WorldWideScience

Sample records for processing carbon nanotubes

  1. Physical removal of metallic carbon nanotubes from nanotube network devices using a thermal and fluidic process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, Alexandra C; Shaughnessy, Michael; Wong, Bryan M; Kane, Alexander A; Krafcik, Karen L; Léonard, François; Kuznetsov, Oleksandr V; Billups, W Edward; Hauge, Robert H

    2013-01-01

    Electronic and optoelectronic devices based on thin films of carbon nanotubes are currently limited by the presence of metallic nanotubes. Here we present a novel approach based on nanotube alkyl functionalization to physically remove the metallic nanotubes from such network devices. The process relies on preferential thermal desorption of the alkyls from the semiconducting nanotubes and the subsequent dissolution and selective removal of the metallic nanotubes in chloroform. The approach is versatile and is applied to devices post-fabrication. (paper)

  2. Carbon Nanotube Integration with a CMOS Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Maximiliano S.; Lerner, Betiana; Resasco, Daniel E.; Pareja Obregon, Pablo D.; Julian, Pedro M.; Mandolesi, Pablo S.; Buffa, Fabian A.; Boselli, Alfredo; Lamagna, Alberto

    2010-01-01

    This work shows the integration of a sensor based on carbon nanotubes using CMOS technology. A chip sensor (CS) was designed and manufactured using a 0.30 μm CMOS process, leaving a free window on the passivation layer that allowed the deposition of SWCNTs over the electrodes. We successfully investigated with the CS the effect of humidity and temperature on the electrical transport properties of SWCNTs. The possibility of a large scale integration of SWCNTs with CMOS process opens a new route in the design of more efficient, low cost sensors with high reproducibility in their manufacture. PMID:22319330

  3. Process for derivatizing carbon nanotubes with diazonium species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tour, James M. (Inventor); Bahr, Jeffrey L. (Inventor); Yang, Jiping (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    The invention incorporates new processes for the chemical modification of carbon nanotubes. Such processes involve the derivatization of multi- and single-wall carbon nanotubes, including small diameter (ca. 0.7 nm) single-wall carbon nanotubes, with diazonium species. The method allows the chemical attachment of a variety of organic compounds to the side and ends of carbon nanotubes. These chemically modified nanotubes have applications in polymer composite materials, molecular electronic applications and sensor devices. The methods of derivatization include electrochemical induced reactions thermally induced reactions (via in-situ generation of diazonium compounds or pre-formed diazonium compounds), and photochemically induced reactions. The derivatization causes significant changes in the spectroscopic properties of the nanotubes. The estimated degree of functionality is ca. 1 out of every 20 to 30 carbons in a nanotube bearing a functionality moiety. Such electrochemical reduction processes can be adapted to apply site-selective chemical functionalization of nanotubes. Moreover, when modified with suitable chemical groups, the derivatized nanotubes are chemically compatible with a polymer matrix, allowing transfer of the properties of the nanotubes (such as, mechanical strength or electrical conductivity) to the properties of the composite material as a whole. Furthermore, when modified with suitable chemical groups, the groups can be polymerized to form a polymer that includes carbon nanotubes ##STR00001##.

  4. Carbon nanotubes for interconnects process, design and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Dijon, Jean; Maffucci, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    This book provides a single-source reference on the use of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as interconnect material for horizontal, on-chip and 3D interconnects. The authors demonstrate the uses of bundles of CNTs, as innovative conducting material to fabricate interconnect through-silicon vias (TSVs), in order to improve the performance, reliability and integration of 3D integrated circuits (ICs). This book will be first to provide a coherent overview of exploiting carbon nanotubes for 3D interconnects covering aspects from processing, modeling, simulation, characterization and applications. Coverage also includes a thorough presentation of the application of CNTs as horizontal on-chip interconnects which can potentially revolutionize the nanoelectronics industry. This book is a must-read for anyone interested in the state-of-the-art on exploiting carbon nanotubes for interconnects for both 2D and 3D integrated circuits. Provides a single-source reference on carbon nanotubes for interconnect applications; Includes c...

  5. More About Arc-Welding Process for Making Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavides, Jeanette M.; Leidecker, Henning

    2005-01-01

    High-quality batches of carbon nanotubes are produced at relatively low cost in a modified atmospheric-pressure electric-arc welding process that does not include the use of metal catalysts. What would normally be a welding rod and a weldment are replaced by an amorphous carbon anode rod and a wider, hollow graphite cathode rod. Both electrodes are water-cooled. The cathode is immersed in ice water to about 0.5 cm from the surface. The system is shielded from air by flowing helium during arcing. As the anode is consumed during arcing at 20 to 25 A, it is lowered to maintain it at an approximately constant distance above the cathode. The process causes carbon nanotubes to form on the lowest 5 cm of the anode. The arcing process is continued until the anode has been lowered to a specified height. The nanotube-containing material is then harvested. The additional information contained in the instant report consists mostly of illustrations of carbon nanotubes and a schematic diagram of the arc-welding setup, as modified for the production of carbon nanotubes.

  6. Less severe processing improves carbon nanotube photovoltaic performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Matthew J.; Wang, Jialiang; Flach, Jessica T.; Zanni, Martin T.; Arnold, Michael S.

    2018-05-01

    Thin film semiconducting single walled carbon nanotube (s-SWCNT) photovoltaics suffer losses due to trapping and quenching of excitons by defects induced when dispersing s-SWCNTs into solution. We study these aspects by preparing photovoltaic devices from (6,5) carbon nanotubes isolated by different processes: extended ultrasonication, brief ultrasonication, and shear force mixing. Peak quantum efficiency increases from 28% to 38% to 49% as the processing harshness decreases and is attributed to both increasing s-SWCNT length and reducing sidewall defects. Fill-factor and open-circuit voltage also improve with shear force mixing, highlighting the importance of obtaining long, defect-free s-SWCNTs for efficient photoconversion devices.

  7. Economic assessment of single-walled carbon nanotube processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacs, J. A.; Tanwani, A.; Healy, M. L.; Dahlben, L. J.

    2010-02-01

    The carbon nanotube market is steadily growing and projected to reach 1.9 billion by 2010. This study examines the economics of manufacturing single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) using process-based cost models developed for arc, CVD, and HiPco processes. Using assumed input parameters, manufacturing costs are calculated for 1 g SWNT for arc, CVD, and HiPco, totaling 1,906, 1,706, and 485, respectively. For each SWNT process, the synthesis and filtration steps showed the highest costs, with direct labor as a primary cost driver. Reductions in production costs are calculated for increased working hours per day and for increased synthesis reaction yield (SRY) in each process. The process-based cost models offer a means for exploring opportunities for cost reductions, and provide a structured system for comparisons among alternative SWNT manufacturing processes. Further, the models can be used to comprehensively evaluate additional scenarios on the economics of environmental, health, and safety best manufacturing practices.

  8. Economic assessment of single-walled carbon nanotube processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isaacs, J. A., E-mail: jaisaacs@coe.neu.ed [Northeastern University, NSF Center for High-rate Nanomanufacturing (United States); Tanwani, A. [Infojini Solutions Inc. (United States); Healy, M. L. [Babcock Power Inc. (United States); Dahlben, L. J. [Northeastern University, NSF Center for High-rate Nanomanufacturing (United States)

    2010-02-15

    The carbon nanotube market is steadily growing and projected to reach $1.9 billion by 2010. This study examines the economics of manufacturing single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) using process-based cost models developed for arc, CVD, and HiPco processes. Using assumed input parameters, manufacturing costs are calculated for 1 g SWNT for arc, CVD, and HiPco, totaling $1,906, $1,706, and $485, respectively. For each SWNT process, the synthesis and filtration steps showed the highest costs, with direct labor as a primary cost driver. Reductions in production costs are calculated for increased working hours per day and for increased synthesis reaction yield (SRY) in each process. The process-based cost models offer a means for exploring opportunities for cost reductions, and provide a structured system for comparisons among alternative SWNT manufacturing processes. Further, the models can be used to comprehensively evaluate additional scenarios on the economics of environmental, health, and safety best manufacturing practices.

  9. Optimizing a Laser Process for Making Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arepalli, Sivaram; Nikolaev, Pavel; Holmes, William

    2010-01-01

    A systematic experimental study has been performed to determine the effects of each of the operating conditions in a double-pulse laser ablation process that is used to produce single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). The comprehensive data compiled in this study have been analyzed to recommend conditions for optimizing the process and scaling up the process for mass production. The double-pulse laser ablation process for making SWCNTs was developed by Rice University researchers. Of all currently known nanotube-synthesizing processes (arc and chemical vapor deposition), this process yields the greatest proportion of SWCNTs in the product material. The aforementioned process conditions are important for optimizing the production of SWCNTs and scaling up production. Reports of previous research (mostly at Rice University) toward optimization of process conditions mention effects of oven temperature and briefly mention effects of flow conditions, but no systematic, comprehensive study of the effects of process conditions was done prior to the study described here. This was a parametric study, in which several production runs were carried out, changing one operating condition for each run. The study involved variation of a total of nine parameters: the sequence of the laser pulses, pulse-separation time, laser pulse energy density, buffer gas (helium or nitrogen instead of argon), oven temperature, pressure, flow speed, inner diameter of the flow tube, and flow-tube material.

  10. Etching processes of transparent carbon nanotube thin films using laser technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, H.K.; Lin, R.C.; Li, C.H.

    2010-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have potential as a transparent conductive material with good mechanical and electrical properties. However, carbon nanotube thin film deposition and etching processes are very difficult to pattern the electrode. In this study, transparent CNT film with a binder is coated on a PET flexible substrate. The transmittance and sheet resistance of carbon nanotube film are 84% and 1000 Ω/□, respectively. The etching process of carbon nanotube film on flexible substrates was investigated using 355 nm and 1064 nm laser sources. Experimental results show that carbon nanotube film can be ablated using laser technology. With the 355 nm UV laser, the minimum etched line width was 20 μm with a low amount of recast material of the ablated sections. The optimal conditions of laser ablation were determined for carbon nanotube film.

  11. Automatic Control of Arc Process for Making Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Carl D.; Pulumbarit, Robert B.; Victor, Joe

    2004-01-01

    An automatic-control system has been devised for a process in which carbon nanotubes are produced in an arc between a catalyst-filled carbon anode and a graphite cathode. The control system includes a motor-driven screw that adjusts the distance between the electrodes. The system also includes a bridge circuit that puts out a voltage proportional to the difference between (1) the actual value of potential drop across the arc and (2) a reference value between 38 and 40 V (corresponding to a current of about 100 A) at which the yield of carbon nanotubes is maximized. Utilizing the fact that the potential drop across the arc increases with the interelectrode gap, the output of the bridge circuit is fed to a motor-control circuit that causes the motor to move the anode toward or away from the cathode if the actual potential drop is more or less, respectively, than the reference potential. Thus, the system regulates the interelectrode gap to maintain the optimum potential drop. The system also includes circuitry that records the potential drop across the arc and the relative position of the anode holder as function of time.

  12. Deposition of metallic nanoparticles on carbon nanotubes via a fast evaporation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren Guoqiang; Xing Yangchuan

    2006-01-01

    A new technique was developed for the deposition of colloidal metal nanoparticles on carbon nanotubes. It involves fast evaporation of a suspension containing sonochemically functionalized carbon nanotubes and colloidal nanoparticles. It was demonstrated that metallic nanoparticles with different sizes and concentrations can be deposited on the carbon nanotubes with only a few agglomerates. The technique does not seem to be limited by what the nanoparticles are, and therefore would be applicable to the deposition of other nanoparticles on carbon nanotubes. PtPd and CoPt 3 alloy nanoparticles were used to demonstrate the deposition process. It was found that the surfactants used to disperse the nanoparticles can hinder the nanoparticle deposition. When the nanoparticles were washed with ethanol, they could be well deposited on the carbon nanotubes. The obtained carbon nanotube supported metal nanoparticles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and cyclic voltammetry

  13. Toxicity of carbon nanotubes to the activated sludge process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luongo, Lauren A.; Zhang Xiaoqi

    2010-01-01

    The discharge of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) from industrial waste or disposal of such materials from commercial and/or domestic use will inevitably occur with increasing production and enter into wastewater treatment facilities with unknown consequences. Therefore, a better knowledge of the toxicity of CNTs to biological processes in wastewater treatment will be critical. This study examined the toxicity of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) on the microbial communities in activated sludge. A comparative study using the activated sludge respiration inhibition test was performed on both unsheared mixed liquor and sheared mixed liquor to demonstrate the potential toxicity posed by MWCNTs and to illustrate the extent of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) in protecting the microorganisms from the toxicity of CNTs. Respiration inhibition was observed for both unsheared and sheared mixed liquor when MWCNTs were present, however, greater respiration inhibition was observed for the sheared mixed liquor. The toxicity observed by the respiration inhibition test was determined to be dose-dependent; the highest concentration of MWCNTs exhibited the highest respiration inhibition. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) images demonstrated direct physical contact between MWCNTs and activated sludge flocs.

  14. Carbon Nanotubes and Carbon Nanotube Fiber Sensors: Growth, Processing and Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Haibo

    With multiple outstanding properties, such as high Young's modulus, high strength, good thermal conductivity and electrical conductivity, carbon nanotube (CNT) has been considered as a new generation of material that has many potential applications in many fields. One obstacle that stands in the way of applying CNTs in the real world is the limited growth length. Catalyst instability is one of the many factors that cause the stops of CNT growth. In this research, intermetalic Fe-Zr catalyst was used to grow millimeter long CNT arrays. The Fe-Zr particles enabled the growth of 1.7 millimeter long carbon nanotube arrays in 45 minutes. A comparison with pure Fe catalyst indicated that adding Zr to iron can stabilize the Fe catalyst at the CNT growth temperature and moderate its reactivity. In future, when CNTs are largely used in industrial, mass production of CNTs at a low cost is vital for market competition. In many current CNT growth methods, a process of depositing a thin catalyst film on top of Al 2O3 film on a piece of silicon wafer is required. Thus the size of CNT samples is limited by the size of the largest silicon wafer currently available, which is 8 inch in diameter. In this study, FeCl2 powders were used as the catalyst to grow CNT arrays not only on traditional silicon substrates but also on quartz substrates and carbon sheets. This unique method does not require the thin film deposition step, which shortens the time used for each batch of CNT growth. The simplicity of this method allows an easy scale-up for mass production of CNTs with a low cost. In order to improve this method, HCl was used to assist the CNT growth. HCl was added via flowing a small amount of C2H2 thorough a bubbuler where HCl solution was contained. With the assistance of HCl, CNT growth could be extended to 1 hour. 3 mm tall non-spinnable arrays and 2 mm tall spinnable arrays were produced using this method. With the increasing use of composite materials, real time health

  15. Laser Processing of Carbon Nanotube Transparent Conducting Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Andrew

    Transparent conducting films, or TCFs, are 2D electrical conductors with the ability to transmit light. Because of this, they are used in many popular electronics including smart phones, tablets, solar panels, and televisions. The most common material used as a TCF is indium tin oxide, or ITO. Although ITO has great electrical and optical characteristics, it is expensive, brittle, and difficult to pattern. These limitations have led researchers toward other materials for the next generation of displays and touch panels. The most promising material for next generation TCFs is carbon nanotubes, or CNTs. CNTs are cylindrical tubes of carbon no more than a few atoms thick. They have different electrical and optical properties depending on their atomic structure, and are extremely strong. As an electrode, they conduct electricity through an array of randomly dispersed tubes. The array is highly transparent because of gaps between the tubes, and size and optical properties of the CNTs. Many research groups have tried making CNT TCFs with opto-electric properties similar to ITO but have difficultly achieving high conductivity. This is partly attributed to impurities from fabrication and a mix of different tube types, but is mainly caused by low junction conductivity. In functionalized nanotubes, junction conductivity is impaired by covalently bonded molecules added to the sidewalls of the tubes. The addition of this molecule, known as functionalization, is designed to facilitate CNT dispersion in a solvent by adding properties of the molecule to the CNTs. While necessary for a good solution, functionalization decreases the conductivity in the CNT array by creating defects in the tube's structures and preventing direct inter-carbon bonding. This research investigates removing the functional coating (after tube deposition) by laser processing. Laser light is able to preferentially heat the CNTs because of their optical and electrical properties. Through local conduction

  16. Structure of carbon and boron nitride nanotubes produced by mechano-thermal process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Y.; Conway, M.; FitzGerald, J.; Williams, J.S.; Chadderton, L.T.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Structure of carbon and boron nitride (BN) nanotubes produced by mechano-thermal process has been investigated by using field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) including high resolution TEM. FESEM and TEM reveal that nanotubes obtained have a diameter varying from several nm to 200 nm and a length of several micrometers. The size of the nanotubes appears to depend on both milling and heating conditions. Many nanotubes are extruded from particle clusters, implying a special growth mechanism. TEM reveals single- and multi- wall tubular structures and different caps. Bomboo-type nanotubes containing small metal particles inside are also observed in both carbon and BN tubes. This investigation shows that nanotubes with controlled size and structure could be produced by the mechano-thermal process

  17. Induction heating process of ferromagnetic filled carbon nanotubes based on 3-D model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiak, Sławomir; Firych-Nowacka, Anna; Smółka, Krzysztof; Pietrzak, Łukasz; Kołaciński, Zbigniew; Szymański, Łukasz

    2017-12-01

    Since their discovery by Iijima in 1991 [1], carbon nanotubes have sparked unwavering interest among researchers all over the world. This is due to the unique properties of carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Carbon nanotubes have excellent mechanical and electrical properties with high chemical and thermal stability. In addition, carbon nanotubes have a very large surface area and are hollow inside. This gives a very broad spectrum of nanotube applications, such as in combination with polymers as polymer composites in the automotive, aerospace or textile industries. At present, many methods of nanotube synthesis are known [2, 3, 4, 5, 6]. It is also possible to use carbon nanotubes in biomedical applications [7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14], including the destruction of cancer cells using iron-filled carbon nanotubes in the hyperthermia process. Computer modelling results of Fe-CNTs induction heating process are presented in the paper. As an object used for computer model creation, Fe-CNTs were synthesized by the authors using CCVD technique.

  18. Processable Conducting Polyaniline, Carbon Nanotubes, Graphene and Their Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kan

    Good processability is often required for applications of conducting materials like polyaniline (PANI), carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphene. This can be achieved by either physical stabilization or chemical functionalization. Functionalization usually expands the possible applications for the conducting materials depending on the properties of the functional groups. Processable conducting materials can also be combined with other co-dissolving materials to prepare composites with desired chemical and physical properties. Polyanilines (PANI) doped with dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid (DBSA) are soluble in many organic solvents such as chloroform and toluene. Single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) can be dispersed into PANI/DBSA to form homogeneous solutions. PANI/DBSA functions as a conducting surfactant for SWCNTs. The mixture can be combined with two-parts polyurethanes that co-dissolve in the organic solvent to produce conducting polymer composites. The composite mixtures can be applied onto various substrates by simple spray-on methods to obtain transparent and conducting coatings. Graphene, a single layer of graphite, has drawn intense interest for its unique properties. Processable graphene has been produced in N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) by a one-step solvothermal reduction of graphite oxide without the aid of any reducing reagent and/or surfactant. The as-synthesized graphene disperses well in a variety of organic solvents such as dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), ethanol and tetrahydrogenfuran (THF). The conductivity of solvothermal reduced graphite oxide is comparable to hydrazine reduced graphite oxide. Attempts were made to create intrinsically conducting glue comparable to mussel adhesive protiens using polyaniline and graphene. Mussels can attach to a variety of substrates under water. Catechol residue in 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) is the key to the wet adhesion. Tyrosine and phosphoserine with primary alkyl amine groups also participate in adhesion. A

  19. Carbon nanotube composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Bryan, Gregory; Skinner, Jack L; Vance, Andrew; Yang, Elaine Lai; Zifer, Thomas

    2015-03-24

    A material consisting essentially of a vinyl thermoplastic polymer, un-functionalized carbon nanotubes and hydroxylated carbon nanotubes dissolved in a solvent. Un-functionalized carbon nanotube concentrations up to 30 wt % and hydroxylated carbon nanotube concentrations up to 40 wt % can be used with even small concentrations of each (less than 2 wt %) useful in producing enhanced conductivity properties of formed thin films.

  20. Solution-Processed Carbon Nanotube True Random Number Generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaviria Rojas, William A; McMorrow, Julian J; Geier, Michael L; Tang, Qianying; Kim, Chris H; Marks, Tobin J; Hersam, Mark C

    2017-08-09

    With the growing adoption of interconnected electronic devices in consumer and industrial applications, there is an increasing demand for robust security protocols when transmitting and receiving sensitive data. Toward this end, hardware true random number generators (TRNGs), commonly used to create encryption keys, offer significant advantages over software pseudorandom number generators. However, the vast network of devices and sensors envisioned for the "Internet of Things" will require small, low-cost, and mechanically flexible TRNGs with low computational complexity. These rigorous constraints position solution-processed semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) as leading candidates for next-generation security devices. Here, we demonstrate the first TRNG using static random access memory (SRAM) cells based on solution-processed SWCNTs that digitize thermal noise to generate random bits. This bit generation strategy can be readily implemented in hardware with minimal transistor and computational overhead, resulting in an output stream that passes standardized statistical tests for randomness. By using solution-processed semiconducting SWCNTs in a low-power, complementary architecture to achieve TRNG, we demonstrate a promising approach for improving the security of printable and flexible electronics.

  1. Hydrotalcites: a highly efficient ecomaterial for effluent treatment originated from carbon nanotubes chemical processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, O L; Stefani, D; Parizotto, N V; Filho, A G Souza, E-mail: oalves@iqm.unicamp.br [Solid State Chemistry Laboratory, Institute of Chemistry, University of Campinas - UNICAMP, P. O. Box 6154, 13083-970, Campinas-SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-06

    It has been reported that a mixture of carboxylated carbonaceous fragments (CCFs), so called oxidation debris, are generated during carbon nanotubes chemical processing using oxidant agents such as HNO{sub 3}. The elimination of these fragments from carbon nanotubes surface has been point out to be a crucial step for an effective functionalization of the nanotubes as well as for improving the material. However, this process can introduce a potential environmental problem related water contamination because these CCFs can be viewed as a mixture of carbonaceous polyaromatic systems similar to humic substances and dissolved organic matter (DOM). The negative aspects of humic substances and DOM to water quality and wastewater treatment are well known. Since carbon nanotubes industry expands at high rates it is expected that effluent containing oxidation debris will increase since HNO{sub 3} chemical processing is the most applied method for purification and functionalization of carbon nanotubes. In this work, we have demonstrated that Hydrotalcites (HT) are highly efficient to remove oxidation debris from effluent solution originated from HNO{sub 3}-treated multiwalled carbon nanotubes. The strategy presented here is a contribution towards green chemistry practices and life cycle studies in carbon nanotubes field.

  2. A Controlled Arc Welding and Separation Processes for Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavides, Jeannette; Shaw, Harry; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Stage 1 for the Carbon Nanotube Project has been completed. This videograph presents the proposal for Stage 2. The goals of this stage are to: (1) produce CNTs under different conditions such as cooling temperature, voltage, current, cathode and anode sizes; (2) use ferrocene to make longer CNTs; (3) characterize CNTs by spectroscopic methods; (4) develop applications of CNTs, i.e., batteries, composites, wires, etc.; and (5) complete the patent application.

  3. Fractal and digital image processing to determine the degree of dispersion of carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Xiao-ning; Li, Wei

    2016-01-01

    The degree of dispersion is an important parameter to quantitatively study properties of carbon nanotube composites. Among the many methods for studying dispersion, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy are the most commonly used, intuitive, and convincing methods. However, they have the disadvantage of not being quantitative. To overcome this disadvantage, the fractal theory and digital image processing method can be used to provide a quantitative analysis of the morphology and properties of carbon nanotube composites. In this paper, the dispersion degree of carbon nanotubes was investigated using two fractal methods, namely, the box-counting method and the differential box-counting method. On the basis of the results, we propose a new method for the quantitative characterization of the degree of dispersion of carbon nanotubes. This hierarchical grid method can be used as a supplementary method, and can be combined with the fractal calculation method. Thus, the accuracy and effectiveness of the quantitative characterization of the dispersion degree of carbon nanotubes can be improved. (The outer diameter of the carbon nanotubes is about 50 nm; the length of the carbon nanotubes is 10–20 μm.)

  4. Fractal and digital image processing to determine the degree of dispersion of carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Xiao-ning, E-mail: xnliang0506@163.com; Li, Wei, E-mail: 1099006@mail.dhu.edu.cn, E-mail: liwei@dhu.edu.cn, E-mail: waiwentougao@outlook.com [Donghua University, College of Textiles (China)

    2016-05-15

    The degree of dispersion is an important parameter to quantitatively study properties of carbon nanotube composites. Among the many methods for studying dispersion, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy are the most commonly used, intuitive, and convincing methods. However, they have the disadvantage of not being quantitative. To overcome this disadvantage, the fractal theory and digital image processing method can be used to provide a quantitative analysis of the morphology and properties of carbon nanotube composites. In this paper, the dispersion degree of carbon nanotubes was investigated using two fractal methods, namely, the box-counting method and the differential box-counting method. On the basis of the results, we propose a new method for the quantitative characterization of the degree of dispersion of carbon nanotubes. This hierarchical grid method can be used as a supplementary method, and can be combined with the fractal calculation method. Thus, the accuracy and effectiveness of the quantitative characterization of the dispersion degree of carbon nanotubes can be improved. (The outer diameter of the carbon nanotubes is about 50 nm; the length of the carbon nanotubes is 10–20 μm.)

  5. Large quantity production of carbon and boron nitride nanotubes by mechano-thermal process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Y.; Fitzgerald, J.D.; Chadderton, L.; Williams, J.S.; Campbell, S.J.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Nanotube materials including carbon and boron nitride have excellent properties compared with bulk materials. The seamless graphene cylinders with a high length to diameter ratio make them as superstrong fibers. A high amount of hydrogen can be stored into nanotubes as future clean fuel source. Theses applications require large quantity of nanotubes materials. However, nanotube production in large quantity, fully controlled quality and low costs remains challenges for most popular synthesis methods such as arc discharge, laser heating and catalytic chemical decomposition. Discovery of new synthesis methods is still crucial for future industrial application. The new low-temperature mechano-thermal process discovered by the current author provides an opportunity to develop a commercial method for bulk production. This mechano-thermal process consists of a mechanical ball milling and a thermal annealing processes. Using this method, both carbon and boron nitride nanotubes were produced. I will present the mechano-thermal method as the new bulk production technique in the conference. The lecture will summarise main results obtained. In the case of carbon nanotubes, different nanosized structures including multi-walled nanotubes, nanocells, and nanoparticles have been produced in a graphite sample using a mechano-thermal process, consisting of I mechanical milling at room temperature for up to 150 hours and subsequent thermal annealing at 1400 deg C. Metal particles have played an important catalytic effect on the formation of different tubular structures. While defect structure of the milled graphite appears to be responsible for the formation of small tubes. It is found that the mechanical treatment of graphite powder produces a disordered and microporous structure, which provides nucleation sites for nanotubes as well as free carbon atoms. Multiwalled carbon nanotubes appear to grow via growth of the (002) layers during thermal annealing. In the case of BN

  6. High-speed logic integrated circuits with solution-processed self-assembled carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Shu-Jen; Tang, Jianshi; Kumar, Bharat; Falk, Abram; Farmer, Damon; Tulevski, George; Jenkins, Keith; Afzali, Ali; Oida, Satoshi; Ott, John; Hannon, James; Haensch, Wilfried

    2017-09-01

    As conventional monolithic silicon technology struggles to meet the requirements for the 7-nm technology node, there has been tremendous progress in demonstrating the scalability of carbon nanotube field-effect transistors down to the size that satisfies the 3-nm node and beyond. However, to date, circuits built with carbon nanotubes have overlooked key aspects of a practical logic technology and have stalled at simple functionality demonstrations. Here, we report high-performance complementary carbon nanotube ring oscillators using fully manufacturable processes, with a stage switching frequency of 2.82 GHz. The circuit was built on solution-processed, self-assembled carbon nanotube arrays with over 99.9% semiconducting purity, and the complementary feature was achieved by employing two different work function electrodes.

  7. High-speed logic integrated circuits with solution-processed self-assembled carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Shu-Jen; Tang, Jianshi; Kumar, Bharat; Falk, Abram; Farmer, Damon; Tulevski, George; Jenkins, Keith; Afzali, Ali; Oida, Satoshi; Ott, John; Hannon, James; Haensch, Wilfried

    2017-09-01

    As conventional monolithic silicon technology struggles to meet the requirements for the 7-nm technology node, there has been tremendous progress in demonstrating the scalability of carbon nanotube field-effect transistors down to the size that satisfies the 3-nm node and beyond. However, to date, circuits built with carbon nanotubes have overlooked key aspects of a practical logic technology and have stalled at simple functionality demonstrations. Here, we report high-performance complementary carbon nanotube ring oscillators using fully manufacturable processes, with a stage switching frequency of 2.82 GHz. The circuit was built on solution-processed, self-assembled carbon nanotube arrays with over 99.9% semiconducting purity, and the complementary feature was achieved by employing two different work function electrodes.

  8. Rapid Co-optimization of Processing and Circuit Design to Overcome Carbon Nanotube Variations

    OpenAIRE

    Hills, Gage; Zhang, Jie; Shulaker, Max Marcel; Wei, Hai; Lee, Chi-Shuen; Balasingam, Arjun; Wong, H. -S. Philip; Mitra, Subhasish

    2015-01-01

    Carbon nanotube field-effect transistors (CNFETs) are promising candidates for building energy-efficient digital systems at highly-scaled technology nodes. However, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are inherently subject to variations that reduce circuit yield, increase susceptibility to noise, and severely degrade their anticipated energy and speed benefits. Joint exploration and optimization of CNT processing options and CNFET circuit design are required to overcome this outstanding challenge. Unfor...

  9. Mass production of multi-wall carbon nanotubes by metal dusting process with high yield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghorbani, H. [School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Narmak, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rashidi, A.M., E-mail: Rashidiam@ripi.ir [Nanotechnology Research Center, Research Institute of Petroleum Industry (RIPI), West Blvd. Azadi Sport Complex, P.O. Box 14665-1998, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rastegari, S.; Mirdamadi, S. [School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Narmak, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Alaei, M. [Nanotechnology Research Center, Research Institute of Petroleum Industry (RIPI), West Blvd. Azadi Sport Complex, P.O. Box 14665-1998, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-05-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Synthesis of carbon nanotubes over Fe-Ni nanoparticles supported alloy 304L. {yields} Production of carbon nanotubes with high yield (700-1000%) and low cost catalyst. {yields} Optimum growth condition is CO/H{sub 2} = 1/1, 100 cm{sup 3}/min, at 620 {sup o}C under long term repetitive thermal cycling. {yields} Possibility of the mass production by metal dusting process with low cost. -- Abstract: Carbon nanotube materials were synthesized over Fe-Ni nanoparticles generated during disintegration of the surface of alloy 304L under metal dusting environment. The metal dusting condition was simulated and optimized through exposing stainless steel samples during long term repetitive thermal cycling in CO/H{sub 2} = 1/1, total gas flow rate 100 cm{sup 3}/min, at 620 {sup o}C for 300 h. After reaction, surface morphology of the samples and also carbonaceous deposition which had grown on sample surfaces were examined by stereoscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Results revealed that multi-wall carbon nanotubes could be formed over nanocatalyst generated on the alloy surface by exploiting metal dusting process. By optimization of reaction parameters the yields of carbon nanotube materials obtained were 700-1000%. Also it has been shown herein that the amount of carbon nanotube materials remarkably increases when the reaction time is extended up to 300 h, indicating a possibility of the mass production by this easy method.

  10. Control of Effluent Gases from Solid Waste Processing Using Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, John; Cinke, Martin; Wignarajab, Kanapathipillai

    2005-01-01

    One of the major problems associated with solid waste processing technologies is the release of effluent gases and contaminants that are in gaseous formed from the processes. A number of other gases, in particular NO(x), SO2, NH3, Hydrocarbons (e.g. CH4) do present hazards to the crew in space habitats. Reduction of mass, power, volume and resupply can be achieved by using catalyst impregnated carbon nanotubes as compared to other catalytic systems. The development and characterization of an innovative approach for the control and elimination of gaseous toxins using single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) promise superior performance over conventional approaches. This is due to the ability to direct the selective uptake of gaseous species based on their controllable pore size, high adsorptive capacity and the effectiveness of carbon nanotubes as catalyst supports for gaseous conversion. For example, SWNTs have high adsorptive capacity for NO and the adsorbed NO can be decomposed to N2 and O2 . Experimental results showing the decomposition of NO on metal impregnated carbon nanotubes is presented. Equivalent System Mass (ESM) comparisons are made of the existing TCCS systems with the carbon nanotube technology for removing NO(x). The potential for methane decomposition using carbon nanotubes catalysts is also discussed.

  11. Mass production of multi-wall carbon nanotubes by metal dusting process with high yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghorbani, H.; Rashidi, A.M.; Rastegari, S.; Mirdamadi, S.; Alaei, M.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Synthesis of carbon nanotubes over Fe-Ni nanoparticles supported alloy 304L. → Production of carbon nanotubes with high yield (700-1000%) and low cost catalyst. → Optimum growth condition is CO/H 2 = 1/1, 100 cm 3 /min, at 620 o C under long term repetitive thermal cycling. → Possibility of the mass production by metal dusting process with low cost. -- Abstract: Carbon nanotube materials were synthesized over Fe-Ni nanoparticles generated during disintegration of the surface of alloy 304L under metal dusting environment. The metal dusting condition was simulated and optimized through exposing stainless steel samples during long term repetitive thermal cycling in CO/H 2 = 1/1, total gas flow rate 100 cm 3 /min, at 620 o C for 300 h. After reaction, surface morphology of the samples and also carbonaceous deposition which had grown on sample surfaces were examined by stereoscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Results revealed that multi-wall carbon nanotubes could be formed over nanocatalyst generated on the alloy surface by exploiting metal dusting process. By optimization of reaction parameters the yields of carbon nanotube materials obtained were 700-1000%. Also it has been shown herein that the amount of carbon nanotube materials remarkably increases when the reaction time is extended up to 300 h, indicating a possibility of the mass production by this easy method.

  12. Preparation of carbon nanotubes by DC arc discharge process under reduced pressure in an air atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyeon Hwan; Kim, Hyeong Joon

    2006-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were grown using a DC arc discharge process in an air atmosphere and relevant process parameters were investigated. Without using an inert gas, multi walled carbon nanotubes could be synthesized in the deposit area of the cathode even in an air atmosphere, but single walled carbon nanotubes were not detected in the soot area despite using the same process conditions as in the inert gas. The air pressure for the highest yield of multi walled CNTs was 300 Torr. In addition, the quantity of amorphous carbon and other nanoparticles in the process chamber was remarkably reduced by this technique, showing that an efficient, feasible method of large scale CNT fabrication could be achieved by the arc discharge process

  13. Carbon nanotube nanoelectrode arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhifeng; Lin, Yuehe; Yantasee, Wassana; Liu, Guodong; Lu, Fang; Tu, Yi

    2008-11-18

    The present invention relates to microelectode arrays (MEAs), and more particularly to carbon nanotube nanoelectrode arrays (CNT-NEAs) for chemical and biological sensing, and methods of use. A nanoelectrode array includes a carbon nanotube material comprising an array of substantially linear carbon nanotubes each having a proximal end and a distal end, the proximal end of the carbon nanotubes are attached to a catalyst substrate material so as to form the array with a pre-determined site density, wherein the carbon nanotubes are aligned with respect to one another within the array; an electrically insulating layer on the surface of the carbon nanotube material, whereby the distal end of the carbon nanotubes extend beyond the electrically insulating layer; a second adhesive electrically insulating layer on the surface of the electrically insulating layer, whereby the distal end of the carbon nanotubes extend beyond the second adhesive electrically insulating layer; and a metal wire attached to the catalyst substrate material.

  14. Carbon nanotube filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, A.; Srivastava, O. N.; Talapatra, S.; Vajtai, R.; Ajayan, P. M.

    2004-09-01

    Over the past decade of nanotube research, a variety of organized nanotube architectures have been fabricated using chemical vapour deposition. The idea of using nanotube structures in separation technology has been proposed, but building macroscopic structures that have controlled geometric shapes, density and dimensions for specific applications still remains a challenge. Here we report the fabrication of freestanding monolithic uniform macroscopic hollow cylinders having radially aligned carbon nanotube walls, with diameters and lengths up to several centimetres. These cylindrical membranes are used as filters to demonstrate their utility in two important settings: the elimination of multiple components of heavy hydrocarbons from petroleum-a crucial step in post-distillation of crude oil-with a single-step filtering process, and the filtration of bacterial contaminants such as Escherichia coli or the nanometre-sized poliovirus (~25 nm) from water. These macro filters can be cleaned for repeated filtration through ultrasonication and autoclaving. The exceptional thermal and mechanical stability of nanotubes, and the high surface area, ease and cost-effective fabrication of the nanotube membranes may allow them to compete with ceramic- and polymer-based separation membranes used commercially.

  15. Method for synthesizing carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Hongyou

    2012-09-04

    A method for preparing a precursor solution for synthesis of carbon nanomaterials, where a polar solvent is added to at least one block copolymer and at least one carbohydrate compound, and the precursor solution is processed using a self-assembly process and subsequent heating to form nanoporous carbon films, porous carbon nanotubes, and porous carbon nanoparticles.

  16. Carbon Nanotubes and Modern Nanoagriculture

    KAUST Repository

    Serag, Maged F.

    2015-01-27

    Since their discovery, carbon nanotubes have been prominent members of the nanomaterial family. Owing to their extraordinary physical, chemical, and mechanical properties, carbon nanotubes have been proven to be a useful tool in the field of plant science. They were frequently perceived to bring about valuable biotechnological and agricultural applications that still remain beyond experimental realization. An increasing number of studies have demonstrated the ability of carbon nanotubes to traverse different plant cell barriers. These studies, also, assessed the toxicity and environmental impacts of these nanomaterials. The knowledge provided by these studies is of practical and fundamental importance for diverse applications including intracellular labeling and imaging, genetic transformation, and for enhancing our knowledge of plant cell biology. Although different types of nanoparticles have been found to activate physiological processes in plants, carbon nanotubes received particular interest. Following addition to germination medium, carbon nanotubes enhanced root growth and elongation of some plants such as onion, cucumber and rye-grass. They, also, modulated the expression of some genes that are essential for cell division and plant development. In addition, multi-walled carbon nanotubes were evidenced to penetrate thick seed coats, stimulate germination, and to enhance growth of young tomato seedlings. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes can penetrate deeply into the root system and further distribute into the leaves and the fruits. In recent studies, carbon nanotubes were reported to be chemically entrapped into the structure of plant tracheary elements. This should activate studies in the fields of plant defense and wood engineering. Although, all of these effects on plant physiology and plant developmental biology have not been fully understood, the valuable findings promises more research activity in the near future toward complete scientific understanding of

  17. Process for derivatizing carbon nanotubes with diazonium species and compositions thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tour, James M. (Inventor); Bahr, Jeffrey L. (Inventor); Yang, Jiping (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    Methods for the chemical modification of carbon nanotubes involve the derivatization of multi- and single-wall carbon nanotubes, including small diameter (ca. 0.7 nm) single-wall carbon nanotubes, with diazonium species. The method allows the chemical attachment of a variety of organic compounds to the side and ends of carbon nanotubes. These chemically modified nanotubes have applications in polymer composite materials, molecular electronic applications, and sensor devices. The methods of derivatization include electrochemical induced reactions, thermally induced reactions, and photochemically induced reactions. Moreover, when modified with suitable chemical groups, the derivatized nanotubes are chemically compatible with a polymer matrix, allowing transfer of the properties of the nanotubes (such as, mechanical strength or electrical conductivity) to the properties of the composite material as a whole. Furthermore, when modified with suitable chemical groups, the groups can be polymerized to form a polymer that includes carbon nanotubes.

  18. Surprising synthesis of nanodiamond from single-walled carbon nanotubes by the spark plasma sintering process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaei, Ali; Ham, Heon; Na, Han Gil; Kwon, Yong Jung; Kang, Sung Yong; Choi, Myung Sik; Bang, Jae Hoon; Park, No-Hyung; Kang, Inpil; Kim, Hyoun Woo

    2016-10-01

    Nanodiamond (ND) was successfully synthesized using single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) as a pure solid carbon source by means of a spark plasma sintering process. Raman spectra and X-ray diffraction patterns revealed the generation of the cubic diamond phase by means of the SPS process. Lattice-resolved TEM images confirmed that diamond nanoparticles with a diameter of about ˜10 nm existed in the products. The NDs were generated mainly through the gas-phase nucleation of carbon atoms evaporated from the SWCNTs. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  19. Control of Effluent Gases from Solid Waste Processing using Impregnated Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Fisher, John; Wignarajah, Kanapathipillai

    2005-01-01

    One of the major problems associated with solid waste processing technologies is effluent contaminants that are released in gaseous forms from the processes. This is a concern in both biological as well as physicochemical solid waste processing. Carbon dioxide (CO2), the major gas released, does not present a serious problem and there are currently in place a number of flight-qualified technologies for CO2 removal. However, a number of other gases, in particular NOx, SO2, NH3, and various hydrocarbons (e.g. CH4) do present health hazards to the crew members in space habitats. In the present configuration of solid waste processing in the International Space Station (ISS), some of these gases are removed by the Trace Contaminant Control System (TCCS), demands a major resupply. Reduction of the resupply can be effective by using catalyst impregnated carbon nanotubes. For example, NO decomposition to N2 and O2 is thermodynamically favored. Data showing decomposition of NO on metal impregnated carbon nanotubes is presented. Comparisons are made of the existing TCCS systems with the carbon nanotube based technology for removing NOx based on mass/energy penalties.

  20. Process, Structure, and Properties of Electrospun Carbon Nanotube-Reinforced Nanocomposite Yarns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasir M. Uddin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes (CNTs are dispersed into polyacrylonitrile polymer solution and then assembled into continuous nanocomposite yarns through the drum-tape co-electrospinning process to facilitate the translation of CNT properties to higher order structures. We explore the dispersion of CNTs in a polymer matrix, the process of obtaining continuous yarn through electrospinning, and the surface morphology and mechanical properties of the nanocomposite yarn.

  1. Real-Time Observation of Carbon Nanotube Etching Process Using Polarized Optical Microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qiuchen; Yao, Fengrui; Wang, Zequn; Deng, Shibin; Tong, Lianming; Liu, Kaihui; Zhang, Jin

    2017-08-01

    Controllable synthesis of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is of great importance in its further application, which attracts broad attention. As growth and etching are the two sides in the process of material crystallography and the control of the competition between them forms the foundation for modern technology of materials design and manufacture, the understanding on etching process of carbon nanotubes is still very unclear because technically it is of great challenge to characterize the dynamics in such small one-dimensional (1D) scale. Here the real-time investigation on the etching process of CNTs is reported, by the hot-wall chemical reactor equipped with a polarized optical microscope. It is discovered that the CNT etching behavior in air is totally of random, including the etching sites, termination sites, and structure dependence. Combining with the dynamic simulation, it is revealed that the random behavior reflects the unique "self-termination" phenomenon. A structure-independent etching propagation barrier of 2.4 eV is also obtained, which indicates that the etching propagation process still follows the conventional Kinetic Wulff construction theory. The results represent the new knowledge on the etching process in carbon nanotube and can contribute to its selective enrichment. Furthermore, the "self-termination" phenomenon may be a universal behavior in 1D process. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Recent development of carbon nanotube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamabe, Tokio [Div. of Molecular Engineering, Kyoto Univ. (Japan); [Inst. for Fundamental Chemistry, Kyoto (Japan)

    1995-03-15

    Recent developments of carbon nanotubes are reviewed. Analytical solutions for the electronic structure of carbon nanotube on the basis of thight-binding approximation are presented and interpreted using the concepts of crystal orbital. The electronic properties of actual carbon nanotubes are presented. The electronic structures of carbon nanotubes in the presence of magnetic fiels are also summerized. (orig.)

  3. Purification of carbon nanotubes via selective heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, John A.; Wilson, William L.; Jin, Sung Hun; Dunham, Simon N.; Xie, Xu; Islam, Ahmad; Du, Frank; Huang, Yonggang; Song, Jizhou

    2017-11-21

    The present invention provides methods for purifying a layer of carbon nanotubes comprising providing a precursor layer of substantially aligned carbon nanotubes supported by a substrate, wherein the precursor layer comprises a mixture of first carbon nanotubes and second carbon nanotubes; selectively heating the first carbon nanotubes; and separating the first carbon nanotubes from the second carbon nanotubes, thereby generating a purified layer of carbon nanotubes. Devices benefiting from enhanced electrical properties enabled by the purified layer of carbon nanotubes are also described.

  4. Functional materials based on carbon nanotubes: Carbon nanotube actuators and noncovalent carbon nanotube modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fifield, Leonard S.

    Carbon nanotubes have attractive inherent properties that encourage the development of new functional materials and devices based on them. The use of single wall carbon nanotubes as electromechanical actuators takes advantage of the high mechanical strength, surface area and electrical conductivity intrinsic to these molecules. The work presented here investigates the mechanisms that have been discovered for actuation of carbon nanotube paper: electrostatic, quantum chemical charge injection, pneumatic and viscoelastic. A home-built apparatus for the measurement of actuation strain is developed and utilized in the investigation. An optical fiber switch, the first demonstrated macro-scale device based on the actuation of carbon nanotubes, is described and its performance evaluated. Also presented here is a new general process designed to modify the surface of carbon nanotubes in a non-covalent, non-destructive way. This method can be used to impart new functionalities to carbon nanotube samples for a variety of applications including sensing, solar energy conversion and chemical separation. The process described involves the achievement of large degrees of graphitic surface coverage with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons through the use of supercritical fluids. These molecules are bifunctional agents that anchor a desired chemical group to the aromatic surface of the carbon nanotubes without adversely disrupting the conjugated backbone that gives rise the attractive electronic and physical properties of the nanotubes. Both the nanotube functionalization work and the actuator work presented here emphasize how an understanding and control of nanoscale structure and phenomena can be of vital importance in achieving desired performance for active materials. Opportunities for new devices with improved function over current state-of-the-art can be envisioned and anticipated based on this understanding and control.

  5. Vertically aligned carbon nanotubes black coatings from roll-to-roll deposition process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goislard de Monsabert, Thomas; Papciak, L.; Sangar, A.; Descarpentries, J.; Vignal, T.; de Longiviere, Xavier; Porterat, D.; Mestre, Q.; Hauf, H.

    2017-09-01

    Vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNTs) have recently attracted growing interest as a very efficient light absorbing material over a broad spectral range making them a superior coating in space optics applications such as radiometry, optical calibration, and stray light elimination. However, VACNT coatings available to-date most often result from batch-to-batch deposition processes thus potentially limiting the manufacturing repeatability, substrate size and cost efficiency of this material.

  6. Influence of tungsten on the carbon nanotubes growth by CVD process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escobar, Mariano [Instituto de Fisicoquimica de Materiales, Ambiente y Energia, CONICET-UBA, Pabellon II, Ciudad Universitaria (1428) Bs As (Argentina); LP and MC, Dep. De Fisica, FCEyN-UBA, Pabellon 1, Ciudad Universitaria (1428) Bs As (Argentina)], E-mail: mescobar@qi.fcen.uba.ar; Rubiolo, Gerardo H. [LP and MC, Dep. De Fisica, FCEyN-UBA, Pabellon 1, Ciudad Universitaria (1428) Bs As (Argentina); Unidad de Actividad Materiales, CNEA, Av. Gral. Paz 1499, San Martin (1650), Bs As (Argentina); Moreno, M. Sergio [Centro Atomico Bariloche, (8400) S.C. de Bariloche, Rio Negro (Argentina); Goyanes, Silvia [LP and MC, Dep. De Fisica, FCEyN-UBA, Pabellon 1, Ciudad Universitaria (1428) Bs As (Argentina); Candal, Roberto [Instituto de Fisicoquimica de Materiales, Ambiente y Energia, CONICET-UBA, Pabellon II, Ciudad Universitaria (1428) Bs As (Argentina)

    2009-06-24

    The effect of tungsten (W) on the growth of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) using the chemical vapour deposition (CVD) process over a metal Fe-W catalyst incorporated into a silica matrix is reported. A W molar content in Fe/SiO{sub 2} up to 10% was studied. The incorporation of only 2% of W substantially modifies the crystalline phases and the crystalline degree of the catalyst during the MWNTs synthesis. This fact seems to have a strong influence on the type and yield of the carbonaceous species obtained by the CVD of acetylene, at 600 deg. C and 180 Torr, over each catalyst. Tungsten interacts with iron within the matrix, diminishing the catalytic activity of the metal nanoparticles, and both, carbon nanotubes and carbon nanofibers, are obtained when tungsten is present. The results obtained support the hypothesis of a base growth model for carbon nanotubes indicating a strong interaction between silica matrix and Fe/W nanoparticles, independently of the content of W.

  7. Influence of tungsten on the carbon nanotubes growth by CVD process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escobar, Mariano; Rubiolo, Gerardo H.; Moreno, M. Sergio; Goyanes, Silvia; Candal, Roberto

    2009-01-01

    The effect of tungsten (W) on the growth of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) using the chemical vapour deposition (CVD) process over a metal Fe-W catalyst incorporated into a silica matrix is reported. A W molar content in Fe/SiO 2 up to 10% was studied. The incorporation of only 2% of W substantially modifies the crystalline phases and the crystalline degree of the catalyst during the MWNTs synthesis. This fact seems to have a strong influence on the type and yield of the carbonaceous species obtained by the CVD of acetylene, at 600 deg. C and 180 Torr, over each catalyst. Tungsten interacts with iron within the matrix, diminishing the catalytic activity of the metal nanoparticles, and both, carbon nanotubes and carbon nanofibers, are obtained when tungsten is present. The results obtained support the hypothesis of a base growth model for carbon nanotubes indicating a strong interaction between silica matrix and Fe/W nanoparticles, independently of the content of W.

  8. Conducting carbonized polyaniline nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mentus, Slavko; Ciric-Marjanovic, Gordana; Trchova, Miroslava; Stejskal, Jaroslav

    2009-01-01

    Conducting nitrogen-containing carbon nanotubes were synthesized by the carbonization of self-assembled polyaniline nanotubes protonated with sulfuric acid. Carbonization was carried out in a nitrogen atmosphere at a heating rate of 10 deg. C min -1 up to a maximum temperature of 800 deg. C. The carbonized polyaniline nanotubes which have a typical outer diameter of 100-260 nm, with an inner diameter of 20-170 nm and a length extending from 0.5 to 0.8 μm, accompanied with very thin nanotubes with outer diameters of 8-14 nm, inner diameters 3.0-4.5 nm and length extending from 0.3 to 1.0 μm, were observed by scanning and transmission electron microscopies. Elemental analysis showed 9 wt% of nitrogen in the carbonized product. Conductivity of the nanotubular PANI precursor, amounting to 0.04 S cm -1 , increased to 0.7 S cm -1 upon carbonization. Molecular structure of carbonized polyaniline nanotubes has been analyzed by FTIR and Raman spectroscopies, and their paramagnetic characteristics were compared with the starting PANI nanotubes by EPR spectroscopy.

  9. Conducting carbonized polyaniline nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mentus, Slavko; Ciric-Marjanovic, Gordana [Faculty of Physical Chemistry, University of Belgrade, Studentski trg 12-16, 11158 Belgrade (Serbia); Trchova, Miroslava; Stejskal, Jaroslav [Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Heyrovsky Square 2, 162 06 Prague 6 (Czech Republic)], E-mail: gordana@ffh.bg.ac.rs

    2009-06-17

    Conducting nitrogen-containing carbon nanotubes were synthesized by the carbonization of self-assembled polyaniline nanotubes protonated with sulfuric acid. Carbonization was carried out in a nitrogen atmosphere at a heating rate of 10 deg. C min{sup -1} up to a maximum temperature of 800 deg. C. The carbonized polyaniline nanotubes which have a typical outer diameter of 100-260 nm, with an inner diameter of 20-170 nm and a length extending from 0.5 to 0.8 {mu}m, accompanied with very thin nanotubes with outer diameters of 8-14 nm, inner diameters 3.0-4.5 nm and length extending from 0.3 to 1.0 {mu}m, were observed by scanning and transmission electron microscopies. Elemental analysis showed 9 wt% of nitrogen in the carbonized product. Conductivity of the nanotubular PANI precursor, amounting to 0.04 S cm{sup -1}, increased to 0.7 S cm{sup -1} upon carbonization. Molecular structure of carbonized polyaniline nanotubes has been analyzed by FTIR and Raman spectroscopies, and their paramagnetic characteristics were compared with the starting PANI nanotubes by EPR spectroscopy.

  10. CMOS Integrated Carbon Nanotube Sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, M. S.; Lerner, B.; Boselli, A.; Lamagna, A.; Obregon, P. D. Pareja; Julian, P. M.; Mandolesi, P. S.; Buffa, F. A.

    2009-01-01

    Recently carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been gaining their importance as sensors for gases, temperature and chemicals. Advances in fabrication processes simplify the formation of CNT sensor on silicon substrate. We have integrated single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) with complementary metal oxide semiconductor process (CMOS) to produce a chip sensor system. The sensor prototype was designed and fabricated using a 0.30 um CMOS process. The main advantage is that the device has a voltage amplifier so the electrical measure can be taken and amplified inside the sensor. When the conductance of the SWCNTs varies in response to media changes, this is observed as a variation in the output tension accordingly.

  11. Carbon nanotubes/magnetite hybrids prepared by a facile synthesis process and their magnetic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Li; Ni, Qing-Qing; Natsuki, Toshiaki; Fu Yaqin

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, a facile synthesis process is proposed to prepare multiwalled carbon nanotubes/magnetite (MWCNTs/Fe 3 O 4 ) hybrids. The process involves two steps: (1) water-soluble CNTs are synthesized by one-pot modification using potassium persulfate (KPS) as oxidant. (2) Fe 3 O 4 is assembled along the treated CNTs by employing a facile hydrothermal process with the presence of hydrazine hydrate as the mineralizer. The treated CNTs can be easily dispersed in aqueous solvent. Moreover, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis reveals that several functional groups such as potassium carboxylate (-COOK), carbonyl (-C=O) and hydroxyl (-C-OH) groups are formed on the nanotube surfaces. The MWCNTs/Fe 3 O 4 hybrids are characterized with respect to crystal structure, morphology, element composition and magnetic property by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), XPS and superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometer. XRD and TEM results show that the Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles with diameter in the range of 20-60 nm were firmly assembled on the nanotube surface. The magnetic property investigation indicated that the CNTs/Fe 3 O 4 hybrids exhibit a ferromagnetic behavior and possess a saturation magnetization of 32.2 emu/g. Further investigation indicates that the size of assembled Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles can be turned by varying experiment factors. Moreover, a probable growth mechanism for the preparation of CNTs/Fe 3 O 4 hybrids was discussed.

  12. Rapid microwave processing of epoxy nanocomposites using carbon nanotubes

    OpenAIRE

    Luhyna, Nataliia; Inam, Fawad; Winnington, Ian

    2013-01-01

    Microwave processing is one of the rapid processing techniques for manufacturing nanocomposites. There is very little work focussing on the addition of CNTs for shortening the curing time of epoxy nanocomposites. Using microwave energy, the effect of CNT addition on the curing of epoxy nanocomposites was researched in this work. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to determine the degree of cure for epoxy and nanocomposite samples. CNT addition significantly reduced the duration ...

  13. Carbon nanotube junctions and devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, H.W.Ch.

    2001-01-01

    In this thesis Postma presents transport experiments performed on individual single-wall carbon nanotubes. Carbon nanotubes are molecules entirely made of carbon atoms. The electronic properties are determined by the exact symmetry of the nanotube lattice, resulting in either metallic or

  14. Three-Phase Carbon Fiber Amine Functionalized Carbon Nanotubes Epoxy Composite: Processing, Characterisation, and Multiscale Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper discusses the key issues of carbon nanotube (CNT dispersion and effect of functionalisation on the mechanical properties of multiscale carbon epoxy composites. In this study, CNTs were added in epoxy matrix and further reinforced with carbon fibres. Predetermined amounts of optimally amine functionalised CNTs were dispersed in epoxy matrix, and unidirectional carbon fiber laminates were produced. The effect of the presence of CNTs (1.0 wt% in the resin was reflected by pronounced increase in Young’s modulus, inter-laminar shear strength, and flexural modulus by 51.46%, 39.62%, and 38.04%, respectively. However, 1.5 wt% CNT loading in epoxy resin decreased the overall properties of the three-phase composites. A combination of Halpin-Tsai equations and micromechanics modeling approach was also used to evaluate the mechanical properties of multiscale composites and the differences between the predicted and experimental values are reported. These multiscale composites are likely to be used for potential missile and aerospace structural applications.

  15. Synthesis of highly aligned carbon nanotubes by one-step liquid-phase process: Effects of carbon sources on morphology of carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagiwa, Kiyofumi; Kuwano, Jun

    2017-06-01

    This paper describes a unique and innovative synthesis technique for carbon nanotubes (CNTs) by a one-step liquid-phase process under ambient pressure. Vertically aligned multi-walled CNT arrays with a maximum height of 100 µm are prepared on stainless steel substrates, which are submerged and electrically heated in straight-chain primary alcohols with n C = 1-4 (n C: number of C atoms in the molecule) containing an appropriate amount of cobalt-based organometallic complex as a catalyst precursor. Structural isomers of butanol were also used for the synthesis to examine the effects of structural factors on the morphology of the deposited products. Notably, 2-methyl-2-propanol, which is a tertiary alcohol, produced only a small amount of low-crystallinity carbonaceous deposits, whereas vertically aligned CNTs were grown from the other isomers of butanol. These results suggest that the presence or absence of β-hydrogen in the molecular structure is a key factor for understanding the dissociation behavior of the carbon source molecules on the catalyst.

