WorldWideScience

Sample records for processes distributed active

  1. AVIRIS and TIMS data processing and distribution at the land processes distributed active archive center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mah, G. R.; Myers, J.

    1993-01-01

    The U.S. Government has initiated the Global Change Research program, a systematic study of the Earth as a complete system. NASA's contribution of the Global Change Research Program is the Earth Observing System (EOS), a series of orbital sensor platforms and an associated data processing and distribution system. The EOS Data and Information System (EOSDIS) is the archiving, production, and distribution system for data collected by the EOS space segment and uses a multilayer architecture for processing, archiving, and distributing EOS data. The first layer consists of the spacecraft ground stations and processing facilities that receive the raw data from the orbiting platforms and then separate the data by individual sensors. The second layer consists of Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAAC) that process, distribute, and archive the sensor data. The third layer consists of a user science processing network. The EOSDIS is being developed in a phased implementation. The initial phase, Version 0, is a prototype of the operational system. Version 0 activities are based upon existing systems and are designed to provide an EOSDIS-like capability for information management and distribution. An important science support task is the creation of simulated data sets for EOS instruments from precursor aircraft or satellite data. The Land Processes DAAC, at the EROS Data Center (EDC), is responsible for archiving and processing EOS precursor data from airborne instruments such as the Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS), the Thematic Mapper Simulator (TMS), and Airborne Visible and Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS). AVIRIS, TIMS, and TMS are flown by the NASA-Ames Research Center ARC) on an ER-2. The ER-2 flies at 65000 feet and can carry up to three sensors simultaneously. Most jointly collected data sets are somewhat boresighted and roughly registered. The instrument data are being used to construct data sets that simulate the spectral and spatial

  2. Distributed Aerodynamic Sensing and Processing Toolbox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Martin; Jutte, Christine; Mangalam, Arun

    2011-01-01

    A Distributed Aerodynamic Sensing and Processing (DASP) toolbox was designed and fabricated for flight test applications with an Aerostructures Test Wing (ATW) mounted under the fuselage of an F-15B on the Flight Test Fixture (FTF). DASP monitors and processes the aerodynamics with the structural dynamics using nonintrusive, surface-mounted, hot-film sensing. This aerodynamic measurement tool benefits programs devoted to static/dynamic load alleviation, body freedom flutter suppression, buffet control, improvement of aerodynamic efficiency through cruise control, supersonic wave drag reduction through shock control, etc. This DASP toolbox measures local and global unsteady aerodynamic load distribution with distributed sensing. It determines correlation between aerodynamic observables (aero forces) and structural dynamics, and allows control authority increase through aeroelastic shaping and active flow control. It offers improvements in flutter suppression and, in particular, body freedom flutter suppression, as well as aerodynamic performance of wings for increased range/endurance of manned/ unmanned flight vehicles. Other improvements include inlet performance with closed-loop active flow control, and development and validation of advanced analytical and computational tools for unsteady aerodynamics.

  3. Beowulf Distributed Processing and the United States Geological Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddox, Brian G.

    2002-01-01

    Introduction In recent years, the United States Geological Survey's (USGS) National Mapping Discipline (NMD) has expanded its scientific and research activities. Work is being conducted in areas such as emergency response research, scientific visualization, urban prediction, and other simulation activities. Custom-produced digital data have become essential for these types of activities. High-resolution, remotely sensed datasets are also seeing increased use. Unfortunately, the NMD is also finding that it lacks the resources required to perform some of these activities. Many of these projects require large amounts of computer processing resources. Complex urban-prediction simulations, for example, involve large amounts of processor-intensive calculations on large amounts of input data. This project was undertaken to learn and understand the concepts of distributed processing. Experience was needed in developing these types of applications. The idea was that this type of technology could significantly aid the needs of the NMD scientific and research programs. Porting a numerically intensive application currently being used by an NMD science program to run in a distributed fashion would demonstrate the usefulness of this technology. There are several benefits that this type of technology can bring to the USGS's research programs. Projects can be performed that were previously impossible due to a lack of computing resources. Other projects can be performed on a larger scale than previously possible. For example, distributed processing can enable urban dynamics research to perform simulations on larger areas without making huge sacrifices in resolution. The processing can also be done in a more reasonable amount of time than with traditional single-threaded methods (a scaled version of Chester County, Pennsylvania, took about fifty days to finish its first calibration phase with a single-threaded program). This paper has several goals regarding distributed processing

  4. The brain as a distributed intelligent processing system: an EEG study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Rocha, Armando Freitas; Rocha, Fábio Theoto; Massad, Eduardo

    2011-03-15

    Various neuroimaging studies, both structural and functional, have provided support for the proposal that a distributed brain network is likely to be the neural basis of intelligence. The theory of Distributed Intelligent Processing Systems (DIPS), first developed in the field of Artificial Intelligence, was proposed to adequately model distributed neural intelligent processing. In addition, the neural efficiency hypothesis suggests that individuals with higher intelligence display more focused cortical activation during cognitive performance, resulting in lower total brain activation when compared with individuals who have lower intelligence. This may be understood as a property of the DIPS. In our study, a new EEG brain mapping technique, based on the neural efficiency hypothesis and the notion of the brain as a Distributed Intelligence Processing System, was used to investigate the correlations between IQ evaluated with WAIS (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale) and WISC (Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children), and the brain activity associated with visual and verbal processing, in order to test the validity of a distributed neural basis for intelligence. The present results support these claims and the neural efficiency hypothesis.

  5. Measurement for cobalt target activity and its axial distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xingyuan; Chen Zigen.

    1985-01-01

    Cobalt target activity and its axial distribution are measured in process of producing radioactive isotopes 60 Co by irradiation in HFETR. Cobalt target activity is obtained with measured data at 3.60 m and 4.60 m, relative axial distribution of cobalt target activity is obtained with one at 30 cm, and axial distribution of cobalt target activity(or specific activity) is obtained with both of data. The difference between this specific activity and measured result for 60 Co teletherapy sources in the end is less than +- 5%

  6. Modeling Aspects Of Activated Sludge Processes Part I: Process Modeling Of Activated Sludge Facilitation And Sedimentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, H. I.; EI-Ahwany, A.H.; Ibrahim, G.

    2004-01-01

    Process modeling of activated sludge flocculation and sedimentation reviews consider the activated sludge floc characteristics such as: morphology viable and non-viable cell ratio density and water content, bio flocculation and its kinetics were studied considering the characteristics of bio flocculation and explaining theory of Divalent Cation Bridging which describes the major role of cations in bio flocculation. Activated sludge flocculation process modeling was studied considering mass transfer limitations from Clifft and Andrew, 1981, Benefild and Molz 1983 passing Henze 1987, until Tyagi 1996 and G. Ibrahim et aI. 2002. Models of aggregation and breakage of flocs were studied by Spicer and Pratsinis 1996,and Biggs 2002 Size distribution of floes influences mass transfer and biomass separation in the activated sludge process. Therefore, it is of primary importance to establish the role of specific process operation factors, such as sludge loading dynamic sludge age and dissolved oxygen, on this distribution with special emphasis on the formation of primary particles

  7. The brain as a distributed intelligent processing system: an EEG study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Freitas da Rocha

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Various neuroimaging studies, both structural and functional, have provided support for the proposal that a distributed brain network is likely to be the neural basis of intelligence. The theory of Distributed Intelligent Processing Systems (DIPS, first developed in the field of Artificial Intelligence, was proposed to adequately model distributed neural intelligent processing. In addition, the neural efficiency hypothesis suggests that individuals with higher intelligence display more focused cortical activation during cognitive performance, resulting in lower total brain activation when compared with individuals who have lower intelligence. This may be understood as a property of the DIPS. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In our study, a new EEG brain mapping technique, based on the neural efficiency hypothesis and the notion of the brain as a Distributed Intelligence Processing System, was used to investigate the correlations between IQ evaluated with WAIS (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale and WISC (Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, and the brain activity associated with visual and verbal processing, in order to test the validity of a distributed neural basis for intelligence. CONCLUSION: The present results support these claims and the neural efficiency hypothesis.

  8. The Brain as a Distributed Intelligent Processing System: An EEG Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Rocha, Armando Freitas; Rocha, Fábio Theoto; Massad, Eduardo

    2011-01-01

    Background Various neuroimaging studies, both structural and functional, have provided support for the proposal that a distributed brain network is likely to be the neural basis of intelligence. The theory of Distributed Intelligent Processing Systems (DIPS), first developed in the field of Artificial Intelligence, was proposed to adequately model distributed neural intelligent processing. In addition, the neural efficiency hypothesis suggests that individuals with higher intelligence display more focused cortical activation during cognitive performance, resulting in lower total brain activation when compared with individuals who have lower intelligence. This may be understood as a property of the DIPS. Methodology and Principal Findings In our study, a new EEG brain mapping technique, based on the neural efficiency hypothesis and the notion of the brain as a Distributed Intelligence Processing System, was used to investigate the correlations between IQ evaluated with WAIS (Whechsler Adult Intelligence Scale) and WISC (Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children), and the brain activity associated with visual and verbal processing, in order to test the validity of a distributed neural basis for intelligence. Conclusion The present results support these claims and the neural efficiency hypothesis. PMID:21423657

  9. Computer program for source distribution process in radiation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Kassiri, H.; Abdul Ghani, B.

    2007-08-01

    Computer simulation for dose distribution using Visual Basic has been done according to the arrangement and activities of Co-60 sources. This program provides dose distribution in treated products depending on the product density and desired dose. The program is useful for optimization of sources distribution during loading process. there is good agreement between calculated data for the program and experimental data.(Author)

  10. Cross-coherent vector sensor processing for spatially distributed glider networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Brendan; Sabra, Karim G

    2015-09-01

    Autonomous underwater gliders fitted with vector sensors can be used as a spatially distributed sensor array to passively locate underwater sources. However, to date, the positional accuracy required for robust array processing (especially coherent processing) is not achievable using dead-reckoning while the gliders remain submerged. To obtain such accuracy, the gliders can be temporarily surfaced to allow for global positioning system contact, but the acoustically active sea surface introduces locally additional sensor noise. This letter demonstrates that cross-coherent array processing, which inherently mitigates the effects of local noise, outperforms traditional incoherent processing source localization methods for this spatially distributed vector sensor network.

  11. Distributed learning process: principles of design and implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. N. Boychenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available At the present stage, broad information and communication technologies (ICT usage in educational practices is one of the leading trends of global education system development. This trend has led to the instructional interaction models transformation. Scientists have developed the theory of distributed cognition (Salomon, G., Hutchins, E., and distributed education and training (Fiore, S. M., Salas, E., Oblinger, D. G., Barone, C. A., Hawkins, B. L.. Educational process is based on two separated in time and space sub-processes of learning and teaching which are aimed at the organization of fl exible interactions between learners, teachers and educational content located in different non-centralized places.The purpose of this design research is to fi nd a solution for the problem of formalizing distributed learning process design and realization that is signifi cant in instructional design. The solution to this problem should take into account specifi cs of distributed interactions between team members, which becomes collective subject of distributed cognition in distributed learning process. This makes it necessary to design roles and functions of the individual team members performing distributed educational activities. Personal educational objectives should be determined by decomposition of team objectives into functional roles of its members with considering personal and learning needs and interests of students.Theoretical and empirical methods used in the study: theoretical analysis of philosophical, psychological, and pedagogical literature on the issue, analysis of international standards in the e-learning domain; exploration on practical usage of distributed learning in academic and corporate sectors; generalization, abstraction, cognitive modelling, ontology engineering methods.Result of the research is methodology for design and implementation of distributed learning process based on the competency approach. Methodology proposed by

  12. Coordinating Management Activities in Distributed Software Development Projects

    OpenAIRE

    Bendeck, Fawsy; Goldmann, Sigrid; Holz, Harald; Kötting, Boris

    1999-01-01

    Coordinating distributed processes, especially engineering and software design processes, has been a research topic for some time now. Several approaches have been published that aim at coordinating large projects in general, and large software development processes in specific. However, most of these approaches focus on the technical part of the design process and omit management activities like planning and scheduling the project, or monitoring it during execution. In this paper, we focus o...

  13. Alpha spectrometric characterization of process-related particle size distributions from active particle sampling at the Los Alamos National Laboratory uranium foundry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plionis, Alexander A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Peterson, Dominic S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tandon, Lav [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lamont, Stephen P [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Uranium particles within the respirable size range pose a significant hazard to the health and safety of workers. Significant differences in the deposition and incorporation patterns of aerosols within the respirable range can be identified and integrated into sophisticated health physics models. Data characterizing the uranium particle size distribution resulting from specific foundry-related processes are needed. Using personal air sampling cascade impactors, particles collected from several foundry processes were sorted by activity median aerodynamic diameter onto various Marple substrates. After an initial gravimetric assessment of each impactor stage, the substrates were analyzed by alpha spectrometry to determine the uranium content of each stage. Alpha spectrometry provides rapid nondestructive isotopic data that can distinguish process uranium from natural sources and the degree of uranium contribution to the total accumulated particle load. In addition, the particle size bins utilized by the impactors provide adequate resolution to determine if a process particle size distribution is: lognormal, bimodal, or trimodal. Data on process uranium particle size values and distributions facilitate the development of more sophisticated and accurate models for internal dosimetry, resulting in an improved understanding of foundry worker health and safety.

  14. Focal versus distributed temporal cortex activity for speech sound category assignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouton, Sophie; Chambon, Valérian; Tyrand, Rémi; Seeck, Margitta; Karkar, Sami; van de Ville, Dimitri; Giraud, Anne-Lise

    2018-01-01

    Percepts and words can be decoded from distributed neural activity measures. However, the existence of widespread representations might conflict with the more classical notions of hierarchical processing and efficient coding, which are especially relevant in speech processing. Using fMRI and magnetoencephalography during syllable identification, we show that sensory and decisional activity colocalize to a restricted part of the posterior superior temporal gyrus (pSTG). Next, using intracortical recordings, we demonstrate that early and focal neural activity in this region distinguishes correct from incorrect decisions and can be machine-decoded to classify syllables. Crucially, significant machine decoding was possible from neuronal activity sampled across different regions of the temporal and frontal lobes, despite weak or absent sensory or decision-related responses. These findings show that speech-sound categorization relies on an efficient readout of focal pSTG neural activity, while more distributed activity patterns, although classifiable by machine learning, instead reflect collateral processes of sensory perception and decision. PMID:29363598

  15. Downstream Processability of Crystal Habit-Modified Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pudasaini, Nawin; Upadhyay, Pratik Pankaj; Parker, Christian Richard

    2017-01-01

    Efficient downstream processing of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) can depend strongly on their particulate properties, such as size and shape distributions. Especially in drug products with high API content, needle-like crystal habit of an API may show compromised flowability and tablet......Efficient downstream processing of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) can depend strongly on their particulate properties, such as size and shape distributions. Especially in drug products with high API content, needle-like crystal habit of an API may show compromised flowability...

  16. A Comparison of Producer Gas, Biochar, and Activated Carbon from Two Distributed Scale Thermochemical Conversion Systems Used to Process Forest Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathaniel Anderson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermochemical biomass conversion systems have the potential to produce heat, power, fuels and other products from forest biomass at distributed scales that meet the needs of some forest industry facilities. However, many of these systems have not been deployed in this sector and the products they produce from forest biomass have not been adequately described or characterized with regards to chemical properties, possible uses, and markets. This paper characterizes the producer gas, biochar, and activated carbon of a 700 kg h−1 prototype gasification system and a 225 kg h−1 pyrolysis system used to process coniferous sawmill and forest residues. Producer gas from sawmill residues processed with the gasifier had higher energy content than gas from forest residues, with averages of 12.4 MJ m−3 and 9.8 MJ m−3, respectively. Gases from the pyrolysis system averaged 1.3 MJ m−3 for mill residues and 2.5 MJ m−3 for forest residues. Biochars produced have similar particle size distributions and bulk density, but vary in pH and carbon content. Biochars from both systems were successfully activated using steam activation, with resulting BET surface area in the range of commercial activated carbon. Results are discussed in the context of co-locating these systems with forest industry operations.

  17. Safe Distribution of Declarative Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hildebrandt, Thomas; Mukkamala, Raghava Rao; Slaats, Tijs

    2011-01-01

    of projections that covers a DCR Graph that the network of synchronously communicating DCR Graphs given by the projections is bisimilar to the original global process graph. We exemplify the distribution technique on a process identified in a case study of an cross-organizational case management system carried...... process model generalizing labelled prime event structures to a systems model able to finitely represent ω-regular languages. An operational semantics given as a transition semantics between markings of the graph allows DCR Graphs to be conveniently used as both specification and execution model....... The technique for distribution is based on a new general notion of projection of DCR Graphs relative to a subset of labels and events identifying the set of external events that must be communicated from the other processes in the network in order for the distribution to be safe.We prove that for any vector...

  18. Spiking Activity of a LIF Neuron in Distributed Delay Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saket Kumar Choudhary

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Evolution of membrane potential and spiking activity for a single leaky integrate-and-fire (LIF neuron in distributed delay framework (DDF is investigated. DDF provides a mechanism to incorporate memory element in terms of delay (kernel function into a single neuron models. This investigation includes LIF neuron model with two different kinds of delay kernel functions, namely, gamma distributed delay kernel function and hypo-exponential distributed delay kernel function. Evolution of membrane potential for considered models is studied in terms of stationary state probability distribution (SPD. Stationary state probability distribution of membrane potential (SPDV for considered neuron models are found asymptotically similar which is Gaussian distributed. In order to investigate the effect of membrane potential delay, rate code scheme for neuronal information processing is applied. Firing rate and Fano-factor for considered neuron models are calculated and standard LIF model is used for comparative study. It is noticed that distributed delay increases the spiking activity of a neuron. Increase in spiking activity of neuron in DDF is larger for hypo-exponential distributed delay function than gamma distributed delay function. Moreover, in case of hypo-exponential delay function, a LIF neuron generates spikes with Fano-factor less than 1.

  19. Experiments to Distribute Map Generalization Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berli, Justin; Touya, Guillaume; Lokhat, Imran; Regnauld, Nicolas

    2018-05-01

    Automatic map generalization requires the use of computationally intensive processes often unable to deal with large datasets. Distributing the generalization process is the only way to make them scalable and usable in practice. But map generalization is a highly contextual process, and the surroundings of a generalized map feature needs to be known to generalize the feature, which is a problem as distribution might partition the dataset and parallelize the processing of each part. This paper proposes experiments to evaluate the past propositions to distribute map generalization, and to identify the main remaining issues. The past propositions to distribute map generalization are first discussed, and then the experiment hypotheses and apparatus are described. The experiments confirmed that regular partitioning was the quickest strategy, but also the less effective in taking context into account. The geographical partitioning, though less effective for now, is quite promising regarding the quality of the results as it better integrates the geographical context.

  20. On Distributed Port-Hamiltonian Process Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopezlena, Ricardo; Scherpen, Jacquelien M.A.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we use the term distributed port-Hamiltonian Process Systems (DPHPS) to refer to the result of merging the theory of distributed Port-Hamiltonian systems (DPHS) with the theory of process systems (PS). Such concept is useful for combining the systematic interconnection of PHS with the

  1. Palm distributions for log Gaussian Cox processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coeurjolly, Jean-Francois; Møller, Jesper; Waagepetersen, Rasmus Plenge

    2017-01-01

    This paper establishes a remarkable result regarding Palm distributions for a log Gaussian Cox process: the reduced Palm distribution for a log Gaussian Cox process is itself a log Gaussian Cox process that only differs from the original log Gaussian Cox process in the intensity function. This new...... result is used to study functional summaries for log Gaussian Cox processes....

  2. A role for distributed processing in advanced nuclear materials control and accountability systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tisinger, R.M.; Whitty, W.J.; Ford, W.; Strittmatter, R.B.

    1986-01-01

    Networking and distributed processing hardware and software have the potential of greatly enhancing nuclear materials control and account-ability (MCandA) systems, both from safeguards and process operations perspectives while allowing timely integrated safeguards activities and enhanced computer security at reasonable cost. A hierarchical distributed system is proposed consisting of groups of terminals and instruments in plant production and support areas connected to microprocessors that are connected to either larger microprocessors or minicomputers. The structuring and development of a limited distributed MCandA prototype system, including human engineering concepts, are described. Implications of integrated safeguards and computer security concepts to the distributed system design are discussed

  3. Understanding flexible and distributed software development processes

    OpenAIRE

    Agerfalk, Par J.; Fitzgerald, Brian

    2006-01-01

    peer-reviewed The minitrack on Flexible and Distributed Software Development Processes addresses two important and partially intertwined current themes in software development: process flexibility and globally distributed software development

  4. Web-Based Distributed XML Query Processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smiljanic, M.; Feng, L.; Jonker, Willem; Blanken, Henk; Grabs, T.; Schek, H-J.; Schenkel, R.; Weikum, G.

    2003-01-01

    Web-based distributed XML query processing has gained in importance in recent years due to the widespread popularity of XML on the Web. Unlike centralized and tightly coupled distributed systems, Web-based distributed database systems are highly unpredictable and uncontrollable, with a rather

  5. Proceedings: Distributed digital systems, plant process computers, and networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-03-01

    These are the proceedings of a workshop on Distributed Digital Systems, Plant Process Computers, and Networks held in Charlotte, North Carolina on August 16--18, 1994. The purpose of the workshop was to provide a forum for technology transfer, technical information exchange, and education. The workshop was attended by more than 100 representatives of electric utilities, equipment manufacturers, engineering service organizations, and government agencies. The workshop consisted of three days of presentations, exhibitions, a panel discussion and attendee interactions. Original plant process computers at the nuclear power plants are becoming obsolete resulting in increasing difficulties in their effectiveness to support plant operations and maintenance. Some utilities have already replaced their plant process computers by more powerful modern computers while many other utilities intend to replace their aging plant process computers in the future. Information on recent and planned implementations are presented. Choosing an appropriate communications and computing network architecture facilitates integrating new systems and provides functional modularity for both hardware and software. Control room improvements such as CRT-based distributed monitoring and control, as well as digital decision and diagnostic aids, can improve plant operations. Commercially available digital products connected to the plant communications system are now readily available to provide distributed processing where needed. Plant operations, maintenance activities, and engineering analyses can be supported in a cost-effective manner. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database

  6. Distributed state estimation for multi-agent based active distribution networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, H.P.; Kling, W.L.

    2010-01-01

    Along with the large-scale implementation of distributed generators, the current distribution networks have changed gradually from passive to active operation. State estimation plays a vital role to facilitate this transition. In this paper, a suitable state estimation method for the active network

  7. Process optimization by decoupled control of key microbial populations: distribution of activity and abundance of polyphosphate-accumulating organisms and nitrifying populations in a full-scale IFAS-EBPR plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Onnis-Hayden, Annalisa; Majed, Nehreen; Schramm, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the abundance and distribution of key functional microbial populations and their activities in a full-scale integrated fixed film activated sludgeeenhanced biological phosphorus removal (IFAS-EBPR) process. Polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs) including Accumulibacter...

  8. Parallel and distributed processing: applications to power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Felix; Murphy, Liam [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences

    1994-12-31

    Applications of parallel and distributed processing to power systems problems are still in the early stages. Rapid progress in computing and communications promises a revolutionary increase in the capacity of distributed processing systems. In this paper, the state-of-the art in distributed processing technology and applications is reviewed and future trends are discussed. (author) 14 refs.,1 tab.

  9. Multivariate semi-logistic distribution and processes | Umar | Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Multivariate semi-logistic distribution is introduced and studied. Some characterizations properties of multivariate semi-logistic distribution are presented. First order autoregressive minification processes and its generalization to kth order autoregressive minification processes with multivariate semi-logistic distribution as ...

  10. Evaluation of Circle Diameter by Distributed Tactile Information in Active Tracing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki Nakamoto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Active touch with voluntary movement on the surface of an object is important for human to obtain the local and detailed features on it. In addition, the active touch is considered to enhance the human spatial resolution. In order to improve dexterity performance of multifinger robotic hands, it is necessary to study an active touch method for robotic hands. In this paper, first, we define four requirements of a tactile sensor for active touch and design a distributed tactile sensor model, which can measure a distribution of compressive deformation. Second, we suggest a measurement process with the sensor model, a synthesis method of distributed deformations. In the experiments, a five-finger robotic hand with tactile sensors traces on the surface of cylindrical objects and evaluates the diameters. We confirm that the hand can obtain more information of the diameters by tracing the finger.

  11. Kinetic Analysis of Isothermal Decomposition Process of Sodium Bicarbonate Using the Weibull Probability Function—Estimation of Density Distribution Functions of the Apparent Activation Energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janković, Bojan

    2009-10-01

    The decomposition process of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) has been studied by thermogravimetry in isothermal conditions at four different operating temperatures (380 K, 400 K, 420 K, and 440 K). It was found that the experimental integral and differential conversion curves at the different operating temperatures can be successfully described by the isothermal Weibull distribution function with a unique value of the shape parameter ( β = 1.07). It was also established that the Weibull distribution parameters ( β and η) show independent behavior on the operating temperature. Using the integral and differential (Friedman) isoconversional methods, in the conversion (α) range of 0.20 ≤ α ≤ 0.80, the apparent activation energy ( E a ) value was approximately constant ( E a, int = 95.2 kJmol-1 and E a, diff = 96.6 kJmol-1, respectively). The values of E a calculated by both isoconversional methods are in good agreement with the value of E a evaluated from the Arrhenius equation (94.3 kJmol-1), which was expressed through the scale distribution parameter ( η). The Málek isothermal procedure was used for estimation of the kinetic model for the investigated decomposition process. It was found that the two-parameter Šesták-Berggren (SB) autocatalytic model best describes the NaHCO3 decomposition process with the conversion function f(α) = α0.18(1-α)1.19. It was also concluded that the calculated density distribution functions of the apparent activation energies ( ddfE a ’s) are not dependent on the operating temperature, which exhibit the highly symmetrical behavior (shape factor = 1.00). The obtained isothermal decomposition results were compared with corresponding results of the nonisothermal decomposition process of NaHCO3.

  12. Combining Different Tools for EEG Analysis to Study the Distributed Character of Language Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Freitas da Rocha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies on language processing indicate that language cognition is better understood if assumed to be supported by a distributed intelligent processing system enrolling neurons located all over the cortex, in contrast to reductionism that proposes to localize cognitive functions to specific cortical structures. Here, brain activity was recorded using electroencephalogram while volunteers were listening or reading small texts and had to select pictures that translate meaning of these texts. Several techniques for EEG analysis were used to show this distributed character of neuronal enrollment associated with the comprehension of oral and written descriptive texts. Low Resolution Tomography identified the many different sets (si of neurons activated in several distinct cortical areas by text understanding. Linear correlation was used to calculate the information H(ei provided by each electrode of the 10/20 system about the identified si. H(ei Principal Component Analysis (PCA was used to study the temporal and spatial activation of these sources si. This analysis evidenced 4 different patterns of H(ei covariation that are generated by neurons located at different cortical locations. These results clearly show that the distributed character of language processing is clearly evidenced by combining available EEG technologies.

  13. Palm distributions for log Gaussian Cox processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coeurjolly, Jean-Francois; Møller, Jesper; Waagepetersen, Rasmus

    This paper reviews useful results related to Palm distributions of spatial point processes and provides a new result regarding the characterization of Palm distributions for the class of log Gaussian Cox processes. This result is used to study functional summary statistics for a log Gaussian Cox...

  14. Parallel and Distributed Data Processing Using Autonomous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Looking at the distributed nature of these networks, data is processed by remote login or Remote Procedure Calls (RPC), this causes congestion in the network bandwidth. This paper proposes a framework where software agents are assigned duties to be processing the distributed data concurrently and assembling the ...

  15. Process evaluation distributed system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffatt, Christopher L. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    The distributed system includes a database server, an administration module, a process evaluation module, and a data display module. The administration module is in communication with the database server for providing observation criteria information to the database server. The process evaluation module is in communication with the database server for obtaining the observation criteria information from the database server and collecting process data based on the observation criteria information. The process evaluation module utilizes a personal digital assistant (PDA). A data display module in communication with the database server, including a website for viewing collected process data in a desired metrics form, the data display module also for providing desired editing and modification of the collected process data. The connectivity established by the database server to the administration module, the process evaluation module, and the data display module, minimizes the requirement for manual input of the collected process data.

  16. Managing Distributed Innovation Processes in Virtual Organizations by Applying the Collaborative Network Relationship Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eschenbächer, Jens; Seifert, Marcus; Thoben, Klaus-Dieter

    Distributed innovation processes are considered as a new option to handle both the complexity and the speed in which new products and services need to be prepared. Indeed most research on innovation processes was focused on multinational companies with an intra-organisational perspective. The phenomena of innovation processes in networks - with an inter-organisational perspective - have been almost neglected. Collaborative networks present a perfect playground for such distributed innovation processes whereas the authors highlight in specific Virtual Organisation because of their dynamic behaviour. Research activities supporting distributed innovation processes in VO are rather new so that little knowledge about the management of such research is available. With the presentation of the collaborative network relationship analysis this gap will be addressed. It will be shown that a qualitative planning of collaboration intensities can support real business cases by proving knowledge and planning data.

  17. Distribution and interplay of geologic processes on Titan from Cassini radar data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, R.M.C.; Stofan, E.R.; Peckyno, R.; Radebaugh, J.; Mitchell, K.L.; Mitri, Giuseppe; Wood, C.A.; Kirk, R.L.; Wall, S.D.; Lunine, J.I.; Hayes, A.; Lorenz, R.; Farr, Tom; Wye, L.; Craig, J.; Ollerenshaw, R.J.; Janssen, M.; LeGall, A.; Paganelli, F.; West, R.; Stiles, B.; Callahan, P.; Anderson, Y.; Valora, P.; Soderblom, L.

    2010-01-01

    The Cassini Titan Radar Mapper is providing an unprecedented view of Titan's surface geology. Here we use Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) image swaths (Ta-T30) obtained from October 2004 to December 2007 to infer the geologic processes that have shaped Titan's surface. These SAR swaths cover about 20% of the surface, at a spatial resolution ranging from ???350 m to ???2 km. The SAR data are distributed over a wide latitudinal and longitudinal range, enabling some conclusions to be drawn about the global distribution of processes. They reveal a geologically complex surface that has been modified by all the major geologic processes seen on Earth - volcanism, tectonism, impact cratering, and erosion and deposition by fluvial and aeolian activity. In this paper, we map geomorphological units from SAR data and analyze their areal distribution and relative ages of modification in order to infer the geologic evolution of Titan's surface. We find that dunes and hummocky and mountainous terrains are more widespread than lakes, putative cryovolcanic features, mottled plains, and craters and crateriform structures that may be due to impact. Undifferentiated plains are the largest areal unit; their origin is uncertain. In terms of latitudinal distribution, dunes and hummocky and mountainous terrains are located mostly at low latitudes (less than 30??), with no dunes being present above 60??. Channels formed by fluvial activity are present at all latitudes, but lakes are at high latitudes only. Crateriform structures that may have been formed by impact appear to be uniformly distributed with latitude, but the well-preserved impact craters are all located at low latitudes, possibly indicating that more resurfacing has occurred at higher latitudes. Cryovolcanic features are not ubiquitous, and are mostly located between 30?? and 60?? north. We examine temporal relationships between units wherever possible, and conclude that aeolian and fluvial/pluvial/lacustrine processes are the

  18. Design of distributed systems of hydrolithosphere processes management. A synthesis of distributed management systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pershin, I. M.; Pervukhin, D. A.; Ilyushin, Y. V.; Afanaseva, O. V.

    2017-10-01

    The paper considers an important problem of designing distributed systems of hydrolithosphere processes management. The control actions on the hydrolithosphere processes under consideration are implemented by a set of extractive wells. The article shows the method of defining the approximation links for description of the dynamic characteristics of hydrolithosphere processes. The structure of distributed regulators, used in the management systems by the considered processes, is presented. The paper analyses the results of the synthesis of the distributed management system and the results of modelling the closed-loop control system by the parameters of the hydrolithosphere process.

  19. Homogeneous near surface activity distribution by double energy activation for TLA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takacs, S.; Ditroi, F.; Tarkanyi, F.

    2007-01-01

    Thin layer activation (TLA) is a versatile tool for activating thin surface layers in order to study real-time the surface loss by wear, corrosion or erosion processes of the activated parts, without disassembling or stopping running mechanical structures or equipment. The research problem is the determination of the irradiation parameters to produce point-like or large area optimal activity-depth distribution in the sample. Different activity-depth profiles can be produced depending on the type of the investigated material and the nuclear reaction used. To produce activity that is independent of the depth up to a certain depth is desirable when the material removed from the surface by wear, corrosion or erosion can be collected completely. By applying dual energy irradiation the thickness of this quasi-constant activity layer can be increased or the deviation of the activity distribution from a constant value can be minimized. In the main, parts made of metals and alloys are suitable for direct activation, but by using secondary particle implantation the wear of other materials can also be studied in a surface range a few micrometers thick. In most practical cases activation of a point-like spot (several mm 2 ) is enough to monitor the wear, corrosion or erosion, but for special problems relatively large surfaces areas of complicated spatial geometry need to be activated uniformly. Two ways are available for fulfilling this task, (1) production of large area beam spot or scanning the beam over the surface in question from the accelerator side, or (2) a programmed 3D movement of the sample from the target side. Taking into account the large variability of tasks occurring in practice, the latter method was chosen as the routine solution in our cyclotron laboratory

  20. Planning and Optimization Methods for Active Distribution Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abbey, Chad; Baitch, Alex; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    distribution planning. Active distribution networks (ADNs) have systems in place to control a combination of distributed energy resources (DERs), defined as generators, loads and storage. With these systems in place, the AND becomes an Active Distribution System (ADS). Distribution system operators (DSOs) have...

  1. Web Services Implementations at Land Process and Goddard Earth Sciences Distributed Active Archive Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, M.; Bambacus, M.; Lynnes, C.; Sauer, B.; Falke, S.; Yang, W.

    2007-12-01

    NASA's vast array of scientific data within its Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs) is especially valuable to both traditional research scientists as well as the emerging market of Earth Science Information Partners. For example, the air quality science and management communities are increasingly using satellite derived observations in their analyses and decision making. The Air Quality Cluster in the Federation of Earth Science Information Partners (ESIP) uses web infrastructures of interoperability, or Service Oriented Architecture (SOA), to extend data exploration, use, and analysis and provides a user environment for DAAC products. In an effort to continually offer these NASA data to the broadest research community audience, and reusing emerging technologies, both NASA's Goddard Earth Science (GES) and Land Process (LP) DAACs have engaged in a web services pilot project. Through these projects both GES and LP have exposed data through the Open Geospatial Consortiums (OGC) Web Services standards. Reusing several different existing applications and implementation techniques, GES and LP successfully exposed a variety data, through distributed systems to be ingested into multiple end-user systems. The results of this project will enable researchers world wide to access some of NASA's GES & LP DAAC data through OGC protocols. This functionality encourages inter-disciplinary research while increasing data use through advanced technologies. This paper will concentrate on the implementation and use of OGC Web Services, specifically Web Map and Web Coverage Services (WMS, WCS) at GES and LP DAACs, and the value of these services within scientific applications, including integration with the DataFed air quality web infrastructure and in the development of data analysis web applications.

  2. Evaluation of the differential energy distribution of systems of non-thermally activated molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, E.B.

