malignant lymphoma of the stomach based on its macroscopical finding with special reference to differentiation from gastric carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Byung Ihn; Yang, Seoung Oh; Kim, Yong Il; Lee, Hye Kyung

    1984-01-01

    Malignant gastric lymphoma is an uncommon but important lesion with a more favorable prognosis than that of gastric carcinoma. A total of 16 cases of gastric malignant lymphoma examined during a period from January 1980 to September 1983 at Seoul National University Hospital were subjected to the radiological and pathologic correlations. In all cases, the diagnosis was established by histopathology of the resected specimens (9 cases) or endoscopic biopsy specimens (7 cases). Based on the comparative study of upper G-I series and macroscopic findings of the surgically resected specimen, the authors investigated the reliable radiographic findings which can be valuable in differentiation of gastric lymphoma from other gastric lesions, especially carcinoma, and suggested the following diagnostic criteria for the malignant lymphoma of the stomach. 1. Discrete multiple polypoid lesions with or without central umbilication. 2. Geographic ulcer, deviated from center or the mass. 3. Irregular thickness of elevated rim of the mass. 4. Diffuse giant gastric rugae. 5. Giant gastric rugae, mixed with other lesion. 6. Less desmoplastic response of the mass with persisting peristalsis. 7. Continuous spread into the duodenum

  7. Radiological diagnosis of malignant lymphoma of the stomach based on its macroscopical finding with special reference to differentiation from gastric carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Byung Ihn; Yang, Seoung Oh; Kim, Yong Il; Lee, Hye Kyung [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1984-03-15

    Malignant gastric lymphoma is an uncommon but important lesion with a more favorable prognosis than that of gastric carcinoma. A total of 16 cases of gastric malignant lymphoma examined during a period from January 1980 to September 1983 at Seoul National University Hospital were subjected to the radiological and pathologic correlations. In all cases, the diagnosis was established by histopathology of the resected specimens (9 cases) or endoscopic biopsy specimens (7 cases). Based on the comparative study of upper G-I series and macroscopic findings of the surgically resected specimen, the authors investigated the reliable radiographic findings which can be valuable in differentiation of gastric lymphoma from other gastric lesions, especially carcinoma, and suggested the following diagnostic criteria for the malignant lymphoma of the stomach. 1. Discrete multiple polypoid lesions with or without central umbilication. 2. Geographic ulcer, deviated from center or the mass. 3. Irregular thickness of elevated rim of the mass. 4. Diffuse giant gastric rugae. 5. Giant gastric rugae, mixed with other lesion. 6. Less desmoplastic response of the mass with persisting peristalsis. 7. Continuous spread into the duodenum.

  8. Gastric cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salek, T.

    2007-01-01

    Gastric cancer is still a major health problem and a leading cause of cancer mortality despite a worldwide decline in incidence. Primarily due to early detection of the disease, the results of treatment for gastric cancer have improved in Japan, Korea and several specialized Western centres. Surgery offers excellent long-term survival results for early gastric cancer (EGC). In the Western world, however more than 80 % of patients at diagnosis have an advanced gastric cancer with a poor prognosis. The aim of surgery is the complete removal of the tumour (UICC R0-resection), which is known to be the only proven, effective treatment modality and the most important treatmentrelated prognostic factor. The prognosis after surgical treatment of gastric cancer remains poor. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy is a rising option in locally advanced gastric cancer. Adjuvant chemoradiation has been shown to be beneficial in gastric cancer patients who have undergone suboptimal surgical resection. The benefits of adjuvant chemotherapy alone seem to be very small, Untreated metastatic gastric cancer is associated with a median survival of only 3 - 4 months, but this can be increased to 8 - 10 months, associated with improved quality of life, with combination chemotherapy. Currently, no standard combination chemotherapy regimen exists, although regimens utilizing both cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil, such as epirubicin/cisplatin/fluorouracil (ECF) or docetaxel/cisplatin/fluorouracil (DCF) are amongst the most active. Newer chemotherapeutic agents, including irinotecan, oxaliplatin and taxanes, show promising activity, and are currently being tested with biologics in clinical trials. (author)

  9. Psuedotumoral gastric varices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Yong Kyu; Kim, Choon Won

    1974-01-01

    The roentgenographic recognition of gastric varices often is difficult, even when there is a history of liver disease or splenomegaly without demonstrable esophageal varices. An apparant polypoid filling defect with exaggerated mucosal folds in proximal portion of the gastric body and funds on upper GI series, accompanied by hematemesis and splenomegly should suggest the presence of pseudotumoral gastric varices. We have an experience a case of polypoid filling defects in gastric fundus of psudotumoral gastric varices of 49 years old Korean woman, which was diagnosed by surgical and histopathological findings

  10. [Emphysematous gastritis secondary to gastric mucormycosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Lezama, Julio; Espinosa-González, Omar; García-Cano, Eugenio; Sánchez-Córdova, Gabriela

    2015-01-01

    Mucormycosis is a rare fungal infection of the mucorales order, which affects mostly immunocompromised patients. The association with emphysematous gastritis is rare and often fatal produced by gas -forming bacteria. We report the case of a trauma patient with type 1 diabetes mellitus, and diabetic ketoacidosis complicated with gastric mucormycosis associated with emphysematous gastritis. A male aged 32 who is involved in a car accident, who suffered head trauma, is admitted to the Intensive Care Unit, presenting diabetic ketoacidosis and upper gastrointestinal bleeding. An endoscopy was performed and an erosive esophagitis Class C, ischemia and gastric necrosis was found. A computed tomography scan showed emphysematous gastritis and gastric necrosis. He underwent total gastrectomy with a histopathology report of gastric mucormycosis. After the surgical procedure the patient died because of sepsis secondary to pulmonary mucormycosis Mucormycosis is a rare fungical disease which infrequently affects the gastrointestinal tract, being the stomach the most affected site. The mortality is high if the diagnosis is not done promptly and appropriate treatment is given. Suspecting its existence is necessary in patients with immunocompromised status to diagnose and provide timely treatment to increase survival, because of its high mortality. Copyright © 2015. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A.

  11. Increased risk of gastric adenocarcinoma after treatment of primary gastric diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inaba, Koji; Morota, Madoka; Mayahara, Hiroshi; Ito, Yoshinori; Sumi, Minako; Uno, Takashi; Itami, Jun; Kushima, Ryoji; Murakami, Naoya; Kuroda, Yuuki; Harada, Ken; Kitaguchi, Mayuka; Yoshio, Kotaro; Sekii, Shuhei; Takahashi, Kana

    2013-01-01

    There have been sporadic reports about synchronous as well as metachronous gastric adenocarcinoma and primary gastric lymphoma. Many reports have dealt with metachronous gastric adenocarcinoma in mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma of stomach. But to our knowledge, there have been no reports that document the increased incidence of metachronous gastric adenocarcinoma in patients with gastric diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. This retrospective study was conducted to estimate the incidence of metachronous gastric adenocarcinoma after primary gastric lymphoma treatment, especially in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. The retrospective cohort study of 139 primary gastric lymphoma patients treated with radiotherapy at our hospital. Mean observation period was 61.5 months (range: 3.7-124.6 months). Patients profile, characteristics of primary gastric lymphoma and metachronous gastric adenocarcinoma were retrieved from medical records. The risk of metachronous gastric adenocarcinoma was compared with the risk of gastric adenocarcinoma in Japanese population. There were 10 (7.2%) metachronous gastric adenocarcinoma patients after treatment of primary gastric lymphomas. It was quite high risk compared with the risk of gastric carcinoma in Japanese population of 54.7/100,000. Seven patients of 10 were diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and other 3 patients were mixed type of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and mucosa associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. Four patients of 10 metachronous gastric adenocarcinomas were signet-ring cell carcinoma and two patients died of gastric adenocarcinoma. Metachronous gastric adenocarcinoma may have a more malignant potential than sporadic gastric adenocarcinoma. Old age, Helicobacter pylori infection and gastric mucosal change of chronic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia were possible risk factors for metachronous gastric adenocarcinoma. There was an increased risk of gastric adenocarcinoma after treatment of primary gastric lymphoma

  12. Splenectomy combined with gastrectomy and immunotherapy for advanced gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miwa, H; Orita, K

    1983-06-01

    We studied the effects of a splenectomy in combination with immunotherapy on the survival of patients who had undergone a total gastrectomy. It was found that a splenectomy was not effective against advanced gastric cancer at stage III, and that the spleen should be retained for immunotherapy. Splenectomy for gastric cancer at terminal stage IV, particularly in combination with immunotherapy, produced not only augmentation of cellular immunity, but also increased survival.

  13. Gastric stem cells and gastric cancer stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Myoung-Eun; Oh, Sae-Ock

    2013-01-01

    The gastric epithelium is continuously regenerated by gastric stem cells, which give rise to various kinds of daughter cells, including parietal cells, chief cells, surface mucous cells, mucous neck cells, and enteroendocrine cells. The self-renewal and differentiation of gastric stem cells need delicate regulation to maintain the normal physiology of the stomach. Recently, it was hypothesized that cancer stem cells drive the cancer growth and metastasis. In contrast to conventional clonal ev...

  14. Gastric inhibitory polypeptide does not inhibit gastric emptying in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier, Juris J; Goetze, Oliver; Anstipp, Jens

    2004-01-01

    ) = 0.15, P = 0.15 for intact GIP; r(2) = 0.21, P = 0.086 for total GIP). We conclude that gastric emptying does not appear to be influenced by GIP. The secretion of GIP after meal ingestion is not suppressed by its exogenous administration. The lack of effect of GIP on gastric emptying underlines......The insulinotropic gut hormone gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) has been demonstrated to inhibit gastric acid secretion and was proposed to possess "enterogastrone" activity. GIP effects on gastric emptying have not yet been studied. Fifteen healthy male volunteers (23.9 +/- 3.3 yr, body mass....... Gastric emptying was calculated from the (13)CO(2) exhalation rates in breath samples collected over 360 min. Venous blood was drawn in 30-min intervals for the determination of glucose, insulin, C-peptide, and GIP (total and intact). Statistical calculations were made by use of repeated-measures ANOVA...

  15. MONITORING OF CASES WITH A CHRONIC PERSISTENT INFECTION WITH HELICOBACTER PYLORI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miglena Stamboliyska

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The patients with persistent forms of Helicobacter pylori (HP infection are refractory to eradication treatment. They receive unsuccessful therapies, experience frequent recurrences and re-infections. One of the main reasons for the development of persistent forms is an inadequate and insufficient treatment. The persistent forms of HP infection create conditions for the maintenance of activity and for the progression of the induced chronic gastritis. In this aspect these cases will be at a higher risk for the development of gastric cancer. The aim of this study is: to monitor and analyze the cases with persistent HP infection and to establish an approach for their management. Clinical material and methods: The study includes 12 patients (8 female and 4 male at a middle age of 63,7, with a persistent HP infection, who have been observed for a period of five years. Two methods for the detection of HP infection are used – one invasive and one non-invasive. Upper endoscopy with morphological examination was performed. Results: In 9/12 patients HP was unsuccessfully treated for three times, in 2 patients – four times, and in 1 patient – five times. In all patients the initial treatment consisted of a standard triple therapy (STT. In 5 of them STT was conducted twice, with the same regimen for a period of seven days. Two patients received three courses of STT. In four patients an antibiotic resistance was established by means of a cultured assessment. In three cases an HP resistance to Clarithromycine and Metronidazole was demonstrated. Significant gastro-duodenal pathology with atrophic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia, and hyperplastic polyposis was found in all patients. The persistent clinical symptoms had 9 patients. Conclusion: We believe that a devised and proposed step strategy which covers early detection of infection, reliable diagnosis, adequate and successful treatment, and dispensary monitoring, contributes to the

  16. Hereditary Diffuse Gastric Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hereditary Diffuse Gastric Cancer Request Permissions Hereditary Diffuse Gastric Cancer Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 10/2017 What is hereditary diffuse gastric cancer? Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer (HDGC) is a rare ...

  17. Oral metiamide as an effective inhibitor of gastric acid secretion in man

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A method is described for the evaluation of the effect of oral therapy on gastric acid secretion. Metiamide, a histamine H2-receptor antagonist, produced a 51% inhibition of pentagastrin-stimulated gastric acid secretion during the third hour after a standard 200-mg oral dose in man. S. Afr. Med. J., 48, 2018 (1974).

  18. Prospective evaluation of laparoscopic-assisted gastropexy in dogs susceptible to gastric dilatation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawlings, Clarence A; Mahaffey, Mary B; Bement, Shannon; Canalis, Chanda

    2002-12-01

    To determine long-term outcome associated with laparoscopic-assisted gastropexy in prevention of gastric dilatation-volvulus (GDV) in susceptible dogs and to evaluate use of laparoscopy to correct GDV. Prospective study. 25 client-owned large-breed dogs. 23 dogs susceptible to GDV were referred as candidates for elective gastropexy. These dogs had a history of treatment for gastric dilatation, clinical signs of gastric dilatation, or family members with gastric dilatation. Laparoscopic-assisted gastropexy was performed. One year after surgery, abdominal ultrasonography was performed to evaluate the attachment of the stomach to the abdominal wall. Two dogs with GDV were also treated with laparoscopic-assisted derotation of the stomach and gastropexy. None of the dogs developed GDV during the year after gastropexy, and all 20 dogs examined ultrasonographically had an intact attachment. Another dog was euthanatized at 11.5 months for unrelated problems. Two dogs with GDV successfully underwent laparoscopic-assisted gastropexy after the stomach was repositioned. Laparoscopic-assisted gastropexy resulted in a persisting attachment between the stomach and abdominal wall, an absence of GDV development, and few complications. Dogs with a high probability for development of GDV should be considered candidates for minimally invasive gastropexy. Carefully selected dogs with GDV can be treated laparoscopically.

  19. Faster gastric emptying of a liquid meal in rats after hypothalamic dorsomedial nucleus lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denofre-Carvalho S.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of dorsomedial hypothalamic (DMH nucleus lesion on body weight, plasma glucose levels, and the gastric emptying of a liquid meal were investigated in male Wistar rats (170-250 g. DMH lesions were produced stereotaxically by delivering a 2.0-mA current for 20 s through nichrome electrodes (0.3-mm tip exposure. In a second set of experiments, the DMH and the ventromedial hypothalamic (VMH nucleus were lesioned with a 1.0-mA current for 10 s (0.1-mm tip exposure. The medial hypothalamus (MH was also lesioned separately using a nichrome electrode (0.3-mm tip exposure with a 2.0-mA current for 20 s. Gastric emptying was measured following the orogastric infusion of a liquid test meal consisting of physiological saline (0.9% NaCl, w/v plus phenol red dye (6 mg/dl as a marker. Plasma glucose levels were determined after an 18-h fast before the lesion and on the 7th and 15th postoperative day. Body weight was determined before lesioning and before sacrificing the rats. The DMH-lesioned rats showed a significantly faster (P<0.05 gastric emptying (24.7% gastric retention, N = 11 than control (33.0% gastric retention, N = 8 and sham-lesioned (33.5% gastric retention, N = 12 rats, with a transient hypoglycemia on the 7th postoperative day which returned to normal by the 15th postoperative day. In all cases, weight gain was slower among lesioned rats. Additional experiments using a smaller current to induce lesions confirmed that DMH-lesioned rats had a faster gastric emptying (25.1% gastric retention, N = 7 than control (33.4% gastric retention, N = 17 and VMH-lesioned (34.6% gastric retention, N = 7 rats. MH lesions resulted in an even slower gastric emptying (43.7% gastric retention, N = 7 than in the latter two groups. We conclude that although DMH lesions reduce weight gain, they do not produce consistent changes in plasma glucose levels. These lesions also promote faster gastric emptying of an inert liquid meal, thus suggesting a role for

  20. Interleukin-6 mediates epithelial-stromal interactions and promotes gastric tumorigenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroto Kinoshita

    Full Text Available Interleukin-6 (IL-6 is a pleiotropic cytokine that affects various functions, including tumor development. Although the importance of IL-6 in gastric cancer has been documented in experimental and clinical studies, the mechanism by which IL-6 promotes gastric cancer remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the role of IL-6 in the epithelial-stromal interaction in gastric tumorigenesis. Immunohistochemical analysis of human gastritis, gastric adenoma, and gastric cancer tissues revealed that IL-6 was frequently detected in the stroma. IL-6-positive cells in the stroma showed positive staining for the fibroblast marker α-smooth muscle actin, suggesting that stromal fibroblasts produce IL-6. We compared IL-6 knockout (IL-6(-/- mice with wild-type (WT mice in a model of gastric tumorigenesis induced by the chemical carcinogen N-methyl-N-nitrosourea. The stromal fibroblasts expressed IL-6 in tumors from WT mice. Gastric tumorigenesis was attenuated in IL-6(-/- mice, compared with WT mice. Impaired tumor development in IL-6(-/- mice was correlated with the decreased activation of STAT3, a factor associated with gastric cancer cell proliferation. In vitro, when gastric cancer cell line was co-cultured with primary human gastric fibroblast, STAT3-related genes including COX-2 and iNOS were induced in gastric cancer cells and this response was attenuated with neutralizing anti-IL-6 receptor antibody. IL-6 production from fibroblasts was increased when fibroblasts were cultured in the presence of gastric cancer cell-conditioned media. IL-6 production from fibroblasts was suppressed by an interleukin-1 (IL-1 receptor antagonist and siRNA inhibition of IL-1α in the fibroblasts. IL-1α mRNA and protein were increased in fibroblast lysate, suggesting that cell-associated IL-1α in fibroblasts may be involved. Our results suggest the importance of IL-6 mediated stromal-epithelial cell interaction in gastric tumorigenesis.

  1. Gastric Sleeve Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Gastric Sleeve Surgery KidsHealth / For Teens / Gastric Sleeve Surgery What's in ... or buying healthy food ) Preparing for Gastric Sleeve Surgery Preparing for this major operation takes months of ...

  2. Micromotors Spontaneously Neutralize Gastric Acid for pH-Responsive Payload Release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinxing; Angsantikul, Pavimol; Liu, Wenjuan; Esteban-Fernández de Ávila, Berta; Thamphiwatana, Soracha; Xu, Mingli; Sandraz, Elodie; Wang, Xiaolei; Delezuk, Jorge; Gao, Weiwei; Zhang, Liangfang; Wang, Joseph

    2017-02-13

    The highly acidic gastric environment creates a physiological barrier for using therapeutic drugs in the stomach. While proton pump inhibitors have been widely used for blocking acid-producing enzymes, this approach can cause various adverse effects. Reported herein is a new microdevice, consisting of magnesium-based micromotors which can autonomously and temporally neutralize gastric acid through efficient chemical propulsion in the gastric fluid by rapidly depleting the localized protons. Coating these micromotors with a cargo-containing pH-responsive polymer layer leads to autonomous release of the encapsulated payload upon gastric-acid neutralization by the motors. Testing in a mouse model demonstrate that these motors can safely and rapidly neutralize gastric acid and simultaneously release payload without causing noticeable acute toxicity or affecting the stomach function, and the normal stomach pH is restored within 24 h post motor administration. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Metaplasia in the Stomach Arises From Gastric Chief Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason C. Mills

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The development of intestinal-type gastric cancer is preceded by loss of parietal cells (oxyntic atrophy and the induction of metaplastic cell lineages in the gastric mucosa. For example, mouse models have shown that spasmolytic polypeptide-expressing metaplasia can develop following oxyntic atrophy through transdifferentiation of zymogen-secreting chief cells. Evolution of spasmolytic polypeptide-expressing metaplasia from chief cells occurs via a coordinated dismantling of their secretory apparatus and reprogramming of their transcriptome. Increasing evidence suggests that the process of chief cell reprogramming requires the influence of inflammatory cytokines and requires both zymogen granule autophagy and alterations in gene transcription. It is likely that spasmolytic polypeptide-expressing metaplasia is a physiological repair mechanism that is similar to those that occur in other tissues (eg, pancreas for recruiting reparative progenitor cells in response to mucosal wounds. Chronic inflammation can induce a recurring pattern of persistent reprogramming/metaplasia that increases the risk for neoplasia.

  4. Effect of dopamine on bethanechol-stimulated gastric mucosal blood flow and gastric acid secretion in dogs with gastric fistula

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovendal, C P; Bech, K

    1982-01-01

    of gastric mucosal blood flow, whereas stimulation of beta, muscarinic, and 'gastrinergic' receptors mainly occurs indirectly via changes in parietal cell function. The main effect of dopamine seems to be on gastric motility, whereas the effect on gastric acid secretion is of minor importance.......The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of Dopamine on bethanechol-stimulated gastric acid secretion and mucosal blood flow. dopamine was used alone and in conjunction with selective blockade of the alpha, beta, and dopaminergic receptors. An increasing and dose......-dependent stimulation of gastric acid secretion was found for dopamine at 1, 5, and 10 micrograms/kg/min. A significant inhibition of gastric acid secretion was found with the highest dose of dopamine (40 micrograms/kg/min). the stimulatory effect seems to be mediated by more than one receptor, whereas the inhibition...

  5. Autoimmunity and Gastric Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizzaro, Nicola; Antico, Antonio; Villalta, Danilo

    2018-01-01

    Alterations in the immune response of patients with autoimmune diseases may predispose to malignancies, and a link between chronic autoimmune gastritis and gastric cancer has been reported in many studies. Intestinal metaplasia with dysplasia of the gastric corpus-fundus mucosa and hyperplasia of chromaffin cells, which are typical features of late-stage autoimmune gastritis, are considered precursor lesions. Autoimmune gastritis has been associated with the development of two types of gastric neoplasms: intestinal type and type I gastric carcinoid. Here, we review the association of autoimmune gastritis with gastric cancer and other autoimmune features present in gastric neoplasms. PMID:29373557

  6. Primary Closure versus Gastric Resection for Perforated Gastric

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Perforated gastric ulcer is one of the most life‑threatening complications of peptic ulcer disease with high .... tubes were removed and oral nutrition resumed. The .... surgical approach for perforated gastric cancer: One‑stage vs. two‑stage ...

  7. Successful Emergency Endoscopic Treatment of Gastric Outlet Obstruction due to Gastric Bezoar with Gastric Pneumatosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirokazu Honda

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Gastric bezoars are rare and are usually found incidentally. They can sometimes cause severe complications, including gastric outlet obstruction (GOO or gastric pneumatosis (GP. In cases of bezoars with GP, the optimal treatment strategy has not yet been defined. We report the case of an 89-year-old man with a history of type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypertension who presented to our emergency room with a 2-day history of upper abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting. Physical examination revealed no rebound tenderness or guarding, and laboratory values revealed no elevation of the serum lactate level. A computed tomography scan of the abdomen showed a dilated stomach with significant fluid collection, GOO, and GP due to a 42 × 40 mm mass composed of fat and air densities. Emergency esophagogastroduodenoscopy revealed two gastric bezoars, one of which was incarcerated in the pyloric region. We used various endoscopic devices to successfully break and remove the bezoars. We used endoscopic forceps and a water jet followed by an endoscopic snare to cut the bezoars into several pieces and remove them with an endoscopic net. Follow-up endoscopy confirmed that the gastric bezoar had been completely removed. As seen in this case, endoscopic treatment may be a safe and viable option for the extraction of gastric bezoars presenting with GOO and GP.

  8. Successful Emergency Endoscopic Treatment of Gastric Outlet Obstruction due to Gastric Bezoar with Gastric Pneumatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Hirokazu; Ikeya, Takashi; Kashiwagi, Erika; Okada, Shuichi; Fukuda, Katsuyuki

    2017-01-01

    Gastric bezoars are rare and are usually found incidentally. They can sometimes cause severe complications, including gastric outlet obstruction (GOO) or gastric pneumatosis (GP). In cases of bezoars with GP, the optimal treatment strategy has not yet been defined. We report the case of an 89-year-old man with a history of type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypertension who presented to our emergency room with a 2-day history of upper abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting. Physical examination revealed no rebound tenderness or guarding, and laboratory values revealed no elevation of the serum lactate level. A computed tomography scan of the abdomen showed a dilated stomach with significant fluid collection, GOO, and GP due to a 42 × 40 mm mass composed of fat and air densities. Emergency esophagogastroduodenoscopy revealed two gastric bezoars, one of which was incarcerated in the pyloric region. We used various endoscopic devices to successfully break and remove the bezoars. We used endoscopic forceps and a water jet followed by an endoscopic snare to cut the bezoars into several pieces and remove them with an endoscopic net. Follow-up endoscopy confirmed that the gastric bezoar had been completely removed. As seen in this case, endoscopic treatment may be a safe and viable option for the extraction of gastric bezoars presenting with GOO and GP.

  9. Radiological findings of gastric adenomyoma in a neonate presenting with gastric outlet obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhim, Jung Hyo; Kim, Woo Sun; Choi, Young Hun; Cheon, Jung-Eun; Park, Sung Hye

    2013-03-01

    Gastric adenomyoma is a rare tumour-like lesion composed of glandular components and smooth muscle bundles. We report a case of gastric adenomyoma in a 1-week-old neonate who presented with gastric outlet obstruction. To the best of our knowledge, this is the youngest child reported with gastric adenomyoma and a unique case demonstrating radiological findings of gastric adenomyoma in a young infant. At US, the lesion was seen as an asymmetrical mass-like wall-thickening of the pylorus. Upper gastrointestinal series showed findings similar to those seen in a case of hypertrophic pyloric stenosis. We suggest that gastric adenomyoma should be included in the causes of gastric outlet obstruction in neonates even though it is rare in young children.

  10. Gastric wall shortening in early gastric cancer: upper gastrointestinal series and pathologic correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, In Jae; Choi, Chul Soon; Kim, Eun Ah; Kim, Kyu Sun; Yun, Ku Sub; Kim, Ho Chul; Bae, Sang Hun; Kang, Gu; Shin, Hyung Sik

    1995-01-01

    To investigate the causes of gastric wall shortening in early gastric cancer, upper gastrointestinal study was correlated with pathologic findings. We evaluated 41 cases (M:F = 1.7:1, average age = 49) of early gastric cancer, retrospectively. The gastric wall shortening were classified as Grade I; none, Grade II; intermediate, and Grade III; prominent. Pathologic findings such as size of lesions, depth of tumor invasion, degree of the submucosal fibrosis, degree of thickness of the submucosa and muscularis propria, and morphologic patterns of lesions including conversing mucosal folds were correlated with the degree of gastric wall shortening on upper gastrointestinal series. Submucosal fibrosis was present in 4 cases in Grade I (n = 21), 4 cases in Grade II (n = 6) and 8 cases in Grade III (n = 10). Positive conversing mucosal folds were seen in 5 cases in Grade I (n = 17), 0 case in Grade II (n = 2) and 9 cases in Grade III (n = 9). Gastric wall shortening was significantly associated with submucosal fibrosis and conversing mucosal folds of early gastric cancer. (ρ = 0.0001, and ρ = 0.02, respectively) Upper gastrointestinal finding of gastric wall protrusion in patients with early gastric cancer should not misinterprete as advanced gastric cancer since the finding could be a result of submucosal fibrosis

  11. Gene expression profiling of gastric mucosa in mice lacking CCK and gastrin receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Chun-Mei; Kodama, Yosuke; Flatberg, Arnar

    2014-01-01

    normalized, which was associated with an up-regulated pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) type 1 receptor (PAC1). The basal part of the gastric mucosa expressed parathyroid hormone-like hormone (PTHLH) in a subpopulation of likely ECL cells (and possibly other cells) and vitamin D3 1α...... suggest a possible link between gastric PTHLH and vitamin D and bone metabolism.......The stomach produces acid, which may play an important role in the regulation of bone homeostasis. The aim of this study was to reveal signaling pathways in the gastric mucosa that involve the acid secretion and possibly the bone metabolism in CCK1 and/or CCK2 receptor knockout (KO) mice. Gastric...

  12. Itopride for gastric volume, gastric emptying and drinking capacity in functional dyspepsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abid, Shahab; Jafri, Wasim; Zaman, Maseeh Uz; Bilal, Rakhshanda; Awan, Safia; Abbas, Aamir

    2017-02-06

    To study the effect of itopride on gastric accommodation, gastric emptying and drinking capacity in functional dyspepsia (FD). Randomized controlled trial was conducted to check the effect of itopride on gastric accommodation, gastric emptying, capacity of tolerating nutrient liquid and symptoms of FD. We recruited a total of 31 patients having FD on the basis of ROME III criteria. After randomization, itopride was received by 15 patients while 16 patients received placebo. Gastric accommodation was determined using Gastric Scintigraphy. 13 C labeled octanoic breadth test was performed to assess gastric emptying. Capacity of tolerating nutrient liquid drink was checked using satiety drinking capacity test. The intervention group comprised of 150 mg itopride. Patients in both arms were followed for 4 wk. Mean age of the recruited participant 33 years (SD = 7.6) and most of the recruited individuals, i.e ., 21 (67.7%) were males. We found that there was no effect of itopride on gastric accommodation as measured at different in volumes in the itopride and control group with the empty stomach ( P = 0.14), at 20 min ( P = 0.38), 30 min ( P = 0.30), 40 min ( P = 0.43), 50 min ( P = 0.50), 60 min ( P = 0.81), 90 min ( P = 0.25) and 120 min ( P = 0.67). Gastric emptying done on a sub sample ( n = 11) showed no significant difference ( P = 0.58) between itopride and placebo group. There was no significant improvement in the capacity to tolerate liquid in the itopride group as compared to placebo ( P = 0.51). Similarly there was no significant improvement of symptoms as assessed through a composite symptom score ( P = 0.74). The change in QT interval in itopride group was not significantly different from placebo (0.10). Our study found no effect of itopride on gastric accommodation, gastric emptying and maximum tolerated volume in patients with FD.

  13. The role of gastric scintigraphy in primary or post surgical disorders of gastric emptying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jian, R.; Lemann, M.; Rain, J.D.

    1996-01-01

    Gastric scintigraphy is the gold standard for the measurement of the gastric emptying of a meal because of its reliability and its reproducibility and the respect of physiological conditions. Moreover, this technique allows to measure the emptying of solid and liquid phases simultaneously. Symptoms motivating a gastric scintigraphy, suggest either a gastric stasis (dyspepsia) or a gastric incontinence (dumping syndrome). The two most frequent clinical conditions triggering this test are motility disorders following vagotomy, a delayed emptying of solids is often associated to an accelerated emptying of liquids. Gastric scintigraphy proves quite useful in these conditions, since the diagnosis of such complex abnormalities is uneasy to establish exclusively on a clinical basis. In idiopathic dyspepsia, gastric stasis is proved only in 50 % of the patients. However, a radionuclide study of gastric emptying is seldom ordered because of the common character and good tolerance of these symptoms. In everyday practice, gastric scintigraphy is considered only when gastric or intestinal obstructive lesions have been ruled out. A suggestive clinical picture and/or absence of a deteriorated general condition allow to prescribe a symptomatic treatment. More rarely, equivocal symptoms, degradation of the general condition and unresponsiveness to symptomatic drugs call for gastric scintigraphy. (authors). 241 refs., 2 figs

  14. Gastric-emptying tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, M.L.; Malagelada, J.R.

    1983-01-01

    Mechanisms regulating gastric emptying have been characterized through many decades of experimental work. Both central and peripheral mechanisms are important. Central mechanisms are related to the center of vomiting and are probably influenced by psychologic and emotional factors. Peripheral mechanisms are located at both sides of the pylorus. Gastric mechanisms are stimulatory and are triggered mainly by distention of the stomach, although hormonal mechanisms may also participate (gastrin). However, with complex, nutrient-containing meals, the intragastric volume is not the primary determinant of gastric emptying. Inhibitory mechanisms of the gut are more important. The key factors are the pH, osmolality, and nutrient content of the chyme being emptied into the duodenum. Osmotic and pH-sensitive receptors are thought to reside in the duodenum. On the other hand, receptors triggered by nutrients extend much more distally into the duodenum and are sensitive to nutrient composition and load. Protein, carbohydrates, and lipids all inhibit gastric emptying, although the lipids are probably the most potent inhibitors. If the duodenal load or the characteristics of the emptying material are not adequate, inhibitory mechanisms will reduce gastric emptying at the expense of expanding the intragastric volume. It is therefore not possible to dissociate postprandial gastric emptying from postprandial gastric secretion

  15. Gastric volume rather than nutrient content inhibits food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, R J; Powley, T L

    1996-09-01

    To evaluate the separate contributions of distension and nutrient stimulation of the stomach to the inhibition of short-term food intake and, particularly, to reassess previous analyses based on the inflatable gastrointestinal cuff, four experiments were performed. Rats equipped with pyloric cuffs and indwelling gastric catheters consumed a liquid diet ad libitum. Their consumption during short-term (30 min) feeding bout was measured after gastric infusions on cuff-open and cuff-closed trials. Animals taking meals (approximately 5 ml) with cuffs closed immediately after receiving intragastric infusions of 2.5, 5, 7.5, or 10 ml of normal saline exhibited both suppression at the smallest infusion and a dose-dependent reduction across the other volumes (experiment 1). Additionally, when the test diet concentration was varied, animals with their cuffs closed consumed a constant volume, not a constant number of calories (experiment 2). Furthermore, cuff-closed animals exhibited no more suppression to 5-ml intragastric infusions of nutrients (including, on different trials, 50 and 100% Isocal diet; 10, 20, and 40% glucose; and 40% sucrose and 40% fructose) than to the same volume of saline (experiments 3 and 4). In contrast, on cuff-open trials in which gastric contents could empty into the duodenum, these same nutrient loads were more effective (except fructose) than saline in producing suppression of food intake. In summary, although both limited gastric distension with the pylorus occluded and intestinal nutrient stimulation with the cuff open effectively reduced intake, cuff-closed gastric loads of mixed macronutrients or carbohydrate solutions of 2-8 kcal, pH from 5.8 to 6.7, and osmolarities between 117 and 2,294 mosM/kg produced only the distension-based suppression generated by the same volume of saline.

  16. Early or late antibiotic intervention prevents Helicobacter pylori-induced gastric cancer in a mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Songhua; Lee, Dong Soo; Morrissey, Rhiannon; Aponte-Pieras, Jose R; Rogers, Arlin B; Moss, Steven F

    2014-12-01

    H. pylori infection causes gastritis, peptic ulcers and gastric cancer. Eradicating H. pylori prevents ulcers, but to what extent this prevents cancer remains unknown, especially if given after intestinal metaplasia has developed. H. pylori infected wild-type (WT) mice do not develop cancer, but mice lacking the tumor suppressor p27 do so, thus providing an experimental model of H. pylori-induced cancer. We infected p27-deficient mice with H. pylori strain SS1 at 6-8 weeks of age. Persistently H. pylori-infected WT C57BL/6 mice served as controls. Mice in the eradication arms received antimicrobial therapy (omeprazole, metronidazole and clarithromycin) either "early" (at 15 weeks post infection, WPI) or "late" at 45 WPI. At 70 WPI, mice were euthanized for H. pylori determination, histopathology and cytokine/chemokine expression. Persistently infected mice developed premalignant lesions including high-grade dysplasia, whereas those given antibiotics did not. Histologic activity scores in the eradication groups were similar to each other, and were significantly decreased compared with controls for inflammation, epithelial defects, hyperplasia, metaplasia, atrophy and dysplasia. IP-10 and MIG levels in groups that received antibiotics were significantly lower than controls. There were no significant differences in expression of IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-1β, RANTES, MCP-1, MIP-1α or MIP-1β among the three groups. Thus, H. pylori eradication given either early or late after infection significantly attenuated gastric inflammation, gastric atrophy, hyperplasia, and dysplasia in the p27-deficient mice model of H. pylori-induced gastric cancer, irrespective of the timing of antibiotic administration. This was associated with reduced expression of IP-10 and MIG. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Weight loss and quality of life in patients surviving 2 years after gastric cancer resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climent, M; Munarriz, M; Blazeby, J M; Dorcaratto, D; Ramón, J M; Carrera, M J; Fontane, L; Grande, L; Pera, M

    2017-07-01

    Malnutrition is common in patients undergoing gastric cancer resection, leading to weight loss, although little is known about how this impacts on health-related quality of life (HRQL). This study aimed to explore the association between HRQL and weight loss in patients 2 years after curative gastric cancer resection. Consecutive patients undergoing curative gastric cancer resection and surviving at least 2 years without disease recurrence were recruited. Patients completed the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30) and the specific module for gastric cancer (STO22) before and 2 years postoperatively and associations between HRQL scores and patients with and without ≥ 10% body weight loss (BWL) were examined. A total of 76 patients were included, of whom 51 (67%) had BWL ≥10%. At 2 years postoperatively, BWL ≥10% was associated with deterioration of all functional aspects of quality of life, with persistent pain (21.6%), diarrhoea (13.7%) and nausea/vomiting (13.7%). By contrast, none of the patients with BWL patients with ≥10% BWL than in those with Cancer Surgery, and the European Society of Surgical Oncology. All rights reserved.

  18. Itopride for gastric volume, gastric emptying and drinking capacity in functional dyspepsia

    OpenAIRE

    Abid, Shahab; Jafri, Wasim; Zaman, Maseeh Uz; Bilal, Rakhshanda; Awan, Safia; Abbas, Aamir

    2017-01-01

    AIM To study the effect of itopride on gastric accommodation, gastric emptying and drinking capacity in functional dyspepsia (FD). METHODS Randomized controlled trial was conducted to check the effect of itopride on gastric accommodation, gastric emptying, capacity of tolerating nutrient liquid and symptoms of FD. We recruited a total of 31 patients having FD on the basis of ROME III criteria. After randomization, itopride was received by 15 patients while 16 patients received placebo. Gastri...

  19. Lack of modulation of gastric emptying by dietary nitrate in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terai, Shiho; Iijima, Katsunori; Asanuma, Kiyotaka; Ara, Nobuyuki; Uno, Kaname; Abe, Yasuhiko; Koike, Tomoyuki; Imatani, Akira; Ohara, Shuichi; Shimosegawa, Tooru

    2009-05-01

    Nitric oxide produced endogenously in vagal neurons modulates gastrointestinal motor activity as an important non-adrenergic and non-cholinergic neurotransmitter. Other than through endogenous biosynthesis, a high concentration of nitric oxide also occurs by chemical reactions within the stomach in the presence of gastric acid through the entero-salivary re-circulation of dietary nitrate. Although dietary nitrate can be a potential source of nitric oxide in the human stomach, there has been no report on the effect of dietary nitrate on gastric motor function. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of dietary nitrate on gastric emptying, one of the major parameters for the gastric motor function. Fifteen healthy volunteers underwent a placebo-controlled (310 mg sodium nitrate or placebo), double-blind, crossover trial. Since a sufficient amount of gastric acid is essential for dietary nitrate-derived nitric oxide generation in the stomach, the same protocol was repeated after 1-week treatment with a proton pump inhibitor, rabeprazole. Gastric emptying was evaluated by (13)C-octanoate breath test. The sodium nitrate ingestion did not affect gastric emptying either prior to or during rabeprazole treatment, although rabeprazole treatment itself significantly delayed gastric emptying, being independent of the dietary nitrate load. Confirmation of the delayed gastric emptying with rabeprazole indicates the sensitivity of the breath test employed in the present study. In conclusion, despite the potential nitrogen source of exogenous nitric oxide, the ingestion of 310 mg sodium nitrate, which is equivalent to the average daily intake of Japanese adults, does not affect gastric emptying in healthy volunteers.

  20. Alterations in Helicobacter pylori triggered by contact with gastric epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth M. Johnson

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori lives within the mucus layer of the human stomach, in close proximity to gastric epithelial cells. While a great deal is known about the effects of H. pylori on human cells and the specific bacterial products that mediate these effects, relatively little work has been done to investigate alterations in H. pylori that may be triggered by bacterial contact with human cells. In this review, we discuss the spectrum of changes in bacterial physiology and morphology that occur when H. pylori is in contact with gastric epithelial cells. Several studies have reported that cell contact causes alterations in H. pylori gene transcription. In addition, H. pylori contact with gastric epithelial cells promotes the formation of pilus-like structures at the bacteria-host cell interface. The formation of these structures requires multiple genes in the cag pathogenicity island, and these structures are proposed to have an important role in the type IV secretion system-dependent process through which CagA enters host cells. Finally, H. pylori contact with epithelial cells can promote bacterial replication and the formation of microcolonies, phenomena that are facilitated by the acquisition of iron and other nutrients from infected cells. In summary, the gastric epithelial cell surface represents an important niche for H. pylori, and upon entry into this niche, the bacteria alter their behavior in a manner that optimizes bacterial proliferation and persistent colonization of the host.

  1. Familial Gastric Cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setia, Namrata; Clark, Jeffrey W; Duda, Dan G; Hong, Theodore S; Kwak, Eunice L; Mullen, John T; Lauwers, Gregory Y

    2015-12-01

    Although the majority of gastric carcinomas are sporadic, approximately 10% show familial aggregation, and a hereditary cause is determined in 1%-3% cases. Of these, hereditary diffuse gastric cancer is the most recognized predisposition syndrome. Although rare, the less commonly known syndromes also confer a markedly increased risk for development of gastric cancer. Identification and characterization of these syndromes require a multidisciplinary effort involving oncologists, surgeons, genetic counselors, biologists, and pathologists. This article reviews the molecular genetics, clinical and pathologic features, surveillance guidelines, and preventive measures of common and less common hereditary gastric cancer predisposition syndromes. ©AlphaMed Press.

  2. Assessment of two methods of gastric decompression for the initial management of gastric dilatation-volvulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrich, Z J; Powell, L L; Hulting, K J

    2013-02-01

    To assess gastric trocarization and orogastric tubing as a means of gastric decompression for the initial management of gastric dilatation-volvulus. Retrospective review of 116 gastric dilatation-volvulus cases from June 2001 to October 2009. Decompression was performed via orogastric tubing in 31 dogs, gastric trocarization in 39 dogs and a combination of both in 46 dogs. Tubing was successful in 59 (75·5%) dogs and unsuccessful in 18 (23·4%) dogs. Trocarization was successful in 73 (86%) dogs and unsuccessful in 12 (14%) dogs. No evidence of gastric perforation was noted at surgery in dogs undergoing either technique. One dog that underwent trocarization had a splenic laceration identified at surgery that did not require treatment. Oesophageal rupture or aspiration pneumonia was not identified in any dog during hospitalization. No statistical difference was found between the method of gastric decompression and gastric compromise requiring surgical intervention or survival to discharge. Orogastric tubing and gastric trocarization are associated with low complication and high success rates. Either technique is an acceptable method for gastric decompression in dogs with gastric dilatation-volvulus. © 2013 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  3. Benign gastric filling defect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, K K; Lee, Y H; Cho, O K; Park, C Y [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1979-06-15

    The gastric lesion is a common source of complaints to Orientals, however, evaluation of gastric symptoms and laboratory examination offer little specific aid in the diagnosis of gastric diseases. Thus roentgenography of gastrointestinal tract is one of the most reliable method for detail diagnosis. On double contract study of stomach, gastric filling defect is mostly caused by malignant gastric cancer, however, other benign lesions can cause similar pictures which can be successfully treated by surgery. 66 cases of benign causes of gastric filling defect were analyzed at this point of view, which was verified pathologically by endoscope or surgery during recent 7 years in Yensei University College of Medicine, Severance Hospital. The characteristic radiological picture of each disease was discussed for precise radiologic diagnosis. 1. Of total 66 cases, there were 52 cases of benign gastric tumor 10 cases of gastric varices, 5 cases of gastric bezoar, 5 cases of corrosive gastritis, 3 cases of granulomatous disease and one case of gastric hematoma. 2. The most frequent causes of benign tumors were adenomatous polyp (35/42) and the next was leiomyoma (4/42). Others were one of case of carcinoid, neurofibroma and cyst. 3. Characteristic of benign adenomatous polyp were relatively small in size, smooth surface and were observed that large size, benign polyp was frequently type IV lesion with a stalk. 4. Submucosal tumors such as leiomyoma needed differential diagnosis with polypoid malignant cancer. However, the characteristic points of differentiation was well circumscribed smooth margined filling defect without definite mucosal destruction on surface. 5. Gastric varices showed multiple lobulated filling defected especially on gastric fundus that changed its size and shape by respiration and posture of patients. Same varices lesions on esophagus and history of liver disease were helpful for easier diagnosis. 6. Gastric bezoar showed well defined movable mass

  4. Benign gastric filling defect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, K. K.; Lee, Y. H.; Cho, O. K.; Park, C. Y.

    1979-01-01

    The gastric lesion is a common source of complaints to Orientals, however, evaluation of gastric symptoms and laboratory examination offer little specific aid in the diagnosis of gastric diseases. Thus roentgenography of gastrointestinal tract is one of the most reliable method for detail diagnosis. On double contract study of stomach, gastric filling defect is mostly caused by malignant gastric cancer, however, other benign lesions can cause similar pictures which can be successfully treated by surgery. 66 cases of benign causes of gastric filling defect were analyzed at this point of view, which was verified pathologically by endoscope or surgery during recent 7 years in Yensei University College of Medicine, Severance Hospital. The characteristic radiological picture of each disease was discussed for precise radiologic diagnosis. 1. Of total 66 cases, there were 52 cases of benign gastric tumor 10 cases of gastric varices, 5 cases of gastric bezoar, 5 cases of corrosive gastritis, 3 cases of granulomatous disease and one case of gastric hematoma. 2. The most frequent causes of benign tumors were adenomatous polyp (35/42) and the next was leiomyoma (4/42). Others were one of case of carcinoid, neurofibroma and cyst. 3. Characteristic of benign adenomatous polyp were relatively small in size, smooth surface and were observed that large size, benign polyp was frequently type IV lesion with a stalk. 4. Submucosal tumors such as leiomyoma needed differential diagnosis with polypoid malignant cancer. However, the characteristic points of differentiation was well circumscribed smooth margined filling defect without definite mucosal destruction on surface. 5. Gastric varices showed multiple lobulated filling defected especially on gastric fundus that changed its size and shape by respiration and posture of patients. Same varices lesions on esophagus and history of liver disease were helpful for easier diagnosis. 6. Gastric bezoar showed well defined movable mass

  5. Benign gastric filling defect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, K. K.; Lee, Y. H.; Cho, O. K.; Park, C. Y. [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1979-06-15

    The gastric lesion is a common source of complaints to Orientals, however, evaluation of gastric symptoms and laboratory examination offer little specific aid in the diagnosis of gastric diseases. Thus roentgenography of gastrointestinal tract is one of the most reliable method for detail diagnosis. On double contract study of stomach, gastric filling defect is mostly caused by malignant gastric cancer, however, other benign lesions can cause similar pictures which can be successfully treated by surgery. 66 cases of benign causes of gastric filling defect were analyzed at this point of view, which was verified pathologically by endoscope or surgery during recent 7 years in Yensei University College of Medicine, Severance Hospital. The characteristic radiological picture of each disease was discussed for precise radiologic diagnosis. 1. Of total 66 cases, there were 52 cases of benign gastric tumor 10 cases of gastric varices, 5 cases of gastric bezoar, 5 cases of corrosive gastritis, 3 cases of granulomatous disease and one case of gastric hematoma. 2. The most frequent causes of benign tumors were adenomatous polyp (35/42) and the next was leiomyoma (4/42). Others were one of case of carcinoid, neurofibroma and cyst. 3. Characteristic of benign adenomatous polyp were relatively small in size, smooth surface and were observed that large size, benign polyp was frequently type IV lesion with a stalk. 4. Submucosal tumors such as leiomyoma needed differential diagnosis with polypoid malignant cancer. However, the characteristic points of differentiation was well circumscribed smooth margined filling defect without definite mucosal destruction on surface. 5. Gastric varices showed multiple lobulated filling defected especially on gastric fundus that changed its size and shape by respiration and posture of patients. Same varices lesions on esophagus and history of liver disease were helpful for easier diagnosis. 6. Gastric bezoar showed well defined movable mass

  6. Gastric emptying of liquid meals: validation of the gamma camera technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawaetz, Otto; Dige-Petersen, Harriet

    1989-05-01

    To assess the extent of errors and to provide correction factors for gamma camera gastric emptying studies of liquid meals labelled with radionuclides (/sup 99/Tc/sup m/ or /sup 113/In/sup m/), phantom studies were performed with different gastric emptying procedures, gamma cameras and data handling systems. To validate the overall accuracy of the method, 24 combined aspiration and gamma camera gastric emptying studies were carried out in three normal volunteers. Gastric meal volume was underestimated due to scattered radiation from the stomach. The underestimation was 7-20% varying with the size of the gastric region of interest (ROI), the energy of the nuclide and the fraction of meal in the stomach. The overestimation, due to scattered radiation from the gut, was negligible (1-3%) for any of the procedures. The gamma camera technique eliminated much of the error due to variations of stomach geometry and produced accurate quantitative gastric emptying data comparable to those obtained by evacuation (P > 0.10), when the entire field maximum 1-min count achieved within the first 20 min of a study was taken as representing the original volume of the meal ingested, and when corrections for area related errors due to scattered radiation from the stomach were performed. (author).

  7. Effect of ionizing radiation on gastric secretion and gastric motility in monkeys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danquechin Dorval, E.; Mueller, G.P.; Eng, R.R.; Durakovic, A.; Conklin, J.J.; Dubois, A.

    1985-08-01

    The prodromal syndrome of radiation sickness is characterized by nausea and vomiting but the pathophysiology and the treatment of this entity is largely unknown. The authors investigated this problem by determining the effects of ionizing radiation on gastric function with and without administration of the dopamine antagonist domperidone. They measured gastric electrical control activity (waves per minute), fractional emptying rate (percent per minute), acid output (microequivalents per minute), and plasma levels of immunoreactive beta-endorphin. Twelve conscious, chair-adapted rhesus monkeys were studied twice before, once immediately after, and once 2 days after a single 800-cGy (800 rads) /sup 60/Co total body irradiation. In addition to causing vomiting, total body irradiation transiently suppressed gastric electrical control activity, gastric emptying and gastric secretion, while increasing plasma levels of immunoreactive beta-endorphin. Domperidone had no effect on vomiting or gastric function either before or after irradiation, but it significantly increased plasma immunoreactive beta-endorphin.

  8. Effect of ionizing radiation on gastric secretion and gastric motility in monkeys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorval, E.D.; Mueller, G.P.; Eng, R.R.; Durakovic, A.; Conklin, J.J.

    1985-08-01

    The prodromal syndrome of radiation sickness is characterized by nausea and vomiting but the pathophysiology and the treatment of this entity is largely unknown. The authors investigated this problem by determining the effects of ionizing radiation on gastric function with and without administration of the dopamine antagonist domperidone. They measured gastric electrical control activity (waves per minute), fractional emptying rate (percent per minute), acid output (microequivalents per minute), and plasma levels of immunoreactive Beta-endorphin. Twelve conscious, chair-adapted rhesus monkeys were studied twice before, once immediately after, and once 2 days after a single 800-cGy (800 rads) /sup 60/Co total-body irradiation. In addition to causing vomiting, total-body irradiation transiently suppressed gastric electrical control activity, gastric emptying and gastric secretion, while increasing plasma levels of immunoreactive Beta-endorphin. Domperidone had no effect on vomiting or gastric function either before or after irradiation, but it significantly increased plasma immunoreactive Beta endorphin.

  9. Does remnant gastric cancer really differ from primary gastric cancer? A systematic review of the literature by the Task Force of Japanese Gastric Cancer Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Hideaki; Fukagawa, Takeo; Haga, Yoshio; Oba, Koji

    2016-04-01

    Remnant gastric cancer, most frequently defined as cancer detected in the remnant stomach after distal gastrectomy for benign disease and those cases after surgery of gastric cancer at least 5 years after the primary surgery, is often reported as a tumor with poor prognosis. The Task Force of Japanese Gastric Cancer Association for Research Promotion evaluated the clinical impact of remnant gastric cancer by systematically reviewing publications focusing on molecular carcinogenesis, lymph node status, patient survival, and surgical complications. A systematic literature search was performed using PubMed/MEDLINE with the keywords "remnant," "stomach," and "cancer," revealing 1154 relevant reports published up to the end of December 2014. The mean interval between the initial surgery and the diagnosis of remnant gastric cancer ranged from 10 to 30 years. The incidence of lymph node metastases at the splenic hilum for remnant gastric cancer is not significantly higher than that for primary proximal gastric cancer. Lymph node involvement in the jejunal mesentery is a phenomenon peculiar to remnant gastric cancer after Billroth II reconstruction. Prognosis and postoperative morbidity and mortality rates seem to be comparable to those for primary proximal gastric cancer. The crude 5-year mortality for remnant gastric cancer was 1.08 times higher than that for primary proximal gastric cancer, but this difference was not statistically significant. In conclusion, although no prospective cohort study has yet evaluated the clinical significance of remnant gastric cancer, our literature review suggests that remnant gastric cancer does not adversely affect patient prognosis and postoperative course.

  10. Hematological Disorders following Gastric Bypass Surgery: Emerging Concepts of the Interplay between Nutritional Deficiency and Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingyi Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity and the associated metabolic syndrome are among the most common and detrimental metabolic diseases of the modern era, affecting over 50% of the adult population in the United States. Surgeries designed to promote weight loss, known as bariatric surgery, typically involve a gastric bypass procedure and have shown high success rates for treating morbid obesity. However, following gastric bypass surgery, many patients develop chronic anemia, most commonly due to iron deficiency. Deficiencies of vitamins B1, B12, folate, A, K, D, and E and copper have also been reported after surgery. Copper deficiency can cause hematological abnormalities with or without neurological complications. Despite oral supplementation and normal serum concentrations of iron, copper, folate, and vitamin B12, some patients present with persistent anemia after surgery. The evaluation of hematologic disorders after gastric bypass surgery must take into account issues unique to the postsurgery setting that influence the development of anemia and other cytopenias. In this paper, the clinical characteristics and differential diagnosis of the hematological disorders associated with gastric bypass surgery are reviewed, and the underlying molecular mechanisms are discussed.

  11. Ultrasonographic gastric antral area and gastric contents volume in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Achim; Thomas, Schraner; Melanie, Fruehauf; Rabia, Liamlahi; Klaghofer, Richard; Weiss, Markus; Kellenberger, Christian

    2012-02-01

    Cross-sectional gastric antral area (GAA) measurements by ultrasonography (US) have been proposed for preoperative assessment of gastric volume in adults but not been validated in children. This study investigates whether in children gastric volumes can be predicted by US performed in different patient positions. Gastric fluid and air volumes were examined by magnetic resonance imaging before or up to 120 min after ingestion of 7 ml·kg(-1) diluted raspberry syrup in healthy volunteers who had fasted overnight. GAA was measured with US three times each in supine (SUP), elevated 45° degree supine (E45) and right decubital (RDC) position using imaging planes defined by vascular landmarks. Correlation coefficients (Pearson) between GAA and gastric volumes were calculated and Bland-Altman analysis performed. Sixteen children aged from 6.4 to 12.8 (9.2) years were included in 23 examinations: 6 after overnight fasting, 3 directly after, and 14 with a delay of 74 ± 35 min after fluid intake. GAA was 221 ± 116, 218 ± 112, and 347 ± 188 mm(2) for SUP, E45, and RDC position, respectively. The best correlation between body weight corrected total gastric/gastric fluid volume (TGV(w)/GFV(w)) with GAA was found for RDC position (R = 0.79; P < 0.01/R = 0.78; P < 0.01). Bias and precision of calculated and measured GFV(w) was 0 ± 2.8 ml·kg(-1). Correlations between GAA and TGV(w) or GFV(w) in children are best in the RDC position, but not sufficient to predict GFV(w) with a given GAA. Interpretation of isolated GAA values may be misleading. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Gastric and intestinal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossum, Theresa W; Hedlund, Cheryl S

    2003-09-01

    Gastric surgery is commonly performed to remove foreign bodies and correct gastric dilatation-volvulus and is less commonly performed to treat gastric ulceration or erosion, neoplasia, and benign gastric outflow obstruction. Intestinal surgery, although commonly performed by veterinarians, should never be considered routine. The most common procedures of the small intestinal tract performed in dogs and cats include enterotomy and resection/anastomosis. Surgery of the large intestine is indicated for lesions causing obstruction, perforations, colonic inertia, or chronic inflammation.

  13. Mouse Models of Gastric Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, Yoku; Fox, James G.; Gonda, Tamas; Worthley, Daniel L.; Muthupalani, Sureshkumar; Wang, Timothy C.

    2013-01-01

    Animal models have greatly enriched our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of numerous types of cancers. Gastric cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide, with a poor prognosis and high incidence of drug-resistance. However, most inbred strains of mice have proven resistant to gastric carcinogenesis. To establish useful models which mimic human gastric cancer phenotypes, investigators have utilized animals infected with Helicobacter species and treated with carcinogens. In addition, by exploiting genetic engineering, a variety of transgenic and knockout mouse models of gastric cancer have emerged, such as INS-GAS mice and TFF1 knockout mice. Investigators have used the combination of carcinogens and gene alteration to accelerate gastric cancer development, but rarely do mouse models show an aggressive and metastatic gastric cancer phenotype that could be relevant to preclinical studies, which may require more specific targeting of gastric progenitor cells. Here, we review current gastric carcinogenesis mouse models and provide our future perspectives on this field. PMID:24216700

  14. Risk factors of delayed ulcer healing after gastric endoscopic submucosal dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Joo Hyun; Kim, Sang Gyun; Choi, Jeongmin; Im, Jong Pil; Kim, Joo Sung; Jung, Hyun Chae

    2015-12-01

    Although post-endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) iatrogenic ulcer is known to heal faster than peptic ulcer, some iatrogenic ulcers show delayed healing. The aim of this study was to clarify risk factors of delayed ulcer healing after gastric ESD. We retrospectively reviewed medical records of all patients who had ESD for gastric neoplasms (866 adenomas and 814 early gastric cancers) between January 2005 and February 2011. Of 1680 subjects, 95 had delayed ulcer healing in 3-month follow-up. Multivariate analysis showed that diabetes (OR 1.743; 95% CI 1.017-2.989, p = 0.043), coagulation abnormality (OR 3.195; 95% CI 1.535-6.650, p = 0.002), specimen size greater than 4 cm (OR 2.999; 95% CI 1.603-5.611, p = 0.001), and electrocoagulation (OR 7.149; 95% CI 1.738-29.411, p = 0.006) were revealed to be independent risk factors of delayed ulcer healing. Meanwhile, persistent Helicobacter pylori infection was not related to the delayed ulcer healing. Large iatrogenic ulcer by ESD with massive hemostasis, especially in patients with diabetes mellitus or coagulation abnormalities, tends to take more than 3 months to heal. For such cases, initial dosage increment of PPI or addition of other anti-ulcer agents after ESD may be beneficial.

  15. Characterization of fasted human gastric fluid for relevant rheological parameters and gastric lipase activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Pernille Barbre; Vilmann, Peter; Bar-Shalom, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    be considered important during development of gastric simulated media. Further, the activity of the HGL is active even under fasted gastric conditions and might contribute to the digestion and emulsification of lipid-based drug delivery systems in the entire gastrointestinal tract. HGL should therefore......PURPOSE: To characterize human gastric fluid with regard to rheological properties and gastric lipase activity. In addition, traditional physicochemical properties were determined. METHODS: Fasted HGA were collected from 19 healthy volunteers during a gastroscopic examination. Rheological...... be considered in gastric evaluation of lipid-based drug delivery systems....