  16. EDITORIAL: Focus on Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-09-01

    The study of carbon nanotubes, since their discovery by Iijima in 1991, has become a full research field with significant contributions from all areas of research in solid-state and molecular physics and also from chemistry. This Focus Issue in New Journal of Physics reflects this active research, and presents articles detailing significant advances in the production of carbon nanotubes, the study of their mechanical and vibrational properties, electronic properties and optical transitions, and electrical and transport properties. Fundamental research, both theoretical and experimental, represents part of this progress. The potential applications of nanotubes will rely on the progress made in understanding their fundamental physics and chemistry, as presented here. We believe this Focus Issue will be an excellent guide for both beginners and experts in the research field of carbon nanotubes. It has been a great pleasure to edit the many excellent contributions from Europe, Japan, and the US, as well from a number of other countries, and to witness the remarkable effort put into the manuscripts by the contributors. We thank all the authors and referees involved in the process. In particular, we would like to express our gratitude to Alexander Bradshaw, who invited us put together this Focus Issue, and to Tim Smith and the New Journal of Physics staff for their extremely efficient handling of the manuscripts. Focus on Carbon Nanotubes Contents Transport theory of carbon nanotube Y junctions R Egger, B Trauzettel, S Chen and F Siano The tubular conical helix of graphitic boron nitride F F Xu, Y Bando and D Golberg Formation pathways for single-wall carbon nanotube multiterminal junctions Inna Ponomareva, Leonid A Chernozatonskii, Antonis N Andriotis and Madhu Menon Synthesis and manipulation of carbon nanotubes J W Seo, E Couteau, P Umek, K Hernadi, P Marcoux, B Lukic, Cs Mikó, M Milas, R Gaál and L Forró Transitional behaviour in the transformation from active end

  17. Electron diffraction from carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin, L-C

    2006-01-01

    The properties of a carbon nanotube are dependent on its atomic structure. The atomic structure of a carbon nanotube can be defined by specifying its chiral indices (u, v), that specify its perimeter vector (chiral vector), with which the diameter and helicity are also determined. The fine electron beam available in a modern transmission electron microscope (TEM) offers a unique probe to reveal the atomic structure of individual nanotubes. This review covers two aspects related to the use of the electron probe in the TEM for the study of carbon nanotubes: (a) to understand the electron diffraction phenomena for inter-pretation of the electron diffraction patterns of carbon nanotubes and (b) to obtain the chiral indices (u, v), of the carbon nanotubes from the electron diffraction patterns. For a nanotube of a given structure, the electron scattering amplitude from the carbon nanotube is first described analytically in closed form using the helical diffraction theory. From a known structure as given by the chiral indices (u, v), its electron diffraction pattern can be calculated and understood. The reverse problem, i.e. assignment of the chiral indices from an electron diffraction pattern of a carbon nanotube, is approached from the relationship between the electron scattering intensity distribution and the chiral indices (u, v). We show that electron diffraction patterns can provide an accurate and unambiguous assignment of the chiral indices of carbon nanotubes. The chiral indices (u, v) can be read indiscriminately with a high accuracy from the intensity distribution on the principal layer lines in an electron diffraction pattern. The symmetry properties of electron diffraction from carbon nanotubes and the electron diffraction from deformed carbon nanotubes are also discussed in detail. It is shown that 2mm symmetry is always preserved for single-walled carbon nanotubes, but it can break down for multiwalled carbon nanotubes under some special circumstances

  18. Processing and Characterization of a Novel Distributed Strain Sensor Using Carbon Nanotube-Based Nonwoven Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongbo Dai

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the development of an innovative carbon nanotube-based non-woven composite sensor that can be tailored for strain sensing properties and potentially offers a reliable and cost-effective sensing option for structural health monitoring (SHM. This novel strain sensor is fabricated using a readily scalable process of coating Carbon nanotubes (CNT onto a nonwoven carrier fabric to form an electrically-isotropic conductive network. Epoxy is then infused into the CNT-modified fabric to form a free-standing nanocomposite strain sensor. By measuring the changes in the electrical properties of the sensing composite the deformation can be measured in real-time. The sensors are repeatable and linear up to 0.4% strain. Highest elastic strain gage factors of 1.9 and 4.0 have been achieved in the longitudinal and transverse direction, respectively. Although the longitudinal gage factor of the newly formed nanocomposite sensor is close to some metallic foil strain gages, the proposed sensing methodology offers spatial coverage, manufacturing customizability, distributed sensing capability as well as transverse sensitivity.

  19. Amorphous molecular junctions produced by ion irradiation on carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhenxia; Yu Liping; Zhang Wei; Ding Yinfeng; Li Yulan; Han Jiaguang; Zhu Zhiyuan; Xu Hongjie; He Guowei; Chen Yi; Hu Gang

    2004-01-01

    Experiments and molecular dynamics have demonstrated that electron irradiation could create molecular junctions between crossed single-wall carbon nanotubes. Recently molecular dynamics computation predicted that ion irradiation could also join single-walled carbon nanotubes. Employing carbon ion irradiation on multi-walled carbon nanotubes, we find that these nanotubes evolve into amorphous carbon nanowires, more importantly, during the process of which various molecular junctions of amorphous nanowires are formed by welding from crossed carbon nanotubes. It demonstrates that ion-beam irradiation could be an effective way not only for the welding of nanotubes but also for the formation of nanowire junctions

  20. Adhered Supported Carbon Nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Dale F.; Craft, Benjamin J.; Jaffe, Stephen M.

    2001-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (NTs) in excess of 200 μm long are grown by catalytic pyrolysis of hydrocarbon vapors. The nanotubes grow continuously without the typical extinction due to catalyst encapsulation. A woven metal mesh supports the nanotubes creating a metal supported nanotube (MSNT) structure. The 140 μm wide mesh openings are completely filled by 70 nm diameter multiwalled nanotubes (MWNTs). The MWNTs are straight, uniform and highly crystalline. Their wall thickness is about 10 nm (30 graphite layers). The adherent NTs are not removed from the support in a Scotch tape pull test. A 12.5 cm 2 capacitor made from two MSNT structures immersed in 1 M KCl has a capacitance of 0.35 F and an equivalent series resistance of 0.18 Ω. Water flows through the MSNT at a flow velocity of 1 cm/min with a pressure drop of 15 inches of water. With the support removed, the MWNTs naturally form a carbon nanocomposite (CNC) paper with a specific area of 80 m 2 /gm, a bulk density of 0.21 g/cm 3 , an open pore fraction of 0.81, and a resistivity of 0.16 Ω-cm

  1. Aligned multi-walled carbon nanotube-reinforced composites: processing and mechanical characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thostenson, Erik T.; Chou, Tsuwei

    2002-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes have been the subject of considerable attention because of their exceptional physical and mechanical properties. These properties observed at the nanoscale have motivated researchers to utilize carbon nanotubes as reinforcement in composite materials. In this research, a micro-scale twin-screw extruder was used to achieve dispersion of multi-walled carbon nanotubes in a polystyrene matrix. Highly aligned nanocomposite films were produced by extruding the polymer melt through a rectangular die and drawing the film prior to cooling. Randomly oriented nanocomposites were produced by achieving dispersion first with the twin-screw extruder followed by pressing a film using a hydraulic press. The tensile behaviour of the aligned and random nanocomposite films with 5 wt.{%} loading of nanotubes were characterized. Addition of nanotubes increased the tensile modulus, yield strength and ultimate strengths of the polymer films, and the improvement in elastic modulus with the aligned nanotube composite is five times greater than the improvement for the randomly oriented composite. (author)

  2. Skin effect mitigation in laser processed multi-walled carbon nanotube/copper conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keramatnejad, K.; Zhou, Y. S.; Gao, Y.; Rabiee Golgir, H.; Wang, M.; Jiang, L.; Silvain, J.-F.; Lu, Y. F.

    2015-10-01

    In this study, laser-processed multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)/Cu conductors are introduced as potential passive components to mitigate the skin effect of Cu at high frequencies (0-10 MHz). Suppressed skin effect is observed in the MWCNT/Cu conductors compared to primitive Cu. At an AC frequency of 10 MHz, a maximum AC resistance reduction of 94% was observed in a MWCNT/Cu conductor after being irradiated at a laser power density of 189 W/cm2. The reduced skin effect in the MWCNT/Cu conductors is ascribed to the presence of MWCNT channels which are insensitive to AC frequencies. The laser irradiation process is observed to play a crucial role in reducing contact resistance at the MWCNT-Cu interfaces, removing impurities in MWCNTs, and densifying MWCNT films.

  3. Skin effect mitigation in laser processed multi-walled carbon nanotube/copper conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keramatnejad, K.; Zhou, Y. S.; Gao, Y.; Rabiee Golgir, H.; Wang, M.; Lu, Y. F., E-mail: ylu2@unl.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588-0511 (United States); Jiang, L. [School of Mechanical Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Silvain, J.-F. [Institut de Chimie de la Matière Condensée de Bordeaux (ICMCB-CNRS) 87, Avenue du Docteur Albert Schweitzer F-33608 Pessac Cedex (France)

    2015-10-21

    In this study, laser-processed multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)/Cu conductors are introduced as potential passive components to mitigate the skin effect of Cu at high frequencies (0–10 MHz). Suppressed skin effect is observed in the MWCNT/Cu conductors compared to primitive Cu. At an AC frequency of 10 MHz, a maximum AC resistance reduction of 94% was observed in a MWCNT/Cu conductor after being irradiated at a laser power density of 189 W/cm{sup 2}. The reduced skin effect in the MWCNT/Cu conductors is ascribed to the presence of MWCNT channels which are insensitive to AC frequencies. The laser irradiation process is observed to play a crucial role in reducing contact resistance at the MWCNT-Cu interfaces, removing impurities in MWCNTs, and densifying MWCNT films.

  4. Skin effect mitigation in laser processed multi-walled carbon nanotube/copper conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keramatnejad, K.; Zhou, Y. S.; Gao, Y.; Rabiee Golgir, H.; Wang, M.; Lu, Y. F.; Jiang, L.; Silvain, J.-F.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, laser-processed multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)/Cu conductors are introduced as potential passive components to mitigate the skin effect of Cu at high frequencies (0–10 MHz). Suppressed skin effect is observed in the MWCNT/Cu conductors compared to primitive Cu. At an AC frequency of 10 MHz, a maximum AC resistance reduction of 94% was observed in a MWCNT/Cu conductor after being irradiated at a laser power density of 189 W/cm 2 . The reduced skin effect in the MWCNT/Cu conductors is ascribed to the presence of MWCNT channels which are insensitive to AC frequencies. The laser irradiation process is observed to play a crucial role in reducing contact resistance at the MWCNT-Cu interfaces, removing impurities in MWCNTs, and densifying MWCNT films

  5. Effects of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT under Neisseria meningitidis transformation process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattos Ives B

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed at verifying the action of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT under the naturally transformable Neisseria meningitidis against two different DNA obtained from isogenic mutants of this microorganism, an important pathogen implicated in the genetic horizontal transfer of DNA, causing the escape of the principal vaccination measured worldwide by the capsular switching process. Materials and methods The bacterium receptor strain C2135 was cultivated and had its mutant DNA donor M2 and M6, which received a receptor strain and MWCNT at three different concentrations. The inhibition effect of DNAse on the DNA in contact with nanoparticles was evaluated. Results The results indicated an in increase in the transformation capacity of N. meninigtidis in different concentrations of MWCNT when compared with negative control without nanotubes. A final analysis of the interaction between DNA and MWCNT was carried out using Raman Spectroscopy. Conclusion These increases in the transformation capacity mediated by MWCNT, in meningococci, indicate the interaction of these particles with the virulence acquisition of these bacteria, as well as with the increase in the vaccination escape process.

  6. Liquid surface model for carbon nanotube energetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solov'yov, Ilia; Mathew, Maneesh; Solov'yov, Andrey V.

    2008-01-01

    an important insight in the energetics and stability of nanotubes of different chirality and might be important for the understanding of nanotube growth process. For the computations we use empirical Brenner and Tersoff potentials and discuss their applicability to the study of carbon nanotubes. From......In the present paper we developed a model for calculating the energy of single-wall carbon nanotubes of arbitrary chirality. This model, which we call as the liquid surface model, predicts the energy of a nanotube with relative error less than 1% once its chirality and the total number of atoms...... the calculated energies we determine the elastic properties of the single-wall carbon nanotubes (Young modulus, curvature constant) and perform a comparison with available experimental measurements and earlier theoretical predictions....

  7. Time-dependent study of the exfoliation process of carbon nanotubes in aqueous dispersions by using UV-visible spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grossiord, N.; Regev, O.; Loos, J.; Meuldijk, J.; Koning, C.E.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we demonstrate that the sonication-driven exfoliation of aggregates and bundles of single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) in an aqueous surfactant solution can be easily monitored by UV-vis spectroscopy. The different stages of the exfoliation process were directly visualized by

  8. On the influence of the processing conditions on the performance of electrically conductive carbon nanotube/polymer nanocomposites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grossiord, N.; Kivit, P.J.J.; Loos, J.; Meuldijk, J.; Kyrylyuk, A.V; Schoot, van der P.P.A.M.; Koning, C.E.

    2008-01-01

    We prepared multiwalled carbon nanotube/polystyrene (MWCNT/PS) nanocomposites using a latex-based process, the main step of which consists of directly mixing an aqueous suspension of exfoliated MWCNTs and a PS latex, both stabilized by an anionic surfactant. After freeze drying and compression

  9. Process modeling of conductivity in nanocomposites based on reticulated polymers and carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolgoshej, V.B.; Korskanov, V.V.; Karpova, I.L.; Bardash, L.V.

    2012-01-01

    The dependences of electric conductivities of thermosetting polymer nanocomposites based on epoxy polymer and polycyanurate filled by carbon nanotubes were investigated. Low values of percolation threshold at volume fraction of carbon nanotubes from 0.001 to 0.002 were observed for all samples.Absolute values of the percolation threshold are in good agreement with the results of mathematical modeling. It is established that electrical properties of thermosetting polymer nanocomposites can be characterized in the frame of the same theoretical model despite difference in polymers properties

  10. Nanocomposites with Liquid-Like Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes Dispersed in Epoxy Resin without Solvent Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Liquid-like multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWNTs were prepared with as-received carboxylic MWNTs-COOH and poly(ethylene oxide-block-poly(propylene oxide-block-poly(ethylene oxide (PEO-b-PPO-b-PEO through hydrogen bonding. The sample has liquid-like behavior above 58°C. The MWNTs content is 26.6 wt%. The liquid-like MWNTs nanofluids were incorporated into epoxy matrix with solvent-free process and dispersed well. When the liquid-like MWNTs nanofluids content is up to 1 wt%, the impact toughness of the nanocomposite is 153% higher than the pure epoxy matrix.

  11. Carbon nanotube plane fastener

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaori Hirahara

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We report a feature of carbon nanotubes (CNTs that arises when the surfaces of two vertically-aligned CNT brushes are pressed together. Adhesion between the CNTs creates a plane fastener-like device. Observations from scanning electron microscopy and measurements of adhesion properties indicate a device-dependence on CNT density and shape near the tip region. Among other applications, such fasteners have the potential to attach small components onto micron-sized electronic devices.

  12. Carbon nanotube network varactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Generalov, A A; Anoshkin, I V; Lioubtchenko, D V; Räisänen, A V; Erdmanis, M; Ovchinnikov, V; Nasibulin, A G

    2015-01-01

    Microelectromechanical system (MEMS) varactors based on a freestanding layer of single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) films were designed, fabricated and tested. The freestanding SWCNT film was employed as a movable upper patch in the parallel plate capacitor of the MEMS. The measurements of the SWCNT varactors show very high tunability, nearly 100%, of the capacitance with a low actuation voltage of 10 V. The functionality of the varactor is improved by implementing a flexible nanocellulose aerogel filling. (paper)

  13. Using in-situ polymerization of conductive polymers to enhance the electrical properties of solution-processed carbon nanotube films and fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Ranulfo; Pan, Lijia; Fuller, Gerald G; Bao, Zhenan

    2014-07-09

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes/polymer composites typically have limited conductivity due to a low concentration of nanotubes and the insulating nature of the polymers used. Here we combined a method to align carbon nanotubes with in-situ polymerization of conductive polymer to form composite films and fibers. Use of the conducting polymer raised the conductivity of the films by 2 orders of magnitude. On the other hand, CNT fiber formation was made possible with in-situ polymerization to provide more mechanical support to the CNTs from the formed conducting polymer. The carbon nanotube/conductive polymer composite films and fibers had conductivities of 3300 and 170 S/cm, respectively. The relatively high conductivities were attributed to the polymerization process, which doped both the SWNTs and the polymer. In-situ polymerization can be a promising solution-processable method to enhance the conductivity of carbon nanotube films and fibers.

  14. Growth of carbon nanotubes by Fe-catalyzed chemical vapor processes on silicon-based substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelucci, Renato; Rizzoli, Rita; Vinciguerra, Vincenzo; Fortuna Bevilacqua, Maria; Guerri, Sergio; Corticelli, Franco; Passini, Mara

    2007-03-01

    In this paper, a site-selective catalytic chemical vapor deposition synthesis of carbon nanotubes on silicon-based substrates has been developed in order to get horizontally oriented nanotubes for field effect transistors and other electronic devices. Properly micro-fabricated silicon oxide and polysilicon structures have been used as substrates. Iron nanoparticles have been obtained both from a thin Fe film evaporated by e-gun and from iron nitrate solutions accurately dispersed on the substrates. Single-walled nanotubes with diameters as small as 1 nm, bridging polysilicon and silicon dioxide “pillars”, have been grown. The morphology and structure of CNTs have been characterized by SEM, AFM and Raman spectroscopy.

  15. Solution-processed single-wall carbon nanotube transistor arrays for wearable display backplanes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byeong-Cheol Kang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we demonstrate solution-processed single-wall carbon nanotube thin-film transistor (SWCNT-TFT arrays with polymeric gate dielectrics on the polymeric substrates for wearable display backplanes, which can be directly attached to the human body. The optimized SWCNT-TFTs without any buffer layer on flexible substrates exhibit a linear field-effect mobility of 1.5cm2/V-s and a threshold voltage of around 0V. The statistical plot of the key device metrics extracted from 35 SWCNT-TFTs which were fabricated in different batches at different times conclusively support that we successfully demonstrated high-performance solution-processed SWCNT-TFT arrays which demand excellent uniformity in the device performance. We also investigate the operational stability of wearable SWCNT-TFT arrays against an applied strain of up to 40%, which is the essential for a harsh degree of strain on human body. We believe that the demonstration of flexible SWCNT-TFT arrays which were fabricated by all solution-process except the deposition of metal electrodes at process temperature below 130oC can open up new routes for wearable display backplanes.

  16. Microstructure and mechanical properties of nickel coated multi walled carbon nanotube reinforced stainless steel 316L matrix composites by laser sintering process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahanthesha, P.; Mohankumar, G. C.

    2018-04-01

    Electroless Ni coated Multi-walled Carbon nanotubes reinforced with Stainless Steel 316L matrix composite was developed by Direct Metal Laser Sintering process (DMLS). Homogeneous mixture of Stainless Steel 316L powder and carbon nanotubes in different vol. % was obtained by using double cone blender machine. Characterization of electroless Ni coated carbon nanotubes was done by using X-ray diffraction, FESEM and EDS. Test samples were fabricated at different laser scan speeds. Effect of process parameters and CNT vol. % content on solidification microstructure and mechanical properties of test samples was investigated by using Optical microscopy, FESEM, and Hounsfield tensometer. Experimental results reveal DMLS process parameters affect the density and microstructure of sintered parts. Dense parts with minimum porosity when processed at low laser scan speeds and low CNT vol. %. Tensile fractured surface of test specimens evidences the survival of carbon nanotubes under high temperature processing condition.

  17. Synthesis and characterization of carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritschel, Manfred; Bartsch, Karl; Leonhardt, Albrecht; Graff, Andreas; Täschner, Christine; Fink, Jörg

    2001-11-01

    The catalytic chemical vapor deposition (CCVD) is a very promising process with respect to large scale production of different kinds of carbon nanostructures. By modifying the deposition temperature, the catalyst material and the hydrocarbon nanofibers with herringbone structure, multi-walled nanotubes with tubular structure and single-walled nanotubes were deposited. Furthermore, layers of aligned multi-walled nanotubes could be obtained on oxidized silicon substrates coated with thin sputtered metal layers (Co, permalloy) as well as onto WC-Co hardmetals by using the microwave assisted plasma CVD process (MWCVD). The obtained carbon modifications were characterized by scanning (SEM) and transmission (TEM) electron microscopy. The hydrogen storage capability of the nanofibers and nanotubes and the electron field emission of the nanotube layers was investigated.

  18. Geckolike high shear strength by carbon nanotube fiber adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeno, Y.; Nakayama, Y.

    2009-01-01

    Carbon nanotube adhesives can adhere strongly to surfaces as a gecko does. The number of carbon nanotube layers is an important determinant of the contact area for adhesion. Balancing the catalyst ratio and buffer layer used for chemical vapor deposition processing controls the number of carbon nanotube layers and their distribution. The features of carbon nanotubes determine the shear strength of adhesion. Carbon nanotubes with a broad distribution of layers exhibit enhanced shear strength with equivalent adhesive capability to that of a natural Tokay Gecko (Gekko gecko)

  19. Polymerization initated at sidewalls of carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tour, James M. (Inventor); Hudson, Jared L. (Inventor); Krishnamoorti, Ramanan (Inventor); Yurekli, Koray (Inventor); Mitchell, Cynthia A. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    The present invention is directed to aryl halide (such as aryl bromide) functionalized carbon nanotubes that can be utilized in anionic polymerization processes to form polymer-carbon nanotube materials with improved dispersion ability in polymer matrices. In this process the aryl halide is reacted with an alkyllithium species or is reacted with a metal to replace the aryl-bromine bond with an aryl-lithium or aryl-metal bond, respectively. It has further been discovered that other functionalized carbon nanotubes, after deprotonation with a deprotonation agent, can similarly be utilized in anionic polymerization processes to form polymer-carbon nanotube materials. Additionally or alternatively, a ring opening polymerization process can be performed. The resultant materials can be used by themselves due to their enhanced strength and reinforcement ability when compared to their unbound polymer analogs. Additionally, these materials can also be blended with pre-formed polymers to establish compatibility and enhanced dispersion of nanotubes in otherwise hard to disperse matrices resulting in significantly improved material properties. The resultant polymer-carbon nanotube materials can also be used in drug delivery processes due to their improved dispersion ability and biodegradability, and can also be used for scaffolding to promote cellular growth of tissue.

  20. Analysis of Material Removal and Surface Characteristics in Machining Multi Walled Carbon Nanotubes Filled Alumina Composites by WEDM Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annebushan Singh Meinam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The reinforcement of ceramic materials with electrically conductive particles increases the overall conductivity of the ceramic material. This allows the ceramic material to be more readily machined using wire electrical discharge machining process. The current work is an approach to identify the machinability of multi walled carbon nanotubes filled alumina composites in wire electrical discharge machining process. Alumina samples of 5 vol. % and 10 vol. % multi walled carbon nanotubes are machined and analysed for material removal rate and the surface characteristics. An increase in material removal rate is observed with increase in filler concentrations. At the same time, better surface roughness is observed. The surface characteristics of composite alumina are further compared with Monel 400 alloy. It has been observed that spalling action is the dominating material removal mechanism for alumina composites, while melting and evaporation is for the Monel 400 alloy.

  1. Batch-processed carbon nanotube wall as pressure and flow sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jungwook; Kim, Jongbaeg

    2010-01-01

    A pressure and flow sensor based on the electrothermal-thermistor effect of a batch-processed carbon nanotube wall (CNT wall) is presented. The negative temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) of CNTs and the temperature dependent tunneling rate through the CNT/silicon junction enable vacuum pressure and flow velocity sensing because the heat transfer rate between CNTs and the surrounding gas molecules differs depending on pressure and flow rate. The CNT walls are synthesized by thermal chemical vapor deposition (CVD) on an array of microelectrodes fabricated on a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafer. The CNTs are self-assembled between the microelectrodes and substrate across the thickness of a buried oxide layer during the synthesis process, and the simple batch fabrication results in high throughput and yield. A wide pressure range, down to 3 x 10 -3 from 10 5 Pa, and a nitrogen flow velocity range between 1 and 52.4 mm s -1 , are sensed. Further experimental characterizations of the bias voltage dependent response of the sensor as a vacuum pressure gauge are presented.

  2. Influence of duration time of CVD process on emissive properties of carbon nanotubes films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stępinska Izabela

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper various types of films made of carbon nanotubes (CNTs are presented. These films were prepared on different substrates (Al2O3, Si n-type by the two-step method. The two-step method consists of physical vapor deposition step, followed by chemical vapor deposition step (PVD/CVD. Parameters of PVD process were the same for all initial films, while the duration times of the second step - the CVD process, were different (15, 30 min.. Prepared films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM and field emission (FE measurements. The I-E and F-N characteristics of electron emission were discussed in terms of various forms of CNT films. The value of threshold electric field ranged from few V/μm (for CNT dispersed rarely on the surface of the film deposited on Si up to ~20 V/μm (for Al2O3 substrate.

  3. Continuous carbon nanotube reinforced composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ci, L; Suhr, J; Pushparaj, V; Zhang, X; Ajayan, P M

    2008-09-01

    Carbon nanotubes are considered short fibers, and polymer composites with nanotube fillers are always analogues of random, short fiber composites. The real structural carbon fiber composites, on the other hand, always contain carbon fiber reinforcements where fibers run continuously through the composite matrix. With the recent optimization in aligned nanotube growth, samples of nanotubes in macroscopic lengths have become available, and this allows the creation of composites that are similar to the continuous fiber composites with individual nanotubes running continuously through the composite body. This allows the proper utilization of the extreme high modulus and strength predicted for nanotubes in structural composites. Here, we fabricate such continuous nanotube polymer composites with continuous nanotube reinforcements and report that under compressive loadings, the nanotube composites can generate more than an order of magnitude improvement in the longitudinal modulus (up to 3,300%) as well as damping capability (up to 2,100%). It is also observed that composites with a random distribution of nanotubes of same length and similar filler fraction provide three times less effective reinforcement in composites.

  4. Performance of Solution Processed Carbon Nanotube Field Effect Transistors with Graphene Electrodes

    OpenAIRE

    Gangavarapu, P R Yasasvi; Lokesh, Punith Chikkahalli; Bhat, K N; Naik, A K

    2016-01-01

    This work evaluates the performance of carbon nanotube field effect transistors (CNTFET) using few layer graphene as the contact electrode material. We present the experimental results obtained on the barrier height at CNT graphene junction using temperature dependent IV measurements. The estimated barrier height in our devices for both holes and electrons is close to zero or slightly negative indicating the Ohmic contact of graphene with the valence and conduction bands of CNTs. In addition,...

  5. Ballistic resistance capacity of carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mylvaganam, Kausala; Zhang, L C

    2007-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes have high strength, light weight and excellent energy absorption capacity and therefore have great potential applications in making antiballistic materials. By examining the ballistic impact and bouncing-back processes on carbon nanotubes, this investigation shows that nanotubes with large radii withstand higher bullet speeds and the ballistic resistance is the highest when the bullet hits the centre of the CNT; the ballistic resistance of CNTs will remain the same on subsequent bullet strikes if the impact is after a small time interval

  6. Mechanical properties of carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvetat, J.-P.; Bonard, J.-M.; Thomson, N. H.; Kulik, A. J.; Forró, L.; Benoit, W.; Zuppiroli, L.

    A variety of outstanding experimental results on the elucidation of the elastic properties of carbon nanotubes are fast appearing. These are based mainly on the techniques of high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) to determine the Young's moduli of single-wall nanotube bundles and multi-walled nanotubes, prepared by a number of methods. These results are confirming the theoretical predictions that carbon nanotubes have high strength plus extraordinary flexibility and resilience. As well as summarising the most notable achievements of theory and experiment in the last few years, this paper explains the properties of nanotubes in the wider context of materials science and highlights the contribution of our research group in this rapidly expanding field. A deeper understanding of the relationship between the structural order of the nanotubes and their mechanical properties will be necessary for the development of carbon-nanotube-based composites. Our research to date illustrates a qualitative relationship between the Young's modulus of a nanotube and the amount of disorder in the atomic structure of the walls. Other exciting results indicate that composites will benefit from the exceptional mechanical properties of carbon nanotubes, but that the major outstanding problem of load transfer efficiency must be overcome before suitable engineering materials can be produced.

  7. Modification of carbon nanotubes with fluorinated ionic liquid for improving processability of fluoro-ethylene-propylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Hongyang; Chu, Benjamin; Hsiao, Benjamin S.

    2017-02-01

    Fluorinated ionic liquid (F-IL), 1-(3-perfluorooctylpropyl)-3-methylimidazolium bis(perfluoroethylsufonyl)amine, had been successfully prepared and employed to modify multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) for improving the processability of fluoro-ethylene-propylene (FEP). The thermally decomposed temperature of F-IL was higher than 350 °C measured by thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) which indicated that the fluorinated ionic liquid could be suitable for melting blend with FEP (blending at 290 °C) by a twin-screw extruder. Through “cation-π” interaction between the imidazolium cation of F-IL and the graphene surface of MWCNTs, MWCNTs can be modified with F-IL and used as nanofillers to improve the dispersity of MWCNTs in fluorocopolymer FEP verified by SEM images of the FEP nanocomposite. The structural characterization and mechanical property of FEP nanocomposite during the deformation were investigated by tensile experiments and simultaneous time-resolved wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) techniques.

  8. Low-cost, solution processable carbon nanotube supercapacitors and their characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtimäki, Suvi; Tuukkanen, Sampo; Pörhönen, Juho; Moilanen, Pasi; Virtanen, Jorma; Honkanen, Mari; Lupo, Donald

    2014-06-01

    We report ecological and low-cost carbon nanotube (CNT) supercapacitors fabricated using a simple, scalable solution processing method, where the use of a highly porous and electrically conductive active material eliminates the need for a current collector. Electrodes were fabricated on a poly(ethylene terephthalate) substrate from a printable multi-wall CNT ink, where the CNTs are solubilized in water using xylan as a dispersion agent. The dispersion method facilitates a very high concentration of CNTs in the ink. Supercapacitors were assembled using a paper separator and an aqueous NaCl electrolyte and the devices were characterized with a galvanostatic discharge method defined by an industrial standard. The capacitance of the 2 cm^2 devices was 6 mF/cm^2 (2.3 F/g) and equivalent series resistance 80 Ω . Low-cost supercapacitors fabricated from safe and environmentally friendly materials have potential applications as energy storage devices in ubiquitous and autonomous intelligence as well as in disposable low-end products.

  9. Water-processed carbon nanotube/graphene hybrids with enhanced field emission properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Meng; Xu, Peng; Wang, Xu; Wu, Huizhen; Wang, Miao; Song, Yenan; Li, Zhenhua; Zhao, Pei; Shang, Xuefu

    2015-01-01

    Integrating carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphene into hybrid structures provides a novel approach to three dimensional (3D) materials with advantageous properties. Here we present a water-processing method to create integrated CNT/graphene hybrids and test their field emission properties. With an optimized mass ratio of CNTs to graphene, the hybrid shows a significantly enhanced field emission performance, such as turn-on electric field of 0.79 V/μm, threshold electric field of 1.05 V/μm, maximum current density of 0.1 mA/cm 2 , and field enhancement factor of ∼1.3 × 10 4 . The optimized mass ratio for field emission emphasizes the importance of both CNTs and graphene in the hybrid. We also hypothesize a possible mechanism for this enhanced field emission performance from the CNT/graphene hybrid. During the solution treatment, graphene oxide behaves as surfactant sheets for CNTs to form a well dispersed solution, which leads to a better organized 3D structure with more conducting channels for electron transport

  10. Alkaline electrochemical advanced oxidation process for chromium oxidation at graphitized multi-walled carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yudong; Zheng, Shili; Sun, Zhi; Zhang, Yi; Jin, Wei

    2017-09-01

    Alkaline electrochemical advanced oxidation processes for chromium oxidation and Cr-contaminated waste disposal were reported in this study. The highly graphitized multi-walled carbon nanotubes g-MWCNTs modified electrode was prepared for the in-situ electrochemical generation of HO 2 - . RRDE test results illustrated that g-MWCNTs exhibited much higher two-electron oxygen reduction activity than other nanocarbon materials with peak current density of 1.24 mA cm -2 , %HO 2 - of 77.0% and onset potential of -0.15 V (vs. Hg/HgO). It was originated from the highly graphitized structure and good electrical conductivity as illustrated from the Raman, XRD and EIS characterizations, respectively. Large amount of reactive oxygen species (HO 2 - and ·OH) were in-situ electro-generated from the two-electron oxygen reduction and chromium-induced alkaline electro-Fenton-like reaction. The oxidation of Cr(III) was efficiently achieved within 90 min and the conversion ratio maintained more than 95% of the original value after stability test, offering an efficient and green approach for the utilization of Cr-containing wastes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Water-processed carbon nanotube/graphene hybrids with enhanced field emission properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Meng; Xu, Peng; Wang, Xu; Wu, Huizhen; Wang, Miao, E-mail: peizhao@zju.edu.cn, E-mail: miaowang@css.zju.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Song, Yenan; Li, Zhenhua; Zhao, Pei, E-mail: peizhao@zju.edu.cn, E-mail: miaowang@css.zju.edu.cn [Institute of Applied Mechanics, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Shang, Xuefu [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China)

    2015-09-15

    Integrating carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphene into hybrid structures provides a novel approach to three dimensional (3D) materials with advantageous properties. Here we present a water-processing method to create integrated CNT/graphene hybrids and test their field emission properties. With an optimized mass ratio of CNTs to graphene, the hybrid shows a significantly enhanced field emission performance, such as turn-on electric field of 0.79 V/μm, threshold electric field of 1.05 V/μm, maximum current density of 0.1 mA/cm{sup 2}, and field enhancement factor of ∼1.3 × 10{sup 4}. The optimized mass ratio for field emission emphasizes the importance of both CNTs and graphene in the hybrid. We also hypothesize a possible mechanism for this enhanced field emission performance from the CNT/graphene hybrid. During the solution treatment, graphene oxide behaves as surfactant sheets for CNTs to form a well dispersed solution, which leads to a better organized 3D structure with more conducting channels for electron transport.

  12. Release of carbon nanotubes from an epoxy-based nanocomposite during an abrasion process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlagenhauf, Lukas; Chu, Bryan T T; Buha, Jelena; Nüesch, Frank; Wang, Jing

    2012-07-03

    The abrasion behavior of an epoxy/carbon nanotube (CNT) nanocomposite was investigated. An experimental setup has been established to perform abrasion, particle measurement, and collection all in one. The abraded particles were characterized by particle size distribution and by electron microscopy. The abrasion process was carried out with a Taber Abraser, and the released particles were collected by a tube for further investigation. The particle size distributions were measured with a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and an aerodynamic particle sizer (APS) and revealed four size modes for all measured samples. The mode corresponding to the smallest particle sizes of 300-400 nm was measured with the SMPS and showed a trend of increasing size with increasing nanofiller content. The three measured modes with particle sizes from 0.6 to 2.5 μm, measured with the APS, were similar for all samples. The measured particle concentrations were between 8000 and 20,000 particles/cm(3) for measurements with the SMPS and between 1000 and 3000 particles/cm(3) for measurements with the APS. Imaging by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed that free-standing individual CNTs and agglomerates were emitted during abrasion.

  13. Carbon nanotube based photocathodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudanski, Ludovic; Minoux, Eric; Schnell, Jean-Philippe; Xavier, Stephane; Pribat, Didier; Legagneux, Pierre; Gangloff, Laurent; Teo, Kenneth B K; Robertson, John; Milne, William I

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a novel photocathode which is an array of vertically aligned multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), each MWCNT being associated with one p-i-n photodiode. Unlike conventional photocathodes, the functions of photon-electron conversion and subsequent electron emission are physically separated. Photon-electron conversion is achieved with p-i-n photodiodes and the electron emission occurs from the MWCNTs. The current modulation is highly efficient as it uses an optically controlled reconfiguration of the electric field at the MWCNT locations. Such devices are compatible with high frequency and very large bandwidth operation and could lead to their application in compact, light and efficient microwave amplifiers for satellite telecommunication. To demonstrate this new photocathode concept, we have fabricated the first carbon nanotube based photocathode using silicon p-i-n photodiodes and MWCNT bunches. Using a green laser, this photocathode delivers 0.5 mA with an internal quantum efficiency of 10% and an I ON /I OFF ratio of 30

  14. Carbon nanotube array actuators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geier, S; Mahrholz, T; Wierach, P; Sinapius, M

    2013-01-01

    Experimental investigations of highly vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs), also known as CNT-arrays, are the main focus of this paper. The free strain as result of an active material behavior is analyzed via a novel experimental setup. Previous test experiences of papers made of randomly oriented CNTs, also called Bucky-papers, reveal comparably low free strain. The anisotropy of aligned CNTs promises better performance. Via synthesis techniques like chemical vapor deposition (CVD) or plasma enhanced CVD (PECVD), highly aligned arrays of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are synthesized. Two different types of CNT-arrays are analyzed, morphologically first, and optically tested for their active characteristics afterwards. One type of the analyzed arrays features tube lengths of 750–2000 μm with a large variety of diameters between 20 and 50 nm and a wave-like CNT-shape. The second type features a maximum, almost uniform, length of 12 μm and a constant diameter of 50 nm. Different CNT-lengths and array types are tested due to their active behavior. As result of the presented tests, it is reported that the quality of orientation is the most decisive property for excellent active behavior. Due to their alignment, CNT-arrays feature the opportunity to clarify the actuation mechanism of architectures made of CNTs. (paper)

  15. Carbon nanotube biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tîlmaciu, Carmen-Mihaela; Morris, May C.

    2015-01-01

    Nanomaterials possess unique features which make them particularly attractive for biosensing applications. In particular, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) can serve as scaffolds for immobilization of biomolecules at their surface, and combine several exceptional physical, chemical, electrical, and optical characteristics properties which make them one of the best suited materials for the transduction of signals associated with the recognition of analytes, metabolites, or disease biomarkers. Here we provide a comprehensive review on these carbon nanostructures, in which we describe their structural and physical properties, functionalization and cellular uptake, biocompatibility, and toxicity issues. We further review historical developments in the field of biosensors, and describe the different types of biosensors which have been developed over time, with specific focus on CNT-conjugates engineered for biosensing applications, and in particular detection of cancer biomarkers. PMID:26579509

  16. Carbon Nanotube Biosensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen-Mihaela eTilmaciu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Nanomaterials possess unique features which make them particularly attractive for biosensing applications. In particular Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs can serve as scaffolds for immobilization of biomolecules at their surface, and combine several exceptional physical, chemical, electrical and optical characteristics properties which make them one of the best suited materials for the transduction of signals associated with the recognition of analytes, metabolites or disease biomarkers. Here we provide a comprehensive review on these carbon nanostructures, in which we will describe their structural and physical properties, discuss functionalization and cellular uptake, biocompatibility and toxicity issues. We further review historical developments in the field of biosensors, and describe the different types of biosensors which have been developed over time, with specific focus on CNT-conjugates engineered for biosensing applications, and in particular detection of cancer biomarkers.

  17. Ultralow field emission from thinned, open-ended, and defected carbon nanotubes by using microwave hydrogen plasma processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Jian-Hua, E-mail: jhdeng1983@163.com [College of Physics and Materials Science, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin 300387 (China); Cheng, Lin; Wang, Fan-Jie; Yu, Bin; Li, Guo-Zheng; Li, De-Jun [College of Physics and Materials Science, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin 300387 (China); Cheng, Guo-An [Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Material Modification of Ministry of Education, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China)

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Thinned, open-ended, and defected carbon nanotubes were prepared by using hydrogen plasma processing. The processed carbon nanotubes have far better field emission performance than that of the pristine ones. - Highlights: • CVD prepared CNT arrays were processed by microwave hydrogen plasma. • Thinned, open-ended, and defected CNTs were obtained. • Processed CNTs have far better field emission performance than the pristine ones. • Processed CNTs have applicable emission stability after being perfectly aged. - Abstract: Ultralow field emission is achieved from carbon nanotubes (CNTs) by using microwave hydrogen plasma processing. After the processing, typical capped CNT tips are removed, with thinned, open-ended, and defected CNTs left. Structural analyses indicate that the processed CNTs have more SP{sup 3}-hybridized defects as compared to the pristine ones. The morphology of CNTs can be readily controlled by adjusting microwave powers, which change the shape of CNTs by means of hydrogen plasma etching. Processed CNTs with optimal morphology are found to have an ultralow turn-on field of 0.566 V/μm and threshold field of 0.896 V/μm, much better than 0.948 and 1.559 V/μm of the as-grown CNTs, respectively. This improved FE performance is ascribed to the structural changes of CNTs after the processing. The thinned and open-ended shape of CNTs can facilitate electron tunneling through barriers and additionally, the increased defects at tube walls can serve as new active emission sites. Furthermore, our plasma processed CNTs exhibit excellent field emission stability at a large emission current density of 10.36 mA/cm{sup 2} after being perfectly aged, showing promising prospects in applications as high-performance vacuum electron sources.

  18. Growth of small diameter multi-walled carbon nanotubes by arc discharge process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhary, K. T.; Ali, J.; Yupapin, P. P.

    2014-01-01

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are grown by arc discharge method in a controlled methane environment. The arc discharge is produced between two graphite electrodes at the ambient pressures of 100 torr, 300 torr, and 500 torr. Arc plasma parameters such as temperature and density are estimated to investigate the influences of the ambient pressure and the contributions of the ambient pressure to the growth and the structure of the nanotubes. The plasma temperature and density are observed to increase with the increase in the methane ambient pressure. The samples of MWCNT synthesized at different ambient pressures are analyzed using transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. An increase in the growth of MWCNT and a decrease in the inner tube diameter are observed with the increase in the methane ambient pressure

  19. Method for producing carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Jonathan [Santa Fe, NM; Perry, William L [Jemez Springs, NM; Chen, Chun-Ku [Albuquerque, NM

    2006-02-14

    Method for producing carbon nanotubes. Carbon nanotubes were prepared using a low power, atmospheric pressure, microwave-generated plasma torch system. After generating carbon monoxide microwave plasma, a flow of carbon monoxide was directed first through a bed of metal particles/glass beads and then along the outer surface of a ceramic tube located in the plasma. As a flow of argon was introduced into the plasma through the ceramic tube, ropes of entangled carbon nanotubes, attached to the surface of the tube, were produced. Of these, longer ropes formed on the surface portion of the tube located in the center of the plasma. Transmission electron micrographs of individual nanotubes revealed that many were single-walled.

  20. Industrial compatible re-growth of vertically aligned multiwall carbon nanotubes by ultrafast pure oxygen purification process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bu, Ian Y.Y.; Hou, Kai; Engstrøm, Daniel Southcott

    2011-01-01

    amorphous carbon and reactivate nickel catalyst. Controlling of the purification temperature is important for high yield CNTs, as excessive high annealing temperature results in deformation of the CNTs. Unlike hazardous wet purification treatments, purified CNTs remained vertically aligned and offer......Reproducible high-yield purification process of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) was developed by thermal annealing in ultrapure oxygen. The optimized condition involves thermal annealing via a PID controlled heater in high purity oxygen at temperature of 450°C for 180s, which burns out...

  1. Electronics with carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avouris, P.

    2007-01-01

    From mobile phones and laptops to Xboxes and iPods, it is difficult to think of any aspect of modern life that has not been touched by developments in electronics, computing and communications over the last few decades. Many of these technological advances have arisen from our ability to create ever smaller electronic devices, in particular silicon-based field effect transistors (FETs), which has led to denser, faster and less power-hungry circuits. The problem is that this device miniaturization, or 'scaling', cannot continue forever. Fundamental scientific and technological limitations exist that will make it impossible to build better performing silicon devices below a certain size. This potential show-stopper has inspired a worldwide effort to develop alternative device technologies based on 1D materials or those that exploit the spin, as well as the charge, of electrons. One promising and, in principle, simpler approach is to maintain the operating concept of today's silicon-based FETs but to replace a key component of the device - the semiconducting silicon channel - with 1D nanostructures that have much more versatile electrical-transport properties. Among the different 1D materials that have been developed, those with the most desirable properties are 'single-walled' carbon nanotubes, which were first created in 1993 by Sumio Ijima at the NEC Fundamental Research Laboratory in Tsukuba, Japan, and by Donald Bethune of IBM's Almaden Research Center in California. These materials are hollow tubes made from rolled up sheets of carbon just one atom thick, otherwise known as graphene. In the March issue of Physics World, Phaedon Avouris discusses some of the many properties and applications of carbon nanotubes, which he describes as an 'engineer's dream' because of their exceptionally high strength and heat conduction. (U.K.)

  2. Vertically aligned multiwalled carbon nanotubes as electronic interconnects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopee, Vimal Chandra

    The drive for miniaturisation of electronic circuits provides new materials challenges for the electronics industry. Indeed, the continued downscaling of transistor dimensions, described by Moore’s Law, has led to a race to find suitable replacements for current interconnect materials to replace copper. Carbon nanotubes have been studied as a suitable replacement for copper due to its superior electrical, thermal and mechanical properties. One of the advantages of using carbon nanotubes is their high current carrying capacity which has been demonstrated to be three orders of magnitude greater than that of copper. Most approaches in the implementation of carbon nanotubes have so far focused on the growth in vias which limits their application. In this work, a process is described for the transfer of carbon nanotubes to substrates allowing their use for more varied applications. Arrays of vertically aligned multiwalled carbon nanotubes were synthesised by photo-thermal chemical vapour deposition with high growth rates. Raman spectroscopy was used to show that the synthesised carbon nanotubes were of high quality. The carbon nanotubes were exposed to an oxygen plasma and the nature of the functional groups present was determined using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Functional groups, such as carboxyl, carbonyl and hydroxyl groups, were found to be present on the surface of the multiwalled carbon nanotubes after the functionalisation process. The multiwalled carbon nanotubes were metallised after the functionalisation process using magnetron sputtering. Two materials, solder and sintered silver, were chosen to bind carbon nanotubes to substrates so as to enable their transfer and also to make electrical contact. The wettability of solder to carbon nanotubes was investigated and it was demonstrated that both functionalisation and metallisation were required in order for solder to bond with the carbon nanotubes. Similarly, functionalisation followed by metallisation

  3. Continuous Growth of Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotubes Forests

    OpenAIRE

    Guzman de Villoria, Roberto; Wardle, Brian L.

    2011-01-01

    Vertically aligned carbon nanotubes are one of the most promising materials due their numerous applications in flexible electronic devices, biosensors and multifunctional aircraft materials, among others. However, the costly production of aligned carbon nanotubes, generally in a batch process, prevents their commercial use. For the first time, a controlled process to grow aligned carbon nanotubes in a continuous manner is presented. Uniform growth is achieved using 2D and 3D substrates. A sig...

  4. Functionalization of Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khare, Bishun N. (Inventor); Meyyappan, Meyya (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Method and system for functionalizing a collection of carbon nanotubes (CNTs). A selected precursor gas (e.g., H2 or F2 or CnHm) is irradiated to provide a cold plasma of selected target species particles, such as atomic H or F, in a first chamber. The target species particles are d irected toward an array of CNTs located in a second chamber while suppressing transport of ultraviolet radiation to the second chamber. A CNT array is functionalized with the target species particles, at or below room temperature, to a point of saturation, in an exposure time interval no longer than about 30 sec. *Discrimination against non-target species is provided by (i) use of a target species having a lifetime that is much greater than a lifetime of a non-target species and/or (2) use of an applied magnetic field to discriminate between charged particle trajectories for target species and for non-target species.

  5. Carbon Nanotube Electron Gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Cattien V. (Inventor); Ribaya, Bryan P. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    An electron gun, an electron source for an electron gun, an extractor for an electron gun, and a respective method for producing the electron gun, the electron source and the extractor are disclosed. Embodiments provide an electron source utilizing a carbon nanotube (CNT) bonded to a substrate for increased stability, reliability, and durability. An extractor with an aperture in a conductive material is used to extract electrons from the electron source, where the aperture may substantially align with the CNT of the electron source when the extractor and electron source are mated to form the electron gun. The electron source and extractor may have alignment features for aligning the electron source and the extractor, thereby bringing the aperture and CNT into substantial alignment when assembled. The alignment features may provide and maintain this alignment during operation to improve the field emission characteristics and overall system stability of the electron gun.

  6. Carbon Nanotube based Nanotechnolgy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyyappan, M.

    2000-10-01

    Carbon nanotube(CNT) was discovered in the early 1990s and is an off-spring of C60(the fullerene or buckyball). CNT, depending on chirality and diameter, can be metallic or semiconductor and thus allows formation of metal-semiconductor and semiconductor-semiconductor junctions. CNT exhibits extraordinary electrical and mechanical properties and offers remarkable potential for revolutionary applications in electronics devices, computing and data storage technology, sensors, composites, storage of hydrogen or lithium for battery development, nanoelectromechanical systems(NEMS), and as tip in scanning probe microscopy(SPM) for imaging and nanolithography. Thus the CNT synthesis, characterization and applications touch upon all disciplines of science and engineering. A common growth method now is based on CVD though surface catalysis is key to synthesis, in contrast to many CVD applications common in microelectronics. A plasma based variation is gaining some attention. This talk will provide an overview of CNT properties, growth methods, applications, and research challenges and opportunities ahead.

  7. Proposal of Carbon Nanotube Inductors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tsubaki, K; Nakajima, Y; Hanajiri, T; Yamaguchi, H

    2006-01-01

    The inductors made of carbon Nanotube (CNT) have been proposed. Though the fabrication of the proposed inductor is still challenging and has many problems, merits of the proposed inductor are following...

  8. Effect of laser radiation on multi-wall carbon nanotubes: study of shell structure and immobilization process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gyoergy, Enikoe, E-mail: egyorgy@icmab.es; Perez del Pino, Angel [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Barcelona, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (ICMAB-CSIC) (Spain); Roqueta, Jaume; Ballesteros, Belen [Centro de Investigaciones en Nanociencia y Nanotecnologia, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CIN2-CSIC) (Spain); Cabana, Laura; Tobias, Gerard [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Barcelona, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (ICMAB-CSIC) (Spain)

    2013-08-15

    Multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) with diameters between 10 and 15 nm were transferred and immobilized onto SiO{sub 2} glass substrates by ultraviolet matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (UV-MAPLE). Toluene was chosen as solvent material for the preparation of the composite MAPLE targets. An UV KrF* ({lambda} = 248 nm, {tau}{sub FWHM} {approx_equal} 25 ns, {nu} = 10 Hz) excimer laser source was used for the irradiation experiments. The effects of incident laser fluence on the structure of the laser transferred MWCNTs was investigated by high resolution transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The surface morphology of the laser processed MWCNTs was investigated by field emission scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy in acoustic (dynamic) configuration. Network-like structures constituted by individual nanotubes and nanotube bundles were created onto solid substrates. Changes in the nanotubes' shell structure can be induced through the tuning of the laser fluence value incident onto the composite MAPLE targets.

  9. Selective functionalization of carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strano, Michael S. (Inventor); Usrey, Monica (Inventor); Barone, Paul (Inventor); Dyke, Christopher A. (Inventor); Tour, James M. (Inventor); Kittrell, W. Carter (Inventor); Hauge, Robert H. (Inventor); Smalley, Richard E. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention is directed toward methods of selectively functionalizing carbon nanotubes of a specific type or range of types, based on their electronic properties, using diazonium chemistry. The present invention is also directed toward methods of separating carbon nanotubes into populations of specific types or range(s) of types via selective functionalization and electrophoresis, and also to the novel compositions generated by such separations.

  10. Carbon nanotubes for coherent spintronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuemmeth, Ferdinand; Churchill, H O H; Herring, P K

    2010-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes bridge the molecular and crystalline quantum worlds, and their extraordinary electronic, mechanical and optical properties have attracted enormous attention from a broad scientific community. We review the basic principles of fabricating spin-electronic devices based on individual......, electrically-gated carbon nanotubes, and present experimental efforts to understand their electronic and nuclear spin degrees of freedom, which in the future may enable quantum applications....

  11. Optical properties of carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gugang

    This thesis addresses the optical properties of novel carbon filamentary nanomaterials: single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWNTs), and SWNTs with interior C60 molecules ("peapods"). Optical reflectance spectra of bundled SWNTs are discussed in terms of their electronic energy band structure. An Effective Medium Model for a composite material was found to provide a reasonable description of the spectra. Furthermore, we have learned from optical absorption studies of DWNTs and C60-peapods that the host tube and the encapsulant interact weakly; small shifts in interband absorption structure were observed. Resonant Raman scattering studies on SWNTs synthesized via the HiPCO process show that the "zone-folding" approximation for phonons and electrons works reasonably well, even for small diameter (d effect, rather than the vdW interaction. Finally, we studied the chemical doping of DWNTs, where the dopant (Br anions) is chemically bound to the outside of the outer tube. The doped DWNT system is a model for a cylindrical molecular capacitor. We found experimentally that 90% of the positive charge resides on the outer tube, so that most of electric field on the inner tube is screened, i.e., we have observed a molecular Faraday cage effect. A self-consistent theoretical model in the tight-binding approximation with a classical electrostatic energy term is in good agreement with our experimental results.

  12. Illuminating the future of silicon photonics: optical coupling of carbon nanotubes to microrings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Y K

    2015-01-01

    Advances in carbon nanotube material quality and processing techniques have led to an increased interest in nanotube photonics. In particular, emission in the telecommunication wavelengths makes nanotubes compatible with silicon photonics. Noury et al (2014 Nanotechnology 25 215201) have reported on carbon nanotube photoluminescence coupled to silicon microring resonators, underscoring the advantage of combining carbon nanotube emitters with silicon photonics. Their results open up the possibility of using nanotubes in other waveguide-based devices, taking advantage of well-established technologies. (viewpoint)

  13. Confocal Microscopy for Process Monitoring and Wide-Area Height Determination of Vertically-Aligned Carbon Nanotube Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Piwko

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Confocal microscopy is introduced as a new and generally applicable method for the characterization of the vertically-aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNT forest height. With this technique process control is significantly intensified. The topography of the substrate and VACNT can be mapped with a height resolution down to 15 nm. The advantages of confocal microscopy, compared to scanning electron microscopy (SEM, are demonstrated by investigating the growth kinetics of VACNT using Al2O3 buffer layers with varying thicknesses. A process optimization using confocal microscopy for fast VACNT forest height evaluation is presented.

  14. Carbon nanotube computer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulaker, Max M; Hills, Gage; Patil, Nishant; Wei, Hai; Chen, Hong-Yu; Wong, H-S Philip; Mitra, Subhasish

    2013-09-26

    The miniaturization of electronic devices has been the principal driving force behind the semiconductor industry, and has brought about major improvements in computational power and energy efficiency. Although advances with silicon-based electronics continue to be made, alternative technologies are being explored. Digital circuits based on transistors fabricated from carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have the potential to outperform silicon by improving the energy-delay product, a metric of energy efficiency, by more than an order of magnitude. Hence, CNTs are an exciting complement to existing semiconductor technologies. Owing to substantial fundamental imperfections inherent in CNTs, however, only very basic circuit blocks have been demonstrated. Here we show how these imperfections can be overcome, and demonstrate the first computer built entirely using CNT-based transistors. The CNT computer runs an operating system that is capable of multitasking: as a demonstration, we perform counting and integer-sorting simultaneously. In addition, we implement 20 different instructions from the commercial MIPS instruction set to demonstrate the generality of our CNT computer. This experimental demonstration is the most complex carbon-based electronic system yet realized. It is a considerable advance because CNTs are prominent among a variety of emerging technologies that are being considered for the next generation of highly energy-efficient electronic systems.

  15. Chemically Functionalized Carbon Nanotubes as Substrates for Neuronal Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hui; Ni, Yingchun; Montana, Vedrana; Haddon, Robert C.; Parpura, Vladimir

    2009-01-01

    We report the use of chemically modified carbon nanotubes as a substrate for cultured neurons. The morphological features of neurons that directly reflect their potential capability in synaptic transmission are characterized. The chemical properties of carbon nanotubes are systematically varied by attaching different functional groups that confer known characteristics to the substrate. By manipulating the charge carried by functionalized carbon nanotubes we are able to control the outgrowth and branching pattern of neuronal processes. PMID:21394241

  16. Selective Functionalization of Carbon Nanotubes: Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyyappan, Meyya; Khare, Bishun

    2010-01-01

    An alternative method of low-temperature plasma functionalization of carbon nanotubes provides for the simultaneous attachment of molecular groups of multiple (typically two or three) different species or different mixtures of species to carbon nanotubes at different locations within the same apparatus. This method is based on similar principles, and involves the use of mostly the same basic apparatus, as those of the methods described in "Low-Temperature Plasma Functionalization of Carbon Nanotubes" (ARC-14661-1), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 28, No. 5 (May 2004), page 45. The figure schematically depicts the basic apparatus used in the aforementioned method, with emphasis on features that distinguish the present alternative method from the other. In this method, one exploits the fact that the composition of the deposition plasma changes as the plasma flows from its source in the precursor chamber toward the nanotubes in the target chamber. As a result, carbon nanotubes mounted in the target chamber at different flow distances (d1, d2, d3 . . .) from the precursor chamber become functionalized with different species or different mixtures of species. In one series of experiments to demonstrate this method, N2 was used as the precursor gas. After the functionalization process, the carbon nanotubes from three different positions in the target chamber were examined by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy to identify the molecular groups that had become attached. On carbon nanotubes from d1 = 1 cm, the attached molecular groups were found to be predominantly C-N and C=N. On carbon nanotubes from d2 = 2.5 cm, the attached molecular groups were found to be predominantly C-(NH)2 and/or C=NH2. (The H2 was believed to originate as residual hydrogen present in the nanotubes.) On carbon nanotubes from d3 = 7 cm no functionalization could be detected - perhaps, it was conjectured, because this distance is downstream of the plasma source, all of the free ions and free radicals of

  17. Processing real-world waste plastics by pyrolysis-reforming for hydrogen and high-value carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chunfei; Nahil, Mohamad A; Miskolczi, Norbert; Huang, Jun; Williams, Paul T

    2014-01-01

    Producing both hydrogen and high-value carbon nanotubes (CNTs) derived from waste plastics is reported here using a pyrolysis-reforming technology comprising a two-stage reaction system, in the presence of steam and a Ni-Mn-Al catalyst. The waste plastics consisted of plastics from a motor oil container (MOC), commercial waste high density polyethylene (HDPE) and regranulated HDPE waste containing polyvinyl chloride (PVC). The results show that hydrogen can be produced from the pyrolysis-reforming process, but also carbon nanotubes are formed on the catalyst. However, the content of 0.3 wt.% polyvinyl chloride in the waste HDPE (HDPE/PVC) has been shown to poison the catalyst and significantly reduce the quantity and purity of CNTs. The presence of sulfur has shown less influence on the production of CNTs in terms of quantity and CNT morphologies. Around 94.4 mmol H2 g(-1) plastic was obtained for the pyrolysis-reforming of HDPE waste in the presence of the Ni-Mn-Al catalyst and steam at a reforming temperature of 800 °C. The addition of steam in the process results in an increase of hydrogen production and reduction of carbon yield; in addition, the defects of CNTs, for example, edge dislocations were found to be increased with the introduction of steam (from Raman analysis).

  18. Simulation of the Band Structure of Graphene and Carbon Nanotube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mina, Aziz N; Awadallah, Attia A; Ahmed, Riham R; Phillips, Adel H

    2012-01-01

    Simulation technique has been performed to simulate the band structure of both graphene and carbon nanotube. Accordingly, the dispersion relations for graphene and carbon nanotube are deduced analytically, using the tight binding model and LCAO scheme. The results from the simulation of the dispersion relation of both graphene and carbon nanotube were found to be consistent with those in the literature which indicates the correctness of the process of simulation technique. The present research is very important for tailoring graphene and carbon nanotube with specific band structure, in order to satisfy the required electronic properties of them.

  19. Probing Photosensitization by Functionalized Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) photosensitize the production of reactive oxygen species that can damage organisms by biomembrane oxidation or mediate CNTs' environmental transformations. The photosensitized nature of derivatized carbon nanotubes from various synthetic methods, and thus ...