    1986-01-01

    A non-thermally activated molecule may undergo pressure dependent deactivation or energy dependent decomposition. It should be possible to use the pressure dependent stabilization/decomposition yields to determine the energy distribution in non-thermal systems. The numerical technique of regularization has been applied to this chemical problem to evaluate this distribution. The resulting method has been tested with a number of simulated distributions and kinetic models. Application was then made to several real chemical systems to determine the energy distribution resulting from the primary excitation process. Testing showed the method to be quite effective in reproducing input distributions from simulated data in all test cases. The effect of experimental error proved to be negligible when the error-filled data were first smoothed with a parabolic spline. This method has been applied to three different hot atom activated systems. Application to 18 F-for-F substituted CH 3 CF 3 generated a broad distribution extending from 62 to 318 kcal/mol, with a median energy of 138 kcal/mol. The shape of this distribution (and those from the other applications) indicated the involvement of two mechanisms in the excitation process. Analysis of the T-for-H substituted CH 3 CH 2 F system showed a more narrow distribution (56-218 kcal/mol) with a median energy of 79.8 kcal/mol. The distribution of the T-for-H substituted CH 3 CH 2 Cl system, extending from 54.5 to 199 kcal/mol was seen to be quite similar. It was concluded that this method is a valid approach to evaluating differential energy distributions in non-thermal systems, specifically those activated by hot atom substitution

  3. Distribution of Selected Trace Elements in the Bayer Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Vind

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to achieve an understanding of the distribution of selected bauxite trace elements (gallium (Ga, vanadium (V, arsenic (As, chromium (Cr, rare earth elements (REEs, scandium (Sc in the Bayer process. The assessment was designed as a case study in an alumina plant in operation to provide an overview of the trace elements behaviour in an actual industrial setup. A combination of analytical techniques was used, mainly inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and optical emission spectroscopy as well as instrumental neutron activation analysis. It was found that Ga, V and As as well as, to a minor extent, Cr are principally accumulated in Bayer process liquors. In addition, Ga is also fractionated to alumina at the end of the Bayer processing cycle. The rest of these elements pass to bauxite residue. REEs and Sc have the tendency to remain practically unaffected in the solid phases of the Bayer process and, therefore, at least 98% of their mass is transferred to bauxite residue. The interest in such a study originates from the fact that many of these trace constituents of bauxite ore could potentially become valuable by-products of the Bayer process; therefore, the understanding of their behaviour needs to be expanded. In fact, Ga and V are already by-products of the Bayer process, but their distribution patterns have not been provided in the existing open literature.

  4. Reliability Assessment of Active Distribution System Using Monte Carlo Simulation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaoyun Ge

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we have treated the reliability assessment problem of low and high DG penetration level of active distribution system using the Monte Carlo simulation method. The problem is formulated as a two-case program, the program of low penetration simulation and the program of high penetration simulation. The load shedding strategy and the simulation process were introduced in detail during each FMEA process. Results indicate that the integration of DG can improve the reliability of the system if the system was operated actively.

  5. Coordinated control of active and reactive power of distribution network with distributed PV cluster via model predictive control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Yu; Sheng, Wanxing; Jin, Wei; Wu, Ming; Liu, Haitao; Chen, Feng

    2018-02-01

    A coordinated optimal control method of active and reactive power of distribution network with distributed PV cluster based on model predictive control is proposed in this paper. The method divides the control process into long-time scale optimal control and short-time scale optimal control with multi-step optimization. The models are transformed into a second-order cone programming problem due to the non-convex and nonlinear of the optimal models which are hard to be solved. An improved IEEE 33-bus distribution network system is used to analyse the feasibility and the effectiveness of the proposed control method

  6. Modelling aspects of distributed processing in telecommunication networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tomasgard, A; Audestad, JA; Dye, S; Stougie, L; van der Vlerk, MH; Wallace, SW

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to formally describe new optimization models for telecommunication networks with distributed processing. Modem distributed networks put more focus on the processing of information and less on the actual transportation of data than we are traditionally used to in

  7. A tutorial on Palm distributions for spatial point processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coeurjolly, Jean-Francois; Møller, Jesper; Waagepetersen, Rasmus Plenge

    2017-01-01

    This tutorial provides an introduction to Palm distributions for spatial point processes. Initially, in the context of finite point processes, we give an explicit definition of Palm distributions in terms of their density functions. Then we review Palm distributions in the general case. Finally, we...

  8. A Process for Comparing Dynamics of Distributed Space Systems Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cures, Edwin Z.; Jackson, Albert A.; Morris, Jeffery C.

    2009-01-01

    The paper describes a process that was developed for comparing the primary orbital dynamics behavior between space systems distributed simulations. This process is used to characterize and understand the fundamental fidelities and compatibilities of the modeling of orbital dynamics between spacecraft simulations. This is required for high-latency distributed simulations such as NASA s Integrated Mission Simulation and must be understood when reporting results from simulation executions. This paper presents 10 principal comparison tests along with their rationale and examples of the results. The Integrated Mission Simulation (IMSim) (formerly know as the Distributed Space Exploration Simulation (DSES)) is a NASA research and development project focusing on the technologies and processes that are related to the collaborative simulation of complex space systems involved in the exploration of our solar system. Currently, the NASA centers that are actively participating in the IMSim project are the Ames Research Center, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), the Johnson Space Center (JSC), the Kennedy Space Center, the Langley Research Center and the Marshall Space Flight Center. In concept, each center participating in IMSim has its own set of simulation models and environment(s). These simulation tools are used to build the various simulation products that are used for scientific investigation, engineering analysis, system design, training, planning, operations and more. Working individually, these production simulations provide important data to various NASA projects.

  9. Kinetics of Thermally Activated Physical Processes in Disordered Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertrand Poumellec

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We describe a framework for modeling the writing and erasure of thermally-distributed activated processes that we can specifically apply to UV-induced refractive index change, particularly in fibers. From experimental measurements (isochrons and/or isotherms, this framework allows to find the distribution function of the activation energy by providing only a constant, which can be determined by a simple variable change when a few assumptions are fulfilled. From this modeling, it is possible to know the complete evolution in time of the system. It is also possible to determine the annealing conditions for extending a lifetime. This approach can also be used for other physical quantities, such as photodarkening, stress relaxation, and luminescence decay, provided that it can be described by a distribution function.

  10. Image exploitation and dissemination prototype of distributed image processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batool, N.; Huqqani, A.A.; Mahmood, A.

    2003-05-01

    Image processing applications requirements can be best met by using the distributed environment. This report presents to draw inferences by utilizing the existed LAN resources under the distributed computing environment using Java and web technology for extensive processing to make it truly system independent. Although the environment has been tested using image processing applications, its design and architecture is truly general and modular so that it can be used for other applications as well, which require distributed processing. Images originating from server are fed to the workers along with the desired operations to be performed on them. The Server distributes the task among the Workers who carry out the required operations and send back the results. This application has been implemented using the Remote Method Invocation (RMl) feature of Java. Java RMI allows an object running in one Java Virtual Machine (JVM) to invoke methods on another JVM thus providing remote communication between programs written in the Java programming language. RMI can therefore be used to develop distributed applications [1]. We undertook this project to gain a better understanding of distributed systems concepts and its uses for resource hungry jobs. The image processing application is developed under this environment

  11. SUPERPOSITION OF STOCHASTIC PROCESSES AND THE RESULTING PARTICLE DISTRIBUTIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwadron, N. A.; Dayeh, M. A.; Desai, M.; Fahr, H.; Jokipii, J. R.; Lee, M. A.

    2010-01-01

    Many observations of suprathermal and energetic particles in the solar wind and the inner heliosheath show that distribution functions scale approximately with the inverse of particle speed (v) to the fifth power. Although there are exceptions to this behavior, there is a growing need to understand why this type of distribution function appears so frequently. This paper develops the concept that a superposition of exponential and Gaussian distributions with different characteristic speeds and temperatures show power-law tails. The particular type of distribution function, f ∝ v -5 , appears in a number of different ways: (1) a series of Poisson-like processes where entropy is maximized with the rates of individual processes inversely proportional to the characteristic exponential speed, (2) a series of Gaussian distributions where the entropy is maximized with the rates of individual processes inversely proportional to temperature and the density of individual Gaussian distributions proportional to temperature, and (3) a series of different diffusively accelerated energetic particle spectra with individual spectra derived from observations (1997-2002) of a multiplicity of different shocks. Thus, we develop a proof-of-concept for the superposition of stochastic processes that give rise to power-law distribution functions.

  12. First-Passage-Time Distribution for Variable-Diffusion Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barney, Liberty; Gunaratne, Gemunu H.

    2017-05-01

    First-passage-time distribution, which presents the likelihood of a stock reaching a pre-specified price at a given time, is useful in establishing the value of financial instruments and in designing trading strategies. First-passage-time distribution for Wiener processes has a single peak, while that for stocks exhibits a notable second peak within a trading day. This feature has only been discussed sporadically—often dismissed as due to insufficient/incorrect data or circumvented by conversion to tick time—and to the best of our knowledge has not been explained in terms of the underlying stochastic process. It was shown previously that intra-day variations in the market can be modeled by a stochastic process containing two variable-diffusion processes (Hua et al. in, Physica A 419:221-233, 2015). We show here that the first-passage-time distribution of this two-stage variable-diffusion model does exhibit a behavior similar to the empirical observation. In addition, we find that an extended model incorporating overnight price fluctuations exhibits intra- and inter-day behavior similar to those of empirical first-passage-time distributions.

  13. Automatic Image Segmentation Using Active Contours with Univariate Marginal Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Cruz-Aceves

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel automatic image segmentation method based on the theory of active contour models and estimation of distribution algorithms. The proposed method uses the univariate marginal distribution model to infer statistical dependencies between the control points on different active contours. These contours have been generated through an alignment process of reference shape priors, in order to increase the exploration and exploitation capabilities regarding different interactive segmentation techniques. This proposed method is applied in the segmentation of the hollow core in microscopic images of photonic crystal fibers and it is also used to segment the human heart and ventricular areas from datasets of computed tomography and magnetic resonance images, respectively. Moreover, to evaluate the performance of the medical image segmentations compared to regions outlined by experts, a set of similarity measures has been adopted. The experimental results suggest that the proposed image segmentation method outperforms the traditional active contour model and the interactive Tseng method in terms of segmentation accuracy and stability.

  14. Modelling spatiotemporal distribution patterns of earthworms in order to indicate hydrological soil processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palm, Juliane; Klaus, Julian; van Schaik, Loes; Zehe, Erwin; Schröder, Boris

    2010-05-01

    Soils provide central ecosystem functions in recycling nutrients, detoxifying harmful chemicals as well as regulating microclimate and local hydrological processes. The internal regulation of these functions and therefore the development of healthy and fertile soils mainly depend on the functional diversity of plants and animals. Soil organisms drive essential processes such as litter decomposition, nutrient cycling, water dynamics, and soil structure formation. Disturbances by different soil management practices (e.g., soil tillage, fertilization, pesticide application) affect the distribution and abundance of soil organisms and hence influence regulating processes. The strong relationship between environmental conditions and soil organisms gives us the opportunity to link spatiotemporal distribution patterns of indicator species with the potential provision of essential soil processes on different scales. Earthworms are key organisms for soil function and affect, among other things, water dynamics and solute transport in soils. Through their burrowing activity, earthworms increase the number of macropores by building semi-permanent burrow systems. In the unsaturated zone, earthworm burrows act as preferential flow pathways and affect water infiltration, surface-, subsurface- and matrix flow as well as the transport of water and solutes into deeper soil layers. Thereby different ecological earthworm types have different importance. Deep burrowing anecic earthworm species (e.g., Lumbricus terrestris) affect the vertical flow and thus increase the risk of potential contamination of ground water with agrochemicals. In contrast, horizontal burrowing endogeic (e.g., Aporrectodea caliginosa) and epigeic species (e.g., Lumbricus rubellus) increase water conductivity and the diffuse distribution of water and solutes in the upper soil layers. The question which processes are more relevant is pivotal for soil management and risk assessment. Thus, finding relevant

  15. Limiting conditional distributions for birth-death processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kijima, M.; Nair, M.G.; Pollett, P.K.; van Doorn, Erik A.

    1997-01-01

    In a recent paper one of us identified all of the quasi-stationary distributions for a non-explosive, evanescent birth-death process for which absorption is certain, and established conditions for the existence of the corresponding limiting conditional distributions. Our purpose is to extend these

  16. The CANDU 9 distributed control system design process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harber, J.E.; Kattan, M.K.; Macbeth, M.J.

    1997-01-01

    Canadian designed CANDU pressurized heavy water nuclear reactors have been world leaders in electrical power generation. The CANDU 9 project is AECL's next reactor design. Plant control for the CANDU 9 station design is performed by a distributed control system (DCS) as compared to centralized control computers, analog control devices and relay logic used in previous CANDU designs. The selection of a DCS as the platform to perform the process control functions and most of the data acquisition of the plant, is consistent with the evolutionary nature of the CANDU technology. The control strategies for the DCS control programs are based on previous CANDU designs but are implemented on a new hardware platform taking advantage of advances in computer technology. This paper describes the design process for developing the CANDU 9 DCS. Various design activities, prototyping and analyses have been undertaken in order to ensure a safe, functional, and cost-effective design. (author)

  17. Characteristics of the Audit Processes for Distributed Informatics Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius POPA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains issues regarding: main characteristics and examples of the distributed informatics systems and main difference categories among them, concepts, principles, techniques and fields for auditing the distributed informatics systems, concepts and classes of the standard term, characteristics of this one, examples of standards, guidelines, procedures and controls for auditing the distributed informatics systems. The distributed informatics systems are characterized by the following issues: development process, resources, implemented functionalities, architectures, system classes, particularities. The audit framework has two sides: the audit process and auditors. The audit process must be led in accordance with the standard specifications in the IT&C field. The auditors must meet the ethical principles and they must have a high-level of professional skills and competence in IT&C field.

  18. Application of signal processing techniques for islanding detection of distributed generation in distribution network: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raza, Safdar; Mokhlis, Hazlie; Arof, Hamzah; Laghari, J.A.; Wang, Li

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Pros & cons of conventional islanding detection techniques (IDTs) are discussed. • Signal processing techniques (SPTs) ability in detecting islanding is discussed. • SPTs ability in improving performance of passive techniques are discussed. • Fourier, s-transform, wavelet, HHT & tt-transform based IDTs are reviewed. • Intelligent classifiers (ANN, ANFIS, Fuzzy, SVM) application in SPT are discussed. - Abstract: High penetration of distributed generation resources (DGR) in distribution network provides many benefits in terms of high power quality, efficiency, and low carbon emissions in power system. However, efficient islanding detection and immediate disconnection of DGR is critical in order to avoid equipment damage, grid protection interference, and personnel safety hazards. Islanding detection techniques are mainly classified into remote, passive, active, and hybrid techniques. From these, passive techniques are more advantageous due to lower power quality degradation, lower cost, and widespread usage by power utilities. However, the main limitations of these techniques are that they possess a large non detection zones and require threshold setting. Various signal processing techniques and intelligent classifiers have been used to overcome the limitations of passive islanding. Signal processing techniques, in particular, are adopted due to their versatility, stability, cost effectiveness, and ease of modification. This paper presents a comprehensive overview of signal processing techniques used to improve common passive islanding detection techniques. A performance comparison between the signal processing based islanding detection techniques with existing techniques are also provided. Finally, this paper outlines the relative advantages and limitations of the signal processing techniques in order to provide basic guidelines for researchers and field engineers in determining the best method for their system

  19. Joint probability distributions for a class of non-Markovian processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baule, A; Friedrich, R

    2005-02-01

    We consider joint probability distributions for the class of coupled Langevin equations introduced by Fogedby [H. C. Fogedby, Phys. Rev. E 50, 1657 (1994)]. We generalize well-known results for the single-time probability distributions to the case of N -time joint probability distributions. It is shown that these probability distribution functions can be obtained by an integral transform from distributions of a Markovian process. The integral kernel obeys a partial differential equation with fractional time derivatives reflecting the non-Markovian character of the process.

  20. Whole-brain activity maps reveal stereotyped, distributed networks for visuomotor behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portugues, Ruben; Feierstein, Claudia E; Engert, Florian; Orger, Michael B

    2014-03-19

    Most behaviors, even simple innate reflexes, are mediated by circuits of neurons spanning areas throughout the brain. However, in most cases, the distribution and dynamics of firing patterns of these neurons during behavior are not known. We imaged activity, with cellular resolution, throughout the whole brains of zebrafish performing the optokinetic response. We found a sparse, broadly distributed network that has an elaborate but ordered pattern, with a bilaterally symmetrical organization. Activity patterns fell into distinct clusters reflecting sensory and motor processing. By correlating neuronal responses with an array of sensory and motor variables, we find that the network can be clearly divided into distinct functional modules. Comparing aligned data from multiple fish, we find that the spatiotemporal activity dynamics and functional organization are highly stereotyped across individuals. These experiments systematically reveal the functional architecture of neural circuits underlying a sensorimotor behavior in a vertebrate brain. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Distributed control and monitoring of high-level trigger processes on the LHCb online farm

    CERN Document Server

    Vannerem, P; Jost, B; Neufeld, N

    2003-01-01

    The on-line data taking of the LHCb experiment at the future LHC collider will be controlled by a fully integrated and distributed Experiment Control System (ECS). The ECS will supervise both the detector operation (DCS) and the trigger and data acquisition (DAQ) activities of the experiment. These tasks require a large distributed information management system. The aim of this paper is to show how the control and monitoring of software processes such as trigger algorithms are integrated in the ECS of LHCb.

  2. A Technical Survey on Optimization of Processing Geo Distributed Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naga Malleswari, T. Y. J.; Ushasukhanya, S.; Nithyakalyani, A.; Girija, S.

    2018-04-01

    With growing cloud services and technology, there is growth in some geographically distributed data centers to store large amounts of data. Analysis of geo-distributed data is required in various services for data processing, storage of essential information, etc., processing this geo-distributed data and performing analytics on this data is a challenging task. The distributed data processing is accompanied by issues in storage, computation and communication. The key issues to be dealt with are time efficiency, cost minimization, utility maximization. This paper describes various optimization methods like end-to-end multiphase, G-MR, etc., using the techniques like Map-Reduce, CDS (Community Detection based Scheduling), ROUT, Workload-Aware Scheduling, SAGE, AMP (Ant Colony Optimization) to handle these issues. In this paper various optimization methods and techniques used are analyzed. It has been observed that end-to end multiphase achieves time efficiency; Cost minimization concentrates to achieve Quality of Service, Computation and reduction of Communication cost. SAGE achieves performance improvisation in processing geo-distributed data sets.

  3. Perceptions Towards Non-Value-Adding Activities During The Construction Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Haryati

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-value-adding activities are pure waste during the construction process. However, most of the construction practitioner does not realise that most of the activities performed during the construction process add no value to their project. A total of 375 numbers of questionnaires distributed to the Developer, Jabatan Kerja Raya, Consultants and Contractors. The study found that awareness by construction participants in Malaysia to take actions against non-value-adding activities during the construction process is relatively low. Through analysed by using the Pareto Chart, it has been found that defects and waiting time are two categories of non-value-adding activities that need to be prioritised by the industry. It is also found that non-value-adding activities most frequently occurred during structural and architectural work. This paper also reviewed on the causes of non-value-adding activities and discussed its effect towards time, cost, quality and productivity of the construction project. This paper is also important to give clearness and broader understandings on this form of waste other than material waste.

  4. 40 CFR 761.80 - Manufacturing, processing and distribution in commerce exemptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Manufacturing, processing and..., PROCESSING, DISTRIBUTION IN COMMERCE, AND USE PROHIBITIONS Exemptions § 761.80 Manufacturing, processing and... any change in the manner of processing and distributing, importing (manufacturing), or exporting of...

  5. Mistaking geography for biology: inferring processes from species distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Dan L; Cardillo, Marcel; Rosauer, Dan F; Bolnick, Daniel I

    2014-10-01

    Over the past few decades, there has been a rapid proliferation of statistical methods that infer evolutionary and ecological processes from data on species distributions. These methods have led to considerable new insights, but they often fail to account for the effects of historical biogeography on present-day species distributions. Because the geography of speciation can lead to patterns of spatial and temporal autocorrelation in the distributions of species within a clade, this can result in misleading inferences about the importance of deterministic processes in generating spatial patterns of biodiversity. In this opinion article, we discuss ways in which patterns of species distributions driven by historical biogeography are often interpreted as evidence of particular evolutionary or ecological processes. We focus on three areas that are especially prone to such misinterpretations: community phylogenetics, environmental niche modelling, and analyses of beta diversity (compositional turnover of biodiversity). Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Evaluating Maximum Wind Energy Exploitation in Active Distribution Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siano, Pierluigi; Chen, Peiyuan; Chen, Zhe

    2010-01-01

    The increased spreading of distributed and renewable generation requires moving towards active management of distribution networks. In this paper, in order to evaluate maximum wind energy exploitation in active distribution networks, a method based on a multi-period optimal power flow (OPF......) analysis is proposed. Active network management schemes such as coordinated voltage control, energy curtailment and power factor control are integrated in the method in order to investigate their impacts on the maximization of wind energy exploitation. Some case studies, using real data from a Danish...... distribution system, confirmed the effectiveness of the proposed method in evaluating the optimal applications of active management schemes to increase wind energy harvesting without costly network reinforcement for the connection of wind generation....

  7. Physical Activity and Abdominal Fat Distribution in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl-Petersen, Inger Katrine; Brage, Søren; Bjerregaard, Peter

    2017-01-01

    with overall and abdominal fat distribution. CONCLUSION: Physical activity energy expenditure is associated with lower BMI, WC, and abdominal fat among Greenland Inuit. The importance of promoting an upward shift of the whole PA intensity distribution and to spur even short bouts of MVPA to limit excessive......PURPOSE: We examined how total volume of physical activity and reallocation of time spent at various objectively measured intensities of physical activity (PA) were associated with overall and abdominal fat distribution in adult Inuit in Greenland. METHODS: Data were collected as part...... of a countrywide cross-sectional health survey in Greenland. A combined accelerometer and HR monitor measured total physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) and intensities of PA (N = 1536). Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) were assessed by ultrasonography. Isotemporal...

  8. Distributed quantum information processing via quantum dot spins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jun, Liu; Qiong, Wang; Le-Man, Kuang; Hao-Sheng, Zeng

    2010-01-01

    We propose a scheme to engineer a non-local two-qubit phase gate between two remote quantum-dot spins. Along with one-qubit local operations, one can in principal perform various types of distributed quantum information processing. The scheme employs a photon with linearly polarisation interacting one after the other with two remote quantum-dot spins in cavities. Due to the optical spin selection rule, the photon obtains a Faraday rotation after the interaction process. By measuring the polarisation of the final output photon, a non-local two-qubit phase gate between the two remote quantum-dot spins is constituted. Our scheme may has very important applications in the distributed quantum information processing

  9. Bubble size distribution analysis and control in high frequency ultrasonic cleaning processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauptmann, M; Struyf, H; Mertens, P; Heyns, M; Gendt, S De; Brems, S; Glorieux, C

    2012-01-01

    In the semiconductor industry, the ongoing down-scaling of nanoelectronic elements has lead to an increasing complexity of their fabrication. Hence, the individual fabrication processes become increasingly difficult to handle. To minimize cross-contamination, intermediate surface cleaning and preparation steps are inevitable parts of the semiconductor process chain. Here, one major challenge is the removal of residual nano-particulate contamination resulting from abrasive processes such as polishing and etching. In the past, physical cleaning techniques such as megasonic cleaning have been proposed as suitable solutions. However, the soaring fragility of the smallest structures is constraining the forces of the involved physical removal mechanisms. In the case of 'megasonic' cleaning –cleaning with ultrasound in the MHz-domain – the main cleaning action arises from strongly oscillating microbubbles which emerge from the periodically changing tensile strain in the cleaning liquid during sonication. These bubbles grow, oscillate and collapse due to a complex interplay of rectified diffusion, bubble coalescence, non-linear pulsation and the onset of shape instabilities. Hence, the resulting bubble size distribution does not remain static but alternates continuously. Only microbubbles in this distribution that show a high oscillatory response are responsible for the cleaning action. Therefore, the cleaning process efficiency can be improved by keeping the majority of bubbles around their resonance size. In this paper, we propose a method to control and characterize the bubble size distribution by means of 'pulsed' sonication and measurements of acoustic cavitation spectra, respectively. We show that the so-obtained bubble size distributions can be related to theoretical predictions of the oscillatory responses of and the onset of shape instabilities for the respective bubbles. We also propose a mechanism to explain the enhancement of both acoustic and cleaning

  10. Distributing Correlation Coefficients of Linear Structure-Activity/Property Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorana D. BOLBOACA

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative structure-activity/property relationships are mathematical relationships linking chemical structure and activity/property in a quantitative manner. These in silico approaches are frequently used to reduce animal testing and risk-assessment, as well as to increase time- and cost-effectiveness in characterization and identification of active compounds. The aim of our study was to investigate the pattern of correlation coefficients distribution associated to simple linear relationships linking the compounds structure with their activities. A set of the most common ordnance compounds found at naval facilities with a limited data set with a range of toxicities on aquatic ecosystem and a set of seven properties was studied. Statistically significant models were selected and investigated. The probability density function of the correlation coefficients was investigated using a series of possible continuous distribution laws. Almost 48% of the correlation coefficients proved fit Beta distribution, 40% fit Generalized Pareto distribution, and 12% fit Pert distribution.

  11. Development of a model describing virus removal process in an activated sludge basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, T.; Shiragami, N. Unno, H. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-06-20

    The virus removal process from the liquid phase in an activated sludge basin possibly consists of physicochemical processes, such as adsorption onto sludge flocs, biological processes such as microbial predating and inactivation by virucidal components excreted by microbes. To describe properly the virus behavior in an activated sludge basin, a simple model is proposed based on the experimental data obtained using a poliovirus type 1. A three-compartments model, which include the virus in the liquid phase and in the peripheral and inner regions of sludge flocs is employed. By using the model, the Virus removal process was successfully simulated to highlight the implication of its distribution in the activated sludge basin. 17 refs., 8 figs.

  12. Gamma processes and peaks-over-threshold distributions for time-dependent reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noortwijk, J.M. van; Weide, J.A.M. van der; Kallen, M.J.; Pandey, M.D.

    2007-01-01

    In the evaluation of structural reliability, a failure is defined as the event in which stress exceeds a resistance that is liable to deterioration. This paper presents a method to combine the two stochastic processes of deteriorating resistance and fluctuating load for computing the time-dependent reliability of a structural component. The deterioration process is modelled as a gamma process, which is a stochastic process with independent non-negative increments having a gamma distribution with identical scale parameter. The stochastic process of loads is generated by a Poisson process. The variability of the random loads is modelled by a peaks-over-threshold distribution (such as the generalised Pareto distribution). These stochastic processes of deterioration and load are combined to evaluate the time-dependent reliability

  13. Data-driven process decomposition and robust online distributed modelling for large-scale processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Zhang; Lijuan, Li; Lijuan, Yao; Shipin, Yang; Tao, Zou

    2018-02-01

    With the increasing attention of networked control, system decomposition and distributed models show significant importance in the implementation of model-based control strategy. In this paper, a data-driven system decomposition and online distributed subsystem modelling algorithm was proposed for large-scale chemical processes. The key controlled variables are first partitioned by affinity propagation clustering algorithm into several clusters. Each cluster can be regarded as a subsystem. Then the inputs of each subsystem are selected by offline canonical correlation analysis between all process variables and its controlled variables. Process decomposition is then realised after the screening of input and output variables. When the system decomposition is finished, the online subsystem modelling can be carried out by recursively block-wise renewing the samples. The proposed algorithm was applied in the Tennessee Eastman process and the validity was verified.

  14. Tempered stable distributions stochastic models for multiscale processes

    CERN Document Server

    Grabchak, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This brief is concerned with tempered stable distributions and their associated Levy processes. It is a good text for researchers interested in learning about tempered stable distributions.  A tempered stable distribution is one which takes a stable distribution and modifies its tails to make them lighter. The motivation for this class comes from the fact that infinite variance stable distributions appear to provide a good fit to data in a variety of situations, but the extremely heavy tails of these models are not realistic for most real world applications. The idea of using distributions that modify the tails of stable models to make them lighter seems to have originated in the influential paper of Mantegna and Stanley (1994). Since then, these distributions have been extended and generalized in a variety of ways. They have been applied to a wide variety of areas including mathematical finance, biostatistics,computer science, and physics.

  15. Parallel and distributed processing in power system simulation and control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falcao, Djalma M [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia

    1994-12-31

    Recent advances in computer technology will certainly have a great impact in the methodologies used in power system expansion and operational planning as well as in real-time control. Parallel and distributed processing are among the new technologies that present great potential for application in these areas. Parallel computers use multiple functional or processing units to speed up computation while distributed processing computer systems are collection of computers joined together by high speed communication networks having many objectives and advantages. The paper presents some ideas for the use of parallel and distributed processing in power system simulation and control. It also comments on some of the current research work in these topics and presents a summary of the work presently being developed at COPPE. (author) 53 refs., 2 figs.

  16. Distributed Processing System for Restoration of Electric Power Distribution Network Using Two-Layered Contract Net Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, Yu; Hamagami, Tomoki

    Distributed processing system for restoration of electric power distribution network using two-layered CNP is proposed. The goal of this study is to develop the restoration system which adjusts to the future power network with distributed generators. The state of the art of this study is that the two-layered CNP is applied for the distributed computing environment in practical use. The two-layered CNP has two classes of agents, named field agent and operating agent in the network. In order to avoid conflicts of tasks, operating agent controls privilege for managers to send the task announcement messages in CNP. This technique realizes the coordination between agents which work asynchronously in parallel with others. Moreover, this study implements the distributed processing system using a de-fact standard multi-agent framework, JADE(Java Agent DEvelopment framework). This study conducts the simulation experiments of power distribution network restoration and compares the proposed system with the previous system. We confirmed the results show effectiveness of the proposed system.

  17. Aerosol activation and cloud processing in the global aerosol-climate model ECHAM5-HAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. J. Roelofs

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A parameterization for cloud processing is presented that calculates activation of aerosol particles to cloud drops, cloud drop size, and pH-dependent aqueous phase sulfur chemistry. The parameterization is implemented in the global aerosol-climate model ECHAM5-HAM. The cloud processing parameterization uses updraft speed, temperature, and aerosol size and chemical parameters simulated by ECHAM5-HAM to estimate the maximum supersaturation at the cloud base, and subsequently the cloud drop number concentration (CDNC due to activation. In-cloud sulfate production occurs through oxidation of dissolved SO2 by ozone and hydrogen peroxide. The model simulates realistic distributions for annually averaged CDNC although it is underestimated especially in remote marine regions. On average, CDNC is dominated by cloud droplets growing on particles from the accumulation mode, with smaller contributions from the Aitken and coarse modes. The simulations indicate that in-cloud sulfate production is a potentially important source of accumulation mode sized cloud condensation nuclei, due to chemical growth of activated Aitken particles and to enhanced coalescence of processed particles. The strength of this source depends on the distribution of produced sulfate over the activated modes. This distribution is affected by uncertainties in many parameters that play a direct role in particle activation, such as the updraft velocity, the aerosol chemical composition and the organic solubility, and the simulated CDNC is found to be relatively sensitive to these uncertainties.

  18. Point processes and the position distribution of infinite boson systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fichtner, K.H.; Freudenberg, W.

    1987-01-01

    It is shown that to each locally normal state of a boson system one can associate a point process that can be interpreted as the position distribution of the state. The point process contains all information one can get by position measurements and is determined by the latter. On the other hand, to each so-called Σ/sup c/-point process Q they relate a locally normal state with position distribution Q

  19. The effect of electrodeposition process parameters on the current density distribution in an electrochemical cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. STEVANOVIC

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available Cell voltage – current density dependences for a model electrochemical cell of fixed geometry were calculated for different electrolyte conductivities, Tafel slopes and cathodic exchange current densities. The ratio between the current density at the part of the cathode nearest to the anode and the one furthest away were taken as a measure for the estimation of the current density distribution. The calculations reveal that increasing the conductivity of the electrolyte, as well as increasing the cathodic Tafel slope should both improve the current density distribution. Also, the distribution should be better under total activation control or total diffusion control rather than at mixed activation-diffusion-Ohmic control of the deposition process. On the contrary, changes in the exchange current density should not affect it. These results, being in agreement with common knowledge about the influence of different parameters on the current distribution in an electrochemical cell, demonstrate that a quick estimation of the current distribution can be performed by a simple comparison of the current density at the point of the cathode closest to anode with that at furthest point.

  20. Distributed routing algorithms to manage power flow in agent-based active distribution network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, H.P.; Kling, W.L.; Georgiadis, G.; Papatriantafilou, M.; Anh-Tuan, L.; Bertling, L.

    2010-01-01

    The current transition from passive to active electric distribution networks comes with problems and challenges on bi-directional power flow in the network and the uncertainty in the forecast of power generation from grid-connected renewable and distributed energy sources. The power flow management

  1. Population-wide distributions of neural activity during perceptual decision-making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machens, Christian

    2018-01-01

    Cortical activity involves large populations of neurons, even when it is limited to functionally coherent areas. Electrophysiological recordings, on the other hand, involve comparatively small neural ensembles, even when modern-day techniques are used. Here we review results which have started to fill the gap between these two scales of inquiry, by shedding light on the statistical distributions of activity in large populations of cells. We put our main focus on data recorded in awake animals that perform simple decision-making tasks and consider statistical distributions of activity throughout cortex, across sensory, associative, and motor areas. We transversally review the complexity of these distributions, from distributions of firing rates and metrics of spike-train structure, through distributions of tuning to stimuli or actions and of choice signals, and finally the dynamical evolution of neural population activity and the distributions of (pairwise) neural interactions. This approach reveals shared patterns of statistical organization across cortex, including: (i) long-tailed distributions of activity, where quasi-silence seems to be the rule for a majority of neurons; that are barely distinguishable between spontaneous and active states; (ii) distributions of tuning parameters for sensory (and motor) variables, which show an extensive extrapolation and fragmentation of their representations in the periphery; and (iii) population-wide dynamics that reveal rotations of internal representations over time, whose traces can be found both in stimulus-driven and internally generated activity. We discuss how these insights are leading us away from the notion of discrete classes of cells, and are acting as powerful constraints on theories and models of cortical organization and population coding. PMID:23123501

  2. Fouling distribution in forward osmosis membrane process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Junseok; Kim, Bongchul; Hong, Seungkwan

    2014-06-01

    Fouling behavior along the length of membrane module was systematically investigated by performing simple modeling and lab-scale experiments of forward osmosis (FO) membrane process. The flux distribution model developed in this study showed a good agreement with experimental results, validating the robustness of the model. This model demonstrated, as expected, that the permeate flux decreased along the membrane channel due to decreasing osmotic pressure differential across the FO membrane. A series of fouling experiments were conducted under the draw and feed solutions at various recoveries simulated by the model. The simulated fouling experiments revealed that higher organic (alginate) fouling and thus more flux decline were observed at the last section of a membrane channel, as foulants in feed solution became more concentrated. Furthermore, the water flux in FO process declined more severely as the recovery increased due to more foulants transported to membrane surface with elevated solute concentrations at higher recovery, which created favorable solution environments for organic adsorption. The fouling reversibility also decreased at the last section of the membrane channel, suggesting that fouling distribution on FO membrane along the module should be carefully examined to improve overall cleaning efficiency. Lastly, it was found that such fouling distribution observed with co-current flow operation became less pronounced in counter-current flow operation of FO membrane process. Copyright © 2014 The Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Tumour control probability (TCP) for non-uniform activity distribution in radionuclide therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uusijaervi, Helena; Bernhardt, Peter; Forssell-Aronsson, Eva

    2008-01-01

    Non-uniform radionuclide distribution in tumours will lead to a non-uniform absorbed dose. The aim of this study was to investigate how tumour control probability (TCP) depends on the radionuclide distribution in the tumour, both macroscopically and at the subcellular level. The absorbed dose in the cell nuclei of tumours was calculated for 90 Y, 177 Lu, 103m Rh and 211 At. The radionuclides were uniformly distributed within the subcellular compartment and they were uniformly, normally or log-normally distributed among the cells in the tumour. When all cells contain the same amount of activity, the cumulated activities required for TCP = 0.99 (A-tilde TCP=0.99 ) were 1.5-2 and 2-3 times higher when the activity was distributed on the cell membrane compared to in the cell nucleus for 103m Rh and 211 At, respectively. TCP for 90 Y was not affected by different radionuclide distributions, whereas for 177 Lu, it was slightly affected when the radionuclide was in the nucleus. TCP for 103m Rh and 211 At were affected by different radionuclide distributions to a great extent when the radionuclides were in the cell nucleus and to lesser extents when the radionuclides were distributed on the cell membrane or in the cytoplasm. When the activity was distributed in the nucleus, A-tilde TCP=0.99 increased when the activity distribution became more heterogeneous for 103m Rh and 211 At, and the increase was large when the activity was normally distributed compared to log-normally distributed. When the activity was distributed on the cell membrane, A-tilde TCP=0.99 was not affected for 103m Rh and 211 At when the activity distribution became more heterogeneous. A-tilde TCP=0.99 for 90 Y and 177 Lu were not affected by different activity distributions, neither macroscopic nor subcellular

  4. Poisson-process generalization for the trading waiting-time distribution in a double-auction mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cincotti, Silvano; Ponta, Linda; Raberto, Marco; Scalas, Enrico

    2005-05-01

    In this paper, empirical analyses and computational experiments are presented on high-frequency data for a double-auction (book) market. Main objective of the paper is to generalize the order waiting time process in order to properly model such empirical evidences. The empirical study is performed on the best bid and best ask data of 7 U.S. financial markets, for 30-stock time series. In particular, statistical properties of trading waiting times have been analyzed and quality of fits is evaluated by suitable statistical tests, i.e., comparing empirical distributions with theoretical models. Starting from the statistical studies on real data, attention has been focused on the reproducibility of such results in an artificial market. The computational experiments have been performed within the Genoa Artificial Stock Market. In the market model, heterogeneous agents trade one risky asset in exchange for cash. Agents have zero intelligence and issue random limit or market orders depending on their budget constraints. The price is cleared by means of a limit order book. The order generation is modelled with a renewal process. Based on empirical trading estimation, the distribution of waiting times between two consecutive orders is modelled by a mixture of exponential processes. Results show that the empirical waiting-time distribution can be considered as a generalization of a Poisson process. Moreover, the renewal process can approximate real data and implementation on the artificial stocks market can reproduce the trading activity in a realistic way.