  16. The distinctive gastric fluid proteome in gastric cancer reveals a multi-biomarker diagnostic profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eng Alvin KH

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Overall gastric cancer survival remains poor mainly because there are no reliable methods for identifying highly curable early stage disease. Multi-protein profiling of gastric fluids, obtained from the anatomic site of pathology, could reveal diagnostic proteomic fingerprints. Methods Protein profiles were generated from gastric fluid samples of 19 gastric cancer and 36 benign gastritides patients undergoing elective, clinically-indicated gastroscopy using surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry on multiple ProteinChip arrays. Proteomic features were compared by significance analysis of microarray algorithm and two-way hierarchical clustering. A second blinded sample set (24 gastric cancers and 29 clinically benign gastritides was used for validation. Results By significance analysyis of microarray, 60 proteomic features were up-regulated and 46 were down-regulated in gastric cancer samples (p Conclusion This simple and reproducible multimarker proteomic assay could supplement clinical gastroscopic evaluation of symptomatic patients to enhance diagnostic accuracy for gastric cancer and pre-malignant lesions.

  17. Differential diagnosis of gastric adenoma and type IIa early gastric cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchigame, T.; Ogata, Y.; Sumi, M.; Fukui, K.; Saito, R.; Nakashima, K.; Urata, J.; Arakawa, A.; Saito, Y.; Takahashi, M.

    1991-01-01

    The endoscopic and radiographic findings of 45 gastric adenomas in 39 patients were followed for 6 months to 13 years and compared with type IIa early gastric cancer observed in 9 patients. Difficulties in the diffential diagnosis of these disorders were evaluated. The following features were suggestive of gastric adenomas: clustered lesions; protuberance with gentle slope; smooth surface; and relatively young patients. Discrimination of adenoma from type IIa early gastric cancer is often difficult by visual observation alone; biopsy was essential in most patients. A group III adenoma verified on biopsy should be followed closely because the lesion may harbor a cancer (so-called carcinoma-in-adenoma) or a cancer may later develop. (orig.)

  18. Bovine alpha-lactalbumin stimulates mucus metabolism in gastric mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushida, Y; Shimokawa, Y; Toida, T; Matsui, H; Takase, M

    2007-02-01

    Bovine alpha-lactalbumin (alpha-LA), a major milk protein, exerts strong gastroprotective activity against rat experimental gastric ulcers induced by ethanol or stress. To elucidate the mechanisms underlying this activity, the influence of alpha-LA on gastric mucus metabolism was investigated in vitro and in vivo. For the in vitro study, RGM1 cells (a rat gastric epithelial cell line) were selected for observation of the direct activity of alpha-LA on gastric mucosal cells and cultured in the presence of either alpha-LA or ovalbumin (OVA), a reference protein showing no gastroprotective activity. Amounts of synthesized and secreted mucin, a major component of mucus, were determined using [3H]glucosamine as a tracer, and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) levels in the culture medium were determined by RIA. For the in vivo study, the thickness of the mucus gel layer, a protective barrier for gastric mucosa, was evaluated histochemically in rat gastric mucosa. alpha-Lactalbumin (3 mg/mL) significantly stimulated mucin synthesis and secretion in RGM1 cells and also increased PGE2 levels in the culture medium. In contrast, OVA showed no enhancing effects under identical conditions. Neither indomethacin, a cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor, nor AH23848, a prostaglandin EP4 receptor antagonist, affected alpha-LA-induced enhancement of mucin synthesis and secretion. In vivo, oral administration of alpha-LA (300 mg/kg x 3 times/d x 7 d) increased the thickness of the mucus gel layer in rats. These results indicate that alpha-LA fortifies the mucus gel layer by stimulating mucin production and secretion in gastric mucus-producing cells, and that this enhancing effect is independent of endogenous PGE2. Comparison of the efficacy of alpha-LA with OVA suggests that the activities observed in RGM1 cells are closely related to the gastroprotective effects in rat gastric ulcer models. In conclusion, alpha-LA stimulates mucus metabolism, and this action may be responsible for its gastroprotective

  19. Features of gastritis predisposing to gastric adenoma and early gastric cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Meining, A; Riedl, B; Stolte, M

    2002-01-01

    Background/Aims: Helicobacter pylori gastritis is a risk factor for the development of gastric cancer. The results of several studies indicate that gastric adenomas, which are considered premalignant lesions, may also be associated with H pylori gastritis. However, it is not clear whether there are different patterns of gastritis in these patients compared with patients with gastric cancer or patients with H pylori gastritis alone. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate the pattern...

  20. Gastric Metastasis of Ectopic Breast Cancer Mimicking Axillary Metastasis of Primary Gastric Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selami Ilgaz Kayılıoğlu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ectopic breast tissue has the ability to undergo all the pathological changes of the normal breast, including breast cancer. Gastrointestinal metastasis of breast cancer is rarely observed and it is very difficult to differentiate gastric metastases from primary gastric cancer. We present a case of 52-year-old female, who suffered from abdominal pain. Physical examination showed a palpable mass in the left anterior axilla and computerized tomography revealed gastric wall thickening with linitis plastica. When gastroscopic biopsy showed no signs of malignancy, excisional biopsy was performed in the left axilla. Histological examination revealed invasive lobular carcinoma of the breast, consistent with ectopic breast cancer. Further gastroscopic submucosal biopsies and immunohistochemical studies revealed gastric metastases of invasive lobular carcinoma. Axillary ectopic breast tissue carcinomas can mimic axillary lymphadenopathies. Additionally, gastric metastasis of breast cancer is an uncommon but possible condition. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of ectopic breast cancer with gastric metastasis.

  1. Gastric ulceration subsequent to partial invagination of the stomach in a dog with gastric dilatation-volvulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parton, Amanda T; Volk, Susan W; Weisse, Chick

    2006-06-15

    CASE DESCRIPTION-An 8-year-old castrated male German Shepherd Dog was evaluated because of abdominal distension, retching, and vomiting. CLINICAL FINDINGS-Gastric dilatation-volvulus was suspected on the basis of the dog's signalment, history, clinical signs, and results of clinicopathologic analyses and abdominal radiography. Celiotomy was performed, and gastric dilatation-volvulus was confirmed along with splenomegaly. Gastric invagination was performed over an area of gastric necrosis. The dog was reevaluated 21 days later after an episode of collapse. Findings of physical examination and clinicopathologic analyses were suggestive of internal hemorrhage. Abdominal ultrasonography and subsequent celiotomy revealed severe gastric ulceration at the gastric invagination site, splenic torsion, and a focal splenic infarct. TREATMENT AND OUTCOME-Splenectomy and gastrectomy of the necrotic tissue were performed. The dog was discharged from the hospital, and the owner was instructed to administer gastroprotectants and feed the dog a bland diet. The dog was reported to be healthy 3.25 years after surgery. CLINICAL RELEVANCE-Findings suggest that complications associated with the gastric invagination procedure include severe gastric ulceration that may require subsequent surgery. Prolonged treatment with gastroprotectants following gastric invagination surgery may be necessary to avoid gastric ulceration in dogs.

  2. Genomic dysregulation in gastric tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janjigian, Yelena Y; Kelsen, David P

    2013-03-01

    Gastric cancer is among the most common human malignancies and the second leading cause of cancer-related death. The different epidemiologic and histopathology of subtypes of gastric cancer are associated with different genomic patterns. Data suggests that gene expression patterns of proximal, distal gastric cancers-intestinal type, and diffuse/signet cell are well separated. This review summarizes the genetic and epigenetic changes thought to drive gastric cancer and the emerging paradigm of gastric cancer as three unique disease subtypes. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Protective effects of Ginkgo biloba extract on the ethanol-induced gastric ulcer in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sheng-Hsuan; Liang, Yu-Chih; Chao, Jane CJ; Tsai, Li-Hsueh; Chang, Chun-Chao; Wang, Chia-Chi; Pan, Shiann

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the preventive effect of Ginkgo biloba extract (GbE) on ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injuries in rats. METHODS: Female Wistar albino rats were used for the studies. We randomly divided the rats for each study into five subgroups: normal control, experimental control, and three experimental groups. The gastric ulcers were induced by instilling 1 mL 50% ethanol into the stomach. We gave GbE 8.75, 17.5, 26.25 mg/kg intravenously to the experimental groups respectively 30 min prior to the ulcerative challenge. We removed the stomachs 45 min later. The gastric ulcers, gastric mucus and the content of non-protein sulfhydryl groups (NP-SH), malondialdehyde (MDA), c-Jun kinase (JNK) activity in gastric mucosa were evaluated. The amount of gastric juice and its acidity were also measured. RESULTS: The findings of our study are as follows: (1) GbE pretreatment was found to provide a dose-dependent protection against the ethanol-induced gastric ulcers in rats; (2) the GbE pretreatment afforded a dose-dependent inhibition of ethanol-induced depletion of stomach wall mucus, NP-SH contents and increase in the lipid peroxidation (increase MDA) in gastric tissue; (3) gastric ulcer induced by ethanol produced an increase in JNK activity in gastric mucosa which also significantly inhibited by pretreatment with GbE; and (4) GbE alone had no inhibitory effect on gastric secretion in pylorus-ligated rats. CONCLUSION: The finding of this study showed that GbE significantly inhibited the ethanol-induced gastric lesions in rats. We suggest that the preventive effect of GbE may be mediated through: (1) inhibition of lipid peroxidation; (2) preservation of gastric mucus and NP-SH; and (3) blockade of cell apoptosis. PMID:15968732

  4. Gastric retention and gastric ileus in diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoeffel, J.C.; Senot, P.; Champigneulle, B.; Drouin, P.

    1980-01-01

    Report of 2 cases of paralytic ileus of the stomach (gastric atony) and of 14 cases of gastric retention, diagnosed from the radiographs obtained from a group of 1500 diabetic patients within seven years. These disorders occur in diabetes mellitus present for many years and associated with peripheral neuropathy. The above findings often present diagnostic and therapeutic problems. Conservative drug therapy is usually sufficient management. (orig.) [de

  5. Technological characterization and survival of the exopolysaccharide-producing strain Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis 193 and its bile-resistant derivative 193+ in simulated gastric and intestinal juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Patricia; Vinderola, Gabriel; Reinheimer, Jorge; Cuesta, Isabel; de Los Reyes-Gavilán, Clara G; Ruas-Madiedo, Patricia

    2011-08-01

    The capacity of lactic acid bacteria to produce exopolysaccharides (EPS) conferring microorganisms a ropy phenotype could be an interesting feature from a technological point of view. Progressive adaptation to bile salts might render some lactobacilli able to overcome physiological gut barriers but could also modify functional properties of the strain, including the production of EPS. In this work some technological properties and the survival ability in simulated gastrointestinal conditions of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis 193, and Lb. delbrueckii subsp. lactis 193+, a strain with stable bile-resistant phenotype derived thereof, were characterized in milk in order to know whether the acquisition of resistance to bile could modify some characteristics of the microorganism. Both strains were able to grow and acidify milk similarly; however the production of ethanol increased at the expense of the aroma compound acetaldehyde in milk fermented by the strain 193+, with respect to milk fermented by the strain 193. Both microorganisms produced a heteropolysaccharide composed of glucose and galactose, and were able to increase the viscosity of fermented milks. In spite of the higher production yield of EPS by the bile-resistant strain 193+, it displayed a lower ability to increase viscosity than Lb. delbrueckii subsp. lactis 193. Milk increased survival in simulated gastric juice; the presence of bile improved adhesion to the intestinal cell line HT29-MTX in both strains. However, the acquisition of a stable resistance phenotype did not improve survival in simulated gastric and intestinal conditions or the adhesion to the intestinal cell line HT29-MTX. Thus, Lb. delbrueckii subsp. lactis 193 presents suitable technological properties for the manufacture of fermented dairy products; the acquisition of a stable bile-resistant phenotype modified some properties of the microorganism. This suggests that the possible use of bile-resistant derivative strains should be

  6. Selection and persistence of CTX-M-producing Escherichia coli in the intestinal flora of pigs treated with amoxicillin, ceftiofur, or cefquinome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavaco, Lina; Abatih, E.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    2008-01-01

    Extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs), mainly of the CTX-M family, have been associated with Escherichia coli strains of animal origin in Europe. An in vivo experiment was performed to study the effects of veterinary beta-lactam drugs on the selection and persistence of ESBL-producing E. coli...

  7. Pneumatosis in canine gastric dilatation-volvulus syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischetti, Anthony J; Saunders, H Mark; Drobatz, Kenneth J

    2004-01-01

    Retrospectively, 243 dogs with radiographic evidence of gastric dilatation-volvulus (GDV) were studied for radiographic signs of pneumatosis (intramural gas), pneumoperitoneum, splenomegaly, and severity of gastric distention. The sensitivity, specificity, and predictive value of these imaging signs as predictors of gastric wall necrosis, as determined by visual inspection at surgery or necropsy, were determined. The sensitivity and specificity of gastric pneumatosis were 14.1% and 92.7%, respectively. The prevalence of gastric wall necrosis was 26.6%. The positive and negative predictive values of gastric pneumatosis for predicting gastric necrosis were 40.9% and 74.9%, respectively. Gastric pneumatosis and pneumoperitoneum were identified together in four dogs. Pneumoperitoneum, either alone or in conjunction with pneumatosis, yielded similar results as a test for gastric necrosis. Splenomegaly and severity of gastric distention were insensitive and nonspecific for gastric wall necrosis. Splenomegaly did not predict the need for splenectomy at surgery. Although pneumatosis and pneumoperitoneum are relatively specific signs of gastric wall necrosis, the utility of these signs as a test for gastric necrosis is limited in clinical practice. The significance of pneumatosis should be taken into consideration with previous treatments for gastric decompression, as percutaneous gastric trocharization or orogastric intubation may increase the number of false-positive results.

  8. Vanillin abrogates ethanol induced gastric injury in rats via modulation of gastric secretion, oxidative stress and inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrahman Al Asmari

    Full Text Available Vanillin is commonly used as an additive in food, medicine and cosmetics, but its effect has not yet been studied in gastric injury. Therefore the effect of vanillin was studied in experimental gastric ulcer. Gastric secretion and acidity were studied in pylorus ligated rats. Ulcer index, levels of gastric mucus, malondialdehyde (MDA, myeloperoxidase activity (MPO, expression of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB p65, and histopathological changes were determined in ethanol induced gastric ulcer. Pre treatment with vanillin significantly reduced gastric secretion (P < 0.001 and acidity (P < 0.0001 and gastric ulcer index scores (P < 0.001. and augmented the gastric mucosal defense. Vanillin significantly restored the depleted gastric wall mucus levels (P < 0.0001 induced by ethanol and also significantly attenuated ethanol induced inflammation and oxidative stress by the suppression of gastric MPO activity (P < 0.001, reducing the expression of NF-κB p65 and the increased MDA levels (P < 0.001. Vanillin was also effective in alleviating the damage to the histological architecture and the activation of mast cells induced by ethanol.Together the results of this study highlight the gastroprotective activity of vanillin in gastric ulcers of rats through multiple actions that include inhibition of gastric secretion and acidity, reduction of inflammation and oxidative stress, suppression of expression of NF-κB, and restoration of the histological architecture. Keywords: Gastric ulcers, Pylorus ligation, Ethanol, Vanillin, Inflammation, Oxidative stress

  9. Managing obstructive gastric volvulus: challenges and solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodriguez-Garcia HA

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Hector Alejandro Rodriguez-Garcia,1 Andrew S Wright,2–4 Robert B Yates1–3 1Department of Surgery, Center for Esophageal and Gastric Surgery, 2Center for Videoendoscopic Surgery, 3Hernia Center, 4Institute for Simulation and Interprofessional Studies, UWMC, University of Washington, Seattle, USA Abstract: Gastric volvulus is the abnormal torsion of the stomach along its short or long axis. Most patients who experience gastric volvulus present with mild or intermittent gastric obstructive symptoms. However, severe acute gastric volvulus can result in complete gastric outlet obstruction and ischemia. Consequently, acute gastric volvulus warrants immediate evaluation and management. The goals of management are to relieve the obstruction and prevent recurrent volvulus. Techniques to manage gastric volvulus depend on patient characteristics and the presence of gastric ischemia. In the absence of gastric ischemia, gastric volvulus can be managed with anterior abdominal wall gastropexy or paraesophageal hernia repair. If gastric ischemia is present, operative resection of the affected portion of the stomach is indicated. When operative management is indicated, many patients with gastric volvulus can be managed with minimally invasive (laparoscopic, endoscopic, or laparoendoscopic techniques. Keywords: gastric volvulus, paraesophageal hernia, hiatal hernia

  10. Characteristics of Metachronous Gastric Tumors after Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection for Gastric Intraepithelial Neoplasms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoyuki Boda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Recently, endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD has become a standard treatment method for early gastric cancer and concurrent stomach preservation. However, metachronous recurrences have become a major problem. We evaluated the incidence and clinicopathologic features of and examined the risk factors for metachronous gastric tumors. Methods. A total of 357 patients who underwent ESD for gastric tumors (245 early gastric cancers and 112 adenomas and were followed up for more than 12 months without recurrence within the first 12 months were enrolled. We investigated the incidence and clinicopathologic features of metachronous tumors after ESD. We also analyzed the potential risk factors for metachronous tumors using the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox’s proportional hazards model. Results. The annual incidence of metachronous tumors after ESD was 2.4%. The median period until discovery after initial ESD was 26.0 months, and the median observation period was 52.6 months. Male patients developed metachronous tumors more frequently (P=0.04, and the hazard ratio of female to male patients was 0.36 (95% confidence interval: 0.11–0.89. Conclusions. Patients with a previous history of gastric tumors have a high risk of subsequent gastric tumor development and male patients should be carefully followed up after ESD for gastric tumor.

  11. MOOCs and Persistence: Definitions and Predictors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Brent J.; Baker, Rachel B.

    2016-01-01

    The chapter argues for redefining the term "persistence" as it relates to MOOCs and considers how different measures produce different results in the research; it closes with a review of research on persistence in MOOCs.

  12. Gastric residual volume (GRV) and gastric contents measurement by refractometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wei-Kuo; McClave, Stephen A; Hsieh, Chung-Bao; Chao, You-Chen

    2007-01-01

    Traditional use of gastric residual volumes (GRVs), obtained by aspiration from a nasogastric tube, is inaccurate and cannot differentiate components of the gastric contents (gastric secretion vs delivered formula). The use of refractometry and 3 mathematical equations has been proposed as a method to calculate the formula concentration, GRV, and formula volume. In this paper, we have validated these mathematical equations so that they can be implemented in clinical practice. Each of 16 patients receiving a nasogastric tube had 50 mL of water followed by 100 mL of dietary formula (Osmolite HN, Abbott Laboratories, Columbus, OH) infused into the stomach. After mixing, gastric content was aspirated for the first Brix value (BV) measurement by refractometry. Then, 50 mL of water was infused into the stomach and a second BV was measured. The procedure of infusion of dietary formula (100 mL) and then water (50 mL) was repeated and followed by subsequent BV measurement. The same procedure was performed in an in vitro experiment. Formula concentration, GRV, and formula volume were calculated from the derived mathematical equations. The formula concentrations, GRVs, and formula volumes calculated by using refractometry and the mathematical equations were close to the true values obtained from both in vivo and in vitro validation experiments. Using this method, measurement of the BV of gastric contents is simple, reproducible, and inexpensive. Refractometry and the derived mathematical equations may be used to measure formula concentration, GRV, and formula volume, and also to serve as a tool for monitoring the gastric contents of patients receiving nasogastric feeding.

  13. Serum and gastric fluid levels of cytokines and nitrates in gastric diseases infected with Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehmet, N; Refik, M; Harputluoglu, M; Ersoy, Y; Aydin, N Engin; Yildirim, B

    2004-04-01

    This case control study presents data on the concentrations of nitrite and nitrate and a variety of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta), interleukin-2R (IL-2R), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8) and tumor necrosis factor TNF-alpha in gastric fluid and serum. Patients with gastritis, gastric ulcer and gastric cancer are studied and grouped according to infection by Helicobacter pylori. The 208 patients who underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopic examination were classified as follows; H. pylori-positive gastritis (n = 32), H. pylori-negative gastritis (n = 32), H. pylori-positive ulcers (n = 34), H. pylori-negative ulcers (n = 34), 43 patients with H. pylori-positive gastric cancer in addition to 33 H. pylori-negative healthy control individuals. Gastric fluids and blood samples were taken concomitantly. Cytokines and nitrite and nitrate determinations were attempted as soon as possible after collection of the samples. Nitrite and nitrate levels of serum and gastric fluids of H. pylori-positive gastritis and ulcers were higher than H. pylori-negative gastritis and ulcers. The concentrations of total nitrite and nitrate and cytokines (TNF-alpha, IL-2R, IL-6, and IL-8) in gastric fluids and sera of H. pylori-positive gastric cancer patients were higher than H. pylori-negative control groups. IL-1 beta level was significantly elevated in gastric fluid of infected cancer patients but not in serum. Taken together, the results suggest that an increase in cytokine-NO combination in gastric mucosa previously reported by many studies is not restricted to local infected gastric tissue but also detected in gastric fluid and sera of H. pylori-positive subjects and may have an important role in the pathogenesis and development of common gastric diseases.

  14. Vanillin abrogates ethanol induced gastric injury in rats via modulation of gastric secretion, oxidative stress and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Asmari, Abdulrahman; Al Shahrani, Hamoud; Al Masri, Nasser; Al Faraidi, Ahmed; Elfaki, Ibrahim; Arshaduddin, Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    Vanillin is commonly used as an additive in food, medicine and cosmetics, but its effect has not yet been studied in gastric injury. Therefore the effect of vanillin was studied in experimental gastric ulcer. Gastric secretion and acidity were studied in pylorus ligated rats. Ulcer index, levels of gastric mucus, malondialdehyde (MDA), myeloperoxidase activity (MPO), expression of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) p65, and histopathological changes were determined in ethanol induced gastric ulcer. Pre treatment with vanillin significantly reduced gastric secretion ( P  Vanillin significantly restored the depleted gastric wall mucus levels ( P  Vanillin was also effective in alleviating the damage to the histological architecture and the activation of mast cells induced by ethanol. Together the results of this study highlight the gastroprotective activity of vanillin in gastric ulcers of rats through multiple actions that include inhibition of gastric secretion and acidity, reduction of inflammation and oxidative stress, suppression of expression of NF-κB, and restoration of the histological architecture.

  15. Helical CT findings of gastric wall thickening by peptic ulcer : compared with gastric adenocarcinoma with ulcer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Won Jung; Choi, Jong Chul; Seo, Keum Soo; Koo, Bon Sik; Park, Byeong Ho; Kim, Chung Ku; Lee, Ki Nam; Nam, Kyung Jin

    2000-01-01

    To compare on the basis of helical CT findings gastric wall thickening of peptic gastric ulcer with that of gastric adenocarcinoma with ulcer. Thirty-eight patients with pathologically proven gastric lesion (17 cases of peptic ulcer and 21 cases of ulcerative or ulceroinfiltrative gastric cancer (Borrman type II, III) underwent helical CT, and the findings were retrospectively reviewed in terms of maximum abnormal wall thickness, preservation of the inner enhancing layer, the presence three discriminate layers of gastric wall, and enhancement pattern. The enhancement pattern of abnormally thick wall was compared with that of the portal phase of back muscle, and was defined as low, iso, or high. The Chi-square test and Student t test were used for statistical analysis. In cases of peptic ulcer and gastric cancer with ulceration, maximum abnormal wall thickness was 7-30 (mean, 16.1)mm, and 11-33 (mean, 21.8)mm, respectively. The inner enhancing layer was preserved in 15 of 17 patients (88.2%) and one of 21 (4.8%); three discriminate layers of gastric wall were observed in 8 of 17 patients (47.0%), and one of 21 (4.8%). The enhancement pattern was low in 12 of 17 patients (70.5%), and 3 of 21 (14.3%); iso in 4 of 17 (23.5%), and 4 of 21 (19.0%), and high in one of 17 (5.9%), and 14 of 21 (66.7%). All figures refer, respectively, to the two distinct conditions. In terms of preservation of the inner enhancing layer, three discriminate layers of gastric wall, and a low enhancement pattern, there were statistically significant differences between peptic ulcer and gastric adenocarcinoma with ulcer. Where the enhancement was high, however, the statistically significant difference between the two conditions was even greater. There was no statistically significant difference in terms of gastric wall thickness or iso-attenuation of thickened gastric. Helical CT findings of gastric wall thickening, preservation of the inner enhancing layer, and three discriminate layers of

  16. Helical CT findings of gastric wall thickening by peptic ulcer : compared with gastric adenocarcinoma with ulcer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Won Jung; Choi, Jong Chul; Seo, Keum Soo; Koo, Bon Sik; Park, Byeong Ho; Kim, Chung Ku; Lee, Ki Nam; Nam, Kyung Jin [College of Medicine, Dong A University, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-02-01

    To compare on the basis of helical CT findings gastric wall thickening of peptic gastric ulcer with that of gastric adenocarcinoma with ulcer. Thirty-eight patients with pathologically proven gastric lesion (17 cases of peptic ulcer and 21 cases of ulcerative or ulceroinfiltrative gastric cancer (Borrman type II, III)) underwent helical CT, and the findings were retrospectively reviewed in terms of maximum abnormal wall thickness, preservation of the inner enhancing layer, the presence three discriminate layers of gastric wall, and enhancement pattern. The enhancement pattern of abnormally thick wall was compared with that of the portal phase of back muscle, and was defined as low, iso, or high. The Chi-square test and Student t test were used for statistical analysis. In cases of peptic ulcer and gastric cancer with ulceration, maximum abnormal wall thickness was 7-30 (mean, 16.1)mm, and 11-33 (mean, 21.8)mm, respectively. The inner enhancing layer was preserved in 15 of 17 patients (88.2%) and one of 21 (4.8%); three discriminate layers of gastric wall were observed in 8 of 17 patients (47.0%), and one of 21 (4.8%). The enhancement pattern was low in 12 of 17 patients (70.5%), and 3 of 21 (14.3%); iso in 4 of 17 (23.5%), and 4 of 21 (19.0%), and high in one of 17 (5.9%), and 14 of 21 (66.7%). All figures refer, respectively, to the two distinct conditions. In terms of preservation of the inner enhancing layer, three discriminate layers of gastric wall, and a low enhancement pattern, there were statistically significant differences between peptic ulcer and gastric adenocarcinoma with ulcer. Where the enhancement was high, however, the statistically significant difference between the two conditions was even greater. There was no statistically significant difference in terms of gastric wall thickness or iso-attenuation of thickened gastric. Helical CT findings of gastric wall thickening, preservation of the inner enhancing layer, and three discriminate layers of

  17. A CLINICAL STUDY ON GASTRIC OUTLET OBSTRUCTION IN A SOUTH INDIAN TEACHING HOSPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sailaja

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Gastric outlet obstruction is defined as a clinical and patho - physiological consequence of any disease process that produces a mechanical impediment to gastric emptying which may be extrinsic or intrinsic. Gastric outlet obstruction can be a diagnostic and treatment dilemma. Endoscopy of upper gastrointestinal tract has been a sensitive and specific investigation to study the status of gastric outlet - the pylorus and has enabled early detection of lesions of both stomach a nd duodenum. We undertook a prospective clinical study regarding incidence, etiology, investigation and management of cases of Gastric outlet obstruction in adults in a period of three years. In our study the m ost common cause of GOO is Carcinoma stomach a ntral region 46.6% , duodenal ulcer 33.3% , corrosive acid ingestion sequel 8.3%, peri ampullary carcinoma 6.6%, Ca pancreas 3.3%% , cholangio Carcinoma 1.6%. Males are more commonly involved in a ratio of M: F=3:1. Surgical procedures done varied from defini tive resections to palliative bypass or feeding jejunostomy for enteral feeding

  18. Production of ghrelin by the stomach of patients with gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizaki, Junya; Aoyagi, Keishiro; Sato, Takahiro; Kojima, Masayasu; Shirouzu, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    Poor nutrition and weight loss are important factors contributing to poor quality of life (QOL) after gastrectomy in patients with gastric cancer. Ghrelin is a hormone produced by the stomach that, plays a role in appetite increase and fat storage. The present study aims to clarify the location of ghrelin mRNA in the stomach, changes in blood ghrelin concentrations after gastrectomy and whether or not they are associated with the reconstruction method in patients with gastric cancer. We collected seven normal mucosa samples from different parts of six totally resected stomachs with gastric cancer. We extracted RNA from the normal mucosa, synthesized cDNA from total RNA (1 μg), and then quantified ghrelin mRNA using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR). Ghrelin blood concentrations were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits in 74 patients with gastric cancer (total gastrectomy (TG), n=23; distal gastrectomy (DG), n=30; proximal gastrectomy (PG), n=11; pylorus preserving gastrectomy (PPG), n=10). In order, the ghrelin gene was expressed most frequently in the gastric body, followed by the fornix, cardia, antrum and pylorus ring. Blood ghrelin concentrations after surgery similarly changed in all groups. The average blood ghrelin concentrations were significantly higher in the DG and PPG groups than in the TG group on postoperative days (POD) 1, 7, 30, 90 and 180. However, blood ghrelin concentrations did not significantly differ between the DG and TG groups on POD 270 and 360. Cells that produce ghrelin are supposed to be located mostly in the fundic gland of the stomach. We speculate that the production of ghrelin from other organs increases from around nine months after total gastrectomy. Therefore, evaluating the nutritional status and the weight of patients at nine months after total gastrectomy is important to help these patients improve their QOL.

  19. High levels of aromatic amino acids in gastric juice during the early stages of gastric cancer progression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Deng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Early-stage gastric cancer is mostly asymptomatic and can easily be missed easily by conventional gastroscopy. Currently, there are no useful biomarkers for the early detection of gastric cancer, and their identification of biomarkers is urgently needed. METHODS: Gastric juice was obtained from 185 subjects that were divided into three groups: non-neoplastic gastric disease (NGD, advanced gastric cancer and early gastric cancer (EGC. The levels of aromatic amino acids in the gastric juice were quantitated using high-performance liquid chromatography. RESULTS: The median values (25th to 75th percentile of tyrosine, phenylalanine and tryptophan in the gastric juice were 3.8 (1.7-7.5 µg/ml, 5.3 (2.3-9.9 µg/ml and 1.0 (0.4-2.8 µg/ml in NGD; 19.4 (5.8-72.4 µg/ml, 24.6 (11.5-73.7 µg/ml and 8.3 (2.1-28.0 µg/ml in EGC. Higher levels of tyrosine, phenylalanine and tryptophan in the gastric juice were observed in individuals of EGC groups compared those of the NGD group (NGD vs. EGC, P<0.0001. For the detection of EGC, the areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUCs of each biomarker were as follows: tyrosine, 0.790 [95% confidence interval (CI, 0.703-0.877]; phenylalanine, 0.831 (95% CI, 0.750-0.911; and tryptophan, 0.819 (95% CI, 0.739-0.900. The sensitivity and specificity of phenylalanine were 75.5% and 81.4%, respectively, for detection of EGC. A multiple logistic regression analysis showed that high levels of aromatic amino acids in the gastric juice were associated with gastric cancer (adjusted β coefficients ranged from 1.801 to 4.414, P<0.001. CONCLUSION: Increased levels of tyrosine, phenylalanine and tryptophan in the gastric juice samples were detected in the early phase of gastric carcinogenesis. Thus, tyrosine, phenylalanine and tryptophan in gastric juice could be used as biomarkers for the early detection of gastric cancer. A gastric juice analysis is an efficient, economical and convenient method for

  20. Helicobacter pylori genotypes associated with gastric histo-pathological damages in a Moroccan population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samia Alaoui Boukhris

    Full Text Available H. pylori persistent infection induces chronic gastritis and is associated with peptic ulcer disease and gastric carcinoma development. The severity of these diseases is related to human's genetic diversity, H. pylori genetic variability and environmental factors. To identify the prevalence of histo-pathological damages caused by H. pylori infection in Moroccan population, and to determine their association to H. pylori genotypes, a prospective study has been conducted during 3 years on patients attending the gastroenterology department of Hassan II University Hospital (CHU of Fez, Morocco. A total of 801 Moroccan adults' patients were recruited; H. pylori was diagnosed and genotyped by PCR in biopsy specimens and histological exam was performed. We found a high rate of glandular atrophy. Chronic inflammation, neutrophil activity and glandular atrophy showed statistically significant association with H. pylori infection. However, intestinal metaplasia was inversely associated to this infection and no association was observed with gastric cancer cases. A statistically significant association was found between intestinal metaplasia and vacAs1 and vac Am1 genotypes in patients aged 50 years and more but not in younger. This last genotype is also associated to gastric cancer. In this study, gastric cancer showed no significant association with H. pylori. Further studies are warranted to determine the role of other etiological agents such as Epstein-Barr virus, human papillomavirus and possibly environmental and dietetic factors in the occurrence of this pathology.

  1. Intrathoracic gastric volvulus in infancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Salem, A.H. [Dept. of Surgery, Qatif Central Hospital, Qatif (Saudi Arabia)

    2000-12-01

    Intrathoracic gastric volvulus is a very rare surgical emergency. Early diagnosis and treatment are of great importance to prevent gastric gangrene and perforation or gastric obstruction and dilation, which may lead to cardiorespiratory arrest. We report two infants who presented with intrathoracic gastric volvulus. This was associated with recurrent diaphragmatic hernia in one and congenital paraoesophageal hernia in the other. Aspects of diagnosis and treatment are also discussed. (orig.)

  2. Intrathoracic gastric volvulus in infancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Salem, A.H.

    2000-01-01

    Intrathoracic gastric volvulus is a very rare surgical emergency. Early diagnosis and treatment are of great importance to prevent gastric gangrene and perforation or gastric obstruction and dilation, which may lead to cardiorespiratory arrest. We report two infants who presented with intrathoracic gastric volvulus. This was associated with recurrent diaphragmatic hernia in one and congenital paraoesophageal hernia in the other. Aspects of diagnosis and treatment are also discussed. (orig.)

  3. Segmental dilatation of the ileum covered almost entirely by gastric mucosa: report of a case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Tsutomu; Uchida, Nobuyuki; Shiojima, Masayuki; Sasamoto, Hajime; Shimura, Tatsuo; Takahasi, Atsusi; Kuwano, Hiroyuki

    2007-01-01

    A 13-year-old boy was referred to our hospital for investigation of intermittent abdominal colic pain and vomiting. He underwent an emergency laparotomy, which revealed a volvulus and segmental dilatation of the ileum. The dilated intestine was not associated with poor intestinal circulation. Because the dilated ileum did not seem to be the cause of the volvulus, we simply released the volvulus. However, after surgery, the patient still suffered from persistent abdominal pain, further episodes of volvulus, and invagination of the dilated ileum. Thus, we performed a second operation to resect the segmental dilatation of the ileum. Pathological examination revealed that most of the mucosa of the dilated ileum was composed of ectopic gastric mucosa. We postulate that the ectopic gastric mucosa led to the formation of segmental dilatation of the ileum.

  4. Gastric Ulcers Syndrome in Donkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abelardo Morales Briceño

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to describe gastric ulcer in donkeys. 10 donkeys (Equus asinus were studied in Bodonal de la Sierra, Badajoz-Extremadura, Spain. They were referred for necropsy and dead due to non-digestive causes. 4 males and 6 females were examined. The ages were classified of 4-16 years old. The stomach and gastric mucosa was evaluated for classified Merrit, 2003. Samples of gastric tissue were collected. The samples fixed in formalin were processed by conventional histological techniques and examined by histopathology. None of the donkeys presented clinical signs for gastric ulcers syndrome. Of the 10 donkeys studied, 10% had Grade 0; 30% Grade 1; 40% Grade 2; 10% Grade 3; and 10% Grade 4. In 30% (3/10 parasites such as Gasterophilus sp. were observed. The histological slices revealed severe damage on the gastric mucosa, a loss of continuity of the gastric mucosa with corium exposure, and subchorionic edema with parakeratotic hyperkeratosis, together with a mixed lymphoplasmocytic mononuclear infiltrate. In conclusion, we reported gastric ulcers syndrome in donkeys in Spain.

  5. Effects of intraoperative irradiation on gastric and urinary bladder incisions in the dog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig, J.A.; Sigler, R.; Walker, M.

    1985-01-01

    Fourteen adult dogs of mixed breeding were given intraoperative irradiation (25 Gy) after surgical incisions were made into the greater curvature of the stomach and the ventral surface of the urinary bladder. Sequential biopsy samples were obtained 10 days to 180 days after surgical operation. All irradiated stomachs developed gastritis and persistent ulceration of the irradiated field. Microscopic changes induced by irradiation of both the bladder and stomach progressed from severe submucosal edema to severe submucosal fibrosis. A parallel progression of fibrinoid degeneration of the small blood vessels was seen in both organs. Severe gastric ulceration persisted up to 180 days after irradiation, although a degree of mucous neck cell and gastric gland regeneration did occur. Pathologic changes were less severe in the bladder than in the stomach. The bladder had greater resiliency and capability for healing and, in contrast to the stomach, showed a capability to reepithelialize the radiation-induced ulcers. Conclusions of this study are as follows: (a) the canine urinary bladder tolerated intraoperative radiation therapy after tissue resection better than did the canine stomach, (b) the combination of surgical operation and irradiation resulted in a more prolonged and complicated healing pattern than did either procedure alone, and (c) the introduction of a surgical procedure upon irradiated tissue within an undetermined time span relative to irradiation resulted in a similar pattern of disturbed healing

  6. Survival Benefit of Adjuvant Radiation Therapy for Gastric Cancer following Gastrectomy and Extended Lymphadenectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Snyder

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Although randomized trials suggest a survival benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy and radiation therapy (XRT for gastric adenocarcinoma, its use in patients who undergo an extended lymphadenectomy is less clear. The purpose of this study was to determine if a survival benefit exists in gastric cancer patients who receive adjuvant XRT following resection with extended lymphadenectomy. Methods. The SEER registry was queried for records of patients with resected gastric adenocarcinoma from 1988 to 2007. Multivariable Cox regression models were used to assess independent prognostic factors affecting overall survival (OS and disease-specific survival (DSS. Results. Of 15,060 patients identified, 3,208 (21% received adjuvant XRT. Adjuvant XRT was independently associated with improved OS (HR 0.67, CI 0.64–0.71 and DSS (HR 0.69, CI 0.65–0.73 in stages IB through IV (M0. This OS and DSS benefit persisted regardless of the extent of lymphadenectomy. Furthermore, lymphadenectomy with >25 LN resected was associated with improved OS and DSS compared with 25 LNs results in improved OS and DSS compared with patients who have fewer LNs resected.

  7. Gastric mucosa in Mongolian and Japanese patients with gastric cancer and Helicobacter pylori infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuhisa, Takeshi; Yamaoka, Yoshio; Uchida, Tomohisa; Duger, Davaadorj; Adiyasuren, Battulga; Khasag, Oyuntsetseg; Tegshee, Tserentogtokh; Tsogt-Ochir, Byambajav

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the characteristics of gastric cancer and gastric mucosa in a Mongolian population by comparison with a Japanese population. METHODS: A total of 484 Mongolian patients with gastric cancer were enrolled to study gastric cancer characteristics in Mongolians. In addition, a total of 208 Mongolian and 3205 Japanese consecutive outpatients who underwent endoscopy, had abdominal complaints, no history of gastric operation or Helicobacter pylori eradication treatment, and no use of gastric secretion inhibitors such as histamine H2-receptor antagonists or proton pump inhibitors were enrolled. This study was conducted with the approval of the ethics committees of all hospitals. The triple-site biopsy method was used for the histologic diagnosis of gastritis and H. pylori infection in all Mongolian and Japanese cases. The infection rate of H. pylori and the status of gastric mucosa in H. pylori-infected patients were compared between Mongolian and Japanese subjects. Age (± 5 years), sex, and endoscopic diagnosis were matched between the two countries. RESULTS: Approximately 70% of Mongolian patients with gastric cancer were 50-79 years of age, and approximately half of the cancers were located in the upper part of the stomach. Histologically, 65.7% of early cancers exhibited differentiated adenocarcinoma, whereas 73.9% of advanced cancers displayed undifferentiated adenocarcinoma. The infection rate of H. pylori was higher in Mongolian than Japanese patients (75.9% vs 48.3%, P gastritis changed from antrum-predominant gastritis to corpus-predominant gastritis with age in both populations. CONCLUSION: Gastric cancer was located in the upper part of the stomach in half of the Mongolian patients; Mongolian patients were infected with non-East-Asian-type H. pylori. PMID:26217093

  8. A changing gastric environment leads to adaptation of lipopolysaccharide variants in Helicobacter pylori populations during colonization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Skoglund

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The human gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori colonizes the stomachs of half of the human population, and causes development of peptic ulcer disease and gastric adenocarcinoma. H. pylori-associated chronic atrophic gastritis (ChAG with loss of the acid-producing parietal cells, is correlated with an increased risk for development of gastric adenocarcinoma. The majority of H. pylori isolates produce lipopolysaccharides (LPS decorated with human-related Lewis epitopes, which have been shown to phase-vary in response to different environmental conditions. We have characterized the adaptations of H. pylori LPS and Lewis antigen expression to varying gastric conditions; in H. pylori isolates from mice with low or high gastric pH, respectively; in 482 clinical isolates from healthy individuals and from individuals with ChAG obtained at two time points with a four-year interval between endoscopies; and finally in isolates grown at different pH in vitro. Here we show that the gastric environment can contribute to a switch in Lewis phenotype in the two experimental mouse models. The clinical isolates from different human individuals showed that intra-individual isolates varied in Lewis antigen expression although the LPS diversity was relatively stable within each individual over time. Moreover, the isolates demonstrated considerable diversity in the levels of glycosylation and in the sizes of fucosylated O-antigen chains both within and between individuals. Thus our data suggest that different LPS variants exist in the colonizing H. pylori population, which can adapt to changes in the gastric environment and provide a means to regulate the inflammatory response of the host during disease progression.

  9. Computed tomography findings of acute gastric volvulus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millet, Ingrid; Orliac, Celine; Alili, Chakib; Taourel, Patrice [Hopital Lapeyronie, Department of Radiology, Montpellier (France); Guillon, Francoise [University Hospital of Montpellier, Department of Surgery, Montpellier (France)

    2014-12-15

    To assess the diagnostic performance of CT signs of gastric volvulus in both confirmed cases and control subjects. We retrospectively reviewed CT findings in 10 patients with surgically confirmed acute gastric volvulus and 20 control subjects with gastric distension. Two radiologists independently evaluated CT images for risk factors of gastric volvulus, direct findings of gastric volvulus by assessing gastric dilatation, the presence of an antropyloric transition point, the respective position of the different stomach segments and of the greater and lesser curvatures, stenosis of the gastric segments through the oesophageal hiatus and for findings of gastric ischemia. The sensitivity and specificity of each finding were calculated. The most sensitive direct signs of gastric volvulus were an antropyloric transition point without any abnormality at the transition zone and the antrum at the same level or higher than the fundus. The presence of both these two findings as diagnostic criteria of gastric volvulus had 100 % sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of gastric volvulus. There was no association between CT signs of ischemia and final bowel ischemia at pathology. CT is both highly sensitive and specific for diagnosing acute gastric volvulus. (orig.)

  10. Computed tomography findings of acute gastric volvulus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millet, Ingrid; Orliac, Celine; Alili, Chakib; Taourel, Patrice; Guillon, Francoise

    2014-01-01

    To assess the diagnostic performance of CT signs of gastric volvulus in both confirmed cases and control subjects. We retrospectively reviewed CT findings in 10 patients with surgically confirmed acute gastric volvulus and 20 control subjects with gastric distension. Two radiologists independently evaluated CT images for risk factors of gastric volvulus, direct findings of gastric volvulus by assessing gastric dilatation, the presence of an antropyloric transition point, the respective position of the different stomach segments and of the greater and lesser curvatures, stenosis of the gastric segments through the oesophageal hiatus and for findings of gastric ischemia. The sensitivity and specificity of each finding were calculated. The most sensitive direct signs of gastric volvulus were an antropyloric transition point without any abnormality at the transition zone and the antrum at the same level or higher than the fundus. The presence of both these two findings as diagnostic criteria of gastric volvulus had 100 % sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of gastric volvulus. There was no association between CT signs of ischemia and final bowel ischemia at pathology. CT is both highly sensitive and specific for diagnosing acute gastric volvulus. (orig.)

  11. The Immunomodulator VacA Promotes Immune Tolerance and Persistent Helicobacter pylori Infection through Its Activities on T-Cells and Antigen-Presenting Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Djekic, Aleksandra; M?ller, Anne

    2016-01-01

    VacA is a pore-forming toxin that has long been known to induce vacuolization in gastric epithelial cells and to be linked to gastric disorders caused by H. pylori infection. Its role as a major colonization and persistence determinant of H. pylori is less well-understood. The purpose of this review is to discuss the various target cell types of VacA and its mechanism of action; specifically, we focus on the evidence showing that VacA targets myeloid cells and T-cells to directly and indirect...

  12. [Eleven Patients with Gastric Cancer Who Received Chemotherapy after Stent Placement for Gastric Outlet Obstruction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Shunji; Nakagawa, Tomo; Konishi, Ken; Ikenaga, Masakazu; Ohta, Katsuya; Nakashima, Shinsuke; Matsumoto, Kenichi; Nishikawa, Kazuhiro; Ohmori, Takeshi; Yamada, Terumasa

    2017-01-01

    Endoscopic placement of self-expandable metallic stents is reportedly effective for gastric outlet obstructions due to advanced gastric cancer, and is less invasive than gastrojejunostomy. For patients who have good performance status, we administer chemotherapy after stent placement, although the safety and feasibility of this chemotherapy have not yet been discussed in full. Between 2011 and 2015, 15 patients at our institution underwent endoscopic gastroduodenal stent placement for gastric outlet obstruction due to gastric cancer. Eleven of these patients were administered chemotherapy after stent placement. In our case series, we did not observe any specific adverse event caused by stent placement plus chemotherapy. Adverse events after chemotherapy included anemia of CTCAE Grade 3 in 7 patients. Stent-in-stent placement was needed in 2 patients. Neither stent migration nor perforation was observed. Therefore, chemotherapy after stent placement for gastric outlet obstruction due to gastric cancer was considered safe and feasible. Stent placement is useful not only as palliative care for patients with terminal-stage disease, but also as one of the multimodal therapeutic strategies for gastric cancer.

  13. Gastric metastasis from invasive lobular breast cancer, mimicking primary gastric cancer: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae Hoon; Son, Seung-Myoung; Choi, Young Jin

    2018-03-01

    Gastric metastasis from invasive lobular breast cancer is relatively rare, commonly presented among multiple metastases, several years after primary diagnosis of breast cancer. Importantly, gastric cancer that is synchronously presented with lobular breast cancer can be misdiagnosed as primary gastric cancer; therefore, accurate differential diagnosis is required. A 39-year-old woman was visited to our hospital because of right breast mass and progressive dyspepsia. Invasive lobular carcinoma of breast was diagnosed on core needle biopsy. Gastroscopy revealed a diffuse scirrhous mass at the prepyloric antrum and diagnosed as poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma on biopsy. Synchronous double primary breast and gastric cancers were considered. Detailed pathological analysis focused on immunohistochemical studies of selected antibodies, including those of estrogen receptors, gross cystic disease fluid protein-15, and caudal-type homeobox transcription factor 2, were studied. As a result, gastric lesion was diagnosed as metastatic gastric cancer originating from breast. Right breast conserving surgery was performed, and duodenal stent was inserted under endoscopic guidance to relieve the patient's symptoms. Systemic chemotherapy with combined administration of paclitaxel and trastuzumab was initiated. Forty-one months after the diagnosis, the patient is still undergoing the same therapy. No recurrent lesion has been identified in the breast and evidence of a partial remission of gastric wall thickening has been observed on follow-up studies without new metastatic lesions. Clinical suspicion, repeat endoscopic biopsy, and detailed histological analysis, including immunohistochemistry, are necessary for diagnosis of metastatic gastric cancer from the breast.

  14. Case Report - Diaphragmatic eventration complicated by gastric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eventration of the diaphragm with gastric volvulus is uncommon. Gastric perforation in these cases is rare and usually associated with acute gastric volvulus with strangulation. We describe a case of diaphragmatic eventration with chronic gastric volvulus with gastric perforation without strangulation in an elderly man.

  15. Metastatic Gastric Linitis Plastica from Bladder Cancer Mimicking a Primary Gastric Carcinoma: a Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Won Sun; Chung, Dong Jin; Lee, Jae Mun; Byun, Jae Ho; Hahn, Seong Tae

    2009-01-01

    Primary gastric carcinoma is the most common cause of linitis plastica. Less frequently, metastatic gastric cancer from the breast, omental metastases and non-Hodgkin lymphoma involving the stomach have been reported to show similar radiographic findings as for linitis plastica. A metastatic gastric cancer from bladder cancer is extremely rare. We present an unusual case, the first to our knowledge, of gastric linitis plastica that resulted from a metastatic urothelial carcinoma of the bladder

  16. Computed tomography findings of acute gastric volvulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millet, Ingrid; Orliac, Celine; Alili, Chakib; Guillon, Françoise; Taourel, Patrice

    2014-12-01

    To assess the diagnostic performance of CT signs of gastric volvulus in both confirmed cases and control subjects. We retrospectively reviewed CT findings in 10 patients with surgically confirmed acute gastric volvulus and 20 control subjects with gastric distension. Two radiologists independently evaluated CT images for risk factors of gastric volvulus, direct findings of gastric volvulus by assessing gastric dilatation, the presence of an antropyloric transition point, the respective position of the different stomach segments and of the greater and lesser curvatures, stenosis of the gastric segments through the oesophageal hiatus and for findings of gastric ischemia. The sensitivity and specificity of each finding were calculated. The most sensitive direct signs of gastric volvulus were an antropyloric transition point without any abnormality at the transition zone and the antrum at the same level or higher than the fundus. The presence of both these two findings as diagnostic criteria of gastric volvulus had 100% sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of gastric volvulus. There was no association between CT signs of ischemia and final bowel ischemia at pathology. CT is both highly sensitive and specific for diagnosing acute gastric volvulus. CT is highly reliable for diagnosing acute gastric volvulus with two findings. The two signs are gastropyloric transition zone and abnormal location of the antrum. This allows fast surgical management of this emergency.

  17. Comparison of aloe vera and omeprazole in the treatment of equine gastric ulcer syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, J; van den Boom, R; Franklin, S

    2018-01-01

    Anecdotally, aloe vera is used to treat gastric ulceration, although no studies have yet investigated its efficacy in horses. To test the hypothesis that aloe vera would be noninferior to omeprazole in the treatment of equine gastric ulcer syndrome. Randomised, blinded clinical trial. Forty horses with grade ≥2 lesions of the squamous and/or glandular mucosa were randomly assigned to one of two groups. Horses received either aloe vera inner leaf gel (17.6 mg/kg bwt) b.i.d. or omeprazole (4 mg/kg bwt) s.i.d. for approximately 28 days, after which a repeat gastroscopic examination was performed to determine disease resolution. Horses with persistent lesions were offered a further 28 days of treatment with omeprazole (4 mg/kg bwt s.i.d.) and were re-examined on completion of treatment. Efficacy analyses were based on 39 horses that completed the trial. Equine squamous gastric disease (ESGD) was observed in 38 horses; improvement and healing rates in these horses were 56% and 17%, respectively, in the aloe vera group, and 85% and 75%, respectively, in the omeprazole group. Healing was less likely to occur in horses with prolonged gastric emptying. Equine glandular gastric disease (EGGD) was less common than ESGD (n = 14) and numbers were too small to perform meaningful statistical analyses. The hypothesis that aloe vera would be noninferior to omeprazole was not supported. No placebo control group was included. Limited numbers preclude any comment on the efficacy of aloe vera in the treatment of EGGD. Treatment with aloe vera was inferior to treatment with omeprazole. © 2017 EVJ Ltd.

  18. A Possible Link between Gastric Mucosal Atrophy and Gastric Cancer after Helicobacter pylori Eradication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomomitsu Tahara

    Full Text Available The effect of H. pylori eradication in gastric cancer prevention can be attributed to the improvement of atrophic gastritis, which is a known risk of gastric cancer. However, gastric cancer has also been diagnosed after long-term H. pylori eradication. This study aimed to clarify the association between gastric atrophy and gastric cancer after H. pylori eradication, including its clinicopathological features.A total of 55 consecutive patients with 64 early gastric cancers (EGCs diagnosed after H. pylori eradication were enrolled. The degree of endoscopic atrophy and the histological degrees of mononuclear cell infiltration, atrophy, and metaplasia in the corpus and adjacent mucosa of the EGCs were determined and scored.The majority of EGCs (63/64 were located within the endoscopically assessed atrophic mucosa or along the atrophic border. The adjacent mucosa of the EGCs presented significantly higher degrees of all histological parameters than in the corpus (mononuclear cell infiltration, 0.86+/-0.09 vs. 0.51+/-0.11, P = 0.016; atrophy, 1.77+/-0.13 vs. 0.65+/-0.14, P<0.0001; metaplasia, 1.68+/-0.13 vs. 0.48+/-0.1, P<0.0001. The degree of endoscopic atrophy improved in the patients with longer post-H. pylori eradication periods; however, this trend was not observed for the histological parameters, and high degrees of atrophy and metaplasia were observed in the adjacent mucosa of the EGCs compared with the corpus during all periods (all P<0.05. The histological degrees of atrophy and metaplasia in the adjacent mucosa were particularly higher in the patients who underwent eradication due to gastric ulcers.Severe gastric atrophy remained in the adjacent mucosa of the EGCs after H. pylori eradication, which may be linked to gastric carcinogenesis.

  19. A novel approach for the detection of early gastric cancer: fluorescence spectroscopy of gastric juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Kai; Zhou, Li Ya; Lin, San Ren; Li, Yuan; Chen, Mo; Geng, Qiu Ming; Li, Yu Wen

    2013-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the efficacy of fluorescence spectroscopy of gastric juice for early gastric cancer (EGC) screening. Gastric juice was collected from 101 participants who underwent endoscopy in the Outpatient Endoscopy Center of Peking University Third Hospital. The participants were divided into three groups: the normal mucosa or chronic non-atrophic gastritis (NM-CNAG) group (n = 35), advanced gastric cancer (AGC) group (n = 33) and EGC group (n = 33). Fluorescence spectroscopic analysis was performed in all the gastric juice samples and the maximum fluorescence intensity of the first peak (P1 FI) was measured. The mean fluorescence intensity of P1 FI of gastric juice in AGC (92.1 ± 10.7) and EGC (90.8 ± 12.0) groups was significantly higher than that in the NM-CNAG group (55.7 ± 7.5) (AGC vs NM-CNAG, P = 0.006 and EGC vs NM-CNAG, P = 0.015, respectively). The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves for the detection of AGC and EGC were 0.681 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.553-0.810, P = 0.010) and 0.655 (95% CI 0.522-0.787, P = 0.028). With the P1 FI of ≥47.7, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy for detecting EGC were 69.7%, 57.1% and 63.2%, respectively. The enhancement of P1 FI of gastric juice occurs at the early stage of gastric cancer. Fluorescence spectroscopy of gastric juice may be used as a novel screening tool for the early detection of gastric cancer. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Digestive Diseases © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd and Chinese Medical Association Shanghai Branch, Chinese Society of Gastroenterology, Renji Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine.

  20. Radiologic features of gastric leiomyosarcoma and leiomyoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Seoung Oh; Choi, Byung Ihn; Han, Man Chung; Kim, Chu Wan

    1985-01-01

    Smooth muscle tumors of stomach are unusual tumors, accounting for 1-3% of primary gastric malignancies. Diagnosis of these tumors is important because of the more favorable prognosis of this tumor than that of gastric carcinoma. A retrospective study was made in 18 patients who had pathology-proven gastric leiomyoma and leiomyosarcoma to identify radiologic characteristics for recent 6 years from Jan. 1978 to July. 1984 at Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital. The results were as follows: 1. Age of 13 cases of gastric leiomyosarcoma ranged from 36 to 70 with average of 51 and the male to female ratio was 10 ; 3. Age of 5 cases of gastric leiomyoma ranged from 24 to 67 with average of 44 and the male to female ratio was 3 : 2. 2. Clinically, gastric leiomyosarcoma had epigastric pain in 7 cases, palpable mass in 4 cases, melena in 3 cases, haematemesis in 2 cases, 5 cases of gastric leiomyoma also had above symptoms respectively. 3. Of the 13 cases of gastric leiomyosarcoma studied by upper gastrointestinal examination, 6 cases (32%) involved the fundus, 10 cases (50%) in the body, 3 cases (18%) in the antrum. Of the 5 cases of gastric leiomyoma, 4 cases were confined to the fundus and 1 case in the body. 4. The size of the 13 gastric leiomyosarcoma ranged from 5 to more than 20 cm in diameter. The size of the 5 gastric leiomyomas ranged from 3 to 9 cm in diameter. 5. The growth type of gastric leiomysarcoma was exophytic in 8 cases, endogastric in 1 case and mixed pattern in 4 cases. The growth type of gastric leiomyoma were exophytic in 1 case, endogastric in 2 cases and mixed in 2 cases. 6. Mucosal pattern of gastric leiomyosarcoma were mainly effaced pattern in 10 cases (77%), but 3 cases (23%) showed irregular destruction. 1 case of gastric leiomyoma showed mucosal irregularity. 7. Ulceration was present in 10 cases of gastric leiomyosarcoma either single or multiple. 2 cases of gastric leiomyoma showed small ulcerations. Calciflation

  1. Customization of laparoscopic gastric devascularization and splenectomy for gastric varices based on CT vascular anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawanaka, Hirofumi; Akahoshi, Tomohiko; Nagao, Yoshihiro; Kinjo, Nao; Yoshida, Daisuke; Matsumoto, Yoshihiro; Harimoto, Norifumi; Itoh, Shinji; Yoshizumi, Tomoharu; Maehara, Yoshihiko

    2018-01-01

    Laparoscopic gastric devascularization(Lap GDS) and splenectomy (SPL) for gastric varices is technically challenging because of highly developed collateral vessels and bleeding tendency. We investigated the feasibility of customization of Lap GDS and SPL based on CT vascular anatomy. We analyzed 61 cirrhotic patients with gastric varices who underwent Lap GDS and SPL between 2006 and 2014. Lap GDS was customized according to the afferent feeding veins (left gastric vein (LGV) and/or posterior gastric vein (PGV)/short gastric vein (SGV)) and efferent drainage veins (gastrorenal shunt and/or gastrophrenic shunt, or numerous retroperitoneal veins) based on CT imaging. Thirty-four patients with efferent drainage veins suitable for balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (B-RTO) underwent B-RTO instead of surgical GDS, with subsequent Lap SPL. Among 27 patients with gastric varices unsuitable for B-RTO, 15 patients with PGV/SGV underwent Lap GDS of the greater curvature and SPL, and 12 patients with LGV or LGV/PGV/SGV underwent Lap GDS of the greater and lesser curvature and SPL. The mean operation time was 294 min and mean blood loss was 198 g. There was no mortality or severe morbidity. Gastric varices were eradicated in all 61 patients, with no bleeding or recurrence during a mean follow-up of 55.9 months. The cumulative 3-, 5-, and 7-year survival rates were 92, 82, and 64%, respectively. Lap GDS and SPL customized based on CT vascular anatomy is a safe and effective procedure for treating gastric varices.