  20. Quantum transport in carbon nanotubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laird, Edward A.; Kuemmeth, Ferdinand; Steele, Gary A.

    2015-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes are a versatile material in which many aspects of condensed matter physics come together. Recent discoveries, enabled by sophisticated fabrication, have uncovered new phenomena that completely change our understanding of transport in these devices, especially the role of the spin...... blockade. This can be exploited to read out spin and valley qubits, and to measure the decay of these states through coupling to nuclear spins and phonons. A second unique property of carbon nanotubes is that the combination of valley freedom and electron-electron interactions in one dimension strongly...... and valley degrees of freedom. This review describes the modern understanding of transport through nanotube devices. Unlike conventional semiconductors, electrons in nanotubes have two angular momentum quantum numbers, arising from spin and from valley freedom. We focus on the interplay between the two...

  1. Carbon Nanotube Based Molecular Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Deepak; Saini, Subhash; Menon, Madhu

    1998-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes and the nanotube heterojunctions have recently emerged as excellent candidates for nanoscale molecular electronic device components. Experimental measurements on the conductivity, rectifying behavior and conductivity-chirality correlation have also been made. While quasi-one dimensional simple heterojunctions between nanotubes with different electronic behavior can be generated by introduction of a pair of heptagon-pentagon defects in an otherwise all hexagon graphene sheet. Other complex 3- and 4-point junctions may require other mechanisms. Structural stability as well as local electronic density of states of various nanotube junctions are investigated using a generalized tight-binding molecular dynamics (GDBMD) scheme that incorporates non-orthogonality of the orbitals. The junctions investigated include straight and small angle heterojunctions of various chiralities and diameters; as well as more complex 'T' and 'Y' junctions which do not always obey the usual pentagon-heptagon pair rule. The study of local density of states (LDOS) reveal many interesting features, most prominent among them being the defect-induced states in the gap. The proposed three and four pointjunctions are one of the smallest possible tunnel junctions made entirely of carbon atoms. Furthermore the electronic behavior of the nanotube based device components can be taylored by doping with group III-V elements such as B and N, and BN nanotubes as a wide band gap semiconductor has also been realized in experiments. Structural properties of heteroatomic nanotubes comprising C, B and N will be discussed.

  2. Multiscale Modeling with Carbon Nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maiti, A

    2006-02-21

    Technologically important nanomaterials come in all shapes and sizes. They can range from small molecules to complex composites and mixtures. Depending upon the spatial dimensions of the system and properties under investigation computer modeling of such materials can range from equilibrium and nonequilibrium Quantum Mechanics, to force-field-based Molecular Mechanics and kinetic Monte Carlo, to Mesoscale simulation of evolving morphology, to Finite-Element computation of physical properties. This brief review illustrates some of the above modeling techniques through a number of recent applications with carbon nanotubes: nano electromechanical sensors (NEMS), chemical sensors, metal-nanotube contacts, and polymer-nanotube composites.

  3. Processing-structure-property relationships of carbon nanotube and nanoplatelet enabled piezoresistive sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Sida

    Individual carbon nanotubes (CNTs) possess excellent piezoresistive performance, which is manifested by the significant electrical resistance change when subject to mechanical deformation. In comparison to individual CNTs, the CNT thin films, formed by a random assembly of individual tubes or bundles, show much lower piezoresistive sensitivity. Given the progress made to date in developing CNT ensemble based-piezoresistive sensors, the related piezoresistive mechanism(s) are still not well understood. The crucial step to obtain a better understanding of this issue is to study the effects of CNT structure in the dispersion on the piezoresistivity of CNT ensemble based-piezoresistive sensors. To reach this goal, my Ph.D. research first focuses on establishing the processing-structure-property relationship of SWCNT thin film piezoresistive sensors. The key accomplishment contains: 1) developing the combined preparative ultracentrifuge method (PUM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) method to quantitatively characterized SWCNT particle size in dispersions under various sonication conditions; 2) designing combined ultrasonication and microfluidization processing protocol for high throughput and large-scale production of high quality SWCNT dispersions; 3) fabricating varied SWCNT thin film piezoresistive sensors through spray coating technique and immersion-drying post-treatment; and 4) investigating the effect of microstructures of SWCNTs on piezoresistivity of SWCNT thin film sensors. This experimental methodology for quantitative and systematic investigation of the processing-structure-property relationships provides a means for the performance optimization of CNT ensemble based piezoresistive sensors. As a start to understand the piezoresistive mechanism, the second focus of my Ph.D. research is studying charge transport behaviors in SWCNT thin films. It was found that the temperature-dependent sheet resistance of SWCNT thin films could be explained by a 3D variable

  4. Modeling and optimization of atomic layer deposition processes on vertically aligned carbon nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuri Yazdani

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Many energy conversion and storage devices exploit structured ceramics with large interfacial surface areas. Vertically aligned carbon nanotube (VACNT arrays have emerged as possible scaffolds to support large surface area ceramic layers. However, obtaining conformal and uniform coatings of ceramics on structures with high aspect ratio morphologies is non-trivial, even with atomic layer deposition (ALD. Here we implement a diffusion model to investigate the effect of the ALD parameters on coating kinetics and use it to develop a guideline for achieving conformal and uniform thickness coatings throughout the depth of ultra-high aspect ratio structures. We validate the model predictions with experimental data from ALD coatings of VACNT arrays. However, the approach can be applied to predict film conformality as a function of depth for any porous topology, including nanopores and nanowire arrays.

  5. Modeling and optimization of atomic layer deposition processes on vertically aligned carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdani, Nuri; Chawla, Vipin; Edwards, Eve; Wood, Vanessa; Park, Hyung Gyu; Utke, Ivo

    2014-01-01

    Many energy conversion and storage devices exploit structured ceramics with large interfacial surface areas. Vertically aligned carbon nanotube (VACNT) arrays have emerged as possible scaffolds to support large surface area ceramic layers. However, obtaining conformal and uniform coatings of ceramics on structures with high aspect ratio morphologies is non-trivial, even with atomic layer deposition (ALD). Here we implement a diffusion model to investigate the effect of the ALD parameters on coating kinetics and use it to develop a guideline for achieving conformal and uniform thickness coatings throughout the depth of ultra-high aspect ratio structures. We validate the model predictions with experimental data from ALD coatings of VACNT arrays. However, the approach can be applied to predict film conformality as a function of depth for any porous topology, including nanopores and nanowire arrays.

  6. Outstanding field emission properties of wet-processed titanium dioxide coated carbon nanotube based field emission devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Jinzhuo; Ou-Yang, Wei, E-mail: ouyangwei@phy.ecnu.edu.cn; Chen, Xiaohong; Guo, Pingsheng; Piao, Xianqing; Sun, Zhuo [Engineering Research Center for Nanophotonics and Advanced Instrument, Ministry of Education, Department of Physics, East China Normal University, 3663 North Zhongshan Road, Shanghai 200062 (China); Xu, Peng; Wang, Miao [Department of Physics, Zhejiang University, 38 ZheDa Road, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Li, Jun [Department of Electronic Science and Technology, Tongji University, 4800 Caoan Road, Shanghai 201804 (China)

    2015-02-16

    Field emission devices using a wet-processed composite cathode of carbon nanotube films coated with titanium dioxide exhibit outstanding field emission characteristics, including ultralow turn on field of 0.383 V μm{sup −1} and threshold field of 0.657 V μm{sup −1} corresponding with a very high field enhancement factor of 20 000, exceptional current stability, and excellent emission uniformity. The improved field emission properties are attributed to the enhanced edge effect simultaneously with the reduced screening effect, and the lowered work function of the composite cathode. In addition, the highly stable electron emission is found due to the presence of titanium dioxide nanoparticles on the carbon nanotubes, which prohibits the cathode from the influence of ions and free radical created in the emission process as well as residual oxygen gas in the device. The high-performance solution-processed composite cathode demonstrates great potential application in vacuum electronic devices.

  7. Dispersions of Carbon nanotubes in Polymer Matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Kristopher Eric (Inventor); Park, Cheol (Inventor); Siochi, Emilie J. (Inventor); Harrison, Joycelyn S. (Inventor); Lillehei, Peter T. (Inventor); Lowther, Sharon E. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    Dispersions of carbon nanotubes exhibiting long term stability are based on a polymer matrix having moieties therein which are capable of a donor-acceptor complexation with carbon nanotubes. The carbon nanotubes are introduced into the polymer matrix and separated therein by standard means. Nanocomposites produced from these dispersions are useful in the fabrication of structures, e.g., lightweight aerospace structures.

  8. Synthesis of carbon nanotubes bridging metal electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotlar, M.; Vojs, M.; Marton, M.; Vesel, M.; Redhammer, R.

    2012-01-01

    In our work we demonstrate growth of carbon nanotubes that can conductively bridge the metal electrodes. The role of different catalysts was examined. Interdigitated metal electrodes are made from copper and we are using bimetal Al/Ni as catalyst for growth of carbon nanotubes. We are using this catalyst composition for growth of the single-walled carbon nanotube network. (authors)

  9. On the Deposition Equilibrium of Carbon Nanotubes or Graphite in the Reforming Processes of Lower Hydrocarbon Fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdzisław Jaworski

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The modeling of carbon deposition from C-H-O reformates has usually employed thermodynamic data for graphite, but has rarely employed such data for impure filamentous carbon. Therefore, electrochemical data for the literature on the chemical potential of two types of purified carbon nanotubes (CNTs are included in the study. Parameter values determining the thermodynamic equilibrium of the deposition of either graphite or CNTs are computed for dry and wet reformates from natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas. The calculation results are presented as the atomic oxygen-to-carbon ratio (O/C against temperature (200 to 100 °C for various pressures (1 to 30 bar. Areas of O/C for either carbon deposition or deposition-free are computed, and indicate the critical O/C values below which the deposition can occur. Only three types of deposited carbon were found in the studied equilibrium conditions: Graphite, multi-walled CNTs, and single-walled CNTs in bundles. The temperature regions of the appearance of the thermodynamically stable forms of solid carbon are numerically determined as being independent of pressure and the analyzed reactants. The modeling indicates a significant increase in the critical O/C for the deposition of CNTs against that for graphite. The highest rise in the critical O/C, of up to 290% at 30 bar, was found for the wet reforming process.

  10. Mechanochemical treatment of amorphous carbon from brown sphagnum moss for the preparation of carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onishchenko, D.V.

    2013-01-01

    Under consideration is the mechanism of multiwalled nanotubes formation during mechanical activation of amorphous carbon synthesized by pyrolysis of sphagnum moss. The formation of nanotubes has been shown to take place in the array of carbon particles. A complex study of the sorption characteristics of carbon nanotubes has been carried out. The dependence of the sorption capacity of carbon nanotubes on their storage time, as well as the effect of the process parameters of nanotubes formation on their ability for oxidative modification, is represented. (authors)

  11. Nitrogen in highly crystalline carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ducati, C; Koziol, K; Stavrinadis, A; Friedrichs, S; Windle, A H; Midgley, P A

    2006-01-01

    Multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) with an unprecedented degree of internal order were synthesised by chemical vapour deposition (CVD) adding a nitrogen-containing compound to the hydrocarbon feedstock. Ferrocene was used as the metal catalyst precursor. The remarkable crystallinity of these nanotubes lies both in the isochirality and in the crystallographic register of their walls, as demonstrated by electron diffraction and high resolution electron microscopy experiments. High resolution transmission electron microscopy analysis shows that the walls of the nanotubes consist of truncated stacked cones, instead of perfect cylinders, with a range of apex angles that appears to be related to the nitrogen concentration in the synthesis process. The structure of armchair, zigzag and chiral nanotubes is modelled and discussed in terms of density of topological defects, providing an interesting comparison with our microscopy experiments. A growth mechanism based on the interplay of base- and tip-growth is proposed to account for our experimental observations

  12. Structural transformations of carbon chains inside nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warner, Jamie H.; Ruemmeli, Mark H.; Bachmatiuk, Alicja; Buechner, Bernd

    2010-01-01

    In situ aberration-corrected high-resolution transmission electron microscopy is used to examine the structural transformations of carbon chains that occur in the interior region of carbon nanotubes. We find electron-beam irradiation leads to the formation of two-dimensional carbon structures that are freely mobile inside the nanotube. The inner diameter of the nanotube influences the structural transformations of the carbon chains. As the diameter of the nanotube increases, electron-beam irradiation leads to curling of the chains and eventually the formation of closed looped structures. The closed looped structures evolve into spherical fullerenelike structures that exhibit translational motion inside the nanotubes and also coalesce to form larger nanotube structures. These results demonstrate the use of carbon nanotubes as test tubes for growing small carbon nanotubes within the interior by using only electron-beam irradiation at 80 kV.

  13. Carbon nanotube: the inside story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Yoshinori

    2010-06-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were serendipitously discovered as a byproduct of fullerenes by direct current (DC) arc discharge; and today this is the most-wanted material in the nanotechnology research. In this brief review, I begin with the history of the discovery of CNTs and focus on CNTs produced by arc discharge in hydrogen atmosphere, which is little explored outside my laboratory. DC arc discharge evaporation of pure graphite rod in pure hydrogen gas results in multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) of high crystallinity in the cathode deposit. As-grown MWCNTs have very narrow inner diameter. Raman spectra of these MWCNTs show high-intensity G-band, unusual high-frequency radial breathing mode at 570 cm(-1), and a new characteristic peak near 1850 cm(-1). Exciting carbon nanowires (CNWs), consisting of a linear carbon chain in the center of MWCNTs are also produced. Arc evaporation of graphite rod containing metal catalysts results in single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) in the whole chamber like macroscopic webs. Two kinds of arc method have been developed to produce SWCNTs: Arc plasma jet (APJ) and Ferrum-Hydrogen (FH) arc methods. Some new purification methods for as-produced SWCNTs are reviewed. Finally, double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWCNTs) are also described.

  14. In-line manufacture of carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brambilla, Nicol Michele; Signorelli, Riccardo; Martini, Fabrizio; Corripio Luna, Oscar Enrique

    2015-04-28

    Mass production of carbon nanotubes (CNT) are facilitated by methods and apparatus disclosed herein. Advantageously, the methods and apparatus make use of a single production unit, and therefore provide for uninterrupted progress in a fabrication process. Embodiments of control systems for a variety of CNT production apparatus are included.

  15. Very short functionalized carbon nanotubes for membrane applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fonseca, A.; Reijerkerk, Sander; Potreck, Jens; Nijmeijer, Dorothea C.; Mekhalif, Z.; Delhalle, J.

    2010-01-01

    The cutting and functionalization of carbon nanotubes is described, applying a single-step ball-mill based process. Very short carbon nanotubes bearing primary amine functions were produced, characterized and incorporated in polymeric membranes. The gas separation performance of the composite

  16. Photodetector based on carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlov, A.; Kitsyuk, E.; Ryazanov, R.; Timoshenkov, V.; Adamov, Y.

    2015-09-01

    Photodetector based on carbon nanotubes (CNT) was investigated. Sensors were done on quartz and silicon susbtrate. Samples of photodetectors sensors were produced by planar technology. This technology included deposition of first metal layer (Al), lithography for pads formation, etching, and formation of local catalyst area by inverse lithography. Vertically-aligned multi-wall carbon nanotubes were directly synthesized on substrate by PECVD method. I-V analysis and spectrum sensitivity of photodetector were investigated for 0.4 μm - 1.2 μm wavelength. Resistivity of CNT layers over temperature was detected in the range of -20°C to 100°C.

  17. All carbon nanotubes are not created equal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geohegan, David B.; Puretzky, Alexander A.; Rouleau, Christopher M.

    2010-01-01

    This chapter presents the various factors that enter into consideration when choosing the source of carbon nanotubes for a specific application. Carbon nanotubes are giant molecules made of pure carbon. They have captured the imagination of the scientific community by the unique structure that provides superior physical, chemical, and electrical properties. However, a surprisingly wide disparity exists between the intrinsic properties determined under ideal conditions and the properties that carbon nanotubes exhibit in real world situations. The lack of uniformity in carbon nanotube properties is likely to be the main obstacle holding back the development of carbon nanotube applications. This tutorial addresses the nonuniformity of carbon nanotube properties from the synthesis standpoint. This synthesis-related nonuniformity is on top of the intrinsic chirality distribution that gives the ∼1:2 ratio of metallic to semiconducting nanotubes. From the standpoint of carbon bonding chemistry the variation in the quality and reproducibility of carbon nanotube materials is not unexpected. It is an intrinsic feature that is related to the metastability of carbon structures. The extent to which this effect is manifested in carbon nanotube formation is governed by the type and the kinetics of the carbon nanotube synthesis reaction. Addressing this variation is critical if nanotubes are to live up to the potential already demonstrated by their phenomenal physical properties.

  18. Three-dimensional machining of carbon nanotube forests using water-assisted scanning electron microscope processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajabifar, Bahram; Maschmann, Matthew R., E-mail: MaschmannM@missouri.edu [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri 65211 (United States); Kim, Sanha; Hart, A. John [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Laboratory for Manufacturing and Productivity, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Slinker, Keith [Materials and Manufacturing Directorate, AFRL/RX, Air Force Research Lab, Ohio 45433 (United States); Universal Technology Corporation, Beavercreek, Ohio 45424 (United States); Ehlert, Gregory J. [Materials and Manufacturing Directorate, AFRL/RX, Air Force Research Lab, Ohio 45433 (United States)

    2015-10-05

    We demonstrate that vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs) can be precisely machined in a low pressure water vapor ambient using the electron beam of an environmental scanning electron microscope. The electron beam locally damages the irradiated regions of the CNT forest and also dissociates the water vapor molecules into reactive species including hydroxyl radicals. These species then locally oxidize the damaged region of the CNTs. The technique offers material removal capabilities ranging from selected CNTs to hundreds of cubic microns. We study how the material removal rate is influenced by the acceleration voltage, beam current, dwell time, operating pressure, and CNT orientation. Milled cuts with depths between 0–100 microns are generated, corresponding to a material removal rate of up to 20.1 μm{sup 3}/min. The technique produces little carbon residue and does not disturb the native morphology of the CNT network. Finally, we demonstrate direct machining of pyramidal surfaces and re-entrant cuts to create freestanding geometries.

  19. Three-dimensional machining of carbon nanotube forests using water-assisted scanning electron microscope processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajabifar, Bahram; Kim, Sanha; Slinker, Keith; Ehlert, Gregory J.; Hart, A. John; Maschmann, Matthew R.

    2015-10-01

    We demonstrate that vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs) can be precisely machined in a low pressure water vapor ambient using the electron beam of an environmental scanning electron microscope. The electron beam locally damages the irradiated regions of the CNT forest and also dissociates the water vapor molecules into reactive species including hydroxyl radicals. These species then locally oxidize the damaged region of the CNTs. The technique offers material removal capabilities ranging from selected CNTs to hundreds of cubic microns. We study how the material removal rate is influenced by the acceleration voltage, beam current, dwell time, operating pressure, and CNT orientation. Milled cuts with depths between 0-100 microns are generated, corresponding to a material removal rate of up to 20.1 μm3/min. The technique produces little carbon residue and does not disturb the native morphology of the CNT network. Finally, we demonstrate direct machining of pyramidal surfaces and re-entrant cuts to create freestanding geometries.

  20. Prevenient dye-degradation mechanisms using UV/TiO{sub 2}/carbon nanotubes process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuo, C.-Y. [Department of Safety Health and Environmental Engineering, National Yunlin University of Science and Technology, 123, Section 3, University Road, Douliu, Yunlin, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: kuocyr@ms35.hinet.net

    2009-04-15

    Photocatalysis research heavily emphasizes increasing photo-efficiency. This study presents the application of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to increase the photocatalytic activity of TiO{sub 2}. It elucidates the effect of CNTs dose on the decolorization efficiency of aqueous azo dye, C.I. Reactive Red 2 (RR2), determines the effects of SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} formation and removal of total organic carbon (TOC), and measures the effects of various ultraviolet wavelengths. Scanning electron microscopy was used to elucidate the mixing phenomenon and the size of TiO{sub 2} and CNTs; X-ray diffraction was used to determine crystallinity; a BET meter was used to measure surface area and a spectrophotometry was used to determine the decolorization of RR2. Experimental results indicated significant effects of photodegradation on the combination of TiO{sub 2} with CNTs and electron transfer is higher for 410 nm irradiation than for 365 nm, revealing that solar light can be used. The electron transfer in the TiO{sub 2}/CNTs composites reduced the electron/hole recombination and increased the photon efficiency and the prevenient dye-degradation mechanisms using UV/TiO{sub 2}/CNTs were established.

  1. Processing and properties of polyethylene reinforced by graphene nanosheets and carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Achaby, M.; Qaiss, A.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► HDPE/graphene and HDPE/carbon nanotubes–nanocomposites were prepared by extrusion. ► Graphene and CNT were homogeneously dispersed and distributed within HDPE matrix. ► Mechanical properties of HDPE nanocomposites were significantly improved. -- Abstract: High density polyethylene (HDPE)/graphene nanosheets (GNs) and HDPE/Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNTs) nanocomposites with 0.5%, 1% and 3% nanofiller contents were prepared using the melt mixing method. The dispersion of the nanofillers in the polymer was monitored by scanning electron microscopy and melt rheology studies. Morphological, rheological, thermal and tensile properties of nanocomposites were comparatively studied. The results were discussed in terms of the geometries of GNs and MWCNTs. It was found that the HDPE/GNs nanocomposites show better properties than HDPE/MWCNTs nanocomposites at identical filler content. The superiority of HDPE/GNs nanocomposites may be due to high specific surface area and nanoscale 2-D flat surface of GNs which result in an enhanced mechanical interlocking with the polymer chains and enlarged interphase zone at filler–polymer interface. This effect is less pronounced in MWCNTs based nanocomposites because the MWCNTs have a reduced surface area and can interact with the polymer only at 1-D linear contact.

  2. Synthesis of carbon nanotubes and nanotube forests on copper catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruszka, Bartosz; Terzyk, Artur P; Wiśniewski, Marek; Gauden, Piotr A; Szybowicz, Mirosław

    2014-01-01

    The growth of carbon nanotubes on bulk copper is studied. We show for the first time, that super growth chemical vapor deposition method can be successfully applied for preparation of nanotubes on copper catalyst, and the presence of hydrogen is necessary. Next, different methods of copper surface activation are studied, to improve catalyst efficiency. Among them, applied for the first time for copper catalyst in nanotubes synthesis, sulfuric acid activation is the most promising. Among tested samples the surface modified for 10 min is the most active, causing the growth of vertically aligned carbon nanotube forests. Obtained results have potential importance in application of nanotubes and copper in electronic chips and nanodevices. (paper)

  3. Carbon nanotubes and methods of making carbon nanotubes

    KAUST Repository

    Basset, Jean-Marie; Zhou, Lu; Saih, Youssef

    2017-01-01

    Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for methods that can be used to produce carbon nanotubes (hereinafter CNT) having an inner diameter about 5-55 nm, methods of tuning the inner diameter of CNTs (e.g., by adjusting reaction pressure

  4. Carbon nanotubes and methods of making carbon nanotubes

    KAUST Repository

    Basset, Jean-Marie

    2017-04-27

    Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for methods that can be used to produce carbon nanotubes (hereinafter CNT) having an inner diameter about 5-55 nm, methods of tuning the inner diameter of CNTs (e.g., by adjusting reaction pressure), CNTs having an inner diameter of greater than 20 nm or more, and the like.

  5. Hydrogen storage in carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirscher, M; Becher, M

    2003-01-01

    The article gives a comprehensive overview of hydrogen storage in carbon nanostructures, including experimental results and theoretical calculations. Soon after the discovery of carbon nanotubes in 1991, different research groups succeeded in filling carbon nanotubes with some elements, and, therefore, the question arose of filling carbon nanotubes with hydrogen by possibly using new effects such as nano-capillarity. Subsequently, very promising experiments claiming high hydrogen storage capacities in different carbon nanostructures initiated enormous research activity. Hydrogen storage capacities have been reported that exceed the benchmark for automotive application of 6.5 wt% set by the U.S. Department of Energy. However, the experimental data obtained with different methods for various carbon nanostructures show an extreme scatter. Classical calculations based on physisorption of hydrogen molecules could not explain the high storage capacities measured at ambient temperature, and, assuming chemisorption of hydrogen atoms, hydrogen release requires temperatures too high for technical applications. Up to now, only a few calculations and experiments indicate the possibility of an intermediate binding energy. Recently, serious doubt has arisen in relation to several key experiments, causing considerable controversy. Furthermore, high hydrogen storage capacities measured for carbon nanofibers did not survive cross-checking in different laboratories. Therefore, in light of today's knowledge, it is becoming less likely that at moderate pressures around room temperature carbon nanostructures can store the amount of hydrogen required for automotive applications.

  6. Ab Initio Density Functional Theory Investigation of the Interaction between Carbon Nanotubes and Water Molecules during Water Desalination Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loay A. Elalfy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Density functional theory calculations using B3LYP/3-21G level of theory have been implemented on 6 carbon nanotubes (CNTs structures (3 zigzag and 3 armchair CNTs to study the energetics of the reverse osmosis during water desalination process. Calculations of the band gap, interaction energy, highest occupied molecular orbital, lowest unoccupied molecular orbital, electronegativity, hardness, and pressure of the system are discussed. The calculations showed that the water molecule that exists inside the CNT is about 2-3 Å away from its wall. The calculations have proven that the zigzag CNTs are more efficient for reverse osmosis water desalination process than armchair CNTs as the reverse osmosis process requires pressure of approximately 200 MPa for armchair CNTs, which is consistent with the values used in molecular dynamics simulations, while that needed when using zigzag CNTs was in the order of 60 MPa.

  7. A thermodynamic model for growth mechanisms of multiwall carbon nanotubes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaatz, Forrest H.; Overmyer, Donald L.; Siegal, Michael P.

    2006-02-01

    Multiwall carbon nanotubes are grown via thermal chemical vapor deposition between temperatures of 630 and 830 C using acetylene in nitrogen as the carbon source. This process is modeled using classical thermodynamics to explain the total carbon deposition as a function of time and temperature. An activation energy of 1.60 eV is inferred for nanotube growth after considering the carbon solubility term. Scanning electron microscopy shows growth with diameters increasing linearly with time. Transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy show multiwall nanotubes surrounded by a glassy-carbon sheath, which grows with increasing wall thickness as growth temperatures and times rise.

  8. Thermodynamic model for growth mechanisms of multiwall carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaatz, F. H.; Siegal, M. P.; Overmyer, D. L.; Provencio, P. P.; Tallant, D. R.

    2006-12-01

    Multiwall carbon nanotubes are grown via thermal chemical vapor deposition between temperatures of 630 and 830°C using acetylene in nitrogen as the carbon source. This process is modeled using classical thermodynamics to explain the total carbon deposition as a function of time and temperature. An activation energy of 1.60eV is inferred for nanotube growth after considering the carbon solubility term. Scanning electron microscopy shows growth with diameters increasing linearly with time. Transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy show multiwall nanotubes surrounded by a glassy-carbon sheath, which grows with increasing wall thickness as growth temperatures and times rise.

  9. Controllable 3D architectures of aligned carbon nanotube arrays by multi-step processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shaoming

    2003-06-01

    An effective way to fabricate large area three-dimensional (3D) aligned CNTs pattern based on pyrolysis of iron(II) phthalocyanine (FePc) by two-step processes is reported. The controllable generation of different lengths and selective growth of the aligned CNT arrays on metal-patterned (e.g., Ag and Au) substrate are the bases for generating such 3D aligned CNTs architectures. By controlling experimental conditions 3D aligned CNT arrays with different lengths/densities and morphologies/structures as well as multi-layered architectures can be fabricated in large scale by multi-step pyrolysis of FePc. These 3D architectures could have interesting properties and be applied for developing novel nanotube-based devices.

  10. High-density carbon nanotube wet-laid buckypapers with enhanced strength and conductivity using a high-pressure homogenization process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jun; Jang, Si Hoon; Park, No Hyung; Jeong, Won Young; Lim, Dae Young [Human and Culture Convergence Technology Group, Korea Institute of Industrial Technology (KITECH), Ansan (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Jun Young; Yang, Seung Jae [Dept. of Applied Organic Materials Engineering, Inha University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    In this work, we prepared homogeneously dispersed carbon nanotubes in water using a high-pressure homogenizer, while high-density carbon nanotube buckypapers were prepared by wet-laid process. The strength and conductivity of the buckypaper were increased dramatically after the high-pressure homogenization because of the increased density and uniformity of the paper. In addition, the buckypapers containing various additives and treated with SOCl{sub 2} exhibited further increase of strength and conductivity resulting from the binding and the p-type doping effect. The buckypapers with high electrical conductivity exhibited superior electromagnetic interference shielding effectiveness that could be applied for structural shielding materials.

  11. Quantum transport in carbon nanotubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laird, E.A.; Kuemmeth, F.; Steele, G.A.; Grove-Rasmussen, K.; Nygard, J.; Flensberg, K.; Kouwenhoven, L.P.

    2015-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes are a versatile material in which many aspects of condensed matter physics come together. Recent discoveries have uncovered new phenomena that completely change our understanding of transport in these devices, especially the role of the spin and valley degrees of freedom. This

  12. Carbon nanotube-chalcogenide composite

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stehlík, Š.; Orava, J.; Kohoutek, T.; Wágner, T.; Frumar, M.; Zima, Vítězslav; Hara, T.; Matsui, Y.; Ueda, K.; Pumera, M.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 183, č. 1 (2010), s. 144-149 ISSN 0022-4596 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/08/0208 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : carbon nanotubes * chalcogenide glasses * composites Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.261, year: 2010

  13. Polyurethane compounds having carbon nanotubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2010-01-01

    The invention relates to semi-crystalline polyurethane (PUR) compositions filled with carbon nanotubes (CNT) and having improved electrical properties, which can be obtained on the basis of water-based polyurethane/CNT mixtures. The invention further relates to a method for producing polyurethane

  14. Functionalized carbon nanotubes containing isocyanate groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Chungui; Ji Lijun; Liu Huiju; Hu Guangjun; Zhang Shimin; Yang Mingshu; Yang Zhenzhong

    2004-01-01

    Functionalized carbon nanotubes containing isocyanate groups can extend the nanotube chemistry, and may promote their many potential applications such as in polymer composites and coatings. This paper describes a facile method to prepare functionalized carbon nanotubes containing highly reactive isocyanate groups on its surface via the reaction between toluene 2,4-diisocyanate and carboxylated carbon nanotubes. Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) confirmed that reactive isocyanate groups were covalently attached to carbon nanotubes. The content of isocyanate groups were determined by chemical titration and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA)

  15. Electrochemical study of oxidation process of promethazine using sensor based on carbon nanotubes paste containing immobilized DNA on inorganic matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo Marco

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present work the voltammetric behavior and the oxidation process of promethazine (PHZ in electrochemical sensor based on carbon nanotubes paste containing DNA immobilized on the inorganic matrix prepared by sol-gel process (SiO2/Al2O3/Nb2O5. The method of Laviron verified that the system is irreversible and high speed of electron transfer between the electrode and DNA. The study of the oxidation of PHZ and influence of pH showed slope of 0.054 V / pH (near the nernstian system: 0.0592 V / pH suggesting that it involves the transfer of two protons and two electrons.

  16. New approach to synthesis of carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, Jong Keun; Choi, Kyo Hong; Cho, Kwon Koo; Kim, Ki Won; Nam, Tae Hyun; Ahn, Hyo Jun; Ahn, Jou Hyun; Cho, Gyu Bong

    2007-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been synthesized through chemical vapor deposition in argon gas atmosphere using Fe-2.5%Mo alloyed nanoparticles as a catalyst and H 2 /CH 4 gas mixture as a reaction gas. Fe-2.5 wt.%Mo alloyed nanoparticles with average diameter of 7, 20, 45 and 85 nm are prepared by the chemical vapor condensation process using the pyrolysis of iron pentacarbonyl (Fe(CO) 5 ) and molybdenum hexacarbonyl (Mo(CO) 6 ). The morphologies of the CNTs are controlled by adjusting the nanoparticle size, reaction gas ratio and reaction temperature. With decreasing nanoparticle size under the same experimental conditions, the degree of crystalline perfection increases gradually and the morphologies of the carbon nanotubes vary from multi wall carbon nanotubes to single wall carbon nanotubes. Also, the ratio of reaction gas has an effect on the morphology and the degree of crystallinity of CNTs. In this work, it is suggested that morphology, diameter and degree of crystallinity of CNTs could be controlled by adjusting the reaction gas ratio, reaction temperature and catalyst size

  17. Synthesis of Carbon Nanotube (CNT Composite Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dusan Losic

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes are attractive approach for designing of new membranes for advanced molecular separation because of their unique transport properties and ability to mimic biological protein channels. In this work the synthetic approach for fabrication of carbon nanotubes (CNTs composite membranes is presented. The method is based on growth of multi walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT using chemical vapour deposition (CVD on the template of nanoporous alumina (PA membranes. The influence of experimental conditions including carbon precursor, temperature, deposition time, and PA template on CNT growth process and quality of fabricated membranes was investigated. The synthesis of CNT/PA composites with controllable nanotube dimensions such as diameters (30–150 nm, and thickness (5–100 µm, was demonstrated. The chemical composition and morphological characteristics of fabricated CNT/PA composite membranes were investigated by various characterisation techniques including scanning electron microscopy (SEM, energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDXS, high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM and x-ray diffraction (XRD. Transport properties of prepared membranes were explored by diffusion of dye (Rose Bengal used as model of hydrophilic transport molecule.

  18. Nicotine adsorption on single wall carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girao, Eduardo C. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Ceara, Caixa Postal 6030, Campus do Pici, 60455-900 Fortaleza, Ceara (Brazil); Fagan, Solange B.; Zanella, Ivana [Area de Ciencias Tecnologicas, Centro Universitario Franciscano - UNIFRA, 97010-032 Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Filho, Antonio G. Souza, E-mail: agsf@fisica.ufc.br [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Ceara, Caixa Postal 6030, Campus do Pici, 60455-900 Fortaleza, Ceara (Brazil)

    2010-12-15

    This work reports a theoretical study of nicotine molecules interacting with single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) through ab initio calculations within the framework of density functional theory (DFT). Different adsorption sites for nicotine on the surface of pristine and defective (8,0) SWCNTs were analyzed and the total energy curves, as a function of molecular position relative to the SWCNT surface, were evaluated. The nicotine adsorption process is found to be energetically favorable and the molecule-nanotube interaction is intermediated by the tri-coordinated nitrogen atom from the nicotine. It is also predicted the possibility of a chemical bonding between nicotine and SWCNT through the di-coordinated nitrogen.

  19. Carbon nanotubes significance in Darcy-Forchheimer flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayat, Tasawar; Rafique, Kiran; Muhammad, Taseer; Alsaedi, Ahmed; Ayub, Muhammad

    2018-03-01

    The present article examines Darcy-Forchheimer flow of water-based carbon nanotubes. Flow is induced due to a curved stretchable surface. Heat transfer mechanism is analyzed in presence of convective heating process. Xue model of nanofluid is employed to study the characteristics of both single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). Results for both single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are achieved and compared. Appropriate transformations correspond to strong nonlinear ordinary differential system. Optimal homotopy analysis method (OHAM) is used for the solution development of the resulting system. The contributions of different sundry variables on the velocity and temperature are studied. Further the skin friction coefficient and local Nusselt number are analyzed graphically for both SWCNTs and MWCNTs cases.

  20. Solar absorption and thermal emission properties of multiwall carbon nanotube/nickel oxide nanocomposite thin films synthesized by sol-gel process

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roro, Kittessa T

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs)/nickel oxide (NiO) nanocomposites were successfully prepared by a sol–gel process and coated on an aluminium substrate. The MWCNTs were chemically functionalized and then added into NiO alcogels, and magnetic...

  1. Application of atmospheric-pressure plasma jet processed carbon nanotubes to liquid and quasi-solid-state gel electrolyte supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuok, Fei-Hong; Kan, Ken-Yuan; Yu, Ing-Song; Chen, Chieh-Wen; Hsu, Cheng-Che; Cheng, I.-Chun; Chen, Jian-Zhang

    2017-12-01

    We use a dc-pulse nitrogen atmospheric-pressure plasma jet (APPJ) to calcine carbon nanotubes (CNTs) pastes that are screen-printed on carbon cloth. 30-s APPJ treatment can efficiently oxidize and vaporize the organic binders, thereby forming porous structures. As indicated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA), the oxygen content decreases after APPJ treatment owing to the oxidation and vaporization of ethyl cellulose, terpineol, and ethanol. Nitrogen doping was introduced to the materials by the nitrogen APPJ. APPJ-calcination improves the wettability of the CNTs printed on carbon cloth, as evidenced by water contact angle measurement. Raman spectroscopy indicates that reactive species of nitrogen APPJ react violently with CNTs in only 30-s APPJ processing time and introduce defects and/or surface functional groups on CNTs. Carbon cloths with calcined CNT layers are used as electrodes for liquid and quasi-solid-state electrolyte supercapacitors. Under a cyclic voltammetry test with a 2 mV/s potential scan rate, the specific capacitance is 73.84 F/g (areal capacitance = 5.89 mF/cm2) with a 2 M KCl electrolyte and 66.47 F/g (areal capacitance = 6.10 mF/cm2) with a H2SO4/polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) gel electrolyte.

  2. Grafting polymer coatings onto the surfaces of carbon nanotube forests and yarns via a photon irradiation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng Fei; Rujisamphan, N.; Liu Chang; Ismat Shah, S.; Ni Chaoying [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716 (United States); Maezono, Yoshinari [Department of Project Promotion, USHIO INC., 1194, Sazuchi, Bessho-cho, Himeji Hyogo 671-0224 (Japan); Hawkins, Stephen C.; Huynh, Chi P. [Materials Science and Engineering, CSIRO, Bayview Avenue, Clayton, Victoria 3168 (Australia)

    2012-05-21

    Surface activation of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as forests and yarns, depolytmerization of candidate polymers, and uniform deposition and re-polymerization onto the activated CNTs are simultaneously achieved by exposing CNTs and polymer targets to light with a narrow wavelength distribution from a vacuum ultraviolet lamp. Both polystyrene and poly (methyl methacrylate) are deposited onto the surface of CNTs in the CNT-forest and yarn in a N{sub 2} environment for 30 min during which the polymer uniformly coats the carbon nanotubes. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy data reveal that covalent bonding occurs at the CNT-polymer interface.

  3. Grafting polymer coatings onto the surfaces of carbon nanotube forests and yarns via a photon irradiation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Fei; Rujisamphan, N.; Liu Chang; Ismat Shah, S.; Ni Chaoying; Maezono, Yoshinari; Hawkins, Stephen C.; Huynh, Chi P.

    2012-01-01

    Surface activation of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as forests and yarns, depolytmerization of candidate polymers, and uniform deposition and re-polymerization onto the activated CNTs are simultaneously achieved by exposing CNTs and polymer targets to light with a narrow wavelength distribution from a vacuum ultraviolet lamp. Both polystyrene and poly (methyl methacrylate) are deposited onto the surface of CNTs in the CNT-forest and yarn in a N 2 environment for 30 min during which the polymer uniformly coats the carbon nanotubes. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy data reveal that covalent bonding occurs at the CNT-polymer interface.

  4. Preparation and modification of carbon nanotubes electrodes by cold plasmas processes toward the preparation of amperometric biosensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luais, E. [CEISAM, Universite de Nantes, CNRS, 2 rue de la Houssiniere, 44322 Nantes cedex 3 (France); IMN, Universite de Nantes, CNRS, 2 rue de la Houssiniere, 44322 Nantes cedex 3 (France); PCI, Universite du Maine, CNRS, rue Aristote, 72085 Le Mans cedex 9 (France); Thobie-Gautier, C. [CEISAM, Universite de Nantes, CNRS, 2 rue de la Houssiniere, 44322 Nantes cedex 3 (France); Tailleur, A.; Djouadi, M.-A.; Granier, A.; Tessier, P.Y. [IMN, Universite de Nantes, CNRS, 2 rue de la Houssiniere, 44322 Nantes cedex 3 (France); Debarnot, D.; Poncin-Epaillard, F. [PCI, Universite du Maine, CNRS, rue Aristote, 72085 Le Mans cedex 9 (France); Boujtita, M., E-mail: mohammed.boujtita@univ-nantes.f [CEISAM, Universite de Nantes, CNRS, 2 rue de la Houssiniere, 44322 Nantes cedex 3 (France)

    2010-11-30

    An electrochemical transducer based on vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (CNT) was prepared as a platform for biosensor development. Prior to enzyme immobilization, the CNT were treated using a microwave plasma system (CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}/H{sub 2}) in order to functionalize the CNT surface with oxygenated and aminated groups. The morphological aspect of the electrode surface was examined by SEM and its chemical structure was also elucidated by XPS analysis. It was found out that microwave plasma system (CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}/H{sub 2}) not only functionalizes the CNT but also permits to avoid the collapse phenomena retaining thus the alignment structure of the electrode surface. The electrochemical properties of the resulting new material based on CNT were carried out by cyclic voltammetry and were found suitable to develop high sensitive enzyme (HRP) biosensors operating on direct electron transfer process.

  5. Theoretical properties of carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palser, A.H.

    2000-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes are invariably terminated with hemi-fullerene caps. In order to investigate the effect of these caps on the electronic structure, a method is developed to enumerate every hemi-fullerene cap which is commensurate with a given nanotube body. This algorithm is then applied to nanotubes for which I + m ≤ 25. The results of this algorithm are then used to study the effects of caps with different symmetries on the electronic structure of metallic and semi-conducting nanotubes within the Hueckel model. It is found that caps can cause localised and resonance states, although the likelihood of localised states occurring in capped metallic nanotubes is shown to be small. In addition, caps induce a non-uniform charge distribution, in which negative charge tends to accumulate on pentagon vertices. The thesis ends by describing two new density matrix methods for performing linear-scaling electronic-structure calculations within the independent electron approximation. Example calculations demonstrate that these methods provide efficient and robust ways of performing linear-scaling calculations, either grand canonically (at a fixed chemical potential) or canonically (at a fixed electron count). (author)

  6. Direct integration of carbon nanotubes in Si microstructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aasmundtveit, Knut E; Ta, Bao Q; Halvorsen, Einar; Hoivik, Nils; Lin, Liwei

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present a low-cost, room-temperature process for integrating carbon nanotubes on Si microsystems. The process uses localized resistive heating by controlling current through suspended microbridges, to provide local temperatures high enough for CVD growth of carbon nanotubes. Locally grown carbon nanotubes make electrical connections through guidance by electric fields, thus eventually making circuits. The process is scalable to a wafer level batch process. Furthermore, it is controlled electrically, thus enabling automated control. Direct integration of carbon nanotubes in microstructures has great promise for nano-functional devices, such as ultrasensitive chemical sensors. Initial measurements demonstrate the Si–carbon nanotube–Si circuit's potential as a NH 3 sensor. (paper)

  7. Nitrotyrosine adsorption on carbon nanotube: a density functional theory study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majidi, R.; Karami, A. R.

    2014-05-01

    We have studied the effect of nitrotyrosine on electronic properties of different single-wall carbon nanotubes by density functional theory. Optimal adsorption configurations of nitrotyrosine adsorbed on carbon nanotube have been determined by calculation of adsorption energy. Adsorption energies indicate that nitrotyrosine is chemisorbed on carbon nanotubes. It is found that the nitrotyrosine adsorption modifies the electronic properties of the semiconducting carbon nanotubes significantly and these nanotubes become n-type semiconductors, while the effect of nitrotyrosine on metallic carbon nanotubes is not considerable and these nanotubes remain metallic. Results clarify sensitivity of carbon nanotubes to nitrotyrosine adsorption and suggest the possibility of using carbon nanotubes as biosensor for nitrotyrosine detection.

  8. Vertically aligned carbon nanotube field-effect transistors

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Jingqi; Zhao, Chao; Wang, Qingxiao; Zhang, Qiang; Wang, Zhihong; Zhang, Xixiang; Abutaha, Anas I.; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2012-01-01

    Vertically aligned carbon nanotube field-effect transistors (CNTFETs) have been developed using pure semiconducting carbon nanotubes. The source and drain were vertically stacked, separated by a dielectric, and the carbon nanotubes were placed

  9. Torsional carbon nanotube artificial muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foroughi, Javad; Spinks, Geoffrey M; Wallace, Gordon G; Oh, Jiyoung; Kozlov, Mikhail E; Fang, Shaoli; Mirfakhrai, Tissaphern; Madden, John D W; Shin, Min Kyoon; Kim, Seon Jeong; Baughman, Ray H

    2011-10-28

    Rotary motors of conventional design can be rather complex and are therefore difficult to miniaturize; previous carbon nanotube artificial muscles provide contraction and bending, but not rotation. We show that an electrolyte-filled twist-spun carbon nanotube yarn, much thinner than a human hair, functions as a torsional artificial muscle in a simple three-electrode electrochemical system, providing a reversible 15,000° rotation and 590 revolutions per minute. A hydrostatic actuation mechanism, as seen in muscular hydrostats in nature, explains the simultaneous occurrence of lengthwise contraction and torsional rotation during the yarn volume increase caused by electrochemical double-layer charge injection. The use of a torsional yarn muscle as a mixer for a fluidic chip is demonstrated.

  10. Carbon Nanotubes: Molecular Electronic Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Deepak; Saini, Subhash; Menon, Madhu

    1997-01-01

    The carbon Nanotube junctions have recently emerged as excellent candidates for use as the building blocks in the formation of nanoscale molecular electronic networks. While the simple joint of two dissimilar tubes can be generated by the introduction of a pair of heptagon-pentagon defects in an otherwise perfect hexagonal graphene sheet, more complex joints require other mechanisms. In this work we explore structural characteristics of complex 3-point junctions of carbon nanotubes using a generalized tight-binding molecular-dynamics scheme. The study of pi-electron local densities of states (LDOS) of these junctions reveal many interesting features, most prominent among them being the defect-induced states in the gap.

  11. The study of explosive emission from carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korenev, Sergey

    2002-01-01

    The carbon nanotubes (CNT) found applications for high density current electron emitters. The main interest for forming of high current electron beams using CNT is high concentration of electrical field on the nanotubes and high value of yield by electrons for field emission. The experimental results for time processes of forming cathode plasma and extraction of electron beam are presented in the report

  12. Carbon Nanotube Flexible and Stretchable Electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Le; Wang, Chuan

    2015-12-01

    The low-cost and large-area manufacturing of flexible and stretchable electronics using printing processes could radically change people's perspectives on electronics and substantially expand the spectrum of potential applications. Examples range from personalized wearable electronics to large-area smart wallpapers and from interactive bio-inspired robots to implantable health/medical apparatus. Owing to its one-dimensional structure and superior electrical property, carbon nanotube is one of the most promising material platforms for flexible and stretchable electronics. Here in this paper, we review the recent progress in this field. Applications of single-wall carbon nanotube networks as channel semiconductor in flexible thin-film transistors and integrated circuits, as stretchable conductors in various sensors, and as channel material in stretchable transistors will be discussed. Lastly, state-of-the-art advancement on printing process, which is ideal for large-scale fabrication of flexible and stretchable electronics, will also be reviewed in detail.

  13. Polymerization Initiated at the Sidewalls of Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tour, James M.; Hudson, Jared L.

    2011-01-01

    A process has been developed for growing polymer chains via anionic, cationic, or radical polymerization from the side walls of functionalized carbon nanotubes, which will facilitate greater dispersion in polymer matrices, and will greatly enhance reinforcement ability in polymeric material.

  14. 1/f noise in carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, Philip G.; Fuhrer, M. S.; Zettl, A.

    2000-01-01

    The electrical noise characteristics of single-walled carbon nanotubes have been investigated. For all three cases of individual isolated nanotubes, thin films of interconnected nanotubes, and bulk nanotube mats, anomalously large bias-dependent 1/f noise is found. The noise magnitude greatly exceeds that commonly observed in metal films, carbon resistors, or even carbon fibers with comparable resistances. A single empirical expression describes the noise for all nanotube samples, suggesting a common noise-generating mechanism proportional only to the number of nanotubes in the conductor. We consider likely sources of the fluctuations, and consequences for electronic applications of nanotubes if the excessive noise cannot be suppressed. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  15. Reactor scale modeling of multi-walled carbon nanotube growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lombardo, Jeffrey J.; Chiu, Wilson K.S.

    2011-01-01

    As the mechanisms of carbon nanotube (CNT) growth becomes known, it becomes important to understand how to implement this knowledge into reactor scale models to optimize CNT growth. In past work, we have reported fundamental mechanisms and competing deposition regimes that dictate single wall carbon nanotube growth. In this study, we will further explore the growth of carbon nanotubes with multiple walls. A tube flow chemical vapor deposition reactor is simulated using the commercial software package COMSOL, and considered the growth of single- and multi-walled carbon nanotubes. It was found that the limiting reaction processes for multi-walled carbon nanotubes change at different temperatures than the single walled carbon nanotubes and it was shown that the reactions directly governing CNT growth are a limiting process over certain parameters. This work shows that the optimum conditions for CNT growth are dependent on temperature, chemical concentration, and the number of nanotube walls. Optimal reactor conditions have been identified as defined by (1) a critical inlet methane concentration that results in hydrogen abstraction limited versus hydrocarbon adsorption limited reaction kinetic regime, and (2) activation energy of reaction for a given reactor temperature and inlet methane concentration. Successful optimization of a CNT growth processes requires taking all of those variables into account.

  16. Carbon nanotubes for biological and biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Wenrong; Thordarson, Pall; Gooding, J Justin; Ringer, Simon P; Braet, Filip

    2007-01-01

    Ever since the discovery of carbon nanotubes, researchers have been exploring their potential in biological and biomedical applications. The recent expansion and availability of chemical modification and bio-functionalization methods have made it possible to generate a new class of bioactive carbon nanotubes which are conjugated with proteins, carbohydrates, or nucleic acids. The modification of a carbon nanotube on a molecular level using biological molecules is essentially an example of the 'bottom-up' fabrication principle of bionanotechnology. The availability of these biomodified carbon nanotube constructs opens up an entire new and exciting research direction in the field of chemical biology, finally aiming to target and to alter the cell's behaviour at the subcellular or molecular level. This review covers the latest advances of bio-functionalized carbon nanotubes with an emphasis on the development of functional biological nano-interfaces. Topics that are discussed herewith include methods for biomodification of carbon nanotubes, the development of hybrid systems of carbon nanotubes and biomolecules for bioelectronics, and carbon nanotubes as transporters for a specific delivery of peptides and/or genetic material to cells. All of these current research topics aim at translating these biotechnology modified nanotubes into potential novel therapeutic approaches. (topical review)

  17. Enhancing quality of carbon nanotubes through a real-time controlled CVD process with application to next-generation nanosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laxminarayana, Karthik; Jalili, Nader

    2004-07-01

    Nanocrystals and nanostructures will be the building blocks for future materials that will exhibit enhanced or entirely new combinations of properties with tremendous opportunity for novel technologies that can have far-reaching impact on our society. It is, however, realized that a major challenge for the near future is the design, synthesis and integration of nanostructures to develop functional nanosystems. In view of this, this exploratory research seeks to facilitate the development of a controlled and deterministic framework for nanomanufacturing of nanotubes as the most suitable choice among nanostructures for a plethora of potential applications in areas such as nanoelectronic devices, biological probes, fuel cell electrodes, supercapacitors and filed emission devices. Specifically, this paper proposes to control and maintain the most common nanotube growth parameters (i.e., reaction temperature and gas flow rate) through both software and hardware modifications. The influence of such growth parameters in a CVD process on some of the most vital and crucial aspects of nanotubes (e.g., length, diameter, yield, growth rate and structure) can be utilized to arrive at some unique and remarkable properties for the nanotubes. The objective here is, therefore, to control the process parameters to pinpoint accuracy, which would enable us to fabricate nanotubes having the desired properties and thereby maximize their ability to function at its fullest potential. To achieve this and in order to provide for experimental validation of the proposed research program, an experimental test-bed using the nanotube processing test chamber and a mechatronics workstation are being constructed.

  18. Selective growth of carbon nanotube on silicon substrates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZOU Xiao-ping; H. ABE; T. SHIMIZU; A. ANDO; H. TOKUMOT; ZHU Shen-ming; ZHOU Hao-shen

    2006-01-01

    The carbon nanotube (CNT) growth of iron oxide-deposited trench-patterns and the locally-ordered CNT arrays on silicon substrate were achieved by simple thermal chemical vapor deposition(STCVD) of ethanol vapor. The CNTs were uniformly synthesized with good selectivity on trench-patterned silicon substrates. This fabrication process is compatible with currently used semiconductor-processing technologies,and the carbon-nanotube fabrication process can be widely applied for the development of electronic devices using carbon-nanotube field emitters as cold cathodes and can revolutionize the area of field-emitting electronic devices. The site-selective growth of CNT from an iron oxide nanoparticle catalyst patterned were also achieved by drying-mediated self-assembly technique. The present method offers a simple and cost-effective method to grow carbon nanotubes with self-assembled patterns.

  19. Improvement of toughness and electrical properties of epoxy composites with carbon nanotubes prepared by industrially relevant processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollertz, R; Chatterjee, S; Geiger, T; Nueesch, F A; Chu, B T T; Gutmann, H

    2011-01-01

    The addition of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to polymeric matrices or master batches has the potential to provide composites with novel properties. However, composites with a uniform dispersion of CNTs have proved to be difficult to manufacture, especially at an industrial scale. This paper reports on processing methods that overcome problems related to the control and reproducibility of dispersions. By using a high pressure homogenizer and a three-roll calendaring mill in combination, CNT reinforced epoxies were fabricated by mould casting with a well dispersed nanofiller content from 0.1 to 2 wt%. The influence of the nano-carbon reinforcements on toughness and electrical properties of the CNT/epoxies was studied. A substantial increase of all mechanical properties already appeared at the lowest CNT content of 0.1 wt%, but further raising the nanofiller concentration only led to moderate further changes. The most significant enhancement was obtained for fracture toughness, reaching up to 82%. The low percolation thresholds were confirmed by electrical conductivity measurements on the same composites yielding a threshold value of only about 0.01 wt%. As corroborated by a thorough microscopic analysis of the composites, mechanical and electrical enhancement points to the formation of an interconnected network of agglomerated CNTs.

  20. Mechanics of filled carbon nanotubes

    KAUST Repository

    Monteiro, A.O.; Cachim, P.B.; Da Costa, Pedro M. F. J.

    2014-01-01

    The benefits of filling carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with assorted molecular and crystalline substances have been investigated for the past two decades. Amongst the study of new structural phases, defects, chemical reactions and varied types of host-guest interactions, there is one fundamental characterisation aspect of these systems that continues to be overlooked: the mechanical behaviour of filled CNTs. In contrast to their empty counterparts, the mechanics of filled CNTs is a subject where reports appear far and apart, this despite being key to the application of these materials in technological devices. In the following paragraphs, we review the work that has been carried out up to the present on the mechanics of filled CNTs. The studies discussed range from experimental resonant frequency essays performed within electron microscopes to modelling, via molecular dynamics, of three-point bending of nanotubes filled with gases. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Mechanics of filled carbon nanotubes

    KAUST Repository

    Monteiro, A.O.

    2014-04-01

    The benefits of filling carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with assorted molecular and crystalline substances have been investigated for the past two decades. Amongst the study of new structural phases, defects, chemical reactions and varied types of host-guest interactions, there is one fundamental characterisation aspect of these systems that continues to be overlooked: the mechanical behaviour of filled CNTs. In contrast to their empty counterparts, the mechanics of filled CNTs is a subject where reports appear far and apart, this despite being key to the application of these materials in technological devices. In the following paragraphs, we review the work that has been carried out up to the present on the mechanics of filled CNTs. The studies discussed range from experimental resonant frequency essays performed within electron microscopes to modelling, via molecular dynamics, of three-point bending of nanotubes filled with gases. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Fabrication and characterization of nanocomposites reinforced by carbon nanotubes - (1) synthesis of carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hseuh Hsiangming; Tai Nyanhwa; Perng Tongping [Dept. of Material Science, National Tsing-Hwa Univ., TW (China); Chyou Sander [Taiwan Power Research Inst., Taiwan Power Co., Taipei (China)

    2003-07-01

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) produced by floating catalyst method were used for reinforcing material in polymeric nanocomposites. Five different kinds of carbon sources (benzene, toluene, xylene, cyclo-hexane, n-hexane) were used as precursors in the thermal chemical vapor deposition process. The products were collected and examined by Raman, HRTEM, and FESEM. The differences in microstructure and morphologies among these products are analyzed and discussed. (orig.)

  3. Discovery of carbon nanotubes. Sara ni carbon nanotube e

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iijima, S

    1994-01-20

    This paper describes the following matters on carbon nanotubes (CNt): CNt is discovered in carbon deposits generated in the tip of a negative electrode during DC arc discharge between carbon electrodes. CNt has a construction in which cylinders made of normally several layers are superposed, based on cylindrical crystals in a single layer with six-member rings of carbon atoms laid out. Spiral arrangement of carbon six-member rings has been discovered in the single-layered crystals. Five-member rings exist in a location where the CNt tip is closed, and seven-member rings in a location where the CNt presents a saddle-like curve, without exceptions. It is introduced theoretically that the electronic structure of the single-layered CNt depends on the cylinder diameter and spiral pitch. Replacing part of the carbon negative electrode with iron, and vaporizing iron and carbon simultaneously through arc discharge can result in a single-layered CNt with a diameter of 1 nm. Heating the CNt deposited with metallic lead in an oxygen atmosphere can form CNt containing lead compounds. 19 refs., 9 figs.

  4. Interaction of multiwalled carbon nanotube produces structural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) has been found to produce structural changes in Calf Thymus-DNA (CT-DNA). The interaction or binding of the multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) was investigated in order to discover if it brings about any significant changes of the DNA double helix using CD spectra ...

  5. Multifunctional carbon nanotubes with nanoparticles embedded in their walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattia, D; Korneva, G; Sabur, A; Friedman, G; Gogotsi, Y

    2007-01-01

    Controlled amounts of nanoparticles ranging in size and composition were embedded in the walls of carbon nanotubes during a template-assisted chemical vapour deposition (CVD) process. The encapsulation of gold nanoparticles enabled surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) detection of glycine inside the cavity of the nanotubes. Iron oxide particles are partially reduced to metallic iron during the CVD process giving the nanotubes ferromagnetic behaviour. At high nanoparticle concentrations, particle agglomerates can form. These agglomerates or larger particles, which are only partially embedded in the walls of the nanotubes, are covered by additional carbon layers inside the hollow cavity of the tube producing hillocks inside the nanotubes, with sizes comparable to the bore of the tube

  6. Carbon Nanotube Paper-Based Electroanalytical Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngmi Koo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Here, we report on carbon nanotube paper-based electroanalytical devices. A highly aligned-carbon nanotube (HA-CNT array, grown using chemical vapor deposition (CVD, was processed to form bi-layered paper with an integrated cellulose-based Origami-chip as the electroanalytical device. We used an inverse-ordered fabrication method from a thick carbon nanotube (CNT sheet to a thin CNT sheet. A 200-layered HA-CNT sheet and a 100-layered HA-CNT sheet are explored as a working electrode. The device was fabricated using the following methods: (1 cellulose-based paper was patterned using a wax printer, (2 electrical connection was made using a silver ink-based circuit printer, and (3 three electrodes were stacked on a 2D Origami cell. Electrochemical behavior was evaluated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS and cyclic voltammetry (CV. We believe that this platform could attract a great deal of interest for use in various chemical and biomedical applications.