  5. Distribution measurement of 60Co target radioactive specific activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xingyan; Chen Zigen; Ren Min

    1994-01-01

    Radioactive specific activity distribution of cobalt 60 target by irradiation in HFETR is a key parameter. With the collimate principle, the under water measurement device and conversion coefficient which is get by experiments, and the radioactive specific activity distribution is obtained. The uncertainty of measurement is less than 10%

  6. Coordinated Volt/Var Control in Distribution Systems with Distributed Generations Based on Joint Active and Reactive Powers Dispatch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abouzar Samimi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most significant control schemes in optimal operation of distribution networks is Volt/Var control (VVC. Owing to the radial structure of distribution systems and distribution lines with a small X/R ratio, the active power scheduling affects the VVC issue. A Distribution System Operator (DSO procures its active and reactive power requirements from Distributed Generations (DGs along with the wholesale electricity market. This paper proposes a new operational scheduling method based on a joint day-ahead active/reactive power market at the distribution level. To this end, based on the capability curve, a generic reactive power cost model for DGs is developed. The joint active/reactive power dispatch model presented in this paper motivates DGs to actively participate not only in the energy markets, but also in the VVC scheme through a competitive market. The proposed method which will be performed in an offline manner aims to optimally determine (i the scheduled active and reactive power values of generation units; (ii reactive power values of switched capacitor banks; and (iii tap positions of transformers for the next day. The joint active/reactive power dispatch model for daily VVC is modeled in GAMS and solved with the DICOPT solver. Finally, the plausibility of the proposed scheduling framework is examined on a typical 22-bus distribution test network over a 24-h period.

  7. Resource depletion promotes automatic processing: implications for distribution of practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheel, Matthew H

    2010-12-01

    Recent models of cognition include two processing systems: an automatic system that relies on associative learning, intuition, and heuristics, and a controlled system that relies on deliberate consideration. Automatic processing requires fewer resources and is more likely when resources are depleted. This study showed that prolonged practice on a resource-depleting mental arithmetic task promoted automatic processing on a subsequent problem-solving task, as evidenced by faster responding and more errors. Distribution of practice effects (0, 60, 120, or 180 sec. between problems) on rigidity also disappeared when groups had equal time on resource-depleting tasks. These results suggest that distribution of practice effects is reducible to resource availability. The discussion includes implications for interpreting discrepancies in the traditional distribution of practice effect.

  8. Real World Awareness in Distributed Organizations: A View on Informal Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eldar Sultanow

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Geographically distributed development has consistently had to deal with the challenge of intense awareness extensively more than locally concentrated development. Awareness marks the state of being informed incorporated with an understanding of project-related activities, states or relationships of each individual employee within a given group as a whole. In multifarious offices, where social interaction is necessary in order to distribute and locate information together with experts, awareness becomes a concurrent process which amplifies the exigency of easy routes for staff to be able to access this information, deferred or decentralized, in a formalized and problem-oriented way. Although the subject of Awareness has immensely increased in importance, there is extensive disagreement about how this transparency can be conceptually and technically implemented [1]. This paper introduces a model in order to visualize and navigate this information in three tiers using semantic networks, GIS and Web3D.

  9. Joint Probability Distributions for a Class of Non-Markovian Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Baule, A.; Friedrich, R.

    2004-01-01

    We consider joint probability distributions for the class of coupled Langevin equations introduced by Fogedby [H.C. Fogedby, Phys. Rev. E 50, 1657 (1994)]. We generalize well-known results for the single time probability distributions to the case of N-time joint probability distributions. It is shown that these probability distribution functions can be obtained by an integral transform from distributions of a Markovian process. The integral kernel obeys a partial differential equation with fr...

  10. Wigner Ville Distribution in Signal Processing, using Scilab Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petru Chioncel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Wigner Ville distribution offers a visual display of quantitative information about the way a signal’s energy is distributed in both, time and frequency. Through that, this distribution embodies the fundamentally concepts of the Fourier and time-domain analysis. The energy of the signal is distributed so that specific frequencies are localized in time by the group delay time and at specifics instants in time the frequency is given by the instantaneous frequency. The net positive volum of the Wigner distribution is numerically equal to the signal’s total energy. The paper shows the application of the Wigner Ville distribution, in the field of signal processing, using Scilab environment.

  11. Modelling three-dimensional distribution of photosynthetically active radiation in sloping coniferous stands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knyazikhin, Yu.; Kranigk, J.; Miessen, G.; Panfyorov, O.; Vygodskaya, N.; Gravenhorst, G.

    1996-01-01

    Solar irradiance is a major environmental factor governing biological and physiological processes in a vegetation canopy. Solar radiation distribution in a canopy and its effect are three-dimensional in nature. However, most of the radiation models up to now have been one-dimensional. They can be successfully applied to large-scale studies of forest functioning. The one-dimensional modelling technique, however, does not provide adequate interpretation of small scale processes leading to forest growth. In this article we discuss a modelling strategy for the simulation of three-dimensional radiation distribution in a vegetation canopy of a small area (about 0.25–0.3 ha). We demonstrate its realisation to predict the three-dimensional radiative regime of phytosynthetically active radiation in a real coniferous stand located on hilly surroundings. Our model can be used to investigate the influence of different climatic conditions, forest management methods and field sites on the solar energy available for forest growth in small heterogeneous areas. Further, a three-dimensional process-oriented model helps to derive global variables affecting bio-physiological processes in a vegetation canopy shifting from small scale studies of the functioning of forests to regional, continental, and global scale problems. (author)

  12. Distributed data processing for public health surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yih Katherine

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many systems for routine public health surveillance rely on centralized collection of potentially identifiable, individual, identifiable personal health information (PHI records. Although individual, identifiable patient records are essential for conditions for which there is mandated reporting, such as tuberculosis or sexually transmitted diseases, they are not routinely required for effective syndromic surveillance. Public concern about the routine collection of large quantities of PHI to support non-traditional public health functions may make alternative surveillance methods that do not rely on centralized identifiable PHI databases increasingly desirable. Methods The National Bioterrorism Syndromic Surveillance Demonstration Program (NDP is an example of one alternative model. All PHI in this system is initially processed within the secured infrastructure of the health care provider that collects and holds the data, using uniform software distributed and supported by the NDP. Only highly aggregated count data is transferred to the datacenter for statistical processing and display. Results Detailed, patient level information is readily available to the health care provider to elucidate signals observed in the aggregated data, or for ad hoc queries. We briefly describe the benefits and disadvantages associated with this distributed processing model for routine automated syndromic surveillance. Conclusion For well-defined surveillance requirements, the model can be successfully deployed with very low risk of inadvertent disclosure of PHI – a feature that may make participation in surveillance systems more feasible for organizations and more appealing to the individuals whose PHI they hold. It is possible to design and implement distributed systems to support non-routine public health needs if required.

  13. Remote-Sensing Data Distribution and Processing in the Cloud at the ASF DAAC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoner, C.; Arko, S. A.; Nicoll, J. B.; Labelle-Hamer, A. L.

    2016-12-01

    The Alaska Satellite Facility (ASF) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) has been tasked to archive and distribute data from both SENTINEL-1 satellites and from the NASA-ISRO Synthetic Aperture Radar (NISAR) satellite in a cost effective manner. In order to best support processing and distribution of these large data sets for users, the ASF DAAC enhanced our data system in a number of ways that will be detailed in this presentation.The SENTINEL-1 mission comprises a constellation of two polar-orbiting satellites, operating day and night performing C-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imaging, enabling them to acquire imagery regardless of the weather. SENTINEL-1A was launched by the European Space Agency (ESA) in April 2014. SENTINEL-1B is scheduled to launch in April 2016.The NISAR satellite is designed to observe and take measurements of some of the planet's most complex processes, including ecosystem disturbances, ice-sheet collapse, and natural hazards such as earthquakes, tsunamis, volcanoes and landslides. NISAR will employ radar imaging, polarimetry, and interferometry techniques using the SweepSAR technology employed for full-resolution wide-swath imaging. NISAR data files are large, making storage and processing a challenge for conventional store and download systems.To effectively process, store, and distribute petabytes of data in a High-performance computing environment, ASF took a long view with regard to technology choices and picked a path of most flexibility and Software re-use. To that end, this Software tools and services presentation will cover Web Object Storage (WOS) and the ability to seamlessly move from local sunk cost hardware to public cloud, such as Amazon Web Services (AWS). A prototype of SENTINEL-1A system that is in AWS, as well as a local hardware solution, will be examined to explain the pros and cons of each. In preparation for NISAR files which will be even larger than SENTINEL-1A, ASF has embarked on a number of cloud

  14. Cation distribution in spinels and its effect on activity pick-up and passivation behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subramanian, H.; Velmurugan, S.; Narasimhan, S.V.

    2000-01-01

    Spinels are found to be the major corrosion products in the primary heat transport system or nuclear reactors. These corrosion products are activated in the core and are picked up on the deposited corrosion product oxides, which lead to the radiation field buildup on out of core surfaces. In order to mitigate this phenomenon, it is extremely important to understand the structural changes that take place in a spinel in the primary heat transport system. Most of the spinels found in reactor systems are mixed spinels. Cation distribution in tetrahedral and octahedral sites of these spinels, which is temperature dependent, will affect the pickup of active metal ions from solution into these spinels. Distribution of cations in simple spinels was estimated by minimising the Gibbs energy change for the migration of ions between tetrahedral and octahedral sites, based on the assumption that it is the configurational entropy change for the process that dominates the distribution. Cation distribution for mixed spinels was also calculated using the same method. Energy demand for the exchange of an aqueous ion with these spinels has been estimated. (author)

  15. Intelligent Architecture for Enhanced Observability for Active Distribution System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pokhrel, Basanta Raj; Nainar, Karthikeyan; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2017-01-01

    There is a rapid increase of renewable energy resources (RE) and demand response resources (DRR) in the distribution networks. This is challenging for the reliable and stable operation of the grid. So, to ensure secure, optimized and economical operation in such active distribution grids they need...... for active distribution network which satisfies the need for higher observability reach with less field observation. Improved state estimation with composite load forecasting model is aimed for enhanced observability. This paper also summarizes the application of intelligent architecture in the operation...

  16. Effect of temperature and active biogas process on passive separation of digested manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaparaju, Prasad Laxmi-Narasimha; Angelidaki, Irini

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the study was to identify the optimum time interval for effluent removal after temporarily stopping stirring in otherwise continuously stirred tank reactors. Influence of temperature (10 and 55 degrees C) and active biogas process on passive separation of digested manure, where...... no outside mechanical or chemical action was used, within the reactor was studied in three vertical settling columns (100 cm deep). Variations in solids and microbial distribution at top, middle and bottom layers of column were assessed over a 15 day settling period. Results showed that best solids...... separation was achieved when digested manure was allowed to settle at 55 degrees C with active biogas process (pre-incubated at 55 degrees C) compared to separation at 55 degrees C without active biogas process (autoclaved at 120 degrees C, for 20 min) or at 10 degrees C with active biogas process. Maximum...

  17. A Monte Carlo program converting activity distribution to absorbed dose distributions in a radionuclide treatment planning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagesson, M.; Ljungberg, M.; Strand, S.E.

    1996-01-01

    In systemic radiation therapy, the absorbed dose distribution must be calculated from the individual activity distribution. A computer code has been developed for the conversion of an arbitrary activity distribution to a 3-D absorbed dose distribution. The activity distribution can be described either analytically or as a voxel based distribution, which comes from a SPECT acquisition. Decay points are sampled according to the activity map, and particles (photons and electrons) from the decay are followed through the tissue until they either escape the patient or drop below a cut off energy. To verify the calculated results, the mathematically defined MIRD phantom and unity density spheres have been included in the code. Also other published dosimetry data were used for verification. Absorbed fraction and S-values were calculated. A comparison with simulated data from the code with MIRD data shows good agreement. The S values are within 10-20% of published MIRD S values for most organs. Absorbed fractions for photons and electrons in spheres (masses between 1 g and 200 kg) are within 10-15% of those published. Radial absorbed dose distributions in a necrotic tumor show good agreement with published data. The application of the code in a radionuclide therapy dose planning system, based on quantitative SPECT, is discussed. (orig.)

  18. Compiling software for a hierarchical distributed processing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Charles J; Blocksome, Michael A; Ratterman, Joseph D; Smith, Brian E

    2013-12-31

    Compiling software for a hierarchical distributed processing system including providing to one or more compiling nodes software to be compiled, wherein at least a portion of the software to be compiled is to be executed by one or more nodes; compiling, by the compiling node, the software; maintaining, by the compiling node, any compiled software to be executed on the compiling node; selecting, by the compiling node, one or more nodes in a next tier of the hierarchy of the distributed processing system in dependence upon whether any compiled software is for the selected node or the selected node's descendents; sending to the selected node only the compiled software to be executed by the selected node or selected node's descendent.

  19. Determination of material distribution in heading process of small bimetallic bar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presz, Wojciech; Cacko, Robert

    2018-05-01

    The electrical connectors mostly have silver contacts joined by riveting. In order to reduce costs, the core of the contact rivet can be replaced with cheaper material, e.g. copper. There is a wide range of commercially available bimetallic (silver-copper) rivets on the market for the production of contacts. Following that, new conditions in the riveting process are created because the bi-metal object is riveted. In the analyzed example, it is a small size object, which can be placed on the border of microforming. Based on the FEM modeling of the load process of bimetallic rivets with different material distributions, the desired distribution was chosen and the choice was justified. Possible material distributions were parameterized with two parameters referring to desirable distribution characteristics. The parameter: Coefficient of Mutual Interactions of Plastic Deformations and the method of its determination have been proposed. The parameter is determined based of two-parameter stress-strain curves and is a function of these parameters and the range of equivalent strains occurring in the analyzed process. The proposed method was used for the upsetting process of the bimetallic head of the electrical contact. A nomogram was established to predict the distribution of materials in the head of the rivet and the appropriate selection of a pair of materials to achieve the desired distribution.

  20. Standard services for the capture, processing, and distribution of packetized telemetry data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallings, William H.

    1989-01-01

    Standard functional services for the capture, processing, and distribution of packetized data are discussed with particular reference to the future implementation of packet processing systems, such as those for the Space Station Freedom. The major functions are listed under the following major categories: input processing, packet processing, and output processing. A functional block diagram of a packet data processing facility is presented, showing the distribution of the various processing functions as well as the primary data flow through the facility.

  1. Enforcement of entailment constraints in distributed service-based business processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummer, Waldemar; Gaubatz, Patrick; Strembeck, Mark; Zdun, Uwe; Dustdar, Schahram

    2013-11-01

    A distributed business process is executed in a distributed computing environment. The service-oriented architecture (SOA) paradigm is a popular option for the integration of software services and execution of distributed business processes. Entailment constraints, such as mutual exclusion and binding constraints, are important means to control process execution. Mutually exclusive tasks result from the division of powerful rights and responsibilities to prevent fraud and abuse. In contrast, binding constraints define that a subject who performed one task must also perform the corresponding bound task(s). We aim to provide a model-driven approach for the specification and enforcement of task-based entailment constraints in distributed service-based business processes. Based on a generic metamodel, we define a domain-specific language (DSL) that maps the different modeling-level artifacts to the implementation-level. The DSL integrates elements from role-based access control (RBAC) with the tasks that are performed in a business process. Process definitions are annotated using the DSL, and our software platform uses automated model transformations to produce executable WS-BPEL specifications which enforce the entailment constraints. We evaluate the impact of constraint enforcement on runtime performance for five selected service-based processes from existing literature. Our evaluation demonstrates that the approach correctly enforces task-based entailment constraints at runtime. The performance experiments illustrate that the runtime enforcement operates with an overhead that scales well up to the order of several ten thousand logged invocations. Using our DSL annotations, the user-defined process definition remains declarative and clean of security enforcement code. Our approach decouples the concerns of (non-technical) domain experts from technical details of entailment constraint enforcement. The developed framework integrates seamlessly with WS-BPEL and the Web

  2. Accelerated life testing design using geometric process for pareto distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Mustafa Kamal; Shazia Zarrin; Arif Ul Islam

    2013-01-01

    In this paper the geometric process is used for the analysis of accelerated life testing under constant stress for Pareto Distribution. Assuming that the lifetimes under increasing stress levels form a geometric process, estimates of the parameters are obtained by using the maximum likelihood method for complete data. In addition, asymptotic interval estimates of the parameters of the distribution using Fisher information matrix are also obtained. The statistical properties of the parameters ...

  3. Transparent checkpointing and process migration in a distributed system

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    A distributed system for creating a checkpoint for a plurality of processes running on the distributed system. The distributed system includes a plurality of compute nodes with an operating system executing on each compute node. A checkpoint library resides at the user level on each of the compute nodes, and the checkpoint library is transparent to the operating system residing on the same compute node and to the other compute nodes. Each checkpoint library uses a windowed messaging logging p...

  4. Distributed Active Synchronization Strategy for Microgrid Seamless Reconnection to the Grid under Unbalance and Harmonic Distortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Fen; Guerrero, Josep M.; Vasquez, Juan Carlos

    2015-01-01

    converters, the synchronization process is quite different compared to the quasi-synchronism control in conventional power systems. Firstly, in order to address this concern, the microgrid synchronization criteria are derived. Based on these criteria, a novel distributed active synchronization strategy...

  5. A distributed computing model for telemetry data processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Matthew R.; Scott, Kevin L.; Weismuller, Steven P.

    1994-05-01

    We present a new approach to distributing processed telemetry data among spacecraft flight controllers within the control centers at NASA's Johnson Space Center. This approach facilitates the development of application programs which integrate spacecraft-telemetered data and ground-based synthesized data, then distributes this information to flight controllers for analysis and decision-making. The new approach combines various distributed computing models into one hybrid distributed computing model. The model employs both client-server and peer-to-peer distributed computing models cooperating to provide users with information throughout a diverse operations environment. Specifically, it provides an attractive foundation upon which we are building critical real-time monitoring and control applications, while simultaneously lending itself to peripheral applications in playback operations, mission preparations, flight controller training, and program development and verification. We have realized the hybrid distributed computing model through an information sharing protocol. We shall describe the motivations that inspired us to create this protocol, along with a brief conceptual description of the distributed computing models it employs. We describe the protocol design in more detail, discussing many of the program design considerations and techniques we have adopted. Finally, we describe how this model is especially suitable for supporting the implementation of distributed expert system applications.

  6. A distributed computing model for telemetry data processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Matthew R.; Scott, Kevin L.; Weismuller, Steven P.

    1994-01-01

    We present a new approach to distributing processed telemetry data among spacecraft flight controllers within the control centers at NASA's Johnson Space Center. This approach facilitates the development of application programs which integrate spacecraft-telemetered data and ground-based synthesized data, then distributes this information to flight controllers for analysis and decision-making. The new approach combines various distributed computing models into one hybrid distributed computing model. The model employs both client-server and peer-to-peer distributed computing models cooperating to provide users with information throughout a diverse operations environment. Specifically, it provides an attractive foundation upon which we are building critical real-time monitoring and control applications, while simultaneously lending itself to peripheral applications in playback operations, mission preparations, flight controller training, and program development and verification. We have realized the hybrid distributed computing model through an information sharing protocol. We shall describe the motivations that inspired us to create this protocol, along with a brief conceptual description of the distributed computing models it employs. We describe the protocol design in more detail, discussing many of the program design considerations and techniques we have adopted. Finally, we describe how this model is especially suitable for supporting the implementation of distributed expert system applications.

  7. A Java based environment to control and monitor distributed processing systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legrand, I.C.

    1997-01-01

    Distributed processing systems are considered to solve the challenging requirements of triggering and data acquisition systems for future HEP experiments. The aim of this work is to present a software environment to control and monitor large scale parallel processing systems based on a distributed client-server approach developed in Java. One server task may control several processing nodes, switching elements or controllers for different sub-systems. Servers are designed as multi-thread applications for efficient communications with other objects. Servers communicate between themselves by using Remote Method Invocation (RMI) in a peer-to-peer mechanism. This distributed server layer has to provide a dynamic and transparent access from any client to all the resources in the system. The graphical user interface programs, which are platform independent, may be transferred to any client via the http protocol. In this scheme the control and monitor tasks are distributed among servers and network controls the flow of information among servers and clients providing a flexible mechanism for monitoring and controlling large heterogenous distributed systems. (author)

  8. Multi-agent based controller for islanding operation of active distribution networks with distributed generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cha, Seung-Tae; Wu, Qiuwei; Østergaard, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    -bus system was used to investigate the dynamic and steady state performance of the active distribution system during islanding operation. Case studies have been carried out using the Real-Time Digital Simulator (RTDS) based simulation platform. Case study results show that the proposed multi......The increasing amount of distributed generation (DG) in today’s highly complex restructured power networks gives more options for distribution system operators (DSOs) under contingency conditions. A low voltage distribution network with a large amount of DG can be operated as an islanded system...... if the distribution system is disconnected from the main grid due to the contingency. In order to successfully operate distribution systems under islanding mode, the possibility of small power islands within the distribution system needs to be considered. The control and management of these small power islands...

  9. Stationary distributions of stochastic processes described by a linear neutral delay differential equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, T D

    2005-01-01

    Stationary distributions of processes are derived that involve a time delay and are defined by a linear stochastic neutral delay differential equation. The distributions are Gaussian distributions. The variances of the Gaussian distributions are either monotonically increasing or decreasing functions of the time delays. The variances become infinite when fixed points of corresponding deterministic processes become unstable. (letter to the editor)

  10. Building enterprise systems with ODP an introduction to open distributed processing

    CERN Document Server

    Linington, Peter F; Tanaka, Akira; Vallecillo, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    The Reference Model of Open Distributed Processing (RM-ODP) is an international standard that provides a solid basis for describing and building widely distributed systems and applications in a systematic way. It stresses the need to build these systems with evolution in mind by identifying the concerns of major stakeholders and then expressing the design as a series of linked viewpoints. Although RM-ODP has been a standard for more than ten years, many practitioners are still unaware of it. Building Enterprise Systems with ODP: An Introduction to Open Distributed Processing offers a gentle pa

  11. Ruin Probabilities and Aggregrate Claims Distributions for Shot Noise Cox Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrecher, H.; Asmussen, Søren

    claim size is investigated under these assumptions. For both light-tailed and heavy-tailed claim size distributions, asymptotic estimates for infinite-time and finite-time ruin probabilities are derived. Moreover, we discuss an extension of the model to an adaptive premium rule that is dynamically......We consider a risk process Rt where the claim arrival process is a superposition of a homogeneous Poisson process and a Cox process with a Poisson shot noise intensity process, capturing the effect of sudden increases of the claim intensity due to external events. The distribution of the aggregate...... adjusted according to past claims experience....

  12. Cumulative distribution functions associated with bubble-nucleation processes in cavitation

    KAUST Repository

    Watanabe, Hiroshi

    2010-11-15

    Bubble-nucleation processes of a Lennard-Jones liquid are studied by molecular dynamics simulations. Waiting time, which is the lifetime of a superheated liquid, is determined for several system sizes, and the apparent finite-size effect of the nucleation rate is observed. From the cumulative distribution function of the nucleation events, the bubble-nucleation process is found to be not a simple Poisson process but a Poisson process with an additional relaxation time. The parameters of the exponential distribution associated with the process are determined by taking the relaxation time into account, and the apparent finite-size effect is removed. These results imply that the use of the arithmetic mean of the waiting time until a bubble grows to the critical size leads to an incorrect estimation of the nucleation rate. © 2010 The American Physical Society.

  13. Measuring Geographic Distribution of Economic Activity in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Measuring Geographic Distribution of Economic Activity in Nigeria Using Gross Domestic Product. ... and environmental factors in planning. There is need for adequate understanding of spatial pattern and centrographic analysis of economic activity to support evidence based economic and regional development policies.

  14. Spatial distribution of enzyme activities in the rhizosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavi, Bahar S.; Zarebanadkouki, Mohsen; Blagodatskaya, Evgenia; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2015-04-01

    The rhizosphere, the tiny zone of soil surrounding roots, certainly represents one of the most dynamic habitat and interfaces on Earth. Activities of enzymes produced by both plant roots and microbes are the primary biological drivers of organic matter decomposition and nutrient cycling. That is why there is an urgent need in spatially explicit methods for the determination of the rhizosphere extension and enzyme distribution. Recently, zymography as a new technique based on diffusion of enzymes through the 1 mm gel plate for analysis has been introduced (Spohn & Kuzyakov, 2013). We developed the zymography technique to visualize the enzyme activities with a higher spatial resolution. For the first time, we aimed at quantitative imaging of enzyme activities as a function of distance from the root tip and the root surface in the soil. We visualized the two dimensional distribution of the activity of three enzymes: β-glucosidase, phosphatase and leucine amino peptidase in the rhizosphere of maize using fluorogenically labelled substrates. Spatial-resolution of fluorescent images was improved by direct application of a substrate saturated membrane to the soil-root system. The newly-developed direct zymography visualized heterogeneity of enzyme activities along the roots. The activity of all enzymes was the highest at the apical parts of individual roots. Across the roots, the enzyme activities were higher at immediate vicinity of the roots (1.5 mm) and gradually decreased towards the bulk soil. Spatial patterns of enzyme activities as a function of distance from the root surface were enzyme specific, with highest extension for phosphatase. We conclude that improved zymography is promising in situ technique to analyze, visualize and quantify spatial distribution of enzyme activities in the rhizosphere hotspots. References Spohn, M., Kuzyakov, Y., 2013. Phosphorus mineralization can be driven by microbial need for carbon. Soil Biology & Biochemistry 61: 69-75

  15. Coordinated Voltage Control of Active Distribution Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xie Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a centralized coordinated voltage control method for active distribution network to solve off-limit problem of voltage after incorporation of distributed generation (DG. The proposed method consists of two parts, it coordinated primal-dual interior point method-based voltage regulation schemes of DG reactive powers and capacitors with centralized on-load tap changer (OLTC controlling method which utilizes system’s maximum and minimum voltages, to improve the qualified rate of voltage and reduce the operation numbers of OLTC. The proposed coordination has considered the cost of capacitors. The method is tested using a radial edited IEEE-33 nodes distribution network which is modelled using MATLAB.

  16. Syntactic processing is distributed across the language system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, Idan; Balewski, Zuzanna; Mahowald, Kyle; Fedorenko, Evelina

    2016-02-15

    Language comprehension recruits an extended set of regions in the human brain. Is syntactic processing localized to a particular region or regions within this system, or is it distributed across the entire ensemble of brain regions that support high-level linguistic processing? Evidence from aphasic patients is more consistent with the latter possibility: damage to many different language regions and to white-matter tracts connecting them has been shown to lead to similar syntactic comprehension deficits. However, brain imaging investigations of syntactic processing continue to focus on particular regions within the language system, often parts of Broca's area and regions in the posterior temporal cortex. We hypothesized that, whereas the entire language system is in fact sensitive to syntactic complexity, the effects in some regions may be difficult to detect because of the overall lower response to language stimuli. Using an individual-subjects approach to localizing the language system, shown in prior work to be more sensitive than traditional group analyses, we indeed find responses to syntactic complexity throughout this system, consistent with the findings from the neuropsychological patient literature. We speculate that such distributed nature of syntactic processing could perhaps imply that syntax is inseparable from other aspects of language comprehension (e.g., lexico-semantic processing), in line with current linguistic and psycholinguistic theories and evidence. Neuroimaging investigations of syntactic processing thus need to expand their scope to include the entire system of high-level language processing regions in order to fully understand how syntax is instantiated in the human brain. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The spatial distribution of microfabric around gravel grains: indicator of till formation processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    KalväNs, Andis; Saks, Tomas

    2010-05-01

    Till micromorphology studies in thin sections is an established tool in the field of glacial geology. Often the thin sections are inspected only visually with help of mineralogical microscope. This can lead to subjective interpretation of observed structures. More objective method used in till micromorphology is measurement of apparent microfabric, usually seen as preferred orientation of elongated sand grains. In theses studies only small fraction of elongated sand grains often confined to small area of thin section usually are measured. We present a method for automated measurement of almost all elongated sand grains across the full area of the thin section. Apparently elongated sand grains are measured using simple image analysis tools, the data are processed in a way similar to regular till fabric data and visualised as a grid of rose diagrams. The method allows to draw statistical information about spatial variation of microfabric preferred orientation and fabric strength with resolution as fine as 1 mm. Late Weichselian tills from several sites in Western Latvia were studied and large variations in fabric strength and spatial distribution were observed in macroscopically similar till units. The observed types of microfabric spatial distributions include strong, monomodal and uniform distribution; weak and highly variable in small distances distribution; consistently bimodal distribution and domain-like pattern of preferred sand grain orientation. We suggest that the method can be readily used to identify the basic deformation and sedimentation processes active during the final stages of till formation. It is understood that the microfabric orientation will be significant affected by nearby large particles. The till is highly heterogonous sediment and the source of microfabric perturbations observed in thin section might lie outside the section plane. Therefore we suggest that microfabric distribution around visible sources of perturbation - gravel grains cut

  18. Distributed Leadership through the Lens of Activity Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, Jeanne Ho Pau; Victor Chen, Der-Thanq; Ng, David

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Using Activity Theory as an interpretive lens to examine the distribution of leadership, this paper shares a case study on how leadership for an ICT project was distributed in a Singapore school. Method: The case study involved observations of 49 meetings and 34 interviews of leaders and the teachers who were involved in the ICT project.…

  19. Particularities of Verification Processes for Distributed Informatics Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion IVAN

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents distributed informatics applications and characteristics of their development cycle. It defines the concept of verification and there are identified the differences from software testing. Particularities of the software testing and software verification processes are described. The verification steps and necessary conditions are presented and there are established influence factors of quality verification. Software optimality verification is analyzed and some metrics are defined for the verification process.

  20. Distributed processing and analysis of ATLAS experimental data

    CERN Document Server

    Barberis, D; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment is taking data steadily since Autumn 2009, collecting close to 1 fb-1 of data (several petabytes of raw and reconstructed data per year of data-taking). Data are calibrated, reconstructed, distributed and analysed at over 100 different sites using the World-wide LHC Computing Grid and the tools produced by the ATLAS Distributed Computing project. In addition to event data, ATLAS produces a wealth of information on detector status, luminosity, calibrations, alignments, and data processing conditions. This information is stored in relational databases, online and offline, and made transparently available to analysers of ATLAS data world-wide through an infrastructure consisting of distributed database replicas and web servers that exploit caching technologies. This paper reports on the experience of using this distributed computing infrastructure with real data and in real time, on the evolution of the computing model driven by this experience, and on the system performance during the first...

  1. Distributed processing and analysis of ATLAS experimental data

    CERN Document Server

    Barberis, D; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment is taking data steadily since Autumn 2009, and collected so far over 5 fb-1 of data (several petabytes of raw and reconstructed data per year of data-taking). Data are calibrated, reconstructed, distributed and analysed at over 100 different sites using the World-wide LHC Computing Grid and the tools produced by the ATLAS Distributed Computing project. In addition to event data, ATLAS produces a wealth of information on detector status, luminosity, calibrations, alignments, and data processing conditions. This information is stored in relational databases, online and offline, and made transparently available to analysers of ATLAS data world-wide through an infrastructure consisting of distributed database replicas and web servers that exploit caching technologies. This paper reports on the experience of using this distributed computing infrastructure with real data and in real time, on the evolution of the computing model driven by this experience, and on the system performance during the...

  2. Ionization processes in a transient hollow cathode discharge before electric breakdown: statistical distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zambra, M.; Favre, M.; Moreno, J.; Wyndham, E.; Chuaqui, H.; Choi, P.

    1998-01-01

    The charge formation processes in a hollow cathode region (HCR) of transient hollow cathode discharge have been studied at the final phase. The statistical distribution that describe different processes of ionization have been represented by Gaussian distributions. Nevertheless, was observed a better representation of these distributions when the pressure is near a minimum value, just before breakdown

  3. Physical Activity and Abdominal Fat Distribution in Greenland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl-Petersen, Inger Katrine; Brage, Søren; Bjerregaard, Peter; Tolstrup, Janne Schurmann; Jørgensen, Marit Eika

    2017-10-01

    We examined how total volume of physical activity and reallocation of time spent at various objectively measured intensities of physical activity (PA) were associated with overall and abdominal fat distribution in adult Inuit in Greenland. Data were collected as part of a countrywide cross-sectional health survey in Greenland. A combined accelerometer and HR monitor measured total physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) and intensities of PA (N = 1536). Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) were assessed by ultrasonography. Isotemporal substitution modeling was used to analyze the association between substitution of 1 h of sedentary time to light- or moderate-intensity PA and 1 h light-intensity PA to moderate- or vigorous-intensity PA in relation to body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), SAT, and VAT. A negative linear association was found for total PAEE and BMI, WC, VAT, and SAT. Exchanging 1 h of sedentary time with light-intensity PA was associated with lower WC (-0.6 cm, P = 0.01), SAT (-0.08 cm, P abdominal fat distribution. Physical activity energy expenditure is associated with lower BMI, WC, and abdominal fat among Greenland Inuit. The importance of promoting an upward shift of the whole PA intensity distribution and to spur even short bouts of MVPA to limit excessive accumulation of SAT and VAT is highlighted.

