WorldWideScience

Sample records for processes reactor technology

  1. Reactor and process design in sustainable energy technology

    CERN Document Server

    Shi, Fan

    2014-01-01

    Reactor Process Design in Sustainable Energy Technology compiles and explains current developments in reactor and process design in sustainable energy technologies, including optimization and scale-up methodologies and numerical methods. Sustainable energy technologies that require more efficient means of converting and utilizing energy can help provide for burgeoning global energy demand while reducing anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions associated with energy production. The book, contributed by an international team of academic and industry experts in the field, brings numerous reactor design cases to readers based on their valuable experience from lab R&D scale to industry levels. It is the first to emphasize reactor engineering in sustainable energy technology discussing design. It provides comprehensive tools and information to help engineers and energy professionals learn, design, and specify chemical reactors and processes confidently. Emphasis on reactor engineering in sustainable energy techn...

  2. Nuclear reactor fuel cycle technology with pyroelectrochemical processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skiba, O.V.; Maershin, A.A.; Bychkov, A.V.; Zhdanov, A.N.; Kislyj, V.A.; Vavilov, S.K.; Babikov, L.G.

    1999-01-01

    A group of dry technologies and processes of vibro-packing granulated fuel in combination with unique properties of vibro-packed FEs make it possible to implement a new comprehensive approach to the fuel cycle with plutonium fuel. Testing of a big number of FEs with vibro-packed U-Pu oxide fuel in the BOR-60 reactor, successful testing of experimental FSAs in the BN-600 rector, reliable operation of the experimental and research complex facilities allow to make the conclusion about a real possibility to develop a safe, economically beneficial U-Pu fuel cycle based on the technologies enumerated above and to use both reactor-grade and weapon-grade plutonium in nuclear reactors with a reliable control and accounting system [ru

  3. Process technology for the molten-salt reactor 233U--Th cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hightower, J.R. Jr.

    1975-01-01

    After a brief description of the design features of the molten-salt breeder reactor, fuel processing for removal of 233 Pa and fission products is examined. Some recent developments in processing technology are discussed

  4. Virtual maintenance technology for reactor system based on PPR technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Yaxiang; Ma Baiyong

    2009-01-01

    Based on the Product, Process and Resources (PPR) technology, the establishing technology of virtual maintenance environment for the reactor system and the process structure tree for virtual maintenance is studied, and the flow for the maintainability design and simulation for reactor system is put forward. Based on the subsection simulation of maintenance process and layered design of maintenance actions, the leveled structure of the reactor system virtual maintenance task is studied. The relation for the data of product, process and resource is described by Plan Evaluation and Review Technology (PERT) diagram to define the maintenance operation. (authors)

  5. Advanced Reactor Technologies - Regulatory Technology Development Plan (RTDP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moe, Wayne L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2017-08-23

    This DOE-NE Advanced Small Modular Reactor (AdvSMR) regulatory technology development plan (RTDP) will link critical DOE nuclear reactor technology development programs to important regulatory and policy-related issues likely to impact a “critical path” for establishing a viable commercial AdvSMR presence in the domestic energy market. Accordingly, the regulatory considerations that are set forth in the AdvSMR RTDP will not be limited to any one particular type or subset of advanced reactor technology(s) but rather broadly consider potential regulatory approaches and the licensing implications that accompany all DOE-sponsored research and technology development activity that deal with commercial non-light water reactors. However, it is also important to remember that certain “minimum” levels of design and safety approach knowledge concerning these technology(s) must be defined and available to an extent that supports appropriate pre-licensing regulatory analysis within the RTDP. Final resolution to advanced reactor licensing issues is most often predicated on the detailed design information and specific safety approach as documented in a facility license application and submitted for licensing review. Because the AdvSMR RTDP is focused on identifying and assessing the potential regulatory implications of DOE-sponsored reactor technology research very early in the pre-license application development phase, the information necessary to support a comprehensive regulatory analysis of a new reactor technology, and the resolution of resulting issues, will generally not be available. As such, the regulatory considerations documented in the RTDP should be considered an initial “first step” in the licensing process which will continue until a license is issued to build and operate the said nuclear facility. Because a facility license application relies heavily on the data and information generated by technology development studies, the anticipated regulatory

  6. Advanced Reactor Technology -- Regulatory Technology Development Plan (RTDP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moe, Wayne Leland [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-05-01

    This DOE-NE Advanced Small Modular Reactor (AdvSMR) regulatory technology development plan (RTDP) will link critical DOE nuclear reactor technology development programs to important regulatory and policy-related issues likely to impact a “critical path” for establishing a viable commercial AdvSMR presence in the domestic energy market. Accordingly, the regulatory considerations that are set forth in the AdvSMR RTDP will not be limited to any one particular type or subset of advanced reactor technology(s) but rather broadly consider potential regulatory approaches and the licensing implications that accompany all DOE-sponsored research and technology development activity that deal with commercial non-light water reactors. However, it is also important to remember that certain “minimum” levels of design and safety approach knowledge concerning these technology(s) must be defined and available to an extent that supports appropriate pre-licensing regulatory analysis within the RTDP. Final resolution to advanced reactor licensing issues is most often predicated on the detailed design information and specific safety approach as documented in a facility license application and submitted for licensing review. Because the AdvSMR RTDP is focused on identifying and assessing the potential regulatory implications of DOE-sponsored reactor technology research very early in the pre-license application development phase, the information necessary to support a comprehensive regulatory analysis of a new reactor technology, and the resolution of resulting issues, will generally not be available. As such, the regulatory considerations documented in the RTDP should be considered an initial “first step” in the licensing process which will continue until a license is issued to build and operate the said nuclear facility. Because a facility license application relies heavily on the data and information generated by technology development studies, the anticipated regulatory

  7. Advanced Reactor Technology -- Regulatory Technology Development Plan (RTDP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moe, Wayne Leland

    2015-01-01

    This DOE-NE Advanced Small Modular Reactor (AdvSMR) regulatory technology development plan (RTDP) will link critical DOE nuclear reactor technology development programs to important regulatory and policy-related issues likely to impact a ''critical path'' for establishing a viable commercial AdvSMR presence in the domestic energy market. Accordingly, the regulatory considerations that are set forth in the AdvSMR RTDP will not be limited to any one particular type or subset of advanced reactor technology(s) but rather broadly consider potential regulatory approaches and the licensing implications that accompany all DOE-sponsored research and technology development activity that deal with commercial non-light water reactors. However, it is also important to remember that certain ''minimum'' levels of design and safety approach knowledge concerning these technology(s) must be defined and available to an extent that supports appropriate pre-licensing regulatory analysis within the RTDP. Final resolution to advanced reactor licensing issues is most often predicated on the detailed design information and specific safety approach as documented in a facility license application and submitted for licensing review. Because the AdvSMR RTDP is focused on identifying and assessing the potential regulatory implications of DOE-sponsored reactor technology research very early in the pre-license application development phase, the information necessary to support a comprehensive regulatory analysis of a new reactor technology, and the resolution of resulting issues, will generally not be available. As such, the regulatory considerations documented in the RTDP should be considered an initial ''first step'' in the licensing process which will continue until a license is issued to build and operate the said nuclear facility. Because a facility license application relies heavily on the data and information generated by

  8. Reactor technology assessment and selection utilizing systems engineering approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolkaffly, Muhammed Zulfakar; Han, Ki-In

    2014-02-01

    The first Nuclear power plant (NPP) deployment in a country is a complex process that needs to consider technical, economic and financial aspects along with other aspects like public acceptance. Increased interest in the deployment of new NPPs, both among newcomer countries and those with expanding programs, necessitates the selection of reactor technology among commercially available technologies. This paper reviews the Systems Decision Process (SDP) of Systems Engineering and applies it in selecting the most appropriate reactor technology for the deployment in Malaysia. The integrated qualitative and quantitative analyses employed in the SDP are explored to perform reactor technology assessment and to select the most feasible technology whose design has also to comply with the IAEA standard requirements and other relevant requirements that have been established in this study. A quick Malaysian case study result suggests that the country reside with PWR (pressurized water reactor) technologies with more detailed study to be performed in the future for the selection of the most appropriate reactor technology for Malaysia. The demonstrated technology assessment also proposes an alternative method to systematically and quantitatively select the most appropriate reactor technology.

  9. Chemistry and technology of Molten Salt Reactors - history and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhlir, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Molten Salt Reactors represent one of promising future nuclear reactor concept included also in the Generation IV reactors family. This reactor type is distinguished by an extraordinarily close connection between the reactor physics and chemical technology, which is given by the specific features of the chemical form of fuel, representing by molten fluoride salt and circulating through the reactor core and also by the requirements of continuous 'on-line' reprocessing of the spent fuel. The history of Molten Salt Reactors reaches the period of fifties and sixties, when the first experimental Molten Salt Reactors were constructed and tested in ORNL (US). Several molten salt techniques dedicated to fresh molten salt fuel processing and spent fuel reprocessing were studied and developed in those days. Today, after nearly thirty years of discontinuance, a renewed interest in the Molten Salt Reactor technology is observed. Current experimental R and D activities in the area of Molten Salt Reactor technology are realized by a relatively small number of research institutions mainly in the EU, Russia and USA. The main effort is directed primarily to the development of separation processes suitable for the molten salt fuel processing and reprocessing technology. The techniques under development are molten salt/liquid metal extraction processes, electrochemical separation processes from the molten salt media, fused salt volatilization techniques and gas extraction from the molten salt medium

  10. Experimental research subject and renovation of chemical processing facility (CPF) for advanced fast reactor fuel reprocessing technology development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyama, Tomozo; Shinozaki, Tadahiro; Nomura, Kazunori; Koma, Yoshikazu; Miyachi, Shigehiko; Ichige, Yoshiaki; Kobayashi, Tsuguyuki; Nemoto, Shin-ichi

    2002-01-01

    In order to enhance economical efficiency, environmental impact and nuclear nonproliferation resistance, the Advanced Reprocessing Technology, such as simplification and optimization of process, and applicability evaluation of the innovative technology that was not adopted up to now, has been developed for the reprocessing of the irradiated fuel taken out from a fast reactor. Renovation of the hot cell interior equipments, establishment and updating of glove boxes, installation of various analytical equipments, etc. in the Chemical Processing Facility (CPF) was done to utilize the CPF more positivity which is the center of the experimental field, where actual fuel can be used, for research and development towards establishment of the Advanced Reprocessing Technology development. The hot trials using the irradiated fuel pins of the experimental fast reactor 'JOYO' for studies on improved aqueous reprocessing technology, MA separation technology, dry process technology, etc. are scheduled to be carried out with these new equipments. (author)

  11. Tritium processing and containment technology for fusion reactors. Annual report, July 1975--June 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maroni, V.A.; Calaway, W.F.; Misra, B.; Van Deventer, E.H.; Weston, J.R.; Yonco, R.M.; Cafasso, F.A.; Burris, L.

    1976-01-01

    The hydrogen permeabilities of selected metals, alloys, and multiplex preparations that are of interest to fusion reactor technology are being characterized. A high-vacuum hydrogen-permeation apparatus has been constructed for this purpose. A program of studies has been initiated to develop design details for the tritium-handling systems of near-term fusion reactors. This program has resulted in a better definition of reactor-fuel-cycle and enrichment requirements and has helped to identify major research and development problems in the tritium-handling area. The design and construction of a 50-gallon lithium-processing test loop (LPTL) is well under way. Studies in support of this project are providing important guidance in the selection of hardware for the LPTL and in the design of a molten-salt processing test section

  12. Nuclear reactor application for high temperature power industrial processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dollezhal', N.A.; Zaicho, N.D.; Alexeev, A.M.; Baturov, B.B.; Karyakin, Yu.I.; Nazarov, E.K.; Ponomarev-Stepnoj, N.N.; Protzenko, A.M.; Chernyaev, V.A.

    1977-01-01

    This report gives the results of considerations on industrial heat and technology processes (in chemistry, steelmaking, etc.) from the point of view of possible ways, technical conditions and nuclear safety requirements for the use of high temperature reactors in these processes. Possible variants of energy-technological diagrams of nuclear-steelmaking, methane steam-reforming reaction and other processes, taking into account the specific character of nuclear fuel are also given. Technical possibilities and economic conditions of the usage of different types of high temperature reactors (gas cooled reactors and reactors which have other means of transport of nuclear heat) in heat processes are examined. The report has an analysis of the problem, that arises with the application of nuclear reactors in energy-technological plants and an evaluation of solutions of this problem. There is a reason to suppose that we will benefit from the use of high temperature reactors in comparison with the production based on high quality fossil fuel [ru

  13. Cryogenics in nuclear reactor technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dharmadurai, G.

    1982-01-01

    The cryogenic technology has significantly contributed to the development of several proven techniques for use in the nuclear power industry. A noteworthy feature is the unique role of cryogenics in minimising the release of radioactive and some chemical pollutants to the environment during the operation of various plants associated with this industry. The salient technological features of several cryogenic processes relevant to the nuclear reactor technology are discussed. (author)

  14. Space-reactor electric systems: subsystem technology assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, R.V.; Bost, D.; Determan, W.R.

    1983-01-01

    This report documents the subsystem technology assessment. For the purpose of this report, five subsystems were defined for a space reactor electric system, and the report is organized around these subsystems: reactor; shielding; primary heat transport; power conversion and processing; and heat rejection. The purpose of the assessment was to determine the current technology status and the technology potentials for different types of the five subsystems. The cost and schedule needed to develop these potentials were estimated, and sets of development-compatible subsystems were identified

  15. Ship propulsion reactors technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fribourg, Ch.

    2002-01-01

    This paper takes the state of the art on ship propulsion reactors technology. The french research programs with the corresponding technological stakes, the reactors specifications and advantages are detailed. (A.L.B.)

  16. Assessment of Sensor Technologies for Advanced Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korsah, Kofi [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ramuhalli, Pradeep [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Vlim, R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Kisner, Roger A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Britton, Jr, Charles L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wootan, D. W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Anheier, Jr, N. C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Diaz, A. A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hirt, E. H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Chien, H. T. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Sheen, S. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Bakhtiari, Sasan [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Gopalsami, S. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Heifetz, A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Tam, S. W. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Park, Y. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Upadhyaya, B. R. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Stanford, A. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Sensors and measurement technologies provide information on processes, support operations and provide indications of component health. They are therefore crucial to plant operations and to commercialization of advanced reactors (AdvRx). This report, developed by a three-laboratory team consisting of Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), provides an assessment of sensor technologies and a determination of measurement needs for AdvRx. It provides the technical basis for identifying and prioritizing research targets within the instrumentation and control (I&C) Technology Area under the Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Advanced Reactor Technology (ART) program and contributes to the design and implementation of AdvRx concepts.

  17. Department of reactor technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The activities of the Department of Reactor Technology at Risoe during 1979 are described. The work is presented in five chapters: Reactor Engineering, Reactor Physics and Dynamics, Heat Transfer and Hydraulics, The DR 1 Reactor, and Non-Nuclear Activities. A list of the staff and of publications is included. (author)

  18. R and D of On-line Reprocessing Technology for Molten-Salt Reactor Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhlir, Jan; Tulackova, Radka; Chuchvalcova Bimova, Karolina

    2006-01-01

    The Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) represents one of promising future nuclear reactor concept included in the Generation IV reactors family. The reactor can be operated as the thorium breeder or as the actinide transmuter. However, the future deployment of Molten-Salt Reactors will be significantly dependent on the successful mastering of advanced reprocessing technologies dedicated to their fuel cycle. Here the on-line reprocessing technology connected with the fuel circuit of MSR is of special importance because the reactor cannot be operated for a long run without the fuel salt clean-up. Generally, main MSR reprocessing technologies are pyrochemical, majority of them are fluoride technologies. The proposed flow-sheets of MSR on-line reprocessing are based on a combination of molten-salt / liquid metal extraction and electro-separation processes, which can be added to the gas extraction process already verified during the MSRE project in ORNL. The crucial separation method proposed for partitioning of actinides from fission products is based on successive Anodic dissolution and Cathodic deposition processes in molten fluoride media. (authors)

  19. Reactors based on CANDU technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjegun, S.V.; Shirokov, S.V.

    2012-01-01

    The paper analyzes the use CANDU technology in world nuclear energy. Advantages and disadvantages in implementation of this technology are considered in terms of economic and technical aspects. Technological issues related to the use of CANDU reactors and nuclear safety issues are outlined. Risks from implementation of this reactor technology in nuclear energy of Ukraine are determined

  20. Development of fuel cycle technology for molten-salt reactor systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhlir, J.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Full text: The Molten-Salt Reactor (MSR) represents one of promising advanced reactor type assigned to the GEN IV reactor systems. It can be operated either as thorium breeder within the Th -133U fuel cycle or as actinide transmuter incinerating transuranium fuel. Essentially the main advantage of MSR comes out from the prerequisite, that this reactor type should be directly connected with the 'on-line' reprocessing of circulating liquid (molten-salt) fuel. This principle should allow very effective extraction of freshly constituted fissile material (233U). Besides, the on-line fuel salt clean up is necessary within a long run to keep the reactor in operation. As a matter of principle, it permits to clear away typical reactor poisons like xenon, krypton, lanthanides etc. and possibly also other products of burned plutonium and transmuted minor actinides. The fuel salt clean up technology should be linked with the fresh MSR fuel processing to continuously refill the new fuel (thorium or transuranics) into the reactor system. On the other hand, the technologies of fresh transuranium molten-salt fuel processing from the current LWR spent fuel and of the on-line reprocessing of MSR fuel represent two killing points of the whole MSR technology, which have to be successfully solved before MSR deployment in the future. There are three main pyrochemical partitioning techniques proposed for processing and/or reprocessing of MSR fuel: Fluoride volatilization processes, Molten salt / liquid metal extraction processes and Electrochemical separation processes. Two of them - Fluoride Volatility Method and Electrochemical separation process from fluoride media are under development in the Nuclear Research Institute Rez pic. R and D in the field of Fluoride Volatility Method is concentrated to the development and verification of experimental semi-pilot technology for LWR spent fuel reprocessing, which may result in a product the form and composition of which might be

  1. Cogeneration using a nuclear reactor to generate process heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, Gustavo; Ramirez, Ramon

    2009-01-01

    Some of the new nuclear reactor technologies (Generation III+) are claiming the production of process heat as an additional value to electricity generation. These technologies are still under development and none of them has shown how this can be possible and what will be the penalty in electricity generation to have this additional product. The current study assess the likeliness of generate process heat from a Pebble Bed Modular Reactor to be used for a refinery showing different plant balance and alternatives to produce and use that process heat. An actual practical example is presented to demonstrate the cogeneration viability using the fact that the PBMR is a modular small reactor and also the challenges that this option has. (author)

  2. Assessment of very high-temperature reactors in process application. Appendix I. Evaluation of the reactor system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, J.E. Jr.; Spiewak, I.

    1976-12-01

    In April 1974, the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission [now the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA)] authorized General Atomic Company, General Electric Company, and Westinghouse Electric Corp., Astronuclear Laboratory, to assess the available technology for producing heat using very high-temperature nuclear reactors. An evaulation of these studies and of the technical and economic potential of very high-temperature reactors (VHTR) is presented. The VHTR is a helium-cooled graphite-moderated reactor. The concepts and technology are evaluated for producing process stream temperatures of 649, 760, 871, 982, and 1093 0 C (1200, 1400, 1600, 1800, and 2000 0 F). There are a number of large industrial process heat applications that could utilize the VHTR

  3. Assessment of very high temperature reactors in process applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, J.E. Jr.; Spiewak, I.; Gambill, W.R.

    1976-01-01

    In April 1974, the United States Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) authorized General Atomic Company, General Electric Company, and Westinghouse Astronuclear Laboratory to assess the available technology for producing process heat utilizing a very high temperature nuclear reactor (VHTR). The VHTR is defined as a gas-cooled graphite-moderated reactor. Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been given a lead role in evaluating the VHTR reactor studies and potential applications of the VHTR. Process temperatures up to the 760 to 871 0 C range appear to be achievable with near-term technology. The major development considerations are high temperature materials, the safety questions (especially regarding the need for an intermediate heat exchanger) and the process heat exchanger. The potential advantages of the VHTR over competing fossil energy sources are conservation of fossil fuels and reduced atmospheric impacts. Costs are developed for nuclear process heat supplied from a 3000-MW(th) VHTR. The range of cost in process applications is competitive with current fossil fuel alternatives

  4. Advances in Process Intensification through Multifunctional Reactor Engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Hern, Timothy [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Engineering Sciences Center; Evans, Lindsay [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Materials Sciences and Engineering Center; Miller, Jim [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Materials Sciences and Engineering Center; Cooper, Marcia [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Energetic Components Realization Center; Torczynski, John [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Pena, Donovan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gill, Walt [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Engineering Sciences Center

    2011-02-01

    This project was designed to advance the art of process intensification leading to a new generation of multifunctional chemical reactors utilizing pulse flow. Experimental testing was performed in order to fully characterize the hydrodynamic operating regimes associated with pulse flow for implementation in commercial applications. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) operated a pilot-scale multifunctional reactor experiment for operation with and investigation of pulse flow operation. Validation-quality data sets of the fluid dynamics, heat and mass transfer, and chemical kinetics were acquired and shared with Chemical Research and Licensing (CR&L). Experiments in a two-phase air-water system examined the effects of bead diameter in the packing, and viscosity. Pressure signals were used to detect pulsing. Three-phase experiments used immiscible organic and aqueous liquids, and air or nitrogen as the gas phase. Hydrodynamic studies of flow regimes and holdup were performed for different types of packing, and mass transfer measurements were performed for a woven packing. These studies substantiated the improvements in mass transfer anticipated for pulse flow in multifunctional reactors for the acid-catalyzed C4 paraffin/olefin alkylation process. CR&L developed packings for this alkylation process, utilizing their alkylation process pilot facilities in Pasadena, TX. These packings were evaluated in the pilot-scale multifunctional reactor experiments established by Sandia to develop a more fundamental understanding of their role in process intensification. Lummus utilized the alkylation technology developed by CR&L to design and optimize the full commercial process utilizing multifunctional reactors containing the packings developed by CR&L and evaluated by Sandia. This hydrodynamic information has been developed for multifunctional chemical reactors utilizing pulse flow, for the acid-catalyzed C4 paraffin/olefin alkylation process, and is now accessible for use in

  5. Nuclear Reactors and Technology; (USA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cason, D.L.; Hicks, S.C. (eds.)

    1991-01-01

    Nuclear Reactors and Technology (NRT) announces on a monthly basis the current worldwide information available from the open literature on nuclear reactors and technology, including all aspects of power reactors, components and accessories, fuel elements, control systems, and materials. This publication contains the abstracts of DOE reports, journal articles, conference papers, patents, theses, and monographs added to the Energy Science and Technology Database (EDB) during the past month. Also included are US information obtained through acquisition programs or interagency agreements and international information obtained through the International Energy Agency's Energy Technology Data Exchange or government-to-government agreements. The digests in NRT and other citations to information on nuclear reactors back to 1948 are available for online searching and retrieval on EDB and Nuclear Science Abstracts (NSA) database. Current information, added daily to EDB, is available to DOE and its contractors through the DOE integrated Technical Information System. Customized profiles can be developed to provide current information to meet each user's needs.

  6. Reprocessing technology for present water reactor fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMurray, P.R.

    1977-01-01

    The basic Purex solvent extraction technology developed and applied in the U.S. in the 1950's provides a well-demonstrated and efficient process for recovering uranium and plutonium for fuel recycle and separating the wastes for further treatment and packaging. The technologies for confinement of radioactive effluents have been developed but have had limited utilization in the processing of commercial light water reactor fuels. Technologies for solidification and packaging of radioactive wastes have not yet been demonstrated but significant experience has been gained in laboratory and engineering scale experiments with simulated commercial reprocessing wastes and intermediate level wastes. Commercial scale experience with combined operations of all the required processes and equipment are needed to demonstrate reliable reprocessing centers

  7. Technology development and demonstration for TRIGA research reactor decontamination, decommissioning and site restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Won Zin; Jung, Ki Jung; Lee, Byung Jik

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes the introduction to research reactor decommissioning plan at KAERI, the background of technology development and demonstration, and the current status of the system decontamination technology for TRIGA reactors, concrete decontamination and dust treatment technologies, wall ranging robot and graphic simulation of dismantling processes, soil decontamination and restoration technology, recycling or reuse technologies for radioactive metallic wastes, and incineration technology demonstration for combustible wastes. 9 figs

  8. Department of Reactor Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risø National Laboratory, Roskilde

    The general development of the Department of Reactor Technology at Risø during 1981 is presented, and the activities within the major subject fields are described in some detail. Lists of staff, publications, and computer programs are included.......The general development of the Department of Reactor Technology at Risø during 1981 is presented, and the activities within the major subject fields are described in some detail. Lists of staff, publications, and computer programs are included....

  9. Status of advanced technology and design for water cooled reactors: Light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-10-01

    Water reactors represent a high level of performance and safety. They are mature technology and they will undoubtedly continue to be the main stream of nuclear power. There are substantial technological development programmes in Member States for further improving the technology and for the development of new concepts in water reactors. Therefore the establishment of an international forum for the exchange of information and stimulation of international co-operation in this field has emerged. In 1987 the IAEA established the International Working Group on Advanced Technologies for Water-Cooled Reactors (IWGATWR). Within the framework of IWGATWR the IAEA Technical Report on Status of Advanced Technology and Design for Water Cooled Reactors, Part I: Light Water Reactors and Part II: Heavy Water Reactors has been undertaken to document the major current activities and different trends of technological improvements and developments for future water reactors. Part I of the report dealing with LWRs has now been prepared and is based mainly on submissions from Member States. It is hoped that this part of the report, containing the status of advanced light water reactor design and technology of the year 1987 and early 1988 will be useful for disseminating information to Agency Member States and for stimulating international cooperation in this subject area. 93 refs, figs and tabs

  10. Status of advanced technology and design for water cooled reactors: Heavy water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-07-01

    In 1987 the IAEA established the International Working Group on Advanced Technologies for Water-Cooled Reactors (IWGATWR). Within the framework of the IWGATWR the IAEA Technical Report on Status of Advanced Technology and Design for Water Cooled Reactors, Part I: Light Water Reactors and Part II: Heavy Water Reactors, has been undertaken to document the major current activities and trends of technological improvement and development for future water reactors. Part I of the report dealing with Light Water Reactors (LWRs) was published in 1988 (IAEA-TECDOC-479). Part II of the report covers Heavy Water Reactors (HWRs) and has now been prepared. This report is based largely upon submissions from Member States. It has been supplemented by material from the presentations at the IAEA Technical Committee and Workshop on Progress in Heavy Water Reactor Design and Technology held in Montreal, Canada, December 6-9, 1988. It is hoped that this part of the report, containing the status of advanced heavy water reactor technology up to 1988 and ongoing development programmes will aid in disseminating information to Member States and in stimulating international cooperation. Refs, figs and tabs

  11. Advanced nuclear reactor types and technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatiev, V.; Devell, L.

    1995-01-01

    The document is a comprehensive world-wide catalogue of concepts and designs of advanced fission reactor types and fuel cycle technologies. Two parts have been prepared: Part 1 Reactors for Power Production and Part 2 Heating and Other Reactor Applications. Part 3, which will cover advanced waste management technology, reprocessing and disposal for different nuclear fission options is planned for compilation during 1995. The catalogue was prepared according to a special format which briefly presents the project title, technical approach, development status, application of the technology, reactor type, power output, and organization which developed these designs. Part 1 and 2 cover water cooled reactors, liquid metal fast reactors, gas-cooled reactors and molten salt reactors. Subcritical accelerator-driven systems are also considered. Various reactor applications as power production, heat generation, ship propulsion, space power sources and transmutation of such waste are included. Each project is described within a few pages with the main features of an actual design using a table with main technical data and figure as well as references for additional information. Each chapter starts with an introduction which briefly describes main trends and approaches in this field. Explanations of terms and abbreviations are provided in a glossary

  12. Advanced nuclear reactor types and technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ignatiev, V [ed.; Feinberg, O; Morozov, A [Russian Research Centre ` Kurchatov Institute` , Moscow (Russian Federation); Devell, L [Studsvik Eco and Safety AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    1995-07-01

    The document is a comprehensive world-wide catalogue of concepts and designs of advanced fission reactor types and fuel cycle technologies. Two parts have been prepared: Part 1 Reactors for Power Production and Part 2 Heating and Other Reactor Applications. Part 3, which will cover advanced waste management technology, reprocessing and disposal for different nuclear fission options is planned for compilation during 1995. The catalogue was prepared according to a special format which briefly presents the project title, technical approach, development status, application of the technology, reactor type, power output, and organization which developed these designs. Part 1 and 2 cover water cooled reactors, liquid metal fast reactors, gas-cooled reactors and molten salt reactors. Subcritical accelerator-driven systems are also considered. Various reactor applications as power production, heat generation, ship propulsion, space power sources and transmutation of such waste are included. Each project is described within a few pages with the main features of an actual design using a table with main technical data and figure as well as references for additional information. Each chapter starts with an introduction which briefly describes main trends and approaches in this field. Explanations of terms and abbreviations are provided in a glossary.

  13. Advances in light water reactor technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Saito, Takehiko; Ishiwatari, Yuki; Oka, Yoshiaki

    2010-01-01

    ""Advances in Light Water Reactor Technologies"" focuses on the design and analysis of advanced nuclear power reactors. This volume provides readers with thorough descriptions of the general characteristics of various advanced light water reactors currently being developed worldwide. Safety, design, development and maintenance of these reactors is the main focus, with key technologies like full MOX core design, next-generation digital I&C systems and seismic design and evaluation described at length. This book is ideal for researchers and engineers working in nuclear power that are interested

  14. Progress of the decommissioning process of Musashi Institute of Technology reactor (4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchiyama, Takafumi; Tanzawa, Tomio; Mitsuhashi, Ishi; Morishima, Kayoko; Matsumoto, Tetsuo

    2012-01-01

    The research reactor of Tokyo City University Atomic Energy Research Laboratory (Musashi Institute of Technology reactor) is zirconium-moderated water-cooled solid homogeneous type (TRIGA-II type), and its maximum heat output is 100 kW. It got into the first critical state in January 1963, and since then, it has mainly contributed to education and training for upgrading nuclear engineers, radioactivation analysis and reactor physics, and medical researches, as the joint usage research facilities across Japan. Then, after a long-term suspension, the university submitted the file in 2004 to the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology on the dismantling for the purpose of facility abolishment. Through the procedure of submitting a decommissioning plan, it was approved. Furthermore, in order to perform the function stop of the disposal facilities of liquid waste, application for change authorization for the decommissioning plan was submitted and approved. Regarding the progress of the decommissioning plan, the dismantling and removal of waste facilities for liquid waste and solid waste was carried out in FY2011 without any trouble. This paper explains this progress and future work plans. (A.O.)

  15. Development of technologies for nuclear reactors of small and medium sized

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-08-01

    This meeting include: countries presentations, themes and objectives of the training course, reactor types, design, EPR, APR1400, A P 1000, A PWR, ATMEA 1, VVER-1000, A PWR, ATMEA 1, VVER 1200, Boiling Water Reactor, A BWR, A BWR -II, ESBUR, Ke ren, AREVA, Heavy Water Reactor, Candu 6, Acr-1000, HWR, Bw, Iris, CAREM NuCcale, Smart, KLT-HOS, Westinghouse small modular Reactor, Gas Cooled Reactors, PBMR, React ores enfriados con metales liquidos, Hs, Prism,Terra Power, Hyper ion, appliance's no electric as de energia, Generation IV Reactors,VHTR, Gas Fast Reactor, Sodium Fast Reactor, Molten salt Reactor, Lfr, Water Cooled Reactor, Technology Assessment Process, Fukushima accident.

  16. Assessment of very high-temperature reactors in process applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiewak, I.; Jones, J.E. Jr.; Gambill, W.R.; Fox, E.C.

    1976-11-01

    An overview is presented of the technical and economic feasibility for the development of a very high-temperature reactor (VHTR) and associated processes. A critical evaluation of VHTR technology for process temperatures of 1400 and 2000 0 F is made. Additionally, an assessment of potential market impact is made to determine the commercial viability of the reactor system. It is concluded that VHTR process heat in the range of 1400 to 1500 0 F is attainable with near-term technology. However, process heat in excess of 1600 0 F would require considerably more materials development. The potential for the VHTR could include a major contribution to synthetic fuel, hydrogen, steel, and fertilizer production and to systems for transport and storage of high-temperature heat. A recommended development program including projected costs is presented

  17. Status of liquid metal cooled fast reactor technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-04-01

    During the period 1985-1998, there have been substantial advances in fast reactor technology development. Chief among these has been the demonstration of reliable operation by several prototypes and experimental reactors, the reliable operation of fuel at high burnup. At the IAEA meetings on liquid metal cooled fast reactor technology (LMFR), it became evident that there have been significant technological advances as well as changes in the economic and regulatory environment since 1985. Therefore the International working group on Fast Reactors has recommended the preparation of a new status report on fast reactors. The present report intends to provide comprehensive and detailed information on LMFR technology. The focus is on practical issues that are useful to engineers, scientists, managers, university students and professors, on the following topics: experience in construction and operation, reactor physics and safety, sore structural material and fuel technology, fast reactor engineering and activities in progress on LMFR plants Refs, figs, tabs

  18. Status of liquid metal cooled fast reactor technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-04-01

    During the period 1985-1998, there have been substantial advances in fast reactor technology development. Chief among these has been the demonstration of reliable operation by several prototypes and experimental reactors, the reliable operation of fuel at high burnup. At the IAEA meetings on liquid metal cooled fast reactor technology (LMFR), it became evident that there have been significant technological advances as well as changes in the economic and regulatory environment since 1985. Therefore the International working group on Fast Reactors has recommended the preparation of a new status report on fast reactors. The present report intends to provide comprehensive and detailed information on LMFR technology. The focus is on practical issues that are useful to engineers, scientists, managers, university students and professors, on the following topics: experience in construction and operation, reactor physics and safety, sore structural material and fuel technology, fast reactor engineering and activities in progress on LMFR plants

  19. Current Abstracts Nuclear Reactors and Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bales, J.D.; Hicks, S.C. [eds.

    1993-01-01

    This publication Nuclear Reactors and Technology (NRT) announces on a monthly basis the current worldwide information available from the open literature on nuclear reactors and technology, including all aspects of power reactors, components and accessories, fuel elements, control systems, and materials. This publication contains the abstracts of DOE reports, journal articles, conference papers, patents, theses, and monographs added to the Energy Science and Technology Database during the past month. Also included are US information obtained through acquisition programs or interagency agreements and international information obtained through acquisition programs or interagency agreements and international information obtained through the International Energy Agency`s Energy Technology Data Exchange or government-to-government agreements. The digests in NRT and other citations to information on nuclear reactors back to 1948 are available for online searching and retrieval on the Energy Science and Technology Database and Nuclear Science Abstracts (NSA) database. Current information, added daily to the Energy Science and Technology Database, is available to DOE and its contractors through the DOE Integrated Technical Information System. Customized profiles can be developed to provide current information to meet each user`s needs.

  20. Experience in Reviewing Small Modular Reactor Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad Nabil Abdul Rahim; Alfred, S.L.; Phongsakorn, P.

    2015-01-01

    Malaysia is in the stage of conducting Preliminary Technical Feasibility Study for the Deployment of Small Modular Reactor (SMR). There are different types of SMR, some already under construction in Argentina (CAREM) and China (HTR-PM) - (light water reactor and high temperature reactor technologies), others with near-term deployment such as SMART in South Korea, ACP100 in China, mPower and NuScale in the US, and others with longer term deployment prospects (liquid-metal cooled reactor technologies). The study was mainly to get an overview of the technology available in the market. The SMR ranking in the study was done through listing out the most deployable technology in the market according to their types. As a new comer country, the proven technology with an excellent operation history will usually be the main consideration points. (author)

  1. The evolution of gasification processes and reactors and the utilization of the coal gas. A proposition for the implementation of the gasification technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasculete, E.; Iorgulescu, S.

    1996-01-01

    Thermochemical treatment of coal by gasification, considered as a non-polluting technology to turn the coal highly-profitably is one of the alternative ways to produce gas with a high effective caloric capacity. Due to its advantages, the gasification has made through the last few decades significant advances from the point of view of the process efficiency (chemical, thermal), of motor outputs (in m 3 producer gas / m 2 reactor cross section x hour), of the solutions of supplying energy to support the endothermic reactions implied by the process, and especially of the reactors. Reactors have been developed from gas generators. Starting from gas generators various advanced reactors (of 1 st to 3 rd generation) have been developed to produce air gas, water gas or mixed gas. Applications of the producer gas were developed using it either as fuel or as synthesis gas in chemical industry or else as a substitute to the natural gas in combined cycle gas turbines where the gasification plant was integrated. In Romania there are projects in the field of coal gasification, namely at ICPET-RESEARCH, that can offer advanced technologies. One of these projects deals with the construction of the first demonstrative gasification plant based on a highly efficient process and equipped with a 10 G cal/h reactor. (author). 1 tab., 12 refs

  2. Reactor technology. Progress report, January--March 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, J.L.

    1978-07-01

    Progress is reported in eight program areas. The nuclear Space Electric Power Supply Program examined safety questions in the aftermath of the COSMOS 954 incident, examined the use of thermoelectric converters, examined the neutronic effectiveness of various reflecting materials, examined ways of connecting heat pipes to one another, studied the consequences of the failure of one heat pipe in the reactor core, and did conceptual design work on heat radiators for various power supplies. The Heat Pipe Program reported progress in the design of ceramic heat pipes, new application of heat pipes to solar collectors, and final performance tests of two pipes for HEDL applications. Under the Nuclear Process Heat Program, work continues on computer codes to model a pebble bed high-temperature gas-cooled reactor, adaptation of a set of German reactor calculation codes to use on U.S. computers, and a parametric study of a certain resonance integral required in reactor studies. Under the Nonproliferation Alternative Sources Assessment Program LASL has undertaken an evaluation of a study of gaseous core reactors by Southern Science Applications, Inc. Independently LASL has developed a proposal for a comprehensive study of gaseous uranium-fueled reactor technology. The Plasma Core Reactor Program has concentrated on restacking the beryllium reflector and redesigning the nuclear control system. The status of and experiments on four critical assemblies, SKUA, Godiva IV, Big Ten, and Flattop, are reported. The Nuclear Criticality Safety Program carried out several tasks including conducting a course, doing several annual safety reviews and evaluating the safety of two Nevada test devices. During the quarter one of the groups involved in reactor technology has acquired responsibility for the operation of a Cockroft-Walton accelerator. The present report contains information on the use of machine and improvements being made in its operation

  3. Cascade reactor: granule fabrication processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erlandson, O.D.; Winkler, E.O.; Maya, I.; Pitts, J.H.

    1985-01-01

    A key feature of Cascade is the granular blanket. Of the many blanket material options open to Cascade, fabrication of Li 2 O granules was felt to offer the greatest challenge. The authors explored available methods for initial Li 2 O granule fabrication. They identified three cost-effective processes for fabricating Li 2 O granules: the VSM drop-melt furnace process, which is based on melting and spheroidizing irregularly shaped Li 2 O feed granules; the LiOH process, which spheroidizes liquefied LiOH and uses GA Technologies' sphere-forming procedures; and the Li 2 CO 3 sol-gel process, used for making spherical fuel particles for the high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR). Each process is described below

  4. The experimental and technological developments reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbonnier, J.L.

    2003-01-01

    THis presentation concerns the REDT, gas coolant reactor for experimental and technological developments. The specifications and the research programs concerning this reactor are detailed;: materials, safety aspects, core physic, the corresponding fuel cycle, the reactor cycle and the program management. (A.L.B.)

  5. Reactor science and technology: operation and control of reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu Junlong

    1994-01-01

    This article is a collection of short reports on reactor operation and research in China in 1991. The operation of and research activities linked with the Heavy Water Research Reactor, Swimming Pool Reactor and Miniature Neutron Source Reactor are briefly surveyed. A number of papers then follow on the developing strategies in Chinese fast breeder reactor technology including the conceptual design of an experimental fast reactor (FFR), theoretical studies of FFR thermo-hydraulics and a design for an immersed sodium flowmeter. Reactor physics studies cover a range of topics including several related to work on zero power reactors. The section on reactor safety analysis is concerned largely with the assessment of established, and the presentation of new, computer codes for use in PWR safety calculations. Experimental and theoretical studies of fuels and reactor materials for FBRs, PWRs, BWRs and fusion reactors are described. A final miscellaneous section covers Mo-Tc isotope production in the swimming pool reactor, convective heat transfer in tubes and diffusion of tritium through plastic/aluminium composite films and Li 2 SiO 3 . (UK)

  6. Laser-Based Maintenance and Repair Technologies for Reactor Components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masaki Yoda; Naruhiko Mukai; Makoto Ochiai; Masataka Tamura; Satoshi Okada; Katsuhiko Sato; Motohiko Kimura; Yuji Sano; Noboru Saito; Seishi Shima; Tetsuo Yamamoto

    2004-01-01

    Toshiba has developed various laser-based maintenance and repair technologies and applied them to existing nuclear power plants. Laser-based technology is considered to be the best tool for remote processing in nuclear power plants, and particularly so for the maintenance and repair of reactor core components. Accessibility could be drastically improved by a simple handling system owing to the absence of reactive force against laser irradiation and the flexible optical fiber. For the preventive maintenance, laser peening (LP) technology was developed and applied to reactor components in operating BWR plants. LP is a novel process to improve residual stress from tensile to compressive on material surface layer by irradiating focused high-power laser pulses in water. We have developed a fiber-delivered LP system as a preventive maintenance measure against stress corrosion cracking (SCC). Laser ultrasonic testing (LUT) has a great potential to be applied to the remote inspection of reactor components. Laser-induced surface acoustic wave (SAW) inspection system was developed using a compact probe with a multi-mode optical fiber and an interferometer. The developed system successfully detected a micro slit of 0.5 mm depth on weld metal and heat-affected zone (HAZ). An artificial SCC was also detected by the system. We are developing a new LP system combined with LUT to treat the inner surface of bottom-mounted instruments (BMI) of PWR plants. Underwater laser seal welding (LSW) technology was also developed to apply surface crack. LSW is expected to isolate the crack tip from corrosive water environment and to stop the propagation of the crack. Rapid heating and cooling of the process minimize the heat effect, which extends the applicability to neutron-irradiated material. This paper describes recent advances in the development and application of such laser-based technologies. (authors)

  7. Guideline for Performing Systematic Approach to Evaluate and Qualify Legacy Documents that Support Advanced Reactor Technology Activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honma, George [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-10-01

    The establishment of a systematic process for the evaluation of historic technology information for use in advanced reactor licensing is described. Efforts are underway to recover and preserve Experimental Breeder Reactor II and Fast Flux Test Facility historical data. These efforts have generally emphasized preserving information from data-acquisition systems and hard-copy reports and entering it into modern electronic formats suitable for data retrieval and examination. The guidance contained in this document has been developed to facilitate consistent and systematic evaluation processes relating to quality attributes of historic technical information (with focus on sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) technology) that will be used to eventually support licensing of advanced reactor designs. The historical information may include, but is not limited to, design documents for SFRs, research-and-development (R&D) data and associated documents, test plans and associated protocols, operations and test data, international research data, technical reports, and information associated with past U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) reviews of SFR designs. The evaluation process is prescribed in terms of SFR technology, but the process can be used to evaluate historical information for any type of advanced reactor technology. An appendix provides a discussion of typical issues that should be considered when evaluating and qualifying historical information for advanced reactor technology fuel and source terms, based on current light water reactor (LWR) requirements and recent experience gained from Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP).

  8. Guideline for Performing Systematic Approach to Evaluate and Qualify Legacy Documents that Support Advanced Reactor Technology Activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honma, George

    2015-01-01

    The establishment of a systematic process for the evaluation of historic technology information for use in advanced reactor licensing is described. Efforts are underway to recover and preserve Experimental Breeder Reactor II and Fast Flux Test Facility historical data. These efforts have generally emphasized preserving information from data-acquisition systems and hard-copy reports and entering it into modern electronic formats suitable for data retrieval and examination. The guidance contained in this document has been developed to facilitate consistent and systematic evaluation processes relating to quality attributes of historic technical information (with focus on sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) technology) that will be used to eventually support licensing of advanced reactor designs. The historical information may include, but is not limited to, design documents for SFRs, research-and-development (R&D) data and associated documents, test plans and associated protocols, operations and test data, international research data, technical reports, and information associated with past U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) reviews of SFR designs. The evaluation process is prescribed in terms of SFR technology, but the process can be used to evaluate historical information for any type of advanced reactor technology. An appendix provides a discussion of typical issues that should be considered when evaluating and qualifying historical information for advanced reactor technology fuel and source terms, based on current light water reactor (LWR) requirements and recent experience gained from Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP).

  9. Development of mechanical design technology for integral reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Keun Bae; Choi, Suhn; Kim, Kang Soo; Kim, Tae Wan; Jeong, Kyeong Hoon; Lee, Gyu Mahn

    1999-03-01

    While Korean nuclear reactor strategy seems to remain focused on the large capacity power generation, it is expected that demand of small and medium size reactor will arise for multi-purpose application such as small capacity power generation, co-generation and sea water desalination. With this in mind, an integral reactor SMART is under development. Design concepts, system layout and types of equipment of integral reactor are significantly different from those of loop type reactor. Conceptual design development of mechanical structures of integral reactor SMART is completed through the first stage of the project. Efforts were endeavored for the establishment of design basis and evaluation of applicable codes and standards. Design and functional requirements of major structural components were setup, and three dimensional structural modelling of SMART reactor vessel assembly was prepared. Also, maintenance and repair scheme as well as preliminary fabricability evaluation were carried out. Since small integral reactor technology includes sensitive technologies and know-how's, it is hard to achieve systematic and comprehensive technology transfer from nuclear-advanced countries. Thus, it is necessary to develop the related design technology and to verify the adopted methodologies through test and experiments in order to assure the structural integrity of reactor system. (author)

  10. Development of mechanical design technology for integral reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Keun Bae; Choi, Suhn; Kim, Kang Soo; Kim, Tae Wan; Jeong, Kyeong Hoon; Lee, Gyu Mahn

    1999-03-01

    While Korean nuclear reactor strategy seems to remain focused on the large capacity power generation, it is expected that demand of small and medium size reactor will arise for multi-purpose application such as small capacity power generation, co-generation and sea water desalination. With this in mind, an integral reactor SMART is under development. Design concepts, system layout and types of equipment of integral reactor are significantly different from those of loop type reactor. Conceptual design development of mechanical structures of integral reactor SMART is completed through the first stage of the project. Efforts were endeavored for the establishment of design basis and evaluation of applicable codes and standards. Design and functional requirements of major structural components were set up, and three dimensional structural modelling of SMART reactor vessel assembly was prepared. Also, maintenance and repair scheme as well as preliminary fabricability evaluation were carried out. Since small integral reactor technology includes sensitive technologies and know-how's, it is hard to achieve systematic and comprehensive technology transfer from nuclear-advanced countries. Thus, it is necessary to develop the related design technology and to verify the adopted methodologies through test and experiments in order to assure the structural integrity of reactor system. (author)

  11. Systemization of Design and Analysis Technology for Advanced Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Keung Koo; Lee, J.; Zee, S. K.

    2009-01-01

    The present study is performed to establish the base for the license application of the original technology by systemization and enhancement of the technology that is indispensable for the design and analysis of the advanced reactors including integral reactors. Technical reports and topical reports are prepared for this purpose on some important design/analysis methodology; design and analysis computer programs, structural integrity evaluation of main components and structures, digital I and C systems and man-machine interface design. PPS design concept is complemented reflecting typical safety analysis results. And test plans and requirements are developed for the verification of the advanced reactor technology. Moreover, studies are performed to draw up plans to apply to current or advanced power reactors the original technologies or base technologies such as patents, computer programs, test results, design concepts of the systems and components of the advanced reactors. Finally, pending issues are studied of the advanced reactors to improve the economics and technology realization

  12. Technology of steam generators for gas-cooled reactors. Proceedings of a specialists' meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-07-01

    The activity of the IAEA in the field of the technology of gas-cooled reactors was formalized by formation of an International Working Group on Gas-Cooled Reactors (IWGCR). The gas cooled reactor program considered by the IWGCR includes carbon-dioxide-cooled thermal reactors, helium cooled thermal high temperature reactors for power generation and for process heat applications and gas-cooled fast breeder reactors. This report covers the papers dealing with operating experience, steam generators for next generation of gas-cooled reactors, material development and corrosion problems, and thermohydraulics.

  13. Technology of steam generators for gas-cooled reactors. Proceedings of a specialists' meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The activity of the IAEA in the field of the technology of gas-cooled reactors was formalized by formation of an International Working Group on Gas-Cooled Reactors (IWGCR). The gas cooled reactor program considered by the IWGCR includes carbon-dioxide-cooled thermal reactors, helium cooled thermal high temperature reactors for power generation and for process heat applications and gas-cooled fast breeder reactors. This report covers the papers dealing with operating experience, steam generators for next generation of gas-cooled reactors, material development and corrosion problems, and thermohydraulics

  14. Plasma technology in metallurgical processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haile, O.

    1995-12-31

    This literature work is mainly focusing on the mechanisms of plasma technology and telling about metallurgical processing, particularly iron and steelmaking as well as the advantage of the unique properties of plasma. The main advantages of plasma technology in metallurgical operations is to direct utilization of naturally available raw materials and fuels without costly upgrading andlor beneficiation, improved environmental impact, improve process control, significant amplification of reactor and process equipment utilization and increased efficiency of raw materials, energy and man power. This literature survey is based on the publication `plasma technology in metallurgical processing` presents a comprehensive account of the physical, electrical, and mechanical aspects of plasma production and practical processing. The applications of plasma technology in metallurgical processing are covered in depth with special emphasis on developments in promising early stages. Plasma technology of today is mature in the metallurgical process applications. A few dramatic improvements are expected in the near future this giving an impetus to the technologists for the long range planning. (18 refs.) (author)

  15. Pyro processing technology at KAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hansoo; Kim, Eungho; Park, Seongwon

    2008-01-01

    KAERI has studied on the pyro processing as a spent fuel treatment method for more than decade. The process includes voloxidation, electroreduction, electrorefining with solid and liquid cathodes, and waste salt treatment. Each process has developed its own characteristics which are suitable for treating high mass flow. In the electroreduction process, a magnesia filter was used for integrated electrolytic reduction. More than 99% of reduction yield was achieved. Electrorefining process employs the continuous operation concept. Uranium deposits on the surface of graphite cathode and it is stripped off spontaneously to the bottom of the reactor, which allows continuous operation. Crystallization method was used for treating waste salt. Pure salt is recovered by Czochralski method or zone freezing method and subsequently recycled to the reactor. These advanced technologies ensure the operation of pyro processing in a larger scale

  16. Development of system integration technology for integral reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Moon Hee; Kang, D. J.; Kim, K. K. and others

    1999-03-01

    The objective of this report is to integrate the conceptual design of an integral reactor, SMART producing thermal energy of 330 MW, which will be utilized to supply energy for seawater desalination and small-scale power generation. This project also aims to develop system integration technology for effective design of the reactor. For the conceptual design of SMART, preliminary design requirements including the top-tier requirements and design bases were evaluated and established. Furthermore, in the view of the application of codes and standards to the SMART design, existing laws, codes and standards were analyzed and evaluated with respect to its applicability. As a part of this evaluation, directions and guidelines were proposed for the development of new codes and standards which shall be applied to the SMART design. Regarding the integration of SMART conceptual designs, major design activities and interfaces between design departments were established and coordinated through the design process. For the effective management of all design schedules, a work performance evaluation system was developed and applied to the design process. As the results of this activity, an integrated output of SMART designs was produced. Two additional scopes performed in this project include the preliminary economic analysis on the SMART utilization for seawater desalination, and the planning of verification tests for technology implemented into SMART and establishing development plan of the computer codes to be used for SMART design in the next phase. The technical cooperation with foreign country and international organization for securing technologies for integral reactor design and its application was coordinated and managed through this project. (author)

  17. Preliminary nuclear power reactor technology qualitative assessment for Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shamsul Amri Sulaiman

    2011-01-01

    Since the worlds first nuclear reactor major breakthrough in December 02, 1942, the nuclear power industry has undergone tremendous development and evolution for more than half a century. After surpassing moratorium of nuclear power plant construction caused by catastrophic accidents at Three-mile island (1979) and Chernobyl (1986), today, nuclear energy is back on the policy agendas of many countries, both developed and developing, signaling nuclear revival or nuclear renaissance. Selection of suitable nuclear power technology has thus been subjected to primary attention. This short paper attempts to draw preliminary technology assessment for the first nuclear power reactor technology for Malaysia. Methodology employed is qualitative analysis collating recent finding of tnb-kepco preliminary feasibility study for nuclear power program in peninsular malaysia and other published presentations and/or papers by multiple experts. The results suggested that pressurized water reactor (PWR) is the prevailing technology in terms of numbers and plant performances, and while the commercialization of generation IV reactors is remote (e.g. Not until 2030), generation III/ III+ NPP models are commercially available on the market today. Five (5) major steps involved in reactor technology selection were introduced with a focus on introducing important aspects of selection criteria. Three (3) categories for the of reactor technology selection were used for the cursory evaluation. The outcome of these analyses shall lead to deeper and full analyses of the recommended reactor technologies for a comprehensive feasibility study in the near future. Recommendations for reactor technology option were also provided for both strategic and technical recommendations. The paper shall also implore the best way to select systematically the first civilian nuclear power reactor. (Author)

  18. Reactor design concepts for radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berejka, A.J.

    2004-01-01

    During the formative years of irradiation processing, the 1950s and 1960s, there was laboratory and academic interest in the use of this form of energy transfer to initiate polymerization for the manufacture of plastics and in other chemical processes. Studies were often based on low-dose-rate Cobalt-60 systems. The electron beam (EB) accelerator technology of the time was not as yet at the robust and industrially reliable state that it is now at the beginning of the twenty-first century. A series of reactor designs illustrate how an electron beam can be incorporated into reactor vessels for initiating gas and liquid phase polymerizations on a continuous basis. Development of such approaches, which would rely upon contemporary, high current electron beams to initiate polymerization, would help the chemical processing industry alleviate its problems of catalyst disposal and its related environmental concerns. Systems for treating materials in bulk at low doses, such as those typically used for grain disinfection, at high through-put rates, are also illustrated. Simplified shielding is envisioned in each proposed process system

  19. Status of Fast Reactor Research and Technology Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    In 1985, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) published a report titled 'Status of Liquid Metal Cooled Fast Breeder Reactors' (Technical Reports Series No. 246). The report was a general review of the status of fast reactor development at that time, covering some aspects of design and operation and reviewing experience from the earliest days. It summarized the programmes and plans in all countries which were pursuing the development of fast reactors. In 1999, the IAEA published a follow-up report titled 'Status of Liquid Metal Cooled Fast Reactor Technology' (IAEA-TECDOC-1083), necessitated by the substantial advances in fast reactor technology development and changes in the economic and regulatory environment which took place during the period of 1985-1998. Chief among these were the demonstration of reliable operation by several prototypes and experimental reactors, the reliable operation of fuel at a high burnup and the launch of new fast reactor programmes by some additional Member States. In 2006, the Technical Working Group on Fast Reactors (TWG-FR) identified the need to update its past publications and recommended the preparation of a new status report on fast reactor technology. The present status report intends to provide comprehensive and detailed information on the technology of fast neutron reactors. The focus is on practical issues that are useful to engineers, scientists, managers, university students and professors, on the following topics: experience in construction, operation and decommissioning; various areas of research and development; engineering; safety; and national strategies and public acceptance of fast reactors.

  20. Status of Fast Reactor Research and Technology Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-04-01

    In 1985, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) published a report titled 'Status of Liquid Metal Cooled Fast Breeder Reactors' (Technical Reports Series No. 246). The report was a general review of the status of fast reactor development at that time, covering some aspects of design and operation and reviewing experience from the earliest days. It summarized the programmes and plans in all countries which were pursuing the development of fast reactors. In 1999, the IAEA published a follow-up report titled 'Status of Liquid Metal Cooled Fast Reactor Technology' (IAEA-TECDOC-1083), necessitated by the substantial advances in fast reactor technology development and changes in the economic and regulatory environment which took place during the period of 1985-1998. Chief among these were the demonstration of reliable operation by several prototypes and experimental reactors, the reliable operation of fuel at a high burnup and the launch of new fast reactor programmes by some additional Member States. In 2006, the Technical Working Group on Fast Reactors (TWG-FR) identified the need to update its past publications and recommended the preparation of a new status report on fast reactor technology. The present status report intends to provide comprehensive and detailed information on the technology of fast neutron reactors. The focus is on practical issues that are useful to engineers, scientists, managers, university students and professors, on the following topics: experience in construction, operation and decommissioning; various areas of research and development; engineering; safety; and national strategies and public acceptance of fast reactors.

  1. Status of Fast Reactor Research and Technology Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    In 1985, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) published a report titled 'Status of Liquid Metal Cooled Fast Breeder Reactors' (Technical Reports Series No. 246). The report was a general review of the status of fast reactor development at that time, covering some aspects of design and operation and reviewing experience from the earliest days. It summarized the programmes and plans in all countries which were pursuing the development of fast reactors. In 1999, the IAEA published a follow-up report titled 'Status of Liquid Metal Cooled Fast Reactor Technology' (IAEA-TECDOC-1083), necessitated by the substantial advances in fast reactor technology development and changes in the economic and regulatory environment which took place during the period of 1985-1998. Chief among these were the demonstration of reliable operation by several prototypes and experimental reactors, the reliable operation of fuel at a high burnup and the launch of new fast reactor programmes by some additional Member States. In 2006, the Technical Working Group on Fast Reactors (TWG-FR) identified the need to update its past publications and recommended the preparation of a new status report on fast reactor technology. The present status report intends to provide comprehensive and detailed information on the technology of fast neutron reactors. The focus is on practical issues that are useful to engineers, scientists, managers, university students and professors, on the following topics: experience in construction, operation and decommissioning; various areas of research and development; engineering; safety; and national strategies and public acceptance of fast reactors.

  2. Status of Fast Reactor Research and Technology Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    In 1985, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) published a report titled 'Status of Liquid Metal Cooled Fast Breeder Reactors' (Technical Reports Series No. 246). The report was a general review of the status of fast reactor development at that time, covering some aspects of design and operation and reviewing experience from the earliest days. It summarized the programmes and plans in all countries which were pursuing the development of fast reactors. In 1999, the IAEA published a follow-up report titled 'Status of Liquid Metal Cooled Fast Reactor Technology' (IAEA-TECDOC-1083), necessitated by the substantial advances in fast reactor technology development and changes in the economic and regulatory environment which took place during the period of 1985-1998. Chief among these were the demonstration of reliable operation by several prototypes and experimental reactors, the reliable operation of fuel at a high burnup and the launch of new fast reactor programmes by some additional Member States. In 2006, the Technical Working Group on Fast Reactors (TWG-FR) identified the need to update its past publications and recommended the preparation of a new status report on fast reactor technology. The present status report intends to provide comprehensive and detailed information on the technology of fast neutron reactors. The focus is on practical issues that are useful to engineers, scientists, managers, university students and professors, on the following topics: experience in construction, operation and decommissioning; various areas of research and development; engineering; safety; and national strategies and public acceptance of fast reactors.