  7. Carbon Nanotube Supercapacitors

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Wen; Dai, Liming

    2010-01-01

    In summary, CNTs have been explored as a new type of electrode materials for supercapacitors. Both randomly entangled and highly aligned CNTs have been investigated. The former is relatively easier to fabricate while the latter has a better capacitor performance. Combining the unique properties of CNTs with the high surface area of activated carbons or the additional pseduocapacitance of redox materials (electroactive polymers and metal oxides), high-capacitance and high-rate nanocomposites a...

  8. Batch fabrication of carbon nanotube bearings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subramanian, A; Dong, L X; Tharian, J; Sennhauser, U; Nelson, B J

    2007-01-01

    Relative displacements between the atomically smooth, nested shells in multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) can be used as a robust nanoscale motion enabling mechanism. Here, we report on a novel method suited for structuring large arrays of MWNTs into such nanobearings in a parallel fashion. By creating MWNT nanostructures with nearly identical electrical circuit resistance and heat transport conditions, uniform Joule heating across the array is used to simultaneously engineer the shell geometry via electric breakdown. The biasing approach used optimizes process metrics such as yield and cycle-time. We also present the parallel and piecewise shell engineering at different segments of a single nanotube to construct multiple, but independent, high density bearings. We anticipate this method for constructing electromechanical building blocks to be a fundamental unit process for manufacturing future nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS) with sophisticated architectures and to drive several nanoscale transduction applications such as GHz-oscillators, shuttles, memories, syringes and actuators

  9. Coated carbon nanotube array electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhifeng [Newton, MA; Wen, Jian [Newton, MA; Chen, Jinghua [Chestnut Hill, MA; Huang, Zhongping [Belmont, MA; Wang, Dezhi [Wellesley, MA

    2008-10-28

    The present invention provides conductive carbon nanotube (CNT) electrode materials comprising aligned CNT substrates coated with an electrically conducting polymer, and the fabrication of electrodes for use in high performance electrical energy storage devices. In particular, the present invention provides conductive CNTs electrode material whose electrical properties render them especially suitable for use in high efficiency rechargeable batteries. The present invention also provides methods for obtaining surface modified conductive CNT electrode materials comprising an array of individual linear, aligned CNTs having a uniform surface coating of an electrically conductive polymer such as polypyrrole, and their use in electrical energy storage devices.

  10. Structural properties of water around uncharged and charged carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dezfoli, Amir Reza Ansari; Mehrabian, Mozaffar Ali; Rafsanjani, Hassan Hashemipour

    2013-01-01

    Studying the structural properties of water molecules around the carbon nanotubes is very important in a wide variety of carbon nanotubes applications. We studied the number of hydrogen bonds, oxygen and hydrogen density distributions, and water orientation around carbon nanotubes. The water density distribution for all carbon nanotubes was observed to have the same feature. In water-carbon nanotubes interface, a high-density region of water molecules exists around carbon nanotubes. The results reveal that the water orientation around carbon nanotubes is roughly dependent on carbon nanotubes surface charge. The water molecules in close distances to carbon nanotubes were found to make an HOH plane nearly perpendicular to the water-carbon nanotubes interface for carbon nanotubes with negative surface charge. For uncharged carbon nanotubes and carbon nanotubes with positive surface charge, the HOH plane was in tangential orientation with water-carbon nanotubes interface. There was also a significant reduction in hydrogen bond of water region around carbon nanotubes as compared with hydrogen bond in bulk water. This reduction was very obvious for carbon nanotubes with positive surface charge. In addition, the calculation of dynamic properties of water molecules in water-CNT interface revealed that there is a direct relation between the number of Hbonds and self-diffusion coefficient of water molecules

  11. A carbon nanotube optical rectenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Asha; Singh, Virendra; Bougher, Thomas L.; Cola, Baratunde A.

    2015-12-01

    An optical rectenna—a device that directly converts free-propagating electromagnetic waves at optical frequencies to direct current—was first proposed over 40 years ago, yet this concept has not been demonstrated experimentally due to fabrication challenges at the nanoscale. Realizing an optical rectenna requires that an antenna be coupled to a diode that operates on the order of 1 PHz (switching speed on the order of 1 fs). Diodes operating at these frequencies are feasible if their capacitance is on the order of a few attofarads, but they remain extremely difficult to fabricate and to reliably couple to a nanoscale antenna. Here we demonstrate an optical rectenna by engineering metal-insulator-metal tunnel diodes, with a junction capacitance of ˜2 aF, at the tip of vertically aligned multiwalled carbon nanotubes (˜10 nm in diameter), which act as the antenna. Upon irradiation with visible and infrared light, we measure a d.c. open-circuit voltage and a short-circuit current that appear to be due to a rectification process (we account for a very small but quantifiable contribution from thermal effects). In contrast to recent reports of photodetection based on hot electron decay in a plasmonic nanoscale antenna, a coherent optical antenna field appears to be rectified directly in our devices, consistent with rectenna theory. Finally, power rectification is observed under simulated solar illumination, and there is no detectable change in diode performance after numerous current-voltage scans between 5 and 77 °C, indicating a potential for robust operation.

  12. Perspectives of Single-Wall Carbon Nano-tube Production in the Arc Discharge Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krestinin, A.V.; Kiselev, N.A.; Raevskii, A.V; Ryabenko, A.G.; Zakharov, D.N.; Zvereva, G.I.

    2003-01-01

    Single-wall carbon nano tubes (SWNTs) promise wide applications in many technical fields. As a result purified SWNT material is sold now on the West market at more than 1000 dollars per 1 gram. Thus developing an effective technology for SWNTs production rises to a very important sintofene problem. The perspectives of three existing methods providing raw material in the technology of SWNT production have been analyzed. They are i) pulsed laser evaporation of graphite/metal composites, ii) evaporation of graphite electrodes with metal content in the are discharge process, and iii) catalytic decomposition of the mixture of CO and metal carbonyl catalyst precursor. The observed dynamites of SWNT market points to replacing the laser method of SWNTs production by the are process. The conclusion has been made that the technology based on the are process will be the major one for the fabrication of purified SWNTs at least for the next five years. A reliable estimation of a low price limit of SWNTs was derived from a comparison of two technologies based on the are discharge process: the first one is the production of SWNTs and the second one is the production of a fullerene mixture C 6 0 + C 7 0. The main conclusion was made that the price of purified SWNTs should always be more by 2-3 times the price of fullerene mixture. The parameters of a lab-scale technology for the production of purified SWNTs are listed. A large-scale application of the developed technology is expected to reduce the price of purified SWNTs by approximately ten times. The methods now employed for the characterization of products containing SWNTs are briefly observed. It is concluded that electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, absorption and Raman spectroscopy, measurement of the specific surface aria, optical microscopy - each in separation is not enough for extensive characterization of a sample containing SWNTs, and all these methods should be used together. (author)

  13. Multiwalled carbon nanotubes incorporated into a miscible blend of poly(phenylenether/polystyrene – Processing and characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Olowojoba

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available 4 wt% multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs were incorporated into a miscible blend of polyphenylenether/polystyrene (PPE/PS on a twin-screw extruder at a screw speed of 600 rpm. The masterbatch obtained was diluted at 400 and 600 rpm to obtain lower MWCNT loadings in PPE/PS. Electron microscopy & optical microscopy images show very good MWCNT dispersion even at high filler loadings of 4 wt%, but slightly larger agglomerate size fractions are observable at higher screw speeds. While MWCNT addition enhanced the thermal stability of PPE/PS, a small change in glass transition was observed on the composites at different filler concentrations compared to PPE/PS. The specific heat capacity at glass transition decreases considerably until 2 wt% MWCNT and levels down thereafter for both processing conditions pointing to enhanced filler-matrix interaction at lower loadings. Storage modulus of the nanocomposites was enhanced significantly on MWCNT incorporation with reinforcing effect dropping considerably as a function of temperature, especially at lower filler contents. The modulus and the tensile strength of PPE/PS were only marginally enhanced in spite of excellent MWCNT dispersion in the matrix. Electrical percolation occurs at 0.4 wt% MWCNT content, and the electrical conductivity of 0.5 wt% MWCNT reinforced PPE/PS was close to 12 orders in magnitude higher compared to PPE/PS.

  14. Single, aligned carbon nanotubes in 3D nanoscale architectures enabled by top-down and bottom-up manufacturable processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaul, Anupama B; Megerian, Krikor G; Von Allmen, Paul; Baron, Richard L

    2009-01-01

    We have developed manufacturable approaches for forming single, vertically aligned carbon nanotubes, where the tubes are centered precisely, and placed within a few hundred nm of 1-1.5 μm deep trenches. These wafer-scale approaches were enabled by using chemically amplified resists and high density, low pressure plasma etching techniques to form the 3D nanoscale architectures. The tube growth was performed using dc plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD), and the materials used in the pre-fabricated 3D architectures were chemically and structurally compatible with the high temperature (700 deg. C) PECVD synthesis of our tubes, in an ammonia and acetylene ambient. Such scalable, high throughput top-down fabrication processes, when integrated with the bottom-up tube synthesis techniques, should accelerate the development of plasma grown tubes for a wide variety of applications in electronics, such as nanoelectromechanical systems, interconnects, field emitters and sensors. Tube characteristics were also engineered to some extent, by adjusting the Ni catalyst thickness, as well as the pressure and plasma power during growth.

  15. Review of carbon nanotube nanoelectronics and macroelectronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Che, Yuchi; Chen, Haitian; Gui, Hui; Liu, Jia; Liu, Bilu; Zhou, Chongwu

    2014-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes have the potential to spur future development in electronics due to their unequalled electrical properties. In this article, we present a review on carbon nanotube-based circuits in terms of their electrical performance in two major directions: nanoelectronics and macroelectronics. In the nanoelectronics direction, we direct our discussion to the performance of aligned carbon nanotubes for digital circuits and circuits designed for radio-frequency applications. In the macroelectronics direction, we focus our attention on the performance of thin films of carbon nanotube random networks in digital circuits, display applications, and printed electronics. In the last part, we discuss the existing challenges and future directions of nanotube-based nano- and microelectronics. (invited review)

  16. Microstructural investigations of zirconium oxide—on core–shell structure of carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pal, Kaushik; Kang, Dong Jin; Kim, Jin Kuk

    2011-01-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes and multi-walled carbon nanotubes/ZrO 2 nanocomposites were obtained by isothermal hydrolyzing and chemical precipitation method for both the carbon nanotubes. The coating was taken place by dispersion of both the carbon nanotubes in ZrOCl 2 ·8H 2 O aqueous solution. However, a highly conformal and uniform monoclinic zirconia coating was deposited on multi-walled carbon nanotubes rather than single-walled carbon nanotubes by this new and simple method. Also, it has been observed that the thickness of the individual carbon nanotube after zirconia coating was increased by isothermal hydrolyzing process rather than traditional chemical precipitation method and it has been confirmed by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy study.

  17. Catalysts for Efficient Production of Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ted X.; Dong, Yi

    2009-01-01

    Several metal alloys have shown promise as improved catalysts for catalytic thermal decomposition of hydrocarbon gases to produce carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Heretofore almost every experiment on the production of carbon nanotubes by this method has involved the use of iron, nickel, or cobalt as the catalyst. However, the catalytic-conversion efficiencies of these metals have been observed to be limited. The identification of better catalysts is part of a continuing program to develop means of mass production of high-quality carbon nanotubes at costs lower than those achieved thus far (as much as $100/g for purified multi-wall CNTs or $1,000/g for single-wall CNTs in year 2002). The main effort thus far in this program has been the design and implementation of a process tailored specifically for high-throughput screening of alloys for catalyzing the growth of CNTs. The process includes an integral combination of (1) formulation of libraries of catalysts, (2) synthesis of CNTs from decomposition of ethylene on powders of the alloys in a pyrolytic chemical-vapor-decomposition reactor, and (3) scanning- electron-microscope screening of the CNTs thus synthesized to evaluate the catalytic efficiencies of the alloys. Information gained in this process is put into a database and analyzed to identify promising alloy compositions, which are to be subjected to further evaluation in a subsequent round of testing. Some of these alloys have been found to catalyze the formation of carbon nano tubes from ethylene at temperatures as low as 350 to 400 C. In contrast, the temperatures typically required for prior catalysts range from 550 to 750 C.

  18. Carbon nanotube woven textile photodetector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubair, Ahmed; Wang, Xuan; Mirri, Francesca; Tsentalovich, Dmitri E.; Fujimura, Naoki; Suzuki, Daichi; Soundarapandian, Karuppasamy P.; Kawano, Yukio; Pasquali, Matteo; Kono, Junichiro

    2018-01-01

    The increasing interest in mobile and wearable technology demands the enhancement of functionality of clothing through incorporation of sophisticated architectures of multifunctional materials. Flexible electronic and photonic devices based on organic materials have made impressive progress over the past decade, but higher performance, simpler fabrication, and most importantly, compatibility with woven technology are desired. Here we report on the development of a weaved, substrateless, and polarization-sensitive photodetector based on doping-engineered fibers of highly aligned carbon nanotubes. This room-temperature-operating, self-powered detector responds to radiation in an ultrabroad spectral range, from the ultraviolet to the terahertz, through the photothermoelectric effect, with a low noise-equivalent power (a few nW/Hz 1 /2) throughout the range and with a Z T -factor value that is twice as large as that of previously reported carbon nanotube-based photothermoelectric photodetectors. Particularly, we fabricated a ˜1 -m-long device consisting of tens of p+-p- junctions and weaved it into a shirt. This device demonstrated a collective photoresponse of the series-connected junctions under global illumination. The performance of the device did not show any sign of deterioration through 200 bending tests with a bending radius smaller than 100 μ m as well as standard washing and ironing cycles. This unconventional photodetector will find applications in wearable technology that require detection of electromagnetic radiation.

  19. Thread-Like CMOS Logic Circuits Enabled by Reel-Processed Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Transistors via Selective Doping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Jae Sang; Kim, Taehoon; Ban, Seok-Gyu; Kim, Daesik; Lee, Jun Ho; Jur, Jesse S; Kim, Myung-Gil; Kim, Yong-Hoon; Hong, Yongtaek; Park, Sung Kyu

    2017-08-01

    The realization of large-area electronics with full integration of 1D thread-like devices may open up a new era for ultraflexible and human adaptable electronic systems because of their potential advantages in demonstrating scalable complex circuitry by a simply integrated weaving technology. More importantly, the thread-like fiber electronic devices can be achieved using a simple reel-to-reel process, which is strongly required for low-cost and scalable manufacturing technology. Here, high-performance reel-processed complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) integrated circuits are reported on 1D fiber substrates by using selectively chemical-doped single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) transistors. With the introduction of selective n-type doping and a nonrelief photochemical patterning process, p- and n-type SWCNT transistors are successfully implemented on cylindrical fiber substrates under air ambient, enabling high-performance and reliable thread-like CMOS inverter circuits. In addition, it is noteworthy that the optimized reel-coating process can facilitate improvement in the arrangement of SWCNTs, building uniformly well-aligned SWCNT channels, and enhancement of the electrical performance of the devices. The p- and n-type SWCNT transistors exhibit field-effect mobility of 4.03 and 2.15 cm 2 V -1 s -1 , respectively, with relatively narrow distribution. Moreover, the SWCNT CMOS inverter circuits demonstrate a gain of 6.76 and relatively good dynamic operation at a supply voltage of 5.0 V. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Funcionalização de nanotubos de Carbono Functionalization of carbon nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Gomes de Souza Filho

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes are very stable systems having considerable chemical inertness due to the strong covalent bonds of the carbon atoms on the nanotube surface. Many applications of carbon nanotubes require their chemical modification in order to tune/control their physico-chemical properties. One way of achieving this control is carrying out functionalization processes where atoms and molecules interact (covalent or non-covalent with the nanotubes. We review some of the progress that has been made in chemical functionalization of carbon nanotubes. Emphasis is given to chemical strategies, the most used techniques, and applications.

  1. Structure of Carbon Nanotube-dendrimer composite

    OpenAIRE

    Vasumathi, V.; Pramanik, Debabrata; Sood, A. K.; Maiti, Prabal K

    2012-01-01

    Using all atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations we report the microscopic picture of the nanotube-dendrimer complex for PAMAM dendrimer of generation 2 to 4 and carbon nanotube of chirality (6,5). We find compact wrapping conformations of dendrimer onto the nanotube surface for all the three generations of PAMAM dendrimer. The degree of wrapping is more for non-protonated dendrimer compared to the protonated dendrimer. For comparison we also study the interaction of another dendrimer,...

  2. Carbon nanotubes as heat dissipaters in microelectronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pérez Paz, Alejandro; García-Lastra, Juan María; Markussen, Troels

    2013-01-01

    We review our recent modelling work of carbon nanotubes as potential candidates for heat dissipation in microelectronics cooling. In the first part, we analyze the impact of nanotube defects on their thermal transport properties. In the second part, we investigate the loss of thermal properties...... of nanotubes in presence of an interface with various substances, including air and water. Comparison with previous works is established whenever is possible....

  3. Carbon nanotube/carbon nanotube composite AFM probes prepared using ion flux molding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesmore, Grace; Roque, Carrollyn; Barber, Richard

    The performance of carbon nanotube-carbon nanotube composite (CNT/CNT composite) atomic force microscopy (AFM) probes is compared to that of conventional Si probes in AFM tapping mode. The ion flux molding (IFM) process, aiming an ion beam at the CNT probe, aligns the tip to a desired angle. The result is a relatively rigid tip that is oriented to offset the cantilever angle. Scans using these probes reveal an improvement in image accuracy over conventional tips, while allowing higher aspect ratio imaging of 3D surface features. Furthermore, the lifetimes of CNT-CNT composite tips are observed to be longer than both conventional tips and those claimed for other CNT technologies. Novel applications include the imaging of embiid silk. Supported by the Clare Boothe Luce Research Scholars Award and Carbon Design Innovations.

  4. Advanced ceramics reinforced with carbon nanotubes for ballistic application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Couto, Carlos Alberto de Oliveira; Passador, Fabio Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Full text: The carbon nanotubes have excellent mechanical properties, the elastic modulus is around 1TPa, next to the diamond and the mechanical strength is 10 to 100 times higher than steel, moreover they are self-lubricating, which facilitates the ceramic composites compression process. The insertion of carbon nanotubes tends to improve the fracture toughness of ceramic composites, but is necessary to obtain a good dispersion in the ceramic matrix. The objective of this work is to develop a tough and tenacious ceramics for ballistic application, using structural ceramics of alumina and tetragonal zirconia and evaluate the influence of the addition of carbon nanotubes (multilayer) on the mechanical properties of the composite. The carbon nanotubes were functionalized with carboxylic groups by nitric acid oxidation reaction. To ensure a homogeneous distribution of the carbon nanotubes in the matrix of alumina/zirconia, surfactants were used: sodium dodecyl sulphate + gum arabic in the amount of 50% by mass of carbon nanotubes. Ceramic powders were prepared with pure alumina and alumina + 20% by mass of tetragonal zirconia/yttria, with and without addition of carbon nanotubes at concentrations of 0.1 and 0.5% by mass. The samples were uniaxially and isostatically pressed at 300 MPa and sintered in a conventional oven at 1500 °C for two hours and a heating rate of 5 °C/min, aimed at commercial application. The morphology of ceramic powders were characterized by SEM and XRD. The mechanical properties of the sintered samples were evaluated by flexural bending at three points, Vickers microhardness and fracture toughness by single edge-notched beam (SENB). The use of carbon nanotubes in the ceramic composite caused a decrease in hardness and an increase in fracture toughness, with great potential for ballistic applications. (author)

  5. Advanced ceramics reinforced with carbon nanotubes for ballistic application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Couto, Carlos Alberto de Oliveira; Passador, Fabio Roberto, E-mail: carlos.couto.sjc@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Full text: The carbon nanotubes have excellent mechanical properties, the elastic modulus is around 1TPa, next to the diamond and the mechanical strength is 10 to 100 times higher than steel, moreover they are self-lubricating, which facilitates the ceramic composites compression process. The insertion of carbon nanotubes tends to improve the fracture toughness of ceramic composites, but is necessary to obtain a good dispersion in the ceramic matrix. The objective of this work is to develop a tough and tenacious ceramics for ballistic application, using structural ceramics of alumina and tetragonal zirconia and evaluate the influence of the addition of carbon nanotubes (multilayer) on the mechanical properties of the composite. The carbon nanotubes were functionalized with carboxylic groups by nitric acid oxidation reaction. To ensure a homogeneous distribution of the carbon nanotubes in the matrix of alumina/zirconia, surfactants were used: sodium dodecyl sulphate + gum arabic in the amount of 50% by mass of carbon nanotubes. Ceramic powders were prepared with pure alumina and alumina + 20% by mass of tetragonal zirconia/yttria, with and without addition of carbon nanotubes at concentrations of 0.1 and 0.5% by mass. The samples were uniaxially and isostatically pressed at 300 MPa and sintered in a conventional oven at 1500 °C for two hours and a heating rate of 5 °C/min, aimed at commercial application. The morphology of ceramic powders were characterized by SEM and XRD. The mechanical properties of the sintered samples were evaluated by flexural bending at three points, Vickers microhardness and fracture toughness by single edge-notched beam (SENB). The use of carbon nanotubes in the ceramic composite caused a decrease in hardness and an increase in fracture toughness, with great potential for ballistic applications. (author)

  6. In silico assembly and nanomechanical characterization of carbon nanotube buckypaper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cranford, Steven W; Buehler, Markus J

    2010-01-01

    Carbon nanotube sheets or films, also known as 'buckypaper', have been proposed for use in actuating, structural and filtration systems, based in part on their unique and robust mechanical properties. Computational modeling of such a fibrous nanostructure is hindered by both the random arrangement of the constituent elements as well as the time- and length-scales accessible to atomistic level molecular dynamics modeling. Here we present a novel in silico assembly procedure based on a coarse-grain model of carbon nanotubes, used to attain a representative mesoscopic buckypaper model that circumvents the need for probabilistic approaches. By variation in assembly parameters, including the initial nanotube density and ratio of nanotube type (single- and double-walled), the porosity of the resulting buckypaper can be varied threefold, from approximately 0.3 to 0.9. Further, through simulation of nanoindentation, the Young's modulus is shown to be tunable through manipulation of nanotube type and density over a range of approximately 0.2-3.1 GPa, in good agreement with experimental findings of the modulus of assembled carbon nanotube films. In addition to carbon nanotubes, the coarse-grain model and assembly process can be adapted for other fibrous nanostructures such as electrospun polymeric composites, high performance nonwoven ballistic materials, or fibrous protein aggregates, facilitating the development and characterization of novel nanomaterials and composites as well as the analysis of biological materials such as protein fiber films and bulk structures.

  7. Dielectrophoretic assembly of carbon nanotube devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimaki, Maria

    The purpose of this project has been to assemble single-walled carbon nanotubes on electrodes at the tip of a biocompatible cantilever and use these for chemical species sensing in air and liquid, for example in order to measure the local activity from ion channels in the cell membrane....... The electrical resistance of carbon nanotubes has been shown to be extremely sensitive to gas molecules. Dielectrophoresis is a method capable of quickly attracting nanotubes on microelectrodes by using an electric field, thus enabling nanotube integration in microsystems. Dielectrophoresis offers also....... A model for the dielectrophoretic assembly of carbon nanotubes on microelectrodes was developed and several simulations were conducted using values from the available literature for the various key parameters. The model can give qualitative results regarding the parameters dominating the dielectrophoretic...

  8. Carbon nanotube fiber spun from wetted ribbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yuntian T; Arendt, Paul; Zhang, Xiefei; Li, Qingwen; Fu, Lei; Zheng, Lianxi

    2014-04-29

    A fiber of carbon nanotubes was prepared by a wet-spinning method involving drawing carbon nanotubes away from a substantially aligned, supported array of carbon nanotubes to form a ribbon, wetting the ribbon with a liquid, and spinning a fiber from the wetted ribbon. The liquid can be a polymer solution and after forming the fiber, the polymer can be cured. The resulting fiber has a higher tensile strength and higher conductivity compared to dry-spun fibers and to wet-spun fibers prepared by other methods.

  9. Methods for producing reinforced carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhifen [Newton, MA; Wen, Jian Guo [Newton, MA; Lao, Jing Y [Chestnut Hill, MA; Li, Wenzhi [Brookline, MA

    2008-10-28

    Methods for producing reinforced carbon nanotubes having a plurality of microparticulate carbide or oxide materials formed substantially on the surface of such reinforced carbon nanotubes composite materials are disclosed. In particular, the present invention provides reinforced carbon nanotubes (CNTs) having a plurality of boron carbide nanolumps formed substantially on a surface of the reinforced CNTs that provide a reinforcing effect on CNTs, enabling their use as effective reinforcing fillers for matrix materials to give high-strength composites. The present invention also provides methods for producing such carbide reinforced CNTs.

  10. Carbon Nanotubes as Optical Sensors in Biomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrera, Consol; Torres Andón, Fernando; Feliu, Neus

    2017-11-28

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) have become potential candidates for a wide range of medical applications including sensing, imaging, and drug delivery. Their photophysical properties (i.e., the capacity to emit in the near-infrared), excellent photostability, and fluorescence, which is highly sensitive to the local environment, make SWCNTs promising optical probes in biomedicine. In this Perspective, we discuss the existing strategies for and challenges of using carbon nanotubes for medical diagnosis based on intracellular sensing as well as discuss also their biocompatibility and degradability. Finally, we highlight the potential improvements of this nanotechnology and future directions in the field of carbon nanotubes for biomedical applications.

  11. Dramatic property enhancement in polyetherimide using low-cost commercially functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes via a facile solution processing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Sandeep; Li Bin; Caceres, Santiago; Zhong Weihong; Maguire, Russ G

    2009-01-01

    Polyetherimide (PEI) has excellent mechanical and thermal properties, and exceptional fire resistance. Developing even broader multi-functionality in PEI/carbon nanotube (CNT) composites for industrial applications is an alluring but challenging goal, due to processing difficulties related to the high pressure and temperature needed to achieve effective flow for this polymer, and costly and complex treatments of the CNTs. Here we report the fabrication of PEI nanocomposite films using low-cost commercially functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs), and a simple and innovative process, achieving exceptional properties with only 0.5 wt% of MWNTs, including an increase in electrical conductivity of 12 orders of magnitude, accompanied by an unprecedented increase of 86 0 C in thermal decomposition temperature (higher service temperature). Field emission scanning electron microscopy revealed a high degree of uniform dispersion among the MWNTs, superb polymer-MWNT interaction and formation of a spatially homogeneous nanotube network within the matrix. The enhancement in these properties suggests great potential use for this developed processing approach and the resulting nanocomposites for multi-functional coating or interfacing materials in aerospace and electronic industries.

  12. Carbon nanotubes : from molecular to macroscopic sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wood, J.R.; Zhao, Qing; Frogley, M.D.; Meurs, E.R.; Prins, A.D.; Peijs, A.A.J.M.; Dunstan, D.J.; Wagner, H.D.

    2000-01-01

    The components that contribute to Raman spectral shifts of single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNT’s) embedded in polymer systems have been identified. The temperature dependence of the Raman shift can be separated into the temperature dependence of the nanotubes, the cohesive energy density of the

  13. Application of a multiwalled carbon nanotube-chitosan composite as an electrode in the electrosorption process for water purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chih-Yu; Huang, Shih-Ching; Chou, Pei-Hsin; Den, Walter; Hou, Chia-Hung

    2016-03-01

    In this study, a multiwalled carbon nanotubes-chitosan (CNTs-CS) composite electrode was fabricated to enable water purification by electrosorption. The CNTs-CS composite electrode was shown to possess excellent capacitive behaviors and good pore accessibility by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, galvanostatic charge-discharge, and cyclic voltammetry measurements in 1 M H2SO4 electrolyte. Moreover, the CNTs-CS composite electrode showed promising performance for capacitive water desalination. At an electric potential of 1.2 V, the electrosorption capacity and electrosorption rate of NaCl ions on the CNTs-CS composite electrode were determined to be 10.7 mg g(-1) and 0.051 min(-1), respectively, which were considerably higher than those of conventional activated electrodes. The improved electrosorption performance could be ascribed to the existence of mesopores. Additionally, the feasibility of electrosorptive removal of aniline from an aqueous solution has been demonstrated. Upon polarization at 0.6 V, the CNTs-CS composite electrode had a larger electrosorption capacity of 26.4 mg g(-1) and a higher electrosorption rate of 0.006 min(-1) for aniline compared with the open circuit condition. The enhanced adsorption resulted from the improved affinity between aniline and the electrode under electrochemical assistance involving a nonfaradic process. Consequently, the CNT-CS composite electrode, exhibiting typical double-layer capacitor behavior and a sufficient potential range, can be a potential electrode material for application in the electrosorption process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Optical Characterization and Applications of Single Walled Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strano, Michael S.

    2005-03-01

    Recent advances in the dispersion and separation of single walled carbon nanotubes have led to new methods of optical characterization and some novel applications. We find that Raman spectroscopy can be used to probe the aggregation state of single-walled carbon nanotubes in solution or as solids with a range of varying morphologies. Carbon nanotubes experience an orthogonal electronic dispersion when in electrical contact that broadens (from 40 meV to roughly 80 meV) and shifts the interband transition to lower energy (by 60 meV). We show that the magnitude of this shift is dependent on the extent of bundle organization and the inter-nanotube contact area. In the Raman spectrum, aggregation shifts the effective excitation profile and causes peaks to increase or decrease, depending on where the transition lies, relative to the excitation wavelength. The findings are particularly relevant for evaluating nanotube separation processes, where relative peak changes in the Raman spectrum can be confused for selective enrichment. We have also used gel electrophoresis and column chromatography conducted on individually dispersed, ultrasonicated single-walled carbon nanotubes to yield simultaneous separation by tube length and diameter. Electroelution after electrophoresis is shown to produce highly resolved fractions of nanotubes with average lengths between 92 and 435 nm. Separation by diameter is concomitant with length fractionation, and nanotubes that have been cut shortest also possess the greatest relative enrichments of large-diameter species. The relative quantum yield decreases nonlinearly as the nanotube length becomes shorter. These findings enable new applications of nanotubes as sensors and biomarkers. Particularly, molecular detection using near infrared (n-IR) light between 0.9 and 1.3 eV has important biomedical applications because of greater tissue penetration and reduced auto-fluorescent background in thick tissue or whole blood media. Carbon nanotubes

  15. Quantum conductance of carbon nanotube peapods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Young-Gui; Mazzoni, Mario S.C.; Louie, Steven G.

    2003-01-01

    We present a first-principles study of the quantum conductance of hybrid nanotube systems consisting of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) encapsulating either an isolated single C60 molecule or a chain of C60 molecules (nanotube peapods). The calculations show a rather weak bonding interaction between the fullerenes and the SWCNTs. The conductance of a (10,10) SWCNT with a single C60 molecule is virtually unaffected at the Fermi level, but exhibits quantized resonant reductions at the molecular levels. The nanotube peapod arrangement gives rise to high density of states for the fullerene highest occupied molecular orbital and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital bands

  16. Glucose oxidase immobilization onto carbon nanotube networking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karachevtsev, V.A.; Glamazda, A.Yu.; Zarudnev, E.S.; Karachevtsev, M.V.; Leontiev, V.S.; Linnik, A.S.; Plokhotnichenko, A.M.; Stepanian, S.G.; Lytvyn, O.S.

    2012-01-01

    The efficient immobilization of GOX onto a carbon nanotube network through the molecular interface formed by PSE is carried out. This conclusion is based on the analysis of AFM images of the network with the adsorbed enzyme, whose globules locate mainly along a nanotube. The band corresponding to the high-frequency component of the G mode in the RR spectrum of the nanotube with adsorbed PSE is downshifted by 0.7 cm -1 relative to this band in the spectrum of pristine nanotubes. The analysis of the intensities of bands assigned to the RBM of nanotubes with adsorbed PSE in comparison with the spectrum of pristine SWNTs revealed the intensity transformation, which can be explained by a change of the resonance condition with variation of the laser energy. Thus, we concluded that PSE molecules create nanohybrids with SWNTs, which ensures the further enzyme immobilization. As the RR spectrum of an SWNT:PSE:GOX film does not essentially differ from SWNT:PSE ones, this indicates that the molecular interface (PSE) isolates the enzyme from nanotubes strongly enough. Our studies on the conductive properties of a single walled carbon nanotube network sprayed onto a quartz substrate from a solution of nanotubes in dichlorobenzene demonstrated that the I(U) dependence has nonlinear character. Most likely, the nonlinearity is related to Schottky barriers, which originate on the contact between nanotubes and the gold electrode, as well as between nanotubes with different conductivities. The deposition of bioorganic compounds (PSE and GOX) on the carbon nanotube network is accompanied by a decrease of their conductivity. Most probably, such a decrease is caused by adsorbed PSE molecules, which induce the appearance of scattering centers for charge carriers on the nanotube surface. The following GOX adsorption has practically no effect on the conductivity of the nanotube network that evidences the reliable isolation of the nanotube surface from the enzyme by means of the molecular

  17. Multiwall carbon nanotube microcavity arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Rajib; Butt, Haider, E-mail: h.butt@bham.ac.uk [Nanotechnology Laboratory, School of Mechanical Engineering, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Rifat, Ahmmed A. [Integrated Lightwave Research Group, Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603 (Malaysia); Yetisen, Ali K.; Yun, Seok Hyun [Harvard Medical School and Wellman Center for Photomedicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, 65 Landsdowne Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Harvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Dai, Qing [National Center for Nanoscience and Technology, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2016-03-21

    Periodic highly dense multi-wall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) arrays can act as photonic materials exhibiting band gaps in the visible regime and beyond terahertz range. MWCNT arrays in square arrangement for nanoscale lattice constants can be configured as a microcavity with predictable resonance frequencies. Here, computational analyses of compact square microcavities (≈0.8 × 0.8 μm{sup 2}) in MWCNT arrays were demonstrated to obtain enhanced quality factors (≈170–180) and narrow-band resonance peaks. Cavity resonances were rationally designed and optimized (nanotube geometry and cavity size) with finite element method. Series (1 × 2 and 1 × 3) and parallel (2 × 1 and 3 × 1) combinations of microcavities were modeled and resonance modes were analyzed. Higher order MWCNT microcavities showed enhanced resonance modes, which were red shifted with increasing Q-factors. Parallel microcavity geometries were also optimized to obtain narrow-band tunable filtering in low-loss communication windows (810, 1336, and 1558 nm). Compact series and parallel MWCNT microcavity arrays may have applications in optical filters and miniaturized optical communication devices.

  18. Metallic Carbon Nanotubes and Ag Nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brus, Louis E

    2014-03-04

    The goal of this DOE solar energy research was to understand how visible light interacts with matter, and how to make electric excitations evolve into separated electrons and holes in photovoltaic cells, especially in nanoparticles and nanowires. Our specific experiments focused on A) understanding plasmon enhanced spectroscopy and charge-transfer (metal-to-molecule) photochemistry on the surface of metallic particles and B) the spectroscopy and photochemistry of carbon nanotubes and graphene. I also worked closely with R. Friesner on theoretical studies of photo-excited electrons near surfaces of titanium dioxide nanoparticles; this process is relevant to the Gratzel photovoltaic cell.

  19. Filled and empty states of carbon nanotubes in water: Dependence ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    WINTEC

    We have carried out a series of molecular dynamics simulations of water containing a narrow carbon nanotube ..... tant system containing the nanotube is re-equilibrated for each ... quent production phase of the simulation run, the nanotube is ...

  20. Functionalization of carbon nanotubes with silver clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cveticanin, Jelena; Krkljes, Aleksandra; Kacarevic-Popovic, Zorica; Mitric, Miodrag; Rakocevic, Zlatko; Trpkov, Djordje; Neskovic, Olivera

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, an advanced method of one-step functionalization of single and multi walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs and MWCNTs) using γ-irradiation was described. Two synthesis procedures, related with different reduction species, were employed. For the first time, poly(vinyl alcohol) PVA is successfully utilized as a source to reduce silver (Ag) metal ions without having any additional reducing agents to obtain Ag nanoparticles on CNTs. The decoration of carbon nanotubes with Ag nanoparticles takes place through anchoring of (PVA) on nanotube's surface. Optical properties of as-prepared samples and mechanism responsible for the functionalization of carbon nanotubes were investigated using UV-vis and FTIR spectroscopy, respectively. Decorated carbon nanotubes were visualized using microscopic techniques: transmission electron microscopy and scanning tunneling microscopy. Also, the presence of Ag on the nanotubes was confirmed using energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. This simple and effective method of making a carbon nanotube type of composites is of interest not only for an application in various areas of technology and biology, but for investigation of the potential of radiation technology for nanoengineering of materials.

  1. Raman spectra of filled carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bose, S.M.; Behera, S.N.; Sarangi, S.N.; Entel, P.

    2004-01-01

    The Raman spectra of a metallic carbon nanotube filled with atoms or molecules have been investigated theoretically. It is found that there will be a three way splitting of the main Raman lines due to the interaction of the nanotube phonon with the collective excitations (plasmons) of the conduction electrons of the nanotube as well as its coupling with the phonon of the filling material. The positions and relative strengths of these Raman peaks depend on the strength of the electron-phonon interaction, phonon frequency of the filling atom and the strength of interaction of the nanotube phonon and the phonon of the filling atoms. Careful experimental studies of the Raman spectra of filled nanotubes should show these three peaks. It is also shown that in a semiconducting nanotube the Raman line will split into two and should be observed experimentally

  2. Sucrose Treated Carbon Nanotube and Graphene Yarns and Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauti, Godfrey (Inventor); Kim, Jae-Woo (Inventor); Siochi, Emilie J. (Inventor); Wise, Kristopher E. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    Consolidated carbon nanotube or graphene yarns and woven sheets are consolidated through the formation of a carbon binder formed from the dehydration of sucrose. The resulting materials, on a macro-scale are lightweight and of a high specific modulus and/or strength. Sucrose is relatively inexpensive and readily available, and the process is therefore cost-effective.

  3. Process Parameters for Successful Synthesis of Carbon Nanotubes by Chemical Vapor Deposition: Implications for Chemical Mechanisms and Life-cycle Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Ke

    Manufacturing of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) via chemical vapor deposition (CVD) calls for thermal treatment associated with gas-phase rearrangement and catalyst deposition to achieve high cost efficiency and limited influence on environmental impact. Taking advantage of higher degree of structure control and economical efficiency, catalytic chemical vapor deposition (CCVD) has currently become the most prevailing synthesis approach for the synthesis of large-scale pure CNTs in past years. Because the synthesis process of CNTs dominates the potential ecotoxic impacts, materials consumption, energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions should be further limited to efficiently reduce life cycle ecotoxicity of carbon naotubes. However, efforts to reduce energy and material requirements in synthesis of CNTs by CCVD are hindered by a lack of mechanistic understanding. In this thesis, the effect of operating parameters, especially the temperature, carbon source concentration, and residence time on the synthesis were studied to improve the production efficiency in a different angle. Thus, implications on the choice of operating parameters could be provided to help the synthesis of carbon nanotubes. Here, we investigated the typical operating parameters in conditions that have yielded successful CNT production in the published academic literature of over seventy articles. The data were filtered by quality of the resultant product and deemed either "successful" or "unsuccessful" according to the authors. Furthermore, growth rate data were tabulated and used as performance metric for the process whenever possible. The data provided us an opportunity to prompt possible and common methods for practioners in the synthesis of CNTs and motivate routes to achieve energy and material minimization. The statistical analysis revealed that methane and ethylene often rely on thermal conversion process to form direct carbon precursor; further, methane and ethylene could not be the direct

  4. Functionalized carbon nanotubes: biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardharajula, Sandhya; Ali, Sk Z; Tiwari, Pooja M; Eroğlu, Erdal; Vig, Komal; Dennis, Vida A; Singh, Shree R

    2012-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are emerging as novel nanomaterials for various biomedical applications. CNTs can be used to deliver a variety of therapeutic agents, including biomolecules, to the target disease sites. In addition, their unparalleled optical and electrical properties make them excellent candidates for bioimaging and other biomedical applications. However, the high cytotoxicity of CNTs limits their use in humans and many biological systems. The biocompatibility and low cytotoxicity of CNTs are attributed to size, dose, duration, testing systems, and surface functionalization. The functionalization of CNTs improves their solubility and biocompatibility and alters their cellular interaction pathways, resulting in much-reduced cytotoxic effects. Functionalized CNTs are promising novel materials for a variety of biomedical applications. These potential applications are particularly enhanced by their ability to penetrate biological membranes with relatively low cytotoxicity. This review is directed towards the overview of CNTs and their functionalization for biomedical applications with minimal cytotoxicity. PMID:23091380

  5. Carbon nanotubes based vacuum gauge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudyk, N. N.; Il'in, O. I.; Il'ina, M. V.; Fedotov, A. A.; Klimin, V. S.; Ageev, O. A.

    2017-11-01

    We have created an ionization type Vacuum gauge with sensor element based on an array of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes. Obtained asymmetrical current-voltage characteristics at different voltage polarity on the electrode with the CNTs. It was found that when applying a negative potential on an electrode with the CNTs, the current in the gap is higher than at a positive potential. In the pressure range of 1 ÷ 103 Torr vacuum gauge sensitivity was 6 mV/Torr (at a current of 4.5·10-5 A) and in the range of 10-5 ÷ 1 Torr was 10 mV/Torr (at a current of 1.3·10-5 A). It is shown that the energy efficiency of vacuum gauge can be increased in the case where electrode with CNT operates as an emitter of electrons.

  6. Carbon Nanotube Tape Vibrating Gyroscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Dennis Stephen (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A vibrating gyroscope includes a piezoelectric strip having length and width dimensions. The piezoelectric strip includes a piezoelectric material and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) substantially aligned and polled along the strip's length dimension. A spindle having an axis of rotation is coupled to the piezoelectric strip. The axis of rotation is parallel to the strip's width dimension. A first capacitance sensor is mechanically coupled to the spindle for rotation therewith. The first capacitance sensor is positioned at one of the strip's opposing ends and is spaced apart from one of the strip's opposing faces. A second capacitance sensor is mechanically coupled to the spindle for rotation therewith. The second capacitance sensor is positioned at another of the strip's opposing ends and is spaced apart from another of the strip's opposing faces. A voltage source applies an AC voltage to the piezoelectric strip.

  7. Enhanced Carbon Nanotube Ultracapacitors, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation utilizes carbon nanotubes (CNTs) coated with pseudo-capacitive MnO2 material as nano-composite electrode and ionic electrolyte for the...

  8. Nanoscratch technique for aligning multiwalled carbon nanotubes ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Carbon nanotube; arc discharge; characterization; alignment; nanoscratch. 1. Introduction ... During arc discharge, when the gap between the electrodes is ∼ 1 mm, ..... increase in the D band intensity in the aligned region may not be possibly ...

  9. Carbon Nanotube Infused Launch Vehicle Structures

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — For the past 5 years Orbital ATK has been investing in, prototyping, and testing carbon nanotube infused composite structures to evaluate their impact on launch...

  10. Thermophoresis of water droplets inside carbon nanotubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zambrano, Harvey; Walther, Jens Honore; Oyarzua, Elton

    2016-01-01

    Carbon Nanotubes(CNTs) offer unique possibilities as fluid conduits with applications ranging from lab on a chip devices to encapsulation media for drug delivery. CNTs feature high mechanical strength, chemical and thermalstability and biocompatibility therefore they are promising candidates...

  11. Carbon Nano-Tube (CNT) Reinforced COPV

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Reduce the structural mass of future aerospace vehicles through the development of ultra lightweight materials and structures through the use of: Carbon nanotube...

  12. The effect of processing and composition on the properties of polylactide–multiwall carbon nanotube composites prepared by solvent casting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizvi, Reza; Naguib, Hani; Kim, Jae-Kyung

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of processing solvent and filler concentration on the thermal, electrical and mechanical properties of polylactide (PLA)–multiwall carbon nanotube (MWNT) composites. PLA–MWNT composites were prepared by a solvent casting method using two different solvents, chloroform and 1,4-dioxane, in compositions of 0, 0.5, 2 and 5 wt% MWNTs. The dispersion of the MWNTs in PLA was examined using a scanning electron microscope and was found to be improved when 1,4-dioxane was used as the solvent as compared with when chloroform was used. Owing to their better MWNT dispersion, composites prepared using 1,4-dioxane displayed a greater dependence on the MWNT concentration of the thermal, electrical and mechanical properties. Composites prepared using 1,4-dioxane had a greater effect on PLA's decomposition temperature and displayed faster crystallization kinetics than those prepared using chloroform. Not only was the conductivity of 1,4-dioxane prepared composites greater than that of chloroform prepared composites, but also the filler percolation point was observed to be reduced as well (less than 0.5 wt% MWNTs). At 5 wt% MWNT composition, a 31% increase in Young's modulus was observed in 1,4-dioxane prepared composites while a 14% improvement was observed in chloroform prepared composites, as compared with neat PLA. On the basis of the results, it is believed that the chemical interaction between the carboxylated MWNTs and 1,4-dioxane allows for a better dispersion of the MWNTs in PLA

  13. Preparation and characterization of titanate nanotubes/carbon composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiaodong; Pan Hui; Xue Xiaoxiao; Qian Junjie; Yu Laigui; Yang Jianjun; Zhang Zhijun

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Titanate nanotubes/carbon composites were synthesized from TiO 2 -carbon composites. → The carbon shell of TiO 2 particles obstructed the reaction between TiO 2 and NaOH. → TEM, XRD, and Raman spectra reveal the formation processes of the TNT/CCs. - Abstract: Titanate nanotubes/carbon composites(TNT/CCs) were synthesized by allowing carbon-coated TiO 2 (CCT) powder to react with a dense aqueous solution of NaOH at 120 deg. C for a proper period of time. As-prepared CCT and TNT/CCs were characterized by means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Raman spectrometry. The processes for formation of titanate nanotubes/carbon composites were discussed. It was found that the TiO 2 particles in TiO 2 -carbon composite were enwrapped by a fine layer of carbon with a thickness of about 4 nm. This carbon layer functioned to inhibit the transformation from anatase TiO 2 to orthorhombic titanate. As a result, the anatase TiO 2 in CCT was incompletely transformed into orthorhombic titanate nanotubes upon 24 h of reaction in the dense and hot NaOH solution. When the carbon layers were gradually peeled off along with the formation of more orthorhombic titanate nanotubes at extended reaction durations (e.g., 72 h), anatase TiO 2 particles in CCT were completely transformed into orthorhombic titanate nanotubes, yielding TNT/CCs whose morphology was highly dependent on the reaction time and temperature.

  14. High-performance thin-film-transistors based on semiconducting-enriched single-walled carbon nanotubes processed by electrical-breakdown strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aïssa, B., E-mail: aissab@emt.inrs.ca [Centre Énergie, Matériaux et Télécommunications, INRS, 1650, boulevard Lionel-Boulet, Varennes, Quebec J3X 1S2 (Canada); Qatar Environment and Energy Research Institute (QEERI), Qatar Foundation, P.O. Box 5825, Doha (Qatar); Nedil, M. [Telebec Wireless Underground Communication Laboratory, UQAT, 675, 1" è" r" e Avenue, Val d’Or, Québec J9P 1Y3 (Canada); Habib, M.A. [Computer Sciences and Engineering Department, Yanbu University College, P.O. Box 30031 (Saudi Arabia); Abdul-Hafidh, E.H. [High Energy Physics Department, Yanbu University College, P.O. Box 30031 (Saudi Arabia); Rosei, F. [Centre Énergie, Matériaux et Télécommunications, INRS, 1650, boulevard Lionel-Boulet, Varennes, Quebec J3X 1S2 (Canada)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • We selectively burn metallic single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) by electrical breakdown. • We successfully achieve a semiconducting enriched-SWCNT in TFT configuration. • High performance, like On/Off of 10{sup 5} and a subthreshold swing of 165 mV/decades were obtained. • After PMMA coating, the SWCNT–TFTs were found stables for more than 4 months. - Abstract: Over the past two decades, among remarkable variety of nanomaterials, single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) remain the most intriguing and uniquely well suited materials for applications in high-performance electronics. The most advanced technologies require the ability to form purely semiconducting SWCNTs. Here, we report on our strategy based on the well known progressive electrical breakdown process that offer this capability and serves as highly efficient means for selectively removing metallic carbon nanotubes from electronically heterogeneous random networks, deposited on silicon substrates in a thin film transistor (TFT) configuration. We demonstrate the successful achievement of semiconducting enriched-SWCNT networks in TFT scheme that reach On/Off switching ratios of ∼100,000, on-conductance of 20 μS, and a subthreshold swing of less than 165 mV/decades. The obtained TFT devices were then protected with thin film poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) to keep the percolation level of the SWCNTs network spatially and temporally stable, while protecting it from atmosphere exchanges. TFT devices were found to be air-stable and maintained their excellent characteristics in ambient atmosphere for more than 4 months. This approach could work as a platform for future nanotube-based nanoelectronics.

  15. Buckling of Carbon Nanotubes: A State of the Art Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shima, Hiroyuki

    2011-01-01

    The nonlinear mechanical response of carbon nanotubes, referred to as their “buckling" behavior, is a major topic in the nanotube research community. Buckling means a deformation process in which a large strain beyond a threshold causes an abrupt change in the strain energy vs. deformation profile. Thus far, much effort has been devoted to analysis of the buckling of nanotubes under various loading conditions: compression, bending, torsion, and their certain combinations. Such extensive studies have been motivated by (i) the structural resilience of nanotubes against buckling and (ii) the substantial influence of buckling on their physical properties. In this contribution, I review the dramatic progress in nanotube buckling research during the past few years. PMID:28817032

  16. Carbon nanotube temperature and pressure sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanov, Ilia N.; Geohegan, David B.

    2017-09-12

    The present invention, in one embodiment, provides a method of measuring pressure or temperature using a sensor including a sensor element composed of a plurality of carbon nanotubes. In one example, the resistance of the plurality of carbon nanotubes is measured in response to the application of temperature or pressure. The changes in resistance are then recorded and correlated to temperature or pressure. In one embodiment, the present invention provides for independent measurement of pressure or temperature using the sensors disclosed herein.

  17. Carbon nanotube temperature and pressure sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Ilia N; Geohegan, David Bruce

    2013-10-29

    The present invention, in one embodiment, provides a method of measuring pressure or temperature using a sensor including a sensor element composed of a plurality of carbon nanotubes. In one example, the resistance of the plurality of carbon nanotubes is measured in response to the application of temperature or pressure. The changes in resistance are then recorded and correlated to temperature or pressure. In one embodiment, the present invention provides for independent measurement of pressure or temperature using the sensors disclosed herein.

  18. Controlled Deposition and Alignment of Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smits, Jan M. (Inventor); Wincheski, Russell A. (Inventor); Patry, JoAnne L. (Inventor); Watkins, Anthony Neal (Inventor); Jordan, Jeffrey D. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A carbon nanotube (CNT) attraction material is deposited on a substrate in the gap region between two electrodes on the substrate. An electric potential is applied to the two electrodes. The CNT attraction material is wetted with a solution defined by a carrier liquid having carbon nanotubes (CNTs) suspended therein. A portion of the CNTs align with the electric field and adhere to the CNT attraction material. The carrier liquid and any CNTs not adhered to the CNT attraction material are then removed.

  19. Integrating carbon nanotubes into silicon by means of vertical carbon nanotube field-effect transistors

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Jingqi; Wang, Qingxiao; Yue, Weisheng; Guo, Zaibing; LI, LIANG; Zhao, Chao; Wang, Xianbin; Abutaha, Anas I.; Alshareef, Husam N.; Zhang, Yafei; Zhang, Xixiang

    2014-01-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes have been integrated into silicon for use in vertical carbon nanotube field-effect transistors (CNTFETs). A unique feature of these devices is that a silicon substrate and a metal contact are used as the source and drain for the vertical transistors, respectively. These CNTFETs show very different characteristics from those fabricated with two metal contacts. Surprisingly, the transfer characteristics of the vertical CNTFETs can be either ambipolar or unipolar (p-type or n-type) depending on the sign of the drain voltage. Furthermore, the p-type/n-type character of the devices is defined by the doping type of the silicon substrate used in the fabrication process. A semiclassical model is used to simulate the performance of these CNTFETs by taking the conductance change of the Si contact under the gate voltage into consideration. The calculation results are consistent with the experimental observations. This journal is © the Partner Organisations 2014.

  20. Fermentation based carbon nanotube multifunctional bionic composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentini, Luca; Bon, Silvia Bittolo; Signetti, Stefano; Tripathi, Manoj; Iacob, Erica; Pugno, Nicola M.

    2016-06-01

    The exploitation of the processes used by microorganisms to digest nutrients for their growth can be a viable method for the formation of a wide range of so called biogenic materials that have unique properties that are not produced by abiotic processes. Here we produced living hybrid materials by giving to unicellular organisms the nutrient to grow. Based on bread fermentation, a bionic composite made of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and a single-cell fungi, the Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast extract, was prepared by fermentation of such microorganisms at room temperature. Scanning electron microscopy analysis suggests that the CNTs were internalized by the cell after fermentation bridging the cells. Tensile tests on dried composite films have been rationalized in terms of a CNT cell bridging mechanism where the strongly enhanced strength of the composite is governed by the adhesion energy between the bridging carbon nanotubes and the matrix. The addition of CNTs also significantly improved the electrical conductivity along with a higher photoconductive activity. The proposed process could lead to the development of more complex and interactive structures programmed to self-assemble into specific patterns, such as those on strain or light sensors that could sense damage or convert light stimulus in an electrical signal.

  1. Modifying the electronic and optical properties of carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinder, Jesse M.

    The intrinsic electronic and optical properties of carbon nanotubes make them promising candidates for circuit elements and LEDs in nanoscale devices. However, applied fields and interactions with the environment can modify these intrinsic properties. This dissertation is a theoretical study of perturbations to an ideal carbon nanotube. It illustrates how transport and optical properties of carbon nanotubes can be adversely affected or intentionally modified by the local environment. The dissertation is divided into three parts. Part I analyzes the effect of a transverse electric field on the single-electron energy spectrum of semiconducting carbon nanotubes. Part II analyzes the effect of the local environment on selection rules and decay pathways relevant to dark excitons. Part III is a series of 26 appendices. Two different models for a transverse electric field are introduced in Part I. The first is a uniform field perpendicular to the nanotube axis. This model suggests the field has little effect on the band gap until it exceeds a critical value that can be tuned with strain or a magnetic field. The second model is a transverse field localized to a small region along the nanotube axis. The field creates a pair of exponentially localized bound states but has no effect on the band gap for particle transport. Part II explores the physics of dark excitons in carbon nanotubes. Two model calculations illustrate the effect of the local environment on allowed optical transitions and nonradiative recombination pathways. The first model illustrates the role of inversion symmetry in the optical spectrum. Broken inversion symmetry may explain low-lying peaks in the exciton spectrum of boron nitride nanotubes and localized photoemission around impurities and interfaces in carbon nanotubes. The second model in Part II suggests that free charge carriers can mediate an efficient nonradiative decay process for dark excitons in carbon nanotubes. The appendices in Part III

  2. Hot wire production of single-wall and multi-wall carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Anne C.; Mahan, Archie H.; Alleman, Jeffrey L.

    2010-10-26

    Apparatus (210) for producing a multi-wall carbon nanotube (213) may comprise a process chamber (216), a furnace (217) operatively associated with the process chamber (216), and at least one filament (218) positioned within the process chamber (216). At least one power supply (220) operatively associated with the at least one filament (218) heats the at least one filament (218) to a process temperature. A gaseous carbon precursor material (214) operatively associated with the process chamber (216) provides carbon for forming the multi-wall carbon nanotube (213). A metal catalyst material (224) operatively associated with the process (216) catalyzes the formation of the multi-wall carbon nanotube (213).

  3. Fracture of Carbon Nanotube - Amorphous Carbon Composites: Molecular Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Benjamin D.; Wise, Kristopher E.; Odegard, Gregory M.

    2015-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are promising candidates for use as reinforcements in next generation structural composite materials because of their extremely high specific stiffness and strength. They cannot, however, be viewed as simple replacements for carbon fibers because there are key differences between these materials in areas such as handling, processing, and matrix design. It is impossible to know for certain that CNT composites will represent a significant advance over carbon fiber composites before these various factors have been optimized, which is an extremely costly and time intensive process. This work attempts to place an upper bound on CNT composite mechanical properties by performing molecular dynamics simulations on idealized model systems with a reactive forcefield that permits modeling of both elastic deformations and fracture. Amorphous carbon (AC) was chosen for the matrix material in this work because of its structural simplicity and physical compatibility with the CNT fillers. It is also much stiffer and stronger than typical engineering polymer matrices. Three different arrangements of CNTs in the simulation cell have been investigated: a single-wall nanotube (SWNT) array, a multi-wall nanotube (MWNT) array, and a SWNT bundle system. The SWNT and MWNT array systems are clearly idealizations, but the SWNT bundle system is a step closer to real systems in which individual tubes aggregate into large assemblies. The effect of chemical crosslinking on composite properties is modeled by adding bonds between the CNTs and AC. The balance between weakening the CNTs and improving fiber-matrix load transfer is explored by systematically varying the extent of crosslinking. It is, of course, impossible to capture the full range of deformation and fracture processes that occur in real materials with even the largest atomistic molecular dynamics simulations. With this limitation in mind, the simulation results reported here provide a plausible upper limit on

  4. Method for nano-pumping using carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insepov, Zeke [Darien, IL; Hassanein, Ahmed [Bolingbrook, IL

    2009-12-15

    The present invention relates generally to the field of nanotechnology, carbon nanotubes and, more specifically, to a method and system for nano-pumping media through carbon nanotubes. One preferred embodiment of the invention generally comprises: method for nano-pumping, comprising the following steps: providing one or more media; providing one or more carbon nanotubes, the one or more nanotubes having a first end and a second end, wherein said first end of one or more nanotubes is in contact with the media; and creating surface waves on the carbon nanotubes, wherein at least a portion of the media is pumped through the nanotube.

  5. Tough ceramic coatings: Carbon nanotube reinforced silica sol-gel

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, A. J.; Rico, A.; Rodríguez, J.; Rams, J.

    2010-08-01

    Silica coatings reinforced with carbon nanotubes were produced via sol-gel route using two mixing techniques of the sol-gel precursors, mechanical and ultrasonic mixing, and dip-coating as deposition process on magnesium alloy substrates. Effective incorporation and distribution of 0.1 wt.% of carbon nanotubes in the amorphous silica matrix of the coatings were achieved using both techniques. Fabrication procedure determines the morphological aspects of the coating. Only mechanical mixing process produced coatings dense and free of defects. Nanoindentation technique was used to examine the influence of the fabrication process in the mechanical features of the final coatings, i.e. indentation fracture toughness, Young's modulus and hardness. A maximum toughening effect of about 24% was achieved in silica coatings reinforced with carbon nanotubes produced by the mechanical mixing route. Scanning electron microscopy investigation revealed that the toughening of these reinforced coatings was mainly due to bridging effect of the reinforcement.