  4. Energy Consumption in the Process of Excavator-Automobile Complexes Distribution at Kuzbass Open Pit Mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panachev Ivan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Every year worldwide coal mining companies seek to maintain the tendency of the mining machine fleet renewal. Various activities to maintain the service life of already operated mining equipment are implemented. In this regard, the urgent issue is the problem of efficient distribution of available machines in different geological conditions. The problem of “excavator-automobile” complex effective distribution occurs when heavy dump trucks are used in mining. For this reason, excavation and transportation of blasted rock mass are the most labor intensive and costly processes, considering the volume of transported overburden and coal, as well as diesel fuel, electricity, fuel and lubricants costs, consumables for repair works and downtime, etc. Currently, it is recommended to take the number of loading buckets in the range of 3 to 5, according to which the dump trucks are distributed to faces.

  5. The Marginal Distributions of a Crossing Time and Renewal Numbers Related with Two Poisson Processes are as Ph-Distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mir G. H. Talpur

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we consider, how to find the marginal distributions of crossing time and renewal numbers related with two poisson processes by using probability arguments. The obtained results show that the one-dimension marginal distributions are N+1 order PH-distributions.

  6. IPNS distributed-processing data-acquisition system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haumann, J.R.; Daly, R.T.; Worlton, T.G.; Crawford, R.K.

    1981-01-01

    The Intense Pulsed Neutron Source (IPNS) at Argonne National Laboratory is a major new user-oriented facility which has come on line for basic research in neutron scattering and neutron radiation damage. This paper describes the distributed-processing data-acquisition system which handles data collection and instrument control for the time-of-flight neutron-scattering instruments. The topics covered include the overall system configuration, each of the computer subsystems, communication protocols linking each computer subsystem, and an overview of the software which has been developed

  7. Active Distribution Grid Management based on Robust AC Optimal Power Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soares, Tiago; Bessa, Richard J.; Pinson, Pierre

    2017-01-01

    Further integration of distributed renewable energy sources in distribution systems requires a paradigm change in grid management by the distribution system operators (DSO). DSOs are currently moving to an operational planning approach based on activating flexibility from distributed energy resou...

  8. An Educational Tool for Interactive Parallel and Distributed Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagliarini, Luigi; Lund, Henrik Hautop

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we try to describe how the Modular Interactive Tiles System (MITS) can be a valuable tool for introducing students to interactive parallel and distributed processing programming. This is done by providing an educational hands-on tool that allows a change of representation of the abs......In this paper we try to describe how the Modular Interactive Tiles System (MITS) can be a valuable tool for introducing students to interactive parallel and distributed processing programming. This is done by providing an educational hands-on tool that allows a change of representation...... of the abstract problems related to designing interactive parallel and distributed systems. Indeed, MITS seems to bring a series of goals into the education, such as parallel programming, distributedness, communication protocols, master dependency, software behavioral models, adaptive interactivity, feedback......, connectivity, topology, island modeling, user and multiuser interaction, which can hardly be found in other tools. Finally, we introduce the system of modular interactive tiles as a tool for easy, fast, and flexible hands-on exploration of these issues, and through examples show how to implement interactive...

  9. Distribution of apparent activation energy counterparts during thermo - And thermo-oxidative degradation of Aronia melanocarpa (black chokeberry).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janković, Bojan; Marinović-Cincović, Milena; Janković, Marija

    2017-09-01

    Kinetics of degradation for Aronia melanocarpa fresh fruits in argon and air atmospheres were investigated. The investigation was based on probability distributions of apparent activation energy of counterparts (ε a ). Isoconversional analysis results indicated that the degradation process in an inert atmosphere was governed by decomposition reactions of esterified compounds. Also, based on same kinetics approach, it was assumed that in an air atmosphere, the primary compound in degradation pathways could be anthocyanins, which undergo rapid chemical reactions. A new model of reactivity demonstrated that, under inert atmospheres, expectation values for ε a occured at levels of statistical probability. These values corresponded to decomposition processes in which polyphenolic compounds might be involved. ε a values obeyed laws of binomial distribution. It was established that, for thermo-oxidative degradation, Poisson distribution represented a very successful approximation for ε a values where there was additional mechanistic complexity and the binomial distribution was no longer valid. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. State-Level Comparison of Processes and Timelines for Distributed Photovoltaic Interconnection in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ardani, K. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Davidson, C. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, R. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Nobler, E. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-01-01

    This report presents results from an analysis of distributed photovoltaic (PV) interconnection and deployment processes in the United States. Using data from more than 30,000 residential (up to 10 kilowatts) and small commercial (10-50 kilowatts) PV systems, installed from 2012 to 2014, we assess the range in project completion timelines nationally (across 87 utilities in 16 states) and in five states with active solar markets (Arizona, California, New Jersey, New York, and Colorado).

  11. Harvesting thermal fluctuations: Activation process induced by a nonlinear chain in thermal equilibrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reigada, Ramon; Sarmiento, Antonio; Romero, Aldo H.; Sancho, J. M.; Lindenberg, Katja

    2000-01-01

    We present a model in which the immediate environment of a bistable system is a molecular chain which in turn is connected to a thermal environment of the Langevin form. The molecular chain consists of masses connected by harmonic or by anharmonic springs. The distribution, intensity, and mobility of thermal fluctuations in these chains is strongly dependent on the nature of the springs and leads to different transition dynamics for the activated process. Thus, all else (temperature, damping, coupling parameters between the chain and the bistable system) being the same, the hard chain may provide an environment described as diffusion-limited and more effective in the activation process, while the soft chain may provide an environment described as energy-limited and less effective. The importance of a detailed understanding of the thermal environment toward the understanding of the activation process itself is thus highlighted. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  12. Flexible distributed architecture for semiconductor process control and experimentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gower, Aaron E.; Boning, Duane S.; McIlrath, Michael B.

    1997-01-01

    Semiconductor fabrication requires an increasingly expensive and integrated set of tightly controlled processes, driving the need for a fabrication facility with fully computerized, networked processing equipment. We describe an integrated, open system architecture enabling distributed experimentation and process control for plasma etching. The system was developed at MIT's Microsystems Technology Laboratories and employs in-situ CCD interferometry based analysis in the sensor-feedback control of an Applied Materials Precision 5000 Plasma Etcher (AME5000). Our system supports accelerated, advanced research involving feedback control algorithms, and includes a distributed interface that utilizes the internet to make these fabrication capabilities available to remote users. The system architecture is both distributed and modular: specific implementation of any one task does not restrict the implementation of another. The low level architectural components include a host controller that communicates with the AME5000 equipment via SECS-II, and a host controller for the acquisition and analysis of the CCD sensor images. A cell controller (CC) manages communications between these equipment and sensor controllers. The CC is also responsible for process control decisions; algorithmic controllers may be integrated locally or via remote communications. Finally, a system server images connections from internet/intranet (web) based clients and uses a direct link with the CC to access the system. Each component communicates via a predefined set of TCP/IP socket based messages. This flexible architecture makes integration easier and more robust, and enables separate software components to run on the same or different computers independent of hardware or software platform.

  13. Auto-radiographical study of activity distribution of high-dispersity hot particles from NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonchev, Ts.; Andreev, Ts.; Todorov, N.; Andreev, P.; Kasabov, I.

    1995-01-01

    Autoradiograms of hot particles (HP) detected at Kozloduy NPP have been obtained with ordinary photographic film using direct contact. HP diameter and activity have been calculated by computer processing of the image.The distribution of HP weight and the precipitation time on surfaces has been estimated. Results on 37 HP found at the Kozloduy NPP units 1-4 and 9 HP found in special rooms containing waste are reported. The emitters are identified as 60 Co, 54 Mn and α emitters with specific activities 2.10 8 Bq/g, 2.10 7 Bq/g and 3.10 4 Bq/g respectively. 5 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs

  14. The PWM strategies of grid-connected distributed generation active NPC inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Lin; Xinmin, Jin; Kerekes, Tamas

    2009-01-01

    The Neutral Point Clamped topology due to high efficiency, low leakage current and EMI, its integration is widely used in the distributed generation (DG) systems. However the main disadvantage of the NPC inverter is given by an unequal distribution of the losses in the semiconductor devices, which...... leads to an unequal distribution of temperature. By using the Active NPC topology, the power losses distribution problem is alleviated. The modulation strategy is a key issue for losses distribution in this topology. In this paper two known strategies are discussed and a new proposed PWM strategy......, namely the Adjustable Losses Distribution (ALD) PWM strategy is proposed for better losses distribution in the Active NPC (ANPC) topology. Simulations using Simulink and the PLECS toolbox have been done for evaluating efficiency of different NPC topologies and some experimental results are presented...

  15. Exploring Urban Taxi Drivers’ Activity Distribution Based on GPS Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaowei Hu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of information communication technology and data mining technology, we can obtain taxi vehicle’s real time operation status through the large-scale taxi GPS trajectories data and explore the drivers’ activity distribution characteristics. Based on the 204 continuous hours of 3198 taxi vehicles’ operation data of Shenzhen, China, this paper analyzed the urban taxi driver’s activity distribution characteristics from different temporal and spatial levels. In the time level, we identified the difference with taxi daily operation pattern (weekday versus weekends, continuous time in one day, passengers in vehicle time, and taxi drivers’ operation frequency; in the space level, we explored the taxi driver’s searching pattern, including searching activity space distribution and the relationship between the pick-up locations and the drop-off locations. This research can be helpful for urban taxi drivers’ operation and behavior pattern identification, as well as the contribution to the geographical activity space analysis.

  16. Economic-environmental active and reactive power scheduling of modern distribution systems in presence of wind generations: A distribution market-based approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samimi, Abouzar; Kazemi, Ahad; Siano, Pierluigi

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A new market-based approach is proposed to schedule active and reactive powers. • Multi-component reactive power bidding structures for DERs is introduced. • A new economical/environmental operational scheduling method is proposed. • At distribution level, a reactive power market is developed in presence of DERs. - Abstract: Distribution System Operator (DSO) is responsible for active and reactive power scheduling in a distribution system. DSO purchases its active and reactive power requirements from Distributed Energy Resources (DERs) as well as the wholesale electricity market. In this paper, a new economical/environmental operational scheduling method based on sequential day-ahead active and reactive power markets at distribution level is proposed to dispatch active and reactive powers in distribution systems with high penetration of DERs. In the proposed model, after day-ahead active power market was cleared the participants submit their reactive power bids and then the reactive power market will be settled. At distribution level, developing a Var market, in which DERs like synchronous machine-based Distributed Generation (DG) units and Wind Turbines (WTs) could offer their reactive power prices, DERs are motivated to actively participate in the Volt/VAr Control (VVC) problem. To achieve this purpose, based on the capability curves of considered DERs, innovative multi-component reactive power bidding structures for DERs are introduced. Moreover, the effect of reactive power market clearing on the active power scheduling is explicitly considered into the proposed model by rescheduling of active power by usage of energy-balance service bids. On the other hand, environmental concerns that arise from the operation of fossil fuel fired electric generators are included in the proposed model by employing CO_2 emission penalty cost. The suggested reactive power market is cleared through a mixed-integer nonlinear optimization program. The

  17. On process capability and system availability analysis of the inverse Rayleigh distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajid Ali

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article, process capability and system availability analysis is discussed for the inverse Rayleigh lifetime distribution. Bayesian approach with a conjugate gamma distribution is adopted for the analysis. Different types of loss functions are considered to find Bayes estimates of the process capability and system availability. A simulation study is conducted for the comparison of different loss functions.

  18. Adaptive intelligent power systems: Active distribution networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, Jim

    2008-01-01

    Electricity networks are extensive and well established. They form a key part of the infrastructure that supports industrialised society. These networks are moving from a period of stability to a time of potentially major transition, driven by a need for old equipment to be replaced, by government policy commitments to cleaner and renewable sources of electricity generation, and by change in the power industry. This paper looks at moves towards active distribution networks. The novel transmission and distribution systems of the future will challenge today's system designs. They will cope with variable voltages and frequencies, and will offer more flexible, sustainable options. Intelligent power networks will need innovation in several key areas of information technology. Active control of flexible, large-scale electrical power systems is required. Protection and control systems will have to react to faults and unusual transient behaviour and ensure recovery after such events. Real-time network simulation and performance analysis will be needed to provide decision support for system operators, and the inputs to energy and distribution management systems. Advanced sensors and measurement will be used to achieve higher degrees of network automation and better system control, while pervasive communications will allow networks to be reconfigured by intelligent systems

  19. Aspects Concerning the Optimization of Authentication Process for Distributed Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Ivan

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available There will be presented the types of distributed applications. The quality characteristics for distributed applications will be analyzed. There will be established the ways to assign access rights. The authentication category will be analyzed. We will propose an algorithm for the optimization of authentication process.For the application “Evaluation of TIC projects” the algorithm proposed will be applied.

  20. Situation awareness of active distribution network: roadmap, technologies, and bottlenecks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Jin; Wan, Can; Song, Yonghua

    2016-01-01

    With the rapid development of local generation and demand response, the active distribution network (ADN), which aggregates and manages miscellaneous distributed resources, has moved from theory to practice. Secure and optimal operations now require an advanced situation awareness (SA) system so...... in the project of developing an SA system as the basic component of a practical active distribution management system (ADMS) deployed in Beijing, China, is presented. This paper reviews the ADN’s development roadmap by illustrating the changes that are made in elements, topology, structure, and control scheme....... Taking into consideration these hardware changes, a systematic framework is proposed for the main components and the functional hierarchy of an SA system for the ADN. The SA system’s implementation bottlenecks are also presented, including, but not limited to issues in big data platform, distribution...

  1. Radar data processing using a distributed computational system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Gilberto F.

    1992-06-01

    This research specifies and validates a new concurrent decomposition scheme, called Confined Space Search Decomposition (CSSD), to exploit parallelism of Radar Data Processing algorithms using a Distributed Computational System. To formalize the specification, we propose and apply an object-oriented methodology called Decomposition Cost Evaluation Model (DCEM). To reduce the penalties of load imbalance, we propose a distributed dynamic load balance heuristic called Object Reincarnation (OR). To validate the research, we first compare our decomposition with an identified alternative using the proposed DCEM model and then develop a theoretical prediction of selected parameters. We also develop a simulation to check the Object Reincarnation Concept.

  2. How Are Distributed Groups Affected by an Imposed Structuring of their Decision-Making Process?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundell, Anders Lorentz; Hertzum, Morten

    2011-01-01

    Groups often suffer from ineffective communication and decision making. This experimental study compares distributed groups solving a preference task with support from either a communication system or a system providing both communication and a structuring of the decision-making process. Results...... show that groups using the latter system spend more time solving the task, spend more of their time on solution analysis, spend less of their time on disorganized activity, and arrive at task solutions with less extreme preferences. Thus, the type of system affects the decision-making process as well...... as its outcome. Notably, the task solutions arrived at by the groups using the system that imposes a structuring of the decision-making process show limited correlation with the task solutions suggested by the system on the basis of the groups’ explicitly stated criteria. We find no differences in group...

  3. Activity distribution of a cobalt-60 teletherapy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaffray, D.A.; Munro, P.; Battista, J.J.; Fenster, A.

    1991-01-01

    In the course of quantifying the effect of radiation source size on the spatial resolution of portal images, a concentric ring structure in the activity distribution of a Cobalt-60 teletherapy source has been observed. The activity distribution was measured using a strip integral technique and confirmed independently by a contact radiograph of an identical but inactive source replica. These two techniques suggested that this concentric ring structure is due to the packing configuration of the small 60Co pellets that constitute the source. The source modulation transfer function (MTF) showed that this ring structure has a negligible influence on the spatial resolution of therapy images when compared to the effect of the large size of the 60Co source

  4. Approximations to the Non-Isothermal Distributed Activation Energy Model for Biomass Pyrolysis Using the Rayleigh Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhaundiyal Alok

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the influence of some parameters relevant to biomass pyrolysis on the numerical solutions of the nonisothermal nth order distributed activation energy model using the Rayleigh distribution. Investigated parameters are the integral upper limit, the frequency factor, the heating rate, the reaction order and the scale parameters of the Rayleigh distribution. The influence of these parameters has been considered for the determination of the kinetic parameters of the non-isothermal nth order Rayleigh distribution from the experimentally derived thermoanalytical data of biomass pyrolysis.

  5. Distributed inter process communication framework of BES III DAQ online software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Fei; Liu Yingjie; Ren Zhenyu; Wang Liang; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing; Chen Mali; Zhu Kejun; Zhao Jingwei

    2006-01-01

    DAQ (Data Acquisition) system is one important part of BES III, which is the large scale high-energy physics detector on the BEPC. The inter process communication (IPC) of online software in distributed environments is very pivotal for design and implement of DAQ system. This article will introduce one distributed inter process communication framework, which is based on CORBA and used in BES III DAQ online software. The article mainly presents the design and implementation of the IPC framework and application based on IPC. (authors)

  6. An investigation of processes controlling the evolution of the boundary layer aerosol size distribution properties at the Swedish background station Aspvreten

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Tunved

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Aerosol size distributions have been measured at the Swedish background station Aspvreten (58.8° N, 17.4° E. Different states of the aerosol were determined using a novel application of cluster analysis. The analysis resulted in eight different clusters capturing different stages of the aerosol lifecycle. The atmospheric aerosol size distributions were interpreted as belonging to fresh, intermediate and aged types of size distribution. With aid of back trajectory analysis we present statistics concerning the relation of source area and different meteorological parameters using a non-Lagrangian approach. Source area is argued to be important although not sufficient to describe the observed aerosol properties. Especially processing by clouds and precipitation is shown to be crucial for the evolution of the aerosol size distribution. As much as 60% of the observed size distributions present features that are likely to be related to cloud processes or wet deposition. The lifetime properties of different sized aerosols are discussed by means of measured variability of the aerosol size distribution. Processing by clouds and precipitation is shown to be especially crucial in the size range 100 nm and larger. This indicates an approximate limit for activation in clouds to 100 nm in this type of environment. The aerosol lifecycle is discussed. Size distributions indicating signs of recent new particle formation (~30% of the observed size distributions represent the first stage in the lifecycle. Aging of the aerosol size distribution may follow two branches: either growth by condensation and coagulation or processing by non-precipitating clouds. In both cases mass is accumulated. Wet removal is the main process capable of removing aerosol mass. Wet deposition is argued to be an important mechanism in reaching a state where nucleation may occur (i.e. sufficiently low aerosol surface area in environments similar to the one studied.

  7. Log-normal distribution from a process that is not multiplicative but is additive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouri, Hideaki

    2013-10-01

    The central limit theorem ensures that a sum of random variables tends to a Gaussian distribution as their total number tends to infinity. However, for a class of positive random variables, we find that the sum tends faster to a log-normal distribution. Although the sum tends eventually to a Gaussian distribution, the distribution of the sum is always close to a log-normal distribution rather than to any Gaussian distribution if the summands are numerous enough. This is in contrast to the current consensus that any log-normal distribution is due to a product of random variables, i.e., a multiplicative process, or equivalently to nonlinearity of the system. In fact, the log-normal distribution is also observable for a sum, i.e., an additive process that is typical of linear systems. We show conditions for such a sum, an analytical example, and an application to random scalar fields such as those of turbulence.

  8. Physical distributions of radon decay chain activities in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rolle, R.

    2004-01-01

    The distribution of short-lived radon decay chain activities in air - in time, space and on aerosols - determines their exposure potential and measurement thereof. The radioactive decay constants and flow variables in a flow system combine, yielding activity concentration distributions and ratios of concentrations characteristic of the flow scheme, its source(s) and sink(s). The clock of 'internal' decay constants allows the unraveling of characteristics of the flow scheme from activity concentration measurements of individual members of a decay chain. Basic flow string calculations are shown. These can be assembled to define or simulate concentrations in a single- or multiple-compartment flow network. Response calculations to single- and multiple-step, or continuous changes in sources and sinks yield time-, spatial- and attachment-distributions. For the short-lived 222 Rn and 212 Pb decay chains the decay constants of the shorter-lived progeny in relation to the parent impose air activity ratios on successive chain members. Ratio limits had been used in the past to improve older grab-sampling- or integral gross-alpha measurement procedures for assessing exposure level. Assessment of individual concentrations, ratios and their distributions enables unravelling of dynamic flow systems, with restriction from the range of the parameters of flow and decay. An activity measuring instrument by itself represents a flow system with a response time distribution. Instrument response correction during continuous or quasi-continuous sampling and continuous spectrometric measurement allows far more accurate time-resolved measurement evaluation of continuously varying air concentrations, than previously attainable. Strong diurnal or even shorter (≤ 1 hr) changes probably are the norm in indoor and outdoor air activity concentrations. A mere average response evaluation, as used in steady state instrument calibration, and using less efficient instruments, is usually inadequate

  9. The Jellyfish: smart electro-active polymers for an autonomous distributed sensing node

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blottman, John B.; Richards, Roger T.

    2006-05-01

    The US Navy has recently placed emphasis on deployable, distributed sensors for Force Protection, Anti-Terrorism and Homeland Defense missions. The Naval Undersea Warfare Center has embarked on the development of a self-contained deployable node that is composed of electro-active polymers (EAP) for use in a covert persistent distributed surveillance system. Electro-Active Polymers (EAP) have matured to a level that permits their application in energy harvesting, hydrophones, electro-elastic actuation and electroluminescence. The problem to resolve is combining each of these functions into an autonomous sensing platform. The concept presented here promises an operational life several orders of magnitude beyond what is expected of a Sonobuoy due to energy conservation and harvesting, and at a reasonable cost. The embodiment envisioned is that of a deployed device resembling a jellyfish, made in most part of polymers, with the body encapsulating the necessary electronic processing and communications package and the tentacles of the jellyfish housing the sonar sensors. It will be small, neutrally buoyant, and will survey the water column much in the manner of a Cartesian Diver. By using the Electro-Active Polymers as artificial muscles, the motion of the jellyfish can be finely controlled. An increased range of detection and true node autonomy is achieved through volumetric array beamforming to focus the direction of interrogation and to null-out extraneous ambient noise.

  10. The influence of emotion on lexical processing: insights from RT distributional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Melvin J; Seow, Cui Shan

    2014-04-01

    In two lexical decision experiments, the present study was designed to examine emotional valence effects on visual lexical decision (standard and go/no-go) performance, using traditional analyses of means and distributional analyses of response times. Consistent with an earlier study by Kousta, Vinson, and Vigliocco (Cognition 112:473-481, 2009), we found that emotional words (both negative and positive) were responded to faster than neutral words. Finer-grained distributional analyses further revealed that the facilitation afforded by valence was reflected by a combination of distributional shifting and an increase in the slow tail of the distribution. This suggests that emotional valence effects in lexical decision are unlikely to be entirely mediated by early, preconscious processes, which are associated with pure distributional shifting. Instead, our results suggest a dissociation between early preconscious processes and a later, more task-specific effect that is driven by feedback from semantically rich representations.

  11. Activating clinical trials: a process improvement approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Diego A; Tsalatsanis, Athanasios; Yalcin, Ali; Zayas-Castro, José L; Djulbegovic, Benjamin

    2016-02-24

    The administrative process associated with clinical trial activation has been criticized as costly, complex, and time-consuming. Prior research has concentrated on identifying administrative barriers and proposing various solutions to reduce activation time, and consequently associated costs. Here, we expand on previous research by incorporating social network analysis and discrete-event simulation to support process improvement decision-making. We searched for all operational data associated with the administrative process of activating industry-sponsored clinical trials at the Office of Clinical Research of the University of South Florida in Tampa, Florida. We limited the search to those trials initiated and activated between July 2011 and June 2012. We described the process using value stream mapping, studied the interactions of the various process participants using social network analysis, and modeled potential process modifications using discrete-event simulation. The administrative process comprised 5 sub-processes, 30 activities, 11 decision points, 5 loops, and 8 participants. The mean activation time was 76.6 days. Rate-limiting sub-processes were those of contract and budget development. Key participants during contract and budget development were the Office of Clinical Research, sponsors, and the principal investigator. Simulation results indicate that slight increments on the number of trials, arriving to the Office of Clinical Research, would increase activation time by 11 %. Also, incrementing the efficiency of contract and budget development would reduce the activation time by 28 %. Finally, better synchronization between contract and budget development would reduce time spent on batching documentation; however, no improvements would be attained in total activation time. The presented process improvement analytic framework not only identifies administrative barriers, but also helps to devise and evaluate potential improvement scenarios. The strength

  12. Auto-radiographical study of activity distribution of high-dispersity hot particles from NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonchev, Ts [Sofia Univ. (Bulgaria). Fizicheski Fakultet; Angelov, V [Civil Defence Administration, Sofia (Bulgaria); Andreev, Ts; Todorov, N [Kombinat Atomna Energetika, Kozloduj (Bulgaria); Andreev, P; Kasabov, I [Sofia Univ. (Bulgaria). Fizicheski Fakultet

    1996-12-31

    Autoradiograms of hot particles (HP) detected at Kozloduy NPP have been obtained with ordinary photographic film using direct contact. HP diameter and activity have been calculated by computer processing of the image.The distribution of HP weight and the precipitation time on surfaces has been estimated. Results on 37 HP found at the Kozloduy NPP units 1-4 and 9 HP found in special rooms containing waste are reported. The emitters are identified as {sup 60} Co, {sup 54} Mn and {alpha} emitters with specific activities 2.10{sup 8} Bq/g, 2.10{sup 7} Bq/g and 3.10{sup 4} Bq/g respectively. 5 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Distributed processing in receivers based on tensor for cooperative communications systems

    OpenAIRE

    Igor FlÃvio SimÃes de Sousa

    2014-01-01

    In this dissertation, we present a distributed data estimation and detection approach for the uplink of a network that uses CDMA at transmitters (users). The analyzed network can be represented by an undirected and connected graph, where the nodes use a distributed estimation algorithm based on consensus averaging to perform joint channel and symbol estimation using a receiver based on tensor signal processing. The centralized receiver, developed for a central base station, and the distribute...

  14. A distributed lumped active all-pass network configuration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huelsman, L. P.; Raghunath, S.

    1972-01-01

    In this correspondence a new and interesting distributed lumped active network configuration that realizes an all-pass network function is described. A design chart for determining the values of the network elements is included.

  15. An Extended Genetic Algorithm for Distributed Integration of Fuzzy Process Planning and Scheduling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The distributed integration of process planning and scheduling (DIPPS aims to simultaneously arrange the two most important manufacturing stages, process planning and scheduling, in a distributed manufacturing environment. Meanwhile, considering its advantage corresponding to actual situation, the triangle fuzzy number (TFN is adopted in DIPPS to represent the machine processing and transportation time. In order to solve this problem and obtain the optimal or near-optimal solution, an extended genetic algorithm (EGA with innovative three-class encoding method, improved crossover, and mutation strategies is proposed. Furthermore, a local enhancement strategy featuring machine replacement and order exchange is also added to strengthen the local search capability on the basic process of genetic algorithm. Through the verification of experiment, EGA achieves satisfactory results all in a very short period of time and demonstrates its powerful performance in dealing with the distributed integration of fuzzy process planning and scheduling (DIFPPS.

  16. Modeling Aspects of Activated Sludge Processes Part l l: Mathematical Process Modeling and Biokinetics of Activated Sludge Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AbdElHaleem, H S [Cairo Univ.-CivlI Eng. Dept., Giza (Egypt); EI-Ahwany, A H [CairoUlmrsity- Faculty ofEngincering - Chemical Engineering Department, Giza (Egypt); Ibrahim, H I [Helwan University- Faculty of Engineering - Biomedical Engineering Department, Helwan (Egypt); Ibrahim, G [Menofia University- Faculty of Engineering Sbebin EI Kom- Basic Eng. Sc. Dept., Menofia (Egypt)

    2004-07-01

    Mathematical process modeling and biokinetics of activated sludge process were reviewed considering different types of models. It has been evaluated the task group models of ASMI. and 2, and 3 versioned by Henze et al considering the conditions of each model and the different processes of which every model consists. It is revealed that ASMI contains some defects avoided in ASM3. Relied on homogeneity, Models can be classified into homogenous models characterized by taking the activated sludge process as one phase. In this type of models, the internal mass transfer inside the floes was neglected.. Hence, the kinetic parameter produces can be considered inaccurate. The other type of models is the heterogeneous model This type considers the mass transfer operations in addition to the biochemical reaction processes; hence, the resulted kinetic parameters can be considered more accurate than that of homogenous type.

  17. Modeling Aspects of Activated Sludge Processes Part l l: Mathematical Process Modeling and Biokinetics of Activated Sludge Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AbdElHaleem, H.S.; EI-Ahwany, A. H.; Ibrahim, H.I.; Ibrahim, G.

    2004-01-01

    Mathematical process modeling and biokinetics of activated sludge process were reviewed considering different types of models. It has been evaluated the task group models of ASMI. and 2, and 3 versioned by Henze et al considering the conditions of each model and the different processes of which every model consists. It is revealed that ASMI contains some defects avoided in ASM3. Relied on homogeneity, Models can be classified into homogenous models characterized by taking the activated sludge process as one phase. In this type of models, the internal mass transfer inside the floes was neglected.. Hence, the kinetic parameter produces can be considered inaccurate. The other type of models is the heterogeneous model This type considers the mass transfer operations in addition to the biochemical reaction processes; hence, the resulted kinetic parameters can be considered more accurate than that of homogenous type

  18. Test of methods for retrospective activity size distribution determination from filter samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meisenberg, Oliver; Tschiersch, Jochen

    2015-01-01

    Determining the activity size distribution of radioactive aerosol particles requires sophisticated and heavy equipment, which makes measurements at large number of sites difficult and expensive. Therefore three methods for a retrospective determination of size distributions from aerosol filter samples in the laboratory were tested for their applicability. Extraction into a carrier liquid with subsequent nebulisation showed size distributions with a slight but correctable bias towards larger diameters compared with the original size distribution. Yields in the order of magnitude of 1% could be achieved. Sonication-assisted extraction into a carrier liquid caused a coagulation mode to appear in the size distribution. Sonication-assisted extraction into the air did not show acceptable results due to small yields. The method of extraction into a carrier liquid without sonication was applied to aerosol samples from Chernobyl in order to calculate inhalation dose coefficients for 137 Cs based on the individual size distribution. The effective dose coefficient is about half of that calculated with a default reference size distribution. - Highlights: • Activity size distributions can be recovered after aerosol sampling on filters. • Extraction into a carrier liquid and subsequent nebulisation is appropriate. • This facilitates the determination of activity size distributions for individuals. • Size distributions from this method can be used for individual dose coefficients. • Dose coefficients were calculated for the workers at the new Chernobyl shelter

  19. Advances in Distributed Operations and Mission Activity Planning for Mars Surface Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Jason M.; Norris, Jeffrey S.; Powell, Mark W.; Rabe, Kenneth J.; Shams, Khawaja

    2006-01-01

    A centralized mission activity planning system for any long-term mission, such as the Mars Exploration Rover Mission (MER), is completely infeasible due to budget and geographic constraints. A distributed operations system is key to addressing these constraints; therefore, future system and software engineers must focus on the problem of how to provide a secure, reliable, and distributed mission activity planning system. We will explain how Maestro, the next generation mission activity planning system, with its heavy emphasis on portability and distributed operations has been able to meet these design challenges. MER has been an excellent proving ground for Maestro's new approach to distributed operations. The backend that has been developed for Maestro could benefit many future missions by reducing the cost of centralized operations system architecture.

  20. Distributed Iterative Processing for Interference Channels with Receiver Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badiu, Mihai Alin; Manchón, Carles Navarro; Bota, Vasile

    2012-01-01

    We propose a method for the design and evaluation of distributed iterative algorithms for receiver cooperation in interference-limited wireless systems. Our approach views the processing within and collaboration between receivers as the solution to an inference problem in the probabilistic model...

  1. Learning from the History of Distributed Query Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Betz, Heiko; Gropengießer, Francis; Hose, Katja

    2012-01-01

    The vision of the Semantic Web has triggered the development of various new applications and opened up new directions in research. Recently, much effort has been put into the development of techniques for query processing over Linked Data. Being based upon techniques originally developed...... for distributed and federated databases, some of them inherit the same or similar problems. Thus, the goal of this paper is to point out pitfalls that the previous generation of researchers has already encountered and to introduce the Linked Data as a Service as an idea that has the potential to solve the problem...... in some scenarios. Hence, this paper discusses nine theses about Linked Data processing and sketches a research agenda for future endeavors in the area of Linked Data processing....

  2. Bounds for the probability distribution function of the linear ACD process

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes, Marcelo

    2003-01-01

    Rio de Janeiro This paper derives both lower and upper bounds for the probability distribution function of stationary ACD(p, q) processes. For the purpose of illustration, I specialize the results to the main parent distributions in duration analysis. Simulations show that the lower bound is much tighter than the upper bound.

  3. Anticipated Activities in Maritime Work, Process Control, and Business Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter Bøgh

    2004-01-01

    Most activities are anticipated before they are executed. The paper presents methods for describing this anticipated state and the processes that may lead to a new state where the activities are executed. The method builds on linguistic case-theory.......Most activities are anticipated before they are executed. The paper presents methods for describing this anticipated state and the processes that may lead to a new state where the activities are executed. The method builds on linguistic case-theory....

  4. Distribution of chirality in the quantum walk: Markov process and entanglement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanelli, Alejandro

    2010-01-01

    The asymptotic behavior of the quantum walk on the line is investigated, focusing on the probability distribution of chirality independently of position. It is shown analytically that this distribution has a longtime limit that is stationary and depends on the initial conditions. This result is unexpected in the context of the unitary evolution of the quantum walk as it is usually linked to a Markovian process. The asymptotic value of the entanglement between the coin and the position is determined by the chirality distribution. For given asymptotic values of both the entanglement and the chirality distribution, it is possible to find the corresponding initial conditions within a particular class of spatially extended Gaussian distributions.

  5. Distributed Processing of SETI Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korpela, Eric

    As you have read in prior chapters, researchers have been performing progressively more sensitive SETI searches since 1960. Each search has been limited by the technologies available at the time. As radio frequency technologies have become more efficient and computers have become faster, the searches have increased in capacity and become more sensitive. Often the limits of the hardware that performs the calculations required to process the telescope data in order to expose any embedded signals is what limits the sensitivity of the search. Shortly before the start of the 21st century, projects began to appear that exploited the processing capabilities of computers connected to the Internet in order to solve problems that required a large amount of computing power. The SETI@home project, managed by myself and a group of researchers at the Space Sciences Laboratory of the University of California, Berkeley, was the first attempt to use large-scale distributed computing to solve the problems of performing a sensitive search for narrow band radio signals from extraterrestrial civilizations. (Korpela et al., 2001) A follow-on project, Astropulse, searches for extraterrestrial signals with wider bandwidths and shorter time durations. Both projects are ongoing at the present time (mid-2010).

  6. Measuring Geographic Distribution of Economic Activity in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    For example, the outcome of this study could help further development of ... selection of the years was informed by the availability of gridded population data. The dataset .... slight difference in the directional distribution of the economic activity.

  7. Equivalence of functional limit theorems for stationary point processes and their Palm distributions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuis, G.

    1989-01-01

    Let P be the distribution of a stationary point process on the real line and let P0 be its Palm distribution. In this paper we consider two types of functional limit theorems, those in terms of the number of points of the point process in (0, t] and those in terms of the location of the nth point

  8. Just-in-time Data Distribution for Analytical Query Processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.G. Ivanova (Milena); M.L. Kersten (Martin); F.E. Groffen (Fabian)

    2012-01-01

    textabstract Distributed processing commonly requires data spread across machines using a priori static or hash-based data allocation. In this paper, we explore an alternative approach that starts from a master node in control of the complete database, and a variable number of worker nodes

  9. Benchmarking Distributed Stream Processing Platforms for IoT Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Shukla, Anshu; Simmhan, Yogesh

    2016-01-01

    Internet of Things (IoT) is a technology paradigm where millions of sensors monitor, and help inform or manage, physical, envi- ronmental and human systems in real-time. The inherent closed-loop re- sponsiveness and decision making of IoT applications makes them ideal candidates for using low latency and scalable stream processing plat- forms. Distributed Stream Processing Systems (DSPS) are becoming es- sential components of any IoT stack, but the efficacy and performance of contemporary DSP...