  3. Nuclear power reactor technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-09-01

    Risoe National Laboratory was established more than twenty years ago with research and development of nuclear reactor technology as its main objective. The Laboratory has by now accumulated many years of experience in a number of areas vital to nuclear reactor technology. The work and experience of, and services offered by the Laboratory within the following fields are described: Health physics site supervision; Treatment of low and medium level radioactive waste; Core performance evaluation; Transient analysis; Accident analysis; Fuel management; Fuel element design, fabrication and performance evaluation; Non-destructive testing of nuclear fuel; Theoretical and experimental structural analysis; Reliability analysis; Site evaluation. Environmental risk and hazard calculation; Review and analysis of safety documentation. Risoe has already given much assistance to the authorities, utilities and industries in such fields, carrying out work on both light and heavy water reactors. The Laboratory now offers its services to others as a consultant, in education and training of staff, in planning, in qualitative and quantitative analysis, and for the development and specification of fabrication techniques. (author)

  4. CANDU technology for generation III + AND IV reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torgerson, D.F.

    2005-01-01

    Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) is the original developer of the CANDU?reactor, one of the three major commercial power reactor designs now used throughout the world. For over 60 years, AECL has continued to evolve the CANDU design from the CANDU prototypes in the 1950s and 1960s through to the second generation reactors now in operation, including the Generation II+ CANDU 6. The next phase of this evolution, the Generation III+ Advanced CANDU ReactorTM (ACRTM), continues the strategy of basing next generation technology on existing CANDU reactors. Beyond the ACR, AECL is developing the Generation IV CANDU Super Critical Water Reactor. Owing to the evolutionary nature of these advanced reactors, advanced technology from the development programs is also being applied to operating CANDU plants, for both refurbishments and upgrading of existing systems and components. In addition, AECL is developing advanced technology that covers the entire life cycle of the CANDU plant, including waste management and decommissioning. Thus, AECL maintains state-of-the-art expertise and technology to support both operating and future CANDU plants. This paper outlines the scale of the current core knowledge base that is the foundation for advancement and support of CANDU technology. The knowledge base includes advancements in materials, fuel, safety, plant operations, components and systems, environmental technology, waste management, and construction. Our approach in each of these areas is to develop the underlying science, carry out integrated engineering scale tests, and perform large-scale demonstration testing. AECL has comprehensive R and D and engineering development programs to cover all of these elements. The paper will show how the ongoing expansion of the CANDU knowledge base has led to the development of the Advanced CANDU Reactor. The ACR is a Generation III+ reactor with substantially reduced costs, faster construction, and enhanced passive safety and operating

  5. Proposal for a technology-neutral safety approach for new reactor designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-09-01

    Many states are considering an expansion of their nuclear power generation programmes. Many of the technologies and concepts are new and innovative. The current design and licensing rules are applicable to mostly large water reactors and there are no accepted rules in place for design, safety assessment and licensing for new innovative nuclear power plants. This TECDOC proposes a (new) safety approach and a methodology to generate technology-neutral (i.e. independent of reactor technology) safety requirements and a 'safe design' for advanced and innovative reactors. The experience gained in decades of design and licensing, combined with the development of risk-based concepts, has provided insights that will form the basis for new safety rules and requirements. Many lessons learned acknowledge the importance of such concepts as safety goals and defence in depth and the benefits of integrating risk insights early in an iterative design process. A new safety approach will incorporate many of the new developments in these concepts. For example, the probabilistic elements of defence in depth will help define the cumulative provisions to compensate for uncertainty and incompleteness of our knowledge of accident initiation and progression. This TECDOC also identifies areas of work, which will require further definition, research and development and guidance on application. This publication is to be used as a guide to developing a new technology-neutral safety approach, and as a guide in the application of methodologies to define the safety requirements for an innovative reactor designs. The method proposes an integration of deterministic and probabilistic considerations with established principles and concepts such as safety goals and defence in depth. The TECDOC recommends that the structure of the new technology-neutral main pillars for the design and licensing of innovative nuclear reactors be developed following a top-down approach to reflect a newer risk-informed and

  6. What is the future for fast reactor technology?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraev, Kamen

    2017-01-01

    NucNet spoke to Vladimir Kriventsev, team leader for fast reactor technology development at the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), about the possibilities and challenges of technology development in the fast reactor sector. Today, the field of fast reactors is vibrant and full of fascinating developments, some which will have an impact in the nearer term and others in the longer term.

  7. What is the future for fast reactor technology?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraev, Kamen [NucNet, Brussels (Belgium). The Independent Global Nuclear News Agency

    2017-08-15

    NucNet spoke to Vladimir Kriventsev, team leader for fast reactor technology development at the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), about the possibilities and challenges of technology development in the fast reactor sector. Today, the field of fast reactors is vibrant and full of fascinating developments, some which will have an impact in the nearer term and others in the longer term.

  8. Development of technologies for nuclear reactors of small and medium sized; Desarrollo de Tecnologias para Reactores Nucleares de pequeno y medio tamano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-08-15

    This meeting include: countries presentations, themes and objectives of the training course, reactor types, design, EPR, APR1400, A P 1000, A PWR, ATMEA 1, VVER-1000, A PWR, ATMEA 1, VVER 1200, Boiling Water Reactor, A BWR, A BWR -II, ESBUR, Ke ren, AREVA, Heavy Water Reactor, Candu 6, Acr-1000, HWR, Bw, Iris, CAREM NuCcale, Smart, KLT-HOS, Westinghouse small modular Reactor, Gas Cooled Reactors, PBMR, React ores enfriados con metales liquidos, Hs, Prism,Terra Power, Hyper ion, appliance's no electric as de energia, Generation IV Reactors,VHTR, Gas Fast Reactor, Sodium Fast Reactor, Molten salt Reactor, Lfr, Water Cooled Reactor, Technology Assessment Process, Fukushima accident.

  9. Development of inherent core technologies for advanced reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Keung Koo; Noh, J.M.; Hwang, D.H.

    1999-03-01

    Recently, the developed countries made their effort on developing the advanced reactor which will result in significantly enhanced safety and economy. However, they will protect the advanced reactor and its design technology with patent and proprietary right. Therefore, it is very important to develop our own key core concepts and inherent core design technologies which can form a foundation of indigenous technologies for development of the domestic advanced reactor in order to keep the superiority in the nuclear plant building market among the developing countries. In order to provide the basic technology for the core design of advanced reactor, this project is for developing the inherent core design concepts with enhanced safety and economy, and associated methodologies and technologies for core analyses. The feasibility study of constructing domestic critical facilities are performed by surveying the status and utilization of foreign facilities and by investigating the demand for domestic facilities. The research results developed in this project, such as core analysis methodologies for hexagonal core, conceptual core design based on hexagonal fuel assemblies and soluble boron core design and control strategies, will provide a technical foundation in developing core design of domestic advanced reactor. Furthermore, they will strengthen the competitiveness of Korean nuclear technology. We also expect that some of the design concepts developed in this project to improve the reactor safety and economy can be applicable to the design of advanced reactor. This will significantly reduce the public anxiety on the nuclear power plant, and will contribute to the economy of construction and operation for the future domestic reactors. Even though the critical facility will not be constructed right now, the investigation of the status and utilization of foreign critical facility will contribute to the future critical facility construction. (author). 150 refs., 34 tabs., 103

  10. Development of inherent core technologies for advanced reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Keung Koo; Noh, J.M.; Hwang, D.H. [and others

    1999-03-01

    Recently, the developed countries made their effort on developing the advanced reactor which will result in significantly enhanced safety and economy. However, they will protect the advanced reactor and its design technology with patent and proprietary right. Therefore, it is very important to develop our own key core concepts and inherent core design technologies which can form a foundation of indigenous technologies for development of the domestic advanced reactor in order to keep the superiority in the nuclear plant building market among the developing countries. In order to provide the basic technology for the core design of advanced reactor, this project is for developing the inherent core design concepts with enhanced safety and economy, and associated methodologies and technologies for core analyses. The feasibility study of constructing domestic critical facilities are performed by surveying the status and utilization of foreign facilities and by investigating the demand for domestic facilities. The research results developed in this project, such as core analysis methodologies for hexagonal core, conceptual core design based on hexagonal fuel assemblies and soluble boron core design and control strategies, will provide a technical foundation in developing core design of domestic advanced reactor. Furthermore, they will strengthen the competitiveness of Korean nuclear technology. We also expect that some of the design concepts developed in this project to improve the reactor safety and economy can be applicable to the design of advanced reactor. This will significantly reduce the public anxiety on the nuclear power plant, and will contribute to the economy of construction and operation for the future domestic reactors. Even though the critical facility will not be constructed right now, the investigation of the status and utilization of foreign critical facility will contribute to the future critical facility construction. (author). 150 refs., 34 tabs., 103

  11. Seawater desalination plant using nuclear heating reactor coupled with MED process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A small size plant for seawater desalination using nuclear heating reactor coupled with MED process was developed by the Institute of Nuclear Energy Technology, Tsinghua University, China. This seawater desalination plant was designed to supply potable water demand to some coastal location or island where both fresh water and energy source are severely lacking. It is also recommended as a demonstration and training facility for seawater desalination using nuclear energy. The design of small size of seawater desalination plant couples two proven technologies: Nuclear Heating Reactor (NHR) and Multi-Effect Destination (MED) process. The NHR design possesses intrinsic and passive safety features, which was demonstrated by the experiences of the project NHR-5. The intermediate circuit and steam circuit were designed as the safety barriers between the NHR reactor and MED desalination system. Within 10~200 MWt of the power range of the heating reactor, the desalination plant could provide 8000 to 150,000 m3/d of high quality potable water. The design concept and parameters, safety features and coupling scheme are presented.

  12. Seawater desalination plant using nuclear heating reactor coupled with MED process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Shaorong; Dong Duo; Zhang Dafang; Wang Xiuzhen

    2000-01-01

    A small size plant for seawater desalination using nuclear heating reactor coupled with MED process was developed by the Institute of Nuclear Energy Technology, Tsinghua University, China. this seawater desalination plant was designed to supply potable water demand to some coastal location or island where both fresh water and energy source are severely lacking. It is also recommended as a demonstration and training facility for seawater desalination using nuclear energy. The design of small size of seawater desalination plant couples two proven technologies: Nuclear Heating Reactor (NHR) and Multi-Effect Destination (MED) process. The NHR design possesses intrinsic and passive safety features, which was demonstrated by the experiences of the project NHR-5. the intermediate circuit and steam circuit were designed as the safety barriers between the NHR reactor and MED desalination system. Within 10-200 MWt of the power range of the heating reactor, the desalination plant could provide 8000 to 150,000 m 3 /d of high quality potable water. The design concept and parameters, safety features and coupling scheme are presented

  13. Selection of nuclear reactors through the hierarchic analysis process: the Mexican case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin del Campo, C.; Nelson, P.F.; Francois, J.L.

    2008-01-01

    In this work the decision making method known as hierarchical analysis process for the selection of a new reactor in Mexico was applied. The main objective of the process it is to select the nuclear reactor technology more appropriate for Mexico, to begin the bid process inside one or two years to begin their operation in 2016. The options were restricted to four reactors that fulfill the following ones approaches: 1) its are advanced reactors, from the technological point of view, with regard to the reactors that at the moment operate in the Laguna Verde Power Station, 2) its are reactors that have the totally finished design, 3) its are reactors that already have the certification on the part of the regulator organism of the origin country or that they are in an advanced state of the certification process and 4) its are reactors offered by the companies that they have designed and built the greater number of reactors that are at the moment in operation at world level. Taking into account these restrictions it was decided to consider as alternative at the reactors: Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (A BWR), European Reactor of Pressurized Water (EPR), Water at Pressure reactor (AP1000) and Simplified Economic Reactor of Boiling Water (ESBWR). The evaluation approaches include economic and of safety indicators, qualitative some of them and other quantitative ones. Another grade of complexity in the solution of the problem is that there are actors that can be involved in the definition of the evaluation approaches and in the definition of the relative importance among them, according to each actor's interests. To simplify the problem its were only considered two actors or groups of interest that can influence in more significant way and that are the Federal Commission of Electricity and the National Commission of Nuclear Safety and Safeguards. The qualifications for each reactor in function of the evaluation approaches were obtained, being the A BWR the best qualified

  14. Implementation Plan for Qualification of Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor Technology Information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moe, Wayne [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Honma, George [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-03-01

    This document identifies and discusses implementation elements that can be used to facilitate consistent and systematic evaluation processes relating to quality attributes of technical information (with focus on SFR technology) that will be used to support licensing of advanced reactor designs. Information may include, but is not limited to, design documents for SFRs, research-and-development (R&D) data and associated documents, test plans and associated protocols, operations and test data, international research data, technical reports, and information associated with past U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) reviews of SFR designs. The approach for determining acceptability of test data, analysis, and/or other technical information is based on guidance provided in INL/EXT-15-35805, “Guidance on Evaluating Historic Technology Information for Use in Advanced Reactor Licensing.” The implementation plan can be adopted into a working procedure at each of the national laboratories performing data qualification, or by applicants seeking future license application for advanced reactor technology.

  15. Process heat cogeneration using a high temperature reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, Gustavo; Ramirez, Ramon; Valle, Edmundo del; Castillo, Rogelio

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • HTR feasibility for process heat cogeneration is assessed. • A cogeneration coupling for HTR is proposed and process heat cost is evaluated. • A CCGT process heat cogeneration set up is also assessed. • Technical comparison between both sources of cogeneration is performed. • Economical competitiveness of the HTR for process heat cogeneration is analyzed. - Abstract: High temperature nuclear reactors offer the possibility to generate process heat that could be used in the oil industry, particularly in refineries for gasoline production. These technologies are still under development and none of them has shown how this can be possible and what will be the penalty in electricity generation to have this additional product and if the cost of this subproduct will be competitive with other alternatives. The current study assesses the likeliness of generating process heat from Pebble Bed Modular Reactor to be used for a refinery showing different plant balances and alternatives to produce and use that process heat. An actual practical example is presented to demonstrate the cogeneration viability using the fact that the PBMR is a modular small reactor where the cycle configuration to transport the heat of the reactor to the process plant plays an important role in the cycle efficiency and in the plant economics. The results of this study show that the PBMR would be most competitive when capital discount rates are low (5%), carbon prices are high (>30 US$/ton), and competing natural gas prices are at least 8 US$/mmBTU

  16. Process heat cogeneration using a high temperature reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso, Gustavo, E-mail: gustavoalonso3@gmail.com [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, Ocoyoacac, Edo. De Mexico 52750 (Mexico); Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Unidad Profesional Adolfo Lopez Mateos, Ed. 9, Lindavista, D.F. 07300 (Mexico); Ramirez, Ramon [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, Ocoyoacac, Edo. De Mexico 52750 (Mexico); Valle, Edmundo del [Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Unidad Profesional Adolfo Lopez Mateos, Ed. 9, Lindavista, D.F. 07300 (Mexico); Castillo, Rogelio [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, Ocoyoacac, Edo. De Mexico 52750 (Mexico)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • HTR feasibility for process heat cogeneration is assessed. • A cogeneration coupling for HTR is proposed and process heat cost is evaluated. • A CCGT process heat cogeneration set up is also assessed. • Technical comparison between both sources of cogeneration is performed. • Economical competitiveness of the HTR for process heat cogeneration is analyzed. - Abstract: High temperature nuclear reactors offer the possibility to generate process heat that could be used in the oil industry, particularly in refineries for gasoline production. These technologies are still under development and none of them has shown how this can be possible and what will be the penalty in electricity generation to have this additional product and if the cost of this subproduct will be competitive with other alternatives. The current study assesses the likeliness of generating process heat from Pebble Bed Modular Reactor to be used for a refinery showing different plant balances and alternatives to produce and use that process heat. An actual practical example is presented to demonstrate the cogeneration viability using the fact that the PBMR is a modular small reactor where the cycle configuration to transport the heat of the reactor to the process plant plays an important role in the cycle efficiency and in the plant economics. The results of this study show that the PBMR would be most competitive when capital discount rates are low (5%), carbon prices are high (>30 US$/ton), and competing natural gas prices are at least 8 US$/mmBTU.

  17. Gas reactor international cooperative program interim report: German Pebble Bed Reactor design and technology review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-09-01

    This report describes and evaluates several gas-cooled reactor plant concepts under development within the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG). The concepts, based upon the use of a proven Pebble Bed Reactor (PBR) fuel element design, include nuclear heat generation for chemical processes and electrical power generation. Processes under consideration for the nuclear process heat plant (PNP) include hydrogasification of coal, steam gasification of coal, combined process, and long-distance chemical heat transportation. The electric plant emphasized in the report is the steam turbine cycle (HTR-K), although the gas turbine cycle (HHT) is also discussed. The study is a detailed description and evaluation of the nuclear portion of the various plants. The general conclusions are that the PBR technology is sound and that the HTR-K and PNP plant concepts appear to be achievable through appropriate continuing development programs, most of which are either under way or planned

  18. Overview of remote technologies applied to research reactor fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oerdoegh, M.; Takats, F.

    1999-01-01

    This paper gives a brief overview of the remote technologies applied to research reactor fuels. Due to many reasons, the remote technology utilization to research reactor fuel is not so widespread as it is for power reactor fuels, however, the advantages of the application of such techniques are obvious. (author)

  19. An evaluation of alternative reactor vessel cutting technologies for the experimental boiling water reactor at Argonne National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boing, L.E.; Henley, D.R.; Manion, W.J.; Gordon, J.W.

    1989-12-01

    Metal cutting techniques that can be used to segment the reactor pressure vessel of the Experimental Boiling Water Reactor (EBWR) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) have been evaluated by Nuclear Energy Services. Twelve cutting technologies are described in terms of their ability to perform the required task, their performance characteristics, environmental and radiological impacts, and cost and schedule considerations. Specific recommendations regarding which technology should ultimately be used by ANL are included. The selection of a cutting method was the responsibility of the decommissioning staff at ANL, who included a relative weighting of the parameters described in this document in their evaluation process. 73 refs., 26 figs., 69 tabs

  20. An evaluation of alternative reactor vessel cutting technologies for the experimental boiling water reactor at Argonne National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boing, L.E.; Henley, D.R. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA)); Manion, W.J.; Gordon, J.W. (Nuclear Energy Services, Inc., Danbury, CT (USA))

    1989-12-01

    Metal cutting techniques that can be used to segment the reactor pressure vessel of the Experimental Boiling Water Reactor (EBWR) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) have been evaluated by Nuclear Energy Services. Twelve cutting technologies are described in terms of their ability to perform the required task, their performance characteristics, environmental and radiological impacts, and cost and schedule considerations. Specific recommendations regarding which technology should ultimately be used by ANL are included. The selection of a cutting method was the responsibility of the decommissioning staff at ANL, who included a relative weighting of the parameters described in this document in their evaluation process. 73 refs., 26 figs., 69 tabs.

  1. Maintenance technologies for reactor internals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Kenji [Nuclear Energy Systems and Services Div., Toshiba Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Kobayashi, Masahiro [Toshiba Corp., Yokohama (Japan). Keihin Product Operations; Sano, Yuji; Kimura, Seiichiro [Power and Industrial Systems Research and Development Center, Toshiba Corp., Tokyo(Japan)

    2000-10-01

    Toshiba places the highest priority on maintenance technologies for the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) and its internals in operating nuclear power plants. This paper summarizes the status of applied laser maintenance technologies, both preventive and repair. For laser peeing and laser desensitization treatment (LDT) technologies in particular, field applications are also described in detail. In the future, the area of field applications for preventive maintenance, repair, and inspection technologies will be further expanded. (author)

  2. Reactor surface contamination stabilization. Innovative technology summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-11-01

    Contaminated surfaces, such as the face of a nuclear reactor, need to be stabilized (fixed) to avoid airborne contamination during decontamination and decommissioning activities, and to prepare for interim safe storage. The traditional (baseline) method of fixing the contamination has been to spray a coating on the surfaces, but ensuring complete coverage over complex shapes, such as nozzles and hoses, is difficult. The Hanford Site C Reactor Technology Demonstration Group demonstrated innovative technologies to assess stabilization properties of various coatings and to achieve complete coverage of complex surfaces on the reactor face. This demonstration was conducted in two phases: the first phase consisted of a series of laboratory assessments of various stabilization coatings on metal coupons. For the second phase, coatings that passed the laboratory tests were applied to the front face of the C Reactor and evaluated. The baseline coating (Rust-Oleum No. 769) and one of the innovative technologies did not completely cover nozzle assemblies on the reactor face, the most critical of the second-phase evaluation criteria. However, one of the innovative coating systems, consisting of a base layer of foam covered by an outer layer of a polymeric film, was successful. The baseline technology would cost approximately 33% as much as the innovative technology cost of $64,000 to stabilize an entire reactor face (196 m 2 or 2116 ft 2 ) with 2,004 nozzle assemblies, but the baseline system failed to provide complete surface coverage

  3. Materials technologies of light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Begley, R.

    1984-01-01

    Satisfactory materials performance is a key element in achieving reliable operation of light water reactors. Outstanding performance under rigorous operational conditions has been exhibited by pressure boundary components, core internals, fuel cladding, and other critical components of these systems. Corrosion and stress corrosion phenomena have, however, had an impact on plant availability, most notably relating to pipe cracking in BWR systems and steam generator corrosion in PWR systems. These experiences have stimulated extensive development activities by the nuclear industry in improved NDE techniques, investigation of corrosion phenomena, as well as improved materials and repair processes. This paper reviews key materials performance aspects of light water reactors with particular emphasis on the progress which has been made in modeling of corrosion phenomena, control of the plant operating environment, advanced material development, and application of sophisticated repair procedures. Implementation of this technology provides the basis for improved plant availability

  4. Beryllium processing technology review for applications in plasma-facing components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, R.G.; Jacobson, L.A.; Stanek, P.W.

    1993-07-01

    Materials research and development activities for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), i.e., the next generation fusion reactor, are investigating beryllium as the first-wall containment material for the reactor. Important in the selection of beryllium is the ability to process, fabricate and repair beryllium first-wall components using existing technologies. Two issues that will need to be addressed during the engineering design activity will be the bonding of beryllium tiles in high-heat-flux areas of the reactor, and the in situ repair of damaged beryllium tiles. The following review summarizes the current technology associated with welding and joining of beryllium to itself and other materials, and the state-of-the-art in plasma-spray technology as an in situ repair technique for damaged beryllium tiles. In addition, a review of the current status of beryllium technology in the former Soviet Union is also included.

  5. Beryllium processing technology review for applications in plasma-facing components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, R.G.; Jacobson, L.A.; Stanek, P.W.

    1993-07-01

    Materials research and development activities for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), i.e., the next generation fusion reactor, are investigating beryllium as the first-wall containment material for the reactor. Important in the selection of beryllium is the ability to process, fabricate and repair beryllium first-wall components using existing technologies. Two issues that will need to be addressed during the engineering design activity will be the bonding of beryllium tiles in high-heat-flux areas of the reactor, and the in situ repair of damaged beryllium tiles. The following review summarizes the current technology associated with welding and joining of beryllium to itself and other materials, and the state-of-the-art in plasma-spray technology as an in situ repair technique for damaged beryllium tiles. In addition, a review of the current status of beryllium technology in the former Soviet Union is also included

  6. Development of technology for next generation reactor - Research of evaluation technology for nuclear power plant -

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jong Kyun; Chang, Moon Heuy; Hwang, Yung Dong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)] [and others

    1993-09-01

    For development of next generation reactor, a project for evaluation technology for nuclear power plant is performed. Evaluation technology is essential to next generation reactor for reactor safety and system analysis. For design concept, detailed evaluation technologies are studied as follows: evaluation of safety margin, evaluation of safety facilities, evaluation of measurement and control technology; man-machine interface. Especially for thermal efficiency, thermal properties and chemical composition of inconel 690 tube, instead of inconel 600 tube, are measured for steam generator. (Author).

  7. Fusion reactor fuel processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, E.F.

    1972-06-01

    For thermonuclear power reactors based on the continuous fusion of deuterium and tritium the principal fuel processing problems occur in maintaining desired compositions in the primary fuel cycled through the reactor, in the recovery of tritium bred in the blanket surrounding the reactor, and in the prevention of tritium loss to the environment. Since all fuel recycled through the reactor must be cooled to cryogenic conditions for reinjection into the reactor, cryogenic fractional distillation is a likely process for controlling the primary fuel stream composition. Another practical possibility is the permeation of the hydrogen isotopes through thin metal membranes. The removal of tritium from the ash discharged from the power system would be accomplished by chemical procedures to assure physiologically safe concentration levels. The recovery process for tritium from the breeder blanket depends on the nature of the blanket fluids. For molten lithium the only practicable possibility appears to be permeation from the liquid phase. For molten salts the process would involve stripping with inert gas followed by chemical recovery. In either case extremely low concentrations of tritium in the melts would be desirable to maintain low tritium inventories, and to minimize escape of tritium through unwanted permeation, and to avoid embrittlement of metal walls. 21 refs

  8. Overview of U.S. Fast Reactor Technology Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, Robert

    2013-01-01

    • Concept development studies guide R&D tasks by evaluating system impact for broad variety of technology options: – Small-scale facilities for R&D on key technology; – No near-term plan for demonstration reactor. • Fast reactor R&D is focused on key technologies innovations for performance improvement (cost reduction): – Advanced Structural Materials; – Advanced Energy Conversion; – Advanced Modeling and Simulation. • Other R&D is conducted to address known technology challenges: – Safety and Licensing; – Fuels Development; – Undersodium Viewing

  9. Preliminary Conceptual Design and Development of Core Technology of Very High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor Hydrogen Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Jong Hwa; Kang, H. S.; Gil, C. S. and others

    2006-05-15

    For the nuclear hydrogen production system, the VHTR technology and the IS cycle technology are being developed. A comparative evaluation on the block type reactor and the pebble type reactor is performed to decide a proper nuclear hydrogen production reactor. 100MWt prismatic type reactor is tentatively decided and its safety characteristics are roughly investigated. Computation codes of nuclear design, thermo-fluid design, safety-performance analysis are developed and verified. Also, the development of a risk informed design technology is started. Experiments for metallic materials and graphites are carried out for the selection of materials of VHTR components. Diverse materials for process heat exchanger are studied in various corrosive environments. Pyrolytic carbon and SiC coating technology is developed and fuel manufacturing technology is basically established. Computer program is developed to evaluate the performance of coated particle fuels.

  10. Preliminary Conceptual Design and Development of Core Technology of Very High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor Hydrogen Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Jong Hwa; Kang, H. S.; Gil, C. S. and others

    2006-05-01

    For the nuclear hydrogen production system, the VHTR technology and the IS cycle technology are being developed. A comparative evaluation on the block type reactor and the pebble type reactor is performed to decide a proper nuclear hydrogen production reactor. 100MWt prismatic type reactor is tentatively decided and its safety characteristics are roughly investigated. Computation codes of nuclear design, thermo-fluid design, safety-performance analysis are developed and verified. Also, the development of a risk informed design technology is started. Experiments for metallic materials and graphites are carried out for the selection of materials of VHTR components. Diverse materials for process heat exchanger are studied in various corrosive environments. Pyrolytic carbon and SiC coating technology is developed and fuel manufacturing technology is basically established. Computer program is developed to evaluate the performance of coated particle fuels

  11. Developments in gaseous core reactor technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz, N.J.; Dugan, E.T.

    1979-01-01

    An effort to characterize the most promising concepts for large, central-station electrical generation was done under the auspices of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program (NASAP). The two leading candidates were identified from this effort: The Mixed-Flow Gaseous Core Reactor (MFGCR) and the Heterogeneous Gas Core Reactor (HGCR). Key advantages over other nuclear concepts are weighed against the disadvantages of an unproven technology and the cost-time for deployment to make a sound decision on RandD support for these promising reactor alternatives. 38 refs

  12. Assessment of the Dry Processed Oxide Fuel in Liquid Metal Fast Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roh, Gyu Hong; Choi, Hang Bok

    2005-09-15

    The neutronic feasibility of the dry process oxide fuel was assessed for the sodium-cooled and lead-cooled fast reactors (SFR and LFR, respectively), which were recommended as Generation-IV (Gen-IV) reactor systems by the Gen-IV international forum. The reactor analysis was performed for the equilibrium fuel cycle of two core configurations: Hybrid BN-600 benchmark core with an enlarged lattice pitch and a modified BN-600 core. The dry process technology assumed in this study is the molten-salt process, which was developed by Russian scientists for recycling oxide fuels. The core calculation was performed by the REBUS-3 code and the reactor characteristics such as the transuranic (TRU) enrichment, breeding ratio, peak linear power, burnup reactivity swing, etc. were calculated for the equilibrium core under a fixed fuel management scheme. The results showed that a fissile self-sustainable breakeven core was achievable without blanket fuels when the fuel volume fraction was {approx}50% and most of the fission products were removed. If the design criteria used in this study is proved to be acceptable through a detailed physics design and thermal hydraulic analysis in the future, it is practically possible to construct an equilibrium fuel cycle of the SFR and LFR systems based on the oxide fuel by utilizing the dry process technology.

  13. Assessment of the Dry Processed Oxide Fuel in Liquid Metal Fast Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roh, Gyu Hong; Choi, Hang Bok

    2005-09-01

    The neutronic feasibility of the dry process oxide fuel was assessed for the sodium-cooled and lead-cooled fast reactors (SFR and LFR, respectively), which were recommended as Generation-IV (Gen-IV) reactor systems by the Gen-IV international forum. The reactor analysis was performed for the equilibrium fuel cycle of two core configurations: Hybrid BN-600 benchmark core with an enlarged lattice pitch and a modified BN-600 core. The dry process technology assumed in this study is the molten-salt process, which was developed by Russian scientists for recycling oxide fuels. The core calculation was performed by the REBUS-3 code and the reactor characteristics such as the transuranic (TRU) enrichment, breeding ratio, peak linear power, burnup reactivity swing, etc. were calculated for the equilibrium core under a fixed fuel management scheme. The results showed that a fissile self-sustainable breakeven core was achievable without blanket fuels when the fuel volume fraction was ∼50% and most of the fission products were removed. If the design criteria used in this study is proved to be acceptable through a detailed physics design and thermal hydraulic analysis in the future, it is practically possible to construct an equilibrium fuel cycle of the SFR and LFR systems based on the oxide fuel by utilizing the dry process technology

  14. Development of essential system technologies for advanced reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Y. Y.; Hwang, Y. D.; Cho, B. H. and others

    1999-03-01

    Basic design of SMART adopts the new advanced technologies which were not applied in the existing 1000MWe PWR. However, the R and D experience on these advanced essential technologies is lacking in domestic nuclear industry. Recently, a research on these advanced technologies has been performed as a part of the mid-and-long term nuclear R and D program, but the research was limited only for the small scale fundamental study. The research on these essential technologies such as helically coiled tube steam generator, self pressurizer, core cooling by natural circulation required for the development of integral reactor SMART have not been conducted in full scale. This project, therefore, was performed for the development of analysis models and methodologies, system analysis and thermal hydraulic experiments on the essential technologies to be applied to the 300MWe capacity of integral reactor SMART and the advanced passive reactor expected to be developed in near future with the emphasis on experimental investigation. (author)

  15. Automatic start-up system of nuclear reactor based on sequence control technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yao; Zhang Dafa; Peng Huaqing

    2009-01-01

    A conceptive design of an automatic start-up system based on the sequence control for the nuclear reactors is given in this paper, so as to solve the problems during the start-up process, such as the long operation time, low automatic control level and high accident rate. The start-up process and its requirements are analyzed in detail at first. Then,the principle, the architecture, the key technologies of the automatic start-up system of nuclear reactors are designed and discussed. With the designed system, the automatic start-up of the nuclear reactor can be realized,the work load of the operator can be reduced,and the safety and efficiency of the nuclear power plant during its start-up can be improved. (authors)

  16. Decommissioning technology development for research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, K. W.; Kim, S. K.; Kim, Y. K.

    2004-03-01

    Although it is expected that the decommissioning of a nuclear power plant will happen since 2020, the need of partial decommissioning and decontamination for periodic inspection and life extension has been on an increasing trend and domestic market has gradually been extended. Therefore, in this project the decommissioning DB system on the KRR-1 and 2 was developed as establishing the information classification system of the research reactor dismantling and the structural design and optimization of the decommissioning DB system. Also in order to secure the reliability and safety about the dismantling process, the main dismantling simulation technology that can verify the dismantling process before their real dismantling work was developed. And also the underwater cutting equipment was developed to remove these stainless steel parts highly activated from the RSR. First, the its key technologies were developed and then the design, making, and capability analysis were performed. Finally the actual proof was achieved for applying the dismantling site. an automatic surface contamination measuring equipment was developed in order to get the sample automatically and measure the radiation/radioactivity

  17. Technology selection for offshore underwater small modular reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shivan, Koroush; Ballinger, Ronald; Buongiorno, Jacopo; Forsberg, Charles; Kazimi, Mujid; Todreas, Neil

    2016-01-01

    This work examines the most viable nuclear technology options for future underwater designs that would meet high safety standards as well as good economic potential, for construction in the 2030-2040 time frame. The top five concepts selected from a survey of 13 nuclear technologies were compared to a small modular pressurized water reactor (PWR) designed with a conventional layout. In order of smallest to largest primary system size where the reactor and all safety systems are contained, the top five designs were: (1) a lead-bismuth fast reactor based on the Russian SVBR-100; (2) a novel organic cooled reactor; (3) an innovative superheated water reactor; (4) a boiling water reactor based on Toshiba's LSBWR; and (5) an integral PWR featuring compact steam generators. A similar study on potential attractive power cycles was also performed. A condensing and recompression supercritical CO 2 cycle and a compact steam Rankine cycle were designed. It was found that the hull size required by the reactor, safety systems and power cycle can be significantly reduced (50-80%) with the top five designs compared to the conventional PWR. Based on the qualitative economic consideration, the organic cooled reactor and boiling water reactor designs are expected to be the most cost effective options

  18. Technology selection for offshore underwater small modular reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shivan, Koroush; Ballinger, Ronald; Buongiorno, Jacopo; Forsberg, Charles; Kazimi, Mujid; Todreas, Neil [Dept. of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge (United States)

    2016-12-15

    This work examines the most viable nuclear technology options for future underwater designs that would meet high safety standards as well as good economic potential, for construction in the 2030-2040 time frame. The top five concepts selected from a survey of 13 nuclear technologies were compared to a small modular pressurized water reactor (PWR) designed with a conventional layout. In order of smallest to largest primary system size where the reactor and all safety systems are contained, the top five designs were: (1) a lead-bismuth fast reactor based on the Russian SVBR-100; (2) a novel organic cooled reactor; (3) an innovative superheated water reactor; (4) a boiling water reactor based on Toshiba's LSBWR; and (5) an integral PWR featuring compact steam generators. A similar study on potential attractive power cycles was also performed. A condensing and recompression supercritical CO{sub 2} cycle and a compact steam Rankine cycle were designed. It was found that the hull size required by the reactor, safety systems and power cycle can be significantly reduced (50-80%) with the top five designs compared to the conventional PWR. Based on the qualitative economic consideration, the organic cooled reactor and boiling water reactor designs are expected to be the most cost effective options.

  19. Technology Selection for Offshore Underwater Small Modular Reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koroush Shirvan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This work examines the most viable nuclear technology options for future underwater designs that would meet high safety standards as well as good economic potential, for construction in the 2030–2040 timeframe. The top five concepts selected from a survey of 13 nuclear technologies were compared to a small modular pressurized water reactor (PWR designed with a conventional layout. In order of smallest to largest primary system size where the reactor and all safety systems are contained, the top five designs were: (1 a lead–bismuth fast reactor based on the Russian SVBR-100; (2 a novel organic cooled reactor; (3 an innovative superheated water reactor; (4 a boiling water reactor based on Toshiba's LSBWR; and (5 an integral PWR featuring compact steam generators. A similar study on potential attractive power cycles was also performed. A condensing and recompression supercritical CO2 cycle and a compact steam Rankine cycle were designed. It was found that the hull size required by the reactor, safety systems and power cycle can be significantly reduced (50–80% with the top five designs compared to the conventional PWR. Based on the qualitative economic consideration, the organic cooled reactor and boiling water reactor designs are expected to be the most cost effective options.

  20. Biogas production from UASB and polyurethane carrier reactors treating sisal processing wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubindamayugi, M S.T.; Salakana, L K.P. [Univ. of Dar es Salaam, Faculty of Science, Applied Microbiology Unit (Tanzania, United Republic of)

    1998-12-31

    The fundamental benefits which makes anaerobic digestion technology (ADT) attractive to the poor developing include the low cost and energy production potential of the technology. In this study the potential of using UASB reactor and Polyurethane Carrier Reactor (PCR) as pollution control and energy recovery systems from sisal wastewater were investigated in lab-scale reactors. The PCR demonstrated the shortest startup period, whereas the UASB reactor showed the highest COD removal efficiency 79%, biogas production rate (4.5 l biogas/l/day) and process stability than the PCR under similar HRT of 15 hours and OLR of 8.2 g COD/l/day. Both reactor systems became overloaded at HRT of 6 hours and OLR of 15.7 g COD/l/day, biogas production ceased and reactors acidified to pH levels which are inhibiting to methanogenesis. Based on the combined results on reactor performances, the UASB reactor is recommended as the best reactor for high biogas production and treatment efficiency. It was estimated that a large-scale UASB reactor can be designed under the same loading conditions to produce 2.8 m{sup 3} biogas form 1 m{sup 3} of wastewater of 5.16 kg COD/m{sup 3}. Wastewater from one decortication shift can produce 9,446 m{sup 3} og biogas. The energy equivalent of such fuel energy is indicated. (au)

  1. Biogas production from UASB and polyurethane carrier reactors treating sisal processing wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubindamayugi, M.S.T.; Salakana, L.K.P. [Univ. of Dar es Salaam, Faculty of Science, Applied Microbiology Unit (Tanzania, United Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    The fundamental benefits which makes anaerobic digestion technology (ADT) attractive to the poor developing include the low cost and energy production potential of the technology. In this study the potential of using UASB reactor and Polyurethane Carrier Reactor (PCR) as pollution control and energy recovery systems from sisal wastewater were investigated in lab-scale reactors. The PCR demonstrated the shortest startup period, whereas the UASB reactor showed the highest COD removal efficiency 79%, biogas production rate (4.5 l biogas/l/day) and process stability than the PCR under similar HRT of 15 hours and OLR of 8.2 g COD/l/day. Both reactor systems became overloaded at HRT of 6 hours and OLR of 15.7 g COD/l/day, biogas production ceased and reactors acidified to pH levels which are inhibiting to methanogenesis. Based on the combined results on reactor performances, the UASB reactor is recommended as the best reactor for high biogas production and treatment efficiency. It was estimated that a large-scale UASB reactor can be designed under the same loading conditions to produce 2.8 m{sup 3} biogas form 1 m{sup 3} of wastewater of 5.16 kg COD/m{sup 3}. Wastewater from one decortication shift can produce 9,446 m{sup 3} og biogas. The energy equivalent of such fuel energy is indicated. (au)

  2. Development of design technology for advanced pressurized water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Si Hwan; Chang, Moon Hee; Lee, Jong Chul

    1991-08-01

    In order to investigate the feasibility of the domestic passive reactor development, the analysis and evaluation on the development status, technical characteristics, and the safety and economy for the overseas passive reactors were carried out based on the vendor's information. Also the domestic nuclear technology basis was surveyed. The analysis and evaluation of the development status and technical characteristics were performed mainly for the AP-600 developed by Westing house and the SIR of UKAEA. The new design concepts and system characteristics have been evaluated by utilizing EPRI Utility Requirement Documents and Lahmeyer evaluation criteria. Based on this evaluation the recommendable design concepts in each major system were selected. The feasibility for the domestic passive reactor development has focused on the safety, technology and economy aspects, and on the applicability of the existing domestic technology to the design of the passive reactor. And the development plan for the domestic passive reactor was recommended in a step by step way. (Author)

  3. Development of core design and analyses technology for integral reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zee, Sung Quun; Lee, C. C.; Kim, K. Y.

    2002-03-01

    In general, small and medium-sized integral reactors adopt new technology such as passive and inherent safety concepts to minimize the necessity of power source and operator actions, and to provide the automatic measures to cope with any accidents. Specifically, such reactors are often designed with a lower core power density and with soluble boron free concept for system simplification. Those reactors require ultra long cycle operation for higher economical efficiency. This cycle length requirement is one of the important factors in the design of burnable absorbers as well as assurance of shutdown margin. Hence, both computer code system and design methodology based on the today's design technology for the current commercial reactor cores require intensive improvement for the small and medium-sized soluble boron free reactors. New database is also required for the development of this type of reactor core. Under these technical requirements, conceptual design of small integral reactor SMART has been performed since July 1997, and recently completed under the long term nuclear R and D program. Thus, the final objectives of this work is design and development of an integral reactor core and development of necessary indigenous design technology. To reach the goal of the 2nd stage R and D program for basic design of SMART, design bases and requirements adequate for ultra long cycle and soluble boron free concept are established. These bases and requirements are satisfied by the core loading pattern. Based on the core loading pattern, nuclear, and thermal and hydraulic characteristics are analyzed. Also included are fuel performance analysis and development of a core protection and monitoring system that is adequate for the soluble boron free core of an integral reactor. Core shielding design analysis is accomplished, too. Moreover, full scope interface data are produced for reactor safety and performance analyses and other design activities. Nuclear, thermal and

  4. The United States Advanced Reactor Technologies Research and Development Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O’Connor, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    The following aspects are addressed: • Nuclear energy mission; • Reactor research development and deployment (RD&D) programs: - Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program; - Small Modular Reactor Licensing Technical Support; - Advanced Reactor Technologies (ART)

  5. Study on modeling technology in digital reactor system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xiaoping; Luo Yuetong; Tong Lili

    2004-01-01

    Modeling is the kernel part of a digital reactor system. As an extensible platform for reactor conceptual design, it is very important to study modeling technology and develop some kind of tools to speed up preparation of all classical computing models. This paper introduces the background of the project and basic conception of digital reactor. MCAM is taken as an example for modeling and its related technologies used are given. It is an interface program for MCNP geometry model developed by FDS team (ASIPP and HUT), and designed to run on windows system. MCAM aims at utilizing CAD technology to facilitate creation of MCNP geometry model. There have been two ways for MCAM to utilize CAD technology: (1) Making use of user interface technology in aid of generation of MCNP geometry model; (2) Making use of existing 3D CAD model to accelerate creation of MCNP geometry model. This paper gives an overview of MCAM's major function. At last, several examples are given to demonstrate MCAM's various capabilities. (authors)

  6. Sol-gel process for thermal reactor fuel fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukerjee, S.K.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Sol-gel processes have revolutionized conventional ceramic technology by providing extremely fine and uniform powders for the fabrication of ceramics. The use of this technology for nuclear fuel fabrication has also been explored in many countries. Unlike the conventional sol-gel process, sol-gel process for nuclear fuels tries to eliminate the preparation of powders in view of the toxic nature of the powders particularly those of plutonium and 233 U. The elimination of powder handling thus makes this process more readily amenable for use in glove boxes or for remote handling. In this process, the first step is the preparation of microspheres of the fuel material from a solution which is then followed by vibro-compaction of these microspheres of different sizes to obtain the required smear density of fuel inside a pin. The maximum achievable packing density of 92 % makes it suitable for fast reactors only. With a view to extend the applicability of sol-gel process for thermal reactor fuel fabrication the concept of converting the gel microspheres derived from sol-gel process, to the pellets, has been under investigation for several years. The unique feature of this process is that it combines the advantages of sol-gel process for the preparation of fuel oxide gel microspheres of reproducible quality with proven irradiation behavior of the pellet fuel. One of the important pre-requisite for the success of this process is the preparation of soft oxide gel microspheres suitable for conversion to dense pellets free from berry structure. Studies on the internal gelation process, one of the many variants of sol-gel process, for obtaining soft oxide gel microspheres suitable for gel pelletisation is now under investigation at BARC. Some of the recent findings related to Sol-Gel Microsphere Pelletisation (SGMP) in urania-plutonia and thoria-urania systems will be presented

  7. Molten salt reactor technology for long-range and wide-scale nuclear energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatiev, V.; Alexseev, P.; Menshikov, L.; Prusakov, V.; Subbotine, S.

    1997-01-01

    A possibility of creation of multi-component nuclear power system in which alongside with thermal and fast reactors, molten salt burner reactors, for incineration of weapon grade plutonium, some minor actinides and transmutation of some fission products will be presented. The purposes of this work are to review the present status of the molten salt reactor technology and innovative non-aqueous chemical processing methods, to indicate the importance of the uncertainties remaining, to identify the additional work needed, and to evaluate the probability of success in obtaining improved safety characteristics for new concept of molten salt - burner reactor with external neutron source. 8 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  8. Overview of Nuclear Reactor Technologies Portfolio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O’Connor, Thomas J.

    2012-01-01

    Office of Nuclear Energy Roadmap R&D Objectives: • Develop technologies and other solutions that can improve the reliability, sustain the safety, and extend the life of current reactors; • Develop improvements in the affordability of new reactors to enable nuclear energy to help meet the Administration's energy security and climate change goals; • Develop sustainable nuclear fuel cycles; • Develop capabilities to reduce the risks of nuclear proliferation and terrorism

  9. Development status on hydrogen production technology using high-temperature gas-cooled reactor at JAEA, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiozawa, Shusaku; Ogawa, Masuro; Hino, Ryutaro

    2006-01-01

    The high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR), which is graphite-moderated and helium-cooled, is attractive due to its unique capability of producing high temperature helium gas and its fully inherent reactor safety. In particular, hydrogen production using the nuclear heat from HTGR (up to 900 deg. C) offers one of the most promising technological solutions to curb the rising level of CO 2 emission and resulting risk of climate change. The interests in HTGR as an advanced nuclear power source for the next generation reactor, therefore, continue to rise. This is represented by the Japanese HTTR (High-Temperature Engineering Test Reactor) Project and the Chinese HTR-10 Project, followed by the international Generation IV development program, US nuclear hydrogen initiative program, EU innovative HTR technology development program, etc. To enhance nuclear energy application to heat process industries, the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has continued extensive efforts for development of hydrogen production system using the nuclear heat from HTGR in the framework of the HTTR Project. The HTTR Project has the objectives of establishing both HTGR technology and heat utilization technology. Using the HTTR constructed at the Oarai Research and Development Center of JAEA, reactor performance and safety demonstration tests have been conducted as planned. The reactor outlet temperature of 950 deg. C was successfully achieved in April 2004. For hydrogen production as heat utilization technology, R and D on thermo-chemical water splitting by the 'Iodine-Sulfur process' (IS process) has been conducted step by step. Proof of the basic IS process was made in 1997 on a lab-scale of hydrogen production of 1 L/h. In 2004, one-week continuous operation of the IS process was successfully demonstrated using a bench-scale apparatus with hydrogen production rate of 31 L/h. Further test using a pilot scale facility with greater hydrogen production rate of 10 - 30 m 3 /h is planned as

  10. Assessment of the dry process fuel sodium-cooled fast reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roh, Gyu Hong; Choi, Hang Bok

    2004-04-01

    The feasibility of using dry-processed oxide fuel in a Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) was analyzed for the equilibrium fuel cycle of two reference cores: Hybrid BN-600 benchmark core with a enlarged lattice pitch and modified BN-600 core. The dry process technology assumed in this study based on the molten-salt process, which was developed by Russian scientists for recycling oxide fuels. The core calculation was performed by the REBUS-3 code and the reactor characteristics such as the transuranic enrichment, breeding ratio, peak linear power, burnup reactivity swing, etc. were calculated for the equilibrium core under a fixed fuel management scheme. The results showed that a self-sustainable breakeven core was achievable without blanket fuels when the fuel volume fraction was {approx}50% and most of the fission products were removed.

  11. Assessment of the dry process fuel sodium-cooled fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roh, Gyu Hong; Choi, Hang Bok

    2004-04-01

    The feasibility of using dry-processed oxide fuel in a Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) was analyzed for the equilibrium fuel cycle of two reference cores: Hybrid BN-600 benchmark core with a enlarged lattice pitch and modified BN-600 core. The dry process technology assumed in this study based on the molten-salt process, which was developed by Russian scientists for recycling oxide fuels. The core calculation was performed by the REBUS-3 code and the reactor characteristics such as the transuranic enrichment, breeding ratio, peak linear power, burnup reactivity swing, etc. were calculated for the equilibrium core under a fixed fuel management scheme. The results showed that a self-sustainable breakeven core was achievable without blanket fuels when the fuel volume fraction was ∼50% and most of the fission products were removed

  12. U.S. Status of Fast Reactor Research and Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Summary: • Fast reactor R&D is focused on key technologies innovations for performance improvement (cost reduction) and safety: 1. System Integration and Concept Development; 2. Safety Technology; 3. Advanced Materials; 4. Ultrasonic Viewing; 5. Advanced Energy Conversion (Supercritical CO 2 Brayton cycle); 6. Reactor Simulation; 7. Nuclear Data; 8. Advanced Fuels. • Fast reactors have flexible capability for actinide management: – A wide variety of fuel cycle options are being considered; • International R&D collaboration pursued in Generation-IV and multilateral arrangements

  13. Decommissioning of reactor facilities (2). Required technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagihara, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    Decommissioning of reactor facilities was planned to perform progressive dismantling, decontamination and radioactive waste disposal with combination of required technology in a safe and economic way. This article outlined required technology for decommissioning as follows: (1) evaluation of kinds and amounts of residual radioactivity of reactor facilities with calculation and measurement, (2) decontamination technology of metal components and concrete structures so as to reduce worker's exposure and production of radioactive wastes during dismantling, (3) dismantling technology of metal components and concrete structures such as plasma arc cutting, band saw cutting and controlled demolition with mostly remote control operation, (3) radioactive waste disposal for volume reduction and reuse, and (4) project management of decommissioning for safe and rational work to secure reduction of worker's exposure and prevent the spreading of contamination. (T. Tanaka)

  14. Nuclear reactor plant for production process heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, M.

    1979-01-01

    The high temperature reactor is suitable as a heat source for carrying out endothermal chemical processes. A heat exchanger is required for separating the reactor coolant gases and the process medium. The heat of the reactor is transferred at a temperature lower than the process temperature to a secondary gas and is compressed to give the required temperature. The compression energy is obtained from the same reactor. (RW) [de

  15. Development of materials and manufacturing technologies for Indian fast reactor programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raj, Baldev; Jayakumar, T.; Bhaduri, A.K.; Mandal, Sumantra

    2010-01-01

    Fast Breeder Reactors (FBRs) are vital towards meeting security and sustainability of energy for the growing economy of India. The development of FBRs necessitates extensive research and development in domains of materials and manufacturing technologies in association with a wide spectrum of disciplines and their inter-twining to meet the challenging technology. The paper highlight the work and the approaches adopted for the successful deployment of materials, manufacturing and inspection technologies for the in-core and structural components of current and future Indian Fast Breeder Reactor Programme. Indigenous development of in-core materials viz. Titanium modified austenitic stainless steel (Alloy D9) and its variants, ferritic/martensitic oxide-dispersion strengthened (ODS) steels as well as structural materials viz. 316L(N) stainless steel and modified 9Cr-1Mo have been achieved through synergistic interactions between Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research (IGCAR), education and research institutes and industries. Robust manufacturing technology has been established for forming and joining of various components of 500 MWe Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) through 'science-based technology' approach. To achieve the strict quality standards of formed parts in terms of geometrical tolerances, residual stresses and microstructural defects, FEM-based modelling and experimental validation was carried out for estimation of spring-back during forming of multiple curvature thick plantes. Optimization of grain boundary character distribution in Alloy D9 was carried out by adopting the grain boundary engineering approach to reduce radiation induced segregation. Extensive welding is involved in the fabrication of reactor vessels, piping, steam generators, fuel sub-assemblies etc. Activated Tungsten Inert Gas Welding process along with activated flux developed at IGCAR has been successfully used in fabrication of dummy fuel subassemblies (DFSA) required for testing

  16. Development of materials and manufacturing technologies for Indian fast reactor programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raj, Baldev; Jayakumar, T.; Bhaduri, A.K.; Mandal, Sumantra [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India)

    2010-07-01

    Fast Breeder Reactors (FBRs) are vital towards meeting security and sustainability of energy for the growing economy of India. The development of FBRs necessitates extensive research and development in domains of materials and manufacturing technologies in association with a wide spectrum of disciplines and their inter-twining to meet the challenging technology. The paper highlight the work and the approaches adopted for the successful deployment of materials, manufacturing and inspection technologies for the in-core and structural components of current and future Indian Fast Breeder Reactor Programme. Indigenous development of in-core materials viz. Titanium modified austenitic stainless steel (Alloy D9) and its variants, ferritic/martensitic oxide-dispersion strengthened (ODS) steels as well as structural materials viz. 316L(N) stainless steel and modified 9Cr-1Mo have been achieved through synergistic interactions between Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research (IGCAR), education and research institutes and industries. Robust manufacturing technology has been established for forming and joining of various components of 500 MWe Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) through 'science-based technology' approach. To achieve the strict quality standards of formed parts in terms of geometrical tolerances, residual stresses and microstructural defects, FEM-based modelling and experimental validation was carried out for estimation of spring-back during forming of multiple curvature thick plantes. Optimization of grain boundary character distribution in Alloy D9 was carried out by adopting the grain boundary engineering approach to reduce radiation induced segregation. Extensive welding is involved in the fabrication of reactor vessels, piping, steam generators, fuel sub-assemblies etc. Activated Tungsten Inert Gas Welding process along with activated flux developed at IGCAR has been successfully used in fabrication of dummy fuel subassemblies (DFSA) required

  17. CANDU nuclear reactor technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakaria, B. K.

    1994-01-01

    AECL has over 40 years of experience in the nuclear field. Over the past 20 years, this unique Canadian nuclear technology has made a worldwide presence, In addition to 22 CANDU reactors in Canada, there are also two in India, one in Pakistan, one in Argentina, four in Korea and five in Romania. CANDU advancements are based on evolutionary plant improvements. They consist of system performance improvements, design technology improvements and research and development in support of advanced nuclear power. Given the good performance of CANOU plants, it is important that this CANDU operating experience be incorporated into new and repeat designs

  18. Random processes in nuclear reactors

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, M M R

    1974-01-01

    Random Processes in Nuclear Reactors describes the problems that a nuclear engineer may meet which involve random fluctuations and sets out in detail how they may be interpreted in terms of various models of the reactor system. Chapters set out to discuss topics on the origins of random processes and sources; the general technique to zero-power problems and bring out the basic effect of fission, and fluctuations in the lifetime of neutrons, on the measured response; the interpretation of power reactor noise; and associated problems connected with mechanical, hydraulic and thermal noise sources

  19. Technological aspects of intrinsically safe and economical reactor (ISER)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Nobuyuki; Oda, Junro; Yamanaka, Kazuo; Sugawara, Ichiro.

    1987-01-01

    ISER is a modified version of process inherent ultimate safe reactor (PIUS) developed by ASEA-ATOM, Sweden, and follows the same inherent safety principle, that is, passive reactor shutdown through the introduction of borated pool water into a core via an interface, and passive decay heat removal by natural circulation. The most significant deviation from the PIUS is that the ISER employs a steel reactor pressure vessel enclosed in the reactor pit, instead of a prestressed concrete reactor pressure vessel of the PIUS. The merits of using steel pressure vessels are siting versatility including barge-mounted plants, low cost, the standardization and serial production of total NSSSs through the weight reduction and compaction of primary system, as well as the possibility of utilizing current LWR technology, which minimizes R and D effort. In this paper, the design features of the latest version of ISERs are shown, and the specific problems of the key components are discussed. The primary system consists of a primary coolant loop and a borated water pool, which are connected with upper and lower interfaces. The nuclear design and thermohydraulic design, the operation and maintenance, and the design features of a steam generator, a pressurizer, interfaces and so on are described. (Kako, I.)

  20. Proceedings of the Third Scientific Presentation on Reactor Safety Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    These proceedings contains the results of research and development on reactor safety technology which carried out by Reactor Safety Technology Centre, National Atomic Energy Agency, Serpong, Indonesia during 1997/1998 fiscal year. The presentation was held on 13-14 May 1998 at Serpong,Indonesia

  1. Advanced Reactor Licensing: Experience with Digital I&C Technology in Evolutionary Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, RT

    2004-09-27

    This report presents the findings from a study of experience with digital instrumentation and controls (I&C) technology in evolutionary nuclear power plants. In particular, this study evaluated regulatory approaches employed by the international nuclear power community for licensing advanced l&C systems and identified lessons learned. The report (1) gives an overview of the modern l&C technologies employed at numerous evolutionary nuclear power plants, (2) identifies performance experience derived from those applications, (3) discusses regulatory processes employed and issues that have arisen, (4) captures lessons learned from performance and regulatory experience, (5) suggests anticipated issues that may arise from international near-term deployment of reactor concepts, and (6) offers conclusions and recommendations for potential activities to support advanced reactor licensing in the United States.

  2. Power Nuclear Reactors: technology and innovation for development in future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez Antola, R.

    2009-01-01

    The conference is about some historicals task of the fission technology as well as many types of Nuclear Reactors. Enrichment of fuel, wastes, research reactors and power reactors, a brief advertisment about Uruguay electric siystem and power generation, energetic worldwide, proliferation, safety reactors, incidents, accidents, Three-Mile Island accident, Chernobil accident, damages, risks, classification and description of Power reactors steam generation, nuclear reactor cooling systems, future view

  3. Simulator platform for fast reactor operation and safety technology demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilim, R.B.; Park, Y.S.; Grandy, C.; Belch, H.; Dworzanski, P.; Misterka, J.

    2012-01-01

    A simulator platform for visualization and demonstration of innovative concepts in fast reactor technology is described. The objective is to make more accessible the workings of fast reactor technology innovations and to do so in a human factors environment that uses state-of-the art visualization technologies. In this work the computer codes in use at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) for the design of fast reactor systems are being integrated to run on this platform. This includes linking reactor systems codes with mechanical structures codes and using advanced graphics to depict the thermo-hydraulic-structure interactions that give rise to an inherently safe response to upsets. It also includes visualization of mechanical systems operation including advanced concepts that make use of robotics for operations, in-service inspection, and maintenance.

  4. Simulator platform for fast reactor operation and safety technology demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilim, R. B.; Park, Y. S.; Grandy, C.; Belch, H.; Dworzanski, P.; Misterka, J. (Nuclear Engineering Division)

    2012-07-30

    A simulator platform for visualization and demonstration of innovative concepts in fast reactor technology is described. The objective is to make more accessible the workings of fast reactor technology innovations and to do so in a human factors environment that uses state-of-the art visualization technologies. In this work the computer codes in use at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) for the design of fast reactor systems are being integrated to run on this platform. This includes linking reactor systems codes with mechanical structures codes and using advanced graphics to depict the thermo-hydraulic-structure interactions that give rise to an inherently safe response to upsets. It also includes visualization of mechanical systems operation including advanced concepts that make use of robotics for operations, in-service inspection, and maintenance.

  5. Reliability test for reactor internals rejuvenation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchiyama, Junichi

    1998-01-01

    41 transparencies were presented on the subject of 'Reliability test for reactor internals rejuvenation technology'. The items presented give an introduction on the management of plant life in Japan and introduce the Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation (NUPEC). The question of what reliability tests for rejuvenation of reactor internals are is discussed in some detail and an outline of each test is given. Altogether six methods to rejuvenate reactor internals are presented, two of which have already been applied to actual plants. The presentation was supported by many detailed drawings and images

  6. Substitution models for overlapping technologies - an application to fast reactor deployment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehtinen, R.; Silvennoinen, P.; Vira, J.