  2. Molecular biology of gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervantes, A; Rodríguez Braun, E; Pérez Fidalgo, A; Chirivella González, I

    2007-04-01

    Despite its decreasing incidence overall, gastric cancer is still a challenging disease. Therapy is based mainly upon surgical resection when the tumour remains localised in the stomach. Conventional chemotherapy may play a role in treating micrometastatic disease and is effective as palliative therapy for recurrent or advanced disease. However, the knowledge of molecular pathways implicated in gastric cancer pathogenesis is still in its infancy and the contribution of molecular biology to the development of new targeted therapies in gastric cancer is far behind other more common cancers such as breast, colon or lung. This review will focus first on the difference of two well defined types of gastric cancer: intestinal and diffuse. A discussion of the cell of origin of gastric cancer with some intriguing data implicating bone marrow derived cells will follow, and a comprehensive review of different genetic alterations detected in gastric cancer, underlining those that may have clinical, therapeutic or prognostic implications.

  3. Diagnoses of gastric cancer and other gastric diseases by serum pepsinogen I and II levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Zhijian; Jiang Mengjun

    1998-01-01

    Serum pepsinogens I and II (PGI, PGII) levels were determined by PGI and PGII-RIA kits in 84 healthy controls and 128 patients of gastric diseases including 42 patients with gastric cancer. The results showed peptic ulcer cases had elevated PGI and PGII levels. The atrophic gastritis cases had low PGI levels and the gastric cancer cases had low PGI and low PGI/PGII ratio. Using the cut-off values of PGI<35 μg/L and PGI/PGII<1.5 for clinical purpose, the sensitivity and specificity of the test for gastric cancer was 73% and 78%, respectively. Combined with endoscope examination, the serum PGI and PGII levels are valuable for the early diagnosis of gastric cancer

  4. Curcumin-induced histone acetylation inhibition improves stress-induced gastric ulcer disease in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ping; Zhou, Renmin; Hu, Guorui; Liu, Zhifeng; Jin, Yu; Yang, Guang; Li, Mei; Lin, Qian

    2015-03-01

    Curcumin is known to possess anti‑inflammatory properties. Despite the fact that curcumin is known to be a strong inhibitor of H+, K+‑ATPase activity, the mechanism underlying the curcumin‑induced inhibition of the transcription of the H+, K+‑ATPase α subunit in gastric mucosal parietal cells remains unclear. The present study investigated the possible mechanism by which curcumin inhibits stomach H+, K+‑ATPase activity during the acute phase of gastric ulcer disease. A rat model of stress‑induced gastric ulcers was produced, in which the anti‑ulcer effects of curcumin were examined. Curcumin‑induced inhibition of the H+, K+‑ATPase promoter via histone acetylation, was verified using a chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. The results showed that curcumin improved stress‑induced gastric ulcer disease in rats, as demonstrated by increased pH values and reduced gastric mucosal hemorrhage and ulcer index. These effects were accompanied by a significant reduction in the level of histone H3 acetylation at the site of the H+, K+‑ATPase promoter and in the expression of the gastric H+,K+‑ATPase α subunit gene and protein. In conclusion, curcumin downregulated the acetylation of histone H3 at the site of the H+, K+‑ATPase promoter gene, thereby inhibiting the transcription and expression of the H+, K+‑ATPase gene. Curcumin was shown to have a preventive and therapeutic effect in gastric ulcer disease.

  5. Recent advances in gastric emptying scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbain, J.L.C.; Mayeur, S.M.

    1996-01-01

    Gastric emptying scintigraphy was introduced more than 25 years ago by Grittith and still remains the gold standard to assess gastric emptying. Test meals, radiopharmaceuticals and acquisition procedures have been refined and optimized over the years and the test procedure is now pretty well standardized. However, in its most common use, gastric emptying scintigraphy provides little information on gastric physiology. Over the last decade, modelling of the liquid and solid emptying curves have brought some insight in the complex gastric physiology. Compartmental analysis of the stomach has also provided information on the pathophysiological mechanisms of delayed gastric emptying. Over the past 5 years, the most dramatic development in gastric emptying scintigraphy has been the introduction of Digital Antral Scintigraphy (DAS). Digital Antral scintigraphy basically consists in dynamically imaging of the stomach and the use of a refined Fourier transform processing method. This new procedure allows for the visualization of antral contractions and, alike manometry, permits quantitative characterization on the frequency and amplitude of these contractions. Overall, this new procedure provides a unique, non invasive tool to characterize gastric motility, to define the pathophysiologic mechanisms of gastric motor disorders and to evaluate the effect of new gastro-kinetic compounds. (authors). 241 refs., 5 figs

  6. An evaluation of gastric mass survey from the standpoint of expectation of life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoyama, Michio; Kitabatake, Takashi.

    1977-01-01

    The authors reexamined the evaluation of mass gastric survey, which had previously been reported by them, from the standpoint of expectation of life and advocated new theories, the number of years of expected lifesaving and the rate of loss and gain of years. Comparison between the new evaluation and the pre-existing evaluation produces the following differences. (1) The number of years of expected lifesaving increases rapidly from the 50s to reach a peak in the 60s and to decrease from the 70s. This is more realistic and reasonable than the pre-existing method by which the higher the age, the more is gain increased. (2) The rate of loss and gain of mass gastric survey increases in each age group. In other words, the value of mass gastric survey is evaluated more highly. While the importance of mass gastric survey has recently been recognized, the number of examinees increasing, injury due to exposure to radiation has become a serious problem. Therefore, it was thought to be important to perform mass gastric survey efficiently on subjects limited based on the theory investigated from both aspects of advantage and disadvantage. (Chiba, N.)

  7. Clinicopathological study of asymptomatic gastric cancer and symptomatic gastric cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Toshiteru

    2008-01-01

    Gastric cancer can be classified into two categories based on the absence or presence of symptoms at diagnosis. Differences in clinicopathological features and prognoses between asymptomatic gastric cancer (ACG) and symptomatic gastric cancer (SGC) can be used to inform diagnosis strategies and ultimately improve survival rates. All cases of gastric cancer (239 AGC, 323 SGC) diagnosed in our hospital between 1997 and 1999 were used in this study. ACG patients showed significantly higher frequency of males, cases of early cancer, cases found by a mass screening program, cases treated by endoscopic resection, cases treated by curative operation, cases of type 0 macroscopic finding, cases of histologically-differentiated type, and stage I cases. By contrast, SGC patients showed significantly higher numbers of cases treated by chemotherapy alone or best support care, cases of type 2, 3, and 4 macroscopic findings, cases occupying the whole stomach, and cases of stage II, III, IV. Statistically significant differences were also found for the 5-year survival rate (83.3% in AGC, 41.2% in SGC), the incidence of early cancer (90.1% in AGC, 83.7% in SGC), and for advanced cancer (38.7% in AGC, 22.7% in SGC). The higher incidence of advanced cases in SGC than in AGC (40.0% vs. 13.0%), coupled with the low 5-year survival rate of advanced SGC (22.7%), provides strong evidence of the importance of diagnosing gastric cancer during its asymptomatic period. (author)

  8. Diagnosis of gastric cancers by CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Jianbing; Gong Jianping; Huan Jian

    1999-01-01

    Forty two cases of gastric cancers were reviewed. The cancer had been examined by CT and was confirmed by operation and pathology. The diagnostic results of gastric cancers obtained by CT were compared with that from GI and fibro-gastroscopy examination. The results showed that the preparation of gastrointestinal tract before CT examination was important in the CT diagnosis of gastric cancer. CT in diagnosis of focus of gastric cancer and organ invasion is better than Gl and Fibro-gastroscopy and accuracy in diagnosis of gastric cancers is near to that of GI examination

  9. Oxidative Stress Resulting From Helicobacter pylori Infection Contributes to Gastric CarcinogenesisSummary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay D. Butcher

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori is a gram-negative, microaerophilic bacterium that infects the stomach and can lead to, among other disorders, the development of gastric cancer. The inability of the host to clear the infection results in a chronic inflammatory state with continued oxidative stress within the tissue. Reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species produced by the immune and epithelial cells damage the host cells and can result in DNA damage. H pylori has evolved to evoke this damaging response while blunting the host’s efforts to kill the bacteria. This long-lasting state with inflammation and oxidative stress can result in gastric carcinogenesis. Continued efforts to better understand the bacterium and the host response will serve to prevent or provide improved early diagnosis and treatment of gastric cancer. Keywords: AP Endonuclease, DNA Damage, H pylori, Gastric Cancer, Oxidative Stress

  10. Gastric Schwannoma: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kye Ho; Jee, Keum Nahn

    2006-01-01

    Gastric Schwannoma is a rare benign intramural tumor arising from the stomach, and it accounts for only 0.1% of all the different kinds of gastric neoplasms, and it's less than 4% of all the benign gastric tumors. This tumor is very difficult to differentiate from the other mesenchymal tumors by the clinical, endoscopic and radiologic findings. In this study, we demonstrate the appearance of this tumor on endoscopic ultrasound and contrast-enhanced abdomen CT. We also show the histopathologic findings of a surgically confirmed gastric Schwannoma that was located in the proper muscle layer

  11. Genetics Home Reference: hereditary diffuse gastric cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Conditions Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... Diffuse Gastric Cancer MedlinePlus Encyclopedia: Gastric Cancer National Cancer ... Option Overview General Information from MedlinePlus ( ...

  12. Scintigraphic evaluation of gastric emptying and motility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linke, R.

    2003-01-01

    The stomach consists of two functionally distinct parts. The fundus and upper corpus mainly serve as a reservoir and exert primarily a tonic activity, which presses ingesta towards the antrum and duodenum. The phasic contractility of the lower corpus and antrum cause mechanical breakdown and mixing of the food particels. A complex regulation of these mechanisms provides a regular gastric emptying. Various disorders such as diabetes mellitus, mixed connective tissue diseases, gastritis, tumors, dyspeptic disorders but also drugs and gastric surgery may influence or impair gastric function and may cause typical symptoms such as upper abdominal discomfort, bloating, nausea and vomiting. However, the interpretation of gastrointestinal symptoms often is difficult. Radionuclide studies of gastric emptying and motility are the most physiologic tools available for studying gastric motor function. Gastric scintigraphy is non-invasive, uses physiologic meal and is quantitative. Emptying curves generated from the gastric ROI offer information whether a disorder is accompanied by a regular, fast or slow gastric emptying. Data on gastric contractions (amplitude and frequency) provide additional information to results obtained by conventional emptying studies. Depending on the underlying disorder, gastric emptying and peristalsis showed both corresponding and discrepant findings. Therefore, both parameters should be routinely assessed to further improve characterisation of gastric dysfunction by scintigraphy. (orig.) [de

  13. Analysis of interventional therapy for progressing stage gastric cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Mingde; Zhang Zijing; Ji Hongsheng; Ge Chenlin; Hao Gang; Wei Kongming; Yuan Yuhou; Zhao Xiuping

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the interventional therapy and its curative effect for progressing stage gastric cancer. Methods: two hundred and twelve patients with progressing stage gastric cancer were treated with arterial perfusion and arterial embolization. Gastric cardia cancer was treated through the left gastric artery and the left inferior phrenic artery or splenic artery. Cancers of lesser and greater gastric curvature was treated either through the left and right gastric arteries or common hepatic artery or through gastroduodenal artery, right gastroomental artery or splenic artery. Gastric antrum cancers were perfused through gastroduodenal artery or after the middle segmental embolization of right gastroomental artery. Results: One hundred and ninety three cases undergone interventional management were followed up. The CR + PR of gastric cardia cancer was 53.13%; gastric body cancer 44.44%; gastric antrum cancer 10%; recurrent cancer and remnant gastric cancer 0. There was no significant difference in outcome between gastric cardia cancer and gastric body cancer (P>0.05) but significant differences were shown both between gastric cardia cancer and gastric antrum cancer, and between gastric body cancer and gastric antrum cancer (P<0.05), with 1 year and 2 years survival rates of 81% and 56% respectively. Conclusion: The interventional therapeutic effect of progressing stage gastric cancers is different due to the different sites of the lesions in the gastric tissue. The curative effect of gastric cardia cancer and gastric body cancer is better than that of gastric antrum cancer, recurrent cancer and remnant gastric cancer. (authors)

  14. The overmethylated genes in Helicobacter pylori-infected gastric mucosa are demethylated in gastric cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choi Sang-Wook

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The transitional-CpG sites between weakly methylated genes and densely methylated retroelements are overmethylated in the gastric mucosa infected with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori and they are undermethylated in the gastric cancers depending on the level of loss of heterozygosity (LOH events. This study delineated the transitional-CpG methylation patterns of CpG-island-containing and -lacking genes in view of the retroelements. Methods The transitional-CpG sites of eight CpG-island-containing genes and six CpG-island-lacking genes were semi-quantitatively examined by performing radioisotope-labelling methylation-specific PCR under stringent conditions. The level of LOH in the gastric cancers was estimated using the 40 microsatellite markers on eight cancer-associated chromosomes. Each gene was scored as overmethylated or undermethylated based on an intermediate level of transitional-CpG methylation common in the H. pylori-negative gastric mucosa. Results The eight CpG-island genes examined were overmethylated depending on the proximity to the nearest retroelement in the H. pylori-positive gastric mucosa. The six CpG-island-lacking genes were similarly methylated in the H. pylori-positive and -negative gastric mucosa. In the gastric cancers, long transitional-CpG segments of the CpG-island genes distant from the retroelements remained overmethylated, whereas the overmethylation of short transitional-CpG segments close to the retroelements was not significant. Both the CpG-island-containing and -lacking genes tended to be decreasingly methylated in a LOH-level-dependent manner. Conclusions The overmethylated genes under the influence of retroelement methylation in the H. pylori-infected stomach are demethylated in the gastric cancers influenced by LOH.

  15. Gastric extremely well differentiated adenocarcinoma of gastric phenotype: as a gastric counterpart of adenoma malignum of the uterine cervix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ae Lee Won

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most of gastric adenocarcinoma can be simply diagnosed by microscopic examination of biopsy specimen. Rarely the structural and cellular atypia of tumor cells is too insignificant to discriminate from benign foveolar epithelium. Case presentation A 67-year-old male presented with a gastric mass incidentally found on the abdominal computed tomography (CT for routine medical examination. Gastric endoscopic examination revealed a huge fungating mass at the cardia and mucosal biopsy was performed. Microscopically the biopsy specimen showed proliferation of bland looking foveolar epithelia in the inflammatory background and diagnosed as foveolar epithelial hyperplasia. Because the clinical and endoscopic features of this patient were strongly suggestive of malignancy, the patient underwent radical total gastrectomy. The resected stomach revealed a huge fungating tumor at the cardia. The cut surface of the tumor was whitish gelatinous. Microscopically the tumor was sharply demarcated from surrounding mucosa and composed of very well formed glandular structures without significant cellular atypia, which invaded into the whole layer of the gastric wall. Tumor glands were occasionally complicated or dilated, and glandular lumina were filled with abundant mucin. Immunohistochemically the tumor cells revealed no overexpression of p53 protein but high Ki-67 labeling index. The tumor cells and intraluminal mucin were diffusely expressed MUC1 and MUC5AC and only focally expressed MUC2. On abdominal CT taken after 12 months demonstrated peritoneal carcinomatosis and multiple metastatic foci in the lung. Conclusion The clinicopathologic profiles of gastric extremely well differentiated adenocarcinoma of gastric phenotype include cardiac location, fungating gross type, very similar histology to foveolar epithelial hyperplasia, foveolar mucin phenotype, lack of p53 overexpressoin and high proliferative index.

  16. Design, implementation and testing of an implantable impedance-based feedback-controlled neural gastric stimulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arriagada, A J; Jurkov, A S; Mintchev, M P; Neshev, E; Andrews, C N; Muench, G

    2011-01-01

    Functional neural gastrointestinal electrical stimulation (NGES) is a methodology of gastric electrical stimulation that can be applied as a possible treatment for disorders such as obesity and gastroparesis. NGES is capable of generating strong lumen-occluding local contractions that can produce retrograde or antegrade movement of gastric content. A feedback-controlled implantable NGES system has been designed, implemented and tested both in laboratory conditions and in an acute animal setting. The feedback system, based on gastric tissue impedance change, is aimed at reducing battery energy requirements and managing the phenomenon of gastric tissue accommodation. Acute animal testing was undertaken in four mongrel dogs (2 M, 2 F, weight 25.53 ± 7.3 kg) that underwent subserosal two-channel electrode implantation. Three force transducers sutured serosally along the gastric axis and a wireless signal acquisition system were utilized to record stimulation-generated contractions and tissue impedance variations respectively. Mechanically induced contractions in the stomach were utilized to indirectly generate a tissue impedance change that was detected by the feedback system. Results showed that increasing or decreasing impedance changes were detected by the implantable stimulator and that therapy can be triggered as a result. The implantable feedback system brings NGES one step closer to long term treatment of burdening gastric motility disorders in humans

  17. Redefining early gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto, Savio G; Windsor, John A

    2016-01-01

    The problem is that current definitions of early gastric cancer allow the inclusion of regional lymph node metastases. The increasing use of endoscopic submucosal dissection to treat early gastric cancer is a concern because regional lymph nodes are not addressed. The aim of the study was thus to critically evaluate current evidence with regard to tumour-specific factors associated with lymph node metastases in "early gastric cancer" to develop a more precise definition and improve clinical management. A systematic and comprehensive search of major reference databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed and the Cochrane Library) was undertaken using a combination of text words "early gastric cancer", "lymph node metastasis", "factors", "endoscopy", "surgery", "lymphadenectomy" "mucosa", "submucosa", "lymphovascular invasion", "differentiated", "undifferentiated" and "ulcer". All available publications that described tumour-related factors associated with lymph node metastases in early gastric cancer were included. The initial search yielded 1494 studies, of which 42 studies were included in the final analysis. Over time, the definition of early gastric cancer has broadened and the indications for endoscopic treatment have widened. The mean frequency of lymph node metastases increased on the basis of depth of infiltration (mucosa 6% vs. submucosa 28%), presence of lymphovascular invasion (absence 9% vs. presence 53%), tumour differentiation (differentiated 13% vs. undifferentiated 34%) and macroscopic type (elevated 13% vs. flat 26%) and tumour diameter (≤2 cm 8% vs. >2 cm 25%). There is a need to re-examine the diagnosis and staging of early gastric cancer to ensure that patients with one or more identifiable risk factor for lymph node metastases are not denied appropriate chemotherapy and surgical resection.

  18. Helicobacter pylori infection assessed by ELISA and by immunoblot and noncardia gastric cancer risk in a prospective study: the Eurgast-EPIC project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    González, C A; Megraud, F; Buissoniere, A

    2012-01-01

    of its effect on gastric cancer (GC) risk. Antibodies detected by western blot are known to persist longer after the loss of the infection. In a nested case-control study from the Eurogast-EPIC cohort, including 88 noncardia GC cases and 338 controls, we assessed the association between noncardia GC...

  19. Persistent luminescence nanothermometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín Rodríguez, Emma; López-Peña, Gabriel; Montes, Eduardo; Lifante, Ginés; García Solé, José; Jaque, Daniel; Diaz-Torres, Luis Armando; Salas, Pedro

    2017-08-01

    Persistent phosphorescence nanoparticles emitting in the red and near-infrared spectral regions are strongly demanded as contrast nanoprobes for autofluorescence free bioimaging and biosensing. In this work, we have developed Sr4Al14O25:Eu2+, Cr3+, Nd3+ nanopowders that produce persistent red phosphorescence peaking at 694 nm generated by Cr3+ ions. This emission displays temperature sensitivity in the physiological temperature range (20-60 °C), which makes these nanoparticles potentially useful as fluorescence (contactless) nanothermometers operating without requiring optical excitation. Nd3+ ions, which act as shallow electron traps for the red Cr3+ persistent emission, also display infrared emission bands, extending the fluorescence imaging capability to the second biological window. This unique combination of properties makes these nanoparticles multifunctional luminescent probes with great potential applications in nanomedicine.

  20. Overview of Current Concepts in Gastric Intestinal Metaplasia and Gastric Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jencks, David S; Adam, Jason D; Borum, Marie L; Koh, Joyce M; Stephen, Sindu; Doman, David B

    2018-02-01

    Gastric intestinal metaplasia is a precancerous change of the mucosa of the stomach with intestinal epithelium, and is associated with an increased risk of dysplasia and cancer. The pathogenesis to gastric cancer is proposed by the Correa hypothesis as the transition from normal gastric epithelium to invasive cancer via inflammation followed by intramucosal cancer and invasion. Multiple risk factors have been associated with the development of gastric intestinal metaplasia interplay, including Helicobacter pylori infection and associated genomics, host genetic factors, environmental milieu, rheumatologic disorders, diet, and intestinal microbiota. Globally, screening guidelines have been established in countries with high incidence. In the United States, no such guidelines have been developed due to lower, albeit increasing, incidence. The American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy recommends a case-by-case patient assessment based upon epidemiology, genetics, and environmental risk factors. Studies have examined the use of a serologic biopsy to stratify risk based upon factors such as H pylori status and virulence factors, along with serologic markers of chronic inflammation including pepsinogen I, pepsinogen II, and gastrin. High-risk patients may then be advised to undergo endoscopic evaluation with mapping biopsies from the antrum (greater curvature, lesser curvature), incisura angularis, and corpus (greater curvature, lesser curvature). Surveillance guidelines have not been firmly established for patients with known gastric intestinal metaplasia, but include repeat endoscopy at intervals according to the histologic risk for malignant transformation.

  1. [Gastric magnetic resonance study (methods, semiotics)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stashuk, G A

    2003-01-01

    The paper shows the potentialities of gastric study by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The methodic aspects of gastric study have been worked out. The MRI-semiotics of the unchanged and tumor-affected wall of the stomach and techniques in examining patients with gastric cancer of various sites are described. Using the developed procedure, MRI was performed in 199 patients, including 154 patients with gastric pathology and 45 control individuals who had no altered gastric wall. Great emphasis is placed on the role of MRI in the diagnosis of endophytic (diffuse) gastric cancer that is of priority value in its morphological structure. MRI was found to play a role in the diagnosis of the spread of a tumorous process both along the walls of the stomach and to its adjacent anatomic structures.

  2. Gastric and oesophageal emptying in obesity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maddox, A.; Horowitz, M.; Wishart, J.; Collins, P. (Royal Adelaide Hospital (Australia))

    1989-01-01

    Gastric and esophageal emptying were evaluated in 31 obese patients and 31 control subjects. A double-isotope techniques was used to measure gastric emptying of a mixed solid/liquid meal, and esophageal emptying was measured as the time taken for a bolus of the solid meal to enter the stomach. Gastric emptying of the solid and the liquid meal and esophageal emptying were delayed in the obese patients compared with the control subjects. There were no significant relationships among gastric emptying, esophageal emptying, and upper gastrointestinal symptoms in the obese patients alone. However, in the total group of 62 subjects there were significant correlations between body mass index and both gastric and esophageal emptying. These results indicate that delayed gastric and esophageal emptying occurs frequently in obesity and that these abnormalties relate to body weight.

  3. Absence of pepsinogen A3 gene expression in the gastric mucosa of patients with gastric cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Kuipers, E J; Peña, A S; Crusius, J B; Defize, J; van der Stoop, P; Meuwissen, S G; Pals, G

    1995-01-01

    AIMS--To investigate the expression of pepsinogen A3 (Pg3) encoding genes in the gastric mucosa of normal controls and subjects with atrophic gastritis and gastric cancer. METHODS--One hundred and fifty nine patients underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy with sampling of gastric biopsy specimens and serum. Pg3 isoproteins were determined by electrophoresis in serum and gastric mucosal biopsy specimens. Pg3 encoding genes were assessed by PCR in DNA obtained from peripheral blood. RESULTS...

  4. Effect of Cimetidine and Gastric Acidity on the Gastric Mucosal Retention of 99mTc-Pertechnetate in Rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sung Hoon; Kim, Jong Woo; Baik, Yong Whee

    1989-01-01

    99m Tc-Pertechnetate (TcO 4 - ) is concentrated by the stomach after intravenous injection, allowing the detection of ectopic gastric mucosa. It has been used to develop a noninvasive test of gastric secretion. However the cellular site of concentration is still controversial, that is whether mucin-secreting epithelial cell or acid-secreting parietal cell. This study is planned to investigate the effects of cimetidine and gastric acidity on the retention of TcO 4 - in the gastric wall of the rat. Also we further attempted to clarify the uptake and secreting cell of TcO 4 - in the gastric mucosa. One hundred rats were divided into two groups, preliminary (40 rats) and main examination group (60 rats). Preliminary examination group was composed of fasting group (20 rats) for the detection of the time for reaching stable TcO 4 - retention ratio in gastric wall and post-prandial group (20 rats) for the detection of the time for reaching the maximal gastric acidity. Main examination group was composed of fasting group (30 rats), which was subdivided into control group (10 rats), cimetidine group (10 rats), Mylanta group (10 rats) and post-prandial group (30 rats), which was subdivided into 90 min group (10 rats), 90 min cimetidine group (10 rats), and 120 min group (10 rats). Retention ratio (%) of TcO 4 - in the gastric wall and the pH of the gastric contents were measured in the extracted stomach of the six groups. Gastric wail retention ratio of TcO 4 - was calculated by the gastric wall radioactivity (cpm) divided by total gastric radioactivity (cpm) at 30 mins after intravenous injection of 0.4 mCi of TcO 4 - . The results were as follows: 1) The time required for reaching stable TcO 4 - retention ratio and the lowest gastric pH were 30 min and 90 min, respectively. 2) In the fasting group, the gastric wall retention ratio of TcO 4 - was significantly increased in the cimetidine group, compared with the control group (P 4 - retention ratio and gastric pH were well

  5. Stomach (Gastric) Cancer—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almost all gastric cancers are adenocarcinomas. Other types of gastric cancer are gastrointestinal carcinoid tumors, gastrointestinal stromal tumors, and lymphomas. Find evidence-based information on gastric cancer treatment, causes and prevention, screening, research, and statistics.

  6. The Protective Role of Carbon Monoxide (CO Produced by Heme Oxygenases and Derived from the CO-Releasing Molecule CORM-2 in the Pathogenesis of Stress-Induced Gastric Lesions: Evidence for Non-Involvement of Nitric Oxide (NO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Magierowska

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide (CO produced by heme oxygenase (HO-1 and HO-2 or released from the CO-donor, tricarbonyldichlororuthenium (II dimer (CORM-2 causes vasodilation, with unknown efficacy against stress-induced gastric lesions. We studied whether pretreatment with CORM-2 (0.1–10 mg/kg oral gavage (i.g., RuCl3 (1 mg/kg i.g., zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPP (10 mg/kg intraperitoneally (i.p., hemin (1–10 mg/kg i.g. and CORM-2 (1 mg/kg i.g. combined with NG-nitro-l-arginine (l-NNA, 20 mg/kg i.p., 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ, 10 mg/kg i.p., indomethacin (5 mg/kg i.p., SC-560 (5 mg/kg i.g., and celecoxib (10 mg/kg i.g. affects gastric lesions following 3.5 h of water immersion and restraint stress (WRS. Gastric blood flow (GBF, the number of gastric lesions and gastric CO and nitric oxide (NO contents, blood carboxyhemoglobin (COHb level and the gastric expression of HO-1, HO-2, hypoxia inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α, cyclooxygenase (COX-2 and inducible NO synthase (iNOS were determined. CORM-2 (1 mg/kg i.g. and hemin (10 mg/kg i.g. significantly decreased WRS lesions while increasing GBF, however, RuCl3 was ineffective. The impact of CORM-2 was reversed by ZnPP, ODQ, indomethacin, SC-560 and celecoxib, but not by l-NNA. CORM-2 decreased NO and increased HO-1 expression and CO and COHb content, downregulated HIF-1α, as well as WRS-elevated COX-2 and iNOS mRNAs. Gastroprotection by CORM-2 and HO depends upon CO’s hyperemic and anti-inflammatory properties, but is independent of NO.

  7. Congenital diaphragmatic hernia with gastric volvulus

    OpenAIRE

    Jain, Prashant; Sanghavi, Beejal; Sanghani, Hemanshi; Parelkar, S. V.; Borwankar, S. S.

    2007-01-01

    Gastric volvulus is a surgical emergency presenting in various forms. Association with diaphragmatic defect is well known. Here we describe three cases of gastric volvulus associated with diaphragmatic defect having varied presentations and their management. A rare case of gastric volvulus with complete gangrene of the stomach is also reported. Three types of gastric volvulus have been described depending on the rotation axis: organoaxial, mesentericoaxial and combination of both types. Opera...

  8. [Effect of manual acupuncture stimulation of "Zusanli" (ST 36) on gastric motility, and SP and motilin activities in gastric antrum and nucleus raphe magnus in gastric hyperactivity and hypoactivity rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Chun-Chuan; Peng, Yan; Lin, Ya-Ping; Yi, Shou-Xiang; Chen, Ping; Hou, Yan-Ling; Shi, Dong-Mei

    2013-10-01

    To observe the changes of gastric motility and levels of substance P (SP) and motilin (MTL) in the gastric antrum and Nucleus Raphe Magnus (NRM) after manual acupuncture stimulation of "Zusanli" (ST 36) in gastric hyperactivity and hypoactivity rats, so as to analyze the role of NRM in acupuncture mediated adjustment of gastric motility. Fifty SD rats were randomly and equally divided into control, gastric hyperactivity (G-Hypera) model, gastric hypoactivity (G-Hypoa) model, acupuncture + G-Hypera and acupuncture + G-Hypoa groups (10 rats/group). G-Hypera model was established by intravenous (tail vein) injection of Maxolon (0.5 mL/200 g) and G-Hypoa model established by intravenous injection of Atropin (0.5 mL/200 g), respectively. After insertion of acupuncture needles into bilateral "Zusanli" (ST 36), the needles were repeatedly manipulated at a frequency of about 2 Hz for 5 min. The intragastric pressure was recorded and analyzed using a physiological signal analysis system. The SP and MTL contents of gastric antrum were measured by ELISA, and SP and MTL immunoactivity of NRM was determined by immunohistochemistry. In gastric hyperactivity rats, compared with the control group, the intragastric pressure (not systolic frequency), SP and MTL contents in the gastric antrum and MTL immunoactivity of NRM were significantly increased (P effect on gastric motility, which is closely associated with its functions in regulating gastric SP and MTL level and the expression of MTL and SP in the NRM of brainstem.

  9. Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stomach Cancer Prevention Stomach Cancer Screening Research Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go ... are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Key Points Stomach cancer is a disease in ...

  10. Molecular analysis of primary gastric cancer, corresponding xenografts, and 2 novel gastric carcinoma cell lines reveals novel alterations in gastric carcinogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Milne, Anya N. A.; Sitarz, Robert; Carvalho, Ralph; Polak, Mirjam M.; Ligtenberg, Madolijn; Pauwels, Patrick; Offerhaus, G. Johan A.; Weterman, Marian A. J.

    2007-01-01

    We report the molecular characterization of 8 primary gastric carcinomas, corresponding xenografts, and 2 novel gastric carcinoma cell lines. We compared the tumors and cell lines, with respect to histology, immunohistochemistry, copy number, and hypermethylation of up to 38 genes using

  11. DBGC: A Database of Human Gastric Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Zhang, Jun; Cai, Mingdeng; Zhu, Zhenggang; Gu, Wenjie; Yu, Yingyan; Zhang, Xiaoyan

    2015-01-01

    The Database of Human Gastric Cancer (DBGC) is a comprehensive database that integrates various human gastric cancer-related data resources. Human gastric cancer-related transcriptomics projects, proteomics projects, mutations, biomarkers and drug-sensitive genes from different sources were collected and unified in this database. Moreover, epidemiological statistics of gastric cancer patients in China and clinicopathological information annotated with gastric cancer cases were also integrated into the DBGC. We believe that this database will greatly facilitate research regarding human gastric cancer in many fields. DBGC is freely available at http://bminfor.tongji.edu.cn/dbgc/index.do PMID:26566288

  12. Incidence of ascariasis in gastric carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Woo; Rhee, Hak Song; Bahk, Yong Whee [St Mary' s Hospital Catholic Medical College, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1972-09-15

    Prompted by the finding that the radiological incidence of small bowel ascariasis in the patient with gastric carcinoma was unexpectedly lower than the incidence in the normal population, a clinical study was performed to investigate possible relationship between gastric carcinoma and intestinal ascariasis. As a preliminary survey, we reviewed the radiological incidence of ascariasis in a total of 2,446 cases of upper GI series performed at the Department of Radiology, St Mary's Hospital Catholic Medical College. These included 1,573 normal subjects, 146 gastric carcinoma patients, 100 benign gastric ulcer and 249 duodenal ulcer patients and 378 other upper GI diseases. Following the preliminary study, a more accurate parasitologic study was conducted in another 578 normal subjects and 51 gastric carcinoma patients. The radiological incidences of ascaiasis in normal subjects and gastric carcinoma patients were 15.1% and 28.1%, respectively. The incidence of overall helminthiasis including ascaris lumbricoides, trichocephalus trichiurus and trichostrongyloides orientalis in normal subjects of the present series was 73.5%. This figure is virtually the same with 69.1% of the general population incidence reported by Kim, et al. (1971), but the incidence in gastric carcinoma patients was 94.1%. The high incidence pattern of overall helminthiasis in gastric carcinoma patients is, however, reversed as for as ascariasis is concerned. Thus, the incidence of ascariasis of gastric carcinoma patients was much lower than that of normal subjects (9.8% vs 19.4%). From the present observation, it is postulated that there can be some possible antagonistic relationship between evolution of gastric carcinoma and small bowel infestation of ascaris lumbricoides.

  13. Incidence of ascariasis in gastric carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Woo; Rhee, Hak Song; Bahk, Yong Whee

    1972-01-01

    Prompted by the finding that the radiological incidence of small bowel ascariasis in the patient with gastric carcinoma was unexpectedly lower than the incidence in the normal population, a clinical study was performed to investigate possible relationship between gastric carcinoma and intestinal ascariasis. As a preliminary survey, we reviewed the radiological incidence of ascariasis in a total of 2,446 cases of upper GI series performed at the Department of Radiology, St Mary's Hospital Catholic Medical College. These included 1,573 normal subjects, 146 gastric carcinoma patients, 100 benign gastric ulcer and 249 duodenal ulcer patients and 378 other upper GI diseases. Following the preliminary study, a more accurate parasitologic study was conducted in another 578 normal subjects and 51 gastric carcinoma patients. The radiological incidences of ascaiasis in normal subjects and gastric carcinoma patients were 15.1% and 28.1%, respectively. The incidence of overall helminthiasis including ascaris lumbricoides, trichocephalus trichiurus and trichostrongyloides orientalis in normal subjects of the present series was 73.5%. This figure is virtually the same with 69.1% of the general population incidence reported by Kim, et al. (1971), but the incidence in gastric carcinoma patients was 94.1%. The high incidence pattern of overall helminthiasis in gastric carcinoma patients is, however, reversed as for as ascariasis is concerned. Thus, the incidence of ascariasis of gastric carcinoma patients was much lower than that of normal subjects (9.8% vs 19.4%). From the present observation, it is postulated that there can be some possible antagonistic relationship between evolution of gastric carcinoma and small bowel infestation of ascaris lumbricoides

  14. Characterization of Gastric Microbiota in Twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Quanjiang; Xin, Yongning; Wang, Lili; Meng, Xinying; Yu, Xinjuan; Lu, Linlin; Xuan, Shiying

    2017-02-01

    Contribution of host genetic backgrounds in the development of gastric microbiota has not been clearly defined. This study was aimed to characterize the biodiversity, structure and composition of gastric microbiota among twins. A total of four pairs of twins and eight unrelated individuals were enrolled in the study. Antral biopsies were obtained during endoscopy. The bacterial 16S rRNA gene was amplified and pyrosequenced. Sequences were analyzed for the composition, structure, and α and β diversities of gastric microbiota. Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, and Fusobacteria were the most predominant phyla of gastric microbiota. Each individual, twins as well as unrelated individuals, harbored a microbiota of distinct composition. There was no evidence of additional similarity in the richness and evenness of gastric microbiota among co-twins as compared to unrelated individuals. Calculations of θ YC and PCoA demonstrated that the structure similarity of gastric microbial community between co-twins did not increase compared to unrelated individuals. In contrast, the structure of microbiota was altered enormously by Helicobacter pylori infection. These results suggest that host genetic backgrounds had little effect in shaping the gastric microbiota. This property of gastric microbiota could facilitate the studies discerning the role of microbiota from genetic grounds in the pathogenesis.

  15. Gastric cancer stem cells: A novel therapeutic target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shree Ram

    2013-01-01

    Gastric cancer remains one of the leading causes of global cancer mortality. Multipotent gastric stem cells have been identified in both mouse and human stomachs, and they play an essential role in the self-renewal and homeostasis of gastric mucosa. There are several environmental and genetic factors known to promote gastric cancer. In recent years, numerous in vitro and in vivo studies suggest that gastric cancer may originate from normal stem cells or bone marrow–derived mesenchymal cells, and that gastric tumors contain cancer stem cells. Cancer stem cells are believed to share a common microenvironment with normal niche, which play an important role in gastric cancer and tumor growth. This mini-review presents a brief overview of the recent developments in gastric cancer stem cell research. The knowledge gained by studying cancer stem cells in gastric mucosa will support the development of novel therapeutic strategies for gastric cancer. PMID:23583679

  16. Anti-ulcer activity of African walnut Tetracarpidium conophorum nuts against gastric ulcers in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Maduabuchi Ezealisiji

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the anti-ulcer activity of methanol extract of Tetracarpidium conophorum (Mull. Arg. (METC nuts in albino Wistar rats. Methods: METC was investigated in pylorus ligation and ethanol induced models in experimental animals. Parameters such as gastric volume, pH, total and free acidity, and ulcer index were used as indicator for antiulcerogenic activity in both models. METC at doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg orally was used to determine whether the extract could produce significant protection of the gastric lesions by pylorus ligation and ethanol. Results: The extract at dose levels of 250 and 500 mg/kg exhibited significant (P<0.05 decrease in the gastric volume, total and free acidity while the pH of gastric juice was significantly (P<0.05 increased in both models. Conclusions: The result showed that METC possesses anti-ulcer as well as cytoprotective properties which could be attributed to the presence of secondary metabolites.

  17. Gastric carcinoma originating from the heterotopic submucosal gastric gland treated by laparoscopy and endoscopy cooperative surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imamura, Taisuke; Komatsu, Shuhei; Ichikawa, Daisuke; Kobayashi, Hiroki; Miyamae, Mahito; Hirajima, Shoji; Kawaguchi, Tsutomu; Kubota, Takeshi; Kosuga, Toshiyuki; Okamoto, Kazuma; Konishi, Hirotaka; Shiozaki, Atsushi; Fujiwara, Hitoshi; Ogiso, Kiyoshi; Yagi, Nobuaki; Yanagisawa, Akio; Ando, Takashi; Otsuji, Eigo

    2015-01-01

    Gastric carcinoma is derived from epithelial cells in the gastric mucosa. We reported an extremely rare case of submucosal gastric carcinoma originating from the heterotopic submucosal gastric gland (HSG) that was safely diagnosed by laparoscopy and endoscopy cooperative surgery (LECS). A 66-year-old man underwent gastrointestinal endoscopy, which detected a submucosal tumor (SMT) of 1.5 cm in diameter on the lesser-anterior wall of the upper gastric body. The tumor could not be diagnosed histologically, even by endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy. Local resection by LECS was performed to confirm a diagnosis. Pathologically, the tumor was an intra-submucosal well differentiated adenocarcinoma invading 5000 μm into the submucosal layer. The resected tumor had negative lateral and vertical margins. Based on the Japanese treatment guidelines, additional laparoscopic proximal gastrectomy was curatively performed. LECS is a less invasive and safer approach for the diagnosis of SMT, even in submucosal gastric carcinoma originating from the HSG. PMID:26306144

  18. Pediatric gastric volvulus--experience with 7 cases.

    OpenAIRE

    Park, W. H.; Choi, S. O.; Suh, S. J.

    1992-01-01

    Gastric volvulus, organoaxial or mesenterioaxial, is a rare condition in infancy and childhood. We experienced 7 cases of pediatric gastric volvulus, consisting of 3 cases of secondary gastric volvulus due to left diaphragmatic eventration or paraesophageal hernia and 4 cases of idiopathic gastric volvulus. Of 7 cases, five were organoaxial in type and two were mesenterioaxial. The main symptoms of secondary gastric volvulus were vomiting and respiratory difficulty whereas those of idiopathic...

  19. Diaphragmatic eventration complicated by gastric volvulus with perforation

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, V; Chandra, A; Gupta, P

    2012-01-01

    Eventration of the diaphragm with gastric volvulus is uncommon. Gastric perforation in these cases is rare and usually associated with acute gastric volvulus with strangulation. We describe a case of diaphragmatic eventration with chronic gastric volvulus with gastric perforation without strangulation in an elderly man.

  20. Gastric lactobezoar - a rare disorder?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinz-Erian Peter

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Gastric lactobezoar, a pathological conglomeration of milk and mucus in the stomach of milk-fed infants often causing gastric outlet obstruction, is a rarely reported disorder (96 cases since its first description in 1959. While most patients were described 1975-1985 only 26 children have been published since 1986. Clinically, gastric lactobezoars frequently manifest as acute abdomen with abdominal distension (61.0% of 96 patients, vomiting (54.2%, diarrhea (21.9%, and/or a palpable abdominal mass (19.8%. Respiratory (23.0% and cardiocirculatory (16.7% symptoms are not uncommon. The pathogenesis of lactobezoar formation is multifactorial: exogenous influences such as high casein content (54.2%, medium chain triglycerides (54.2% or enhanced caloric density (65.6% of infant milk as well as endogenous factors including immature gastrointestinal functions (66.0%, dehydration (27.5% and many other mechanisms have been suggested. Diagnosis is easy if the potential presence of a gastric lactobezoar is thought of, and is based on a history of inappropriate milk feeding, signs of acute abdomen and characteristic features of diagnostic imaging. Previously, plain and/or air-, clear fluid- or opaque contrast medium radiography techniques were used to demonstrate a mass free-floating in the lumen of the stomach. This feature differentiates a gastric lactobezoar from intussusception or an abdominal neoplasm. Currently, abdominal ultrasound, showing highly echogenic intrabezoaric air trapping, is the diagnostic method of choice. However, identifying a gastric lactobezoar requires an investigator experienced in gastrointestinal problems of infancy as can be appreciated from the results of our review which show that in not even a single patient gastric lactobezoar was initially considered as a possible differential diagnosis. Furthermore, in over 30% of plain radiographs reported, diagnosis was initially missed although a lactobezoar was clearly

  1. Gastroprotective effect of garlic in indomethacin induced gastric ulcer in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Ashmawy, Nahla E; Khedr, Eman G; El-Bahrawy, Hoda A; Selim, Hend M

    2016-01-01

    Garlic, in its natural plant state, has a great history in ancient medicine as a remedy for many diseases. In our study, the gastroprotective effect of aged garlic extract (AGE) and the possible underlying mechanisms were investigated in an experimental model of indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer. Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: (normal control, n = 20), ulcer control (indomethacin group, n = 20), (omeprazole group, n = 30) and (garlic group, n = 20). Each dose of garlic and omeprazole was given to rats orally daily for 10 consecutive days before induction of ulcer by indomethacin. Indomethacin was given as a single oral dose (100 mg/kg). Four hours later after indomethacin treatment, the rats were sacrificed and gastric tissue was obtained for histopathological examination, calculation of ulcer index and measurement of oxidative stress markers as well as gastroprotective mediators. The results showed that indomethacin induced gastric ulcer (ulcer index = 2900), was associated with a significant increase of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and malondialdehyde, and significant decrease of the gastroprotective mediators prostaglandin E2, glutathione (GSH) and nitric oxide (NO) compared with normal control. Pretreatment with AGE produced comparable results with those obtained in the omeprazole group; the preventive index in the AGE group was 83.4% compared with 94.5% in the omeprazole group. The prophylactic role of AGE in indomethacin-induced ulcer was, in part, mediated by decreasing oxidative stress and increasing gastric level of PGE2, GSH, and NO. AGE corrected the histopathological abnormalities in gastric tissue and proved a promising gastroprotective role in gastric ulcer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Iris metastasis of gastric adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celebi, Ali Riza Cenk; Kilavuzoglu, Ayse Ebru; Altiparmak, U Emrah; Cosar, C Banu; Ozkiris, Abdullah

    2016-03-08

    Iris metastasis in patients with gastric cancer is extremely rare. Herein, it is aimed to report on a patient with gastric adenocarcinoma and iris metastasis. A 65-year-old patient with the history of gastric cancer was admitted for eye pain and eye redness on his left eye. There was ciliary injection, severe +4 cells with hypopyon in the anterior chamber and a solitary, friable, yellow-white, fleshy-creamy vascularized 2 mm × 4 mm mass on the upper nasal part of the iris within the left eye. The presented patient's mass lesion in the iris fulfilled the criteria of the metastatic iris lesion's appearance. The ocular metastasis occurred during chemotherapy. Iris metastasis can masquerade as iridocyclitis with pseudohypopyon or glaucoma. In patients with a history of gastric cancer that present with an iris mass, uveitis, and high intraocular pressure, ocular metastasis of gastric cancer should be a consideration.

  3. Is there an association between invasive lobular carcinoma of the breast and a family history of gastric cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikman, Bar; Davidson, Tima; Kais, Hasan; Jeroukhimov, Igor; Leshno, Ari; Sandbank, Judith; Halevy, Ariel; Lavy, Ron

    2016-01-01

    CDH1 gene mutations have been found to be associated with diffuse type gastric cancer and invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) of the breast. To the best of our knowledge, this is the only study relating a family history of gastric cancer to ILC of the breast. We conducted a retrospective study comparing the family history of malignancies in patients with invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) of the breast and ILC treated in our Medical Center. The comparison was evaluated in both types of breast cancer groups, dividing the patients into two age groups, cancer was reported in 7.2 % in the ILC group as compared to 2.3 % in the IDC group, P cancer was more common in the ILC group as opposed to the IDC group, 18 versus 8.1 % respectively, P = 0.002 and persisted in both age groups. We conclude that a family history of malignancies in first degree relatives is more common in patients with ILC than IDC and that there is a significant association between a family history of gastric cancer and ILC.

  4. Gastric emptying in chronic dyspepsia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sielaff, F.; Jahnel, P.; Sest, C.; Sydow, K.; Sapia, C.; Hass, A.; Buchali, K.

    1987-01-01

    Gastric emptying of a semiliquid test meal with 5 MBq /sup 99m/Tc-sulfur colloid as a marker was measured in 97 chronic dyspeptic patients and 16 healthy subjects. A comparison of half emptying time between both showed that chronic dyspeptic patients empty semiliquid meal at a significantly (p < 0.005) slower rate (at 70 +- 33 min) than healthy controls (at 52 x 20 min). The studies indicate that gastric stasis in chronic dyspepsia is not caused by inflammatory changes in gastric or duodenal mucosa nor by different gastric acid secretion. The presence of stasis cannot be predicted sufficiently by anamnestic complaints or endoscopic findings. (author)

  5. Effects of corn oil on the volatile fatty acids in horses with induced gastric ulcers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Martínez A

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetive. To determine the influence of corn oil on the volatile fatty acids (VFA concentrations in the gastric juice in horses with phenylbutazone (PBZ induced gastric ulcers and Correlate the gastroscopic findings with the VFA concentrations. Materials and methods. 15 horses were allotted in 3 groups. Group I (control received placebo during first 6 days (induction period and was treated with sucralfate for 2 weeks (treatment period. Groups II and III received PBZ during the induction phase. After 6 days, horses from group II received 70 mL of corn oil /100 kg of body weight/ po, twice a day, for 2 weeks and horses from group III received 90 mL of corn oil/100 kg of body weight/ po, twice a day, for 2 weeks. All horses were examined by gastroscopy at days 0, 7 and 21. The lesions were recorded and classified according to the number and severity. Samples from gastric fluid were taken to measure the concentrations of the acetic, propionic, butyric and lactic acids. Results. Both PBZ protocols produced lesions in the both non-glandular and glandular areas of the stomach. All the treatments produced healing of the injured mucosa glandular. Neither of the two corn oil treatments affected healing of the gastric ulcers located in the non-glandular area. Conclusions. The concentrations of acetic and butyric acids were highest in the gastric juice. The corn oil and sucralfate did not lead to differences in the concentration of acetic acid and butyric acid.

  6. Overview of Current Concepts in Gastric Intestinal Metaplasia and Gastric Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Jason D.; Borum, Marie L.; Koh, Joyce M.; Stephen, Sindu

    2018-01-01

    Gastric intestinal metaplasia is a precancerous change of the mucosa of the stomach with intestinal epithelium, and is associated with an increased risk of dysplasia and cancer. The pathogenesis to gastric cancer is proposed by the Correa hypothesis as the transition from normal gastric epithelium to invasive cancer via inflammation followed by intramucosal cancer and invasion. Multiple risk factors have been associated with the development of gastric intestinal metaplasia interplay, including Helicobacter pylori infection and associated genomics, host genetic factors, environmental milieu, rheumatologic disorders, diet, and intestinal microbiota. Globally, screening guidelines have been established in countries with high incidence. In the United States, no such guidelines have been developed due to lower, albeit increasing, incidence. The American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy recommends a case-by-case patient assessment based upon epidemiology, genetics, and environmental risk factors. Studies have examined the use of a serologic biopsy to stratify risk based upon factors such as H pylori status and virulence factors, along with serologic markers of chronic inflammation including pepsinogen I, pepsinogen II, and gastrin. High-risk patients may then be advised to undergo endoscopic evaluation with mapping biopsies from the antrum (greater curvature, lesser curvature), incisura angularis, and corpus (greater curvature, lesser curvature). Surveillance guidelines have not been firmly established for patients with known gastric intestinal metaplasia, but include repeat endoscopy at intervals according to the histologic risk for malignant transformation. PMID:29606921

  7. Persistent colonization of Helicobacter pylori in human gut induces gastroduodenal diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Animesh Sarker

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori are gut bacteria colonize in the epithelial cell lining of the stomach and persist there for long du­ration. Around two-thirds of the world’s populations are infected with H. pylori and cause more than 90 percent of ulcers. The development of persistent inflammation is the main cause of chronic gastritis that finally results in a severe consequence known as stomach cancer. Two major virulence factors cytotoxin-associated gene product (cagA and the vacuolating toxin (vacA are mostly investigated as their close association with gastric carcinoma. In this review, host im­munity against H. pylori infection and their evasion mechanism are intensely explored. It is the fact, that understanding pin point molecular mechanisms of any infection is critical to develop novel strategies to prevent pertinent diseases. .J Microbiol Infect Dis 2014; 4(4: 170-176

  8. Gastric metastasis of cervix uteri carcinoma, rare cause of lower gastric stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moldovan, B; Banu, E; Pocreaţă, D; Buiga, R; Rogoz, S; Pripisi, L; Cimpeanu, L; Moldovan, A; Jeder, O; Badea, A; Biris, P

    2012-01-01

    the paper presents a rare case of metachronous gastric metastasis of uterine cervix cancer, clinically manifested through severe pyloric stenosis. 49-year-old patient, operated on in January 2009, with uterine cervix cancer (Squamous cell carcinoma T2bN1M0), is hospitalized in August 2011 with pyloric stenosis: epigastric pains, abundant, stasis, late postprandial emesis, significant weight loss, stomach form visible upon abdomen inspection. Endoscopy: antral stenosis with intact gastric mucosa, and CT-scan: circumferential intramural gastric tumor, stomach dilated in the upper part, lack of cleavage between the tumor and the liver bed of the gall bladder. CEA increased to 13,78 (below 5), CA 19-9 slightly increased 29.9 (below 27). The case is considered as a second neoplasia and a D2 subtotal gastrectomy was performed, with 1 positive ganglion out of 27 on block with atypical hepatectomy of segments 4-5 for liver invasion, the final mounting being Y Roux. The histopathological examination shows a gastric metastasis of squamous carcinoma, of uterine cervix origin, the invaded perigastric ganglion having the same aspect of uterine cervix carcinoma. The post-surgery evolution was favorable, under chemo radiotherapy the patient being alive without relapse at 9 months post-surgery. In the literature there are 2 more cases of gastric metastasis of uterine cervix carcinoma, and 4 of uterine carcinoma without topographic indication, but without the histological documentation of the tumor filiation, without data related to resecability or follow-up, the case at hand being, from this perspective, the first documented resectable metachronous gastric metastasis from a cervix uteri carcinoma. Celsius.

  9. Localized gastric amyloidosis differentiated histologically from scirrhous gastric cancer using endoscopic mucosal resection: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamata Tsugumasa

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Amyloidosis most often manifests as a systemic involvement of multiple tissues and organs, and an amyloidal deposit confined to the stomach is extremely rare. It is sometimes difficult to provide a definitive diagnosis of localized gastric amyloidosis by biopsy specimen and diagnosis of amyloidosis in some cases has been finalized only after surgical resection of the stomach. Case presentation A 76-year-old Japanese woman with epigastric discomfort underwent an esophagogastroduodenoscopy procedure. The esophagogastroduodenoscopy revealed gastric wall thickening, suggesting scirrhous gastric carcinoma, at the greater curvature from the upper to the lower part of the gastric corpus. A biopsy specimen revealed amyloid deposits in the submucosal layer with no malignant findings. We resected a representative portion of the lesion by endoscopic mucosal resection using the strip biopsy method to obtain sufficient tissue specimens, and then conducted a detailed histological evaluation of the samples. The resected specimens revealed deposition of amyloidal materials in the gastric mucosa and submucosa without any malignant findings. Congo red staining results were positive for amyloidal protein and exhibited green birefringence under polarized light. Congo red staining with prior potassium permanganate incubation confirmed the light chain (AL amyloid protein type. Based on these results, gastric malignancy, systemic amyloidosis and amyloid deposits induced by inflammatory disease were excluded and this lesion was consequently diagnosed as localized gastric amyloidosis. Our patient was an older woman and there were no findings relative to an increase in gastrointestinal symptoms or anemia, so no further treatment was performed. She continued to be in good condition without any finding of disease progression six years after verification of our diagnosis. Conclusions We report an unusual case of primary amyloidosis of the stomach

  10. Demonstration of persistent contamination of a cooked egg product production facility with Salmonella enterica serovar Tennessee and characterization of the persistent strain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakociune, D.; Bisgaard, M.; Pedersen, Karl

    2014-01-01

    Aims: The aim of this study was to investigate whether continuous contamination of light pasteurized egg products with Salmonella enterica serovar Tennessee (S. Tennessee) at a large European producer of industrial egg products was caused by persistent contamination of the production facility......, members of the persistent clone were weak producers of H2S in laboratory medium. S. Tennessee isolated from the case was able to grow better in pasteurized egg product compared with other serovars investigated. Conclusions: It was concluded that the contamination was caused by a persistent strain...... in the production facility and that this strain apparently had adapted to grow in the relevant egg product. Significance and Impact of the Study: S. Tennessee has previously been associated with persistence in hatching facilities. This is the first report of persistent contamination of an egg production facility...

  11. Distinctive striatal dopamine signaling after dieting and gastric bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankir, Mohammed K; Ashrafian, Hutan; Hesse, Swen; Horstmann, Annette; Fenske, Wiebke K

    2015-05-01

    Highly palatable and/or calorically dense foods, such as those rich in fat, engage the striatum to govern and set complex behaviors. Striatal dopamine signaling has been implicated in hedonic feeding and the development of obesity. Dieting and bariatric surgery have markedly different outcomes on weight loss, yet how these interventions affect central homeostatic and food reward processing remains poorly understood. Here, we propose that dieting and gastric bypass produce distinct changes in peripheral factors with known roles in regulating energy homeostasis, resulting in differential modulation of nigrostriatal and mesolimbic dopaminergic reward circuits. Enhancement of intestinal fat metabolism after gastric bypass may also modify striatal dopamine signaling contributing to its unique long-term effects on feeding behavior and body weight in obese individuals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The activity of gastric ghrelin positive cells in obese patients treated surgically.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Bossowski

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Ghrelin is a 28 amino acid peptide hormone regulating food intake and stimulating releasement of growth hormone. It is produced in a distinct endocrine call known as X/A - like cells. The most abundant source of this very important factor in energy homeostasis is gastric fundus. Regulatory mechanisms of ghrelin synthesis and secretion in physiological and pathological states are not discovered completely. The aim of our study was evaluation of the activity of gastric X/A-like cells in obese patients before and after the most popular surgical bariatric procedures - Roux - Y Gastric Bypass (RYGB and Laparoscopic Adjustable Gastric Banding (LAGB. Obese patients in number 18 took part in the study. LAGB was performed in 7 patients and RYGB in 11 patients. Peripheral blood was taken from each patient before operation and first day, seventh day, one month and three months after surgery. Ghrelin level was determined by RIA technique. The specimen of stomach was taken from circular stapler after gastrojejunostomy during RYGB and immunohistochemical study of gastric mucosa, using the EnVision method and specific monoclonal antybodies against ghrelin was performed. The intensity of ghrelin-immunoreactivity in X/A-like cells was analyzed using Olympus Cell D image analysis system. Efficiency of bariatric procedures was estimated by EWL- excess weight loss. We observed very strong immunohistochemical reactions of gastric X/A-like cells, accompanied by lower ghrelin plasma concentration, in comparison to the control group. LAGB procedure induced increase of ghrelin plasma level while RYGB procedure induced decrease of this hormone. The main finding of the present study is the hypoactivity of gastric X/A-like cells in obese patients in comparison to the control group.