  6. Carbon nanotube diameter selection by pretreatment of metal catalysts on surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauge, Robert H [Houston, TX; Xu, Ya-Qiong [Houston, TX; Shan, Hongwei [Houston, TX; Nicholas, Nolan Walker [South Charleston, WV; Kim, Myung Jong [Houston, TX; Schmidt, Howard K [Cypress, TX; Kittrell, W Carter [Houston, TX

    2012-02-28

    A new and useful nanotube growth substrate conditioning processes is herein disclosed that allows the growth of vertical arrays of carbon nanotubes where the average diameter of the nanotubes can be selected and/or controlled as compared to the prior art.

  7. Controlling electrical percolation in multicomponent carbon nanotube dispersions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyrylyuk, Andriy V; Hermant, Marie Claire; Schilling, Tanja; Klumperman, Bert; Koning, Cor E; van der Schoot, Paul

    2011-04-10

    Carbon nanotube reinforced polymeric composites can have favourable electrical properties, which make them useful for applications such as flat-panel displays and photovoltaic devices. However, using aqueous dispersions to fabricate composites with specific physical properties requires that the processing of the nanotube dispersion be understood and controlled while in the liquid phase. Here, using a combination of experiment and theory, we study the electrical percolation of carbon nanotubes introduced into a polymer matrix, and show that the percolation threshold can be substantially lowered by adding small quantities of a conductive polymer latex. Mixing colloidal particles of different sizes and shapes (in this case, spherical latex particles and rod-like nanotubes) introduces competing length scales that can strongly influence the formation of the system-spanning networks that are needed to produce electrically conductive composites. Interplay between the different species in the dispersions leads to synergetic or antagonistic percolation, depending on the ease of charge transport between the various conductive components.

  8. Functionalization of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hooijdonk, Eloise; Bittencourt, Carla; Snyders, Rony; Colomer, Jean-François

    2013-01-01

    This review focuses and summarizes recent studies on the functionalization of carbon nanotubes oriented perpendicularly to their substrate, so-called vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VA-CNTs). The intrinsic properties of individual nanotubes make the VA-CNTs ideal candidates for integration in a wide range of devices, and many potential applications have been envisaged. These applications can benefit from the unidirectional alignment of the nanotubes, the large surface area, the high carbon purity, the outstanding electrical conductivity, and the uniformly long length. However, practical uses of VA-CNTs are limited by their surface characteristics, which must be often modified in order to meet the specificity of each particular application. The proposed approaches are based on the chemical modifications of the surface by functionalization (grafting of functional chemical groups, decoration with metal particles or wrapping of polymers) to bring new properties or to improve the interactions between the VA-CNTs and their environment while maintaining the alignment of CNTs.

  9. Carbon nanotube stationary phases for microchip electrochromatography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Klaus Bo; Bøggild, Peter; Kutter, Jörg Peter

    , microfluidic devices with microfabricated carbon nanotube columns for electrochromatographic separations will be presented. The electrically conductive carbon nanotube layer has been patterned into hexoganol micropillars in order to support electroosmotic flow without forming gas bubbles from electrolysis......The use of nanomaterials in separation science has increased rapidly in the last decade. The reason for this is to take advantage of the unique properties of these materials, such as a very high surface-to-volume ratio and favourable sorbent behaviour. Carbon nanostructures, such as carbon...

  10. Homogeneous CdTe quantum dots-carbon nanotubes heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, Kayo Oliveira [Grupo de Pesquisa em Química de Materiais – (GPQM), Departamento de Ciências Naturais, Universidade Federal de São João del-Rei, Campus Dom Bosco, Praça Dom Helvécio, 74, CEP 36301-160, São João del-Rei, MG (Brazil); Bettini, Jefferson [Laboratório Nacional de Nanotecnologia, Centro Nacional de Pesquisa em Energia e Materiais, CEP 13083-970, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Ferrari, Jefferson Luis [Grupo de Pesquisa em Química de Materiais – (GPQM), Departamento de Ciências Naturais, Universidade Federal de São João del-Rei, Campus Dom Bosco, Praça Dom Helvécio, 74, CEP 36301-160, São João del-Rei, MG (Brazil); Schiavon, Marco Antonio, E-mail: schiavon@ufsj.edu.br [Grupo de Pesquisa em Química de Materiais – (GPQM), Departamento de Ciências Naturais, Universidade Federal de São João del-Rei, Campus Dom Bosco, Praça Dom Helvécio, 74, CEP 36301-160, São João del-Rei, MG (Brazil)

    2015-01-15

    The development of homogeneous CdTe quantum dots-carbon nanotubes heterostructures based on electrostatic interactions has been investigated. We report a simple and reproducible non-covalent functionalization route that can be accomplished at room temperature, to prepare colloidal composites consisting of CdTe nanocrystals deposited onto multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) functionalized with a thin layer of polyelectrolytes by layer-by-layer technique. Specifically, physical adsorption of polyelectrolytes such as poly (4-styrene sulfonate) and poly (diallyldimethylammonium chloride) was used to deagglomerate and disperse MWCNTs, onto which we deposited CdTe quantum dots coated with mercaptopropionic acid (MPA), as surface ligand, via electrostatic interactions. Confirmation of the CdTe quantum dots/carbon nanotubes heterostructures was done by transmission and scanning electron microscopies (TEM and SEM), dynamic-light scattering (DLS) together with absorption, emission, Raman and infrared spectroscopies (UV–vis, PL, Raman and FT-IR). Almost complete quenching of the PL band of the CdTe quantum dots was observed after adsorption on the MWCNTs, presumably through efficient energy transfer process from photoexcited CdTe to MWCNTs. - Highlights: • Highly homogeneous CdTe-carbon nanotubes heterostructures were prepared. • Simple and reproducible non-covalent functionalization route. • CdTe nanocrystals homogeneously deposited onto multi-walled carbon nanotubes. • Efficient energy transfer process from photoexcited CdTe to MWCNTs.

  11. Improvements in Production of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balzano, Leandro; Resasco, Daniel E.

    2009-01-01

    A continuing program of research and development has been directed toward improvement of a prior batch process in which single-walled carbon nanotubes are formed by catalytic disproportionation of carbon monoxide in a fluidized-bed reactor. The overall effect of the improvements has been to make progress toward converting the process from a batch mode to a continuous mode and to scaling of production to larger quantities. Efforts have also been made to optimize associated purification and dispersion post processes to make them effective at large scales and to investigate means of incorporating the purified products into composite materials. The ultimate purpose of the program is to enable the production of high-quality single-walled carbon nanotubes in quantities large enough and at costs low enough to foster the further development of practical applications. The fluidized bed used in this process contains mixed-metal catalyst particles. The choice of the catalyst and the operating conditions is such that the yield of single-walled carbon nanotubes, relative to all forms of carbon (including carbon fibers, multi-walled carbon nanotubes, and graphite) produced in the disproportionation reaction is more than 90 weight percent. After the reaction, the nanotubes are dispersed in various solvents in preparation for end use, which typically involves blending into a plastic, ceramic, or other matrix to form a composite material. Notwithstanding the batch nature of the unmodified prior fluidized-bed process, the fluidized-bed reactor operates in a continuous mode during the process. The operation is almost entirely automated, utilizing mass flow controllers, a control computer running software specific to the process, and other equipment. Moreover, an important inherent advantage of fluidized- bed reactors in general is that solid particles can be added to and removed from fluidized beds during operation. For these reasons, the process and equipment were amenable to

  12. Electrical conductivity of compacts of graphene, multi-wall carbon nanotubes, carbon black, and graphite powder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marinho, B.; Gomes Ghislandi, M.; Tkalya, E.; Koning, C.E.; With, de G.

    2012-01-01

    The electrical conductivity of different carbon materials (multi-walled carbon nanotubes, graphene, carbon black and graphite), widely used as fillers in polymeric matrices, was studied using compacts produced by a paper preparation process and by powder compression. Powder pressing assays show that

  13. Carbon nanotubes on carbon fibers: Synthesis, structures and properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiuhong

    The interface between carbon fibers (CFs) and the resin matrix in traditional high performance composites is characterized by a large discontinuity in mechanical, electrical, and thermal properties which can cause inefficient energy transfer. Due to the exceptional properties of carbon nanotubes (CNTs), their growth at the surface of carbon fibers is a promising approach to controlling interfacial interactions and achieving the enhanced bulk properties. However, the reactive conditions used to grow carbon nanotubes also have the potential to introduce defects that can degrade the mechanical properties of the carbon fiber (CF) substrate. In this study, using thermal chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method, high density multi-wall carbon nanotubes have been successfully synthesized directly on PAN-based CF surface without significantly compromising tensile properties. The influence of CVD growth conditions on the single CF tensile properties and carbon nanotube (CNT) morphology was investigated. The experimental results revealed that under high temperature growth conditions, the tensile strength of CF was greatly decreased at the beginning of CNT growth process with the largest decrease observed for sized CFs. However, the tensile strength of unsized CFs with CNT was approximately the same as the initial CF at lower growth temperature. The interfacial shear strength of CNT coated CF (CNT/CF) in epoxy was studied by means of the single-fiber fragmentation test. Results of the test indicate an improvement in interfacial shear strength with the addition of a CNT coating. This improvement can most likely be attributed to an increase in the interphase yield strength as well as an improvement in interfacial adhesion due to the presence of the nanotubes. CNT/CF also offers promise as stress and strain sensors in CF reinforced composite materials. This study investigates fundamental mechanical and electrical properties of CNT/CF using nanoindentation method by designed

  14. Carbon Nanotube Templated Microfabrication of Porous Silicon-Carbon Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jun; Jensen, David; Dadson, Andrew; Vail, Michael; Linford, Matthew; Vanfleet, Richard; Davis, Robert

    2010-10-01

    Carbon nanotube templated microfabrication (CNT-M) of porous materials is demonstrated. Partial chemical infiltration of three dimensional carbon nanotube structures with silicon resulted in a mechanically robust material, precisely structured from the 10 nm scale to the 100 micron scale. Nanoscale dimensions are determined by the diameter and spacing of the resulting silicon/carbon nanotubes while the microscale dimensions are controlled by lithographic patterning of the CNT growth catalyst. We demonstrate the utility of this hierarchical structuring approach by using CNT-M to fabricate thin layer chromatography (TLC) separations media with precise microscale channels for fluid flow control and nanoscale porosity for high analyte capacity.

  15. Carbon Nanotube-Based Synthetic Gecko Tapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhinojwala, Ali

    2008-03-01

    Wall-climbing geckos have unique ability to attach to different surfaces without the use of any viscoelastic glues. On coming in contact with any surface, the micron-size gecko foot-hairs deform, enabling molecular contact over large areas, thus translating weak van der Waals (vdW) interactions into enormous shear forces. We will present our recent results on the development of synthetic gecko tape using aligned carbon nanotubes to mimic the keratin hairs found on gecko feet. The patterned carbon nanotube-based gecko tape can support a shear stress (36 N/cm^2) nearly four times higher than the gecko foot and sticks to a variety of surfaces, including Teflon. Both the micron-size setae (replicated by nanotube bundles) and nanometer-size spatulas (individual nanotubes) are necessary to achieve macroscopic shear adhesion and to translate the weak vdW interactions into high shear forces. The carbon nanotube based tape offers an excellent synthetic option as a dry conductive reversible adhesive in microelectronics, robotics and space applications. The mechanism behind these large shear forces and self-cleaning properties of these carbon nanotube based synthetic gecko tapes will be discussed. This work was performed in collaboration with graduate students Liehui Ge, and Sunny Sethi, and collaborators from RPI; Lijie Ci and Professor Pulickel Ajayan.

  16. Synthesis and Characterization Carbon Nanotubes Doped Carbon Aerogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yuelong; Yan, Meifang; Liu, Zhenfa

    2017-12-01

    Polycondensation of phloroglucinol, resorcinol and formaldehyde with carbon nanotube (CNT) as the additives, using sodium carbonate as the catalyst, leads to the formation of CNT - doped carbon aerogels. The structure of carbon aerogels (CAs) with carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The specific surface area, pore size distribution and pore volume were measured by surface area analyzer. The results show that when the optimum doping dosage is 5%, the specific surface area of CNT - doped carbon aerogel is up to 665 m2 g-1 and exhibit plentiful mesoporous.

  17. Deposition of silver nanoparticles on multiwalled carbon nanotubes by chemical reduction process and their antimicrobial effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haider, Adawiya J., E-mail: adawiyahaider@yahoo.com [Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials Research Center, University of Technology, Baghdad, Republic of Iraq, 10066 (Iraq); Thamir, Amin D. [Production and Metallurgy department, University of Technology, University of Technology, Baghdad, Republic of Iraq, 10066 (Iraq); Ahmed, Duha S.; Mohammad, M. R. [Applied Physics department, University of Technology, University of Technology, Baghdad, Republic, of Iraq, 10066 (Iraq)

    2016-07-25

    In this paper, the functionalization of raw-MWCNTs involves oxidation reaction using concentrated acid mixture of HNO{sub 3}:H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} (1:3), via ultrasonic bath (170 W, 50 kHz) to obtain functional groups. Then Ag nanoparticles are decorated the outside over the surface of functionalized MWCNTs using a chemical reduction process resulting in the formation of(Ag/ MWCNTs) hybrid material. The results showed that outer diameter functionalized F-MWCNTs andAg nanoparticles size was about (11-80) nm and (10 to 25) nm, respectively using TEM and HRTEM. The crystallographic structure of MWCNTs using X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis proved diffraction peaks at 38.1°, 44.3°, 64.7° and 77.4° degrees namely, Ag (111), Ag (200), Ag (220), and Ag (311) of the face-centered cubic lattice of Ag, respectively, excepting the peak at 2θ =25.6°, which correspond to the (0 0 2) reflection of the MWNTs are corresponding to Ag/MWNTs. The antimicrobial activities of Ag/MWCNTs hybrid using plate count method showed that decreasing a large number of bacteria colonies of E. coli and S. aureu with increasing the hybrid concentrations after incubation for 24 h in shaker incubator with percentage of inhibition approaching 100%.

  18. Deposition of silver nanoparticles on multiwalled carbon nanotubes by chemical reduction process and their antimicrobial effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, Adawiya J.; Thamir, Amin D.; Ahmed, Duha S.; Mohammad, M. R.

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, the functionalization of raw-MWCNTs involves oxidation reaction using concentrated acid mixture of HNO3:H2SO4 (1:3), via ultrasonic bath (170 W, 50 kHz) to obtain functional groups. Then Ag nanoparticles are decorated the outside over the surface of functionalized MWCNTs using a chemical reduction process resulting in the formation of(Ag/ MWCNTs) hybrid material. The results showed that outer diameter functionalized F-MWCNTs andAg nanoparticles size was about (11-80) nm and (10 to 25) nm, respectively using TEM and HRTEM. The crystallographic structure of MWCNTs using X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis proved diffraction peaks at 38.1°, 44.3°, 64.7° and 77.4° degrees namely, Ag (111), Ag (200), Ag (220), and Ag (311) of the face-centered cubic lattice of Ag, respectively, excepting the peak at 2θ =25.6°, which correspond to the (0 0 2) reflection of the MWNTs are corresponding to Ag/MWNTs. The antimicrobial activities of Ag/MWCNTs hybrid using plate count method showed that decreasing a large number of bacteria colonies of E. coli and S. aureu with increasing the hybrid concentrations after incubation for 24h in shaker incubator with percentage of inhibition approaching 100%.

  19. A Review: Carbon Nanotube-Based Piezoresistive Strain Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waris Obitayo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of carbon nanotubes for piezoresistive strain sensors has acquired significant attention due to its unique electromechanical properties. In this comprehensive review paper, we discussed some important aspects of carbon nanotubes for strain sensing at both the nanoscale and macroscale. Carbon nanotubes undergo changes in their band structures when subjected to mechanical deformations. This phenomenon makes them applicable for strain sensing applications. This paper signifies the type of carbon nanotubes best suitable for piezoresistive strain sensors. The electrical resistivities of carbon nanotube thin film increase linearly with strain, making it an ideal material for a piezoresistive strain sensor. Carbon nanotube composite films, which are usually fabricated by mixing small amounts of single-walled or multiwalled carbon nanotubes with selected polymers, have shown promising characteristics of piezoresistive strain sensors. Studies also show that carbon nanotubes display a stable and predictable voltage response as a function of temperature.

  20. Phonon assisted thermophoretic motion of gold nanoparticles inside carbon nanotubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoen, Philipp A.E.; Walther, Jens Honore; Poulikakos, Dimos

    2007-01-01

    The authors investigate the thermally driven mass transport of gold nanoparticles confined inside carbon nanotubes using molecular dynamics simulations. The observed thermophoretic motion of the gold nanoparticles correlates with the phonon dispersion exhibited by a standard carbon nanotube and...

  1. Methods for Gas Sensing with Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaul, Anupama B. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Methods for gas sensing with single-walled carbon nanotubes are described. The methods comprise biasing at least one carbon nanotube and exposing to a gas environment to detect variation in temperature as an electrical response.

  2. Carbon nanotubes : their synthesis and integration into nanofabricated structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Druzhinina, Tamara

    2011-01-01

    The field of nanotechnology has experienced constantly increasing interest over the past decades both from industry and academy. Commonly used nanomaterials include: nanoparticles, nanowires, quantum dots, fullerenes, and carbon nanotubes. Carbon nanotubes, in particular, are promising building

  3. Thermal conductivity and thermal rectification in unzipped carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ni Xiaoxi; Li Baowen; Zhang Gang

    2011-01-01

    We study the thermal transport in completely unzipped carbon nanotubes, which are called graphene nanoribbons, partially unzipped carbon nanotubes, which can be seen as carbon-nanotube-graphene-nanoribbon junctions, and carbon nanotubes by using molecular dynamics simulations. It is found that the thermal conductivity of a graphene nanoribbon is much less than that of its perfect carbon nanotube counterparts because of the localized phonon modes at the boundary. A partially unzipped carbon nanotube has the lowest thermal conductivity due to additional localized modes at the junction region. More strikingly, a significant thermal rectification effect is observed in both partially unzipped armchair and zigzag carbon nanotubes. Our results suggest that carbon-nanotube-graphene-nanoribbon junctions can be used in thermal energy control.

  4. Release characteristics of selected carbon nanotube polymer composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are commonly used in polymer formulations to improve strength, conductivity, and other attributes. A developing concern is the potential for carbon nanotube polymer nanocomposites to release nanoparticles into the environment as the polymer ...

  5. Electrical conductivity of metal–carbon nanotube structures: Effect of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    The electrical properties of asymmetric metal–carbon nanotube (CNT) structures have been studied using ... The models with asymmetric metal contacts and carbon nanotube bear resemblance to experimental ... ordinary mechanical strength.

  6. Liquid crystalline order of carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiev, Georgi; Ahlawat, Aditya; Mulkern, Brian; Doyle, Robert; Mongeau, Jennifer; Ogilvie, Alex

    2007-03-01

    Topological defects formed during phase transitions in liquid crystals provide a direct proof of the standard Cosmological model and are direct links to the Early Universe. On the other hand in Nanotechnology, carbon nanotubes can be manipulated and oriented directly by changing the liquid crystalline state of the nanotubes, in combination with organic liquid crystals. Currently there are no nano-assemblers, which makes the liquid crystal state of the nanotubes, one of the few ways of controlling them. We show the design of a fast and efficient polarized light ellipsometric system (a new modification of previous optical systems) that can provide fast quantitative real time measurements in two dimensions of the formation of topological defects in liquid crystals during phase transitions in lab settings. Our aim is to provide fundamental information about the formation of optically anisotropic structures in liquid crystals and the orientation of carbon nanotubes in electric field.

  7. Carbon Nanotubes and Chronic Granulomatous Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara P. Barna

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Use of nanomaterials in manufactured consumer products is a rapidly expanding industry and potential toxicities are just beginning to be explored. Combustion-generated multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT or nanoparticles are ubiquitous in non-manufacturing environments and detectable in vapors from diesel fuel, methane, propane, and natural gas. In experimental animal models, carbon nanotubes have been shown to induce granulomas or other inflammatory changes. Evidence suggesting potential involvement of carbon nanomaterials in human granulomatous disease, has been gathered from analyses of dusts generated in the World Trade Center disaster combined with epidemiological data showing a subsequent increase in granulomatous disease of first responders. In this review we will discuss evidence for similarities in the pathophysiology of carbon nanotube-induced pulmonary disease in experimental animals with that of the human granulomatous disease, sarcoidosis.

  8. Carbon Nanotube Microarrays Grown on Nanoflake Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Howard K.; Hauge, Robert H.; Pint, Cary; Pheasant, Sean

    2013-01-01

    This innovation consists of a new composition of matter where single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) are grown in aligned arrays from nanostructured flakes that are coated in Fe catalyst. This method of growth of aligned SWNTs, which can yield well over 400 percent SWNT mass per unit substrate mass, exceeds current yields for entangled SWNT growth. In addition, processing can be performed with minimal wet etching treatments, leaving aligned SWNTs with superior properties over those that exist in entangled mats. The alignment of the nanotubes is similar to that achieved in vertically aligned nanotubes, which are called "carpets. " Because these flakes are grown in a state where they are airborne in a reactor, these flakes, after growing SWNTs, are termed "flying carpets. " These flakes are created in a roll-to-roll evaporator system, where three subsequent evaporations are performed on a 100-ft (approx. =30-m) roll of Mylar. The first layer is composed of a water-soluble "release layer, " which can be a material such as NaCl. After depositing NaCl, the second layer involves 40 nm of supporting layer material . either Al2O3 or MgO. The thickness of the layer can be tuned to synthesize flakes that are larger or smaller than those obtained with a 40-nm deposition. Finally, the third layer consists of a thin Fe catalyst layer with a thickness of 0.5 nm. The thickness of this layer ultimately determines the diameter of SWNT growth, and a layer that is too thick will result in the growth of multiwalled carbon nanotubes instead of single-wall nanotubes. However, between a thickness of 0.5 nm to 1 nm, single-walled carbon nanotubes are known to be the primary constituent. After this three-layer deposition process, the Mylar is rolled through a bath of water, which allows catalyst-coated flakes to detach from the Mylar. The flakes are then collected and dried. The method described here for making such flakes is analogous to that which is used to make birefringent ink that is

  9. Polymer/Carbon Nanotubes (CNT Nanocomposites Processing Using Additive Manufacturing (Three-Dimensional Printing Technique: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushanta Ghoshal

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Additive manufacturing (AM/3D printing (3DP is a revolutionary technology which has been around for more than two decades, although the potential of this technique was not fully explored until recently. Because of the expansion of this technology in recent years, new materials and additives are being searched for to meet the growing demand. 3DP allows accurate fabrication of complicated models, however, structural anisotropy caused by the 3DP approaches could limit robust application. A possible solution to the inferior properties of the 3DP based materials compared to that of conventionally manufactured counterparts could be the incorporation of nanoparticles, such as carbon nanotubes (CNT which have demonstrated remarkable mechanical, electrical, and thermal properties. In this article we review some of the research, products, and challenges involved in 3DP technology. The importance of CNT dispersion in the matrix polymer is highlighted and the future outlook for the 3D printed polymer/CNT nanocomposites is presented.

  10. Amidation of single-walled carbon nanotubes by a hydrothermal process for the electrooxidation of nitric oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kan Kan; Xia Tingliang; Li Li; Bi Hongmei; Fu Honggang; Shi Keying

    2009-01-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) have been amidated by hydrothermal treatment with different aliphatic amines. The amido groups modified on the surface of the SWCNTs were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The electrooxidation of nitric oxide (NO) at the modified electrodes of amidated SWCNTs was investigated. The modified electrodes of amidated SWCNTs exhibited different electrocatalytic activity for NO when different aliphatic amines were being used. The electrode amidated by ammonia has the highest activity, which is 1.8 times value of the SWCNT modified electrode. The electrocatalytic activity of the amidated SWCNT modified electrodes depends on the length of the alkyl groups. The results demonstrate that hydrothermal treatment is an efficient way to modify SWCNTs with amines, and the reaction rate of NO electrooxidation can be changed by the amidation of SWCNTs.

  11. Synthesis of carbon nanotubes using natural carbon precursor: Castor oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raziah, A. Z.; Junizah, A. R.; Saifuddin, N.

    2012-09-01

    Castor oil has long been an article of commerce due to its versatility as it is widely used as a starting material for many industrial chemical products because of its unique structure. In this study, carbon nanotubes has been synthesized by thermal decomposition of castor oil in nitrogen atmosphere at 300-400δC using custom-made microwave processing unit. The precursor material was catalyzed by iron clusters originating from the addition of ferrocene. The morphology and characterization of the CNTs were studied and discussed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM).

  12. Elastomer Reinforced with Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Jared L.; Krishnamoorti, Ramanan

    2009-01-01

    Elastomers are reinforced with functionalized, single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) giving them high-breaking strain levels and low densities. Cross-linked elastomers are prepared using amine-terminated, poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS), with an average molecular weight of 5,000 daltons, and a functionalized SWNT. Cross-link densities, estimated on the basis of swelling data in toluene (a dispersing solvent) indicated that the polymer underwent cross-linking at the ends of the chains. This thermally initiated cross-linking was found to occur only in the presence of the aryl alcohol functionalized SWNTs. The cross-link could have been via a hydrogen-bonding mechanism between the amine and the free hydroxyl group, or via attack of the amine on the ester linage to form an amide. Tensile properties examined at room temperature indicate a three-fold increase in the tensile modulus of the elastomer, with rupture and failure of the elastomer occurring at a strain of 6.5.

  13. Carbon nanotube fiber terahertz polarizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zubair, Ahmed [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States); Tsentalovich, Dmitri E.; Young, Colin C. [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States); Heimbeck, Martin S. [Charles M. Bowden Laboratory, Aviation & Missile Research, Development, and Engineering Center (AMRDEC), Redstone Arsenal, Alabama 35898 (United States); Everitt, Henry O. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States); Charles M. Bowden Laboratory, Aviation & Missile Research, Development, and Engineering Center (AMRDEC), Redstone Arsenal, Alabama 35898 (United States); Pasquali, Matteo [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States); Department of Materials Science and NanoEngineering, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States); Kono, Junichiro, E-mail: kono@rice.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States); Department of Materials Science and NanoEngineering, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States)

    2016-04-04

    Conventional, commercially available terahertz (THz) polarizers are made of uniformly and precisely spaced metallic wires. They are fragile and expensive, with performance characteristics highly reliant on wire diameters and spacings. Here, we report a simple and highly error-tolerant method for fabricating a freestanding THz polarizer with nearly ideal performance, reliant on the intrinsically one-dimensional character of conduction electrons in well-aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The polarizer was constructed on a mechanical frame over which we manually wound acid-doped CNT fibers with ultrahigh electrical conductivity. We demonstrated that the polarizer has an extinction ratio of ∼−30 dB with a low insertion loss (<0.5 dB) throughout a frequency range of 0.2–1.1 THz. In addition, we used a THz ellipsometer to measure the Müller matrix of the CNT-fiber polarizer and found comparable attenuation to a commercial metallic wire-grid polarizer. Furthermore, based on the classical theory of light transmission through an array of metallic wires, we demonstrated the most striking difference between the CNT-fiber and metallic wire-grid polarizers: the latter fails to work in the zero-spacing limit, where it acts as a simple mirror, while the former continues to work as an excellent polarizer even in that limit due to the one-dimensional conductivity of individual CNTs.

  14. A novel continuous process for synthesis of carbon nanotubes using iron floating catalyst and MgO particles for CVD of methane in a fluidized bed reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maghsoodi, Sarah; Khodadadi, Abasali [Catalysis and Nanostructured Materials Research Laboratory, School of Chemical Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mortazavi, Yadollah, E-mail: mortazav@ut.ac.ir [Nanoelectronics Centre of Excellence, University of Tehran, POB 11365-4563, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-02-15

    A novel continuous process is used for production of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) by catalytic chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of methane on iron floating catalyst in situ deposited on MgO in a fluidized bed reactor. In the hot zone of the reactor, sublimed ferrocene vapors were contacted with MgO powder fluidized by methane feed to produce Fe/MgO catalyst in situ. An annular tube was used to enhance the ferrocene and MgO contacting efficiency. Multi-wall as well as single-wall CNTs was grown on the Fe/MgO catalyst while falling down the reactor. The CNTs were continuously collected at the bottom of the reactor, only when MgO powder was used. The annular tube enhanced the contacting efficiency and improved both the quality and quantity of CNTs. The SEM and TEM micrographs of the products reveal that the CNTs are mostly entangled bundles with diameters of about 10-20 nm. Raman spectra show that the CNTs have low amount of amorphous/defected carbon with I{sub G}/I{sub D} ratios as high as 10.2 for synthesis at 900 deg. C. The RBM Raman peaks indicate formation of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) of 1.0-1.2 nm diameter.

  15. Carbon Nanotube Underwater Acoustic Thermophone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-23

    nanotubes (unless encapsulated or housed) are quite fragile and are susceptible to disintegration especially if the nanotubes are touched or moved too...The acoustic impedance (defined as the product of material density and sound speed) of the top shell 12 should match the Attorney Docket No. 300009

  16. The effect of dry shear aligning of nanotube thin films on the photovoltaic performance of carbon nanotube-silicon solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolz, Benedikt W; Tune, Daniel D; Flavel, Benjamin S

    2016-01-01

    Recent results in the field of carbon nanotube-silicon solar cells have suggested that the best performance is obtained when the nanotube film provides good coverage of the silicon surface and when the nanotubes in the film are aligned parallel to the surface. The recently developed process of dry shear aligning - in which shear force is applied to the surface of carbon nanotube thin films in the dry state, has been shown to yield nanotube films that are very flat and in which the surface nanotubes are very well aligned in the direction of shear. It is thus reasonable to expect that nanotube films subjected to dry shear aligning should outperform otherwise identical films formed by other processes. In this work, the fabrication and characterisation of carbon nanotube-silicon solar cells using such films is reported, and the photovoltaic performance of devices produced with and without dry shear aligning is compared.

  17. Chemical reactions confined within carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miners, Scott A; Rance, Graham A; Khlobystov, Andrei N

    2016-08-22

    In this critical review, we survey the wide range of chemical reactions that have been confined within carbon nanotubes, particularly emphasising how the pairwise interactions between the catalysts, reactants, transition states and products of a particular molecular transformation with the host nanotube can be used to control the yields and distributions of products of chemical reactions. We demonstrate that nanoscale confinement within carbon nanotubes enables the control of catalyst activity, morphology and stability, influences the local concentration of reactants and products thus affecting equilibria, rates and selectivity, pre-arranges the reactants for desired reactions and alters the relative stability of isomeric products. We critically evaluate the relative advantages and disadvantages of the confinement of chemical reactions inside carbon nanotubes from a chemical perspective and describe how further developments in the controlled synthesis of carbon nanotubes and the incorporation of multifunctionality are essential for the development of this ever-expanding field, ultimately leading to the effective control of the pathways of chemical reactions through the rational design of multi-functional carbon nanoreactors.

  18. Frontiers of graphene and carbon nanotubes devices and applications

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This book focuses on carbon nanotubes and graphene as representatives of nano-carbon materials, and describes the growth of new technology and applications of new devices. As new devices and as new materials, nano-carbon materials are expected to be world pioneers that could not have been realized with conventional semiconductor materials, and as those that extend the limits of conventional semiconductor performance. This book introduces the latest achievements of nano-carbon devices, processes, and technology growth. It is anticipated that these studies will also be pioneers in the development of future research of nano-carbon devices and materials. This book consists of 18 chapters. Chapters 1 to 8 describe new device applications and new growth methods of graphene, and Chapters 9 to 18, those of carbon nanotubes. It is expected that by increasing the advantages and overcoming the weak points of nanocarbon materials, a new world that cannot be achieved with conventional materials will be greatly expanded. W...

  19. Bulk Cutting of Carbon Nanotubes Using Electron Beam Irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Kirk J. (Inventor); Rauwald, Urs (Inventor); Hauge, Robert H. (Inventor); Schmidt, Howard K. (Inventor); Smalley, Richard E. (Inventor); Kittrell, W. Carter (Inventor); Gu, Zhenning (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    According to some embodiments, the present invention provides a method for attaining short carbon nanotubes utilizing electron beam irradiation, for example, of a carbon nanotube sample. The sample may be pretreated, for example by oxonation. The pretreatment may introduce defects to the sidewalls of the nanotubes. The method is shown to produces nanotubes with a distribution of lengths, with the majority of lengths shorter than 100 tun. Further, the median length of the nanotubes is between about 20 nm and about 100 nm.

  20. Principles for structure analysis of carbon nanotubes by HRTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xudong, Fan; Bursill, L A

    1995-10-01

    An efficient algorithm is derived for generating all possible seamless carbon nanotube structure models. This makes use of multijugate helical lattices, a concept borrowed from some biological structures. Principles for helicity and structure analysis of carbon nanotubes using high-resolution electron microscopy and image processing techniques are then developed. Applicability is tested on experimentally obtained images. The limitations of this approach are examined. Provided the tubules contain less than three to five layers the individual component layer helicities and the order of assembly may be obtained from the high-resolution many-beam bright - and dark-field image reconstructions. 16 refs., 11 figs.

  1. Simulation and fabrication of carbon nanotubes field emission pressure sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian Kaiyou; Chen Ting; Yan Bingyong; Lin Yangkui; Xu Dong; Sun Zhuo; Cai Bingchu

    2006-01-01

    A novel field emission pressure sensor has been achieved utilizing carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as the electron source. The sensor consists of the anode sensing film fabricated by wet etching process and multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) cathode in the micro-vacuum chamber. MWNTs on the silicon substrate were grown by thermal CVD. The prototype pressure sensor has a measured sensitivity of about 0.17-0.77 nA/Pa (101-550 KPa). The work shows the potential use of CNTs-based field-emitter in microsensors, such as accelerometers and tactile sensors

  2. Principles for structure analysis of carbon nanotubes by HRTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Xudong; Bursill, L.A.

    1995-01-01

    An efficient algorithm is derived for generating all possible seamless carbon nanotube structure models. This makes use of multijugate helical lattices, a concept borrowed from some biological structures. Principles for helicity and structure analysis of carbon nanotubes using high-resolution electron microscopy and image processing techniques are then developed. Applicability is tested on experimentally obtained images. The limitations of this approach are examined. Provided the tubules contain less than three to five layers the individual component layer helicities and the order of assembly may be obtained from the high-resolution many-beam bright - and dark-field image reconstructions. 16 refs., 11 figs

  3. Metal Nanoparticle Catalysts for Carbon Nanotube Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Benjamin F.

    2003-01-01

    Work this summer involved and new and unique process for producing the metal nanoparticle catalysts needed for carbon nanotube (CNT) growth. There are many applications attributed to CNT's, and their properties have deemed them to be a hot spot in research today. Many groups have demonstrated the versatility in CNT's by exploring a wide spectrum of roles that these nanotubes are able to fill. A short list of such promising applications are: nanoscaled electronic circuitry, storage media, chemical sensors, microscope enhancement, and coating reinforcement. Different methods have been used to grow these CNT's. Some examples are laser ablation, flame synthesis, or furnace synthesis. Every single approach requires the presence of a metal catalyst (Fe, Co, and Ni are among the best) that is small enough to produce a CNT. Herein lies the uniqueness of this work. Microemulsions (containing inverse micelles) were used to generate these metal particles for subsequent CNT growth. The goal of this summer work was basically to accomplish as much preliminary work as possible. I strived to pinpoint which variable (experimental process, metal product, substrate, method of application, CVD conditions, etc.) was the determining factor in the results. The resulting SEM images were sufficient for the appropriate comparisons to be made. The future work of this project consists of the optimization of the more promising experimental procedures and further exploration onto what exactly dictated the results.

  4. Graphene-carbon nanotube hybrid materials and use as electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tour, James M.; Zhu, Yu; Li, Lei; Yan, Zheng; Lin, Jian

    2016-09-27

    Provided are methods of making graphene-carbon nanotube hybrid materials. Such methods generally include: (1) associating a graphene film with a substrate; (2) applying a catalyst and a carbon source to the graphene film; and (3) growing carbon nanotubes on the graphene film. The grown carbon nanotubes become covalently linked to the graphene film through carbon-carbon bonds that are located at one or more junctions between the carbon nanotubes and the graphene film. In addition, the grown carbon nanotubes are in ohmic contact with the graphene film through the carbon-carbon bonds at the one or more junctions. The one or more junctions may include seven-membered carbon rings. Also provided are the formed graphene-carbon nanotube hybrid materials.

  5. A statistical-based material and process guidelines for design of carbon nanotube field-effect transistors in gigascale integrated circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghavami, Behnam; Raji, Mohsen; Pedram, Hossein

    2011-08-26

    Carbon nanotube field-effect transistors (CNFETs) show great promise as building blocks of future integrated circuits. However, synthesizing single-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with accurate chirality and exact positioning control has been widely acknowledged as an exceedingly complex task. Indeed, density and chirality variations in CNT growth can compromise the reliability of CNFET-based circuits. In this paper, we present a novel statistical compact model to estimate the failure probability of CNFETs to provide some material and process guidelines for the design of CNFETs in gigascale integrated circuits. We use measured CNT spacing distributions within the framework of detailed failure analysis to demonstrate that both the CNT density and the ratio of metallic to semiconducting CNTs play dominant roles in defining the failure probability of CNFETs. Besides, it is argued that the large-scale integration of these devices within an integrated circuit will be feasible only if a specific range of CNT density with an acceptable ratio of semiconducting to metallic CNTs can be adjusted in a typical synthesis process.

  6. Carbon nanotubes in neuroregeneration and repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabbro, Alessandra; Prato, Maurizio; Ballerini, Laura

    2013-12-01

    In the last decade, we have experienced an increasing interest and an improved understanding of the application of nanotechnology to the nervous system. The aim of such studies is that of developing future strategies for tissue repair to promote functional recovery after brain damage. In this framework, carbon nanotube based technologies are emerging as particularly innovative tools due to the outstanding physical properties of these nanomaterials together with their recently documented ability to interface neuronal circuits, synapses and membranes. This review will discuss the state of the art in carbon nanotube technology applied to the development of devices able to drive nerve tissue repair; we will highlight the most exciting findings addressing the impact of carbon nanotubes in nerve tissue engineering, focusing in particular on neuronal differentiation, growth and network reconstruction. © 2013.

  7. Carbon Nanotube Bolometer for Absolute FTIR Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Solomon; Neira, Jorge; Tomlin, Nathan; Lehman, John

    We have developed and calibrated planar electrical-substitution bolometers which employ absorbers made from vertically-aligned carbon nanotube arrays. The nearly complete absorption of light by the carbon nanotubes from the visible range to the far-infrared can be exploited to enable a device with read-out in native units equivalent to optical power. Operated at cryogenic temperatures near 4 K, these infrared detectors are designed to have time constant near 10 ms and a noise floor of about 10 pW. Built upon a micro-machined silicon platform, each device has an integrated heater and thermometer, either a carbon nanotube thermistor or superconducting transition edge sensor, for temperature control. We are optimizing temperature-controlled measurement techniques to enable high resolution spectral calibrations using these devices with a Fourier-transform spectrometer.

  8. High frequency conductivity in carbon nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Abukari

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We report on theoretical analysis of high frequency conductivity in carbon nanotubes. Using the kinetic equation with constant relaxation time, an analytical expression for the complex conductivity is obtained. The real part of the complex conductivity is initially negative at zero frequency and become more negative with increasing frequency, until it reaches a resonance minimum at ω ∼ ωB for metallic zigzag CNs and ω < ωB for armchair CNs. This resonance enhancement is indicative for terahertz gain without the formation of current instabilities induced by negative dc conductivity. We noted that due to the high density of states of conduction electrons in metallic zigzag carbon nanotubes and the specific dispersion law inherent in hexagonal crystalline structure result in a uniquely high frequency conductivity than the corresponding values for metallic armchair carbon nanotubes. We suggest that this phenomenon can be used to suppress current instabilities that are normally associated with a negative dc differential conductivity.

  9. Detection of gas atoms with carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arash, B.; Wang, Q.

    2013-01-01

    Owning to their unparalleled sensitivity resolution, nanomechanical resonators have excellent capabilities in design of nano-sensors for gas detection. The current challenge is to develop new designs of the resonators for differentiating distinct gas atoms with a recognizably high sensitivity. In this work, the characteristics of impulse wave propagation in carbon nanotube-based sensors are investigated using molecular dynamics simulations to provide a new method for detection of noble gases. A sensitivity index based on wave velocity shifts in a single-walled carbon nanotube, induced by surrounding gas atoms, is defined to explore the efficiency of the nano-sensor. The simulation results indicate that the nano-sensor is able to differentiate distinct noble gases at the same environmental temperature and pressure. The inertia and the strengthening effects by the gases on wave characteristics of carbon nanotubes are particularly discussed, and a continuum mechanics shell model is developed to interpret the effects.

  10. Inherent-opening-controlled pattern formation in carbon nanotube arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Xiao; Zhou, Jijie J; Sansom, Elijah; Gharib, Morteza; Haur, Sow Chorng

    2007-01-01

    We have introduced inherent openings into densely packed carbon nanotube arrays to study self-organized pattern formation when the arrays undergo a wetting-dewetting treatment from nanotube tips. These inherent openings, made of circular or elongated hollows in nanotube mats, serve as dewetting centres, from where liquid recedes from. As the dewetting centres initiate dry zones and the dry zones expand, surrounding nanotubes are pulled away from the dewetting centres by liquid surface tension. Among short nanotubes, the self-organized patterns are consistent with the shape of the inherent openings, i.e. slender openings lead to elongated trench-like structures, and circular holes result in relatively round nest-like arrangements. Nanotubes in a relatively high mat are more connected, like in an elastic body, than those in a short mat. Small cracks often initialize themselves in a relatively high mat, along two or more adjacent round openings; each of the cracks evolves into a trench as liquid dries up. Self-organized pattern control with inherent openings needs to initiate the dewetting process above the nanotube tips. If there is no liquid on top, inherent openings barely enlarge themselves after the wetting-dewetting treatment

  11. Application of aromatization catalyst in synthesis of carbon nanotubes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In a typical chemical vapour deposition (CVD) process for synthesizing carbon nanotubes (CNTs), it was found that the aromatization catalysts could promote effectively the formation of CNT. The essence of this phenomenon was attributed to the fact that the aromatization catalyst can accelerate the ...

  12. Carbon nanotubes for thermal interface materials in microelectronic packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wei

    As the integration scale of transistors/devices in a chip/system keeps increasing, effective cooling has become more and more important in microelectronics. To address the thermal dissipation issue, one important solution is to develop thermal interface materials with higher performance. Carbon nanotubes, given their high intrinsic thermal and mechanical properties, and their high thermal and chemical stabilities, have received extensive attention from both academia and industry as a candidate for high-performance thermal interface materials. The thesis is devoted to addressing some challenges related to the potential application of carbon nanotubes as thermal interface materials in microelectronics. These challenges include: 1) controlled synthesis of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes on various bulk substrates via chemical vapor deposition and the fundamental understanding involved; 2) development of a scalable annealing process to improve the intrinsic properties of synthesized carbon nanotubes; 3) development of a state-of-art assembling process to effectively implement high-quality vertically aligned carbon nanotubes into a flip-chip assembly; 4) a reliable thermal measurement of intrinsic thermal transport property of vertically aligned carbon nanotube films; 5) improvement of interfacial thermal transport between carbon nanotubes and other materials. The major achievements are summarized. 1. Based on the fundamental understanding of catalytic chemical vapor deposition processes and the growth mechanism of carbon nanotube, fast synthesis of high-quality vertically aligned carbon nanotubes on various bulk substrates (e.g., copper, quartz, silicon, aluminum oxide, etc.) has been successfully achieved. The synthesis of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes on the bulk copper substrate by the thermal chemical vapor deposition process has set a world record. In order to functionalize the synthesized carbon nanotubes while maintaining their good vertical alignment

  13. Investigation of Chirality Selection Mechanism of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-17

    Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 01-June-2014 to 31-May-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Investigation of Chirality Selection Mechanism of...of two significant mechanistic aspects of carbon nanotube (CNT) array growth under chemical vapor deposition conditions: chirality selectivity and...affected by the morphological evolution of catalyst particles. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Carbon Nanotubes, Chirality , Processing, Catalysis

  14. Topological phase diagram of superconducting carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milz, Lars; Marganska-Lyzniak, Magdalena; Grifoni, Milena [Institut I - Theoretische Physik Universitaet Regensburg (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The topological superconducting phase diagram of superconducting carbon nanotubes is discussed. Under the assumption of a short-ranged pairing potential, there are two spin-singlet states: an s-wave and an exotic p + ip-wave that are possible because of the special structure of the honeycomb lattice. The consequences for the possible presence of Majorana edge states in carbon nanotubes are addressed. In particular, regions in the magnetic field-chemical potential plane possibly hosting localized Majorana modes are discussed.

  15. Carbon nanotubes as anti-bacterial agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocan, Teodora; Matea, Cristian T; Pop, Teodora; Mosteanu, Ofelia; Buzoianu, Anca Dana; Suciu, Soimita; Puia, Cosmin; Zdrehus, Claudiu; Iancu, Cornel; Mocan, Lucian

    2017-10-01

    Multidrug-resistant bacterial infections that have evolved via natural selection have increased alarmingly at a global level. Thus, there is a strong need for the development of novel antibiotics for the treatment of these infections. Functionalized carbon nanotubes through their unique properties hold great promise in the fight against multidrug-resistant bacterial infections. This new family of nanovectors for therapeutic delivery proved to be innovative and efficient for the transport and cellular translocation of therapeutic molecules. The current review examines the latest progress in the antibacterial activity of carbon nanotubes and their composites.

  16. Laser ablative synthesis of carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael W.; Jordan, Kevin; Park, Cheol

    2010-03-02

    An improved method for the production of single walled carbon nanotubes that utilizes an RF-induction heated side-pumped synthesis chamber for the production of such. Such a method, while capable of producing large volumes of carbon nanotubes, concurrently permits the use of a simplified apparatus that allows for greatly reduced heat up and cool down times and flexible flowpaths that can be readily modified for production efficiency optimization. The method of the present invention utilizes a free electron laser operating at high average and peak fluence to illuminate a rotating and translating graphite/catalyst target to obtain high yields of SWNTs without the use of a vacuum chamber.

  17. Underwater Acoustic Carbon Nanotube Thermophone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-23

    decreases rapidly as the distance from the conductor increases. Based on the rapid production of these temperature waves; the net effect is to produce a...fragile and are susceptible to disintegration especially if the nanotube fibers are touched or moved too quickly. A bare nanotube configuration also has...impedance (defined as the product of material density and sound speed) of the top shell 42 should match the radiation medium for higher efficiency

  18. Carbon-Nanotube-Based Chemical Gas Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaul, Arunpama B.

    2010-01-01

    Conventional thermal conductivity gauges (e.g. Pirani gauges) lend themselves to applications such as leak detectors, or in gas chromatographs for identifying various gas species. However, these conventional gauges are physically large, operate at high power, and have a slow response time. A single-walled carbon-nanotube (SWNT)-based chemical sensing gauge relies on differences in thermal conductance of the respective gases surrounding the CNT as it is voltage-biased, as a means for chemical identification. Such a sensor provides benefits of significantly reduced size and compactness, fast response time, low-power operation, and inexpensive manufacturing since it can be batch-fabricated using Si integrated-circuit (IC) process technology.

  19. Patterned growth of carbon nanotubes obtained by high density plasma chemical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousinho, A. P.; Mansano, R. D.

    2015-03-01

    Patterned growth of carbon nanotubes by chemical vapor deposition represents an assembly approach to place and orient nanotubes at a stage as early as when they are synthesized. In this work, the carbon nanotubes were obtained at room temperature by High Density Plasmas Chemical Vapor Deposition (HDPCVD) system. This CVD system uses a new concept of plasma generation, where a planar coil coupled to an RF system for plasma generation was used with an electrostatic shield for plasma densification. In this mode, high density plasmas are obtained. We also report the patterned growth of carbon nanotubes on full 4-in Si wafers, using pure methane plasmas and iron as precursor material (seed). Photolithography processes were used to pattern the regions on the silicon wafers. The carbon nanotubes were characterized by micro-Raman spectroscopy, the spectra showed very single-walled carbon nanotubes axial vibration modes around 1590 cm-1 and radial breathing modes (RBM) around 120-400 cm-1, confirming that high quality of the carbon nanotubes obtained in this work. The carbon nanotubes were analyzed by atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy too. The results showed that is possible obtain high-aligned carbon nanotubes with patterned growth on a silicon wafer with high reproducibility and control.

  20. Synthesis and field emission properties of carbon nanotubes grown in ethanol flame based on a photoresist-assisted catalyst annealing process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Xiaoxia; Fang Guojia; Liu Nishuang; Wang Chong; Zheng Qiao; Zhou Hai; Zhao Dongshan; Long Hao; Liu Yuping; Zhao Xingzhong

    2009-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been grown directly on a Si substrate without a diffusion barrier in ethanol diffusion flame using Ni as the catalyst after a photoresist-assisted catalyst annealing process. The growth mechanism of as-synthesized CNTs is confirmed by scanning electron microscopy, high resolution transmission-electron microscopy and energy-dispersive spectroscopy. The photoresist is the key for the formation of active catalyst particles during annealing process, which then result in the growth of CNTs. The catalyst annealing temperature has been found to affect the morphologies and field electron emission properties of CNTs significantly. The field emission properties of as-grown CNTs are investigated with a diode structure and the obtained CNTs exhibit enhanced characteristics. This technique will be applicable to a low-cost fabrication process of electron-emitter arrays.

  1. Nanoscale Soldering of Positioned Carbon Nanotubes using Highly Conductive Electron Beam Induced Gold Deposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Dorte Nørgaard; Mølhave, Kristian; Mateiu, Ramona Valentina

    2003-01-01

    We have developed an in-situ method for controlled positioning of carbon nanotubes followed by highly conductive contacting of the nanotubes, using electron beam assisted deposition of gold. The positioning and soldering process takes place inside an Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope (E...... in a carbon matrix. Nanoscale soldering of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNT) onto microelectrodes was achieved by deposition of a conducting gold line across a contact point between nanotube and electrode. The solderings were found to be mechanically stronger than the carbon nanotubes. We have positioned...... MWNTs to bridge the gap between two electrodes, and formed soldering bonds between the tube and each of the electrodes. All nanotube bridges showed ohmic resistances in the range 10-30 kΩ. We observed no increase in resistance after exposing the MWNT bridge to air for days....

  2. Electrical conductance of carbon nanotubes with misaligned ends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pantano, Antonio, E-mail: antonio.pantano@unipa.it; Muratore, Giuseppe; Montinaro, Nicola [Universita degli Studi di Palermo, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica, Gestionale, Informatica e Meccanica (Italy)

    2013-09-15

    During a manufacturing process, when a straight carbon nanotube is placed on a substrate, e.g., production of transistors, its two ends are often misaligned. In this study, we investigate the effects of multiwall carbon nanotubes' (MWCNTs) outer diameter and chirality on the change in conductance due to misalignment of the two ends. The length of the studied MWCNTs was 120 nm, while the diameters ranged between 4 and 7 nm. A mixed finite element-tight-binding approach was carefully designed to realize reduction in computational time by orders of magnitude in calculating the deformation-induced changes in the electrical transport properties of the nanotubes. Numerical results suggest that armchair MWCNTs of small diameter should work better if used as conductors, while zigzag MWCNTs of large diameter are more suitable for building sensors.Graphical Abstract.

  3. Synthesis of uniform carbon at silica nanocables and luminescent silica nanotubes with well controlled inner diameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian Haisheng; Yu Shuhong; Ren Lei; Yang Yipeng; Zhang Wei

    2006-01-01

    Uniform carbon at silica nanocables and silica nanotubes with well-controlled inner diameters can be synthesized in an easy way by a sacrificial templating method. This was performed using carbon nanofibres as hard templates that were synthesized previously by a hydrothermal carbonization process. Silica nanotubes with well-controlled inner diameters were synthesized from carbon at silica core-shell nanostructures by removal of the core carbon component. The inner diameters of the as-prepared silica nanotubes can be well controlled from several nanometres to hundreds of nanometres by adjusting the diameters of the carbon nanofibres. The silica nanotubes synthesized by this method display strong photoluminescence in ultraviolet at room temperature. Such uniform silica nanotubes might find potential applications in many fields such as encapsulation, catalysis, chemical/biological separation, and sensing

  4. Carbon nanotube and graphene nanoribbon interconnects

    CERN Document Server

    Das, Debaprasad

    2014-01-01

    "The book, Caron Nanotube and Graphene Nanoribbon Interconnects, authored by Drs. Debapraad Das and Hafizur Rahaman serves as a good source of material on CNT and GNR interconnects for readers who wish to get into this area and also for practicing engineers who would like to be updated in advances of this field."-Prof. Ashok Srivastava, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, USA"Mathematical analysis included in each and every chapter is the main strength of the materials. ... The book is very precise and useful for those who are working in this area. ... highly focused, very compact, and easy to apply. ... This book depicts a detailed analysis and modelling of carbon nanotube and graphene nanoribbon interconnects. The book also covers the electrical circuit modelling of carbon nanotubes and graphene nanoribbons."-Prof. Chandan Kumar Sarkar, Jadavpur University, Kolkata, India.

  5. Preparation of supported electrocatalyst comprising multiwalled carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Gang; Zelenay, Piotr

    2013-08-27

    A process for preparing a durable non-precious metal oxygen reduction electrocatalyst involves heat treatment of a ball-milled mixture of polyaniline and multiwalled carbon nanotubes in the presence of a Fe species. The catalyst is more durable than catalysts that use carbon black supports. Performance degradation was minimal or absent after 500 hours of operation at constant cell voltage of 0.40 V.

  6. Net energy benefits of carbon nanotube applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhai, Pei; Isaacs, Jacqueline A.; Eckelman, Matthew J.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Life cycle net energy benefits are examined. • CNT-enabled and the conventional technologies are compared. • Flash memory with CNT switches show significant positive net energy benefit. • Lithium-ion batteries with MWCNT cathodes show positive net energy benefit. • Lithium-ion batteries with SWCNT anodes tend to exhibit negative net energy benefit. - Abstract: Implementation of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in various applications can reduce material and energy requirements of products, resulting in energy savings. However, processes for the production of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are energy-intensive and can require extensive purification. In this study, we investigate the net energy benefits of three CNT-enabled technologies: multi-walled CNT (MWCNT) reinforced cement used as highway construction material, single-walled CNT (SWCNT) flash memory switches used in cell phones and CNT anodes and cathodes used in lithium-ion batteries used in electric vehicles. We explore the avoided or additional energy requirement in the manufacturing and use phases and estimate the life cycle net energy benefits for each application. Additional scenario analysis and Monte Carlo simulation of parameter uncertainties resulted in probability distributions of net energy benefits, indicating that net energy benefits are dependent on the application with confidence intervals straddling the breakeven line in some cases. Analysis of simulation results reveals that SWCNT switch flash memory and MWCNT Li-ion battery cathodes have statistically significant positive net energy benefits (α = 0.05) and SWCNT Li-ion battery anodes tend to have negative net energy benefits, while positive results for MWCNT-reinforced cement were significant only under an efficient CNT production scenario and a lower confidence level (α = 0.1).

  7. Application of Nanoparticles/Nanowires and Carbon Nanotubes for Breast Cancer Research

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Panchapakesan, Balaji

    2005-01-01

    .... Variety of techniques such as fabrication of single wall carbon nanotubes, functionalization of nanotubes with antibodies, interaction of cells with antibodies on nanotube surfaces, and finally cell...

  8. Immobilization of redox mediators on functionalized carbon nanotube

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Chemical functionalization of single-walled carbon nanotubes with redox mediators, namely, toluidine blue and thionin have been carried out and the performance of graphite electrode modified with functionalized carbon nanotubes is described. Mechanical immobilization of functionalized single-walled nanotube (SWNT) ...

  9. Black silicon maskless templates for carbon nanotube forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wierzbicki, Rafal; Schmidt, Michael Stenbæk; Boisen, Anja

    2013-01-01

    allows maskless definition of carbon nanotube forests with control of their density, nanotube diameter and height. Four nanograss reactive ion etching recipes are investigated and their wafer-to-wafer repeatability, wafer uniformity, and density control is discussed. Evaluation of carbon nanotube forests...

  10. Nanotubes on Display: How Carbon Nanotubes Can Be Integrated into Electronic Displays

    KAUST Repository

    Opatkiewicz, Justin; LeMieux, Melburne C.; Bao, Zhenan

    2010-01-01

    Random networks of single-walled carbon nanotubes show promise for use in the field of flexible electronics. Nanotube networks have been difficult to utilize because of the mixture of electronic types synthesized when grown. A variety of separation

  11. Comment on "Water-processed carbon nanotube/graphene hybrids with enhanced field emission properties" [AIP Advances 5, 097130 (2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, Reena; Bhatia, Ravi

    2018-03-01

    In their research paper, M. Song et al. [AIP ADVANCES 5, 097130 (2015)] have claimed to have achieved enhanced field emission (FE) characteristics of carbon nanotubes (CNT)/graphene hybrids experimentally, exhibiting improved FE parameters e.g. turn-on electric field of 0.79 V/μm, threshold electric field of 1.05 V/μm, maximum emission current density (Jmax) of 5.76 mA/cm2, and field enhancement factor (β) of ˜1.3 × 104. The authors have emphasized on the surprisingly high value of β to be the basis of their claim of achieving superior FE performance which is further attributed to the optimized mass ratio CNT/ graphene, which is 5:1 in the present case. However, the claim based upon high value of β is misleading because it does not corroborate with the obtained Jmax parameter. Also, the obtained value of J is quite low in the mentioned study as compared to the reported values. For an instance, Sameera et al. [J. Appl. Phys. 111, 044307 (2012) & Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 033102 (2013)] have reported FE properties of CNT composites and reduced graphene oxide with Jmax and β values of the order of ˜102 mA/cm2 and 6 × 103, respectively. Therefore, the conclusions drawn by M. Song et al. [AIP ADVANCES 5, 097130 (2015)] in their paper do no hold.

  12. Growth of a single-wall carbon nanotube film and its patterning as an n-type field effect transistor device using an integrated circuit compatible process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiau, S H; Gau, C [Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, and Center for Micro/Nano Science and Technology, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Liu, C W; Dai, B T [National Nano Device Laboratories, No. 27, Nanke 3rd Road, Science-based Industrial Park, Hsin-shi, Tainan, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: gauc@mail.ncku.edu.tw

    2008-03-12

    This study presents the synthesis of a dense single-wall carbon nanotube (SWNT) network on a silicon substrate using alcohol as the source gas. The nanosize catalysts required are made by the reduction of metal compounds in ethanol. The key point in spreading the nanoparticles on the substrate, so that the SWNT network can be grown over the entire wafer, is making the substrate surface hydrophilic. This SWNT network is so dense that it can be treated like a thin film. Methods of patterning this SWNT film with integrated circuit compatible processes are presented and discussed for the first time in the literature. Finally, fabrication and characteristic measurements of a field effect transistor (FET) using this SWNT film are also demonstrated. This FET is shown to have better electronic properties than any other kind of thin film transistor. This thin film with good electronic properties can be readily applied in the processing of many other SWNT electronic devices.