    1982-01-01

    In this paper market penetration models are discussed in the context of interacting technologies. An increased confidence credit is proposed for a technology that can draw on other overlapping technologies. The model is also reduced to a numerically tractable form. As an application, scenarios of fast reactor deployment are derived under different assumptions on the uranium and fast reactor investment costs and by varying model parameters for the penetration of fusion and solar technologies. The market share of fast reactors in electricity generation is expected to lie between zero and 40 per cent in 2050 depending on the market parameters. (orig.) [de

  7. Decommissioning of Swedish nuclear power reactors. Technology and costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    The main topics discussed are planning, technology and costs of decommissioning nuclear power reactors. Oskarshamn-3 (BWR) and Ringhals-4 (PWR) have been used as reference reactors. 29 refs, figs, tabs

  8. Contributions of research Reactors in science and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butt, N.M.; Bashir, J.

    1992-12-01

    In the present paper, after defining a research reactor, its basic constituents, types of reactors, their distribution in the world, some typical examples of their uses are given. Particular emphasis in placed on the contribution of PARR-I (Pakistan Research Reactor-I), the 5 MW Swimming Pool Research reactor which first became critical at the Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology (PINSTECH) in Dec. 1965 and attained its full power in June 1966. This is still the major research facility at PINSTECH for research and development. (author)

  9. The development of mobile melt-dilute technology for the treatment of former Soviet Union research reactor fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sell, D.A.; Howden, E.A.; Allen, K.J.; Marsden, K.; Westphal, B.R.; Peacock, H.B.; Iyer, N.C.; Fisher, D.L.; Adams, T.M.; Sindelar, R.L.

    2004-01-01

    United States Government funded national security nuclear non-proliferation projects have historically focused on power reactor spent fuel assemblies that contain weapons usable materials. More recently concern and emphasis have been focused on the spent fuel located at the many research reactor facilities spread throughout the Former Soviet Union. The need exists for a mobile system that can be deployed at these research reactors for the purpose of ensuring that the nuclear materials cannot be used for weapons development. On-site application of the Mobile Melt-Dilute (MMD) process offers an economical method for converting weapons usable Former Soviet Union high enriched uranium research reactor fuel to a safe and secure low enriched uranium ingot. The process will generate little waste and will be performed in a sealed canister that will contain all off-gas products generated during the melting process, eliminating the need for an off-gas treatment system. The process is modular, reusable, and readily portable to a desired reactor site or storage location. The storage canisters containing the melted ingot can be configured for compatibility with the fuel storage technologies currently available or returned to Russia for reprocessing under the Russian Research Reactor Fuel Return Program. The objective of the MMD Project is to develop the mobile melt and dilute technology in preparation for active deployment at Russian built and fueled research reactors. The project has just completed conceptual design and is beginning proof of principle experiments and integrated prototype design of the furnace and canister. (authors)

  10. Analytical hierarchy process for the selection of nuclear reactors for Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin-Del-Campo, C.; Nelson, P. F.; Francois, J. L.

    2008-01-01

    The Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) was applied as a decision making technique to select the next new nuclear power reactor for Mexico. The main objective is to select the most suitable nuclear reactor technology for Mexico, to start the bidding process within one or two years, and the reactor to initiate commercial operation by 2016. Four alternatives which comply with these specific restrictions were compared: the Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (AB WR) from General Electric, Hitachi and Toshiba; the European Pressurized Water Reactor (ERR) from AREVA; the pressurized water reactor - advanced passive plant, AP1000, from Westinghouse; and the Economic Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (ESBWR) from General Electric. The evaluation criteria include economic and safety indicator, some of them quantitative and others qualitative. Additional complexity to the solution of this problem is that there are stakeholders that can be involved in the definition of the evaluation criteria and in the definition of relative importance between them, according to each stakeholder interests or benefits. Only the two main stakeholders were considered, these are the Federal Commission of Electricity (Comision Federal de Electricidad, CFE) and the National Commission of Nuclear Safety and Safeguards (Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias, CNSNS). Considering the evaluation criteria used and the authors' assessment of their importance, the ABWR was ranked the highest. Sensitivity analyses were performed in order to define the most suitable reactor for the needs of Mexico. (authors)

  11. Development of remote decontamination technologies improving internal environment of reactor buildings at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hotta, Koji; Hayashi, Hirotada; Sakai, Hitoshi

    2016-01-01

    The reactor buildings at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station of Tokyo Electric Power Co., Inc., which was seriously damaged by the Great East Japan Earthquake of March 11, 2011, have been highly contaminated by radioactive materials. To safely and efficiently advance the processes related to the forthcoming decommissioning of the reactors, it is necessary to improve the hazardous environment inside the reactor buildings. During the more than four years that have elapsed since the Great East Japan Earthquake, Toshiba has been implementing various measures to reduce the ambient dose rates inside the reactor buildings through decontamination work and participation in a national project for the development of remote decontamination technologies for reactor buildings. A variety of vehicles and technologies to support decontamination work have been developed through these activities, and are significantly contributing to improvement of the environment inside the reactor buildings. (author)

  12. International Conference on Physics and Technology of Reactors and Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Full text : The international conference on physics and technology of reactors is organized by the Moroccan Association for Nuclear enggineering and Reactor Technology (GMTR) with the collaboration of the Centre for Energy and Nuclear Sciences and Techniques (CNESTEN) and under the auspices of the ministry of Energy, Mining, Water and Environment. The programme of the PHYTRA2 conference covers a wide variety of topics. The conference is organised in one plenary session, eight oral technical sessions and one poster session. The oral and poster technical sessions covers the usual topics of nuclear engineering including one session on research reactors utilisation and computational methods for research reactors

  13. Technologies to support industrial processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palazzi, G.; Savelli, D.

    1989-05-01

    Control and measuring techniques applied to industry have the common aim of increasing safety, reliability and plant availability. The industrial monitoring system needs a lot of sensors, whose signals, elaborated and interpreted, allow one to define the best working condition; moreover control instruments perform a diagnosis related to damages and breakages. The Experimental Engineering Division of ENEA's Thermal Reactor Department has developed sensors and measuring apparatus and has acquired advanced control techniques. All these systems, containing an original software, have been applied to industrial process problems and/or to experimental facilities both to increase reliability and to understand better process physics. Division activities are grouped in four sectors: non-destructive examinations (ultrasonic, eddy current, thermography, holographic interpherometry, penetrant liquids and magnetoscopy); innovative sensors (heated thermocouples, optical fiber sensors); advanced measuring systems (laser technology for fluidodynamic measures, nuclear radiation techniques, infrared measuring, mass spectrometer, hot-film anemometer, chromatographic apparatus); advanced technologies for diagnosis and signal analysis (digital image processing, statistical analysis). (author)

  14. Achievement report for fiscal 1998. Development of next-generation chemical process technologies; 1998 nendo jisedai kagaku process gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Researches are conducted on the development of a technology of catalytic cracking of naphtha, technology relative to selective oxidation reaction of saturated hydrocarbons, process technology utilizing solid-phase reaction field, and a process technology utilizing novel reaction mechanism. Also, a survey is conducted on chemical processes of the next generation. Concerning the catalytic cracking of naphtha, reaction systems are roughly divided into two groups by whether or not they proceed in the presence of oxygen. As for rare earth oxide catalyst systems and zeolitic catalyst systems, their performance is confirmed and their reaction mechanisms are estimated. Concerning the selective oxidation reaction of hydrocarbons, studies are made to enhance the performance of catalytic systems that have been selected in researches conducted in the past. Concerning the process of solid phase reaction field utilization, the project is summarized and a concept is constructed of 'solid phase catalyst.' Concerning novel reaction mechanism utilizing process technologies, development is discussed of a novel process using membrane reactor, a highly functional hydrogen permeable membrane, a low-temperature dehydrogenation catalyst, etc., and a dehydrogenation membrane reactor is experimentally built. (NEDO)

  15. Predictive maintenance technology development at G.A. Siwabessy multipurpose reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jupiter Sitorus Pane; Imron, M.; Sapto Hartoko; Sentot Alibasya Harahap [Multipurpose Research Reactor G.A. Siwabessy, National Nuclear Energy Agency (Indonesia)

    1999-10-01

    Safe operation of reactor is certainly influenced by condition of system and component equipped to the reactor's system. In order to maintain the condition of that systems and components, RSG-GAS has arranged maintenance program with time-basis. All 6 (six) groups of reactor systems are maintained within interval of weekly, monthly, three monthly, six-monthly, yearly, five-yearly appropriately. The experience showed that event though the maintenance was performed persistently, the condition of system and component are still not able to determine exactly. The possibility of accidental failure is open since the failure factor are varied and complicated. In order to limit an uncertainty of the component condition a based maintenance shall be introduced. An infrared investigation and manual vibration analysis had been used to diagnose the condition of some RSG-GAS' components. In addition, other alternative technology for predictive maintenance was developed. It is started by computerizing the database maintenance and doing historical review for its aging management, and developing data acquisition and processing equipment using Lab View computer program for collecting and processing signal data from dynamics system. This paper describes briefly the status of those development results. (author)

  16. Predictive maintenance technology development at G.A. Siwabessy multipurpose reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jupiter Sitorus Pane; Imron, M.; Sapto Hartoko; Sentot Alibasya Harahap

    1999-01-01

    Safe operation of reactor is certainly influenced by condition of system and component equipped to the reactor's system. In order to maintain the condition of that systems and components, RSG-GAS has arranged maintenance program with time-basis. All 6 (six) groups of reactor systems are maintained within interval of weekly, monthly, three monthly, six-monthly, yearly, five-yearly appropriately. The experience showed that event though the maintenance was performed persistently, the condition of system and component are still not able to determine exactly. The possibility of accidental failure is open since the failure factor are varied and complicated. In order to limit an uncertainty of the component condition a based maintenance shall be introduced. An infrared investigation and manual vibration analysis had been used to diagnose the condition of some RSG-GAS' components. In addition, other alternative technology for predictive maintenance was developed. It is started by computerizing the database maintenance and doing historical review for its aging management, and developing data acquisition and processing equipment using Lab View computer program for collecting and processing signal data from dynamics system. This paper describes briefly the status of those development results. (author)

  17. Is light water reactor technology sustainable?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothwell, G.; Van der Zwaan, B.

    2001-01-01

    This paper proposes criteria for determining ''intermediate sustainability'' over a 500-year horizon. We apply these criteria to Light Water Reactor (LWR) technology and the LWR industry. We conclude that LWR technology does not violate intermediate sustainability criteria for (1) environmental externalities, (2) worker and public health and safety, or (3) accidental radioactive release. However, it does not meet criteria to (1) efficiently use depleted uranium and (2) avoid uranium enrichment technologies that can lead to nuclear weapons proliferation. Finally, current and future global demand for LWR technology might be below the minimum needed to sustain the current global LWR industry. (author)

  18. Advanced spent fuel processing technologies for the United States GNEP programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laidler, J.J.

    2007-01-01

    Spent fuel processing technologies for future advanced nuclear fuel cycles are being developed under the scope of the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP). This effort seeks to make available for future deployment a fissile material recycling system that does not involve the separation of pure plutonium from spent fuel. In the nuclear system proposed by the United States under the GNEP initiative, light water reactor spent fuel is treated by means of a solvent extraction process that involves a group extraction of transuranic elements. The recovered transuranics are recycled as fuel material for advanced burner reactors, which can lead in the long term to fast reactors with conversion ratios greater than unity, helping to assure the sustainability of nuclear power systems. Both aqueous and pyrochemical methods are being considered for fast reactor spent fuel processing in the current US development programme. (author)

  19. ITER: a technology test bed for a fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huguet, M.; Green, B.J.

    1996-01-01

    The ITER Project aims to establish nuclear fusion as an energy source that has potential safety and environmental advantages, and to develop the technologies required for a fusion reactor. ITER is a collaborative project between the European Union, Japan, the Russian Federation and the United States of America. During the current phase of the Project, an R and D programme of about 850 million dollars is underway to develop the technologies required for ITER. This technological effort should culminate in the construction of the components and systems of the ITER machine and its auxiliaries. The main areas of technological development include the first wall and divertor technology, the blanket technology and tritium breeding, superconducting magnet technology, pulsed power technology and remote handling. ITER is a test bed and an essential step to establish the technology of future fusion reactors. Many of the ITER technologies are of potential interest to other fields and their development is expected to benefit the industries involved. (author)

  20. SEQUENCING BATCH REACTOR: A PROMISING TECHNOLOGY IN WASTEWATER TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H. Mahvi

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Discharge of domestic and industrial wastewater to surface or groundwater is very dangerous to the environment. Therefore treatment of any kind of wastewater to produce effluent with good quality is necessary. In this regard choosing an effective treatment system is important. Sequencing batch reactor is a modification of activated sludge process which has been successfully used to treat municipal and industrial wastewater. The process could be applied for nutrients removal, high biochemical oxygen demand containing industrial wastewater, wastewater containing toxic materials such as cyanide, copper, chromium, lead and nickel, food industries effluents, landfill leachates and tannery wastewater. Of the process advantages are single-tank configuration, small foot print, easily expandable, simple operation and low capital costs. Many researches have been conducted on this treatment technology. The authors had been conducted some investigations on a modification of sequencing batch reactor. Their studies resulted in very high percentage removal of biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, total kjeldahl nitrogen, total nitrogen, total phosphorus and total suspended solids respectively. This paper reviews some of the published works in addition to experiences of the authors.

  1. Development of technology for next generation reactor - Development of next generation reactor in Korea -

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jong Kyun; Chang, Moon Heuy; Hwang, Yung Dong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); and others

    1993-09-01

    The project, development of next generation reactor, aims overall related technology development and obtainment of related license in 2001. The development direction is to determine the reactor type and to build up the design concept in 1994. For development trend analysis of foreign next generation reactor, level-1 PSA, fuel cycle analysis and computer code development are performed on System 80+ and AP 600. Especially for design characteristics analysis and volume upgrade of AP 600, nuclear fuel and reactor core design analysis, coolant circuit design analysis, mechanical structure design analysis and safety analysis etc. are performed. (Author).

  2. Water treatment process for nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marwan, M.A.; Khattab, M.S.; Hanna, A.N.

    1993-01-01

    Water treatment for purification is very important in reactor cooling systems as well as in many industrial applications. Since impurities in water are main source of problems, it is necessary to achieve and maintain high purity of water before utilization in reactor cooling systems. The present work investigates water treatment process for nuclear reactor utilization. Analysis of outwater chemistry proved that demineralizing process is an appropriate method. Extensive experiments were conducted to determine economical concentration of the regenerants to obtain the optimum quantity of pure water which reached to 15 cubic-meter instead of 10 cubic-meter per regeneration. Running cost is consequently decreased by about 30%. Output water chemistry agrees with the recommended specifications for reactor utilization. The radionuclides produced in the primary cooling water due to reactor operation are determined. It is found that 70% of radioactive contaminants are retained by purification through resin of reactor filter. Decontamination factor and filter efficiency are also determined

  3. Water treatment process for nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marwan, M.A.; Khattab, M.S.; Hanna, A.N.

    1992-01-01

    Water treatment for purification is very important in reactor cooling systems as well as in many industrial applications. Since impurities in water are main source of problems, it is necessary to achieve and maintain high purity of water before utilization in reactor cooling systems. The present work investigate water treatment process for nuclear reactor utilization. Analysis of output water chemistry proved that demineralizing process is an appropriate method. Extensive experiments were conducted to determine economical concentration of the regenerates to obtain the optimum quantity of pure water which reached to 15 cubic meter instead of 10 cubic-meter per regeneration. Running cost is consequently decreased by about 30 %. output water chemistry agree with the recommended specifications for reactor utilization. The radionuclides produced in the primary cooling water due to reactor operation are determined. It is found that 70% of radioactive contaminants are retained by purification through resin of reactor filter. Decontamination factor and filter efficiency are also determined.5 fig., 3 tab

  4. Defining the "proven technology" technical criterion in the reactor technology assessment for Malaysia's nuclear power program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anuar, Nuraslinda; Kahar, Wan Shakirah Wan Abdul; Manan, Jamal Abdul Nasir Abd

    2015-04-01

    Developing countries that are considering the deployment of nuclear power plants (NPPs) in the near future need to perform reactor technology assessment (RTA) in order to select the most suitable reactor design. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) reported in the Common User Considerations (CUC) document that "proven technology" is one of the most important technical criteria for newcomer countries in performing the RTA. The qualitative description of five desired features for "proven technology" is relatively broad and only provides a general guideline to its characterization. This paper proposes a methodology to define the "proven technology" term according to a specific country's requirements using a three-stage evaluation process. The first evaluation stage screens the available technologies in the market against a predefined minimum Technology Readiness Level (TRL) derived as a condition based on national needs and policy objectives. The result is a list of technology options, which are then assessed in the second evaluation stage against quantitative definitions of CUC desired features for proven technology. The potential technology candidates produced from this evaluation is further narrowed down to obtain a list of proven technology candidates by assessing them against selected risk criteria and the established maximum allowable total score using a scoring matrix. The outcome of this methodology is the proven technology candidates selected using an accurate definition of "proven technology" that fulfills the policy objectives, national needs and risk, and country-specific CUC desired features of the country that performs this assessment. A simplified assessment for Malaysia is carried out to demonstrate and suggest the use of the proposed methodology. In this exercise, ABWR, AP1000, APR1400 and EPR designs assumed the top-ranks of proven technology candidates according to Malaysia's definition of "proven technology".

  5. Advanced nuclear reactor safety design technology research in NPIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, H.

    2014-01-01

    After the Fukushima accident happen, Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) construction has been suspended in China for a time. Now the new regulatory rule has been proposed that the most advanced safety standard must be adopted for the new NPPs and practical elimination of large fission product release by design during the next five plans period. So the advanced reactor research is developing in China. NPIC is engaging on the ACP1000 and ACP100 (Small Module Reactor) design. The main design character will be introduced in this paper. The Passive Combined with Active (PCWA) design was adopted during the ACP1000 design to reduce the core damage frequency (CDF); the Cavity Injection System (CIS) is design to mitigation the consequence of the severe accident. Advance passive safety system was designed to ensure the long term residual heat removal during the Small Module Reactor (SMR). The SMR will be utilized to be the floating reactors, district heating reactor and so on. Besides, the Science and Technology on Reactor System Design Technology Laboratory (LRSDT) also engaged on the fundamental thermal-hydraulic characteristic research in support of the system validation. (author)

  6. Development of fluid system design technology for integral reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, D. J.; Chang, M. H.; Kang, D. J. and others

    1999-03-01

    This study presents the technology development of the system design concepts of SMART, a multi-purposed integral reactor with enhanced safety and operability, for use in diverse usages and applications of the nuclear energy. This report contains the following; - Design characteristics - Performance and safety related design criteria - System description: Primary system, Secondary system, Residual heat removal system, Make-up system, Component cooling system, Safety system - Development of design computer code: Steam generator performance(ONCESG), Pressurizer performance(COLDPZR), Steam generator flow instability(SGINS) - Development of component module and modeling using MMS computer code - Design calculation: Steam generator thermal sizing, Analysis of feed-water temperature increase at a low flow rate, Evaluation of thermal efficiency in the secondary system, Inlet orifice throttling coefficient for the prevention of steam generator flow instability, Analysis of Nitrogen gas temperature in the pressurizer during heat-up process, evaluation of water chemistry and erosion etc. The results of this study can be utilized not only for the foundation technology of the next phase basic system design of the SMART but also for the basic model in optimizing the system concepts for future advanced reactors. (author)

  7. Technology development of fast reactor fuel reprocessing technology in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natarajan, R.; Raj, Baldev

    2009-01-01

    India is committed to the large scale induction of fast breeder reactors beginning with the construction of 500 MWe Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor, PFBR. Closed fuel cycle is a prerequisite for the success of the fast reactors to reduce the external dependence of the fuel. In the Indian context, spent fuel reprocessing, with as low as possible out of pile fissile inventory, is another important requirement for increasing the share in power generation through nuclear route as early as possible. The development of this complex technology is being carried out in four phases, the first phase being the developmental phase, in which major R and D issues are addressed, while the second phase is the design, construction and operation of a pilot plant, called CORAL (COmpact Reprocessing facility for Advanced fuels in Lead shielded cell. The third phase is the construction and operation of Demonstration of Fast Reactor Fuel Reprocessing Plant (DFRP) which will provide experience in fast reactor fuel reprocessing with high availability factors and plant throughput. The design, construction and operation of the commercial plant (FRP) for reprocessing of PFBR fuel is the fourth phase, which will provide the requisite confidence for the large scale induction of fast reactors

  8. Is light water reactor technology sustainable?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothwell, G. [Stanford Univ., Dept. of Economics, CA (United States); Van der Zwaan, B. [Vrije Univ., Amsterdam, Inst. for Environmental Studies (Netherlands)

    2001-07-01

    This paper proposes criteria for determining ''intermediate sustainability'' over a 500-year horizon. We apply these criteria to Light Water Reactor (LWR) technology and the LWR industry. We conclude that LWR technology does not violate intermediate sustainability criteria for (1) environmental externalities, (2) worker and public health and safety, or (3) accidental radioactive release. However, it does not meet criteria to (1) efficiently use depleted uranium and (2) avoid uranium enrichment technologies that can lead to nuclear weapons proliferation. Finally, current and future global demand for LWR technology might be below the minimum needed to sustain the current global LWR industry. (author)

  9. Accident transient processes at NPPs with the WWER type reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bukrinskij, A.M.

    1982-01-01

    Thermal-physical and nuclear-physical transient processes at NPPs with the WWER type reactors during accidents with the main technological equipment failures and the accidents with loss of coolant in the primary and secondary coolant circuits are considered. Mathematical methods used for these processes modelling is described. Examples of concrete calculations for accidents with different failures are given. Comparative analysis of the results of dynamic tests at the Novo-Voronezh-3 reactor is presented. It is concluded that the modern NPP design is impossible without application of mathematical modelling methods. The mathematical modelling of transients is also necessary for proper and safe NPP operation. Mathematical modelling of accidents at NPPs is a comparatively new method of investigation. Its success and development are completely based on the progress in modern computer development. With their improvement the mathematical models will become more complicate and adequacy of real physical process representation by their means will increase

  10. Space reactor system and subsystem investigations: assessment of technology issues for the reactor and shield subsystem. SP-100 Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atkins, D.F.; Lillie, A.F.

    1983-01-01

    As part of Rockwell's effort on the SP-100 Program, preliminary assessment has been completed of current nuclear technology as it relates to candidate reactor/shield subsystems for the SP-100 Program. The scope of the assessment was confined to the nuclear package (to the reactor and shield subsystems). The nine generic reactor subsystems presented in Rockwell's Subsystem Technology Assessment Report, ESG-DOE-13398, were addressed for the assessment

  11. Survey of fusion reactor technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, M.K.; Kang, H.D.; Oh, Y.K.; Lee, K.W.; In, S.Y.; Kim, Y.C.

    1983-01-01

    The present object of the fusion research is to accomplish the scientific break even by the year of 1986. In view of current progress in the field of Fusion reactor development, we decided to carry out the conceptual design of Tokamak-type fusion reactor during the year of 82-86 in order to acquire the principles of the fusion devices, find the engineering problems and establish the basic capabilities to develop the key techniques with originality. In this year the methods for calculating the locations of the poloidal coils and distribution of the magnetic field, which is one of the most essential and complicated task in the fusion reactor design works, were established. Study on the optimization of the design method of toroidal field coil was also done. Through this work, we established the logic for the design of the toroidal field coil in tokamak and utilize this technique to the design of small compact tokamak. Apart from the development work as to the design technology of tokamak, accelerating column and high voltage power supply (200 KVDC, 100 mA) for intense D-T neutron generator were constructed and now beam transport systems are under construction. This device will be used to develop the materials and the components for the tokamak fusion reactor. (Author)

  12. Achievement report for fiscal 1998. Development of next-generation chemical process technologies; 1998 nendo jisedai kagaku process gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Researches are conducted on the development of a technology of catalytic cracking of naphtha, technology relative to selective oxidation reaction of saturated hydrocarbons, process technology utilizing solid-phase reaction field, and a process technology utilizing novel reaction mechanism. Also, a survey is conducted on chemical processes of the next generation. Concerning the catalytic cracking of naphtha, reaction systems are roughly divided into two groups by whether or not they proceed in the presence of oxygen. As for rare earth oxide catalyst systems and zeolitic catalyst systems, their performance is confirmed and their reaction mechanisms are estimated. Concerning the selective oxidation reaction of hydrocarbons, studies are made to enhance the performance of catalytic systems that have been selected in researches conducted in the past. Concerning the process of solid phase reaction field utilization, the project is summarized and a concept is constructed of 'solid phase catalyst.' Concerning novel reaction mechanism utilizing process technologies, development is discussed of a novel process using membrane reactor, a highly functional hydrogen permeable membrane, a low-temperature dehydrogenation catalyst, etc., and a dehydrogenation membrane reactor is experimentally built. (NEDO)

  13. Underwater laser beam welding technology for reactor vessel nozzles of PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoda, Masaki; Tamura, Masataka; Tamura, Masataka

    2010-01-01

    Toshiba has developed an underwater laser beam welding technology for the maintenance of reactor vessel nozzles of pressurized water reactors (PWRs), which eliminates the need for the drainage of water from the reactor vessel. The new welding system makes it possible to both reduce the work period and minimize the radiation exposure of workers compared with conventional technologies for welding in ambient air. We have confirmed the effectiveness of this technology through experiments in which stress corrosion cracking (SCC) was mitigated on the inner surfaces of nozzles. We are promoting its practical application in Japan and overseas in cooperation with Westinghouse Electric Company, a group company of Toshiba. (author)

  14. Nuclear reactors and technology in the next stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orlov, V.

    2000-01-01

    Author deals with the perspectives of development of nuclear power. It is possible to create in a fairly short time reactors and fuel technology that would meet the main requirements for large-scale power production, i.e.: (a) to afford a 100-fold reduction in the specific consumption of uranium, by utilizing thousands of tonnes of Pu accumulated in the spent fuel from the reactors of the fl t stage; .to rule out nuclear disasters, by taking advantage of the intrinsic properties and behavior of reactor, coolant, fuel, etc., with the plants made simpler and cheaper; (b) to hit a balance between the radiotoxicity of waste and that of feed uranium, by providing neutron transmutation; (c) to create power reactors and fuel cycle technology that would not afford extraction of weapon-grade materials. To fulfil all these requirements, it is necessary to provide substantial neutron excess in a chain reaction for Pu breeding, to use fuel with an equilibrium composition, to bum actinides and LLFPs. All this can be done only in fast reactors. Fast reactors can also provide fuel for thermal reactors that might still be used for some applications, operating in a Th/U cycle, which is the best option for such facilities. Novel engineering solutions will be necessary: high-density heat-conductive fuel (UPuN), chemically inert high-boiling coolant (Pb), dry reprocessing. These issues have been studied well enough to allow embarking on the development of advanced fast reactors. Minatom institutions are finalizing a detailed design of a demonstration BREST-300 plant, complete with an on-site fuel cycle that will meet the requirements of large-scale nuclear power. Hopefully, construction of this plant at Beloyarsk site with its subsequent trial operation would open a door to the next stage in nuclear power development. (author)

  15. The search for advanced remote technology in fast reactor reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burch, W.D.; Herndon, J.N.; Stradley, J.G.

    1990-01-01

    Research and development in fast reactor reprocessing has been under way about 20 years in several countries throughout the world. During the past decade in France and the United Kingdom, active development programs have been carried out in breeder reprocessing. Actual fuels from their demonstration reactors have been reprocessed in small-scale facilities. Early US work in breeder reprocessing was carried out at the EBR-II facilities with the early metal fuels, and interest has renewed recently in metal fuels. A major, comprehensive program, focused on oxide fuels, has been carried out in the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program (CFRP) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) since 1974. Germany and Japan have also carried out development programs in breeder reprocessing, and Japan appears committed to major demonstration of breeder reactors and their fuel cycles. While much of the effort in all of these programs addressed process chemistry and process hardware, a significant element of many of these programs, particularly the CFRP, has been on advancements in facility concepts and remote maintenance features. This paper will focus principally on the search for improved facility concepts and better maintenance systems in the CFRP and, in turn, on how developments at ORNL have influenced the technology elsewhere

  16. Study of the Utilization BWR Type Nuclear Power Reactor for Desalination Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itjeu Karliana; Sumijanto; Dhandhang Purwadi, M.

    2008-01-01

    The needs of fresh water increased by rapid population growth and industrials expansion, but these demands can not be prepared naturally. Following this case, seawater desalination becomes the primer option which can fulfill the need through the nuclear desalination technology. The coupled nuclear power reactor enables to supply thermal energy for auxiliary equipment and pumps operation. The utilization study of power reactor type BWR coupled with desalination process has been performed. The goal of study is to obtain characteristic data of desalted water specification which desalination system coupling with nuclear power plant produced energy for desalination process. The study is carried out by browsing data and information, and comprehensive review of thermal energy correlation between NPP with desalination process installation. According to reviewing are found that the thermal energy and electric power utilization from the nuclear power reactor are enable to remove the seawater to produce desalted water and also to operate auxiliary equipments. The assessment results is VK-300 reactor prototype, BWR type 250 MW(e) power are cogeneration unit can supplied hot steam temperature 285 °C to the extraction turbine to empower 150 MW electric power, and a part of hot steam 130 °C is use to operate desalination process and remind heat is distribute to the municipal and offices at that region. The coupled of VK-300 reactor power type BWR with desalination installation of MED type enable to produce desalted water with high quality distillate. Based on the economic calculation that the VK-300 reactor power of BWR type produced water distillate capacity is 300.000 m 3 /hour with cost US$ 0.58/m 3 . The coupling VK-300 reactor power type BWR with MED desalination plant is competitive economically. (author)

  17. The role of the IAEA in advanced technologies for water-cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleveland, J.

    1996-01-01

    The role of the IAEA in advanced technologies for water-cooled reactors is described, including the following issues: international collaboration ways through international working group activities; IAEA coordinated research programmes; cooperative research in advanced water-cooled reactor technology

  18. Reactor Technology Options Study for Near-Term Deployment of GNEP Grid-Appropriate Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingersoll, Daniel T.; Poore, Willis P. III

    2007-01-01

    World energy demand is projected to significantly increase over the coming decades. The International Energy Agency projects that electricity demand will increase 50% by 2015 and double by 2030, with most of the increase coming in developing countries as they experience double-digit rates of economic growth and seek to improve their standards of living. Energy is the necessary driver for human development, and the demand for energy in these countries will be met using whatever production technologies are available. Recognizing this inevitable energy demand and its implications for the United States, the U.S. National Security Strategy has proposed the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) to work with other nations to develop and deploy advanced nuclear recycling and reactor technologies. This initiative will help provide reliable, emission-free energy with less of the waste burden of older technologies and without making available separated plutonium that could be used by rogue states or terrorists for nuclear weapons. These new technologies will make possible a dramatic expansion of safe, clean nuclear energy to help meet the growing global energy demand. In other words, GNEP seeks to create an international regime to support large-scale growth in the worldwide use of nuclear energy without increasing the risk of nuclear weapon proliferation. This global expansion of nuclear power is strategically important to the United States for several reasons, including the following: (1) National security, by reducing the competition and potential for conflict over increasingly scarce fossil energy resources; (2) Economic security, by helping maintain stable prices for nonrenewable resources such as oil, gas, and coal; (3) Environmental security, by replacing or off-setting large-scale burning of greenhouse gas-emitting fuels for electricity production; and (4) Regaining technical leadership, through deployment of innovative U.S. technology-based reactors. Fully meeting

  19. Reactor Technology Options Study for Near-Term Deployment of GNEP Grid-Appropriate Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingersoll, Daniel T [ORNL; Poore III, Willis P [ORNL

    2007-09-01

    World energy demand is projected to significantly increase over the coming decades. The International Energy Agency projects that electricity demand will increase 50% by 2015 and double by 2030, with most of the increase coming in developing countries as they experience double-digit rates of economic growth and seek to improve their standards of living. Energy is the necessary driver for human development, and the demand for energy in these countries will be met using whatever production technologies are available. Recognizing this inevitable energy demand and its implications for the United States, the U.S. National Security Strategy has proposed the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) to work with other nations to develop and deploy advanced nuclear recycling and reactor technologies. This initiative will help provide reliable, emission-free energy with less of the waste burden of older technologies and without making available separated plutonium that could be used by rogue states or terrorists for nuclear weapons. These new technologies will make possible a dramatic expansion of safe, clean nuclear energy to help meet the growing global energy demand. In other words, GNEP seeks to create an international regime to support large-scale growth in the worldwide use of nuclear energy without increasing the risk of nuclear weapon proliferation. This global expansion of nuclear power is strategically important to the United States for several reasons, including the following: (1) National security, by reducing the competition and potential for conflict over increasingly scarce fossil energy resources; (2) Economic security, by helping maintain stable prices for nonrenewable resources such as oil, gas, and coal; (3) Environmental security, by replacing or off-setting large-scale burning of greenhouse gas-emitting fuels for electricity production; and (4) Regaining technical leadership, through deployment of innovative U.S. technology-based reactors. Fully meeting

  20. Indigenous technology development : seismic switch for nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varghese, Shiju; Shah, Jay; Limaye, P.K.; Soni, N.L; Patel, R.J.

    2016-01-01

    After Fukushima incident it has become a regulatory requirement to have automatic reactor trip on detection of earthquake beyond OBE level. Seismic Switches that meets the technical specifications required for nuclear reactor use were not available in the market. Hence, on Nuclear Power Corporation of India Ltd (NPCIL's) request, Refuelling Technology Division, BARC has developed Seismic Switches (electronic earthquake detectors) required for this application. Functionality of the system was successfully tested using a Shake Table. Two different designs of seismic switches have been developed. One is a microcontroller based system (digital) and the other is fully analogue electronics (analog) based. These switches are designed to meet the technical requirements of Class IA systems of nuclear reactors. It is also designed to meet other qualification tests such as EMI/EMC, climatic, vibration, and reliability requirements. In addition to nuclear industry seismic switches are having potential use in oil and gas, power plants, buildings and other industrial installations. These technologies are currently available for technology transfer and details are published in BARC website. This paper describes the requirements, principle of operation, and features and testing of the developed systems. (author)

  1. Technology of nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravelet, F.

    2016-01-01

    This academic report for graduation in engineering first presents operation principles of a nuclear reactor core. It presents core components, atomic nuclei, the notions of transmutation and radioactivity, quantities used to characterize ionizing radiations, the nuclear fission, statistical aspects of fission and differences between fast and slow neutrons, a comparison between various heat transfer fluids, the uranium enrichment process, and different types of reactor (boiling water, natural uranium and heavy water, pressurized water, and fourth generation). Then, after having recalled the French installed power, the author proposes an analysis of a typical 900 MWe nuclear power plant: primary circuit, reactor, fuel, spent fuel, pressurizer and primary pump, secondary circuit, aspects related to control-command, regulation, safety and exploitation. The last part proposes a modelling of the thermodynamic cycle of a pressurized water plant by using an equivalent Carnot cycle, a Rankine cycle, and a two-phase expansion cycle with drying-overheating

  2. Advanced Reactor Licensing: Experience with Digital I and C Technology in Evolutionary Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, RT

    2004-01-01

    This report presents the findings from a study of experience with digital instrumentation and controls (I and C) technology in evolutionary nuclear power plants. In particular, this study evaluated regulatory approaches employed by the international nuclear power community for licensing advanced l and C systems and identified lessons learned. The report (1) gives an overview of the modern l and C technologies employed at numerous evolutionary nuclear power plants, (2) identifies performance experience derived from those applications, (3) discusses regulatory processes employed and issues that have arisen, (4) captures lessons learned from performance and regulatory experience, (5) suggests anticipated issues that may arise from international near-term deployment of reactor concepts, and (6) offers conclusions and recommendations for potential activities to support advanced reactor licensing in the United States

  3. Safety Philosophy in Process Heat Plants Coupled to High Temperature Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Nicholas R.; Revankar, Shripad T.

    2011-01-01

    With the future availability of fossil fuel resources in doubt, high temperature nuclear reactors have the potential to be an important technology in the near term. Due to a high coolant outlet temperature, high temperature reactors (HTR) can be used to drive chemical plants that directly utilize process heat. Additionally, the high temperature improves the thermodynamic efficiency of the energy utilization. Many applications of high temperature reactors exist as a thermal driving vector for endothermic chemical process plants. Hydrogen generation using the General Atomics (GA) sulfur iodine (SI) cycle is one promising application of high temperature nuclear heat. The main chemical reactions in the SI cycle are: 1. I 2 +SO 2 + 2H 2 O → 2HI + H 2 SO 4 (Bunsen reaction) 2. H 2 SO 4 → H 2 O + SO 2 + 1/2O 2 (Sulfuric acid decomposition) 3. 2HI → H 2 + I 2 (Hydrogen Iodide decomposition). With the exception of hydrogen and oxygen, all relevant reactants are recycled within the process. However, there are many unresolved safety and operational issues related to implementation of such a coupled plant

  4. Gas-cooled reactor technology: a bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raleigh, H.D.

    1981-09-01

    Included are 3358 citations on gas-cooled reactor technology contained in the DOE Energy Data Base for the period January 1978 through June 1981. The citations include reports, journal articles, books, conference papers, patents, and monographs. Corporate, Personal Author, Subject, Contract Number, and Report Number Indexes are provided

  5. Development of a thermally-intensive reactor and process for upgrading heavy crude oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauptmann, E.G. [Refinery Science Corp., El Paso, TX (United States)

    2008-07-01

    This paper discussed a pilot study conducted to test the performance of a 15 bpd high thermal flux short vapor residence time reactor. The technology was comprised of a flowing, free-surface channel of molten metal salts. Heavy crude droplets were placed on the flowing surface and mixed with catalysts. A free vapor space was used to remove and condense the clean, particulate-free cracked hydrocarbon vapors. An additional process was used to remove and separate the coke, catalysts and heavy metals for further processing and recovery. Placing the heavy crude onto a hot surface caused the drops to float or sputter on the surface. As the temperature increased, the film became thinner and broke down at the Leidenfrost point. A peak heat transfer coefficient then occurred during the intense nucleate boiling at the drop surface. The heavy crude was cracked through the combined effects of rapid heating and the presence of the catalyst. The clean, cracked hydrocarbon vapors were then removed from the drops and away from the heating source. Heavy metals were removed from the liquid product and discharged from the reactor with the coke and the catalyst. It was concluded that tests conducted to evaluate the performance of the technology demonstrated that the reactor required no external fuel for continuous operation after start-up, and all process water was fully recyclable. 5 refs., 2 tabs., 9 figs.

  6. 105-C Reactor interim safe storage project technology integration plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulsford, S.K.

    1997-01-01

    The 105-C Reactor Interim Safe Storage Project Technology Integration Plan involves the decontamination, dismantlement, and interim safe storage of a surplus production reactor. A major goal is to identify and demonstrate new and innovative D and D technologies that will reduce costs, shorten schedules, enhance safety, and have the potential for general use across the RL complex. Innovative technologies are to be demonstrated in the following areas: Characterization; Decontamination; Waste Disposition; Dismantlement, Segmentation, and Demolition; Facility Stabilization; and Health and Safety. The evaluation and ranking of innovative technologies has been completed. Demonstrations will be selected from the ranked technologies according to priority. The contractor team members will review and evaluate the demonstration performances and make final recommendations to DOE

  7. Particle Bed Reactor engine technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandler, S.; Feddersen, R.

    1992-03-01

    This paper discusses the Particle Bed Reactor (PBR) based propulsion system being developed under the Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) program. A PBR engine is a light weight, compact propulsion system which offers significant improvement over current technology systems. Current performance goals are a system thrust of 75,000 pounds at an Isp of 1000 sec. A target thrust to weight ratio (T/W) of 30 has been established for an unshielded engine. The functionality of the PBR, its pertinent technology issues and the systems required to make up a propulsion system are described herein. Accomplishments to date which include hardware development and tests for the PBR engine are also discussed. This paper is intended to provide information on and describe the current state-of-the-art of PBR technology.

  8. Particle Bed Reactor engine technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandler, S.; Feddersen, R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses the Particle Bed Reactor (PBR) based propulsion system being developed under the Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) program. A PBR engine is a light weight, compact propulsion system which offers significant improvement over current technology systems. Current performance goals are a system thrust of 75,000 pounds at an Isp of 1000 sec. A target thrust to weight ratio (T/W) of 30 has been established for an unshielded engine. The functionality of the PBR, its pertinent technology issues and the systems required to make up a propulsion system are described herein. Accomplishments to date which include hardware development and tests for the PBR engine are also discussed. This paper is intended to provide information on and describe the current state-of-the-art of PBR technology. 4 refs

  9. Nuclear heat source component design considerations for HTGR process heat reactor plant concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, C.F.; Kapich, D.; King, J.H.; Venkatesh, M.C.

    1982-01-01

    Using alternate energy sources abundant in the U.S.A. to help curb foreign oil imports is vitally important from both national security and economic standpoints. Perhaps the most forwardlooking opportunity to realize national energy goals involves the integrated use of two energy sources that have an established technology base in the U.S.A., namely nuclear energy and coal. The coupling of a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) and a chemical process facility has the potential for long-term synthetic fuel production (i.e., oil, gasoline, aviation fuel, hydrogen, etc.) using coal as the carbon source. Studies are in progress to exploit the high-temperature capability of an advanced HTGR variant for nuclear process heat. The process heat plant discussed in this paper has a 1170-MW(t) reactor as the heat source and the concept is based on indirect reforming, i.e., the high-temperature nuclear thermal energy is transported (via an intermediate heat exchanger (IHX)) to the externally located process plant by a secondary helium transport loop. Emphasis is placed on design considerations for the major nuclear heat source (NHS) components, and discussions are presented for the reactor core, prestressed concrete reactor vessel (PCRV), rotating machinery, and heat exchangers

  10. Department of Reactor Technology annual progress report 1 January -31 December 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-04-01

    The work of the Department of Reactor Technology within the following fields is described: reactor engineering, reactor operation, structural reliability, system reliability, reactor physics, fuel management, reactor accident analysis for LOCA and ECC, containment analysis, experimental heat transfer, reactor core dynamics and power plant simulators, experimental activation measurements and neutron radiography at the DR 1 reactor, underground storage of gas, solar heating and underground heat storage, wind power. (author)

  11. Nuclear Energy Enabling Technologies (NEET) Reactor Materials: News for the Reactor Materials Crosscut, May 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maloy, Stuart Andrew [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Materials Science in Radiation and Dynamics Extremes

    2016-09-26

    In this newsletter for Nuclear Energy Enabling Technologies (NEET) Reactor Materials, pages 1-3 cover highlights from the DOE-NE (Nuclear Energy) programs, pages 4-6 cover determining the stress-strain response of ion-irradiated metallic materials via spherical nanoindentation, and pages 7-8 cover theoretical approaches to understanding long-term materials behavior in light water reactors.

  12. FY 1999 report on the results of the technology development of next-generation chemical process; 1999 nendo jisedai kagaku process gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    The R and D were conducted on the naphtha catalytic cracking, selective oxidation reaction of saturated hydrocarbon, new reaction mechanism utilization process, etc., as next-generation chemical process technology in FY 1999, and the results were summarized. As to the technology of naphtha catalytic cracking, developed was La203/p/ZMS-5 zeolite catalyst which is high in cracking activity and high in light-olefin selectivity. By the FS, it was confirmed that this is more excellent in case of the fixed bed reactor than in the present process. Concerning the technology of selective oxidation reaction of saturated hydrocarbon, the basic information/knowledge were obtained about the construction of catalytic principle toward the high selective catalytic partial oxidation, elucidation of a reaction mechanism in alkane oxidation and design of high functional catalysts, elucidation of a mechanism in butan oxidation, synthesis of alkane selective oxidation catalysts, etc. In relation to the technology of new reaction mechanism utilization process, the following were carried out: study of ethyl benzene dehydrogenation using the membrane reactor trially fabricated in the previous fiscal year, development of high efficiency hydrogen penetration membranes and low temperature high activity catalysts, study of the new process by membrane reactor. (NEDO)

  13. Processes influencing cooling of reactor effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magoulas, V.E.; Murphy, C.E. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Discharge of heated reactor cooling water from SRP reactors to the Savannah River is through sections of stream channels into the Savannah River Swamp and from the swamp into the river. Significant cooling of the reactor effluents takes place in both the streams and swamp. The majority of the cooling is through processes taking place at the surface of the water. The major means of heat dissipation are convective transfer of heat to the air, latent heat transfer through evaporation and radiative transfer of infrared radiation. A model was developed which incorporates the effects of these processes on stream and swamp cooling of reactor effluents. The model was used to simulate the effect of modifications in the stream environment on the temperature of water flowing into the river. Environmental effects simulated were the effect of changing radiant heat load, the effect of changes in tree canopy density in the swamp, the effect of total removal of trees from the swamp, and the effect of diverting the heated water from L reactor from Steel Creek to Pen Branch. 6 references, 7 figures

  14. Evaluating Russian space nuclear reactor technology for United States applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polansky, G.F.; Schmidt, G.L.; Voss, S.S.; Reynolds, E.L.

    1994-01-01

    Space nuclear power and nuclear electric propulsion are considered important technologies for planetary exploration, as well as selected earth orbit applications. The Nuclear Electric Propulsion Space Test Program (NEPSTP) was intended to provide an early flight demonstration of these technologies at relatively low cost through extensive use of existing Russian technology. The key element of Russian technology employed in the program was the Topaz II reactor. Refocusing of the activities of the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization (BMDO), combined with budgetary pressures, forced the cancellation of the NEPSTP at the end of the 1993 fiscal year. The NEPSTP was faced with many unique flight qualification issues. In general, the launch of a spacecraft employing a nuclear reactor power system complicates many spacecraft qualification activities. However, the NEPSTP activities were further complicated because the reactor power system was a Russian design. Therefore, this program considered not only the unique flight qualification issues associated with space nuclear power, but also with differences between Russian and United States flight qualification procedures. This paper presents an overview of the NEPSTP. The program goals, the proposed mission, the spacecraft, and the Topaz II space nuclear power system are described. The subject of flight qualification is examined and the inherent difficulties of qualifying a space reactor are described. The differences between United States and Russian flight qualification procedures are explored. A plan is then described that was developed to determine an appropriate flight qualification program for the Topaz II reactor to support a possible NEPSTP launch

  15. Development of pressure boundaries leak detection technology for nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yao; Zhang Dafa; Chen Dengke; Zhang Liming

    2008-01-01

    The leak detection for the pressure boundaries is an important safeguard in nuclear reactor operation. In the paper, the status and the characters on the development of the pressure boundaries leak detection technology for the nuclear reactor were reviewed, especially, and the advance of the radiation leak detection technology and the acoustic emission leak detection technology were analyzed. The new advance trend of the leak detection technology was primarily explored. According to the analysis results, it is point out that the advancing target of the leak detection technology is to enhance its response speed, sensitivity, and reliability, and to provide effective information for operator and decision-maker. The realization of the global leak detection and the whole life cycle health monitoring for the nuclear boundaries is a significant advancing tendency of the leak detection technology. (authors)

  16. A perspective on research and development in austenitic stainless steels for fast breeder reactor technology at Kalpakkam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldev Raj; Jayakumar, T.; Shankar, P.

    2010-01-01

    A fast breeder reactor with closed fuel cycle is an inevitable technology option to provide energy security for India. Innovations in materials technology have enabled the realization of unique and advanced features in the Indian fast breeder reactors and their associated fuel cycles. Materials development and materials technologies, particularly the widely used austenitic stainless steels discussed in this paper, have a deterministic influence on the advancement, safety, reliability, cost effectiveness and thus success of the fast breeder programme. Rigorous research and development for alloy development complemented with detailed structure-property evaluation of relevant mechanical and corrosion behaviour data have been possible with the state of art facilities housed at IGCAR. These data provide useful inputs for design engineers to ensure reliable and safe operation of the components. Advanced concepts in alloy design and grain boundary engineering are utilized to enhance the corrosion resistance and mechanical properties of various structural materials. Advanced NDE techniques for the assessment of manufactured components and in-service inspection have been developed, enhancing the confidence in the performance of the plant components and systems. The technology demonstration of critical stainless steel components using advanced forming and welding technologies with support from modelling for optimization of the fabrication processes enhanced the confidence in the development of the complex fast breeder reactor and associated fuel cycle technologies, with active support from national academic and research institutes and industry. This chapter presents a comprehensive overview on the advances in stainless steel technology as well as the challenges ahead for aspiring young minds in the field of fast reactor technology. (author)

  17. Repair and preventive maintenance technology for BWR reactor internals and piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ootsubo, Tooru; Itou, Takashi; Sakashita, Akihiro

    2009-01-01

    Stress corrosion cracking of welding portion has found in many domestic and foreign BWR reactor internals and Primary Loop Recirculation piping. Also, repair and preventive maintenance technologies for SCC has been developed and/or adopted to BWRs in recent years. This paper introduces the sample of these technologies, such as seal-welding for SCC on BWR reactor internals, preventive maintenance technology for PLR piping such as Corrosion Resistant Cladding, Internal Polishing and Induction Heating Stress Improvement. These technologies are introduced on 'E-Journal of Advanced Maintenance', which is an international journal on a exclusive website of Japan Society of Maintenology. (author)

  18. Department of Reactor Technology annual progress report 1 January - 31 December 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-04-01

    The activities of the department of reactor technology at Risoe during 1978 are described. The work is presented in five chapters: Reactor Engineering, Reactor Physics and Dynamics, Heat Transfer and Hydraulics, The DR 1 Reactor, and Non-Nuclear Activities. A list of the staff and of publications is included. (author)

  19. Fusion reactor design and technology 1986. V. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The first volume of the Proceedings of the Fourth Technical Committee Meeting and Workshop on Fusion Reactor Design and Technology organized by the IAEA (Yalta, 26 May - 6 June 1986) includes 36 papers devoted to the following topics: fusion programmes (3 papers), tokamaks (15 papers), non-tokamak reactors and open systems (9 papers), inertial confinement concepts (5 papers), fission-fusion hybrids (4 papers). Each of these papers has a separate abstract. Refs, figs and tabs

  20. Tritium processing and containment technology for fusion reactors: perspective and status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maroni, V.A.

    1976-01-01

    This paper reviews the status of selected tritium processing and containment technologies that will be required to support the development of the fusion energy program. Considered in order are the fuel conditioning and recycle systems, the containment and cleanup systems, the blanket processing systems, and two unique problems relating to tritium interactions in neutral beam injectors and first wall coolant circuits. The major technical problem areas appear to lie in the development of (1) high-capacity, rapid recycle plasma chamber evacuation systems; (2) large-capacity (greater than or equal to 100,000 cfm) air handling and processing systems for atmospheric detritiation; (3) tritium recovery technology for liquid lithium blanket concepts; (4) tritium compatible neutral injector systems; and (5) an overall approach to tritium handling and containment that guarantees near zero release to the environment at a bearable cost

  1. Molten Salt Reactor in the Overview and Perspective of Technological Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Julia Abdul Karim; Khaironie Md Takip; Muhammad Khairul Arif Mustafa; Mohd Hairie Rabir; Lanyau, T.; Tom, P.P.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: A Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) is unique in its characteristics that offer safer operation, deliver efficient power output that can assure in the sustainable energy production without CO_2 emissions. Several concepts of this kind of reactor have been proposed by stake holder with different design and configuration and up to date they are exasperating to obtain an optimum workable solution to the fuel salt composition in the foresee of neutronic properties, operating temperature, actinide and fission products solubility, chemical control and processing, materials compatibility and handling of waste. Hence, these key issues are wide open as the potential Research and Development in the specific areas of studies. In addition to that, concern arise in the viewpoint of socioeconomic, politics, public acceptance, safety and security, proven technology, proliferation resistance and physical protection that also need to give special attention in problem solving. The worldwide collaboration through Gen IV International Forum has discussed the potential of MSR and addresses on the issues globally. Recently, Malaysia has taken an initiative aiming to participate in MSR studies due to its potential as an energy source using thorium. Therefore, this paper is focusing on the technology assessment for Thorium-breeding Molten Salt Reactor (TMSR) especially on the ability of utilizing thorium as fuel. This assessment also will help to enhance the understanding of thorium beneficiation to cater for the energy demand. (author)

  2. Updated Generation IV Reactors Integrated Materials Technology Program Plan, Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corwin, William R [ORNL; Burchell, Timothy D [ORNL; Halsey, William [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Hayner, George [Idaho National Laboratory (INL); Katoh, Yutai [ORNL; Klett, James William [ORNL; McGreevy, Timothy E [ORNL; Nanstad, Randy K [ORNL; Ren, Weiju [ORNL; Snead, Lance Lewis [ORNL; Stoller, Roger E [ORNL; Wilson, Dane F [ORNL

    2005-12-01

    The Department of Energy's (DOE's) Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems Program will address the research and development (R&D) necessary to support next-generation nuclear energy systems. Such R&D will be guided by the technology roadmap developed for the Generation IV International Forum (GIF) over two years with the participation of over 100 experts from the GIF countries. The roadmap evaluated over 100 future systems proposed by researchers around the world. The scope of the R&D described in the roadmap covers the six most promising Generation IV systems. The effort ended in December 2002 with the issue of the final Generation IV Technology Roadmap [1.1]. The six most promising systems identified for next generation nuclear energy are described within the roadmap. Two employ a thermal neutron spectrum with coolants and temperatures that enable hydrogen or electricity production with high efficiency (the Supercritical Water Reactor - SCWR and the Very High Temperature Reactor - VHTR). Three employ a fast neutron spectrum to enable more effective management of actinides through recycling of most components in the discharged fuel (the Gas-cooled Fast Reactor - GFR, the Lead-cooled Fast Reactor - LFR, and the Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor - SFR). The Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) employs a circulating liquid fuel mixture that offers considerable flexibility for recycling actinides, and may provide an alternative to accelerator-driven systems. A few major technologies have been recognized by DOE as necessary to enable the deployment of the next generation of advanced nuclear reactors, including the development and qualification of the structural materials needed to ensure their safe and reliable operation. Accordingly, DOE has identified materials as one of the focus areas for Gen IV technology development.

  3. Technological studies for obtaining lead oxide compacts used in generation IV nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paraschiv, I.; Benga, D.

    2016-01-01

    One of the main concerns of the nuclear research at this moment is the development of the necessary technologies for Generation IV reactors. The main candidate as coolant agent in these reactors is molten lead but this material involves ensuring the oxygen control, due to potential contamination of coolant through the formation of solid oxides and the influence on the corrosion rate of structural parts and for this reason, the oxygen concentration must be kept in a well specified domain. One of the proposed methods for oxygen monitoring and control in the technology of Generation IV reactors, is the use of PbO compacts. For this paper technological tests were performed for developing and setting the optimal parameters in order to attain lead oxide compacts necessary for the oxygen control technology in Generation IV nuclear reactors. (authors)

  4. Status of fusion technology development in JAERI stressing steady-state operation for future reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Shinzaburo

    2000-01-01

    This paper reports on the progress of the fusion reactor technologies developed at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) and expected to lead to a future steady state operation reactor. In particular, superconducting coil technology for plasma confinement, NBI and RF systems technology for plasma control and current drive, fueling and pumping systems technology for particle control, heat removal technology, and development of long life materials are highlighted as the important key elements for the future steady state operation. It will be discussed how these key technologies have already been developed by the ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) technology R and D as well as by the Japanese domestic program, and which technologies are planned for the near future

  5. A look at the fusion reactor technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohatgi, V.K.

    1985-01-01

    The prospects of fusion energy have been summarised in this paper. The rapid progress in the field in recent years can be attributed to the advances in various technologies. The commercial fusion energy depends more heavily on the evolution and improvement in these technologies. With better understanding of plasma physics, the fusion reactor designs have become more realistic and comprehensive. It is now possible to make intercomparison between various concepts within the frame work of the established technologies. Assuming certain growth rate of the technological development, it is estimated that fusion energy can become available during the early part of the next century. (author)

  6. Fluoride Salt-Cooled High-Temperature Reactor Technology Development and Demonstration Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holcomb, David Eugene [ORNL; Flanagan, George F [ORNL; Mays, Gary T [ORNL; Pointer, William David [ORNL; Robb, Kevin R [ORNL; Yoder Jr, Graydon L [ORNL

    2013-11-01

    Fluoride salt-cooled High-temperature Reactors (FHRs) are an emerging reactor class with potentially advantageous performance characteristics, and fully passive safety. This roadmap describes the principal remaining FHR technology challenges and the development path needed to address the challenges. This roadmap also provides an integrated overview of the current status of the broad set of technologies necessary to design, evaluate, license, construct, operate, and maintain FHRs. First-generation FHRs will not require any technology breakthroughs, but do require significant concept development, system integration, and technology maturation. FHRs are currently entering early phase engineering development. As such, this roadmap is not as technically detailed or specific as would be the case for a more mature reactor class. The higher cost of fuel and coolant, the lack of an approved licensing framework, the lack of qualified, salt-compatible structural materials, and the potential for tritium release into the environment are the most obvious issues that remain to be resolved.

  7. The status and prospects of nuclear reactor technology development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juhn, P.E.

    2001-01-01

    Nuclear power is a proven technology which currently contributes about 16% to the world electricity supply and, to a much lesser extent, to heat supply in some countries. Nuclear Power is economically competitive with fossil fuels for base load electricity generation in many countries, and is one of the commercially proven energy supply options that could be extended in the future to reduce environmental burdens, especially greenhouse gas emissions, from the electricity sector. Over the past five decades, nearly ten thousand reactor-years of operating experience have been accumulated with current nuclear power plants. However, nuclear power is currently at a cross-road. There are no new nuclear power construction projects in most parts of the world, except some countries in East Asia and Eastern Europe. The main issues are economic competitiveness with cheap gas plants and public concerns on nuclear waste disposal and safety. Strong economic growth and the shrinking of existing electricity over-capacities could favour nuclear power. Since nuclear power emits no greenhouse gases to the environment, its development could be further accelerated by a breakthrough in innovative nuclear reactor technology development. Great attention also needs to be paid to the design of new nuclear reactors, which are modularized and faster to construct, thus reducing capital investment and construction period, and thereby improving their overall economics and their compatibility with the infrastructure of, in particular, developing countries, where new energy demands are expected. This paper discusses the future world energy outlook, challenges for and progresses on nuclear power; overview of new nuclear reactor technology development; and the role of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in the development of new innovative nuclear reactors. (author)

  8. Current status and perspective of advanced loop type fast reactor in fast reactor cycle technology development project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niwa, Hajime; Aoto, Kazumi; Morishita, Masaki

    2007-01-01

    After selecting the combination of the sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) with oxide fuel, the advanced aqueous reprocessing and the simplified pelletizing fuel fabrication as the most promising concept of FR cycle system, 'Feasibility Study on Commercialized Fast Reactor Cycle Systems' was finalized in 2006. Instead, a new project, Fast Reactor Cycle Technology Development Project (FaCT Project) was launched in Japan focusing on development of the selected concepts. This paper describes the current status and perspective of the advanced loop type SFR system in the FaCT Project, especially on the design requirements, current design as well as the related innovative technologies together with the development road-map. Some considerations on advantages of the advanced loop type design are also described. (authors)

  9. Department of Reactor Technology: annual progress report 1 January - 31 December 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-06-01

    The work of the Department of Reactor Technology within the following fields is described: reactor engineering, structural reliability, system reliability, radiation fiels in nuclear power plants, reactor physics, fuel management, fission product decay analysis, steady-state thermo-hydraulics, reactor accident analysis for LOCA and ECC, containment analysis, experimental heat transfer, reactor core dynamics and power plant simulators, control rod ejection accident analysis, economic studies for power plants, experimental activation measurements and neutron radiography at the DR 1 reactor. (author)

  10. Novel Technology for Phenol Wastewater Treatment Using Electrochemical Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuncheng Xie

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There are various electrochemical approaches to save energy, mostly by means of equipment improvement coupled with other water treatment technologies. Replacement of DC power with pulse power, modified reactor coupled with photocatalysis can decrease cost. But more or less additional input is developed, or infrastructure has to be replaced. In this paper, an N-Step electrochemical reactor, based on stage reaction modeling, is put forward. On the basis of not changing equipment investment and by adjustment of the operating current density at different levels, power consumption decreases. This model develops a foundation of electrochemical water treatment technology for the engineering application.