  10. Parallel Distributed Processing theory in the age of deep networks

    OpenAIRE

    Bowers, Jeffrey

    2017-01-01

    Parallel Distributed Processing (PDP) models in psychology are the precursors of deep networks used in computer science. However, only PDP models are associated with two core psychological claims, namely, that all knowledge is coded in a distributed format, and cognition is mediated by non-symbolic computations. These claims have long been debated within cognitive science, and recent work with deep networks speaks to this debate. Specifically, single-unit recordings show that deep networks le...

  11. Distribution of enzyme activity hotspots induced by earthworms in top- and subsoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, D. T. T.

    2016-12-01

    Earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris L.) not only affect soil physics, but they also boost microbial activities and consequently create important hotspots of microbial mediated carbon and nutrient turnover through their burrowing activity. However, it is still unknown to which extend earthworms change the enzyme distribution and activity inside their burrows in top- and subsoil horizons. We hypothesized that earthworm burrows, which are enriched in available substrates, have higher percentage of enzyme activity hotspots than soil without earthworms, and that enzyme activities decreased with increasing depth because of the increasing recalcitrance of organic matter in subsoil. We visualized enzyme distribution inside and outside of worm burrows (biopores) by in situ soil zymography and measured enzyme kinetics of 6 enzymes - β-glucosidase (GLU), cellobiohydrolase (CBH), xylanase (XYL), chitinase (NAG), leucine aminopeptidase (LAP) and acid phosphatase (APT) - in pore and bulk soil material up to 105 cm. Zymography showed a heterogeneous distribution of hotspots in worm burrows. The hotspot areas was 2.4 to 14 times larger in the burrows than in soil without earthworms. However, the dispersion index of hotspot distribution showed more aggregated hotspots in soil without earthworms than in soil with earthworms and burrow wall. Enzyme activities decreased with depth, by a factor of 2 to 8 due to fresh C input from the soil surface. Compared to bulk soil, enzyme activities in topsoil biopores were up to 11 times higher for all enzymes, but in the subsoil activities of XYL, NAG and APT were lower in earthworm biopores than bulk soil. In conclusion, hotspots were twice as concentrated close to earthworm burrows as in surrounding soil. Earthworms exerted stronger effects on enzyme activities in biopores in the topsoil than in subsoil. Keywords: Earthworms, hotspots, enzyme activities, enzyme distribution, subsoil

  12. Italian retail gasoline activities: inadequate distribution network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verde, Stefano

    2005-01-01

    It is common belief that competition in the Italian retail gasoline activities is hindered by oil companies' collusive behaviour. However, when developing a broader analysis of the sector, low efficiency and scarce competition could results as the consequences coming from an inadequate distribution network and from the recognition of international markets and focal point [it

  13. Robust Power Supply Restoration for Self-Healing Active Distribution Networks Considering the Availability of Distributed Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Yang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing penetration of distributed generations (DGs with intermittent and stochastic characteristics into current power distribution networks can lead to increased fault levels and degradation in network protection. As one of the key requirements of active network management (ANM, efficient power supply restoration solution to guarantee network self-healing capability with full consideration of DG uncertainties is demanded. This paper presents a joint power supply restoration through combining the DG local restoration and switcher operation-based restoration to enhance the self-healing capability in active distribution networks considering the availability of distributed generation. The restoration algorithmic solution is designed to be able to carry out power restoration in parallel upon multiple simultaneous faults to maximize the load restoration while additionally minimizing power loss, topology variation and power flow changes due to switcher operations. The performance of the proposed solution is validated based on a 53-bus distribution network with wind power generators through extensive simulation experiments for a range of fault cases and DG scenarios generated based on Heuristic Moment Matching (HMM method to fully consider the DG randomness. The numerical result in comparison with the existing solutions demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed power supply restoration solution.

  14. Digi-Clima Grid: image processing and distributed computing for recovering historical climate data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Nesmachnow

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the Digi-Clima Grid project, whose main goals are to design and implement semi-automatic techniques for digitalizing and recovering historical climate records applying parallel computing techniques over distributed computing infrastructures. The specific tool developed for image processing is described, and the implementation over grid and cloud infrastructures is reported. A experimental analysis over institutional and volunteer-based grid/cloud distributed systems demonstrate that the proposed approach is an efficient tool for recovering historical climate data. The parallel implementations allow to distribute the processing load, achieving accurate speedup values.

  15. Evolution behavior of catalytically activated replication—decline in a coagulation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Yan; Wang Hai-Feng; Zhang Ji-Dong; Yang Xia; Sun Mao-Zhu; Lin Zhen-Quan

    2013-01-01

    We propose a catalytically activated replication—decline model of three species, in which two aggregates of the same species can coagulate themselves, an A aggregate of any size can replicate itself with the help of B aggregates, and the decline of A aggregate occurs under the catalysis of C aggregates. By means of mean-field rate equations, we derive the asymptotic solutions of the aggregate size distribution a k (t) of species A, which is found to depend strongly on the competition among three mechanisms: the self-coagulation of species A, the replication of species A catalyzed by species B, and the decline of species A catalyzed by species C. When the self-coagulation of species A dominates the system, the aggregate size distribution a k (t) satisfies the conventional scaling form. When the catalyzed replication process dominates the system, a k (t) takes the generalized scaling form. When the catalyzed decline process dominates the system, a k (t) approaches the modified scaling form. (condensed matter: structural, mechanical, and thermal properties)

  16. Integration of distributed plant process computer systems to nuclear power generation facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogard, T.; Finlay, K.

    1996-01-01

    Many operating nuclear power generation facilities are replacing their plant process computer. Such replacement projects are driven by equipment obsolescence issues and associated objectives to improve plant operability, increase plant information access, improve man machine interface characteristics, and reduce operation and maintenance costs. This paper describes a few recently completed and on-going replacement projects with emphasis upon the application integrated distributed plant process computer systems. By presenting a few recent projects, the variations of distributed systems design show how various configurations can address needs for flexibility, open architecture, and integration of technological advancements in instrumentation and control technology. Architectural considerations for optimal integration of the plant process computer and plant process instrumentation ampersand control are evident from variations of design features

  17. Liquid effluent processing group. Activity details 1963

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1964-08-01

    This report first gives a quantitative overview of volumes of effluents of high activity, medium activity and low activity which passed through the department for effluent processing. It also makes the distinction between the shape or type of container of these effluents. A table indicates their origin and another indicates their destination. The β and α decontamination rates are determined, and the assessment of stored aqueous and organic effluents on the 31 December 1963 is given. The next part proposes an assessment of laboratory activities: control operations (input controls, control of processed effluent before discarding), controls related to processing (processing types, radiochemical and chemical dosing performed on effluent mixes before processing). Tables indicate the characteristics of medium activity effluents collected in 1963, the results of high activity liquid analysis, and Beryllium dosing results. A summary of ALEA processing, a table of the characteristics of stored oils and solvents are given. The third part reports data related to transport activities, and various works performed in the Saclay plant to improve exploitation conditions and results

  18. Analysing the distribution of synaptic vesicles using a spatial point process model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khanmohammadi, Mahdieh; Waagepetersen, Rasmus; Nava, Nicoletta

    2014-01-01

    functionality by statistically modelling the distribution of the synaptic vesicles in two groups of rats: a control group subjected to sham stress and a stressed group subjected to a single acute foot-shock (FS)-stress episode. We hypothesize that the synaptic vesicles have different spatial distributions...... in the two groups. The spatial distributions are modelled using spatial point process models with an inhomogeneous conditional intensity and repulsive pairwise interactions. Our results verify the hypothesis that the two groups have different spatial distributions....

  19. On relation between distribution functions in hard and soft processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kisselev, A.V.; Petrov, V.A.

    1992-10-01

    It is shown that in the particle-exchange model the hadron-hadron scattering amplitude admits parton-like representation with the distribution functions coinciding with those extracted from deep inelastic processes. (author). 13 refs

  20. Activity-based costing as an information basis for an efficient strategic management process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaličanin Đorđe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Activity-based costing (ABC provides an information basis for monitoring and controlling one of two possible sources of competitive advantage, low-cost production and lowcost distribution. On the basis of cost information about particular processes and activities, management may determine their contribution to the success of a company, and may decide to transfer certain processes and activities to another company. Accuracy of cost information is conditioned by finding an adequate relation between overhead costs and cost objects, identifying and tracing cost drivers and output measures of activities, and by monitoring cost behaviour of different levels of a product. Basic characteristics of the ABC approach, such as more accurate cost price accounting of objects, focusing on process and activity output (rather than only on resource consumption and on understanding and interpretation of cost structure (rather than on cost measurement, enable managers to estimate and control future costs more reliably. Thus the ABC methodology provides a foundation for cost tracing, analysis, and management, which entails making quality and accurate operative and strategic decisions as a basis for the longterm orientation of a company. ABC is also complementary to the widely accepted technique of strategic planning and strategy implementation known as Balanced Scorecard (BSC.

  1. The Analysis of process optimization during the loading distribution test for steam turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jiangwei; Cao Yuhua; Li Dawei

    2014-01-01

    The loading distribution of steam turbine needs six times to complete in total, the first time is completed when the turbine cylinder buckles, the rest must be completed orderly in the process of installing GVP pipe. To complete 5 tests of loading distribution and installation of GVP pipe, it usually takes around 90 days for most nuclear plants while the unit l of Fuqing Nuclear Power Station compress it into about 45 days by optimizing the installation process. this article describes the successful experience of how the Unit l of Fuqing Nuclear Power Station finished 5 tests of loading distribution and installation of GVP pipe in 45 days by optimizing the process, Meanwhile they analysis the advantages and disadvantages through comparing it with the process provide by suppliers, which brings up some rationalization proposals for installation work to the follow-up units of our plant. (authors)

  2. Reaction Mechanism and Distribution Behavior of Arsenic in the Bottom Blown Copper Smelting Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinmeng Wang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The control of arsenic, a toxic and carcinogenic element, is an important issue for all copper smelters. In this work, the reaction mechanism and distribution behavior of arsenic in the bottom blown copper smelting process (SKS process were investigated and compared to the flash smelting process. There are obvious differences of arsenic distribution in the SKS process and flash process, resulting from the differences of oxygen potentials, volatilizations, smelting temperatures, reaction intensities, and mass transfer processes. Under stable production conditions, the distributions of arsenic among matte, slag, and gas phases are 6%, 12%, and 82%, respectively. Less arsenic is reported in the gas phase with the flash process than with the SKS process. The main arsenic species in gas phase are AsS (g, AsO (g, and As2 (g. Arsenic exists in the slag predominantly as As2O3 (l, and in matte as As (l. High matte grade is harmful to the elimination of arsenic to gas. The changing of Fe/SiO2 has slight effects on the distributions of arsenic. In order to enhance the removal of arsenic from the SKS smelting system to the gas phase, low oxygen concentration, low ratios of oxygen/ore, and low matte grade should be chosen. In the SKS smelting process, no dust is recycled, and almost all dust is collected and further treated to eliminate arsenic and recover valuable metals by other process streams.

  3. Multi-level Control Framework for Enhanced Flexibility of Active Distribution Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nainar, Karthikeyan; Pokhrel, Basanta Raj; Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the control objectives of future active distribution networks with high penetration of renewables and flexible loads are analyzed and reviewed. From a state of the art review, the important control objectives seen from the perspective of a distribution system operator are identifie......-ordination and management of the network assets at different voltage levels and geographical locations. The paper finally shows the applicability of the multi-level control architecture to some of the key challenges in the distribution system operation by relevant scenarios....... to be hosting capacity improvement, high reliable operation and cost effective network management. Based on this review and a state of the art review concerning future distribution network control methods, a multi-level control architecture is constructed for an active distribution network, which satisfies...... the selected control objectives and provides enhanced flexibility. The control architecture is supported by generation/load forecasting and distribution state estimation techniques to improve the controllability of the network. The multi-level control architecture consists of three levels of hierarchical...

  4. Ion activity and distribution of heavy metals in acid mine drainage polluted subtropical soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yongtao; Becquer, Thierry; Dai Jun; Quantin, Cecile; Benedetti, Marc F.

    2009-01-01

    The oxidative dissolution of mine wastes gives rise to acidic, metal-enriched mine drainage (AMD) and has typically posed an additional risk to the environment. The poly-metallic mine Dabaoshan in South China is an excellent test site to understand the processes affecting the surrounding polluted agricultural fields. Our objectives were firstly to investigate metal ion activity in soil solution, distribution in solid constituents, and spatial distribution in samples, secondly to determine dominant environment factors controlling metal activity in the long-term AMD-polluted subtropical soils. Soil Column Donnan Membrane Technology (SC-DMT) combined with sequential extraction shows that unusually large proportion of the metal ions are present as free ion in the soil solutions. The narrow range of low pH values prevents any pH effects during the binding onto oxides or organic matter. The differences in speciation of the soil solutions may explain the different soil degradation observed between paddy and non-paddy soils. - First evidence of the real free metal ion concentrations in acid mine drainage context in tropical systems

  5. When the mean is not enough: Calculating fixation time distributions in birth-death processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashcroft, Peter; Traulsen, Arne; Galla, Tobias

    2015-10-01

    Studies of fixation dynamics in Markov processes predominantly focus on the mean time to absorption. This may be inadequate if the distribution is broad and skewed. We compute the distribution of fixation times in one-step birth-death processes with two absorbing states. These are expressed in terms of the spectrum of the process, and we provide different representations as forward-only processes in eigenspace. These allow efficient sampling of fixation time distributions. As an application we study evolutionary game dynamics, where invading mutants can reach fixation or go extinct. We also highlight the median fixation time as a possible analog of mixing times in systems with small mutation rates and no absorbing states, whereas the mean fixation time has no such interpretation.

  6. Future planning: default network activity couples with frontoparietal control network and reward-processing regions during process and outcome simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlach, Kathy D; Spreng, R Nathan; Madore, Kevin P; Schacter, Daniel L

    2014-12-01

    We spend much of our daily lives imagining how we can reach future goals and what will happen when we attain them. Despite the prevalence of such goal-directed simulations, neuroimaging studies on planning have mainly focused on executive processes in the frontal lobe. This experiment examined the neural basis of process simulations, during which participants imagined themselves going through steps toward attaining a goal, and outcome simulations, during which participants imagined events they associated with achieving a goal. In the scanner, participants engaged in these simulation tasks and an odd/even control task. We hypothesized that process simulations would recruit default and frontoparietal control network regions, and that outcome simulations, which allow us to anticipate the affective consequences of achieving goals, would recruit default and reward-processing regions. Our analysis of brain activity that covaried with process and outcome simulations confirmed these hypotheses. A functional connectivity analysis with posterior cingulate, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and anterior inferior parietal lobule seeds showed that their activity was correlated during process simulations and associated with a distributed network of default and frontoparietal control network regions. During outcome simulations, medial prefrontal cortex and amygdala seeds covaried together and formed a functional network with default and reward-processing regions. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Distributed communication: Implications of cultural-historical activity theory (CHAT) for communication disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hengst, Julie A

    2015-01-01

    This article proposes distributed communication as a promising theoretical framework for building supportive environments for child language development. Distributed communication is grounded in an emerging intersection of cultural-historical activity theory (CHAT) and theories of communicative practices that argue for integrating accounts of language, cognition and culture. The article first defines and illustrates through selected research articles, three key principles of distributed communication: (a) language and all communicative resources are inextricably embedded in activity; (b) successful communication depends on common ground built up through short- and long-term histories of participation in activities; and (c) language cannot act alone, but is always orchestrated with other communicative resources. It then illustrates how these principles are fully integrated in everyday interactions by drawing from my research on Cindy Magic, a verbal make-believe game played by a father and his two daughters. Overall, the research presented here points to the remarkably complex communicative environments and sophisticated forms of distributed communication children routinely engage in as they interact with peer and adult communication partners in everyday settings. The article concludes by considering implications of these theories for, and examples of, distributed communication relevant to clinical intervention. Readers will learn about (1) distributed communication as a conceptual tool grounded in an emerging intersection of cultural-historical activity theory and theories of communicative practices and (2) how to apply distributed communication to the study of child language development and to interventions for children with communication disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. A NEW INITIATIVE FOR TILING, STITCHING AND PROCESSING GEOSPATIAL BIG DATA IN DISTRIBUTED COMPUTING ENVIRONMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Olasz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Within recent years, several new approaches and solutions for Big Data processing have been developed. The Geospatial world is still facing the lack of well-established distributed processing solutions tailored to the amount and heterogeneity of geodata, especially when fast data processing is a must. The goal of such systems is to improve processing time by distributing data transparently across processing (and/or storage nodes. These types of methodology are based on the concept of divide and conquer. Nevertheless, in the context of geospatial processing, most of the distributed computing frameworks have important limitations regarding both data distribution and data partitioning methods. Moreover, flexibility and expendability for handling various data types (often in binary formats are also strongly required. This paper presents a concept for tiling, stitching and processing of big geospatial data. The system is based on the IQLib concept (https://github.com/posseidon/IQLib/ developed in the frame of the IQmulus EU FP7 research and development project (http://www.iqmulus.eu. The data distribution framework has no limitations on programming language environment and can execute scripts (and workflows written in different development frameworks (e.g. Python, R or C#. It is capable of processing raster, vector and point cloud data. The above-mentioned prototype is presented through a case study dealing with country-wide processing of raster imagery. Further investigations on algorithmic and implementation details are in focus for the near future.

  9. a New Initiative for Tiling, Stitching and Processing Geospatial Big Data in Distributed Computing Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olasz, A.; Nguyen Thai, B.; Kristóf, D.

    2016-06-01

    Within recent years, several new approaches and solutions for Big Data processing have been developed. The Geospatial world is still facing the lack of well-established distributed processing solutions tailored to the amount and heterogeneity of geodata, especially when fast data processing is a must. The goal of such systems is to improve processing time by distributing data transparently across processing (and/or storage) nodes. These types of methodology are based on the concept of divide and conquer. Nevertheless, in the context of geospatial processing, most of the distributed computing frameworks have important limitations regarding both data distribution and data partitioning methods. Moreover, flexibility and expendability for handling various data types (often in binary formats) are also strongly required. This paper presents a concept for tiling, stitching and processing of big geospatial data. The system is based on the IQLib concept (https://github.com/posseidon/IQLib/) developed in the frame of the IQmulus EU FP7 research and development project (http://www.iqmulus.eu). The data distribution framework has no limitations on programming language environment and can execute scripts (and workflows) written in different development frameworks (e.g. Python, R or C#). It is capable of processing raster, vector and point cloud data. The above-mentioned prototype is presented through a case study dealing with country-wide processing of raster imagery. Further investigations on algorithmic and implementation details are in focus for the near future.

  10. Spatial distribution of root activity of Ganesh pomegranate (Punica granatum) plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotur, S.C.; Keshava Murthy, S.V.

    2003-01-01

    Information on the root activity pattern is invaluable while adopting appropriate time and method of fertilizer application, irrigation, planting distance and other cultural practices. The pattern of root activity distribution determined using the technique of soil injection of 32 P compares well with actual pattern ascertained by root excavation method. The isotopic technique is also non-destructive, quick and inexpensive. Root activity distribution pattern has been determined using this technique in citrus, grape, mango, guava and papaya. To generate the information on inbred Ganesh pomegranate seedlings, studies were undertaken and the results are reported in this paper. (author)

  11. FMCG companies specific distribution channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Barin

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Distribution includes all activities undertaken by the producer, alone or in cooperation, since the end of the final finished products or services until they are in possession of consumers. The distribution consists of the following major components: distribution channels or marketing channels, which together form a distribution network; logistics o rphysical distribution. In order to effective achieve, distribution of goods requires an amount of activities and operational processes related to transit of goods from producer to consumer, the best conditions, using existing distribution channels and logistics system. One of the essential functions of a distribution is performing acts of sale, through which, with the actual movement of goods, their change of ownership takes place, that the successive transfer of ownership from producer to consumer. This is an itinerary in the economic cycle of goods, called the distribution channel.

  12. Revealing hidden effect of earthworm on C distribution and enzyme activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavi, Bahar S.; Hoang, Duyen; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2017-04-01

    Despite its importance for terrestrial nutrient and carbon cycling, the spatial organization and localization of microbial activity in soil and in biopores is poorly understood. We hypothesized that biopores created by earthworm play a critical role in reducing the gap of SOM input and microbial activities between topsoil and subsoil. Accordingly, Carbon (C) allocation by earthworms was related to enzyme distribution along soil profile. For the first time we visualized spatial distribution of enzyme activities (β-glucosidase, chitinase and acid phosphatase) and C allocation (by 14C imaging) in earthworm biopores in topsoil and subsoil. Soil zymography (an in situ method for the analysis of the two-dimensional distribution of enzyme activity in soil) was accompanied with 14C imaging (a method that enables to trace distribution of litter and C in soil profile) to visualize change of enzyme activities along with SOM incorporation by earthworms from topsoil to subsoil. Experiment was set up acquiring rhizoboxes (9×1×50 cm) filled up with fresh soil and 3 earthworms (L. terrestris), which were then layered with 14C-labeled plant-litter of 0.3 MBq on the soil surface. 14C imaging and zymography have been carried out after one month. Activities of all enzymes regardless of their nutrient involvement (C, N, P) were higher in the biopores than in bulk soil, but the differences were larger in topsoil compared to subsoil. Among three enzymes, Phosphatase activity was 4-times higher in the biopore than in the bulk soil. Phosphatase activity was closely associated with edge of burrows and correlate positively with 14C activity. These results emphasized especial contribution of hotspheres such as biopores to C allocation in subsoil - which is limited in C input and nutrients - and in stimulation of microbial and enzymatic activity by input of organic residues, e.g. by earthworms. In conclusion, biopore increased enzymatic mobilization of nutrients (e.g. P) inducing allocation

  13. A Formal Approach to Run-Time Evaluation of Real-Time Behaviour in Distributed Process Control Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, C.H.

    This thesis advocates a formal approach to run-time evaluation of real-time behaviour in distributed process sontrol systems, motivated by a growing interest in applying the increasingly popular formal methods in the application area of distributed process control systems. We propose to evaluate...... because the real-time aspects of distributed process control systems are considered to be among the hardest and most interesting to handle....

  14. ON THE ESTIMATION OF DISTANCE DISTRIBUTION FUNCTIONS FOR POINT PROCESSES AND RANDOM SETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dietrich Stoyan

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses various estimators for the nearest neighbour distance distribution function D of a stationary point process and for the quadratic contact distribution function Hq of a stationary random closed set. It recommends the use of Hanisch's estimator of D, which is of Horvitz-Thompson type, and the minussampling estimator of Hq. This recommendation is based on simulations for Poisson processes and Boolean models.

  15. Number size distribution of fine and ultrafine fume particles from various welding processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Peter; Lenz, Klaus; Reisgen, Uwe; Kraus, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    Studies in the field of environmental epidemiology indicate that for the adverse effect of inhaled particles not only particle mass is crucial but also particle size is. Ultrafine particles with diameters below 100 nm are of special interest since these particles have high surface area to mass ratio and have properties which differ from those of larger particles. In this paper, particle size distributions of various welding and joining techniques were measured close to the welding process using a fast mobility particle sizer (FMPS). It turned out that welding processes with high mass emission rates (manual metal arc welding, metal active gas welding, metal inert gas welding, metal inert gas soldering, and laser welding) show mainly agglomerated particles with diameters above 100 nm and only few particles in the size range below 50 nm (10 to 15%). Welding processes with low mass emission rates (tungsten inert gas welding and resistance spot welding) emit predominantly ultrafine particles with diameters well below 100 nm. This finding can be explained by considerably faster agglomeration processes in welding processes with high mass emission rates. Although mass emission is low for tungsten inert gas welding and resistance spot welding, due to the low particle size of the fume, these processes cannot be labeled as toxicologically irrelevant and should be further investigated.

  16. Exact run length distribution of the double sampling x-bar chart with estimated process parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teoh, W. L.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Since the run length distribution is generally highly skewed, a significant concern about focusing too much on the average run length (ARL criterion is that we may miss some crucial information about a control chart’s performance. Thus it is important to investigate the entire run length distribution of a control chart for an in-depth understanding before implementing the chart in process monitoring. In this paper, the percentiles of the run length distribution for the double sampling (DS X chart with estimated process parameters are computed. Knowledge of the percentiles of the run length distribution provides a more comprehensive understanding of the expected behaviour of the run length. This additional information includes the early false alarm, the skewness of the run length distribution, and the median run length (MRL. A comparison of the run length distribution between the optimal ARL-based and MRL-based DS X chart with estimated process parameters is presented in this paper. Examples of applications are given to aid practitioners to select the best design scheme of the DS X chart with estimated process parameters, based on their specific purpose.

  17. Distributed error and alarm processing in the CMS data acquisition system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, G.; et al.

    2012-01-01

    The error and alarm system for the data acquisition of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) at CERN was successfully used for the physics runs at Large Hadron Collider (LHC) during first three years of activities. Error and alarm processing entails the notification, collection, storing and visualization of all exceptional conditions occurring in the highly distributed CMS online system using a uniform scheme. Alerts and reports are shown on-line by web application facilities that map them to graphical models of the system as defined by the user. A persistency service keeps a history of all exceptions occurred, allowing subsequent retrieval of user defined time windows of events for later playback or analysis. This paper describes the architecture and the technologies used and deals with operational aspects during the first years of LHC operation. In particular we focus on performance, stability, and integration with the CMS sub-detectors.

  18. Adaptive Dynamic Process Scheduling on Distributed Memory Parallel Computers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Shu

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the challenges in programming distributed memory parallel machines is deciding how to allocate work to processors. This problem is particularly important for computations with unpredictable dynamic behaviors or irregular structures. We present a scheme for dynamic scheduling of medium-grained processes that is useful in this context. The adaptive contracting within neighborhood (ACWN is a dynamic, distributed, load-dependent, and scalable scheme. It deals with dynamic and unpredictable creation of processes and adapts to different systems. The scheme is described and contrasted with two other schemes that have been proposed in this context, namely the randomized allocation and the gradient model. The performance of the three schemes on an Intel iPSC/2 hypercube is presented and analyzed. The experimental results show that even though the ACWN algorithm incurs somewhat larger overhead than the randomized allocation, it achieves better performance in most cases due to its adaptiveness. Its feature of quickly spreading the work helps it outperform the gradient model in performance and scalability.

  19. Bridging the gap between a stationary point process and its Palm distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuis, G.

    1994-01-01

    In the context of stationary point processes measurements are usually made from a time point chosen at random or from an occurrence chosen at random. That is, either the stationary distribution P or its Palm distribution P° is the ruling probability measure. In this paper an approach is presented to

  20. Differential distribution of the sodium‐activated potassium channels slick and slack in mouse brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knaus, Hans‐Günther; Schwarzer, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The sodium‐activated potassium channels Slick (Slo2.1, KCNT2) and Slack (Slo2.2, KCNT1) are high‐conductance potassium channels of the Slo family. In neurons, Slick and Slack channels are involved in the generation of slow afterhyperpolarization, in the regulation of firing patterns, and in setting and stabilizing the resting membrane potential. The distribution and subcellular localization of Slick and Slack channels in the mouse brain have not yet been established in detail. The present study addresses this issue through in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. Both channels were widely distributed and exhibited distinct distribution patterns. However, in some brain regions, their expression overlapped. Intense Slick channel immunoreactivity was observed in processes, varicosities, and neuronal cell bodies of the olfactory bulb, granular zones of cortical regions, hippocampus, amygdala, lateral septal nuclei, certain hypothalamic and midbrain nuclei, and several regions of the brainstem. The Slack channel showed primarily a diffuse immunostaining pattern, and labeling of cell somata and processes was observed only occasionally. The highest Slack channel expression was detected in the olfactory bulb, lateral septal nuclei, basal ganglia, and distinct areas of the midbrain, brainstem, and cerebellar cortex. In addition, comparing our data obtained from mouse brain with a previously published study on rat brain revealed some differences in the expression and distribution of Slick and Slack channels in these species. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:2093–2116, 2016. © 2015 The Authors The Journal of Comparative Neurology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26587966

  1. Differential distribution of the sodium-activated potassium channels slick and slack in mouse brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzi, Sandra; Knaus, Hans-Günther; Schwarzer, Christoph

    2016-07-01

    The sodium-activated potassium channels Slick (Slo2.1, KCNT2) and Slack (Slo2.2, KCNT1) are high-conductance potassium channels of the Slo family. In neurons, Slick and Slack channels are involved in the generation of slow afterhyperpolarization, in the regulation of firing patterns, and in setting and stabilizing the resting membrane potential. The distribution and subcellular localization of Slick and Slack channels in the mouse brain have not yet been established in detail. The present study addresses this issue through in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. Both channels were widely distributed and exhibited distinct distribution patterns. However, in some brain regions, their expression overlapped. Intense Slick channel immunoreactivity was observed in processes, varicosities, and neuronal cell bodies of the olfactory bulb, granular zones of cortical regions, hippocampus, amygdala, lateral septal nuclei, certain hypothalamic and midbrain nuclei, and several regions of the brainstem. The Slack channel showed primarily a diffuse immunostaining pattern, and labeling of cell somata and processes was observed only occasionally. The highest Slack channel expression was detected in the olfactory bulb, lateral septal nuclei, basal ganglia, and distinct areas of the midbrain, brainstem, and cerebellar cortex. In addition, comparing our data obtained from mouse brain with a previously published study on rat brain revealed some differences in the expression and distribution of Slick and Slack channels in these species. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:2093-2116, 2016. © 2015 The Authors The Journal of Comparative Neurology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 The Authors The Journal of Comparative Neurology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Analysing the Outbound logistics process enhancements in Nokia-Siemens Networks Global Distribution Center

    OpenAIRE

    Marjeta, Katri

    2011-01-01

    Marjeta, Katri. 2011. Analysing the outbound logistics process enhancements in Nokia-Siemens Networks Global Distribution Center. Master´s thesis. Kemi-Tornio University of Applied Sciences. Business and Culture. Pages 57. Due to confidentiality issues, this work has been modified from its original form. The aim of this Master Thesis work is to describe and analyze the outbound logistics process enhancement projects executed in Nokia-Siemens Networks Global Distribution Center after the N...

  3. A distributed process monitoring system for nuclear powered electrical generating facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sweney, A.D.

    1991-01-01

    Duke Power Company is one of the largest investor owned utilities in the United States, with a service area of 20,000 square miles extending across North and South Carolina. Oconee Nuclear Station, one of Duke Power's three nuclear generating facilities, is a three unit pressurized water reactor site and has, over the course of its 15-year operating lifetime, effectively run out of plant processing capability. From a severely overcrowded cable spread room to an aging overtaxed Operator Aid Computer, the problems with trying to add additional process variables to the present centralized Operator Aid Computer are almost insurmountable obstacles. This paper reports that for this reason, and to realize the inherent benefits of a distributed process monitoring and control system, Oconee has embarked on a project to demonstrate the ability of a distributed system to perform in the nuclear power plant environment

  4. Seasonal distribution of active systemic lupus erythematosus and its correlation with meteorological factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Hua-Li

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To explore the characteristics of seasonal distribution of active systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE and the influences of meteorological factors including temperature and humidity on active systemic lupus erythematosus. METHODS: The characteristics of seasonal distribution of active SLE and its correlation with meteorological factors were retrospectively analyzed in 640 patients living in the city of Zhanjiang, China and had active SLE between January 1997 and December 2006. RESULTS: In winter, when there are weaker ultraviolet (UV rays, the ratio of patients with active SLE to total inpatients was 3.89 %o, which is significantly higher than in other seasons with stronger UV rays, including 2.17 %o in spring, 1.87 0 in summer and 2.12 0 in autumn. The number of patients with active SLE had significant negative correlation with mean temperature and was not significantly related to mean humidity. CONCLUSION: Active SLE has the characteristics of seasonal distribution and is associated with temperature. The mechanism remains to be further studied.

  5. Method for distributed agent-based non-expert simulation of manufacturing process behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivezic, Nenad; Potok, Thomas E.

    2004-11-30

    A method for distributed agent based non-expert simulation of manufacturing process behavior on a single-processor computer comprises the steps of: object modeling a manufacturing technique having a plurality of processes; associating a distributed agent with each the process; and, programming each the agent to respond to discrete events corresponding to the manufacturing technique, wherein each discrete event triggers a programmed response. The method can further comprise the step of transmitting the discrete events to each agent in a message loop. In addition, the programming step comprises the step of conditioning each agent to respond to a discrete event selected from the group consisting of a clock tick message, a resources received message, and a request for output production message.

  6. Cumulative distribution functions associated with bubble-nucleation processes in cavitation

    KAUST Repository

    Watanabe, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Masaru; Ito, Nobuyasu

    2010-01-01

    of the exponential distribution associated with the process are determined by taking the relaxation time into account, and the apparent finite-size effect is removed. These results imply that the use of the arithmetic mean of the waiting time until a bubble grows

  7. Cascading activation from lexical processing to letter-level processing in written word production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchwald, Adam; Falconer, Carolyn

    2014-01-01

    Descriptions of language production have identified processes involved in producing language and the presence and type of interaction among those processes. In the case of spoken language production, consensus has emerged that there is interaction among lexical selection processes and phoneme-level processing. This issue has received less attention in written language production. In this paper, we present a novel analysis of the writing-to-dictation performance of an individual with acquired dysgraphia revealing cascading activation from lexical processing to letter-level processing. The individual produced frequent lexical-semantic errors (e.g., chipmunk → SQUIRREL) as well as letter errors (e.g., inhibit → INBHITI) and had a profile consistent with impairment affecting both lexical processing and letter-level processing. The presence of cascading activation is suggested by lower letter accuracy on words that are more weakly activated during lexical selection than on those that are more strongly activated. We operationalize weakly activated lexemes as those lexemes that are produced as lexical-semantic errors (e.g., lethal in deadly → LETAHL) compared to strongly activated lexemes where the intended target word (e.g., lethal) is the lexeme selected for production.

  8. The Distribution of the Interval between Events of a Cox Process with Shot Noise Intensity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelos Dassios

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Applying piecewise deterministic Markov processes theory, the probability generating function of a Cox process, incorporating with shot noise process as the claim intensity, is obtained. We also derive the Laplace transform of the distribution of the shot noise process at claim jump times, using stationary assumption of the shot noise process at any times. Based on this Laplace transform and from the probability generating function of a Cox process with shot noise intensity, we obtain the distribution of the interval of a Cox process with shot noise intensity for insurance claims and its moments, that is, mean and variance.

  9. Mercury Distribution in the Processing of Jatiroto Gold Mine Wonogiri Central Java Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitri Yudiantoro, Dwi; Nurcholis, Muhammad; Sri Sayudi, Dewi; Abdurrachman, Mirzam; Paramita Haty, Intan; Pambudi, Wiryan; Subroborini, Arum

    2017-06-01

    The research area is one of the Wonogiri gold producer. In this region there are nearly 30 gold processing locations. This area has a steep morphology which is part of Mt. Mas. The work of the gold processing is a part time job besides for the local farmer population. To get the gold bearing rocks, are by digging holes manually around Mt. Mas, while gold processing is carried out in their homes. As a result of these activities, then identified the distribution of mercury in the surrounding settlements. Analytical methods used in this study is the measurement mercury content using Hg meter on altered rocks, soil and using XRF (X-Ray Fluorescence) for plant samples. This results of research shows that there are conducted on mercury contents in the altered rocks, soil and plants showed significant mercury contents in altered rocks, soil and plants. This proves that mercury has polluted the environment surrounding residents, both of people living in the hill down on the lower plain areas. The results of this study are expected to be used as reference to help overcome the pollution of the area.