  13. Electrochemical Metal Deposition on Carbon Nanotubes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dunsch, L.; Janda, Pavel; Mukhopadhyay, K.; Shinohara, H.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 6 (2001), s. 427-435 ISSN 1344-9931 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4040901 Keywords : carbon nanotubes * electrodeposition * cyclic voltammetry Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 0.800, year: 2001

  14. A New Resistance Formulation for Carbon Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Huan He

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A new resistance formulation for carbon nanotubes is suggested using fractal approach. The new formulation is also valid for other nonmetal conductors including nerve fibers, conductive polymers, and molecular wires. Our theoretical prediction agrees well with experimental observation.

  15. Carbon nanotubes for high-performance logic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Zhihong; Philip Wong, H.-S.; Mitra, S.; Bol, A.A.; Peng, Lianmao; Hills, Gage; Thissen, N.F.W.

    2014-01-01

    Single-wall carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were discovered in 1993 and have been an area of intense research since then. They offer the right dimensions to explore material science and physical chemistry at the nanoscale and are the perfect system to study low-dimensional physics and transport. In the past

  16. Chemistry of Carbon Nanotubes for Everyone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu-Dutt, Sharmistha; Minus, Marilyn L.; Jain, Rahul; Nepal, Dhriti; Kumar, Satish

    2012-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have the extraordinary potential to change our lives by improving existing products and enabling new ones. Current and future research and industrial workforce professionals are very likely to encounter some aspects of nanotechnology including CNT science and technology in their education or profession. The simple structure…

  17. Carbon Nanotubes as Thermally Induced Water Pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oyarzua, Elton; Walther, Jens Honore; Megaridis, Constantine M

    2017-01-01

    Thermal Brownian motors (TBMs) are nanoscale machines that exploit thermal fluctuations to provide useful work. We introduce a TBM-based nanopump which enables continuous water flow through a carbon nanotube (CNT) by imposing an axial thermal gradient along its surface. We impose spatial asymmetry...

  18. Effective models for excitons in carbon nanotubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornean, Horia; Duclos, Pierre; Ricaud, Benjamin

    We analyse the low lying spectrum of a model of excitons in carbon nanotubes. Consider two particles with a Coulomb self-interaction, placed on an infinitely long cylinder. If the cylinder radius becomes small, the low lying spectrum is well described by a one-dimensional effective Hamiltonian...

  19. Effective models for excitons in carbon nanotubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornean, Horia; Duclos, Pierre; Ricaud, Benjamin

    2007-01-01

    We analyse the low lying spectrum of a model of excitons in carbon nanotubes. Consider two particles with opposite charges and a Coulomb self-interaction, placed on an infinitely long cylinder. If the cylinder radius becomes small, the low lying spectrum of their relative motion is well described...

  20. Bioaccumulation and ecotoxicity of carbon nanotubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jackson, Petra; Jacobsen, Nicklas Raun; Baun, Anders

    2013-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNT) have numerous industrial applications and may be released to the environment. In the aquatic environment, pristine or functionalized CNT have different dispersion behavior, potentially leading to different risks of exposure along the water column. Data included in this review...

  1. Biodistribution of Carbon Nanotubes in Animal Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Nicklas Raun; Møller, Peter Horn; Clausen, Per Axel

    2017-01-01

    The many interesting physical and chemical properties of carbon nanotubes (CNT) make it one of the most commercially attractive materials in the era of nanotechnology. Here, we review the recent publications on in vivo biodistribution of pristine and functionalized forms of single-walled and multi...

  2. Chemical vapor deposition of carbon nanotube forests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, J.; Zhong, G.; Esconjauregui, S.; Zhang, C.; Fouquet, M.; Hofmann, S. [Engineering Department, Cambridge University, Cambridge CB2 1PZ (United Kingdom)

    2012-12-15

    We review the growth mechanisms of vertically aligned carbon nanotube forests, in terms of what controls the growth rate and control of the catalyst lifetime. We also review the production of very high-density forests, in terms of increasing the catalyst particle density. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  3. Chemical vapor deposition of carbon nanotube forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, J.; Zhong, G.; Esconjauregui, S.; Zhang, C.; Fouquet, M.; Hofmann, S.

    2012-01-01

    We review the growth mechanisms of vertically aligned carbon nanotube forests, in terms of what controls the growth rate and control of the catalyst lifetime. We also review the production of very high-density forests, in terms of increasing the catalyst particle density. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  4. Carbon Nanotubes in Drug and Gene Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Mahdi; Ghasemi, Amir; Mirkiani, Soroush; Moosavi Basri, Seyed Masoud; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2017-10-01

    Recent important discoveries and developments in nanotechnology have had a remarkable and ever-increasing impact on many industries, especially materials science, pharmaceuticals, and biotechnology. Within this book, the authors describe different features of carbon nanotubes, survey the properties of both the multi-walled and single-walled varieties, and cover their applications in drug and gene delivery.

  5. Analysis of ionic conductance of carbon nanotubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biesheuvel, P.M.; Bazant, M.Z.

    2016-01-01

    We use space-charge (SC) theory (also called the capillary pore model) to describe the ionic conductance, G, of charged carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Based on the reversible adsorption of hydroxyl ions to CNT pore walls, we use a Langmuir isotherm for surface ionization and make calculations as a

  6. Plasma Enhanced Growth of Carbon Nanotubes For Ultrasensitive Biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassell, Alan M.; Li, J.; Ye, Q.; Koehne, J.; Chen, H.; Meyyappan, M.

    2004-01-01

    The multitude of considerations facing nanostructure growth and integration lends itself to combinatorial optimization approaches. Rapid optimization becomes even more important with wafer-scale growth and integration processes. Here we discuss methodology for developing plasma enhanced CVD growth techniques for achieving individual, vertically aligned carbon nanostructures that show excellent properties as ultrasensitive electrodes for nucleic acid detection. We utilize high throughput strategies for optimizing the upstream and downstream processing and integration of carbon nanotube electrodes as functional elements in various device types. An overview of ultrasensitive carbon nanotube based sensor arrays for electrochemical biosensing applications and the high throughput methodology utilized to combine novel electrode technology with conventional MEMS processing will be presented.

  7. Fluorescently labeled bionanotransporters of nucleic acid based on carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novopashina, D.S.; Apartsin, E.K.; Venyaminova, A.G.

    2012-01-01

    We propose an approach to the design of a new type of hybrids of oligonucleotides with fluorescein-functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes. The approach is based on stacking interactions of functionalized nanotubes with pyrene residues in conjugates of oligonucleotides. The amino- and fluorescein-modified single walled carbon nanotubes are obtained, and their physico-chemical properties are investigated. The effect of the functionalization type of carbon nanotubes on the efficacy of the sorption of pyrene conjugates of oligonucleotides was examined. The proposed noncovalent hybrids of fluorescein-labeled carbon nanotubes with oligonucleotides may be used for the intracellular transport of functional nucleic acids.

  8. Degradation of multiwall carbon nanotubes by bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Liwen; Petersen, Elijah J.; Habteselassie, Mussie Y.; Mao, Liang; Huang, Qingguo

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the environmental transformation of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) is important to their life cycle assessment and potential environmental impacts. We report that a bacterial community is capable of degrading 14 C-labeled MWCNTs into 14 CO 2 in the presence of an external carbon source via co-metabolism. Multiple intermediate products were detected, and genotypic characterization revealed three possible microbial degraders: Burkholderia kururiensis, Delftia acidovorans, and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. This result suggests that microbe/MWCNTs interaction may impact the long-term fate of MWCNTs. Highlights: •Mineralization of MWCNTs by a bacterial community was observed. •The mineralization required an external carbon source. •Multiple intermediate products were identified in the MWCNT degrading culture. •Three bacterial species were found likely responsible for MWCNT degradation. -- The 14 C-labeled multiwall carbon nanotubes can be degraded to 14 CO 2 and other byproducts by a bacteria community under natural conditions

  9. Fabrication of Carbon Nanotube/SiO2and Carbon Nanotube/SiO2/Ag Nanoparticles Hybrids by Using Plasma Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Haiqing

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Based on plasma-treated single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs, SWCNT/SiO2and thiol groups-functionalized SWCNT/SiO2hybrids have been fabricated through a sol–gel process. By means of thiol groups, Ag nanoparticles have been in situ synthesized and bonded onto the SiO2shell of SWCNT/SiO2in the absence of external reducing agent, resulting in the stable carbon nanotube/SiO2/Ag nanoparticles hybrids. This strategy provides a facile, low–cost, and green methodology for the creation of carbon nanotube/inorganic oxides-metal nanoparticles hybrids.

  10. Exploring the Immunotoxicity of Carbon Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Yanmei

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Mass production of carbon nanotubes (CNTs and their applications in nanomedicine lead to the increased exposure risk of nanomaterials to human beings. Although reports on toxicity of nanomaterials are rapidly growing, there is still a lack of knowledge on the potential toxicity of such materials to immune systems. This article reviews some existing studies assessing carbon nanotubes’ toxicity to immune system and provides the potential mechanistic explanation.

  11. Exploring the Immunotoxicity of Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yanmei; Zhang, Qiu; Mu, Qingxin; Zhang, Bin; Yan, Bing

    2008-08-01

    Mass production of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and their applications in nanomedicine lead to the increased exposure risk of nanomaterials to human beings. Although reports on toxicity of nanomaterials are rapidly growing, there is still a lack of knowledge on the potential toxicity of such materials to immune systems. This article reviews some existing studies assessing carbon nanotubes’ toxicity to immune system and provides the potential mechanistic explanation.

  12. Defect complexes in carbon and boron nitride nanotubes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mashapa, MG

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of defect complexes on the stability, structural and electronic properties of single-walled carbon nanotubes and boron nitride nanotubes is investigated using the ab initio pseudopotential density functional method implemented...

  13. Decoration of Multi-walled Carbon Nanotubes by Metal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    tures inside the nanotubes to increase the available surface for catalysis6 or in ... most common method to decorate CNTs by metal nanoparticles and metal oxides due .... 2.6 Characterization of Carbon Nanotubes, Metal Nano- particles and ...

  14. Intrinsic Chirality Origination in Carbon Nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Neal; Chen, Gugang; P Rajukumar, Lakshmy; Chou, Nam Hawn; Koh, Ai Leen; Sinclair, Robert; Maruyama, Shigeo; Terrones, Mauricio; Harutyunyan, Avetik R

    2017-10-24

    Elucidating the origin of carbon nanotube chirality is key for realizing their untapped potential. Currently, prevalent theories suggest that catalyst structure originates chirality via an epitaxial relationship. Here we studied chirality abundances of carbon nanotubes grown on floating liquid Ga droplets, which excludes the influence of catalyst features, and compared them with abundances grown on solid Ru nanoparticles. Results of growth on liquid droplets bolsters the intrinsic preference of carbon nuclei toward certain chiralities. Specifically, the abundance of the (11,1)/χ = 4.31° tube can reach up to 95% relative to (9,4)/χ = 17.48°, although they have exactly the same diameter, (9.156 Å). However, the comparative abundances for the pair, (19,3)/χ = 7.2° and (17,6)/χ = 14.5°, with bigger diameter, (16.405 Å), fluctuate depending on synthesis temperature. The abundances of the same pairs of tubes grown on floating solid polyhedral Ru nanoparticles show completely different trends. Analysis of abundances in relation to nucleation probability, represented by a product of the Zeldovich factor and the deviation interval of a growing nuclei from equilibrium critical size, explain the findings. We suggest that the chirality in the nanotube in general is a result of interplay between intrinsic preference of carbon cluster and induction by catalyst structure. This finding can help to build the comprehensive theory of nanotube growth and offers a prospect for chirality-preferential synthesis of carbon nanotubes by the exploitation of liquid catalyst droplets.

  15. Review on properties, dispersion and toxicology of carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saeed, K.

    2010-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have the most intensely studied nano structures because of their unique properties. There are two types of carbon nanotubes CNTs, single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs), prepared by chemical-vapour deposition (CVD), plasma enhanced chemical-vapour deposition, thermal chemical vapour deposition, Vapour phase growth, Arc discharge and Lasser ablation. Both single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) possess high mechanical and electrical conductivity, ultra-light weight, high aspect ratio and have excellent chemical and thermal stabilities. They also possess semi- and metallic-conductive properties depending upon their chirality. This review focuses on progress toward functionalization (not only dispersed nano tube but also dramatically improve their solubility), preparation and purification, composites and the toxicity of the carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The functional groups attached to carbon nanotubes (CNTs) should react with polymers and improve the mechanical properties of the nano composites. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) has significant application in pharmaceutical field such as drug delivery and nano medicine, but the available literature also suggests that carbon nanotubes (CNTs) may have unusual toxicity and have more adverse effects than the same mass of nano size carbon and quartz. (author)

  16. Bottom-up approach for carbon nanotube interconnects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jun; Ye Qi; Cassell, Alan; Ng, Hou Tee; Stevens, Ramsey; Han Jie; Meyyappan, M.

    2003-01-01

    We report a bottom-up approach to integrate multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) into multilevel interconnects in silicon integrated-circuit manufacturing. MWNTs are grown vertically from patterned catalyst spots using plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. We demonstrate the capability to grow aligned structures ranging from a single tube to forest-like arrays at desired locations. SiO 2 is deposited to encapsulate each nanotube and the substrate, followed by a mechanical polishing process for planarization. MWNTs retain their integrity and demonstrate electrical properties consistent with their original structure

  17. Lithium storage properties of multiwall carbon nanotubes prepared by CVD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, J.-O.; Andong National University,; Wang, G.X.; Liu, H.K.; Dou, S.X.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were synthesised by chemical vapour deposition (CVD) method using acetylene gas. The XRD pattern of as prepared carbon nanotubes showed that the d 002 value is 3.44 Angstroms. The morphology and microstructure of carbon nanotubes were characterized by HRTEM. Most of carbon nanotubes are entangled together to form bundles or ropes. The diameter of the carbon nanotubes is in the range of 10 ∼ 20 nm. There is a small amount of amorphous carbon particles presented in the sample. However, the yield of carbon nanotubes is more than 95%. Electrochemical properties of carbon nanotubes were characterised via a variety of electrochemical testing techniques. The result of CV test showed that the Li insertion potential is quite low, which is very close to O V versus Li + /Li reference electrode, whereas the potential for Li de-intercalation is in the range of 0.2-0.4 V. There exists a slight voltage hysteresis between Li intercalation and Li de-intercalation, which is similar to the other carbonaceous materials. The intensity of redox peaks of carbon nanotubes decrease with scanning cycle, indicating that the reversible Li insertion capacity gradually decreases. The carbon nanotubes electrode demonstrated a reversible lithium storage capacity of 340 mAh/g with good cyclability at moderate current density. Further improvement of Li storage capacity is possible by opening the end of carbon nanotubes to allow lithium insertion into inner graphene sheet of carbon nanotubes. The kinetic properties of lithium insertion in carbon nanotube electrodes were characterised by a.c. impedance measurements. It was found that the lithium diffusion coefficient d Li decreases with an increase of Li ion concentration in carbon nanotube host

  18. Energy structure of fullerenes and carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byszewski, P.; Kowalska, E.

    1997-01-01

    The absorption spectrum of C 60 can be reasonably well reproduced theoretically with the use of the quantum chemistry calculation methods. It allows investigation of the influence of a deformation of C 60 on the absorption spectrum. The deformation of the electronic density on C 60 can occur under the influence of molecules of good solvent. Similar calculations of the energetic structure of carbon nanotubes does not support the idea that their chirality may strongly influence the energy levels distribution, in particular that it may open the energy gap of nanotubes. (author). 40 refs, 13 figs, 1 tab

  19. Aligned carbon nanotubes patterned photolithographically by silver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shaoming; Mau, Albert H. W.

    2003-02-01

    Selective growth of aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs) by pyrolysis of iron (II) phthalocyanine (FePc) on quartz substrate patterned photolithographically by metallic silver has been demonstrated. Micro/nanopattern of aligned CNTs can be achieved by using a photomask with features on a microscale. With convenient use of simple high-contract black and white films as a photomask, aligned nanotubes patterned with 20 μm resolution in large scale can be fabricated. This practical fabrication of aligned CNTs on patterned conducting substrate could be applied to various device applications of CNTs.

  20. Nanopattern formation using localized plasma for growth of single-standing carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Javadi, Mohammad; Abdi, Yaser, E-mail: y.abdi@ut.ac.ir [University of Tehran, Nanophysics Research Laboratory, Department of Physics (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-01-15

    We report a novel method for formation of self-organized single-standing carbon nanotubes by customizing a plasma-based process. The growth of carbon nanotubes by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition provides suitable grounds to utilize plasma–solid interactions for nanopatterning. The bulk plasma is utilized to fabricate carbon nanotubes on the prepatterned Ni catalyst which in turn can confine the plasma to the growth region. The plasma localization leads to a dielectrophoretic force exerted on Ni atoms and can be engineered in order to grow a specific pattern of self-organized single-standing carbon nanotubes. Numerical simulations based on the plasma localization and dielectrophoretic force confirmed the experimental results. This method provides a simple and cost-effective approach to obtain nanopatterned arrays of carbon nanotubes which can be used for fabrication of photonic and phononic crystals, self-gated field emission-based transistors and displays.

  1. Electrical Characteristics of Carbon Nanotubes by Plasma and Microwave Surface Treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Sangjin; Lee, Soonbo; Boo, Jinhyo; Shrestha, Shankar Prasad

    2014-01-01

    The plasma and microwave surface treatments of carbon nanotubes that loaded on plastic substrates were carried out with expecting a change of carbon nanotube dispersion by increasing treatment time. The microwave treatment process was undergone by commercial microwave oven (800 W). The electrical property was measured by hall measurement and resistance was increased by increasing O 2 flow rate of plasma, suggesting an improvement of carbon nanotube dispersion and a possibility of controlling the resistances of carbon nanotubes by plasma surface treatment. The resistance was increased in both polyethylene terephthalate and polyimide substrates by increasing O 2 flow rate. Resistance changes only slightly with different O 2 flow treatment in measure rho for all polyimide samples. Sheet resistance is lowest in polyimide substrate not due to high carbon nanotube loading but due to tendency to remain in elongated structure. O 2 or N 2 plasma treatments on both polyethylene terephthalate and polyimide substrates lead to increase in sheet resistance

  2. Functionalization of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloise Van Hooijdonk

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This review focuses and summarizes recent studies on the functionalization of carbon nanotubes oriented perpendicularly to their substrate, so-called vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VA-CNTs. The intrinsic properties of individual nanotubes make the VA-CNTs ideal candidates for integration in a wide range of devices, and many potential applications have been envisaged. These applications can benefit from the unidirectional alignment of the nanotubes, the large surface area, the high carbon purity, the outstanding electrical conductivity, and the uniformly long length. However, practical uses of VA-CNTs are limited by their surface characteristics, which must be often modified in order to meet the specificity of each particular application. The proposed approaches are based on the chemical modifications of the surface by functionalization (grafting of functional chemical groups, decoration with metal particles or wrapping of polymers to bring new properties or to improve the interactions between the VA-CNTs and their environment while maintaining the alignment of CNTs.

  3. The Electrochemical Behavior of Carbon Fiber Microelectrodes Modified with Carbon Nanotubes Using a Two-Step Electroless Plating/Chemical Vapor Deposition Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longsheng Lu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Carbon fiber microelectrode (CFME has been extensively applied in the biosensor and chemical sensor domains. In order to improve the electrochemical activity and sensitivity of the CFME, a new CFME modified with carbon nanotubes (CNTs, denoted as CNTs/CFME, was fabricated and investigated. First, carbon fiber (CF monofilaments grafted with CNTs (simplified as CNTs/CFs were fabricated in two key steps: (i nickel electroless plating, followed by (ii chemical vapor deposition (CVD. Second, a single CNTs/CF monofilament was selected and encapsulated into a CNTs/CFME with a simple packaging method. The morphologies of as-prepared CNTs/CFs were characterized by scanning electron microscopy. The electrochemical properties of CNTs/CFMEs were measured in potassium ferrocyanide solution (K4Fe(CN6, by using a cyclic voltammetry (CV and a chronoamperometry method. Compared with a bare CFME, a CNTs/CFME showed better CV curves with a higher distinguishable redox peak and response current; the higher the CNT content was, the better the CV curves were. Because the as-grown CNTs significantly enhanced the effective electrode area of CNTs/CFME, the contact area between the electrode and reactant was enlarged, further increasing the electrocatalytic active site density. Furthermore, the modified microelectrode displayed almost the same electrochemical behavior after 104 days, exhibiting remarkable stability and outstanding reproducibility.

  4. Optical trapping of carbon nanotubes and graphene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Vasi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We study optical trapping of nanotubes and graphene. We extract the distribution of both centre-of-mass and angular fluctuations from three-dimensional tracking of these optically trapped carbon nanostructures. The optical force and torque constants are measured from auto and cross-correlation of the tracking signals. We demonstrate that nanotubes enable nanometer spatial, and femto-Newton force resolution in photonic force microscopy by accurately measuring the radiation pressure in a double frequency optical tweezers. Finally, we integrate optical trapping with Raman and photoluminescence spectroscopy demonstrating the use of a Raman and photoluminescence tweezers by investigating the spectroscopy of nanotubes and graphene flakes in solution. Experimental results are compared with calculations based on electromagnetic scattering theory.

  5. Viscoelastic behavior of multiwalled carbon nanotubes into phenolic resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botelho, Edson Cocchieri; Costa, Michelle Leali; Braga, Carlos Isidoro, E-mail: ebotelho@feg.unesp.br [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Materiais e Tecnologia; Burkhart, Thomas [Institut fuer Verbundwerkstoffe GmbH, Kaiserslautern, (Germany); Lauke, Bernd [Leibniz-Institut fuer Polymerforschung, Dresden (Germany)

    2013-11-01

    Nanostructured polymer composites have opened up new perspectives for multi-functional materials. In particular, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have the potential applications in order to improve mechanical and electrical performance in composites with aerospace application. This study focuses on the viscoelastic evaluation of phenolic resin reinforced carbon nanotubes, processed by using two techniques: aqueous-surfactant solution and three roll calender (TRC) process. According to our results a relative small amount of CNTs in a phenolic resin matrix is capable of enhancing the viscoelastic properties significantly and to modify the thermal stability. Also has been observed that when is used TRC process, the incorporation and distribution of CNT into phenolic resin is more effective when compared with aqueous solution dispersion process. (author)

  6. C{sub 60} fullerene decoration of carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demin, V. A., E-mail: victordemin88@gmail.com [Russian Academy of Sciences, Emanuel Institute of Biochemical Physics (Russian Federation); Blank, V. D.; Karaeva, A. R.; Kulnitskiy, B. A.; Mordkovich, V. Z. [Technological Institute for Superhard and Novel Carbon Materials (Russian Federation); Parkhomenko, Yu. N. [National University of Science and Technology MISiS (Russian Federation); Perezhogin, I. A.; Popov, M. Yu. [Technological Institute for Superhard and Novel Carbon Materials (Russian Federation); Skryleva, E. A. [National University of Science and Technology MISiS (Russian Federation); Urvanov, S. A. [Technological Institute for Superhard and Novel Carbon Materials (Russian Federation); Chernozatonskii, L. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Emanuel Institute of Biochemical Physics (Russian Federation)

    2016-12-15

    A new fully carbon nanocomposite material is synthesized by the immersion of carbon nanotubes in a fullerene solution in carbon disulfide. The presence of a dense layer of fullerene molecules on the outer nanotube surface is demonstrated by TEM and XPS. Fullerenes are redistributed on the nanotube surface during a long-term action of an electron beam, which points to the existence of a molecular bond between a nanotube and fullerenes. Theoretical calculations show that the formation of a fullerene shell begins with the attachment of one C{sub 60} molecule to a defect on the nanotube surface.

  7. Carbon nanotubes: Sensor properties. A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina V. Zaporotskova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent publications dealing with dealing with the fabrication of gas and electrochemical biosensors based on carbon nanotubes have been reviewed. Experimental and theoretical data on the working principles of nanotubes have been presented. The main regularities of the structure, energy parameters and sensor properties of modified semiconducting systems on the basis of cabon nanotubes have been studied by analyzing the mechanisms of nanotubule interaction with functional groups (including carboxyl and amino groups, metallic nanoparticles and polymers leading to the formation of chemically active sensors. The possibility of using boundary modified nanotubes for the identification of metals has been discussed. Simulation results have been reported for the interaction of nanotubes boundary modified by –СООН and –NH2 groups with atoms and ions of potassium, sodium and lithium. The simulation has been carried out using the molecular cluster model and the MNDO and DFT calculation methods. Sensors fabricated using this technology will find wide application for the detection of metallic atoms and their ions included in salts and alkali.

  8. The growth of aligned carbon nanotubes on quartz substrate by spray pyrolysis of hexane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadeghian, Zahra

    2008-01-01

    Vertically aligned multiwall carbon nanotubes were grown by spray pyrolysis of hexane as the carbon source in the presence of ferrocene as catalyst precursor on a quartz substrate. In recent work we used optimal experimental parameters for the feeding method, reactor conditions, reaction temperature and time, concentration of catalyst and flow rate of feed and gas. The process parameters were chosen so as to obtain multiwall carbon nanotubes and aligned multiwall carbon nanotubes. The tubes are around 15-80 nm in diameter. The morphology and structure of the samples were characterized by x-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy analyses

  9. Use of Functionalized Carbon Nanotubes for Covalent Attachment of Nanotubes to Silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tour, James M.; Dyke, Christopher A.; Maya, Francisco; Stewart, Michael P.; Chen, Bo; Flatt, Austen K.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the invention is to covalently attach functionalized carbon nanotubes to silicon. This step allows for the introduction of carbon nanotubes onto all manner of silicon surfaces, and thereby introduction of carbon nano - tubes covalently into silicon-based devices, onto silicon particles, and onto silicon surfaces. Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) dispersed as individuals in surfactant were functionalized. The nano - tube was first treated with 4-t-butylbenzenediazonium tetrafluoroborate to give increased solubility to the carbon nanotube; the second group attached to the sidewall of the nanotube has a silyl-protected terminal alkyne that is de-protected in situ. This gives a soluble carbon nanotube that has functional groups appended to the sidewall that can be attached covalently to silicon. This reaction was monitored by UV/vis/NJR to assure direct covalent functionalization.

  10. Manufacturing High-Quality Carbon Nanotubes at Lower Cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavides, Jeanette M.; Lidecker, Henning

    2004-01-01

    A modified electric-arc welding process has been developed for manufacturing high-quality batches of carbon nanotubes at relatively low cost. Unlike in some other processes for making carbon nanotubes, metal catalysts are not used and, consequently, it is not necessary to perform extensive cleaning and purification. Also, unlike some other processes, this process is carried out at atmospheric pressure under a hood instead of in a closed, pressurized chamber; as a result, the present process can be implemented more easily. Although the present welding-based process includes an electric arc, it differs from a prior electric-arc nanotube-production process. The welding equipment used in this process includes an AC/DC welding power source with an integral helium-gas delivery system and circulating water for cooling an assembly that holds one of the welding electrodes (in this case, the anode). The cathode is a hollow carbon (optionally, graphite) rod having an outside diameter of 2 in. (approximately equal to 5.1 cm) and an inside diameter of 5/8 in. (approximately equal to 1.6 cm). The cathode is partly immersed in a water bath, such that it protrudes about 2 in. (about 5.1 cm) above the surface of the water. The bottom end of the cathode is held underwater by a clamp, to which is connected the grounding cable of the welding power source. The anode is a carbon rod 1/8 in. (approximately equal to 0.3 cm) in diameter. The assembly that holds the anode includes a thumbknob- driven mechanism for controlling the height of the anode. A small hood is placed over the anode to direct a flow of helium downward from the anode to the cathode during the welding process. A bell-shaped exhaust hood collects the helium and other gases from the process. During the process, as the anode is consumed, the height of the anode is adjusted to maintain an anode-to-cathode gap of 1 mm. The arc-welding process is continued until the upper end of the anode has been lowered to a specified height

  11. Carbon Micronymphaea: Graphene on Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Won Choi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the morphology of carbon nanomaterials such as carbon nanotube (CNT, graphene, and their hybrid structure under various operating conditions during a one-step synthesis via plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD. We focus on the synthetic aspects of carbon hybrid material composed of heteroepitaxially grown graphene on top of a vertical array of carbon nanotubes, called carbon micronymphaea. We characterize the structural features of this unique nanocomposite by uses of electron microscopy and micro-Raman spectroscopy. We observe carbon nanofibers, poorly aligned and well-aligned vertical arrays of CNT sequentially as the growth temperature increases, while we always discover the carbon hybrids, called carbon micronymphaea, at specific cooling rate of 15°C/s, which is optimal for the carbon precipitation from the Ni nanoparticles in this study. We expect one-pot synthesized graphene-on-nanotube hybrid structure poses great potential for applications that demand ultrahigh surface-to-volume ratios with intact graphitic nature and directional electronic and thermal transports.

  12. Carbon nanotubes and graphene in analytical sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Lopez, B.; Merkoci, A.

    2012-01-01

    Nanosized carbon materials are offering great opportunities in various areas of nanotechnology. Carbon nanotubes and graphene, due to their unique mechanical, electronic, chemical, optical and electrochemical properties, represent the most interesting building blocks in various applications where analytical chemistry is of special importance. The possibility of conjugating carbon nanomaterials with biomolecules has received particular attention with respect to the design of chemical sensors and biosensors. This review describes the trends in this field as reported in the last 6 years in (bio)analytical chemistry in general, and in biosensing in particular. (author)

  13. Carbon nanotube formation by laser direct writing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Y.-T.; Su, H.-C.; Tsai, C.-M.; Liu, K.-L.; Chen, G.-D.; Huang, R.-H.; Yew, T.-R.

    2008-01-01

    This letter presents carbon nanotube (CNT) formation by laser direct writing using 248 nm KrF excimer pulsed laser in air at room temperature, which was applied to irradiate amorphous carbon (a-C) assisted by Ni catalysts underneath for the transformation of carbon species into CNTs. The CNTs were synthesized under appropriate combination of laser energy density and a-C thickness. The growth mechanism and key parameters to determine the success of CNT formation were also discussed. The demonstration of the CNT growth by laser direct writing in air at room temperature opens an opportunity of in-position CNT formation at low temperatures

  14. Remote Joule heating by a carbon nanotube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baloch, Kamal H; Voskanian, Norvik; Bronsgeest, Merijntje; Cumings, John

    2012-04-08

    Minimizing Joule heating remains an important goal in the design of electronic devices. The prevailing model of Joule heating relies on a simple semiclassical picture in which electrons collide with the atoms of a conductor, generating heat locally and only in regions of non-zero current density, and this model has been supported by most experiments. Recently, however, it has been predicted that electric currents in graphene and carbon nanotubes can couple to the vibrational modes of a neighbouring material, heating it remotely. Here, we use in situ electron thermal microscopy to detect the remote Joule heating of a silicon nitride substrate by a single multiwalled carbon nanotube. At least 84% of the electrical power supplied to the nanotube is dissipated directly into the substrate, rather than in the nanotube itself. Although it has different physical origins, this phenomenon is reminiscent of induction heating or microwave dielectric heating. Such an ability to dissipate waste energy remotely could lead to improved thermal management in electronic devices.

  15. Realization, characterization and functionalization of lipidic wrapped carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciofani, Gianni; Obata, Yosuke; Sato, Izumi; Okamura, Yosuke; Raffa, Vittoria; Menciassi, Arianna; Dario, Paolo; Takeda, Naoya; Takeoka, Shinji

    2009-01-01

    Mass-produced carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are strongly aggregated and highly hydrophobic, and processes to make them water soluble are required for biological applications. Both covalent and non-covalent strategies are pursued for obtaining stable, highly concentrated CNT aqueous dispersions. Covalent functionalization has the great disadvantage of producing an irreversible chemical modification of nanotubes, thus alterating their mechanical, chemical and electric properties. On the other hand, non-covalent functionalization is often obtained by employing surfactants that sensibly affect cell viability. Moreover, derivatization with biological moieties is often impossible through non-covalent CNT dispersion. This paper proposes a non-covalent dispersion of multi-wall CNT based on a lipidic mixture that can guarantee high concentration and high stability as well as high cytocompatibility. Moreover, CNTs wrapped with a lipid membrane are realized to demonstrate that the proposed CNTs can be functionalised with a dodecapeptide that specifically recognizes activated platelets without chemical modification of the nanotube itself.

  16. High Volume Fraction Carbon Nanotube Composites for Aerospace Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siochi, E. J.; Kim, J.-W.; Sauti, G.; Cano, R. J.; Wincheski, R. A.; Ratcliffe, J. G.; Czabaj, M.

    2016-01-01

    Reported mechanical properties of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) at the nanoscale suggest their potential to enable significantly lighter structures of interest for space applications. However, their utility depends on the retention of these properties in bulk material formats that permit practical fabrication of large structures. This presentation summarizes recent progress made to produce carbon nanotube composites with specific tensile properties that begin to rival those of carbon fiber reinforced polymer composites. CNT content in these nanocomposites was greater than 70% by weight. Tested nanocomposite specimens were fabricated from kilometers or tens of square meters of CNT, depending on the starting material format. Processing methods to yield these results, and characterization and testing to evaluate the performance of these composites will be discussed. The final objective is the demonstration of a CNT composite overwrapped pressure vessel to be flight tested in the Fall of 2016.

  17. Field emission properties of the graphenated carbon nanotube electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanin, H., E-mail: hudson.zanin@bristol.ac.uk [School of Chemistry, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TS (United Kingdom); Faculdade de Engenharia Elétrica e Computação, Departamento de Semicondutores, Instrumentos e Fotônica, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, UNICAMP, Av. Albert Einstein N. 400, CEP 13 083-852 Campinas, São Paulo (Brazil); Ceragioli, H.J.; Peterlevitz, A.C.; Baranauskas, Vitor [Faculdade de Engenharia Elétrica e Computação, Departamento de Semicondutores, Instrumentos e Fotônica, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, UNICAMP, Av. Albert Einstein N. 400, CEP 13 083-852 Campinas, São Paulo (Brazil); Marciano, F.R.; Lobo, A.O. [Laboratory of Biomedical Nanotechnology/Institute of Research and Development at UNIVAP, Av. Shishima Hifumi, 2911, CEP 12244-000 Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Facile method to prepare graphenated carbon nanotubes (g-CNTs). • The electric field emission behaviour of g-CNTs was studied. • g-CNTs show better emission current stability than non-graphenated CNTs. - Abstract: Reduced graphene oxide-coated carbon nanotubes (RGO-CNT) electrodes have been prepared by hot filament chemical vapour deposition system in one-step growth process. We studied RGO-CNT electrodes behaviour as cold cathode in field emission test. Our results show that RGO-CNT retain the low threshold voltage typical of CNTs, but with greatly improved emission current stability. The field emission enhancement value is significantly higher than that expected being caused by geometric effect (height divided by the radius of nanotube). This suggested that the field emission of this hybrid structure is not only from a single tip, but eventually it is from several tips with contribution of graphene nanosheets at CNT's walls. This phenomenon explains why the graphenated carbon nanotubes do not burn out as quickly as CNT does until emission ceases completely. These preliminaries results make nanocarbon materials good candidates for applications as electron sources for several devices.

  18. EB treatment of carbon nanotube-reinforced polymer composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szebényi, G.; Romhány, G.; Vajna, B.; Czvikovszky, T.

    2012-01-01

    A small amount — less than 0.5% — carbon nanotube reinforcement may improve the mechanical properties of epoxy based composite materials significantly. The basic technical problem on one side is the dispersion of the nanotubes into the viscous matrix resin, namely, the fine powder-like — less than 100 nanometer diameter — nanotubes are prone to form aggregates. On the other side, the good connection between the nanofiber and matrix, which is determining the success of the reinforcement, requires some efficient adhesion promoting treatment. The goal of our research was to give one such treatment capable of industrial size application. A two step curing epoxy/vinylester resin process technology has been developed where the epoxy component has been cured conventionally, while the vinylester has been cured by electron treatment afterwards. The sufficient irradiation dose has been selected according to Raman spectroscopy characterization. Using the developed hybrid resin system hybrid composites containing carbon fibers and multiwalled carbon nanotubes have been prepared. The effect of the electron beam induced curing of the vinylester resin on the mechanical properties of the composites has been characterized by three point bending and interlaminar shear tests, which showed clearly the superiority of the developed resin system. The results of the mechanical tests have been supported by AFM studies of the samples, which showed that the difference in the viscoelastic properties of the matrix constituents decreased significantly by the electron beam treatment.

  19. All-Carbon Electrode Consisting of Carbon Nanotubes on Graphite Foil for Flexible Electrochemical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Je-Hwang Ryu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate the fabrication of an all-carbon electrode by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition for use in flexible electrochemical applications. The electrode is composed of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes that are grown directly on a flexible graphite foil. Being all-carbon, the simple fabrication process and the excellent electrochemical characteristics present an approach through which high-performance, highly-stable and cost-effective electrochemical applications can be achieved.

  20. Graphene nanoribbons production from flat carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo, W. S.; Guerini, S.; Diniz, E. M., E-mail: eduardo.diniz@ufma.br [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Maranhão, São Luís - MA 65080-805 (Brazil)

    2015-11-14

    Graphene nanoribbons are of great interest for pure and applied sciences due to their unique properties which depend on the nanoribbon edges, as, for example, energy gap and antiferromagnetic coupling. Nevertheless, the synthesis of nanoribbons with well-defined edges remains a challenge. To collaborate with this subject, here we propose a new route for the production of graphene nanoribbons from flat carbon nanotubes filled with a one-dimensional chain of Fe atoms by first principles calculations based on density functional theory. Our results show that Fe-filled flat carbon nanotubes are energetically more stable than non flattened geometries. Also we find that by hydrogenation or oxygenation of the most curved region of the Fe-filled flat armchair carbon nanotube, it occurred a spontaneous production of zigzag graphene nanoribbons which have metallic or semiconducting behavior depending on the edge and size of the graphene nanoribbon. Such findings can be used to create a new method of synthesis of regular-edge carbon nanoribbons.

  1. Graphene nanoribbons production from flat carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melo, W. S.; Guerini, S.; Diniz, E. M.

    2015-01-01

    Graphene nanoribbons are of great interest for pure and applied sciences due to their unique properties which depend on the nanoribbon edges, as, for example, energy gap and antiferromagnetic coupling. Nevertheless, the synthesis of nanoribbons with well-defined edges remains a challenge. To collaborate with this subject, here we propose a new route for the production of graphene nanoribbons from flat carbon nanotubes filled with a one-dimensional chain of Fe atoms by first principles calculations based on density functional theory. Our results show that Fe-filled flat carbon nanotubes are energetically more stable than non flattened geometries. Also we find that by hydrogenation or oxygenation of the most curved region of the Fe-filled flat armchair carbon nanotube, it occurred a spontaneous production of zigzag graphene nanoribbons which have metallic or semiconducting behavior depending on the edge and size of the graphene nanoribbon. Such findings can be used to create a new method of synthesis of regular-edge carbon nanoribbons

  2. Carbon nanotube based stationary phases for microchip chromatography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Klaus Bo; Kutter, Jörg Peter

    2012-01-01

    already been demonstrated in more classical formats, for improved separation performance in gas and liquid chromatography, and for unique applications in solid phase extraction. Carbon nanotubes are now also entering the field of microfluidics, where there is a large potential to be able to provide......The objective of this article is to provide an overview and critical evaluation of the use of carbon nanotubes and related carbon-based nanomaterials for microchip chromatography. The unique properties of carbon nanotubes, such as a very high surface area and intriguing adsorptive behaviour, have...... integrated, tailor-made nanotube columns by means of catalytic growth of the nanotubes inside the fluidic channels. An evaluation of the different implementations of carbon nanotubes and related carbon-based nanomaterials for microfluidic chromatography devices is given in terms of separation performance...

  3. The Mossbauer spectra of carbon nanotubes synthesize using ferrite catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Haiyan; Lin Jiapeng; Peng Zuxiong; Zeng Guoxun; Pang Jinshan; Chen Yiming

    2009-01-01

    The ferrite powder with honeycombed structure obtained by chemical combustion was used as catalyst to synthesize multi-walled carbon nanotubes by chemical vapor deposition. The magnetic components and characters of the the carbon nanotubes synthesized were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Mossbauer spectra and vibrating-sample magnetometer (VSM). The ferric components of the carbon nanotubes samples can be identified by Mossbauer spectra. The Mossbauer spectra of carbon nanotubes sample after purification contains two ferromagnetic sextet components corresponding to α-Fe species and Fe 3 C (cementite) species. While the Mossbauer spectra of the carbon nanotubes sample before purification contains three ferromagnetic sextet components corresponding to α-Fe species, Fe 3 C species and γ-Fe 2 O 3 . The saturation magnetization intensity Ms of carbon nanotubes sample after purification is decreased from 46.61 to 2.94 emu/g, but the coercive force increasd and reached 328Oe.

  4. Electrophoretic deposition and field emission properties of patterned carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Haifeng; Song Hang; Li Zhiming; Yuan Guang; Jin Yixin

    2005-01-01

    Patterned carbon nanotubes on silicon substrates were obtained using electrophoretic method. The carbon nanotubes migrated towards the patterned silicon electrode in the electrophoresis suspension under the applied voltage. The carbon nanotubes arrays adhered well on the silicon substrates. The surface images of carbon nanotubes were observed by scanning electron microscopy. The field emission properties of the patterned carbon nanotubes were tested in a diode structure under a vacuum pressure below 5 x 10 -4 Pa. The measured emission area was about 1.0 mm 2 . The emission current density up to 30 mA/cm 2 at an electric field of 8 V/μm has been obtained. The deposition of patterned carbon nanotubes by electrophoresis is an alternative method to prepare field emission arrays

  5. Ag-catalysed cutting of multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    La Torre, A; Rance, G A; Miners, S A; Lucas, C Herreros; Smith, E F; Giménez-López, M C; Khlobystov, A N; Fay, M W; Brown, P D; Zoberbier, T; Kaiser, U

    2016-01-01

    In this work, the cutting of carbon nanotubes is investigated using silver nanoparticles deposited on arc discharge multi-walled carbon nanotubes. The composite is subsequently heated in air to fabricate shortened multi-walled nanotubes. Complementary transmission electron microscopy and spectroscopy techniques shed light on the cutting mechanism. The nanotube cutting is catalysed by the fundamental mechanism based on the coordination of the silver atoms to the π-bonds of carbon nanotubes. As a result of the metal coordination, the strength of the carbon–carbon bond is reduced, promoting the oxidation of carbon at lower temperature when heated in air, or lowering the activation energy required for the removal of carbon atoms by electron beam irradiation, assuring in both cases the cutting of the nanotubes. (paper)

  6. The conversion of polyaniline nanotubes to nitrogen-containing carbon nanotubes and their comparison with multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Trchová, Miroslava; Konyushenko, Elena; Stejskal, Jaroslav; Kovářová, Jana; Ciric-Marjanovic, G.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 94, č. 6 (2009), s. 929-938 ISSN 0141-3910 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/08/0686; GA AV ČR IAA400500905 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : carbon nanotubes * carbonization * FTIR spectroscopy Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 2.154, year: 2009

  7. Low pressure plasmachemical processing of multi-walled carbon nanotubes for the production of polyurethane composite films with improved mechanical properties

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zajíčková, L.; Eliáš, M.; Buršíková, V.; Studýnková, Z.; Mazánková, V.; Michlíček, M.; Houdková, Jana

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 538, Jul (2013), s. 7-15 ISSN 0040-6090 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0068 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : plasma functionalization * CCP * carbon nanotubes * polyurethane composites Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.867, year: 2013

  8. Facile synthesis of highly aligned multiwalled carbon nanotubes from polymer precursors.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, C. Y.; Xiao, Z.-L.; Wang, H. H.; Lin, X.-M.; Trasobares, S.; Cook, R. E.; Richard J. Daley Coll.; Northern Illinois Univ.; Univ. de Cadiz

    2009-01-01

    We report a facile one-step approach which involves no flammable gas, no catalyst, and no in situ polymerization for the preparation of well-aligned carbon nanotube array. A polymer precursor is placed on top of an anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) membrane containing regular nanopore arrays, and slow heating under Ar flow allows the molten polymer to wet the template through adhesive force. The polymer spread into the nanopores of the template to form polymer nanotubes. Upon carbonization the resulting multi-walled carbon nanotubes duplicate the nanopores morphology precisely. The process is demonstrated for 230, 50, and 20 nm pore membranes. The synthesized carbon nanotubes are characterized with scanning/transmission electron microscopies, Raman spectroscopy, and resistive measurements. Convenient functionalization of the nanotubes with this method is demonstrated through premixing CoPt nanoparticles in the polymer precursors.

  9. Facile Synthesis of Highly Aligned Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes from Polymer Precursors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Y. Han

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a facile one-step approach which involves no flammable gas, no catalyst, and no in situ polymerization for the preparation of well-aligned carbon nanotube array. A polymer precursor is placed on top of an anodized aluminum oxide (AAO membrane containing regular nanopore arrays, and slow heating under Ar flow allows the molten polymer to wet the template through adhesive force. The polymer spread into the nanopores of the template to form polymer nanotubes. Upon carbonization the resulting multi-walled carbon nanotubes duplicate the nanopores morphology precisely. The process is demonstrated for 230, 50, and 20 nm pore membranes. The synthesized carbon nanotubes are characterized with scanning/transmission electron microscopies, Raman spectroscopy, and resistive measurements. Convenient functionalization of the nanotubes with this method is demonstrated through premixing CoPt nanoparticles in the polymer precursors.

  10. Oscillation of nested fullerenes (carbon onions) in carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thamwattana, Ngamta; Hill, James M.

    2008-01-01

    Nested spherical fullerenes, which are sometimes referred to as carbon onions, of I h symmetries which have N(n) carbon atoms in the nth shell given by N(n) = 60n 2 are studied in this paper. The continuum approximation together with the Lennard-Jones potential is utilized to determine the resultant potential energy. High frequency nanoscale oscillators or gigahertz oscillators created from fullerenes and both single- and multi-walled carbon nanotubes have attracted much attention for a number of proposed applications, such as ultra-fast optical filters and ultra-sensitive nano-antennae that might impact on the development of computing and signalling nano-devices. Further, it is only at the nanoscale where such gigahertz frequencies can be achieved. This paper focuses on the interaction of nested fullerenes and the mechanics of such molecules oscillating in carbon nanotubes. Here we investigate such issues as the acceptance condition for nested fullerenes into carbon nanotubes, the total force and energy of the nested fullerenes, and the velocity and gigahertz frequency of the oscillating molecule. In particular, optimum nanotube radii are determined for which nested fullerenes oscillate at maximum velocity and frequency, which will be of considerable benefit for the design of future nano-oscillating devices

  11. Thermogravimetric Analysis of Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arepalli, Sivram; Nikolaev, Pavel; Gorelik, Olga

    2010-01-01

    An improved protocol for thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) of samples of single-wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) material has been developed to increase the degree of consistency among results so that meaningful comparisons can be made among different samples. This improved TGA protocol is suitable for incorporation into the protocol for characterization of carbon nanotube material. In most cases, TGA of carbon nanotube materials is performed in gas mixtures that contain oxygen at various concentrations. The improved protocol is summarized.

  12. Density controlled carbon nanotube array electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhifeng F [Newton, MA; Tu, Yi [Belmont, MA

    2008-12-16

    CNT materials comprising aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with pre-determined site densities, catalyst substrate materials for obtaining them and methods for forming aligned CNTs with controllable densities on such catalyst substrate materials are described. The fabrication of films comprising site-density controlled vertically aligned CNT arrays of the invention with variable field emission characteristics, whereby the field emission properties of the films are controlled by independently varying the length of CNTs in the aligned array within the film or by independently varying inter-tubule spacing of the CNTs within the array (site density) are disclosed. The fabrication of microelectrode arrays (MEAs) formed utilizing the carbon nanotube material of the invention is also described.

  13. Molecular discriminators using single wall carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyya, Tamoghna; Dasgupta, Anjan Kr; Ray, Nihar Ranjan; Sarkar, Sabyasachi

    2012-01-01

    The interaction between single wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) and amphiphilic molecules has been studied in a solid phase. SWNTs are allowed to interact with different amphiphilic probes (e.g. lipids) in a narrow capillary interface. Contact between strong hydrophobic and amphiphilic interfaces leads to a molecular restructuring of the lipids at the interface. The geometry of the diffusion front and the rate and the extent of diffusion of the interface are dependent on the structure of the lipid at the interface. Lecithin having a linear tail showed greater mobility of the interface as compared to a branched tail lipid like dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine, indicating the hydrophobic interaction between single wall carbon nanotube core and the hydrophobic tail of the lipid. Solid phase interactions between SWNT and lipids can thus become a very simple but efficient means of discriminating amphiphilic molecules in general and lipids in particular. (paper)

  14. Electrostatic sensing and electrochemistry with single carbon nanotubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heller, I.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis describes the experimental study of devices based on single carbon nanotubes in the context of (bio)sensing in aqueous solutions. Carbon nanotubes are cylindrical molecules of sp2- carbon, about one nanometer in diameter and typically several micrometers long, which have semiconducting

  15. A Carbon Nanotube Cable for a Space Elevator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochnícek, Zdenek

    2013-01-01

    In this paper the mechanical properties of carbon nanotubes are discussed in connection with the possibility to use them for the construction of a space elevator. From the fundamental information about the structure of a carbon nanotube and the chemical bond between carbon atoms, Young's modulus and the ultimate tensile strength are…

  16. Carbon-Nanotube-Based Thermoelectric Materials and Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blackburn, Jeffrey L. [Chemistry and Nanoscience Center, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO 80401-3305 USA; Ferguson, Andrew J. [Chemistry and Nanoscience Center, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO 80401-3305 USA; Cho, Chungyeon [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Texas A& M University, College Station TX 77843-3003 USA; Grunlan, Jaime C. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Texas A& M University, College Station TX 77843-3003 USA

    2018-01-22

    Conversion of waste heat to voltage has the potential to significantly reduce the carbon footprint of a number of critical energy sectors, such as the transportation and electricity-generation sectors, and manufacturing processes. Thermal energy is also an abundant low-flux source that can be harnessed to power portable/wearable electronic devices and critical components in remote off-grid locations. As such, a number of different inorganic and organic materials are being explored for their potential in thermoelectric-energy-harvesting devices. Carbon-based thermoelectric materials are particularly attractive due to their use of nontoxic, abundant source-materials, their amenability to high-throughput solution-phase fabrication routes, and the high specific energy (i.e., W g-1) enabled by their low mass. Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) represent a unique 1D carbon allotrope with structural, electrical, and thermal properties that enable efficient thermoelectric-energy conversion. Here, the progress made toward understanding the fundamental thermoelectric properties of SWCNTs, nanotube-based composites, and thermoelectric devices prepared from these materials is reviewed in detail. This progress illuminates the tremendous potential that carbon-nanotube-based materials and composites have for producing high-performance next-generation devices for thermoelectric-energy harvesting.

  17. Carbon-Nanotube-Based Thermoelectric Materials and Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, Jeffrey L; Ferguson, Andrew J; Cho, Chungyeon; Grunlan, Jaime C

    2018-03-01

    Conversion of waste heat to voltage has the potential to significantly reduce the carbon footprint of a number of critical energy sectors, such as the transportation and electricity-generation sectors, and manufacturing processes. Thermal energy is also an abundant low-flux source that can be harnessed to power portable/wearable electronic devices and critical components in remote off-grid locations. As such, a number of different inorganic and organic materials are being explored for their potential in thermoelectric-energy-harvesting devices. Carbon-based thermoelectric materials are particularly attractive due to their use of nontoxic, abundant source-materials, their amenability to high-throughput solution-phase fabrication routes, and the high specific energy (i.e., W g -1 ) enabled by their low mass. Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) represent a unique 1D carbon allotrope with structural, electrical, and thermal properties that enable efficient thermoelectric-energy conversion. Here, the progress made toward understanding the fundamental thermoelectric properties of SWCNTs, nanotube-based composites, and thermoelectric devices prepared from these materials is reviewed in detail. This progress illuminates the tremendous potential that carbon-nanotube-based materials and composites have for producing high-performance next-generation devices for thermoelectric-energy harvesting. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Synthesis of PbI(2) single-layered inorganic nanotubes encapsulated within carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabana, Laura; Ballesteros, Belén; Batista, Eudar; Magén, César; Arenal, Raúl; Oró-Solé, Judith; Rurali, Riccardo; Tobias, Gerard

    2014-04-02

    The template assisted growth of single-layered inorganic nanotubes is reported. Single-crystalline lead iodide single-layered nanotubes have been prepared using the inner cavities of carbon nanotubes as hosting templates. The diameter of the resulting inorganic nanotubes is merely dependent on the diameter of the host. This facile method is highly versatile opening up new horizons in the preparation of single-layered nanostructures. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. A Scalable Process for Production of Single-walled Carbon Nanotubes (SWNTs) by Catalytic Disproportionation of CO on a Solid Catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resasco, D.E.; Alvarez, W.E.; Pompeo, F.; Balzano, L.; Herrera, J.E.; Kitiyanan, B.; Borgna, A.

    2002-01-01

    Existing single-walled carbon nanotube synthesis methods are not easily scalable, operate under severe conditions, and involve high capital and operating costs. The current cost of SWNT is exceedingly high. A catalytic method of synthesis has been developed that has shown potential advantages over the existing methods. This method is based on a catalyst formulation that inhibits the formation of undesired forms of carbon; it can be scaled-up and may result in lower production costs

  20. Carbon Nanotubes as Future Energy Storage System

    OpenAIRE

    Vasu , V; Silambarasan , D

    2017-01-01

    International audience; Hydrogen is considered to be a clean energy carrier. At present the main drawback in using hydrogen as the fuel is the lack of proper hydrogen storage vehicle, thus ongoing research is focused on the development of advance hydrogen storage materials. Many alloys are able to store hydrogen reversibly, but the gravimetric storage density is too low for any practical applications. Theoretical studies have predicted that interaction of hydrogen with carbon nanotubes is by ...

  1. Aqueous solution dispersement of carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Woo (Inventor); Park, Cheol (Inventor); Choi, Sang H. (Inventor); Lillehei, Peter T. (Inventor); Harrison, Joycelyn S. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are dispersed in an aqueous buffer solution consisting of at least 50 weight percent water and a remainder weight percent that includes a buffer material. The buffer material has a molecular structure defined by a first end, a second end, and a middle disposed between the first and second ends. The first end is a cyclic ring with nitrogen and oxygen heteroatomes, the middle is a hydrophobic alkyl chain, and the second end is a charged group.

  2. Passive Mode Carbon Nanotube Underwater Acoustic Transducer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-20

    Acoustical transducer arrays can reflect a sound signal in reverse to the sender which can be used for echo location devices. [0008] In Jiang...States Patent No. 8,494,187) a sound wave generator is disclosed which includes a carbon nanotube structure and an insulating reinforcement structure... acoustic device that includes an electrode layer and a sound wave generator. The sound wave generator is disposed on a surface of the electrode

  3. Carbon nanotubes: do they toughen brittle matrices?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chao, J.; Inam, F.; Reece, M.J.; Chlup, Zdeněk; Dlouhý, Ivo; Shaffer, M.S.P.; Boccaccini, A. R.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 14 (2011), s. 4770-4779 ISSN 0022-2461 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA101/09/1821 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : fracture toughness * carbon nanotube * silica glass Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics Impact factor: 2.015, year: 2011 http://www.springerlink.com/content/74106l0458326n91/

  4. Carbon nanotube-based black coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, J.; Yung, C.; Tomlin, N.; Conklin, D.; Stephens, M.

    2018-03-01

    Coatings comprising carbon nanotubes are very black, that is, characterized by uniformly low reflectance over a broad range of wavelengths from the visible to far infrared. Arguably, there is no other material that is comparable. This is attributable to the intrinsic properties of graphitic material as well as the morphology (density, thickness, disorder, and tube size). We briefly describe a history of other coatings such as nickel phosphorous, gold black, and carbon-based paints and the comparable structural morphology that we associate with very black coatings. The need for black coatings is persistent for a variety of applications ranging from baffles and traps to blackbodies and thermal detectors. Applications for space-based instruments are of interest and we present a review of space qualification and the results of outgassing measurements. Questions of nanoparticle safety depend on the nanotube size and aspect ratio as well as the nature and route of exposure. We describe the growth of carbon nanotube forests along with the catalyst requirements and temperature limitations. We also describe coatings derived from carbon nanotubes and applied like paint. Building the measurement apparatus and determining the optical properties of something having negligible reflectance are challenging and we summarize the methods and means for such measurements. There exists information in the literature for effective media approximations to model the dielectric function of vertically aligned arrays. We summarize this along with the refractive index of graphite from the literature that is necessary for modeling the optical properties. In our experience, the scientific questions can be overshadowed by practical matters, so we provide an appendix of recipes for making as-grown and sprayed coatings along with an example of reflectance measurements.

  5. Effect of amino acid-functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In a single-step, rapid microwave-assisted process, multi-walled carbon nanotubes were functionalized by -valine amino acid. Formation of amino acid on nanotube surface was confirmed by Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning and transmission ...

  6. Production of vertical arrays of small diameter single-walled carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauge, Robert H; Xu, Ya-Qiong

    2013-08-13

    A hot filament chemical vapor deposition method has been developed to grow at least one vertical single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT). In general, various embodiments of the present invention disclose novel processes for growing and/or producing enhanced nanotube carpets with decreased diameters as compared to the prior art.