  11. Reliability tests for reactor internals rejuvenation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimaki, Katsumi; Hitoki, Yoichi; Otsubo, Toru; Uchiyama, Junichi

    1998-01-01

    Structural damage due to aging degradation of LWR reactor internals has been reported in several nuclear plants. NUPEC has started a project to test the reliability of the technology for rejuvenating reactor internals which has been funded by the Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI) of Japan since 1995. The project follows the policy of a report that the MITI has formally issued in April 1996 summarizing the countermeasures to be considered for aging nuclear plants and equipment. This paper gives an outline of the test plans and results which are directed at preventive maintenance before damage and repair after damage for reactor internals aging degradation. The test results for the replacement methods of ICM housing and BWR core shroud have shown that the methods were reliable and the structural integrity was appropriate based on the evaluation. (author)

  12. Advances in zirconium technology for nuclear reactor application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganguly, C.

    2002-01-01

    Zirconium alloys are extensively used as a material for cladding nuclear fuels and for making core structurals of water-cooled nuclear power reactors all over the world for generation of nearly 16 percent of the worlds electricity. Only four countries in the world, namely France, USA, Russia and India, have large zirconium industry and capability to manufacture reactor grade zirconium sponge, a number of zirconium alloys and a wide variety of structural components for water cooled nuclear reactor. The present paper summarises the status of zirconium technology and highlights the achievement of Nuclear Fuel Complex during the last ten years in developing a wide variety of zirconium alloys and components for water-cooled nuclear power programme

  13. Residual Stress Evaluation of Weld Inlay Process on Reactor Vessel Nozzles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Kihyun; Cho, Hong Seok [KEPCO KPS, Naju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Weld overlay, weld inlay and stress improvement are mitigation technologies for butt joints. Weld overlay is done on pressurizer nozzles which are the highest potential locations occurring PWSCC due to high temperature in Korea. Reactor vessel nozzles are other big safety concerns for butt joints. Weld overlay and stress improvement should be so difficult to apply to those locations because space is too limited. Weld inlay should be one of the solutions. KEPCO KPS has developed laser welding system and process for reactor nozzles. Welding residual stress analysis is necessary for flaw evaluation. United States nuclear regulatory commission has calculated GTAW(Gas Tungsten Arc Welding) residual stress using ABAQUS. To confirm effectiveness of weld inlay process, welding residual stress analysis was performed. and difference between GTAW and LASER welding process was compared. Evaluation of weld inlay process using ANSYS and ABAQUS is performed. All of the both results are similar. The residual stress generated after weld inlay was on range of 450-500 MPa. Welding residual stresses are differently generated by GTAW and LASER welding. But regardless of welding process type, residual tensile stress is generated on inside surface.

  14. A small floating seawater desalination plant using a nuclear heating reactor coupled with the MED process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Duo; Wu Shaorong; Zhang Dafang; Wu Zongxin

    1997-01-01

    A small floating seawater desalination plant using a nuclear heating reactor coupled with a multi-effect distillation (MED) process was designed by the Institute of Nuclear Energy Technology, Tsinghua University of China. It was intended to supply potable water to remove coastal areas or islands where both fresh water and energy are severely lacking, and also to serve as a demonstration and training facility. The design of a small floating plant coupled two proven technologies in the cogeneration mode: a nuclear heating reactor (NHR-10), with inherent, passive safety features based on NHR-5 experience, and a low temperature MED process. The secondary loop was designed as a safety barrier between the primary loop and the steam loop. With a 10 MW(th) heating reactor, the floating plant could provide 4,000 m 3 /d of potable water and 750 kW of electricity. The design concept and parameters, safety features, coupling scheme and floating plant layout are presented in the paper. (author). 3 refs, 4 figs, 3 tabs

  15. Research reactor instrumentation and control technology. Report of a technical committee meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-10-01

    The majority of research reactors operating today were put into operation 20 years ago, and some of them underwent modifications, upgrading and refurbishing since their construction to meet the requirements for higher neutron fluxes. However, a few of these ageing research reactors are still operating with their original instrumentation and control systems (I and C) which are important for reactor safety to guard against abnormal occurrences and reactor control involving startup, shutdown and power regulation. Worn and obsolete I and C systems cause operational problems as well as difficulties in obtaining replacement parts. In addition, satisfying the stringent safety conditions laid out by the nuclear regulatory bodies requires the modernization of research reactors I and C systems and integration of additional instrumentation units to the reactor. In order to clarify these issues and to provide some guidance to reactor operators on state-of-art technology and future trends for the I and C systems for research reactors, a Technical Committee Meeting on Technology and Trends for Research Reactor Instrumentation and Controls was held in Ljubljana, Slovenia, from 4 to 8 December 1995. This publication summarizes the discussions and recommendations resulting from that meeting. This is expected to benefit the research reactor operators planning I and C improvements. Refs, figs, tabs

  16. Contributions of fast breeder test reactor to the advanced technology in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapoor, R.P.

    2001-01-01

    Fast Breeder Test Reactor (FBTR) is a 40 MWt/13.2 MWe loop type, sodium cooled, plutonium rich mixed carbide fuelled reactor. Its operation at Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, since first criticality in 1985, has contributed immensely to the advancement of this multidisciplinary and complex fast breeder technology in the country. It has also given a valuable operational feedback for the design of 500 MWe Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor. This paper highlights FBTR's significant contributions to this important technology which has a potential to provide energy security to the country in future. (author)

  17. CFD Analysis of the mixing process in the downcomer of IRIS reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz Bueno, Elizabeth; Montesino Otero, Maria E.; Rives Sanz, Ronny; Garcia, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    The boron ( 10 B) is a strong absorber of thermal neutrons and diluted as boric acid in the coolant of the pressurized water reactor helps to control the excess reactivity in the core of these facilities. The study of transients with deficiencies in the boron homogenization is very important in this technology because it inserts a strong reactivity in the reactor core with consequent threat to society and nature. The aim of this study is to evaluate the thermal-hydraulics losses and their influence on the process of heterogeneous boron dilution during normal system operation by using CFX code. Profiles of pressure, velocity and temperature of the downcomer reactor IRIS are obtained. The model developed also allows studying an event of total loss of flow. The results are applicable to the design of internal components and structures of IRIS downcomer. (Author)

  18. Assessment of the impacts of transferring certain nuclear reactor technologies to the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upton, J.W. Jr.

    1987-06-01

    The Office of International Security Affairs of the US Department of Energy (DOE) has asked Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) researchers to assist in evaluating the impact that transfer of specific nuclear reactor technologies may have on US national security interests. The evaluation is intended to be used as a technical basis and guideline to approve or disapprove requests from government and industry to transfer a specific technology to Soviet countries. The US Government has a responsibility to review such requests. For the post-Chernobyl information-gathering and dissemination process, the DOE is serving as the US Government's point of contact with private industry. It is DOE's policy to encourage and assist the Eastern Bloc countries to enhance the safety, reliability, and safe operation of civil nuclear reactor power plant facilities worldwide consistent with US national security and nonproliferation interests. Any requests from industry for the supply of nuclear reactor technology, equipment, and services will be considered in accordance with existing nuclear export policy, law, and regulations. All requests and proposals, whether discussed in this document or not, will be reviewed on a case-by-case basis. It should be noted that this is the initial version of the report. Subsequent, updated versions are expected to follow. Design and operation of nuclear reactor power plants involves an extensive array of technologies, not all of which have been addressed here

  19. Development of safety analysis technology for integral reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hee Cheol; Kim, K. K.; Kim, S. H.

    2002-04-01

    The state-of-the-arts for the integral reactor was performed to investigate the safety features. The safety and performance of SMART were assessed using the technologies developed during the study. For this purpose, the computer code system and the analysis methodology were developed and the safety and performance analyses on SMART basic design were carried out for the design basis event and accident. The experimental facilities were designed for the core flow distribution test and the self-pressurizing pressurizer performance test. The tests on the 2-phase critical flow with non-condensable gas were completed and the results were used to assess the critical flow model. Probabilistic Safety Assessment(PSA) was carried out to evaluate the safety level and to optimize the design by identifying and remedying any weakness in the design. A joint study with KINS was carried out to promote licensing environment. The generic safety issues of integral reactors were identified and the solutions were formulated. The economic evaluation of the SMART desalination plant and the activities related to the process control were carried out in the scope of the study

  20. Evaluation of the rotary drum reactor process as pretreatment technology of municipal solid waste for thermophilic anaerobic digestion and biogas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gikas, Petros; Zhu, Baoning; Batistatos, Nicolas Ion; Zhang, Ruihong

    2018-06-15

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) contains a large fraction of biodegradable organic materials. When disposed in landfills, these materials can cause adverse environmental impact due to gaseous emissions and leachate generation. This study was performed with an aim of effectively separating the biodegradable materials from a Mechanical Biological Treatment (MBT) facility and treating them in well-controlled anaerobic digesters for biogas production. The rotary drum reactor (RDR) process (a sub-process of the MBT facilities studied in the present work) was evaluated as an MSW pretreatment technology for separating and preparing the biodegradable materials in MSW to be used as feedstock for anaerobic digestion. The RDR processes used in six commercial MSW treatment plants located in the USA were surveyed and sampled. The samples of the biodegradable materials produced by the RDR process were analyzed for chemical and physical characteristics as well as anaerobically digested in the laboratory using batch reactors under thermophilic conditions. The moisture content, TS, VS and C/N of the samples varied between 64.7 and 44.4%, 55.6 to 35.3%, 27.0 to 41.3% and 24.5 to 42.7, respectively. The biogas yield was measured to be between 533.0 and 675.6 mL g -1 VS after 20 days of digestion. Approximately 90% of the biogas was produced during the first 13 days. The average methane content of the biogas was between 58.0 and 59.9%. The results indicated that the biodegradable materials separated from MSW using the RDR processes could be used as an excellent feedstock for anaerobic digestion. The digester residues may be further processed for compost production or further energy recovery by using thermal conversion processes such as combustion or gasification. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Nuclear reactor technology progress report, vol. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The works of the Engineering Section, Fast Experimental Reactor Division, are roughly classified into the technologies concerning the reactor core, abnormality monitoring, the plant, purity control and operation planning. In this paper, the activities of the Engineering Section, the operational results of Joyo and the foreign informations on FBRs in this quarter are reported. The second regular inspection carried out successively from the previous quarter was completed, and the fourth cycle operation of Joyo at 75 MW was started. The measurement of CP around the primary system pipings and equipments, the preliminary test of a core flow meter for Monju, and the various characteristic tests were carried out during this period. 2 N reports, 1 SA report and 63 memos were drawn up in this quarter. The test plan to be carried out during the period of the fourth to sixth cycle operations in this last year using the MK-1 core was formed and decided. Various meetings within and outside the division are reported. The data obtained in the operational characteristic test and special test are shown. As the results concerning the reactor technologies, the development of dosimetry techniques, the measurement and analysis of the core characteristics, the measurement of the temperature and flow velocity of coolant at the fuel assembly exit, the system pressure loss in the primary cooling system and others are reported. (Kako, I.)

  2. Digital-image processing improves man-machine communication at a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, S.A.; Harrington, T.P.; Toffer, H.

    1982-01-01

    The application of digital image processing to improve man-machine communication in a nuclear reactor control room is illustrated. At the Hanford N Reactor, operated by UNC Nuclear Industries for the United States Department of Energy, in Richland, Washington, digital image processing is applied to flow, temperature, and tube power data. Color displays are used to present the data in a clear and concise fashion. Specific examples are used to demonstrate the capabilities and benefits of digital image processing of reactor data. N Reactor flow and power maps for routine reactor operations and for perturbed reactor conditions are displayed. The advantages of difference mapping are demonstrated. Image processing techniques have also been applied to results of analytical reactor models; two examples are shown. The potential of combining experimental and analytical information with digital image processing to produce predictive and adaptive reactor core models is discussed. The applications demonstrate that digital image processing can provide new more effective ways for control room personnel to assess reactor status, to locate problems and explore corrective actions. 10 figures

  3. Reliability tests for reactor internals replacement technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimaki, K.; Uchiyama, J.; Ohtsubo, T.

    2000-01-01

    Structural damage due to aging degradation of LWR reactor internals has been reported in several nuclear plants. NUPEC has started a project to test the reliability of the technology for replacing reactor internals, which was directed at preventive maintenance before damage and repair after damage for the aging degradation. The project has been funded by the Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI) of Japan since 1995, and it follows the policy of a report that the MITI has formally issued in April 1996 summarizing the countermeasures to be considered for aging nuclear plants and equipment. This paper gives an outline of the whole test plans and the test results for the BWR reactor internals replacement methods; core shroud, ICM housing, and CRD Housing and stub tube. The test results have shown that the methods were reliable and the structural integrity was appropriate based on the evaluation. (author)

  4. Proceedings of 18th international conference on structural mechanics in reactor technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-07-01

    The 18th International Conference on Structural Mechanics in Reactor Technology was held on August 7-12, 2005 in Beijing, China, and Sponsored by International Association for Structural Mechanics in Reactor Technology, Chinese Nuclear Society, Chinese Society of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, and Tsinghua University. 486 abstracts are Collected. The contents includes: opening, plenary and keynote presentations; computational mechanics; fuel and core structures; aging, life extension, and license renewal; design methods and rules for components; fracture mechanics; concrete material, containment and other structures; analysis and design for dynamic and extreme loads; seismic analysis, design and qualification; structural reliability and probabilistic safety assessment (PSA); operation, inspection and maintenance; severe accident management and structural evaluation; advanced reactors and generation IV reactors; decommissioning of nuclear facilities and waste management.

  5. Development of fluoride reprocessing technology for molten salt transmutation reactor systems in the Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhlir, J.; Hosnedl, P.; Matal, O.

    2000-01-01

    At present, the transmutation of spent nuclear fuel is considered a prospective alternative conception with respect to the current conception based on the non-reprocessed spent fuel disposal into a deep geological repository. The Czech research and development programme in the area of partitioning is directed primarily on the development of the fuel cycle technology for the accelerator - driven subcritical reactor with a liquid fuel based on fluoride melts. The final objective of the research programme is the development of pyrochemical technologies suitable for a continuous or semi-continuous separation process which would allow practically perfect utilization of the transmutation potentialities of the reactor system. The present research is directed particularly on the development of suitable fluoride separation methods the target of which is the removal of the uranium component from spent nuclear fuel and on the research of the electro-separation procedures and further on the development of appropriate construction materials and equipment for the technology of fluoride salt melts. (authors)

  6. Technology which led to the westinghouse inherently safe liquid metal reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, J.E.; Coffield, R.D.; Doncals, R.A.; Kalinowski, J.E.; Markley, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    The Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) and the Clinch River Breeder Reactor programs resulted in an understanding of liquid metal reactor behavior that is being used to design inherent safety capability into liquid metal reactors. Technological advances give the same beneficial operating characteristics of conventional liquid metal reactors, however, the addition of inherently safe design features precludes the initiation of hypothetical core disruptive accidents. These innovative features permit inherent safety capability to be demonstrated with more than adequate margins. Also, the variety of inherent safety features provides the designers with options in selecting inherent design features for a specific reactor application

  7. Medium-Power Lead-Alloy Reactors: Missions for This Reactor Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todreas, Neil E.; MacDonald, Philip E.; Hejzlar, Pavel; Buongiorno, Jacopo; Loewen, Eric P.

    2004-01-01

    A multiyear project at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology investigated the potential of medium-power lead-alloy-cooled technology to perform two missions: (1) the production of low-cost electricity and (2) the burning of actinides from light water reactor (LWR) spent fuel. The goal of achieving a high power level to enhance economic performance simultaneously with adoption of passive decay heat removal and modularity capabilities resulted in designs in the range of 600-800 MW(thermal), which we classify as a medium power level compared to the lower [∼100 MW(thermal)] and higher [2800 MW(thermal)] power ratings of other lead-alloy-cooled designs. The plant design that was developed shows promise of achieving all the Generation-IV goals for future nuclear energy systems: sustainable energy generation, low overnight capital cost, a very low likelihood and degree of core damage during any conceivable accident, and a proliferation-resistant fuel cycle. The reactor and fuel cycle designs that evolved to achieve these missions and goals resulted from study of the following key trade-offs: waste reduction versus reactor safety, waste reduction versus cost, and cost versus proliferation resistance. Secondary trade-offs that were also considered were monolithic versus modular design, active versus passive safety systems, forced versus natural circulation, alternative power conversion cycles, and lead versus lead-bismuth coolant.These studies led to a selection of a common modular design with forced convection cooling, passive decay heat removal, and a supercritical CO 2 power cycle for all our reactor concepts. However, the concepts adopt different core designs to optimize the achievement of the two missions. For the low-cost electricity production mission, a design approach based on fueling with low enriched uranium operating without costly reprocessing in a once-through cycle was pursued to achieve a

  8. ASTRID, Generation IV advanced sodium technological reactor for industrial demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauche, F.

    2013-01-01

    ASTRID (Advanced Sodium Technological Reactor for Industrial Demonstration) is an integrated technology demonstrator designed to demonstrate the operability of the innovative choices enabling fast neutron reactor technology to meet the Generation IV criteria. ASTRID is a sodium-cooled fast reactor with an electricity generating power of 600 MWe. In order to meet the generation IV goals, ASTRID will incorporate the following decisive innovations: -) an improved core with a very low, even negative void coefficient; -) the possible installation of additional safety devices in the core. For example, passive anti-reactivity insertion devices are explored; -) more core instrumentation; -) an energy conversion system with modular steam generators, to limit the effects of a possible sodium-water reaction, or sodium-nitrogen exchangers; -) considerable thermal inertia combined with natural convection to deal with decay heat; -)elimination of major sodium fires by bunkerization and/or inert atmosphere in the premises; -) to take into account off-site hazards (earthquake, airplane crash,...) right from the design stage; -) a complete rethink of the reactor architecture in order to limit the risk of proliferation. ASTRID will also include systems for reducing the length of refueling outages and increasing the burn-up and the duration of the cycle. In-service inspection, maintenance and repair are also taken into account right from the start of the project. The ASTRID prototype should be operational by about 2023. (A.C.)

  9. Cutting Technology for Decommissioning of the Reactor Pressure Vessels in Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Kwan Seong; Kim, Geun Ho; Moon, Jei Kwon; Choi, Byung Seon

    2012-01-01

    Lots of nuclear power plants have been decommissioned during the last 2 decades. An essential part of this work is the dismantling of the Reactor Pressure Vessel and its Internals. For this purpose a wide variety of different cutting technologies have been developed, adapted and applied. A detailed introduction to Plasma Arc cutting, Contact Arc Metal cutting and Abrasive Water Suspension Jet cutting is given, as it turned out that these cutting technologies are particularly suitable for these type of segmentation work. A comparison of these technologies including gaseous emissions, cutting power, manipulator requirements as well as selected design approaches are given. Process limits as well as actual limits of application are presented

  10. Proceedings of the Seminar on Research Result of Research Reactor Technology Centre 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endiah Puji Hastuti; Setiyanto; Taswanda Taryo; Mohammad Dhandhang Purwadi; Pinem, Surian; Tarigan, Alim; Hasibuan, Djaruddin; Kadarusmanto; Amir Hamzah

    2004-05-01

    The Proceeding of the Seminar on Research Result of Research Reactor Technology Centre 2003 held by P2TRR has been reported researcher are expected to use the reports as references to research activities in Science and Technology, especially in field of Nuclear Reactor. There are 27 papers which have separated index. (PPIN)

  11. Fusion reactors: physics and technology. Annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conn, R.W.

    1983-08-01

    Fusion reactors are designed to operate at full power and generally at steady state. Yet experience shows the load variations, licensing constraints, and frequent sub-system failures often require a plant to operate at fractions of rated power. The aim of this study has been to assess the technology problems and design implications of startup and fractional power operation on fusion reactors. The focus of attention has been tandem mirror reactors (TMR) and we have concentrated on the plasma and blanket engineering for startup and fractional power operation. In this report, we first discuss overall problems of startup, shutdown and staged power operation and their influence on TMR design. We then present a detailed discussion of the plasma physics associated with TMR startup and various means of achieving staged power operation. We then turn to the issue of instrumentation and safety controls for fusion reactors. Finally we discuss the limits on transient power variations during startup and shutdown of Li 17 Pb 83 cooled blankets

  12. High temperature reactor and application to nuclear process heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulten, R; Kugeler, K [Kernforschungsanlage Juelich G.m.b.H. (Germany, F.R.)

    1976-01-01

    The principle of high temperature nuclear process heat is explained and the main applications (hydrogasification of coal, nuclear chemical heat pipe, direct reduction of iron ore, coal gasification by steam and water splitting) are described in more detail. The motivation for the introduction of nuclear process heat to the market, questions of cost, of raw material resources and environmental aspects are the next point of discussion. The new technological questions of the nuclear reactor and the status of development are described, especially information about the fuel elements, the hot gas ducts, the contamination and some design considerations are added. Furthermore the status of development of helium heated steam reformers, the main results of the work until now and the further activities in this field are explained.

  13. Reactor technology progress report on Joyo, vol. 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The works of the Technology Section, Fast Experimental Reactor Division, Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., are roughly divided into core technology, anomaly monitoring techniques, plant technology, purity control techniques and operation planning and management. In this book, the state of activities in the Technology Section, the result of operation of Joyo and the foreign information related to FBRs in the quarter from July to September, 1981, are reported. The operation of Joyo of 75 MW rating No. 5 cycle was finished on August 9, and after fuel handling and FFDL test, the operation of special test cycle was carried out in September. In this quarter, main report papers were one N-report and 108 memos. The examination of the preliminary analysis and the plan for shifting to the MK-2 core and the performance test, and the planning of the core construction for the operation from No. 1 to No. 3 cycle with the MK-2 core and the analysis of its characteristics were carried out. The revision of the long term plan of the Technology Section was started in July, and the first draft was completed in September. The compilation of the general report on the MK-1 core was started in July. Three meetings for technical discussion within the Division were held. (Kako, I.)

  14. The Preliminary Study of High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactors (HTGRs) Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurfarhana Ayuni Joha; Izhar Abu Hussin; Ridzuan Abdul Mutalib

    2015-01-01

    High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactors (HTGRs) have attracted worldwide interest because of their high outlet temperatures, which allow them to be used for applications beyond electricity generation. HTGRs have been built and operated since as far back as the 1970s. Experimental and demonstration reactors of this type have operated in China, Great Britain, Germany, Japan, and the United States of America. This paper is written to share the valuable knowledge and information of HTGRs technology as a mean to enrich peoples understanding of the technology. This paper will present the technological features of HTGRs that allow for a modular design with inherently safe characteristics. (author)

  15. Nuclear data for fusion reactor technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-06-01

    The meeting was organized in four sessions and four working groups devoted to the following topics: Requirements of nuclear data for fusion reactor technology (6 papers); Status of experimental and theoretical investigations of microscopic nuclear data (10 papers); Status of existing libraries for fusion neutronic calculations (5 papers); and Status of integral experiments and benchmark tests (6 papers). A separate abstract was prepared for each of these papers

  16. Thermodynamic Simulation of Equilibrium Composition of Reaction Products at Dehydration of a Technological Channel in a Uranium-Graphite Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavliuk, A. O.; Zagumennov, V. S.; Kotlyarevskiy, S. G.; Bespala, E. V.

    2018-01-01

    The problems of accumulation of nuclear fuel spills in the graphite stack in the course of operation of uranium-graphite nuclear reactors are considered. The results of thermodynamic analysis of the processes in the graphite stack at dehydration of a technological channel, fuel element shell unsealing and migration of fission products, and activation of stable nuclides in structural elements of the reactor and actinides inside the graphite moderator are given. The main chemical reactions and compounds that are produced in these modes in the reactor channel during its operation and that may be hazardous after its shutdown and decommissioning are presented. Thermodynamic simulation of the equilibrium composition is performed using the specialized code TERRA. The results of thermodynamic simulation of the equilibrium composition in different cases of technological channel dehydration in the course of the reactor operation show that, if the temperature inside the active core of the nuclear reactor increases to the melting temperature of the fuel element, oxides and carbides of nuclear fuel are produced. The mathematical model of the nonstationary heat transfer in a graphite stack of a uranium-graphite reactor in the case of the technological channel dehydration is presented. The results of calculated temperature evolution at the center of the fuel element, the replaceable graphite element, the air gap, and in the surface layer of the block graphite are given. The numerical results show that, in the case of dehydration of the technological channel in the uranium-graphite reactor with metallic uranium, the main reaction product is uranium dioxide UO2 in the condensed phase. Low probability of production of pyrophoric uranium compounds (UH3) in the graphite stack is proven, which allows one to disassemble the graphite stack without the risk of spontaneous graphite ignition in the course of decommissioning of the uranium-graphite nuclear reactor.

  17. Simulation of thermal-hydraulic process in reactor of HTR-PM based on flow and heat transfer network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Kefeng; Zhou Yangping; Sui Zhe; Ma Yuanle

    2012-01-01

    The development of HTR-PM full scale simulator (FSS) is an important part in the project. The simulation of thermal-hydraulic process in reactor is one of the key technologies in the development of FSS. The simulation of thermal-hydraulic process in reactor was studied. According to the geometry structures and the characteristics of thermal-hydraulic process in reactor, the model was setup in components construction way. Based on the established simulation method of flow and heat transfer network, a Fortran code was developed and the simulation of thermal-hydraulic process was achieved. The simulation results of 50% FP steady state, 100% FP steady state and control rod mistakenly ascension accidents were given. The verification of simulation results was carried out by comparing with the design and analysis code THERMIX. The results show that the method and model based on flow and heat transfer network can meet the requirements of FSS and reflect the features of thermal-hydraulic process in HTR-PM. (authors)

  18. Off reactor testings. Technological engineering applicative research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doca, Cezar

    2001-01-01

    Pitesti, the most recently addressed issues being related to: fuel channel, fuel handling system, steam generator, process and equipment systems, event analyses for NPP operation, ageing, environmental qualification and extending the operation in-service life. There are described the facilities destined to reactor testings, the qualification technologies for the tools utilized in NPP maintenance works. Also, the MID electrical and mechanical simulator as well as the MID pushing facilities are presented. Finally the theoretical and computational programs related to the projects conducted in the frame of Division 7 TAR are mentioned. As future prospects the following projects are foreseen: - study of thermohydraulic behaviour of CANDU 6 fuel channel in abnormal conditions of operation; - off-reactor test qualification of SEU nuclear fuel with 43 rods; - off-reactor test qualification of maintenance/fuel channel monitoring equipment; - testing on INR benchscale stand of the nuclear fuel charging/discharging machines for Cernavoda NPP Unit 2; - testing for the MID pushing facilities and developing MIDs

  19. Small and Medium Sized Reactors: Driving Forces and Technology Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gowin, P.J.; Kupitz, J.

    2002-01-01

    There will be growing demands for energy in the coming decades. One aspect of particular importance is that prospects for nuclear energy will to a considerable extent be influenced by developing countries. Since population growth will occur primarily in developing countries nuclear energy cannot play a significant global role without being a viable option in these countries. Since new power plants to be built will have to be compatible with regional electricity grids, this may result in a greater focus on plants in the small and medium range, defined by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to produce up to 700 Megawatt of electrical power. This paper first examines the driving forces that could influence the development of nuclear energy in general and of Small and Medium Sized Reactors (SMRs) in particular in the next decades and identifies key factors in that process. Concerns over climate change may to a certain extent influence the discussion on future energy options. Other factors of equal importance for the future of nuclear are a continued emphasis on maintaining high safety standards, the implementation of acceptable solutions for spent fuel and radioactive waste disposal and a globally accepted non-proliferation regime, factors that may in turn have an impact on public acceptance. Economic competitiveness of nuclear energy is an additional important factor, and without being commercially viable, no energy source can in the long run represent a major and stable component in a competitive energy sector. The introduction of SMRs in developing countries poses additional challenges, such as investment limitations. Technology development plays an important role in keeping the nuclear option open for countries wishing to use nuclear reactors to meet their energy needs, and advances in reactor design will be important to enable a significant nuclear component in developing countries. This paper considers the contribution that nuclear science and

  20. Packed Bed Reactor Technology for Chemical-Looping Combustion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noorman, S.; Sint Annaland, van M.; Kuipers, J.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    Chemical-looping combustion (CLC) has emerged as an alternative for conventional power production processes to intrinsically integrate power production and CO2 capture. In this work a new reactor concept for CLC is proposed, based on dynamically operated packed bed reactors. With analytical

  1. Liquid metal reactor development. Development of LMR design technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Cheol; Kim, Y I; Kim, Y G; Kim, E K; Song, H; Chung, H T; Sim, Y S; Min, B T; Kim, Y S; Wi, M H; Yoo, B; Lee, J H; Lee, H Y; Kim, J B; Koo, G H; Hahn, D H; Na, B C; Hwang, W; Nam, C; Ryu, W S; Lim, G S; Kim, D H; Kim, J D; Gil, C S

    1997-07-01

    This project was performed in five parts, the scope and contents of which are as follows: The nuclear data processing system was established and the KFS group constant library was improved and verified. Basic computation system was constructed by either developing or adding its function. Input/output (I/O) interface processing was developed to establish an integrated calculation system for LMR core nuclear rand thermal-hydraulic design and analysis. An experimental data analysis was performed to validate the constructed core neutronic calculation system. Using the established core calculation system and design technology, preliminary core design and performance analysis on the domestic LMR core design concept were carried out. To develop the basic technology of the LMR system analysis, LMR system behavior characteristics evaluation, thermal -fluid system analysis in the reactor pool, preliminary overall plant analysis and computer codes development have been performed. A porous model and simple one-dimensional model have been evaluated for the reactor pool analysis. The evaluation of the residual heat removal system on different design concepts has been also conducted. For the development of high temperature structural analysis, the heat transfer and thermal stress analyses were performed using finite element program with user subroutine that has been developed with an implementation of the Chaboche constitutive model for inelastic analysis capability, and the evaluation of creep-fatigue and ratcheting behavior of high temperature structure was carried out using this program. for development of the seismic isolation system and to predict the shear behavior for the laminated rubber bearing were established. And the behavior tests of isolation bearing and rubber specimens were carried out, and the seismic response tests for the isolation model structure were performed using the 30 ton shaking table. (author). 369 refs., 119 tabs., 320 figs.

  2. Liquid metal reactor development. Development of LMR design technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Cheol; Kim, Y. I.; Kim, Y. G.; Kim, E. K.; Song, H.; Chung, H. T.; Sim, Y. S.; Min, B. T.; Kim, Y. S.; Wi, M. H.; Yoo, B.; Lee, J. H.; Lee, H. Y.; Kim, J. B.; Koo, G. H.; Hahn, D. H.; Na, B. C.; Hwang, W.; Nam, C.; Ryu, W. S.; Lim, G. S.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, J. D.; Gil, C. S.

    1997-07-01

    This project was performed in five parts, the scope and contents of which are as follows: The nuclear data processing system was established and the KFS group constant library was improved and verified. Basic computation system was constructed by either developing or adding its function. Input/output (I/O) interface processing was developed to establish an integrated calculation system for LMR core nuclear rand thermal-hydraulic design and analysis. An experimental data analysis was performed to validate the constructed core neutronic calculation system. Using the established core calculation system and design technology, preliminary core design and performance analysis on the domestic LMR core design concept were carried out. To develop the basic technology of the LMR system analysis, LMR system behavior characteristics evaluation, thermal -fluid system analysis in the reactor pool, preliminary overall plant analysis and computer codes development have been performed. A porous model and simple one-dimensional model have been evaluated for the reactor pool analysis. The evaluation of the residual heat removal system on different design concepts has been also conducted. For the development of high temperature structural analysis, the heat transfer and thermal stress analyses were performed using finite element program with user subroutine that has been developed with an implementation of the Chaboche constitutive model for inelastic analysis capability, and the evaluation of creep-fatigue and ratcheting behavior of high temperature structure was carried out using this program. for development of the seismic isolation system and to predict the shear behavior for the laminated rubber bearing were established. And the behavior tests of isolation bearing and rubber specimens were carried out, and the seismic response tests for the isolation model structure were performed using the 30 ton shaking table. (author). 369 refs., 119 tabs., 320 figs

  3. Nuclear vapor thermal reactor propulsion technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maya, I.; Diaz, N.J.; Dugan, E.T.; Watanabe, Y.; McClanahan, J.A.; Wen-Hsiung Tu; Carman, R.L.

    1993-01-01

    The conceptual design of a nuclear rocket based on the vapor core reactor is presented. The Nuclear Vapor Thermal Rocket (NVTR) offers the potential for a specific impulse of 1000 to 1200 s at thrust-to-weight ratios of 1 to 2. The design is based on NERVA geometry and systems with the solid fuel replaced by uranium tetrafluoride (UF 4 ) vapor. The closed-loop core does not rely on hydrodynamic confinement of the fuel. The hydrogen propellant is separated from the UF 4 fuel gas by graphite structure. The hydrogen is maintained at high pressure (∼100 atm), and exits the core at 3,100 K to 3,500 K. Zirconium carbide and hafnium carbide coatings are used to protect the hot graphite from the hydrogen. The core is surrounded by beryllium oxide reflector. The nuclear reactor core has been integrated into a 75 klb engine design using an expander cycle and dual turbopumps. The NVTR offers the potential for an incremental technology development pathway to high performance gas core reactors. Since the fuel is readily available, it also offers advantages in the initial cost of development, as it will not require major expenditures for fuel development

  4. An assessment of space reactor technology needs and recommendations for development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, A.C.; Wiley, R.L.

    1996-01-01

    In order to provide a strategy for space reactor technology development, the Defense Nuclear Agency (DNA) has authorized a brief review of potential national needs that may be addressed by space reactor systems. A systematic approach was used to explore needs at several levels that are increasingly specific. sm-bullet Level 0 emdash General Trends and Issues sm-bullet Level 1 emdash Generic Space Capabilities to Address Trends sm-bullet Level 2 emdash Requirements to Support Capabilities sm-bullet Level 3 emdash System Types Capable of Meeting Requirements sm-bullet Level 4 emdash Generic Reactor System Types sm-bullet Level 5 emdash Specific Baseline Systems Using these findings, a strategy was developed to support important space reactor technologies within a limited budget. A preliminary evaluation identified key technical issues and provide a prioritized set of candidate research projects. The evaluation of issues and the recommended research projects are presented in a companion paper. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  5. The IAEA Activities in the Field of Fast Reactors Technology Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monti, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    Main activities of the IAEA Programme on Fast Reactor: Carry out Collaborative Research Projects (CRPs) of common interest to the TWG-FR Member States in the field of FRs and ADS; Secure Training and Education in the field of fast neutron system physics, technology and applications; Support Fast Reactor data retrieval and knowledge preservation activities in MSs; Provide support to IAEA Nuclear Safety and Security Department for preparation of fast reactor Safety standards / requirements / guides. IAEA TWG-FR Functions: Provide advice and guidance, and marshal support in their countries for implementation of IAEA’s programmatic activities in the area of advanced technologies and R&D for fast reactors and sub-critical hybrid systems for energy production and for utilization/transmutation of long-lived nuclides; Provide a forum for information and knowledge sharing on national and international development programs; Act as a link between IAEA’s activities in the specific area of the TWG-FR and national scientific communities, delivering information from and to national communities

  6. Progress in space nuclear reactor power systems technology development - The SP-100 program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, H. S.

    1984-01-01

    Activities related to the development of high-temperature compact nuclear reactors for space applications had reached a comparatively high level in the U.S. during the mid-1950s and 1960s, although only one U.S. nuclear reactor-powered spacecraft was actually launched. After 1973, very little effort was devoted to space nuclear reactor and propulsion systems. In February 1983, significant activities toward the development of the technology for space nuclear reactor power systems were resumed with the SP-100 Program. Specific SP-100 Program objectives are partly related to the determination of the potential performance limits for space nuclear power systems in 100-kWe and 1- to 100-MW electrical classes. Attention is given to potential missions and applications, regimes of possible space power applicability, safety considerations, conceptual system designs, the establishment of technical feasibility, nuclear technology, materials technology, and prospects for the future.

  7. Industrial Maturity of FR Fuel Cycle Processes and Technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruezière, Jérôme

    2013-01-01

    FR fuel cycle processes and technologies have already been proven industrially for Oxide Fuel, and to a lesser extent for metal fuel. In addition, both used oxide fuel reprocessing and fresh oxide fuel manufacturing benefit from similar industrial experience currently deployed for LWR. Alternative fuel type will have to generate very significant benefit in reactor ( safety, cost, … ) to justify corresponding development and industrialization costs

  8. Nuclear Reactor Technology Assessment for Near Term Deployment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    One of the IAEA's statutory objectives is to 'seek to accelerate and enlarge the contribution of atomic energy to peace, health and prosperity throughout the world.' One way this objective is achieved is through the publication of a range of technical series. Two of these are the IAEA Nuclear Energy Series and the IAEA Safety Standards Series. According to Article III.A.6 of the IAEA Statute, the safety standards establish 'standards of safety for protection of health and minimization of danger to life and property'. The safety standards include the Safety Fundamentals, Safety Requirements and Safety Guides. These standards are written primarily in a regulatory style, and are binding on the IAEA for its own programmes. The principal users are the regulatory bodies in Member States and other national authorities. The IAEA Nuclear Energy Series comprises reports designed to encourage and assist R and D on, and application of, nuclear energy for peaceful uses. This includes practical examples to be used by owners and operators of utilities in Member States, implementing organizations, academia, and government officials, among others. This information is presented in guides, reports on technology status and advances, and best practices for peaceful uses of nuclear energy based on inputs from international experts. The IAEA Nuclear Energy Series complements the IAEA Safety Standards Series. Several IAEA Member States have embarked recently on initiatives to establish or reinvigorate nuclear power programmes. In response, the IAEA has developed several guidance and technical publications to identify with Member States the complex tasks associated with such an undertaking and to recommend the processes that can be used in the performance of this work. A major challenge in this undertaking, especially for newcomer Member States, is the process associated with reactor technology assessment (RTA) for near term deployment. RTA permits the evaluation, selection and deployment

  9. High-temperature process heat reactor with solid coolant and radiant heat exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekseev, A.M.; Bulkin, Yu.M.; Vasil'ev, S.I.

    1984-01-01

    The high temperature graphite reactor with the solid coolant in which heat transfer is realized by radiant heat exchange is described. Neutron-physical and thermal-technological features of the reactor are considered. The reactor vessel is made of sheet carbon steel in the form of a sealed rectangular annular box. The moderator is a set of graphite blocks mounted as rows of arched laying Between the moderator rows the solid coolant annular layings made of graphite blocks with high temperature nuclear fuel in the form of coated microparticles are placed. The coolant layings are mounted onto ring movable platforms, the continuous rotation of which is realizod by special electric drives. Each part of the graphite coolant laying consecutively passes through the reactor core neutron cut-off zones and technological zone. In the core the graphite is heated up to the temperature of 1350 deg C sufficient for effective radiant heat transfer. In the neutron cut-off zone the chain reaction and further graphite heating are stopped. In the technological zone the graphite transfers the accumulated heat to the walls of technological channels in which the working medium moves. The described reactor is supposed to be used in nuclear-chemical complex for ammonia production by the method of methane steam catalytic conversion

  10. Development of advanced fabrication technology for high-temperature gas-cooled reactor fuel. Reduction of coating failure fraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minato, Kazuo; Kikuchi, Hironobu; Fukuda, Kousaku; Tobita, Tsutomu; Yoshimuta, Sigeharu; Suzuki, Nobuyuki; Tomimoto, Hiroshi; Nishimura, Kazuhisa; Oda, Takafumi

    1998-11-01

    The advanced fabrication technology for high-temperature gas-cooled reactor fuel has been developed to reduce the coating failure fraction of the fuel particles, which leads to an improvement of the reactor safety. The present report reviews the results of the relevant work. The mechanisms of the coating failure of the fuel particles during coating and compaction processes of the fuel fabrication were studied to determine a way to reduce the coating failure fraction of the fuel. The coating process was improved by optimizing the mode of the particle fluidization and by developing the process without unloading and loading of the particles at intermediate coating process. The compaction process was improved by optimizing the combination of the pressing temperature and the pressing speed of the overcoated particles. Through these modifications of the fabrication process, the quality of the fuel was improved outstandingly. (author)

  11. Technical feasibility of an Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) as a future option for fast reactor cycles. Integrate a small metal-fueled fast reactor and pyroprocessing facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Nobuo

    2017-01-01

    Integral Fast Reactor that integrated fast reactor and pyrorocessing facilities developed by Argonne National Laboratory in the U.S. is an excellent nuclear fuel cycle system for passive safety, nuclear non-proliferation, and reduction in radioactive waste. In addition, this system can be considered as a technology applicable to the treatment of the fuel debris caused by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident. This study assessed the time required for debris processing, safety of the facilities, and construction cost when using this technology, and examined technological possibility including future technological issues. In a small metal-fueled reactor, it is important to design the core that achieves both of reduction in combustion reactivity and reduction in coolant reactivity. In system design, calorimetric analysis, structure soundness assessment, seismic feasibility establishment study, etc. are important. Regarding safety, research and testing are necessary on the capabilities of passive reactor shutdown and reactor core cooling as well as measures for avoiding re-criticality, even when emergency stop has failed. In dry reprocessing system, studies on electrolytic reduction and electrolytic refining process for treating the debris with compositions different from those of normal fuel are necessary. (A.O.)

  12. Fluidized-bed reactors processes and operating conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Yates, John G

    2016-01-01

    The fluidized-bed reactor is the centerpiece of industrial fluidization processes. This book focuses on the design and operation of fluidized beds in many different industrial processes, emphasizing the rationale for choosing fluidized beds for each particular process. The book starts with a brief history of fluidization from its inception in the 1940’s. The authors present both the fluid dynamics of gas-solid fluidized beds and the extensive experimental studies of operating systems and they set them in the context of operating processes that use fluid-bed reactors. Chemical engineering students and postdocs as well as practicing engineers will find great interest in this book.

  13. Tritium interactions of potential importance to fusion reactor systems: technology requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkes, W.R.

    1976-01-01

    The tritium technology requirements created by the controlled thermonuclear research program to develop a demonstration fusion power reactor by the year 2000 are reviewed. It is found that the majority of the technological advances which are needed to ensure adequate tritium containment in a tritium breeding power reactor need to be demonstrated on a pilot scale by approximately 1983, so that they may be incorporated into EPR-II, the second of two planned experimental power reactors. The most important advances include development of containment materials with permeabilities to tritium well below measured values for stainless steel; large scale, low inventory deuterium-tritium separation systems; and improved monitoring and assay systems. There are less critical requirements for information about the effects of tritium and helium on the mechanical properties of materials, the effects of tritium on biological systems, and data on physical and chemical properties of tritium. Substantial progress needs to be made on these problems early enough to permit possible solutions to be tested on EPR-I. In addition, major improvements in tritium handling equipment are required for EPR-I. Those technological problems for which solutions have not yet been demonstrated by EPR-II must be solved by 1989 if they are to be assured successful application in the demonstration reactor

  14. APPLICATION OF MEMBRANE SORPTION REACTOR TECHNOLOGY FOR LRW MANAGEMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glagolenko, Yuri; Dzekun, Evgeny; Myasoedovg, Boris; Gelis, Vladimir; Kozlitin, Evgeny; Milyutin, Vitaly; Trusov, Lev; Rengel, Mike; Mackay, Stewart M.; Johnson, Michael E.

    2003-01-01

    A new membrane-sorption technology has been recently developed and industrially implemented in Russia for the treatment of the Liquid (Low-Level) Radioactive Waste (LRW). The first step of the technology is a precipitation of the radionuclides and/or their adsorption onto sorbents of small particle size. The second step is filtration of the precipitate/sorbent through the metal-ceramic membrane, Trumem.. The unique feature of the technology is a Membrane-Sorption Reactor (MSR), in which the precipitation / sorption and the filtration of the radionuclides occur simultaneously, in one stage. This results in high efficiency, high productivity and compactness of the equipment, which are the obvious advantages of the developed technology. Two types of MSR based on Flat Membranes device and Centrifugal Membrane device were developed. The advantages and disadvantages of application of each type of the reactors are discussed. The MSR technology has been extensively tested and efficiently implemented at ''Mayak '' nuclear facility near Chelyabinsk, Russia as well as at other Russian sites. The results of this and other applications of the MSR technology at the different Russian nuclear facilities are discussed. The results of the first industrial applications of the MSR technology for radioactive waste treatment in Russia and analysis of the available information about LRW accumulated in other countries imply that this technology can be successfully used for the Low Level Radioactive Waste treatment in the USA and in other nuclear countries

  15. Recent IAEA activities to support advanced water cooled reactor technology development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, J.-H.; Bilbao y Leon, S.; Rao, A.S.

    2009-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is the world's center of cooperation in the nuclear field. The IAEA works with its Member States and multiple partners worldwide to promote safe, secure and peaceful nuclear technologies. To catalyse innovation in nuclear power technology in Member States, the IAEA coordinates cooperative research, promotes information exchange, and analyses technical data and results, with a focus on reducing capital costs and construction periods while further improving performance, safety and proliferation resistance. This paper summarizes the recent major IAEA activities to support technology development for water cooled reactors, which is the most common type of reactor design at present and will probably still be in the near future. (author)

  16. Generation IV reactors: reactor concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardonnier, J.L.; Dumaz, P.; Antoni, O.; Arnoux, P.; Bergeron, A.; Renault, C.; Rimpault, G.; Delpech, M.; Garnier, J.C.; Anzieu, P.; Francois, G.; Lecomte, M.

    2003-01-01

    Liquid metal reactor concept looks promising because of its hard neutron spectrum. Sodium reactors benefit a large feedback experience in Japan and in France. Lead reactors have serious assets concerning safety but they require a great effort in technological research to overcome the corrosion issue and they lack a leader country to develop this innovative technology. In molten salt reactor concept, salt is both the nuclear fuel and the coolant fluid. The high exit temperature of the primary salt (700 Celsius degrees) allows a high energy efficiency (44%). Furthermore molten salts have interesting specificities concerning the transmutation of actinides: they are almost insensitive to irradiation damage, some salts can dissolve large quantities of actinides and they are compatible with most reprocessing processes based on pyro-chemistry. Supercritical water reactor concept is based on operating temperature and pressure conditions that infers water to be beyond its critical point. In this range water gets some useful characteristics: - boiling crisis is no more possible because liquid and vapour phase can not coexist, - a high heat transfer coefficient due to the low thermal conductivity of supercritical water, and - a high global energy efficiency due to the high temperature of water. Gas-cooled fast reactors combining hard neutron spectrum and closed fuel cycle open the way to a high valorization of natural uranium while minimizing ultimate radioactive wastes and proliferation risks. Very high temperature gas-cooled reactor concept is developed in the prospect of producing hydrogen from no-fossil fuels in large scale. This use implies a reactor producing helium over 1000 Celsius degrees. (A.C.)

  17. Design technology development of the main coolant pump for an integral reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J. S.; Lee, J. S.; Kim, M. H.; Kim, D. W.; Kim, J. I.

    2004-01-01

    All of the reactor coolant pump currently used in commercial nuclear power plant were imported from foreign country. Now, the developing program of design technology for the reactor coolant pump will be started in a few future by domestic researchers. At this stage, the design technology of the main coolant pump for an integral reactor is developed based on the regulation of domestic nuclear power plant facilities. The main coolant pump is a canned motor axial pump, which accommodates all constraints required from the integral reactor system. The main coolant pump does not have mechanical seal device because the rotor of motor and the shaft of impeller are the same one. There is no flywheel on the rotating shaft of main coolant pump so that the coastdown duration time is short when the electricity supply is cut off

  18. An overview of the U.S. Department of Energy's program for liquid metal reactor seismic technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jetter, R.I.; Seidensticker, R.W.

    1988-01-01

    During the past decade, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has sponsored the development of seismic design technology in support of Liquid Metal Reactors (LMR's). This has been accomplished through 1) major projects such as the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) and the Clinch River Breeder Reactor (CRBR), 2) base technology programs and 3) support to the design development of innovative LMR's, SAFR and PRISM. These developments have come in the areas of ground motion definition, soil-structure interaction, seismic isolation, fluid-structure interaction and structural analysis methods and criteria for equipment and components such as piping, reactor core and vessels. The initial developments in seismic design technology by DOE and others were directed toward ensuring that the plant, equipment and components had sufficient seismic resistance to ensure availability after an Operations Basis Earthquake (OBE) and to survive a Safe Shutdown Earthquake (SSE). During this period, the emphasis on conservative design had significant cost impacts. The current focus is directed toward a better understanding of seismic design margins and the development of methods to reduce seismic loads on plant and equipment and to enhance siting flexibility. From this perspective, the DOE is currently reassessing the needs and priorities for future seismic technology development. Coordination with University research programs and ongoing seismic technology development sponsored by other governmental agencies and institutions is an integral part of this planning process. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the current status of DOE's seismic technology program for LMR's and to provide an overview of future areas of interest. (author). 7 refs

  19. Current status and technology development tendency of research reactors in china

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ke Guotu; Shen Feng; Zhao Shouzhi; Zhang Weiguo; Yuan Luzheng

    2009-01-01

    The current status and development history of domestic and abroad research reactors (RRs) are mentioned. The representative RRs and their respective technology characteristics are introduced. The utilizations of China's RRs, mainly included as nuclear engineering technology, basic research applications of nuclear technology, teaching and personnel training, are explained. (authors)

  20. Studies on decommissioning of TRIGA reactors and site restoration technologies in the Republic of Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Won-Zin; Kim, Gye-Nam; Won, Hui-Jun

    2002-01-01

    Research and development on research reactor decommissioning and environmental restoration has been carried out at KAERI since 1997 to prepare for the decommissioning of KAERI's two TRIGA-type research reactors, which had been shut down since 1995. A 3-D graphic model of the TRIGA research reactor was built using IGRIP. The dismantling process was simulated in the graphic environment to verify the feasibility of individual operations before the execution of the remote dismantling process. An under-water wall-climbing robot, moving by propeller injection, and identifying its coordinates by using a laser sensor, was developed and tested in the TRIGA reactor pool by measuring a radioactive contamination map of the reactor surface. Using MODFLOW and TRIGA site geological data, a computer simulation of the underground migration of residual radionuclides, after the TRIGA reactor decommissioning, was carried out. It was found that the underground migration rate was very slow such that, when radionuclide decay and dilution are considered, the residual radionuclides will not have a significant environmental impact. The soil decontamination R and D, using soil washing, solvent flushing and electro-decontamination technologies, was carried out to determine the best method for decontaminating the soil waste accumulated in KAERI. The decontamination results indicated that, using the soil washing method, more than 80% of the soil wastes could be decontaminated well enough to discharge them to the environment. It was also determined that the control of solution pH and temperature in the soil washing process is important for the reduction of decontamination waste. Further decontamination, using an electro-kinetic decontamination method, was considered necessary for the residual soil waste, which consisted mainly of fine soil particles. (author)

  1. Indian fast reactor technology: Current status and future programme

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IGCAR is responsible for the design, R & D, manufacturing technology and regulatory clear- ances. ... material production that can be used to fuel another reactor. ..... The nuclear steam supply system components are being manufactured suc-.

  2. Proceedings of the seminar on optimization technology of the use of G.A. Siwabessy Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Seminar on optimization technology of the use of G.A. Siwabessy research reactor was held on March 16, 1999 at the Multipurpose Reactor Center, Serpong, Indonesia. During the seminar, have presented 14 papers about activities or researches on reactor operation technology, use of G.A. Siwabessy research reactor, engineering and nuclear installation development, maintenance and quality assurances. The seminar was held as a tool for developing non-researcher functional workers

  3. Proceedings of the seminar on optimization technology of the use of G.A. Siwabessy Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    Seminar on optimization technology of the use of G.A. Siwabessy research reactor was held on March 16, 1999 at the Multipurpose Reactor Center, Serpong, Indonesia. During the seminar, have presented 14 papers about activities or researches on reactor operation technology, use of G.A. Siwabessy research reactor, engineering and nuclear installation development, maintenance and quality assurances. The seminar was held as a tool for developing non-researcher functional workers.

  4. Reactor technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erdoes, P.

    1977-01-01

    This is one of a series of articles discussing aspects of nuclear engineering ranging from a survey of various reactor types for static and mobile use to mention of atomic thermo-electric batteries of atomic thermo-electric batteries for cardiac pacemakers. Various statistics are presented on power generation in Europe and U.S.A. and economics are discussed in some detail. Molten salt reactors and research machines are also described. (G.M.E.)

  5. A study of reverse osmosis applicability to light water reactor radwaste processing. Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markind, J.; Van Tran, T.

    1979-04-01

    The use of membrane technology has demonstrated significant process potential in nuclear radioactive waste applications. Reverse osmosis and ultrafiltration can provide filtration capability without the need of filter aids, minimize the requirements of chemical regeneration and/or disposal of expensive resins and can preconcentrate wastes without requiring major process equipment with large auxiliary heat supplies. Because of these capabilities, a study was undertaken to review, evaluate and document the existing experience, both nuclear and appropriate non-nuclear, of the membrane industry as it applies to the processing of reactor radwaste by membrane technology and, in particular, reverse osmosis and ultrafiltration. Relevant information was collected from both the literature and extensive communications with users and suppliers of membrane equipment. The systems reviewed ranged from experimental laboratory units to full scale process units

  6. Synthesis of Struvite using a Vertical Canted Reactor with Continuous Laminar Flow Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutiyono, S.; Edahwati, L.; Muryanto, S.; Jamari, J.; Bayuseno, A. P.

    2018-01-01

    Struvite is a white crystalline that is chemically known as magnesium ammonium phosphorus hexahydrate (MgNH4PO4·6H2O). It can easily dissolve in acidic conditions and slightly soluble in neutral and alkaline conditions. In industry, struvite forms as a scale deposit on a pipe with hot flow fluid. However, struvite can be used as fertilizer because of its phosphate content. A vertical canted reactor is a promising technology for recovering phosphate levels in wastewater through struvite crystallization. The study was carried out with the vertical canted reactor by mixing an equimolar stock solution of MgCl2, NH4OH, and H3PO4 in 1: 1: 1 ratio. The crystallization process worked with the flow rate of three stock solution entering the reactor in the range of 16-38 ml/min, the temperature in the reactor is worked on 20°, 30°, and 40°C, while the incoming air rate is kept constant at 0.25 liters/min. Moreover, pH was maintained at a constant value of 9. The struvite crystallization process run until the steady state was reached. Then, the result of crystal precipitates was filtered and dried at standard temperature room for 48 hours. After that, struvite crystals were stored for the subsequent analysis by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and XRD (X-Ray Diffraction) method. The use of canted reactor provided the high pure struvite with a prismatic crystal morphology.

  7. Communication and computer technologies for teaching physics in nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murua, C; Chautemps, A; Odetto, J; Keil, W; Trivino, S; Rossi, F; Perez Lucero, A

    2012-01-01

    In order to train personnel inn order to train personnel in Embalse Nuclear Power Plant, and provided that such training given primarily on the location of such a facility, we designed a pedagogical strategy that combined the use of conventional resources with new information technologies. Since the Nuclear Reactor RA-0 is an ideal tool for teaching Reactor Physics, priority was the use of it, both locally remotely. The teaching strategy is based on four pillar: -Lectures on the Power Plant (using a virtual classroom to support); -Remote monitoring of Ra-0 Nuclear Reactor parameters while operating (RA0REMOTO); -Use, through the Internet, of the Ra-0 Nuclear Reactor Simulator (RA0SIMUL); -Made in the Nuclear Reactor RA-0 of Reactor Physics practical. The work emphasizes RA0REMOTO and RA0SIMUL systems. The RA0REMOTO system is an appendix of the Electronic Data Acquisition System (SEAD) of the Nuclear Reactor RA-0. This system acquires signals from Reactor instrumentation and sends them to a server running the software that 'publish' the reactor parameters on the internet. Students may, during the lectures, monitor any parameter of the reactor while it operates, which allows teachers to compare theory with reality. RA0SIMUL is a simulator on the RA-0, which allows students to 'operate' a reactor analyzing the underlying physics concepts (author)

  8. Integrating anammox with the autotrophic denitrification process via electrochemistry technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Sen; Yin, Xin; Zhou, Jiti; Wei, Li'e; Zhong, Jiayou

    2018-03-01

    In this study, an autotrophic denitrification process was successfully coupled with anammox to remove the nitrate by-product via electrochemical technology. When the voltage applied to the combined electrode reactor was 1.5 V, the electrode reaction removed nitrate by using the autotrophic denitrification biomass without affecting the anammox biomass. The nitrogen removal efficiency of the combined electrode reactor reached 99.1% without detectable nitrate at an influent NO 2 - -N/NH 4 + -N ratio of 1.5. On day 223, using the model calculations based on reaction equations, 19.7% of total nitrogen was removed via the autotrophic denitrification process, while the majority of nitrogen removal (approximately 79.4%) was attributed to the anammox reaction. Small variations of the population numbers and community structure of artificial bacteria according to electron microscopy predicted that the anammox and autotrophic denitrifying biomasses could coexist in the electrode reactor. Then, 16S rRNA analysis determined that the anammox biomass group was always dominant in mixed flora during continuous cultivation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Photon technology. Laser processing technology; Photon technology. Laser process gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    Survey has been conducted to develop laser processing technology utilizing the interaction between substance and photon. This is a part of the leading research on photon technology development. The photon technology development is aimed at novel technology development highly utilizing the quantum nature of photons. In the field of laser processing, high quality photons are used as tools, special functions of atoms and molecules will be discovered, and processing for functional fabrication (photon machining) will be established. A role of laser processing in industries has become significant, which is currently spreading not only into cutting and welding of materials and scalpels but also into such a special field as ultrafine processing of materials. The spreading is sometimes obstructed due to the difficulty of procurement of suitable machines and materials, and the increase of cost. The purpose of this study is to develop the optimal laser technology, to elucidate the interaction between substance and photon, and to develop the laser system and the transmission and regulation systems which realize the optimal conditions. 387 refs., 115 figs., 25 tabs.

  10. New nuclear technologies will help to ensure the public trust and further development of research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miasnikov, S.V.

    2001-01-01

    Decrease of public trust to research reactors causes the concern of experts working in this field. In the paper the reasons of public mistrust to research reactors are given. A new technology of 99 Mo production in the 'Argus' solution reactor developed in the Russian Research Centre 'Kurchatov Institute' is presented as an example assisting to eliminate these reasons. 99 Mo is the most widespread and important medical isotope. The product received employing a new technology completely meets the international specifications. Besides, the proposed technology raises the efficiency of 235 U consumption practically up to 100% and allows using a reactor with power 10 and more times lower than that in the target technology. The developed technology meets the requirements of the community to nuclear safety of manufacture, reduction of radioactive waste and non-proliferation of nuclear materials. (author)

  11. Process Analytical Technology (PAT): batch-to-batch reproducibility of fermentation processes by robust process operational design and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnoth, S; Jenzsch, M; Simutis, R; Lübbert, A

    2007-10-31

    The Process Analytical Technology (PAT) initiative of the FDA is a reaction on the increasing discrepancy between current possibilities in process supervision and control of pharmaceutical production processes and its current application in industrial manufacturing processes. With rigid approval practices based on standard operational procedures, adaptations of production reactors towards the state of the art were more or less inhibited for long years. Now PAT paves the way for continuous process and product improvements through improved process supervision based on knowledge-based data analysis, "Quality-by-Design"-concepts, and, finally, through feedback control. Examples of up-to-date implementations of this concept are presented. They are taken from one key group of processes in recombinant pharmaceutical protein manufacturing, the cultivations of genetically modified Escherichia coli bacteria.