  10. Problem of uniqueness in the renewal process generated by the uniform distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Ugrin-Šparac

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available The renewal process generated by the uniform distribution, when interpreted as a transformation of the uniform distribution into a discrete distribution, gives rise to the question of uniqueness of the inverse image. The paper deals with a particular problem from the described domain, that arose in the construction of a complex stochastic test intended to evaluate pseudo-random number generators. The connection of the treated problem with the question of a unique integral representation of Gamma-function is also mentioned.

  11. Distributed Random Process for a Large-Scale Peer-to-Peer Lottery

    OpenAIRE

    Grumbach, Stéphane; Riemann, Robert

    2017-01-01

    International audience; Most online lotteries today fail to ensure the verifiability of the random process and rely on a trusted third party. This issue has received little attention since the emergence of distributed protocols like Bitcoin that demonstrated the potential of protocols with no trusted third party. We argue that the security requirements of online lotteries are similar to those of online voting, and propose a novel distributed online lottery protocol that applies techniques dev...

  12. Looking Back at 25 Years With NASA's EOSDIS Distributed Active Archive Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behnke, J.; Kittel, D.

    2017-12-01

    NASA's Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) has been a central component of the NASA Earth observation program since the 1990's. The data collected by NASA's remote sensing instruments represent a significant public investment in research. EOSDIS provides free and open access to this data to a worldwide public research community. EOSDIS manages a wide range of Earth science discipline data that include cryosphere, land cover change, polar processes, field campaigns, ocean surface, digital elevation, atmosphere dynamics and composition, and inter-disciplinary research, among many others. From the very beginning, EOSDIS was conceived as a system built on partnerships between NASA Centers, US agencies and academia. As originally conceived, the EOSDIS comprised of organizations to process and disseminate remote sensing and in situ data and provide services to a wide variety of users. These organizations are known as the Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs). Because of their active role in NASA mission science and with the science community, the DAACs represent a distinct departure from the run-of-the-mill data center. The purpose of this paper is to highlight this distinction and to describe the experiences, strategies, and lessons learned from the operation of the DAACs. Today, there are 12 DAACs geographically distributed across the US that serve over 3 million users and distributed over 1.5 billion Earth science data products. Managed by NASA's Earth Science Data and Information System (ESDIS) Project at Goddard Space Flight Center, the DAACs each support different Earth science disciplines allowing for the customized support to user communities. The ESDIS Project provides the infrastructure support for the entire EOSDIS system, which has grown to 23 petabytes. The DAACs have improved performance as they have grown over the years, while costs are tightly controlled. We have several recommendations about curation, level of service

  13. Decommissioning alternatives, process and work activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    The following outlines the topics discussed under Decommissioning Alternatives, Process and Work Activities: (1) decommissioning alternatives, (2) work activities for prompt removal/dismantling, (3) work activities for entombment with delayed dismantling, and (4) work activities for mothballing with delayed dismantling

  14. Distributed activation energy model for kinetic analysis of multi-stage hydropyrolysis of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, X.; Li, W.; Wang, N.; Li, B. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Taiyuan (China). Inst. of Coal Chemistry

    2003-07-01

    Based on the new analysis of distributed activation energy model, a bicentral distribution model was introduced to the analysis of multi-stage hydropyrolysis of coal. The hydropyrolysis for linear temperature programming with and without holding stage were mathematically described and the corresponding kinetic expressions were achieved. Based on the kinetics, the hydropyrolysis (HyPr) and multi-stage hydropyrolysis (MHyPr) of Xundian brown coal was simulated. The results shows that both Mo catalyst and 2-stage holding can lower the apparent activation energy of hydropyrolysis and make activation energy distribution become narrow. Besides, there exists an optimum Mo loading of 0.2% for HyPy of Xundian lignite. 10 refs.

  15. Minimal-effort planning of active alignment processes for beam-shaping optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haag, Sebastian; Schranner, Matthias; Müller, Tobias; Zontar, Daniel; Schlette, Christian; Losch, Daniel; Brecher, Christian; Roßmann, Jürgen

    2015-03-01

    In science and industry, the alignment of beam-shaping optics is usually a manual procedure. Many industrial applications utilizing beam-shaping optical systems require more scalable production solutions and therefore effort has been invested in research regarding the automation of optics assembly. In previous works, the authors and other researchers have proven the feasibility of automated alignment of beam-shaping optics such as collimation lenses or homogenization optics. Nevertheless, the planning efforts as well as additional knowledge from the fields of automation and control required for such alignment processes are immense. This paper presents a novel approach of planning active alignment processes of beam-shaping optics with the focus of minimizing the planning efforts for active alignment. The approach utilizes optical simulation and the genetic programming paradigm from computer science for automatically extracting features from a simulated data basis with a high correlation coefficient regarding the individual degrees of freedom of alignment. The strategy is capable of finding active alignment strategies that can be executed by an automated assembly system. The paper presents a tool making the algorithm available to end-users and it discusses the results of planning the active alignment of the well-known assembly of a fast-axis collimator. The paper concludes with an outlook on the transferability to other use cases such as application specific intensity distributions which will benefit from reduced planning efforts.

  16. Distributed real time data processing architecture for the TJ-II data acquisition system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz, M.; Barrera, E.; Lopez, S.; Machon, D.; Vega, J.; Sanchez, E.

    2004-01-01

    This article describes the performance of a new model of architecture that has been developed for the TJ-II data acquisition system in order to increase its real time data processing capabilities. The current model consists of several compact PCI extension for instrumentation (PXI) standard chassis, each one with various digitizers. In this architecture, the data processing capability is restricted to the PXI controller's own performance. The controller must share its CPU resources between the data processing and the data acquisition tasks. In the new model, distributed data processing architecture has been developed. The solution adds one or more processing cards to each PXI chassis. This way it is possible to plan how to distribute the data processing of all acquired signals among the processing cards and the available resources of the PXI controller. This model allows scalability of the system. More or less processing cards can be added based on the requirements of the system. The processing algorithms are implemented in LabVIEW (from National Instruments), providing efficiency and time-saving application development when compared with other efficient solutions

  17. Experiment Dashboard - a generic, scalable solution for monitoring of the LHC computing activities, distributed sites and services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreeva, J; Cinquilli, M; Dieguez, D; Dzhunov, I; Karavakis, E; Karhula, P; Kenyon, M; Kokoszkiewicz, L; Nowotka, M; Ro, G; Saiz, P; Tuckett, D; Sargsyan, L; Schovancova, J

    2012-01-01

    The Experiment Dashboard system provides common solutions for monitoring job processing, data transfers and site/service usability. Over the last seven years, it proved to play a crucial role in the monitoring of the LHC computing activities, distributed sites and services. It has been one of the key elements during the commissioning of the distributed computing systems of the LHC experiments. The first years of data taking represented a serious test for Experiment Dashboard in terms of functionality, scalability and performance. And given that the usage of the Experiment Dashboard applications has been steadily increasing over time, it can be asserted that all the objectives were fully accomplished.

  18. Distributed system for parallel data processing of ECT signals for electromagnetic flaw detection in materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guliashki, Vassil; Marinova, Galia

    2002-01-01

    The paper proposes a distributed system for parallel data processing of ECT signals for flaw detection in materials. The measured data are stored in files on a host computer, where a JAVA server is located. The host computer is connected through Internet to a set of client computers, distributed geographically. The data are distributed from the host computer by means of the JAVA server to the client computers according their requests. The software necessary for the data processing is installed on each client computer in advance. The organization of the data processing on many computers, working simultaneously in parallel, leads to great time reducing, especially in cases when huge amount of data should be processed in very short time. (Author)

  19. Distribution and activity of anaerobic ammonium-oxidising bacteria in natural freshwater wetland soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Li-dong; Wu, Hong-sheng; Gao, Zhi-qiu; Cheng, Hai-xiang; Li, Ji; Liu, Xu; Ren, Qian-qi

    2016-04-01

    Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) process plays a significant role in the marine nitrogen cycle. However, the quantitative importance of this process in nitrogen removal in wetland systems, particularly in natural freshwater wetlands, is still not determined. In the present study, we provided the evidence of the distribution and activity of anammox bacteria in a natural freshwater wetland, located in southeastern China, by using (15)N stable isotope measurements, quantitative PCR assays and 16S rRNA gene clone library analysis. The potential anammox rates measured in this wetland system ranged between 2.5 and 25.5 nmol N2 g(-1) soil day(-1), and up to 20% soil dinitrogen gas production could be attributed to the anammox process. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA genes showed that anammox bacteria related to Candidatus Brocadia, Candidatus Kuenenia, Candidatus Anammoxoglobus and two novel anammox clusters coexisted in the collected soil cores, with Candidatus Brocadia and Candidatus Kuenenia being the dominant anammox genera. Quantitative PCR of hydrazine synthase genes showed that the abundance of anammox bacteria varied from 2.3 × 10(5) to 2.2 × 10(6) copies g(-1) soil in the examined soil cores. Correlation analyses suggested that the soil ammonium concentration had significant influence on the activity of anammox bacteria. On the basis of (15)N tracing technology, it is estimated that a total loss of 31.1 g N m(-2) per year could be linked the anammox process in the examined wetland.

  20. AKaplan-Meier estimators of distance distributions for spatial point processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baddeley, A.J.; Gill, R.D.

    1997-01-01

    When a spatial point process is observed through a bounded window, edge effects hamper the estimation of characteristics such as the empty space function $F$, the nearest neighbour distance distribution $G$, and the reduced second order moment function $K$. Here we propose and study product-limit

  1. Active Dendrites and Differential Distribution of Calcium Channels Enable Functional Compartmentalization of Golgi Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, Stephanie; Hull, Court; Regehr, Wade G

    2015-11-25

    Interneurons are essential to controlling excitability, timing, and synaptic integration in neuronal networks. Golgi cells (GoCs) serve these roles at the input layer of the cerebellar cortex by releasing GABA to inhibit granule cells (grcs). GoCs are excited by mossy fibers (MFs) and grcs and provide feedforward and feedback inhibition to grcs. Here we investigate two important aspects of GoC physiology: the properties of GoC dendrites and the role of calcium signaling in regulating GoC spontaneous activity. Although GoC dendrites are extensive, previous studies concluded they are devoid of voltage-gated ion channels. Hence, the current view holds that somatic voltage signals decay passively within GoC dendrites, and grc synapses onto distal dendrites are not amplified and are therefore ineffective at firing GoCs because of strong passive attenuation. Using whole-cell recording and calcium imaging in rat slices, we find that dendritic voltage-gated sodium channels allow somatic action potentials to activate voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) along the entire dendritic length, with R-type and T-type VGCCs preferentially located distally. We show that R- and T-type VGCCs located in the dendrites can boost distal synaptic inputs and promote burst firing. Active dendrites are thus critical to the regulation of GoC activity, and consequently, to the processing of input to the cerebellar cortex. In contrast, we find that N-type channels are preferentially located near the soma, and control the frequency and pattern of spontaneous firing through their close association with calcium-activated potassium (KCa) channels. Thus, VGCC types are differentially distributed and serve specialized functions within GoCs. Interneurons are essential to neural processing because they modulate excitability, timing, and synaptic integration within circuits. At the input layer of the cerebellar cortex, a single type of interneuron, the Golgi cell (GoC), carries these functions. The

  2. Design of distributed systems of hydrolithospere processes management. Selection of optimal number of extracting wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pershin, I. M.; Pervukhin, D. A.; Ilyushin, Y. V.; Afanaseva, O. V.

    2017-10-01

    The article considers the important issue of designing the distributed systems of hydrolithospere processes management. Control effects on the hydrolithospere processes are implemented by a set of extractive wells. The article shows how to determine the optimal number of extractive wells that provide a distributed control impact on the management object.

  3. Distribution of the active liquid waste discharge concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, A.H.C.

    1985-03-01

    In assessing the proposal for removing the on-line liquid effluent monitor (LEM) from the Darlington NGS-A design, it was required to estimate the probability that the concentration of β-y emitters in the active liquid waste (ALW) tank discharges exceeds a specified level. To achieve this, it was necessary to know the underlying distribution of the ALW discharge concentration. Since the distribution could only be estimated from the historical data, it was also important to provide the confidence interval for the estimated probability. Using the ALW discharge records of Pickering and Bruce NGS-A, it was found that the log-normal distribution provided the best fit for the data. The frequency of the tank concentration exceeding the specified level of 24000μCi/m 3 was estimated to be 1 in 200,000 years at Bruce NGS-A and 1 in 100,000 years at Pickering. The 99% upper confidence limits are 1 in 2777 years and 1 in 77 years, respectively

  4. Coordinating complex decision support activities across distributed applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Richard M.

    1994-01-01

    Knowledge-based technologies have been applied successfully to automate planning and scheduling in many problem domains. Automation of decision support can be increased further by integrating task-specific applications with supporting database systems, and by coordinating interactions between such tools to facilitate collaborative activities. Unfortunately, the technical obstacles that must be overcome to achieve this vision of transparent, cooperative problem-solving are daunting. Intelligent decision support tools are typically developed for standalone use, rely on incompatible, task-specific representational models and application programming interfaces (API's), and run on heterogeneous computing platforms. Getting such applications to interact freely calls for platform independent capabilities for distributed communication, as well as tools for mapping information across disparate representations. Symbiotics is developing a layered set of software tools (called NetWorks! for integrating and coordinating heterogeneous distributed applications. he top layer of tools consists of an extensible set of generic, programmable coordination services. Developers access these services via high-level API's to implement the desired interactions between distributed applications.

  5. Comparison of Environment Impact between Conventional and Cold Chain Management System in Paprika Distribution Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eidelweijs A Putri

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Pasir Langu village in Cisarua, West Java, is the largest central production area of paprika in Indonesia. On average, for every 200 kilograms of paprika produced, there is rejection amounting to 3 kilograms. This resulted in money loss for wholesalers and wastes. In one year, this amount can be approximately 11.7 million Indonesian rupiahs. Recently, paprika wholesalers in Pasir Langu village recently are developing cold chain management system to maintain quality of paprika so that number of rejection can be reduced. The objective of this study is to compare environmental impacts between conventional and cold chain management system in paprika distribution process using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA methodology and propose Photovoltaic (PV system in paprika distribution process. The result implies that the cold chain system produces more CO2 emission compared to conventional system. However, due to the promotion of PV system, the emission would be reduced. For future research, it is necessary to reduce CO2 emission from transportation process since this process is biggest contributor of CO2 emission at whole distribution process. Keywords: LCA, environmentally friendly distribution, paprika,cold chain, PV system

  6. Pore size distribution and supercritical hydrogen adsorption in activated carbon fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purewal, J. J.; Kabbour, H.; Vajo, J. J.; Ahn, C. C.; Fultz, B.

    2009-05-01

    Pore size distributions (PSD) and supercritical H2 isotherms have been measured for two activated carbon fiber (ACF) samples. The surface area and the PSD both depend on the degree of activation to which the ACF has been exposed. The low-surface-area ACF has a narrow PSD centered at 0.5 nm, while the high-surface-area ACF has a broad distribution of pore widths between 0.5 and 2 nm. The H2 adsorption enthalpy in the zero-coverage limit depends on the relative abundance of the smallest pores relative to the larger pores. Measurements of the H2 isosteric adsorption enthalpy indicate the presence of energy heterogeneity in both ACF samples. Additional measurements on a microporous, coconut-derived activated carbon are presented for reference.

  7. Pore size distribution and supercritical hydrogen adsorption in activated carbon fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purewal, J J; Kabbour, H; Ahn, C C; Fultz, B; Vajo, J J

    2009-01-01

    Pore size distributions (PSD) and supercritical H 2 isotherms have been measured for two activated carbon fiber (ACF) samples. The surface area and the PSD both depend on the degree of activation to which the ACF has been exposed. The low-surface-area ACF has a narrow PSD centered at 0.5 nm, while the high-surface-area ACF has a broad distribution of pore widths between 0.5 and 2 nm. The H 2 adsorption enthalpy in the zero-coverage limit depends on the relative abundance of the smallest pores relative to the larger pores. Measurements of the H 2 isosteric adsorption enthalpy indicate the presence of energy heterogeneity in both ACF samples. Additional measurements on a microporous, coconut-derived activated carbon are presented for reference.

  8. Underground measurements of aerosol in radon and thoron progeny activity distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.; Bandi, F.; Phillips, C.R.; Duport, P.

    1990-01-01

    Aerosol and activity distributions of 218 Polonium, 214 Lead, 214 Bismuth, and 212 Lead were determined in two different underground mining environments by means of an optimized time-delay counting scheme and diffusion batteries. In one environment, diesel equipment was operating; and in the other, electrically powered equipment. The two environments differed significantly in total aerosol concentration. In the diesel environment, in particular, aerosol concentrations were unsteady, and fluctuated with vehicular traffic and mining activities. As measured by radon progeny disequilibrium, the age of the air ranged from about 25 to 60 minutes. Thoron working levels were of the same order as radon working levels. In this paper, comparisons are made between the aerosol and activity size distributions in both the diesel and electric mine

  9. Electroweak processes in external active media

    CERN Document Server

    Kuznetsov, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Expanding on the concept of the authors’ previous book “Electroweak Processes in External Electromagnetic Fields,” this new book systematically describes the investigation methods for the effects of external active media, both strong electromagnetic fields and hot dense plasma, in quantum processes. Solving the solar neutrino puzzle in a unique experiment conducted with the help of the heavy-water detector at the Sudbery Neutrino Observatory, along with another neutrino experiments, brings to the fore electroweak physics in an active external medium. It is effectively demonstrated that processes of neutrino interactions with active media of astrophysical objects may lead, under some physical conditions, to such interesting effects as neutrino-driven shockwave revival in a supernova explosion, a “cherry stone shooting” mechanism for pulsar natal kick, and a neutrino pulsar. It is also shown how poor estimates of particle dispersion in external active media sometimes lead to confusion. The book...

  10. A distributed garbage collector for active objects

    OpenAIRE

    Puaut , Isabelle

    1993-01-01

    This paper introduces an algorithm that performs garbage collection in distributed systems of active objects (i.e., objects having their own threads of control). The proposed garbage collector is made of a set of local garbage collectors, one per node, loosely coupled to a global garbage collector. The novelties of the proposed garbage collector come from the fact that local garbage collectors need not be synchronized with each other for detecting garbage objects and that faulty communication...

  11. Multi-agent system based active distribution networks

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, H.P.

    2010-01-01

    This thesis gives a particular vision of the future power delivery system with its main requirements. An investigation of suitable concepts and technologies which creates a road map forward the smart grid has been carried out. They should meet the requirements on sustainability, efficiency, flexibility and intelligence. The so called Active Distribution Network (ADN) is introduced as an important element of the future power delivery system. With an open architecture, the ADN is designed to in...

  12. HUMANITARIAN AID DISTRIBUTION FRAMEWORK FOR NATURAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd, S.; Fathi, M. S.; Harun, A. N.

    2018-01-01

    Humanitarian aid distribution is associated with many activities, numerous disaster management stakeholders, enormous effort and different processes. For effective communication, humanitarian aid distribution activities require appropriate and up-to-date information to enhance collaboration, and improve integration. The purpose of this paper is to develop a humanitarian aid distribution framework for disaster management in Malaysia. The findings of this paper are based on a review of the huma...

  13. Comparison of outdoor activity size distributions of 220 Rn and 222 Rn progeny and their Influences on lung dosimetry distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, A.; El-Hussein, A.; Ahmed, A.

    2005-01-01

    In the case of internally deposited radionuclides, direct measurement of the energy absorbed from ionizing radiation emitted by the decaying radionuclides is rarely, if ever, possible. Therefore, one must rely on dosimetric models to obtain estimates of the spatial and temporal patterns of energy deposition in human lung. T These models always need some information about the parameters of activity size distributions of thoron and radon progeny. In the present work, the attached and unattached activity size distributions of thoron and radon progeny were measured in outdoor air of El-Minia, Egypt. The attached samples were collected using a low pressure Berner cascade impactor technique, while a constructed screen diffusion b attery was used for collecting the unattached samples. Most of the attached activities for 222 Rn and 220 Rn progeny were associated with the aerosol particles of the accumulation mode. The activity size distribution of thoron progeny was found to be shifted to slightly smaller particle size, compared to radon progeny. An analytical method has been developed to compute the local energy deposition of 2l2 Bi alpha particles in a target volume of 1 jam spheres located at different depths in bronchial epithelium. In order to reach the target, alpha particles travel either through tissue alone (near-wall dose) or through air and tissue (far-wall dose). It was found that the contribution of near-wall dose is higher than that of the far wall dose. While the depth-dose distributions for nuclides uniformly distributed within the epithelium are practically constant with

  14. Power Distribution Analysis For Electrical Usage In Province Area Using Olap (Online Analytical Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samsinar Riza

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The distribution network is the closest power grid to the customer Electric service providers such as PT. PLN. The dispatching center of power grid companies is also the data center of the power grid where gathers great amount of operating information. The valuable information contained in these data means a lot for power grid operating management. The technique of data warehousing online analytical processing has been used to manage and analysis the great capacity of data. Specific methods for online analytics information systems resulting from data warehouse processing with OLAP are chart and query reporting. The information in the form of chart reporting consists of the load distribution chart based on the repetition of time, distribution chart on the area, the substation region chart and the electric load usage chart. The results of the OLAP process show the development of electric load distribution, as well as the analysis of information on the load of electric power consumption and become an alternative in presenting information related to peak load.

  15. Power Distribution Analysis For Electrical Usage In Province Area Using Olap (Online Analytical Processing)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samsinar, Riza; Suseno, Jatmiko Endro; Widodo, Catur Edi

    2018-02-01

    The distribution network is the closest power grid to the customer Electric service providers such as PT. PLN. The dispatching center of power grid companies is also the data center of the power grid where gathers great amount of operating information. The valuable information contained in these data means a lot for power grid operating management. The technique of data warehousing online analytical processing has been used to manage and analysis the great capacity of data. Specific methods for online analytics information systems resulting from data warehouse processing with OLAP are chart and query reporting. The information in the form of chart reporting consists of the load distribution chart based on the repetition of time, distribution chart on the area, the substation region chart and the electric load usage chart. The results of the OLAP process show the development of electric load distribution, as well as the analysis of information on the load of electric power consumption and become an alternative in presenting information related to peak load.

  16. Design and simulation of material-integrated distributed sensor processing with a code-based agent platform and mobile multi-agent systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosse, Stefan

    2015-02-16

    Multi-agent systems (MAS) can be used for decentralized and self-organizing data processing in a distributed system, like a resource-constrained sensor network, enabling distributed information extraction, for example, based on pattern recognition and self-organization, by decomposing complex tasks in simpler cooperative agents. Reliable MAS-based data processing approaches can aid the material-integration of structural-monitoring applications, with agent processing platforms scaled to the microchip level. The agent behavior, based on a dynamic activity-transition graph (ATG) model, is implemented with program code storing the control and the data state of an agent, which is novel. The program code can be modified by the agent itself using code morphing techniques and is capable of migrating in the network between nodes. The program code is a self-contained unit (a container) and embeds the agent data, the initialization instructions and the ATG behavior implementation. The microchip agent processing platform used for the execution of the agent code is a standalone multi-core stack machine with a zero-operand instruction format, leading to a small-sized agent program code, low system complexity and high system performance. The agent processing is token-queue-based, similar to Petri-nets. The agent platform can be implemented in software, too, offering compatibility at the operational and code level, supporting agent processing in strong heterogeneous networks. In this work, the agent platform embedded in a large-scale distributed sensor network is simulated at the architectural level by using agent-based simulation techniques.

  17. Design and Simulation of Material-Integrated Distributed Sensor Processing with a Code-Based Agent Platform and Mobile Multi-Agent Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Bosse

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Multi-agent systems (MAS can be used for decentralized and self-organizing data processing in a distributed system, like a resource-constrained sensor network, enabling distributed information extraction, for example, based on pattern recognition and self-organization, by decomposing complex tasks in simpler cooperative agents. Reliable MAS-based data processing approaches can aid the material-integration of structural-monitoring applications, with agent processing platforms scaled to the microchip level. The agent behavior, based on a dynamic activity-transition graph (ATG model, is implemented with program code storing the control and the data state of an agent, which is novel. The program code can be modified by the agent itself using code morphing techniques and is capable of migrating in the network between nodes. The program code is a self-contained unit (a container and embeds the agent data, the initialization instructions and the ATG behavior implementation. The microchip agent processing platform used for the execution of the agent code is a standalone multi-core stack machine with a zero-operand instruction format, leading to a small-sized agent program code, low system complexity and high system performance. The agent processing is token-queue-based, similar to Petri-nets. The agent platform can be implemented in software, too, offering compatibility at the operational and code level, supporting agent processing in strong heterogeneous networks. In this work, the agent platform embedded in a large-scale distributed sensor network is simulated at the architectural level by using agent-based simulation techniques.

  18. Bayesian inference for multivariate point processes observed at sparsely distributed times

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jakob Gulddahl; Møller, Jesper; Aukema, B.H.

    We consider statistical and computational aspects of simulation-based Bayesian inference for a multivariate point process which is only observed at sparsely distributed times. For specicity we consider a particular data set which has earlier been analyzed by a discrete time model involving unknown...... normalizing constants. We discuss the advantages and disadvantages of using continuous time processes compared to discrete time processes in the setting of the present paper as well as other spatial-temporal situations. Keywords: Bark beetle, conditional intensity, forest entomology, Markov chain Monte Carlo...

  19. The constitutive distributed parameter model of multicomponent chemical processes in gas, fluid and solid phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemiec, W.

    1985-01-01

    In the literature of distributed parameter modelling of real processes is not considered the class of multicomponent chemical processes in gas, fluid and solid phase. The aim of paper is constitutive distributed parameter physicochemical model, constructed on kinetics and phenomenal analysis of multicomponent chemical processes in gas, fluid and solid phase. The mass, energy and momentum aspects of these multicomponent chemical reactions and adequate phenomena are utilized in balance operations, by conditions of: constitutive invariance for continuous media with space and time memories, reciprocity principle for isotropic and anisotropic nonhomogeneous media with space and time memories, application of definitions of following derivative and equation of continuity, to the construction of systems of partial differential constitutive state equations, in the following derivative forms for gas, fluid and solid phase. Couched in this way all physicochemical conditions of multicomponent chemical processes in gas, fluid and solid phase are new form of constitutive distributed parameter model for automatics and its systems of equations are new form of systems of partial differential constitutive state equations in sense of phenomenal distributed parameter control

  20. Modeling nanoparticle uptake and intracellular distribution using stochastic process algebras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobay, M. P. D., E-mail: maria.pamela.david@physik.uni-muenchen.de; Alberola, A. Piera; Mendoza, E. R.; Raedler, J. O., E-mail: joachim.raedler@physik.uni-muenchen.de [Ludwig-Maximilians University, Faculty of Physics, Center for NanoScience (Germany)

    2012-03-15

    Computational modeling is increasingly important to help understand the interaction and movement of nanoparticles (NPs) within living cells, and to come to terms with the wealth of data that microscopy imaging yields. A quantitative description of the spatio-temporal distribution of NPs inside cells; however, it is challenging due to the complexity of multiple compartments such as endosomes and nuclei, which themselves are dynamic and can undergo fusion and fission and exchange their content. Here, we show that stochastic pi calculus, a widely-used process algebra, is well suited for mapping surface and intracellular NP interactions and distributions. In stochastic pi calculus, each NP is represented as a process, which can adopt various states such as bound or aggregated, as well as be passed between processes representing location, as a function of predefined stochastic channels. We created a pi calculus model of gold NP uptake and intracellular movement and compared the evolution of surface-bound, cytosolic, endosomal, and nuclear NP densities with electron microscopy data. We demonstrate that the computational approach can be extended to include specific molecular binding and potential interaction with signaling cascades as characteristic for NP-cell interactions in a wide range of applications such as nanotoxicity, viral infection, and drug delivery.

  1. Modeling nanoparticle uptake and intracellular distribution using stochastic process algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobay, M. P. D.; Alberola, A. Piera; Mendoza, E. R.; Rädler, J. O.

    2012-01-01

    Computational modeling is increasingly important to help understand the interaction and movement of nanoparticles (NPs) within living cells, and to come to terms with the wealth of data that microscopy imaging yields. A quantitative description of the spatio-temporal distribution of NPs inside cells; however, it is challenging due to the complexity of multiple compartments such as endosomes and nuclei, which themselves are dynamic and can undergo fusion and fission and exchange their content. Here, we show that stochastic pi calculus, a widely-used process algebra, is well suited for mapping surface and intracellular NP interactions and distributions. In stochastic pi calculus, each NP is represented as a process, which can adopt various states such as bound or aggregated, as well as be passed between processes representing location, as a function of predefined stochastic channels. We created a pi calculus model of gold NP uptake and intracellular movement and compared the evolution of surface-bound, cytosolic, endosomal, and nuclear NP densities with electron microscopy data. We demonstrate that the computational approach can be extended to include specific molecular binding and potential interaction with signaling cascades as characteristic for NP-cell interactions in a wide range of applications such as nanotoxicity, viral infection, and drug delivery.

  2. Modeling nanoparticle uptake and intracellular distribution using stochastic process algebras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobay, M. P. D.; Alberola, A. Piera; Mendoza, E. R.; Rädler, J. O.

    2012-03-01

    Computational modeling is increasingly important to help understand the interaction and movement of nanoparticles (NPs) within living cells, and to come to terms with the wealth of data that microscopy imaging yields. A quantitative description of the spatio-temporal distribution of NPs inside cells; however, it is challenging due to the complexity of multiple compartments such as endosomes and nuclei, which themselves are dynamic and can undergo fusion and fission and exchange their content. Here, we show that stochastic pi calculus, a widely-used process algebra, is well suited for mapping surface and intracellular NP interactions and distributions. In stochastic pi calculus, each NP is represented as a process, which can adopt various states such as bound or aggregated, as well as be passed between processes representing location, as a function of predefined stochastic channels. We created a pi calculus model of gold NP uptake and intracellular movement and compared the evolution of surface-bound, cytosolic, endosomal, and nuclear NP densities with electron microscopy data. We demonstrate that the computational approach can be extended to include specific molecular binding and potential interaction with signaling cascades as characteristic for NP-cell interactions in a wide range of applications such as nanotoxicity, viral infection, and drug delivery.

  3. An Effective Framework for Distributed Geospatial Query Processing in Grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHEN, B.

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of Internet has greatly revolutionized the way that geospatial information is collected, managed, processed and integrated. There are several important research issues to be addressed for distributed geospatial applications. First, the performance of geospatial applications is needed to be considered in the Internet environment. In this regard, the Grid as an effective distributed computing paradigm is a good choice. The Grid uses a series of middleware to interconnect and merge various distributed resources into a super-computer with capability of high performance computation. Secondly, it is necessary to ensure the secure use of independent geospatial applications in the Internet environment. The Grid just provides the utility of secure access to distributed geospatial resources. Additionally, it makes good sense to overcome the heterogeneity between individual geospatial information systems in Internet. The Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC proposes a number of generalized geospatial standards e.g. OGC Web Services (OWS to achieve interoperable access to geospatial applications. The OWS solution is feasible and widely adopted by both the academic community and the industry community. Therefore, we propose an integrated framework by incorporating OWS standards into Grids. Upon the framework distributed geospatial queries can be performed in an interoperable, high-performance and secure Grid environment.

  4. An educational tool for interactive parallel and distributed processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagliarini, Luigi; Lund, Henrik Hautop

    2012-01-01

    In this article we try to describe how the modular interactive tiles system (MITS) can be a valuable tool for introducing students to interactive parallel and distributed processing programming. This is done by providing a handson educational tool that allows a change in the representation...... of abstract problems related to designing interactive parallel and distributed systems. Indeed, the MITS seems to bring a series of goals into education, such as parallel programming, distributedness, communication protocols, master dependency, software behavioral models, adaptive interactivity, feedback......, connectivity, topology, island modeling, and user and multi-user interaction which can rarely be found in other tools. Finally, we introduce the system of modular interactive tiles as a tool for easy, fast, and flexible hands-on exploration of these issues, and through examples we show how to implement...

  5. A trial of distributed portable data acquisition and processing system implementation: the qdpb - data processing with branchpoints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gritsaj, K.I.; Isupov, A.Yu.

    2001-01-01

    A trial of distributed portable data acquisition and processing system qdpb is issued. An experimental setup data and hardware dependent code is separated from the generic part of the qdpb system. The generic part implementation is described

  6. Distributed Sensing and Processing Adaptive Collaboration Environment (D-SPACE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    RISC 525 Brooks Road Rome NY 13441-4505 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S) AFRL/RI 11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT NUMBER AFRL-RI-RS-TR-2014-195 12...cloud” technologies are not appropriate for situation understanding in areas of denial, where computation resources are limited, data not easily...graph matching process. D-SPACE distributes graph exploitation among a network of autonomous computational resources, designs the collaboration policy

  7. Leontief Input-Output Method for The Fresh Milk Distribution Linkage Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riski Nur Istiqomah

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This research discusses about linkage analysis and identifies the key sector in the fresh milk distribution using Leontief Input-Output method. This method is one of the application of Mathematics in economy. The current fresh milk distribution system includes dairy farmers →collectors→fresh milk processing industries→processed milk distributors→consumers. Then, the distribution is merged between the collectors’ axctivity and the fresh milk processing industry. The data used are primary and secondary data taken in June 2016 in Kecamatan Jabung Kabupaten Malang. The collected data are then analysed using Leontief Input-Output Matriks and Python (PYIO 2.1 software. The result is that the merging of the collectors’ and the fresh milk processing industry’s activities shows high indices of forward linkages and backward linkages. It is shown that merging of the two activities is the key sector which has an important role in developing the whole activities in the fresh milk distribution.

  8. Seasonal and spatial evolution of trihalomethanes in a drinking water distribution system according to the treatment process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Tello, A; Arias-Borrego, A; García-Barrera, Tamara; Gómez-Ariza, J L

    2015-11-01

    This paper comparatively shows the influence of four water treatment processes on the formation of trihalomethanes (THMs) in a water distribution system. The study was performed from February 2005 to January 2012 with analytical data of 600 samples taken in Aljaraque water treatment plant (WTP) and 16 locations along the water distribution system (WDS) in the region of Andévalo and the coast of Huelva (southwest Spain), a region with significant seasonal and population changes. The comparison of results in the four different processes studied indicated a clear link of the treatment process with the formation of THM along the WDS. The most effective treatment process is preozonation and activated carbon filtration (P3), which is also the most stable under summer temperatures. Experiments also show low levels of THMs with the conventional process of preoxidation with potassium permanganate (P4), delaying the chlorination to the end of the WTP; however, this simple and economical treatment process is less effective and less stable than P3. In this study, strong seasonal variations were obtained (increase of THM from winter to summer of 1.17 to 1.85 times) and a strong spatial variation (1.1 to 1.7 times from WTP to end points of WDS) which largely depends on the treatment process applied. There was also a strong correlation between THM levels and water temperature, contact time and pH. On the other hand, it was found that THM formation is not proportional to the applied chlorine dose in the treatment process, but there is a direct relationship with the accumulated dose of chlorine. Finally, predictive models based on multiple linear regressions are proposed for each treatment process.