  7. New Insight into Carbon Nanotube Electronic Structure Selectivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sumpter, Bobby G [ORNL; Meunier, Vincent [ORNL; Jiang, Deen [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    The fundamental role of aryl diazonium salts for post synthesis selectivity of carbon nanotubes is investigated using extensive electronic structure calculations. The resulting understanding for diazonium salt based selective separation of conducting and semiconducting carbon nanotubes shows how the primary contributions come from the interplay between the intrinsic electronic structure of the carbon nanotubes and that of the anion of the salt. We demonstrate how the electronic transport properties change upon the formation of charge transfer complexes and upon their conversion into covalently attached functional groups. Our results are found to correlate well with experiments and provide for the first time an atomistic description for diazonium salt based chemical separation of carbon nanotubes

  8. Conformational changes of fibrinogen in dispersed carbon nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park SJ

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Sung Jean Park,1 Dongwoo Khang21College of Pharmacy, Gachon University, Yeonsu-gu, Incheon, South Korea; 2School of Nano and Advanced Materials Science Engineering and Center for PRC and RIGET, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju, South KoreaAbstract: The conformational changes of plasma protein structures in response to carbon nanotubes are critical for determining the nanotoxicity and blood coagulation effects of carbon nanotubes. In this study, we identified that the functional intensity of carboxyl groups on carbon nanotubes, which correspond to the water dispersity or hydrophilicity of carbon nanotubes, can induce conformational changes in the fibrinogen domains. Also, elevation of carbon nanotube density can alter the secondary structures (ie, helices and beta sheets of fibrinogen. Furthermore, fibrinogen that had been in contact with the nanoparticle material demonstrated a different pattern of heat denaturation compared with free fibrinogen as a result of a variation in hydrophilicity and concentration of carbon nanotubes. Considering the importance of interactions between carbon nanotubes and plasma proteins in the drug delivery system, this study elucidated the correlation between nanoscale physiochemical material properties of carbon nanotubes and associated structural changes in fibrinogen.Keywords: carbon nanotubes, fibrinogen, nanotoxicity, conformational change, denaturation

  9. Carbon nanotubes from synthesis to in vivo biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajid, Muhammad Imran; Jamshaid, Usama; Jamshaid, Talha; Zafar, Nadiah; Fessi, H; Elaissari, Abdelhamid

    2016-03-30

    Owing to their unique and interesting properties, extensive research round the globe has been carried out on carbon nanotubes and carbon nanotubes based systems to investigate their practical usefulness in biomedical applications. The results from these studies demonstrate a great promise in their use in targeted drug delivery systems, diagnostic techniques and in bio-analytical applications. Although, carbon nanotubes possess quite interesting properties, which make them potential candidates in the biomedical science, but they also have some inherent properties which arise great concern regarding their biosafety. In this comprehensive review, we have discussed different aspects of carbon nanotubes and carbon nanotube based systems related to biomedical applications. In the beginning, a short historical account of these tiny yet powerful particles is given followed by discussion regarding their types, properties, methods of synthesis, large scale production method, purification techniques and characterization aspects of carbon nanotubes. In the second part of the review, the functionalization of carbon nanotubes is reviewed in detail, which is not only important to make them biocompatible and stable in biological systems but also render them a great property of loading various biomolecules, diagnostic and therapeutic moieties resulting in diversified applications. In the final part of the review, emphasis is given on the pharmacokinetic aspects of carbon nanotubes including administration routes, absorption mechanisms, distribution and elimination of carbon nanotubes based systems. Lastly, a comprehensive account about the potential biomedical applications has been given followed by insights into the future. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. NMR study of local diamagnetic properties of carbon structures with multiwalled nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolaev, E.G.; Omel'yanovsky, O.E.; Prudkovsky, V.S.; Sadakov, A.V.; Tsebro, V.I.

    2009-01-01

    The reasons for the high diamagnetic susceptibility of carbon columns, which are covered with a nanotube mesh, from the interior part of cathode deposits have been studied by means of NMR. A comparative study is made of the 13 C NMR spectra and the magnetic susceptibility of carbon columns before and after ultrasonic processing as well as of finely dispersed material, obtained as a result of such processing, enriched with multilayer nanotubes. The strong diamagnetism of the carbon columns is apparently associated with a quite dense conglomerate of graphite particles, nanotubes, and multilayer polyhedral particles present in their core and not with the surface mesh of multilayer nanotubes. To make a more accurate determination of the character of the anisotropy of the magnetic susceptibility of multilayer carbon nanotubes, the form of the 13 C NMR spectra of samples enriched with multilayer nanotubes, where the nanotubes are either not oriented or only partially oriented, is analyzed. It is shown that the diamagnetic susceptibility of multilayer carbon nanotubes is highest when the magnetic field is oriented perpendicular to their axis

  11. Carbon nanotube materials for hydrogen storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dillon, A.C.; Parilla, P.A.; Jones, K.M.; Riker, G.; Heben, M.J. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1998-08-01

    Carbon single-wall nanotubes (SWNTs) are essentially elongated pores of molecular dimensions and are capable of adsorbing hydrogen at relatively high temperatures and low pressures. This behavior is unique to these materials and indicates that SWNTs are the ideal building block for constructing safe, efficient, and high energy density adsorbents for hydrogen storage applications. In past work the authors developed methods for preparing and opening SWNTs, discovered the unique adsorption properties of these new materials, confirmed that hydrogen is stabilized by physical rather than chemical interactions, measured the strength of interaction to be {approximately} 5 times higher than for adsorption on planar graphite, and performed infrared absorption spectroscopy to determine the chemical nature of the surface terminations before, during, and after oxidation. This year the authors have made significant advances in synthesis and characterization of SWNT materials so that they can now prepare gram quantities of high-purity SWNT samples and measure and control the diameter distribution of the tubes by varying key parameters during synthesis. They have also developed methods which purify nanotubes and cut nanotubes into shorter segments. These capabilities provide a means for opening the tubes which were unreactive to the oxidation methods that successfully opened tubes, and offer a path towards organizing nanotube segments to enable high volumetric hydrogen storage densities. They also performed temperature programmed desorption spectroscopy on high purity carbon nanotube material obtained from collaborator Prof. Patrick Bernier and finished construction of a high precision Seivert`s apparatus which will allow the hydrogen pressure-temperature-composition phase diagrams to be evaluated for SWNT materials.

  12. Improvement in interfacial characteristics of low-voltage carbon nanotube thin-film transistors with solution-processed boron nitride thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Jun-Young; Ha, Tae-Jun, E-mail: taejunha0604@gmail.com

    2017-08-15

    Highlights: • We demonstrate the potential of solution-processed boron nitride (BN) thin films for nanoelectronics. • Improved interfacial characteristics reduced the leakage current by three orders of magnitude. • The BN encapsulation improves all the device key metrics of low-voltage SWCNT-TFTs. • Such improvements were achieved by reduced interaction of interfacial localized states. - Abstract: In this article, we demonstrate the potential of solution-processed boron nitride (BN) thin films for high performance single-walled carbon nanotube thin-film transistors (SWCNT-TFTs) with low-voltage operation. The use of BN thin films between solution-processed high-k dielectric layers improved the interfacial characteristics of metal-insulator-metal devices, thereby reducing the current density by three orders of magnitude. We also investigated the origin of improved device performance in SWCNT-TFTs by employing solution-processed BN thin films as an encapsulation layer. The BN encapsulation layer improves the electrical characteristics of SWCNT-TFTs, which includes the device key metrics of linear field-effect mobility, sub-threshold swing, and threshold voltage as well as the long-term stability against the aging effect in air. Such improvements can be achieved by reduced interaction of interfacial localized states with charge carriers. We believe that this work can open up a promising route to demonstrate the potential of solution-processed BN thin films on nanoelectronics.

  13. Microstructure and mechanical performance of modified mortar using hemp fibres and carbon nanotubes

    KAUST Repository

    Hamzaoui, Rabah; Guessasma, Sofiane; Mecheri, Boubakeur; Eshtiaghi, Amir M.; Bennabi, Abdelkrim

    2014-01-01

    Mechanical performance of modified mortar using hemp fibres is studied following various processing conditions. Hemp fibres combined with carbon nanotubes (CNT) are introduced in mortar and their effect is studied as function of curing time

  14. Preparation of carbon nanotubes by MPECVD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Shazly Duraia, M.A.; Mansorov, Z.A.; Tokmoldin, S.Zh.; Klimenov, V.V.; Nevmerzhitsky, I.S.; Dochshanov, A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Microwave plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (MPECVD) method has been regarded as one of the most promising candidates for the synthesis of CNTs due to the vertical alignment, the large area growth, the lower growth temperature, uniform heat distribution and the good control of the different growth parameters. In this work we present our results about the preparation of carbon nanotube with different morphologies by using microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition MPECVD. Well aligned, curly and coiled carbon nanotubes have been prepared. We have investigated the effect of the different growth condition parameters such as type of the catalyst, pressure and the hydrogen to methane flow rate ratio on the morphology of the carbon nanotubes. The results were showed that there is a great dependence of the morphology of carbon nanotubes on these parameters. There is a linear relation between the growth rate and the methane to hydrogen ratio. We found that the growth rate has a great dependence on the amount of methane. For example the growth rate varied from the value 1,34 μm/min when the methane flow rate was 10 sccm to more than 14 μm/min when the methane flow rate was raised to 50 sccm. This growth rate is greater than that reported in the literature. The effect of the gas pressure on the CNTs was also studied. The Raman spectra (excitation wavelength 473 nm) of all samples show D-band peak at around 1300 cm -1 and G-band peak at around 1580 cm -1 , which indicate that our CNTs are multi wall CNTs (MWCNTs). The D-band and the G-band correspond to sp 2 and sp 3 carbon stretching modes relatively, and their intensity ratio is a measure of the amount of disorder in the CNTs. The D-band is known to be attributed to the carbonaceous particles, defects in the curved graphitic sheet and tube ends. It has been suggested that lower I g /I d ratios and narrower first and second order D and G bands are suggestive of well-aligned NNTs. The photoluminescence PL

  15. Carbon paste electrode incorporating multi-walled carbon nanotube ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The preparation and electrochemical performance of the carbon nanotube paste electrode modified with ferrocene (FCMCNPE) was investigated for electrocatalytic behaviour toward oxidation of -acetyl--cysteine (NAC) in the presence of tryptophan (Trp) using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry ...

  16. Constructing carbon nanotube junctions by Ar ion beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishaq, Ahmad; Ni Zhichun; Yan Long; Gong Jinlong; Zhu Dezhang

    2010-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) irradiated by Ar ion beams at elevated temperature were studied. The irradiation-induced defects in CNTs are greatly reduced by elevated temperature. Moreover, the two types of CNT junctions, the crossing junction and the parallel junction, were formed. And the CNT networks may be fabricated by the two types of CNT junctions. The formation process and the corresponding mechanism of CNT networks are discussed.

  17. Carbon nanotube network-silicon oxide non-volatile switches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Albert D; Araujo, Paulo T; Xu, Runjie; Dresselhaus, Mildred S

    2014-12-08

    The integration of carbon nanotubes with silicon is important for their incorporation into next-generation nano-electronics. Here we demonstrate a non-volatile switch that utilizes carbon nanotube networks to electrically contact a conductive nanocrystal silicon filament in silicon dioxide. We form this device by biasing a nanotube network until it physically breaks in vacuum, creating the conductive silicon filament connected across a small nano-gap. From Raman spectroscopy, we observe coalescence of nanotubes during breakdown, which stabilizes the system to form very small gaps in the network~15 nm. We report that carbon nanotubes themselves are involved in switching the device to a high resistive state. Calculations reveal that this switching event occurs at ~600 °C, the temperature associated with the oxidation of nanotubes. Therefore, we propose that, in switching to a resistive state, the nanotube oxidizes by extracting oxygen from the substrate.

  18. Preparation of carbon nanotubes from vacuum pyrolysis of polycarbosilane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jou, S.; Hsu, C.K.

    2004-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were synthesized by vacuum pyrolysis of two types of polycarbosilane (PCS) with iron nano-particles between 800 and 1100 deg. C. Straight nanotubes were obtained from low molecular weight (990 g/mol) PCS whereas curled nanotubes were derived from medium molecular weight (1290 g/mol) PCS. Diameters of these straight and curled nanotubes were between 5 and 20 nm. The mechansim of condensed phase growth of carbon nanotubes was discussed. Electron emission capability of these carbon nanotubes increased with their pyrolyzing temperature. The electric fields required to emit a current density of 10 -2 A/cm 2 from the straight nanotubes being pyrolyzed at 800, 900, 1000, and 1100 deg. C were 1.17, 0.73, 0.67, and 0.33 V/μm, respectively

  19. Peptide aptamer-assisted immobilization of green fluorescent protein for creating biomolecule-complexed carbon nanotube device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nii, Daisuke; Nozawa, Yosuke; Miyachi, Mariko; Yamanoi, Yoshinori; Nishihara, Hiroshi; Tomo, Tatsuya; Shimada, Yuichiro

    2017-10-01

    Carbon nanotubes are a novel material for next-generation applications. In this study, we generated carbon nanotube and green fluorescent protein (GFP) conjugates using affinity binding peptides. The carbon nanotube-binding motif was introduced into the N-terminus of the GFP through molecular biology methods. Multiple GFPs were successfully aligned on a single-walled carbon nanotube via the molecular recognition function of the peptide aptamer, which was confirmed through transmission electron microscopy and optical analysis. Fluorescence spectral analysis results also suggested that the carbon nanotube-GFP complex was autonomously formed with orientation and without causing protein denaturation during immobilization. This simple process has a widespread potential for fabricating carbon nanotube-biomolecule hybrid devices.

  20. Electromagnetic characteristics of carbon nanotube film materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Wei

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotube (CNT possesses remarkable electrical conductivity, which shows great potential for the application as electromagnetic shielding material. This paper aims to characterize the electromagnetic parameters of a high CNT loading film by using waveguide method. The effects of layer number of CNT laminate, CNT alignment and resin impregnation on the electromagnetic characteristics were analyzed. It is shown that CNT film exhibits anisotropic electromagnetic characteristic. Pristine CNT film shows higher real part of complex permittivity, conductivity and shielding effectiveness when the polarized direction of incident wave is perpendicular to the winding direction of CNT film. For the CNT film laminates, complex permittivity increases with increasing layer number, and correspondingly, shielding effectiveness decreases. The five-layer CNT film shows extraordinary shielding performance with shielding effectiveness ranging from 67 dB to 78 dB in X-band. Stretching process induces the alignment of CNTs. When aligned direction of CNTs is parallel to the electric field, CNT film shows negative permittivity and higher conductivity. Moreover, resin impregnation into CNT film leads to the decrease of conductivity and shielding effectiveness. This research will contribute to the structural design for the application of CNT film as electromagnetic shielding materials.

  1. Controllable pt nanoparticle deposition on carbon nanotubes as an anode catalyst for direct methanol fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Yongyan; Liang, Hanpu; Hu, Jinsong; Jiang, Li; Wan, Lijun

    2005-12-01

    We report a novel process to prepare well-dispersed Pt nanoparticles on CNTs. Pt nanoparticles, which were modified by the organic molecule triphenylphosphine, were deposited on multiwalled carbon nanotubes by the organic molecule, which acts as a cross linker. By manipulating the relative ratio of Pt nanoparticles and multiwalled carbon nanotubes in solution, Pt/CNT composites with different Pt content were achieved. The so-prepared Pt/CNT composite materials show higher electrocatalytic activity and better tolerance to poisoning species in methanol oxidation than the commercial E-TEK catalyst, which can be ascribed to the high dispersion of Pt nanoparticles on the multiwalled carbon nanotube surface.

  2. Recent advances in molecular electronics based on carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgoin, Jean-Philippe; Campidelli, Stéphane; Chenevier, Pascale; Derycke, Vincent; Filoramo, Arianna; Goffman, Marcelo F

    2010-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have exceptional physical properties that make them one of the most promising building blocks for future nanotechnologies. They may in particular play an important role in the development of innovative electronic devices in the fields of flexible electronics, ultra-high sensitivity sensors, high frequency electronics, opto-electronics, energy sources and nano-electromechanical systems (NEMS). Proofs of concept of several high performance devices already exist, usually at the single device level, but there remain many serious scientific issues to be solved before the viability of such routes can be evaluated. In particular, the main concern regards the controlled synthesis and positioning of nanotubes. In our opinion, truly innovative use of these nano-objects will come from: (i) the combination of some of their complementary physical properties, such as combining their electrical and mechanical properties, (ii) the combination of their properties with additional benefits coming from other molecules grafted on the nanotubes, and (iii) the use of chemically- or bio-directed self-assembly processes to allow the efficient combination of several devices into functional arrays or circuits. In this article, we outline the main issues concerning the development of carbon nanotubes based electronics applications and review our recent results in the field.

  3. Efficient electrochemical degradation of multiwall carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reipa, Vytas; Hanna, Shannon K; Urbas, Aaron; Sander, Lane; Elliott, John; Conny, Joseph; Petersen, Elijah J

    2018-07-15

    As the production mass of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) increases, the potential for human and environmental exposure to MWCNTs may also increase. We have shown that exposing an aqueous suspension of pristine MWCNTs to an intense oxidative treatment in an electrochemical reactor, equipped with an efficient hydroxyl radical generating Boron Doped Diamond (BDD) anode, leads to their almost complete mineralization. Thermal optical transmittance analysis showed a total carbon mass loss of over two orders of magnitude due to the electrochemical treatment, a result consistent with measurements of the degraded MWCNT suspensions using UV-vis absorbance. Liquid chromatography data excludes substantial accumulation of the low molecular weight reaction products. Therefore, up to 99% of the initially suspended MWCNT mass is completely mineralized into gaseous products such as CO 2 and volatile organic carbon. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images show sporadic opaque carbon clusters suggesting the remaining nanotubes are transformed into structure-less carbon during their electrochemical mineralization. Environmental toxicity of pristine and degraded MWCNTs was assessed using Caenorhabditis elegans nematodes and revealed a major reduction in the MWCNT toxicity after treatment in the electrochemical flow-by reactor. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Field emission response from multi-walled carbon nanotubes grown on electrochemically engineered copper foil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tripathi, Amit Kumar; Jain, Vaibhav [Nanomaterials and Applications Lab., Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee, 247667, Uttarakhand (India); Saini, Krishna [Nanomaterials and Applications Lab., Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee, 247667, Uttarakhand (India); Centre of Excellence: Nanotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee, 247667, Uttarakhand (India); Lahiri, Indranil, E-mail: indrafmt@iitr.ac.in [Nanomaterials and Applications Lab., Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee, 247667, Uttarakhand (India); Centre of Excellence: Nanotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee, 247667, Uttarakhand (India)

    2017-02-01

    Exciting properties of carbon nanotube has proven it to be a promising candidate for field emission applications, if its processing cost can be reduced effectively. In this research, a new electrochemical technique is proposed for growing carbon nanotubes in selective areas by thermal chemical vapour deposition. In this process, electrochemical processing is used to create localized pits and deposition of catalysts, which act as roots to support growth and alignment of the CNTs on copper substrate. CNTs grown thus were characterized and studied using scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope and Raman spectroscopy, elucidating presence of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT). These CNT emitters have comparatively lower turn-on field and higher field enhancement factor. - Highlights: • Electrochemical pitting for localized carbon nanotube growth is proposed. • Electrochemical pitting method shows patterning effect on the substrate. • Size and density of pits depend on voltage, pH and temperature. • CNTs thus grown shows good field emission response.

  5. Reduction of short wavelength reflectance of multi-wall carbon nanotubes through ultraviolet laser irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Michelle S.; Simonds, Brian J.; Yung, Christopher S.; Conklin, Davis; Livigni, David J.; Oliva, Alberto Remesal; Lehman, John H.

    2018-05-01

    Multi-wall carbon nanotube coatings are used as broadband, low-reflectance absorbers for bolometric applications and for stray light control. They are also used as high emittance blackbody radiators. Irradiation of single wall carbon nanotubes with ultraviolet (UV) laser light has been shown to remove amorphous carbon debris, but there have been few investigations of the interaction of UV light with the more complex physics of multi-wall carbon nanotubes. We present measurements of reflectance and surface morphology before and after exposure of multi-wall carbon nanotube coatings to 248 nm UV laser light. We show that UV exposure reduces the reflectivity at wavelengths below 600 nm and present modeling of the thermal cycling the UV exposure causes at the surface of the carbon nanotubes. This effect can be used to flatten the spectral shape of the reflectivity curve of carbon nanotube absorber coatings used for broadband applications. Finally, we find that the effect of UV exposure depends on the nanotube growth process.

  6. Flexible symmetric supercapacitors based on vertical TiO2 and carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, C. J.; Chang, Pai-Chun; Lu, Jia G.

    2010-03-01

    Highly conducting and porous carbon nanotubes are widely used as electrodes in double-layer-effect supercapacitors. In this presentation, vertical TiO2 nanotube array is fabricated by anodization process and used as supercapacitor electrode utilizing its compact density, high surface area and porous structure. By spin coating carbon nanotube networks on vertical TiO2 nanotube array as electrodes with 1M H2SO4 electrolyte in between, the specific capacitance can be enhanced by 30% compared to using pure carbon nanotube network alone because of the combination of double layer effect and redox reaction from metal oxide materials. Based on cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge-discharge measurements, this type of hybrid electrode has proven to be suitable for high performance supercapacitor application and maintain desirable cycling stability. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy technique shows that the electrode has good electrical conductivity. Furthermore, we will discuss the prospect of extending this energy storage approach in flexible electronics.

  7. Modeling of carbon nanotubes, graphene and their composites

    CERN Document Server

    Silvestre, Nuno

    2014-01-01

    This book contains ten chapters, authored by world experts in the field of simulation at nano-scale and aims to demonstrate the potentialities of computational techniques to model the mechanical behavior of nano-materials, such as carbon nanotubes, graphene and their composites. A large part of the research currently being conducted in the fields of materials science and engineering mechanics is devoted to carbon nanotubes, graphene and their applications. In this process, computational modeling is a very attractive research tool due to the difficulties in manufacturing and testing of nano-materials. Both atomistic modeling methods, such as molecular mechanics and molecular dynamics, and continuum modeling methods are being intensively used. Continuum modeling offers significant advantages over atomistic modeling such as the reduced computational effort, the capability of modeling complex structures and bridging different analysis scales, thus enabling modeling from the nano- to the macro-scale. On the oth...

  8. Carbon Nanotube Thin Film Transistors for Flat Panel Display Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xuelei; Xia, Jiye; Dong, Guodong; Tian, Boyuan; Peng, Lianmao

    2016-12-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are promising materials for both high performance transistors for high speed computing and thin film transistors for macroelectronics, which can provide more functions at low cost. Among macroelectronics applications, carbon nanotube thin film transistors (CNT-TFT) are expected to be used soon for backplanes in flat panel displays (FPDs) due to their superior performance. In this paper, we review the challenges of CNT-TFT technology for FPD applications. The device performance of state-of-the-art CNT-TFTs are compared with the requirements of TFTs for FPDs. Compatibility of the fabrication processes of CNT-TFTs and current TFT technologies are critically examined. Though CNT-TFT technology is not yet ready for backplane production line of FPDs, the challenges can be overcome by close collaboration between research institutes and FPD manufacturers in the short term.

  9. Diameter sensitive effect in singlewalled carbon nanotubes upon acid treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, S.; Borowiak-Palen, E.

    2009-01-01

    Singlewalled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) exhibit very unique properties. As an electronic system they undergo amphoteric doping effects (n-type and p-type) which can be reversed. These processes affect the optical and vibronic properties of the carbon nanotubes. The most common and widely used procedure which changes the properties of the SWCNT is acid treatment applied as a purification procedure. This effect has been widely studied but not fully understood so far. Here, we present a study, in which a diameter sensitive effect has been observed. Therefore, two kinds of SWCNT samples have been studied: (i) produced via chemical vapour deposition with a broad diameter distribution, and (ii) synthesised by the laser ablation technique which is commonly known to result in narrow diameter distribution bulk SWCNT samples. Resonance Raman spectroscopy, optical absorption spectroscopy, and Fourier transform middle-infrared spectroscopy have been applied for the characterisation of the samples.

  10. Imaging active topological defects in carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suenaga, Kazu; Wakabayashi, Hideaki; Koshino, Masanori; Sato, Yuta; Urita, Koki; Iijima, Sumio

    2007-06-01

    A single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) is a wrapped single graphene layer, and its plastic deformation should require active topological defects-non-hexagonal carbon rings that can migrate along the nanotube wall. Although in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) has been used to examine the deformation of SWNTs, these studies deal only with diameter changes and no atomistic mechanism has been elucidated experimentally. Theory predicts that some topological defects can form through the Stone-Wales transformation in SWNTs under tension at 2,000 K, and could act as a dislocation core. We demonstrate here, by means of high-resolution (HR)-TEM with atomic sensitivity, the first direct imaging of pentagon-heptagon pair defects found in an SWNT that was heated at 2,273 K. Moreover, our in situ HR-TEM observation reveals an accumulation of topological defects near the kink of a deformed nanotube. This result suggests that dislocation motions or active topological defects are indeed responsible for the plastic deformation of SWNTs.

  11. Development of kinetic models for photoassisted electrochemical process using Ti/RuO2 anode and carbon nanotube-based O2-diffusion cathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akbarpour, Amaneh; Khataee, Alireza; Fathinia, Mehrangiz; Vahid, Behrouz

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Preparation and characterization of carbon nanotube-based O 2 -diffusion cathode. • Photoassisted electrochemical process using Ti/RuO 2 anode and O 2 -diffusion cathode. • Degradation of C.I. Basic Yellow 28 under recirculation mode. • Development of kinetic models for photoassisted electrochemical process. - Abstract: A coupled photoassisted electrochemical system was utilized for degradation of C.I. Basic Yellow 28 (BY28) as a cationic azomethine dye under recirculation mode. Experiments were carried out by utilizing active titanium/ruthenium oxide (Ti/RuO 2 ) anode and O 2 -diffusion cathode with carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) image of the CNTs demonstrated that CNTs had approximately an inner and outer diameter of 5 nm and 19 nm, respectively. Then, the dye degradation kinetics was experimentally examined under various operational parameters including BY28 initial concentration (mg/L), current density (mA/cm 2 ), flow rate (L/h) and pH. Based on the generally accepted intrinsic elementary reactions for photoassisted electrochemical process (PEP), a novel kinetic model was proposed and validated for predicting the k app . The developed kinetic model explicitly describes the dependency of the k app on BY28 initial concentration and current density. A good agreement was obtained between the predicted values of k app and experimental results (correlation coefficient (R 2 ) = 0.996, mean squared error (MSE) = 2.10 × 10 −4 and mean absolute error (MAE) = 1.10 × 10 −2 ). Finally, in order to profoundly evaluate and compare the accuracy of the suggested intrinsic kinetic model, an empirical kinetic model was also developed as a function of main operational parameters, and an artificial neural network model (ANN) by 3-layer feed-forward back propagation network with topology of 5:9:1. The performance of the mentioned models was compared based on the error functions and analysis of variance (ANOVA). A

  12. Properties of single-walled carbon nanotube-based aerogels as a function of nanotube loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worsley, Marcus A.; Pauzauskie, Peter J.; Kucheyev, Sergei O.; Zaug, Joseph M.; Hamza, Alex V.; Satcher, Joe H.; Baumann, Theodore F.

    2009-01-01

    Here, we present the synthesis and characterization of low-density single-walled carbon nanotube-based aerogels (SWNT-CA). Aerogels with varying nanotube loading (0-55 wt.%) and density (20-350 mg cm -3 ) were fabricated and characterized by four-probe method, electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and nitrogen porosimetry. Several properties of the SWNT-CAs were highly dependent upon nanotube loading. At nanotube loadings of 55 wt.%, shrinkage of the aerogel monoliths during carbonization and drying was almost completely eliminated. Electrical conductivities are improved by an order of magnitude for the SWNT-CA (55 wt.% nanotubes) compared to those of foams without nanotubes. Surface areas as high as 184 m 2 g -1 were achieved for SWNT-CAs with greater than 20 wt.% nanotube loading.

  13. Solution-processed single-walled carbon nanotube field effect transistors and bootstrapped inverters for disintegratable, transient electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Sung Hun, E-mail: harin74@gmail.com, E-mail: jhl@snu.ac.kr, E-mail: jrogers@illinois.edu; Shin, Jongmin; Cho, In-Tak; Lee, Jong-Ho, E-mail: harin74@gmail.com, E-mail: jhl@snu.ac.kr, E-mail: jrogers@illinois.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Inter-University Semiconductor Research Center, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Han, Sang Youn [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Frederick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Display R and D Center, Samsung Display Co., Yongin-city, Gyeongki-do 446–711 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Dong Joon; Lee, Chi Hwan; Rogers, John A., E-mail: harin74@gmail.com, E-mail: jhl@snu.ac.kr, E-mail: jrogers@illinois.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Frederick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)

    2014-07-07

    This paper presents materials, device designs, and physical/electrical characteristics of a form of nanotube electronics that is physically transient, in the sense that all constituent elements dissolve and/or disperse upon immersion into water. Studies of contact effects illustrate the ability to use water soluble metals such as magnesium for source/drain contacts in nanotube based field effect transistors. High mobilities and on/off ratios in transistors that use molybdenum, silicon nitride, and silicon oxide enable full swing characteristics for inverters at low voltages (∼5 V) and with high gains (∼30). Dissolution/disintegration tests of such systems on water soluble sheets of polyvinyl alcohol demonstrate physical transience within 30 min.

  14. Solution-processed single-walled carbon nanotube field effect transistors and bootstrapped inverters for disintegratable, transient electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Sung Hun; Shin, Jongmin; Cho, In-Tak; Lee, Jong-Ho; Han, Sang Youn; Lee, Dong Joon; Lee, Chi Hwan; Rogers, John A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents materials, device designs, and physical/electrical characteristics of a form of nanotube electronics that is physically transient, in the sense that all constituent elements dissolve and/or disperse upon immersion into water. Studies of contact effects illustrate the ability to use water soluble metals such as magnesium for source/drain contacts in nanotube based field effect transistors. High mobilities and on/off ratios in transistors that use molybdenum, silicon nitride, and silicon oxide enable full swing characteristics for inverters at low voltages (∼5 V) and with high gains (∼30). Dissolution/disintegration tests of such systems on water soluble sheets of polyvinyl alcohol demonstrate physical transience within 30 min.

  15. Effect of Heat Drawing Process on Mechanical Properties of Dry-Jet Wet Spun Fiber of Linear Low Density Polyethylene/Carbon Nanotube Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Won Kim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyethylene is one of the most commonly used polymer materials. Even though linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE has better mechanical properties than other kinds of polyethylene, it is not used as a textile material because of its plastic behavior that is easy to break at the die during melt spinning. In this study, LLDPE fibers were successfully produced with a new approach using a dry-jet wet spinning and a heat drawing process. The fibers were filled with carbon nanotubes (CNTs to improve the strength and reduce plastic deformation. The crystallinity, degree of orientation, mechanical properties (strength to yield, strength to break, elongation at break, and initial modulus, electrical conductivity, and thermal properties of LLDPE fibers were studied. The results show that the addition of CNTs improved the tensile strength and the degree of crystallinity. The heat drawing process resulted in a significant increase in the tensile strength and the orientation of the CNTs and polymer chains. In addition, this study demonstrates that the heat drawing process effectively decreases the plastic deformation of LLDPE.

  16. Low-frequency plasmons in metallic carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, M.F.; Chuu, D.S.; Shung, K.W.

    1997-01-01

    A metallic carbon nanotube could exhibit a low-frequency plasmon, while a semiconducting carbon nanotube or a graphite layer could not. This plasmon is due to the free carriers in the linear subbands intersecting at the Fermi level. The low-frequency plasmon, which corresponds to the vanishing transferred angular momentum, belongs to an acoustic plasmon. For a smaller metallic nanotube, it could exist at larger transferred momenta, and its frequency is higher. Such a plasmon behaves as that in a one-dimensional electron gas (EGS). However, it is very different from the π plasmons in all carbon nanotubes. Intertube Coulomb interactions in a metallic multishell nanotube and a metallic nanotube bundle have been included. They have a strong effect on the low-frequency plasmon. The intertube coupling among coaxial nanotubes markedly modifies the acoustic plasmons in separate metallic nanotubes. When metallic carbon nanotubes are packed in the bundle form, the low-frequency plasmon would change into an optical plasmon, and behave like that in a three-dimensional EGS. Experimental measurements could be used to distinguish metallic and semiconducting carbon nanotubes. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  17. Fullerenes, nanotubes, onions and related carbon structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, C N.R.; Seshadri, Ram; Govindaraj, A; Sen, Rahul [Solid State and Structural Chemistry Unit, CSIR Centre of Excellence in Chemistry and Materials Research Centre, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore (India)

    1995-12-01

    Fullerenes, containing five- and six-membered carbon rings, of which C{sub 6}0 and C{sub 7}0 are the prominent members, exhibit phase transitions associated with orientational ordering. When C{sub 6}0 is suitably doped with electrons, it shows novel superconducting and magnetic properties. We review these and other properties of fullerenes in bulk or in film form along with the preparative and structural aspects. Carbon nanotubes and onions (hyperfullerenes) are the other forms of carbon whose material properties have aroused considerable interest. Besides discussing these new forms of carbon, we briefly introduce other possible forms, such as those involving five-, six- and seven-membered rings and hybrids between diamond and graphite

  18. Magnetic properties of carbon nanotubes with and without catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipert, Kamil; Ritschel, Manfred; Leonhardt, Albrecht; Krupskaya, Yulia; Buechner, Bernd; Klingeler, Ruediger, E-mail: k.lipert@ifw-dresden.d [Leibniz Institute for Solid State and Materials Research (IFW) Dresden (Germany)

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we report on the magnetic properties of single- and multiwalled carbon nanotubes synthesized using different chemical vapour deposition methods and with variety of catalyst materials (ferromagnetic Fe, FeCo and diamagnetic Re). Different methods yield carbon nanotubes with different morphologies and different quantity of residual catalyst material. Catalyst particles are usually encapsulated in the nanotubes and influence the magnetic respond of the samples. Varying ferromagnetic properties depending on the shape, size and type of catalyst are discussed in detail. The data are compared with M(H) characteristics of carbon nanotubes without catalysts and with nonmagnetic rhenium, as a reference.

  19. Modification of single wall carbon nanotubes (SWNT) for hydrogen storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rashidi, A.M.; Nouralishahi, A.; Karimi, A.; Kashefi, K. [Nanotechnology Research Center, Research Institute of petroleum industry (RIPI), Tehran (Iran); Khodadadi, A.A.; Mortazavi, Y. [Chemical engineering Department, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran)

    2010-09-15

    Due to unique structural, mechanical and electrical properties of single wall carbon nanotubes, SWNTs, they have been proposed as promising hydrogen storage materials especially in automotive industries. This research deals with investing of CNT's and some activated carbons hydrogen storage capacity. The CNT's were prepared through natural gas decomposition at a temperature of 900 C over cobalt-molybdenum nanoparticles supported by nanoporous magnesium oxide (Co-Mo/MgO) during a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process. The effects of purity of CNT (80-95%wt.) on hydrogen storage were investigated here. The results showed an improvement in the hydrogen adsorption capacity with increasing the purity of CNT's. Maximum adsorption capacity was 0.8%wt. in case of CNT's with 95% purity and it may be raised up with some purification to 1%wt. which was far less than the target specified by DOE (6.5%wt.). Also some activated carbons were manufactured and the results compared to CNTs. There were no considerable H{sub 2}-storage for carbon nanotubes and activated carbons at room-temperature due to insufficient binding between H{sub 2} molecules carbon nanostructures. Therefore, hydrogen must be adsorbed via interaction of atomic hydrogen with the storage environment in order to achieve DOE target, because the H atoms have a very stronger interaction with carbon nanostructures. (author)

  20. Cavitation dispersion of carbon nanotubes and modification of cement systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GUSEV Boris Vladimirovich

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The most common research areas in construction material science deals with the development of new efficient methods to increase strength properties of materials. One of such methods is modification of composite matrices with carbon nanotubes. The characteristics of nanomodified concretes to a great extent depend on selected method of introduction of carbon nanotubes into material. The predispersion of CNT in mixing water with plasticizing additive through ultrasound impact on the environment with colloid and other types of particles including nanoparticles is the most frequently used scientific method which provides even distribution of nanoparticles in cement. In some works the separation of agglomerated CNT in suspension was conducted by means of ultrasound treatment. The further analysis showed that the main drawbacks of ultrasound dispersion are high energy output and low performance. That causes inconvenience for application of them in manufacturing process. The methods of cavitation dispersion which were developed in the late 90ies in the XXI century today are becoming commonly used in practice. The work presents the results of dispersion of multi-layer nanotubes performed on the hydrodynamic cavitation equipment. It was determined that the use of such equipment makes it possible to produce stable and even carbon dispersions and to introduce and distribute them uniformly in concrete in the same way as in the case when ultrasound treatment is performed. The advantages of this technology are considerable decrease of energy consumption and possibility to treat enormous amounts of liquids which are necessary for modification of concrete in real production process.

  1. Safety considerations for graphene: lessons learnt from carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussy, Cyrill; Ali-Boucetta, Hanene; Kostarelos, Kostas

    2013-03-19

    Many consider carbon nanomaterials the poster children of nanotechnology, attracting immense scientific interest from many disciplines and offering tremendous potential in a diverse range of applications due to their extraordinary properties. Graphene is the youngest in the family of carbon nanomaterials. Its isolation, description, and mass fabrication has followed that of fullerenes and carbon nanotubes. Graphene's development and its adoption by many industries will increase unintended or intentional human exposure, creating the need to determine its safety profile. In this Account, we compare the lessons learned from the development of carbon nanotubes with what is known about graphene, based on our own investigations and those of others. Despite both being carbon-based, nanotubes and graphene are two very distinct nanomaterials. We consider the key physicochemical characteristics (structure, surface, colloidal properties) for graphene and carbon nanotubes at three different physiological levels: cellular, tissue, and whole body. We summarize the evidence for health effects of both materials at all three levels. Overall, graphene and its derivatives are characterized by a lower aspect ratio, larger surface area, and better dispersibility in most solvents compared to carbon nanotubes. Dimensions, surface chemistry, and impurities are equally important for graphene and carbon nanotubes in determining both mechanistic (aggregation, cellular processes, biodistribution, and degradation kinetics) and toxicological outcomes. Colloidal dispersions of individual graphene sheets (or graphene oxide and other derivatives) can easily be engineered without metallic impurities, with high stability and less aggregation. Very importantly, graphene nanostructures are not fiber-shaped. These features theoretically offer significant advantages in terms of safety over inhomogeneous dispersions of fiber-shaped carbon nanotubes. However, studies that directly compare graphene with

  2. A carbon nanotube-based pressure sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karimov, Kh S; Saleem, M; Khan, Adam; Qasuria, T A; Mateen, A; Karieva, Z M

    2011-01-01

    In this study, a carbon nanotube (CNT)-based Al/CNT/Al pressure sensor was designed, fabricated and investigated. The sensor was fabricated by depositing CNTs on an adhesive elastic polymer tape and placing this in an elastic casing. The diameter of multiwalled nanotubes varied between 10 and 30 nm. The nominal thickness of the CNT layers in the sensors was in the range ∼300-430 μm. The inter-electrode distance (length) and the width of the surface-type sensors were in the ranges 4-6 and 3-4 mm, respectively. The dc resistance of the sensors decreased 3-4 times as the pressure was increased up to 17 kN m -2 . The resistance-pressure relationships were simulated.

  3. A carbon nanotube immunosensor for Salmonella

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Mitchell B.; Goldsmith, Brett R.; McMillon, Ronald; Dailey, Jennifer; Pillai, Shreekumar; Singh, Shree R.; Johnson, A. T. Charlie

    2011-12-01

    Antibody-functionalized carbon nanotube devices have been suggested for use as bacterial detectors for monitoring of food purity in transit from the farm to the kitchen. Here we report progress towards that goal by demonstrating specific detection of Salmonella in complex nutrient broth solutions using nanotube transistors functionalized with covalently-bound anti-Salmonella antibodies. The small size of the active device region makes them compatible with integration in large-scale arrays. We find that the on-state current of the transistor is sensitive specifically to the Salmonella concentration and saturates at low concentration (Salmonella and other bacteria types, with no sign of saturation even at much larger concentrations (108 cfu/ml).

  4. Modeling of a carbon nanotube ultracapacitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orphanou, Antonis; Yamada, Toshishige; Yang, Cary Y

    2012-03-09

    The modeling of carbon nanotube ultracapacitor (CNU) performance based on the simulation of electrolyte ion motion between the cathode and the anode is described. Using a molecular dynamics (MD) approach, the equilibrium positions of the electrode charges interacting through the Coulomb potential are determined, which in turn yield the equipotential surface and electric field associated with the capacitor. With an applied ac voltage, the current is computed based on the nanotube and electrolyte particle distribution and interaction, resulting in the frequency-dependent impedance Z(ω). From the current and impedance profiles, the Nyquist and cyclic voltammetry (CV) plots are then extracted. The results of these calculations compare well with existing experimental data. A lumped-element equivalent circuit for the CNU is proposed and the impedance computed from this circuit correlates well with the simulated and measured impedances.

  5. Selective Deposition and Alignment of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Assisted by Dielectrophoresis: From Thin Films to Individual Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pengfei; Xue, Wei

    2010-06-01

    Dielectrophoresis has been used in the controlled deposition of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) with the focus on the alignment of nanotube thin films and their applications in the last decade. In this paper, we extend the research from the selective deposition of SWNT thin films to the alignment of small nanotube bundles and individual nanotubes. Electrodes with “teeth”-like patterns are fabricated to study the influence of the electrode width on the deposition and alignment of SWNTs. The entire fabrication process is compatible with optical lithography-based techniques. Therefore, the fabrication cost is low, and the resulting devices are inexpensive. A series of SWNT solutions is prepared with concentrations ranging from 0.0125 to 0.2 mg/ml. The alignment of SWNT thin films, small bundles, and individual nanotubes is achieved under the optimized experimental conditions. The electrical properties of these samples are characterized; the linear current-voltage plots prove that the aligned SWNTs are mainly metallic nanotubes. The microscopy inspection of the samples demonstrates that the alignment of small nanotube bundles and individual nanotubes can only be achieved using narrow electrodes and low-concentration solutions. Our investigation shows that it is possible to deposit a controlled amount of SWNTs in desirable locations using dielectrophoresis.

  6. Selective Deposition and Alignment of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Assisted by Dielectrophoresis: From Thin Films to Individual Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Pengfei

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Dielectrophoresis has been used in the controlled deposition of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs with the focus on the alignment of nanotube thin films and their applications in the last decade. In this paper, we extend the research from the selective deposition of SWNT thin films to the alignment of small nanotube bundles and individual nanotubes. Electrodes with “teeth”-like patterns are fabricated to study the influence of the electrode width on the deposition and alignment of SWNTs. The entire fabrication process is compatible with optical lithography-based techniques. Therefore, the fabrication cost is low, and the resulting devices are inexpensive. A series of SWNT solutions is prepared with concentrations ranging from 0.0125 to 0.2 mg/ml. The alignment of SWNT thin films, small bundles, and individual nanotubes is achieved under the optimized experimental conditions. The electrical properties of these samples are characterized; the linear current–voltage plots prove that the aligned SWNTs are mainly metallic nanotubes. The microscopy inspection of the samples demonstrates that the alignment of small nanotube bundles and individual nanotubes can only be achieved using narrow electrodes and low-concentration solutions. Our investigation shows that it is possible to deposit a controlled amount of SWNTs in desirable locations using dielectrophoresis.

  7. Carbon nanotubes: from nano test tube to nano-reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khlobystov, Andrei N

    2011-12-27

    Confinement of molecules and atoms inside carbon nanotubes provides a powerful strategy for studying structures and chemical properties of individual molecules at the nanoscale. In this issue of ACS Nano, Allen et al. explore the nanotube as a template leading to the formation of unusual supramolecular and covalent structures. The potential of carbon nanotubes as reactors for synthesis on the nano- and macroscales is discussed in light of recent studies.

  8. Catalytic growth of carbon nanotubes with large inner diameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WEI REN ZHONG

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes (2.4 g/g catalyst, with large inner diameters were successfully synthesized through pyrolysis of methane on a Ni–Cu–Al catalyst by adding sodium carbonate into the carbon nanotubes growth system. The inner diameter of the carbon nanotubes prepared by this method is about 20–60 nm, while their outer diameter is about 40–80 nm. Transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction were employed to investigate the morphology and microstructures of the carbon nanotubes. The analyses showed that these carbon nanotubes have large inner diameters and good graphitization. The addition of sodium carbonate into the reaction system brings about a slight decrease in the methane conversion and the yield of carbon. The experimental results showed that sodium carbonate is a mildly toxic material which influenced the catalytic activity of the Ni–Cu–Al catalyst and resulted in the formation of carbon nanotubes with large inner diameters. The growth mechanism of the carbon nanotubes with large inner diameters is discussed in this paper.

  9. Carbon composites composites with carbon fibers, nanofibers, and nanotubes

    CERN Document Server

    Chung, Deborah D L

    2017-01-01

    Carbon Composites: Composites with Carbon Fibers, Nanofibers, and Nanotubes, Second Edition, provides the reader with information on a wide range of carbon fiber composites, including polymer-matrix, metal-matrix, carbon-matrix, ceramic-matrix and cement-matrix composites. In contrast to other books on composites, this work emphasizes materials rather than mechanics. This emphasis reflects the key role of materials science and engineering in the development of composite materials. The applications focus of the book covers both the developing range of structural applications for carbon fiber composites, including military and civil aircraft, automobiles and construction, and non-structural applications, including electromagnetic shielding, sensing/monitoring, vibration damping, energy storage, energy generation, and deicing. In addition to these new application areas, new material in this updated edition includes coverage of cement-matrix composites, carbon nanofibers, carbon matrix precursors, fiber surface ...

  10. Carbonizing process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1923-11-22

    In the downward distillation of coal, shale, lignite, or the like, the heat is generated by the combustion of liquid or gaseous fuel above the charge the zone of carbonization thus initiated travelling downwards through the charge. The combustible gases employed are preferably those resulting from the process but gases such as natural gas may be employed. The charge is in a moistened and pervious state the lower parts being maintained at a temperature not above 212/sup 0/F until influenced by contact with the carbonization zone and steam may be admitted to increase the yield of ammonia. The combustible gases may be supplied with insufficient air so as to impart to them a reducing effect.

  11. Softening of the Radial Breathing Mode in Metallic Carbon Nanotubes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Farhat, H. (ed.); Sasaki, K.; Kalbáč, Martin; Hofmann, M.; Saito, R.; Dresselhaus, M. S.; Kong, J.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 102, č. 12 (2009), 126804-1-126804-4 ISSN 0031-9007 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : metallic carbon nanotubes * radial breathing mode * single waled carbon nanotubes Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 7.328, year: 2009

  12. Apparatus for the laser ablative synthesis of carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael W.; Jordan, Kevin

    2010-02-16

    An RF-induction heated side-pumped synthesis chamber for the production of carbon nanotubes. Such an apparatus, while capable of producing large volumes of carbon nanotubes, concurrently provides a simplified apparatus that allows for greatly reduced heat up and cool down times and flexible flowpaths that can be readily modified for production efficiency optimization.

  13. Anode Sheath Switching in a Carbon Nanotube Arc Plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fetterman, Abe; Raitses, Yevgeny; Keidar, Michael

    2008-01-01

    The anode ablation rate is investigated as a function of anode diameter for a carbon nanotube arc plasma. It is found that anomalously high ablation occurs for small anode diameters. This result is explained by the formation of a positive anode sheath. The increased ablation rate due to this positive anode sheath could imply greater production rate for carbon nanotubes.

  14. Catalyst deposition for the preparation of carbon nanotubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    patterned surface is configured to ensure that no more than a single island of catalyst is formed on each plateau, so that a sub sequent growth of carbon nanotubes from the deposited islands result in that no more than a single carbon nanotube is grown from each plateau....

  15. Nitrogen doped carbon nanotubes : synthesis, characterization and catalysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dommele, S.

    2008-01-01

    Nitrogen containing Carbon Nanotubes (NCNT) have altered physical- and chemical properties with respect to polarity, conductivity and reactivity as compared to conventional carbon nanotubes (CNT) and have potential for use in electronic applications or catalysis. In this thesis the incorporation of

  16. Synthesis of nano-carbon (nanotubes, nanofibres, graphene ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the present study, we report the synthesis of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) using a new natural precursor: castor oil. The CNTs were synthesized by spray pyrolysis of castor oil–ferrocene solution at 850°C under an Ar atmosphere. We also report the synthesis of carbon nitrogen (C–N) nanotubes using castor ...

  17. Electrical conductivity of metal–carbon nanotube structures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The electrical properties of asymmetric metal–carbon nanotube (CNT) structures have been studied using density functional theory and non-equilibrium Green's function method with Atomistix tool kit. The models with asymmetric metal contacts and carbon nanotube bear resemblance to experimental set-ups. The study ...

  18. Magnetoelectronic properties of chiral carbon nanotubes and tori

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shyu, F L; Tsai, C C; Lee, C H; Lin, M F

    2006-01-01

    Magnetoelectronic properties of chiral carbon nanotubes and toroids are studied for any magnetic field. They are sensitive to the changes in the magnitude and the direction of the magnetic field, as well as the chirality. The important differences between chiral and achiral carbon nanotubes include band symmetry, band curvature, band crossing, band-edge state, state degeneracy, band spacing, energy gap, and semiconductor-metal transition. Carbon tori also exhibit the strong chirality dependence on the field modulation of discrete states. Chiral carbon tori might differ from chiral carbon nanotubes in energy-gap modulation, density of states, and state degeneracy

  19. Microwave interaction with nonuniform hydrogen gas in carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babaei, S.; Babaei, Sh.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we study the reflection, absorption, and transmission of microwave from nonuniform hydrogen gas in carbon nanotubes, grown by iron-catalyzed high-pressure carbon monoxide disproportionate (HiPco) process. A discussion on the effect of various hydrogen gas parameters on the reflected power, absorbed power, and transmitted power is presented. The nonuniform hydrogen gas slab is modeled by a series of subslabs. The overall number density profile across the whole slab follows a parabolic function. The total reflected, absorbed, and transmitted powers are then deduced and their functional dependence on the number density, collision frequency, and angle of propagation is studied

  20. Integrating seawater desalination and wastewater reclamation forward osmosis process using thin-film composite mixed matrix membrane with functionalized carbon nanotube blended polyethersulfone support layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyeon-Gyu; Son, Moon; Choi, Heechul

    2017-10-01

    Thin-film composite mixed matrix membrane (TFC MMM) with functionalized carbon nanotube (fCNT) blended in polyethersulfone (PES) support layer was synthesized via interfacial polymerization and phase inversion. This membrane was firstly tested in lab-scale integrating seawater desalination and wastewater reclamation forward osmosis (FO) process. Water flux of TFC MMM was increased by 72% compared to that of TFC membrane due to enhanced hydrophilicity. Although TFC MMM showed lower water flux than TFC commercial membrane, enhanced reverse salt flux selectivity (RSFS) of TFC MMM was observed compared to TFC membrane (15% higher) and TFC commercial membrane (4% higher), representing membrane permselectivity. Under effluent organic matter (EfOM) fouling test, 16% less normalized flux decline of TFC MMM was observed compared to TFC membrane. There was 8% less decline of TFC MMM compared to TFC commercial membrane due to fCNT effect on repulsive foulant-membrane interaction enhancement, caused by negatively charged membrane surface. After 10 min physical cleaning, TFC MMM displayed higher recovered normalized flux than TFC membrane (6%) and TFC commercial membrane (4%); this was also supported by visualized characterization of fouling layer. This study presents application of TFC MMM to integrated seawater desalination and wastewater reclamation FO process for the first time. It can be concluded that EfOM fouling of TFC MMM was suppressed due to repulsive foulant-membrane interaction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Carbon nanotubes in blends of polycaprolactone/thermoplastic starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghizadeh, Ata; Favis, Basil D

    2013-10-15

    Despite the importance of polymer-polymer multiphase systems, very little work has been carried out on the preferred localization of solid inclusions in such multiphase systems. In this work, carbon nanotubes (CNT) are dispersed with polycaprolactone (PCL) and thermoplastic starch (TPS) at several CNT contents via a combined solution/twin-screw extrusion melt mixing method. A PCL/CNT masterbatch was first prepared and then blended with 20 wt% TPS. Transmission and scanning electron microscopy images reveal a CNT localization principally in the TPS phase and partly at the PCL/TPS interface, with no further change by annealing. This indicates a strong driving force for the CNTs toward TPS. Young's model predicts that the nanotubes should be located at the interface. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) of extracted CNTs quantitatively confirms an encapsulation by TPS and reveals a covalent bonding of CNTs with thermoplastic starch. It appears likely that the nanotubes migrate to the interface, react with TPS and then are subsequently drawn into the low viscosity TPS phase. In a low shear rate/low shear stress internal mixer the nanotubes are found both in the PCL phase and at the PCL/TPS interface and have not completed the transit to the TPS phase. This latter result indicates the importance of choosing appropriate processing conditions in order to minimize kinetic effects. The addition of CNTs to PCL results in an increase in the crystallization temperature and a decrease in the percent crystallinity confirming the heterogeneous nucleating effect of the nanotubes. Finally, DMA analysis reveals a dramatic decrease in the starch rich phase transition temperature (~26 °C), for the system with nanotubes located in the TPS phase. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. High performance bulk metallic glass/carbon nanotube composite cathodes for electron field emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hojati-Talemi, Pejman; Gibson, Mark A.; East, Daniel; Simon, George P.

    2011-01-01

    We report the preparation of new nanocomposites based on a combination of bulk metallic glass and carbon nanotubes for electron field emission applications. The use of bulk metallic glass as the matrix ensures high electrical and thermal conductivity, high thermal stability, and ease of processing, whilst the well dispersed carbon nanotubes act as highly efficient electron emitters. These advantages, alongside excellent electron emission properties, make these composites one of the best reported options for electron emission applications to date.

  3. High performance bulk metallic glass/carbon nanotube composite cathodes for electron field emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hojati-Talemi, Pejman [Department of Materials Engineering, Monash University, Clayton, Vic 3800 (Australia); Mawson Institute, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095 (Australia); Gibson, Mark A. [Process Science and Engineering, Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, Clayton, Vic 3168 (Australia); East, Daniel; Simon, George P. [Department of Materials Engineering, Monash University, Clayton, Vic 3800 (Australia)

    2011-11-07

    We report the preparation of new nanocomposites based on a combination of bulk metallic glass and carbon nanotubes for electron field emission applications. The use of bulk metallic glass as the matrix ensures high electrical and thermal conductivity, high thermal stability, and ease of processing, whilst the well dispersed carbon nanotubes act as highly efficient electron emitters. These advantages, alongside excellent electron emission properties, make these composites one of the best reported options for electron emission applications to date.

  4. Chemical vapour deposition growth and Raman characterization of graphene layers and carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Y.-C.; Rafailov, P. M.; Vlaikova, E.; Marinova, V.; Lin, S. H.; Yu, P.; Yu, S.-C.; Chi, G. C.; Dimitrov, D.; Sveshtarov, P.; Mehandjiev, V.; Gospodinov, M. M.

    2016-02-01

    Single-layer graphene films were grown by chemical vapour deposition (CVD) on Cu foil. The CVD process was complemented by plasma enhancement to grow also vertically aligned multiwalled carbon nanotubes using Ni nanoparticles as catalyst. The obtained samples were characterized by Raman spectroscopy analysis. Nature of defects in the samples and optimal growth conditions leading to achieve high quality of graphene and carbon nanotubes are discussed.

  5. Layered growth of aligned carbon nanotube arrays by pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Hongrui; Liang Erjun; Ding Pei; Chao Mingju

    2003-01-01

    Based on the study of reaction temperature and duration of the growth of aligned carbon nanotube arrays, layered aligned multi-wall carbon nanotube (MWNT) films grown directly around a reaction quartz tube in an Ar/H 2 atmosphere by pyrolysis of ferrocene in xylene in a suitable reaction furnace with the help of cobalt powder. The scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope images indicated that the obtained arrays were composed of many separated layers with MWNTs. The reaction temperature significantly influenced the alignment of the MWNTs, and an appropriate reaction temperature range for growth was 800-900 deg. C. The diameter of the carbon nanotube increased from 46 to 75 nm with the growth temperature. Besides temperature, the reaction duration influenced the length of the well-aligned carbon nanotubes. There was no significant relation between the growth time and the diameter of the carbon nanotubes in the array

  6. Thermophoretic Motion of Water Nanodroplets confined inside Carbon Nanotubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zambrano, Harvey A; Walther, Jens Honore; Koumoutsakos, Petros

    2009-01-01

    We study the thermophoretic motion of water nanodroplets confined inside carbon nanotubes using molecular dynamics simulations. We find that the nanodroplets move in the direction opposite the imposed thermal gradient with a terminal velocity that is linearly proportional to the gradient....... The translational motion is associated with a solid body rotation of the water nanodroplet coinciding with the helical symmetry of the carbon nanotube. The thermal diffusion displays a weak dependence on the wetting of the water-carbon nanotube interface. We introduce the use of the Moment Scaling Spectrum (MSS......) in order to determine the characteristics of the motion of the nanoparticles inside the carbon nanotube. The MSS indicates that affinity of the nanodroplet with the walls of the carbon nanotubes is important for the isothermal diffusion, and hence for the Soret coefficient of the system....

  7. Carbon nanotubes buckypapers for potential transdermal drug delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwengber, Alex; Prado, Héctor J.; Zilli, Darío A.; Bonelli, Pablo R.

    2015-01-01

    Drug loaded buckypapers based on different types of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were prepared and characterized in order to evaluate their potentialities for the design of novel transdermal drug delivery systems. Lab-synthesized CNTs as well as commercial samples were employed. Clonidine hydrochloride was used as model drug, and the influence of composition of the drug loaded buckypapers and processing variables on in vitro release profiles was investigated. To examine the influence of the drug nature the evaluation was further extended to buckypapers prepared with flurbiprofen and one type of CNTs, their selection being based on the results obtained with the former drug. Scanning electronic microscopy images indicated that the model drugs were finely dispersed on the CNTs. Differential scanning calorimetry, and X-ray diffraction pointed to an amorphous state of both drugs in the buckypapers. A higher degree of CNT–drug superficial interactions resulted in a slower release of the drug. These interactions were in turn affected by the type of CNTs employed (single wall or multiwall CNTs), their functionalization with hydroxyl or carboxyl groups, the chemical structure of the drug, and the CNT:drug mass ratio. Furthermore, the application of a second layer of drug free CNTs on the loaded buckypaper, led to decelerate the drug release and to reduce the burst effect. - Highlights: • Drug loaded buckypapers from carbon nanotubes were prepared and characterized. • Their potentialities for transdermal drug delivery applications were evaluated. • Characteristics of carbon nanotubes and the structure of the drug affected release • A higher carbon nanotube:drug mass ratio decelerated release • Up to one week controlled release profiles were obtained for the drug flurbiprofen

  8. Carbon nanotubes buckypapers for potential transdermal drug delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwengber, Alex [PINMATE-Departamento de Industrias, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, C1428EGA Buenos Aires (Argentina); Prado, Héctor J. [PINMATE-Departamento de Industrias, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, C1428EGA Buenos Aires (Argentina); Cátedra de Tecnología Farmacéutica II, Departamento de Tecnología Farmacéutica, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Junín 956, C1113AAD Buenos Aires (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Av. Rivadavia 1917, C1033AAJ Buenos Aires (Argentina); Zilli, Darío A. [PINMATE-Departamento de Industrias, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, C1428EGA Buenos Aires (Argentina); Bonelli, Pablo R. [PINMATE-Departamento de Industrias, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, C1428EGA Buenos Aires (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Av. Rivadavia 1917, C1033AAJ Buenos Aires (Argentina); and others

    2015-12-01

    Drug loaded buckypapers based on different types of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were prepared and characterized in order to evaluate their potentialities for the design of novel transdermal drug delivery systems. Lab-synthesized CNTs as well as commercial samples were employed. Clonidine hydrochloride was used as model drug, and the influence of composition of the drug loaded buckypapers and processing variables on in vitro release profiles was investigated. To examine the influence of the drug nature the evaluation was further extended to buckypapers prepared with flurbiprofen and one type of CNTs, their selection being based on the results obtained with the former drug. Scanning electronic microscopy images indicated that the model drugs were finely dispersed on the CNTs. Differential scanning calorimetry, and X-ray diffraction pointed to an amorphous state of both drugs in the buckypapers. A higher degree of CNT–drug superficial interactions resulted in a slower release of the drug. These interactions were in turn affected by the type of CNTs employed (single wall or multiwall CNTs), their functionalization with hydroxyl or carboxyl groups, the chemical structure of the drug, and the CNT:drug mass ratio. Furthermore, the application of a second layer of drug free CNTs on the loaded buckypaper, led to decelerate the drug release and to reduce the burst effect. - Highlights: • Drug loaded buckypapers from carbon nanotubes were prepared and characterized. • Their potentialities for transdermal drug delivery applications were evaluated. • Characteristics of carbon nanotubes and the structure of the drug affected release • A higher carbon nanotube:drug mass ratio decelerated release • Up to one week controlled release profiles were obtained for the drug flurbiprofen.