  12. The pebble-bed high-temperature reactor as a source of nuclear process heat. Vol. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kugeler, K.; Schulten, R.; Kugeler, M.; Niessen, H.F.; Roeth-Kamat, M.; Hohn, H.; Woike, O.; Germer, J.H.

    1974-08-01

    The characteristic questions concerning a process heat reactor with high helium outlet temperatures are dealt with in this volume like e.g. fuel element design, corrosion, and fission product release. Furthermore, some possibilities of the technical realization of the hot-gas ducting and intermediate heat exchangers are described. Important parameters for the design of the reactor such as core power density, helium inlet and outlet temperatures, helium pressure and fuel cycle burn-up and conversion and the effect of these on the primary circuit are investigated. The important question regarding which reactor vessel is to be chosen for nuclear process heat plants is discussed with the aid of the integrated and non-integrated concepts using prestressed concrete, cast iron and cast steel. Thereafter, considerations on the safety of the nuclear plant are given. Finally, mention is made of the availability of the nuclear plant and of the status of development of the HTR technology. (orig.) [de

  13. Integration of improved decontamination and characterization technologies in the decommissioning of the CP-5 research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyya, S. K.; Boing, L. E.

    2000-01-01

    The aging of research reactors worldwide has resulted in a heightened awareness in the international technical decommissioning community of the timeliness to review and address the needs of these research institutes in planning for and eventually performing the decommissioning of these facilities. By using the reactors already undergoing decommissioning as test beds for evaluating enhanced or new/innovative technologies for decommissioning, it is possible that new techniques could be made available for those future research reactor decommissioning projects. Potentially, the new technologies will result in: reduced radiation doses to the work force, larger safety margins in performing decommissioning and cost and schedule savings to the research institutes in performing the decommissioning of these facilities. Testing of these enhanced technologies for decontamination, dismantling, characterization, remote operations and worker protection are critical to furthering advancements in the technical specialty of decommissioning. Furthermore, regulatory acceptance and routine utilization for future research reactor decommissioning will be assured by testing and developing these technologies in realistically contaminated environments prior to use in the research reactors. The decommissioning of the CP-5 Research Reactor is currently in the final phase of dismantlement. In this paper the authors present results of work performed at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) in the development, testing and deployment of innovative and/or enhanced technologies for the decommissioning of research reactors

  14. Research and development on the application of advanced control technologies to advanced nuclear reactor systems: A US national perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, J.D.; Monson, L.R.; Carrol, D.G.; Dayal, Y.

    1989-01-01

    Control system designs for nuclear power plants are becoming more advanced through the use of digital technology and automation. This evolution is taking place because of: (1) the limitations in analog based control system performance and maintenance and availability and (2) the promise of significant improvement in plant operation and availability due to advances in digital and other control technologies. Digital retrofits of control systems in US nuclear plants are occurring now. Designs of control and protection systems for advanced LWRs are based on digital technology. The use of small inexpensive, fast, large-capacity computers in these designs is the first step of an evolutionary process described in this paper. Under the sponsorship of the US Department of Energy (DOE), Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Argonne National Laboratory, GE Nuclear Energy and several universities are performing research and development in the application of advances in control theory, software engineering, advanced computer architectures, artificial intelligence, and man-machine interface analysis to control system design. The target plant concept for the work described in this paper is the Power Reactor Inherently Safe Module reactor (PRISM), an advanced modular liquid metal reactor concept. This and other reactor designs which provide strong passive responses to operational upsets or accidents afford good opportunities to apply these advances in control technology. 18 refs., 5 figs

  15. IAEA activities in gas-cooled reactor technology development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleveland, J.; Kupitz, J.

    1992-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has the charter to ''foster the exchange of scientific and technical information'', and ''encourage and assist research on, and development and practical application of, atomic energy for peaceful uses throughout the world''. This paper describes the Agency's activities in Gas-cooled Reactor (GCR) technology development

  16. Development of remote disassembly technology for liquid-metal reactor (LMR) fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, E.C.; Evans, J.H.; Metz, C.F. III; Weil, B.S.

    1990-01-01

    A major objective of the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program (CFRP) is to develop equipment and demonstrate technology to reprocess fast breeder reactor fuel. Experimental work on fuel disassembly cutting methods began in the 1970s. High-power laser cutting was selected as the preferred cutting method for fuel disassembly. Remotely operated development equipment was designed, fabricated, installed, and tested at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Development testing included remote automatic operation, remote maintenance testing, and laser cutting process development. This paper summarizes the development work performed at ORNL on remote fuel disassembly. 2 refs., 1 fig

  17. Fusion reactor design and technology program in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, J.H.

    1994-01-01

    A fusion-fission hybrid reactor program was launched in 1987. The purpose of development of the hybrid reactor is twofold: to solve the problem of nuclear fuel supply for an expected large-scale development of fission reactor plants, and to maintain the momentum of fusion research. The program is described and the activities and progress of the program are presented. Two conceptual designs of an engineering test reactor with tokamak configuration were developed at the Southwestern Institute of Physics and the Institute of Plasma Physics. The results are a tokamak engineering test breeder (TETB) series design and a fusion-fission hybrid reactor design (SSEHR), characterized by a liquid-Li self-cooled blanket and an He-cooled solid tritium breeder blanket respectively. In parallel with the design studies, relevant technological experiments on a small or medium scale have been supported by this program. These include LHCD, ICRH and pellet injection in the area of plasma engineering; neutronics integral experiments with U, Pu, Fe and Be; various irradiation tests of austenitic and ferritic steels, magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) pressure drop experiments using a liquid metal loop; research into permeation barriers for tritium and hydrogen isotopes; solid tritium breeder tests using an in-situ loop in a fission reactor. All these experiments have proceeded successfully. The second step of this program is now starting. It seems reasonable that most of the research carried out in the first step will continue. ((orig.))

  18. Decontamination and decommissioning techniques for research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Won Zin; Won, H. J.; Jung, C. H.; Choi, W. K.; Kim, G. N.; Lee, K. W.

    2002-05-01

    Evaluation of soil decontamination process and the liquid decontamination waste treatment technology are investigation of organic acid as a decontamination agent, investigation of the liquid waste purification process and identification of recycling the decontamination agents. Participation on IAEA CRP meeting are preparation of IAEA technical report on 'studies on decommissioning of TRIGA reactors and site restoration technologies' and exchange the research result, technology, experience and safety regulation of the research reactor D and D of USA, Great Britain, Canada, Belgium, Italy, India and so forth

  19. NOVEL REACTOR FOR THE PRODUCTION OF SYNTHESIS GAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasilis Papavassiliou; Leo Bonnell; Dion Vlachos

    2004-12-01

    Praxair investigated an advanced technology for producing synthesis gas from natural gas and oxygen This production process combined the use of a short-reaction time catalyst with Praxair's gas mixing technology to provide a novel reactor system. The program achieved all of the milestones contained in the development plan for Phase I. We were able to develop a reactor configuration that was able to operate at high pressures (up to 19atm). This new reactor technology was used as the basis for a new process for the conversion of natural gas to liquid products (Gas to Liquids or GTL). Economic analysis indicated that the new process could provide a 8-10% cost advantage over conventional technology. The economic prediction although favorable was not encouraging enough for a high risk program like this. Praxair decided to terminate development.

  20. Photon technology. Laser process technology; Photon technology. Laser process gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    For developing laser process technology by interaction between substance and photon, the present state, system, R and D issues and proposal of such technology were summarized. Development of the photon technology aims at the modification of bonding conditions of substances by quantum energy of photon, and the new process technology for generating ultra- high temperature and pressure fields by concentrating photon on a minute region. Photon technology contributes to not only the conventional mechanical and thermal forming and removal machining but also function added machining (photon machining) in quantum level and new machining technology ranging from macro- to micro-machining, creating a new industrial field. This technology extends various fields from the basis of physics and chemistry to new bonding technology. Development of a compact high-quality high-power high-efficiency photon source, and advanced photon transmission technology are necessary. The basic explication of an unsolved physicochemical phenomenon related to photon and substance, and development of related application technologies are essential. 328 refs., 147 figs., 13 tabs.

  1. Chemical processing of liquid lithium fusion reactor blankets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weston, J.R.; Calaway, W.F.; Yonco, R.M.; Hines, J.B.; Maroni, V.A.

    1979-01-01

    A 50-gallon-capacity lithium loop constructed mostly from 304L stainless steel has been operated for over 6000 hours at temperatures in the range from 360 to 480 0 C. This facility, the Lithium Processing Test Loop (LPTL), is being used to develop processing and monitoring technology for liquid lithium fusion reactor blankets. Results of tests of a molten-salt extraction method for removing impurities from liquid lithium have yielded remarkably good distribution coefficients for several of the more common nonmetallic elements found in lithium systems. In particular, the equilibrium volumetric distribution coefficients, D/sub v/ (concentration per unit volume of impurity in salt/concentration per unit volume of impurity in lithium), for hydrogen, deuterium, nitrogen and carbon are approx. 3, approx. 4, > 10, approx. 2, respectively. Other studies conducted with a smaller loop system, the Lithium Mini-Test Loop (LMTL), have shown that zirconium getter-trapping can be effectively used to remove selected impurities from flowing lithium

  2. Status of fast reactor technology in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Mi

    1992-01-01

    The paper has introduced briefly the recent news about the Chinese nuclear programme on PWR and FBR. Concerning the FFR design, some issues under consideration have been presented, including the matches between thermo-parameters of primary sodium and of steam, the arrangement of control and safety rods which correspond to first and second shut-down systems, the structure of inner vessel and the axial length of subassembly. With regard to the R and D of FBR technology, some results on sodium technology and on the cladding materials have been given in the paper. Finally, some progress and troubles on site selection for this reactor have also been outlined. (author)

  3. Development of mechanical design technology for integral reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Keun Bae; Choi, Suhn; Kim, Kang Soo; Kim, Tae Wan; Jeong, Kyeong Hoon; Lee, Gyu Mahn; Kim, Jong Wook; Choi, Woo Seok

    2002-03-01

    This report is the final documentation of the 'Development of Mechanical Design Technology for Integral Reactor' which describes the design activities including reactor vessel assembly structural modelling, normal operation and transient analysis, preparation of design specification, major component stress analysis, evaluation of structural integrity, review of fabricability, maintenance and repair scheme, etc. To establish the design requirements and applicable codes and standards, each GDC criterion was reviewed regarding the SMART structural characteristics and design status, and then the applicability and point of issues were evaluated. To accomodate the result of the core optimization program, modification of pressure vessel and reactor internal components were carried out. SG nozzles were rearranged to penetrate the pressure vessel wall instead of the annular cover. Coolant flow path through the MCP impeller was revised and the adjacent structures were modified. Dynamic analysis model was developed reflecting all the structural changes to perform the seismic and BLPB analysis. Fracture mechanics evaluation on the structural integrity of the reactor pressure vessel was also conducted. Besides, equipment maintenance and replacement plan including the refueling scheme was discussed to confirm the embodiment of SMART through construction and operation

  4. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Support of Non-light Water Reactor Technologies: Capabilities Assessment for NRC Near-term Implementation Action Plans for Non-light Water Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belles, Randy [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jain, Prashant K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Powers, Jeffrey J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-04-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has a rich history of support for light water reactor (LWR) and non-LWR technologies. The ORNL history involves operation of 13 reactors at ORNL including the graphite reactor dating back to World War II, two aqueous homogeneous reactors, two molten salt reactors (MSRs), a fast-burst health physics reactor, and seven LWRs. Operation of the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) has been ongoing since 1965. Expertise exists amongst the ORNL staff to provide non-LWR training; support evaluation of non-LWR licensing and safety issues; perform modeling and simulation using advanced computational tools; run laboratory experiments using equipment such as the liquid salt component test facility; and perform in-depth fuel performance and thermal-hydraulic technology reviews using a vast suite of computer codes and tools. Summaries of this expertise are included in this paper.

  5. Simulation of Thermal-hydraulic Process in Reactor of HTR-PM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Kefeng; Zhou Yangping; Sui Zhe; Ma Yuanle

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides the physical process in the reactor of High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor Pebble-bed Module (HTR-PM) and introduces the standard operation conditions. The FORTRAN code developed for the thermal hydraulic module of Full-Scale Simulator (FSS) of HTR-PM is used to simulate two typical operation transients including cold startup process and cold shutdown process. And the results were compared to the safety analysis code, namely TINTE. The good agreement indicates that the code is applicable for simulating the thermal-hydraulic process in reactor of HTR-PM. And for long time transient process, the code shows good stability and convergence. (author)

  6. Upgrade of reactor operation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Hideaki; Suzuki, Toshiaki; O-kawa, Toshikatsu

    2003-01-01

    To improve operational reliability and availability, the operation technology for a fast reactor was developed in the ''JOYO''. This report describes the upgrading of the simulator, plant operation management tools and fuel handling system for the MK-III core operation. The simulator was modified to the MK-III version to verify operation manuals, and to train operators in MK-III operation. The plant operation management tool was replaced on the operation experience to increase the reliability and efficiency of plant management works relating to plant operation and maintenance. To shorten the refueling period, the fuel handling system was upgraded to full automatic remote control. (author)

  7. Data acquisition and signal processing system for IPR R1 TRIGA-Mark I nuclear research reactor of CDTN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mesquita, A.Z.; Maretti, F. Jr.; Rezende, H.C.; Tambourgi, E.B.

    2004-01-01

    The TRIGA IPR-R1 Nuclear Research Reactor, located at the Nuclear Technology Development Center (CDTN/CNEN) in Belo Horizonte, Brazil, is being operated since 44 years ago. The main operational parameters were monitored by analog recorders and counters located in the reactor control console. The reactor operators registered the most important operational parameters and data in the reactor logbook. This process is quite useful, but it can involve some human errors. It is also impossible for the operators to take notes of all variables involving the process mainly during fast power transients in some operations. A PC-based data acquisition was developed for the reactor that allows online monitoring, through graphic interfaces, and shows operational parameters evolution to the operators. Some parameters that were not measured, like the power and the coolant flow rate at the primary loop, are monitored now in the computer video monitor. The developed system allows measuring out all parameters in a frequency up to 1 kHz. These data is also recorded in text files available for consults and analysis. (author)

  8. Technological improvements to high temperature thermocouples for nuclear reactor applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schley, R.; Leveque, J.P.

    1980-07-01

    The specific operating conditions of thermocouples in nuclear reactors have provided an incentive for further advances in high temperature thermocouple applications and performance. This work covers the manufacture and improvement of existing alloys, the technology of clad thermocouples, calibration drift during heat treatment, resistance to thermal shock and the compatibility of insulating materials with thermo-electric alloys. The results lead to specifying improved operating conditions for thermocouples in nuclear reactor media (pressurized water, sodium, uranium oxide) [fr

  9. Risk-assessment techniques and the reactor licensing process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levine, S.

    1979-01-01

    A brief description of the Reactor Safety Study (WASH-1400), concentrating on the engineering aspects of the contribution to reactor accident risks is followed by some comments on how we have applied the insights and techniques developed in this study to prepare a program to improve the safety of nuclear power plants. Some new work we are just beginning on the application of risk-assessment techniques to stablize the reactor licensing process is also discussed

  10. Hydrogen production system coupled with high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTTR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiozawa, Shusaku

    2003-01-01

    On the HTTR program, R and D on nuclear reactor technology and R and D on thermal application technology such as hydrogen production and so on, are advanced. When carrying out power generation and thermal application such as hydrogen production and so on, it is, at first, necessary to supply nuclear heat safely, stably and in low cost, JAERI carries out some R and Ds on nuclear reactor technology using HTTR. In parallel to this, JAERI also carries out R and D for jointing nuclear reactor system with thermal application systems because of no experience in the world on high temperature heat of about 1,000 centigrade supplied by nuclear reactor except power generation, and R and D on thermochemical decomposition method IS process for producing hydrogen from water without exhaust of carbon dioxide. Here were described summaries on R and D on nuclear reactor technology, R and D on jointing technology using HTTR hydrogen production system, R and D on IS process hydrogen production, and comparison hydrogen production with other processes. (G.K.)

  11. Development programs on decommissioning technology for reactors and fuel cycle facilities in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiki, K.

    1992-01-01

    The Science and Technology Agency (STA) of Japan is promoting technology development for decommissioning of nuclear facilities by entrusting various research programs to concerned research organisations: JAERI, PNC and RANDEC, including first full scale reactor decommissioning of JPDR. According to the results of these programs, significant improvement on dismantling techniques, decontamination, measurement etc. has been achieved. Further development of advanced decommissioning technology has been started in order to achieve reduction of duration of decommissioning work and occupational exposures in consideration of the decommissioning of reactors and fuel cycle facilities. (author) 5 refs.; 7 figs.; 1 tab

  12. The dismantling of fast reactors: sodium processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, G.; Berte, M.; Serpante, J.P.

    1999-01-01

    Fast reactors require a coolant that does not slow down neutrons so water can not be used. Metallic sodium has been chosen because of its outstanding neutronic and thermal properties but sodium reacts easily with air and water and this implies that sodium-smeary components can not be considered as usual nuclear wastes. A stage of sodium neutralizing is necessary in the processing of wastes from fast reactors. Metallic sodium is turned into a chemically stable compound: soda, carbonates or sodium salts. This article presents several methods used by Framatome in an industrial way when dismantling sodium-cooled reactors. (A.C.)

  13. Results of research and development activities in 1989 of the Institute for Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-03-01

    The Institute for Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology treats research problems of nuclear engineering, mainly those that are related to the development of sodium-cooled fast breeder reactors and fusion reactor technology. The activities are in approximately equal parts of an experimental and theoretical nature. A great part of the research activities is performed in co-operation with other institutes and industrial groups in the framework of projects. For the Fast Breeder Reactor Project the Institute works on reactor physical design and safety problems by the core of large-scale fast breeder reactors. Questions concerning the consequences of accidents in light water reactors upon the environment and the population are treated as part of the Nuclear Safety Project. The Institute contributes to the Reprocessing Project with theoretical investigations on the physics of the fuel cycle and by developing control devices for a reprocessing plant. In the framework of the Fusion Project the Institute is concerned with neutron physical and technological questions of the breeder blanket. (orig.) [de

  14. High-temperature and breeder reactors - economic nuclear reactors of the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djalilzadeh, A.M.

    1977-01-01

    The thesis begins with a review of the theory of nuclear fission and sections on the basic technology of nuclear reactors and the development of the first generation of gas-cooled reactors applied to electricity generation. It then deals in some detail with currently available and suggested types of high temperature reactor and with some related subsidiary issues such as the coupling of different reactor systems and various schemes for combining nuclear reactors with chemical processes (hydrogenation, hydrogen production, etc.), going on to discuss breeder reactors and their application. Further sections deal with questions of cost, comparison of nuclear with coal- and oil-fired stations, system analysis of reactor systems and the effect of nuclear generation on electricity supply. (C.J.O.G.)

  15. The US Liquid Metal Reactor Development Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Till, C.E.; Arnold, W.H.; Griffith, J.D.

    1988-01-01

    The US Liquid Metal Reactor Development Program has been restructured to take advantage of the opportunity today to carry out R and D on truly advanced reactor technology. The program gives particular emphasis to improvements to reactor safety. The new directions are based on the technology of the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR). Much of the basis for superior safety performance using IFR technology has been experimentally verified and aggressive programs continue in EBR-II and TREAT. Progress has been made in demonstrating both the metallic fuel and the new electrochemical processes of the IFR. The FFTF facility is converting to metallic fuel; however, FFTF also maintains a considerable US program in oxide fuels. In addition, generic programs are continuing in steam generator testing, materials development, and, with international cooperation, aqueous reprocessing. Design studies are carried out in conjunction with the IFR technology development program. In summary, the US maintains an active development program in Liquid Metal Reactor technology, and new directions in reactor safety are central to the program

  16. 3D printing in chemical engineering and catalytic technology: structured catalysts, mixers and reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra-Cabrera, Cesar; Achille, Clement; Kuhn, Simon; Ameloot, Rob

    2018-01-02

    Computer-aided fabrication technologies combined with simulation and data processing approaches are changing our way of manufacturing and designing functional objects. Also in the field of catalytic technology and chemical engineering the impact of additive manufacturing, also referred to as 3D printing, is steadily increasing thanks to a rapidly decreasing equipment threshold. Although still in an early stage, the rapid and seamless transition between digital data and physical objects enabled by these fabrication tools will benefit both research and manufacture of reactors and structured catalysts. Additive manufacturing closes the gap between theory and experiment, by enabling accurate fabrication of geometries optimized through computational fluid dynamics and the experimental evaluation of their properties. This review highlights the research using 3D printing and computational modeling as digital tools for the design and fabrication of reactors and structured catalysts. The goal of this contribution is to stimulate interactions at the crossroads of chemistry and materials science on the one hand and digital fabrication and computational modeling on the other.

  17. A Study on the Kinetic Characteristics of Transmutation Process Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Chang Hyun; You, Young Woo; Cho, Jae seon; Huh, Chang Wook; Kim, Doh Hyung [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the transient heat transfer characteristics of liquid mental as the coolant used in accelerator-driven transmutation process reactor which is related the disposal of high-level radioactive nuclide. At current stage, the accelerator-driven transmutation process is investigated as the most appropriate method among many transmutation process methods. In this study, previous research works are investigated especially about the thermal hydraulics and kinetic behavior of coolant material including heat transfer of coolant in transmutation process reactor. A study on the heat transfer characteristics of liquid metal is performed based on the thermal hydraulic kinetic characteristics of liquid metal reactor which uses liquid metal coolant. Based on this study, the most appropriate material for the coolant of transmutation reactor will be recommended. 53 refs., 15 tabs., 33 figs. (author)

  18. A view of technology maturity assessment to realize fusion reactor by Japanese young researchers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasada, Ryuta; Goto, Takuya; Miyazawa, Junichi; Fujioka, Shinsuke; Hiwatari, Ryoji; Oyama, Naoyuki; Tanigawa, Hiroyasu

    2013-01-01

    Japanese young researchers who have interest in realizing fusion reactor have analyzed Technology Readiness Levels (TRL) in Young Scientists Special Interest Group on Fusion Reactor Realization. In this report, brief introduction to TRL assessment and a view of TRL assessment against fusion reactor projects conducting in Japan. (J.P.N.)

  19. Development of core design and analyses technology for integral reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zee, Sung Quun; Lee, C. C.; Song, J. S. and others

    1999-03-01

    Integral reactors are developed for the applications such as sea water desalination, heat energy for various industries, and power sources for large container ships. In order to enhance the inherent and passive safety features, low power density concept is chosen for the integral reactor SMART. Moreover, ultra-longer cycle and boron-free operation concepts are reviewed for better plant economy and simple design of reactor system. Especially, boron-free operation concept brings about large difference in core configurations and reactivity controls from those of the existing large size commercial nuclear power plants and also causes many differences in the safety aspects. The ultimate objectives of this study include detailed core design of a integral reactor, development of the core design system and technology, and finally acquisition of the system design certificate. The goal of the first stage is the conceptual core design, that is, to establish the design bases and requirements suitable for the boron-free concept, to develop a core loading pattern, to analyze the nuclear, thermal and hydraulic characteristics of the core and to perform the core shielding design. Interface data for safety and performance analyses including fuel design data are produced for the relevant design analysis groups. Nuclear, thermal and hydraulic, shielding design and analysis code systems necessary for the core conceptual design are established through modification of the existing design tools and newly developed methodology and code modules. Core safety and performance can be improved by the technology development such as boron-free core optimization, advaned core monitoring and operational aid system. Feasiblity study on the improvement of the core protection and monitoring system will also contribute toward core safety and performance. Both the conceptual core design study and the related technology will provide concrete basis for the next design phase. This study will also

  20. Development of core design and analyses technology for integral reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zee, Sung Quun; Lee, C. C.; Song, J. S. and others

    1999-03-01

    Integral reactors are developed for the applications such as sea water desalination, heat energy for various industries, and power sources for large container ships. In order to enhance the inherent and passive safety features, low power density concept is chosen for the integral reactor SMART. Moreover, ultra-longer cycle and boron-free operation concepts are reviewed for better plant economy and simple design of reactor system. Especially, boron-free operation concept brings about large difference in core configurations and reactivity controls from those of the existing large size commercial nuclear power plants and also causes many differences in the safety aspects. The ultimate objectives of this study include detailed core design of a integral reactor, development of the core design system and technology, and finally acquisition of the system design certificate. The goal of the first stage is the conceptual core design, that is, to establish the design bases and requirements suitable for the boron-free concept, to develop a core loading pattern, to analyze the nuclear, thermal and hydraulic characteristics of the core and to perform the core shielding design. Interface data for safety and performance analyses including fuel design data are produced for the relevant design analysis groups. Nuclear, thermal and hydraulic, shielding design and analysis code systems necessary for the core conceptual design are established through modification of the existing design tools and newly developed methodology and code modules. Core safety and performance can be improved by the technology development such as boron-free core optimization, advaned core monitoring and operational aid system. Feasiblity study on the improvement of the core protection and monitoring system will also contribute toward core safety and performance. Both the conceptual core design study and the related technology will provide concrete basis for the next design phase. This study will also

  1. The Integration Of Process Heat Applications To High Temperature Gas Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKellar, Michael G.

    2011-01-01

    A high temperature gas reactor, HTGR, can produce industrial process steam, high-temperature heat-transfer gases, and/or electricity. In conventional industrial processes, these products are generated by the combustion of fossil fuels such as coal and natural gas, resulting in significant emissions of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide. Heat or electricity produced in an HTGR could be used to supply process heat or electricity to conventional processes without generating any greenhouse gases. Process heat from a reactor needs to be transported by a gas to the industrial process. Two such gases were considered in this study: helium and steam. For this analysis, it was assumed that steam was delivered at 17 MPa and 540 C and helium was delivered at 7 MPa and at a variety of temperatures. The temperature of the gas returning from the industrial process and going to the HTGR must be within certain temperature ranges to maintain the correct reactor inlet temperature for a particular reactor outlet temperature. The returning gas may be below the reactor inlet temperature, ROT, but not above. The optimal return temperature produces the maximum process heat gas flow rate. For steam, the delivered pressure sets an optimal reactor outlet temperature based on the condensation temperature of the steam. ROTs greater than 769.7 C produce no additional advantage for the production of steam.

  2. International Conference on Physics and Technology of Reactors and Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The first international conference on physics and technology of reactors and applications (PHYTRA 1) which took place in Marrakech (Morocco) from 14 to 16 March 2007, was designed to bring together scientists, teachers and students from universities, research centres and industry and other institutions to exchange knowledge and to discuss ideas and future issues. The programmes of the PHYTRA 1 conference covers a wide variety topics, the conference was organised in three plenary sessions, ten oral technical sessions and two poster sessions. The plenary sessions covers the following topics : The prospects of nuclear energy, The situation of nuclear sciences and energy in Morocco and Africa, and the new development in reactor physics and reactor design [fr

  3. Optimization of the purification process of wine lees through anaerobic filter reactors. Optimizacion del proceso de depuracion de vinazas de vino mediante reactores tipo filtro anaerobio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nebot Sanz, E.; Romero Garcia, L.I.; Quiroga Alonso, J.M.; Sales Marquez, D. (Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad de Cadiz, Cadiz (Spain))

    1994-01-01

    In this work, the optimization of thermophilic anaerobic process, using Anaerobic Filter technology was studied. Feed of the Anaerobic Filter was wine-distillery wastewaters. The experiments developed were carried out at lab-scale downflow anaerobic filter reactors. Reactors were filled with a high porous plastic media (Flocor-R). The media support entities have a high surface/volume ratio. Test were run to determine the maximum organic load attainable in the system for wich both, the depurative efficiency and the methane production were optimum. Likewise, the effect of organic load on the anaerobic filter performance were studied. (Author) 15 refs. (Author)

  4. Nuclear technology and reactor safety engineering. The situation ten years after the Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birkhofer, A.

    1996-01-01

    Ten years ago, on April 26, 1986 the most serious accident ever in the history of nuclear tgechnology worldwide happened in unit 4 of the nuclear power plant in Chernobyl in the Ukraine, this accident unveiling to the world at large that the Soviet reactor design lines are bearing unthought of safety engineering deficits. The dimensions of this reactor accident on site, and the radioactive fallout spreading far and wide to many countries in Europe, vividly nourished the concern of great parts of the population in the Western world about the safety of nuclear technology, and re-instigated debates about the risks involved and their justification. Now that ten years have elapsed since the accident, it is appropriate to strike a balance and analyse the situation today. The number of nuclear power plants operating worldwide has been growing in the last few years and this trend will continue, primarily due to developments in Asia. The Chernobyl reactor accident has pushed the international dimension of reactor safety to the foreground. Thus the Western world had reason enough to commit itself to enhancing the engineered safety of reactors in East Europe. The article analyses some of the major developments and activities to date and shows future perspectives. (orig.) [de

  5. EUROPAIRS: The European project on coupling of High Temperature Reactors with industrial processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angulo, C.; Bogusch, E.; Bredimas, A.; Delannay, N.; Viala, C.; Ruer, J.; Muguerra, Ph.; Sibaud, E.; Chauvet, V.; Hittner, D.; Fütterer, M.A.; Groot, S. de; Lensa, W. von; Verfondern, K.; Moron, R.; Baudrand, O.; Griffay, G.; Baaten, A.; Segurado-Gimenez, J.

    2012-01-01

    Developers of High Temperature Reactors (HTR) worldwide acknowledge that the main asset for market breakthrough is its unique ability to address growing needs for industrial cogeneration of heat and power (CHP) owing to its high operating temperature and flexibility, adapted power level, modularity and robust safety features. A strong alliance between nuclear and process heat user industries is a necessity for developing such a nuclear system for the conventional process heat market, just as the electro-nuclear development required a close partnership with utilities. Initiating such an alliance is one of the objectives of the EUROPAIRS project ( (www.europairs.eu)) presently on-going in the frame of the Euratom 7th Framework Programme (FP7). Although small and of short duration (21 months), EUROPAIRS is of strategic importance: it generates the boundary conditions for rapid demonstration of collocating HTR with industrial processes as proposed by the European High Temperature Reactor Technology Network (HTR-TN). This paper presents the main goals, the organization and the working approach of EUROPAIRS. It also presents the status of the viability assessment studies for coupling HTR with industrial end-user systems as one of the main pillars of the project. The main goal of the viability assessment is to identify developments required to remove the last technological and licensing barriers for a viable coupling scheme. The study is expected to result in guidelines for directing the choice of an industrial scale prototype.

  6. EUROPAIRS: The European project on coupling of High Temperature Reactors with industrial processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angulo, C., E-mail: carmen.angulo@gdfsuez.com [Tractebel Engineering S.A. (GDF SUEZ), Avenue Ariane 7, 1200 Brussels (Belgium); Bogusch, E. [AREVA NP GmbH, Paul-Gossen-Strasse 100, 91052 Erlangen (Germany); Bredimas, A. [LGI Consulting, 37 rue de la Grange aux Belles, 75010 Paris (France); Delannay, N. [Tractebel Engineering S.A. (GDF SUEZ), Avenue Ariane 7, 1200 Brussels (Belgium); Viala, C. [AREVA NP SAS, 10 rue Juliette Recamier, 69456 Lyon Cedex 06 (France); Ruer, J.; Muguerra, Ph.; Sibaud, E. [SAIPEM S.A., 1/7 Avenue San Fernando, 78884 Saint Quentin en Yvelines Cedex (France); Chauvet, V. [LGI Consulting, 37 rue de la Grange aux Belles, 75010 Paris (France); Hittner, D. [AREVA NP Inc., 3315 Old Forest Road, Lynchburg, VA 24501 (United States); Fuetterer, M.A. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, 1755ZG Petten (Netherlands); Groot, S. de [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group, 1755ZG Petten (Netherlands); Lensa, W. von; Verfondern, K. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, Leo-Brandt-Strasse,52425 Juelich (Germany); Moron, R. [Solvay SA, rue du Prince Albert 33, 1050 Brussels (Belgium); Baudrand, O. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), BP 17, 92262 Fontenay-aux-Roses cedex (France); Griffay, G. [Arcelor Mittal Maizieres Research SA, rue Luigi Cherubini 1A5, 39200 Saint Denis (France); Baaten, A. [USG/Baaten Energy Consulting, Burgermeester-Ceulen-Straat 78, 6212CT Maastricht (Netherlands); Segurado-Gimenez, J. [Tractebel Engineering S.A. (GDF SUEZ), Avenue Ariane 7, 1200 Brussels (Belgium)

    2012-10-15

    Developers of High Temperature Reactors (HTR) worldwide acknowledge that the main asset for market breakthrough is its unique ability to address growing needs for industrial cogeneration of heat and power (CHP) owing to its high operating temperature and flexibility, adapted power level, modularity and robust safety features. A strong alliance between nuclear and process heat user industries is a necessity for developing such a nuclear system for the conventional process heat market, just as the electro-nuclear development required a close partnership with utilities. Initiating such an alliance is one of the objectives of the EUROPAIRS project ( (www.europairs.eu)) presently on-going in the frame of the Euratom 7th Framework Programme (FP7). Although small and of short duration (21 months), EUROPAIRS is of strategic importance: it generates the boundary conditions for rapid demonstration of collocating HTR with industrial processes as proposed by the European High Temperature Reactor Technology Network (HTR-TN). This paper presents the main goals, the organization and the working approach of EUROPAIRS. It also presents the status of the viability assessment studies for coupling HTR with industrial end-user systems as one of the main pillars of the project. The main goal of the viability assessment is to identify developments required to remove the last technological and licensing barriers for a viable coupling scheme. The study is expected to result in guidelines for directing the choice of an industrial scale prototype.

  7. Evolutionary water cooled reactors: Strategic issues, technologies and economic viability. Proceedings of a symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-12-01

    Symposium on evolutionary water cooled reactors: Strategic issues, technologies and economic viability was intended for managers in utilities, reactor design organizations and hardware manufacturing companies and for government decision makers who need to understand technological advances and the potential of evolutionary water cooled reactors to contribute to near and medium term energy demands. The topics addressed include: strategic issues (global energy outlook, the role of nuclear power in sustainable energy strategies, power generation costs, financing of nuclear plant projects, socio-political factors and nuclear safety requirements); technological advances (instrumentation and control, means od improving prevention and mitigation of severe accidents, development of passive safety systems); keys to economic viability (simplification, standardization, advances in construction and project management, feedback of experience from utilities into new designs, and effective management of plant operation)

  8. Development of Safety Analysis Technology for Integral Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sim, S. K. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea); Seul, K. W.; Kim, W. S.; Kim, W. K.; Yun, Y. G.; Ahn, H. J.; Lee, J. S.; Sin, A. D. [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Taejeon (Korea)

    2000-03-01

    The Nuclear Desalination Plant(NDP) is being developed to produce electricity and fresh water, and is expected to locate near population zone. In the aspect of safety, it is required to protect the public and environment from the possible releases of fission products and to prevent the fresh water from the contamination of radioactivity. Thus, in a present study, the safety characteristics of the integral reactor adopting passive and inherent safety features significantly different from existing nuclear power plants were investigated based on the design of foreign and domestic integral reactors. Also, safety requirements applicable to the NDP were analyzed based on the regulatory requirements for current and advanced reactor designs, and use requirements for small-medium size reactors. Based on these analyses, some safety concerns to be considered in the design stage have been identified. They includes the use of proven technology for new safety systems, the systematic classification and selection of design basis accidents, and the safety assurance of desalination-related systems. These efforts to identify and resolve the safety concerns in the design stage will provide the early confidence of SMART safety to designers, and the technical basis to evaluate the safety to reviewers in the future. 8 refs., 20 figs., 4 tabs. (Author)

  9. Development of safety analysis technology for integral reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sim, Suk K.; Song, J. H.; Chung, Y. J. and others

    1999-03-01

    Inherent safety features and safety system characteristics of the SMART integral reactor are investigated in this study. Performance and safety of the SMART conceptual design have been evaluated and confirmed through the performance and safety analyses using safety analysis system codes as well as a preliminary performance and safety analysis methodology. SMART design base events and their acceptance criteria are identified to develop a preliminary PIRT for the SMART integral reactor. Using the preliminary PIRT, a set of experimental program for the thermal hydraulic separate effect tests and the integral effect tests was developed for the thermal hydraulic model development and the system code validation. Safety characteristics as well as the safety issues of the integral reactor has been identified during the study, which will be used to resolve the safety issues and guide the regulatory criteria for the integral reactor. The results of the performance and safety analyses performed during the study were used to feedback for the SMART conceptual design. The performance and safety analysis code systems as well as the preliminary safety analysis methodology developed in this study will be validated as the SMART design evolves. The performance and safety analysis technology developed during the study will be utilized for the SMART basic design development. (author)

  10. ADVANCED CONTROL FOR A ETHYLENE REACTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitru POPESCU

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this work is the design and implementation of control solutions for petrochemical processes, namely the control and optimization of a pyrolysis reactor, the key-installation in the petrochemical industry. We present the technological characteristics of this petrochemical process and some aspects about the proposed control system solution for the ethylene plant. Finally, an optimal operating point for the reactor is found, considering that the process has a nonlinear multi-variable structure. The results have been implemented on an assembly of pyrolysis reactors on a petrochemical platform from Romania.

  11. Process for producing nuclear reactor fuel oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goenrich, H.; Druckenbrodt, W.G.

    1981-01-01

    The waste gases of the calcination process furnace in the AVC or AV/PuC process (manufacture of nuclear reactor fuel dioxides) are returned to the furnace in a closed circuit. The NH 3 produced replaces the hydrogen which would otherwise be required for reduction in this process. (orig.) [de

  12. DuPont IsoTherming clean fuel technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levinski, E. [E.I. DuPont Co., Wilmington, DE (United States)

    2009-07-01

    This poster described a hydroprocessing technology that DuPont has acquired from Process Dynamics, Inc. The IsoTherming clean fuel technology significantly reduces sulphur in motor fuels. The technology provides petroleum refiners the solution for meeting ultra low sulphur diesel requirements, at much lower costs than conventional technologies. IsoTherming hydroprocessing operates in a kinetically limited mode, with no mass transfer limitation. Hydrogen is delivered to the reactor in the liquid phase as soluble hydrogen, allowing for much higher space velocities than conventional hydrotreating reactors. Treated diesel is recycled back to the inlet of the reactor, generating less heat and more hydrogen into the reactor. The process results in a more isothermal reactor operation that allows for better yields, fewer light ends and greater catalyst life. The technology reduces coking, because the process provides enough hydrogen in the solution when cracking reactions take place. As a result, the process yields longer catalyst life. Other advantages for refiners include lower total investment; reduced equipment delivery lead times; reduced maintenance and operating costs; and configuration flexibility. tabs., figs.

  13. The status of fast reactor technology development in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Mi

    2000-01-01

    Considering the future clean energy supply in China, a rather consistent opinion is to develop nuclear power step by step with the contribution from a supplementary one up to an important one. The large scale utilization of nuclear energy obviously determines the interest in fast breeders; China right now already has about 300 GWe total electricity capacity using conventional energy resources. As the first step for fast reactor technology development in the country, the China Experimental Fast Reactor (CEFR) project is still under detail design stage, which is a sodium cooled pool type fast reactor with 65 MW thermal power matched with a turbine-generator of 25 MW. The ordering of the components is continuing. The site is ready and the steel works for the 3 m x 69 m x 82.5 m foundation base of reactor building are being arranged layer by layer. The review to the PSAR by the China National Nuclear Safety Administration (CNNSA) is going to the final stage, if everything goes smoothly. The first pouring of the concrete for the reactor building will be in the middle of the year 2000. The brief introduction of the CEFR design, safety characteristics, the main results of the safety analysis and design test demonstration are given in the paper. (author)

  14. Ion sensors in reactor technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strnad, M.; Kott, J.

    1977-01-01

    A new temperature measurement technique is shown based on the steep phase transformation of some substances accompanied with a marked change in their electric conductivity. A survey is given of the physicochemical properties of some ion crystals and the problems are discussed of interpreting the steep changes in the crystal electric conductivity for ion thermometers. Technological problems are also discussed of ion sensor production for reactor technology applications. The CdI 2 , KIO 3 , K 2 Cr 2 O 7 thermometric compounds were used sealed in the Supermax silicon-aluminium glass or in silica glass with platinum bushings. Changes are described in the hysteresis effects of ion thermometers with CdI 2 , KIO 3 and K 2 Cr 2 O 7 in dependence on neutron irradiation with doses of 1.5x10 18 n.cm -2 , 8.5x10 17 n.cm -2 and 4.5x10 22 n.cm -2 , respectively. The thermometric parameters were compared in the radiation experiments, of ion sensors, Chromel-Alumel thermocouples and platinum resistance thermometers. (B.S.)

  15. Thermal and flow design of helium-cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melese, G.; Katz, R.

    1984-01-01

    This book continues the American Nuclear Society's series of monographs on nuclear science and technology. Chapters of the book include information on the first-generation gas-cooled reactors; HTGR reactor developments; reactor core heat transfer; mechanical problems related to the primary coolant circuit; HTGR design bases; core thermal design; gas turbines; process heat HTGR reactors; GCFR reactor thermal hydraulics; and gas cooling of fusion reactors

  16. A new small modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor plant concept based on proven technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, C.F.; Goodjohn, A.J.

    1982-01-01

    Based on the established and proven high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) technologies from the Peach Bottom 1 and Fort St. Vrain utility-operated units, a new small modular HTGR reactor is currently being evaluated. The basic nuclear reactor heat source, with a prismatic core, is being designed so that the decay heat can be removed by passive means (i.e., natural circulation). Although this concept is still in the preconceptual design stage, emphasis is being placed on establishing an inherently safe or benign concept which, when engineered, will have acceptable capital cost and power generation economics. The proposed new HTGR concept has a variety of applications, including electrical power generation, cogeneration, and high-temperature process heat. This paper discusses the simplest application, i.e., a steam Rankine cycle electrical power generating version. The gas-cooled modular reactor concepts presented are based on a graphite moderated prismatic core of low-power density (i.e., 4.1 W/cm 3 ) with a thermal rating of 250 MW(t). With the potential for inherently safe characteristics, a new small reactor could be sited close to industrial and urban areas to provide electrical power and thermal heating needs (i.e., district and space heating). Incorporating a multiplicity of small modular units to provide a larger power output is also discussed. The potential for a small, inherently safe HTGR reactor concept is highlighted

  17. Proceedings (slides) of the OECD/NEA Workshop on Innovations in Water-cooled Reactor Technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiler, Joze; Kim, Sang-Baik; ); Feron, Fabien; Jaervinen, Marja-Leena; Husse, Julien; ); Ferraro, Giovanni; Bertels, Frank; Denk, Wolfgang; Tuomisto, Harri; Golay, Michael; Buongiorno, J.; Todreas, N.; Adams, E.; Briccetti, A.; Jurewicz, J.; Kindfuller, V.; Srinivasan, G.; Strother, M.; Minelli, P.; Fasil, E.; Zhang, J.; Genzman, G.; Epinois, Bertrand de l'; Kim, Shin Whan; Laaksonen, Jukka; Maltsev, Mikhail; Yu, CHongxing; Powell, David; Gorgemans, Julie; Hopwood, Jerry; Bylov, Igor; Bakhmetyev, Alexander M.; Lepekhin, Andrey N.; Fadeev, Yuriy P.; Bruna, Giovanni; Gulliford, Jim; ); Ham-Su, Rosaura; Thevenot, Caroline; GAUTIER, Guy-Marie; MARSAULT, Philippe; PIGNATEL, Jean-Francois; White, Andrew; )

    2015-02-01

    New technologies and solutions have been developed over more than thirty years to improve the safety, performance and economics of nuclear power plants. Particular efforts were made in designing systems to prevent or mitigate nuclear accidents and, greatly limit or even avoid any offsite release of radioactivity. Reactor designs developed in the 1980's and later are often referred to as Generation III (Gen III) reactors. They offer enhanced safety compared to earlier Generation II (Gen II) designs, as well as improved performance and economics. Examples of Gen III safety design features include solutions for corium localisation, advanced containment structures, improved emergency core-cooling systems, filtered venting systems, hydrogen risk management solutions, etc. Some of these solutions have also been back-fitted or partially adapted to existing reactors, based on recommendations from regulators or modernisation efforts by the utilities operating these reactors, to bring their level of safety to levels approaching those of the more modern designs. Other innovations found in the latest water-cooled reactor designs include the use of passive safety systems, and often associated with those, a simplification in the design of the reactor. Gen III reactors also feature better economics, for example increased design lifetime up to 60 years, ability to use 100% MOX fuel and operate with higher flexibility, higher thermal efficiencies and reduced staff requirements. Modularity is often quoted as a feature of some Gen III designs as a way of reducing the construction times and simplifying the decommissioning of the plant. The scope of the Workshop includes, inter alia: - Evolution of regulatory and design requirements for commercial water-cooled reactors; - Innovations in water-cooled reactor technologies that allowed significant improvement in the level of safety, with a discussion on advantages and challenges of active vs. passive safety systems; - Innovations under

  18. Acoustic Emission Signal Processing Technique to Characterize Reactor In-Pile Phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vivek Agarwal; Magdy Samy Tawfik; James A Smith

    2014-07-01

    Existing and developing advanced sensor technologies and instrumentation will allow non-intrusive in-pile measurement of temperature, extension, and fission gases when coupled with advanced signal processing algorithms. The transmitted measured sensor signals from inside to the outside of containment structure are corrupted by noise and are attenuated, thereby reducing the signal strength and signal-to-noise ratio. Identification and extraction of actual signal (representative of an in-pile phenomenon) is a challenging and complicated process. In this paper, empirical mode decomposition technique is proposed to reconstruct actual sensor signal by partially combining intrinsic mode functions. Reconstructed signal corresponds to phenomena and/or failure modes occurring inside the reactor. In addition, it allows accurate non-intrusive monitoring and trending of in-pile phenomena.

  19. Technical-and-economic analysis and optimization of the full flow charts of processing of radioactive wastes on a polyfunctional plant of pyrochemical processing of the spent nuclear fuel of fast reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupalo, V. S.; Chistyakov, V. N.; Kormilitsyn, M. V.; Kormilitsyna, L. A.; Osipenko, A. G.

    2015-12-01

    When considering the full flow charts of processing of radioactive wastes (RAW) on a polyfunctional plant of pyrochemical processing of the spent nuclear fuel of NIIAR fast reactors, we corroborate optimum technical solutions for the preparation of RAW for burial from a standpoint of heat release, dose formation, and technological storage time with allowance for technical-and-economic and ecological indices during the implementation of the analyzed technologies and equipment for processing of all RAW fluxes.

  20. Pretreated Landfill Gas Conversion Process via a Catalytic Membrane Reactor for Renewable Combined Fuel Cell-Power Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoe Ziaka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A new landfill gas-based reforming catalytic processing system for the conversion of gaseous hydrocarbons, such as incoming methane to hydrogen and carbon oxide mixtures, is described and analyzed. The exit synthesis gas (syn-gas is fed to power effectively high-temperature fuel cells such as SOFC types for combined efficient electricity generation. The current research work is also referred on the description and design aspects of permreactors (permeable reformers carrying the same type of landfill gas-reforming reactions. Membrane reactors is a new technology that can be applied efficiently in such systems. Membrane reactors seem to perform better than the nonmembrane traditional reactors. The aim of this research includes turnkey system and process development for the landfill-based power generation and fuel cell industries. Also, a discussion of the efficient utilization of landfill and waste type resources for combined green-type/renewable power generation with increased processing capacity and efficiency via fuel cell systems is taking place. Moreover, pollution reduction is an additional design consideration in the current catalytic processors fuel cell cycles.

  1. MHTGR [Modular High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor] technology development plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homan, F.J.; Neylan, A.J.

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents the approach used to define the technology program needed to support design and licensing of a Modular High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (MHTGR). The MHTGR design depends heavily on data and information developed during the past 25 years to support large HTGR (LHTGR) designs. The technology program focuses on MHTGR-specific operating and accident conditions, and on validation of models and assumptions developed using LHTGR data. The technology program is briefly outlined, and a schedule is presented for completion of technology work which is consistent with completion of a Final Safety Summary Analysis Report (FSSAR) by 1992

  2. Retrospect over past 25 years at Research Laboratory for Nuclear Reactors, Tokyo Institute of Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Shigebumi

    1983-01-01

    Research Laboratory for Nuclear Reactors, Tokyo Institute of Technology, was established on April 1, 1956, with the aims of the investigation on the peaceful use of nuclear energy and of the education of scientists and engineers in this field. This report reviews the history of the Laboratory during 25 years and traces the process of growth concerning research divisions, buildings, large-scale experimental facilities and the education in the graduate course for nuclear engineering. In addition, considering what the Laboratory has to be and what the future plan will be, it is mentioned that the research interest should be extended to the field of nuclear fusion reactor, especially the blanket engineering, as a long-term future project of the Research Laboratory. (author)

  3. Evaluation of the process performance of a down-flow hanging sponge reactor for direct treatment of domestic wastewater in Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyaoka, Yuma; Yoochatchaval, Wilasinee; Sumino, Haruhiko; Banjongproo, Pathan; Yamaguchi, Takashi; Onodera, Takashi; Okadera, Tomohiro; Syutsubo, Kazuaki

    2017-08-24

    This study assesses the performance of an aerobic trickling filter, down-flow hanging sponge (DHS) reactor, as a decentralized domestic wastewater treatment technology. Also, the characteristic eukaryotic community structure in DHS reactor was investigated. Long-term operation of a DHS reactor for direct treatment of domestic wastewater (COD = 150-170 mg/L and BOD = 60-90 mg/L) was performed under the average ambient temperature ranged from 28°C to 31°C in Bangkok, Thailand. Throughout the evaluation period of 550 days, the DHS reactor at a hydraulic retention time of 3 h showed better performance than the existing oxidation ditch process in the removal of organic carbon (COD removal rate = 80-83% and BOD removal rate = 91%), nitrogen compounds (total nitrogen removal rate = 45-51% and NH 4 + -N removal rate = 95-98%), and low excess sludge production (0.04 gTS/gCOD removed). The clone library based on the 18S ribosomal ribonucleic acid gene sequence revealed that phylogenetic diversity of 18S rRNA gene in the DHS reactor was higher than that of the present oxidation ditch process. Furthermore, the DHS reactor also demonstrated sufficient COD and NH 4 + -N removal efficiency under flow rate fluctuation conditions that simulates a small-scale treatment facility. The results show that a DHS reactor could be applied as a decentralized domestic wastewater treatment technology in tropical regions such as Bangkok, Thailand.

  4. The status of fast reactor technology development in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Mi

    1998-01-01

    The paper describes recent status and trends on Chinese national economy, electrical power capacity and nuclear power development. The preliminary design of the CEFR has been approved by the State Science and Technology Commission. Now it is in the detail design stage. It is planned that the first pot of concrete will be in April of 1999, in the end of 2000 the reactor building construction will be finished and the first criticality of the reactor will be envisaged in July 2003. The brief of preliminary design, analysis results of some beyond design basic accidents and design basic accidents, CEFR research works, and international cooperation are presented in the paper. (author)

  5. Hydrogen Process Coupling to Modular Helium Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shenoy, Arkal; Richards, Matt; Buckingham, Robert

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has selected the helium-cooled High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) as the concept to be used for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP), because it is the most advanced Generation IV concept with the capability to provide process heat at sufficiently high temperatures for production of hydrogen with high thermal efficiency. Concurrently with the NGNP program, the Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative (NHI) was established to develop hydrogen production technologies that are compatible with advanced nuclear systems and do not produce greenhouse gases. The current DOE schedule for the NGNP Project calls for startup of the NGNP plant by 2021. The General Atomics (GA) NGNP pre-conceptual design is based on the GA Gas Turbine Modular Helium Reactor (GT-MHR), which utilizes a direct Brayton cycle Power Conversion System (PCS) to produce electricity with a thermal efficiency of 48%. The nuclear heat source for the NGNP consists of a single 600-MW(t) MHR module with two primary coolant loops for transport of the high-temperature helium exiting the reactor core to a direct cycle PCS for electricity generation and to an Intermediate Heat Exchanger (IHX) for hydrogen production. The GA NGNP concept is designed to demonstrate hydrogen production using both the thermochemical sulfur-iodine (SI) process and high-temperature electrolysis (HTE). The two primary coolant loops can be operated independently or in parallel. The reactor design is essentially the same as that for the GT-MHR, but includes the additional primary coolant loop to transport heat to the IHX and other modifications to allow operation with a reactor outlet helium temperature of 950 .deg. C (vs. 850 .deg. C for the GT-MHR). The IHX transfers a nominal 65 MW(t) to the secondary heat transport loop that provides the high-temperature heat required by the SI-based and HTE-based hydrogen production facilities. Two commercial nuclear hydrogen plant variations were evaluated with

  6. On the implementation of new technology modules for fusion reactor systems codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franza, F.; Boccaccini, L.V.; Fisher, U.; Gade, P.V.; Heller, R.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • At KIT a new technology modules for systems code are under development. • A new algorithm for the definition of the main reactor's components is defined. • A new blanket model based on 1D neutronics analysis is described. • A new TF coil stress model based on 3D electromagnetic analysis is described. • The models were successfully benchmarked against more detailed models. - Abstract: In the frame of the pre-conceptual design of the next generation fusion power plant (DEMO), systems codes are being used from nearly 20 years. In such computational tools the main reactor components (e.g. plasma, blanket, magnets, etc.) are integrated in a unique computational algorithm and simulated by means of rather simplified mathematical models (e.g. steady state and zero dimensional models). The systems code tries to identify the main design parameters (e.g. major radius, net electrical power, toroidal field) and to make the reactor's requirements and constraints to be simultaneously accomplished. In fusion applications, requirements and constraints can be either of physics or technology kind. Concerning the latest category, at Karlsruhe Institute of Technology a new modelling activity has been recently launched aiming to develop improved models focusing on the main technology areas, such as neutronics, thermal-hydraulics, electromagnetics, structural mechanics, fuel cycle and vacuum systems. These activities started by developing: (1) a geometry model for the definition of poloidal profiles for the main reactors components, (2) a blanket model based on neutronics analyses and (3) a toroidal field coil model based on electromagnetic analysis, firstly focusing on the stresses calculations. The objective of this paper is therefore to give a short outline of these models.

  7. Analysis of Chemical Species Along the Process Stages of Demineralized Water Production at Reactor G.A. Siwabessy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurul Huda; Setyono; Sumijanto; Diah E L; Ihsan, M.

    2003-01-01

    The tank water of multipurpose reactor G.A. Siwabessy is supplied from a water demineralization plant which works based on ion exchange processes. Controlling the quality of the water produced by this plant is one of many factor which effects the quality of the reactor tank water. This experiment resulted a characteristic pattern data of water and its chemical species content along process stages of demineralized water production at the reactor. The experiment results showed that the pH (degree of acidity), electric conductivity and dissolved cation (Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ ) lied at the permissible range. The value fluctuation of these variables showed a right pattern. It can be concluded that the water produced by this plant met the requirements to be used as primary cooling water of the reactor. However, the value of pH is still too low although it lied in the tolerance limit. Beside that, it isn't all of water impurities concentration can be predicted by the value of pH and conductivity. Therefore, the determination of water quality for the need of reactor tank water quiet to be done continually to keep the water condition in order to meet the quality required, and to evaluate and developed its production technology. (author)

  8. Recovery of acids from dilute streams : A review of process technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talnikar, Vivek Digambar; Mahajan, Yogesh Shankar

    2014-01-01

    Chemical process industries convert raw materials into useful products. Acids, among other chemicals, are used in many industries as reactants, solvents and also as catalysts in a few instances as well. Resulting streams are dilute, from which the acids must be recovered. For recovery, many technologies can be used by which acids can be regained as such or can be converted into other value-added products like esters. Membrane processes and biological processes are being researched academically and practiced industrially. These have their own advantages and disadvantages in view of conversion, energy consumption etc. These are not always advantageous and hence an alternate process technology is necessary like reactive separation (RS). RS is advantageous especially when the acid is to be converted to other useful products by reaction, due to additional advantages or because no other technology is well suited or due to cost considerations alone. Conventional process technologies use the reactor configuration followed by the subsequent separation sequence. This approach can sometimes suffer from lesser conversion, difficulties in separation etc. To overcome these problems, RS has an edge over other processes in terms of the recovery of the useful compounds. Reactive distillation (RD), reactive extraction (RE) and reactive chromatography (RC) are the separation technologies that can be useful for acid recovery in an economically feasible way. This review covers the various processes of acid recovery along with the recent work in the field of reactive separations

  9. Strengthening the R and D on fast reactor technology, and promoting its industrialization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Gang

    2008-01-01

    Based on the strategic thoughts of energy development in China expounded by Jiang Zemin in the article entitled 'Reflections on Energy Issues in China', the author points out in this paper that R and Ds on fast reactor technology shall be carried out timely in China by taking full advantage of international scientific resources, and overall planning in this regard shall be made as well. The point of view of strengthening fast reactor technology R and D and promoting its industrialization is also put forward in the paper. (authors)

  10. Overview of R and D activities on tritium processing and handling technology in JAEA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamanishi, Toshihiko, E-mail: yamanishi.toshihiko@jaea.go.jp [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Nakamura, Hirofumi; Kawamura, Yoshinori; Iwai, Yasunori; Isobe, Kanetsugu; Oyaidsu, Makoto; Yamada, Masayuki; Suzuki, Takumi; Hayashi, Takumi [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan)

    2012-08-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The tritium technologies have been studied at Tritium Process Laboratory of JAEA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A monitoring method for the blanket system of a fusion reactor have been studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Basic studies on the tritium behavior in confinement system have been carried out. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Studies on the detritiation have been carried out as another significant activity. - Abstract: In JAEA, the tritium processing and handling technologies have been studied at TPL (Tritium Process Laboratory). The main R and D activities are: the tritium processing technology for the blanket recovery systems; the basic tritium behavior in confinement materials; and detritiation and decontamination. The R and D activities on tritium processing and handling technologies for a demonstration reactor (DEMO) are also planned to be carried out in the broader approach (BA) program by JAEA with Japanese universities. The ceramic proton conductor has been studied as a possible tritium processing method for the blanket system. The BIXS method has also been studied as a monitoring of tritium in the blanket system. The hydrogen transfer behavior from water to metal has been studied as a function of temperature. As for the behavior of high concentration tritium water, it was observed that the formation of the oxidized layer was prevented by the presence of tritium in water (0.23 GBq/cc). A new hydrophobic catalyst has been developed for the conversion of tritium to water. The catalyst could convert tritium to water at room temperature. A new Nafion membrane has also been developed by gamma ray irradiation to get the strong durability for tritium.

  11. Coupling the modular helium reactor to hydrogen production processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richards, M.B.; Shenoy, A.S.; Schultz, K.R.