  13. Correlation between pepsinogens and gastric cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Mengjun; Xiao Zhijian; Yang Xizhen; Huang Xuquan; Yu Huixin; Zhang Rongjun; Tao Yonghui; Zhang Lianfen; Cai Gangming; Tan Cheng; Xiao Ye; Jin Jian; Wang Bocheng

    2001-01-01

    Pepsinogen I and Pepsinogen II (PG I and PG II) were purified from human gastric mucosa using DE-52 anion exchange chromatography, Gel filtration HPLC and Q-2 anion exchange fast pressure chromatography. The antiserums against at both PG I and PG II were established respectively by preparing 125 I-PG I and 125 I-PG II using the chloramine-T method. Serum Pepsinogen I and II levels were measured by RIA in 190 healthy controls and other gastric diseases. The results were analyzed by statistics method. Compared with healthy controls, the serum PG I levels of duodenal ulcer patients and gastric ulcer were significantly higher. The serum PG I levels of gastritis patients were significantly lower and the serum PG I levels and PG I/PG II ratio of gastric cancer patients were much more lower. After total gastrectomy, the serum PG I and PG II levels of patients with recurrence of gastric cancer were significantly higher than those without recurrence. The changes of serum PG I and PG II levels are valuable for the diagnosis of gastric cancer and detecting the recurrence of gastric cancer after total gastrectomy

  14. Correlation between pepsinogens and gastric cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mengjun, Jiang; Zhijian, Xiao; Xizhen, Yang; Xuquan, Huang; Huixin, Yu; Rongjun, Zhang; Yonghui, Tao; Lianfen, Zhang; Gangming, Cai; Cheng, Tan; Ye, Xiao; Jian, Jin; Bocheng, Wang [Jiangsu Inst. of Nuclear Medicine, Wuxi (China). State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Medicine

    2001-04-01

    Pepsinogen I and Pepsinogen II (PG I and PG II) were purified from human gastric mucosa using DE-52 anion exchange chromatography, Gel filtration HPLC and Q-2 anion exchange fast pressure chromatography. The antiserums against at both PG I and PG II were established respectively by preparing {sup 125}I-PG I and {sup 125}I-PG II using the chloramine-T method. Serum Pepsinogen I and II levels were measured by RIA in 190 healthy controls and other gastric diseases. The results were analyzed by statistics method. Compared with healthy controls, the serum PG I levels of duodenal ulcer patients and gastric ulcer were significantly higher. The serum PG I levels of gastritis patients were significantly lower and the serum PG I levels and PG I/PG II ratio of gastric cancer patients were much more lower. After total gastrectomy, the serum PG I and PG II levels of patients with recurrence of gastric cancer were significantly higher than those without recurrence. The changes of serum PG I and PG II levels are valuable for the diagnosis of gastric cancer and detecting the recurrence of gastric cancer after total gastrectomy.

  15. Targeting BRCAness in Gastric Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-16-1-0472 TITLE: Targeting BRCAness in Gastric Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Lawrence Fong CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION...Targeting BRCAness in Gastric Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-16-1-0473 (Ashworth) 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Eric Collisson, David Quigley...for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT We performed the screen of gastric cancer cell lines for their

  16. Gastric emptying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonaz, B.; Hostein, J.; Caravel, J.P.

    1990-01-01

    Gastric emptying (GE) of nutriments is a major function of the stomach. GE disorders are observed after gastric surgery and with various diseases, either of a strictly gastroenterologic kind or interesting other specialities (especially diabetes mellitus). Scintigraphy, which has allowed a better knowledge of GE physiological and pathological mechanisms, has now become the reference method for studying the emptying of solids and liquids. In a near future, it could well have two major applications: a diagnostic approach of functional digestive disorders and an assessment of the various effects of pharmacological drugs with digestive affinity [fr

  17. Perforated gastric carcinoma in a young-age patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng-Hsu Wu

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Perforation is a rare complication of gastric carcinoma, and it occurs in less than 5% of all gastric carcinoma cases and in less than 1% within all acute abdomen cases. The diagnosis of malignancy is usually not validated preoperatively. In previous reported English literature, all patients with perforated gastric cancer have the feature of old age. This feature might be able to guide the surgeon to impress the differential diagnosis of malignancy before or during the emergent operation of gastric perforation.This 32-year-old male patient suffered from sudden onset of epigastric pain. We performed emergent operation under the impression of hollow organ perforation. The postoperative pathologic report of gastric ulcer revealed gastric carcinoma. We performed second-stage operation of total gastrectomy with D2 lymphadenectomy smoothly 7 days later. As we know, this is the youngest patient having the condition of perforated gastric carcinoma reported in the literature. This case reminds us that it is possible for perforated gastric carcinoma to occur in young-age patients. Keywords: Gastric cancer, Acute abdomen, Gastric perforation

  18. Use of volumetric laser endomicroscopy for dysplasia detection at the gastroesophageal junction and gastric cardia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Nina; Siddiqui, Uzma; Waxman, Irving; Chapman, Christopher; Koons, Ann; Valuckaite, Vesta; Xiao, Shu-Yuan; Setia, Namrata; Hart, John; Konda, Vani

    2017-01-01

    AIM To determine specific volumetric laser endomicroscopy (VLE) imaging features associated with neoplasia at the gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) and gastric cardia. METHODS During esophagogastroduodenoscopy for patients with known or suspected Barrett’s esophagus, VLE was performed before biopsies were taken at endoscopists’ discretion. The gastric cardia was examined on VLE scan from the GEJ (marked by top of gastric folds) to 1 cm distal from the GEJ. The NinePoints VLE console was used to analyze scan segments for characteristics previously found to correlate with normal or abnormal mucosa. Glands were counted individually. Imaging features identified on VLE scan were correlated with biopsy results from the GEJ and cardia region. RESULTS This study included 34 cases. Features characteristic of the gastric cardia (gastric rugae, gastric pit architecture, poor penetration) were observed in all (100%) scans. Loss of classic gastric pit architecture was common and there was no difference between those with neoplasia and without (100% vs 74%, P = NS). The abnormal VLE feature of irregular surface was more often seen in patients with neoplasia than those without (100% vs 18%, P < 0.0001), as was heterogeneous scattering (86% vs 41%, P < 0.005) and presence of anomalous glands (100% vs 59%, P < 0.05). The number of anomalous glands did not differ between individual histologic subgroups (ANOVA, P = NS). CONCLUSION The transition from esophagus to gastric cardia is reliably identified on VLE. Histologically abnormal cardia mucosa produces abnormal VLE features. Optical coherence tomography algorithms can be expanded for use at the GEJ/cardia. PMID:28744344

  19. Metastatic Carcinoma Occurring in a Gastric Hyperplastic Polyp Mimicking Primary Gastric Cancer: The First Reported Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel M. Groisman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyperplastic polyps of the stomach are regarded as benign. However, in rare cases they may contain incipient primary carcinomas. To our knowledge, breast carcinoma metastatic to a gastric hyperplastic polyp has not yet been reported. We describe the case of a 69-year-old woman to whom a gastric polyp was endoscopically excised. The patient had previously undergone a right mastectomy for mixed, invasive ductal and lobular carcinoma 5 years earlier. Histological sections from the gastric lesion showed typical features of hyperplastic polyp with foci of poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma including signet ring cells infiltrating the lamina propria. The histologic findings were consistent with a primary gastric cancer. However, the carcinoma cells were immunopositive for estrogen and progesterone receptors and GATA3 and negative for CDX2, Hep Par 1, and MUC5AC. E-cadherin showed membranous reactivity in some of the carcinoma cells while in others it was negative. Accordingly, metastatic mixed, lobular and ductal breast carcinoma was diagnosed. We conclude that metastatic adenocarcinoma mimicking primary gastric cancer can be rarely encountered in hyperplastic gastric polyps.

  20. Gastric emptying in gastroesophageal reflux disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Lin; Yang Xiaochuan; Kuang Anren; Li Lixia; Ouyang Qin

    2000-01-01

    Objective: The relationship between gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and gastric emptying rate was investigated. Results of endoscopy, 24-hour esophageal pH monitoring were also evaluated. Methods: 15 patients were evaluated with endoscopy, pH monitoring and radionuclide gastric emptying. The results were compared with that of 17 control subjects. Correlations of gastric emptying rate and esophagitis, 24-hour pH monitoring between GERD patients and control subjects were also analyzed. Results: Liquid gastric emptying rate of GERD patients was significantly lower than that of control subjects at 15 and 30 min (P 0.05), but there exhibited a linear correlation between 50% solid emptying time and esophagus pH total score (r=0.643, P<0.05). Conclusions: The results indicate a delayed liquid and solid gastric emptying in GERD patients. There is a linear correlation between 50% solid emptying time and esophagus pH total score. Delayed gastric emptying may be an important factor in the pathogenesis of GERD

  1. Effects of Aloe vera and sucralfate on gastric microcirculatory changes, cytokine levels and gastric ulcer healing in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eamlamnam, Kallaya; Patumraj, Suthiluk; Visedopas, Naruemon; Thong-Ngam, Duangporn

    2006-04-07

    To compare the effects of Aloe vera and sucralfate on gastric microcirculatory changes, cytokine levels and gastric ulcer healing. Male Spraque-Dawley rats (n=48) were divided into four groups. Group1 served as control group, group 2 as gastric ulcer group without treatment, groups 3 and 4 as gastric ulcer treatment groups with sucralfate and Aloe vera. The rats from each group were divided into 2 subgroups for study of leukocyte adherence, TNF-alpha and IL-10 levels and gastric ulcer healing on days 1 and 8 after induction of gastric ulcer by 20% acetic acid. On day 1 after induction of gastric ulcer, the leukocyte adherence in postcapillary venule was significantly (P<0.05) increased in the ulcer groups when compared to the control group. The level of TNF-alpha was elevated and the level of IL-10 was reduced. In the ulcer groups treated with sucralfate and Aloe vera, leukocyte adherence was reduced in postcapillary venule. The level of IL-10 was elevated, but the level of TNF-alpha had no significant difference. On day 8, the leukocyte adherence in postcapillary venule and the level of TNF-alpha were still increased and the level of IL-10 was reduced in the ulcer group without treatment. The ulcer treated with sucralfate and Aloe vera had lower leukocyte adherence in postcapillary venule and TNF-alpha level. The level of IL-10 was still elevated compared to the ulcer group without treatment. Furthermore, histopathological examination of stomach on days 1 and 8 after induction of gastric ulcer showed that gastric tissue was damaged with inflammation. In the ulcer groups treated with sucralfate and Aloe vera on days 1 and 8, gastric inflammation was reduced, epithelial cell proliferation was enhanced and gastric glands became elongated. The ulcer sizes were also reduced compared to the ulcer group without treatment. Administration of 20% acetic acid can induce gastric inflammation, increase leukocyte adherence in postcapillary venule and TNF-alpha level and reduce

  2. Effects of Aloe vera and sucralfate on gastric microcirculatory changes, cytokine levels and gastric ulcer healing in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kallaya Eamlamnam; Suthiluk Patumraj; Naruemon Visedopas; Duangporn Thong-Ngam

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To compare the effects of Aloe vera and sucralfate on gastric microcirculatory changes, cytokine levels and gastric ulcer healing.METHODS: Male Spraque-Dawley rats (n=48) were divided into four groups. Group1 served as control group,group 2 as gastric ulcer group without treatment, groups 3 and 4 as gastric ulcer treatment groups with sucralfate and Aloe vera. The rats from each group were divided into 2 subgroups for study of leukocyte adherence, TNF-α and IL-10 levels and gastric ulcer healing on days 1 and 8 after induction of gastric ulcer by 20% acetic acid. RESULTS: On day 1 after induction of gastric ulcer, the leukocyte adherence in postcapillary venule was significantly (P< 0.05) increased in the ulcer groups when compared to the control group. The level of TNF-αwas elevated and the level of IL-10 was reduced. In the ulcer groups treated with sucralfate and Aloe vera,leukocyte adherence was reduced in postcapillary venule.The level of IL-10 was elevated, but the level of TNF-αhad no significant difference. On day 8, the leukocyte adherence in postcapillary venule and the level of TNF-αwere still increased and the level of IL-10 was reduced in the ulcer group without treatment. The ulcer treated with sucralfate and Aloe vera had lower leukocyte adherence in postcapillary venule and TNF-α level. The level of IL-10 was still elevated compared to the ulcer group without treatment. Furthermore, histopathological examination of stomach on days 1 and 8 after induction of gastric ulcer showed that gastric tissue was damaged with inflammation. In the ulcer groups treated with sucralfate and Aloe vera on days 1 and 8, gastric inflammation was reduced, epithelial cell proliferation was enhanced and gastric glands became elongated. The ulcer sizes were also reduced compared to the ulcer group without treatment.CONCLUSION: Administration of 20% acetic acid can induce gastric inflammation, increase leukocyte adherence in postcapillary venule and TNF-α level

  3. Additive effects of gastric volumes and macronutrient composition on the sensation of postprandial fullness in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marciani, L; Cox, E F; Pritchard, S E; Major, G; Hoad, C L; Mellows, M; Hussein, M O; Costigan, C; Fox, M; Gowland, P A; Spiller, R C

    2015-03-01

    Intake of food or fluid distends the stomach and triggers mechanoreceptors and vagal afferents. Wall stretch and tension produces a feeling of fullness. Duodenal infusion studies assessing gastric sensitivity by barostat have shown that the products of fat digestion have a greater effect on the sensation of fullness and also dyspeptic symptoms than carbohydrates. We tested here the hypothesis that fat and carbohydrate have different effects on gastric sensation under physiological conditions using non-invasive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to measure gastric volumes. Thirteen healthy subjects received a rice pudding test meal with added fat or added carbohydrate on two separate occasions and underwent serial postprandial MRI scans for 4.5 h. Fullness was assessed on a 100-mm visual analogue scale. Gastric half emptying time was significantly slower for the high-carbohydrate meal than for the high-fat meal, P=0.0327. Fullness significantly correlated with gastric volumes for both meals; however, the change from baseline in fullness scores was higher for the high-fat meal for any given change in stomach volume (P=0.0147), despite the lower energy content and faster gastric emptying of the high-fat meal. Total gastric volume correlates positively and linearly with postprandial fullness and ingestion of a high-fat meal increases this sensation compared with high-carbohydrate meal. These findings can be of clinical interest in patients presenting with postprandial dyspepsia whereby manipulating gastric sensitivity by dietary intervention may help to control digestive sensations.

  4. Role of Nox2 and p22phox in Persistent Postoperative Hypertension in Aldosterone-Producing Adenoma Patients after Adrenalectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojing Geng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Adrenal aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA, producing the salt-retaining hormone aldosterone, commonly causes secondary hypertension, which often persists after unilateral adrenalectomy. Although persistent hypertension was correlated with residual hormone aldosterone, the in vivo mechanism remains unclear. NADPH oxidase is the critical cause of aldosterone synthesis in vitro. Nox2 and p22phox comprise the NADPH oxidase catalytic core, serving to initiate a reactive oxygen species (ROS cascade that may participate in the pathology. mRNAs of seven NADPH oxidase isoforms in APA were evaluated by RT-PCR and Q-PCR and their proteins by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. NADPH oxidase activity was also detected. Nox2 and p22phox were especially abundant in APA. Particularly higher Nox2 and p22phox gene and protein levels were seen in APA than controls. Significant correlations between Nox2 mRNA and aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2 mRNA (R=0.66, P<0.01 and Nox2 protein and baseline plasma aldosterone concentration (PAC (R=0.503, P<0.01 were detected in APA; however, none were found between p22phox mRNA, CYP11B2 mRNA, p22phox protein, and baseline PAC. Importantly, we found that Nox2 localized specifically in hyperplastic zona glomerulosa cells. In conclusion, our results highlight that Nox2 and p22phox may be directly involved in pathological aldosterone production and zona glomerulosa cell proliferation after APA resection.

  5. Localization of ectopic gastric mucosa by scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Alonzo, W.A. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    When gastric mucosal tissue occurs outside of the confines of the stomach, it is termed ectopic or heterotopic. Ectopic gastric mucosa may be found within Meckel's diverticulum, duplications of the alimentary tract, and Barrett's esophagus. In addition, a surgeon may inadvertently leave behind antral gastric mucosa while performing a partial gastrectomy for peptic ulcer disease (i.e., retained gastric antrum). It is important to detect the presence and location of ectopic mucosa because acid and pepsin secretion may cause ulceration in the adjacent tissue resulting in serious complications. The only currently available specific diagnostic technique for detecting ectopic gastric mucosa is pertechnetate Tc 99m (TcO 4- ) scintigraphy. This chapter reviews the functional anatomy of gastric mucosa, the mechanism of TcO 4 - localization, the various entities containing ectopic gastric mucosa, and the methods and results of TcO 4 - scanning for these disorders

  6. Differences in gastric mucosal microbiota profiling in patients with chronic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia, and gastric cancer using pyrosequencing methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eun, Chang Soo; Kim, Byung Kwon; Han, Dong Soo; Kim, Seon Young; Kim, Kyung Mo; Choi, Bo Youl; Song, Kyu Sang; Kim, Yong Sung; Kim, Jihyun F

    2014-12-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection plays an important role in the early stage of cancer development. However, various bacteria that promote the synthesis of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species may be involved in the later stages. We aimed to determine the microbial composition of gastric mucosa from the patients with chronic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia, and gastric cancer using 454 GS FLX Titanium. Gastric mucosal biopsy samples were collected from 31 patients during endoscopy. After the extraction of genomic DNA, variable region V5 of the 16S rRNA gene was amplified. PCR products were sequenced using 454 high-throughput sequencer. The composition, diversity, and richness of microbial communities were compared between three groups. The composition of H. pylori-containing Epsilonproteobacteria class appeared to be the most prevalent, but the relative increase in the Bacilli class in the gastric cancer group was noticed, resulting in a significant difference compared with the chronic gastritis group. By analyzing the Helicobacter-dominant group at a family level, the relative abundance of Helicobacteraceae family was significantly lower in the gastric cancer group compared with chronic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia groups, while the relative abundance of Streptococcaceae family significantly increased. In a UPGMA clustering of Helicobacter-dominant group based on UniFrac distance, the chronic gastritis group and gastric cancer group were clearly separated, while the intestinal metaplasia group was distributed in between the two groups. The evenness and diversity of gastric microbiota in the gastric cancer group was increased compared with other groups. In Helicobacter predominant patients, the microbial compositions of gastric mucosa from gastric cancer patients are significantly different to chronic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia patients. These alterations of gastric microbial composition may play an important, as-yet-undetermined role in

  7. Incidence, predictive factors, and clinical outcomes of acute kidney injury after gastric surgery for gastric cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Seong Kim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Postoperative acute kidney injury (AKI, a serious surgical complication, is common after cardiac surgery; however, reports on AKI after noncardiac surgery are limited. We sought to determine the incidence and predictive factors of AKI after gastric surgery for gastric cancer and its effects on the clinical outcomes. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study of 4718 patients with normal renal function who underwent partial or total gastrectomy for gastric cancer between June 2002 and December 2011. Postoperative AKI was defined by serum creatinine change, as per the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes guideline. RESULTS: Of the 4718 patients, 679 (14.4% developed AKI. Length of hospital stay, intensive care unit admission rates, and in-hospital mortality rate (3.5% versus 0.2% were significantly higher in patients with AKI than in those without. AKI was also associated with requirement of renal replacement therapy. Multivariate analysis revealed that male gender; hypertension; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; hypoalbuminemia (<4 g/dl; use of diuretics, vasopressors, and contrast agents; and packed red blood cell transfusion were independent predictors for AKI after gastric surgery. Postoperative AKI and vasopressor use entailed a high risk of 3-month mortality after multiple adjustments. CONCLUSIONS: AKI was common after gastric surgery for gastric cancer and associated with adverse outcomes. We identified several factors associated with postoperative AKI; recognition of these predictive factors may help reduce the incidence of AKI after gastric surgery. Furthermore, postoperative AKI in patients with gastric cancer is an important risk factor for short-term mortality.

  8. Endoscopic ultrasound coil placement of gastric varices: Emerging modality for recurrent bleeding gastric varices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogesh Harwani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastric varices are the probable source of bleeding in 10-36% of patients, with acute variceal bleeding and carry high mortality and rebleeding rates. Till date, cyanoacrylate glue injection is considered as the standard of care but has high complication rate. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS guided coil placement is a new emerging technique of management of gastric varices. In this case report, we detail the EUS guided coil placement for management of gastric varices after failed glue injections.

  9. Persistent Structural Priming from Language Comprehension to Language Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Kathryn; Dell, Gary S.; Chang, Franklin; Onishi, Kristine H.

    2007-01-01

    To examine the relationship between syntactic processes in language comprehension and language production, we compared structural persistence from sentence primes that speakers heard to persistence from primes that speakers produced. [Bock, J. K., & Griffin, Z. M. (2000). The persistence of structural priming: transient activation or implicit…

  10. A comparison of Helicobacter pylori and non-Helicobacter pylori Helicobacter spp. Binding to canine gastric mucosa with defined gastric glycophenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorim, Irina; Freitas, Daniela P; Magalhães, Ana; Faria, Fátima; Lopes, Célia; Faustino, Augusto M; Smet, Annemieke; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Reis, Celso A; Gärtner, Fátima

    2014-08-01

    The gastric mucosa of dogs is often colonized by non-Helicobacter pylori helicobacters (NHPH), while H. pylori is the predominant gastric Helicobacter species in humans. The colonization of the human gastric mucosa by H. pylori is highly dependent on the recognition of host glycan receptors. Our goal was to define the canine gastric mucosa glycophenotype and to evaluate the capacity of different gastric Helicobacter species to adhere to the canine gastric mucosa. The glycosylation profile in body and antral compartments of the canine gastric mucosa, with focus on the expression of histo-blood group antigens was evaluated. The in vitro binding capacity of FITC-labeled H. pylori and NHPH to the canine gastric mucosa was assessed in cases representative of the canine glycosylation pattern. The canine gastric mucosa lacks expression of type 1 Lewis antigens and presents a broad expression of type 2 structures and A antigen, both in the surface and glandular epithelium. Regarding the canine antral mucosa, H. heilmannii s.s. presented the highest adhesion score whereas in the body region the SabA-positive H. pylori strain was the strain that adhered more. The canine gastric mucosa showed a glycosylation profile different from the human gastric mucosa suggesting that alternative glycan receptors may be involved in Helicobacter spp. binding. Helicobacter pylori and NHPH strains differ in their ability to adhere to canine gastric mucosa. Among the NHPH, H. heilmannii s.s. presented the highest adhesion capacity in agreement with its reported colonization of the canine stomach. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Characterization and functional properties of gastric tissue-resident memory T cells from children, adults and the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayaum S. Booth

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available T cells are the main orchestrators of protective immunity in the stomach; however, limited information on the presence and function of the gastric T subsets is available mainly due to the difficulty in recovering high numbers of viable cells from human gastric biopsies. To overcome this shortcoming we optimized a cell isolation method that yielded high numbers of viable lamina propria mononuclear cells (LPMC from gastric biopsies. Classic memory T (TM subsets were identified in gastric LPMC and compared to peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC obtained from children, adults and the elderly using an optimized 14 color flow cytometry panel. A dominant effector memory (TEM phenotype was observed in gastric LPMC CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in all age groups. We then evaluated whether these cells represented a population of gastric tissue-resident memory T (TRM cells by assessing expression of CD103 and CD69. The vast majority of gastric LPMC CD8+ T cells either co-expressed CD103/CD69 (>70% or expressed CD103 alone (~20%. Gastric LPMC CD4+ T cells also either co-expressed CD103/CD69 (>35% or expressed at least one of these markers. Thus, gastric LPMC CD8+ and CD4+ T cells had the characteristics of TRM cells. Gastric CD8+ and CD4+ TRM cells produced multiple cytokines (IFN-γ, IL-2, TNF-α, IL-17A, MIP-1β and up-regulated CD107a upon stimulation. However, marked differences were observed in their cytokine and multi-cytokine profiles when compared to their PBMC TEM counterparts. Furthermore, gastric CD8+ TRM and CD4+ TRM cells demonstrated differences in the frequency, susceptibility to activation and cytokine/multi-cytokine production profiles among the age groups. Most notably, children’s gastric TRM cells responded differently to stimuli than gastric TRM cells from adults or the elderly. In conclusion, we demonstrate the presence of gastric TRM which exhibit diverse functional characteristics in children, adults and the elderly.

  12. Simultaneous combined laparoscopic-endoscopic removal of a large gastric trichobezoar and gastric polypectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bukarica Svetlana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Trichobezoars and gastric polyps are very rare conditions in children and may pose a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. The purpose of this work is to present our successful experience using combined laparoscopic-endoscopic procedure for simultaneous treatment of a trichobezoar and gastric polyp in the same patient. Case outline. We present an unusual case of a 15-year-old girl whose symptoms included abdominal pain, non-bilious vomiting after feeding, including undigested food and sometimes hair. Positive history of trichophagia indicated that a trichobezoar could be the reason for her problems. Endoscopy and ultrasound examination revealed a trichobezoar occupying almost the entire capacity of the stomach, as well as one oval polyp in the prepyloric area of the antrum. Simultaneous combined laparoscopicendoscopic rendezvous procedure was performed. The trichobezoar (14 × 6 cm and the gastric polyp (2.2 × 1.7 cm were completely removed laparoscopically through anterior gastrotomy, with great support of an adequate endobag and mechanical fragmentation of trichobezoar. The postoperative course was uneventful. Conclusion. This case shows that diagnostic endoscopy is valuable and that the combined laparoscopicendoscopic technique is feasible, safe and recommended treatment for simultaneous removal of a gastric trichobezoar and gastric polypectomy.

  13. CT differentiation of poorly-differentiated gastric neuroendocrine tumours from well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumours and gastric adenocarcinomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seong Ho; Kim, Se Hyung; Shin, Cheong-il; Han, Joon Koo; Choi, Byung Ihn [Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Jongno-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University Hospital, Institute of Radiation Medicine, Jongno-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Min-A [Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Pathology, Jongno-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-07-15

    To evaluate the differential CT features of gastric poorly-differentiated neuroendocrine tumours (PD-NETs) from well-differentiated NETs (WD-NETs) and gastric adenocarcinomas (ADCs) and to suggest differential features of hepatic metastases from gastric NETs and ADCs. Our study population was comprised of 36 patients with gastric NETs (18 WD-NETs, 18 PD-NETs) and 38 patients with gastric ADCs who served as our control group. Multiple CT features were assessed to identify significant differential CT findings of PD-NETs from WD-NETs and ADCs. In addition, CT features of hepatic metastases including the metastasis-to-liver ratio were analyzed to differentiate metastatic NETs from ADCs. The presence of metastatic lymph nodes was the sole differentiator of PD-NETs from WD-NETs (P =.001, odds ratio = 56.67), while the presence of intact overlying mucosa with mucosal tenting was the sole significant CT feature differentiating PD-NETs from ADCs (P =.047, odds ratio = 15.3) For hepatic metastases, metastases from NETs were more hyper-attenuated than those from ADCs. The presence of metastatic LNs and intact overlying mucosa with mucosal tenting are useful CT discriminators of PD-NETs from WD-NETs and ADCs, respectively. In addition, a higher metastasis-to-liver ratio may help differentiate hepatic metastases of gastric NETs from those of gastric ADCs with high accuracy. (orig.)

  14. Borders of left gastric lymph node area in 124 patients with esophageal and gastric cardia carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian Pudong; Guo Yesong; Li Jianzhong; Wang Yufen; Feng Chunwei; Lv Hong; Fei Wenlong

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To measure and define the distribution of left gastric lymph nodes. Methods: From Jan. 2004 to Apr. 2005, silver clips were set around the root of the left gastric artery in 124 patients with esophageal and gastric cardia carcinoma, X-ray films at 0 degree and 90 degree simulator gantry in the radio- therapeutic position were taken. Then, the data of the superior, lower, left, right, anterior and posterior bor- der in each patient was recorded. With SAS 8.02 software, data of minimum area which covered the left gastric lymph node in different incidences were obtained. Results: According to the analysis of Shapiro-Wilk, Kolmogorov-Smimov, Cramervon Mises and Anderson-Darling tests, each border' was of normal distribution, with equal frequency in the male and female, despite the actual results in different genders. Pearson Correlation Coefficients analysis did not suggest a significant relationship between the border and height, weight and size of vertebrae, which formed the minimum area covering the left gastric area at frequency of 100%, 95%, 90% and 85%, which were drawn out through the calculation. Conclusions: Aiming at completely identifying the normal distribution of the left gastric lymph node, more patients are required to be in the pool. For the time being, location in the left gastric area can be obtained from details of the results in the present study. (authors)

  15. Gastric angiogenesis and Helicobacter pylori infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. D. Pousa

    Full Text Available The formation of new blood vessels seen in conditions commonly associated with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori infection, including gastritis, peptic ulcer, and gastric carcinoma, prompts consideration of a potential relationship between mucosal colonization by this organism and the angiogenic process. H. pylori directly or indirectly damages endothelial cells, which induces a number of changes in the microvasculature of the gastric mucosa. In H. pylori-associated conditions, that is, in gastritis, peptic ulcer and gastric carcinoma, there is an increased concentration of angiogenic factors, and subsequently a formation of new blood vessels. However, this early angiogenesis -which is activated to repair the gastric mucosa- is subsequently inhibited in patients with peptic ulcer, and ulcer healing is thus delayed. This may be due to the antiproliferative action of this organism on endothelial cells. While the angiogenic process becomes inhibited in infected patients with peptic ulcer, it remains seemingly active in those with gastritis or gastric cancer. This fact is in support of the notion suggested by various studies that peptic ulcer and gastric cancer are mutually excluding conditions. In the case of gastric cancer, neoangiogenesis would enhance nutrient and oxygen supply to cancer cells, and thus tumor growth and metastatic spread.

  16. Gastric Adenomyoma: The Unexpected Mimicker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Adriana Duran Álvarez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastric adenomyoma is a rare benign tumor composed of epithelial structures and smooth muscle stroma. Here, we report an unusual case of gastric adenomyoma mostly composed of smooth muscle that was incidentally found during a laparoscopic intervention. On radiology, it mimicked an acquired hypertrophic pyloric stenosis in an adult patient, and pathologically it resembled a pure smooth muscle hamartoma. Complete submission of the lesion for histology was necessary to find the epithelial component and make the right diagnosis. As a mimicker of benign and malignant entities, gastric adenomyoma is usually an unexpected finding after surgery. The aim of this report is to analyze this adenomyoma variant in the setting of an unexplained thickening of the gastric wall, with explanations concerning histogenesis and biological potential.

  17. Regional PET/CT after water gastric inflation for evaluating loco-regional disease of gastric cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Soo Jin; Lee, Won Woo; Yoon, Hai-Jeon; Lee, Ho-Young; Lee, Kyoung Ho; Kim, Young Hoon; Park, Do Joong; Kim, Hyung-Ho; So, Young

    2013-01-01

    Objective: We aimed to improve diagnostic accuracy of 18 F-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (FDG) PET/CT for gastric cancer with water gastric inflation. Materials and methods: 44 gastric cancer patients (M:F = 30:14, age ± std = 62.1 ± 14.5y) were enrolled before surgery. Fifty minutes after injection of FDG (0.14 mCi/kg body weight), whole body PET/CT was performed first and then regional PET/CT over gastric area was obtained 80 min post FDG injection after water gastric inflation. Diagnostic accuracies for loco-regional lesions were compared between whole body and regional PET/CT. Results: 48 primary tumors (23 EGC and 25 AGC) and 348 LN stations (61 metastatic and 287 benign) in 44 patients were investigated. Primary tumor sensitivity of whole body PET/CT (50% = 24/48) was significantly improved by regional PET/CT (75% = 36/48, p < 0.005). Sensitivity of whole body PET/CT (24.6% = 15/61) for LN metastasis was also significantly improved by regional PET/CT (36.1% = 22/61, p < 0.01), whereas specificity of whole body PET/CT (99.3% = 285/287) was not compromised by regional PET/CT (98.3% = 282/287, p > 0.05). Higher primary tumor FDG uptake in regional PET/CT indicated shorter progress-free survival (p = 0.0003). Conclusion: Diagnostic accuracy of whole body PET/CT for loco-regional disease of gastric cancer could be significantly improved by regional PET/CT after water gastric inflation and prognosis could be effectively predicted by primary tumor FDG uptake in regional PET/CT

  18. Gastric secretion elicited by conditioning in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caboclo, José Liberato Ferreira; Cury, Francico de Assis; Borin, Aldenis Albanese; Caboclo, Luís Otávio Sales Ferreira; Ribeiro, Maria Fernanda Sales Caboclo; de Freitas, Pedro José; Andersson, Sven

    2009-01-01

    To investigate whether interdigestive gastric acid secretion can be controlled by a possible memory-related cortical mechanism. To evaluate gastric secretion in rats, we used a methodology that allows gastric juice collection in rats in their habitual conditions (without any restraining) by pairing sound as the conditioning stimulus (CS) and food as the unconditioning stimulus (US). The levels of gastric acid secretion under basal conditions and under sound stimulation were recorded and the circulating gastrin levels determined. When the gastric juice was collected in the course of the conditioning procedure, the results showed that under noise stimulation a significant increase in gastric acid secretion occurred after 10 days of conditioning (p<0.01). The significance was definitively demonstrated after 13 days of conditioning (p<0.001). Basal secretions of the conditioned rats reached a significant level after 16 days of conditioning. The levels of noise-stimulated gastric acid secretion were the highest so far described in physiological experiments carried out in rats and there were no significant increases in the circulating gastrin levels. The results point to the important role played by cortical structures in the control of interdigestive gastric acid secretion in rats. If this mechanism is also present in humans, it may be involved in diseases caused by inappropriate gastric acid secretion during the interprandial periods.

  19. DMBT1 is frequently downregulated in well-differentiated gastric carcinoma but more frequently upregulated across various gastric cancer types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conde, Ana R; Martins, Ana P; Brito, Miguel

    2007-01-01

    in cell differentiation and protection and has been proposed as a candidate tumour suppressor for brain and epithelial cancer. One study reported a loss of DMBT1 expression in 12.5% (5/40) of gastric cancer samples. Here, we examined in more detail DMBT1 protein and mRNA expression in 78 primary gastric...... preferentially take place in well-differentiated gastric carcinoma. However, an upregulation of DMBT1 expression is more frequently found across all gastric cancer types.......Well-differentiated gastric carcinomas are considered to represent a distinct entity emerging via specific molecular changes different from those found in other gastric carcinoma types. The gene deleted in malignant brain tumours 1 (DMBT1) at 10q25.3-q26.1 codes for a protein presumably involved...

  20. Acotiamide hydrochloride (Z-338) enhances gastric motility and emptying by inhibiting acetylcholinesterase activity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawachi, Masanao; Matsunaga, Yugo; Tanaka, Takao; Hori, Yuko; Ito, Katsunori; Nagahama, Kenji; Ozaki, Tomoko; Inoue, Naonori; Toda, Ryoko; Yoshii, Kazuyoshi; Hirayama, Masamichi; Kawabata, Yoshihiro; Takei, Mineo

    2011-09-01

    In clinical trials, acotiamide hydrochloride (acotiamide: Z-338) has been reported to be useful in the treatment of functional dyspepsia. Here, we investigated the effects of acotiamide on gastric contraction and emptying activities in rats in comparison with itopride hydrochloride (itopride) and mosapride citrate (mosapride). We also examined in vitro the compound's inhibitory effect on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity derived from rat stomach. In in vivo studies, acotiamide (30 and 100mg/kg s.c.) and itopride (100mg/kg s.c.) markedly enhanced normal gastric antral motility in rats. In gastric motility dysfunction models, acotiamide (100mg/kg s.c.) and itopride (100mg/kg s.c.) improved both gastric antral hypomotility and the delayed gastric emptying induced by clonidine, an α(2)-adrenoceptor agonist. In contrast, mosapride (10mg/kg s.c.) had no effect on these models. Like the AChE inhibitors itopride (30 mg/kg s.c.) and neostigmine (10 μg/kg s.c.), acotiamide (10mg/kg s.c.) also clearly enhanced gastric body contractions induced by electrical stimulation of the vagus, which were abolished by atropine and hexamethonium, whereas mosapride (3 and 10mg/kg s.c.) did not. In in vitro studies, acotiamide concentration-dependently inhibited rat stomach-derived AChE activity (IC(50)=2.3 μmol/l). In addition, stomach tissue concentrations of acotiamide after administration at 10mg/kg s.c. were sufficient to produce inhibition of AChE activity in rat stomach. These results suggest that acotiamide stimulates gastric motility and improves gastric motility dysfunction in rats by inhibiting AChE activity, and may suggest a role for acotiamide in improving gastric motility dysfunction in patients with functional dyspepsia. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Gastric neuroendocrine tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, David A; Donohoe, Claire L; Fitzgerald, Louise; Muldoon, Cian; Hayes, Brian; O'Toole, Dermot; Reynolds, John V

    2012-01-01

    Gastric neuroendocrine tumours (NETs) are increasingly recognised, and management decisions may be difficult due to an incomplete understanding of aetiology, natural history and optimum therapy. This article presents a current understanding based on recent advances in epidemiology, classification, molecular profiling, and treatment. Relevant medical literature was identified from searches of PubMed and references cited in appropriate articles identified. Selection of articles was based on peer review, journal and relevance. Gastric NETs may be divided into three clinical prognostic groups: type I is associated with autoimmune atrophic gastritis and hypergastrinaemia, type II is associated with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome, and type III lesions are gastrin-independent, have the greatest metastatic potential and poorest prognosis. There has been an increased frequency of gastric NETs reported. Management approaches have evolved in parallel with advances in endoscopic staging and surgery, as well as improved understanding of the biology and natural history of NETs. Gastric NETs present a spectrum of activity from indolent tumours to metastatic malignancy. Treatment decisions for patients must be individualised and are best managed by a multidisciplinary team approach. The current evidence base is limited to small series and efforts to treat patients within clinical networks of expertise are warranted. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Radiologic diagnosis of gastric cancer. A new outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portnoy, L.M.

    2006-01-01

    In our monograph we have tried to demonstrate the infeasibility of excluding radiological diagnosis, first and foremost the traditional X-ray examination, from the algorithm for diagnosing gastric cancer. We have produced convincing evidence and explanations for the indispensability of the X-ray, which should be used along with endoscopy. The current morphological and clinical characteristics of gastric cancer suggest that only the combined use of X-ray and endoscopy can change the discouraging situation with regard to relatively early diagnosis of the disease. Radical change is also very difficult without screening. Selective screening may become a reasonable alternative in countries with limited economic potential, Russia included. It is very important to attach greater importance to outpatient services in the attempt to improve the control of the disease. Diagnosis and treatment might thus be radically facilitated. Therefore, the tendency to minimize outpatient use of X-ray examinations works against improving the diagnosis of gastric cancer. All these aspects are discussed in detail in the monograph. Although the main purpose of the monograph is to describe the current role of the X-ray examination in the diagnosis of gastric cancer, the book also covers some problems related to the epidemiology and morphology of the disease in order to disprove the existing underestimation of X-ray potential in early diagnosis. While describing radiological diagnosis, we dwell on its methodological and semeiotic principles, as well as on the special importance of each method. These include the traditional radiological and ultrasonographic methods, computed tomography, and magnetic-resonance imaging. While we value these methods, above all MRI, unlike some other researchers, we rely not only on endoscopy but also on the traditional X-ray, because we believe it greatly increases the objective value of the findings and potentials of each separate method. A special chapter in the

  3. Epstein-Barr Virus in Gastric Carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishikawa, Jun, E-mail: junnis@yamaguchi-u.ac.jp [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine, Minami-Kogushi 1-1-1, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8505 (Japan); Yoshiyama, Hironori; Iizasa, Hisashi; Kanehiro, Yuichi [Department of Microbiology, Shimane University Faculty of Medicine, 89-1 Enyacho, Izumo City, Shimane 693-8501 (Japan); Nakamura, Munetaka; Nishimura, Junichi; Saito, Mari; Okamoto, Takeshi [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine, Minami-Kogushi 1-1-1, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8505 (Japan); Sakai, Kouhei; Suehiro, Yutaka; Yamasaki, Takahiro [Department of Oncology and Laboratory Medicine, Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine, Minami-Kogushi 1-1-1, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8505 (Japan); Oga, Atsunori [Department of Pathology, Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine, Minami-Kogushi 1-1-1, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8505 (Japan); Yanai, Hideo [Department of Clinical Research, National Hospital Organization Kanmon Medical Center, 1-1 Sotoura, Chofu, Shimonoseki, Yamaguchi 752-8510 (Japan); Sakaida, Isao [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine, Minami-Kogushi 1-1-1, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8505 (Japan)

    2014-11-07

    The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is detected in about 10% of gastric carcinoma cases throughout the world. In EBV-associated gastric carcinoma, all tumor cells harbor the clonal EBV genome. Gastric carcinoma associated with EBV has distinct clinicopathological features, occurs predominately in men and in younger-aged individuals, and presents a generally diffuse histological type. Most cases of EBV-associated gastric carcinoma exhibit a histology rich in lymphocyte infiltration. The immunological reactiveness in the host may represent a relatively preferable prognosis in EBV-positive cases. This fact highlights the important role of EBV in the development of EBV-associated gastric carcinoma. We have clearly proved direct infection of human gastric epithelialcells by EBV. The infection was achieved by using a recombinant EBV. Promotion of growth by EBV infection was observed in the cells. Considerable data suggest that EBV may directly contribute to the development of EBV-associated GC. This tumor-promoting effect seems to involve multiple mechanisms, because EBV affects several host proteins and pathways that normally promote apoptosis and regulate cell proliferation.

  4. Epstein-Barr Virus in Gastric Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishikawa, Jun; Yoshiyama, Hironori; Iizasa, Hisashi; Kanehiro, Yuichi; Nakamura, Munetaka; Nishimura, Junichi; Saito, Mari; Okamoto, Takeshi; Sakai, Kouhei; Suehiro, Yutaka; Yamasaki, Takahiro; Oga, Atsunori; Yanai, Hideo; Sakaida, Isao

    2014-01-01

    The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is detected in about 10% of gastric carcinoma cases throughout the world. In EBV-associated gastric carcinoma, all tumor cells harbor the clonal EBV genome. Gastric carcinoma associated with EBV has distinct clinicopathological features, occurs predominately in men and in younger-aged individuals, and presents a generally diffuse histological type. Most cases of EBV-associated gastric carcinoma exhibit a histology rich in lymphocyte infiltration. The immunological reactiveness in the host may represent a relatively preferable prognosis in EBV-positive cases. This fact highlights the important role of EBV in the development of EBV-associated gastric carcinoma. We have clearly proved direct infection of human gastric epithelialcells by EBV. The infection was achieved by using a recombinant EBV. Promotion of growth by EBV infection was observed in the cells. Considerable data suggest that EBV may directly contribute to the development of EBV-associated GC. This tumor-promoting effect seems to involve multiple mechanisms, because EBV affects several host proteins and pathways that normally promote apoptosis and regulate cell proliferation

  5. Gastric epithelioid haemangioendothelioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, A B; Almeida, A G; Viveiros, F A; Cidade, C N; Barbosa, J M

    2011-05-10

    Epithelioid haemangioendothelioma (EHE) is a rare tumour of vascular origin, characterised by celular proliferation, endotelial, epitelioid or hystiocitoid. It may develop in any organ, but it is more common in lung and liver. Surgery is the recommended treatment; however, in case of a potentially benign situation, an expectant attitude should be adopted. The case reports a 71-year-old female who underwent a laparotomy for a colonic adenocarcinoma. During surgery, a polypoid lesion in the dependency of the gastric wall was found incidentally, which was removed. Histopathology and immunohistochemical analysis confirmed the diagnosis of EHE. Gastric vascular neoplasms represent about 0.9-3.3% of all gastric tumours. Usually have a good prognosis, but due to the borderline biological behaviour of these tumours, it is important to have a detailed clinical evaluation at follow-up of these patients.

  6. Gastric cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mineur, L.; Jaegle, E.; Pointreau, Y.; Denis, F.

    2010-01-01

    Radio-chemotherapy Gastro-intestinal inter-group study have demonstrated a convincing local control and overall survival benefit. Oncologists and GI workshops have in the present not had a major interest in the radiotherapy treatment of gastric cancer due to a number of factors. Primary because toxicities may be severe, second physicians may have low experience in definition of clinical target volume and in third perioperative chemotherapy is widely used in this indication. In Summary this issue should be used as guides for defining appropriate radiation planning treatment for the adjuvant postoperative therapy of gastric cancer. (authors)

  7. Expression of a LINE-1 endonuclease variant in gastric cancer: its association with clinicopathological parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Gangshi; Wu, Benyan; Wang, Mengwei; Gao, Jie; Huang, Haili; Tian, Yu; Xue, Liyan; Wang, Weihua; You, Weidi; Lian, Hongwei; Duan, Xiaojian

    2013-01-01

    Long interspersed nuclear element-1 (LINE-1 or L1), the most abundant and only autonomously active family of non-LTR retrotransposons in the human genome, expressed not only in the germ lines but also in somatic tissues. It contributes to genetic instability, aging, and age-related diseases, such as cancer. Our previous study identified in human gastric adenocarcinoma an upregulated transcript GCRG213, which shared 88% homology with human L1 sequence and contained a putative conserved apurinic/apyrimidinic endonucleas1 domain. Immunohistochemistry was carried out by using a monoclonal mouse anti-human GCRG213 protein (GCRG213p) antibody produced in our laboratory, on tissue microarray constructed with specimens from 175 gastric adenocarcinoma patients. The correlation between GCRG213p expression and patient clinicopathological parameters was evaluated. GCRG213p expression in gastric cancer cell lines were studied using Western blotting analysis. L1 promoter methylation status of gastric cancer cells was tested using methylation-specific PCR. BLASTP was used at the NCBI Blast server to identify GCRG213p sequence to any alignments in the Protein Data Bank databases. Most primary gastric cancer, lymph node metastases and gastric intestinal metaplasia glands showed positive GCRG213p immunoreactivity. High GCRG213p immunostaining score in the primary gastric cancer was positively correlated with tumor differentiation (well differentiated, p = 0.001), Lauren’s classification (intestinal type, p < 0.05) and a late age onset of gastric adenocarcinoma (≥65 yrs; p < 0.05). GCRG213p expression has no association with other clinicopathological parameters, including survival. Western blotting analysis of GCRG213p expression in gastric cancer cells indicated that GCRG213p level was higher in gastric cancer cell lines than in human normal gastric epithelium immortalized cell line GES-1. Partial methylation of L1 in gastric cancer cells was confirmed by methylation

  8. Disturbances of microhemocirculation of gastric mucus in patients with chronic gastric erosions and biliary tract disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Solov’yova

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Article deals with comparison data about disturbances of microcirculation in the antral part of the stomach and gastric body in three groups of patients: with gastric erosions and biliary tract diseases, gastric erosions and duodenal ulcer disease and chronic gastritis. It is shown, that patients with gastric erosions and biliary tract diseases are characterized by more pronounced disturbances of microhemocirculation in stomach body as for such indexes – stase (dysdiemorrhysis in venules, cappilares, thrombosis in venules, cappilares, edema of the walls of microvessels and perivascular structures; thickening of vessels' walls, fibrous changes of native mucose membrane in the antral part of the stomach.

  9. [Gastric emptying in the aged. Effect of clebopride].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schraier, M; Guinsburg, R; Valguarnera, J; Rosenfeld, L

    1984-01-01

    Fifteen patients considered as "geronts" (average 70 years) have been performed Radiology, Endoscopy and Gastric Biopsies, with differents degrees of chronic gastritis as only gastric pathology, and 8 "healthy adults" (controls) were assessed on the T1/2 of gastric evacuation, with a solid meal marked with DPTA Tc 99 and measurement of isotopic activity in Gamma Camera before and after administration of a therapeutic dose of Clebopride. In the basal trial it was found that geronts gastric emptying is delayed more than controls (112 and 89 minutes). The activity of Clebopride revealed a significant decrease in both groups, being more important in geronts. This findings suggests the clinic usefulness in different pathological situations, where its useful to accelerate the time of gastric evacuation (gastric esofagic reflux, gastric ulcer) and in the geront with dispeptic symptoms and chronic gastritis related to age, as the only gastric pathology.

  10. Gastric pseudolymphoma: Report of 3 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Mi Sook; Kim, Ki Whang; Kim, Dong Ik; Lee, Jong Tae; Park, Chang Yun

    1983-01-01

    The pseudolymphoma of the stomach is known to be a benign proliferation of lymphoid tissue, which can be mistaken histologically for malignant lymphoma. The etiology of pseudo lymphoma is controversial, but it B believed to be a manifestation of chronic inflammatory process. Authors present 3 cases of gastric lymphoma. Impression of upper gastrointestinal series were as follows; lymphoma or chronic gastritis in one case, ulcerative carcinoma in another case and early gastric carcinoma in the other case. Initial endoscopic findings suggested infiltrating carcinoma, ulcerative carcinoma and two benign gastric ulcers, respectively. One case was associated with early gastric carcinoma

  11. Gastric pseudolymphoma: Report of 3 cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Mi Sook; Kim, Ki Whang; Kim, Dong Ik; Lee, Jong Tae; Park, Chang Yun [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1983-12-15

    The pseudolymphoma of the stomach is known to be a benign proliferation of lymphoid tissue, which can be mistaken histologically for malignant lymphoma. The etiology of pseudo lymphoma is controversial, but it B believed to be a manifestation of chronic inflammatory process. Authors present 3 cases of gastric lymphoma. Impression of upper gastrointestinal series were as follows; lymphoma or chronic gastritis in one case, ulcerative carcinoma in another case and early gastric carcinoma in the other case. Initial endoscopic findings suggested infiltrating carcinoma, ulcerative carcinoma and two benign gastric ulcers, respectively. One case was associated with early gastric carcinoma.

  12. Concurrent proinflammatory and apoptotic activity of a Helicobacter pylori protein (HP986 points to its role in chronic persistence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayesha Alvi

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori induces cytokine mediated changes in gastroduodenal pathophysiology, wherein, the activated macrophages at the sub-mucosal space play a central role in mounting innate immune response against the antigens. The bacterium gains niche through persistent inflammation and local immune-suppression causing peptic ulcer disease or chronic gastritis; the latter being a significant risk factor for the development of gastric adenocarcinoma. What favors persistence of H. pylori in the gastric niches is not clearly understood. We report detailed characterization of a functionally unknown gene (HP986, which was detected in patient isolates associated with peptic ulcer and gastric carcinoma. Expression and purification of recombinant HP986 (rHP986 revealed a novel, ∼29 kDa protein in biologically active form which associates with significant levels of humoral immune responses in diseased individuals (p<0.001. Also, it induced significant levels of TNF-α and Interleukin-8 in cultured human macrophages concurrent to the translocation of nuclear transcription factor-κB (NF-κB. Further, the rHP986 induced apoptosis of cultured macrophages through a Fas mediated pathway. Dissection of the underlying signaling mechanism revealed that rHP986 induces both TNFR1 and Fas expression to lead to apoptosis. We further demonstrated interaction of HP986 with TNFR1 through computational and experimental approaches. Independent proinflammatory and apoptotic responses triggered by rHP986 as shown in this study point to its role, possibly as a survival strategy to gain niche through inflammation and to counter the activated macrophages to avoid clearance.

  13. Symptomatic subserosal gastric lipoma successfully treated with enucleation

    OpenAIRE

    Krasniqi, Avdyl Selmon; Hoxha, Faton Tatil; Bicaj, Besnik Xhafer; Hashani, Shemsedin Isuf; Hasimja, Shpresa Mehmet; Kelmendi, Sadik Mal; Gashi-Luci, Lumturije Hasan

    2008-01-01

    Gastric lipomas are rare tumors, accounting for 2%-3% of all benign gastric tumors. They are of submucosal or extremely rare subserosal origin. Although most gastric lipomas are usually detected incidentally, they can cause abdominal pain, dyspeptic disorders, obstruction, invagination, and hemorrhages. Subserosal gastric lipomas are rarely symptomatic. There is no report on treatment of subserosal gastric lipomas in the English literature. We present a case of a 50-year-old male with symptom...

  14. Gastric heterotopia in the rectum. A rare cause of ectopic gastric tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, George A; Fazili, Javid; Ali, Tauseef

    2017-03-01

    Gastric heterotopia refers to the discovery of normal gastric tissue at foreign, unexpected sites. It has been described anywhere in the alimentary tract, even in the mediastinum, scrotum, and spinal cord. It is not uncommonly seen in the oesophagus or small intestine. However, large bowel lesions are rare, with the most common location of colonic lesions is the rectum. Although it is a rare entity, it may be the source for significant problems such as rectal bleeding, abdominal pain, deep rectal pain, and malignancy. Here, we report an additional case of gastric heterotopia in the rectum of a 56year old gentleman, and review the literature. Copyright © 2017 Pan-Arab Association of Gastroenterology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Gastric lavage in patients with acute poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat Amigó Tadín

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Acute poisonings are a frequent complaint in emergency departments and therapy which prevents the absorption of toxic products taken orally is often indicated: one such option is gastric lavage. Gastric lavage is a digestive decontamination technique whose goal is to remove the maximum amount of poison from the stomach and prevent its absorption. The procedure involves inserting a gastric tube into the stomach through the mouth or nose; firstly to aspirate all the stomach contents and then to perform gastric washing manoeuvres. The effectiveness of gastric lavage is limited and involves a risk of iatrogenesis, and therefore the indications and contraindications should be carefully considered and the technique carried out meticulously to increase its effectiveness and reduce complications, primarily bronchoaspiration. Gastric lavage may be used in conjunction with other digestive decontamination techniques such as administration of activated charcoal. This gastric lavage protocol is based on a review of the literature on this procedure and is supported by the expertise of our research group in gastrointestinal decontamination techniques in patients with acute poisoning.

  16. Weight Loss After Laparoscopic Adjustable Gastric Banding is not Caused by Altered Gastric Emptying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, J. R.; van Ramshorst, B.; Gooszen, H. G.; Smout, A. J. P. M.; Buul, M. M. C. Tiel-Van

    In order to know the role of gastric emptying in the mechanism of weight loss and early satiety after a restrictive surgical procedure for treatment of morbid obesity, a consecutive series of patients were scintigraphically investigated before and after laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding.

  17. Effect of isoprenaline on bethanechol-stimulated gastric antral motility in dogs with gastric fistula

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, K; Hovendal, C P

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of isoprenaline on gastric antral motility in conscious dogs with gastric fistula, using intraluminal strain-gauge transducers. Infusion of bethanechol increased the motility for both frequency and strength. Isoprenaline, a beta 1...

  18. Effect of dopamine on pentagastrin-stimulated gastric antral motility in dogs with gastric fistula

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, K; Hovendal, C P; Andersen, D

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of dopamine on gastric antral motility in conscious dogs with gastric fistula by using miniature strain-gauge transducers. Infusion of pentagastrin changed the contractile activity to a digestive state. Dopamine, an endogenous...

  19. Weight loss after laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding is not caused by altered gastric emptying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, J. R.; van Ramshorst, B.; Gooszen, H. G.; Smout, A. J. P. M.; Tiel-van Buul, M. M. C.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In order to know the role of gastric emptying in the mechanism of weight loss and early satiety after a restrictive surgical procedure for treatment of morbid obesity, a consecutive series of patients were scintigraphically investigated before and after laparoscopic adjustable gastric

  20. MiR-133b is frequently decreased in gastric cancer and its overexpression reduces the metastatic potential of gastric cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Yu; Zhu, Zhenggang; Huang, Jie; Zhang, Li; Qu, Ying; Li, Jianfang; Yu, Beiqin; Yan, Min; Yu, Yingyan; Liu, Bingya

    2014-01-01

    Emerging evidence has shown that microRNAs are involved in gastric cancer development and progression. Here we examine the role of miR-133b in gastric cancer. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis was performed in 140 patient gastric cancer tissues and 8 gastric cancer cell lines. The effects of miR-133b in gastric cancer cells metastasis were examined by scratch assay, transwell migration and matrigel invasion. In vivo effects of miR-133b were examined in an intraperitoneal mouse tumor model. Targets of miR-133b were predicted by bioinformatics tools and validated by luciferase reporter analyses, western blot, and quantitative real-time PCR. MiR-133b was significantly downregulated in 70% (98/140) of gastric cancer patients. Expression of miR-133b was negatively correlated with lymph node metastasis of gastric cancer in patients. Similarly, the expression of miR-133b was significantly lower in seven tested gastric cancer cell lines than in the immortalized non-cancerous GES-1 gastric epithelial cells. Overexpression of miR-133b markedly inhibited metastasis of gastric cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, the transcriptional factor Gli1 was identified as a direct target for miR-133b. Level of Gli1 protein but not mRNA was decreased by miR-133b. Activity of luciferase with Gli1 3′-untranslated region was markedly decreased by miR-133b in gastric cancer cells. Gli1 target genes, OPN and Zeb2, were also inhibited by miR133b. MiR-133b is frequently decreased in gastric cancer. Overexpression of miR-133b inhibits cell metastasis in vitro and in vivo partly by directly suppressing expression of Gli1 protein. These results suggested that miR-133b plays an important role in gastric cancer metastasis

  1. Oral bioavailability, efficacy and gastric tolerability of P2026, a novel nitric oxide-releasing diclofenac in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathan, Asif R; Karwa, Manoj; Pamidiboina, Venu; Deshattiwar, Jagannath J; Deshmukh, Nitin J; Gaikwad, Parikshit P; Mali, Sunil V; Desai, Dattatraya C; Dhiman, Mini; Thanga Mariappan, T; Sharma, Somesh D; Satyam, Apparao; Nemmani, Kumar V S

    2010-08-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate, P2026 [(2-((2-(nitrooxy)ethyl)disulfanyl)ethyl 2-(2-(2,6-dichlorophenylamino)phenyl)acetate)], a novel NO (nitric oxide) donor prodrug of diclofenac for its ability to release NO and diclofenac, and whether P2026 provides advantage of improved activity/gastric tolerability over diclofenac. Oral bioavailability of P2026 was estimated from plasma concentration of diclofenac and nitrate/nitrite (NOx). Anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated in three different models of inflammation: acute (carrageenan-induced paw oedema), chronic (adjuvant-induced arthritis), and systemic (lipopolysaccharide-induced endotoxic shock). Gastric tolerability was evaluated from compound's propensity to cause gastric ulcers. P2026 exhibited dose-dependent diclofenac and NOx release. Similar to diclofenac, P2026 showed potent anti-inflammatory activity in acute and chronic model, whereas it improved activity in systemic model. Both diclofenac and P2026 inhibited gastric prostaglandin, but only diclofenac produced dose-dependent haemorrhagic ulcers. Thus, the results suggest that coupling of NO and diclofenac contribute to improved gastric tolerability while retaining the anti-inflammatory properties of diclofenac.

  2. Assessment of Gastric Emptying in Patients with Autoimmune Gastritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkan, Çağdaş; Soykan, Irfan; Soydal, Çiğdem; Özkan, Elgin; Kalkan, Emra

    2016-06-01

    Symptoms of patients with autoimmune gastritis are not specific, and some patients may present symptoms suggestive of delayed gastric emptying. This study aims to investigate whether any delay in gastric emptying of solid food exists in patients with autoimmune gastritis and, if so, to identify the factors that might affect delayed gastric emptying. A total of 165 patients (106 women) diagnosed as having autoimmune gastritis were analyzed by means of a gastric emptying test. All patients underwent a standardized scintigraphic gastric emptying study. Patients with delayed gastric emptying and normal gastric emptying tests were then compared by means of factors that might affect gastric emptying. Also 65 patients with functional dyspepsia who had a gastric emptying study constituted the control group. The median gastric emptying T ½ time was 127.43 min (min-max 50-953) for patients with AIG and 81 min (min-max 21-121.6) for functional dyspepsia patients (p gastritis, gastric emptying is generally delayed. Autoimmune gastritis is an important etiology to explain the finding of delayed gastric emptying on a radionuclide test. This new finding is likely to be relevant to clinicians when evaluating and initiating appropriate medical treatment for patients with autoimmune gastritis manifesting upper gastrointestinal symptoms.