  9. Catalyst design for carbon nanotube growth using atomistic modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pint, Cary L; Bozzolo, Guillermo; Hauge, Robert

    2008-01-01

    The formation and stability of bimetallic catalyst particles, in the framework of carbon nanotube growth, is studied using the Bozzolo-Ferrante-Smith (BFS) method for alloys. Monte Carlo-Metropolis simulations with the BFS method are utilized in order to predict and study equilibrium configurations for nanoscale catalyst particles which are directly relevant to the catalyst state prior to growth of carbon nanotubes. At the forefront of possible catalyst combinations is the popular Fe-Mo bimetallic catalyst, which we have recently studied experimentally. We explain our experimental results, which indicate that the growth observed is dependent on the order of co-catalyst deposition, in the straightforward interpretation of BFS strain and chemical energy contributions toward the formation of Fe-Mo catalyst prior to growth. We find that the competition between the formation of metastable inner Mo cores and clusters of surface-segregated Mo atoms in Fe-Mo catalyst particles influences catalyst formation, and we investigate the role of Mo concentration and catalyst particle size in this process. Finally, we apply the same modeling approach to other prominent bimetallic catalysts and suggest that this technique can be a powerful tool to understand and manipulate catalyst design for highly efficient carbon nanotube growth

  10. Towards self-assembled devices, a carbon nanotube approach

    OpenAIRE

    Del Rio Castillo, Antonio Esau

    2012-01-01

    2010/2011 In the last decade the nanostructured carbon materials, especially single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), had emerged as probable substitutes for Silicon in the next generation of electronic devices. This is due to their unique physic and chemical properties. Likewise, scientists all around the world have made a huge effort to introduce carbon materials into the market. Despite this effort, commercial application for carbon nanotubes in electronic devices has not yet been achiev...

  11. Influence of surface chemistry on inkjet printed carbon nanotube films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopkins, Alan R.; Straw, David C.; Spurrell, Kathryn C.

    2011-01-01

    Carbon nanotube ink chemistry and the proper formulation are crucial for direct-write printing of nanotubes. Moreover, the correct surface chemistry of the self-assembled monolayers that assist the direct deposition of carbon nanotubes onto the substrate is equally important to preserve orientation of the printed carbon nanotubes. We report that the successful formulation of two single walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) inks yields a consistent, homogenous printing pattern possessing the requisite viscosities needed for flow through the microcapillary nozzles of the inkjet printer with fairly modest drying times. The addition of an aqueous sodium silicate allows for a reliable method for forming a uniform carbon nanotube network deposited directly onto unfunctionalized surfaces such as glass or quartz via inkjet deposition. Furthermore, this sodium silicate ingredient helps preserve applied orientation to the printed SWNT solution. Sheet resistivity of this carbon nanotube ink formula printed on quartz decreases as a function of passes and is independent of the substrate. SWNTs were successfully patterned on Au. This amine-based surface chemistry dramatically helps improve the isolation stabilization of the printed SWNTs as seen in the atomic force microscopy (AFM) image. Lastly, using our optimized SWNT ink formula and waveform parameters in the Fuji materials printer, we are able to directly write/print SWNTs into 2D patterns. Dried ink pattern expose and help orient roped carbon nanotubes that are suspended in ordered arrays across the cracks.

  12. Surface plasmon observed for carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bursill, L A; Stadelmann, P A [Ecole Polytechnique Federale, Lausanne (Switzerland); Peng, J L; Prawer, S [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics

    1994-12-31

    This paper presents parallel electron energy loss spectra (PEELS) results, obtained for individual carbon nanotubes, using nanoprobe techniques (1-2 nm diameter electron beam), energy resolution 0.5 eV and collection times of 4-25 sec. The aim was to use a nanoprobe to compare PEELS spectra from different parts of a tube, in order to search for variations in sp{sup 2}/sp{sup 3} bonding ratios as well as to look for orientation dependent plasmon and core-loss phenomena. It also seemed interesting to compare results for nanotubes with those for other varieties of graphitized carbons. The most interesting result so far was the appearance of a 15 eV plasmon peak, which appeared only for tubes containing {<=} about 12 graphite-like layers. This peak did not shift significantly with tube size. A low-loss peaks at 6 eV of variable relative intensity was also observed this peak was relatively very weak for amorphous tubes; it appears to be characteristic of graphite-like layers, as found for nanotubes and, of course, graphite itself. This paper is restricted to discussion of the low-loss results. The experimental techniques are first described, including some details of the methods which may be used to disperse and support sooty carbons for high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The results are then presented, followed by an interpretation of all the low-loss PEELS results, including those of the other authors. 14 refs., 2 figs.

  13. Carbon nanotubes for high-performance logic

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Zhihong; Wong, H.S. Phillip; Mitra, Subhasish; Bol, Aggeth; Peng, Lianmao; Hills, Gage; Thissen, Nick

    2014-01-01

    Single-wall carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were discovered in 1993 and have been an area of intense research since then. They offer the right dimensions to explore material science and physical chemistry at the nanoscale and are the perfect system to study low-dimensional physics and transport. In the past decade, more attention has been shifted toward making use of this unique nanomaterial in real-world applications. In this article, we focus on potential applications of CNTs in the high-performanc...

  14. Carbon Nanotubes Filled with Ferromagnetic Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albrecht Leonhardt

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes (CNT filled with ferromagnetic metals like iron, cobalt or nickel are new and very interesting nanostructured materials with a number of unique properties. In this paper we give an overview about different chemical vapor deposition (CVD methods for their synthesis and discuss the influence of selected growth parameters. In addition we evaluate possible growth mechanisms involved in their formation. Moreover we show their identified structural and magnetic properties. On the basis of these properties we present different application possibilities. Some selected examples reveal the high potential of these materials in the field of medicine and nanotechnology.

  15. Fibrous composites comprising carbon nanotubes and silica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Huisheng [Shanghai, CN; Zhu, Yuntian Theodore [Cary, NC; Peterson, Dean E [Los Alamos, NM; Jia, Quanxi [Los Alamos, NM

    2011-10-11

    Fibrous composite comprising a plurality of carbon nanotubes; and a silica-containing moiety having one of the structures: (SiO).sub.3Si--(CH.sub.2).sub.n--NR.sub.1R.sub.2) or (SiO).sub.3Si--(CH.sub.2).sub.n--NCO; where n is from 1 to 6, and R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 are each independently H, CH.sub.3, or C.sub.2H.sub.5.

  16. Biomineralization of superhydrophilic vertically aligned carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsi, Teresa Cristina O; Santos, Tiago G; Pacheco-Soares, Cristina; Corat, Evaldo J; Marciano, Fernanda R; Lobo, Anderson O

    2012-03-06

    Vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNT) promise a great role for the study of tissue regeneration. In this paper, we introduce a new biomimetic mineralization routine employing superhydrophilic VACNT films as highly stable template materials. The biomineralization was obtained after VACNT soaking in simulated body fluid solution. Detailed structural analysis reveals that the polycrystalline biological apatites formed due to the -COOH terminations attached to VACNT tips after oxygen plasma etching. Our approach not only provides a novel route for nanostructured materials, but also suggests that COOH termination sites can play a significant role in biomimetic mineralization. These new nanocomposites are very promising as nanobiomaterials due to the excellent human osteoblast adhesion.

  17. Carbon Nanotubes Filled with Ferromagnetic Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissker, Uhland; Hampel, Silke; Leonhardt, Albrecht; Büchner, Bernd

    2010-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNT) filled with ferromagnetic metals like iron, cobalt or nickel are new and very interesting nanostructured materials with a number of unique properties. In this paper we give an overview about different chemical vapor deposition (CVD) methods for their synthesis and discuss the influence of selected growth parameters. In addition we evaluate possible growth mechanisms involved in their formation. Moreover we show their identified structural and magnetic properties. On the basis of these properties we present different application possibilities. Some selected examples reveal the high potential of these materials in the field of medicine and nanotechnology. PMID:28883334

  18. Disorder, Pseudospins, and Backscattering in Carbon Nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McEuen, Paul L.; Bockrath, Marc; Cobden, David H.; Yoon, Young-Gui; Louie, Steven G.

    1999-01-01

    We address the effects of disorder on the conducting properties of metal and semiconducting carbon nanotubes. Experimentally, the mean free path is found to be much larger in metallic tubes than in doped semiconducting tubes. We show that this result can be understood theoretically if the disorder potential is long ranged. The effects of a pseudospin index that describes the internal sublattice structure of the states lead to a suppression of scattering in metallic tubes, but not in semiconducting tubes. This conclusion is supported by tight-binding calculations. (c) 1999 The American Physical Society

  19. Superconductivity in single wall carbon nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Yavari

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available   By using Greens function method we first show that the effective interaction between two electrons mediated by plasmon exchange can become attractive which in turn can lead to superconductivity at a high critical temperature in a singl wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNT. The superconducting transition temperature Tc for the SWCNT (3,3 obtained by this mechanism agrees with the recent experimental result. We also show as the radius of SWCNT increases, plasmon frequency becomes lower and leads to lower Tc.

  20. Spin transport in ferromagnetically contacted carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, C.; Morgan, C.; Schneider, C.M. [Peter Gruenberg Institut, PGI-6, Forschungszentrum Juelich and JARA Juelich Aachen Research Alliance, 52425 Juelich (Germany)

    2011-11-15

    We present magnetoresistance (MR) measurements on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with different ferromagnetic leads. A sample with permalloy (Ni{sub 80}Fe{sub 20}) contacts shows the expected tunneling-type MR effect. Measurements on devices with CoPd contacts show a larger change of resistance with magnetic field. However, only minor loops are observed, which is explained with domain wall pinning. This is supported by magnetic force microscopy (MFM) measurements, which reveal a complicated bubble and stripe domain pattern. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  1. Effect of Novel Quercetin Titanium Dioxide-Decorated Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Nanocomposite on Bacillus subtilis Biofilm Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raie, Diana S; Mhatre, Eisha; El-Desouki, Doaa S

    2018-01-01

    The present work was targeted to design a surface against cell seeding and adhering of bacteria, Bacillus subtilis. A multi-walled carbon nanotube/titanium dioxide nano-power was produced via simple mixing of carbon nanotube and titanium dioxide nanoparticles during the sol-gel process followed...

  2. Thermodynamics on Soluble Carbon Nanotubes: How Do DNA Molecules Replace Surfactants on Carbon Nanotubes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Yuichi; Inoue, Ayaka; Niidome, Yasuro; Nakashima, Naotoshi

    2012-01-01

    Here we represent thermodynamics on soluble carbon nanotubes that enables deep understanding the interactions between single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) and molecules. We selected sodium cholate and single-stranded cytosine oligo-DNAs (dCn (n = 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10, 15, and 20)), both of which are typical SWNT solubilizers, and successfully determined thermodynamic properties (ΔG, ΔH and ΔS values) for the exchange reactions of sodium cholate on four different chiralities of SWNTs ((n,m) = (6,5), (7,5), (10,2), and (8,6)) for the DNAs. Typical results contain i) the dC5 exhibited an exothermic exchange, whereas the dC6, 8, 10, 15, and 20 materials exhibited endothermic exchanges, and ii) the energetics of the dC4 and dC7 exchanges depended on the associated chiral indices and could be endothermic or exothermic. The presented method is general and is applicable to any molecule that interacts with nanotubes. The study opens a way for science of carbon nanotube thermodynamics. PMID:23066502

  3. Detection of Peanut Allergen Ara h 6 in Commercially Processed Foods using a Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube-Based Biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobhan, Abdus; Oh, Jun-Hyun; Park, Mi-Kyung; Lee, Jinyoung

    2018-06-12

    Background : The peanut protein Arachis hypogaea (Ara h) 6 is one ofthe most serious food allergens that contributes to food-related, life-threatening problems worldwide. The extremely low allergic dose demands for more selective and rapid methods for detecting Ara h 6. Objective : The goal of this study was to develop a single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT)-based biosensor for the rapid detection of Ara h 6 in commercial food products. Methods : The detection principle of this biosensor was based on the binding of Ara h 6 to the anti-Ara h 6 antibody (pAb) through 1-pyrenibutanoic acid succinimidyl ester. The resistance difference (ΔR) was calculated via linear sweep voltammetry using a potentiostat. Results : The ∆R increased as the Ara h 6 concentrations increased above the range of 10 0 -10 7 pg/L. A specificity analysis showed that the anti-Ara h 6 pAb selectively interacted with Ara h 6 molecules in the buffer solution (pH 7.4). Conclusions : This research proposes that an SWCNT-based biosensor in self-assembly with antibodies could be an effective tool for the rapid detection of allergen proteins in food. Highlights : The developed biosensor exhibited higher sensitivity and selectivity. Application studies resulted in precise Ara h 6 detection in peanut-containing processed food.

  4. Carbon nanotubes integrated in electrically insulated channels for lab-on-a-chip applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mogensen, K B; Boggild, P; Kutter, J P; Gangloff, L; Teo, K B K; Milne, W I

    2009-01-01

    A fabrication process for monolithic integration of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes in electrically insulated microfluidic channels is presented. A 150 nm thick amorphous silicon layer could be used both for anodic bonding of a glass lid to hermetically seal the microfluidic glass channels and for de-charging of the wafer during plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition of the carbon nanotubes. The possibility of operating the device with electroosmotic flow was shown by performing standard electrophoretic separations of 50 μM fluorescein and 50 μM 5-carboxyfluorescein in a 25 mm long column containing vertical aligned carbon nanotubes. This is the first demonstration of electroosmotic pumping and electrokinetic separations in microfluidic channels with a monolithically integrated carbon nanotube forest.

  5. Carbon nanotubes integrated in electrically insulated channels for lab-on-a-chip applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Klaus Bo; Gangloff, L.; Bøggild, Peter

    2009-01-01

    A fabrication process for monolithic integration of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes in electrically insulated microfluidic channels is presented. A 150 nm thick amorphous silicon layer could be used both for anodic bonding of a glass lid to hermetically seal the microfluidic glass channels...... and for de-charging of the wafer during plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition of the carbon nanotubes. The possibility of operating the device with electroosmotic flow was shown by performing standard electrophoretic separations of 50 mu M fluorescein and 50 mu M 5-carboxyfluorescein in a 25 mm long...... column containing vertical aligned carbon nanotubes. This is the first demonstration of electroosmotic pumping and electrokinetic separations in microfluidic channels with a monolithically integrated carbon nanotube forest....

  6. Sorption of organophosphate esters by carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Wei; Yan, Li [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China); Duan, Jinming [School of Environmental and Municipal Engineering, Xi’an University of Architecture and Technology, Xi’an 710055 (China); Jing, Chuanyong, E-mail: cyjing@rcees.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China)

    2014-05-01

    Graphical abstract: The interfacial interactions between the OPE molecules and CNTs. - Highlights: • Oxygen-containing groups on CNTs change the sorption property for OPEs. • Molecular configuration of OPEs has insignificant impact on their sorption. • Hydrophobic, π–π EDA and Brønsted acid–base interaction occurred between the CNTs and OPEs. - Abstract: Insights from the molecular-level mechanism of sorption of organophosphate esters (OPEs) on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) can further our understanding of the fate and transport of OPEs in the environment. The motivation for our study was to explore the sorption process of OPEs on multi-walled CNTs (MWCNTs), single-walled CNTs (SWCNTs) and their oxidized counterparts (O-MWCNTs and O-SWCNTs), and its molecular mechanism over a wide concentration range. The sorption isotherm results revealed that the hydrophobicity of OPEs dominated their affinities on a given CNT and the π–π electron donor–acceptor (EDA) interaction also played an important role in the sorption of aromatic OPEs. This π–π EDA interaction, verified with Raman and FT-IR spectroscopy, could restrict the radial vibration of SWCNTs and affect the deformation vibration γ(CH) bands of OPE molecules. The OPE surface coverage on CNTs, estimated using the nonlinear Dubinin–Ashtakhov model, indicated that the oxygen-containing functional groups on CNTs could interact with water molecules by H-bonding, resulting in a decrease in effective sorption sites. In addition, FTIR analysis also confirmed the occurrence of Brønsted acid–base interactions between OPEs and surface OH groups of SWCNTs. Our results should provide mechanistic insights into the sorption mechanism of OPE contaminants on CNTs.

  7. Tuning the conductance of carbon nanotubes with encapsulated molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meunier, Vincent; Sumpter, Bobby G

    2007-01-01

    It was recently shown that a molecule encapsulated inside a carbon nanotube can be used to devise a novel type of non-volatile memory element. At the heart of the mechanism for storing and reading information is the new concept of a molecular gate where the molecule acts as a passive gate that hinders the flow of electrons for a given position relative to the nanotube host. By systematically exploring the effects of encapsulation of an acceptor molecule in a series of carbon nanotubes, we show that the reliability of the memory mechanism is very sensitive to the interaction between the nanotube host and the molecule guest

  8. Nanotube bundle oscillators: Carbon and boron nitride nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thamwattana, Ngamta; Hill, James M.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the oscillation of a fullerene that is moving within the centre of a bundle of nanotubes. In particular, certain fullerene-nanotube bundle oscillators, namely C 60 -carbon nanotube bundle, C 60 -boron nitride nanotube bundle, B 36 N 36 -carbon nanotube bundle and B 36 N 36 -boron nitride nanotube bundle are studied using the Lennard-Jones potential and the continuum approach which assumes a uniform distribution of atoms on the surface of each molecule. We address issues regarding the maximal suction energies of the fullerenes which lead to the generation of the maximum oscillation frequency. Since bundles are also found to comprise double-walled nanotubes, this paper also examines the oscillation of a fullerene inside a double-walled nanotube bundle. Our results show that the frequencies obtained for the oscillation within double-walled nanotube bundles are slightly higher compared to those of single-walled nanotube bundle oscillators. Our primary purpose here is to extend a number of established results for carbon to the boron nitride nanostructures.

  9. Hierarchical carbon nanostructure design: ultra-long carbon nanofibers decorated with carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Mel, A A; Achour, A; Gautron, E; Angleraud, B; Granier, A; Le Brizoual, L; Djouadi, M A; Tessier, P Y; Xu, W; Choi, C H

    2011-01-01

    Hierarchical carbon nanostructures based on ultra-long carbon nanofibers (CNF) decorated with carbon nanotubes (CNT) have been prepared using plasma processes. The nickel/carbon composite nanofibers, used as a support for the growth of CNT, were deposited on nanopatterned silicon substrate by a hybrid plasma process, combining magnetron sputtering and plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). Transmission electron microscopy revealed the presence of spherical nanoparticles randomly dispersed within the carbon nanofibers. The nickel nanoparticles have been used as a catalyst to initiate the growth of CNT by PECVD at 600 deg. C. After the growth of CNT onto the ultra-long CNF, SEM imaging revealed the formation of hierarchical carbon nanostructures which consist of CNF sheathed with CNTs. Furthermore, we demonstrate that reducing the growth temperature of CNT to less than 500 deg. C leads to the formation of carbon nanowalls on the CNF instead of CNT. This simple fabrication method allows an easy preparation of hierarchical carbon nanostructures over a large surface area, as well as a simple manipulation of such material in order to integrate it into nanodevices.

  10. Transparent and Electrically Conductive Carbon Nanotube-Polymer Nanocomposite Materials for Electrostatic Charge Dissipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dervishi, E.; Biris, A. S.; Biris, A. R.; Lupu, D.; Trigwell, S.; Miller, D. W.; Schmitt, T.; Buzatu, D. A.; Wilkes, J. G.

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, nanocomposite materials have been extensively studied because of their superior electrical, magnetic, and optical properties and large number of possible applications that range from nano-electronics, specialty coatings, electromagnetic shielding, and drug delivery. The aim of the present work is to study the electrical and optical properties of carbon nanotube(CNT)-polymer nanocomposite materials for electrostatic charge dissipation. Single and multi-wall carbon nanotubes were grown by catalytic chemical vapor deposition (CCVD) on metal/metal oxide catalytic systems using acetylene or other hydrocarbon feedstocks. After the purification process, in which amorphous carbon and non-carbon impurities were removed, the nanotubes were functionalized with carboxylic acid groups in order to achieve a good dispersion in water and various other solvents. The carbon nanostructures were analyzed, both before and after functionalization by several analytical techniques, including microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Solvent dispersed nanotubes were mixed (1 to 7 wt %) into acrylic polymers by sonication and allowed to dry into 25 micron thick films. The electrical and optical properties of the films were analyzed as a function of the nanotubes' concentration. A reduction in electrical resistivity, up to six orders of magnitude, was measured as the nanotubes' concentration in the polymeric films increased, while optical transparency remained 85 % or higher relative to acrylic films without nanotubes.

  11. Carbon Nanotubes Hybrid Hydrogels in Drug Delivery: A Perspective Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampel, Silke; Spizzirri, Umile Gianfranco; Parisi, Ortensia Ilaria; Picci, Nevio; Iemma, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    The use of biologics, polymers, silicon materials, carbon materials, and metals has been proposed for the preparation of innovative drug delivery devices. One of the most promising materials in this field are the carbon-nanotubes composites and hybrid materials coupling the advantages of polymers (biocompatibility and biodegradability) with those of carbon nanotubes (cellular uptake, stability, electromagnatic, and magnetic behavior). The applicability of polymer-carbon nanotubes composites in drug delivery, with particular attention to the controlled release by composites hydrogel, is being extensively investigated in the present review. PMID:24587993

  12. Iron-Doped Carbon Aerogels: Novel Porous Substrates for Direct Growth of Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, S. A.; Baumann, T. F.; Kong, J.; Satcher, J. H.; Dresselhaus, M. S.

    2007-02-20

    We present the synthesis and characterization of Fe-doped carbon aerogels (CAs) and demonstrate the ability to grow carbon nanotubes directly on monoliths of these materials to afford novel carbon aerogel-carbon nanotube composites. Preparation of the Fe-doped CAs begins with the sol-gel polymerization of the potassium salt of 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid with formaldehyde, affording K{sup +}-doped gels that can then be converted to Fe{sup 2+}- or Fe{sup 3+}-doped gels through an ion exchange process, dried with supercritical CO{sub 2} and subsequently carbonized under an inert atmosphere. Analysis of the Fe-doped CAs by TEM, XRD and XPS revealed that the doped iron species are reduced during carbonization to form metallic iron and iron carbide nanoparticles. The sizes and chemical composition of the reduced Fe species were related to pyrolysis temperature as well as the type of iron salt used in the ion exchange process. Raman spectroscopy and XRD analysis further reveal that, despite the presence of the Fe species, the CA framework is not significantly graphitized during pyrolysis. The Fe-doped CAs were subsequently placed in a thermal CVD reactor and exposed to a mixture of CH{sub 4} (1000 sccm), H{sub 2} (500 sccm), and C{sub 2}H{sub 4} (20 sccm) at temperatures ranging from 600 to 800 C for 10 minutes, resulting in direct growth of carbon nanotubes on the aerogel monoliths. Carbon nanotubes grown by this method appear to be multiwalled ({approx}25 nm in diameter and up to 4 mm long) and grow through a tip-growth mechanism that pushes catalytic iron particles out of the aerogel framework. The highest yield of CNTs were grown on Fe-doped CAs pyrolyzed at 800 C treated at CVD temperatures of 700 C.

  13. Iron-Doped Carbon Aerogels: Novel Porous Substrates for Direct Growth of Carbon Nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steiner, S A; Baumann, T F; Kong, J; Satcher, J H; Dresselhaus, M S

    2007-02-15

    We present the synthesis and characterization of Fe-doped carbon aerogels (CAs) and demonstrate the ability to grow carbon nanotubes directly on monoliths of these materials to afford novel carbon aerogel-carbon nanotube composites. Preparation of the Fe-doped CAs begins with the sol-gel polymerization of the potassium salt of 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid with formaldehyde, affording K{sup +}-doped gels that can then be converted to Fe{sup 2+}- or Fe{sup 3+}-doped gels through an ion exchange process, dried with supercritical CO{sub 2} and subsequently carbonized under an inert atmosphere. Analysis of the Fe-doped CAs by TEM, XRD and XPS revealed that the doped iron species are reduced during carbonization to form metallic iron and iron carbide nanoparticles. The sizes and chemical composition of the reduced Fe species were related to pyrolysis temperature as well as the type of iron salt used in the ion exchange process. Raman spectroscopy and XRD analysis further reveal that, despite the presence of the Fe species, the CA framework is not significantly graphitized during pyrolysis. The Fe-doped CAs were subsequently placed in a thermal CVD reactor and exposed to a mixture of CH{sub 4} (1000 sccm), H{sub 2} (500 sccm), and C{sub 2}H{sub 4} (20 sccm) at temperatures ranging from 600 to 800 C for 10 minutes, resulting in direct growth of carbon nanotubes on the aerogel monoliths. Carbon nanotubes grown by this method appear to be multiwalled ({approx}25 nm in diameter and up to 4 mm long) and grow through a tip-growth mechanism that pushes catalytic iron particles out of the aerogel framework. The highest yield of CNTs were grown on Fe-doped CAs pyrolyzed at 800 C treated at CVD temperatures of 700 C.

  14. Spontaneous and controlled-diameter synthesis of single-walled and few-walled carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Shuhei; Lojindarat, Supanat; Kawamoto, Takahiro; Matsumura, Yukihiko; Charinpanitkul, Tawatchai

    2018-05-01

    In this study, we explored the spontaneous and controlled-diameter growth of carbon nanotubes. We evaluated the effects of catalyst density, reduction time, and a number of catalyst coating on the substrate (for multi-walled carbon nanotubes) on the diameter of single-walled carbon nanotubes and the number of layers in few-walled carbon nanotubes. Increasing the catalyst density and reduction time increased the diameters of the carbon nanotubes, with the average diameter increasing from 1.05 nm to 1.86 nm for single-walled carbon nanotubes. Finally, we succeeded in synthesizing a significant double-walled carbon nanotube population of 24%.

  15. Oxidation of Carbon Nanotubes in an Ionizing Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Ai Leen; Gidcumb, Emily; Zhou, Otto; Sinclair, Robert

    2016-02-10

    In this work, we present systematic studies on how an illuminating electron beam which ionizes molecular gas species can influence the mechanism of carbon nanotube oxidation in an environmental transmission electron microscope (ETEM). We found that preferential attack of the nanotube tips is much more prevalent than for oxidation in a molecular gas environment. We establish the cumulative electron doses required to damage carbon nanotubes from 80 keV electron beam irradiation in gas versus in high vacuum. Our results provide guidelines for the electron doses required to study carbon nanotubes within or without a gas environment, to determine or ameliorate the influence of the imaging electron beam. This work has important implications for in situ studies as well as for the oxidation of carbon nanotubes in an ionizing environment such as that occurring during field emission.

  16. Carbon nanotube based functional superhydrophobic coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethi, Sunny

    The main objective of this dissertation is synthesis of carbon nanotube (CNT) based superhydrophobic materials. The materials were designed such that electrical and mechanical properties of CNTs could be combined with superhydrophobicity to create materials with unique properties, such as self-cleaning adhesives, miniature flotation devices, ice-repellant coatings, and coatings for heat transfer furnaces. The coatings were divided into two broad categories based on CNT structure: Vertically aligned CNT arrays (VA coatings) and mesh-like (non-aligned) carbon nanotube arrays (NA coatings). VA coatings were used to create self-cleaning adhesives and flexible field emission devices. Coatings with self cleaning property along with high adhesiveness were inspired from structure found on gecko foot. Gecko foot is covered with thousands of microscopic hairs called setae; these setae are further divided into hundreds of nanometer sized hairs called spatulas. When gecko presses its foot against any surface, these hairs bend and conform to the topology of the surface resulting into very large area of contact. Such large area of intimate contact allows geckos to adhere to surfaces using van der Waals (vdW) interactions alone. VA-CNTs adhere to a variety of surfaces using a similar mechanism. CNTs of suitable diameter could withstand four times higher adhesion force than gecko foot. We found that upon soiling these CNT based adhesives (gecko tape) could be cleaned using a water droplet (lotus effect) or by applying vibrations. These materials could be used for applications requiring reversible adhesion. VA coatings were also used for developing field emission devices. A single CNT can emit electrons at very low threshold voltages. Achieving efficient electron emission on large scale has a lot of challenges such as screening effect, pull-off and lower current efficiency. We have explored the use of polymer-CNT composite structures to overcome these challenges in this work. NA

  17. Copper-encapsulated vertically aligned carbon nanotube arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stano, Kelly L; Chapla, Rachel; Carroll, Murphy; Nowak, Joshua; McCord, Marian; Bradford, Philip D

    2013-11-13

    A new procedure is described for the fabrication of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNTs) that are decorated, and even completely encapsulated, by a dense network of copper nanoparticles. The process involves the conformal deposition of pyrolytic carbon (Py-C) to stabilize the aligned carbon-nanotube structure during processing. The stabilized arrays are mildly functionalized using oxygen plasma treatment to improve wettability, and they are then infiltrated with an aqueous, supersaturated Cu salt solution. Once dried, the salt forms a stabilizing crystal network throughout the array. After calcination and H2 reduction, Cu nanoparticles are left decorating the CNT surfaces. Studies were carried out to determine the optimal processing parameters to maximize Cu content in the composite. These included the duration of Py-C deposition and system process pressure as well as the implementation of subsequent and multiple Cu salt solution infiltrations. The optimized procedure yielded a nanoscale hybrid material where the anisotropic alignment from the VACNT array was preserved, and the mass of the stabilized arrays was increased by over 24-fold because of the addition of Cu. The procedure has been adapted for other Cu salts and can also be used for other metal salts altogether, including Ni, Co, Fe, and Ag. The resulting composite is ideally suited for application in thermal management devices because of its low density, mechanical integrity, and potentially high thermal conductivity. Additionally, further processing of the material via pressing and sintering can yield consolidated, dense bulk composites.

  18. Alternative mannosylation method for nanomaterials: application to oxidized debris-free multiwalled carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sousa, Marcelo de; Martinez, Diego Stéfani Teodoro; Alves, Oswaldo Luiz

    2016-01-01

    Mannosylation is a method commonly used to deliver nanomaterials to specific organs and tissues via cellular macrophage uptake. In this work, for the first time, we proposed a method that involves the binding of d-mannose to ethylenediamine to form mannosylated ethylenediamine, which is then coupled to oxidized and purified multiwalled carbon nanotubes. The advantage of this approach is that mannosylated ethylenediamine precipitates in methanol, which greatly facilitates the separation of this product in the synthesis process. Carbon nanotubes were oxidized using concentrated H_2SO_4 and HNO_3 by conventional reflux method. However, during this oxidation process, carbon nanotubes generated carboxylated carbonaceous fragments (oxidation debris). These by-products were removed from the oxidized carbon nanotubes to ensure that the functionalization would occur only on the carbon nanotube surface. The coupling of mannosylated ethylenediamine to debris-free carbon nanotubes was accomplished using n-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-n-ethylcarbodiimide and n-hydroxysuccinimide. Deconvoluted N1s spectra obtained from X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy gave binding energies of 399.8 and 401.7 eV, which we attributed to the amide and amine groups, respectively, of carbon nanotubes functionalized with mannosylated ethylenediamine. Deconvoluted O1s spectra showed a binding energy of 532.4 eV, which we suggest is caused by an overlap in the binding energies of the aliphatic CO groups of d-mannose and the O=C group of the amide bond. The functionalization degree was approximately 3.4 %, according to the thermogravimetric analysis. Scanning electron microscopy demonstrated that an extended carbon nanotube morphology was preserved following the oxidation, purification, and functionalization steps.

  19. Alternative mannosylation method for nanomaterials: application to oxidized debris-free multiwalled carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa, Marcelo de, E-mail: marcelosousap2@yahoo.com.br [University of Campinas (Unicamp), Solid State Chemistry Laboratory (LQES) and NanoBioss Laboratory, Institute of Chemistry (Brazil); Martinez, Diego Stéfani Teodoro, E-mail: diego.martinez@lnnano.cnpem.br [Brazilian Center for Research in Energy and Materials (CNPEM), Brazilian Nanotechnology National Laboratory (LNNano) (Brazil); Alves, Oswaldo Luiz, E-mail: oalves@iqm.unicamp.br [University of Campinas (Unicamp), Solid State Chemistry Laboratory (LQES) and NanoBioss Laboratory, Institute of Chemistry (Brazil)

    2016-06-15

    Mannosylation is a method commonly used to deliver nanomaterials to specific organs and tissues via cellular macrophage uptake. In this work, for the first time, we proposed a method that involves the binding of d-mannose to ethylenediamine to form mannosylated ethylenediamine, which is then coupled to oxidized and purified multiwalled carbon nanotubes. The advantage of this approach is that mannosylated ethylenediamine precipitates in methanol, which greatly facilitates the separation of this product in the synthesis process. Carbon nanotubes were oxidized using concentrated H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and HNO{sub 3} by conventional reflux method. However, during this oxidation process, carbon nanotubes generated carboxylated carbonaceous fragments (oxidation debris). These by-products were removed from the oxidized carbon nanotubes to ensure that the functionalization would occur only on the carbon nanotube surface. The coupling of mannosylated ethylenediamine to debris-free carbon nanotubes was accomplished using n-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-n-ethylcarbodiimide and n-hydroxysuccinimide. Deconvoluted N1s spectra obtained from X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy gave binding energies of 399.8 and 401.7 eV, which we attributed to the amide and amine groups, respectively, of carbon nanotubes functionalized with mannosylated ethylenediamine. Deconvoluted O1s spectra showed a binding energy of 532.4 eV, which we suggest is caused by an overlap in the binding energies of the aliphatic CO groups of d-mannose and the O=C group of the amide bond. The functionalization degree was approximately 3.4 %, according to the thermogravimetric analysis. Scanning electron microscopy demonstrated that an extended carbon nanotube morphology was preserved following the oxidation, purification, and functionalization steps.

  20. Carbon nanotubes enhanced the lead toxicity on the freshwater fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, D S T; Alves, O L; Barbieri, E

    2013-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes are promising nanostructures for many applications in materials industry and biotechnology. However, it is mandatory to evaluate their toxicity and environmental implications. We evaluated nitric acid treated multiwalled carbon nanotubes (HNO 3 -MWCNT) toxicity in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and also the lead (Pb) toxicity modulation after the nanotube interaction. Industrial grade multiwalled carbon nanotubes [Ctube 100, CNT Co. Ltd] were treated with 9M HNO 3 for 12h at 150°C to generate oxygenated groups on the nanotube surface, to improve water dispersion and heavy metal interaction. The HNO 3 -treated multiwalled carbon nanotubes were physico-chemically characterized by several techniques [e.g. TEM, FE-SEM, TGA, ζ-potential and Raman spectroscopy]. HNO 3 -MWCNT did not show toxicity on Nile tilapia when the concentration ranged from 0.1 to 3.0 mg/L, and the maximum exposure time was 96h. After 24, 48, 72 and 96h the LC50 values of Pb were 1.65, 1.32, 1.10 and 0.99 mg/L, respectively. To evaluate the Pb-nanotube interaction influence on the ecotoxicity, we submitted the Nile tilapia to different concentrations of Pb mixed with a non-toxic concentration of HNO 3 -MWCNT (1.0 mg/L). After 24, 48, 72, 96 h the LC50 values of Pb plus nanotubes were: 0.32, 0.25, 0.20, 0.18 mg/L, respectively. These values showed a synergistic effect after Pb-nanotube interaction since Pb toxicity increased over five times. X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) was used to confirm lead adsorption on the carbon nanotube oxidized surface. The exposure of Nile tilapia to Pb plus HNO 3 -MWCNT caused both oxygen consumption and ammonium excretion decrease, when compared to the control. Finally, our results show that carbon nanotubes interact with classical pollutants drawing attention to the environmental implications.

  1. Carbon nanotube-based ethanol sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brahim, Sean; Colbern, Steve; Gump, Robert; Moser, Alex; Grigorian, Leonid

    2009-01-01

    Sensors containing metal-carbon nanotube (CNT) hybrid materials as the active sensing layer were demonstrated for ethanol vapor detection at room temperature. The metal-CNT hybrid materials were synthesized by infiltrating single wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) with the transition metals Ti, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Pd or Pt. Each sensor was prepared by drop-casting dilute dispersions of a metal-CNT hybrid onto quartz substrate electrodes and the impedimetric responses to varying ethanol concentration were recorded. Upon exposure to ethanol vapor, the ac impedance (Z') of the sensors was found to decrease to different extents. The sensor containing pristine CNT material was virtually non-responsive at low ethanol concentrations (<50 ppm). In contrast, all metal-CNT hybrid sensors showed extremely high sensitivity to trace ethanol levels with 100-fold or more gains in sensitivity relative to the starting SWNT sensor. All hybrid sensors, with the exception of Ni filled CNT, exhibited significantly larger sensor responses to ethanol vapor up to 250 ppm compared to the starting SWNT sensor.

  2. Substitution reactions of carbon nanotube template

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chi Pui; Chen, Ying; Gerald, John Fitz

    2006-05-01

    Substitution reactions between carbon nanotube (CNT) template and SiO with the formation of carbon rich silicon oxide nanowires (SiO-C-NWs) have been investigated using transmission electron microscopy and x-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy. The reaction was carried out by thermal annealing at 1200°C for 1h of a mixture of silicon monoxide (SiO) and iron (II) phthalocyanine, FeC32N8H16 (FePc) powders. Multiwalled CNTs were produced first via pyrolysis of FePc at a lower temperature (1000°C ). SiO vapors reacted with the CNTs at higher temperatures to produce amorphous SiO-C-NWs with a uniform diameter and a length in tens of micrometers. The special bamboolike structure of the CNTs allows the reaction to start from the external surface of the tubes and transform each CNT into a solid nanowire section by section.

  3. Charge transfer in conjugated oligomers encapsulated into carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almadori, Y.; Alvarez, L.; Michel, T.; Le Parc, R.; Bantignies, J.L.; Hermet, P.; Sauvajol, J.L. [Laboratoire Charles Coulomb UMR 5521, Universite Montpellier 2, 34095 Montpellier (France); Laboratoire Charles Coulomb UMR 5521, CNRS, 34095 Montpellier (France); Arenal, R. [Laboratoire d' Etude des Microstructures, CNRS-ONERA, 92322 Chatillon (France); Laboratorio de Microscopias Avanzadas, Instituto de Nanociencia de Aragon, U. Zaragoza, 50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Babaa, R. [Laboratoire de Chimie des Surfaces et Interfaces, CEA, IRAMIS, SPCSI, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Chemical Engineering Department, University of Technology PETRONAS, UTP, Ipoh-Perak (Malaysia); Jouselme, B.; Palacin, S. [Laboratoire de Chimie des Surfaces et Interfaces, CEA, IRAMIS, SPCSI, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France)

    2011-11-15

    This study deals with a hybrid system consisting in quaterthiophene derivative encapsulated inside single-walled and multi-walled carbon nanotubes. Investigations of the encapsulation step are performed by transmission electron microscopy. Raman spectroscopy data point out different behaviors depending on the laser excitation energy with respect to the optical absorption of quaterthiophene. At low excitation energy (far from the oligomer resonance window) there is no significant modification of the Raman spectra before and after encapsulation. By contrast, at high excitation energy (close to the oligomer resonance window), Raman spectra exhibit a G-band shift together with an important RBM intensity loss, suggesting a significant charge transfer between the inserted molecule and the host nanotubes. Those results suggest a photo induced process leading to a significant charge transfer. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  4. Control of growth mode of multiwalled carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Hong Quang; Kim, Do-Hyung

    2009-01-01

    We have conducted an experimental study to investigate the synthesis of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) by a dc plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD) technique. The synthesis of base and tip-type of CNTs was selectively controlled by changing the catalyst size, catalyst film thickness correlated with altering the NH 3 pretreatment plasma current. These types of CNT showed distinctive properties in nanotube structure, growth rate and vertical alignment, which were confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and in situ optical interference measurement. The vertically aligned behaviour of CNT was systematically studied by using a fine-patterned catalyst layer with diverse critical dimensions. Freestanding single CNT was successfully realized by optimum tip-type CNT growth, conventional photolithography and wet-etch process.

  5. Ammonium Laurate Surfactant for Cleaner Deposition of Carbon Nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, Hanna M. [Department of Material Science and Engineering and ‡Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742, United States; Meany, Brendan [Department of Material Science and Engineering and ‡Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742, United States; Ticey, Jeremy [Department of Material Science and Engineering and ‡Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742, United States; Sun, Chuan-Fu [Department of Material Science and Engineering and ‡Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742, United States; Wang, YuHuang [Department of Material Science and Engineering and ‡Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742, United States; Cumings, John [Department of Material Science and Engineering and ‡Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742, United States

    2015-06-15

    Experiments probing the properties of individual carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and those measuring bulk composites show vastly different results. One major issue limiting the results is that the procedures required to separate and test CNTs introduce contamination that changes the properties of the CNT. These contamination residues often come from the resist used in lithographic processing and the surfactant used to suspend and deposit the CNTs, commonly sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). Here we present ammonium laurate (AL), a surfactant that has previously not been used for this application, which differs from SDS only by substitution of ionic constituents but shows vastly cleaner depositions. In addition, we show that compared to SDS, AL-suspended CNTs have greater shelf stability and more selective dispersion. These results are verified using transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, ζ-potential measurements, and Raman and absorption optical spectroscopy. This surfactant is simple to prepare, and the nanotube solutions require minimal sonication and centrifugation in order to outperform SDS.

  6. A Carbon Nanotube Electron Source Based Ionization Vacuum Gauge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Changkun Dong; Ganapati Myneni

    2003-10-01

    The results of fabrication and performance of an ionization vacuum gauge using a carbon nanotube (CNT) electron source are presented. The electron source was constructed with multi-wall nanotubes (MWNT), which were grown using thermal chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process. The electron emission of the source was stable in vacuum pressure up to 10-7 Torr, which is better than the metal field emitters. The measurement linearity of the gauge was better than {+-}10% from 10-6 to 10-10 Torr. The gauge sensitivity of 4 Torr-1 was achieved under 50 {micro}A electron emission in nitrogen. The gauge is expected to find applications in vacuum measurements from 10-7 Torr to below 10-11 Torr.

  7. Fabrication of mesoporous and high specific surface area lanthanum carbide-carbon nanotube composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biasetto, L.; Carturan, S.; Maggioni, G.; Zanonato, P.; Bernardo, P. Di; Colombo, P.; Andrighetto, A.; Prete, G.

    2009-01-01

    Mesoporous lanthanum carbide-carbon nanotube composites were produced by means of carbothermal reaction of lanthanum oxide, graphite and multi-walled carbon nanotube mixtures under high vacuum. Residual gas analysis revealed the higher reactivity of lanthanum oxide towards carbon nanotubes compared to graphite. After sintering, the composites revealed a specific surface area increasing with the amount of carbon nanotubes introduced. The meso-porosity of carbon nanotubes was maintained after thermal treatment.

  8. Controlling the diameters and field emission properties of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes synthesized by thermal chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Sung Yool; Kang, Young Il; Cho, Kyoung Ik; Choi, Kyu Seok; Kim, Do Jin

    2001-01-01

    We report here the synthesis of vertically well-aligned carbon nanotubes and the effect of catalytic metal layer on the diameter of grown carbon nanotubes and the field emission characteristics of them, The carbon nanotubes were grown by thermal chemical vapor deposition at temperatures below 900 .deg. C on Fe metal catalytic layer, deposited by sputtering process on a Si substrate and pretreated by heat and NH 3 gas. We found that the thickness of metal layers could be an important parameter in controlling the diameters of carbon nanotubes. With varying the thickness of the metal layers the grain sizes of them also vary so that the diameters of the nanotubes could be controlled. Field emission measurement has been made on the carbon nanotube field emitters at room temperature in a vacuum chamber below 10 -6 Torr. Our vertically aligned carbon nanotube field emitter of the smallest diameter emits a current density about 10 mA/cm 2 at 7.2 V/μm. The field emission property of the carbon nanotubes shows strong dependence on the nanotube diameters as expected

  9. Dephasing and hyperfine interaction in carbon nanotubes double quantum dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reynoso, Andres Alejandro; Flensberg, Karsten

    2012-01-01

    We study theoretically the return probability experiment, which is used to measure the dephasing time T-2*, in a double quantum dot (DQD) in semiconducting carbon nanotubes with spin-orbit coupling and disorder-induced valley mixing. Dephasing is due to hyperfine interaction with the spins of the C...... with these for DQDs in clean nanotubes, whereas the disorder effect is always relevant when the magnetic field is perpendicular to the nanotube axis....

  10. Carbon nanotube transistors with graphene oxide films as gate dielectrics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Carbon nanomaterials,including the one-dimensional(1-D) carbon nanotube(CNT) and two-dimensional(2-D) graphene,are heralded as ideal candidates for next generation nanoelectronics.An essential component for the development of advanced nanoelectronics devices is processing-compatible oxide.Here,in analogy to the widespread use of silicon dioxide(SiO2) in silicon microelectronic industry,we report the proof-of-principle use of graphite oxide(GO) as a gate dielectrics for CNT field-effect transistor(FET) via a fast and simple solution-based processing in the ambient condition.The exceptional transistor characteristics,including low operation voltage(2 V),high carrier mobility(950 cm2/V-1 s-1),and the negligible gate hysteresis,suggest a potential route to the future all-carbon nanoelectronics.

  11. Magnetism for understanding catalyst analysis of purified carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellouard, Christine; Mercier, Guillaume; Cahen, Sébastien; Ghanbaja, Jaafar; Medjahdi, Ghouti [Institut Jean Lamour, CNRS-Université de Lorraine, BP 70239, 54506 Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy (France); Gleize, Jérôme [Laboratoire de Chimie Physique-Approche Multi-échelle de Milieux Complexes-Université de Lorraine, 1 Bd Arago, 57078 Metz (France); Lamura, Gianrico [CNR-SPIN – Dipartimento di Fisica, via Dodecaneso 33, 16146 Genova (Italy); Hérold, Claire [Institut Jean Lamour, CNRS-Université de Lorraine, BP 70239, 54506 Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy (France); Vigolo, Brigitte, E-mail: Brigitte.Vigolo@univ-lorraine.fr [Institut Jean Lamour, CNRS-Université de Lorraine, BP 70239, 54506 Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy (France)

    2016-08-01

    The precise quantification of catalyst residues in purified carbon nanotubes is often a major issue in view of any fundamental and/or applicative studies. More importantly, since the best CNTs are successfully grown with magnetic catalysts, their quantification becomes strictly necessary to better understand intrinsic properties of CNT. For these reasons, we have deeply analyzed the catalyst content remained in nickel–yttrium arc-discharge single walled carbon nanotubes purified by both a chlorine-gas phase and a standard acid-based treatment. The study focuses on Ni analysis which has been investigated by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetry analysis, and magnetic measurements. In the case of the acid-based treatment, all quantifications result in a decrease of the nanocrystallized Ni by a factor of two. In the case of the halogen gas treatment, analysis and quantification of Ni content is less straightforward: a huge difference appears between X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetry results. Thanks to magnetic measurements, this disagreement is explained by the presence of Ni{sup 2+} ions, belonging to NiCl{sub 2} formed during the Cl-based purification process. In particular, NiCl{sub 2} compound appears under different magnetic/crystalline phases: paramagnetic or diamagnetic, or well intercalated in between carbon sheets with an ordered magnetic phase at low temperature. - Highlights: • Cl-gas treatment of Ni catalyst of carbon nanotubes leads to NiCl{sub 2} residue. • Magnetic measurements show the transformation of Ni{sup 0} in Ni{sup 2+}through a purification process. • High temperature Cl treatment removes 75% of metallic impurities. • Cl-purification yields to an amount of metal of 1.5% in arc-discharge CNT samples.

  12. Local gate control in carbon nanotube quantum devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biercuk, Michael Jordan

    This thesis presents transport measurements of carbon nanotube electronic devices operated in the quantum regime. Nanotubes are contacted by source and drain electrodes, and multiple lithographically-patterned electrostatic gates are aligned to each device. Transport measurements of device conductance or current as a function of local gate voltages reveal that local gates couple primarily to the proximal section of the nanotube, hence providing spatially localized control over carrier density along the nanotube length. Further, using several different techniques we are able to produce local depletion regions along the length of a tube. This phenomenon is explored in detail for different contact metals to the nanotube. We utilize local gating techniques to study multiple quantum dots in carbon nanotubes produced both by naturally occurring defects, and by the controlled application of voltages to depletion gates. We study double quantum dots in detail, where transport measurements reveal honeycomb charge stability diagrams. We extract values of energy-level spacings, capacitances, and interaction energies for this system, and demonstrate independent control over all relevant tunneling rates. We report rf-reflectometry measurements of gate-defined carbon nanotube quantum dots with integrated charge sensors. Aluminum rf-SETs are electrostatically coupled to carbon nanotube devices and detect single electron charging phenomena in the Coulomb blockade regime. Simultaneous correlated measurements of single electron charging are made using reflected rf power from the nanotube itself and from the rf-SET on microsecond time scales. We map charge stability diagrams for the nanotube quantum dot via charge sensing, observing Coulomb charging diamonds beyond the first order. Conductance measurements of carbon nanotubes containing gated local depletion regions exhibit plateaus as a function of gate voltage, spaced by approximately 1e2/h, the quantum of conductance for a single

  13. Fast synthesis of multilayer carbon nanotubes from camphor oil as an energy storage material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    TermehYousefi, Amin; Bagheri, Samira; Shinji, Kawasaki; Rouhi, Jalal; Rusop Mahmood, Mohamad; Ikeda, Shoichiro

    2014-01-01

    Among the wide range of renewable energy sources, the ever-increasing demand for electricity storage represents an emerging challenge. Utilizing carbon nanotubes (CNTs) for energy storage is closely being scrutinized due to the promising performance on top of their extraordinary features. In this work, well-aligned multilayer carbon nanotubes were successfully synthesized on a porous silicon (PSi) substrate in a fast process using renewable natural essential oil via chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Considering the influx of vaporized multilayer vertical carbon nanotubes (MVCNTs) to the PSi, the diameter distribution increased as the flow rate decreased in the reactor. Raman spectroscopy results indicated that the crystalline quality of the carbon nanotubes structure exhibits no major variation despite changes in the flow rate. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra confirmed the hexagonal structure of the carbon nanotubes because of the presence of a peak corresponding to the carbon double bond. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) images showed multilayer nanotubes, each with different diameters with long and straight multiwall tubes. Moreover, the temperature programmed desorption (TPD) method has been used to analyze the hydrogen storage properties of MVCNTs, which indicates that hydrogen adsorption sites exist on the synthesized multilayer CNTs.

  14. Fast Synthesis of Multilayer Carbon Nanotubes from Camphor Oil as an Energy Storage Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin TermehYousefi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Among the wide range of renewable energy sources, the ever-increasing demand for electricity storage represents an emerging challenge. Utilizing carbon nanotubes (CNTs for energy storage is closely being scrutinized due to the promising performance on top of their extraordinary features. In this work, well-aligned multilayer carbon nanotubes were successfully synthesized on a porous silicon (PSi substrate in a fast process using renewable natural essential oil via chemical vapor deposition (CVD. Considering the influx of vaporized multilayer vertical carbon nanotubes (MVCNTs to the PSi, the diameter distribution increased as the flow rate decreased in the reactor. Raman spectroscopy results indicated that the crystalline quality of the carbon nanotubes structure exhibits no major variation despite changes in the flow rate. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR spectra confirmed the hexagonal structure of the carbon nanotubes because of the presence of a peak corresponding to the carbon double bond. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM images showed multilayer nanotubes, each with different diameters with long and straight multiwall tubes. Moreover, the temperature programmed desorption (TPD method has been used to analyze the hydrogen storage properties of MVCNTs, which indicates that hydrogen adsorption sites exist on the synthesized multilayer CNTs.

  15. Fast Synthesis of Multilayer Carbon Nanotubes from Camphor Oil as an Energy Storage Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    TermehYousefi, Amin; Bagheri, Samira; Shinji, Kawasaki; Rouhi, Jalal; Rusop Mahmood, Mohamad; Ikeda, Shoichiro

    2014-01-01

    Among the wide range of renewable energy sources, the ever-increasing demand for electricity storage represents an emerging challenge. Utilizing carbon nanotubes (CNTs) for energy storage is closely being scrutinized due to the promising performance on top of their extraordinary features. In this work, well-aligned multilayer carbon nanotubes were successfully synthesized on a porous silicon (PSi) substrate in a fast process using renewable natural essential oil via chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Considering the influx of vaporized multilayer vertical carbon nanotubes (MVCNTs) to the PSi, the diameter distribution increased as the flow rate decreased in the reactor. Raman spectroscopy results indicated that the crystalline quality of the carbon nanotubes structure exhibits no major variation despite changes in the flow rate. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra confirmed the hexagonal structure of the carbon nanotubes because of the presence of a peak corresponding to the carbon double bond. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) images showed multilayer nanotubes, each with different diameters with long and straight multiwall tubes. Moreover, the temperature programmed desorption (TPD) method has been used to analyze the hydrogen storage properties of MVCNTs, which indicates that hydrogen adsorption sites exist on the synthesized multilayer CNTs. PMID:25258714

  16. Advances in NO2 sensing with individual single-walled carbon nanotube transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikkadi, Kiran; Muoth, Matthias; Roman, Cosmin; Haluska, Miroslav; Hierold, Christofer

    2014-01-01

    The charge carrier transport in carbon nanotubes is highly sensitive to certain molecules attached to their surface. This property has generated interest for their application in sensing gases, chemicals and biomolecules. With over a decade of research, a clearer picture of the interactions between the carbon nanotube and its surroundings has been achieved. In this review, we intend to summarize the current knowledge on this topic, focusing not only on the effect of adsorbates but also the effect of dielectric charge traps on the electrical transport in single-walled carbon nanotube transistors that are to be used in sensing applications. Recently, contact-passivated, open-channel individual single-walled carbon nanotube field-effect transistors have been shown to be operational at room temperature with ultra-low power consumption. Sensor recovery within minutes through UV illumination or self-heating has been shown. Improvements in fabrication processes aimed at reducing the impact of charge traps have reduced the hysteresis, drift and low-frequency noise in carbon nanotube transistors. While open challenges such as large-scale fabrication, selectivity tuning and noise reduction still remain, these results demonstrate considerable progress in transforming the promise of carbon nanotube properties into functional ultra-low power, highly sensitive gas sensors.

  17. Electrophoretic deposition of carbon nanotubes on a carbon fiber surface with different index graphitization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, E.C.; Baldan, M.R.; Ferreira, N.G.; Edwards, E.R.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: The purpose of this work is to examine the electrophoretic deposition of carbon nanotubes powder on carbon fibers, produced at different heat treatments temperatures. Besides, a systematic study of the effects of graphitization index from substrate on the structure and morphology of CNTs has been available. Carbon fibers were produced from polyacrylonitrile at three different heat treatments temperatures, 1000, 1500 and 2000 deg C. The carbon fibers microstructure or its graphitization index may be controlled by the heat treatments temperatures. The electrophoretic deposition of carbon nanotubes was obtained with the powder of carbon nanotubes dispersed in water by ultrasonication to obtain dispersions of 0.05 mg/mL. The carbon fibers were immersed in the nanotube dispersion, and a positive potential of 10 V/cm was applied. Morphology and microstructure of carbon nanotubes on carbon fibers were obtained by scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. (author)

  18. Rotational actuator of motor based on carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zettl, Alexander K.; Fennimore, Adam M.; Yuzvinsky, Thomas D.

    2008-11-18

    A rotational actuator/motor based on rotation of a carbon nanotube is disclosed. The carbon nanotube is provided with a rotor plate attached to an outer wall, which moves relative to an inner wall of the nanotube. After deposit of a nanotube on a silicon chip substrate, the entire structure may be fabricated by lithography using selected techniques adapted from silicon manufacturing technology. The structures to be fabricated may comprise a multiwall carbon nanotube (MWNT), two in plane stators S1, S2 and a gate stator S3 buried beneath the substrate surface. The MWNT is suspended between two anchor pads and comprises a rotator attached to an outer wall and arranged to move in response to electromagnetic inputs. The substrate is etched away to allow the rotor to freely rotate. Rotation may be either in a reciprocal or fully rotatable manner.

  19. Structural and electronic properties of carbon nanotubes under hydrostatic pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Ying; Cao Juexian; Yang Wei

    2008-01-01

    We studied the structural and electronic properties of carbon nanotubes under hydrostatic pressures based on molecular dynamics simulations and first principles band structure calculations. It is found that carbon nanotubes experience a hard-to-soft transition as external pressure increases. The bulk modulus of soft phase is two orders of magnitude smaller than that of hard phase. The band structure calculations show that band gap of (10, 0) nanotube increases with the increase of pressure at low pressures. Above a critical pressure (5.70GPa), band gap of (10, 0) nanotube drops rapidly and becomes zero at 6.62GPa. Moreover, the calculated charge density shows that a large pressure can induce an sp 2 -to-sp 3 bonding transition, which is confirmed by recent experiments on deformed carbon nanotubes

  20. Carbon Nanotube Chopped Fiber for Enhanced Properties in Additive Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menchhofer, Paul A [ORNL; Lindahl, John M [ORNL; JohnsonPhD, DR Joseph E. [Nanocomp Technologies, Inc.

    2016-06-06

    Nanocomp Technologies, Inc. is working with Oak Ridge National Laboratory to develop carbon nanotube (CNT) composite materials and evaluate their use in additive manufacturing (3D printing). The first phase demonstrated feasibility and improvements for carbon nanotube (CNT)- acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) composite filaments use in additive manufacturing, with potential future work centering on further improvements. By focusing the initial phase on standard processing methods (developed mainly for the incorporation of carbon fibers in ABS) and characterization techniques, a basis of knowledge for the incorporation of CNTs in ABS was learned. The ability to understand the various processing variables is critical to the successful development of these composites. From the degradation effects on ABS (caused by excessive temperatures), to the length of time the ABS is in the melt state, to the order of addition of constituents, and also to the many possible mixing approaches, a workable flow sequence that addresses each processing step is critical to the final material properties. Although this initial phase could not deal with each of these variables in-depth, a future study is recommended that will build on the lessons learned for this effort.