    2004-01-01

    Steam reforming of natural gas (methane) currently produces the bulk of hydrogen gas used in the world today. Because this process depletes natural gas resources and generates the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide as a by-product, there is a growing interest in using process heat and/or electricity generated by nuclear reactors to generate hydrogen by splitting water. Process heat from a high temperature nuclear reactor can be used directly to drive a set of chemical reactions, with the net result of splitting water into hydrogen and oxygen. For example, process heat at temperatures in the range 850 deg C to 950 deg C can drive the sulphur-iodine (S-I) thermochemical process to produce hydrogen with high efficiency. The S-I process produces highly pure hydrogen and oxygen, with formation, decomposition, regeneration, and recycle of the intermediate chemical reagents. Electricity can also 1)e used directly to split water, using conventional, low-temperature electrolysis (LTE). Hydrogen can also be produced with hybrid processes that use both process heat and electricity to generate hydrogen. An example of a hybrid process is high-temperature electrolysis (HTE), in which process heat is used to generate steam, which is then supplied to an electrolyzer to generate hydrogen. This process is of interest because the efficiency of electrolysis increases with temperature. Because of its high temperature capability, advanced stage of development relative to other high-temperature reactor concepts, and passive-safety features, the modular helium reactor (MHR) is well suited for producing hydrogen using nuclear energy. In this paper we investigate the coupling of the MHR to the S-I process, LTE, and HTE. These concepts are referred to as the H2-MHR. (author)

  12. Biodrying process: A sustainable technology for treatment of municipal solid waste with high moisture content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tom, Asha P; Pawels, Renu; Haridas, Ajit

    2016-03-01

    Municipal solid waste with high moisture content is the major hindrance in the field of waste to energy conversion technologies and here comes the importance of biodrying process. Biodrying is a convective evaporation process, which utilizes the biological heat developed from the aerobic reactions of organic components. The numerous end use possibilities of the output are making the biodrying process versatile, which is possible by achieving the required moisture reduction, volume reduction and bulk density enhancement through the effective utilization of biological heat. In the present case study the detailed research and development of an innovative biodrying reactor has been carried out for the treatment of mixed municipal solid waste with high moisture content. A pilot scale biodrying reactor of capacity 565 cm(3) was designed and set up in the laboratory. The reactor dimensions consisted of an acrylic chamber of 60 cm diameter and 200 cm height, and it was enveloped by an insulation chamber. The insulation chamber was provided to minimise the heat losses through the side walls of the reactor. It simulates the actual condition in scaling up of the reactor, since in bigger scale reactors the heat losses through side walls will be negligible while comparing the volume to surface area ratio. The mixed municipal solid waste with initial moisture content of 61.25% was synthetically prepared in the laboratory and the reactor was fed with 109 kg of this substrate. Aerobic conditions were ensured inside the reactor chamber by providing the air at a constant rate of 40 litre per minute, and the direction of air flow was from the specially designed bottom air chamber to the reactor matrix top. The self heating inside reactor matrix was assumed in the range of 50-60°C during the design stage. Innovative biodrying reactor was found to be efficiently working with the temperature inside the reactor matrix rising to a peak value of 59°C by the fourth day of experiment (the

  13. Radiation shield for PWR reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esenov, Amra; Pustovgar, Andrey

    2013-01-01

    One of the chief structures of a reactor pit is a 'dry' shield. Setting up a 'dry' shield includes the technologically complex process of thermal processing of serpentinite concrete. Modern advances in the area of materials technology permit avoiding this complex and demanding procedure, and this significantly decreases the duration, labor intensity, and cost of setting it up. (orig.)

  14. Development of safety analysis technology for integral reactor; evaluation on safety concerns of integral reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hee Chul; Kim, Woong Sik; Lee, J. H. [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Taejeon (Korea)

    2002-03-01

    The Nuclear Desalination Plant (NDP) is being developed to produce electricity and fresh water, and is expected to locate near population zone. In the aspect of safety, it is required to protect the public and environment from the possible releases of fission products and to prevent the fresh water from the contamination of radioactivity. Thus, in this study, the safety characteristics of the integral reactor adopting passive and inherent safety features significantly different from existing nuclear power plants were investigated. Also, safety requirements applicable to the NDP were analyzed based on the regulatory requirements for current light water reactor and advanced reactor designs, and user requirements for small-medium size reactors. Based on these analyses, some safety concerns to be considered in the design stage have been identified and discussed. They include the use of proven technology for new safety features, systematic event classification and selection, strengthening containment function, and the safety impacts on desalination-related systems. The study presents the general safety requirements applicable to licensing of an integral reactor and suggests additional regulatory requirements, which need to be developed, based on the direction to resolution of the safety concerns. The efforts to identify and technically resolve the safety concerns in the design stage will provide the early confidence of SMART safety and the technical basis to evaluate the safety to designers and reviewers in the future. Suggestion on the development of additional regulatory requirements will contribute for the regulator to taking actions for licensing of an integral reactor. 66 refs., 5 figs., 24 tabs. (Author)

  15. Hydraulic stud-tensioning machines in reactor technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lachner, H.

    1978-01-01

    Hydraulic multiple stud tensioner (MST) for the simultaneous prestressing of all the stud bolts is make it possible to achieve highly accurate prestress levels in the highly stressed bolts holding down the top head of reactor pressure vessels. These machines can remove and replace the nuts and studs, and can rotate these components upwards and downwards, during the operation of opening and closing the reactor pressure vessel. In order to reduce the radiation exposure of the service personnel, and also to reduce the time required for this work which may lie in the critical path of the refuelling time schedule, it is desirable to achieve complete mechanisation of these machines, including remote control and remote monitoring. The devices and components required for this purpose are without precedent in machine construction with respect to their functions and to the load range involved. The reported operating experience therefore also covers some points of general interest while the data on maintenance reflect the known status of the technology. (orig.) [de

  16. A study on future nuclear reactor technology and development strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, S. Y.; Kim, S. H.; Sohn, D. S.; Suk, S. D.; Zee, S. K.; Yang, M. H.; Kim, H. J.; Park, W. S

    2000-12-01

    Development of nuclear reactor and fuel cycle technology for future is essential to meet the current issues such as enhancement of nuclear power reactor safety, economically competitive with gas turbine power generation, less production of radioactive waste, proliferation resistant fuel cycle, and public acceptance in consideration of lack of energy resources in the nuclear countries worldwide as well as in Korea. This report deals with as follows, 1) Review the world energy demand and supply perspective and analyse nature of energy and sustainable development to set-up nuclear policy in Korea 2) Recaptitulate the current long term nuclear R and D activities 3) Review nuclear R and D activities and programs of USA, Japan, France, Russia, international organizations such as IAEA, OECD/NEA 4) Recommend development directions of nuclear reactors and fuels.

  17. A study on future nuclear reactor technology and development strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S. Y.; Kim, S. H.; Sohn, D. S.; Suk, S. D.; Zee, S. K.; Yang, M. H.; Kim, H. J.; Park, W. S.

    2000-12-01

    Development of nuclear reactor and fuel cycle technology for future is essential to meet the current issues such as enhancement of nuclear power reactor safety, economically competitive with gas turbine power generation, less production of radioactive waste, proliferation resistant fuel cycle, and public acceptance in consideration of lack of energy resources in the nuclear countries worldwide as well as in Korea. This report deals with as follows, 1) Review the world energy demand and supply perspective and analyse nature of energy and sustainable development to set-up nuclear policy in Korea 2) Recaptitulate the current long term nuclear R and D activities 3) Review nuclear R and D activities and programs of USA, Japan, France, Russia, international organizations such as IAEA, OECD/NEA 4) Recommend development directions of nuclear reactors and fuels

  18. Gas-cooled reactor coolant circulator and blower technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-08-01

    In the previous 17 meetings held within the framework of the International Working Group on Gas-Cooled Reactors, a wide variety of topics and components have been addressed, but the San Diego meeting represented the first time that a group of specialists had been convened to discuss circulator and blower related technology. A total of 20 specialists from 6 countries attended the meeting in which 15 technical papers were presented in 5 sessions: circulator operating experience I and II (6 papers); circulator design considerations I and II (6 papers); bearing technology (3 papers). A separate abstract was prepared for each of these papers. Refs, figs and tabs

  19. Fuel processing for molten-salt reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hightower, J.R. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Research devoted to development of processes for the isolation of protactinium and for the removal of fission products from molten-salt breeder reactors is reported. During this report period, engineering development progressed on continuous fluorinators for uranium removal, the metal transfer process for rare-earth removal, the fuel reconstitution step, and molten salt--bismuth contactors to be used in reductive extraction processes. The metal transfer experiment MTE-3B was started. In this experiment all parts of the metal transfer process for rare-earth removal are demonstrated using salt flow rates which are about 1 percent of those required to process the fuel salt in a 1000-MW(e) MSBR. During this report period the salt and bismuth phases were transferred to the experimental vessels, and two runs with agitator speeds of 5 rps were made to measure the rate of transfer of neodymium from the fluoride salt to the Bi--Li stripper solution. The uranium removed from the fuel salt by fluorination must be returned to the processed salt in the fuel reconstitution step before the fuel salt is returned to the reactor. An engineering experiment to demonstrate the fuel reconstitution step is being installed. In this experiment gold-lined equipment will be used to avoid introducing products of corrosion by UF 6 and UF 5 . Alternative methods for providing the gold lining include electroplating and mechanical fabrication

  20. Liquid metal reactor development. Development of LMR coolant technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, H. Y.; Choi, S. K.; Hwang, J. s.; Lee, Y. B.; Choi, B. H.; Kim, J. M.; Kim, Y. G.; Kim, M. J.; Lee, S. D.; Kang, Y. H.; Maeng, Y. Y.; Kim, T. R.; Park, J. H.; Park, S. J.; Cha, J. H.; Kim, D. H.; Oh, S. K.; Park, C. G.; Hong, S. H.; Lee, K. H.; Chun, M. H.; Moon, H. T.; Chang, S. H.; Lee, D. N.

    1997-07-15

    Following studies have been performed during last three years as the 1.2 phase study of the mid and long term nuclear technology development plan. First, the small scale experiments using the sodium have been performed such as the basic turbulent mixing experiment which is related to the design of a compact reactor, the flow reversal characteristics experiment by natural circulation which is necessary for the analysis of local flow reversal when the electromagnetic pump is installed, the feasibility test of the decay heat removal by wall cooling and the operation of electromagnetic pump. Second, the technology of operation mechanism of sodium facility is developed and the technical analysis and fundamental experiments of sodium measuring technology has been performed such as differential pressure measuring experiment, local flow rate measuring experimenter, sodium void fraction measuring experiment, under sodium facility, the free surface movement experiment and the side orifice pressure drop experiment. A new bounded convection scheme was introduced to the ELBO3D thermo-hydraulic computer code designed for analysis of experimental result. A three dimensional computer code was developed for the analysis of free surface movement and the analysis model of transmission of sodium void fraction was developed. Fourth, the small scale key components are developed. The submersible-in-pool type electromagnetic pump which can be used as primary pump in the liquid metal reactor is developed. The SASS which uses the Curie-point electromagnet and the mock-up of Pantograph type IVTM were manufactured and their feasibility was evaluated. Fifth, the high temperature characteristics experiment of stainless steel which is used as a major material for liquid metal reactor and the material characteristics experiment of magnet coil were performed. (author). 126 refs., 98 tabs., 296 figs.

  1. Computer analyses for the design, operation and safety of new isotope production reactors: A technology status review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wulff, W.

    1990-01-01

    A review is presented on the currently available technologies for nuclear reactor analyses by computer. The important distinction is made between traditional computer calculation and advanced computer simulation. Simulation needs are defined to support the design, operation, maintenance and safety of isotope production reactors. Existing methods of computer analyses are categorized in accordance with the type of computer involved in their execution: micro, mini, mainframe and supercomputers. Both general and special-purpose computers are discussed. Major computer codes are described, with regard for their use in analyzing isotope production reactors. It has been determined in this review that conventional systems codes (TRAC, RELAP5, RETRAN, etc.) cannot meet four essential conditions for viable reactor simulation: simulation fidelity, on-line interactive operation with convenient graphics, high simulation speed, and at low cost. These conditions can be met by special-purpose computers (such as the AD100 of ADI), which are specifically designed for high-speed simulation of complex systems. The greatest shortcoming of existing systems codes (TRAC, RELAP5) is their mismatch between very high computational efforts and low simulation fidelity. The drift flux formulation (HIPA) is the viable alternative to the complicated two-fluid model. No existing computer code has the capability of accommodating all important processes in the core geometry of isotope production reactors. Experiments are needed (heat transfer measurements) to provide necessary correlations. It is important for the nuclear community, both in government, industry and universities, to begin to take advantage of modern simulation technologies and equipment. 41 refs

  2. Nuclear reactors' construction costs: The role of lead-time, standardization and technological progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berthelemy, Michel; Escobar Rangel, Lina

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides the first comparative analysis of nuclear reactor construction costs in France and the United States. Studying the cost of nuclear power has often been a challenge, owing to the lack of reliable data sources and heterogeneity between countries, as well as the long time horizon which requires controlling for input prices and structural changes. We build a simultaneous system of equations for overnight costs and construction time (lead-time) to control for endogeneity, using expected demand variation as an instrument. We argue that benefits from nuclear reactor program standardization can arise through short term coordination gains, when the diversity of nuclear reactors' technologies under construction is low, or through long term benefits from learning spillovers from past reactor construction experience, if those spillovers are limited to similar reactors. We find that overnight construction costs benefit directly from learning spillovers but that these spillovers are only significant for nuclear models built by the same Architect-Engineer (A- E). In addition, we show that the standardization of nuclear reactors under construction has an indirect and positive effect on construction costs through a reduction in lead-time, the latter being one of the main drivers of construction costs. Conversely, we also explore the possibility of learning by searching and find that, contrary to other energy technologies, innovation leads to construction costs increases. (authors)

  3. The assessment of technological and safety aspects of small power reactor SMART

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antariksawan, A.R.; Ekariansyah, Andi S.; Sony, D.T.; Suharno; Hastowo, Hudi

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes and discusses the technology and safety of small nuclear power plant SMART. The reactor SMART produces 300 MWth of power is cooled and moderated with light water and integral PWR type developed by KAERI. At present, the development activities had reached the end of basic design stage. The concept design of reactor SMART is based on safety enhancement, economic competitiveness and high performance. The fuel is uranium oxide with approximately 5% w/o enrichment. The safety characteristics of the core are shown with low power density around 62.6 W/cc, high negative reactivity coefficient, and high shutdown and thermal margin. Besides the inherent safety characteristics, SMART is equipped with engineered safety features and severe accident management system which are in compliance with the IAEA recommendations. The application of SMART for dual-purpose produces 90 Mwe and 40,000 to fresh water a day. Based on the technology and core characteristics of the reactor SMART, it is very interesting to be deeply assessed

  4. Plasma nitriding monitoring reactor: A model reactor for studying plasma nitriding processes using an active screen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamann, S.; Börner, K.; Burlacov, I.; Spies, H.-J.; Strämke, M.; Strämke, S.; Röpcke, J.

    2015-12-01

    A laboratory scale plasma nitriding monitoring reactor (PLANIMOR) has been designed to study the basics of active screen plasma nitriding (ASPN) processes. PLANIMOR consists of a tube reactor vessel, made of borosilicate glass, enabling optical emission spectroscopy (OES) and infrared absorption spectroscopy. The linear setup of the electrode system of the reactor has the advantages to apply the diagnostic approaches on each part of the plasma process, separately. Furthermore, possible changes of the electrical field and of the heat generation, as they could appear in down-scaled cylindrical ASPN reactors, are avoided. PLANIMOR has been used for the nitriding of steel samples, achieving similar results as in an industrial scale ASPN reactor. A compact spectrometer using an external cavity quantum cascade laser combined with an optical multi-pass cell has been applied for the detection of molecular reaction products. This allowed the determination of the concentrations of four stable molecular species (CH4, C2H2, HCN, and NH3). With the help of OES, the rotational temperature of the screen plasma could be determined.

  5. Plasma nitriding monitoring reactor: A model reactor for studying plasma nitriding processes using an active screen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamann, S.; Röpcke, J.; Börner, K.; Burlacov, I.; Spies, H.-J.; Strämke, M.; Strämke, S.

    2015-01-01

    A laboratory scale plasma nitriding monitoring reactor (PLANIMOR) has been designed to study the basics of active screen plasma nitriding (ASPN) processes. PLANIMOR consists of a tube reactor vessel, made of borosilicate glass, enabling optical emission spectroscopy (OES) and infrared absorption spectroscopy. The linear setup of the electrode system of the reactor has the advantages to apply the diagnostic approaches on each part of the plasma process, separately. Furthermore, possible changes of the electrical field and of the heat generation, as they could appear in down-scaled cylindrical ASPN reactors, are avoided. PLANIMOR has been used for the nitriding of steel samples, achieving similar results as in an industrial scale ASPN reactor. A compact spectrometer using an external cavity quantum cascade laser combined with an optical multi-pass cell has been applied for the detection of molecular reaction products. This allowed the determination of the concentrations of four stable molecular species (CH 4 , C 2 H 2 , HCN, and NH 3 ). With the help of OES, the rotational temperature of the screen plasma could be determined

  6. Plasma nitriding monitoring reactor: A model reactor for studying plasma nitriding processes using an active screen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamann, S., E-mail: hamann@inp-greifswald.de; Röpcke, J. [INP-Greifswald, Felix-Hausdorff-Str. 2, 17489 Greifswald (Germany); Börner, K.; Burlacov, I.; Spies, H.-J. [TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Institute of Materials Engineering, Gustav-Zeuner-Str. 5, 09599 Freiberg (Germany); Strämke, M.; Strämke, S. [ELTRO GmbH, Arnold-Sommerfeld-Ring 3, 52499 Baesweiler (Germany)

    2015-12-15

    A laboratory scale plasma nitriding monitoring reactor (PLANIMOR) has been designed to study the basics of active screen plasma nitriding (ASPN) processes. PLANIMOR consists of a tube reactor vessel, made of borosilicate glass, enabling optical emission spectroscopy (OES) and infrared absorption spectroscopy. The linear setup of the electrode system of the reactor has the advantages to apply the diagnostic approaches on each part of the plasma process, separately. Furthermore, possible changes of the electrical field and of the heat generation, as they could appear in down-scaled cylindrical ASPN reactors, are avoided. PLANIMOR has been used for the nitriding of steel samples, achieving similar results as in an industrial scale ASPN reactor. A compact spectrometer using an external cavity quantum cascade laser combined with an optical multi-pass cell has been applied for the detection of molecular reaction products. This allowed the determination of the concentrations of four stable molecular species (CH{sub 4}, C{sub 2}H{sub 2}, HCN, and NH{sub 3}). With the help of OES, the rotational temperature of the screen plasma could be determined.

  7. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program Reactor Safety Technologies Pathway Technical Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corradini, M. L. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Peko, D. [US Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Farmer, M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Rempe, J. [Rempe and Associates LLC, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Humrickhouse, P. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); O' Brien, J. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Robb, K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gauntt, R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Osborn, D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-06-01

    In the aftermath of the March 2011 multi-unit accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (Fukushima), the nuclear community has been reassessing certain safety assumptions about nuclear reactor plant design, operations and emergency actions, particularly with respect to extreme events that might occur and that are beyond each plant’s current design basis. Because of our significant domestic investment in nuclear reactor technology (99 operating reactors in the fleet of commercial LWRs with five under construction), the United States has been a major leader internationally in these activities. The U.S. nuclear industry is voluntarily pursuing a number of additional safety initiatives. The NRC continues to evaluate and, where deemed appropriate, establish new requirements for ensuring adequate protection of public health and safety in the occurrence of low probability events at nuclear plants; (e.g., mitigation strategies for beyond design basis events initiated by external events like seismic or flooding initiators). The DOE has also played a major role in the U.S. response to the Fukushima accident. Initially, DOE worked with the Japanese and the international community to help develop a more complete understanding of the Fukushima accident progression and its consequences, and to respond to various safety concerns emerging from uncertainties about the nature of and the effects from the accident. DOE R&D activities are focused on providing scientific and technical insights, data, analyses methods that ultimately support industry efforts to enhance safety. These activities are expected to further enhance the safety performance of currently operating U.S. nuclear power plants as well as better characterize the safety performance of future U.S. plants. In pursuing this area of R&D, DOE recognizes that the commercial nuclear industry is ultimately responsible for the safe operation of licensed nuclear facilities. As such, industry is considered the primary

  8. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program: Reactor Safety Technologies Pathway Technical Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corradini, M. L. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2015-06-01

    In the aftermath of the March 2011 multi-unit accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (Fukushima), the nuclear community has been reassessing certain safety assumptions about nuclear reactor plant design, operations and emergency actions, particularly with respect to extreme events that might occur and that are beyond each plant’s current design basis. Because of our significant domestic investment in nuclear reactor technology (99 operating reactors in the fleet of commercial LWRs with five under construction), the United States has been a major leader internationally in these activities. The U.S. nuclear industry is voluntarily pursuing a number of additional safety initiatives. The NRC continues to evaluate and, where deemed appropriate, establish new requirements for ensuring adequate protection of public health and safety in the occurrence of low probability events at nuclear plants; (e.g., mitigation strategies for beyond design basis events initiated by external events like seismic or flooding initiators). The DOE has also played a major role in the U.S. response to the Fukushima accident. Initially, DOE worked with the Japanese and the international community to help develop a more complete understanding of the Fukushima accident progression and its consequences, and to respond to various safety concerns emerging from uncertainties about the nature of and the effects from the accident. DOE R&D activities are focused on providing scientific and technical insights, data, analyses methods that ultimately support industry efforts to enhance safety. These activities are expected to further enhance the safety performance of currently operating U.S. nuclear power plants as well as better characterize the safety performance of future U.S. plants. In pursuing this area of R&D, DOE recognizes that the commercial nuclear industry is ultimately responsible for the safe operation of licensed nuclear facilities. As such, industry is considered the primary

  9. Modeling the high-temperature gas-cooled reactor process heat plant: a nuclear to chemical conversion process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfremmer, R.D.; Openshaw, F.L.

    1982-05-01

    The high-temperature heat available from the High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) makes it suitable for many process applications. One of these applications is a large-scale energy production plant where nuclear energy is converted into chemical energy and stored for industrial or utility applications. This concept combines presently available nuclear HTGR technology and energy conversion chemical technology. The design of this complex plant involves questions of interacting plant dynamics and overall plant control. This paper discusses how these questions were answered with the aid of a hybrid computer model that was developed within the time-frame of the conceptual design studies. A brief discussion is given of the generally good operability shown for the plant and of the specific potential problems and their anticipated solution. The paper stresses the advantages of providing this information in the earliest conceptual phases of the design

  10. Technologies for tritium control in fission reactors moderated with heavy water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramilo, L.B.; Gomez de Soler, S.M.

    1996-01-01

    This study was done within a program one of whose objectives was to analyze the possible strategies and technologies, to be applied to HWR at Argentine nuclear power plants, for tritium control. The high contribution of tritium to the total dose has given rise to the need by the operators and/or designers to carry out developments and improvements to try to optimize tritium control technologies. Within a tritium control program, only that one which includes the heavy water detritiation will allow to reduce the tritium concentrations at optimum levels for safety and cost-effective power plant operation. The technology chosen to be applied should depend not only on the technical feasibility but also on the analysis of economic and juncture factors such as, among others, the quantity of heavy water to be treated. It is the authors' belief that AECL tendency concerning heavy water treatment in its future reactors would be to employ the CECE technology complemented with immobilization on titanium beds, with the 'on-line' detritiation in each nuclear power plant. This would not be of immediate application since our analysis suggests that AECL would assume that the process is under development and needs to be tested. (author). 21 refs

  11. Production of radiopharmaceutical 99mTc using wasteless reactor Zr-Mo gel-technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savushkin, I.; Gurko, O.; Ravkova, E.

    2002-01-01

    An original methodology and technological process of the wasteless reactor gel-technology of 99m Tc producing on the basis of centralised Zr-Mo gel-generator have been developed by the Institute of Power Engineering Problems, National Academy of Sciences of Belarus in co-operation with the Research Institute of Oncology and Medical Radiology, Ministry of Health of Belarus. This approach allows 99m Tc to be produced on the basis of MoO 3 with an 99 Mo activity of 3-20 Ci. The technological process of 99m Tc sodium pertechnetate production is remotely controlled and automated. Based on clinical tests performed by the Ministry of Health of Belarus, the clinical application of 99m Tc produced by this technology has been approved. The irradiation conditions of the target, consequence of technological process, technological yield of objective product on the example of operation of one generator, reprocessing and rendering of the wastes are analysed and described. The distinctive features of the technology developed are as follows: (a) Use of native molybdenum as the starting target. (b) Absence of deleterious and toxic impurities from the final product (nitrates, organics, etc.). (c) Application of a modified method of 99m Tc extraction from 99 Mo with the help of the Zr-Mo-gel (that is, application of a true gel, not the powder obtained by gel drying), reducing the number of process stages and simplifying the technology. (d) Easy automation and remote control. (e) Simplicity of design and compactness, opening up wide application fields for the unit. It is suggested that clinical centres should be equipped with centralised high-performance 99m Tc generators. Such centres can supply 99m Tc sodium pertechnetate daily to radioisotope laboratories within the radius of 100 km. Technical and economic calculations show that the centralised gel-generators possess industrial, technical and economic parameters making them superior to small/portable generators based on loading with

  12. Gas-Cooled Reactors: the importance of their development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasten, P.R.

    1978-01-01

    Gas-Cooled Reactors are considered to have a significant future impact on the application of fission energy. The specific types are the steam-cycle High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor, the Gas-Cooled Fast Breeder Reactor, the gas-turbine HTGR, and the Very High-Temperature Process Heat Reactor. The importance of developing the above systems is discussed relative to alternative fission power systems involving Light Water Reactors, Heavy Water Reactors, Spectral Shift Controlled Reactors, and Liquid-Metal-Cooled Fast Breeder Reactors. A primary advantage of developing GCRs as a class lies in the technology and cost interrelations, permitting cost-effective development of systems having diverse applications. Further, HTGR-type systems have highly proliferation-resistant characteristics and very attractive safety features. Finally, such systems and GCFRs are mutally complementary. Overall, GCRs provide interrelated systems that serve different purposes and needs; their development can proceed in stages that provide early benefits while contributing to future needs. It is concluded that the long-term importance of the various GCRs is as follows: HTGR, providing a technology for economic GCFRs and HTGR-GTs, while providing a proliferation-resistant reactor system having early economic and fuel utilization benefits; GCFR, providing relatively low cost fissile fuel and reducing overall separative work needs at capital costs lower than those for LMFBRs; HTGR-GT (in combination with a bottoming cycle), providing a very high thermal efficiency system having low capital costs and improved fuel utilization and technology pertinent to VHTRs; HTGR-GT, providing a power system well suited for dry cooling conditions for low-temperature process heat needs; and VHTR, providing a high-temperature heat source for hydrogen production processes

  13. Education program at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology research reactor for pre-college science teachers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopkins, G.R.; Fecych, W.; Harling, O.K.

    1989-01-01

    A Pre-College Science Teacher (PCST) Seminar program has been in place at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Nuclear Reactor Laboratory for 4 yr. The purpose of the PCST program is to educate teachers in nuclear technology and to show teachers, and through them the community, the types of activities performed at research reactors. This paper describes the background, content, and results of the MIT PCST program

  14. Seal analysis technology for reactor pressure vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Liangang; Zhang Liping; Yang Yu; Zang Fenggang

    2009-01-01

    There is the coolant with radiation, high temperature and high pressure in the reactor pressure vessel (RPV). It is closely correlated to RPV sealing capability whether the whole nuclear system work well or not. The aim of this paper is to study the seal analysis method and technology, such as the pre-tensioning of the bolt, elastoplastic contact and coupled technology of thermal and structure. The 3 D elastoplastic seal analysis method really and generally consider the loads and model the contact problem with friction between the contact plates. This method is easier than the specialized seal program and used widely. And it is more really than the 2 D seal analysis method. This 3 D elastoplastic seal analysis method has been successfully used in the design and analysis of RPV. (authors)

  15. Boiling water reactor liquid radioactive waste processing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    The standard sets forth minimum design, construction and performance requirements with due consideration for operation of the liquid radioactive waste processing system for boiling water reactor plants for routine operation including design basis fuel leakage and design basis occurrences. For the purpose of this standard, the liquid radioactive waste processing system begins at the interfaces with the reactor coolant pressure boundary, at the interface valve(s) in lines from other systems and at those sumps and floor drains provided for liquid waste with the potential of containing radioactive material. The system terminates at the point of controlled discharge to the environment, at the point of interface with the waste solidification system and at the point of recycle back to storage for reuse. The standard does not include the reactor coolant clean-up system, fuel pool clean-up system, sanitary waste system, any nonaqueous liquid system or controlled area storm drains

  16. FFTF reactor assembly system technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangelsdorf, T.A.

    1975-01-01

    An overview is presented of the FFTF reactor and plant together with descriptions of core components, core internals, core system, primary and secondary control rod system, reactor instrumentation, reactor vessel and closure head, and supporting test programs

  17. On the implementation of new technology modules for fusion reactor systems codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franza, F., E-mail: fabrizio.franza@kit.edu [Institute of Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen, 76344 (Germany); Boccaccini, L.V.; Fisher, U. [Institute of Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen, 76344 (Germany); Gade, P.V.; Heller, R. [Institute for Technical Physics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen, 76344 (Germany)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • At KIT a new technology modules for systems code are under development. • A new algorithm for the definition of the main reactor's components is defined. • A new blanket model based on 1D neutronics analysis is described. • A new TF coil stress model based on 3D electromagnetic analysis is described. • The models were successfully benchmarked against more detailed models. - Abstract: In the frame of the pre-conceptual design of the next generation fusion power plant (DEMO), systems codes are being used from nearly 20 years. In such computational tools the main reactor components (e.g. plasma, blanket, magnets, etc.) are integrated in a unique computational algorithm and simulated by means of rather simplified mathematical models (e.g. steady state and zero dimensional models). The systems code tries to identify the main design parameters (e.g. major radius, net electrical power, toroidal field) and to make the reactor's requirements and constraints to be simultaneously accomplished. In fusion applications, requirements and constraints can be either of physics or technology kind. Concerning the latest category, at Karlsruhe Institute of Technology a new modelling activity has been recently launched aiming to develop improved models focusing on the main technology areas, such as neutronics, thermal-hydraulics, electromagnetics, structural mechanics, fuel cycle and vacuum systems. These activities started by developing: (1) a geometry model for the definition of poloidal profiles for the main reactors components, (2) a blanket model based on neutronics analyses and (3) a toroidal field coil model based on electromagnetic analysis, firstly focusing on the stresses calculations. The objective of this paper is therefore to give a short outline of these models.

  18. Biofilm reactors for industrial bioconversion processes: employing potential of enhanced reaction rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karcher Patrick

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This article describes the use of biofilm reactors for the production of various chemicals by fermentation and wastewater treatment. Biofilm formation is a natural process where microbial cells attach to the support (adsorbent or form flocs/aggregates (also called granules without use of chemicals and form thick layers of cells known as "biofilms." As a result of biofilm formation, cell densities in the reactor increase and cell concentrations as high as 74 gL-1 can be achieved. The reactor configurations can be as simple as a batch reactor, continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR, packed bed reactor (PBR, fluidized bed reactor (FBR, airlift reactor (ALR, upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB reactor, or any other suitable configuration. In UASB granular biofilm particles are used. This article demonstrates that reactor productivities in these reactors have been superior to any other reactor types. This article describes production of ethanol, butanol, lactic acid, acetic acid/vinegar, succinic acid, and fumaric acid in addition to wastewater treatment in the biofilm reactors. As the title suggests, biofilm reactors have high potential to be employed in biotechnology/bioconversion industry for viable economic reasons. In this article, various reactor types have been compared for the above bioconversion processes.

  19. Biofilm reactors for industrial bioconversion processes: employing potential of enhanced reaction rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Nasib; Annous, Bassam A; Ezeji, Thaddeus C; Karcher, Patrick; Maddox, Ian S

    2005-08-25

    This article describes the use of biofilm reactors for the production of various chemicals by fermentation and wastewater treatment. Biofilm formation is a natural process where microbial cells attach to the support (adsorbent) or form flocs/aggregates (also called granules) without use of chemicals and form thick layers of cells known as "biofilms." As a result of biofilm formation, cell densities in the reactor increase and cell concentrations as high as 74 gL(-1) can be achieved. The reactor configurations can be as simple as a batch reactor, continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR), packed bed reactor (PBR), fluidized bed reactor (FBR), airlift reactor (ALR), upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor, or any other suitable configuration. In UASB granular biofilm particles are used. This article demonstrates that reactor productivities in these reactors have been superior to any other reactor types. This article describes production of ethanol, butanol, lactic acid, acetic acid/vinegar, succinic acid, and fumaric acid in addition to wastewater treatment in the biofilm reactors. As the title suggests, biofilm reactors have high potential to be employed in biotechnology/bioconversion industry for viable economic reasons. In this article, various reactor types have been compared for the above bioconversion processes.

  20. Biofilm reactors for industrial bioconversion processes: employing potential of enhanced reaction rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Nasib; Annous, Bassam A; Ezeji, Thaddeus C; Karcher, Patrick; Maddox, Ian S

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the use of biofilm reactors for the production of various chemicals by fermentation and wastewater treatment. Biofilm formation is a natural process where microbial cells attach to the support (adsorbent) or form flocs/aggregates (also called granules) without use of chemicals and form thick layers of cells known as "biofilms." As a result of biofilm formation, cell densities in the reactor increase and cell concentrations as high as 74 gL-1 can be achieved. The reactor configurations can be as simple as a batch reactor, continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR), packed bed reactor (PBR), fluidized bed reactor (FBR), airlift reactor (ALR), upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor, or any other suitable configuration. In UASB granular biofilm particles are used. This article demonstrates that reactor productivities in these reactors have been superior to any other reactor types. This article describes production of ethanol, butanol, lactic acid, acetic acid/vinegar, succinic acid, and fumaric acid in addition to wastewater treatment in the biofilm reactors. As the title suggests, biofilm reactors have high potential to be employed in biotechnology/bioconversion industry for viable economic reasons. In this article, various reactor types have been compared for the above bioconversion processes. PMID:16122390

  1. MANAGEMENT OF RESEARCH AND TEST REACTOR ALUMINUM SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL - A TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinson, D.

    2010-07-11

    The Department of Energy's Environmental Management (DOE-EM) Program is responsible for the receipt and storage of aluminum research reactor spent nuclear fuel or used fuel until ultimate disposition. Aluminum research reactor used fuel is currently being stored or is anticipated to be returned to the U.S. and stored at DOE-EM storage facilities at the Savannah River Site and the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center. This paper assesses the technologies and the options for safe transportation/receipt and interim storage of aluminum research reactor spent fuel and reviews the comprehensive strategy for its management. The U.S. Department of Energy uses the Appendix A, Spent Nuclear Fuel Acceptance Criteria, to identify the physical, chemical, and isotopic characteristics of spent nuclear fuel to be returned to the United States under the Foreign Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel Acceptance Program. The fuel is further evaluated for acceptance through assessments of the fuel at the foreign sites that include corrosion damage and handleability. Transport involves use of commercial shipping casks with defined leakage rates that can provide containment of the fuel, some of which are breached. Options for safe storage include wet storage and dry storage. Both options must fully address potential degradation of the aluminum during the storage period. This paper focuses on the various options for safe transport and storage with respect to technology maturity and application.

  2. Coolant processing device for nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kizawa, Hideo; Funakoshi, Toshio; Izumoji, Yoshiaki

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To reduce an entire facility cost by concentrating and isolating tritium accumulated in coolants, removing the tritium out of the system, and returning hydrogen gas generated at a reactor accident to a recombiner in a closed loop by the switching of a valve. Constitution: Coolant from a reactor cooling system processed by a chemical volume control system facility (CVCS) and coolant drain from various devices processed by a liquid waste disposing system facility (LWDS) are fed to a tritium isolating facility, in which they are isolated into concentrated tritium water and dilute tritium water. The concentrated tritium water is removed out of the system and stored. The dilute tritium water is reused as supply water for coolant. If an accident occurs to cause hydrogen to be generated, a closed loop is formed between the containment vessel and the recombiner, the hydrogen is recombined with oxygen in the air of the closed loop to be thus returned to water. (Kamimura, M.)

  3. Research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowarski, L.

    1955-01-01

    It brings together the techniques data which are involved in the discussion about the utility for a research institute to acquire an atomic reactor for research purposes. This type of decision are often taken by non-specialist people who can need a brief presentation of a research reactor and its possibilities in term of research before asking advises to experts. In a first part, it draws up a list of the different research programs which can be studied by getting a research reactor. First of all is the reactor behaviour and kinetics studies (reproducibility factor, exploration of neutron density, effect of reactor structure, effect of material irradiation...). Physical studies includes study of the behaviour of the control system, studies of neutron resonance phenomena and study of the fission process for example. Chemical studies involves the study of manipulation and control of hot material, characterisation of nuclear species produced in the reactor and chemical effects of irradiation on chemical properties and reactions. Biology and medicine research involves studies of irradiation on man and animals, genetics research, food or medical tools sterilization and neutron beams effect on tumour for example. A large number of other subjects can be studied in a reactor research as reactor construction material research, fabrication of radioactive sources for radiographic techniques or applied research as in agriculture or electronic. The second part discussed the technological considerations when choosing the reactor type. The technological factors, which are considered for its choice, are the power of the reactor, the nature of the fuel which is used, the type of moderator (water, heavy water, graphite or BeO) and the reflector, the type of coolants, the protection shield and the control systems. In the third part, it described the characteristics (place of installation, type of combustible and comments) and performance (power, neutron flux ) of already existing

  4. An evaluation of reactor cooling and coupled hydrogen production processes using the modular helium reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvego, E.A.; Reza, S.M.M.; Richards, M.; Shenoy, A.

    2006-01-01

    The high-temperature characteristics of the modular helium reactor (MHR) make it a strong candidate for producing hydrogen using either thermochemical or high-temperature electrolysis (HTE) processes. Using heat from the MHR to drive a sulfur-iodine (SI) thermochemical hydrogen production process has been the subject of a U.S. Department of Energy sponsored Nuclear Engineering Research Initiative (NERI) project led by General Atomics, with participation from the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and Texas A and M University. While the focus of much of the initial work was on the SI thermochemical production of hydrogen, recent activities included development of a preconceptual design for an integral HTE hydrogen production plant driven by the process heat and electricity produced by a 600 MW MHR. This paper describes ATHENA analyses performed to evaluate alternative primary system cooling configurations for the MHR to minimize peak reactor vessel and core temperatures while achieving core helium outlet temperatures in the range of 900-1000 deg. C that are needed for the efficient production of hydrogen using either the SI or HTE process. The cooling schemes investigated are intended to ensure peak fuel temperatures do not exceed specified limits under normal or transient upset conditions, and that reactor vessel temperatures do not exceed American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) code limits for steady-state or transient conditions using standard light water reactor vessel materials. Preconceptual designs for SI and HTE hydrogen production plants driven by one or more 600 MW MHRs at helium outlet temperatures in the range of 900-1000 deg. C are described and compared. An initial SAPHIRE model to evaluate the reliability, maintainability, and availability of the SI hydrogen production plant is also described. Finally, a preliminary flowsheet for a conceptual design of an HTE hydrogen production plant coupled to a 600 MW modular helium reactor is presented and

  5. 8th International School of Fusion Reactor Technology "Ettore Majorana"

    CERN Document Server

    Leotta, G G; Muon-catalyzed fusion and fusion with polarized nuclei

    1988-01-01

    The International School of Fusion Reactor Technology started its courses 15 years ago and since then has mantained a biennial pace. Generally, each course has developed the subject which was announced in advance at the closing of the previous course. The subject to which the present proceedings refer was chosen in violation of that rule so as to satisfy the recent and diffuse interest in cold fusion among the main European laboratories involved in controlled thermonuclear research (CTR). In the second half of 1986 we started to prepare a workshop aimed at assessing the state of the art and possibly of the perspectives of muon- catalyzed fusion. Research in this field has recently produced exciting experimental results open to important practical applications. We thought it worthwhile to consider also the beneficial effects and problems of the polarization ofthe nuclei in both cold and thermonuclear fusion. In preparing the 8th Course on Fusion Reactor Technology, it was necessary to abandon the tradi...

  6. Strategic need for a multi-purpose thermal hydraulic loop for support of advanced reactor technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Brien, James E. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Sabharwall, Piyush [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Yoon, Su -Jong [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Housley, Gregory K. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-09-01

    This report presents a conceptual design for a new high-temperature multi fluid, multi loop test facility for the INL to support thermal hydraulic, materials, and thermal energy storage research for nuclear and nuclear-hybrid applications. In its initial configuration, the facility will include a high-temperature helium loop, a liquid salt loop, and a hot water/steam loop. The three loops will be thermally coupled through an intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) and a secondary heat exchanger (SHX). Research topics to be addressed with this facility include the characterization and performance evaluation of candidate compact heat exchangers such as printed circuit heat exchangers (PCHEs) at prototypical operating conditions, flow and heat transfer issues related to core thermal hydraulics in advanced helium-cooled and salt-cooled reactors, and evaluation of corrosion behavior of new cladding materials and accident-tolerant fuels for LWRs at prototypical conditions. Based on its relevance to advanced reactor systems, the new facility has been named the Advanced Reactor Technology Integral System Test (ARTIST) facility. Research performed in this facility will advance the state of the art and technology readiness level of high temperature intermediate heat exchangers (IHXs) for nuclear applications while establishing the INL as a center of excellence for the development and certification of this technology. The thermal energy storage capability will support research and demonstration activities related to process heat delivery for a variety of hybrid energy systems and grid stabilization strategies. Experimental results obtained from this research will assist in development of reliable predictive models for thermal hydraulic design and safety codes over the range of expected advanced reactor operating conditions. Proposed/existing IHX heat transfer and friction correlations and criteria will be assessed with information on materials compatibility and instrumentation

  7. A review of boiling water reactor water chemistry: Science, technology, and performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, M.J.

    1989-02-01

    Boiling water reactor (BWR) water chemistry (science, technology, and performance) has been reviewed with an emphasis on the relationships between BWR water quality and corrosion fuel performance, and radiation buildup. A comparison of Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Regulatory Guide 1.56, the Boiling Water Reactor Owners Group (BWROG) Water Chemistry Guidelines, and Plant Technical Specifications showed that the BWROG Guidelines are more stringent than the NRC Regulatory Guide, which is almost identical to Plant Technical Specifications. Plant performance with respect to BWR water chemistry has shown dramatic improvements in recent years. Up until 1979 BWRs experienced an average of 3.0 water chemistry incidents per reactor-year. Since 1979 the water chemistry technical specifications have been violated an average of only 0.2 times per reactor-year, with the most recent data from 1986-1987 showing only 0.05 violations per reactor-year. The data clearly demonstrate the industry-wide commitment to improving water quality in BWRs. In addition to improving water quality, domestic BWRs are beginning to switch to hydrogen water chemistry (HWC), a remedy for intergranular stress corrosion cracking. Three domestic BWRs are presently operating on HWC, and fourteen more have either performed HWC mini tests or are in various stages of HWC implementation. This report includes a detailed review of HWC science and technology as well as areas in which further research on BWR chemistry may be needed. 43 refs., 30 figs., 8 tabs

  8. International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blevins, J.D.; Stasko, R.R.

    1989-09-01

    An international design team comprised of members from Canada, Europe, Japan, the Soviet Union, and the United States of America, are designing an experimental fusion test reactor. The engineering and testing objectives of this International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) are to validate the design and to demonstrate controlled ignition, extended burn of a deuterium and tritium plasma, and achieve steady state using technology expected to be available by 1990. The concept maximizes flexibility while allowing for a variety of plasma configurations and operating scenarios. During physics phase operation, the machine produces a 22 MA plasma current. In the technology phase, the machine can be reconfigured with a thicker shield and a breeding blanket to operate with an 18 MA plasma current at a major radius of 5.5 meters. Canada's involvement in the areas of safety, facility design, reactor configuration and maintenance builds on our internationally recognized design and operational expertise in developing tritium processes and CANDU related technologies

  9. Processing of palm oil mill wastes based on zero waste technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvan

    2018-02-01

    Indonesia is currently the main producer of palm oil in the world with a total production reached 33.5 million tons per year. In the processing of fresh fruit bunches (FFB) besides producing palm oil and kernel oil, palm oil mills also produce liquid and solid wastes. The increase of palm oil production will be followed by an increase in the production of waste generated. It will give rise to major environmental issues especially the discharge of liquid waste to the rivers, the emission of methane from digestion pond and the incineration of empty fruit bunches (EFB). This paper describes a zero waste technology in processing palm oil mill waste after the milling process. The technology involves fermentation of palm oil mill effluent (POME) to biogas by using continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) in the presence of thermophilic microbes, producing activated liquid organic fertilizer (ALOF) from discharge of treated waste effluent from biogas digester, composting EFB by spraying ALOF on the EFB in the composter, and producing pellet or biochar from EFB by pyrolysis process. This concept can be considered as a promising technology for palm oil mills with the main objective of eliminating the effluent from their mills.

  10. Reactor materials program process water component failure probability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daugherty, W. L.

    1988-01-01

    The maximum rate loss of coolant accident for the Savannah River Production Reactors is presently specified as the abrupt double-ended guillotine break (DEGB) of a large process water pipe. This accident is not considered credible in light of the low applied stresses and the inherent ductility of the piping materials. The Reactor Materials Program was initiated to provide the technical basis for an alternate, credible maximum rate LOCA. The major thrust of this program is to develop an alternate worst case accident scenario by deterministic means. In addition, the probability of a DEGB is also being determined; to show that in addition to being mechanistically incredible, it is also highly improbable. The probability of a DEGB of the process water piping is evaluated in two parts: failure by direct means, and indirectly-induced failure. These two areas have been discussed in other reports. In addition, the frequency of a large bread (equivalent to a DEGB) in other process water system components is assessed. This report reviews the large break frequency for each component as well as the overall large break frequency for the reactor system

  11. Examination of the bases for proposed innovations in reactor safety technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moses, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    This paper employs the criteria for evaluations from the Nuclear Power Option Viability Study to examine the bases for proposed innovations in light water reactor safety technology. These bases for innovation fall into four broad categories as follows: (1) virtually exclusive reliance on passive safety features to preclude core damage in all situations, (2) design simplification using some passive safety features to reduce the frequency of core damage to less than about 10 -6 per reactor-year, (3) passive containment to preclude releases from any accident, and (4) designing to limit licensing attention to one or at least a few systems. Of these, only the first two, and perhaps only the second, hold significant promise for providing for the viability of advanced light water reactors

  12. Regulatory Risk Reduction for Advanced Reactor Technologies - FY2016 Status and Work Plan Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moe, Wayne Leland

    2016-01-01

    Millions of public and private sector dollars have been invested over recent decades to realize greater efficiency, reliability, and the inherent and passive safety offered by advanced nuclear reactor technologies. However, a major challenge in experiencing those benefits resides in the existing U.S. regulatory framework. This framework governs all commercial nuclear plant construction, operations, and safety issues and is highly large light water reactor (LWR) technology centric. The framework must be modernized to effectively deal with non-LWR advanced designs if those designs are to become part of the U.S energy supply. The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Advanced Reactor Technologies (ART) Regulatory Risk Reduction (RRR) initiative, managed by the Regulatory Affairs Department at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), is establishing a capability that can systematically retire extraneous licensing risks associated with regulatory framework incompatibilities. This capability proposes to rely heavily on the perspectives of the affected regulated community (i.e., commercial advanced reactor designers/vendors and prospective owner/operators) yet remain tuned to assuring public safety and acceptability by regulators responsible for license issuance. The extent to which broad industry perspectives are being incorporated into the proposed framework makes this initiative unique and of potential benefit to all future domestic non-LWR applicants

  13. Groundwater Monitoring Plan for the Reactor Technology Complex Operable Unit 2-13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richard P. Wells

    2007-01-01

    This Groundwater Monitoring Plan describes the objectives, activities, and assessments that will be performed to support the on-going groundwater monitoring requirements at the Reactor Technology Complex, formerly the Test Reactor Area (TRA). The requirements for groundwater monitoring were stipulated in the Final Record of Decision for Test Reactor Area, Operable Unit 2-13, signed in December 1997. The monitoring requirements were modified by the First Five-Year Review Report for the Test Reactor Area, Operable Unit 2-13, at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory to focus on those contaminants of concern that warrant continued surveillance, including chromium, tritium, strontium-90, and cobalt-60. Based upon recommendations provided in the Annual Groundwater Monitoring Status Report for 2006, the groundwater monitoring frequency was reduced to annually from twice a year

  14. Reactor modeling and process analysis for partial oxidation of natural gas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albrecht, B.A.

    2004-01-01

    This thesis analyses a novel process of partial oxidation of natural gas and develops a numerical tool for the partial oxidation reactor modeling. The proposed process generates syngas in an integrated plant of a partial oxidation reactor, a syngas turbine and an air separation unit. This is called

  15. Method for processing spent nuclear reactor fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levenson, M.; Zebroski, E.L.

    1981-01-01

    A method and apparatus are claimed for processing spent nuclear reactor fuel wherein plutonium is continuously contaminated with radioactive fission products and diluted with uranium. Plutonium of sufficient purity to fabricate nuclear weapons cannot be produced by the process or in the disclosed reprocessing plant. Diversion of plutonium is prevented by radiation hazards and ease of detection

  16. Study on treating of low-level radioactive reactor wastewater by combined membrane process (UF-RO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Yunyun; Cao Qiru; Chen Yunming; Huang Lijuan; Bai Xiaofeng; Li Bing; Feng Liang

    2013-01-01

    According to the characteristics of radionuclide exists in the low-level radioactive reactor waste water from HFETR, we use a new combined membrane process separation technology to study the efficient treating of low-lever radioactive reactor wastewater. First, the prepared the simulated wastewater contained Cs + , Sr 2+ , CO 2+ , Ni 2+ , and Fe 3+ . Then, we sequentially investigated the pressure, ion concentration, pH value and EDTA, which have effects on the desalination rate of membrane processing metal ions in wastewater. The results show that: in the condition of pH = 7, and added 0.15 mol/L EDTA, the simulated wastewater separated by UF-RO, desalination rates of Cs + , Sr 2+ , CO 2+ , Ni 2+ and Fe 3+ are all above 95%; In the subsequent trials, adding 0.15 mol/L EDTA into the radioactive residuary solution, and then treating by UF-RO-RO, the decontamination efficiency can reach 95.7%. (authors)

  17. Development on the cryogenic hydrogen isotopes distillation process technology for tritium removal (Final report)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, Ki Woung; Kim, Yong Ik; Na, Jeong Won; Ku, Jae Hyu; Kim, Kwang Rak; Jeong, Yong Won; Lee, Han Soo; Cho, Young Hyun; Ahn, Do Hee; Baek, Seung Woo; Kang, Hee Seok; Kim, You Sun

    1995-12-01

    While tritium exposure to the site-workers in Wolsung NPP is up to about 40% of the total personnel exposure, Ministry of Science and Technology has asked tritium removal facility for requirement of post heavy-water reactor construction. For the purpose of essential removal of tritium from the Wolsung heavy-water reactor system, a preliminary study on the cryogenic Ar-N 2 and H 2 -D 2 distillation process for development of liquid-phase catalytic exchange cryogenic hydrogen distillation process technology. The Ar-N 2 distillation column showed good performance with approximately 97% of final Ar concentration, and a computer simulation code was modified using these data. A simulation code developed for cryogenic hydrogen isotopes (H 2 , HD, D 2 , HT, DT, T 2 ) distillation column showed good performance after comparison with the result of a JAERI code, and a H 2 -D 2 distillation column was made. Gas chromatography for hydrogen isotopes analysis was established using a vacuum sampling loop, and a schematic diagram of H 2 -D 2 distillation process was suggested. A feasibility on modification of H 2 -D 2 distillation process control system using Laser Raman Spectroscopy was studied, and the consideration points for tritium storage system for Wolsung tritium removal facility was suggested. 31 tabs., 79 figs., 68 refs. (Author)

  18. A floating desalination/co-generation system using the KLT-40 reactor and Canadian RO desalination technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphries, J.R.; Davies, K.

    2000-01-01

    As the global consumption of water increases with growing populations and rising levels of industrialization, major new sources of potable water production must be developed. To address this issue efficiently and economically, a new approach has been developed in Canada for the integration of reverse osmosis (RO) desalination systems with nuclear reactors as an energy source. The resulting nuclear desalination/cogeneration plant makes use of waste heat from the electrical generation process to preheat the RO feedwater, advanced feedwater pre-treatment and sophisticated system design integration and optimization techniques. These innovations have led to improved water production efficiency, lower water production costs and reduced environmental impact. The Russian Federation is developing the KLT-40 reactor for application as a Floating Power Unit (FPU). The reactor is ideally suited for such purposes, having bad many years of successful operation as a marine propulsion reactor aboard floating nuclear powered icebreakers and other nuclear propelled vessels. Under the terms of a cooperation agreement with the Russian Federation Ministry of Atomic Energy, CANDESAL Enterprises Ltd has evaluated the FPU, containing two KLT-40 reactors, as a source of electrical energy and waste heat for RO desalination. A design concept for a floating nuclear desalination complex consisting of the FPU and a barge mounted RO desalination unit has been analyzed to establish preliminary performance characteristics for the complex. The FPU, operating as a barge mounted electrical generating station, provides electricity to the desalination barge. In addition, the condenser cooling water from the FPU is used as a source of preheated feedwater for the RO system on the desalination barge. The waste heat produced by the electrical generating process is sufficient to provide RO feedwater at a temperature of about 10 deg. C above ambient seawater temperature. Preliminary design studies have

  19. Decommissioning of evaporation technology for processing liquid radioactive waste in UJV Rez, a. s

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tous, M.; Otcovsky, T.; Podlaha, J.

    2015-01-01

    The UJV Rez, a. s. is the main leader in processing institutional radioactive waste (RAW) in the Czech Republic and the Waste Management Department has been established since the research reactor VVR-S (now LVR-15) was put in operation. Due to the large activities in nuclear research and engineering in the past, a big capacity of waste management technologies was needed. The low pressure compactor for volume reduction of solid RAW, as well as chemical pre-treatment technology of liquid RAW were installed and later the evaporation technology for effective processing the liquid RAW with the cementation and bituminization unit for final conditioning of concentrated liquid RAW were used. During the years of research reactor operation and research activities in UJV Rez, a. s. there were two installed evaporation technologies in row. After the latest evaporator lifetime, changes in liquid RAW production and together with higher decontamination factor requirements, this technology was decided to be decommissioned. The decommissioned evaporation technology was installed and put in operation in 1991. This technology was used for processing liquid aqueous RAW produced from internal research activities and of course for external producers and institutions (e.g. universities, medicine, research institutes, industry). The approved decommissioning plan was prepared and the licence for immediate decommissioning was obtained in 2012. Then the decommissioning project started. The preparing stages as dosimetric survey, expected material balance and of course initial decontamination activities were performed. Evaporation technology dismantling and processing the arising RAW were done by the internal staff of Waste Management Department. The total volume of produced RAW was 49,5 m 3 of RAW. The secondary liquid RAW (from decontamination) of amount 1,4 m 3 , contaminated sludge of amount 0,5 m 3 , solid RAW (construction steel) of amount 39,1 m 3 , solid compressible RAW (protective

  20. Process technologies for water desalination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramilo, Lucia B.; Gomez de Soler, Susana M.; Coppari, Norberto R.

    2003-01-01

    The use of the nuclear energy for simultaneous electricity and potable water production is an attractive, technically feasible and safe alternative to fossil energy options. In Argentina the nuclear desalination option is being studied together with the alternative uses of the innovative advanced Argentinean CAREM reactor, in a research contract between CNEA and the IAEA to evaluate projects of nuclear desalination. This paper analyses the benefits and drawbacks of each desalination technology, the distinctive characteristics of the technology that fit better the different uses, and outlines the related antecedents of its application in the world. In this report a summarized description of those technologies is included by way of introduction, so as to highlight the main advantages and disadvantages of each of them. The improvements and innovations made in the last years for the different technologies are also described. (author)

  1. Reactor technology: power conversion systems and reactor operation and maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, J.R.

    1977-01-01

    The use of advanced fuels permits the use of coolants (organic, high pressure helium) that result in power conversion systems with good thermal efficiency and relatively low cost. Water coolant would significantly reduce thermal efficiency, while lithium and salt coolants, which have been proposed for DT reactors, will have comparable power conversion efficiencies, but will probably be significantly more expensive. Helium cooled blankets with direct gas turbine power conversion cycles can also be used with DT reactors, but activation problems will be more severe, and the portion of blanket power in the metallic structure will probably not be available for the direct cycle, because of temperature limitations. A very important potential advantage of advanced fuel reactors over DT fusion reactors is the possibility of easier blanket maintenance and reduced down time for replacement. If unexpected leaks occur, in most cases the leaking circuit can be shut off and a redundant cooling curcuit will take over the thermal load. With the D-He 3 reactor, it appears practical to do this while the reactor is operating, as long as the leak is small enough not to shut down the reactor. Redundancy for Cat-D reactors has not been explored in detail, but appears feasible in principle. The idea of mobile units operating in the reactor chamber for service and maintenance of radioactive elements is explored

  2. The Integral Fast Reactor: A practical approach to waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laidler, J.J.

    1993-01-01

    This report discusses development of the method for pyroprocessing of spent fuel from the Integral Fast Reactor (or Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor). The technology demonstration phase, in which recycle will be demonstrated with irradiated fuel from the EBR-II reactor has been reached. Methods for recovering actinides from spent LWR fuel are at an earlier stage of development but appear to be technically feasible at this time, and a large-scale demonstration of this process has begun. The utilization of fully compatible processes for recycling valuable spent fuel materials promises to provide substantial economic incentives for future applications of the pyroprocessing technology

  3. Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant: a building block in nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCormack, M.

    1979-01-01

    Interest in breeder reactors dates from the Manhatten Project to the present effort to build the Clinch River Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) demonstration plant. Seven breeder-type reactors which were built during this time are described and their technological progress assessed. The Clinch River Breeder Reactor Project (CRBRP) has been designed to demonstrate that it can be licensed, can operate on a large power grid, and can provide industry with important experience. As the next logical step in LMFBR development, the project has suffered repeated cancellation efforts with only minor modifications to its schedule. Controversies have developed over the timing of a large-scale demonstration plant, the risks of proliferation, economics, and other problems. Among the innovative developments adopted for the CRBRP is a higher thermal efficiency potential, the type of development which Senator McCormack feels justifies continuing the project. He argues that the nuclear power program can and should be revitalized by continuing the CRBRP

  4. Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant: a building block in nuclear technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCormack, M.

    1979-01-01

    Interest in breeder reactors dates from the Manhatten Project to the present effort to build the Clinch River Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) demonstration plant. Seven breeder-type reactors which were built during this time are described and their technological progress assessed. The Clinch River Breeder Reactor Project (CRBRP) has been designed to demonstrate that it can be licensed, can operate on a large power grid, and can provide industry with important experience. As the next logical step in LMFBR development, the project has suffered repeated cancellation efforts with only minor modifications to its schedule. Controversies have developed over the timing of a large-scale demonstration plant, the risks of proliferation, economics, and other problems. Among the innovative developments adopted for the CRBRP is a higher thermal efficiency potential, the type of development which Senator McCormack feels justifies continuing the project. He argues that the nuclear power program can and should be revitalized by continuing the CRBRP.