  3. [Laparoscopic gastric sleeve in gastric volvulus secondary to diaphragmatic eventration in an adult patient].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gálvez-Valdovinos, Ramiro; Marín-Santillán, Ernesto; Funes-Rodríguez, Juan Francisco; López-Ambriz, Gustavo

    2016-01-01

    Acute gastric volvulus is a rare, but potentially life-threatening, cause of upper gastrointestinal obstruction. Male of 60 years old with severe epigastric pain and abdominal distension with haematemesis on two occasions. The patient was haemodynamically stable, with abdominal distension and palpable epigastric fullness. Hematic cytology showed: haemoglobin 8.2g/dl and haematocrit 27%. Abdominal X-ray showed an elevation of left diaphragm with a hugely dilated stomach. A nasogastric tube was inserted. Endoscopy was performed. There was no active bleeding, but it was impossible to reach the duodenum due to the stomach distortion. The upper gastrointestinal X-ray study showed the appearance of an inverted stomach in the chest and an organoaxial gastric torsion. The CT scans of thorax and abdomen showed a gastric ascent into the thoracic cavity. Laparoscopic surgery was performed, finding the left hemi-diaphragm elevated, and the stomach, splenic angle of the colon, the spleen and tail of the pancreas were also raised. A linear gastrectomy (gastric sleeve) was performed. The postoperative progress was satisfactory. Oral feeding was started 72 hours after surgery, and the patient was discharged, and has remained asymptomatic during the following by 8 years. Emergency physicians must maintain a high level of suspicion in patients that present with signs and symptoms suggesting upper digestive tract occlusion. The gastric sleeve is an excellent alternative to avoid recurrence of gastric volvulus. Copyright © 2015 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  4. Gastric Bezoar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samer Assaf

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available History of present illness: A 12-year-old female with no past medical history presented with abdominal pain for 3 months. The pain was intermittent, located at the epigastric region, non-radiating, fluctuating intensity up to 8/10, and had worsened over the past month. She did not have fever, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, constipation, or blood in her stool. The patient also endorsed hair loss over the same time period and noted that her previously long hair was now short and thin. On exam, patient was noted to have shoulder-length hair, a soft, non-distended abdomen with mild tenderness to the epigastric region, and a 5cm hard mass palpated at the epigastrium. Significant findings: In the abdominal radiograph, a nonspecific and non-obstructive bowel gas pattern with no air-fluid level was noted, however the stomach was distended with soft tissue. The CT abdomen/pelvis revealed a distended stomach with undigested heterogeneous contents (presumed bezoar. Discussion: A bezoar is a mass of incompletely digested material typically originating in the stomach and consisting of vegetable fibers, hair, or drugs.1 Bezoars develop after ingested foreign material accumulates in the gastrointestinal tract due to indigestibility, gastric outlet obstruction, or intestinal stasis. Trichobezoars are comprised of hair and classically form in young females with an underlying psychiatric disorder resulting in the urge to pull one’s hair out (trichotillomania and swallow it (trichophagia.2,3 Gastric bezoars are rare with an approximate incidence of 0.3 percent of patients undergoing upper endoscopy.4 Patients tend to remain asymptomatic for long periods, but may develop abdominal pain, nausea/vomiting, early satiety, anorexia, and weight loss.5 Complications may include gastrointestinal ulcerations, perforations, intussusception, pancreatitis, obstructive jaundice, and death.6-8 The diagnosis of a gastric bezoar can be made using plain films, ultrasound, or CT, and

  5. [Assesing the effect of Lepidium meyenii "Maca" on the gastric mucosa in patients with functional dyspepsia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benites Goñi, Harold Eduardo; Cok García, Jaime; Bussalleu Cavero, Alejandra; Bustamente Robles, Katherine Yelenia; Zegarra Chang, Arturo; Bravo, Eduar; Bussalleu Rivera, Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    The present study was designed to determine the histological effect of Lepidium meyenii "Maca" on the gastric mucosa in patients with functional dyspepsia. This study consists of a clinical case series, in which the effect of Maca on the gastric histopathology of 29 Peruvian patients diagnosed with functional dyspepsia was examined. The presence of H. pylori, as well as the degree and depth of the gastric mucosa inflammation was evaluated from biopsies obtained before and after the treatment based solely of Maca 3 grams per day for four weeks. Average values of the degree and depth of mucosal inflammation before and after the treatment were compared showing no statistical difference among the samples. Sixteen patients were infected with H. pylori, and they remained infected after the treatment with Maca. A four week long treatment with Maca does not produce significant changes on gastric mucosa of patients with functional dyspepsia, neither on H. pylori eradication.

  6. Effect of dopamine on bethanechol-stimulated gastric antral motility in dogs with gastric fistula

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, K; Hovendal, C P

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of dopamine on gastric antral motility in conscious dogs with gastric fistula, using intraluminal strain-gauge transducers. Infusion of bethanechol increased the motility with regard to both frequency and strength. Dopamine, an endogenous...

  7. Persistent elevation of postoperative neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio: A better predictor of survival in gastric cancer than elevated preoperative neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Kyueng-Whan; Kwon, Mi Jung; Kim, Dong-Hoon; Son, Byoung Kwan; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Oh, Young Ha; Wi, Young Chan

    2017-10-25

    Postoperative neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio change (NLRc) reflects the dynamic change of balance between host inflammatory response and immune response after treatment. In gastric cancer, an elevated initial NLR (iNLR) is reported to be a prognostic predictor, but the clinical application of the NLRc remains unclear. The NLRc was assessed in 734 patients undergoing total/subtotal gastrectomy and endoscopic submucosal dissection for gastric adenocarcinoma. The iNLR and NLRc were recorded within 10 days of the first diagnosis and 3-6 months after surgery, respectively. Using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, we investigated the relationship between NLRc or iNLR and patient survival. The analysis revealed a higher predictive power for correlating patient survival with the NLRc compared with iNLR. NLRc was defined as negative (lower than iNLR) and positive (higher than iNLR). A positive NLRc was frequently observed in patients with advanced AJCC stage, local recurrence, distant metastasis, perineural invasion, and adjuvant chemotherapy (all p < 0.05). Univariate and multivariate analyses revealed a significant relationship between patient survival and NLRc (all p < 0.05) but no association between survival and iNLR. The NLRc could be a better indicator than iNLR for predicting survival in patients with gastric cancer.

  8. Acute mesenteroaxial gastric volvulus on computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aadil Ahmed

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Acute gastric volvulus is a rare, but potentially life-threatening, cause of upper gastro-intestinal obstruction. The diagnosis can prove clinically challenging, and hence there is increased reliance on imaging. There are different types of gastric volvulus, with the variant presented in our case being the less commonly encountered mesenteroaxial gastric volvulus. Some of the CT features of gastric volvulus are described, and the usefulness of CT in assisting with the diagnosis is highlighted.

  9. Plasma lactate concentration as a predictor of gastric necrosis and survival among dogs with gastric dilatation-volvulus: 102 cases (1995-1998).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Papp, E; Drobatz, K J; Hughes, D

    1999-07-01

    To determine relationships between plasma lactate concentration and gastric necrosis and between plasma lactate concentration and outcome for dogs with gastric dilatation-volvulus. Retrospective study. 102 dogs. Information on signalment, history, plasma lactate concentration, medical and surgical treatment, cost of hospitalization, and outcome was retrieved from medical records. 69 of 70 (99%) dogs with plasma lactate concentration dogs with plasma lactate concentration > 6.0 mmol/L (1 dog euthanatized for economic reasons was not included). Gastric necrosis was identified in 38 (37%) dogs. Median plasma lactate concentration in dogs with gastric necrosis (6.6 mmol/L) was significantly higher than concentration in dogs without gastric necrosis (3.3 mmol/L). Specificity and sensitivity of using plasma lactate concentration (with a cutoff of 6.0 mmol/L) to predict which dogs had gastric necrosis were 88 and 61%, respectively. Sixty-two of 63 (98%) dogs without gastric necrosis survived, compared with 25 of 38 (66%) dogs with gastric necrosis. Preoperative plasma lactate concentration was a good predictor of gastric necrosis and outcome for dogs with GDV. Preoperative measurement of plasma lactate concentration may assist in determining prognosis of dogs with GDV.

  10. Gastric involvement in systemic sclerosis: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marie, I; Levesque, H; Ducrotté, P; Denis, P; Hellot, M F; Benichou, J; Cailleux, N; Courtois, H

    2001-01-01

    This study aims to assess the prevalence of gastric electrical activity dysfunction with cutaneous electrogastrography (EGG), disturbances of gastric emptying function using radiopaque pellets, and gastric endoscopic abnormalities in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc). We also investigate for an association between EGG and gastric-emptying data with clinical manifestations and esophageal motor disturbances. Fasting and postprandial gastric electrical activity was studied in 22 consecutive patients with SSc (17 with and 5 without clinical gastric manifestations) and 22 age- and sex-matched healthy subjects. Gastric emptying of radiopaque pellets and gastroscopy were also performed in SSc patients. The prevalence of EGG disturbances was as high as 81.82% in SSc patients. SSc patients exhibited, compared with controls, higher median percentage of dominant frequency in bradygastria during the fasting period and lower median values for postprandial electrical power and postprandial to fasting ratio for electrical power. Gastric emptying of radiopaque pellets was delayed in 11 SSc patients, and gastroscopy demonstrated "watermelon stomach" in 3 SSc patients. No correlation was found between the severity of gastric impairment and clinical presentation, SSc duration and subsets, and esophageal manometric impairment. Our study underlines the high frequency of gastric dysfunction in SSc patients. It suggests the usefulness of EGG in SSc in noninvasively detecting disorders of gastric electrical activity at an early stage and symptomatic patients with gastroparesis (because there was a correlation between values of postprandial to fasting ratio for electrical power of watermelon stomach diagnosis should be excluded in SSc patients presenting with gastrointestinal hemorrhage or with anemia related to iron deficiency.

  11. Qualitative and quantitative ultrasound assessment of gastric content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flora Margarida Barra Bisinotto

    Full Text Available Summary Objective: Pulmonary aspiration of the gastric contents is one of the most feared complications in anesthesia. Its prevention depends on preoperative fasting as well as identification of risky patients. A reliable diagnostic tool to assess gastric volume is currently lacking. The aim of this study performed on volunteers was to evaluate the feasibility of ultrasonography to identify qualitative and quantitative gastric content. Method: A standardized gastric scanning protocol was applied on 67 healthy volunteers to assess the gastric antrum in four different situations: fasting, after ingesting clear fluid, milk and a solid meal. A qualitative and quantitative assessment of the gastric content in the antrum was performed by a blinded sonographer. The antrum was considered either as empty, or containing clear or thick fluid, or solids. Total gastric volume was predicted based on a cross-sectional area of the antrum. A p-value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: For each type of gastric content, the sonographic characteristics of the antrum and its content were described and illustrated. Sonographic qualitative assessment allowed to distinguish between an empty stomach and one with different kinds of meal. The predicted gastric volume was significantly larger after the consumption of any food source compared to fasting. Conclusion: Bedside sonography can determine the nature of gastric content. It is also possible to estimate the difference between an empty gastric antrum and one that has some food in it. Such information may be useful to estimate the risk of aspiration, particularly in situations when prandial status is unknown or uncertain.

  12. Qualitative and quantitative ultrasound assessment of gastric content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisinotto, Flora Margarida Barra; Pansani, Patrícia Luísa; Silveira, Luciano Alves Matias da; Naves, Aline de Araújo; Peixoto, Ana Cristina Abdu; Lima, Hellen Moreira de; Martins, Laura Bisinotto

    2017-02-01

    Pulmonary aspiration of the gastric contents is one of the most feared complications in anesthesia. Its prevention depends on preoperative fasting as well as identification of risky patients. A reliable diagnostic tool to assess gastric volume is currently lacking. The aim of this study performed on volunteers was to evaluate the feasibility of ultrasonography to identify qualitative and quantitative gastric content. A standardized gastric scanning protocol was applied on 67 healthy volunteers to assess the gastric antrum in four different situations: fasting, after ingesting clear fluid, milk and a solid meal. A qualitative and quantitative assessment of the gastric content in the antrum was performed by a blinded sonographer. The antrum was considered either as empty, or containing clear or thick fluid, or solids. Total gastric volume was predicted based on a cross-sectional area of the antrum. A p-value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. For each type of gastric content, the sonographic characteristics of the antrum and its content were described and illustrated. Sonographic qualitative assessment allowed to distinguish between an empty stomach and one with different kinds of meal. The predicted gastric volume was significantly larger after the consumption of any food source compared to fasting. Bedside sonography can determine the nature of gastric content. It is also possible to estimate the difference between an empty gastric antrum and one that has some food in it. Such information may be useful to estimate the risk of aspiration, particularly in situations when prandial status is unknown or uncertain.

  13. Blunt gastric injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oncel, Didem; Malinoski, Darren; Brown, Carlos; Demetriades, Demetrios; Salim, Ali

    2007-09-01

    Gastric rupture after blunt abdominal trauma is a rare injury with few reports in the literature. The purpose of this study was to review our experience with blunt gastric injuries and compare outcomes with small bowel or colon injuries. All patients with hollow viscus perforations after blunt abdominal trauma from 1992 to 2005 at our level I trauma center were reviewed. Of 35,033 blunt trauma admissions, there were 268 (0.7%) patients with a total of 319 perforating hollow viscus injuries, 25 (0.07%) of which were blunt gastric injuries. When compared with the small bowel or colon injuries, the blunt gastric injury group had a higher Injury Severity Score (22 versus 17, P = 0.04), more patients with a chest Abbreviated Injury Score greater than 2 (36% versus 12%, P < 0.01), and a shorter interval from injury to laparotomy (221 versus 366 minutes, P = 0.017). Multivariate analysis identified five independent risk factors for mortality: age older than 55 years, head Abbreviated Injury Score greater than 2, chest Abbreviated Injury Score greater than 2, the presence of hypotension on admission, and Glasgow Coma Scale 8 or less. The results of this study suggest that mortality in patients with blunt hollow viscus injuries can be attributed to concurrent head and chest injuries, but not the specific hollow viscus organ that is injured.

  14. Gastric gallium-67 uptake in gastritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, E.L.; Tisdale, P.L.; Zielonka, J.S.

    1983-01-01

    Even though Ga-67 imaging has been used widely in the diagnosis of malignant as well as inflammatory lesions, its uptake in the stomach has been reported in the literature mainly in gastric lymphoma and carcinoma. As shown in this case, intense gastric uptake of the radionuclide may be seen in common gastritis without malignancy. Perhaps the benign gastric uptake of Ga-67 deserves more emphasis

  15. Association of the p53 codon 72 polymorphism to gastric cancer risk in a high risk population of Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alpizar-Alpizar, Warner; Sierra, Rafaela; Cuenca, Patricia; Une, Clas; Mena, Fernando; Perez-Perez, Guillermo Ignacio

    2005-01-01

    Gastric cancer is the second most common cancer associated death cause worldwide. Several factors have been associated with higher risk to develop gastric cancer, among them genetic predisposition. The p53 gene has a polymorphism located at codon 72, which has been associated with higher risk of several types of cancer, including gastric cancer. The aim of this study was to determine the association of p53, codon 72 polymorphism, with the risk of gastric cancer and pre-malignant lesions in a high-risk population from Costa Rica. The genotyping was carried out by PCR-RFLP in a sample of 58 gastric cancer patients, 99 control persons and 41 individuals classified as group I and II, according to the Japanese histological classification. No association was found for p53, codon 72 polymorphism with neither the risk of gastric cancer nor the risk of less severe gastric lesions in the studied sample. Based on this study and taking into account other studies carried out with p53, codon 72 polymorphism, the role of this polymorphism in the development of gastric cancer remains unclear. De novo mutations on p53 gene produced during neoplastic development of this disease might play a greater role than germinal polymorphisms of this same gene. Other polymorphic genes have been associated with higher risk to develop gastric cancer. (author) [es

  16. Gastric candidiasis with gastric adenocarcinoma intestinal type: A rare association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalaivani Selvi Subramanian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Candidiasis of the gastrointestinal tract most commonly involves the esophagus and rarely involves the stomach and small bowel. The association of gastric carcinoma with candidiasis is even rare and only a very few case reports are available. We present here a 40-year-old female who presented with complaints of gastric outlet obstruction who on endoscopy showed a malignant ulcer involving the lesser curvature. The histopathological examination of biopsy from the ulcer showed adenocarcinoma intestinal type along with yeast and pseudohyphae forms of candida species.

  17. Pathobiology of Helicobacter pylori-induced Gastric Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amieva, Manuel; Peek, Richard M.

    2015-01-01

    Colonization of the human stomach by Helicobacter pylori and its role in causing gastric cancer is one of the richest examples of complex relationship among human cells, microbes, and their environment. It is also a puzzle of enormous medical importance given the incidence and lethality of gastric cancer worldwide. We review recent findings that have changed how we view these relationships and affected the direction of gastric cancer research. For example, recent data indicate that subtle mismatches between host and microbe genetic traits greatly affect risk of gastric cancer. The ability of H pylori and its oncoprotein CagA to reprogram epithelial cells and activate properties of stemness demonstrates the sophisticated relationship among H pylori and progenitor cells in the gastric mucosa. The observation that cell-associated H pylori can colonize the gastric glands and directly affect precursor and stem cells supports these observations. The ability to mimic these interactions in human gastric organoid cultures as well as animal models will allow investigators to more fully unravel the extent of H pylori control on the renewing gastric epithelium. Finally, our realization that external environmental factors, such as dietary components and essential micronutrients, as well as the gastrointestinal microbiota, can change the balance between H pylori’s activity as a commensal or a pathogen has provided direction to studies aimed at defining the full carcinogenic potential of this organism. PMID:26385073

  18. 13C-sodium acetate breath test for evaluation of gastric emptying times in dogs with gastric dilatation-volvulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, S; Jansen, N; Failing, K; Neiger, R

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess solid phase gastric emptying via non-invasive 13C-sodium acetate breath test in large breed dogs with or without gastric dilatation-volvulus (GDV). Dogs were recruited into one of the following groups: group 1 = healthy large breed dogs with no history of GDV, group 2 = dogs that underwent elective abdominal surgery for reasons unrelated to the gastrointestinal tract, and group 3 = dogs that underwent laparotomy and gastropexy to correct GDV. The dogs were fed a test meal containing 100 mg 13C-sodium acetate (for group 2 and 3, this was gastric emptying times were calculated and compared between groups. Gastric emptying times were significantly prolonged in dogs undergoing surgery (group 2) compared to group 1 and 3. Also, gastric emptying times of dogs with GDV were significantly prolonged compared to controls, but not to the same extent as dogs in group 2. There was a significant effect of abdominal surgery on gastric emptying times. Surprisingly, dogs after GDV surgery and gastropexy had shorter gastric emptying times than dogs undergoing laparotomy for reasons other than GDV, but still prolonged compared to healthy controls. The reason for these differences requires further study.

  19. Gastric stimulation: influence of electrical parameters on gastric emptying in control and diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songné Badjona

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Summary Background The aim of this study was to test the effect of different pulse frequencies and amplitudes during gastric stimulation (GS on gastric emptying in the rat. Methods GS was performed in 2 groups of laparotomized rats: healthy control animals, and rats with acute diabetes. The effects of four pulse frequencies (0.5, 1, 10, 20 Hz and three pulse amplitudes (5, 20, 40 mA were tested. The volumes emptied from the stomach after the oro-gastric instillation of a nutrient solution were compared to those obtained in animals without GS. Intragastric pH values were assessed under basal conditions and after GS. Results In both groups, GS increased emptied volumes compared to conditions without stimulation (p Conclusions Although both pulse frequency and amplitude should be considered during GS, frequency appears to be the most critical point. The possibility of increasing gastric emptying by electrical stimulation in diabetic rats suggests potential clinical applications for this method.

  20. Comparison of radiologic and pathologic findings of gastric MALToma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dong Ho; Lee, Ju Hie; Ko, Young Tae [Kyunghee Univ. Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-02-01

    To evaluate the radiologic findings of gastric MALToma, and to correlate these with its pathologic findings. We retrospectively reviewed the pathologic slides of gastrectomy and gastroscopic biopsy specimens obtained between 1982 and 1996, and collected nine cases of gastric MALToma. Eight of these had been surgically confirmed, and one had been diagnosed by gastroscopic biopsy. A gastrointestinal series comprised eight cases; five involved sonography and five, CT. The lesions were located at the body in five cases, at the antrum in one, and at the body and antrum in three cases. Pathologic diagnosis was low grade MALToma in four cases, and mixed high and low grade MALToma in five cases. Initial radiologic diagnosis was gastric lymphoma in four cases, early gastric carcinoma in three, and advanced gastric carcinoma in two cases. On retrospective analysis, radiologic diagnosis was changed to lymphoma in both cases initially diagnosed as advanced gastric carcinomas. One case showed marked thickening of the gastric wall, with poor enhancement on CT, and the other case showed a very small and shallow ulcer in comparison to diffuse infiltration of tumor in the upper gastrointestinal series. The final radiologic diagnosis was gastric lymphoma in six cases, and early carcinoma in three. Radiologic findings of gastric MALToma were EGC II c-like lesion in three cases, marked gastric wall thickening in two, multiple discrete lesions in two, hyperugosity of gastric folds with discrete lesions in one, and diffuse infiltrative lesion with small ulcer in one case. The pathologic diagnosis of gastric MALToma was made by the presence of lymphoepithelial lesions, centrocyte-like cells, reactive follicles, plasma cell infiltration, and follicular colonization. There were no significant correlations between radiologic findings and pathologic results such as depth of tumor invasion, low grade MALToma or mixed high and low grade MALToma. There are no specific radiologic characteristics

  1. Antitumor activity of pan-HER inhibitors in HER2-positive gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshioka, Takahiro; Shien, Kazuhiko; Namba, Kei; Torigoe, Hidejiro; Sato, Hiroki; Tomida, Shuta; Yamamoto, Hiromasa; Asano, Hiroaki; Soh, Junichi; Tsukuda, Kazunori; Nagasaka, Takeshi; Fujiwara, Toshiyoshi; Toyooka, Shinichi

    2018-04-01

    Molecularly targeted therapy has enabled outstanding advances in cancer treatment. Whereas various anti-human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) drugs have been developed, trastuzumab is still the only anti-HER2 drug presently available for gastric cancer. In this study, we propose novel treatment options for patients with HER2-positive gastric cancer. First, we determined the molecular profiles of 12 gastric cancer cell lines, and examined the antitumor effect of the pan-HER inhibitors afatinib and neratinib in those cell lines. Additionally, we analyzed HER2 alteration in 123 primary gastric cancers resected from Japanese patients to clarify possible candidates with the potential to respond to these drugs. In the drug sensitivity analysis, both afatinib and neratinib produced an antitumor effect in most of the HER2-amplified cell lines. However, some cells were not sensitive to the drugs. When the molecular profiles of the cells were compared based on the drug sensitivities, we found that cancer cells with lower mRNA expression levels of IGFBP7, a tumor suppressor gene that inhibits the activation of insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R), were less sensitive to pan-HER inhibitors. A combination therapy consisting of pan-HER inhibitors and an IGF-1R inhibitor, picropodophyllin, showed a notable synergistic effect. Among 123 clinical samples, we found 19 cases of HER2 amplification and three cases of oncogenic mutations. In conclusion, afatinib and neratinib are promising therapeutic options for the treatment of HER2-amplified gastric cancer. In addition to HER2 amplification, IGFBP7 might be a biomarker of sensitivity to these drugs, and IGF-1R-targeting therapy can overcome drug insensitiveness in HER2-amplified gastric cancer. © 2018 The Authors. Cancer Science published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  2. Surgical Elimination of the Gastric Digestion by Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass Impacts on Food Sensitisation-a Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakeri-Leidenmühler, Soheila; Lukschal, Anna; Schultz, Cornelia; Bohdjalian, Arthur; Langer, Felix; Birsan, Tudor; Diesner, Susanne C; Greisenegger, Elli K; Scheiner, Otto; Kopp, Tamara; Jensen-Jarolim, Erika; Prager, Gerhard; Untersmayr, Eva

    2015-12-01

    Impairment of gastric digestion due to pH elevation increases the risk for food allergy induction. As patients after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery have lower gastric acidity and less gastric gland secretion, we aimed to analyse in a prospective study the effect of limiting gastric digestion capacity by surgical intervention on the immune response towards allergens. Nine patients undergoing RYGB surgery for morbid obesity and one control patient having undergone surgery for treatment of an incisional hernia were enrolled in the study. Before and 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months after surgery, blood was collected for analysis of specific IgE antibodies, and patients were subjected to skin prick testing with 16 food and 18 aeroallergens. Skin prick test results revealed an increase of positive reactions indicating sensitisations towards the tested food and aeroallergens in 77.8 and 88.9 % of the patients, respectively, after surgical elimination of gastric digestion. These results were in line with elevated titers of food- and aeroallergen-specific IgE antibodies in 7 out of 9 (7/9) and 5/9 patients, respectively, after RYGB surgery. Serum cytokine levels revealed a mixed response for IFN-γ and were mostly beneath detection limit for IL-4. A change of IgE reactivity pattern occurred after impairment of gastric digestion due to surgical elimination underlining the important gastric gatekeeping function during oral sensitisation. Even though this study indicates an increased allergy risk for gastric bypass patients, further studies are needed to investigate in-depth the immunological changes associated with RYGB surgery.

  3. A Rare Complication of Hyperplastic Gastric Polyp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Kumar Nayudu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyperplastic gastric polyps are incidentally diagnosed during upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. They are known to cause gastric outlet obstruction and chronic blood loss leading to iron deficiency anemia. However, hyperplastic gastric polyp presenting as acute severe upper gastrointestinal bleeding is very rare. To the best of our knowledge, there have been two cases of hyperplastic gastric polyps presenting as acute gastrointestinal bleeding in the medical literature. We present a case of a 56-year-old African American woman who was admitted to our hospital with symptomatic anemia and sepsis. The patient developed acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding during her hospital stay. She underwent emergent endoscopy, but bleeding could not be controlled. She underwent emergent laparotomy and wedge resection to control the bleeding. Biopsy of surgical specimen was reported as hyperplastic gastric polyp. We recommend that physicians should be aware of this rare serious complication of hyperplastic gastric polyps as endoscopic polypectomy has diagnostic and therapeutic benefits in preventing future complications including bleeding.

  4. Molecular characterisation and expression analysis of SEREX-defined antigen NUCB2 in gastric epithelium, gastritis and gastric cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Line

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available NUCB2 is an EF-hand Ca2+ binding protein that has been implicated in various physiological processes like calcium homeostasis, hypothalamic regulation of feeding and TNF receptor shedding. In our previous study we identified NUCB2 as a potential tumour antigen eliciting autoantibody responses in 5.4% of gastric cancer patients but not in the healthy individuals. The current study aimed to elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying NUCB2 immunogenicity and to gain an insight into the physiological functions of NUCB2 in the stomach. mRNA expression analysis demonstrated that NUCB2 is ubiquitously expressed in normal tissues, including lymphoid tissues, and downregulated in gastric tumours when compared with the adjacent relatively normal stomach tissues. The search for molecular alterations resulted in the identification of novel mRNA variants transcribed from an alternative promoter and expressed predominantly in gastric cancers. Western blot analysis demonstrated that the protein levels correspond to mRNA levels and revealed that NUCB2 is phosphorylated in gastric mucosa. Furthermore, a 55 kDa isoform, generated presumably by yet an unidentified post-translational modification was detected in gastric tumours and AGS gastric cancer cells but was absent in the relatively normal gastric mucosa and thereby might have served as a trigger for the immune response against NUCB2. Staining of stomach tissue microarray with anti-NUCB2 antibody revealed that it is expressed in the secretory granules of chief cells and in the cytoplasm of parietal cells in the functioning gastric glands which are lost in atrophic glands and tumour cells. Hence we propose that NUCB2 may be implicated in gastric secretion by establishing an agonist-releasable Ca2+ store in ER or Golgi apparatus, signalling via heterotrimeric Ga proteins and/or mediating the exocytosis of the secretory granules.

  5. Molecular characterisation and expression analysis of SEREX-defined antigen NUCB2 in gastric epithelium, gastritis and gastric cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Kalnina

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available NUCB2 is an EF-hand Ca2+ binding protein that has been implicated in various physiological processes like calcium homeostasis, hypothalamic regulation of feeding and TNF receptor shedding. In our previous study we identified NUCB2 as a potential tumour antigen eliciting autoantibody responses in 5.4% of gastric cancer patients but not in the healthy individuals. The current study aimed to elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying NUCB2 immunogenicity and to gain an insight into the physiological functions of NUCB2 in the stomach. mRNA expression analysis demonstrated that NUCB2 is ubiquitously expressed in normal tissues, including lymphoid tissues, and downregulated in gastric tumours when compared with the adjacent relatively normal stomach tissues. The search for molecular alterations resulted in the identification of novel mRNA variants transcribed from an alternative promoter and expressed predominantly in gastric cancers. Western blot analysis demonstrated that the protein levels correspond to mRNA levels and revealed that NUCB2 is phosphorylated in gastric mucosa. Furthermore, a 55 kDa isoform, generated presumably by yet an unidentified post-translational modification was detected in gastric tumours and AGS gastric cancer cells but was absent in the relatively normal gastric mucosa and thereby might have served as a trigger for the immune response against NUCB2. Staining of stomach tissue microarray with anti-NUCB2 antibody revealed that it is expressed in the secretory granules of chief cells and in the cytoplasm of parietal cells in the functioning gastric glands which are lost in atrophic glands and tumour cells. Hence we propose that NUCB2 may be implicated in gastric secretion by establishing an agonist-releasable Ca2+ store in ER or Golgi apparatus, signalling via heterotrimeric Ga proteins and/or mediating the exocytosis of the secretory granules.

  6. Acute Gastric Volvulus Causing Splenic Avulsion and Hemoperitoneum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yana Cavanagh

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastric volvulus is an abnormal, potentially life-threatening, torsion of the stomach. The presence of complications such as hemoperitoneum increases the diagnostic urgency; however it can also mask the presentation of gastric volvulus. We encountered a 66-year-old female who presented with symptomatic gastric outlet obstruction and was found to have hemoperitoneum and splenic avulsion on imaging. In our case, hemoperitoneum was a clinical red herring as initial imaging concentrated on the presence of hemoperitoneum and was nondiagnostic of gastric volvulus. Interestingly, our patient experienced complete resolution of her presenting symptomatology following placement of a nasogastric tube. Furthermore, endoscopic evaluation revealed no overt pathology to explain outlet obstruction. In light of these findings, gastric torsion was strongly suspected. A repeat CT scan was confirmatory, elucidated reduction of the stomach to its anatomic position, retroactively diagnosing a gastric volvulus. This case is unusual in its presentation and setting. The patient presented with two rare complications of gastric volvulus, hemoperitoneum and splenic avulsion. Additionally, ten years prior to this presentation the patient had a temporary gastrostomy tube. Gastropexy with a gastrostomy is the treatment for gastric volvulus and should have been preventative of her presentation with torsion. Furthermore, the gastric volvulus was not initially recognized radiographically due to the presence of masking radiographic findings. This case serves to highlight the utility of clinical acumen and maintain a high index of suspicion for gastric volvulus in all cases presenting with Borchardt’s triad.

  7. [Gastritis associated with duodeno-gastric reflux].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diarra, M; Konate, A; Traore, C B; Drabo, M; Soukho, A espouse Diarra; Kalle, A; Dembele, M; Traore, H A; Maiga, M Y

    2007-01-01

    Our main objective was to study gastritis associated to duodeno-gastric reflux. It is about a longitudinal study case/witness, paired according to the sex and the age. It was unrolled from February 2005 to January 2006 in the digestive diseases department of the hospital Gabriél Touré, and endoscopic centers of Promenade des Angevins, and clinique Farako. The patients profited from an upper digestive endoscopy to appreciate endoscopic aspect of gastritis associated to bile in the stomach mucus lake. The gastric biopsies were systematic. This study included 50 patients having gastritis associated to bile in gastric mucus lake compared to 50 patients having gastritis associated to clearly gastric mucus lake. The sex-ratio was 1.26 in favour of men. The average age of the patients was of 41.30 +/- 15.43 years. On the symptomatic hand, fetid breath was significantly met in duodeno-gastric reflux (p = 0.013). Potash consumption in the "tô" (millet cake) was significantly reported in gastritis associated to bile in gastric mucus lake (p = 0.042). The endoscopic aspects were comparable. Histological aspects of nonatrophic chronic gastritis were significantly mint in witnesses as well into the antrum as into the fundus (p = 0.0001 and p = 0.00023). The reactional gastritis aspect was the prerogative of duodenogastric reflux (p ranging between 10(-6) and 3.10 (-6). Helicobacter pylori infection was found comparable in the two groups (p = 0.297). Dysplasia although rare was found only in gastritis associated to duodeno-gastric reflux. Gastritis associated to bile in gastric mucus does not se,nm to have specific clinical, endoscopic and histological presentation. However the presence of dysplasia must have an attentive monitoring.

  8. Gastroprotective activity of polysaccharide from Hericium erinaceus against ethanol-induced gastric mucosal lesion and pylorus ligation-induced gastric ulcer, and its antioxidant activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Yin; Yin, Jun-Yi; Zhao, Ming-Ming; Liu, Shi-Yu; Nie, Shao-Ping; Xie, Ming-Yong

    2018-04-15

    The gastroprotective activity of Hericium erinaceus polysaccharide was investigated in rats. The antioxidant activities were also evaluated. Pre-treatment of polysaccharide could reduce ethanol-induced gastric mucosal lesion and pylorus ligation-induced gastric ulcer. The polysaccharide exhibited scavenging activities of 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrozyl and hydroxyl radicals, and ferrous ion-chelating ability. In the pylorus ligation-induced model, gastric secretions (volume of gastric juice, gastric acid, pepsin and mucus) of ulcer rats administrated with polysaccharide were regulated. Levels of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukins-1β in serum, and myeloperoxidase activity of gastric tissue were reduced, while antioxidant status of gastric tissue was improved. Defensive factors (nitric oxide, prostaglandin E2, epidermal growth factor) in gastric tissue were increased. These results indicate that Hericium erinaceus polysaccharide possess gastroprotective activity, and the possible mechanisms are related to its regulations of gastric secretions, improvements of anti-inflammatory and antioxidant status, as well as increments of defensive factors releases. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. [Cancer of the gastric stump].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas Bravo, F; Montero, L

    1992-01-01

    627 cases of gastric cancer treated surgically during the last 5 years, at the Hospital Nacional "Edgardo Rebagliati Martins" from Instituto Peruano de Seguridad Social (Lima-Perú) were revised. 4 of the patients had been operated before of hemigastrectomy or antrectomy with pyloroplasty for peptic ulcer. The time between the first operation and diagnosis of cancer of the gastric stump was more than 20 years. 3 of these cases were able to be resected. The international incidence of cancer in the gastric stump is 1.1% to 9.2% according to different authors. The risk is higher after 15 years. In the pathogenesis are advocated the lower gastric acidity, biliary reflux, the presence of bacteria, the formation of nitrosamines, intestinal metaplasia, etc. Is necessary to perform periodic endoscopic survey in patients who were treated surgically of peptic ulcer with antrectomy or hemigastrectomy with more than 15 years of evolution.

  10. Ultrasonography findings of gastric carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Chong Ku; Choi, Ji Bai; Ko, Young Tae; Lim, Jae Hoon; Kim, Soon Young

    1985-01-01

    Stomach carcinoma is more common disease in Korea than western countries. The reported ultrasonographic findings of gastric carcinoma were thickening of gastric wall and 'pseudokidney' sign. The author analyzed ultrasonographic findings of 101 cases with gastric carcinoma who were performed ultrasonography and gastroscopy at Kyung Hee University Hospital from October 1982 to October 1985. The results were as followings; 1. Types of gastric carcinoma were consisted with infiltrative type 68 cases, infiltrative type with ulceration 16 cases, polypoid type with ulceration 1 case, infiltrative adn polypoid type 4 cases, limits plastica type 3 cases, ulcerative type 1 case and polypoid type 1 case. 2. Extent of the lesions were in body and antrum 45 cases, entire stomach 18 cases, antrum 18 cases, body 12 cases, body and fundus 6 cases. 3. Ultrasonography was useful in demonstrating the extent of the tumor and the presence of materials elsewhere in abdomen

  11. Ultrasonography findings of gastric carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Chong Ku; Choi, Ji Bai; Ko, Young Tae; Lim, Jae Hoon; Kim, Soon Young [Kyung Hee University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1985-12-15

    Stomach carcinoma is more common disease in Korea than western countries. The reported ultrasonographic findings of gastric carcinoma were thickening of gastric wall and 'pseudokidney' sign. The author analyzed ultrasonographic findings of 101 cases with gastric carcinoma who were performed ultrasonography and gastroscopy at Kyung Hee University Hospital from October 1982 to October 1985. The results were as followings; 1. Types of gastric carcinoma were consisted with infiltrative type 68 cases, infiltrative type with ulceration 16 cases, polypoid type with ulceration 1 case, infiltrative adn polypoid type 4 cases, limits plastica type 3 cases, ulcerative type 1 case and polypoid type 1 case. 2. Extent of the lesions were in body and antrum 45 cases, entire stomach 18 cases, antrum 18 cases, body 12 cases, body and fundus 6 cases. 3. Ultrasonography was useful in demonstrating the extent of the tumor and the presence of materials elsewhere in abdomen.

  12. Effect of omeprazole and cimetidine on healing of chronic gastric ulcers and gastric acid secretion in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1988-01-01

    The effect of omeprazole and cimetidine on healing of chronic gastric ulcers and gastric acid secretion was investigated in rats. The effect of three doses of omeprazole given orally once daily for 25 days was investigated. In controls median ulcer healing was 19.6% after 25 days. Omeprazole...... increased median ulcer healing from 36% at 145 mumole/kg/day to 80% at 580 mumole/kg/day. Basal and pentagastrin stimulated gastric acid secretion decreased dose-dependently by nearly 90% at a dose of 580 mumole/kg/day 22-24 hr after the last dose of omeprazole. Cimetidine given twice daily, in a dose...... that initially inhibits gastric acid secretion by 95%, reduced acid secretion by only 50% 11 hr after the last dose. Median ulcer healing after treatment with cimetidine for 25 days was 41%. This study demonstrates that omeprazole has a more long-acting inhibitory effect on gastric acid secretion compared...

  13. Effect of isoprenaline on pentagastrin-stimulated gastric acid secretion in dogs with gastric fistula

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovendal, C P; Gottrup, F; Bech, K

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to elucidate the effect of a beta 1-adrenoceptor agonist on gastric acid secretion in conscious dogs with gastric fistula. Isoprenaline, a beta 1- and beta 2-agonist was used alone and in conjunction with selective blockade of beta 2- and beta 1-receptors. Isoprenaline...

  14. Expression of claudin-11, -23 in different gastric tissues and its relationship with the risk and prognosis of gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Youzhu; Jing, Jingjing; Sun, Liping; Gong, Yuehua; Chen, Moye; Wang, Zeyang; Sun, Mingjun; Yuan, Yuan

    2017-01-01

    Claudins play an important role in regulating the permeability of epithelial and endothelial cells and in the maintenance of cell polarity. We aimed to investigate expression of claudin-11, -23 in different gastric tissues and its relationship with clinicopathologic parameters and prognosis of gastric cancer. We compared their expression levels in the paired cancerous tissues versus those in the adjacent noncancerous tissues by real-time PCR, western blotting and immunohistochemistry. The results showed that the expression of claudin-11, -23 was greatly increased in paracancerous gastric tissue compared with cancerous tissue. We also compared their expression levels of tissues from gastric cancer, superficial gastritis, and atrophic gastritis by immunohistochemistry. The results indicated that the expression of claudin-11 and 23 was significantly higher in superficial gastritis than that in atrophic gastritis and gastric cancer. The expression of claudin-23 was significantly lower in atrophic gastritis than that in gastric cancer, but no obviously difference was observed for claudin-11. As for analysis of clinicopathologic parameters of gastric cancer, logistic multiple regression indicated that claudin-11 was significantly associated with sex, smoking, alcohol, H. pylori infection and Borrmann classification while claudin-23 was significantly associated with vessel cancer embolus. Cox multivariate survival analysis indicated that gastric cancer patients with negative claudin-23 expression had significantly longer overall survival. In conclusion, the expression of claudin-11, -23 was remarkably downregulated in gastric cancer. Abnormal expression of these proteins was significantly correlated with some clinicopathologic parameters. In particular, claudin-23 positive expression was associated with poor prognostic outcomes of gastric cancer patients and may therefore serve as an independent prognosticator of patient survival.

  15. Genome-wide gene copy number and expression analysis of primary gastric tumors and gastric cancer cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junnila, Siina; Kokkola, Arto; Karjalainen-Lindsberg, Marja-Liisa; Puolakkainen, Pauli; Monni, Outi

    2010-01-01

    Gastric cancer is one of the most common malignancies worldwide and the second most common cause of cancer related death. Gene copy number alterations play an important role in the development of gastric cancer and a change in gene copy number is one of the main mechanisms for a cancer cell to control the expression of potential oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. To highlight genes of potential biological and clinical relevance in gastric cancer, we carried out a systematic array-based survey of gene expression and copy number levels in primary gastric tumors and gastric cancer cell lines and validated the results using an affinity capture based transcript analysis (TRAC assay) and real-time qRT-PCR. Integrated microarray analysis revealed altogether 256 genes that were located in recurrent regions of gains or losses and had at least a 2-fold copy number- associated change in their gene expression. The expression levels of 13 of these genes, ALPK2, ASAP1, CEACAM5, CYP3A4, ENAH, ERBB2, HHIPL2, LTB4R, MMP9, PERLD1, PNMT, PTPRA, and OSMR, were validated in a total of 118 gastric samples using either the qRT-PCR or TRAC assay. All of these 13 genes were differentially expressed between cancerous samples and nonmalignant tissues (p < 0.05) and the association between copy number and gene expression changes was validated for nine (69.2%) of these genes (p < 0.05). In conclusion, integrated gene expression and copy number microarray analysis highlighted genes that may be critically important for gastric carcinogenesis. TRAC and qRT-PCR analyses validated the microarray results and therefore the role of these genes as potential biomarkers for gastric cancer

  16. A novel vitamin E derivative (TMG) protects against gastric mucosal damage induced by ischemia and reperfusion in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikawa, Hiroshi; Yoshida, Norimasa; Takano, Hiroshisa; Ishikawa, Takeshi; Handa, Osamu; Takagi, Tomohisa; Naito, Yuji; Murase, Hironobu; Yoshikawa, Toshikazu

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the antioxidative effects of water-soluble vitamin E derivative, 2-(alpha-D-glucopyranosyl)methyl-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchroman-6-ol (TMG), on ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) -induced gastric mucosal injury in rats. Gastric ischemia was induced by applying a small clamp to the celiac artery and reoxygenation was produced by removal of the clamp. The area of gastric mucosal erosion, the concentration of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, and the myeloperoxidase activity in gastric mucosa significantly increased in I/R groups compared with those of sham-operated groups. These increases were significantly inhibited by pretreatment with TMG. The contents of both mucosal TNF-alpha and CINC-2beta in I/R groups were also increased compared with the levels of those in sham-operated groups. These increases of the inflammatory cytokines were significantly inhibited by the treatment with TMG. It is concluded that TMG inhibited lipid peroxidation and reduced development of the gastric mucosal inflammation induced by I/R in rats.

  17. Helicobacter pylori Diversity and Gastric Cancer Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy L. Cover

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Gastric cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Helicobacter pylori infection is the strongest known risk factor for this malignancy. An important goal is to identify H. pylori-infected persons at high risk for gastric cancer, so that these individuals can be targeted for therapeutic intervention. H. pylori exhibits a high level of intraspecies genetic diversity, and over the past two decades, many studies have endeavored to identify strain-specific features of H. pylori that are linked to development of gastric cancer. One of the most prominent differences among H. pylori strains is the presence or absence of a 40-kb chromosomal region known as the cag pathogenicity island (PAI. Current evidence suggests that the risk of gastric cancer is very low among persons harboring H. pylori strains that lack the cag PAI. Among persons harboring strains that contain the cag PAI, the risk of gastric cancer is shaped by a complex interplay among multiple strain-specific bacterial factors as well as host factors. This review discusses the strain-specific properties of H. pylori that correlate with increased gastric cancer risk, focusing in particular on secreted proteins and surface-exposed proteins, and describes evidence from cell culture and animal models linking these factors to gastric cancer pathogenesis. Strain-specific features of H. pylori that may account for geographic variation in gastric cancer incidence are also discussed.

  18. Stomach (Gastric) Cancer—Patient Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stomach (gastric) cancer occurs when cancer cells form in the lining of the stomach. Risk factors include smoking, infection with H. pylori bacteria, and certain inherited conditions. Start here to find information on stomach (gastric) cancer treatment, causes and prevention, screening, research, and statistics.

  19. Host Epithelial Interactions with Helicobacter Pylori: A Role for Disrupted Gastric Barrier Function in the Clinical Outcome of Infection?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre G Buret

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Infection of the human stomach with Helicobacter pylori may develop into gastritis, ulceration, adenocarcinoma and mucosal lymphomas. The pathogenic mechanisms that determine the clinical outcome from this microbial-epithelial interaction remain poorly understood. An increasing number of reports suggests that disruptions of epithelial barrier function may contribute to pathology and postinfectious complications in a variety of gastrointestinal infections. The aim of this review is to critically discuss the implications of H pylori persistence on gastric disease, with emphasis on the role of myosin light chain kinase, claudins and matrix metalloproteinases in gastric permeability defects, and their contribution to the development of cancer. These mechanisms and the associated signalling events may represent novel therapeutic targets to control disease processes induced by H pylori, a microbial pathogen that colonizes the stomach of over 50% of the human population.

  20. Gastric emptying in patients with chronic liver diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishizu, Hirotaka; Shiomi, Susumu; Kawamura, Etsushi; Iwata, Yoshinori; Nishiguchi, Shuhei; Kawabe, Joji; Ochi, Hironobu [Osaka City Univ. (Japan). Graduate School of Medicine

    2002-05-01

    There have been a number of reports of gastric emptying in cirrhosis, all with unconfirmed results. Moreover, the mechanism for delayed emptying in cirrhotic patients in unclear. We evaluated gastric emptying in patients with chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis by means of gastric emptying scintigraphy. The subjects were 18 normal controls and 75 patients with chronic viral hepatitis (50 patients had chronic hepatitis and 25 patients had cirrhosis). Tc-99m diethyltriamine pentaacetic acid labeled solid meals were used to evaluate gastric emptying; the half-time (T 1/2) of which was calculated. Digestive symptom scores were determined at the time of gastric emptying tests. Fourteen (28%) of 50 patients with chronic hepatitis and 16 (64%) of 25 patients with cirrhosis had delayed gastric emptying. T 1/2 in patients with cirrhosis was significantly higher than that in normal controls and patients with chronic hepatitis (p=0.0001 and 0.0003, respectively). The difference between T 1/2 in patients with chronic hepatitis and that in normal controls was not significant. On regression analysis, two indices, the serum albumin level and platelet count, were found to be significantly related to delayed gastric emptying. Gastric emptying was more delayed in cirrhotic patients than in those with chronic hepatitis and normal controls. Delayed gastric emptying may be related to liver function and portal hypertension. (author)

  1. Gastric volvulus in childhood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karande T

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available Gastric volvulus is an uncommon condition more so in the paediatric age group. The cause of gastric volvulus may be idiopathic or secondary to various congenital or acquired conditions. In this short series of three patients, one had volvulus which was due to ligamentous laxity and mobile spleen, second had congenital postero-lateral diaphragmatic defect and the third had hiatus hernia.

  2. [A case of advanced gastric cancer with carcinomatosa peritonitis effectively treated by 5-FU and low-dose CDDP therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, E; Kunii, Y; Wada, G; Tsuchiya, S; Yamasaki, T; Sakakibara, N

    1997-07-01

    A 66-year-old woman was admitted to our clinic for appetite loss and abdominal distension in August 1995. Endoscopic study revealed an advanced gastric cancer in the upper body of her stomach. Abdominal CT study revealed massive ascites and para-aortic lymph nodal involvement. Cytological study of the ascites revealed class V. She was diagnosed to be in the terminal stage of gastric cancer with carcinomatosa peritonitis. Combination chemotherapy with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and low-dose cisplatin (CDDP) was given by continuous intravenous injection of 5-FU 500 mg/day, and intermittent intravenous injection of CDDP 30 mg/week was performed for reduction of the ascites and her complaint. Endoscopic study 6 weeks after starting chemotherapy could not find crater of the gastric cancer but only a shallow ulcerative lesion. The biopsy specimen of that lesion was group III. No ascites and over 50% reduction of the para-aortic lymph node were found by the abdominal CT study. This state persisted over 4 weeks. No myelo-suppression, renal dysfunction or any severe side effect were observed during chemotherapy. Her performance status improved from 3 to 1.

  3. Gastric cancer: epidemiology, prevention, classification, and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sitarz R

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Robert Sitarz,1–3 Małgorzata Skierucha,1,2 Jerzy Mielko,1 G Johan A Offerhaus,3 Ryszard Maciejewski,2 Wojciech P Polkowski1 1Department of Surgical Oncology, Medical University of Lublin, Lublin, Poland; 2Department of Human Anatomy, Medical University of Lublin, Lublin, Poland; 3Department of Pathology, University Medical Centre, Utrecht, The Netherlands Abstract: Gastric cancer is the second most common cause of cancer-related deaths in the world, the epidemiology of which has changed within last decades. A trend of steady decline in gastric cancer incidence rates is the effect of the increased standards of hygiene, conscious nutrition, and Helicobacter pylori eradication, which together constitute primary prevention. Avoidance of gastric cancer remains a priority. However, patients with higher risk should be screened for early detection and chemoprevention. Surgical resection enhanced by standardized lymphadenectomy remains the gold standard in gastric cancer therapy. This review briefly summarizes the most important aspects of gastric cancers, which include epidemiology, risk factors, classification, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment. The paper is mostly addressed to physicians who are interested in updating the state of art concerning gastric carcinoma from easily accessible and credible source. Keywords: gastric cancer, epidemiology, classification, risk factors, treatment

  4. INFLAMMATORY INFILTRATION IN THE GASTRIC MUCOSA OF PATIENTS WITH EPSTEIN-BARR VIRUS-ASSOCIATED GASTRIC DYSPLASIA AND CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    М. V. Vusik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Characteristics of inflammatory infiltrate in the gastric mucosa of patients with gastric dysplasia (n=56 and gastric cancer (n=50 with different levels of humoral immune response to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV and EBV viral load were studied. In patients with dysplasia of the gastric mucosa, the increase in antibody titers to VCA IgG leaded to a significant decrease in the level of lymphocytes, neutrophils and macrophages and an increase in the number of eosinophils and plasma cells. When the levels of IgA to viral capsid antigen (VCA and IgG to EBV early antigens (EA were increased, the number of neutrophils in the composition of the cellular infiltrate was significantly decreased. In gastric cancer patients with different levels of humoral immune response to EBV, the number of plasma cells and eosinophils in the inflammatory infiltrate of the tumor was decreased when increasing the titers of IgG to VCA and IgA to VCA. When VCA/IgA titer was high, the number of neutrophils in a tumor was decreased and the proportion of macrophages was slightly increased. The data obtained can serve as additional criteria for indentifying markers for viral infection of the gastric mucosa.

  5. Effects of gene silencing of CypB on gastric cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Feng; Zhang, Ying; Zhao, Chun-Na; Li, Lin; Guo, Yan-Jun

    2015-04-01

    To determine the effect of gene silencing of cyclophilin B (CypB) on growth and proliferation of gastric cancer cells. CypB siRNA lentivirus (LV-CypB-si) and control lentivirus (LV-si-con) were produced. CypB expression in gastric cancer cell lines was detected by Western blot. BGC823 and SGC7901 cells were chosen to be infected with LV-si-con and LV-CypB-si, and stable transfectants were isolated. The cell groups transfected with LV-CypB-siRNA, LV-siRNA-con and transfected no carrier were served as the experimental group, the implicit control group and the blank control group respectively. MTT and colony formation assays were used to examine the effect of CypB on the cell growth and proliferation in vitro. Cell cycle was analyzed with flow cytometry. The expression of VEGFR of BGC823-si and SGC7901-si was detected by Western blot. Gene silencing of CypB can inhibit gastric cancer cell growth, proliferation, cell cycle progress and tumorigenesis. CypB expression level was obviously higher in SGC7901 and BGC823 than MKN28 and GES. These two cell lines were infected with LV-si-con and LV-CypB-si respectively. MTT and cloney formation assays showed a significantly decreased rate of cell proliferation from the forth day or the fifth day in cells transfected with LV-CypB-si (PCypB resulted in slightly decreased percentage of S phase and increased percentage of G1 (PCypB could promote the G1-S transition of gastric cancer cell. In addition, the expression of VEGF of BGC823 and SGC7901 transfected with CypB siRNA was reduced in comparison with the implicit control group and the blank control group. Gene silencing of CypB decreases gastric cancer cells proliferation and in vivo tumorigenesis. These findings indiccate CypB could be a potential biomarker and therapeutic target for gastric cancer. Copyright © 2015 Hainan Medical College. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of gastric pH on oral drug absorption: In vitro assessment using a dissolution/permeation system reflecting the gastric dissolution process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, Makoto; Fukahori, Miho; Ikemura, Atsumi; Kubota, Ayaka; Higashino, Haruki; Sakuma, Shinji; Yamashita, Shinji

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of gastric pH on the oral absorption of poorly water-soluble drugs using an in vitro system. A dissolution/permeation system (D/P system) equipped with a Caco-2 cell monolayer was used as the in vitro system to evaluate oral drug absorption, while a small vessel filled with simulated gastric fluid (SGF) was used to reflect the gastric dissolution phase. After applying drugs in their solid forms to SGF, SGF solution containing a 1/100 clinical dose of each drug was mixed with the apical solution of the D/P system, which was changed to fasted state-simulated intestinal fluid. Dissolved and permeated amounts on applied amount of drugs were then monitored for 2h. Similar experiments were performed using the same drugs, but without the gastric phase. Oral absorption with or without the gastric phase was predicted in humans based on the amount of the drug that permeated in the D/P system, assuming that the system without the gastric phase reflected human absorption with an elevated gastric pH. The dissolved amounts of basic drugs with poor water solubility, namely albendazole, dipyridamole, and ketoconazole, in the apical solution and their permeation across a Caco-2 cell monolayer were significantly enhanced when the gastric dissolution process was reflected due to the physicochemical properties of basic drugs. These amounts resulted in the prediction of higher oral absorption with normal gastric pH than with high gastric pH. On the other hand, when diclofenac sodium, the salt form of an acidic drug, was applied to the D/P system with the gastric phase, its dissolved and permeated amounts were significantly lower than those without the gastric phase. However, the oral absorption of diclofenac was predicted to be complete (96-98%) irrespective of gastric pH because the permeated amounts of diclofenac under both conditions were sufficiently high to achieve complete absorption. These estimations of the effects of

  7. Evaluation of gastric motility by Fourier analysis of condensed images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linke, R.; Muenzing, W.; Hahn, K.; Tatsch, K. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Univ. of Munich, Munich (Germany)

    2000-10-01

    In this study Fourier analysis was applied to condensed images of gastric emptying with the aim of evaluating the amplitude and frequency of gastric contractions as well as gastric emptying in patients with various well-defined disorders. In 15 controls, 65 patients with progressive systemic sclerosis (PSS), 41 patients with diabetes mellitus type I (DM), 12 patients with pyloric stenosis and 9 patients who had undergone gastric surgery, gastric emptying was determined after ingestion of a semi-solid test meal. In addition, condensed images were generated to evaluate the amplitude and frequency of gastric contractions by means of Fourier analysis. In PSS and DM patients, gastric emptying and contraction amplitudes were significantly reduced (P<0.01). Patients with pyloric stenosis displayed regular peristalsis but significantly delayed emptying (P<0.01). Patients who had undergone gastric surgery showed normal or rapid gastric emptying associated with decreased amplitudes (P<0.01). The frequency of gastric contractions in the patient groups was not different from that in controls. This study showed Fourier analysis of condensed images to be a rapid and feasible approach for the evaluation of gastric contractions. Depending on the underlying disorder, gastric emptying and peristalsis showed both corresponding and discrepant findings. Data on gastric contractions provided additional information compared with results obtained by conventional emptying studies. Therefore, both parameters should be routinely assessed to further improve characterisation of gastric dysfunction by scintigraphy. (orig.)

  8. Evaluation of gastric motility by Fourier analysis of condensed images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linke, R.; Muenzing, W.; Hahn, K.; Tatsch, K.

    2000-01-01

    In this study Fourier analysis was applied to condensed images of gastric emptying with the aim of evaluating the amplitude and frequency of gastric contractions as well as gastric emptying in patients with various well-defined disorders. In 15 controls, 65 patients with progressive systemic sclerosis (PSS), 41 patients with diabetes mellitus type I (DM), 12 patients with pyloric stenosis and 9 patients who had undergone gastric surgery, gastric emptying was determined after ingestion of a semi-solid test meal. In addition, condensed images were generated to evaluate the amplitude and frequency of gastric contractions by means of Fourier analysis. In PSS and DM patients, gastric emptying and contraction amplitudes were significantly reduced (P<0.01). Patients with pyloric stenosis displayed regular peristalsis but significantly delayed emptying (P<0.01). Patients who had undergone gastric surgery showed normal or rapid gastric emptying associated with decreased amplitudes (P<0.01). The frequency of gastric contractions in the patient groups was not different from that in controls. This study showed Fourier analysis of condensed images to be a rapid and feasible approach for the evaluation of gastric contractions. Depending on the underlying disorder, gastric emptying and peristalsis showed both corresponding and discrepant findings. Data on gastric contractions provided additional information compared with results obtained by conventional emptying studies. Therefore, both parameters should be routinely assessed to further improve characterisation of gastric dysfunction by scintigraphy. (orig.)

  9. Entirely Laparoscopic Gastrectomy and Colectomy for Remnant Gastric Cancer with Gastric Outlet Obstruction and Transverse Colon Invasion

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hyun Il; Kim, Min Gyu

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that gastrectomy with curative intent is the best way to improve outcomes of patients with remnant gastric cancer. Recently,several investigators reported their experiences with laparoscopic gastrectomy of remnant gastric cancer. We report the case of an 83-year-old female patient who was diagnosed with remnant gastric cancer with obstruction. She underwent an entirely laparoscopic distal gastrectomy with colectomy because of direct invasion of the transverse colon. The opera...