  9. Heat and work distributions for mixed Gauss–Cauchy process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuśmierz, Łukasz; Gudowska-Nowak, Ewa; Rubi, J Miguel

    2014-01-01

    We analyze energetics of a non-Gaussian process described by a stochastic differential equation of the Langevin type. The process represents a paradigmatic model of a nonequilibrium system subject to thermal fluctuations and additional external noise, with both sources of perturbations considered as additive and statistically independent forcings. We define thermodynamic quantities for trajectories of the process and analyze contributions to mechanical work and heat. As a working example we consider a particle subjected to a drag force and two statistically independent Lévy white noises with stability indices α = 2 and α = 1. The fluctuations of dissipated energy (heat) and distribution of work performed by the force acting on the system are addressed by examining contributions of Cauchy fluctuations (α = 1) to either bath or external force acting on the system. (paper)

  10. Low activity resin processing and disposal options review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardner, F.

    1996-01-01

    New processing options for low activity resin processing and disposal are available. This presentation reviews the economics and technical requirements associated with the following low activity resin processing options. (1) Bulk release resin. (2) Direct disposal. (3) Decontamination and bulk release of cleaned resin. New processing and disposal options have been developed during 1995. Commercial experience with each of these options will be reviewed and the economics associated with the processing method described in detail. Technical requirements for each option will be identified specifying the activity limits and operational requirements for implementation

  11. Active bone marrow distribution as a function of age in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cristy, M.

    1981-01-01

    In response to the need for better quantitative estimates of the regional distribution of the active bone marrow organ in infants and children, a method using various anatomical data has been developed. The method, a refinement of that of Atkinson (1962), predicts that in the newborn 27.8% of the active marrow in the body resides in the skull and 20.7% resides in the lower limbs. Atkinson's method predicts 7.0% in the skull and 38.9% in the lower limbs. According to the experimental data of Hudson (1965) involving 16 late-term foetuses and newborns, there is 29.5% (+- 4.2%) in the skull and 23.7% (+-2.2%) in the lower limbs. The values from the new method are much closer to experimental values in both bone groups. The values for the newborn and age one year predicted by the new method were adjusted after comparison with the experimental data for the newborn. Newer information on marrow cellularity was also incorporated into the method presented here, so that the distribution calculated here for the adult differs somewhat from those calculated by others. Overall, this adult distribution agrees more closely with published distributions based on 59 Fe studies than do the earlier distributions. (author)

  12. Distributed patterns of brain activity that lead to forgetting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilke eOztekin

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Proactive interference (PI, in which irrelevant information from prior learning disrupts memory performance, is widely viewed as a major cause of forgetting. However, the hypothesized spontaneous recovery (i.e. automatic retrieval of interfering information presumed to be at the base of PI remains to be demonstrated directly. Moreover, it remains unclear at what point during learning and/or retrieval interference impacts memory performance. In order to resolve these open questions, we employed a machine-learning algorithm to identify distributed patterns of brain activity associated with retrieval of interfering information that engenders PI and causes forgetting. Participants were scanned using functional magnetic resonance imaging during an item recognition task. We induced PI by constructing sets of three consecutive study lists from the same semantic category. The classifier quantified the magnitude of category-related activity at encoding and retrieval. Category-specific activity during retrieval increased across lists, consistent with the category information becoming increasingly available and producing interference. Critically, this increase was correlated with individual differences in forgetting and the deployment of frontal lobe mechanisms that resolve interference. Collectively, these findings suggest that distributed patterns of brain activity pertaining to the interfering information during retrieval contribute to forgetting. The prefrontal cortex mediates the relationship between the spontaneous recovery of interfering information at retrieval and individual differences in memory performance.

  13. Impact of Demand Side Management in Active Distribution Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ponnaganti, Pavani; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte; Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna

    2017-01-01

    Demand Side Management (DSM) is an efficient flexible program which helps distribution network operators to meet the future critical peak demand. It is executed in cases of not only technical issues like voltage sag or swell, transformer burdening, cable congestions, but also to increase the degree...... of visibility in the electricity markets. The aim of this paper is to find the optimal flexible demands that can be shifted to another time in order to operate the active distribution system within secure operating limits. A simple mechanism is proposed for finding the flexibility of the loads where electric...

  14. Dust charging processes with a Cairns-Tsallis distribution function with negative ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abid, A. A., E-mail: abidaliabid1@hotmail.com [Applied Physics Department, Federal Urdu University of Arts, Science and Technology, Islamabad Campus, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan); Khan, M. Z., E-mail: mzk-qau@yahoo.com [Applied Physics Department, Federal Urdu University of Arts, Science and Technology, Islamabad Campus, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan); Plasma Technology Research Center, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603 (Malaysia); Yap, S. L. [Plasma Technology Research Center, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603 (Malaysia); Terças, H., E-mail: hugo.tercas@tecnico.ul.pt [Physics of Information Group, Instituto de Telecomunicações, Av. Rovisco Pais, Lisbon 1049-001 (Portugal); Mahmood, S. [Science Place, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7N5A2 (Canada)

    2016-01-15

    Dust grain charging processes are presented in a non-Maxwellian dusty plasma following the Cairns-Tsallis (q, α)–distribution, whose constituents are the electrons, as well as the positive/negative ions and negatively charged dust grains. For this purpose, we have solved the current balance equation for a negatively charged dust grain to achieve an equilibrium state value (viz., q{sub d} = constant) in the presence of Cairns-Tsallis (q, α)–distribution. In fact, the current balance equation becomes modified due to the Boltzmannian/streaming distributed negative ions. It is numerically found that the relevant plasma parameters, such as the spectral indexes q and α, the positive ion-to-electron temperature ratio, and the negative ion streaming speed (U{sub 0}) significantly affect the dust grain surface potential. It is also shown that in the limit q → 1 the Cairns-Tsallis reduces to the Cairns distribution; for α = 0 the Cairns-Tsallis distribution reduces to pure Tsallis distribution and the latter reduces to Maxwellian distribution for q → 1 and α = 0.

  15. Dust charging processes with a Cairns-Tsallis distribution function with negative ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abid, A. A.; Khan, M. Z.; Yap, S. L.; Terças, H.; Mahmood, S.

    2016-01-01

    Dust grain charging processes are presented in a non-Maxwellian dusty plasma following the Cairns-Tsallis (q, α)–distribution, whose constituents are the electrons, as well as the positive/negative ions and negatively charged dust grains. For this purpose, we have solved the current balance equation for a negatively charged dust grain to achieve an equilibrium state value (viz., q d  = constant) in the presence of Cairns-Tsallis (q, α)–distribution. In fact, the current balance equation becomes modified due to the Boltzmannian/streaming distributed negative ions. It is numerically found that the relevant plasma parameters, such as the spectral indexes q and α, the positive ion-to-electron temperature ratio, and the negative ion streaming speed (U 0 ) significantly affect the dust grain surface potential. It is also shown that in the limit q → 1 the Cairns-Tsallis reduces to the Cairns distribution; for α = 0 the Cairns-Tsallis distribution reduces to pure Tsallis distribution and the latter reduces to Maxwellian distribution for q → 1 and α = 0

  16. Phase distribution measurements in narrow rectangular channels using image processing techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentley, C.; Ruggles, A.

    1991-01-01

    Many high flux research reactor fuel assemblies are cooled by systems of parallel narrow rectangular channels. The HFIR is cooled by single phase forced convection under normal operating conditions. However, two-phase forced convection or two phase mixed convection can occur in the fueled region as a result of some hypothetical accidents. Such flow conditions would occur only at decay power levels. The system pressure would be around 0.15 MPa in such circumstances. Phase distribution of air-water flow in a narrow rectangular channel is examined using image processing techniques. Ink is added to the water and clear channel walls are used to allow high speed still photographs and video tape to be taken of the air-water flow field. Flow field images are digitized and stored in a Macintosh 2ci computer using a frame grabber board. Local grey levels are related to liquid thickness in the flow channel using a calibration fixture. Image processing shareware is used to calculate the spatially averaged liquid thickness from the image of the flow field. Time averaged spatial liquid distributions are calculated using image calculation algorithms. The spatially averaged liquid distribution is calculated from the time averaged spatial liquid distribution to formulate the combined temporally and spatially averaged fraction values. The temporally and spatially averaged liquid fractions measured using this technique compare well to those predicted from pressure gradient measurements at zero superficial liquid velocity

  17. Using rare earth element tracers and neutron activation analysis to study rill erosion process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Mian; Li Zhanbin; Ding Wengfeng; Liu Puling; Yao Wenyi

    2006-01-01

    Spatially averaged soil erosion data provide little information on the process of rill erosion. The dynamically varied data on the temporal and spatial distributions in the rill erosion process are needed to better understand the erosion process and reveal its innate characteristics. The objectives of this study were to examine the feasibility and effectiveness of rare earth element (REE) tracers and the neutron activation analysis (NAA) method on the study of the rill erosion process and to reveal quantitatively the relationships and characteristics of temporal and spatial distributions of sediment yield in rill erosion. Four REEs were used to study the changeable process of rill erosion at 4 slope positions. Four water inflow rates were applied to a 0.3x5 m soil bed at 3 slopes of 10.5%, 15.8% and 21.2% in scouring experiments. All of the runoff was collected in the experiment. Each sample was air-dried and well mixed. Then 20 g of each sample was sieved through 100-mesh and about a 50 mg sample was weighed for analysis of the four elemental compositions by NAA. Results indicate that the REE tracers and NAA method can be used to not only quantitatively determine soil erosion amounts on different slope segments, but also to reveal the changeable process of rill erosion amount. All of the relative errors of the experimental results were less than 25%, which is considered satisfactory on the study of rill erosion process

  18. Using rare earth element tracers and neutron activation analysis to study rill erosion process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Mian [Yellow River Institute of Hydraulic Research, Yellow River Conservancy Commission, Key Laboratory of Yellow River Sediment Research of Ministry of Water Resources, Shunhelu 45, Zhengzhou, Henan 450003 (China)]. E-mail: hnli-mian@163.com; Li Zhanbin [Xi' an University of Technology, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710048 (China); Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Ministry of Water Resources, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China); Ding Wengfeng [Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Yangtse River' s Scientific Research Institute, Wuhan, Hubei 430010 (China); Liu Puling [Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Ministry of Water Resources, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China); Yao Wenyi [Yellow River Institute of Hydraulic Research, Yellow River Conservancy Commission, Key Laboratory of Yellow River Sediment Research of Ministry of Water Resources, Shunhelu 45, Zhengzhou, Henan 450003 (China)

    2006-03-15

    Spatially averaged soil erosion data provide little information on the process of rill erosion. The dynamically varied data on the temporal and spatial distributions in the rill erosion process are needed to better understand the erosion process and reveal its innate characteristics. The objectives of this study were to examine the feasibility and effectiveness of rare earth element (REE) tracers and the neutron activation analysis (NAA) method on the study of the rill erosion process and to reveal quantitatively the relationships and characteristics of temporal and spatial distributions of sediment yield in rill erosion. Four REEs were used to study the changeable process of rill erosion at 4 slope positions. Four water inflow rates were applied to a 0.3x5 m soil bed at 3 slopes of 10.5%, 15.8% and 21.2% in scouring experiments. All of the runoff was collected in the experiment. Each sample was air-dried and well mixed. Then 20 g of each sample was sieved through 100-mesh and about a 50 mg sample was weighed for analysis of the four elemental compositions by NAA. Results indicate that the REE tracers and NAA method can be used to not only quantitatively determine soil erosion amounts on different slope segments, but also to reveal the changeable process of rill erosion amount. All of the relative errors of the experimental results were less than 25%, which is considered satisfactory on the study of rill erosion process.

  19. Preserving the Context of Interrupted Business Process Activities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bassil, S.; Rinderle, S.B.; Keller, R.; Reichert, M.U.; Kropf, P.G.

    2005-01-01

    The capability to safely interrupt business process activities is an important requirement for advanced process-aware information systems. Indeed, exceptions stemming from the application environment often appear while one or more application-related process activities are running. Safely

  20. Preserving the Context of Interrupted Business Process Activities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bassil, S.; Rinderle, S.B.; Keller, R.; Kropf, P.G.; Reichert, M.U.; Chen, C.S.; Filipe, J.; Seruca, I.; Cordeiro, J.

    2006-01-01

    The capability to safely interrupt business process activities is an important requirement for advanced process-aware information systems. Indeed, exceptions stemming from the application environment often appear while one or more application-related process activities are running. Safely

  1. Effect of potassium hydroxide activation in the desulfurization process of activated carbon prepared by sewage sludge and corn straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Fan; Liao, Xiaofeng; Hu, Hui; Liao, Li

    2018-03-01

    Series sludge straw-based activated carbons were prepared by sewage sludge and corn straw with potassium hydroxide (KOH) activation, and the desulfurization performance of activated carbons was studied. To obtain the best desulfurization performance, the optimum ratio between the raw materials and the activator was investigated. The results showed that when the mass ratio of sewage sludge, corn straw, and KOH was 3:7:2, the activated carbon obtained the best breakthrough and saturation sulfur sorption capacities, which were 12.38 and 5.74 times, respectively, those of samples prepared by the nonactivated raw materials. The appropriate KOH could improve the microporosity and alkaline groups, meanwhile reducing the lactone groups, which were all beneficial to desulfurization performance. The chemical adsorption process of desulfurization can be simplified to four main steps, and the main desulfurization products are elemental sulfur and sulfate. Sewage sludge (SS) and corn straw (CS) both have great production and wide distribution and are readily available in China. Much attention has been paid on how to deal with them effectively. Based on the environment protection idea of waste treatment with waste and resource recycling, low-cost adsorbents were prepared by these processes. The proposed method can be expanded to the municipal solid waste recycling programs and renewable energy plan. Thus, proceeding with the study of preparing activated carbon by SS and straw as a carbon-based dry desulfurization agent could obtain huge social, economic, and environmental benefits.

  2. Modeling cancer registration processes with an enhanced activity diagram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyalin, D; Williams, W

    2005-01-01

    Adequate instruments are needed to reflect the complexity of routine cancer registry operations properly in a business model. The activity diagram is a key instrument of the Unified Modeling Language (UML) for the modeling of business processes. The authors aim to improve descriptions of processes in cancer registration, as well as in other public health domains, through the enhancements of an activity diagram notation within the standard semantics of UML. The authors introduced the practical approach to enhance a conventional UML activity diagram, complementing it with the following business process concepts: timeline, duration for individual activities, responsibilities for individual activities within swimlanes, and descriptive text. The authors used an enhanced activity diagram for modeling surveillance processes in the cancer registration domain. Specific example illustrates the use of an enhanced activity diagram to visualize a process of linking cancer registry records with external mortality files. Enhanced activity diagram allows for the addition of more business concepts to a single diagram and can improve descriptions of processes in cancer registration, as well as in other domains. Additional features of an enhanced activity diagram allow to advance the visualization of cancer registration processes. That, in turn, promotes the clarification of issues related to the process timeline, responsibilities for particular operations, and collaborations among process participants. Our first experiences in a cancer registry best practices development workshop setting support the usefulness of such an approach.

  3. DISCO - A concept of a system for integrated data base management in distributed data processing systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holler, E.

    1980-01-01

    The development in data processing technology favors the trend towards distributed data processing systems: The large-scale integration of semiconductor devices has lead to very efficient (approx. 10 6 operations per second) and relatively cheap low end computers being offered today, that allow to install distributed data processing systems with a total capacity coming near to that of large-scale data processing plants at a tolerable investment expenditure. The technologies of communication and data banks, each by itself, have reached a state of development justifying their routine application. This is made evident by the present efforts for standardization in both areas. The integration of both technologies in the development of systems for integrated distributed data bank management, however, is new territory for engineering. (orig.) [de

  4. Analysis of coals and biomass pyrolysis using the distributed activation energy model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhengqi; Liu, Chunlong; Chen, Zhichao; Qian, Juan; Zhao, Wei; Zhu, Qunyi

    2009-01-01

    The thermal decomposition of coals and biomass was studied using thermogravimetric analysis with the distributed activation energy model. The integral method resulted in Datong bituminous coal conversions of 3-73% at activation energies of 100-486 kJ/mol. The corresponding frequency factors were e(19.5)-e(59.0)s(-1). Jindongnan lean coal conversions were 8-52% at activation energies of 100-462 kJ/mol. Their corresponding frequency factors were e(13.0)-e(55.8)s(-1). The conversion of corn-stalk skins were 1-84% at activation energies of 62-169 kJ/mol with frequency factors of e(10.8)-e(26.5)s(-1). Datong bituminous coal, Jindongnan lean coal and corn-stalk skins had approximate Gaussian distribution functions with linear ln k(0) to E relationships.

  5. Fuel distribution process risk analysis in East Borneo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laksmita Raizsa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Fuel distribution is an important aspect of fulfilling the customer’s need. It is risky because it can cause tardiness that can cause fuel scarcity. In the process of distribution, many risks are occurring. House of Risk is a method used for mitigating the risk. It identifies seven risk events and nine risk agents. Matrix occurrence and severity are used for eliminating the minor impact risk. House of Risk 1 is used for determining the Aggregate Risk Potential (ARP. Pareto diagram is applied to prioritize risk that must be mitigated by preventive actions based on ARP. It identifies 4 priority risks, namely A8 (Car trouble, A4 (Human Error, A3 (Error deposit via bank and underpayment, and A6 (traffic accident which should be mitigated. House of Risk 2 makes for mapping between the preventive action and risk agent. It gets the Effectiveness to Difficulty Ratio (ETD for mitigating action. Conducting safety talk routine once every three days with ETD 2088 is the primary preventive actions.

  6. Optimization based on benefit of regional energy suppliers of distributed generation in active distribution network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Xianxu; Li, Guodong; Jiang, Ling; Wang, Xudong

    2017-08-01

    With the development of electricity market, distributed generation (DG) technology and related policies, regional energy suppliers are encouraged to build DG. Under this background, the concept of active distribution network (ADN) is put forward. In this paper, a bi-level model of intermittent DG considering benefit of regional energy suppliers is proposed. The objective of the upper level is the maximization of benefit of regional energy suppliers. On this basis, the lower level is optimized for each scene. The uncertainties of DG output and load of users, as well as four active management measures, which include demand-side management, curtailing the output power of DG, regulating reactive power compensation capacity and regulating the on-load tap changer, are considered. Harmony search algorithm and particle swarm optimization are combined as a hybrid strategy to solve the model. This model and strategy are tested with IEEE-33 node system, and results of case study indicate that the model and strategy successfully increase the capacity of DG and benefit of regional energy suppliers.

  7. Transient Properties of Probability Distribution for a Markov Process with Size-dependent Additive Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Yuhei; Yamazaki, Yoshihiro

    2018-04-01

    This study considered a stochastic model for cluster growth in a Markov process with a cluster size dependent additive noise. According to this model, the probability distribution of the cluster size transiently becomes an exponential or a log-normal distribution depending on the initial condition of the growth. In this letter, a master equation is obtained for this model, and derivation of the distributions is discussed.

  8. Communication Systems and Study Method for Active Distribution Power systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wei, Mu; Chen, Zhe

    Due to the involvement and evolvement of communication technologies in contemporary power systems, the applications of modern communication technologies in distribution power system are becoming increasingly important. In this paper, the International Organization for Standardization (ISO......) reference seven-layer model of communication systems, and the main communication technologies and protocols on each corresponding layer are introduced. Some newly developed communication techniques, like Ethernet, are discussed with reference to the possible applications in distributed power system....... The suitability of the communication technology to the distribution power system with active renewable energy based generation units is discussed. Subsequently the typical possible communication systems are studied by simulation. In this paper, a novel method of integrating communication system impact into power...

  9. Lipid-laden cells differentially distributed in the aging brain are functionally active and correspond to distinct phenotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimabukuro, Marilia Kimie; Langhi, Larissa Gutman Paranhos; Cordeiro, Ingrid; Brito, José M.; Batista, Claudia Maria de Castro; Mattson, Mark P.; de Mello Coelho, Valeria

    2016-01-01

    We characterized cerebral Oil Red O-positive lipid-laden cells (LLC) of aging mice evaluating their distribution, morphology, density, functional activities and inflammatory phenotype. We identified LLC in meningeal, cortical and neurogenic brain regions. The density of cerebral LLC increased with age. LLC presenting small lipid droplets were visualized adjacent to blood vessels or deeper in the brain cortical and striatal parenchyma of aging mice. LLC with larger droplets were asymmetrically distributed in the cerebral ventricle walls, mainly located in the lateral wall. We also found that LLC in the subventricular region co-expressed beclin-1 or LC3, markers for autophagosome or autophagolysosome formation, and perilipin (PLIN), a lipid droplet-associated protein, suggesting lipophagic activity. Some cerebral LLC exhibited β galactosidase activity indicating a senescence phenotype. Moreover, we detected production of the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α in cortical PLIN+ LLC. Some cortical NeuN+ neurons, GFAP+ glia limitans astrocytes, Iba-1+ microglia and S100β+ ependymal cells expressed PLIN in the aging brain. Our findings suggest that cerebral LLC exhibit distinct cellular phenotypes and may participate in the age-associated neuroinflammatory processes. PMID:27029648

  10. Lipid-laden cells differentially distributed in the aging brain are functionally active and correspond to distinct phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimabukuro, Marilia Kimie; Langhi, Larissa Gutman Paranhos; Cordeiro, Ingrid; Brito, José M; Batista, Claudia Maria de Castro; Mattson, Mark P; Mello Coelho, Valeria de

    2016-03-31

    We characterized cerebral Oil Red O-positive lipid-laden cells (LLC) of aging mice evaluating their distribution, morphology, density, functional activities and inflammatory phenotype. We identified LLC in meningeal, cortical and neurogenic brain regions. The density of cerebral LLC increased with age. LLC presenting small lipid droplets were visualized adjacent to blood vessels or deeper in the brain cortical and striatal parenchyma of aging mice. LLC with larger droplets were asymmetrically distributed in the cerebral ventricle walls, mainly located in the lateral wall. We also found that LLC in the subventricular region co-expressed beclin-1 or LC3, markers for autophagosome or autophagolysosome formation, and perilipin (PLIN), a lipid droplet-associated protein, suggesting lipophagic activity. Some cerebral LLC exhibited β galactosidase activity indicating a senescence phenotype. Moreover, we detected production of the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α in cortical PLIN(+) LLC. Some cortical NeuN(+) neurons, GFAP(+) glia limitans astrocytes, Iba-1(+) microglia and S100β(+) ependymal cells expressed PLIN in the aging brain. Our findings suggest that cerebral LLC exhibit distinct cellular phenotypes and may participate in the age-associated neuroinflammatory processes.

  11. Evaluating influence of active tectonics on spatial distribution pattern of floods along eastern Tamil Nadu, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvakumar, R.; Ramasamy, SM.

    2014-12-01

    Flooding is a naturally recurrent phenomenon that causes severe damage to lives and property. Predictions on flood-prone zones are made based on intensity-duration of rainfall, carrying capacity of drainage, and natural or man-made obstructions. Particularly, the lower part of the drainage system and its adjacent geomorphic landforms like floodplains and deltaic plains are considered for analysis, but stagnation in parts of basins that are far away from major riverine systems is less unveiled. Similarly, uncharacteristic flooding in the upper and middle parts of drainage, especially in zones of an anomalous drainage pattern, is also least understood. Even though topographic differences are attributed for such anomalous spatial occurrence of floods, its genetic cause has to be identified for effective management practice. Added to structural and lithological variations, tectonic movements too impart micro-scale terrain undulations. Because active tectonic movements are slow-occurring, long-term geological processes, its resultant topographical variations and drainage anomalies are least correlated with floods. The recent floods of Tamil Nadu also exhibit a unique distribution pattern emphasizing the role of tectonics over it. Hence a detailed geoinformatics-based analysis was carried out to envisage the relationship between spatial distribution of flood and active tectonic elements such as regional arches and deeps, block faults, and graben and drainage anomalies such as deflected drainage, compressed meander, and eyed drainages. The analysis reveals that micro-scale topographic highs and lows imparted by active tectonic movements and its further induced drainage anomalies have substantially controlled the distribution pattern of flood.

  12. Distributed resource management across process boundaries

    KAUST Repository

    Suresh, Lalith

    2017-09-27

    Multi-tenant distributed systems composed of small services, such as Service-oriented Architectures (SOAs) and Micro-services, raise new challenges in attaining high performance and efficient resource utilization. In these systems, a request execution spans tens to thousands of processes, and the execution paths and resource demands on different services are generally not known when a request first enters the system. In this paper, we highlight the fundamental challenges of regulating load and scheduling in SOAs while meeting end-to-end performance objectives on metrics of concern to both tenants and operators. We design Wisp, a framework for building SOAs that transparently adapts rate limiters and request schedulers system-wide according to operator policies to satisfy end-to-end goals while responding to changing system conditions. In evaluations against production as well as synthetic workloads, Wisp successfully enforces a range of end-to-end performance objectives, such as reducing average latencies, meeting deadlines, providing fairness and isolation, and avoiding system overload.

  13. Distributed resource management across process boundaries

    KAUST Repository

    Suresh, Lalith; Bodik, Peter; Menache, Ishai; Canini, Marco; Ciucu, Florin

    2017-01-01

    Multi-tenant distributed systems composed of small services, such as Service-oriented Architectures (SOAs) and Micro-services, raise new challenges in attaining high performance and efficient resource utilization. In these systems, a request execution spans tens to thousands of processes, and the execution paths and resource demands on different services are generally not known when a request first enters the system. In this paper, we highlight the fundamental challenges of regulating load and scheduling in SOAs while meeting end-to-end performance objectives on metrics of concern to both tenants and operators. We design Wisp, a framework for building SOAs that transparently adapts rate limiters and request schedulers system-wide according to operator policies to satisfy end-to-end goals while responding to changing system conditions. In evaluations against production as well as synthetic workloads, Wisp successfully enforces a range of end-to-end performance objectives, such as reducing average latencies, meeting deadlines, providing fairness and isolation, and avoiding system overload.

  14. Modeling of flash calcination process during clay activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borrajo Perez, Ruben; Gonzalez Bayon, Juan Jose; Sanchez Rodriguez, Andy A.

    2011-01-01

    Pozzolanic activity in some materials can be increased by means of different processes, among them, thermal activation is one of the most promising. The activation process, occurring at high temperatures and velocities produces a material with better characteristics. In the last few years, high reactivity pozzolan during cure's early days has been produced. Temperature is an important parameter in the activation process and as a consequence, the activation units must consider temperature variation to allow the use of different raw materials, each one of them with different characteristics. Considering the high prices of Kaolin in the market, new materials are being tested, the clayey soil, which after a sedimentation process produces a clay that has turned out to be a suitable raw material, when the kinetics of the pozzolanic reaction is considered. Additionally, other material with higher levels of kaolin are being used with good results. This paper is about the modeling of thermal, hydrodynamics and dehydroxilation processes suffering for solids particles exposed to a hot gas stream. The models employed are discussed; the velocity and temperature of particles are obtained as a function of carrier gas parameters. The calculation include the heat losses and finally the model predict the residence time needed for finish the activation process. (author)

  15. High speed vision processor with reconfigurable processing element array based on full-custom distributed memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhe; Yang, Jie; Shi, Cong; Qin, Qi; Liu, Liyuan; Wu, Nanjian

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, a hybrid vision processor based on a compact full-custom distributed memory for near-sensor high-speed image processing is proposed. The proposed processor consists of a reconfigurable processing element (PE) array, a row processor (RP) array, and a dual-core microprocessor. The PE array includes two-dimensional processing elements with a compact full-custom distributed memory. It supports real-time reconfiguration between the PE array and the self-organized map (SOM) neural network. The vision processor is fabricated using a 0.18 µm CMOS technology. The circuit area of the distributed memory is reduced markedly into 1/3 of that of the conventional memory so that the circuit area of the vision processor is reduced by 44.2%. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed design achieves correct functions.

  16. Antioxidant Activity from Various Tomato Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Retno Sri Iswari

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Tomato is one of the high antioxidant potential vegetables. Nowadays, there are many techniques of tomato processings instead of fresh consumption, i.e. boiled, steamed, juiced and sauteed. Every treatment of cooking will influence the chemical compound inside the fruits and the body's nutrition intake. It is important to conduct the research on antioxidant compound especially lycopene, β-carotene, vitamin C, α-tocopherol, and its activity after processing. This research has been done using the experimental method. Tomatoes were cooked into six difference ways, and then it was extracted using the same procedure continued with antioxidant measurement. The research results showed that steaming had promoted the higher antioxidant numbers (lycopene. α-tocopherol, β-carotene and vitamin C and higher TCA and antioxidant activities in the tomatoes than other processings. It was indicated that steaming was the best way to enhance amount, capacity and activities of antioxidants of the tomatoes.

  17. The role of activity complexes in the distribution of solar magnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García de La Rosa, J. I.; Reyes, R. C.

    Using published data on the large-scale distribution of solar activity, the authors conclude that the longlived coronal holes are formed and maintained by the unbalanced magnetic flux which developes at both extremes of the complexes of activity.

  18. Reinforcing Sampling Distributions through a Randomization-Based Activity for Introducing ANOVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Laura; Doehler, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the use of a randomization-based activity to introduce the ANOVA F-test to students. The two main goals of this activity are to successfully teach students to comprehend ANOVA F-tests and to increase student comprehension of sampling distributions. Four sections of students in an advanced introductory statistics course…

  19. TCP (truncated compound Poisson) process for multiplicity distributions in high energy collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastave, P.P.

    1990-01-01

    On using the Poisson distribution truncated at zero for intermediate cluster decay in a compound Poisson process, the authors obtain TCP distribution which describes quite well the multiplicity distributions in high energy collisions. A detailed comparison is made between TCP and NB for UA5 data. The reduced moments up to the fifth agree very well with the observed ones. The TCP curves are narrower than NB at high multiplicity tail, look narrower at very high energy and develop shoulders and oscillations which become increasingly pronounced as the energy grows. At lower energies the distributions, of the data for fixed intervals of rapidity for UA5 data and for the data (at low energy) for e + e - annihilation and pion-proton, proton-proton and muon-proton scattering. A discussion of compound Poisson distribution, expression of reduced moments and Poisson transforms are also given. The TCP curves and curves of the reduced moments for different values of the parameters are also presented

  20. Variation in recombination frequency and distribution across eukaryotes: patterns and processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feulner, Philine G. D.; Johnston, Susan E.; Santure, Anna W.; Smadja, Carole M.

    2017-01-01

    Recombination, the exchange of DNA between maternal and paternal chromosomes during meiosis, is an essential feature of sexual reproduction in nearly all multicellular organisms. While the role of recombination in the evolution of sex has received theoretical and empirical attention, less is known about how recombination rate itself evolves and what influence this has on evolutionary processes within sexually reproducing organisms. Here, we explore the patterns of, and processes governing recombination in eukaryotes. We summarize patterns of variation, integrating current knowledge with an analysis of linkage map data in 353 organisms. We then discuss proximate and ultimate processes governing recombination rate variation and consider how these influence evolutionary processes. Genome-wide recombination rates (cM/Mb) can vary more than tenfold across eukaryotes, and there is large variation in the distribution of recombination events across closely related taxa, populations and individuals. We discuss how variation in rate and distribution relates to genome architecture, genetic and epigenetic mechanisms, sex, environmental perturbations and variable selective pressures. There has been great progress in determining the molecular mechanisms governing recombination, and with the continued development of new modelling and empirical approaches, there is now also great opportunity to further our understanding of how and why recombination rate varies. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Evolutionary causes and consequences of recombination rate variation in sexual organisms’. PMID:29109219

  1. Research on pyrolysis behavior of Camellia sinensis branches via the Discrete Distributed Activation Energy Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Bingliang; Zhou, Jianbin; Zhang, Qisheng

    2017-10-01

    This study aims at investigating the pyrolysis behavior of Camellia sinensis branches by the Discrete Distributed Activation Energy Model (DAEM) and thermogravimetric experiments. Then the Discrete DAEM method is used to describe pyrolysis process of Camellia sinensis branches dominated by 12 characterized reactions. The decomposition mechanism of Camellia sinensis branches and interaction with components are observed. And the reaction at 350.77°C is a significant boundary of the first and second reaction range. The pyrolysis process of Camellia sinensis branches at the heating rate of 10,000°C/min is predicted and provides valuable references for gasification or combustion. The relationship and function between four typical indexes and heating rates from 10 to 10,000°C/min are revealed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Global Distribution and Variations of NO Infrared Radiative Flux and Its Responses to Solar Activity and Geomagnetic Activity in the Thermosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Chaoli; Wei, Yuanyuan; Liu, Dong; Luo, Tao; Dai, Congming; Wei, Heli

    2017-12-01

    The global distribution and variations of NO infrared radiative flux (NO-IRF) are presented during 2002-2016 in the thermosphere covering 100-280 km altitude based on Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) data set. For investigating the spatial variations of the mutual relationship between NO-IRF and solar activity, the altitude ranges from 100 km to 280 km are divided into 90 altitude bins, and the latitude regions of 83°S-83°N are divided into 16 latitude bins. By processing about 1.8E9 NO-IRF observation values from about 5E6 vertical nighttime profiles recorded in SABER data set, we obtained more than 4.1E8 samples of NO-IRF. The annual-mean values of NO-IRF are then calculated by all available NO-IRF samples within each latitude and altitude bin. Local latitudinal maxima in NO-IRF are found between 120 and 145 km altitude, and the maximum NO-IRF located at polar regions are 3 times more than that of the minimum at equatorial region. The influences of solar and geomagnetic activity on the spatial variations of NO-IRF are investigated. Both the NO-IRF and its response to solar and geomagnetic activity show nearly symmetric distribution between the two hemispheres. It is demonstrated that the observed changes in NO-IRF at altitudes between 100 and 225 km correlate well with the changes in solar activity. The NO-IRF at solar maximum is about 4 times than that at solar minimum, and the current maximum of NO-IRF in 2014 is less than 70% of the prior maximum in 2001. For the first time, the response ranges of the NO-IRF to solar and geomagnetic activity at different altitudes and latitudes are reported.

  3. Gene tree rooting methods give distributions that mimic the coalescent process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yuan; Kubatko, Laura S

    2014-01-01

    Multi-locus phylogenetic inference is commonly carried out via models that incorporate the coalescent process to model the possibility that incomplete lineage sorting leads to incongruence between gene trees and the species tree. An interesting question that arises in this context is whether data "fit" the coalescent model. Previous work (Rosenfeld et al., 2012) has suggested that rooting of gene trees may account for variation in empirical data that has been previously attributed to the coalescent process. We examine this possibility using simulated data. We show that, in the case of four taxa, the distribution of gene trees observed from rooting estimated gene trees with either the molecular clock or with outgroup rooting can be closely matched by the distribution predicted by the coalescent model with specific choices of species tree branch lengths. We apply commonly-used coalescent-based methods of species tree inference to assess their performance in these situations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Design and simulation of parallel and distributed architectures for images processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirson, Alain

    1990-01-01

    The exploitation of visual information requires special computers. The diversity of operations and the Computing power involved bring about structures founded on the concepts of concurrency and distributed processing. This work identifies a vision computer with an association of dedicated intelligent entities, exchanging messages according to the model of parallelism introduced by the language Occam. It puts forward an architecture of the 'enriched processor network' type. It consists of a classical multiprocessor structure where each node is provided with specific devices. These devices perform processing tasks as well as inter-nodes dialogues. Such an architecture benefits from the homogeneity of multiprocessor networks and the power of dedicated resources. Its implementation corresponds to that of a distributed structure, tasks being allocated to each Computing element. This approach culminates in an original architecture called ATILA. This modular structure is based on a transputer network supplied with vision dedicated co-processors and powerful communication devices. (author) [fr

  5. Selection of Activities in Dynamic Business Process Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toma Rusinaitė

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Maintaining dynamicity of business processes is one of the core issues of today's business as it enables businesses to adapt to constantly changing environment. Upon changing the processes, it is vital to assess possible impact, which is achieved by using simulation of dynamic processes. In order to implement dynamicity in business processes, it is necessary to have an ability to change components of the process (a set of activities, a content of activity, a set of activity sequences, a set of rules, performers and resources or dynamically select them during execution. This problem attracted attention of researches over the past few years; however, there is no proposed solution, which ensures the business process (BP dynamicity. This paper proposes and specifies dynamic business process (DBP simulation model, which satisfies all of the formulated DBP requirements.