  5. Generation IV Reactors Integrated Materials Technology Program Plan: Focus on Very High Temperature Reactor Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corwin, William R [ORNL; Burchell, Timothy D [ORNL; Katoh, Yutai [ORNL; McGreevy, Timothy E [ORNL; Nanstad, Randy K [ORNL; Ren, Weiju [ORNL; Snead, Lance Lewis [ORNL; Wilson, Dane F [ORNL

    2008-08-01

    Since 2002, the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems (Gen IV) Program has addressed the research and development (R&D) necessary to support next-generation nuclear energy systems. The six most promising systems identified for next-generation nuclear energy are described within this roadmap. Two employ a thermal neutron spectrum with coolants and temperatures that enable hydrogen or electricity production with high efficiency (the Supercritical Water Reactor-SCWR and the Very High Temperature Reactor-VHTR). Three employ a fast neutron spectrum to enable more effective management of actinides through recycling of most components in the discharged fuel (the Gas-cooled Fast Reactor-GFR, the Lead-cooled Fast Reactor-LFR, and the Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor-SFR). The Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) employs a circulating liquid fuel mixture that offers considerable flexibility for recycling actinides and may provide an alternative to accelerator-driven systems. At the inception of DOE's Gen IV program, it was decided to significantly pursue five of the six concepts identified in the Gen IV roadmap to determine which of them was most appropriate to meet the needs of future U.S. nuclear power generation. In particular, evaluation of the highly efficient thermal SCWR and VHTR reactors was initiated primarily for energy production, and evaluation of the three fast reactor concepts, SFR, LFR, and GFR, was begun to assess viability for both energy production and their potential contribution to closing the fuel cycle. Within the Gen IV Program itself, only the VHTR class of reactors was selected for continued development. Hence, this document will address the multiple activities under the Gen IV program that contribute to the development of the VHTR. A few major technologies have been recognized by DOE as necessary to enable the deployment of the next generation of advanced nuclear reactors, including the development and qualification of

  6. Dynamic Complexity Study of Nuclear Reactor and Process Heat Application Integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, J'Tia Patrice; Shropshire, David E.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the key obstacles and challenges facing the integration of nuclear reactors with process heat applications as they relate to dynamic issues. The paper also presents capabilities of current modeling and analysis tools available to investigate these issues. A pragmatic approach to an analysis is developed with the ultimate objective of improving the viability of nuclear energy as a heat source for process industries. The extension of nuclear energy to process heat industries would improve energy security and aid in reduction of carbon emissions by reducing demands for foreign derived fossil fuels. The paper begins with an overview of nuclear reactors and process application for potential use in an integrated system. Reactors are evaluated against specific characteristics that determine their compatibility with process applications such as heat outlet temperature. The reactor system categories include light water, heavy water, small to medium, near term high-temperature, and far term high temperature reactors. Low temperature process systems include desalination, district heating, and tar sands and shale oil recovery. High temperature processes that support hydrogen production include steam reforming, steam cracking, hydrogen production by electrolysis, and far-term applications such as the sulfur iodine chemical process and high-temperature electrolysis. A simple static matching between complementary systems is performed; however, to gain a true appreciation for system integration complexity, time dependent dynamic analysis is required. The paper identifies critical issues arising from dynamic complexity associated with integration of systems. Operational issues include scheduling conflicts and resource allocation for heat and electricity. Additionally, economic and safety considerations that could impact the successful integration of these systems are considered. Economic issues include the cost differential arising due to an integrated system

  7. Space reactor electric systems: system integration studies, Phase 1 report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, R.V.; Bost, D.; Determan, W.R.; Harty, R.B.; Katz, B.; Keshishian, V.; Lillie, A.F.; Thomson, W.B.

    1983-01-01

    This report presents the results of preliminary space reactor electric system integration studies performed by Rockwell International's Energy Systems Group (ESG). The preliminary studies investigated a broad range of reactor electric system concepts for powers of 25 and 100 KWe. The purpose of the studies was to provide timely system information of suitable accuracy to support ongoing mission planning activities. The preliminary system studies were performed by assembling the five different subsystems that are used in a system: the reactor, the shielding, the primary heat transport, the power conversion-processing, and the heat rejection subsystems. The subsystem data in this report were largely based on Rockwell's recently prepared Subsystem Technology Assessment Report. Nine generic types of reactor subsystems were used in these system studies. Several levels of technology were used for each type of reactor subsystem. Seven generic types of power conversion-processing subsystems were used, and several levels of technology were again used for each type. In addition, various types and levels of technology were used for the shielding, primary heat transport, and heat rejection subsystems. A total of 60 systems were studied

  8. Report from the Light Water Reactor Sustainability Workshop on On-Line Monitoring Technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldwin, Thomas; Tawfik, Magdy; Bond, Leonard

    2010-01-01

    In support of expanding the use of nuclear power, interest is growing in methods of determining the feasibility of longer term operation for the U.S. fleet of nuclear power plants, particularly operation beyond 60 years. To help establish the scientific and technical basis for such longer term operation, the DOE-NE has established a research and development (R and D) objective. This objective seeks to develop technologies and other solutions that can improve the reliability, sustain the safety, and extend the life of current reactors. The Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program, which addresses the needs of this objective, is being developed in collaboration with industry R and D programs to provide the technical foundations for licensing and managing the long-term, safe, and economical operation of nuclear power plants. The LWRS Program focus is on longer-term and higher-risk/reward research that contributes to the national policy objectives of energy and environmental security. In moving to identify priorities and plan activities, the Light Water Reactor Sustainability Workshop on On-Line Monitoring (OLM) Technologies was held June 10-12, 2010, in Seattle, Washington. The workshop was run to enable industry stakeholders and researchers to identify the nuclear industry needs in the areas of future OLM technologies and corresponding technology gaps and research capabilities. It also sought to identify approaches for collaboration that would be able to bridge or fill the technology gaps. This report is the meeting proceedings, documenting the presentations and discussions of the workshop and is intended to serve as a basis for a plan which is under development that will enable the I and C research pathway to achieve its goals. Benefits to the nuclear industry accruing from On Line Monitoring Technology cannot be ignored. Information gathered thus far has contributed significantly to the Department of Energy's Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program. DOE

  9. Report from the Light Water Reactor Sustainability Workshop on On-Line Monitoring Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas Baldwin; Magdy Tawfik; Leonard Bond

    2010-06-01

    In support of expanding the use of nuclear power, interest is growing in methods of determining the feasibility of longer term operation for the U.S. fleet of nuclear power plants, particularly operation beyond 60 years. To help establish the scientific and technical basis for such longer term operation, the DOE-NE has established a research and development (R&D) objective. This objective seeks to develop technologies and other solutions that can improve the reliability, sustain the safety, and extend the life of current reactors. The Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program, which addresses the needs of this objective, is being developed in collaboration with industry R&D programs to provide the technical foundations for licensing and managing the long-term, safe, and economical operation of nuclear power plants. The LWRS Program focus is on longer-term and higher-risk/reward research that contributes to the national policy objectives of energy and environmental security. In moving to identify priorities and plan activities, the Light Water Reactor Sustainability Workshop on On-Line Monitoring (OLM) Technologies was held June 10–12, 2010, in Seattle, Washington. The workshop was run to enable industry stakeholders and researchers to identify the nuclear industry needs in the areas of future OLM technologies and corresponding technology gaps and research capabilities. It also sought to identify approaches for collaboration that would be able to bridge or fill the technology gaps. This report is the meeting proceedings, documenting the presentations and discussions of the workshop and is intended to serve as a basis for a plan which is under development that will enable the I&C research pathway to achieve its goals. Benefits to the nuclear industry accruing from On Line Monitoring Technology cannot be ignored. Information gathered thus far has contributed significantly to the Department of Energy’s Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program. DOE has

  10. Sensitivity Studies of Advanced Reactors Coupled to High Temperature Electrolysis (HTE) Hydrogen Production Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwin A. Harvego; Michael G. McKellar; James E. O'Brien; J. Stephen Herring

    2007-01-01

    High Temperature Electrolysis (HTE), when coupled to an advanced nuclear reactor capable of operating at reactor outlet temperatures of 800 C to 950 C, has the potential to efficiently produce the large quantities of hydrogen needed to meet future energy and transportation needs. To evaluate the potential benefits of nuclear-driven hydrogen production, the UniSim process analysis software was used to evaluate different reactor concepts coupled to a reference HTE process design concept. The reference HTE concept included an Intermediate Heat Exchanger and intermediate helium loop to separate the reactor primary system from the HTE process loops and additional heat exchangers to transfer reactor heat from the intermediate loop to the HTE process loops. The two process loops consisted of the water/steam loop feeding the cathode side of a HTE electrolysis stack, and the steam or air sweep loop used to remove oxygen from the anode side. The UniSim model of the process loops included pumps to circulate the working fluids and heat exchangers to recover heat from the oxygen and hydrogen product streams to improve the overall hydrogen production efficiencies. The reference HTE process loop model was coupled to separate UniSim models developed for three different advanced reactor concepts (a high-temperature helium cooled reactor concept and two different supercritical CO2 reactor concepts). Sensitivity studies were then performed to evaluate the affect of reactor outlet temperature on the power cycle efficiency and overall hydrogen production efficiency for each of the reactor power cycles. The results of these sensitivity studies showed that overall power cycle and hydrogen production efficiencies increased with reactor outlet temperature, but the power cycle producing the highest efficiencies varied depending on the temperature range considered

  11. Technology development for DUPIC process safeguards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, J S; Kim, H D; Lee, Y G; Kang, H Y; Cha, H R; Byeon, K H; Park, Y S; Choi, H N [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-07-01

    As the strategy for DUPIC(Direct Use of spent PWR fuel In CANDU reactor) process safeguards, the neutron detection method was introduced to account for nuclear materials in the whole DUPIC process by selectively measuring spontaneous fission neutron signals from {sup 244}Cm. DSNC was designed and manufactured to measure the account of curium in the fuel bundle and associated process samples in the DUPIC fuel cycle. The MCNP code had response profile along the length of the CANDU type fuel bundle. It was found experimentally that the output signal variation due to the overall azimuthal asymmetry was less than 0.2%. The longitudinal detection efficiency distribution at every position including both ends was kept less than 2% from the average value. Spent fuel standards almost similar to DUPIC process material were fabricated from a single spent PWR fuel rod and the performance verification of the DSNC is in progress under very high radiation environment. The results of this test will be eventually benchmarked with other sources such as code simulation, chemical analysis and gamma analysis. COREMAS-DUPIC has been developed for the accountability management of nuclear materials treated by DUPIC facility. This system is able to track the controlled nuclear materials maintaining the material inventory in near-real time and to generate the required material accountability records and reports. Concerning the containment and surveillance technology, a focused R and D effort is given to the development of unattended continuous monitoring system. Currently, the component technologies of radiation monitoring and surveillance have been established, and continued R and D efforts are given to the integration of the components into automatic safeguards diagnostics. (author).

  12. Software for the nuclear reactor dynamics study using time series processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valero, Esbel T.; Montesino, Maria E.

    1997-01-01

    The parametric monitoring in Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) permits the operational surveillance of nuclear reactor. The methods employed in order to process this information such as FFT, autoregressive models and other, have some limitations when those regimens in which appear strongly non-linear behaviors are analyzed. In last years the chaos theory has offered new ways in order to explain complex dynamic behaviors. This paper describes a software (ECASET) that allow, by time series processing from NPP's acquisition system, to characterize the nuclear reactor dynamic as a complex dynamical system. Here we show using ECASET's results the possibility of classifying the different regimens appearing in nuclear reactors. The results of several temporal series processing from real systems are introduced. This type of analysis complements the results obtained with traditional methods and can constitute a new tool for monitoring nuclear reactors. (author). 13 refs., 3 figs

  13. Advanced Reactor Technology Options for Utilization and Transmutation of Actinides in Spent Nuclear Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-09-01

    Renewed interest in the potential of nuclear energy to contribute to a sustainable worldwide energy mix is strengthening the IAEA's statutory role in fostering the peaceful uses of nuclear energy, in particular the need for effective exchanges of information and collaborative research and technology development among Member States on advanced nuclear power technologies (Articles III-A.1 and III-A.3). The major challenges facing the long term development of nuclear energy as a part of the world's energy mix are improvement of the economic competitiveness, meeting increasingly stringent safety requirements, adhering to the criteria of sustainable development, and public acceptability. The concern linked to the long life of many of the radioisotopes generated from fission has led to increased R and D efforts to develop a technology aimed at reducing the amount of long lived radioactive waste through transmutation in fission reactors or accelerator driven hybrids. In recent years, in various countries and at an international level, more and more studies have been carried out on advanced and innovative waste management strategies (i.e. actinide separation and elimination). Within the framework of the Project on Technology Advances in Fast Reactors and Accelerator Driven Systems (http://www.iaea.org/inisnkm/nkm/aws/fnss/index.html), the IAEA initiated a number of activities on utilization of plutonium and transmutation of long lived radioactive waste, accelerator driven systems, thorium fuel options, innovative nuclear reactors and fuel cycles, non-conventional nuclear energy systems, and fusion/fission hybrids. These activities are implemented under the guidance and with the support of the IAEA Nuclear Energy Department's Technical Working Group on Fast Reactors (TWG-FR). This publication compiles the analyses and findings of the Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on Studies of Advanced Reactor Technology Options for Effective Incineration of Radioactive Waste (2002

  14. Advanced nuclear reactor safety issues and research needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    On 18-20 February 2002, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) organised, with the co-sponsorship of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and in collaboration with the European Commission (EC), a Workshop on Advanced Nuclear Reactor Safety Issues and Research Needs. Currently, advanced nuclear reactor projects range from the development of evolutionary and advanced light water reactor (LWR) designs to initial work to develop even further advanced designs which go beyond LWR technology (e.g. high-temperature gas-cooled reactors and liquid metal-cooled reactors). These advanced designs include a greater use of advanced technology and safety features than those employed in currently operating plants or approved designs. The objectives of the workshop were to: - facilitate early identification and resolution of safety issues by developing a consensus among participating countries on the identification of safety issues, the scope of research needed to address these issues and a potential approach to their resolution; - promote the preservation of knowledge and expertise on advanced reactor technology; - provide input to the Generation IV International Forum Technology Road-map. In addition, the workshop tried to link advancement of knowledge and understanding of advanced designs to the regulatory process, with emphasis on building public confidence. It also helped to document current views on advanced reactor safety and technology, thereby contributing to preserving knowledge and expertise before it is lost. (author)

  15. Hydrothermal Processing of Macroalgal Feedstocks in Continuous-Flow Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Hart, Todd R.; Neuenschwander, Gary G.; Rotness, Leslie J.; Roesijadi, Guri; Zacher, Alan H.; Magnuson, Jon K.

    2014-02-03

    Wet macroalgal slurries have been converted into a biocrude by hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) in a bench-scale continuous-flow reactor system. Carbon conversion to a gravity-separable oil product of 58.8% was accomplished at relatively low temperature (350 °C) in a pressurized (subcritical liquid water) environment (20 MPa) when using feedstock slurries with a 21.7% concentration of dry solids. As opposed to earlier work in batch reactors reported by others, direct oil recovery was achieved without the use of a solvent, and biomass trace mineral components were removed by processing steps so that they did not cause processing difficulties. In addition, catalytic hydrothermal gasification (CHG) was effectively applied for HTL byproduct water cleanup and fuel gas production from water-soluble organics. Conversion of 99.2% of the carbon left in the aqueous phase was demonstrated. Finally, as a result, high conversion of macroalgae to liquid and gas fuel products was found with low levels of residual organic contamination in byproduct water. Both process steps were accomplished in continuous-flow reactor systems such that design data for process scale-up was generated.

  16. Fusion reactor physics and technology. Progress report, October 1, 1978-June 30, 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conn, R.W.; Kulcinski, G.L.; Maynard, C.W.

    1979-01-01

    During the present contract period, work has been carried out in the following areas: (a) The NUWMAK tokamak reactor design was completed and distributed throughout the community. In particular, specific work was completed on divertorless tokamak operation in NUWMAK, Ti alloy assessment, materials resource implications of NUWMAK style reactors, and an economic analysis; (b) Tandem mirror reactor technology studies were carried out on tandem mirror physics, the role of rf heating, power balance studies, the design of high field magnets, and blanket/shield design in TMR's; (c) work at Wisconsin is contributing to the evolving picture of an optimum TMR; (d) the WHIST tokamak reactor plasma transport code developed at Wisconsin has been extended in two directions; (e) Work on ICRF heating in tokamak reactors, both in terms of physics and launching structure design, has been completed and published

  17. The status of fast reactor technology development in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Mi

    1998-01-01

    The paper will outline the main activities on fast reactor technology in China. In the year 1996, with the increasing of about 15 GWe installed electricity capacity, the total national electricity generation capacity has reached 225 GWe in the Country. Two nuclear power plants, Qinshan Phase 1 and Daya Bay have their rather good operation. The load factor of Qinshan Phase 1 was 84.7%. 76.1% and 64.1% for Daya Bay Unit 1 and Unit 2 respectively. During the Ninth 5-year (from 1996 to 2000) four NPPs Consisting of eight units of installed 6620MWe will be constructed. Under the framework of the High Technology Programme the Chinese Experimental Fast Reactor (CEFR) with the power 65MWth matched with 25MWe turbine-generator is still under preliminary design stage, which is sodium cooled pool type, (Pu,U)O 2 as fuel, in-core primary Went fuel storage, two mechanical pumps and four intermediate heat exchangers for primary circuit two loops for secondary circuits two independent immersed heat exchangers and air coolers with high stacks for passive residual heat removal system. Some design changes are presented in the paper. Concerning the R and D for the CEFR, besides the facilities already prepared, for demonstration of thermohydraulic characteristics of natural convection, a water simulation reactor pool facility in about one third scale is planned, in order to prepare the reactor physics experiments for its start-up, the zero power fast neutron facility with 50kg U-235 has been restored, for endurance testing of core subassemblies and getting some sodium loop operation experiences, Italian ESPRESSO and CEDI are under reconstruction in our lab. As for the engineering preparation of the project CEFR, the Feasibility Study Report was approved by Authorities on November last year. The site preparation and the design of incorporated to grid are just started. Finally, the activities of the international cooperation are presented in the paper. (author)

  18. Multi-physic simulations of irradiation experiments in a technological irradiation reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonaccorsi, Th.

    2007-09-01

    A Material Testing Reactor (MTR) makes it possible to irradiate material samples under intense neutron and photonic fluxes. These experiments are carried out in experimental devices localised in the reactor core or in periphery (reflector). Available physics simulation tools only treat, most of the time, one physics field in a very precise way. Multi-physic simulations of irradiation experiments therefore require a sequential use of several calculation codes and data exchanges between these codes: this corresponds to problems coupling. In order to facilitate multi-physic simulations, this thesis sets up a data model based on data-processing objects, called Technological Entities. This data model is common to all of the physics fields. It permits defining the geometry of an irradiation device in a parametric way and to associate information about materials to it. Numerical simulations are encapsulated into interfaces providing the ability to call specific functionalities with the same command (to initialize data, to launch calculations, to post-treat, to get results,... ). Thus, once encapsulated, numerical simulations can be re-used for various studies. This data model is developed in a SALOME platform component. The first application case made it possible to perform neutronic simulations (OSIRIS reactor and RJH) coupled with fuel behavior simulations. In a next step, thermal hydraulics could also be taken into account. In addition to the improvement of the calculation accuracy due to the physical phenomena coupling, the time spent in the development phase of the simulation is largely reduced and the possibilities of uncertainty treatment are under consideration. (author)

  19. Process automation using combinations of process and machine control technologies with application to a continuous dissolver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, B.B.; Yarbro, O.O.

    1991-01-01

    Operation of a continuous rotary dissolver, designed to leach uranium-plutonium fuel from chopped sections of reactor fuel cladding using nitric acid, has been automated. The dissolver is a partly continuous, partly batch process that interfaces at both ends with batchwise processes, thereby requiring synchronization of certain operations. Liquid acid is fed and flows through the dissolver continuously, whereas chopped fuel elements are fed to the dissolver in small batches and move through the compartments of the dissolver stagewise. Sequential logic (or machine control) techniques are used to control discrete activities such as the sequencing of isolation valves. Feedback control is used to control acid flowrates and temperatures. Expert systems technology is used for on-line material balances and diagnostics of process operation. 1 ref., 3 figs

  20. The status of fast reactor technology development in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, M.

    2002-01-01

    China, as a developing country with a great number of population and relatively less energy resources, reasonably emphasizes the nuclear energy utilization development. For the long term sustainable energy supply, as for nuclear application the basic strategy of PWR-FBR-Fusion has been settled and envisaged. Due to the economy and experience reasons the nuclear power and technology development with a moderate style are kept in China up to now. In China mainland apart from two NPPs with the total capacity of 2.1 GWe in operation, four NPPs are under construction and two NPPs are planned for the Tenth Five Year Plan (2001-2005). Also another one or two NPPs are still in discussion. It could be foreseen that the total nuclear power capacity will reach 8.5GWe before the year 2005 and 14-15 GWe before 2010 respectively. As the first step for the Chinese fast reactor engineering development the 65MWt China Experimental Fast Reactor (CEFR) is under construction. The main components of primary, secondary and tertiary circuits and of fuel handling system have been ordered. The reactor building under construction has reached 16.8m above the ground. Forty seven components and shielding doors have been installed. It is planned that the construction of reactor building with about 40,000m2 floor surface will be completed in the end of the year 2002 and envisaged that the first criticality of the CEFR will be in the end of 2005. The second step of the Chinese fast reactor engineering development is a 300MWe Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor which is only under consideration up to now. Some important technical selections have been settled, but its design has not yet started. (author)

  1. The Progress of Fast Reactor Technology Development in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Hongyi; Xu, Mi

    1994-01-01

    China, as a developing country with a great number of population and relatively less energy resources, reasonably emphasizes the nuclear energy utilization development. For the long term sustainable energy supply, as for nuclear application the basis strategy of PWR-FBR-Fusion has been settled and envisaged. Due to the economy and experience reasons the nuclear power and technology development with a moderate style are kept in China up to now. In China mainland apart from two NPPs with the total capacity of 2.1 GWe in operation, four NPPs are under construction and two NPPs are planned for the Tenth Five Year Plan(2001-2005). Also another one or two NPPs are still in discussion. It could be foreseen that the total nuclear power capacity will reach 8.5GWe before the year 2005 and 14-15 GWe before respectively. As the first step for the Chinese fast reactor engineering development the 65MWt China Experimental Fast Reactor(CEFR) is under construction. The main components of primary, secondary and tertiary circuits and of fuel handling system have been ordered. The reactor building under construction has reached the top namely 57m above the ground. More than one hundred components and shielding doors have been installed. It is planned that the construction of reactor building with about 40,000m 2 floor surface will be completed in the end of the year 2002 and envisaged that the first criticality of the CEFR will be in the end of 2005. The second step of the Chinese fast reactor engineering development is a 300MWe Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor which in only under consideration up to now. Some important technical selections have been settled, but its design has not yet started

  2. High temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) graphite pebble fuel: Review of technologies for reprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mcwilliams, A. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-09-08

    This report reviews literature on reprocessing high temperature gas-cooled reactor graphite fuel components. A basic review of the various fuel components used in the pebble bed type reactors is provided along with a survey of synthesis methods for the fabrication of the fuel components. Several disposal options are considered for the graphite pebble fuel elements including the storage of intact pebbles, volume reduction by separating the graphite from fuel kernels, and complete processing of the pebbles for waste storage. Existing methods for graphite removal are presented and generally consist of mechanical separation techniques such as crushing and grinding chemical techniques through the use of acid digestion and oxidation. Potential methods for reprocessing the graphite pebbles include improvements to existing methods and novel technologies that have not previously been investigated for nuclear graphite waste applications. The best overall method will be dependent on the desired final waste form and needs to factor in the technical efficiency, political concerns, cost, and implementation.

  3. Study of the diversity of microbial communities in a sequencing batch reactor oxic-settling-anaerobic process and its modified process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lianpeng; Chen, Jianfan; Wei, Xiange; Guo, Wuzhen; Lin, Meishan; Yu, Xiaoyu

    2016-05-01

    To further reveal the mechanism of sludge reduction in the oxic-settling-anaerobic (OSA) process, the polymerase chain reaction - denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis protocol was used to study the possible difference in the microbial communities between a sequencing batch reactor (SBR)-OSA process and its modified process, by analyzing the change in the diversity of the microbial communities in each reactor of both systems. The results indicated that the structure of the microbial communities in aerobic reactors of the 2 processes was very different, but the predominant microbial populations in anaerobic reactors were similar. The predominant microbial population in the aerobic reactor of the SBR-OSA belonged to Burkholderia cepacia, class Betaproteobacteria, while those of the modified process belonged to the classes Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, and Gammaproteobacteria. These 3 types of microbes had a cryptic growth characteristic, which was the main cause of a greater sludge reduction efficiency achieved by the modified process.

  4. Molten-salt converter reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perry, A.M.

    1975-01-01

    Molten-salt reactors appear to have substantial promise as advanced converters. Conversion ratios of 0.85 to 0.9 should be attainable with favourable fuel cycle costs, with 235 U valued at $12/g. An increase in 235 U value by a factor of two or three ($10 to $30/lb. U 3 O 8 , $75/SWU) would be expected to increase the optimum conversion ratio, but this has not been analyzed in detail. The processing necessary to recover uranium from the fuel salt has been partially demonstrated in the MSRE. The equipment for doing this would be located at the reactor, and there would be no reliance on an established recycle industry. Processing costs are expected to be quite low, and fuel cycle optimization depends primarily on inventory and burnup or replacement costs for the fuel and for the carrier salt. Significant development problems remain to be resolved for molten-salt reactors, notably the control of tritium and the elimination of intergranular cracking of Hastelloy-N in contact with tellurium. However, these problems appear to be amenable to solution. It is appropriate to consider separating the development schedule for molten-salt reactors from that for the processing technology required for breeding. The Molten-Salt Converter Reactor should be a useful reactor in its own right and would be an advance towards the achievement of true breeding in thermal reactors. (author)

  5. Research program of the high temperature engineering test reactor for upgrading the HTGR technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunitomi, Kazuhiko; Tachibana, Yukio; Takeda, Takeshi; Saikusa, Akio; Sawa, Kazuhiro

    1997-07-01

    The High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) is a graphite-moderated and helium-cooled reactor with an outlet power of 30 MW and outlet coolant temperature of 950degC, and its first criticality will be attained at the end of 1997. In the HTTR, researches establishing and upgrading the technology basis necessary for an HTGR and innovative basic researches for a high temperature engineering will be conducted. A research program of the HTTR for upgrading the technology basis for the HTGR was determined considering realization of future generation commercial HTGRs. This paper describes a research program of the HTTR. (author)

  6. Licensing process for future applications of advanced-design nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, C.L.

    1990-01-01

    The existing 10CFR50 two-step licensing process in the Code of Federal Regulations can continue to be a viable licensing vehicle for future applications, at least for the near future. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Commissioners and staff, the public, and the utilities (along with supporting architect/engineers and nuclear steam supply system vendors) have a vast body of experience and knowledge of the existing part 50 licensing process. All these participants are familiar with their respective roles in this process, and history shows this process to be a workable licensing vehicle. Nevertheless, the use of 10CFR52 should be encouraged for future applications. This proposed new rule is intended to achieve the early resolution of licensing issues, to reduce the complexity and uncertainty of the licensing process, and enhance the safety and reliability of nuclear power plants. Part 52's overall purpose is to improve reactor safety and streamline the licensing process by encouraging the use of standard reactor designs and by allowing the early resolution of site environmental and reactor safety issues. The public should be afforded an earlier entry into the licensing process as a result of design certification rulemaking process and combined construction permit/operating license hearings

  7. Contemporary pressurized water reactor technology in the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komarek, A.

    1991-01-01

    The recent political events enabled Czechoslovak industrial companies to come into direct contact with leading western companies involved in pressurized water ractor technology. A survey is presented of the present situation at the world market of PWR type nuclear power plant suppliers and suppliers of fuel cycle services. Information is given on the potential bids for the next Czechoslovak nuclear power plants with PWR reactors. Economic aspects of the potential bids are presented including some considerations about the participation of the Czechoslovak nuclear industry as a supplier of the reactor for the future power plants. Main technical parameters are listed of PWR units with an output about 1000 MW supplied by Westinghouse EC, ABB -Combustion Engineering and Siemens AG. At present, the bids for new Czechoslovak nuclear power plants are being evaluated. No information on terms of the bids actually coming from foreign companies is used in the article. (Z.S.). 9 figs., 5 tabs

  8. Directions in advanced reactor technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golay, M.W.

    1990-01-01

    Successful nuclear power plant concepts must simultaneously performance in terms of both safety and economics. To be attractive to both electric utility companies and the public, such plants must produce economical electric energy consistent with a level of safety which is acceptable to both the public and the plant owner. Programs for reactor development worldwide can be classified according to whether the reactor concept pursues improved safety or improved economic performance as the primary objective. When improved safety is the primary goal, safety enters the solution of the design problem as a constraint which restricts the set of allowed solutions. Conversely, when improved economic performance is the primary goal, it is allowed to be pursued only to an extent which is compatible with stringent safety requirements. The three major reactor coolants under consideration for future advanced reactor use are water, helium and sodium. Reactor development programs focuses upon safety and upon economics using each coolant are being pursued worldwide. These programs are discussed

  9. Integration of improved decontamination and characterization technologies in the decommissioning of the CP-5 research reactor, United States of America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boing, L E; Bhattacharyya, S K [Technology Development Division, Decommissioning Program, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (United States)

    2002-02-01

    The aging of research reactors worldwide has resulted in a heightened awareness in the international decommissioning community of the timeliness to review and address the needs of research reactor operators in planning for and eventually performing the decommissioning of these types of facilities. Many reactors already undergoing decommissioning can be used as test beds for evaluating enhanced or new/innovative technologies for decommissioning; it is possible that new techniques could be made available for future research reactor-decommissioning projects. Potentially, the new technologies will result in: reduced radiation doses to the work force, larger safety margins in performing decommissioning and cost and schedule savings to the decommissioners in performing the decommissioning of these facilities. Testing of these enhanced technologies for decontamination, dismantling, characterization, remote operations and worker protection are critical to furthering advancements in the technical specialty of decommissioning. Furthermore, regulatory acceptance and routine utilization for future research decommissioning will be assured by testing and developing these technologies in realistically contaminated environments prior to their use in actual research reactor decommissioning. The decommissioning of the CP-5 Research Reactor located at the ANL-East Site has been completed. In this paper we present results of work performed at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) in the development, testing and deployment of innovative and/or enhanced technologies for the decommissioning of research reactors. In addition, details are provided on other related U.S. D and D activities, which may be useful to the international research reactor D and D community. (author)

  10. Integration of improved decontamination and characterization technologies in the decommissioning of the CP-5 research reactor, United States of America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boing, L.E.; Bhattacharyya, S.K.

    2002-01-01

    The aging of research reactors worldwide has resulted in a heightened awareness in the international decommissioning community of the timeliness to review and address the needs of research reactor operators in planning for and eventually performing the decommissioning of these types of facilities. Many reactors already undergoing decommissioning can be used as test beds for evaluating enhanced or new/innovative technologies for decommissioning; it is possible that new techniques could be made available for future research reactor-decommissioning projects. Potentially, the new technologies will result in: reduced radiation doses to the work force, larger safety margins in performing decommissioning and cost and schedule savings to the decommissioners in performing the decommissioning of these facilities. Testing of these enhanced technologies for decontamination, dismantling, characterization, remote operations and worker protection are critical to furthering advancements in the technical specialty of decommissioning. Furthermore, regulatory acceptance and routine utilization for future research decommissioning will be assured by testing and developing these technologies in realistically contaminated environments prior to their use in actual research reactor decommissioning. The decommissioning of the CP-5 Research Reactor located at the ANL-East Site has been completed. In this paper we present results of work performed at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) in the development, testing and deployment of innovative and/or enhanced technologies for the decommissioning of research reactors. In addition, details are provided on other related U.S. D and D activities, which may be useful to the international research reactor D and D community. (author)

  11. Advanced technologies for water cooled reactors 1990. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-05-01

    The meeting was attended by 20 participants from 12 countries who reviewed and discussed the status and progress of national programmes on advanced water-cooled reactors and recommended to the Scientific Secretary a comprehensive programme for 1991/1992 which would support technology development programmes in IWGATWR Member States. This summary report outlines the activities of IWGATWR since its Second Meeting in June 1988 and main results of the Third Meeting

  12. Proposed Advanced Reactor Adaptation of the Standard Review Plan NUREG-0800 Chapter 4 (Reactor) for Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactors and Modular High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belles, Randy [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Poore, III, Willis P. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Brown, Nicholas R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Flanagan, George F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Holbrook, Mark [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Moe, Wayne [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Sofu, Tanju [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2017-03-01

    This report proposes adaptation of the previous regulatory gap analysis in Chapter 4 (Reactor) of NUREG 0800, Standard Review Plan (SRP) for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants: LWR [Light Water Reactor] Edition. The proposed adaptation would result in a Chapter 4 review plan applicable to certain advanced reactors. This report addresses two technologies: the sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) and the modular high temperature gas-cooled reactor (mHTGR). SRP Chapter 4, which addresses reactor components, was selected for adaptation because of the possible significant differences in advanced non-light water reactor (non-LWR) technologies compared with the current LWR-based description in Chapter 4. SFR and mHTGR technologies were chosen for this gap analysis because of their diverse designs and the availability of significant historical design detail.

  13. Identification of process dynamics. Stability monitoring in BWR type reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrahamsson, P.; Hallgren, P.

    1991-06-01

    Identification of process dynamics is used for stability monitoring in nuclear reactors (Boiling Water Reactor). This report treats the problem of estimating a damping factor and a resonance frequency from the neutron flux as measured in the reactor. A new parametric online method for identification is derived and presented, and is shown to meet the requirements of stability monitoring. The technique for estimating the process parameters is based on a recursive lattice filter algorithm. The problem of time varying parameters and offset, as well as offline experiments and signal processing are treated. All parts are implemented in a realtime program, using the language C. In comparison with earlier identifications, the new way of estimating the damping factor is shown to work well. Estimates of both the damping factor and the resonance frequency show a stable and reliable behavior. Future development and improvements are also indicated. (au)

  14. Physical and economical aspects of Pu multiple recycling on the basis of REMIX reprocessing technology in thermal reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teplov, P.S.; Alekseev, P.N.; Bobrov, E.A.; Chibinyaev, A.V.

    2016-01-01

    The basic strategy of Russian nuclear energy is propagation of a closed fuel cycle on the basis of fast breeder and thermal reactors, as well as the solution of the spent nuclear fuel accumulation and resource problems. The 3 variants of multiple Pu and U recycling in Russian pressurized water reactor concept reactors on the basis of Regenerated Mixture of U, Pu oxides (REMIX) reprocessing technology are considered in this work. The REMIX fuel is fabricated from an un-separated mixture of uranium and plutonium obtained during spent fuel reprocessing with further makeup by enriched natural U or reactor grade Pu. This makes it possible to recycle several times the total amount of Pu obtained from the spent fuel. The main difference in Pu recycling is the concept of 100% or partial fuel loading of the core. The third variant is heterogeneous composition of enriched uranium and uranium-plutonium mixed oxide fuel pins in one fuel assembly. It should be noted that all fuel assemblies with Pu require the involvement of expensive technologies during manufacturing. These 3 variants of the full core loadings can be balanced on zero Pu accumulation in the cycle. The various physical and economical aspects of Pu and U multiple recycling in selected variants are presented in the given work. The better results in natural uranium savings can be achieved for the standard REMIX(UOX) approach. The usage of regenerated materials in thermal power reactors gives not more than 30% saving of natural uranium consumption. It is important to note that the use of REMIX technology in the closed fuel cycle is more expensive than the open fuel cycle with direct spent fuel disposal. It is also important to see that uranium multiple recycling in the REMIX fuel form or using the re-enrichment process leads to the degradation of the uranium isotope composition. The "2"3"6U and "2"3"2U concentrations in the fuel are increasing and the regenerated uranium treatment becomes more complicated

  15. Alternative breeder reactor technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinrad, B.I.

    1978-01-01

    The significance of employing breeder reactors to stretch the world resources of nuclear fuels is briefly discussed, and the various types of breeder concepts are described. General descriptions, advantages, and disadvantages of the liquid metal cooled fast breeder, gas cooled fast breeder, molten salt breeder, thermal breeders, and spectral-shift control reactors are presented. Aspects of safeguarding fissile material connected with breeder operation are examined. 31 references

  16. Photo-catalytic reactors for in-building grey water reuse. Comparison with biological processes and market potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jefferson, B.; Murray, C.; Diaper, C.; Parsons, S.A.; Jeffrey, P. [School of Water Sciences, Cranfield Univ., Cranfield, Bedfordshire (United Kingdom); Bedel, C. [Dept. of Industrial Process, National Inst. of Applied Sciences (France); Centeno, C. [Dept. of the Faculty of Engineering, Univ. of Santo Tomas, Manila (Philippines)

    2003-07-01

    Photo catalytic reactors potentially have a market in the reuse of grey water as they do not suffer from problems associated with toxic shocks and can be compact. The process is dependant upon the ratio of TOC to TiO{sub 2} concentration such that a greater proportion of the feed is degraded when either are increased. Economic assessment of grey water recycling showed both scale of operation and regional location to be the two most important factors in deciding the financial acceptability of any reuse technology. Overall the assessment suggested that photo catalytic oxidation (PCO) technology was suitable for grey water recycling and that the technology should be marketed at large buildings such as residential accommodation and offices. (orig.)

  17. Data acquisition and processing system for reactor noise analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa Oliveira, J.; Morais Da Veiga, C.; Forjaz Trigueiros, D.; Pombo Duarte, J.

    1975-01-01

    A data acquisition and processing system for reactor noise analysis by time correlation methods is described, consisting in one to four data feeding channels (transducer, associated electronics and V/f converter), a sampling unit, a landline transmission system and a PDP 15 computer. This system is being applied to study the kinetic parameters of the 'Reactor Portugues de Investigacao', a swimming-pool 1MW reactor. The main features that make such a data acquisition and processing system a useful tool to perform noise analysis are: the improved characteristics of analog-to-digital converters employed to quantize the signals; the use of an on-line computer which allows a great accumulation and a rapid treatment of data together with an easy check of the correctness of the experiments; and the adoption of the time cross-correlation technique using two-detectors which by-pass the limitation of low efficiency detectors. (author)

  18. Astrid (fast breeder nuclear reactor)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This document presents ASTRID (Advanced Sodium Technological Reactor for Industrial Demonstration), a French project of sodium-cooled fast breeder reactor, fourth generation reactor which should be fuelled by uranium 238 rather than uranium 235, and should therefore need less extracted natural uranium to produce electricity. The operation principle of fast breeder reactors is described. They notably directly consume plutonium, allow an easier radioactive waste management as they transform long life radioactive elements into shorter life elements by transmutation. The regeneration process is briefly described, and the various operation modes are evoked (iso-generator, sub-generator, and breeder). Some peculiarities of sodium-cooled reactors are outlined. The Astrid operation principle is described, its main design innovations outlined. Various challenges are discussed regarding safety of supply and waste processing, and the safety of future reactors. Major actors are indicated: CEA, Areva, EDF, SEIV Alcen, Toshiba, Rolls Royce, and Comex. Some key data are indicated: expected lifetime, expected availability rate, cost. The projected site is Marcoule and fast breeder reactors operated or under construction in the world are indicated. The document also proposes an overview of the background and evolution of reactors of 4. generation

  19. Conceptual Process for the Manufacture of Low-Enriched Uranium/Molybdenum Fuel for the High Flux Isotope Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sease, J.D.; Primm, R.T. III; Miller, J.H.

    2007-01-01

    bounds of known technology and are adaptable to the high-volume production required to process ∼ 2.5 to 4 tons of U/Mo and produce ∼16,000 flat plates for U.S. reactors annually (∼10,000 of which are needed for HFIR operations). The reference flow sheet is not intended to necessarily represent the best or the most economical way to manufacture a LEU foil fuel for HFIR but simply represents a 'snapshot' in time of technology and is intended to identify the process steps that will likely be required to manufacture a foil fuel. Changes in some of the process steps selected for the reference flow sheet are inevitable; however, no one step or series of steps dominates the overall flow sheet requirements. A result of conceptualizing a reference flow sheet was the identification of the greater number of steps required for a foil process when compared to the dispersion fuel process. Additionally, in most of the foil processing steps, bare uranium must be handled, increasing the complexity of these processing areas relative to current operations. Based on a likely total cost of a few hundred million dollars for a new facility, it is apparent that line item funding will be necessary and could take as much as 8 to 10 years to complete. The infrastructure cost could exceed $100M

  20. Conceptual Process for the Manufacture of Low-Enriched Uranium/Molybdenum Fuel for the High Flux Isotope Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sease, J.D.; Primm, R.T. III; Miller, J.H.

    2007-09-30

    within the bounds of known technology and are adaptable to the high-volume production required to process {approx} 2.5 to 4 tons of U/Mo and produce {approx}16,000 flat plates for U.S. reactors annually ({approx}10,000 of which are needed for HFIR operations). The reference flow sheet is not intended to necessarily represent the best or the most economical way to manufacture a LEU foil fuel for HFIR but simply represents a 'snapshot' in time of technology and is intended to identify the process steps that will likely be required to manufacture a foil fuel. Changes in some of the process steps selected for the reference flow sheet are inevitable; however, no one step or series of steps dominates the overall flow sheet requirements. A result of conceptualizing a reference flow sheet was the identification of the greater number of steps required for a foil process when compared to the dispersion fuel process. Additionally, in most of the foil processing steps, bare uranium must be handled, increasing the complexity of these processing areas relative to current operations. Based on a likely total cost of a few hundred million dollars for a new facility, it is apparent that line item funding will be necessary and could take as much as 8 to 10 years to complete. The infrastructure cost could exceed $100M.

  1. Dynamic Complexity Study of Nuclear Reactor and Process Heat Application Integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J' Tia Patrice Taylor; David E. Shropshire

    2009-09-01

    Abstract This paper describes the key obstacles and challenges facing the integration of nuclear reactors with process heat applications as they relate to dynamic issues. The paper also presents capabilities of current modeling and analysis tools available to investigate these issues. A pragmatic approach to an analysis is developed with the ultimate objective of improving the viability of nuclear energy as a heat source for process industries. The extension of nuclear energy to process heat industries would improve energy security and aid in reduction of carbon emissions by reducing demands for foreign derived fossil fuels. The paper begins with an overview of nuclear reactors and process application for potential use in an integrated system. Reactors are evaluated against specific characteristics that determine their compatibility with process applications such as heat outlet temperature. The reactor system categories include light water, heavy water, small to medium, near term high-temperature, and far term high temperature reactors. Low temperature process systems include desalination, district heating, and tar sands and shale oil recovery. High temperature processes that support hydrogen production include steam reforming, steam cracking, hydrogen production by electrolysis, and far-term applications such as the sulfur iodine chemical process and high-temperature electrolysis. A simple static matching between complementary systems is performed; however, to gain a true appreciation for system integration complexity, time dependent dynamic analysis is required. The paper identifies critical issues arising from dynamic complexity associated with integration of systems. Operational issues include scheduling conflicts and resource allocation for heat and electricity. Additionally, economic and safety considerations that could impact the successful integration of these systems are considered. Economic issues include the cost differential arising due to an integrated

  2. Regulatory Risk Reduction for Advanced Reactor Technologies – FY2016 Status and Work Plan Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moe, Wayne Leland [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Millions of public and private sector dollars have been invested over recent decades to realize greater efficiency, reliability, and the inherent and passive safety offered by advanced nuclear reactor technologies. However, a major challenge in experiencing those benefits resides in the existing U.S. regulatory framework. This framework governs all commercial nuclear plant construction, operations, and safety issues and is highly large light water reactor (LWR) technology centric. The framework must be modernized to effectively deal with non-LWR advanced designs if those designs are to become part of the U.S energy supply. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Advanced Reactor Technologies (ART) Regulatory Risk Reduction (RRR) initiative, managed by the Regulatory Affairs Department at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), is establishing a capability that can systematically retire extraneous licensing risks associated with regulatory framework incompatibilities. This capability proposes to rely heavily on the perspectives of the affected regulated community (i.e., commercial advanced reactor designers/vendors and prospective owner/operators) yet remain tuned to assuring public safety and acceptability by regulators responsible for license issuance. The extent to which broad industry perspectives are being incorporated into the proposed framework makes this initiative unique and of potential benefit to all future domestic non-LWR applicants

  3. Maintaining a technology-neutral approach to hydrogen production process development through conceptual design of the next generation nuclear plant - HTR2008-58191

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, M. W.; Park, C. V.

    2008-01-01

    The Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPAct) charges the Dept. of Energy (DOE) with developing and demonstrating the technical and economic feasibility of using high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) technology for the production of electricity and/or hydrogen. The design, construction and demonstration of this technology in an HTGR proto-type reactor are termed the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. Currently, parallel development of three hydrogen production processes will continue until a single process technology is recommended for final demonstration in the NGNP - a technology neutral approach. This analysis compares the technology neutral approach to acceleration of the hydrogen process down-selection at the completion of the NGNP conceptual design to improve integration of the hydrogen process development and NGNP Project schedule. The accelerated schedule activities are based on completing evaluations and achieving technology readiness levels (TRLs) identified in NGNP systems engineering and technology road-maps. The cost impact of accelerating the schedule and risk reduction strategies was also evaluated. The NGNP Project intends to design and construct a component test facility (CTF) to support testing and demonstration of HTGR technologies, including those for hydrogen production. The demonstrations will support scheduled design and licensing activities, leading to subsequent construction and operation of the NGNP. Demonstrations in the CTF are expected to start about two years earlier than similarly scaled hydrogen demonstrations planned in the technology neutral baseline. The schedule evaluation assumed that hydrogen process testing would be performed in the CTF and synchronized the progression of hydrogen process development with CTF availability. (authors)

  4. High temperature fast reactor for hydrogen production in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nascimento, Jamil A. do; Ono, Shizuca; Guimaraes, Lamartine N.F.

    2008-01-01

    The main nuclear reactors technology for the Generation IV, on development phase for utilization after 2030, is the fast reactor type with high temperature output to improve the efficiency of the thermo-electric conversion process and to enable applications of the generated heat in industrial process. Currently, water electrolysis and thermo chemical cycles using very high temperature are studied for large scale and long-term hydrogen production, in the future. With the possible oil scarcity and price rise, and the global warming, this application can play an important role in the changes of the world energy matrix. In this context, it is proposed a fast reactor with very high output temperature, ∼ 1000 deg C. This reactor will have a closed fuel cycle; it will be cooled by lead and loaded with nitride fuel. This reactor may be used for hydrogen, heat and electricity production in Brazil. It is discussed a development strategy of the necessary technologies and some important problems are commented. The proposed concept presents characteristics that meet the requirements of the Generation IV reactor class. (author)

  5. Decision-making process to shut down, refurbish/modify, or decommission research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stover, R.L.; Murphie, W.E.

    1992-01-01

    Most US research reactors were built more than 20 years ago and some more than 40 years ago. Many have undergone refurbishments and modifications to update their safety systems and experimental capabilities. But changing safety bases, social concerns, and budget constraints have required research reactor operators to continually make decisions to shut down or refurbish/modify their facilities. These decisions involve potential replacement of reactor equipment that has reached its lifetime limits. Changes in philosophy and operation of the reactors are also factors to be considered. In this paper, each of the four factors involved in the decision-making process are discussed in detail. Then, several examples from DOE research reactors in the United States are discussed. Finally, some general conclusions are given to aid in the decision-making process

  6. Technology development program for safe shipment of spent fuel from liquid metal fast breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freedman, J.M.; Humphreys, J.R.

    1975-10-01

    A comprehensive plan to develop shipping cask technology is described. Technical programs in the disciplines of heat transfer, structures and containment, spent fuel characterization, hot laboratory verification, shielding, and hazards analysis are discussed. Both short- and long-term goals in each discipline are delineated and how the disciplines interrelate is shown. The technologies developed will be used in the design, fabrication, and testing of truck-mounted and rail-car casks. These casks will be used for safely transporting short-cooled, high-burnup Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) spent fuel from reactors to reprocessing plants

  7. Development on the cryogenic hydrogen isotopes distillation process technology for tritium removal (Final report)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, Ki Woung; Kim, Yong Ik; Na, Jeong Won; Ku, Jae Hyu; Kim, Kwang Rak; Jeong, Yong Won; Lee, Han Soo; Cho, Young Hyun; Ahn, Do Hee; Baek, Seung Woo; Kang, Hee Seok; Kim, You Sun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-01

    While tritium exposure to the site-workers in Wolsung NPP is up to about 40% of the total personnel exposure, Ministry of Science and Technology has asked tritium removal facility for requirement of post heavy-water reactor construction. For the purpose of essential removal of tritium from the Wolsung heavy-water reactor system, a preliminary study on the cryogenic Ar-N{sub 2} and H{sub 2}-D{sub 2} distillation process for development of liquid-phase catalytic exchange cryogenic hydrogen distillation process technology. The Ar-N{sub 2} distillation column showed good performance with approximately 97% of final Ar concentration, and a computer simulation code was modified using these data. A simulation code developed for cryogenic hydrogen isotopes (H{sub 2}, HD, D{sub 2}, HT, DT, T{sub 2}) distillation column showed good performance after comparison with the result of a JAERI code, and a H{sub 2}-D{sub 2} distillation column was made. Gas chromatography for hydrogen isotopes analysis was established using a vacuum sampling loop, and a schematic diagram of H{sub 2}-D{sub 2} distillation process was suggested. A feasibility on modification of H{sub 2}-D{sub 2} distillation process control system using Laser Raman Spectroscopy was studied, and the consideration points for tritium storage system for Wolsung tritium removal facility was suggested. 31 tabs., 79 figs., 68 refs. (Author).

  8. Fast reactors bulk sodium coolant disposal NOAH process application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magny, E. de; Berte, M.

    1997-01-01

    Within the frame of the fast reactors decommissioning, the becoming of contaminated sodium coolant from primary, secondary and auxiliary circuits is an important aspect. The 'NOAH' sodium disposal process, developed by the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), is presented as the only process, for destroying large quantities of contaminated sodium, that has attained industrial status. The principles and technical options of the process are described and main advantages such as safety , operating simplicity and compactness of the plant are put forward. The process has been industrially validated in 1993/1994 by successfully reacting the 37 metric tons of primary contaminated sodium from the French Rapsodie experimental reactor. The main outstanding aspects and experience gained from this so called 'DESORA' operation (DEstruction of SOdium from RApsodie) are recalled. Another industrial application concerns the current project for destroying more than 1500 metric tons of contaminated sodium from the British PFR (Prototype Fast Reactor) in Scotland. Although the design is in the continuity of DESORA, it has taken into account the specific requirements of PFR application and the experience feed back from Rapsodie. The main technical options and performances of the PFR sodium reaction unit are presented while mentioning the design evolution. (author)

  9. Modern control technology for improved nuclear reactor performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oakes, L.C.

    1986-01-01

    One of the main complaints leveled at reactor control systems by utility spokesmen is complexity. One only has to look inside a power reactor control room to appreciate this viewpoint. The high reliability and versatility of modern microprocessors makes possible distributed control systems with only performance data and abnormal conditions being relayed to the control room. In a sense, this emulates the human-body control system where routine repetitive actions are handled in an involuntary manner. The significance of expert systems to the nuclear reactor control and safety systems is their ability to capture human and other expertise and make it available, upon demand, and under almost all circumstances. Thus, human problem-solving skills acquired by the learning process over a long period of time can be captured and employed with the reliability inherent in computers. This is especially important in nuclear plants when human operators are burdened by stress and emotional factors that have a dramatic effect on performance level

  10. Nuclear rocket engine reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanin, Anatoly

    2013-07-01

    Covers a new technology of nuclear reactors and the related materials aspects. Integrates physics, materials science and engineering Serves as a basic book for nuclear engineers and nuclear physicists. The development of a nuclear rocket engine reactor (NRER) is presented in this book. The working capacity of an active zone NRER under mechanical and thermal load, intensive neutron fluxes, high energy generation (up to 30 MBT/l) in a working medium (hydrogen) at temperatures up to 3100 K is displayed. Design principles and bearing capacity of reactors area discussed on the basis of simulation experiments and test data of a prototype reactor. Property data of dense constructional, porous thermal insulating and fuel materials like carbide and uranium carbide compounds in the temperatures interval 300 - 3000 K are presented. Technological aspects of strength and thermal strength resistance of materials are considered. The design procedure of possible emergency processes in the NRER is developed and risks for their origination are evaluated. Prospects of the NRER development for pilotless space devices and piloted interplanetary ships are viewed.

  11. Process/Equipment Co-Simulation on Syngas Chemical Looping Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Liang; Zhou, Qiang; Fan, Liang-Shih

    2012-09-30

    The chemical looping strategy for fossil energy applications promises to achieve an efficient energy conversion system for electricity, liquid fuels, hydrogen and/or chemicals generation, while economically separate CO{sub 2} by looping reaction design in the process. Chemical looping particle performance, looping reactor engineering, and process design and applications are the key drivers to the success of chemical looping process development. In order to better understand and further scale up the chemical looping process, issues such as cost, time, measurement, safety, and other uncertainties need to be examined. To address these uncertainties, advanced reaction/reactor modeling and process simulation are highly desired and the modeling efforts can accelerate the chemical looping technology development, reduce the pilot-scale facility design time and operating campaigns, as well as reduce the cost and technical risks. The purpose of this work is thus to conduct multiscale modeling and simulations on the key aspects of chemical looping technology, including particle reaction kinetics, reactor design and operation, and process synthesis and optimization.

  12. Maintaining a Technology-Neutral Approach to Hydrogen Production Process Development through Conceptual Design of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michael W. Patterson

    2008-01-01

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) project was authorized in the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPAct), tasking the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) with demonstrating High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) technology. The demonstration is to include the technical, licensing, operational, and commercial viability of HTGR technology for the production of electricity and hydrogen. The Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative (NHI), a component of the DOE Hydrogen Program managed by the Office of Nuclear Energy, is also investigating multiple approaches to cost effective hydrogen production from nuclear energy. The objective of NHI is development of the technology and information basis for a future decision on commercial viability. The initiatives are clearly intertwined. While the objectives of NGNP and NHI are generally consistent, NGNP has progressed to the project definition phase and the project plan has matured. Multiple process applications for the NGNP require process heat, electricity and hydrogen in varied combinations and sizes. Coupling these processes to the reactor in multiple configurations adds complexity to the design, licensing and demonstration of both the reactor and the hydrogen production process. Commercial viability of hydrogen production may depend on the specific application and heat transport configuration. A component test facility (CTF) is planned by the NGNP to support testing and demonstration of NGNP systems, including those for hydrogen production, in multiple configurations. Engineering-scale demonstrations in the CTF are expected to start in 2012 to support scheduled design and licensing activities leading to subsequent construction and operation. Engineering-scale demonstrations planned by NHI are expected to start at least two years later. Reconciliation of these schedules is recommended to successfully complete both initiatives. Hence, closer and earlier integration of hydrogen process development and heat transport systems is sensible

  13. Device and method for shortening reactor process tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frantz, Charles E.; Alexander, William K.; Lander, Walter E. B.

    1980-01-01

    This disclosure describes a device and method for in situ shortening of nuclear reactor zirconium alloy process tubes which have grown as a result of radiation exposure. An upsetting technique is utilized which involves inductively heating a short band of a process tube with simultaneous application of an axial load sufficient to cause upsetting with an attendant decrease in length of the process tube.

  14. Innovative technologies on fuel assemblies cleaning for sodium fast reactors: First considerations on cleaning process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, N.; Lorcet, H.; Beauchamp, F.; Guigues, E.; Lovera, P.; Fleche, J. L.; Lacroix, M.; Carra, O.; Dechelette, F.; Prele, G.; Rodriguez, G.

    2012-01-01

    Within the framework of Sodium Fast Reactor development, innovative fuel assembly cleaning operations are investigated to meet the GEN IV goals of safety and of process development. One of the challenges is to mitigate the Sodium Water Reaction currently used in these processes. The potential applications of aqueous solutions of mineral salts (including the possibility of using redox chemical reactions) to mitigate the Sodium Water Reaction are considered in a first part and a new experimental bench, dedicated to this study, is described. Anhydrous alternative options based on Na/CO 2 interaction are also presented. Then, in a second part, a functional study conducted on the cleaning pit is proposed. Based on experimental feedback, some calculations are carried out to estimate the sodium inventory on the fuel elements, and physical methods like hot inert gas sweeping to reduce this inventory are also presented. Finally, the implementation of these innovative solutions in cleaning pits is studied in regard to the expected performances. (authors)

  15. Innovative technologies on fuel assemblies cleaning for sodium fast reactors: First considerations on cleaning process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, N.; Lorcet, H.; Beauchamp, F.; Guigues, E. [CEA, DEN, DTN Cadarache, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Lovera, P.; Fleche, J. L. [CEA, DEN, DPC Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Lacroix, M. [CEA, DEN, DTN Cadarache, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Carra, O. [AREVA / NP, 10 Rue Juliette Recamier, 69003 Lyon (France); Dechelette, F. [CEA, DEN, DTN Cadarache, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Prele, G. [EDF/SEPTEN, 12-14 avenue Dutrievoz, 69628 Villeurbane Cedex (France); Rodriguez, G. [CEA, DEN, DTN Cadarache, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2012-07-01

    Within the framework of Sodium Fast Reactor development, innovative fuel assembly cleaning operations are investigated to meet the GEN IV goals of safety and of process development. One of the challenges is to mitigate the Sodium Water Reaction currently used in these processes. The potential applications of aqueous solutions of mineral salts (including the possibility of using redox chemical reactions) to mitigate the Sodium Water Reaction are considered in a first part and a new experimental bench, dedicated to this study, is described. Anhydrous alternative options based on Na/CO{sub 2} interaction are also presented. Then, in a second part, a functional study conducted on the cleaning pit is proposed. Based on experimental feedback, some calculations are carried out to estimate the sodium inventory on the fuel elements, and physical methods like hot inert gas sweeping to reduce this inventory are also presented. Finally, the implementation of these innovative solutions in cleaning pits is studied in regard to the expected performances. (authors)

  16. Nuclear reactor safety program in US department of energy and future perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Y.T.