  10. Long segment ileal duplication with extensive gastric heterotopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Sunitha

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Duplications of the alimentary tract are rare congenital anomalies which can be found at all levels of the alimentary tract. Majority of the duplications present as spherical cysts and usually range from a few millimeters to less than ten centimeters in size. Duplications produce complications such as intestinal obstruction or hemorrhage. A two-month-old infant presented with recurrent episodes of bleeding per rectum. Laparotomy revealed a giant ileal duplicated bowel segment which exhibited extensive gastric heterotopia with focal ulceration.

  11. 64Cu DOTA-Trastuzumab PET/CT in Studying Patients With Gastric Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-11

    Adenocarcinoma of the Gastroesophageal Junction; Diffuse Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Intestinal Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Mixed Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Recurrent Gastric Cancer; Stage IA Gastric Cancer; Stage IB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIA Gastric Cancer; Stage IIB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIA Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIC Gastric Cancer; Stage IV Gastric Cancer

  12. Importance of Second-look Endoscopy on an Empty Stomach for Finding Gastric Bezoars in Patients with Gastric Ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamuro, Masaya; Tanaka, Shouichi; Moritou, Yuki; Inaba, Tomoki; Higashi, Reiji; Kusumoto, Chiaki; Yunoki, Naoko; Ishikawa, Shin; Okamoto, Yuko; Kawai, Yoshinari; Kitada, Ken-Ichi; Takenaka, Ryuta; Toyokawa, Tatsuya; Okada, Hiroyuki

    2017-06-01

     Most gastric bezoars can be treated with endoscopic fragmentation combined with or without cola dissolution, whereas laparotomy or laparoscopic surgery is generally inevitable for small intestinal bezoars because they cause small bowel obstruction. Therefore, early diagnosis and management of gastric bezoars are necessary to prevent bezoar-induced ileus. To investigate the incidence of overlooked gastric bezoars during the initial esophagogastroduodenoscopy, we retrospectively reviewed the cases of 27 patients diagnosed with gastrointestinal bezoars. The bezoars were diagnosed using esophagogastroduodenoscopy (n=25), abdominal ultrasonography (n=1), and barium follow-through examination (n=1). Bezoars were overlooked in 9/25 patients (36.0%) during the initial endoscopy examination because the bezoars were covered with debris in the stomach. Of the 9 patients, 8 had concomitant gastric ulcers, and the other patient had gastric lymphoma. Although a computed tomography (CT) scan was performed before the second-look endoscopy in 8 of the 9 patients, the bezoars were mistaken as food debris on CT findings and were overlooked in these patients. In conclusion, gastric bezoars may not be discovered during the initial esophagogastroduodenoscopy and CT scan. In cases with debris in the stomach, second-look endoscopy is essential to detect bezoars.

  13. Inducible nitric oxide synthase, nitrotyrosine and apoptosis in gastric adenocarcinomas and their correlation with a poor survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Long-Gang; Xu, Hui-Mian

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To detect the presence of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), nitrotyrosine (NT) and apoptosis in gastric adenocarcinomas and their possible correlations with the clinicopathological characteristics and prognosis of gastric adenocarcinoma. METHODS: Sixty-six specimens of gastric adenocarcinoma and corresponding adjacent normal gastric tissues were studied. Immunohistochemistry was employed to localize iNOS and NT protein and an immunohistochemical scoring system was used. The occurrence of apoptotic cell death (apoptotic index [AI]) was analyzed by the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate biotin nick-end labeling (TUNEL) method. RESULTS: Results showed that iNOS expression was detected at an intermediate or high level in 41 of 66 (62%) specimens of gastric adenocarcinoma. NT expression was 58%. Neither of them was found in the normal gastric tissues; there were significant positive correlations among iNOS expression, NT expression and AI. Many clinicopathologic characteristics of gastric adenocarcinoma, such as tumor size, depth of invasion, lymph node metastasis and TNM staging, were related to iNOS and NT expressions (P<0.05). In 66 surviving patients, the 5-year survival rate of 41 patients who had tumors with intermediate or high iNOS expressions and high AIs (4.09%; 19.96%) was significantly lower than that of 25 patients who had tumors with negative or low iNOS expressions and low AIs (0.79%; 47.14%) (P = 0.001). COX’s multivariate analysis revealed that the iNOS expression was identified as one of the significant independent prognostic factors predictive of a poor survival (relative risk [RR] = 2.69). CONCLUSION: NO produced by iNOS may play a stronger role in promoting gastric adenocarcinoma growth than in suppressing its growth. iNOS and NT expressions by gastric adenocarcinoma may correlate with a poor survival. PMID:15849807

  14. Clinicopathological study of primary gastric lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Shehabi, Zubeir A.; Saleh, Rana S.; Zezafon, Hassan B.

    2007-01-01

    Objective was to present a histopathologic and immunohistochemical analysis of primary gastric lymphomas that was reclassified according to the new World Health Organization classification of lymphoid neoplasms. We reviewed the morphological and immunohistochemical features of 28 patients with gastric lymphomas, diagnosed in the Department of pathology at the University Hospital of Tishreen University, Lattakia, Syria, during the period 1994-2003. Specimens were obtained from endoscopic and surgical biopsies. The immunohistochemical study was performed to analyze the immunophenotype of these lymphomas. Patients were aged 17-71 years. There was a slight predominance of females (male to female ratio, 13:15). Seventeen of the patients had tumors mainly located in the gastric antrum. Histologically, the most common lymphoma was of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) type (20 patients), also with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (7 patients) and anaplastic large cell lymphoma (one patient). Our study demonstrates the different patterns of gastric lymphomas in Lattakia, Syria during a 10-year period in 28 Syrian patients, and reveals that the most primary gastric lymphomas are B-cell MALT lymphomas. (author)

  15. [Simplified laparoscopic gastric bypass. Initial experience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Miguelena, Luis; Maldonado-Vázquez, Angélica; Cortes-Romano, Pablo; Ríos-Cruz, Daniel; Marín-Domínguez, Raúl; Castillo-González, Armando

    2014-01-01

    Obesity surgery includes various gastrointestinal procedures. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass is the prototype of mixed procedures being the most practiced worldwide. A similar and novel technique has been adopted by Dr. Almino Cardoso Ramos and Dr. Manoel Galvao called "simplified bypass," which has been accepted due to the greater ease and very similar results to the conventional technique. The aim of this study is to describe the results of the simplified gastric bypass for treatment of morbid obesity in our institution. We performed a descriptive, retrospective study of all patients undergoing simplified gastric bypass from January 2008 to July 2012 in the obesity clinic of a private hospital in Mexico City. A total of 90 patients diagnosed with morbid obesity underwent simplified gastric bypass. Complications occurred in 10% of patients; these were more frequent bleeding and internal hernia. Mortality in the study period was 0%. The average weight loss at 12 months was 72.7%. Simplified gastric bypass surgery is safe with good mid-term results and a loss of adequate weight in 71% of cases.

  16. Clinical Features and Outcomes of Gastric Ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ayush; Mukewar, Saurabh; Chari, Suresh T; Wong Kee Song, Louis M

    2017-12-01

    Gastric ischemia is a rare condition associated with poor prognosis. Our study aim was to highlight the clinical features and outcomes of patients with gastric ischemia. A retrospective review of patients diagnosed with isolated gastric ischemia at our institution from January 1, 2000, to May 5, 2016, was performed. Demographic, clinical, endoscopic, radiologic, and outcome variables were abstracted for analysis. Seventeen patients (65% men) with mean age of 69.3 ± 11.3 years and body mass index of 28.8 ± 11.1 were identified. The etiologies for gastric ischemia included local vascular causes (n = 8), systemic hypoperfusion (n = 4), and mechanical obstruction (n = 5). The most common presenting symptoms were abdominal pain (65%), gastrointestinal bleeding (47%), and altered mental status (23%). The typical endoscopic appearance was mucosal congestion and erythema with or without ulceration. Gastric pneumatosis and portal venous air were more commonly seen on CT imaging. Radiologic and/or surgical intervention was needed in 9 patients, while the remaining 8 patients were managed conservatively with acid suppression, antibiotics, and nasogastric tube decompression. The median duration of hospital stay was 15 days (range 1-36 days). There were no cases of rebleeding and the mortality rate as a direct result of gastric ischemia was 24% within 6 months of diagnosis. Although uncommon, gastric ischemia is associated with significant mortality. Endoscopy and CT imaging play an important role in its diagnosis. The management of gastric ischemia is dictated by its severity and associated comorbidities.

  17. Clinical outcomes of endoscopic submucosal dissection for early gastric cancer in remnant stomach or gastric tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishide, N; Ono, H; Kakushima, N; Takizawa, K; Tanaka, M; Matsubayashi, H; Yamaguchi, Y

    2012-06-01

    Little information exists regarding the optimal treatment of early gastric cancer (EGC) in a remnant stomach or gastric tube. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility and clinical outcomes of endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) for EGC in a remnant stomach and gastric tube. Between September 2002 and December 2009, ESD was performed in 62 lesions in 59 patients with EGC in a remnant stomach (48 lesions) or gastric tube (14 lesions). Clinicopathological data were retrieved retrospectively to assess the en bloc resection rate, complications, and outcomes. Treatment results were assessed according to the indications for endoscopic resection, and were compared with those of ESD performed in a whole stomach during the same study period. The en bloc resection rates for lesions within the standard and expanded indication were 100 % and 93 %, respectively. Postoperative bleeding occurred in five patients (8 %). The perforation rate was significantly higher (18 %, 11 /62) than that of ESD in a whole stomach (5 %, 69 /1479). Among the perforation cases, eight lesions involved the anastomotic site or stump line, and ulcerative changes were observed in five lesions. The 3-year overall survival rate was 85 %, with eight deaths due to other causes and no deaths from gastric cancer. A high en bloc resection rate was achieved by ESD for EGC in a remnant stomach or gastric tube; however, this procedure is still technically demanding due to the high complication rate of perforation. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. Helicobacter and Gastric Malignancies

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, António Carlos; Isomoto, Hajime; Moriyama, Masatsugu; Fujioka, Toshio; Machado, José Carlos; Yamaoka, Yoshio

    2008-01-01

    Individuals infected with Helicobacter pylori, a stomach colonizing bacteria, have an increased risk of developing gastric malignancies. The risk for developing cancer relates to the physiologic and histologic changes that H. pylori infection induces in the stomach. In the last year numerous studies have been conducted in order to characterize the association between H. pylori infection and gastric cancer. These studies range from epidemiologic approaches aiming at the identification of envir...

  19. Molecular classification of gastric cancer: a new paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Manish A; Khanin, Raya; Tang, Laura; Janjigian, Yelena Y; Klimstra, David S; Gerdes, Hans; Kelsen, David P

    2011-05-01

    Gastric cancer may be subdivided into 3 distinct subtypes--proximal, diffuse, and distal gastric cancer--based on histopathologic and anatomic criteria. Each subtype is associated with unique epidemiology. Our aim is to test the hypothesis that these distinct gastric cancer subtypes may also be distinguished by gene expression analysis. Patients with localized gastric adenocarcinoma being screened for a phase II preoperative clinical trial (National Cancer Institute, NCI #5917) underwent endoscopic biopsy for fresh tumor procurement. Four to 6 targeted biopsies of the primary tumor were obtained. Macrodissection was carried out to ensure more than 80% carcinoma in the sample. HG-U133A GeneChip (Affymetrix) was used for cDNA expression analysis, and all arrays were processed and analyzed using the Bioconductor R-package. Between November 2003 and January 2006, 57 patients were screened to identify 36 patients with localized gastric cancer who had adequate RNA for expression analysis. Using supervised analysis, we built a classifier to distinguish the 3 gastric cancer subtypes, successfully classifying each into tightly grouped clusters. Leave-one-out cross-validation error was 0.14, suggesting that more than 85% of samples were classified correctly. Gene set analysis with the false discovery rate set at 0.25 identified several pathways that were differentially regulated when comparing each gastric cancer subtype to adjacent normal stomach. Subtypes of gastric cancer that have epidemiologic and histologic distinctions are also distinguished by gene expression data. These preliminary data suggest a new classification of gastric cancer with implications for improving our understanding of disease biology and identification of unique molecular drivers for each gastric cancer subtype. ©2011 AACR.

  20. Predictive Factors of Secondary Normocalcemic Hyperparathyroidism after Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Casella

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Aim of this study is to evaluate determinants of secondary normocalcemic hyperparathyroidism (SNHPT persistence in patients who have undergone Roux-en-Y gastric bypass on vertical-banded gastroplasty. Methods. 226 consecutive patients submitted to bariatric surgery were prospectively enrolled and divided in two groups on the basis of preoperative presence of SNHPT. For each patient, we evaluated anthropometric and laboratory parameters. Calcium metabolism (calcemia, PTH, and 25-hydroxy vitamin D serum levels was studied before surgery and at 6-month intervals (6, 12, and 18 months as surgical follow-up. Results. Based on presurgical SNHPT presence or absence, we defined group 1—201 patients and group 2—25 patients, respectively. Among the group 1, 153 (76% recovered from this endocrinopathy within 6 months after surgery (group 3, while the remaining 48 patients (24% had persistent SNHPT (group 4. Comparing the anthropometric and laboratory data of group 3 with group 2, the only statistically significant factor was the elapsed time since a prior effective medically controlled diet that led to a steady and substantial weight loss. We found also a statistically significant difference (p<0.05 between group 3 and group 4 in term of % of weight loss and PTH levels. Conclusions. Patients suitable for bariatric surgery must have history of at least one efficient medically controlled diet, not dating back more than 5 years before surgery. This elapsed time represent the cut-off time within which it is possible to recover from SNHPT in the first semester after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass on vertical-banded gastroplasty. The treatment of vitamin D insufficiency and the evaluation of SNHPT before bariatric surgery should be recommended. The clinical significance of preoperative SNHPT and in particular SNHPT after bariatric surgery remains undefined and further studies are required.

  1. Effects of intense abdominal irradiation at a high dose (1100 rd) on gastric secretion and apparent feed digestibility in swine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daburon, F.; Tricaud, Y.; Bourhoven, D.

    1980-01-01

    Gastric and pancreatic secretions were studied in 8 pigs irradiated at 1100 rd on the hind-half of the body. Irradiation always caused achlorhydria lasting at least 10 days. Recovery was partial and variable; rehabilitation or the persistence of anorexia closely depended on recovery. Stomachal mucosa response to gastrin stimulation was very disturbed. Impairment of the pancreatic endocrine function led to progressive diabetes; the exocrine function also seemed to decrease with the survival time

  2. Predictive features for histology of gastric subepithelial lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Teles SCHULZ

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT BACKGROUND Gastric subepithelial lesion is a relatively common diagnosis after routine upper endoscopy. The diagnostic workup of an undetermined gastric subepithelial lesion should take into consideration clinical and endoscopic features. OBJECTIVE We aimed to investigate the association between patients' characteristics, endoscopic and echographic features with the histologic diagnosis of the gastric subepithelial lesions. METHODS This is a retrospective study with 55 patients, who were consecutively diagnosed with gastric subepithelial lesions, from October 2008 to August 2011. Patients' characteristics, endoscopic and echografic features of each gastric subepithelial lesion were analysed. Histologic diagnosis provided by EUS-guided fine needle aspiration or endoscopic/surgical resection was used as gold standard. RESULTS The probability of gastrointestinal stromal tumors to be located in the cardia was low (4.5%, while for leiomyoma it was high (>95%. In addition, there was a higher risk of gastrointestinal stromal tumors in patients older than 57 years (OR 8.9; 95% CI, with lesions ≥21 mm (OR 7.15; 95% CI, located at 4th layer (OR 18.8; 95% CI, with positive Doppler sign (OR 9; 95% CI, and irregular outer border (OR 7.75; 95% CI. CONCLUSION The location of gastric subepithelial lesions in the gastric cardia lowers the risk of gastrointestinal stromal tumors. While gastric subepithelial lesions occurring in elderly patients, located in the gastric body, with positive Doppler signal and irregular outer border increase the risk of gastrointestinal stromal tumors.

  3. Gastric Cancer: Current Status of Diagnosis and Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Tsunehiro; Saikawa, Yoshiro; Kitagawa, Yuko

    2013-01-01

    Gastric cancer is the second leading cause of death from malignant disease worldwide and most frequently discovered in advanced stages. Because curative surgery is regarded as the only option for cure, early detection of resectable gastric cancer is extremely important for good patient outcomes. Therefore, noninvasive diagnostic modalities such as evolutionary endoscopy and positron emission tomography are utilized as screening tools for gastric cancer. To date, early gastric cancer is being treated using minimally invasive methods such as endoscopic treatment and laparoscopic surgery, while in advanced cancer it is necessary to consider multimodality treatment including chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and surgery. Because of the results of large clinical trials, surgery with extended lymphadenectomy could not be recommended as a standard therapy for advanced gastric cancer. Recent clinical trials had shown survival benefits of adjuvant chemotherapy after curative resection compared with surgery alone. In addition, recent advances of molecular targeted agents would play an important role as one of the modalities for advanced gastric cancer. In this review, we summarize the current status of diagnostic technology and treatment for gastric cancer

  4. Cytoplasmic Drosha Is Aberrant in Precancerous Lesions of Gastric Carcinoma and Its Loss Predicts Worse Outcome for Gastric Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hailong; Hou, Yixuan; Xu, Liyun; Zeng, Zongyue; Wen, Siyang; Du, Yan-E; Sun, Kexin; Yin, Jiali; Lang, Lei; Tang, Xiaoli; Liu, Manran

    2016-04-01

    The nuclear localization of Drosha is critical for its function as a microRNA maturation regulator. Dephosphorylation of Drosha at serine 300 and serine 302 disrupts its nuclear localization, and aberrant distribution of Drosha has been detected in some tumors. The purpose of the present study was to assess cytoplasmic/nuclear Drosha expression in gastric cancer carcinogenesis and progression. Drosha expression and its subcellular location was investigated by immunohistochemical staining of a set of tissue microarrays composed of normal adjacent tissues (374), chronic gastritis (137), precancerous lesions (94), and gastric adenocarcinoma (829) samples, and in gastric cancer cell lines with varying differentiation by immunofluorescence and western blot assay. Gradual loss of cytoplasmic Drosha was accompanied by tumor progression in both gastric cancer tissues and cell lines, and was inversely associated with tumor volume (P = 0.002), tumor grade (P gastric cancer. High levels of cytoplasmic Drosha predicted longer survival (LR = 7.088, P = 0.008) in gastric cancer patients. Our data provide novel insights into gastric cancer that cytoplasmic Drosha potentially plays a role in preventing carcinogenesis and tumor progression, and may be an independent predictor of patient outcome.

  5. [18F] FDG PET in gastric non-Hodgkin's lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, M.; Ahlstroem, H.; Sundin, A.; Rehn, S.; Hagberg, H.; Glimelius, B.; Sundstroem, C.

    1997-01-01

    The possibility of using [ 18 F] FDG PET for assessment of tumor extension in primary gastric non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) was studied in 8 patients (6 high-grade and 2 low-grade, one of the MALT type) and in a control group of 7 patients (5 patients with NHL without clinical signs of gastric involvement, 1 patient with NHL and benign gastric ulcer and 1 patient with adenocarcinoma of the stomach). All patients with gastric NHL and the two with benign gastric ulcer and adenocarcinoma, respectively, underwent endoscopy including multiple biopsies for histopathological diagnosis. All patients with high-grade and one of the two with low-grade NHL and the patient with adenocarcinoma displayed high gastric uptake of [ 18 F] FDG corresponding to the pathological findings at endoscopy and/or CT. No pathological tracer uptake was seen in the patient with low-grade gastric NHL of the MALT type. In 6/8 patients with gastric NHL, [ 18 F] FDG PET demonstrated larger tumor extension in the stomach than was found at endoscopy, and there was high tracer uptake in the stomach in two patients who were evaluated as normal on CT. [ 18 F] FDG PET correctly excluded gastric NHL in the patient with a benign gastric ulcer and in the patients with NHL without clinical signs of gastric involvement. Although the experience is as yet limited, [ 18 F] FDG PET affords a novel possibility for evaluation of gastric NHL and would seem valuable as a complement to endoscopy and CT in selected patients, where the technique can yield additional information decisive for the choice of therapy. (orig.)

  6. Observation on CEA and IL-6 contents in gastric juice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Zhonglin

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To study the changes of CEA and IL-6 contents in blood and gastric juice in patients with gastric cancer and gastritis. Methods: CEA and IL-6 contents in blood and gastric juice were measured with RIA in 60 patients and 30 controls. Results: Gastric juice CEA and IL-6 contents in patients with gastric carcinoma were significantly higher than those in the controls (p < 0.001), however, CEA and IL-6 contents in patients with gastritis and controls were not much different. Conclusion: Gastric juice CEA and IL-6 assay is of diagnostic significance in patients with gastric malignant tumor

  7. T Cells in Gastric Cancer: Friends or Foes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amedei, Amedeo; Della Bella, Chiara; Silvestri, Elena; Prisco, Domenico; D'Elios, Mario M.

    2012-01-01

    Gastric cancer is the second cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Helicobacter pylori is the major risk factor for gastric cancer. As for any type of cancer, T cells are crucial for recognition and elimination of gastric tumor cells. Unfortunately T cells, instead of protecting from the onset of cancer, can contribute to oncogenesis. Herein we review the different types, “friend or foe”, of T-cell response in gastric cancer. PMID:22693525

  8. Successful treatment with a combination of endoscopic injection and irrigation with coca cola for gastric bezoar-induced gastric outlet obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chen-Sheng; Tung, Chun-Fang; Peng, Yen-Chun; Chow, Wei-Keung; Chang, Chi-Sen; Hu, Wei-Hsiung

    2008-01-01

    We report a case of gastric bezoar-induced gastric outlet obstruction that was successfully treated with a combination of endoscopic injection and irrigation with Coca Cola. A 73-year-old diabetic woman had a history of perforated peptic ulcer and had received pyloroplasty more than 20 years previously. She had been ingesting Pho Pu Zi (Cordia dichotoma Forst. f.) as an appetizer for 1 month. She presented with epigastric pain, nausea, and vomiting. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, performed at a local hospital, showed 2 gastric bezoars in the stomach, and 1 of them impacted at the pylorus. She was referred to our emergency department for removal of the gastric bezoars that were suspected to be causing gastric outlet obstruction. All attempts at endoscopic removal using a polypectomy snare, biopsy forceps and Dormia basket failed. We then injected Coca Cola directly into the bezoar mass, followed by irrigation with Coca Cola. Follow-up endoscopy was performed the next day, which revealed that the gastric bezoars had dissolved spontaneously.

  9. Intragastric laparoscopic surgery: An option for gastric lesions not resectable by endoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuel Vázquez, Alba; Hernández Matías, Alberto; Bertomeu García, Agustín; Ruiz de Adana Belbel, Juan Carlos

    2016-03-01

    Gastric mucosal and submucosal lesions can be resected by endoscopy, laparoscopy or open surgery. Operative methods have varied depending on the location, endophytic growth and size of the lesion. Interest in minimally invasive surgery has increased and many surgeons are attempting laparoscopic approaches, especially in lesions of the stomach near the esophagogastric junction not amendable to endoscopic removal, because conventional surgery can produce stenosis and distort the postoperative anatomy, and increase morbimortality. We report our experience with laparoscopic intragastric surgery in 3 consecutive patients, with no complications. Laparoscopic intragastric surgery extends the surgeons' armamentarium to resect complex gastric lesions, while offering patients the benefits of minimal access surgery. Copyright © 2015 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Endoscopic appearance of irradiated gastric mucosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Sagher, L I; Van den Heule, B; Van Houtte, P; Engelholm, L; Balikdjan, D; Bleiberg, H

    1979-09-01

    Irradiation of the epigastric area for gastric cancer may induce actinic lesions of the stomach characterized on endoscopic examination by ulcerations, haemorrhagic gastritis, fragility of the mucosa, thickening and congestion of the gastric folds.

  11. Western Validation of a Novel Gastric Cancer Prognosis Prediction Model in US Gastric Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Yanghee; Goldner, Bryan; Son, Taeil; Song, Kijun; Noh, Sung Hoon; Fong, Yuman; Hyung, Woo Jin

    2018-03-01

    A novel prediction model for accurate determination of 5-year overall survival of gastric cancer patients was developed by an international collaborative group (G6+). This prediction model was created using a single institution's database of 11,851 Korean patients and included readily available and clinically relevant factors. Already validated using external East Asian cohorts, its applicability in the American population was yet to be determined. Using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) dataset, 2014 release, all patients diagnosed with gastric adenocarcinoma who underwent surgical resection between 2002 and 2012, were selected. Characteristics for analysis included: age, sex, depth of tumor invasion, number of positive lymph nodes, total lymph nodes retrieved, presence of distant metastasis, extent of resection, and histology. Concordance index (C-statistic) was assessed using the novel prediction model and compared with the prognostic index, the seventh edition of the TNM staging system. Of the 26,019 gastric cancer patients identified from the SEER database, 15,483 had complete datasets. Validation of the novel prediction tool revealed a C-statistic of 0.762 (95% CI 0.754 to 0.769) compared with the seventh TNM staging model, C-statistic 0.683 (95% CI 0.677 to 0.689), (p prediction model for gastric cancer in the American patient population. Its superior prediction of the 5-year survival of gastric cancer patients in a large Western cohort strongly supports its global applicability. Importantly, this model allows for accurate prognosis for an increasing number of gastric cancer patients worldwide, including those who received inadequate lymphadenectomy or underwent a noncurative resection. Copyright © 2017 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Telomerase activity in gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiyama, E; Yokoyama, T; Tatsumoto, N; Hiyama, K; Imamura, Y; Murakami, Y; Kodama, T; Piatyszek, M A; Shay, J W; Matsuura, Y

    1995-08-01

    Although many genetic alterations have been reported in gastric cancer, it is not known whether all gastric tumors are capable of indefinite proliferative potential, e.g., immortality. The expression of telomerase and stabilization of telomeres are concomitant with the attainment of immortality in tumor cells; thus, the measurement of telomerase activity in clinically obtained tumor samples may provide important information useful both as a diagnostic marker to detect immortal cancer cells in clinical materials and as a prognostic indicator of patient outcome. Telomerase activity was analyzed in 66 primary gastric cancers with the use of a PCR-based assay. The majority of tumors (85%) displayed telomerase activity, but telomerase was undetectable in 10 tumors (15%), 8 of which were early stage tumors. Most of the tumors with telomerase activity were large and of advanced stages, including metastases. Survival rate of patients of tumors with detectable telomerase activity was significantly shorter than that of those without telomerase activity. Alterations of telomere length (reduced/elongated terminal restriction fragments) were detected in 14 of 66 (21%) gastric cancers, and all 14 had telomerase activity. Cellular DNA contents revealed that all 22 aneuploid tumors had detectable telomerase activity. The present results indicate that telomerase activation may be required as a critical step in the multigenetic process of tumorigenesis, and that telomerase is frequently but not always activated as a late event in gastric cancer progression.

  13. ACUTE GASTRIC DILATATION IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Yu. D'yakonovax

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute gastric dilatation is a rare surgical condition in children, which often results from blunt abdominal trauma. This condition is characterized by the gut-brain connection disorder or gastric muscular layer damage, which results in atony. Gradual gastric stretching with fluid contents and gases in the end leads to the development of various types of intestinal obstruction. When conservative measures are not sufficient (in rare cases, it is reasonable to resort to operative intervention. Several cases of such a pathology have been published around the world. This condition has been observed not only at the blunt abdominal trauma, but also at lesions of central and peripheral nervous systems and in patients with anorexia nervosa and bulimia in the event of excessive food consumption. The article presents a clinical case study and a follow-up analysis of a child with posttraumatic acute gastric dilatation. The authors describe clinical manifestations, pathogenesis and diagnostic algorithm, which allowed establishing this rare diagnosis. Along with the conventional drugs and intensive care measures, the treatment involved a complex of mini-invasive endosurgical and endoscopic manipulations, including laparoscopic jejunostomy, which was performed in order to provide long-term enteral feeding. The clinical case study demonstrated that the use of diagnostic laparoscopy helps to establish nature of the gastric damage correctly and formulate the following optimal treatment tactics on the basis of the obtained data. 

  14. Anatomical measurements of the gastric cardia in obese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindle, A Katherine; Gonzalez, Florencia; Brody, Fred

    2009-11-01

    Currently, surgeons implant a variety of laparoscopic adjustable gastric bands. However, there is little data to guide the selection process. This study aims to determine the relationship between a patient's body mass index (BMI), height, and weight and the anatomical measurements of the gastric cardia in morbidly obese patients undergoing laparoscopic adjustable gastric band (LAGB) surgery. A total of 67 morbidly obese patients undergoing LAGB surgery were studied. Intraoperative measurements of the gastric cardia were obtained. The relative circumference and posterior diameter of the gastric cardia were measured along with the patient's height, weight, and BMI. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to measure the relationship between the circumference and posterior diameter of the gastric cardia and the BMI, height, and weight. A p < 0.05 was considered significant. No correlation exists between a patient's BMI or weight and the circumference or diameter of the gastric cardia. A correlation exists between a patient's height and the posterior diameter of the gastric cardia (p = 0.02). Of note, there is a correlation between the relative circumference and the posterior diameter of the gastric cardia for each patient (p = 0.05). Our unique data show no significant correlation between a patient's BMI and weight and the measurements of the gastric cardia. There was a correlation between a patient's height and the posterior diameter of the gastric cardia. These intraoperative measurements may help surgeons objectively select the appropriate band for each respective patient undergoing LAGB surgery. This may potentially decrease postoperative dysphagia.

  15. Reduction of hexavalent chromium by fasted and fed human gastric fluid. II. Ex vivo gastric reduction modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirman, Christopher R., E-mail: ckirman@summittoxicology.com [Summit Toxicology, Orange Village, OH, 44022 (United States); Suh, Mina, E-mail: msuh@toxstrategies.com [ToxStrategies, Inc., Mission Viejo, CA, 92692 (United States); Hays, Sean M., E-mail: shays@summittoxicology.com [Summit Toxicology, Allenspark, CO, 8040 (United States); Gürleyük, Hakan, E-mail: hakan@brooksrand.com [Brooks Applied Labs, Bothell, WA, 98011 (United States); Gerads, Russ, E-mail: russ@brooksrand.com [Brooks Applied Labs, Bothell, WA, 98011 (United States); De Flora, Silvio, E-mail: sdf@unige.it [Department of Health Sciences, University of Genoa, 16132 Genoa (Italy); Parker, William, E-mail: william.parker@duke.edu [Duke University Medical Center, Department of Surgery, Durham, NC, 27710 (United States); Lin, Shu, E-mail: shu.lin@duke.edu [Duke University Medical Center, Department of Surgery, Durham, NC, 27710 (United States); Haws, Laurie C., E-mail: lhaws@toxstrategies.com [ToxStrategies, Inc., Katy, TX, 77494 (United States); Harris, Mark A., E-mail: mharris@toxstrategies.com [ToxStrategies, Inc., Austin, TX, 78751 (United States); Proctor, Deborah M., E-mail: dproctor@toxstrategies.com [ToxStrategies, Inc., Mission Viejo, CA, 92692 (United States)

    2016-09-01

    To extend previous models of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] reduction by gastric fluid (GF), ex vivo experiments were conducted to address data gaps and limitations identified with respect to (1) GF dilution in the model; (2) reduction of Cr(VI) in fed human GF samples; (3) the number of Cr(VI) reduction pools present in human GF under fed, fasted, and proton pump inhibitor (PPI)-use conditions; and (4) an appropriate form for the pH-dependence of Cr(VI) reduction rate constants. Rates and capacities of Cr(VI) reduction were characterized in gastric contents from fed and fasted volunteers, and from fasted pre-operative patients treated with PPIs. Reduction capacities were first estimated over a 4-h reduction period. Once reduction capacity was established, a dual-spike approach was used in speciated isotope dilution mass spectrometry analyses to characterize the concentration-dependence of the 2nd order reduction rate constants. These data, when combined with previously collected data, were well described by a three-pool model (pool 1 = fast reaction with low capacity; pool 2 = slow reaction with higher capacity; pool 3 = very slow reaction with higher capacity) using pH-dependent rate constants characterized by a piecewise, log-linear relationship. These data indicate that human gastric samples, like those collected from rats and mice, contain multiple pools of reducing agents, and low concentrations of Cr(VI) (< 0.7 mg/L) are reduced more rapidly than high concentrations. The data and revised modeling results herein provide improved characterization of Cr(VI) gastric reduction kinetics, critical for Cr(VI) pharmacokinetic modeling and human health risk assessment. - Highlights: • SIDMS allows for measurement of Cr(VI) reduction rate in gastric fluid ex vivo • Human gastric fluid has three reducing pools • Cr(VI) in drinking water at < 0.7 mg/L is rapidly reduced in human gastric fluid • Reduction rate is concentration- and pH-dependent • A refined PK

  16. Diagnostic significance of computed tomography in gastric cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Eun Young; Cha, Sang Hoon; Seol, Hae Young; Chung, Kyoo Byung; Suh, Won Hyuck

    1985-01-01

    Gastric cancer is the most common gastrointestinal malignancy in Korea. Identification and evaluation of gastric mass lesions and regional-distant metastasis by abdominal CT scan are important for the treatment planning and prognostic implications of gastric cancer patients. Author reviewed CT scans of 61 cases of pathology proven gastric cancer, retrospectively, for recent 20 month from July 1983 to Feb. 1985 at Department of Radiology, Korea University, Hae Wha Hospital. The results were as follows: 1. There were 50 cases of advanced adenocarcinoma, 8 cases of early gastric cancer, 2 cases of leiomyosarcoma, and 1 case of lymphoma in total 61 cases. 2. The sex ratio of male to female was 2 : 1. Age distribution was from 24 to 75 year old and peak incidence was in 6th decade. 3. The most frequent site of involvement with gastric cancer was gastric antrum in 51% 4. 48 of 50 patients with advanced gastric adenocarcinoma (96%) had a wall thickness greater than 1 cm, and all of 8 cases of early gastric cancer had a wall thickness less than 1 cm. Regional lymph node tumor infiltration was found in 100% of gastric wall thickness greater than 2.0 cm, in 64% of cases of 1.5 to 2.0 cm, in 50% of cases of 1.0 to 1.5 cm, and 12.5% of cases of less than 1.0 cm. 5. In a comparison of enlargement of regional lymph node by CT scan to tumor infiltration of regional lymph node by histology, sensitivity was 52%, specificity was 87%, and reliability was 66%. 6. The structure involved by distant metastasis of these cases were the retroperitoneal lymph node in 15, liver in 8, and pancreas in 3. 7. The diagnostic accuracy of CT staging was considered about 68% by correlation of the surgical and histological findings. 8. The CT scan is one of the accurate and simple tool for evaluation of size, shape, extent, as well as distant metastasis in the cases of gastric malignancies

  17. Long-time follow-up study of localized gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma and the clinical features of antibiotic-resistant cases of gastric MALT lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akamatsu, Taiji; Sano, Kenji; Suzawa, Ken-ichi; Kaneko, Yasunori; Shikama, Naoto; Ota, Hiroyoshi; Miyabayashi, Hideharu

    2007-01-01

    To clarify the clinical features of gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma (GML) with persistent lymphoma after eradication therapy of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), and the outcome of long-time follow-up study after treatment against GML, seventy-six patients with localized GML were studied. The median follow-up period was 44.4 months. Thirty-eight of 49 patients (77.6%) with H. pylori-positive GML had been cured of GML by antibiotic therapy alone. On the other hand, none of 13 patients with H. pylori-negative GML had been cured by antibiotic therapy (77.6% vs 0%, p<0.001). ''H. pylori-negative'' is one of the clinical features of antibiotic-resistant cases with GML. There was no significant difference in sex, age, stage, endoscopic finding, depth, and affected region between the two groups of cured and persistent GML with H. pylori infection. Twenty-two of 29 patients (75.6%) with antibiotic-resistant or H. pylori-negative cases of GML had been cured by 30 Gy radiation therapy. Low-dose radiation was thought to be a useful therapeutic procedure as a second line treatment'' of localized GML. (author)

  18. Experimental gastric carcinogenesis in Cebus apella nonhuman primates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana de Fátima Ferreira Borges da Costa

    Full Text Available The evolution of gastric carcinogenesis remains largely unknown. We established two gastric carcinogenesis models in New-World nonhuman primates. In the first model, ACP03 gastric cancer cell line was inoculated in 18 animals. In the second model, we treated 6 animals with N-methyl-nitrosourea (MNU. Animals with gastric cancer were also treated with Canova immunomodulator. Clinical, hematologic, and biochemical, including C-reactive protein, folic acid, and homocysteine, analyses were performed in this study. MYC expression and copy number was also evaluated. We observed that all animals inoculated with ACP03 developed gastric cancer on the 9(th day though on the 14(th day presented total tumor remission. In the second model, all animals developed pre-neoplastic lesions and five died of drug intoxication before the development of cancer. The last surviving MNU-treated animal developed intestinal-type gastric adenocarcinoma observed by endoscopy on the 940(th day. The level of C-reactive protein level and homocysteine concentration increased while the level of folic acid decreased with the presence of tumors in ACP03-inoculated animals and MNU treatment. ACP03 inoculation also led to anemia and leukocytosis. The hematologic and biochemical results corroborate those observed in patients with gastric cancer, supporting that our in vivo models are potentially useful to study this neoplasia. In cell line inoculated animals, we detected MYC immunoreactivity, mRNA overexpression, and amplification, as previously observed in vitro. In MNU-treated animals, mRNA expression and MYC copy number increased during the sequential steps of intestinal-type gastric carcinogenesis and immunoreactivity was only observed in intestinal metaplasia and gastric cancer. Thus, MYC deregulation supports the gastric carcinogenesis process. Canova immunomodulator restored several hematologic measurements and therefore, can be applied during/after chemotherapy to increase the

  19. Molecular Characterization of Gastric Epithelial Cells Using Flow Cytometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin A. Bockerstett

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The ability to analyze individual epithelial cells in the gastric mucosa would provide important insight into gastric disease, including chronic gastritis and progression to gastric cancer. However, the successful isolation of viable gastric epithelial cells (parietal cells, neck cells, chief cells, and foveolar cells from gastric glands has been limited due to difficulties in tissue processing. Furthermore, analysis and interpretation of gastric epithelial cell flow cytometry data has been difficult due to the varying sizes and light scatter properties of the different epithelial cells, high levels of autofluorescence, and poor cell viability. These studies were designed to develop a reliable method for isolating viable single cells from the corpus of stomachs and to optimize analyses examining epithelial cells from healthy and diseased stomach tissue by flow cytometry. We performed a two stage enzymatic digestion in which collagenase released individual gastric glands from the stromal tissue of the corpus, followed by a Dispase II digestion that dispersed these glands into greater than 1 × 106 viable single cells per gastric corpus. Single cell suspensions were comprised of all major cell lineages found in the normal gastric glands. A method describing light scatter, size exclusion, doublet discrimination, viability staining, and fluorescently-conjugated antibodies and lectins was used to analyze individual epithelial cells and immune cells. This technique was capable of identifying parietal cells and revealed that gastric epithelial cells in the chronically inflamed mucosa significantly upregulated major histocompatibility complexes (MHC I and II but not CD80 or CD86, which are costimulatory molecules involved in T cell activation. These studies describe a method for isolating viable single cells and a detailed description of flow cytometric analysis of cells from healthy and diseased stomachs. These studies begin to identify effects of

  20. Variations in Helicobacter pylori cytotoxin-associated genes and their influence in progression to gastric cancer: implications for prevention.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosmeri Rizzato

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori (HP is a bacterium that colonizes the human stomach and can establish a long-term infection of the gastric mucosa. Persistent Hp infection often induces gastritis and is associated with the development of peptic ulcer disease, atrophic gastritis, and gastric adenocarcinoma. Virulent HP isolates harbor the cag (cytotoxin-associated genes pathogenicity island (cagPAI, a 40 kb stretch of DNA that encodes components of a type IV secretion system (T4SS. This T4SS forms a pilus for the injection of virulence factors into host target cells, such as the CagA oncoprotein. We analyzed the genetic variability in cagA and other selected genes of the HP cagPAI (cagC, cagE, cagL, cagT, cagV and cag Gamma using DNA extracted from frozen gastric biopsies or from clinical isolates. Study subjects were 95 cagA+ patients that were histologically diagnosed with chronic gastritis or gastric cancer in Venezuela and Mexico, areas with high prevalence of Hp infection. Sequencing reactions were carried out by both Sanger and next-generation pyrosequencing (454 Roche methods. We found a total of 381 variants with unambiguous calls observed in at least 10% of the originally tested samples and reference strains. We compared the frequencies of these genetic variants between gastric cancer and chronic gastritis cases. Twenty-six SNPs (11 non-synonymous and 14 synonymous showed statistically significant differences (P<0.05, and two SNPs, in position 1039 and 1041 of cagE, showed a highly significant association with cancer (p-value = 2.07×10⁻⁶, and the variant codon was located in the VirB3 homology domain of Agrobacterium. The results of this study may provide preliminary information to target antibiotic treatment to high-risk individuals, if effects of these variants are confirmed in further investigations.

  1. The efficacy of modified docetaxel-cisplatin-5-fluorouracil regimen as first-line treatment in patients with alpha-fetoprotein producing gastric carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozkaya, Yakup; Doğan, Mutlu; Yazıcı, Ozan; Erdem, Gökmen Umut; Demirci, Nebi Serkan; Zengin, Nurullah

    2017-01-01

    Alpha-fetoprotein producing gastric carcinoma (AFP-PGC) is a rare cancer for which limited data on the clinicopathological features and treatment modalities exist. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of modified docetaxel-cisplatin-5-fluorouracil (mDCF) as the first-line chemotherapy regimen in metastatic AFP-PGC and non-AFP-PGC. The patients diagnosed with metastatic gastric cancer who were given mDCF as first-line therapy were retrospectively reviewed. The patients with a basal serum AFP level over 9 ng/ml were defined as AFP-PGC patients. In total, 169 patients (34 with AFP-PGC and 135 with non-AFP-PGC) were included in this study. AFP-PGC patients had more liver metastases than non-AFP-PGC patients (p < 0.001). A decrease in basal AFP levels after three cycles of chemotherapy was significantly different in AFP-PGC group (p = 0.001). Overall disease control rate was 79.4% (partial response [PR] - 44.1%, stable disease [SD] - 35.3%), and 82.2% (complete response - 3%, PR - 36.2%, SD - 43%) in AFP-PGC and non-AFP-PGC patients, respectively. There was no difference between AFP-PGC and non-AFP-PGC groups in overall and progression-free survival rates (11.3 versus 11.4 months and 7.7 versus 7.1 months, respectively). Rates of grade 3-4 hematologic toxicity were 8.8% and 6.7% for neutropenia in AFP-PGC and non-AFP-PGC group, respectively and 5.9% and 7.4% for anemia. In conclusion, mDCF regimen is well-tolerated with acceptable toxicity outcomes in both AFP-PGC and non-AFP-PGC patients. A statistically significant decrease in AFP levels after mDCF regimen indicate that AFP might be considered as a supplemental marker of response to mDCF chemotherapy in AFP-PGC patients. However, further prospective clinical trials are required in this area. PMID:28273032

  2. The efficacy of modified docetaxel-cisplatin-5-fluorouracil regimen as first-line treatment in patients with alpha-fetoprotein producing gastric carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakup Bozkaya

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Alpha-fetoprotein producing gastric carcinoma (AFP-PGC is a rare cancer for which limited data on the clinicopathological features and treatment modalities exist. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of modified docetaxel-cisplatin-5-fluorouracil (mDCF as the first-line chemotherapy regimen in metastatic AFP-PGC and non-AFP-PGC. The patients diagnosed with metastatic gastric cancer who were given mDCF as first-line therapy were retrospectively reviewed. The patients with a basal serum AFP level over 9 ng/ml were defined as AFP-PGC patients. In total, 169 patients (34 with AFP-PGC and 135 with non-AFP-PGC were included in this study. AFP-PGC patients had more liver metastases than non-AFP-PGC patients (p < 0.001. A decrease in basal AFP levels after three cycles of chemotherapy was significantly different in AFP-PGC group (p = 0.001.Overall disease control rate was 79.4% (partial response [PR] - 44.1%, stable disease [SD] - 35.3%, and 82.2% (complete response - 3%, PR - 36.2%, SD - 43% in AFP-PGC and non-AFP-PGC patients, respectively. There was no difference between AFP-PGC and non-AFP-PGC groups in overall and progression-free survival rates (11.3 versus 11.4 months and 7.7 versus 7.1 months, respectively. Rates of grade 3-4 hematologic toxicity were 8.8% and 6.7% for neutropenia in AFP-PGC and non-AFP-PGC group, respectively and 5.9% and 7.4% for anemia. In conclusion, mDCF regimen is well-tolerated with acceptable toxicity outcomes in both AFP-PGC and non-AFP-PGC patients. A statistically significant decrease in AFP levels after mDCF regimen indicate that AFP might be considered as a supplemental marker of response to mDCF chemotherapy in AFP-PGC patients. However, further prospective clinical trials are required in this area.

  3. Development of functional MRI in gastric cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Lei; Shao Guoliang

    2013-01-01

    Gastric cancer is one of the most common malignant tumors in digestive tract functional MRI can represent the functional changes of the tumor. DWI not only provides a new way to diagnosis the gastric cancer, but also reflect the pathology changes of the tumor, which has great value to predict the therapeutic effect and prognosis of the tumor. MRS is the only method to test the chemical composition of tissues in live without injury, which has great value in the early diagnosis of gastric tumor and in the research of tumor mechanism. This review is mainly focused on the status and development of functional MRI in gastric cancer. (authors)

  4. Gastric Mucosal Erosions - Radiologic evaluation -

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seung Hyup

    1985-01-01

    70 cases of gastric mucosal erosions were diagnosed by double contrast upper gastrointestinal examinations and endoscopic findings. Analyzing the radiologic findings of these 70 cases of gastric mucosal erosions, the following results were obtained. 1. Among the total 70 cases, 65 cases were typical varioliform erosions showing central depressions and surrounding mucosal elevations. Remaining 5 cases were erosions of acute phase having multiple irregular depressions without surrounding elevations. 2. The gastric antrum was involved alone or in part in all cases. Duodenal bulb was involved with gastric antrum in 4 cases. 3. The majority of the cases had multiple erosions. There were only 2 cases of single erosion. 4. In 65 cases of varioliform erosions; 1) The diameter of the surrounding elevations varied from 3 to 20 mm with the majority (47 cases) between 6 and 10 mm. 2) In general, the surrounding elevations with sharp margin on double contrast films were also clearly demonstrated on compression films but those with faint margin were not. 3) The size of the central barium collections varied from pinpoint to 10 mm with the majority under 5 mm. The shape of the central barium collections in majority of the cases were round with a few cases of linear, triangular or star-shape. 5. In 5 cases of acute phase erosions; 1) All the 5 cases were females. 2) On double contrast radiography, all the cases showed multiple irregular depressed lesions without surrounding elevations. 3) 1 case had the history of hematemesis. 4) In 1 case, there was marked radiological improvement on follow-up study of 2 months interval. 6. In 23 cases, there were coexistent diseases with gastric mucosal erosions. These were 13 cases of duodenal bulb ulcers,7 cases of benign gastric ulcers and 3 others

  5. Measurement of gastric emptying by intragastric gamma scintigraphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malbert, C H; Mathis, C; Bobillier, E; Laplace, J P; Horowitz, M

    1997-09-01

    Gastric emptying is usually measured in animals and humans by dilution/sampling or external scintigraphy. These methods are either time consuming or require expensive equipment. The capacity of a miniature gamma counter positioned in the stomach to measure emptying of liquid and solid meals was evaluated. In eight conscious pigs fitted with gastric and duodenal cannulae, gastric emptying of saline (500 mL), dextrose (20%, 500 mL), porridge (300 g) and scrambled eggs (300 g), all labelled with 3.5 MBq 99mTC, was evaluated. When positioned in the antrum the probe was unable to quantify gastric emptying. In contrast, measurements of the fractional emptying of saline over 4-min periods by the probe positioned in the corpus and quantification of radioactivity in the duodenal effluent correlated closely (r = 0.88, P < 0.05). Gastric emptying (50% emptying time) of saline and both solid meals measured by the probe was not significantly different from quantification of the duodenal effluent volume. No difference was observed also for the dextrose meal but only while gastric acid secretion was suppressed by omeprazole. We conclude that an intragastric gamma counter permits measurement of gastric emptying of homogeneous meals provided meal stimulation of gastric secretion was not extensive. This was possible probably by monitoring emptying from the proximal stomach.

  6. Gastric washing by distilled water can reduce free gastric cancer cells exfoliated into the stomach lumen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohki, Atsuko; Abe, Nobutsugu; Yoshimoto, Eri; Hashimoto, Yoshikazu; Takeuchi, Hirohisa; Nagao, Gen; Masaki, Tadahiko; Mori, Toshiyuki; Ohkura, Yasuo; Sugiyama, Masanori

    2018-04-25

    Intragastric free cancer cells in patients with gastric cancer have rarely been studied. The purpose of this study was to investigate the detection rate of intragastric free cancer cells in gastric washes using two types of solutions during endoscopic examination. We further clarified risk factors affecting the presence of exfoliated free cancer cells. A total of 175 patients with gastric cancer were enrolled. Lactated Ringer's solution (N = 89) or distilled water (DW; N = 86) via endoscopic working channel was sprayed onto the tumor surface, and the resultant fluid was collected for cytological examination. We compared the cancer-cell positivity rate between the two (Ringer and DW) groups. We also tested the correlation between cancer-cell positivity and clinicopathological factors in the Ringer group to identify risk factors for the presence of exfoliated cancer cells. The cancer-cell positivity rate was significantly higher in the Ringer group than that in the DW group (58 vs 6%). Cytomorphology in the Ringer group was well maintained, but not in the DW group. The larger tumor size (≥ 20 mm) and positive lymphatic involvement were significant risk factors of exfoliated free cancer cells. Cancer cells can be highly exfoliated from the tumor surface into the gastric lumen by endoscopic irrigation in large gastric cancer with lymphatic involvement. Gastric washing by DW can lead to cytoclasis of free cancer cells; therefore, it may minimize the possibility of cancer-cell seeding in procedures carrying potential risks of tumor-cell seeding upon transluminal communication, such as endoscopic full-thickness resection and laparoscopy-endoscopy cooperative surgery.

  7. [A comparison of proteomic analysis of Helicobacter pylori in patients with gastritis and gastric cancer between areas of high and low incidence of gastric cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lin-na; Zhang, Jing; Ding, Shi-gang; Zhong, Li Jun; Li, Guang-chuan; Shi, Yan-yan; Wang, Ye

    2011-12-18

    To identify the differentially expressed proteins of Helicobacter pylori (Hp) in patients with gastritis and gastric cancer from areas of high and low incidence of gastric cancer by 2-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE), and to discuss the role of bacterial factor in pathogenesis. Hp in the endoscopic biopsy specimens of gastric mucosa of patients with gastritis and gastric cancer from areas of high (Xining) and low (Beijing) incidence of gastric cancer, were separated, cultured and saved at -80°C. The bacteria were recovered. Then the whole-cell protein of the Hp were extracted and characterized by 2-DE. The different protein spots were analyzed by PDQuest analysis software and identified by electrospray ionization quadruple time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ESI-Q-TOF-MS), and searched by the Mascot database. Nine differentially expressed proteins were identified, and four protein spots were over expressed in the protein maps from gastric cancer in both areas, which were: Urease subunit alpha, chaperone protein dnaK, superoxide dismutase, DNA-directed RNA polymerase subunit alpha; two protein spots were over expressed in the protein maps from gastritis in both areas, which were: Probablethiol peroxidase, nucleoside diphosphate kinase; 60×10(3) chaperonin, and inorganic pyrophosphatase were over expressed only in the protein map from gastric cancer in Xining; S-ribosyl homocysteinelyase was over expressed only in the protein map from gastric cancer in Beijing. There are differences between proteomic analyses of Hp in patients with gastritis and gastric cancer in areas of high and low incidents of gastric cancer, but 2/3 of the protein spots over expressed in the areas are consistent. The protein spots over expressed from gastric cancer in the area with high incidence of gastric cancer are more than in the area with low incidence of gastric cancer. For the Hp extracted from patients with gastric cancer, the mechanism of gastric cancer may be similar, but the role

  8. Scintigraphic study of gastric emptying with colloidal tin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodríguez Paleo, Lester; Nuez Vilar, Maricela; Machado Lois, Marisel; López González, María Karla; Torres Leyva, Oscar; Izquierdo Izquierdo, Yimel; García González, Idelsy; Conesa Gonzalez, Ana Ibis

    2016-01-01

    Gastroparesis is defined as a delay in gastric emptying in the absence of mechanical obstruction, associated with symptoms such as nausea and / or vomiting, feeling of postprandial gastric fullness, early satiety or epigastric pain for more than 3 months. The gold standard in the diagnosis of delayed gastric emptying scintigraphy is gastric emptying and radiopharmaceutical has been used more 99m Tc-sulfur colloid not available in the country. In order to evaluate the usefulness of colloidal tin in the scintigraphic gastric emptying study, a descriptive study was conducted in 64 patients over 18 years using as radiopharmaceutical 99m Tc-Sn colloid. 31% of patients had symptoms. The emptying time was normal in 50 cases and the association of gastroparesis symptoms was observed in 20 (15 diabetic and 5 non-diabetic), 9 patients had a delayed emptying, but reported no symptoms. Gastroparesis was more frequent in women than in men (35% versus 21%). 21% of patients had a moderate delayed gastric emptying. Conclusions: The results obtained with 99m Tc-Sn colloid are comparable to those reported by other authors using 99m Tc-SC in the scintigraphic assessment of gastric emptying. (author)

  9. Lauren classification and individualized chemotherapy in gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Junli; Shen, Hong; Kapesa, Linda; Zeng, Shan

    2016-05-01

    Gastric cancer is one of the most common malignancies worldwide. During the last 50 years, the histological classification of gastric carcinoma has been largely based on Lauren's criteria, in which gastric cancer is classified into two major histological subtypes, namely intestinal type and diffuse type adenocarcinoma. This classification was introduced in 1965, and remains currently widely accepted and employed, since it constitutes a simple and robust classification approach. The two histological subtypes of gastric cancer proposed by the Lauren classification exhibit a number of distinct clinical and molecular characteristics, including histogenesis, cell differentiation, epidemiology, etiology, carcinogenesis, biological behaviors and prognosis. Gastric cancer exhibits varied sensitivity to chemotherapy drugs and significant heterogeneity; therefore, the disease may be a target for individualized therapy. The Lauren classification may provide the basis for individualized treatment for advanced gastric cancer, which is increasingly gaining attention in the scientific field. However, few studies have investigated individualized treatment that is guided by pathological classification. The aim of the current review is to analyze the two major histological subtypes of gastric cancer, as proposed by the Lauren classification, and to discuss the implications of this for personalized chemotherapy.

  10. Effect of experimental immune atrophic gastritis on the induction of gastric carcinoma by x-irradiation in ICR mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirose, Fumio; Watanabe, Hiromitsu; Takeichi, Nobuo; Naito, Yukiko; Inoue, Shozo

    1976-01-01

    Divided doses of 6,000 or 8,000 rad of x-ray were given to the gastric region of ICR/JCL female mice with immune atrophic gastritis produced by the injection with allogenic stomach antigen. The carcinogenic effect of x-rays for inducing gastric carcinoma was significantly increased by this method. Two points can be presented as its reason. First, the pyloric gland mucosa regenerating from injuries by immunization was exposed to the divided doses of x-rays. Second, the marked requirement of gastrin secretion attributable to severe injuries of parietal cell mass by immunization and local x-irradiation acted as a promoting factor on the induction of gastric carcinoma by x-ray for a long time through the trophic effects on the pyloric gland. (auth.)

  11. A study of the dynamics of gastric emptying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibatsuji, Hiroshi

    1985-01-01

    Factors influencing gastric emptying were studied by measuring gastric emptying time (GET) with RI experimentally and clinically. The restlts are as follows: 1. The parasympathetic blockers suppressed gastric emptying but the parasympathetic stimulater did not accelerate it. 2. Posture of the subject in measurement influenced gastric emptying and GET was reduced in order of prone, sitting and supine positions. 3. In cases of gastric and duodenal ulcer, there were differences of GET between pre-operation and post-operation depending on the methods of operation. 4. The GET was measured to investigate the gastric emptying of liquid and solid food by double RI tracer method, using 99m Tc-DTPA and 111 In-DTPA which were measured separately. The GET of liquid food was faster than that of solid food and was influenced by the stickiness of coexistent solid food. On the other hand, the GET of solid food tended to be faster with increasing stickiness. (author)

  12. Premalignant alterations of the gastric mucosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frager, D.; Mitsudo, S.; Kozecky, O.; Frager, J.; Wolf, E.; Beneventano, T.C.

    1986-01-01

    Atrophic gastritus or intestinal metaplasia is the precursor to many gastric carcinomas that arise in a dysplatic epithelium. The authors retrospectively reviewed the radiographic features of the gastric mucosa in 30 patients with the pathologic diagnosis of intestinal metaplasia (27) or atrophic gastritus (3). In 12 patients (40%) the area gastricae were enlarged to 5 mm or greater. In these 12 patients and in an additional 11 (total of 23, or 76%), a polypoid-nodular gastric mucosal pattern was seen. These findings and patterns are illustrated, and the differential diagnosis and clinical implications are discussed

  13. Gastric Cancer: Past, Present and Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie On-On Chan

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastric cancer remains a major cause of cancer mortality in the world. However, in the past 10 decades, the view of gastric cancer has been changing. This includes the unexplained decline in the incidence of the cancer, the proximal shift of the cancer in the stomach, the identification of Helicobacter pylori as an etiological agent, rapid development in molecular tumour biology, new treatment modalities and the adoption of mass screening for prevention. This article reviews the changing views of gastric cancer and the latest developments.

  14. Your diet after gastric bypass surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastric bypass surgery - your diet; Obesity - diet after bypass; Weight loss - diet after bypass ... You had gastric bypass surgery. This surgery made your stomach smaller by closing off most of your stomach with staples. It changed the way your ...

  15. Successful Treatment with a Combination of Endoscopic Injection and Irrigation with Coca Cola for Gastric Bezoar-induced Gastric Outlet Obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Sheng Lin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of gastric bezoar-induced gastric outlet obstruction that was successfully treated with a combination of endoscopic injection and irrigation with Coca Cola. A 73-year-old diabetic woman had a history of perforated peptic ulcer and had received pyloroplasty more than 20 years previously. She had been ingesting Pho Pu Zi (Cordia dichotoma Forst. f. as an appetizer for 1 month. She presented with epigastric pain, nausea, and vomiting. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, performed at a local hospital, showed 2 gastric bezoars in the stomach, and 1 of them impacted at the pylorus. She was referred to our emergency department for removal of the gastric bezoars that were suspected to be causing gastric outlet obstruction. All attempts at endoscopic removal using a polypectomy snare, biopsy forceps and Dormia basket failed. We then injected Coca Cola directly into the bezoar mass, followed by irrigation with Coca Cola. Follow-up endoscopy was performed the next day, which revealed that the gastric bezoars had dissolved spontaneously.