    1988-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) establishes policy, issues orders, and assures compliance with requirements. The contractors who design, construct, modify, operate, maintain and decommission DOE reactors, set forth the assessment of the safety of cognizant reactors and implement DOE orders. Teams of experts in the Department, through scheduled and unscheduled review programs, reassess the safety of reactors in every phases of their lives. As new technology develops, the safety programs are reevaluated and policies are modified to accommodate these new technologies. The diagnostic capabilities of the computer using multiple alarms to enhance detection of defects and control of a reactor have been greatly utilized in reactor operating systems. The Application of artificial intelligence technologies for diagnostic and even for the decision making process in the event of reactor accidents would be one of the future trends in reactor safety programs

  17. Advanced technologies for water cooled reactors 1990. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-05-01

    The main purpose of the meeting was to review and discuss the status of national programmes, the progress achieved since the last meeting held in June 1988 in the field of advanced technologies and design trends for existing and future water cooled reactors. 24 specialists from 14 countries and the IAEA took part in the meeting and 12 papers were presented. A separate abstract was prepared for each of these papers. Refs, figs and tabs

  18. THE MATHEMATICAL MODEL DEVELOPMENT OF THE ETHYLBENZENE DEHYDROGENATION PROCESS KINETICS IN A TWO-STAGE ADIABATIC CONTINUOUS REACTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. K. Bityukov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the mathematical modeling of the kinetics of ethyl benzene dehydrogenation in a two-stage adiabatic reactor with a catalytic bed functioning on continuous technology. The analysis of chemical reactions taking place parallel to the main reaction of styrene formation has been carried out on the basis of which a number of assumptions were made proceeding from which a kinetic scheme describing the mechanism of the chemical reactions during the dehydrogenation process was developed. A mathematical model of the dehydrogenation process, describing the dynamics of chemical reactions taking place in each of the two stages of the reactor block at a constant temperature is developed. The estimation of the rate constants of direct and reverse reactions of each component, formation and exhaustion of the reacted mixture was made. The dynamics of the starting material concentration variations (ethyl benzene batch was obtained as well as styrene formation dynamics and all byproducts of dehydrogenation (benzene, toluene, ethylene, carbon, hydrogen, ect.. The calculated the variations of the component composition of the reaction mixture during its passage through the first and second stages of the reactor showed that the proposed mathematical description adequately reproduces the kinetics of the process under investigation. This demonstrates the advantage of the developed model, as well as loyalty to the values found for the rate constants of reactions, which enable the use of models for calculating the kinetics of ethyl benzene dehydrogenation under nonisothermal mode in order to determine the optimal temperature trajectory of the reactor operation. In the future, it will reduce energy and resource consumption, increase the volume of produced styrene and improve the economic indexes of the process.

  19. An analysis of CDTN performance in the reactors technology area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinheiro, R.B.

    1985-01-01

    The author makes an analysis of CDTN (Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear) performance in the reactors technology area, showing difficulties and failures, but emphasizing the particular competence and capacity acquired in this area, as for example: the capacity in codes and methods are of neutronic calculations and nuclear projects, experimental thermohydraulic program, tests services in components and the others. (C.M.) [pt

  20. ARMA modeling of stochastic processes in nuclear reactor with significant detection noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zavaljevski, N.

    1992-01-01

    The theoretical basis of ARMA modelling of stochastic processes in nuclear reactor was presented in a previous paper, neglecting observational noise. The identification of real reactor data indicated that in some experiments the detection noise is significant. Thus a more rigorous theoretical modelling of stochastic processes in nuclear reactor is performed. Starting from the fundamental stochastic differential equations of the Langevin type for the interaction of the detector with neutron field, a new theoretical ARMA model is developed. preliminary identification results confirm the theoretical expectations. (author)

  1. Present state of inspection robot technology in nuclear power facilities. Case of fast breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ara, Kuniaki

    1995-01-01

    In the maintenance works in nuclear power facilities such as checkup, inspection and repair, for the main purpose of radiation protection, remote operation technology was introduced since relatively early stage, and at present, the robots that carry out the inspection works for confirming the soundness of main equipment have been developed and put to practical use. At the time of introducing these technologies, in addition to the research and development of robots proper, the coordination with the design of plant machinery and equipment facilities as the premise of introducing robots is an important requirement. In this report, the present state of the development of remote inspection technology for fast breeder reactors is introduced, and the matters to which attention is paid in the plant design for introducing robots are explained. First, fast breeder reactors are described. The needs of robotizing and adopting remote operation in nuclear power facilities are explained, using the examples of the inspection system for a reactor vessel and the inspection system for steam generator heat transfer tubes. (K.I.)

  2. Analysis concerning the perspective of Romania-USA technological cooperation with a view to performing TRIGA reactor project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciocanescu, M.; Ionescu, M.; Constantin, L.

    1998-01-01

    The co-operation between Romania and the USA in the field of technologic transfer of nuclear research reactor technology began with the steady state 14 MW, TRIGA reactor, installed at INR Pitesti, Romania. It is the first in the range of TRIGA reactors proposed as a materials testing reactor. The first criticality was reached in November 19, 1979 and first operation at 14 MW, level was in February 1980. The paper will present the short history of this co-operation and the perspective for a new co-operation for building a Nuclear Heating Plant using the TRIGA reactor concept for demonstration purpose. The energy crisis is a world-wide problem which affects each country in different ways because the resources and the consumption are unfairly distributed. World-wide research points out that the fossil fuel sources are not to be considered the main energy sources for the long term as they are limited. (author)

  3. Advanced Demonstration and Test Reactor Options Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petti, David Andrew [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hill, R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Gehin, J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gougar, Hans David [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Strydom, Gerhard [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Heidet, F. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Kinsey, J. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Grandy, Christopher [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Qualls, A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Brown, Nicholas [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Powers, J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hoffman, E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Croson, D. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Global efforts to address climate change will require large-scale decarbonization of energy production in the United States and elsewhere. Nuclear power already provides 20% of electricity production in the United States (U.S.) and is increasing in countries undergoing rapid growth around the world. Because reliable, grid-stabilizing, low emission electricity generation, energy security, and energy resource diversity will be increasingly valued, nuclear power’s share of electricity production has a potential to grow. In addition, there are non electricity applications (e.g., process heat, desalination, hydrogen production) that could be better served by advanced nuclear systems. Thus, the timely development, demonstration, and commercialization of advanced nuclear reactors could diversify the nuclear technologies available and offer attractive technology options to expand the impact of nuclear energy for electricity generation and non-electricity missions. The purpose of this planning study is to provide transparent and defensible technology options for a test and/or demonstration reactor(s) to be built to support public policy, innovation and long term commercialization within the context of the Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) broader commitment to pursuing an “all of the above” clean energy strategy and associated time lines. This planning study includes identification of the key features and timing needed for advanced test or demonstration reactors to support research, development, and technology demonstration leading to the commercialization of power plants built upon these advanced reactor platforms. This planning study is consistent with the Congressional language contained within the fiscal year 2015 appropriation that directed the DOE to conduct a planning study to evaluate “advanced reactor technology options, capabilities, and requirements within the context of national needs and public policy to support innovation in nuclear energy

  4. Advanced Demonstration and Test Reactor Options Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petti, David Andrew; Hill, R.; Gehin, J.; Gougar, Hans David; Strydom, Gerhard; Heidet, F.; Kinsey, J.; Grandy, Christopher; Qualls, A.; Brown, Nicholas; Powers, J.; Hoffman, E.; Croson, D.

    2017-01-01

    Global efforts to address climate change will require large-scale decarbonization of energy production in the United States and elsewhere. Nuclear power already provides 20% of electricity production in the United States (U.S.) and is increasing in countries undergoing rapid growth around the world. Because reliable, grid-stabilizing, low emission electricity generation, energy security, and energy resource diversity will be increasingly valued, nuclear power's share of electricity production has a potential to grow. In addition, there are non electricity applications (e.g., process heat, desalination, hydrogen production) that could be better served by advanced nuclear systems. Thus, the timely development, demonstration, and commercialization of advanced nuclear reactors could diversify the nuclear technologies available and offer attractive technology options to expand the impact of nuclear energy for electricity generation and non-electricity missions. The purpose of this planning study is to provide transparent and defensible technology options for a test and/or demonstration reactor(s) to be built to support public policy, innovation and long term commercialization within the context of the Department of Energy's (DOE's) broader commitment to pursuing an 'all of the above' clean energy strategy and associated time lines. This planning study includes identification of the key features and timing needed for advanced test or demonstration reactors to support research, development, and technology demonstration leading to the commercialization of power plants built upon these advanced reactor platforms. This planning study is consistent with the Congressional language contained within the fiscal year 2015 appropriation that directed the DOE to conduct a planning study to evaluate 'advanced reactor technology options, capabilities, and requirements within the context of national needs and public policy to support innovation in nuclear energy'. Advanced reactors are

  5. The integral fast reactor fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Y.I.

    1990-01-01

    The liquid-metal reactor (LMR) has the potential to extend the uranium resource by a factor of 50 to 100 over current commercial light water reactors (LWRs). In the integral fast reactor (IFR) development program, the entire reactor system - reactor, fuel cycle, and waste process - is being developed and optimized at the same time as a single integral entity. A key feature of the IFR concept is the metallic fuel. The lead irradiation tests on the new U-Pu-Zr metallic fuel in the Experimental Breeder Reactor II have surpassed 185000 MWd/t burnup, and its high burnup capability has now been fully demonstrated. The metallic fuel also allows a radically improved fuel cycle technology. Pyroprocessing, which utilizes high temperatures and molten salt and molten metal solvents, can be advantageously utilized for processing metal fuels because the product is metal suitable for fabrication into new fuel elements. Direct production of a metal product avoids expensive and cumbersome chemical conversion steps that would result from use of the conventional Purex solvent extraction process. The key step in the IFR process is electrorefining, which provides for recovery of the valuable fuel constituents, uranium and plutonium, and for removal of fission products. A notable feature of the IFR process is that the actinide elements accompany plutonium through the process. This results in a major advantage in the high-level waste management

  6. Fast Spectrum Molten Salt Reactor Options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gehin, Jess C [ORNL; Holcomb, David Eugene [ORNL; Flanagan, George F [ORNL; Patton, Bruce W [ORNL; Howard, Rob L [ORNL; Harrison, Thomas J [ORNL

    2011-07-01

    During 2010, fast-spectrum molten-salt reactors (FS-MSRs) were selected as a transformational reactor concept for light-water reactor (LWR)-derived heavy actinide disposition by the Department of Energy-Nuclear Energy Advanced Reactor Concepts (ARC) program and were the subject of a preliminary scoping investigation. Much of the reactor description information presented in this report derives from the preliminary studies performed for the ARC project. This report, however, has a somewhat broader scope-providing a conceptual overview of the characteristics and design options for FS-MSRs. It does not present in-depth evaluation of any FS-MSR particular characteristic, but instead provides an overview of all of the major reactor system technologies and characteristics, including the technology developments since the end of major molten salt reactor (MSR) development efforts in the 1970s. This report first presents a historical overview of the FS-MSR technology and describes the innovative characteristics of an FS-MSR. Next, it provides an overview of possible reactor configurations. The following design features/options and performance considerations are described including: (1) reactor salt options-both chloride and fluoride salts; (2) the impact of changing the carrier salt and actinide concentration on conversion ratio; (3) the conversion ratio; (4) an overview of the fuel salt chemical processing; (5) potential power cycles and hydrogen production options; and (6) overview of the performance characteristics of FS-MSRs, including general comparative metrics with LWRs. The conceptual-level evaluation includes resource sustainability, proliferation resistance, economics, and safety. The report concludes with a description of the work necessary to begin more detailed evaluation of FS-MSRs as a realistic reactor and fuel cycle option.

  7. Experimental Design for Evaluating Selected Nondestructive Measurement Technologies - Advanced Reactor Technology Milestone: M3AT-16PN2301043

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramuhalli, Pradeep [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hirt, Evelyn H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Pitman, Stan G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Dib, Gerges [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Roy, Surajit [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Good, Morris S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Walker, Cody M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-07-16

    The harsh environments in advanced reactors (AdvRx) increase the possibility of degradation of safety-critical passive components, and therefore pose a particular challenge for deployment and extended operation of these concepts. Nondestructive evaluation technologies are an essential element for obtaining information on passive component condition in AdvRx, with the development of sensor technologies for nondestructively inspecting AdvRx passive components identified as a key need. Given the challenges posed by AdvRx environments and the potential needs for reducing the burden posed by periodic in-service inspection of hard-to-access and hard-to-replace components, a viable solution may be provided by online condition monitoring of components. This report identifies the key challenges that will need to be overcome for sensor development in this context, and documents an experimental plan for sensor development, test, and evaluation. The focus of initial research and development is on sodium fast reactors, with the eventual goal of the research being developing the necessary sensor technology, quantifying sensor survivability and long-term measurement reliability for nondestructively inspecting critical components. Materials for sensor development that are likely to withstand the harsh environments are described, along with a status on the fabrication of reference specimens, and the planned approach for design and evaluation of the sensor and measurement technology.

  8. Nuclear heat source component design considerations for HTGR process heat reactor plant concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, C.F.; Kapich, D.; King, J.H.; Venkatesh, M.C.

    1982-05-01

    The coupling of a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) and a chemical process facility has the potential for long-term synthetic fuel production (i.e., oil, gasoline, aviation fuel, hydrogen, etc) using coal as the carbon source. Studies are in progress to exploit the high-temperature capability of an advanced HTGR variant for nuclear process heat. The process heat plant discussed in this paper has a 1170-MW(t) reactor as the heat source and the concept is based on indirect reforming, i.e., the high-temperature nuclear thermal energy is transported [via an intermediate heat exchanger (IHX)] to the externally located process plant by a secondary helium transport loop. Emphasis is placed on design considerations for the major nuclear heat source (NHS) components, and discussions are presented for the reactor core, prestressed concrete reactor vessel (PCRV), rotating machinery, and heat exchangers

  9. Nuclear reactors' construction costs: The role of lead-time, standardization and technological progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berthélemy, Michel; Escobar Rangel, Lina

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides an econometric analysis of nuclear reactor construction costs in France and the United States based on overnight costs data. We build a simultaneous system of equations for overnight costs and construction time (lead-time) to control for endogeneity, using change in expected electricity demand as instrument. We argue that the construction of nuclear reactors can benefit from standardization gains through two channels. First, short term coordination benefits can arise when the diversity of nuclear reactors' designs under construction is low. Second, long term benefits can occur due to learning spillovers from past constructions of similar reactors. We find that construction costs benefit directly from learning spillovers but that these spillovers are only significant for nuclear models built by the same Architect–Engineer. In addition, we show that the standardization of nuclear reactors under construction has an indirect and positive effect on construction costs through a reduction in lead-time, the latter being one of the main drivers of construction costs. Conversely, we also explore the possibility of learning by searching and find that, contrary to other energy technologies, innovation leads to construction costs increases. -- Highlights: •This paper analyses the determinants of nuclear reactors construction costs and lead-time. •We study short term (coordination gains) and long term (learning by doing) benefits of standardization in France and the US. •Results show that standardization of nuclear programs is a key factor for reducing construction costs. •We also suggest that technological progress has contributed to construction costs escalation

  10. Methods and technologies for cost reduction in the design of water cooled reactor power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-05-01

    The Specialists Meeting was organized in the framework of the IAEA International Working Group on Advanced Technologies for Water-Cooled Reactors. Its purpose was to provide an international forum for review and discussion on recent results in research and development on different methods and technologies of current and advanced water-cooled reactor power plants, which can lead to reduced investment and operation, maintenance and fuel-cycle costs of the plants. 27 specialists representing 10 countries and the IAEA took part in the meeting. 10 papers were presented. A separate abstract was prepared for each of these papers. Refs, figs and tabs

  11. 75 FR 61139 - Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future, Reactor and Fuel Cycle Technology Subcommittee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-04

    ... the evaluation of advantages and disadvantages of adopting new fuel cycle technologies and the... Technology Subcommittee AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy. ACTION: Notice of Open Meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces an open meeting of the Reactor and Fuel Cycle Technology (RFCT...

  12. Technology Development Roadmap for the Advanced High Temperature Reactor Secondary Heat Exchanger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Sabharwall; M. McCllar; A. Siahpush; D. Clark; M. Patterson; J. Collins

    2012-09-01

    This Technology Development Roadmap (TDRM) presents the path forward for deploying large-scale molten salt secondary heat exchangers (MS-SHX) and recognizing the benefits of using molten salt as the heat transport medium for advanced high temperature reactors (AHTR). This TDRM will aid in the development and selection of the required heat exchanger for: power production (the first anticipated process heat application), hydrogen production, steam methane reforming, methanol to gasoline production, or ammonia production. This TDRM (a) establishes the current state of molten salt SHX technology readiness, (b) defines a path forward that systematically and effectively tests this technology to overcome areas of uncertainty, (c) demonstrates the achievement of an appropriate level of maturity prior to construction and plant operation, and (d) identifies issues and prioritizes future work for maturing the state of SHX technology. This study discusses the results of a preliminary design analysis of the SHX and explains the evaluation and selection methodology. An important engineering challenge will be to prevent the molten salt from freezing during normal and off-normal operations because of its high melting temperature (390°C for KF ZrF4). The efficient transfer of energy for industrial applications depends on the ability to incorporate cost-effective heat exchangers between the nuclear heat transport system and industrial process heat transport system. The need for efficiency, compactness, and safety challenge the capabilities of existing heat exchanger technology. The description of potential heat exchanger configurations or designs (such as printed circuit, spiral or helical coiled, ceramic, plate and fin, and plate type) were covered in an earlier report (Sabharwall et al. 2011). Significant future work, much of which is suggested in this report, is needed before the benefits and full potential of the AHTR can be realized. The execution of this TDRM will focuses

  13. CEA programme on gas cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carre, F.; Fiorini, G.L.; Chapelot, Ph.; Gauthier, J.C.

    2002-01-01

    partly builds on the past experience of the CEA on gas cooled reactors (UNGG, HTR) and on the current effort to revive and update High Temperature Reactor technologies to support the development of modular helium cooled reactors (∼300 MWe) by Framatome-ANP and international partners. In this context, the CEA decided to focus prospective R and D work on the development of a consistent set of gas cooled nuclear systems ranging from medium term reactor projects for electricity generation and other applications (robust and secure export model, process heat, hydrogen production at very high temperature, plutonium burning) to a longer term vision of sustainable nuclear systems using fast neutrons with a closed and integrated fuel cycle. This range of gas cooled nuclear systems covers a wide variety of high temperature applications as well as a broad range of fuel cycles, including synergistic fuel cycles with light water reactors (i.e. burning plutonium and possibly also minor actinides from PWR spent fuels). A specific research and development programme is being currently implemented to support the development of this consistent set of gas cooled systems. The major emphasis is put on fuel particles re-fabrication and possible adaptations to fast neutrons, on high temperature materials, high temperature systems technology, and compact spent fuel processing and re-fabrication processes. This programme anticipates the construction of large experimental facilities in the next decade, such as an He integral test loop (2007), a technology testing reactor and a lab scaled integrated fuel cycle (2012). A substantial effort is also invested in the validation of computational tools and procedures for feasibility and performance studies. Strong connections with fundamental research (nuclear physics, materials science, nuclear chemistry) are essential to improve the modelling capability and to achieve effective breakthroughs for the development of high temperature and high irradiation

  14. A simplified model of aerosol removal by natural processes in reactor containments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powers, D.A.; Washington, K.E.; Sprung, J.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Burson, S.B. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1996-07-01

    Simplified formulae are developed for estimating the aerosol decontamination that can be achieved by natural processes in the containments of pressurized water reactors and in the drywells of boiling water reactors under severe accident conditions. These simplified formulae were derived by correlation of results of Monte Carlo uncertainty analyses of detailed models of aerosol behavior under accident conditions. Monte Carlo uncertainty analyses of decontamination by natural aerosol processes are reported for 1,000, 2,000, 3,000, and 4,000 MW(th) pressurized water reactors and for 1,500, 2,500, and 3,500 MW(th) boiling water reactors. Uncertainty distributions for the decontamination factors and decontamination coefficients as functions of time were developed in the Monte Carlo analyses by considering uncertainties in aerosol processes, material properties, reactor geometry and severe accident progression. Phenomenological uncertainties examined in this work included uncertainties in aerosol coagulation by gravitational collision, Brownian diffusion, turbulent diffusion and turbulent inertia. Uncertainties in aerosol deposition by gravitational settling, thermophoresis, diffusiophoresis, and turbulent diffusion were examined. Electrostatic charging of aerosol particles in severe accidents is discussed. Such charging could affect both the coagulation and deposition of aerosol particles. Electrostatic effects are not considered in most available models of aerosol behavior during severe accidents and cause uncertainties in predicted natural decontamination processes that could not be taken in to account in this work. Median (50%), 90 and 10% values of the uncertainty distributions for effective decontamination coefficients were correlated with time and reactor thermal power. These correlations constitute a simplified model that can be used to estimate the decontamination by natural aerosol processes at 3 levels of conservatism. Applications of the model are described.

  15. Study of the pyrochemical treatment-recycling process of the Molten Salt Reactor fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boussier, H.; Heuer, D.

    2010-01-01

    The Separation Processes Studies Laboratory (Commissariat a l'energie Atomique) has made a preliminary assessment of the reprocessing system associated with Molten Salt Fast Reactor (MSFR). The scheme studied in this paper is based on the principle of reductive extraction and metal transfer that constituted the core process designed for the Molten Salt Breeder Reactor (MSBR), although the flow diagram has been adapted to the current needs of the Molten Salt Reactor Fast (MSFR).

  16. Proceedings of the Scientific Meeting and Presentation on Basic Research in Nuclear of the Science and Technology part I : Physics and Nuclear Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusminarto; Sri Juari Santoso; Agus Taftazani; Sudjatmoko; Darsono; Samin; Syarip; Prajitno; Muhadi Ayub Wasitho; Sukarsono; Tjipto Sujitno; Elisabeth Supriyatni

    2009-07-01

    The Scientific Meeting and Presentation on Basic Research in Nuclear Science and Technology is a routine activity held by Centre for Accelerator Technology and Material Process, National Nuclear Energy Agency, for monitoring the research activity which achieved in National Nuclear Energy Agency. The proceedings contains papers presented on scientific meeting about Physics and Nuclear Reactor. The proceedings is the first part of the three parts which published in series. There are 28 papers. (PPIN)

  17. A comparative analysis of the domestic and foreign licensing processes for power and non-power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joe, J. C.; Youn, Y. K.; Kim, W. S.; Kim, H. J.

    2003-01-01

    The System-integrated Modular Advanced Reactor (SMART), a small to medium sized integral type Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) has been developed in Korea. Now, SMART-P, a 1/5 scaled-down of the SMART, is being developed for the purpose of demonstrating the safety and performance of SMART design. The SMART-P is a first-of-a-kind reactor which is utilized for the research and development of a power reactor. Since the licensing process of such a reactor is not clearly specified in the current Atomic Energy Act, a comparative survey and analysis of domestic and foreign licensing processes for power and non-power reactors has been carried out to develop the rationale and technical basis for establishing the licensing process of such a reactor. The domestic and foreign licensing processes of power and non-power reactors have been surveyed and compared, including those of the U.S.A., Japan, France, U.K., Canada, and IAEA. The general trends in nuclear reactor classification, licensing procedures, regulatory technical requirements, and other licensing requirements and regulations have been investigated. The results of this study will be used as the rationale and technical basis for establishing the licensing process of reactors at development stage such as SMART-P

  18. Process technologies for water desalination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramilo, Lucia B.; Gomez de Soler, Susana M.; Coppari, Norberto R.

    2003-01-01

    The use of the nuclear energy for simultaneous electricity and potable water production is an attractive, technically feasible, and safe alternative to fossil energy options. In Argentina the nuclear desalination option is being studied together with the alternative uses of the innovative advanced Argentinean CAREM reactor, in the research contract CNEA - IAEA to evaluate projects of nuclear desalination. The objective and scope of this work is to know the advantages and disadvantages of each desalination technology, distinctive characteristics of each of them, that make them adapt better to different uses and outline conditions and analysis of related antecedents of its use in the world. In this report a summarized description of those technologies is included by way of introduction, so as to highlight the main advantages and disadvantages of each of them. The improvements and innovations found in the last years for the different technologies are also included. (author)

  19. Perspectives on Multienzyme Process Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santacoloma, Paloma A.; Woodley, John M.

    2014-01-01

    . One consequence is that decisions about the format of the biocatalyst and reactor type as well as the process flowsheet require more extensive knowledge. In this chapter, some of the background to these decisions and decision-making tools to help establish effective multienzyme processes in a timely......There is little doubt that chemical processing of the future will involve an increasing number of biocatalytic processes using more than one enzyme. There are good reasons for developing such innovative biocatalytic processes and interesting new biocatalyst and process options will be introduced...

  20. Fast Reactor Knowledge Management at IGCAR, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuriakose, K.K.

    2013-01-01

    The Process Architecture: → Acquire: Solicitation; Voluntary submission; Mandatory requirements; Interview/Observation; → Quality Control: Review/Editing; Certification; Quality index; → Disseminate: Publish through the Technology architecture; Formal/Informal Meetings; COPs; → Utilize: Projects; Day-to-day activities; → Maintenance; → Retirement. Mission: To conduct a broad based multidisciplinary programme of scientific research and advanced engineering development, directed towards the establishment of the technology of Sodium Cooled Fast Breeder Reactors (FBR) and associated fuel cycle facilities in the Country. The mission includes the development and applications of new and improved materials, techniques, equipment and systems for FBRs, pursue basic research to achieve breakthroughs in Fast Reactor technology

  1. The Thermos process heat reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerouge, Bernard

    1979-01-01

    The THERMOS process heat reactor was born from the following idea: the hot water energy vector is widely used for heating purposes in cities, so why not save on traditional fossil fuels by simply substituting a nuclear boiler of comparable power for the classical boiler installed in the same place. The French Atomic Energy Commission has techniques for heating in the big French cities which provide better guarantees for national independence and for the environment. This THERMOS technique would result in a saving of 40,000 to 80,000 tons of oil per year [fr

  2. Transactions of the 10th international conference on structural mechanics in reactor technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadjian, A.H.

    1989-01-01

    This book covers all aspects of engineering mechanics pertaining to mechanical and structural components and the relevant systems in nuclear reactors. Subjects covered include: theoretical developments in structural mechanics, loading conditions, behavior of materials, fluid mechanics, operating experience, accident sequences, and calculational procedures. Problems of structural mechanics analysis are focused within the general context of the design, reliability, and safety of nuclear reactors. Operating plant performance and life extension, waste repository technology and regulatory research have been formalized as distinct Divisions

  3. Study on the high-precision laser welding technology of nuclear fuel elements processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Soo Sung; Yang, M. S.; Kim, W. K.; Lee, D. Y

    2001-01-01

    The proper welding method for appendage of bearing pads and spacers of PHWR nuclear fuel elements is considered important in respect to the soundness of weldments and the improvement of the performance of nuclear fuels during the operation in reactor. The probability of welding defects of the appendage parts is mostly apt to occur and it is connected directly with the safty and life prediction of the nuclear reactor in operation. Recently there has been studied all over the world to develope welding technology by laser in nuclear fuel processing, and the appendage of bearing pads and spacers of PHWR nuclear fuel elements. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to investigate the characteristics of the laser welded specimens and make some samples for the appendage of bearing pads of PHWR nuclear fuel elements. This study will be also provide the basic data for the fabrications of the appendage of bearing pads and spacers. Especially the laser welding is supposed to be used in the practical application such as precise materials manufacturing fields. In this respect this technology is not only a basic advanced technology with wide applications but also likely to be used for the development of directly applicable technologies for industries, with high potential benefits derived in the view point of economy and industry.

  4. Study on the high-precision laser welding technology of nuclear fuel elements processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Soo Sung; Yang, M. S.; Kim, W. K.; Lee, D. Y.

    2001-01-01

    The proper welding method for appendage of bearing pads and spacers of PHWR nuclear fuel elements is considered important in respect to the soundness of weldments and the improvement of the performance of nuclear fuels during the operation in reactor. The probability of welding defects of the appendage parts is mostly apt to occur and it is connected directly with the safty and life prediction of the nuclear reactor in operation. Recently there has been studied all over the world to develope welding technology by laser in nuclear fuel processing, and the appendage of bearing pads and spacers of PHWR nuclear fuel elements. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to investigate the characteristics of the laser welded specimens and make some samples for the appendage of bearing pads of PHWR nuclear fuel elements. This study will be also provide the basic data for the fabrications of the appendage of bearing pads and spacers. Especially the laser welding is supposed to be used in the practical application such as precise materials manufacturing fields. In this respect this technology is not only a basic advanced technology with wide applications but also likely to be used for the development of directly applicable technologies for industries, with high potential benefits derived in the view point of economy and industry

  5. Reactor noise diagnostics based on multivariate autoregressive modeling: Application to LOFT [Loss-of-Fluid-Test] reactor process noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gloeckler, O.; Upadhyaya, B.R.

    1987-01-01

    Multivariate noise analysis of power reactor operating signals is useful for plant diagnostics, for isolating process and sensor anomalies, and for automated plant monitoring. In order to develop a reliable procedure, the previously established techniques for empirical modeling of fluctuation signals in power reactors have been improved. Application of the complete algorithm to operational data from the Loss-of-Fluid-Test (LOFT) Reactor showed that earlier conjectures (based on physical modeling) regarding the perturbation sources in a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) affecting coolant temperature and neutron power fluctuations can be systematically explained. This advanced methodology has important implication regarding plant diagnostics, and system or sensor anomaly isolation. 6 refs., 24 figs

  6. Assessment of very high-temperature reactors in process applications. Appendix II. VHTR process heat application studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, J.E.; Gambill, W.R.; Cooper, R.H.; Fox, E.C.; Fuller, L.C.; Littlefield, C.C.; Silverman, M.D.

    1977-06-01

    A critical review is presented of the technology and economics for coupling a very high-temperature gas-cooled reactor to a variety of process applications. It is concluded that nuclear steam reforming of light hydrocarbons for coal conversion could be a near-term alternative and that direct nuclear coal gasification could be a future consideration. Thermochemical water splitting appears to be more costly and its availability farther in the future than the coal-conversion systems. Nuclear steelmaking is competitive with the direct reduction of iron ore from conventional coal-conversion processes but not competitive with the reforming of natural gas at present gas prices. Nuclear process heat for petroleum refining, even with the necessary backup systems, is competitive with fossil energy sources. The processing with nuclear heat of oil shale and tar sands is of marginal economic importance. An analysis of peaking power applications using nuclear heat was also made. It is concluded that steam reforming methane for energy storage and production of peaking power is not a viable economic alternative, but that energy storage with a high-temperature heat transfer salt (HTS) is competitive with conventional peaking systems. An examination of the materials required in process heat exchangers is made

  7. D-D tokamak reactor assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baxter, D.C.; Dabiri, A.E.

    1983-01-01

    A quantitative comparison of the physics and technology requirements, and the cost and safety performance of a d-d tokamak relative to a d-t tokamak has been performed. The first wall/blanket and energy recovery cycle for the d-d tokamak is simpler, and has a higher efficiency than the d-t tokamak. In most other technology areas (such as magnets, RF, vacuum, etc.) d-d requirements are more severe and the systems are more complex, expensive and may involve higher technical risk than d-t tokamak systems. Tritium technology for processing the plasma exhaust, and tritium refueling technology are required for d-d reactors, but no tritium containment around the blanket or heat transport system is needed. Cost studies show that for high plasma beta and high magnetic field the cost of electricity from d-d and d-t tokamaks is comparable. Safety analysis shows less radioactivity in a d-d reactor but larger amounts of stored energy and thus higher potential for energy release. Consequences of all postulated d-d accidents are significantly smaller than those from d-t reactor tritium releases

  8. Fuel technology and performance of non-water cooled reactors. Proceedings of an advisory group meeting held in Vienna, 5-8 December 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    The IAEA Division of Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Waste Management has been closely involved for many years in the collection, analysis and exchange of information relating to the global development of advanced reactor fuel technology and performance. Meetings of experts in this field have been held in 1984 and 1989 and more recently in December 1994 as part of the IAEA`s programme. This publication reviews progress in advanced reactor fuel technology and performance over the past five years, principally related to non-water cooled reactors, namely high temperature gas reactors (HTGRs) and fast reactors (FRs), as well as developments pertaining to thorium fuels and the fuel fabrication technologies. It includes papers from the participants and provides recommendations in key areas where further global co-operation in this field might be usefully initiated or strengthened. The previous two Advisory Group Meetings on Advanced Fuel Technology and Performance, on which separate reports have been published (IAEA-TECDOC-352 (1985) and IAEA-TECDOC-577 (1990)), focused on all types of commercial nuclear reactors. Refs, figs and tabs.

  9. The LEU target development and conversion program for the MAPLE reactors and new processing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malkoske, G.R.

    2003-01-01

    The availability of isotope grade, Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU), from the United States for use in the manufacture of targets for molybdenum-99 production in AECL's NRU research reactor has been a key factor to enable MDS Nordion to develop a reliable, secure supply of medical isotopes for the international nuclear medicine community. The molybdenum extraction process from HEU targets is a proven and established method that has reliably produced medical isotopes for several decades. The HEU process provides predictable, consistent yields for our high-volume, molybdenum-99 production. Other medical isotopes such as I-131 and Xe-133, which play an important role in nuclear medicine applications, are also produced from irradiated HEU targets as a by-product of the molybdenum-99 process. To ensure a continued reliable and timely supply of medical isotopes, MDS Nordion is completing the commissioning of two MAPLE reactors and an associated isotope processing facility (the New Processing Facility). The new MAPLE facilities, which will be dedicated exclusively to medical isotope production, will provide an essential contribution to a secure, robust global healthcare system. Design and construction of these facilities has been based on a life cycle management philosophy for the isotope production process. This includes target irradiation, isotope extraction and waste management. The MAPLE reactors will operate with Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) fuel, a significant contribution to the objectives of the RERTR program. The design of the isotope production process in the MAPLE facilities is based on an established process - extraction of isotopes from HEU target material. This is a proven technology that has been demonstrated over more than three decades of operation. However, in support of the RERTR program and in compliance with U.S. legislation, MDS Nordion has undertaken a LEU Target Development and Conversion Program for the MAPLE facilities. This paper will provide an

  10. Defining the “proven technology” technical criterion in the reactor technology assessment for Malaysia’s nuclear power program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anuar, Nuraslinda, E-mail: nuraslinda@uniten.edu.my [College of Engineering, Universiti Tenaga Nasional, Jalan IKRAM-UNITEN, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Kahar, Wan Shakirah Wan Abdul, E-mail: shakirah@tnb.com.my; Manan, Jamal Abdul Nasir Abd [Nuclear Energy Department, Regulatory Economics and Planning Division, Tenaga Nasional Berhad, No. 8 Jalan Tun Sambanthan, Brickfields, 50470 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2015-04-29

    Developing countries that are considering the deployment of nuclear power plants (NPPs) in the near future need to perform reactor technology assessment (RTA) in order to select the most suitable reactor design. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) reported in the Common User Considerations (CUC) document that “proven technology” is one of the most important technical criteria for newcomer countries in performing the RTA. The qualitative description of five desired features for “proven technology” is relatively broad and only provides a general guideline to its characterization. This paper proposes a methodology to define the “proven technology” term according to a specific country’s requirements using a three-stage evaluation process. The first evaluation stage screens the available technologies in the market against a predefined minimum Technology Readiness Level (TRL) derived as a condition based on national needs and policy objectives. The result is a list of technology options, which are then assessed in the second evaluation stage against quantitative definitions of CUC desired features for proven technology. The potential technology candidates produced from this evaluation is further narrowed down to obtain a list of proven technology candidates by assessing them against selected risk criteria and the established maximum allowable total score using a scoring matrix. The outcome of this methodology is the proven technology candidates selected using an accurate definition of “proven technology” that fulfills the policy objectives, national needs and risk, and country-specific CUC desired features of the country that performs this assessment. A simplified assessment for Malaysia is carried out to demonstrate and suggest the use of the proposed methodology. In this exercise, ABWR, AP1000, APR1400 and EPR designs assumed the top-ranks of proven technology candidates according to Malaysia’s definition of “proven technology”.

  11. Defining the “proven technology” technical criterion in the reactor technology assessment for Malaysia’s nuclear power program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anuar, Nuraslinda; Kahar, Wan Shakirah Wan Abdul; Manan, Jamal Abdul Nasir Abd

    2015-01-01

    Developing countries that are considering the deployment of nuclear power plants (NPPs) in the near future need to perform reactor technology assessment (RTA) in order to select the most suitable reactor design. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) reported in the Common User Considerations (CUC) document that “proven technology” is one of the most important technical criteria for newcomer countries in performing the RTA. The qualitative description of five desired features for “proven technology” is relatively broad and only provides a general guideline to its characterization. This paper proposes a methodology to define the “proven technology” term according to a specific country’s requirements using a three-stage evaluation process. The first evaluation stage screens the available technologies in the market against a predefined minimum Technology Readiness Level (TRL) derived as a condition based on national needs and policy objectives. The result is a list of technology options, which are then assessed in the second evaluation stage against quantitative definitions of CUC desired features for proven technology. The potential technology candidates produced from this evaluation is further narrowed down to obtain a list of proven technology candidates by assessing them against selected risk criteria and the established maximum allowable total score using a scoring matrix. The outcome of this methodology is the proven technology candidates selected using an accurate definition of “proven technology” that fulfills the policy objectives, national needs and risk, and country-specific CUC desired features of the country that performs this assessment. A simplified assessment for Malaysia is carried out to demonstrate and suggest the use of the proposed methodology. In this exercise, ABWR, AP1000, APR1400 and EPR designs assumed the top-ranks of proven technology candidates according to Malaysia’s definition of “proven technology”

  12. Diagnostic Technology Development for Core Internal Structure in CANDU reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Hyun Kyu; Cheong, Y. M.; Lee, Y. S. and others

    2005-04-01

    Degradation of critical components of nuclear power plants has become important as the operating years of plants increase. The necessity of degradation study including measurement and monitoring technology has increased continuously. Because the fuel channels and the neighboring sensing tubes and control rods are particularly one of the critical components in CANDU nuclear plant, they are treated as a major research target in order to counteract the possible problems and establish the counterplan for the CANDU reactor safety improvement. To ensure the core structure integrity in CANDU nuclear plant, the following 2 research tasks were performed: Development of NDE technologies for the gap measurement between the fuel channels and LIN tubes. Development of vibration monitoring technology of the fuel channels and sensing tubes. The technologies developed in this study could contribute to the nuclear safety and estimation of the remaining life of operating CANDU nuclear power plants

  13. Pressurized water reactor and its development for nuclear power plants A survey the beginning, development, transfer, industrial application and; the future of a technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khazaneh, Reza.

    1996-01-01

    Discussion about PWR type reactors is forwarded to production and technology developments in various countries. Technology transfer to different countries is reviewed in chapter two. The third chapter is about specifications and main components of the reactors. The fourth chapter outlooks to safety in nuclear technology which has a crucial importance in nuclear technology. The first PWR type reactor built in Russia has had some deficiencies; after that, i.e. in the eighties its quality improved and its criteria was met with international criteria. The sixth chapter describe reactor operation and some problems due to its operation. The use of advanced reactors which has had better quality in respect to its safety in the eighties is presented in seventh chapter. The final chapter is devoted to the new generation of reactor design for twenty first century

  14. Advanced Research Reactor Fuel Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, C. K.; Park, H. D.; Kim, K. H. (and others)

    2006-04-15

    RERTR program for non-proliferation has propelled to develop high-density U-Mo dispersion fuels, reprocessable and available as nuclear fuel for high performance research reactors in the world. As the centrifugal atomization technology, invented in KAERI, is optimum to fabricate high-density U-Mo fuel powders, it has a great possibility to be applied in commercialization if the atomized fuel shows an acceptable in-reactor performance in irradiation test for qualification. In addition, if rod-type U-Mo dispersion fuel is developed for qualification, it is a great possibility to export the HANARO technology and the U-Mo dispersion fuel to the research reactors supplied in foreign countries in future. In this project, reprocessable rod-type U-Mo test fuel was fabricated, and irradiated in HANARO. New U-Mo fuel to suppress the interaction between U-Mo and Al matrix was designed and evaluated for in-reactor irradiation test. The fabrication process of new U-Mo fuel developed, and the irradiation test fuel was fabricated. In-reactor irradiation data for practical use of U-Mo fuel was collected and evaluated. Application plan of atomized U-Mo powder to the commercialization of U-Mo fuel was investigated.

  15. Consultancy on 'Knowledge preservation in the area of fast reactor technology'. Working material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The fast reactor, which can generate electricity and breed additional fissile material for future fuel stocks is a resource that will be needed when economic uranium supplies for the advanced light water reactors or other thermal-spectrum options diminish. Further, the fast-fission fuel cycle in which material is recycled offers the flexibility needed to contribute decisively towards solving the problem of growing spent fuel inventories by greatly reducing the volume of high-level waste that must be disposed of in long-term repositories. This is a waste management option that also should be retained for future generations. The fast reactor has been the subject of research and development programs in a number of countries for upwards of 40 years. Now, despite early sharing and innovative worldwide research and development, ongoing work is confined to China, India, Japan, the Republic of Korea, and Russia. Information generated worldwide will be needed in the future. Presently, it is in danger of being lost even in those countries continuing the work. Some countries have already taken the issue of knowledge preservation seriously: Japan, France, Britain, and Russia, in particular. At worst, valuable contributory information elsewhere will be lost and would have to be regenerated when needed. The IAEA initiative seeks to establish a comprehensive, international inventory of fast reactor data and knowledge, which would be sufficient to form the basis for fast reactor development in 20 to 40 years from now. The Agency is in a good position to provide the framework for knowledge preservation efforts. Under Article III of its Statute, the IAEA is mandated to encourage and assist research on, and development and practical application of atomic energy for peaceful uses throughout the world. Obviously, an important aspect of this mandate is maintaining and increasing the knowledge that is necessary for the technological development. The main objectives of the consultancy

  16. An evaluation of alternative reactor vessel cutting technologies for the decommissioning of the experimental boiling water reactor at Argonne National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boing, L.E.; Henley, D.R.; Manion, W.J.; Gordon, J.W.

    1991-01-01

    This paper will detail (1) a brief overview of the current status of the EBWR D ampersand D Project, and (2) the results of a study performed to evaluate the metal cutting technologies available to size reduce the EBWR reactor vessel. The techniques evaluated were: Plasma arc, Arc saw, Oxyacetylene, Electric arc gouging, Mechanical cladding removal/flame cutting, Exothermic reaction, Diamond wire, Water jet, Laser, Mechanical milling, Controlled explosives, and Electrical discharge. After a detailed review of these 12 techniques, the decision was made by ANL that the most appropriate method for segmenting the EBWR reactor vessel would be to rift the vessel from the vessel cavity and use an abrasive water jet positioned on the main floor to perform the cutting of the reactor vessel

  17. Status of international cooperation in nuclear technology on testing/research reactors between JAEA and INP-NNC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, Hiroshi; Tsuchiya, Kunihiko; Takemoto, Noriyuki; Kimura, Akihiro; Tanimoto, Masataka; Izumo, Hironobu; Chakrov, Petr; Gizatulin, Shamil; Chakrova, Yelena; Ludmila, Chkushuina; Asset, Shaimerdenov; Nataliya, Romanova

    2012-02-01

    Based on the implementing arrangement between National Nuclear Center of the Republic of Kazakhstan (NNC) and the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) for 'Nuclear Technology on Testing/Research Reactors' in cooperation in Research and Development in Nuclear Energy and Technology, four specific topics of cooperation (STC) have been carried out from June, 2009. Four STCs are as follows; (1) STC No.II-1 : International Standard of Instrumentation. (2) STC No.II-2 : Irradiation Technology of RI Production. (3) STC No.II-3 : Lifetime Expansion of Beryllium Reflector. (4) STC No.II-4 : Irradiation Technology for NTD-Si. The information exchange, personal exchange and cooperation experiments are carried out under these STCs. The status in the field of nuclear technology on testing/research reactors in the implementing arrangement is summarized, and future plans of these specific topics of cooperation are described in this report. (author)

  18. The source term and waste optimization of molten salt reactors with processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gat, U.; Dodds, H.L.

    1993-01-01

    The source term of a molten salt reactor (MSR) with fuel processing is reduced by the ratio of processing time to refueling time as compared to solid fuel reactors. The reduction, which can be one to two orders of magnitude, is due to removal of the long-lived fission products. The waste from MSRs can be optimized with respect to its chemical composition, concentration, mixture, shape, and size. The actinides and long-lived isotopes can be separated out and returned to the reactor for transmutation. These features make MSRs more acceptable and simpler in operation and handling

  19. Technology requirements for fusion--fission reactors based on magnetic-mirror confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moir, R.W.

    1978-01-01

    Technology requirements for mirror hybrid reactors are discussed. The required 120-keV neutral beams can use positive ions. The magnetic fields are 8 T or under and can use NbTi superconductors. The value of Q (where Q is the ratio of fusion power to injection power) should be in the range of 1 to 2 for economic reasons relating to the cost of recirculating power. The wall loading of 14-MeV neutrons should be in the range of 1 to 2 MW/m 2 for economic reasons. Five-times higher wall loading will likely be needed if fusion reactors are to be economical. The magnetic mirror experiments 2XIIB, TMX, and MFTF are described

  20. Cost comparison of very high temperature nuclear reactors for process heat applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowley, J.H.; Newman, J.B.

    1975-03-01

    In April 1974, the United States Atomic Energy Commission (USAEC) authorized General Atomic Company, General Electric Company and Westinghouse Astronuclear Laboratory to assess the available technology for producing process heat utilizing very high temperature nuclear reactors. General Electric and Westinghouse produced concepts for the entire nuclear system, including the balance of plant. The General Atomic assessment included only the nuclear reactor portion of the nuclear plant. United Engineers and Constructors Inc. (UE and C) was requested by the USAEC in November 1974 to prepare an economic comparison of the three conceptual plants. The comparison is divided into three tasks: (1) Develop a balance of plant conceptual design to be combined with the General Atomic concept as a basis for comparison, and estimate the cost of the General Atomic/UE and C concept in July 1974 dollars; (2) Normalize the overall plant costs for the General Atomic/UE and C, General Electric and Westinghouse concepts, compare the costs, and identify significant differences between the concepts; and (3) Estimate the operation and maintenance costs for the General Atomic/UE and C plant and compare with the other concepts. The results of these task studies are discussed

  1. Contribution to the optimization of the coupling of nuclear reactors to desalination processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dardour, S.

    2007-04-01

    This work deals with modelling, simulation and optimization of the coupling between nuclear reactors (PWR, modular high temperature reactors) and desalination processes (multiple effect distillation, reverse osmosis). The reactors considered in this study are PWR (Pressurized Water Reactor) and GTMHR (Gas Turbine Modular Helium Reactor). The desalination processes retained are MED (Multi Effect Distillation) and SWRO (Sea Water Reverse Osmosis). A software tool: EXCELEES of thermodynamic modelling of coupled systems, based on the Engineering Algebraic Equation Solver has been developed. Models of energy conversion systems and of membrane desalination processes and distillation have been developed. Based on the first and second principles of thermodynamics, these models have allowed to determine the optimal running point of the coupled systems. The thermodynamic analysis has been completed by a first economic evaluation. Based on the use of the DEEP software of the IAEA, this evaluation has confirmed the interest to use these types of reactors for desalination. A modelling tool of thermal processes of desalination in dynamic condition has been developed too. This tool has been applied to the study of the dynamics of an existing plant and has given satisfying results. A first safety checking has been at last carried out. The transients able to jeopardize the integrated system have been identified. Several measures aiming at consolidate the safety have been proposed. (O.M.)

  2. Brief introduction of USA new reactor oversight process and suggestions for our country

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao Xiaofeng; Chen Rui; Zhou Limin; Wang Xiuqing

    2002-01-01

    The NRC New Reactor Oversight Process focuses the nuclear safety supervision on the 3 areas: Reactor Safety, Radiation safety and Plant Security. Within the 3 areas, 7 cornerstones are detailed for the purpose. They are Initiating Events, Mitigating Systems, Barrier Integrity, Emergency Preparedness, Occupational Radiation Protection, Public Radiation Safety and Physical Protection. On cooperating with the inspections, the new process ensures a more effective, objective and timely evaluation of the safety level of the operating nuclear power plants. On considering the practices and the status in China nuclear safety supervision, the authors have to learn something from the NRC New Reactor Oversight Process. The authors must make an optimization on Chinese limited resources and put the emphasis on the issues with high risk in order to prevent the occurrence of the accidents. Properly inducing some ideas and methodology from the NRC New Reactor Oversight Process will benefit the development and perfection of the supervision mode of the NNSA

  3. Gas cooled reactor assessment. Volume II. Final report, February 9, 1976--June 30, 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-08-01

    This report was prepared to document the estimated power plant capital and operating costs, and the safety and environmental assessments used in support of the Gas Cooled Reactor Assessment performed by Arthur D. Little, Inc. (ADL), for the U.S. Energy Research and Development Administration. The gas-cooled reactor technologies investigated include: the High Temperature Gas Reactor Steam Cycle (HTGR-SC), the HTGR Direct Cycle (HTGR-DC), the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) and the Gas Cooled Fast Reactor (GCFR). Reference technologies used for comparison include: Light Water Reactors (LWR), the Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR), conventional coal-fired steam plants, and coal combustion for process heat

  4. Technological status of reactor coolant pumps in generation III+ pressurized nuclear reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brecht, Bernhard; Bross, Stephan [KSB Aktiengesellschaft, Frankenthal (Germany)

    2016-05-15

    KSB has been developing and producing pumps for thermal power plants for nearly 90 years. Consequently, KSB also started to develop and manufacture pumps for all kinds of nuclear power plants from the very beginning of the civil use of nuclear energy. This is especially true for reactor coolant pumps for pressurized water reactors. For the generation of advanced evolutionary reactors (Generation III+ reactors), KSB developed an advanced shaft seal system which is also able to fulfill the requirements of station blackout conditions. The tests in the KSB test rigs, which were successfully completed in December 2015, proved the full functionality of the new design. For generation III+ passive plant reactors KSB developed a new reactor coolant pump type called RUV, which is based on the experience of classic reactor coolant pumps and reactor internal pumps. It is a very compact, hermetically sealed vertical pump-motor unit with a wet winding motor. A full scale prototype successfully passed the 1st stage qualification test program in October 2015.

  5. Demand driven salt clean-up in a molten salt fast reactor - Defining a priority list.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merk, B; Litskevich, D; Gregg, R; Mount, A R

    2018-01-01

    The PUREX technology based on aqueous processes is currently the leading reprocessing technology in nuclear energy systems. It seems to be the most developed and established process for light water reactor fuel and the use of solid fuel. However, demand driven development of the nuclear system opens the way to liquid fuelled reactors, and disruptive technology development through the application of an integrated fuel cycle with a direct link to reactor operation. The possibilities of this new concept for innovative reprocessing technology development are analysed, the boundary conditions are discussed, and the economic as well as the neutron physical optimization parameters of the process are elucidated. Reactor physical knowledge of the influence of different elements on the neutron economy of the reactor is required. Using an innovative study approach, an element priority list for the salt clean-up is developed, which indicates that separation of Neodymium and Caesium is desirable, as they contribute almost 50% to the loss of criticality. Separating Zirconium and Samarium in addition from the fuel salt would remove nearly 80% of the loss of criticality due to fission products. The theoretical study is followed by a qualitative discussion of the different, demand driven optimization strategies which could satisfy the conflicting interests of sustainable reactor operation, efficient chemical processing for the salt clean-up, and the related economic as well as chemical engineering consequences. A new, innovative approach of balancing the throughput through salt processing based on a low number of separation process steps is developed. Next steps for the development of an economically viable salt clean-up process are identified.

  6. Development and Field Application Experience of the Reactor Internal Preventive Maintenance Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanno, A.; Yoshikubo, F.; Morinaka, R.; Tanaka, M.; Hasegawa, K.; Hatou, H.

    2012-01-01

    A reactor internal preventive maintenance technology, Water Jet Peening (WJP), has been developed as a stress corrosion cracking (SCC) mitigation technology that has been successfully implemented during refuelling outages at 15 Boiling Water Reactors (BWR) and three (3) Advanced BWRs (during the site construction and in the shop fabrication) in Japan. WJP is one of the most successful underwater peening methods, which utilizes the energy generated from the collapsing of bubbles produced by the cavitating water jet nozzle. The energy produced from the cavitations introduces compressive residual stress on the metal surface and subsurface up to a depth of several hundred micrometers. Most recently, we have successfully applied WJP to the bottom head components and to some cracked areas on the shroud support in the Tokai-2 plant. In the case of the bottom head components, we produced inspection and repair tooling as a contingency in the event SCC was identified and would be required to be repaired prior to the implementation of WJP. (author)

  7. The history and perspective of Romania-USA cooperation in the field of technologic transfer of TRIGA reactor concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciocaanescu, M.; Ionescu, M.

    1996-01-01

    The cooperation between Romania and the USA in the field of technologic transfer of nuclear research reactor technology began with the steady state 14 MW t TRIGA reactor, installed at INR Pitesti, Romania. It is the first in the range of TRIGA reactors proposed as a materials testing reactor. The first criticality was reached in November 19, 1979 and first operation at 14 MW t level was in February 1980. The paper will present the short history of this cooperation and the perspective for a new cooperation for building a Nuclear Heating Plant using the TRIGA reactor concept for demonstration purpose. The energy crisis is a world-wide problem which affects each country in different ways because the resources and the consumption are unfairly distributed. World-wide research points out that the fossil fuel sources are not to be considered the main energy sources for the long term as they are limited

  8. Aspects of nuclear process heat application of very high temperature reactors (VHTR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansing, W.T.; Kugeler, K.

    2014-01-01

    The different processes of high temperature process application require new concepts for heat exchangers to carry out key process like steam reforming of light hydrocarbons, gasification of coal or biomass, or thermo-chemical cycles for hydrogen production. These components have been tested in the German projects for high temperature development. The intention was always to test at original conditions of temperatures, pressures and gas atmospheres. Furthermore the time of testing should be long as possible, to be able to carry out extrapolations to the real lifetime of components. Partly test times of around 20 000 hours have been reached. Key components, which are discussed in this paper, are: Intermediate heat exchangers to separate the primary reactor side and the secondary process side. Here two components with a power of 10 MW have been tested with the result, that all requirements of a nuclear component with larger power (125 MW) can be fulfilled. The max. primary helium temperature was 950°C, the maximal secondary temperature was 900°C. These were components with helical wounded tubes and U-tubes. In the test facility KVK, which had been built to carry out many special tests on components for helium cycles, furthermore hot gas ducts (with large dimensions), hot gas valves (with large dimensions), steam generators (10 MW), helium circulators, the helium gas purification and special measurements installations for helium cycle have been tested. All these tests delivered a broad know how for the urther development of technologies using helium as working fluid. The total test time of KVK was longer than 20 000 h. In a large test facility for steam reforming (EVAⅡ10 MW, T He =950°C, p He =40 bar, T Reform =800°C) all technical details of the conversion process have been investigated and today the technical feasibility of this process is valuated as given. Two reformer bundles, one with baffles and one with separate guiding tubes for each reformer tube have

  9. Processing of nuclear data for reactor applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trkov, A.; Ravnik, M.

    1996-01-01

    A brief description is given of the processing and validation of nuclear data in connection with the TRX-1, TRX-2, BAPL-1 and BAPL-2 benchmarks of a/o thermal reactors and in connection with the JEF-1, JENDL-3 and WIMS libraries. Also, the validation of the WLUP results are briefly discussed. 8 refs, 5 tabs

  10. Terrestrial Energy bets on molten salt reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2015-01-01

    Terrestrial Energy is a Canadian enterprise, founded in 2013, for marketing the integral molten salt reactor (IMSR). A first prototype (called MSRE and with an energy output of 8 MW) was designed and operated between 1965 and 1969 by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. IMSR is a small, modular reactor with a thermal energy output of 400 MW. According to Terrestrial Energy the technology of conventional power reactors is too complicated and too expensive. On the contrary IMSR's technology appears to be simple, easy to operate and affordable. With a staff of 30 people Terrestrial Energy appears to be a start-up in the nuclear sector. A process of pre-licensing will be launched in 2016 with the Canadian nuclear safety authority. (A.C.)

  11. A mechanism for proven technology foresight for emerging fast reactor designs and concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anuar, Nuraslinda; Muhamad Pauzi, Anas

    2016-01-01

    The assessment of emerging nuclear fast reactor designs and concepts viability requires a combination of foresight methods. A mechanism that allows for the comparison and quantification of the possibility of being a proven technology in the future, β for the existing fast reactor designs and concepts is proposed as one of the quantitative foresight method. The methodology starts with the identification at the national or regional level, of the factors that would affect β. The factors are then categorized into several groups; economic, social and technology elements. Each of the elements is proposed to be mathematically modelled before all of the elemental models can be combined. Once the overall β model is obtained, the β min is determined to benchmark the acceptance as a candidate design or concept. The β values for all the available designs and concepts are then determined and compared with the β min , resulting in a list of candidate designs that possess the β value that is larger than the β min . The proposed methodology can also be applied to purposes other than technological foresight

  12. A mechanism for proven technology foresight for emerging fast reactor designs and concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anuar, Nuraslinda, E-mail: nuraslinda@uniten.edu.my; Muhamad Pauzi, Anas, E-mail: anas@uniten.edu.my [College of Engineering, Universiti Tenaga Nasional, Jalan IKRAM-UNITEN, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2016-01-22

    The assessment of emerging nuclear fast reactor designs and concepts viability requires a combination of foresight methods. A mechanism that allows for the comparison and quantification of the possibility of being a proven technology in the future, β for the existing fast reactor designs and concepts is proposed as one of the quantitative foresight method. The methodology starts with the identification at the national or regional level, of the factors that would affect β. The factors are then categorized into several groups; economic, social and technology elements. Each of the elements is proposed to be mathematically modelled before all of the elemental models can be combined. Once the overall β model is obtained, the β{sub min} is determined to benchmark the acceptance as a candidate design or concept. The β values for all the available designs and concepts are then determined and compared with the β{sub min}, resulting in a list of candidate designs that possess the β value that is larger than the β{sub min}. The proposed methodology can also be applied to purposes other than technological foresight.

  13. Development of a laser multi-layer cladding technology for damage mitigation of fuel spacers in Hanaro reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J. S.; Lee, D. H.; Hwang, S. S.; Suh, J. H.

    2002-01-01

    A laser multi-layer cladding technology was developed to mitigate the fretting wear damages occurred at fuel spacers in Hanaro reactor. The detailed experimental results are as follows. 1) Analyses of fretting wear damages and fabrication process of fuel spacers 2) Development and analysis of spherical Al 6061 T-6 alloy powders for the laser cladding 3) Analysis of parameter effects on laser cladding process for clad bids, and optimization of laser cladding process 4) Analysis on the changes of cladding layers due to overlapping factor change 5) Microstructural observation and phase analysis 6) Characterization of materials properties (hardness and wear tests) 7) Manufacture of prototype fuel spacers 8) Development of a vision system and revision of its related softwares

  14. Hydrothermal processing of Hanford tank waste. Organic destruction technology development task annual report -- FY 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orth, R.J.; Schmidt, A.J.; Zacher, A.H.

    1993-09-01

    Low-temperature hydrothermal processing (HTP) is a thermal-chemical autogenous processing method that can be used to destroy organics and ferrocyanide in Hanford tank waste at temperatures from 250 C to 400 C. With HTP, organics react with oxidants, such as nitrite and nitrate, already present in the waste. Ferrocyanides and free cyanide will hydrolyze at similar temperatures and may also react with nitrates or other oxidants in the waste. No air or oxygen or additional chemicals need to be added to the autogenous HTP system. However, enhanced kinetics may be realized by air addition, and, if desired, chemical reductants can be added to the system to facilitate complete nitrate/nitrate destruction. Tank waste can be processed in a plug-flow, tubular reactor, or a continuous-stirred tank reactor system designed to accommodate the temperature, pressure, gas generation, and heat release associated with decomposition of the reactive species. The work described in this annual report was conducted in FY 1993 for the Organic Destruction Technology Development Task of Hanford's Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS). This task is part of an overall program to develop organic destruction technologies originally funded by TWRS to meet tank safety and waste form disposal criteria and condition the feed for further pretreatment. During FY 1993 the project completed seven experimental test plans, a 30-hr pilot-scale continuous run, over 200 hr of continuous bench-scale HTP testing, and 20 batch HTP tests; two contracts were established with commercial vendors, and a commercial laboratory reactor was procured and installed in a glovebox for HTP testing with actual Hanford tank waste

  15. Nuclear reactor safety program in U.S. Department of Energy and future perspectives