  16. Gastric Dilation and Volvulus Syndrome in Dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ami S. Bhatia

    Full Text Available Gastric dilatation and volvulus syndrome (GDV in dogs is an abnormal accumulation of gastric gas (dilatation, which may be complicated by rotation of the stomach (volvulus about its mesentric axis. A number of factors, both environmental and host have been implicated in GDV. This syndrome has a variety of effects on the cardiovascular, respiratory, gastrointestinal, metabolic, haemolymphatic-immune, renal and central nervous systems. Clinical signs include distended, painful, tympanic abdomen, retching, unproductive vomiting, hypersalivation, respiratory distress accompanied by varying degrees of shock. Treatment of GDV includes medical and fluid therapy at shock dosages to initially stabilize the patient followed by gastric decompression. Surgical procedure comprises of gastric derotation followed by partial gastrectomy or spleenectomy depending upon gastric or spleenic viability and lastly, permanent right sided gastropexy. Post surgical considerations include frequent small meals instead of one large meal, avoiding vigorous activity immediately after meals and not allowing animal to gorge on water after meals or activities. [Veterinary World 2010; 3(12.000: 554-557

  17. A nanomaterial-based breath test for distinguishing gastric cancer from benign gastric conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Z-q; Broza, Y Y; Ionsecu, R; Tisch, U; Ding, L; Liu, H; Song, Q; Pan, Y-y; Xiong, F-x; Gu, K-s; Sun, G-p; Chen, Z-d; Leja, M; Haick, H

    2013-03-05

    Upper digestive endoscopy with biopsy and histopathological evaluation of the biopsy material is the standard method for diagnosing gastric cancer (GC). However, this procedure may not be widely available for screening in the developing world, whereas in developed countries endoscopy is frequently used without major clinical gain. There is a high demand for a simple and non-invasive test for selecting the individuals at increased risk that should undergo the endoscopic examination. Here, we studied the feasibility of a nanomaterial-based breath test for identifying GC among patients with gastric complaints. Alveolar exhaled breath samples from 130 patients with gastric complaints (37 GC/32 ulcers / 61 less severe conditions) that underwent endoscopy/biopsy were analyzed using nanomaterial-based sensors. Predictive models were built employing discriminant factor analysis (DFA) pattern recognition, and their stability against possible confounding factors (alcohol/tobacco consumption; Helicobacter pylori) was tested. Classification success was determined (i) using leave-one-out cross-validation and (ii) by randomly blinding 25% of the samples as a validation set. Complementary chemical analysis of the breath samples was performed using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Three DFA models were developed that achieved excellent discrimination between the subpopulations: (i) GC vs benign gastric conditions, among all the patients (89% sensitivity; 90% specificity); (ii) early stage GC (I and II) vs late stage (III and IV), among GC patients (89% sensitivity; 94% specificity); and (iii) ulcer vs less severe, among benign conditions (84% sensitivity; 87% specificity). The models were insensitive against the tested confounding factors. Chemical analysis found that five volatile organic compounds (2-propenenitrile, 2-butoxy-ethanol, furfural, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one and isoprene) were significantly elevated in patients with GC and/or peptic ulcer, as compared

  18. Development of stress ulcers assessed by gastric electrical potential difference, pH of gastric juice, and endoscopy in patients in the intensive care unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubinstein, E; Gjørup, I; Schulze, S

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess measurement of gastric electrical potential difference, pH of gastric mucosa, and endoscopic findings in patients in intensive care units who are at risk of developing stress ulcers. DESIGN: Open comparison with age- and sex-matched control subjects. SETTING: Herlev Hospital......, Denmark. SUBJECTS: Sixteen consecutive patients with no history of gastrointestinal haemorrhage, coagulopathy, or ulcer disease who had been admitted to the intensive care unit, and 16 age- and sex-matched outpatients with normal endoscopic findings. INTERVENTIONS: Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, during...... which any lesions that were found were scored according to severity, the gastric potential difference, and the pH of gastric juice were measured. OUTCOME MEASURES: Correlation between the incidence of stress ulceration found at endoscopy, gastric potential difference, and gastric pH. RESULTS: Gastric...

  19. Gastric dilatation-volvulus in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broome, C J; Walsh, V P

    2003-12-01

    Gastric dilatation-volvulus (GDV) is a disease in which there is gross distension of the stomach with fluid or gas and gastric malpositioning. It causes pathology of multiple organ systems and is rapidly fatal. It is common in large- and giant-breed dogs. The disease appears to have a familial predisposition. Thoracic depth/width ratio also appears to predispose dogs to GDV. Implicated dietary factors include dietary particle size, frequency of feeding, speed of eating, aerophagia and an elevated feed bowl. A fearful temperament and stressful events may also predispose dogs to GDV. Abdominal distension, non-productive retching, restlessness, signs of shock, tachypnoea and dyspnoea are possible clinical signs. Initial treatment includes treatment of shock and gastric decompression. Surgical treatment should be performed promptly. There are no studies comparing the use of different anaesthetic agents in the anaesthetic management of GDV. Pre-medication with an opioid/benzodiazepine combination has been recommended. Induction agents that cause minimal cardiovascular changes such as opioids, neuroactive steroidal agents and etomidate are recommended. Anaesthesia should be maintained with an inhalational agent. Surgical therapy involves decompression, correction of gastric malpositioning, debridement of necrotic tissue, and gastropexy. Options for gastropexy include incisional, tube, circumcostal, belt-loop, incorporating, and laparoscopic gastropexy. Expected mortality with surgical therapy is 15-24%. Prognostic factors include mental status on presentation, presence of gastric necrosis, presence of cardiac arrhythmia and plasma lactate levels. Prophylactic gastropexy should be considered in dogs identified as being at high risk.

  20. Selective scavenging of intra-mitochondrial superoxide corrects diclofenac-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and gastric injury: A novel gastroprotective mechanism independent of gastric acid suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazumder, Somnath; De, Rudranil; Sarkar, Souvik; Siddiqui, Asim Azhar; Saha, Shubhra Jyoti; Banerjee, Chinmoy; Iqbal, Mohd Shameel; Nag, Shiladitya; Debsharma, Subhashis; Bandyopadhyay, Uday

    2016-12-01

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are widely used to treat multiple inflammatory diseases and pain but severe gastric mucosal damage is the worst outcome of NSAID-therapy. Here we report that mitoTEMPO, a mitochondrially targeted superoxide (O 2 - ) scavenger protected as well as healed gastric injury induced by diclofenac (DCF), the most commonly used NSAID. Common existing therapy against gastric injury involves suppression of gastric acid secretion by proton pump inhibitors and histamine H 2 receptor antagonists; however, dyspepsia, vitamin B12 deficiency and gastric microfloral dysbalance are the major drawbacks of acid suppression. Interestingly, mitoTEMPO did not inhibit gastric acid secretion but offered gastroprotection by preventing DCF-induced generation of O 2 - due to mitochondrial respiratory chain failure and by preventing mitochondrial oxidative stress (MOS)-mediated mitopathology. MitoTEMPO even restored DCF-stimulated reduced fatty acid oxidation, mitochondrial depolarization and bioenergetic crisis in gastric mucosa. MitoTEMPO also prevented the activation of mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis and MOS-mediated proinflammatory signaling through NF-κB by DCF. Furthermore, mitoTEMPO when administered in rats with preformed gastric lesions expedited the healing of gastric injury and the healed stomach exhibited its normal physiology as evident from gastric acid and pepsin secretions under basal or stimulated conditions. Thus, in contrast to the existing antiulcer drugs, mitochondrially targeted O 2 - scavengers like mitoTEMPO may represent a novel class of gastroprotective molecules that does not affect gastric acid secretion and may be used in combination with DCF, keeping its anti-inflammatory action intact, while reducing its gastrodamaging effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Epstein–Barr Virus Infection and Gastric Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xin-Zu; Chen, Hongda; Castro, Felipe A.; Hu, Jian-Kun; Brenner, Hermann

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) infection is found in a subset of gastric cancers. Previous reviews have exclusively focused on EBV-encoded small RNA (EBER) positivity in gastric cancer tissues, but a comprehensive evaluation of other type of studies is lacking. We searched the PubMed database up to September, 2014, and performed a systematic review. We considered studies comparing EBV nucleic acids positivity in gastric cancer tissue with positivity in either adjacent non-tumor tissue of cancer patients or non-tumor mucosa from healthy individuals, patients with benign gastric diseases, or deceased individuals. We also considered studies comparing EBV antibodies in serum from cancer patients and healthy controls. Selection of potentially eligible studies and data extraction were performed by 2 independent reviewers. Due to the heterogeneity of studies, we did not perform formal meta-analysis. Forty-seven studies (8069 cases and 1840 controls) were identified. EBER positivity determined by in situ hybridization (ISH) was significantly higher in cancer tissues (range 5.0%–17.9%) than in adjacent mucosa from the same patients or biopsies from all control groups (almost 0%). High EBV nuclear antigen-1 (EBNA-1) positivity by PCR was found in gastric cancer tissues, but most were not validated by ISH or adjusted for inflammatory severity and lymphocyte infiltration. Only 4 studies tested for EBV antibodies, with large variation in the seropositivities of different antibodies in both cases and controls, and did not find an association between EBV seropositivity and gastric cancer. In summary, tissue-based ISH methods strongly suggest an association between EBV infection and gastric cancer, but PCR method alone is invalid to confirm such association. Very limited evidence from serological studies and the lack of novel antibodies warrant further investigations to identify potential risk factors of EBV for gastric cancer. PMID:25997049

  2. Epidemiological studies on gastric cancer in Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwasaki, Keisuke; Kawamoto, Kenji; Shimokawa, Isao; Matsuo, Takeshi; Ikeda, Takayoshi

    1984-01-01

    One thousand-four hundred and twenty-four cases of gastric cancer registered at the Nagasaki Tumor Registry between 1973 and 1977 were studied. The incidence of gastric cancer tended to be higher in persons exposed to the atomic bomb within 2.0 km from the hypocenter, especially in young persons, than in non-exposed individuals, but the difference was not statistically significant. Compared with the nonexposed, the corrected relative risk of gastric cancer in persons exposed within 2.0 km from the hypocenter was 1.28 in males and 1.11 in females. In terms of histologic type or location, the incidence of gastric cancer showed no statistically significant difference between the exposed and nonexposed persons. (author)

  3. Association of Helicobacter pylori infection with gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, G A; Brawley, O W

    2000-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori has generated public health interest since its identification in 1983. Past studies have suggested that the bacterium plays a role in the pathogenesis of gastric cancer. More recent studies support the conclusion that the association of H. pylori with gastric cancer is causal. The purpose of this article is to review the available evidence supporting the association of H. pylori with gastric cancer. We performed a critical review of the relevant literature published in the English language on H. pylori and gastric cancer using MEDLINE, Index Medicus for the years 1985 to 1997. The reference lists of selected articles also were reviewed to capture citations for further pertinent studies. H. pylori is thought to be the major cause of chronic atrophic gastritis. H. pylori gastritis is worldwide in distribution. H. pylori is now categorized by the International Agency for Cancer Research as a group 1 carcinogen, i.e., an agent that is carcinogenic to humans. Several reports from the United States have found the highest frequencies of gastric cancer in geographic areas and populations with the highest rates of acquisition of H. pylori infection. The high prevalence of H. pylori infection has been documented most notably in blacks and Hispanics, who also are at high risk for gastric cancer. New studies that focus on the epidemiology and pathology of H. pylori improve our understanding of its relationship with gastric cancer and advance the development of gastric cancer prevention and control strategies that are proposed.

  4. Krukenberg tumor after gastric bypass for morbid obesity: Bariatric surgery and gastric cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Menéndez

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Gastric by-pass is one of the most performed surgical procedure in bariatric surgery. Neoplasm within gastric remnant is a slightly frequent complication (only six cases have been described but with important survival consequences. We present a case of a patient who developed an adenocarcinoma in excluded stomach, after three years of bariatric surgery; the tumor was incidentally discovered after a gynecological surgery for uterine myomas. Different diagnostic modalities for the excluded stomach were analyzed.

  5. Glycoprofiling of Early Gastric Cancer Using Lectin Microarray Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Taijie; Mo, Cuiju; Qin, Xue; Li, Shan; Liu, Yinkun; Liu, Zhiming

    2018-01-01

    Recently, studies have reported that protein glycosylation plays an important role in the occurrence and development of cancer. Gastric cancer is a common cancer with high morbidity and mortality owing to most gastric cancers are discovered only at an advanced stage. Here, we aim to discover novel specific serum glycanbased biomarkers for gastric cancer. A lectin microarray with 50 kinds of tumor-associated lectin was used to detect the glycan profiles of serum samples between early gastric cancer and healthy controls. Then lectin blot was performed to validate the differences. The result of the lectin microarray showed that the signal intensities of 13 lectins showed significant differences between the healthy controls and early gastric cancer. Compared to the healthy, the normalized fluorescent intensities of the lectins PWA, LEL, and STL were significantly increased, and it implied that their specifically recognized GlcNAc showed an especially elevated expression in early gastric cancer. Moreover, the binding affinity of the lectins EEL, RCA-II, RCA-I, VAL, DSA, PHA-L, UEA, and CAL were higher in the early gastric cancer than in healthy controls. These glycan structures containing GalNAc, terminal Galβ 1-4 GlcNAc, Tri/tetraantennary N-glycan, β-1, 6GlcNAc branching structure, α-linked fucose residues, and Tn antigen were elevated in gastric cancer. While the two lectins CFL GNL reduced their binding ability. In addition, their specifically recognized N-acetyl-D-galactosamine structure and (α-1,3) mannose residues were decreased in early gastric cancer. Furthermore, lectin blot results of LEL, STL, PHA-L, RCA-I were consistent with the results of the lectin microarray. The findings of our study clarify the specific alterations for glycosylation during the pathogenesis of gastric cancer. The specific high expression of GlcNAc structure may act as a potential early diagnostic marker for gastric cancer.

  6. Gastric cancer in atomic bomb survivors, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oshiro, Hisashi; Odan, Hideki; Hinoi, Takao; Inagaki, Kazuo; Tanaka, Issei

    1992-01-01

    During 22 years from 1968 through 1989, 538 A-bomb survivors were operated on for gastric cancer, accounting for 30.9% of 1,741 surgical cases of gastric cancer during that period. To determine whether age at the time of exposure to A-bombing might influenced the occurrrence of gastric cancer, these A-bomb survivors were compared with 1,138 other non-exposed gastric cancer patients. According to age at the time of exposure, the 538 A-bomb survivors were divided into those under the age of 19 (118), those in their twenties (134), those in their thirties (178), and those over the age of 40 (108). The largest number of gastric cancer was those in their thirties at the time of exposure, followed by the twenties, 19 years or less, and 40 years or more in the exposed group. The younger A-bomb survivors were at the time of exposure, the earlier gastric cancer occurred. These findings were common to the non-exposed group. Postoperative 5-year survival rate was 72.0% in A-bomb survivors aged 19 years or less at the time of exposure, which was better than the other age groups. This may be explained by active participation in health examination for A-bomb survivors. (N.K.)

  7. Development of gastric cancer associated with Helicobacter pylori infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Toshiro

    2004-09-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is associated with histological gastritis, gastric atrophy, gastric cancer and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma in the stomach. However, gastric cancer only develops in a minority of infected individuals. Such clinical diversity is caused by variations in the interactions between H. pylori pathogenicity, host susceptibility, and environmental factors. Based on evidence from three prospective epidemiological studies, the International Agency for Research on Cancer and the World Health Organization (IARC/WHO) concluded in 1994 that H. pylori has a causal linkage to gastric carcinogenesis and is a definite carcinogen in humans. Two large-scale, prospective, epidemiological studies have recently been reported in Japan and have confirmed that H. pylori infection constitutes a high risk factor for the development of gastric cancer, at least in males. In order to obtain evidence that eradication of H. pylori leads to a reduction in the occurrence of gastric cancer, reversibility of precancerous lesions, gastric atrophy or intestinal metaplasia should be proven after eradication treatment. A biopsy specimen from the lesser curvature of the corpus is the most sensitive for evaluating the regression of gastric atrophy on histology, and the evaluation needs be conducted at least 13 months after treatment. In a Mongolian gerbil model with or without low-dose chemical carcinogens, it has been demonstrated that H. pylori can lead to the development of gastric cancer. Experimental studies have elucidated that virulence factors of H. pylori interact with gastric epithelial cell signaling related to carcinogenesis. The cag pathogenicity island (cagPAI) is a major virulence gene cluster; it encodes the type IV secretion machinery system forming a cylinder-like structure. The CagA protein is translocated into target cells via this secretion system and induces a hummingbird phenotype, a growth factor-like effect. The other gene products are

  8. GTPBP4 Promotes Gastric Cancer Progression via Regulating P53 Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: gastric cancer is a serious health concern with high morbidity and mortality. Therefore, it is urgent to find novel targets for gastric cancer diagnosis and treatment. Methods: qRT-PCR and immunohistochemistry assays were used to detect GTPBP4 expression in gastric cancer tissues, and gastric cancer and gastric epithelial cells. Lentivirus infection was used to construct GTPBP4 stable knockdown cells. Annexin V/PI apoptosis, CCK8, EdU incorporation and cell clone formation analysis were performed to evaluate the effects of GTPBP4 on gastric cancer cell proliferation and apoptosis. Further RNA-based high-throughput sequencing and co-IP assays were constructed to explore the related mechanisms contributing to GTPBP4-mediated effects. Results: GTPBP4 expression was significantly increased in gastric cancer tissues compared with that in adjacent normal tissues, and positively correlated with gastric cancer stages. Meanwhile, GTPBP4 level was markedly upregulated in gastric cancer cells than in gastric epithelial cells. Additionaly, stable knockdown of GTPBP4 inhibited cell proliferation and promoted cell apoptosis. Mechanistically, p53 and its related signaling were significantly activated in GTPBP4 stable knockdown cells. And GTPBP4 interacted with p53 in gastric cancer cells. Conclusions: our results provide insights into mechanistic regulation and linkage of the GTPBP4-p53 in gastric cancer, and also a valuable potential target for gastric cancer.

  9. Gastric intestinal metaplasia as detected by a monoclonal antibody is highly associated with gastric adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirza, Z K; Das, K K; Slate, J; Mapitigama, R N; Amenta, P S; Griffel, L H; Ramsundar, L; Watari, J; Yokota, K; Tanabe, H; Sato, T; Kohgo, Y; Das, K M

    2003-06-01

    Some forms of gastric intestinal metaplasia (GIM) may be precancerous but the cellular phenotype that predisposes to gastric carcinogenesis is not well characterised. Mucin staining, as a means of differentiating GIM, is difficult. A monoclonal antibody, mAb Das-1 (initially called 7E(12)H(12)), whose staining is phenotypically specific to colon epithelium, was used to investigate this issue. Using mAb Das-1, by a sensitive immunoperoxidase assay, we examined histologically confirmed GIM specimens from two countries, the USA and Japan. A total of 150 patients comprised three groups: group A, GIM (fields away from the cancer area) from patients with gastric carcinoma (n=60); group B, GIM with chronic gastritis (without gastric carcinoma) (n=72); and group C, chronic gastritis without GIM (n=18). Fifty six of 60 (93%) patients with GIM (both goblet and non-goblet metaplastic cells) from group A reacted intensely with mAb Das-1. Cancer areas from the same 56 patients also reacted. In contrast, 25/72 (35%) samples of GIM from patients in group B reacted with mAb Das-1 (group A v B, p<0.0001). None of the samples from group C reacted with the mAb. Reactivity of mAb Das-1 is clinically useful to simplify and differentiate the phenotypes of GIM. The colonic phenotype of GIM, as identified by mAb Das-1, is strongly associated with gastric carcinoma.

  10. Epidermal growth factor receptor mutation in gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhimin; Liu, Lina; Li, Mei; Wang, Zhaohui; Feng, Lu; Zhang, Qiuping; Cheng, Shihua; Lu, Shen

    2011-04-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and Kirsten-RAS (KRAS) mutations have been identified as predictors of response to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) in non-small cell lung cancer. We aimed to screen the mutations of both genes in gastric carcinoma to detect the suitability of EGFR TKIs for patients with gastric carcinoma. We screened EGFR mutation in exons 19-21 and KRAS mutation in exon 2 in 58 gastric adenocarcinomas from China using high resolution melting analysis (HRMA). Positive samples were confirmed by DNA sequencing. Three EGFR missense mutations (5.2%) and 22 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP, Q787Q, 37.9%) were identified. To our knowledge, we report for the first time three mutation patterns of EGFR, Y801C, L858R and G863D, in gastric carcinoma. Two samples with EGFR mutation were mucinous adenocarcinoma. These three samples were collected from male patients aged over 75 years old. The frequency of KRAS mutation was 10.3% (6/58). The exclusiveness of EGFR and KRAS mutations was proven for the first time in gastric cancer. Gastric carcinoma of the mucinous adenocarcinoma type collected from older male patients may harbour EGFR mutations. The small subset of gastric adenocarcinoma patients may respond to EGFR TKIs.

  11. Gastric band tubing-related complication during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ongso, Yuni F; Beh, Han N

    2017-11-01

    In the past few decades, laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding is one of the most common bariatric procedures performed to treat morbid obesity. Device-related complication such as connection-tubing problem is rare. Here we present a case of gastric band tubing complication during pregnancy. This case illustrates the need to maintain high index of suspicion of gastric band device-related complication during pregnancy and early referral for bariatric surgical assessment is recommended.

  12. Historical Perspective on Familial Gastric CancerSummary

    OpenAIRE

    C. Richard Boland; Matthew B. Yurgelun

    2017-01-01

    Gastric cancer is a common disease worldwide, typically associated with acquired chronic inflammation in the stomach, related in most instances to infection by Helicobacter pylori. A small percentage of cases occurs in familial clusters, and some of these can be linked to specific germline mutations. This article reviews the historical background to the current understanding of familial gastric cancer, focuses on the entity of hereditary diffuse gastric cancer, and also reviews the risks for ...

  13. Recent Advances in the Gastric Mucosal Protection Against Stress-induced Gastric Lesions. Importance of Renin-angiotensin Vasoactive Metabolites, Gaseous Mediators and Appetite Peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzozowski, Tomasz; Magierowska, Katarzyna; Magierowski, Marcin; Ptak-Belowska, Agata; Pajdo, Robert; Kwiecien, Slawomir; Olszanecki, Rafal; Korbut, Ryszard

    2017-01-01

    Stress is known to cause severe adverse effects in the human gastrointestinal tract including mucosal microbleedings and erosions or even gastric ulceration but the mechanism of these complications has not been fully elucidated. The pathogenesis of stress-induced gastric damage involves the fall in Gastric Blood Flow (GBF), an increase in gastric acid secretion and gastric motility, enhanced adrenergic and cholinergic nerve activity and the rise in gastric mucosal generation of reactive oxygen species. The gastric mucosal defense mechanisms against the deleterious effect of stress include the activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis which has been linked with glucocorticoids release capable of counteracting of stress-induced gastric lesions. Here we summarize the novel gastroprotective mechanisms against stress damage exhibited by angiotensin-(1-7), the newly discovered metabolite of Renin-Angiotensin System (RAS), the gaseous mediators such as nitric oxide (NO), hydrogen sulfide (H2S) or Carbon Monoxide (CO), and the food intake controlling peptides ghrelin, nesfatin- 1 and apelin possibly acting via brain-gut axis. These bioactive molecules such as RAS vasoactive metabolite angiotensin-(1-7) and appetite peptides have been shown to afford gastroprotective effect against stressinduced gastric lesions mainly mediated by an increase in gastric microcirculation. Gaseous mediators protect the gastric mucosa against stress lesions by mechanism involving the activation of PG/COX and CO/HO-1 biosynthetic pathways, and their anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidizing properties. Thus, these new components add new mechanistic aspects to the common cooperation of NO/NO-synthase, PG/COX systems and vasoactive sensory neuropeptides including CGRP but their gastroprotective efficacy against experimental stress ulcerogenesis requires the confirmation in human clinical trials. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  14. [Current standards in the treatment of gastric cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacker, Ulrich; Lordick, Florian

    2015-08-01

    Endoscopic resection is established in the treatment of early gastric cancer. More advanced gastric cancer requires gastrectomy and D2 lymphadenectomy. Perioperative chemotherapy improves overall survival in locally advanced gastric cancer representing a standard of care. Locally advanced adenocarcinomas of the esophago-gastric junction can alternatively be treated with concurrent radiochemotherapy. In metastatic disease, systemic chemotherapy improves survival, quality of life and symptom control. Trastuzumab plus chemotherapy should be used together with first-line chemotherapy in HER2 positive gastric cancer patients. Second- and third-line therapy is now well established. The anti-VEGFR2 antibody Ramucirumab improves survival in second line treatment both as a monotherapy and in combination with paclitaxel and represents a novel treatment option. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Preoperative assessment of gastric artery in patients with gastric cancer by CT angiography on 64-slice spiral CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Lei; Zhang Xiaopeng; Sun Yingshi; Cao Kun; Qi Liping; Cui Yong; Wang Ning

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of different three-dimensional CTA methods on 64-slice sprial CT in the preoperative assessment of gastric arteries and their variations. Methods: Sixty-six consecutive patients with gastric cancer who underwent 64-slice spiral CT examinations preoperatively were retrospectively studied. To get the STS-MIP images, the thickness of slab was adjusted according to the inner diameter of targeted blood vessels and their cross-layer distribution. After four weeks, the AVVR images of all cases was got by the auto-vessel technique. The demonstration rates and origins of the direct and indirect feeding arteries were analyzed on AVVR and STS-MIP. McNemar tests were used to compare the detection rates of gastric feeding arteries by STS-MIP and AVVR. The relationship between CT value and display rate of vessels was analyzed using independent-samples t test. The variations of blood vessels were analyzed. Results: The display rate of indirect feeding arteries were all 100% (66/66) by STS-MIP and AVVR. The display rates of left gastric artery (LGA) and right gastroepiploic artery (RGEA) were 98.5% (65/66), 100.0% (66/66) and 97.0% (64/66), 100.0% (66/66) by STS-MIP and AVVR respectively. The display rates of right artery (RGA), left gastroepiploic artery (LGEA), short gastric artery (SGA) and posterior gastric artery (RGA), left gastroepiploic artery (LGEA), short gastric artery (SGA) and posterior gastric artery (PGA) by AVVR were lower than those of STS-MIP with statistical significances [RGA: 68.2% (45/66) vs. 98.5% (65/66), P<0.01; LGEA: 53.0% (35/66) vs. 97.0% (64/66), P<0.01; SGA: 7.6%(5/66) vs. 59.1% (39/66), P<0.01; PGA: 18.2% (12/66) vs. 63.6% (42/66), P<0.01]. The demonstration rates of LGEA, RGEA and SGA increased accompanied with the increasing of CT value in celiac axis (LGEA: 35 cases displayed with mean CT value of (272 ± 44) HU, 31 cases did not display with mean CT value of (229 ± 42) HU, t=4.043, P<0.01; RGEA: 64 cases

  16. Breed predisposition to canine gastric carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seim-Wikse, Tonje; Jörundsson, Einar; Nødtvedt, Ane

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has indicated a breed predisposition to gastric carcinoma in dogs. However, results to date are inconsistent since several studies have failed to prove such a predisposition. Better knowledge of breeds at risk could facilitate early detection of gastric carcinoma in dogs. The ai...

  17. Radiological evaluation of early gastric cancer: analysis of 104 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Byung Ihn; Kim, Jae Hyung; Han, Man Chung

    1987-01-01

    During the two year period from January 1985 to December 1986, 161 cases were confirmed as early gastric cancer by pathologic mapping at Seoul National University Hospital. Among them, the authors reviewed 104 cases of early gastric cancer for the evaluation of diagnostic value of double contrast upper gastrointestinal series. Early gastric cancer was most common in 5th and 6th decade (64%) and male to female ratio was 2:1. Double contrast upper GI series could detect 97 out of 104 cases (93%). Among them, 62 cases were diagnosed as early gastric cancer, 32 as advanced gastric cancer and 3 as benign lesion. Detection rate according to the size was 100% in lesion larger than 2cm and 87% in lesion smaller than 2cm. Predictability of early gastric cancer according to size was 66% in lesion smaller than 3cm and 43% in lesion larger than 3cm. Detection rate according to the location of the tumor was almost similar between gastric body (94%) and antrum (93%), however was very low in anterior wall lesion (70%). Predictability of early gastric cancer was 69% in gastric body lesion, 52% in gastric antral lesion and 44% in greater curvature lesion. Detection rate according to the type of macrospecimen was 100% in type I, III and IIc+III. Type IIb showed the lowest detection rate (75%). Predictability of early gastric cancer was high in type IIc (68%) and low in type I (20%)

  18. Neonatal Intrathoracic Stomach without Gastric Volvulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokka, Sriharsha; Mohanty, Manoj Kumar

    2016-10-01

    Intrathoracic stomach is a rare and serious congenital abnormality. The anomaly may be complicated by gastric volvulus and can lead to ischemic gastric infarction in the neonate. If diagnosed antenatally, neonatal management can be planned in advance so as to reduce morbidity. This anomaly must be differentiated from the more common congenital diaphragmatic hernia, as associated pulmonary hypoplasia is common in the latter and rare with gastric herniation. We report a case of intrathoracic stomach in a neonate without volvulus, fortunately a rare entity which was managed operatively, and the child has been under regular follow-up.

  19. Postnatal persistent infection with classical Swine Fever virus and its immunological implications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Muñoz-González

    Full Text Available It is well established that trans-placental transmission of classical swine fever virus (CSFV during mid-gestation can lead to persistently infected offspring. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the ability of CSFV to induce viral persistence upon early postnatal infection. Two litters of 10 piglets each were infected intranasally on the day of birth with low and moderate virulence CSFV isolates, respectively. During six weeks after postnatal infection, most of the piglets remained clinically healthy, despite persistent high virus titres in the serum. Importantly, these animals were unable to mount any detectable humoral and cellular immune response. At necropsy, the most prominent gross pathological lesion was a severe thymus atrophy. Four weeks after infection, PBMCs from the persistently infected seronegative piglets were unresponsive to both, specific CSFV and non-specific PHA stimulation in terms of IFN-γ-producing cells. These results suggested the development of a state of immunosuppression in these postnatally persistently infected pigs. However, IL-10 was undetectable in the sera of the persistently infected animals. Interestingly, CSFV-stimulated PBMCs from the persistently infected piglets produced IL-10. Nevertheless, despite the addition of the anti-IL-10 antibody in the PBMC culture from persistently infected piglets, the response of the IFN-γ producing cells was not restored. Therefore, other factors than IL-10 may be involved in the general suppression of the T-cell responses upon CSFV and mitogen activation. Interestingly, bone marrow immature granulocytes were increased and targeted by the virus in persistently infected piglets. Taken together, we provided the first data demonstrating the feasibility of CSFV in generating a postnatal persistent disease, which has not been shown for other members of the Pestivirus genus yet. Since serological methods are routinely used in CSFV surveillance, persistently infected pigs

  20. Hypoglycemia in a dog with a leiomyoma of the gastric wall producing an insulin-like growth factor II-like peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boari, A; Barreca, A; Bestetti, G E; Minuto, F; Venturoli, M

    1995-06-01

    A 12-year-old mixed-breed male dog was referred to the Clinica Medica Veterinaria of Bologna University for recurrent episodes of seizures due to hypoglycemia with abnormally low plasma insulin levels (18 pmol/l). Resection of a large leiomyoma (780 g) of the gastric wall resulted in a permanent resolution of the hypoglycemic episodes. Insulin-like growth factors I and II (IGF-I and -II) were measured by RIA in serum before and after surgery and in tumor tissue. Results were compared to the serum concentration of 54 normal and to the tissue concentration observed in eight non-hypoglycemic dog gastric wall extracts. Before surgery, circulating immunoreactive IGF-I was 0.92 nmol/l, which is significantly lower than the control values (16.92 +/- 8.44 nmol/l, range 3.53-35.03), while IGF-II was 152 nmol/l, which is significantly higher than the control values (42.21 +/- 3.75, range 31.99-50.74). After surgery, IGF-I increased to 6.80 nmol/l while IGF-II decreased to 45.52 nmol/l. Tumor tissue IGF-II concentration was higher than normal (5.66 nmol/kg tissue as compared to a range in normal gastric wall tissue of 1.14-3.72 nmol/kg), while IGF-I was 0.08 nmol/kg tissue, which is close to the lowest normal value (range in controls, 0.08-1.18 nmol/kg). Partial characterization of IGF-II immunoreactivity extracted from tissue evidenced a molecular weight similar to that of mature IGF-II, thus excluding that peptide released by the tumor is a precursor molecule.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Translating Developmental Principles to Generate Human Gastric Organoids

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandra K. Eicher; H. Matthew Berns; James M. Wells

    2018-01-01

    Gastric diseases, including peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer, are highly prevalent in human beings. Despite this, the cellular biology of the stomach remains poorly understood relative to other gastrointestinal organs such as the liver, intestine, and colon. In particular, little is known about the molecular basis of stomach development and the differentiation of gastric lineages. Although animal models are useful for studying gastric development, function, and disease, there are major...

  2. The influence of duodeno-gastric reflux on frequency of Helicobacter pylori infection at patients with ulcer gastric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopanski, Z.; Niziol, J.; Micherdzinski, J.; Wasilewska-Radwanska, M.; Cienciala, A.; Lasa, J.

    1996-01-01

    To estimate the correlation between frequency of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection and intensity of duodeno-gastric reflux it was analysed 61 species with ulcer gastric. Bacterial infection was diagnosed by the breath test with 14 C-labelled urea, whereas presence and intensity of the reflux was found with dynamic scintigraphy with 99 Tm MBrIDA support. The H. pylori infection was present at 42 (68.9%) patients. The presence of throwing back the duodenal liquid was found at 32 (52.5%) diagnosed patients. At 19 (31.2%) of them the reflux has intensity of 1%, at 11 (18%)-2 o and 2 (3.3%)-3 o .The investigations which were carried out, showed that at patients with ulcer gastric disease, duodeno-gastric reflux is an agent which slows down H. pylori infection, however it is easily seen not earlier than at 2 o of its intensity. (author)

  3. A biochemical study on the gastroprotective effect of andrographolide in rats induced with gastric ulcer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saranya, P; Geetha, A; Selvamathy, S M K Narmadha

    2011-09-01

    The major objective of the study was to evaluate the gastroprotective property of andrographolide, a chief component of the leaves of Andrographis paniculata in terms of the ulcer preventive effect in rats. An acute toxicity test was conducted with different concentrations of andrographolide to determine the LD(50) value. The dose responsive study was conducted in rats pretreated with andrographolide (1, 3 and 5 mg/kg) for a period of 30 days, prior to ulcer induction by administering ethanol, aspirin or by pyloric ligation. The ulcer protective efficacy was tested by determining the ulcer score, pH, pepsin, titrable acidity, gastric mucin, lipid peroxides, reduced glutathione, and enzymatic antioxidants superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase in gastric tissue. The activities of H(+)-K(+) ATPase and myeloperoxidase were also determined in gastric tissue. The LD(50) value was found to be 48 mg/kg b. wt and the effective dose was found to be 3 mg/kg. We have observed a significant reduction in the ulcer score in rats pretreated with 3 mg of andrographolide/kg body weight. A favourable increase in the pH and decrease in titrable acidity were observed in the gastric fluid of rats pretreated with the test drug. The gastric tissue H(+)-K(+) ATPase and myeloperoxidase activities were elevated in ulcer-induced animals. The elevation in the enzyme activity was significantly minimized in the andrographolide received animals. The antioxidants and mucin levels were significantly maintained in the gastric tissue of drug-pretreated animals. Andrographolide did not produce any toxic effects in normal rats. This study reveals that the ulcer preventive efficacy of andrographolide may probably due to its antioxidant, cytoprotective and antiacid secretory effects.

  4. Multi-disciplinary team for early gastric cancer diagnosis improves the detection rate of early gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Lianjun; Wu, Huichao; Zhu, Rong; Li, Youfeng; Wu, Xinglong; Xie, Rui; Li, Hongping; Wang, Haibo; Zhang, Hua; Xiao, Hong; Chen, Hui; Zhen, Hong; Zhao, Kui; Yang, Xuefeng; Xie, Ming; Tuo, Bigung

    2017-12-06

    Gastric cancer is a frequent malignant tumor worldwide and its early detection is crucial for curing the disease and enhancing patients' survival rate. This study aimed to assess whether the multi-disciplinary team (MDT) can improve the detection rate of early gastric cancer (EGC). The detection rate of EGC at the Digestive Endoscopy Center, Affiliated Hospital, Zunyi Medical College, China between September 2013 and September 2015 was analyzed. MDT for the diagnosis of EGC in the hospital was established in September 2014. The study was divided into 2 time periods: September 1, 2013 to August 31, 2014 (period 1) and September 1, 2014 to September 1, 2015 (period 2). A total of 60,800 patients' gastroscopies were performed during the two years. 61 of these patients (0.1%) were diagnosed as EGC, accounting for 16.44% (61/371) of total patients with gastric cancer. The EGC detection rate before MDT (period 1) was 0.05% (16/29403), accounting for 9.09% (16/176) of total patients with gastric cancer during this period. In comparison, the EGC detection rate during MDT (period 2) was 0.15% (45/31397), accounting for 23% (45/195) of total patients with gastric cancer during this period (P cooperation with Department of Pathology (OR = 10.1, 95% CI 2.39-43.3, P < 0.05). MDT could improve the endoscopic detection rate of EGC.

  5. Prevalence of deleterious ATM germline mutations in gastric cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Dong-Sheng; Tao, Hou-Quan; He, Xu-Jun; Long, Ming; Yu, Sheng; Xia, Ying-Jie; Wei, Zhang; Xiong, Zikai; Jones, Sian; He, Yiping; Yan, Hai; Wang, Xiaoyue

    2015-12-01

    Besides CDH1, few hereditary gastric cancer predisposition genes have been previously reported. In this study, we discovered two germline ATM mutations (p.Y1203fs and p.N1223S) in a Chinese family with a history of gastric cancer by screening 83 cancer susceptibility genes. Using a published exome sequencing dataset, we found deleterious germline mutations of ATM in 2.7% of 335 gastric cancer patients of different ethnic origins. The frequency of deleterious ATM mutations in gastric cancer patients is significantly higher than that in general population (p=0.0000435), suggesting an association of ATM mutations with gastric cancer predisposition. We also observed biallelic inactivation of ATM in tumors of two gastric cancer patients. Further evaluation of ATM mutations in hereditary gastric cancer will facilitate genetic testing and risk assessment.

  6. Pathogenesis of Gastric Cancer: Genetics and Molecular Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Ceu; Camargo, M C; Leite, Marina; Fuentes-Pananá, Ezequiel M; Rabkin, Charles S; Machado, José C

    Gastric cancer is the fifth most incident and the third most common cause of cancer-related death in the world. Infection with Helicobacter pylori is the major risk factor for this disease. Gastric cancer is the final outcome of a cascade of events that takes decades to occur and results from the accumulation of multiple genetic and epigenetic alterations. These changes are crucial for tumor cells to expedite and sustain the array of pathways involved in the cancer development, such as cell cycle, DNA repair, metabolism, cell-to-cell and cell-to-matrix interactions, apoptosis, angiogenesis, and immune surveillance. Comprehensive molecular analyses of gastric cancer have disclosed the complex heterogeneity of this disease. In particular, these analyses have confirmed that Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive gastric cancer is a distinct entity. The identification of gastric cancer subtypes characterized by recognizable molecular profiles may pave the way for a more personalized clinical management and to the identification of novel therapeutic targets and biomarkers for screening, prognosis, prediction of response to treatment, and monitoring of gastric cancer progression.

  7. The management of gastric volvulus in elderly patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuiki, Toru; Hosoya, Yoshinori; Lefor, Alan Kawarai; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Komatsubara, Toshihide; Miyahara, Yuzo; Sanada, Yukihiro; Ohki, Jun; Sekiguchi, Chuji; Sata, Naohiro

    2016-01-01

    Gastric volvulus is torsion of the stomach and requires immediate treatment. The optimal treatment strategy for patients with gastric volvulus is not established, because of significant variations in the cause and clinical course of this condition. We describe our experience with six elderly patients with gastric volvulus caused by different conditions using various approaches. This includes two patients managed with endoscopic reduction, followed by endoscopic or laparoscopic gastropexy. Endoscopy is a necessary first step to determine the optimal treatment strategy, and endoscopic reduction is often effective. The indications for surgical repair of gastric volvulus depend on the patient's overall condition, and several options are available. In some elderly patients with severe comorbidities, major surgery may have an unacceptably high risk. We propose a novel treatment strategy for gastric volvulus in the elderly and a review of the literature. Early endoscopy is necessary in patients with gastric volvulus. Endoscopic or laparoscopic gastropexy may be adequate therapy in selected elderly patients. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. A tale of gastric layering and sieving: Gastric emptying of a liquid meal with water blended in or consumed separately.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camps, Guido; Mars, Monica; de Graaf, Cees; Smeets, Paul A M

    2017-07-01

    The process of gastric emptying determines how fast gastric content is delivered to the small intestine. It has been shown that solids empty slower than liquids and that a blended soup empties slower than the same soup as broth and chunks, due to the liquid fraction emptying more quickly. This process of 'gastric sieving' has not been investigated for liquid foods. To determine whether gastric sieving of water can also occur for liquid foods. Two groups of men participated in a parallel design (n=15, age 22.6±2.4y, BMI 22.6±1.8kg/m 2 , and n=19, age 22.2±2.5y, BMI 21.8±1.5kg/m 2 ) and consumed an isocaloric shake (2093kJ, CARBOHYDRATES: 71g, FAT: 18g, PROTEIN: 34g), either in a 500-mL version (MIXED) or as a 150-mL shake followed by 350mL water (SEPARATE). Participants provided appetite ratings and were scanned using MRI to determine gastric emptying rate and volume at three time-points within 35min post ingestion. Gastric emptying the percentage emptied in 35min was significantly smaller for MIXED (29±19%) than for SEPARATE (57±11%, p<0.001). In the present study we show that gastric sieving can occur for liquid foods; water is able to drain from the stomach while a layer of nutrient rich liquid is retained. In indirect gastric emptying measurements, the behavior of labelling agents may be affected by the layering and confound emptying measurements. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Gastric secretion, proinflammatory cytokines and epidermal growth factor (EGF) in the delayed healing of lingual and gastric ulcerations by testosterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machowska, A; Brzozowski, T; Sliwowski, Z; Pawlik, M; Konturek, P C; Pajdo, R; Szlachcic, A; Drozdowicz, D; Schwarz, M; Stachura, J; Konturek, S J; Pawlik, W W

    2008-02-01

    Hormonal fluctuations are known to predispose ulceration of the upper gastrointestinal tract, but to date no comparative study of their effects on the healing of pre-existing ulcers in the oral cavity and stomach has been made. We studied the effects of depletion of testosterone and of EGF on the healing of acetic acid-induced ulcers using rats having undergone bilateral orchidectomy and/or salivectomy respectively. We measured alterations in gastric acid secretion and blood flow at ulcer margins, as well as plasma levels of testosterone, gastrin and the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1 beta and TNF-alpha. Testosterone (0.01-10 mg/kg/day i. m.) dose-dependently delayed oral and gastric ulcer healing. When applied in an optimal dose of 1 mg/kg/day, this hormone significantly raised gastric acid secretion and plasma IL-1 beta and TNF-alpha levels. Attenuation of plasma testosterone levels via bilateral orchidectomy inhibited gastric acid secretion and accelerated the healing of oral and gastric ulcers, while increasing plasma gastrin levels and these effects were reversed by testosterone. Salivectomy raised plasma testosterone levels, and delayed oral and gastric ulcer healing. Treatment of salivectomised animals with testosterone further inhibited ulcer healing, and this effect was counteracted by EGF. We propose that testosterone delays ulcer healing via a fall in blood flow at the ulcer margin, a rise in plasma levels of IL-1 beta and TNF-alpha and, in the case of gastric ulcers, an increase in gastric acid secretion. EGF released from the salivary glands plays an important role in limitation of the deleterious effects of testosterone on ulcer healing.

  10. Gastric emptying, glucose metabolism and gut hormones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vermeulen, Mechteld A R; Richir, Milan C; Garretsen, Martijn K

    2011-01-01

    To study the gastric-emptying rate and gut hormonal response of two carbohydrate-rich beverages. A specifically designed carbohydrate-rich beverage is currently used to support the surgical patient metabolically. Fruit-based beverages may also promote recovery, due to natural antioxidant and carb......To study the gastric-emptying rate and gut hormonal response of two carbohydrate-rich beverages. A specifically designed carbohydrate-rich beverage is currently used to support the surgical patient metabolically. Fruit-based beverages may also promote recovery, due to natural antioxidant...... and carbohydrate content. However, gastric emptying of fluids is influenced by its nutrient composition; hence, safety of preoperative carbohydrate loading should be confirmed. Because gut hormones link carbohydrate metabolism and gastric emptying, hormonal responses were studied....

  11. Gastric varicella: two cases in cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta María Sastre-Lozano

    Full Text Available Gastric involvement with the varicella-zoster virus is an uncommon clinical condition where early suspicion and diagnosis are important to prevent the consequences deriving from its high morbidity and mortality, which in immunocompromised patients oscillate between 9% and 41% according to the various series. Two cases of gastric involvement with the varicella-zoster virus (VZV in two patients with blood cancer are reported below. Gastric lesions are usually preceded by typical papulovesicular skin lesions. When gastric involvement is the first symptom of the disease its diagnosis and management may be delayed, which may entail severe consequences for immunocompromised patients. It is therefore that we suggest its inclusion in the algorithm for immunocompromised patients with abdominal pain and ulcer-like endoscopic lesions.

  12. Epidermal growth factor receptor structural alterations in gastric cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moutinho, Cátia; Mateus, Ana R; Milanezi, Fernanda; Carneiro, Fátima; Seruca, Raquel; Suriano, Gianpaolo

    2008-01-01

    EGFR overexpression has been described in many human tumours including gastric cancer. In NSCLC patients somatic EGFR mutations, within the kinase domain of the protein, as well as gene amplification were associated with a good clinical response to EGFR inhibitors. In gastric tumours data concerning structural alterations of EGFR remains controversial. Given its possible therapeutic relevance, we aimed to determine the frequency and type of structural alterations of the EGFR gene in a series of primary gastric carcinomas. Direct sequencing of the kinase domain of the EGFR gene was performed in a series of 77 primary gastric carcinomas. FISH analysis was performed in 30 cases. Association studies between EGFR alterations and the clinical pathological features of the tumours were performed. Within the 77 primary gastric carcinomas we found two EGFR somatic mutations and several EGFR polymorphisms in exon 20. Six different intronic sequence variants of EGFR were also found. Four gastric carcinomas showed balanced polysomy or EGFR gene amplification. We verified that gastric carcinoma with alterations of EGFR (somatic mutations or copy number variation) showed a significant increase of tumour size (p = 0.0094) in comparison to wild-type EGFR carcinomas. We demonstrate that EGFR structural alterations are rare in gastric carcinoma, but whenever present, it leads to tumour growth. We considered that searching for EGFR alterations in gastric cancer is likely to be clinically important in order to identify patients susceptible to respond to tyrosine kinase inhibitors

  13. Borrmann type IV adenocarcinoma versus gastric lymphoma : spiral CT evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Bo Kyoung; Kim, Yun Hwan; Shin, Kue Hee; Hong, Suk Joo; Kim, Hong Weon; Park, Cheol Min; Chung, Kyoo Byung; Cho, Hyun Deuk

    1999-01-01

    To distinguish the spiral CT findings of Borrmann type IV adenocarcinoma from those of gastric lymphoma with diffuse gastric wall thickening. We retrospectively reviewed the spiral CT scans of 30 patients with Borrmann type IV adenocarcinoma and nine with gastric lymphoma with diffuse gastric wall thickening. In all patients the respective condition was pathologically confirmed by gastrectomy. CT scanning was performed after peroral administration of 500-700ml of water. A total of 120-140 ml bolus of nonionic contrast material was administered intravenously at a flow rate of 3 ml/sec and two-phase images were obtained at 35-45 sec(early phase) and 180 sec(delayed phase) after the start of bolus injection. Spiral CT was performed with 10mm collimation, 10mm/sec table feed and 10mm reconstruction. We evaluated the degree and homogeneity of enhancement of thickened entire gastric wall, and the enhancement pattern of gastric inner layer, as seen on early-phase CT scans. On early and delayed views, the thickness of gastric wall and the presence of perigastric fat infiltration were determined. The enhancement patterns of gastric inner layer were classified as either continuous or discontinuous thick enhancement, thin enhancement, or nonenhancement. The thickness of gastric wall was 1.2-3.5cm(mean 2.2cm) in cases of adenocarcinoma and 1.2-7.6cm(mean 4cm) in lymphoma. Perigastric fat infiltration was seen in 24 patients with adenocarcinoma(80%) and four with lymphoma(44%). In those with adenocarcinoma, the degree of enhancement of entire gastric wall was hyperdense in fifteen patients(50%) and isointense in eleven (37%). Seven patients with lymphoma(78%)showed hypodensity. In those with adenocarcinoma, continuous thick enhancement of gastric inner layer was seen in 18 patients(60%) and discontinuous thick enhancement in nine(30%). In lymphoma cases, no thick enhancement was observed. Thin enhancement of gastric inner layer was demonstrated in three patients with

  14. Acute effect of gamma irradiation on the gastric mucosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubois, A.; Dorval, E.D.; Rogers, J.E.; O'Connell, L.; Durakovic, A.; Conklin, J.J.

    1984-01-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation on the gastric mucosa has been studied in a primate model by evaluating endoscopically the rate of healing of gastric biopsies. Six male rhesus monkeys were subjected to fiberoptic gastroscopies performed under general anesthesia before and after total body exposure to Cobalt-60 (800 rads). Gastric biopsies were taken 3 hours and 2, 7, and 9 days after irradiation and examined using light microscopy. Gastric biopsies were found to heal in 3 days before irradiation; in contrast, they were still present 7 and 9 days after the biopsies in irradiated animals. Microscopic examination of the biopsies taken outside of the ulcer craters did not demonstrate any significant changes of the gastric surface epithelial cells. These data demonstrate that a gastric ulcer develops at the site of each endoscopic biopsy in irradiated monkeys whereas complete healing is observed in non-irradiated animals. The cause of this observation is unclear but it could be due to radiation induced suppression of the mitotic activity and of the cell renewal of gastric surface epithelial cells

  15. Image processings of radiographs in the gastric cancer cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inamoto, Kazuo; Yamashita, Kazuya; Morikawa, Kaoru; Takigawa, Atsushi

    1987-01-01

    For improving detectability of the gastric lesions in the X-ray examinations, the computer image processing methods were studied in radiographs of a stomach phantom and gastric cancer lesions by the A/D conversion. After several kinds of the basic processing methods were examined in the artificially made lesions in the stomach phantom and true gastric cancer lesions in 26 X-ray pictures of the 8 gastric cancer cases, we concluded that pathological changes on the edge or mucosal folds in the stomach were stressed by the image processing method using negative to positive conversion, density gradient control, edge enhancement (Sobel operation) and subtraction of the Sobel image from the original image. These methods contributed to interpretation of the gastric cancer by enhancement of the contour and mucosal pattern inside the lesion. The results were applied for follow up studies of the gastric cancer. Tumor expansions could be clarified, but it was yet difficult to catch a precancer lesion by retrospective studies. However, these methods would be expected in future application in the mass survey examination of the gastric cancer detection. (author)

  16. Gastric ulcer bleeding: diagnosis by computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voloudaki, Argyro; Tsagaraki, Kaliopi; Mouzas, John; Gourtsoyiannis, Nickolas

    1999-06-01

    A case of CT demonstration of a bleeding gastric ulcer is presented, in a patient with confusing clinical manifestations. Abdominal CT was performed without oral contrast medium administration, and showed extravasation of intravenous contrast into a gastric lumen distended with material of mixed attenuation. It is postulated that if radiopaque oral contrast had been given, peptic ulcer bleeding would probably have been masked. CT demonstration of gastric ulcer bleeding, may be of value in cases of differential diagnostic dilemmas.

  17. Gastric ulcer bleeding: diagnosis by computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voloudaki, Argyro; Tsagaraki, Kaliopi; Mouzas, John; Gourtsoyiannis, Nickolas

    1999-01-01

    A case of CT demonstration of a bleeding gastric ulcer is presented, in a patient with confusing clinical manifestations. Abdominal CT was performed without oral contrast medium administration, and showed extravasation of intravenous contrast into a gastric lumen distended with material of mixed attenuation. It is postulated that if radiopaque oral contrast had been given, peptic ulcer bleeding would probably have been masked. CT demonstration of gastric ulcer bleeding, may be of value in cases of differential diagnostic dilemmas

  18. Managing obstructive gastric volvulus: challenges and solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez-Garcia,Hector; Wright,Andrew; Yates,Robert

    2017-01-01

    Hector Alejandro Rodriguez-Garcia,1 Andrew S Wright,2–4 Robert B Yates1–3 1Department of Surgery, Center for Esophageal and Gastric Surgery, 2Center for Videoendoscopic Surgery, 3Hernia Center, 4Institute for Simulation and Interprofessional Studies, UWMC, University of Washington, Seattle, USA Abstract: Gastric volvulus is the abnormal torsion of the stomach along its short or long axis. Most patients who experience gastric volvulus present with mild or intermittent gastr...

  19. Helicobacter pylori virulence factors in development of gastric carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ming-Yi; Liu, Xiao-Fei; Gao, Xiao-Zhong

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori plays a vital role in the pathogenesis of gastric carcinoma. However, only a relatively small proportion of individuals infected with H. pylori develop gastric carcinoma. Differences in the incidence of gastric carcinoma among infected individuals can be explained, at least partly, by the different genotypes of H. pylori virulence factors. Thus far, many virulence factors of H. pylori, such as Cag PAI, VacA, OMPs and DupA, have been reported to be involved in the development of gastric cancer. The risk of developing gastric cancer during H. pylori infection is affected by specific host-microbe interactions that are independent of H. pylori virulence factors. In this review, we discuss virulence factors of H. pylori and their role in the development of gastric carcinoma that will provide further understanding of the biological interactions of H. pylori with the host.

  20. Gastric volvulus in guinea pigs: comparison with other species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, Emily S; Boivin, Gregory P

    2011-07-01

    Gastric volvulus has been documented in several species of animals and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. We report 2 cases of gastric volvulus in guinea pigs that died without detection of prior clinical signs. Both guinea pigs were adult female guinea pigs in a breeding colony and had given birth to multiple litters; one was pregnant at the time of death. Gastric rotations of 540° and 360° were identified at necropsy examination. These cases include the first known report of gastric rotation greater than 360° in any species. Although gastric volvulus has been reported to occur in guinea pigs, little is known about its risk factors, etiology, and pathogenesis. We conducted a literature review to compare gastric volvulus between guinea pigs and other species. Copyright 2011 by the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science

  1. Gastric Volvulus and Wandering Spleen: A Rare Surgical Emergency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios Lianos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastric volvulus is a rare but potentially life-threatening clinical entity due to possible gastric necrosis. A wandering spleen may also be associated with gastric volvulus. Patients presenting with the triad epigastralgia, vomiting followed by retching, and difficulty or inability to pass a nasogastric tube into the stomach are likely to have gastric volvulus. The operating surgeon should include this rare entity in the differential diagnosis when dealing with a patient with such a clinical profile. Herein, we present a case of gastric volvulus associated with a wandering spleen in a 28-year-old Caucasian woman and we provide a brief review of the literature on this issue.

  2. Pediatric gastric ganglioneuroma presenting as anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrina M. Morgan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Primary gastric masses are rare in childhood, and a gastric ganglioneuroma has not been reported in the pediatric population. In this report, we describe a 12-year-old female who presented with iron deficiency anemia and melena. Endoscopy was performed to elucidate the source of her symptoms, and revealed a gastric mass with overlying ulceration. Following resection and pathologic examination, the mass was diagnosed as a solitary polypoid ganglioneuroma. A solitary polypoid ganglioneuroma is an uncommon, benign tumor of neural crest cell origin. They are most often asymptomatic and found incidentally, but can present with rectal bleeding, obstruction, pain, and changes in bowel function. Complete resection is the therapy of choice to prevent progression of symptoms or rare transformation into a malignant neuroblastic tumor, like neuroblastoma. As of the patient's last post-operative appointment, she was healthy with resolution of her anemia. Keywords: Ganglioneuroma, Pediatric, Gastric mass, Anemia, Neuroblastic tumor

  3. Noncoding Genomics in Gastric Cancer and the Gastric Precancerous Cascade: Pathogenesis and Biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Sandoval-Bórquez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastric cancer is the fifth most common cancer and the third leading cause of cancer-related death, whose patterns vary among geographical regions and ethnicities. It is a multifactorial disease, and its development depends on infection by Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV, host genetic factors, and environmental factors. The heterogeneity of the disease has begun to be unraveled by a comprehensive mutational evaluation of primary tumors. The low-abundance of mutations suggests that other mechanisms participate in the evolution of the disease, such as those found through analyses of noncoding genomics. Noncoding genomics includes single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, regulation of gene expression through DNA methylation of promoter sites, miRNAs, other noncoding RNAs in regulatory regions, and other topics. These processes and molecules ultimately control gene expression. Potential biomarkers are appearing from analyses of noncoding genomics. This review focuses on noncoding genomics and potential biomarkers in the context of gastric cancer and the gastric precancerous cascade.

  4. Condensed images for evaluating gastric motility patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatsch, K.; Schroettle, W.; Kirsch, C.-M. (Munich Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Dept. of Radiology)

    1991-04-01

    A condensed imaging technique was applied to gastric emptying studies to investigate (a) whether different types of motility disorders may be distinguished by characteristic image patterns and (b) whether the findings obtained provide additional information compared to standard quantitative measurements. Condensed images and quantitative data of gastric emptying were evaluated in 75 consecutive patients with normal function and various disorders such as peptic ulcer, postvagotomy, pyloric obstruction, dumping syndrome, gastoparesis etc. Condensed images were generated from a gastric region of interest. They display the distribution and behaviour of a radioactive test meal in a space-time matrix, whose horizontal and vertical dimensions are temporal and spatial, respectively. As shown in a series of representative examples condensed images disclose a variety of well-defined image patterns reflecting different pathophysiological mechanisms. This qualitative characterization of gastric emptying patterns provided in 34 of the 75 patients (45%) important new information compared to quantitative data. The application of condensed imaging techniques to gastric emptying studies (complementary to quantitative measurements) may, therefore, enhance the diagnostic value of scintigraphic techniques. (author).

  5. Analysis in measurements of gastric emptying time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Choon Ho; Lee, Man Koo

    1997-01-01

    Scintigraphic measurement of gastric emptying time has been reported to be influenced by the variation in depth of radionuclide within the stomach. This study was designed to clarify whether a part of the variability in gastric emptying could be ascribed to a relationship between anterior image, the total anteroposterior image and the tissue attenuation correction(geometric mean). A dual-head scintillation camera(ADAC, USA) was used to investigate effect of such changes. We were performed 16 normal subject gastric emptying studies with 99 mTC labelled scramble egg, milk and solid meal(610 Kcal, 300 g). The results are as follows; On anterior image, T 1/2 emptying time was delayed by 5 min, 6.5%(range : 3 ∼ 18 min, 5∼31.4%) compared with the geometric mean. But there was no different gastric emptying time between the total anteroposterior image and geometric mean. Therefore, if will be useful to use the method of geometric mean or the total anteroposterior image to evaluate the gastric emptying time accurately

  6. Analysis in measurements of gastric emptying time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Choon Ho [College of Medicine, Wonkwang Univ., Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Man Koo [Wonkwang Health Science College, Iksan (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-02-01

    Scintigraphic measurement of gastric emptying time has been reported to be influenced by the variation in depth of radionuclide within the stomach. This study was designed to clarify whether a part of the variability in gastric emptying could be ascribed to a relationship between anterior image, the total anteroposterior image and the tissue attenuation correction(geometric mean). A dual-head scintillation camera(ADAC, USA) was used to investigate effect of such changes. We were performed 16 normal subject gastric emptying studies with {sup 99}mTC labelled scramble egg, milk and solid meal(610 Kcal, 300 g). The results are as follows; On anterior image, T{sub 1/2} emptying time was delayed by 5 min, 6.5%(range : 3 {approx} 18 min, 5{approx}31.4%) compared with the geometric mean. But there was no different gastric emptying time between the total anteroposterior image and geometric mean. Therefore, if will be useful to use the method of geometric mean or the total anteroposterior image to evaluate the gastric emptying time accurately.

  7. Sox2 Suppresses Gastric Tumorigenesis in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abby Sarkar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Sox2 expression marks gastric stem and progenitor cells, raising important questions regarding the genes regulated by Sox2 and the role of Sox2 itself during stomach homeostasis and disease. By using ChIP-seq analysis, we have found that the majority of Sox2 targets in gastric epithelial cells are tissue specific and related to functions such as endoderm development, Wnt signaling, and gastric cancer. Unexpectedly, we found that Sox2 itself is dispensable for gastric stem cell and epithelial self-renewal, yet Sox2+ cells are highly susceptible to tumorigenesis in an Apc/Wnt-driven mouse model. Moreover, Sox2 loss enhances, rather than impairs, tumor formation in Apc-deficient gastric cells in vivo and in vitro by inducing Tcf/Lef-dependent transcription and upregulating intestinal metaplasia-associated genes, providing a mechanistic basis for the observed phenotype. Together, these data identify Sox2 as a context-dependent tumor suppressor protein that is dispensable for normal tissue regeneration but restrains stomach adenoma formation through modulation of Wnt-responsive and intestinal genes.

  8. Expression of the EGF Family in Gastric Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Trine Ostergaard; Friis-Hansen, Lennart; Poulsen, Steen Seier

    2014-01-01

    Gastric cancer is a major cause of cancer-related deaths in both men and women. The epidermal growth factor receptors are EGFR, HER2, HER3 and HER4. Of the four epidermal growth factor receptors, EGFR and HER2 are well-known oncogenes involved in gastric cancer. Little, however, is known about...... the role played by HER3 and HER4 in this disease. We obtained paired samples from the tumor and the adjacent normal tissue from the same patient undergoing surgery for gastric cancer. Using RT-qPCR, we quantified the mRNA expression of the four receptors including the HER4 splicing isoforms and all....... These results support the involvement of EGFR and HER2 in gastric cancer and suggest an interesting association of reduced HER4 expression with development of gastric cancer....

  9. Gastric microbial community profiling reveals a dysbiotic cancer-associated microbiota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira-Marques, Joana; Pinto-Ribeiro, Ines; Costa, Jose L; Carneiro, Fatima; Machado, Jose C

    2018-01-01

    Objective Gastric carcinoma development is triggered by Helicobacter pylori. Chronic H. pylori infection leads to reduced acid secretion, which may allow the growth of a different gastric bacterial community. This change in the microbiome may increase aggression to the gastric mucosa and contribute to malignancy. Our aim was to evaluate the composition of the gastric microbiota in chronic gastritis and in gastric carcinoma. Design The gastric microbiota was retrospectively investigated in 54 patients with gastric carcinoma and 81 patients with chronic gastritis by 16S rRNA gene profiling, using next-generation sequencing. Differences in microbial composition of the two patient groups were assessed using linear discriminant analysis effect size. Associations between the most relevant taxa and clinical diagnosis were validated by real-time quantitative PCR. Predictive functional profiling of microbial communities was obtained with PICRUSt. Results The gastric carcinoma microbiota was characterised by reduced microbial diversity, by decreased abundance of Helicobacter and by the enrichment of other bacterial genera, mostly represented by intestinal commensals. The combination of these taxa into a microbial dysbiosis index revealed that dysbiosis has excellent capacity to discriminate between gastritis and gastric carcinoma. Analysis of the functional features of the microbiota was compatible with the presence of a nitrosating microbial community in carcinoma. The major observations were confirmed in validation cohorts from different geographic origins. Conclusions Detailed analysis of the gastric microbiota revealed for the first time that patients with gastric carcinoma exhibit a dysbiotic microbial community with genotoxic potential, which is distinct from that of patients with chronic gastritis. PMID:29102920

  10. Gastric Reflux on Routine Tc-99m DISIDA hepatobiliary Scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kang Wook; Lee, Heon Young [Chungnam National University College of Medicine, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-06-15

    Reflux of bile and digestive enzymes from the small bowel and duodenum into stomach has been observed in patients with various gastroduodenal diseases. Tc-99m iminodiacetic acid derivatives hepatobiliary scan has been used as a noninvasive method to detect duodenogastric reflux. Sometimes, gastric reflux can be observed incidentally on routine Tc-99m DISA hepatobiliary scintigraphy. To evaluate the clinical meaning of gastric reflux on routine Tc-99m DISIDA hepatobiliary scan, we analyzed 36 patients showed gastric reflux incidentally on the routine Tc-99m-DISIDA hepatobiliary scintigraphy from December 1991 to June 1995 in Chungnam National University Hospital. The results were as follows: 1) The gastric reflux was observed in 2.3% of 1,553 cases of routine Tc-99m DISIDA Hepatobiliary scintigraphy for 43 months. 2) Nineteen percent of patients with gastric reflux had the past medical history of operations on stomach or biliary system. And that history was more prevalent in patients with reflux than those without reflux, significantly (p<0.01). 3) On fiberoptic gastroduodenpscopic examination, 87% of the patients with gastric reflux had the gastroduodenal diseases such as gastritis, gastric ulcer, duodenal ulcer, gastric cancer, duodenal cancer and ampullary diverticulosis. We thought that the gastric reflux can be observed considerably in patients without any operation history on stomach or duodenum, although the operation history is more prevalent in patients with gastric reflux than those without reflux, significantly and most of patients with gastric reflux on routine Tc-99m DISIDA scan has various gastroduodenal diseases.

  11. Gastric Reflux on Routine Tc-99m DISIDA hepatobiliary Scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kang Wook; Lee, Heon Young

    1995-01-01

    Reflux of bile and digestive enzymes from the small bowel and duodenum into stomach has been observed in patients with various gastroduodenal diseases. Tc-99m iminodiacetic acid derivatives hepatobiliary scan has been used as a noninvasive method to detect duodenogastric reflux. Sometimes, gastric reflux can be observed incidentally on routine Tc-99m DISA hepatobiliary scintigraphy. To evaluate the clinical meaning of gastric reflux on routine Tc-99m DISIDA hepatobiliary scan, we analyzed 36 patients showed gastric reflux incidentally on the routine Tc-99m-DISIDA hepatobiliary scintigraphy from December 1991 to June 1995 in Chungnam National University Hospital. The results were as follows: 1) The gastric reflux was observed in 2.3% of 1,553 cases of routine Tc-99m DISIDA Hepatobiliary scintigraphy for 43 months. 2) Nineteen percent of patients with gastric reflux had the past medical history of operations on stomach or biliary system. And that history was more prevalent in patients with reflux than those without reflux, significantly (p<0.01). 3) On fiberoptic gastroduodenpscopic examination, 87% of the patients with gastric reflux had the gastroduodenal diseases such as gastritis, gastric ulcer, duodenal ulcer, gastric cancer, duodenal cancer and ampullary diverticulosis. We thought that the gastric reflux can be observed considerably in patients without any operation history on stomach or duodenum, although the operation history is more prevalent in patients with gastric reflux than those without reflux, significantly and most of patients with gastric reflux on routine Tc-99m DISIDA scan has various gastroduodenal diseases.

  12. MST4 kinase phosphorylates ACAP4 protein to orchestrate apical membrane remodeling during gastric acid secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xiao; Yao, Phil Y; Jiang, Jiying; Zhang, Yin; Su, Zeqi; Yao, Wendy; Wang, Xueying; Gui, Ping; Mullen, McKay; Henry, Calmour; Ward, Tarsha; Wang, Wenwen; Brako, Larry; Tian, Ruijun; Zhao, Xuannv; Wang, Fengsong; Cao, Xinwang; Wang, Dongmei; Liu, Xing; Ding, Xia; Yao, Xuebiao

    2017-09-29

    Digestion in the stomach depends on acidification of the lumen. Histamine-elicited acid secretion is triggered by activation of the PKA cascade, which ultimately results in the insertion of gastric H,K-ATPases into the apical plasma membranes of parietal cells. Our recent study revealed the functional role of PKA-MST4-ezrin signaling axis in histamine-elicited acid secretion. However, it remains uncharacterized how the PKA-MST4-ezrin signaling axis operates the insertion of H,K-ATPases into the apical plasma membranes of gastric parietal cells. Here we show that MST4 phosphorylates ACAP4, an ARF6 GTPase-activating protein, at Thr 545 Histamine stimulation activates MST4 and promotes MST4 interaction with ACAP4. ACAP4 physically interacts with MST4 and is a cognate substrate of MST4 during parietal cell activation. The phosphorylation site of ACAP4 by MST4 was mapped to Thr 545 by mass spectrometric analyses. Importantly, phosphorylation of Thr 545 is essential for acid secretion in parietal cells because either suppression of ACAP4 or overexpression of non-phosphorylatable ACAP4 prevents the apical membrane reorganization and proton pump translocation elicited by histamine stimulation. In addition, persistent overexpression of MST4 phosphorylation-deficient ACAP4 results in inhibition of gastric acid secretion and blockage of tubulovesicle fusion to the apical membranes. Significantly, phosphorylation of Thr 545 enables ACAP4 to interact with ezrin. Given the location of Thr 545 between the GTPase-activating protein domain and the first ankyrin repeat, we reason that MST4 phosphorylation elicits a conformational change that enables ezrin-ACAP4 interaction. Taken together, these results define a novel molecular mechanism linking the PKA-MST4-ACAP4 signaling cascade to polarized acid secretion in gastric parietal cells. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  13. Experimental Study on Gastric Juice Secretion by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    管理平台

    2012-05-29

    May 29, 2012 ... Study on stomach physiological functions by ... mechanism of regulating gastric electrical activity and gastric juice secretion might become true by the .... samples was used in comparism among these different groups.

  14. Helicobacter pylori dupA and gastric acid secretion are negatively associated with gastric cancer development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imagawa, Shinobu; Ito, Masanori; Yoshihara, Masaharu; Eguchi, Hidetaka; Tanaka, Shinji; Chayama, Kazuaki

    2010-12-01

    Few reports have described the cancer prevalence of peptic ulcer patients with long-term follow-up studies. We have conducted a long-term retrospective cohort study of Japanese peptic ulcer patients and evaluated the risk factors for the occurrence of gastric cancer (GCa). A total of 136 patients diagnosed with peptic ulcers from 1975 to 1983 were enrolled. These 136 cases [102 males and 34 females; 69 gastric ulcer (GU) and 67 duodenal ulcer (DU) patients at the time of enrollment; mean follow-up period of 14.4 years (range 1-30 years)] after being matched with a tumour registry database in Hiroshima prefecture were surveyed for GCa. We investigated Helicobacter pylori duodenal ulcer promoter gene A (dupA) using paraffin-embedded gastric biopsy specimens in 56 cases. Gastric acid secretion and basal acid output (BAO) in 40 cases, and maximal acid output in 68 cases, had been measured at first diagnosis of peptic ulcers. GCa was detected in 24 patients (17 with GU, 7 with DU) during the follow-up. The prevalence of GCa was significantly higher in GU patients than in DU patients (log-rank test PdupA-positive H. pylori was detected not only in DU patients (9/20) but also in GU patients (9/36). Gastric acid output was significantly larger in quantity in patients with dupA-positive H. pylori than in those with dupA-negative H. pylori (PdupA-positive H. pylori and a high BAO level (log-rank test PdupA-positive H. pylori were negatively associated with GCa.

  15. A clinicopathological study of asymptomatic gastric cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Matsukuma, A.; Furusawa, M.; Tomoda, H.; Seo, Y.

    1996-01-01

    The clinicopathological profiles of 419 patients with asymptomatic gastric cancer (AGC) first detected by gastric screening, were reviewed and compared with those of the 1727 patients with symptomatic gastric cancer (SGC). The incidence of AGC increased gradually and has amounted to 30% of the total resected cases in recent years. About 75% of AGC cases were of early cancer and 84% were negative for lymph node metastases. In contrast, only 33% of SGC cases were of early cancer and 57% were no...

  16. A naturally derived gastric cancer cell line shows latency I Epstein-Barr virus infection closely resembling EBV-associated gastric cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Sang Taek; Seo, Jung Seon; Moon, Uk Yeol; Kang, Kyeong Hee; Shin, Dong-Jik; Yoon, Sungjoo Kim; Kim, Woo Ho; Park, Jae-Gahb; Lee, Suk Kyeong

    2004-01-01

    In a process seeking out a good model cell line for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated gastric cancer, we found that one previously established gastric adenocarcinoma cell line is infected with type 1 EBV. This SNU-719 cell line from a Korean patient expressed cytokeratin without CD19 or CD21 expression. In SNU-719, EBNA1 and LMP2A were expressed, while LMP1 and EBNA2 were not. None of the tested lytic EBV proteins were detected in this cell line unless stimulated with phorbol ester. EBV infection was also shown in the original carcinoma tissue of SNU-719 cell line. Our results support the possibility of a CD21-independent EBV infection of gastric epithelial cells in vivo. As the latent EBV gene expression pattern of SNU-719 closely resembles that of the EBV-associated gastric cancer, this naturally derived cell line may serve as a valuable model system to clarify the precise role of EBV in gastric carcinogenesis

  17. Gastric Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastric (stomach) cancer treatment can include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, chemoradiation, and targeted therapy. Learn more about the diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of newly diagnosed and recurrent gastric cancer in this expert-reviewed summary.

  18. [An intractable gastric cancer showing an extremely effective response to immunochemotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takashima, S; Komaki, H; Yokota, H; Kiriyama, M; Kinami, Y

    1988-07-01

    Reported herein is the case of a terminal patient with advanced gastric cancer who was shown an extremely effective response to immunochemotherapy. The patient, a 62-year-old female, was determined as having a gastric cancer, Borr. type 2, originating in the pyloric antrum. The tumor was found to be H3P3S2N2 (stage IV), and its histology revealed a mucus-producing papillary adeno-carcinoma, ss gamma, n(+), ly2, and V1. Thus the patient underwent a distal gastrectomy, and was given an operative administration of MMC, followed by postoperative immunochemotherapy with FT 207 and OK 432. Consequently, no ascites were noticed throughout the recuperative course, and repeated CT scannings of the hepatic metastatic lesions, revealed a remarkable regression. Two years after this operation, she resumed normal daily life. Further, her preoperatively elevated tumor markers have returned to normal.

  19. Gastric ulceration in dog: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. D. Parrah

    Full Text Available The common acid related diseases of the upper gastrointestinal tract could be considered as primarily due to the defect in barrier function either of the gastric mucosal or duodenal epithelium leading to the formation of gastric or duodenal ulcers. An attempt was made in this review to discuss the classification, pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment of gastric ulcer in dogs. Early surgical advances in the management of peptic ulcers are emphasized that were then subsequently replaced by pharmacological treatment (histamine H2-receptor antagonists, proton pump inhibitors and considered as the major strategy against the acid disorders. [Vet World 2013; 6(7.000: 449-454

  20. Diagnosis and Management of High Risk Group for Gastric Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Hyuk; Kim, Nayoung

    2015-01-01

    Gastric cancer is associated with high morbidity and mortality worldwide. To reduce the socioeconomic burden related to gastric cancer, it is very important to identify and manage high risk group for gastric cancer. In this review, we describe the general risk factors for gastric cancer and define high risk group for gastric cancer. We discuss strategies for the effective management of patients for the prevention and early detection of gastric cancer. Atrophic gastritis (AG) and intestinal metaplasia (IM) are the most significant risk factors for gastric cancer. Therefore, the accurate selection of individuals with AG and IM may be a key strategy for the prevention and/or early detection of gastric cancer. Although endoscopic evaluation using enhanced technologies such as narrow band imaging-magnification, the serum pepsinogen test, Helicobacter pylori serology, and trefoil factor 3 have been evaluated, a gold standard method to accurately select individuals with AG and IM has not emerged. In terms of managing patients at high risk of gastric cancer, it remains uncertain whether H. pylori eradication reverses and/or prevents the progression of AG and IM. Although endoscopic surveillance in high risk patients is expected to be beneficial, further prospective studies in large populations are needed to determine the optimal surveillance interval. PMID:25547086

  1. Gastric Glomus Tumor: A Rare Cause of Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshinori Handa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 24-year-old woman was referred to our department because of melena. These symptoms combined with severe anemia prompted us to perform an emergency upper endoscopy, which showed bleeding from an ulcerated 30 mm submucosal tumor in the gastric antrum. A computed tomography scan revealed a homogeneously enhanced mass, and endoscopic ultrasonography identified a well-demarcated mass in the third and fourth layers of the gastric wall. Because analysis of the possible medical causes remained inconclusive and the risk of rebleeding, laparoscopy-assisted gastric wedge resection was performed after administration of 10 units of red cell concentrate. Histological and immunohistological analysis revealed the tumor to be a gastric glomus tumor. Gastric submucosal tumors remain challenging to diagnose preoperatively as they show a variety of radiologic and clinicopathologic features and are associated with the risk of bleeding upon biopsy, as is indicated in the guidelines for gastric submucosal tumors. Gastric glomus tumors characteristically present with exsanguinating gastrointestinal hemorrhaging that often requires blood transfusion. Additionally, gastric submucosal tumors typically occur in elderly patients; however, this case involved a young patient who was 24 years old. Here, we describe this case in order to identify features that may aid in early differentiation of gastric submucosal tumors.

  2. Gastric Emptying in Patients with Diabetes: Gastric Emptying Time, Retention Rate and Effect of Cisapride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Byung Chun; Choi, Chung Il; Gwak, Dong Suck; Lee, Jae Tae; Lee, Kyu Bo; Kim, Bo Wan; Chung, Jun Mo

    1992-01-01

    Gastic emptying scan in diabetic patients is widely used to assess the degree of motility disturbance and the symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, bloating, abdominal pain and early gastric fullness which we can't find anatomic lesion by fiberoscopic or barium study. In order to determine the relationship among diabetic gastropathy, neropathy, retinopathy and disease duration, gastric emptying scan using 99m Tc-tin colloid labeled scramble egg in hamburger was performed in 10 healthy male controls and 50 diabetic patients which were subdivided to no neuropathy, peripheral neuropathy and autonomic neuropathy groups according to the degree of diabetic neuropathy and no retinopathy, background retinopathy and proliferative retinopathy groups according to the degree of diabetic retinopathy. After medication of cisapride for 2 weeks, we observed the presence of improvement of gastric motility in diabetics. The results were as following: 1) In controls, gastric emptying time (GET1/2) was 75 ± 13.6 min and 2 hour gastric retension rate(GRR2) was 32 ± 11.1%. 2) In diabetics, GET/2 was prolonged more than 2 hours and GRR2 was 58 ± 23.1%. According to degree of neuropathy, GET1/2 was prolonged more than 2 hours in all three groups and GRR2 was 54± 24.1% in no neuropathy group, 57 ± 24.3% in peripheral neuropathy group and 69 ± 24.6% in autonomic neuropathy group. According to degree of retinopathy, GET1/2 was 110 ± 23.4 min in no retinopathy group and prolonged more than 2 hours in other two groups and GRR2 was 45 ± 21.6% in no retinopathy group, 71 ± 19.7% in background retinopathy group and 73 ± 21.5% in proliferative retinopathy group. 3) After cisapride for 2 weeks, GET1/2 and GRR2 were improved as 90 ± 14.6 min and 40 ± 13.8% (initial GET1/2 and GRR2 were above 2 hours and 61 ± 15.4%). We can conclude from above findings that gastropathy in diabetic neuropathy suggesting main underlying factor in motility disorder. The degree of retinopathy and disease

  3. Gastric Emptying in Patients with Diabetes: Gastric Emptying Time, Retention Rate and Effect of Cisapride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Byung Chun; Choi, Chung Il; Gwak, Dong Suck; Lee, Jae Tae; Lee, Kyu Bo; Kim, Bo Wan; Chung, Jun Mo [Kyungpook National University School of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    1992-07-15

    Gastic emptying scan in diabetic patients is widely used to assess the degree of motility disturbance and the symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, bloating, abdominal pain and early gastric fullness which we can't find anatomic lesion by fiberoscopic or barium study. In order to determine the relationship among diabetic gastropathy, neropathy, retinopathy and disease duration, gastric emptying scan using {sup 99m}Tc-tin colloid labeled scramble egg in hamburger was performed in 10 healthy male controls and 50 diabetic patients which were subdivided to no neuropathy, peripheral neuropathy and autonomic neuropathy groups according to the degree of diabetic neuropathy and no retinopathy, background retinopathy and proliferative retinopathy groups according to the degree of diabetic retinopathy. After medication of cisapride for 2 weeks, we observed the presence of improvement of gastric motility in diabetics. The results were as following: 1) In controls, gastric emptying time (GET1/2) was 75 +- 13.6 min and 2 hour gastric retension rate(GRR2) was 32 +- 11.1%. 2) In diabetics, GET/2 was prolonged more than 2 hours and GRR2 was 58 +- 23.1%. According to degree of neuropathy, GET1/2 was prolonged more than 2 hours in all three groups and GRR2 was 54+- 24.1% in no neuropathy group, 57 +- 24.3% in peripheral neuropathy group and 69 +- 24.6% in autonomic neuropathy group. According to degree of retinopathy, GET1/2 was 110 +- 23.4 min in no retinopathy group and prolonged more than 2 hours in other two groups and GRR2 was 45 +- 21.6% in no retinopathy group, 71 +- 19.7% in background retinopathy group and 73 +- 21.5% in proliferative retinopathy group. 3) After cisapride for 2 weeks, GET1/2 and GRR2 were improved as 90 +- 14.6 min and 40 +- 13.8% (initial GET1/2 and GRR2 were above 2 hours and 61 +- 15.4%). We can conclude from above findings that gastropathy in diabetic neuropathy suggesting main underlying factor in motility disorder. The degree of retinopathy and

  4. Chronic gastric instability and presumed incomplete volvulus in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, J K; Yool, D A; Reed, N; Ridyard, A E; Chandler, M L; Simpson, J W

    2011-12-01

    Chronic gastric volvulus in dogs results in long-standing gastrointestinal signs unlike those of acute gastric dilatation and volvulus. This report describes chronic gastric volvulus in seven dogs. The majority of dogs presented with weight loss, chronic vomiting, lethargy and abdominal pain. A combination of radiographic, ultrasonographic and endoscopic imaging indicated altered positioning of gastric landmarks. Dynamic changes were identified in some cases. Exploratory coeliotomy and surgical gastropexy were performed in all dogs. Clinical signs improved or resolved in six of seven dogs postoperatively. Chronic gastric volvulus is an uncommon condition in dogs, but should be considered as a differential in cases presenting with the above clinical signs. © 2011 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  5. Targeting BRCAness in Gastric Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-16-1-0470 TITLE: Targeting BRCAness in Gastric Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Yelena Janjigian CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION...Sloan-Kettering Institute for Cancer Research New York, NY 10065 REPORT DATE: October 2017 TYPE OF REPORT: Annual PREPARED FOR: U.S. Army Medical...Targeting BRCAness in Gastric Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-16-1-0473 (Ashworth) 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Eric Collisson, David

  6. Demonstration of persistent contamination of a cooked egg product production facility with Salmonella enterica serovar Tennessee and characterization of the persistent strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakočiūnė, D; Bisgaard, M; Pedersen, K; Olsen, J E

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether continuous contamination of light pasteurized egg products with Salmonella enterica serovar Tennessee (S. Tennessee) at a large European producer of industrial egg products was caused by persistent contamination of the production facility and to characterize the persistent strains. Seventy-three S. Tennessee isolates collected from products over a 3-year period with intermittent contamination, and 15 control strains were compared by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) using two enzymes. Forty-five case isolates distributed throughout the full period were shown to belong to one profile type. Isolates representing different PFGE profiles were all assigned to ST 319 by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). The case isolates did not show a higher ability to form biofilm on a plastic surface than noncase isolates. Characteristically, members of the persistent clone were weak producers of H2 S in laboratory medium. S. Tennessee isolated from the case was able to grow better in pasteurized egg product compared with other serovars investigated. It was concluded that the contamination was caused by a persistent strain in the production facility and that this strain apparently had adapted to grow in the relevant egg product. S. Tennessee has previously been associated with persistence in hatching facilities. This is the first report of persistent contamination of an egg production facility with this serovar. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  7. Molecular and pro-inflammatory genetic profile in gastric carcinomas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sitarz, R.

    2009-01-01

    Gastric cancer is a result from the combination of environmental factors and an accumulation of specific genetic alterations, and affects mainly the older population. It is known that genetic factors play a more important role in early onset gastric cancers than in conventional gastric cancer

  8. Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Screening (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    For stomach (gastric) cancer, there is no standard or routine screening test for the general U.S. population. Review the evidence on the benefits and harms of screening for gastric cancer using barium-meal photofluorography, gastric endoscopy, or serum pepsinogen in this expert-reviewed summary.

  9. Testing Placement of Gastric Feeding Tubes in Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metheny, Norma A; Pawluszka, Ann; Lulic, Melanie; Hinyard, Leslie J; Meert, Kathleen L

    2017-11-01

    Inadvertent positioning of a nasogastric tube in the lung can cause serious complications, so identifying methods to detect improperly inserted tubes is imperative. To compare the sensitivity, specificity, and negative and positive predictive values of 4 pH cut points (< 4.0, < 4.5, < 5.0, and < 5.5) in differentiating gastric and tracheal aspirates under various treatment conditions and to explore the utility of a pepsin assay for distinguishing between gastric and tracheal aspirates. Gastric and tracheal aspirates were collected from critically ill infants undergoing mechanical ventilation who had nasogastric or orogastric feeding tubes. Aspirates were tested with colorimetric pH indicators and a rapid pepsin assay. Information about treatment conditions was obtained from medical records. Two hundred twelve gastric aspirates and 60 tracheal aspirates were collected from 212 patients. Sensitivity was highest and specificity was lowest at the gastric aspirate pH cut point of less than 5.5. Positive predictive values were 100% at all pH cut points less than 5.0. Negative predictive values were higher at the pH cut point of less than 5.0 than at cut points less than 4.5. A higher percentage of pepsin-positive readings was found in gastric aspirates (88.3%) than in tracheal aspirates (5.4%). For a desired positive predictive value of 100%, a pH cut point of less than 5.0 provides the best negative predictive values, regardless of gastric acid inhibitor administration and feeding status. The pepsin assay is promising as an additional marker to distinguish gastric from tracheal aspirates. ©2017 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

  10. and Gastric Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebahattin Celik

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To examine the relationship between esophageal and gastric cancers commonly seen in Van Lake region and the traditional eating habits of the geography. Materials and Methods. Esophageal and gastric cancer cases, who underwent surgery between January 1, 2012, and December 31, 2013, were examined. Pathology reports of the patients and presence of Helicobacter pylori (HP were recorded. Surveys were filled by face to face meeting or telephone call. Control group was created with randomly selected individuals without any cancer diagnosis having age, gender, and socioeconomic characteristics similar to patient group. All data were analyzed using SAS.9.3 statistical programme. Results. Compared with the control group, herby cheese consumption (a component of eating habits and smoking were significantly higher in the patient group (P<0.001. Tandoor exposure is compared in terms of female gender, and significant difference was found between the groups (P=0.0013. As a result of the analysis with logistic regression more than 150 gr of herby cheese consumption per day was found to increase the cancer risk (odds ratio 1.017; 95% CI: 1.012–1.022. Conclusion. A high consumption of herby cheese, cooking bread on tandoor, and heavy smoking were seen to be important risk factors for esophageal and gastric cancers.

  11. The application of nanoparticles in diagnosis and theranostics of gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rutian; Liu, Baorui; Gao, Jiahui

    2017-02-01

    Gastric cancer is the fourth most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer related death worldwide. For the diagnosis of gastric cancer, apart from regular systemic imaging, the locoregional imaging is also of great importance. Moreover, there are still other ways for the detecting of gastric cancer, including the early detection of gastric cancer by endoscopy, the detection of gastric-cancer related biomarkers and the detection of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) of gastric cancer. However, conventional diagnostic methods are usually lack of specificity and sensitivity. Nanoparticles provide many benefits in the diagnosis of gastric cancer. Besides, nanoparticles are capable of integrating the functions of diagnosis and treatment together (theranostics). In this paper, we reviewed the applications of nanoparticles in diagnosis and theranostics of gastric cancer in the above mentioned aspects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Fasting does not induce gastric emptying in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Marcus Vinicius Henriques; Yasojima, Edson Yuzur; Teixeira, Renan Kleber Costa; Houat, Abdallah de Paula; Yamaki, Vitor Nagai; Costa, Felipe Lobato da Silva

    2015-03-01

    To evaluate the effect of fasting on gastric emptying in mice. Twenty-eight mice were distributed into three study groups: a normal group (N=4): normal standard animals; a total fasting group (N=12): subjected to food and water deprivation and a partial fasting group (N=12): subjected to food deprivation only. The fasting groups were subdivided into three subgroups of four animals each, according to the date of euthanasia: 24, 48 and 72 hours. Was analyzed: the gastric volume, degree of the gastric wall distention and the presence of food debris in gastrointestinal tract. The mean gastric volume was 1601 mm3 in the normal group, 847 mm3 in total fasting group and 997 mm3 in partial fasting group. There was difference between the fasting groups in any analyzed period (pfasting (p>0.05). Total fasting or only-solids deprivation does not induce gastric emptying in mice.

  13. Gastric emptying of 99mTc tagged solid food in gastric and duodenal ulceration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engler-Pinto Junior, Paulo; Gama-Rodrigues, Joaquim; Lopasso, Fabio P.; Cordeiro, Anoi C.; Pinotti, Henrique W.

    1995-01-01

    This study is to analyze gastric emptying (GE) of 99m Tc tagged solid meals in 43 gastric ulcer (GU), 16 duodenal ulcer (DU) patients, and 15 normal subjects. Diagnosis of active ulcers had been made through high gastrointestinal endoscopy. The patients with GU were divided in three groups according to Johnson's classification. Gastric contents were measured at 15 minutes intervals over a period of 150 minutes, with the person standing in front of a gamma-counter. The ge curve was obtained from the mean percentile of radioactive of all the groups measured at 15 minutes intervals. results were submitted to statistical analysis. Significant delay in GE in DU patients compared to normals, type II and type III group. However, GE of type I GU was not statistically different from the DU group nor of types II and III, occupying an intermediate e position. (author)

  14. Accelerated Gastric Emptying but No Carbohydrate Malabsorption 1 Year After Gastric Bypass Surgery (GBP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gary; Agenor, Keesandra; Pizot, Justine; Kotler, Donald P.; Harel, Yaniv; Van Der Schueren, Bart J.; Quercia, Iliana; McGinty, James

    2013-01-01

    Background Following gastric bypass surgery (GBP), there is a post-prandial rise of incretin and satiety gut peptides. The mechanisms of enhanced incretin release in response to nutrients after GBP is not elucidated and may be in relation to altered nutrient transit time and/or malabsorption. Methods Seven morbidly obese subjects (BMI=44.5±2.8 kg/m2) were studied before and 1 year after GBP with a d-xylose test. After ingestion of 25 g of d-xylose in 200 mL of non-carbonated water, blood samples were collected at frequent time intervals to determine gastric emptying (time to appearance of d-xylose) and carbohydrate absorption using standard criteria. Results One year after GBP, subjects lost 45.0±9.7 kg and had a BMI of 27.1±4.7 kg/m2. Gastric emptying was more rapid after GBP. The mean time to appearance of d-xylose in serum decreased from 18.6±6.9 min prior to GBP to 7.9±2.7 min after GBP (p=0.006). There was no significant difference in absorption before (serum d-xylose concentrations=35.6±12.6 mg/dL at 60 min and 33.9±9.1 mg/dL at 180 min) or 1 year after GBP (serum d-xylose=31.5± 18.1 mg/dL at 60 min and 27.2±11.9 mg/dL at 180 min). Conclusions These data confirm the acceleration of gastric emptying for liquid and the absence of carbohydrate malabsorption 1 year after GBP. Rapid gastric emptying may play a role in incretin response after GBP and the resulting improved glucose homeostasis. PMID:22527599

  15. Diaphragmatic eventration complicated by gastric volvulus with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eventration; perforation of the stomach in gastric volvulus is rare, with very few cases reported in the .... it was a chronic volvulus and manifested owing to gastric ulcer perforation. ... without strangulation. Management in such cases without.

  16. Intrathoracic Gastric Volvulus presenting with GIT Bleed

    OpenAIRE

    Rahul Kadam; VSV Prasad

    2017-01-01

    Intrathoracic gastric volvulus in neonatal period is a life-threatening surgical emergency. We report a case of neonate with respiratory distress and GI bleeding who was diagnosed to have congenital diaphragmatic eventration with Intrathoracic gastric volvulus.

  17. Independent occurence of gastric tumor and intestinal metaplasia by x-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Hiromitsu; Ito, Akihiro

    1986-01-01

    The selective occurence of gastric tumors and intestinal metaplasias in the stomach by X-irradiation were described both in mice and rats. The appearance of both lesions was greatly influenced by animal's strains in both species and also by the sex in rats. A few gastric tumors were observed in the animals given a high does with spilt into low doses of X-irradiation. The adequate dose for gastric tumorigenesis may be around 20 Gy in mice and 15 Gy in rats. A good relationship between X-ray dose and incidence of gastric tumor was observed in ICR mice. Frequency of intestinal metaplasia by X-irradiation was much higher in rats compared to that in mice. X-ray dose requested for moderate and induction of intestinal metaplasia was decreased with a dose which was induced erosion and gastric tumor. It has been empirically clarified that an elevation of pH value in the gastric juice is one of the principal factors responsible for the development of intestinal metaplasia in the gastric mucosa among the conditions thus for introduced. In this article, we have introduced the relevant examples about intestinal metaplasia without carcinogenic insult, and the relationship between gastric tumor and intestinal metaplasia were described. The intestinal metaplasia was not always observed within or adjacent to neoplastic gastric glands. A combined treatment of X-ray and MNNG was not effective for gastric tumor and frequency of intestinal metaplasia was inversely related to the incidence of gastric tumors. In conclusion, occurrence of gastric tumor and intestinal metaplasia may be independent, and intestinal metaplasia might not be a prerequite for the occurrence of gastric tumor. (author)

  18. Gastric emptying of a solid meal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mannell, A.; Esser, J.D.

    1984-01-01

    A simple, non-invasive technique for measuring gastric emptying of a solid meal in clinical practice is described. Cooked chicken liver labelled with a radio-isotope is used. To establish the range of normal gastric emptying times 11 asymptomatic adults were studied. The effect of posture on solid emptying was also examined

  19. Gastric emptying of a solid meal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mannell, A.; Esser, J.D. (University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa))

    1984-09-08

    A simple, non-invasive technique for measuring gastric emptying of a solid meal in clinical practice is described. Cooked chicken liver labelled with a radio-isotope is used. To establish the range of normal gastric emptying times 11 asymptomatic adults were studied. The effect of posture on solid emptying was also examined.

  20. Clinical studies on the visualization of gastric lesions using virtual CT endoscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hideki; Takashima, Sumio; Kaminou, Toshio; Hayashi, Seisyo; Nishida, Norifumi; Matsuoka, Toshiyuki; Nakamura, Kenji; Yamada, Ryusaku

    2001-01-01

    We evaluated the clinical usefulness of virtual CT gastro endoscopy (VCTGE). The subjects were 124 patients with endoscopically identified gastric lesions. VCTGE images were obtained using a GE-Navigator. We evaluated VCTGE in the visualization of gastric lesions for their presence and morphology. The detection rate of all gastric lesions by VCTGE was 76% (94 of 124 patients). The smallest detectable early gastric cancer was II c measuring 10 x 8 mm. The detection rates of each gastric lesion by VCTGE were 73% in early gastric cancer, and 90% in advanced gastric cancer. VCTGE imaging in the advanced gastric cancer was good in 12 (30%), fair in 25 (60%) and poor in 4 (10%). VCTGE imaging in early gastric cancer was good in 20 (46%), fair in 12 (27%) and poor in 12 (27%). The significance P level was 0.005 between the evaluation of the imaging of advanced and early gastric cancer. VCTGE visualized the characteristics of diverse gastric lesions and was considered useful for the detection and the diagnosis of these lesions. (author)

  1. Photoaffinity labeling of the lumenal K+ site of the gastric (H+ + K+)-ATPase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keeling, D.J.; Fallowfield, C.; Lawrie, K.M.; Saunders, D.; Richardson, S.; Ife, R.J.

    1989-01-01

    A photoaffinity label for the lumenal K+ site of the gastric (H+ + K+)-ATPase has been identified. Seven azido derivatives based upon the reversible K+ site inhibitor SCH 28080 were studied, one of which, m-ATIP (8-(3-azidophenylmethoxy)-1,2,3-trimethylimidazo[1,2-a] pyridinium iodide), was subsequently synthesized in radiolabeled form. In the absence of UV irradiation, m-ATIP inhibited K+ -stimulated ATPase activity in lyophilized gastric vesicles competitively with respect to K+, with a Ki value of 2.4 microM at pH 7.0. Irradiation of lyophilized gastric vesicles at pH 7.0 with [ 14 C]m-ATIP in the presence of 0.2 mM ATP resulted in a time-dependent inactivation of ATPase activity that was associated with an incorporation of radioactivity into a 100-kDa polypeptide representing the catalytic subunit of the (H+ + K+)-ATPase. Both inactivation and incorporation were blocked in the presence of 10 mM KCl but not with 10 mM NaCl, consistent with interaction at the K+ site. The level of incorporation required to produce complete inhibition of ATPase activity was 1.9 +/- 0.2 times the number of catalytic phosphorylation sites in the same preparation. Tryptic digestion of gastric vesicle membranes, labeled with [ 14 C]m-ATIP, failed to release the radioactivity from the membranes suggesting that the site of interaction was close to or within the membrane-spanning sections of this ion pump

  2. The water extract of Coleus barbatus Benth decreases gastric secretion in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lygia A. Fischman

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Coleus barbatus (Labiatae Benth is popularly used in Brazil "for the healing of liver and stomach diseases". The water extract (WE 1 to 10 g/Kg, p.o. of stem and leaves given to rats and mice did not induce signs of intoxication. Preveious treatment of mice with WE (1 g/kg, p.o. shortened the sleeping time induced by pentobarbital (50 mg/Kg, i.p. by 37 por cento, althoyugh the extract alone did not increase the spontaneous activity nor did it induce hyperexcitability. In mice WE (2 g/Kg, p.o. increased the intestinal transit of charcoal by 30 por cento, while reduced gastric secretions ion rats treated with WE (2g/Kg intraduodenal 3,9 ± 1.0 to 0.5 ± 0.2 ml/4h, respectively. The treatment also reduced the total acid secretion from 34.4 ± 11.0 to 2.7 ± 0.5 mEq/l and raisedgastric pH from 2.2 ± 0.3 to 6.5 ± 0.8. Treatment with WE (2g/Kg, p.o. protected against gastric ulcers induced by stress (5.3 ± 1.6 and 1.5 ± 0.5 ulcers/cm², but did nor protect against indonethacin induced ulcers. The results show that the water extract of C barbatus Benth produces mild stimulation of thecentral nervous system and increases intestinal movements. The extract also reduces gastric secretion indicating an antidyspeptic activity, and protects against gastric ulcers induced by stress.

  3. Acute gastric volvulus treated with laparoscopic reduction and percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Sang-Ho; Ha, Chang-Youn; Lee, Young-Joon; Choi, Sang-Kyung; Hong, Soon-Chan; Jung, Eun-Jung; Ju, Young-Tae; Jeong, Chi-Young; Ha, Woo-Song

    2013-07-01

    Acute gastric volvulus requires emergency surgery, and a laparoscopic approach for both acute and chronic gastric volvulus was reported recently to give good results. The case of a 50-year-old patient with acute primary gastric volvulus who was treated by laparoscopic reduction and percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy is described here. This approach seems to be feasible and safe for not only chronic gastric volvulus, but also acute gastric volvulus.

  4. [Gastric perforation by MALT lymphoma. Case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Zamudio, José; Ramírez-González, Luis Ricardo; Núñez-Márquez, Julia; Fuentes Orozco, Clotilde; González Ojeda, Alejandro; Leonher-Ruezga, Karla Lisseth

    2015-01-01

    Gastric non-Hodgkin lymphoma is a rare tumour that represents approximately 7% of all stomach cancers and 2% of all lymphomas. The most frequent location of gastric MALT (mucosa associated lymphoid tissue) lymphomas is in the antrum in 41% of the cases, and 33% can be multifocal. The risk of spontaneous perforation of a gastric MALT lymphoma is 4-10%. 24 year old male patient carrying the Human Immunodeficiency Virus, who began with signs and symptoms of acute abdomen and fever 72 hours before arriving in the emergency room. A computed tomography was performed that showed free fluid in the cavity, and gastric wall thickening. The patient underwent a laparotomy, finding absence of the anterior wall of the stomach, sealed with the left lobe of the liver, colon and omentum. Total gastrectomy, with oesophagosty and jejunostomy tube, was performed. Gastric perforation secondary to a MALT lymphoma is rare, with high mortality. There is limited information reported of this complication and should be highly suspected in order to provide appropriate treatment for a complication of this type. Copyright © 2015 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  5. Gastric polyps diagnosed by double-contrast upper gastrointestinal barium X-ray radiography mostly arise from the Helicobacter pylori-negative stomach with low risk of gastric cancer in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Chihiro; Yamamichi, Nobutake; Shimamoto, Takeshi; Takahashi, Yu; Mitsushima, Toru; Koike, Kazuhiko

    2017-03-01

    Double-contrast upper gastrointestinal barium X-ray radiography (UGI-XR) is a method broadly used for gastric cancer screening in Japan. Gastric polyp is one of the most frequent findings detected by UGI-XR, but how to handle it remains controversial. Gastric polyps of the 17,264 generally healthy subjects in Japan who underwent UGI-XR or upper gastrointestinal endoscopy (UGI-ES) in 2010 were analyzed. Of the 6,433 UGI-XR examinees (3,405 men and 3,028 women, 47.4 ± 9.0 years old), gastric polyps were detected in 464 men (13.6 %) and 733 women (24.2 %) and were predominantly developed on the non-atrophic gastric mucosa (p gastric polyps has significant association with lower value of serum anti-Helicobacter pylori IgG titer, female gender, lighter smoking habit, older age, and normal range of body mass index (≥18.5 and gastric cancer occurred in 7 subjects (0.11 %), but none of them had gastric polyps at the beginning of the follow-up period. Of the 2,722 subjects with gastric polyps among the 10,831 UGI-ES examinees in the same period, 2,446 (89.9 %) had fundic, 267 (9.8 %) had hyperplastic, and 9 (0.3 %) had adenomatous/cancerous polyps. Gastric polyps diagnosed by UGI-XR predominantly arise on the Helicobacter pylori-negative gastric mucosa with a low risk of gastric cancer in Japan. In the prospective observation, none of the UGI-XR examinees with gastric polyps developed gastric cancer for at least 3 years subsequently.

  6. Extraintestinal heterotopic gastric tissue simulating acute appendicitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Elizabeth Bender; Steven P Schmidt

    2008-01-01

    We describe the case of a 68-year-old otherwise healthy male who presented to our emergency room with signs and symptoms of acute appendicitis. Exploratory surgery revealed a normal appendix. Further examination revealed an enlarged lymph node-like mass of tissue near the appendix, in the ileocecal mesentery. This mass was removed and was found to be inflamed heterotopic gastric tissue. Although reports of heterotopic gastric tissue in the literature are common, we believe that this case represents the first report of inflamed heterotopic gastric tissue simulating appendicitis.

  7. Helicobacter pylori Therapy for the Prevention of Metachronous Gastric Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Il Ju; Kook, Myeong-Cherl; Kim, Young-Il; Cho, Soo-Jeong; Lee, Jong Yeul; Kim, Chan Gyoo; Park, Boram; Nam, Byung-Ho

    2018-03-22

    Patients with early gastric cancers that are limited to gastric mucosa or submucosa usually have an advanced loss of mucosal glandular tissue (glandular atrophy) and are at high risk for subsequent (metachronous) development of new gastric cancer. The long-term effects of treatment to eradicate Helicobacter pylori on histologic improvement and the prevention of metachronous gastric cancer remain unclear. In this prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial, we assigned 470 patients who had undergone endoscopic resection of early gastric cancer or high-grade adenoma to receive either H. pylori eradication therapy with antibiotics or placebo. Two primary outcomes were the incidence of metachronous gastric cancer detected on endoscopy performed at the 1-year follow-up or later and improvement from baseline in the grade of glandular atrophy in the gastric corpus lesser curvature at the 3-year follow-up. A total of 396 patients were included in the modified intention-to-treat analysis population (194 in the treatment group and 202 in placebo group). During a median follow-up of 5.9 years, metachronous gastric cancer developed in 14 patients (7.2%) in the treatment group and in 27 patients (13.4%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio in the treatment group, 0.50; 95% confidence interval, 0.26 to 0.94; P=0.03). Among the 327 patients in the subgroup that underwent histologic analysis, improvement from baseline in the atrophy grade at the gastric corpus lesser curvature was observed in 48.4% of the patients in the treatment group and in 15.0% of those in the placebo group (Pgastric cancer who received H. pylori treatment had lower rates of metachronous gastric cancer and more improvement from baseline in the grade of gastric corpus atrophy than patients who received placebo. (Funded by the National Cancer Center, South Korea; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02407119 .).

  8. The current situation for gastric cancer in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caglevic, Christian; Silva, Shirley; Mahave, Mauricio; Rolfo, Christian; Gallardo, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Gastric cancer is a neoplasm with a high incidence and mortality rate in Chile where more than 3000 people die every year from this type of cancer. This study shows the clinical and epidemiological considerations of this disease, information about translational research on this pathology in Chile, the contribution of Chilean doctors to the development of gastric cancer management awareness and the general situation of gastric cancer in Chile.

  9. Lauren classification and individualized chemotherapy in gastric cancer

    OpenAIRE

    MA, JUNLI; SHEN, HONG; KAPESA, LINDA; ZENG, SHAN

    2016-01-01

    Gastric cancer is one of the most common malignancies worldwide. During the last 50 years, the histological classification of gastric carcinoma has been largely based on Lauren's criteria, in which gastric cancer is classified into two major histological subtypes, namely intestinal type and diffuse type adenocarcinoma. This classification was introduced in 1965, and remains currently widely accepted and employed, since it constitutes a simple and robust classification approach. The two histol...

  10. Virtual gastroscopy using spiral CT in gastric lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Sang Soo; Kang, Heoung Keun; Jeong, Yong Yeon; Yoon, Man Won; Song, Sang Gook; Jeong, Gwang Woo

    1998-01-01

    To compare virtual gastroscopy using spiral CT with conventional endoscopy for the detection and evaluation of gastric lesions. During a previous six-month period, 30 patients with pathologically-proven gastric lesions underwent conventional endoscopy and virtual gastroscopy using spiral CT. There were 18 cases of advanced gastric carcinoma, eight benign ulcers, and four submucosal tumors(two leiomyomas, two lymphomas). Source images of virtual gastroscopy were three-dim-ensionally reconstructed within an Advantage Windows Workstation and virtual gastroscopic images were obtained using Navigator Software. On analysis, images were graded according to their quality(excellent, good, poor). Virtual gastroscopic images were interpreted by two radiologists blinded to conventional endoscopic findings, and were subsequently compared with endoscopic findings in terms of detectability and findings. In the cases of advanced gastric carcinoma, lesions were classified according to Borrmann's system. For virtual gastroscopy, overall image quality was excellent in 21 cases(70%), good in five(17%), and poor in four(13%). Lesions were detected in 25 cases(83%). Among the 18 advanced gastric carcinomas, virtual gastroscopy image quality was excellent in 14 cases(78%), good in two(11%), and poor in two(11%). Lesions were detected in 16 cases(89%). Two Borrmann type IV cases were not detected. Among the eight benign ulcers, virtual gastroscopy image quality was excellent in three cases(38%), good in three(38%), and poor in two(25%). The detection of lesion was possible in five cases(63%). In all submucosal tumors, virtual gastroscopy image quality was excellent. Lesions were detected in all cases. Virtual gastroscopy using spiral CT is safe and noninvasive, and for the evaluation of gastric lesions may be complementary to axial CT. It successfully detects gastric lesions, and in depicting the pattern of gastric folds its image quality is excellent.=20

  11. Solid Loss of Carrots During Simulated Gastric Digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Fanbin; Singh, R Paul

    2011-03-01

    The knowledge of solid loss kinetics of foods during digestion is crucial for understanding the factors that constrain the release of nutrients from the food matrix and their fate of digestion. The objective of this study was to investigate the solid loss of carrots during simulated gastric digestion as affected by pH, temperature, viscosity of gastric fluids, mechanical force present in stomach, and cooking. Cylindrical carrot samples were tested by static soaking method and using a model stomach system. The weight retention, moisture, and loss of dry mass were determined. The results indicated that acid hydrolysis is critical for an efficient mass transfer and carrot digestion. Internal resistance rather than external resistance is dominant in the transfer of soluble solids from carrot to gastric fluid. Increase in viscosity of gastric fluid by adding 0.5% gum (w/w) significantly increased the external resistance and decreased mass transfer rate of carrots in static soaking. When mechanical force was not present, 61% of the solids in the raw carrot samples were released into gastric fluid after 4 h of static soaking in simulated gastric juice. Mechanical force significantly increased solid loss by causing surface erosion. Boiling increased the disintegration of carrot during digestion that may favor the loss of solids meanwhile reducing the amount of solids available for loss in gastric juice. Weibull function was successfully used to describe the solid loss of carrot during simulated digestion. The effective diffusion coefficients of solids were calculated using the Fick's second law of diffusion for an infinite cylinder, which are between 0.75 × 10(-11) and 8.72 × 10(-11) m(2)/s, depending on the pH of the gastric fluid.

  12. Allium Cepa Ameliorates Ethanol-Induced Gastric Injury in Rats Via ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACER

    (SOD) and Catalase (CAT) activities) were carried out in plasma and gastric tissue. ... glandular destruction in the gastric mucosa and infiltration of inflammatory ... Gastric injury is one of major diseases affecting ..... inflammatory bowel disease.

  13. Effect of routine preoperative fasting on residual gastric volume and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-02-10

    Feb 10, 2016 ... Key words: Fasting, myomectomy, pH, residual gastric volume. Date of Acceptance: ... gastric volume and acid in patients undergoing myomectomy. Niger J Clin ..... of gastric residual volume: A simulated, controlled study.

  14. Gastric cancer review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Peirce Carcas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastric cancer is an aggressive disease that continues to have a daunting impact on global health. Despite an overall decline in incidence over the last several decades, gastric cancer remains the fourth most common type of cancer and is the second leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. This review aims to discuss the global distribution of the disease and the trend of decreasing incidence of disease, delineate the different pathologic subtypes and their immunohistochemical (IHC staining patterns and molecular signatures and mutations, explore the role of the pathogen H. pylori in tumorgenesis, discuss the increasing incidence of the disease in the young, western populations and define the role of biologic agents in the treatment of the disease.

  15. Scintigraphic evaluation of the esophageal-gastric function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taillefer, R.; Lefebvre, B.; Beauchamp, G.

    1986-01-01

    The authors present a brief review of the use of radionuclides in the pathophysiological evaluation of both esophageal and gastric function. Technical indications of these three following scintigraphic procedures are discussed: radionuclide esophagogram; gastro-esophogeal reflux study; and gastric emptying study

  16. External scintigraphy in measuring rate of gastric emptying in beagles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theodorakis, M.C.

    1980-07-01

    The application of external scintigraphy and preparation of a new radiopharmaceutical agent for the investigation of the rate and pattern of gastric emptying in beagles and for the visualization of segments of the intestines have been described. 99mTc-labeled triethylenetetramine-polystyrene resin was mixed in a test meal and was administered to the animal. The gastric emptying rate of the beagle was evaluated by serially recording the gastric radioactivity by means of a scintillation camera. The experimental data indicate that the pattern of gastric emptying of beagles during the first 60 min was monoexponential and the gastric emptying half time was 1.3 h. The usefulness of external scintigraphy as a noninvasive method for determining the gastric emptying rates and for visualizing segments of GI tract in animals has been demonstrated.

  17. Flexible and transparent gastric battery: energy harvesting from gastric acid for endoscopy application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafalu, Pooria; Sonkusale, Sameer

    2014-04-15

    In this paper, we present the potential to harvest energy directly from the digestive system for powering a future wireless endoscopy capsule. A microfabricated electrochemical cell on flexible parylene film is proposed as a gastric battery. This electrochemical cell uses gastric juice as a source of unlimited electrolyte. Planar fabricated zinc [Zn] and palladium [Pd] electrodes serve as anode and cathode respectively. Due to planar geometry, no separator is needed. Moreover the annular structure of the electrodes provides lower distance between cathode and anode reducing the internal resistance. Both electrodes are biocompatible and parylene provides flexibility to the system. For a surface area of 15 mm(2), 1.25 mW is generated which is sufficient for most implantable endoscopy applications. Open circuit output voltage of this battery is 0.75 V. Since this gastric battery does not require any external electrolyte, it has low intrinsic weight, and since it is flexible and is made of biocompatible materials, it offers a promising solution for power in implantable applications. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Current Status on Stem Cells and Cancers of the Gastric Epithelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner Hoffmann

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Gastric cancer is still a leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide in spite of declining incidence. Gastric cancers are, essentially, adenocarcinomas and one of the strongest risk factors is still infection with Helicobacter pylori. Within the last years, it became clear that gastric self-renewal and carcinogenesis are intimately linked, particularly during chronic inflammatory conditions. Generally, gastric cancer is now regarded as a disease resulting from dysregulated differentiation of stem and progenitor cells, mainly due to an inflammatory environment. However, the situation in the stomach is rather complex, consisting of two types of gastric units which show bidirectional self-renewal from an unexpectedly large variety of progenitor/stem cell populations. As in many other tumors, cancer stem cells have also been characterized for gastric cancer. This review focuses on the various gastric epithelial stem cells, how they contribute to self-renewal and which routes are known to gastric adenocarcinomas, including their stem cells.

  19. Results of high energy x-ray therapy of gastric carcinoma, 2. Recurrent gastric carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asakawa, H; Otawa, H; Yamada, S [Miyagi Prefectural Adult Disease Center, Natori (Japan)

    1979-01-01

    Thirty cases with recurrent gastric carcinoma were treated with a combination of high energy x-ray and some anti-cancer drugs at Miyagi Seijinbyo Center between 1967 and 1977. Twenty three cases of them tolerated well such treatment; the irradiated dose was more than 4000 rad without any serious complication. The response of recurrent tumor to irradiation was marked in 11 lesions of 21 local recurrences and 4 metastases of the lymph node. The survival rates of those irradiated more than 4000 rad were 22% at one year, 15% at two years and 5% at three years. The median survival month was 6,9 months. These rates obtained in a combined radiation therapy seemed to be well matched for those reported by other authors in a surgical management of recurrent gastric carcinoma. As a conclusion, it was suggested that a combined radiation therapy with some anticancer drugs should be an effective procedure to prolong the life of a patient of recurrent gastric carcinoma.

  20. Exome sequencing identifies early gastric carcinoma as an early stage of advanced gastric cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guhyun Kang

    Full Text Available Gastric carcinoma is one of the major causes of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Early detection and treatment leads to an excellent prognosis in patients with early gastric cancer (EGC, whereas the prognosis of patients with advanced gastric cancer (AGC remains poor. It is unclear whether EGCs and AGCs are distinct entities or whether EGCs are the beginning stages of AGCs. We performed whole exome sequencing of four samples from patients with EGC and compared the results with those from AGCs. In both EGCs and AGCs, a total of 268 genes were commonly mutated and independent mutations were additionally found in EGCs (516 genes and AGCs (3104 genes. A higher frequency of C>G transitions was observed in intestinal-type compared to diffuse-type carcinomas (P = 0.010. The DYRK3, GPR116, MCM10, PCDH17, PCDHB1, RDH5 and UNC5C genes are recurrently mutated in EGCs and may be involved in early carcinogenesis.

  1. Gastric electrical stimulation decreases gastric distension-induced central nociception response through direct action on primary afferents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wassila Ouelaa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND & AIMS: Gastric electrical stimulation (GES is an effective therapy to treat patients with chronic dyspepsia refractory to medical management. However, its mechanisms of action remain poorly understood. METHODS: Gastric pain was induced by performing gastric distension (GD in anesthetized rats. Pain response was monitored by measuring the pseudo-affective reflex (e.g., blood pressure variation, while neuronal activation was determined using c-fos immunochemistry in the central nervous system. Involvement of primary afferents was assessed by measuring phosphorylation of ERK1/2 in dorsal root ganglia. RESULTS: GES decreased blood pressure variation induced by GD, and prevented GD-induced neuronal activation in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord (T9-T10, the nucleus of the solitary tract and in CRF neurons of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus. This effect remained unaltered within the spinal cord when sectioning the medulla at the T5 level. Furthermore, GES prevented GD-induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 in dorsal root ganglia. CONCLUSIONS: GES decreases GD-induced pain and/or discomfort likely through a direct modulation of gastric spinal afferents reducing central processing of visceral nociception.