  6. CLINICAL SURFACES - Activity-Based Computing for Distributed Multi-Display Environments in Hospitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardram, Jakob E.; Bunde-Pedersen, Jonathan; Doryab, Afsaneh; Sørensen, Steffen

    A multi-display environment (MDE) is made up of co-located and networked personal and public devices that form an integrated workspace enabling co-located group work. Traditionally, MDEs have, however, mainly been designed to support a single “smart room”, and have had little sense of the tasks and activities that the MDE is being used for. This paper presents a novel approach to support activity-based computing in distributed MDEs, where displays are physically distributed across a large building. CLINICAL SURFACES was designed for clinical work in hospitals, and enables context-sensitive retrieval and browsing of patient data on public displays. We present the design and implementation of CLINICAL SURFACES, and report from an evaluation of the system at a large hospital. The evaluation shows that using distributed public displays to support activity-based computing inside a hospital is very useful for clinical work, and that the apparent contradiction between maintaining privacy of medical data in a public display environment can be mitigated by the use of CLINICAL SURFACES.

  7. 23 CFR 450.208 - Coordination of planning process activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... process. (h) The statewide transportation planning process should be consistent with the Strategic Highway... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Coordination of planning process activities. 450.208... Coordination of planning process activities. (a) In carrying out the statewide transportation planning process...

  8. Parallel Distributed Processing Theory in the Age of Deep Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Jeffrey S

    2017-12-01

    Parallel distributed processing (PDP) models in psychology are the precursors of deep networks used in computer science. However, only PDP models are associated with two core psychological claims, namely that all knowledge is coded in a distributed format and cognition is mediated by non-symbolic computations. These claims have long been debated in cognitive science, and recent work with deep networks speaks to this debate. Specifically, single-unit recordings show that deep networks learn units that respond selectively to meaningful categories, and researchers are finding that deep networks need to be supplemented with symbolic systems to perform some tasks. Given the close links between PDP and deep networks, it is surprising that research with deep networks is challenging PDP theory. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Physical activity staging distribution: establishing a heuristic using multiple studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigg, C; Hellsten, L; Norman, G; Braun, L; Breger, R; Burbank, P; Coday, M; Elliot, D; Garber, C; Greaney, M; Keteyian, S; Lees, F; Matthews, C; Moe, E; Resnick, B; Riebe, D; Rossi, J; Toobert, D; Wang, T; Welk, G; Williams, G

    2005-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the population prevalence across the stages of change (SoC) for regular physical activity and to establish the prevalence of people at risk. With support from the National Institutes of Health, the American Heart Association, and the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, nine Behavior Change Consortium studies with a common physical activity SoC measure agreed to collaborate and share data. The distribution pattern identified in these predominantly reactively recruited studies was Precontemplation (PC) = 5% (+/- 10), Contemplation (C) = 10% (+/- 10), Preparation (P) = 40% (+/- 10), Action = 10% (+/- 10), and Maintenance = 35% (+/- 10). With reactively recruited studies, it can be anticipated that there will be a higher percentage of the sample that is ready to change and a greater percentage of currently active people compared to random representative samples. The at-risk stage distribution (i.e., those not at criteria or PC, C, and P) was approximately 10% PC, 20% C, and 70% P in specific samples and approximately 20% PC, 10% C, and 70% P in the clinical samples. Knowing SoC heuristics can inform public health practitioners and policymakers about the population's motivation for physical activity, help track changes over time, and assist in the allocation of resources.

  10. Unified theory for stochastic modelling of hydroclimatic processes: Preserving marginal distributions, correlation structures, and intermittency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papalexiou, Simon Michael

    2018-05-01

    Hydroclimatic processes come in all "shapes and sizes". They are characterized by different spatiotemporal correlation structures and probability distributions that can be continuous, mixed-type, discrete or even binary. Simulating such processes by reproducing precisely their marginal distribution and linear correlation structure, including features like intermittency, can greatly improve hydrological analysis and design. Traditionally, modelling schemes are case specific and typically attempt to preserve few statistical moments providing inadequate and potentially risky distribution approximations. Here, a single framework is proposed that unifies, extends, and improves a general-purpose modelling strategy, based on the assumption that any process can emerge by transforming a specific "parent" Gaussian process. A novel mathematical representation of this scheme, introducing parametric correlation transformation functions, enables straightforward estimation of the parent-Gaussian process yielding the target process after the marginal back transformation, while it provides a general description that supersedes previous specific parameterizations, offering a simple, fast and efficient simulation procedure for every stationary process at any spatiotemporal scale. This framework, also applicable for cyclostationary and multivariate modelling, is augmented with flexible parametric correlation structures that parsimoniously describe observed correlations. Real-world simulations of various hydroclimatic processes with different correlation structures and marginals, such as precipitation, river discharge, wind speed, humidity, extreme events per year, etc., as well as a multivariate example, highlight the flexibility, advantages, and complete generality of the method.

  11. Predictive Active Set Selection Methods for Gaussian Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henao, Ricardo; Winther, Ole

    2012-01-01

    We propose an active set selection framework for Gaussian process classification for cases when the dataset is large enough to render its inference prohibitive. Our scheme consists of a two step alternating procedure of active set update rules and hyperparameter optimization based upon marginal...... high impact to the classifier decision process while removing those that are less relevant. We introduce two active set rules based on different criteria, the first one prefers a model with interpretable active set parameters whereas the second puts computational complexity first, thus a model...... with active set parameters that directly control its complexity. We also provide both theoretical and empirical support for our active set selection strategy being a good approximation of a full Gaussian process classifier. Our extensive experiments show that our approach can compete with state...

  12. Distributed and cooperative task processing: Cournot oligopolies on a graph.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlic, Theodore P; Passino, Kevin M

    2014-06-01

    This paper introduces a novel framework for the design of distributed agents that must complete externally generated tasks but also can volunteer to process tasks encountered by other agents. To reduce the computational and communication burden of coordination between agents to perfectly balance load around the network, the agents adjust their volunteering propensity asynchronously within a fictitious trading economy. This economy provides incentives for nontrivial levels of volunteering for remote tasks, and thus load is shared. Moreover, the combined effects of diminishing marginal returns and network topology lead to competitive equilibria that have task reallocations that are qualitatively similar to what is expected in a load-balancing system with explicit coordination between nodes. In the paper, topological and algorithmic conditions are given that ensure the existence and uniqueness of a competitive equilibrium. Additionally, a decentralized distributed gradient-ascent algorithm is given that is guaranteed to converge to this equilibrium while not causing any node to over-volunteer beyond its maximum task-processing rate. The framework is applied to an autonomous-air-vehicle example, and connections are drawn to classic studies of the evolution of cooperation in nature.

  13. Palantiri: a distributed real-time database system for process control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tummers, B.J.; Heubers, W.P.J.

    1992-01-01

    The medium-energy accelerator MEA, located in Amsterdam, is controlled by a heterogeneous computer network. A large real-time database contains the parameters involved in the control of the accelerator and the experiments. This database system was implemented about ten years ago and has since been extended several times. In response to increased needs the database system has been redesigned. The new database environment, as described in this paper, consists out of two new concepts: (1) A Palantir which is a per machine process that stores the locally declared data and forwards all non local requests for data access to the appropriate machine. It acts as a storage device for data and a looking glass upon the world. (2) Golems: working units that define the data within the Palantir, and that have knowledge of the hardware they control. Applications access the data of a Golem by name (which do resemble Unix path names). The palantir that runs on the same machine as the application handles the distribution of access requests. This paper focuses on the Palantir concept as a distributed data storage and event handling device for process control. (author)

  14. Methods, media and systems for managing a distributed application running in a plurality of digital processing devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laadan, Oren; Nieh, Jason; Phung, Dan

    2012-10-02

    Methods, media and systems for managing a distributed application running in a plurality of digital processing devices are provided. In some embodiments, a method includes running one or more processes associated with the distributed application in virtualized operating system environments on a plurality of digital processing devices, suspending the one or more processes, and saving network state information relating to network connections among the one or more processes. The method further include storing process information relating to the one or more processes, recreating the network connections using the saved network state information, and restarting the one or more processes using the stored process information.

  15. Consistent energy barrier distributions in magnetic particle chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laslett, O.; Ruta, S.; Chantrell, R.W.; Barker, J.; Friedman, G.; Hovorka, O.

    2016-01-01

    We investigate long-time thermal activation behaviour in magnetic particle chains of variable length. Chains are modelled as Stoner–Wohlfarth particles coupled by dipolar interactions. Thermal activation is described as a hopping process over a multidimensional energy landscape using the discrete orientation model limit of the Landau–Lifshitz–Gilbert dynamics. The underlying master equation is solved by diagonalising the associated transition matrix, which allows the evaluation of distributions of time scales of intrinsic thermal activation modes and their energy representation. It is shown that as a result of the interaction dependence of these distributions, increasing the particle chain length can lead to acceleration or deceleration of the overall relaxation process depending on the initialisation procedure.

  16. Applying Cross-Decking and Activity-Based Costing to Military Distribution Centers: A Proposed Framework

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Elliott, Jonathan

    1997-01-01

    .... Cross-docking is a commercially proven approach to material distribution through a distribution center that can help reduce inventories, speed material flows, and cut related logistics activity costs...

  17. Development of a model for activated sludge aeration systems: linking air supply, distribution, and demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schraa, Oliver; Rieger, Leiv; Alex, Jens

    2017-02-01

    During the design of a water resource recovery facility, it is becoming industry practice to use simulation software to assist with process design. Aeration is one of the key components of the activated sludge process, and is one of the most important aspects of modelling wastewater treatment systems. However, aeration systems are typically not modelled in detail in most wastewater treatment process modelling studies. A comprehensive dynamic aeration system model has been developed that captures both air supply and demand. The model includes sub-models for blowers, pipes, fittings, and valves. An extended diffuser model predicts both oxygen transfer efficiency within an aeration basin and pressure drop across the diffusers. The aeration system model allows engineers to analyse aeration systems as a whole to determine biological air requirements, blower performance, air distribution, control valve impacts, controller design and tuning, and energy costs. This enables engineers to trouble-shoot the entire aeration system including process, equipment and controls. It also allows much more realistic design of these highly complex systems.

  18. Autonomous Active and Reactive Power Distribution Strategy in Islanded Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Dan; Tang, Fen; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes an autonomous active and reactive power distribution strategy that can be applied directly on current control mode (CCM) inverters, being compatible as well with conventional droop-controlled voltage control mode (VCM) converters. In a microgrid, since renewable energy sources...

  19. Microelectrode measurements of the activity distribution in nitrifying bacterial aggregates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beer, de D.; Heuvel, van den J.C.; Ottengraf, S.P.P.

    1993-01-01

    Microelectrodes for ammonium, oxygen, nitrate, and pH were used to study nitrifying aggregates grown in a fluidized-bed reactor. Local reactant fluxes and distribution of microbial activity could be detd. from the microprofiles. The interfacial fluxes of the reactants closely reflected the

  20. Distributed process control system for remote control and monitoring of the TFTR tritium systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schobert, G.; Arnold, N.; Bashore, D.; Mika, R.; Oliaro, G.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reviews the progress made in the application of a commercially available distributed process control system to support the requirements established for the Tritium REmote Control And Monitoring System (TRECAMS) of the Tokamak Fusion Test REactor (TFTR). The system that will discussed was purchased from Texas (TI) Instruments Automation Controls Division), previously marketed by Rexnord Automation. It consists of three, fully redundant, distributed process controllers interfaced to over 1800 analog and digital I/O points. The operator consoles located throughout the facility are supported by four Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) PDP-11/73 computers. The PDP-11/73's and the three process controllers communicate over a fully redundant one megabaud fiber optic network. All system functionality is based on a set of completely integrated databases loaded to the process controllers and the PDP-11/73's. (author). 2 refs.; 2 figs

  1. Design and simulation for real-time distributed processing systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legrand, I.C.; Gellrich, A.; Gensah, U.; Leich, H.; Wegner, P.

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this work is to provide a proper framework for the simulation and the optimization of the event building, the on-line third level trigger, and complete event reconstruction processor farm for the future HERA-B experiment. A discrete event, process oriented, simulation developed in concurrent μC++ is used for modelling the farm nodes running with multi-tasking constraints and different types of switching elements and digital signal processors interconnected for distributing the data through the system. An adequate graphic interface to the simulation part which allows to monitor features on-line and to analyze trace files, provides a powerful development tool for evaluating and designing parallel processing architectures. Control software and data flow protocols for event building and dynamic processor allocation are presented for two architectural models. (author)

  2. Software/hardware distributed processing network supporting the Ada environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Richard J.; Pryk, Zen

    1993-09-01

    A high-performance, fault-tolerant, distributed network has been developed, tested, and demonstrated. The network is based on the MIPS Computer Systems, Inc. R3000 Risc for processing, VHSIC ASICs for high speed, reliable, inter-node communications and compatible commercial memory and I/O boards. The network is an evolution of the Advanced Onboard Signal Processor (AOSP) architecture. It supports Ada application software with an Ada- implemented operating system. A six-node implementation (capable of expansion up to 256 nodes) of the RISC multiprocessor architecture provides 120 MIPS of scalar throughput, 96 Mbytes of RAM and 24 Mbytes of non-volatile memory. The network provides for all ground processing applications, has merit for space-qualified RISC-based network, and interfaces to advanced Computer Aided Software Engineering (CASE) tools for application software development.

  3. Quantifying evenly distributed states in exclusion and nonexclusion processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Benjamin J.; Landman, Kerry A.

    2011-04-01

    Spatial-point data sets, generated from a wide range of physical systems and mathematical models, can be analyzed by counting the number of objects in equally sized bins. We find that the bin counts are related to the Pólya distribution. New measures are developed which indicate whether or not a spatial data set, generated from an exclusion process, is at its most evenly distributed state, the complete spatial randomness (CSR) state. To this end, we define an index in terms of the variance between the bin counts. Limiting values of the index are determined when objects have access to the entire domain and when there are subregions of the domain that are inaccessible to objects. Using three case studies (Lagrangian fluid particles in chaotic laminar flows, cellular automata agents in discrete models, and biological cells within colonies), we calculate the indexes and verify that our theoretical CSR limit accurately predicts the state of the system. These measures should prove useful in many biological applications.

  4. Spatial Data Exploring by Satellite Image Distributed Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihon, V. D.; Colceriu, V.; Bektas, F.; Allenbach, K.; Gvilava, M.; Gorgan, D.

    2012-04-01

    Our society needs and environmental predictions encourage the applications development, oriented on supervising and analyzing different Earth Science related phenomena. Satellite images could be explored for discovering information concerning land cover, hydrology, air quality, and water and soil pollution. Spatial and environment related data could be acquired by imagery classification consisting of data mining throughout the multispectral bands. The process takes in account a large set of variables such as satellite image types (e.g. MODIS, Landsat), particular geographic area, soil composition, vegetation cover, and generally the context (e.g. clouds, snow, and season). All these specific and variable conditions require flexible tools and applications to support an optimal search for the appropriate solutions, and high power computation resources. The research concerns with experiments on solutions of using the flexible and visual descriptions of the satellite image processing over distributed infrastructures (e.g. Grid, Cloud, and GPU clusters). This presentation highlights the Grid based implementation of the GreenLand application. The GreenLand application development is based on simple, but powerful, notions of mathematical operators and workflows that are used in distributed and parallel executions over the Grid infrastructure. Currently it is used in three major case studies concerning with Istanbul geographical area, Rioni River in Georgia, and Black Sea catchment region. The GreenLand application offers a friendly user interface for viewing and editing workflows and operators. The description involves the basic operators provided by GRASS [1] library as well as many other image related operators supported by the ESIP platform [2]. The processing workflows are represented as directed graphs giving the user a fast and easy way to describe complex parallel algorithms, without having any prior knowledge of any programming language or application commands

  5. On the joint distribution of excursion duration and amplitude of a narrow-band Gaussian process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghane, Mahdi; Gao, Zhen; Blanke, Mogens

    2018-01-01

    of amplitude and period are limited to excursion through a mean-level or to describe the asymptotic behavior of high level excursions. This paper extends the knowledge by presenting a theoretical derivation of probability of wave exceedance amplitude and duration, for a narrow-band Gaussian process......The probability density of crest amplitude and of duration of exceeding a given level are used in many theoretical and practical problems in engineering. The joint density is essential for design of constructions that are subjected to waves and wind. The presently available joint distributions...... distribution, as expected, and that the marginal distribution of excursion duration works both for asymptotic and non-asymptotic cases. The suggested model is found to be a good replacement for the empirical distributions that are widely used. Results from simulations of narrow-band Gaussian processes, real...

  6. Smart power router : a flexible agent-based converter interface in active distribution networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, P.H.; Kling, W.L.; Ribeiro, P.F.

    2011-01-01

    Due to the large-scale implementation of distributed generation, the power delivery system is changing gradually from a "vertically" to a "horizontally" controlled and operated structure. This transition has prompted the emergence of the active distribution network (ADN) concept as an efficient and

  7. Spatial distribution of enzyme activities along the root and in the rhizosphere of different plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavi, Bahar S.; Zarebanadkouki, Mohsen; Blagodatskaya, Evgenia; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2015-04-01

    Extracellular enzymes are important for decomposition of many biological macromolecules abundant in soil such as cellulose, hemicelluloses and proteins. Activities of enzymes produced by both plant roots and microbes are the primary biological drivers of organic matter decomposition and nutrient cycling. So far acquisition of in situ data about local activity of different enzymes in soil has been challenged. That is why there is an urgent need in spatially explicit methods such as 2-D zymography to determine the variation of enzymes along the roots in different plants. Here, we developed further the zymography technique in order to quantitatively visualize the enzyme activities (Spohn and Kuzyakov, 2013), with a better spatial resolution We grew Maize (Zea mays L.) and Lentil (Lens culinaris) in rhizoboxes under optimum conditions for 21 days to study spatial distribution of enzyme activity in soil and along roots. We visualized the 2D distribution of the activity of three enzymes:β-glucosidase, leucine amino peptidase and phosphatase, using fluorogenically labelled substrates. Spatial resolution of fluorescent images was improved by direct application of a substrate saturated membrane to the soil-root system. The newly-developed direct zymography shows different pattern of spatial distribution of enzyme activity along roots and soil of different plants. We observed a uniform distribution of enzyme activities along the root system of Lentil. However, root system of Maize demonstrated inhomogeneity of enzyme activities. The apical part of an individual root (root tip) in maize showed the highest activity. The activity of all enzymes was the highest at vicinity of the roots and it decreased towards the bulk soil. Spatial patterns of enzyme activities as a function of distance from the root surface were enzyme specific, with highest extension for phosphatase. We conclude that improved zymography is promising in situ technique to analyze, visualize and quantify

  8. Using Java for distributed computing in the Gaia satellite data processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Mullane, William; Luri, Xavier; Parsons, Paul; Lammers, Uwe; Hoar, John; Hernandez, Jose

    2011-10-01

    In recent years Java has matured to a stable easy-to-use language with the flexibility of an interpreter (for reflection etc.) but the performance and type checking of a compiled language. When we started using Java for astronomical applications around 1999 they were the first of their kind in astronomy. Now a great deal of astronomy software is written in Java as are many business applications. We discuss the current environment and trends concerning the language and present an actual example of scientific use of Java for high-performance distributed computing: ESA's mission Gaia. The Gaia scanning satellite will perform a galactic census of about 1,000 million objects in our galaxy. The Gaia community has chosen to write its processing software in Java. We explore the manifold reasons for choosing Java for this large science collaboration. Gaia processing is numerically complex but highly distributable, some parts being embarrassingly parallel. We describe the Gaia processing architecture and its realisation in Java. We delve into the astrometric solution which is the most advanced and most complex part of the processing. The Gaia simulator is also written in Java and is the most mature code in the system. This has been successfully running since about 2005 on the supercomputer "Marenostrum" in Barcelona. We relate experiences of using Java on a large shared machine. Finally we discuss Java, including some of its problems, for scientific computing.

  9. Spatio-temporal distribution of brain activity associated with audio-visually congruent and incongruent speech and the McGurk Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Hillel; Bleich, Naomi; Mittelman, Nomi

    2015-11-01

    Spatio-temporal distributions of cortical activity to audio-visual presentations of meaningless vowel-consonant-vowels and the effects of audio-visual congruence/incongruence, with emphasis on the McGurk effect, were studied. The McGurk effect occurs when a clearly audible syllable with one consonant, is presented simultaneously with a visual presentation of a face articulating a syllable with a different consonant and the resulting percept is a syllable with a consonant other than the auditorily presented one. Twenty subjects listened to pairs of audio-visually congruent or incongruent utterances and indicated whether pair members were the same or not. Source current densities of event-related potentials to the first utterance in the pair were estimated and effects of stimulus-response combinations, brain area, hemisphere, and clarity of visual articulation were assessed. Auditory cortex, superior parietal cortex, and middle temporal cortex were the most consistently involved areas across experimental conditions. Early (visual cortex. Clarity of visual articulation impacted activity in secondary visual cortex and Wernicke's area. McGurk perception was associated with decreased activity in primary and secondary auditory cortices and Wernicke's area before 100 msec, increased activity around 100 msec which decreased again around 180 msec. Activity in Broca's area was unaffected by McGurk perception and was only increased to congruent audio-visual stimuli 30-70 msec following consonant onset. The results suggest left hemisphere prominence in the effects of stimulus and response conditions on eight brain areas involved in dynamically distributed parallel processing of audio-visual integration. Initially (30-70 msec) subcortical contributions to auditory cortex, superior parietal cortex, and middle temporal cortex occur. During 100-140 msec, peristriate visual influences and Wernicke's area join in the processing. Resolution of incongruent audio-visual inputs is then

  10. Active integration of electric vehicles in the distribution network - theory, modelling and practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knezovic, Katarina

    an attractive asset for the distribution system operator (DSO). This thesis investigates how EVs can mitigate the self-induced adverse effects and actively help the distribution grid operation, either autonomously or in coordination, e.g., with an EV aggregator. The general framework for EV integration...

  11. The distribution contracts: an Iberian approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sónia de Carvalho

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The contracts of commercial distribution are indispensable legal instruments to the development of the economic activity. The distribution, since the industrial revolution, acquired autonomy, given the necessity of specialized intermediation to distribute good and products. In this process, the structural organization of the distribution process suffered mutations, starting to assume a set of activities aiming at adjusting demand to supply, including, among others, clients canvassing, after-sales services, financing and assumption of risks, advisory services, promotion and advertising. The insufficiency of traditional contracts of purchase and sales and commission to satisfy the distributive needs caused by the industrial revolution will justify the development of new contractual schemes, such us agency contract, commercial concession and franchising. The obligation of the distributer to ensure the interests of the producer and to promote the distribution of the goods and services of the producer, in the context of a lasting relation of cooperation between the parts, through which the distributer is incorporated, with greater or minor intensity, in the producer distribution network, allowed us to sustain, as affirmed in the Portuguese and European literature, that distribution contracts could be framed in the same legal category. These contracts, as contracts that were shaped by praxis, do not have, with exception of agency contract, a legal framework in Portugal and Spain. It has been discussed in literature if agency contract legal framework can be applied, by analogy, to the contracts that fit in the legal category of distribution contracts. This paper aims at analyzing the legal framework of contracts of distribution in these legal systems, with the purpose to discuss the analogical application of the agency contract to these contracts.

  12. A two-stage planning and control model toward Economically Adapted Power Distribution Systems using analytical hierarchy processes and fuzzy optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schweickardt, Gustavo [Instituto de Economia Energetica, Fundacion Bariloche, Centro Atomico Bariloche - Pabellon 7, Av. Bustillo km 9500, 8400 Bariloche (Argentina); Miranda, Vladimiro [INESC Porto, Instituto de Engenharia de Sistemas e Computadores do Porto and FEUP, Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto, R. Dr. Roberto Frias, 378, 4200-465 Porto (Portugal)

    2009-07-15

    This work presents a model to evaluate the Distribution System Dynamic De-adaptation respecting its planning for a given period of Tariff Control. The starting point for modeling is brought about by the results from a multi-criteria method based on Fuzzy Dynamic Programming and on Analytic Hierarchy Processes applied in a mid/short-term horizon (stage 1). Then, the decision-making activities using the Hierarchy Analytical Processes will allow defining, for a Control of System De-adaptation (stage 2), a Vector to evaluate the System Dynamic Adaptation. It is directly associated to an eventual series of inbalances that take place during its evolution. (author)

  13. Activate distributed energy resources' services: Hierarchical voltage controller as an application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Xue; Kosek, Anna Magdalena; Gehrke, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    The flexibilities from controllable distributed energy resources (DERs) offer the opportunities to mitigate some of the operation problems in the power distribution grid. The provision of system services requires the aggregation and coordination of their flexibilities, in order to obtain the flex......The flexibilities from controllable distributed energy resources (DERs) offer the opportunities to mitigate some of the operation problems in the power distribution grid. The provision of system services requires the aggregation and coordination of their flexibilities, in order to obtain...... the flexible capacity of large scale. In this paper, a hierarchical controller is presented to activate the aggregation, and tries to obtain a global optimum of the grid operation. A distribution grid with large penetration of highly varying generation or load is under the risk that the voltage quality...... delivered to the end users is very poor. Hence, a coordinated voltage control function is investigated given such control hierarchy utilizing the flexibilities from the DER units to obtain an optimal voltage profile along the distribution feeder. The results are two folded: the controller enables...

  14. Determination of impurity distributions in ingots of solar grade silicon by neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karches, Barbara; Hampel, Gabriele; Plonka, Christian; Stieghorst, Christian; Wiehl, Norbert [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Inst. for Nuclear Chemistry; Schoen, Jonas; Krenckel, Patricia; Riepe, Stephan [Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems, Freiburg (Germany); Gerstenberg, Heiko [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Heinz-Maier-Leibniz Zentrum; Ponsard, Bernard [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK CEN), Mol (Belgium). BR2 reactor

    2017-09-01

    In a series of crystallization experiments, the directional solidification of silicon was investigated as a low cost path for the production of silicon wafers for solar cells. Instrumental neutron activation analysis was employed to measure the influence of different crystallization parameters on the distribution of 3d-metal impurities of the produced ingots. A theoretical model describing the involved diffusion and segregation processes during the solidification and cooling of the ingots could be verified by the experimental results. By successive etching of the samples after the irradiation, it could be shown that a layer of at least 60 μm of the samples has to be removed to get real bulk concentrations.

  15. Predicting cycle time distributions for integrated processing workstations : an aggregate modeling approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veeger, C.P.L.; Etman, L.F.P.; Lefeber, A.A.J.; Adan, I.J.B.F.; Herk, van J.; Rooda, J.E.

    2011-01-01

    To predict cycle time distributions of integrated processing workstations, detailed simulation models are almost exclusively used; these models require considerable development and maintenance effort. As an alternative, we propose an aggregate model that is a lumped-parameter representation of the

  16. Exact probability distribution function for the volatility of cumulative production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadourian, Rubina; Klümper, Andreas

    2018-04-01

    In this paper we study the volatility and its probability distribution function for the cumulative production based on the experience curve hypothesis. This work presents a generalization of the study of volatility in Lafond et al. (2017), which addressed the effects of normally distributed noise in the production process. Due to its wide applicability in industrial and technological activities we present here the mathematical foundation for an arbitrary distribution function of the process, which we expect will pave the future research on forecasting of the production process.

  17. Application of activity pencil beam algorithm using measured distribution data of positron emitter nuclei for therapeutic SOBP proton beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyatake, Aya; Nishio, Teiji

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Recently, much research on imaging the clinical proton-irradiated volume using positron emitter nuclei based on target nuclear fragment reaction has been carried out. The purpose of this study is to develop an activity pencil beam (APB) algorithm for a simulation system for proton-activated positron-emitting imaging in clinical proton therapy using spread-out Bragg peak (SOBP) beams.Methods: The target nuclei of activity distribution calculations are 12 C nuclei, 16 O nuclei, and 40 Ca nuclei, which are the main elements in a human body. Depth activity distributions with SOBP beam irradiations were obtained from the material information of ridge filter (RF) and depth activity distributions of compounds of the three target nuclei measured by BOLPs-RGp (beam ON-LINE PET system mounted on a rotating gantry port) with mono-energetic Bragg peak (MONO) beam irradiations. The calculated data of depth activity distributions with SOBP beam irradiations were sorted in terms of kind of nucleus, energy of proton beam, SOBP width, and thickness of fine degrader (FD), which were verified. The calculated depth activity distributions with SOBP beam irradiations were compared with the measured ones. APB kernels were made from the calculated depth activity distributions with SOBP beam irradiations to construct a simulation system using the APB algorithm for SOBP beams.Results: The depth activity distributions were prepared using the material information of RF and the measured depth activity distributions with MONO beam irradiations for clinical therapy using SOBP beams. With the SOBP width widening, the distal fall-offs of depth activity distributions and the difference from the depth dose distributions were large. The shapes of the calculated depth activity distributions nearly agreed with those of the measured ones upon comparison between the two. The APB kernels of SOBP beams were prepared by making use of the data on depth activity distributions with SOBP beam

  18. Monofractal or multifractal: a case study of spatial distribution of mining-induced seismic activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Eneva

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Using finite data sets and limited size of study volumes may result in significant spurious effects when estimating the scaling properties of various physical processes. These effects are examined with an example featuring the spatial distribution of induced seismic activity in Creighton Mine (northern Ontario, Canada. The events studied in the present work occurred during a three-month period, March-May 1992, within a volume of approximate size 400 x 400 x 180 m3. Two sets of microearthquake locations are studied: Data Set 1 (14,338 events and Data Set 2 (1654 events. Data Set 1 includes the more accurately located events and amounts to about 30 per cent of all recorded data. Data Set 2 represents a portion of the first data set that is formed by the most accurately located and the strongest microearthquakes. The spatial distribution of events in the two data sets is examined for scaling behaviour using the method of generalized correlation integrals featuring various moments q. From these, generalized correlation dimensions are estimated using the slope method. Similar estimates are made for randomly generated point sets using the same numbers of events and the same study volumes as for the real data. Uniform and monofractal random distributions are used for these simulations. In addition, samples from the real data are randomly extracted and the dimension spectra for these are examined as well. The spectra for the uniform and monofractal random generations show spurious multifractality due only to the use of finite numbers of data points and limited size of study volume. Comparing these with the spectra of dimensions for Data Set 1 and Data Set 2 allows us to estimate the bias likely to be present in the estimates for the real data. The strong multifractality suggested by the spectrum for Data Set 2 appears to be largely spurious; the spatial distribution, while different from uniform, could originate from a monofractal process. The spatial

  19. Application of a distributed systems architecture for increased speed in image processing on an autonomous ground vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Adam A.; Momin, Orko; Shin, Young Ho; Shakya, Rahul; Nepal, Kumud; Ahlgren, David J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the application of a distributed systems architecture to an autonomous ground vehicle, Q, that participates in both the autonomous and navigation challenges of the Intelligent Ground Vehicle Competition. In the autonomous challenge the vehicle is required to follow a course, while avoiding obstacles and staying within the course boundaries, which are marked by white lines. For the navigation challenge, the vehicle is required to reach a set of target destinations, known as way points, with given GPS coordinates and avoid obstacles that it encounters in the process. Previously the vehicle utilized a single laptop to execute all processing activities including image processing, sensor interfacing and data processing, path planning and navigation algorithms and motor control. National Instruments' (NI) LabVIEW served as the programming language for software implementation. As an upgrade to last year's design, a NI compact Reconfigurable Input/Output system (cRIO) was incorporated to the system architecture. The cRIO is NI's solution for rapid prototyping that is equipped with a real time processor, an FPGA and modular input/output. Under the current system, the real time processor handles the path planning and navigation algorithms, the FPGA gathers and processes sensor data. This setup leaves the laptop to focus on running the image processing algorithm. Image processing as previously presented by Nepal et. al. is a multi-step line extraction algorithm and constitutes the largest processor load. This distributed approach results in a faster image processing algorithm which was previously Q's bottleneck. Additionally, the path planning and navigation algorithms are executed more reliably on the real time processor due to the deterministic nature of operation. The implementation of this architecture required exploration of various inter-system communication techniques. Data transfer between the laptop and the real time processor using UDP packets

  20. Frequency distribution analysis of the long-lived beta-activity of air dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunzl, K.; Hoetzl, H.; Winkler, R.

    1977-01-01

    In order to compare the average annual beta activities of air dust a frequency distribution analysis of data has been carried out in order to select a representative quantity for the average value of the data group. It was found that the data to be analysed were consistent with a log-normal frequency distribution and therefore calculations were made of, as the representative average, the median of the beta activity of each year as the antilog of the arithmetric mean of the logarithms, log x, of the analytical values x. The 95% confidence limits were also obtained. The quantities thus calculated are summarized in tabular form. (U.K.)

  1. The complete information for phenomenal distributed parameter control of multicomponent chemical processes in gas, fluid and solid phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemiec, W.

    1985-01-01

    A constitutive mathematical model of distributed parameters of multicomponent chemical processes in gas, fluid and solid phase is utilized to the realization of phenomenal distributed parameter control of these processes. Original systems of partial differential constitutive state equations, in the following derivative forms /I/, /II/ and /III/ are solved in this paper from the point of view of information for phenomenal distributed parameter control of considered processes. Obtained in this way for multicomponent chemical processes in gas, fluid and solid phase: -dynamical working space-time characteristics/analytical solutions in working space-time of chemical reactors/, -dynamical phenomenal Green functions as working space-time transfer functions, -statical working space characteristics /analytical solutions in working space of chemical reactors/, -statical phenomenal Green functions as working space transfer functions, are applied, as information for realization of constitutive distributed parameter control of mass, energy and momentum aspects of above processes. Two cases are considered by existence of: A/sup o/ - initial conditions, B/sup o/ - initial and boundary conditions, for multicomponent chemical processes in gas, fluid and solid phase

  2. Multiplicative point process as a model of trading activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gontis, V.; Kaulakys, B.

    2004-11-01

    Signals consisting of a sequence of pulses show that inherent origin of the 1/ f noise is a Brownian fluctuation of the average interevent time between subsequent pulses of the pulse sequence. In this paper, we generalize the model of interevent time to reproduce a variety of self-affine time series exhibiting power spectral density S( f) scaling as a power of the frequency f. Furthermore, we analyze the relation between the power-law correlations and the origin of the power-law probability distribution of the signal intensity. We introduce a stochastic multiplicative model for the time intervals between point events and analyze the statistical properties of the signal analytically and numerically. Such model system exhibits power-law spectral density S( f)∼1/ fβ for various values of β, including β= {1}/{2}, 1 and {3}/{2}. Explicit expressions for the power spectra in the low-frequency limit and for the distribution density of the interevent time are obtained. The counting statistics of the events is analyzed analytically and numerically, as well. The specific interest of our analysis is related with the financial markets, where long-range correlations of price fluctuations largely depend on the number of transactions. We analyze the spectral density and counting statistics of the number of transactions. The model reproduces spectral properties of the real markets and explains the mechanism of power-law distribution of trading activity. The study provides evidence that the statistical properties of the financial markets are enclosed in the statistics of the time interval between trades. A multiplicative point process serves as a consistent model generating this statistics.

  3. Associations of objectively measured physical activity and abdominal fat distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philipsen, Annelotte; Hansen, Anne-Louise Smidt; Jørgensen, Marit Eika

    2015-01-01

    Introduction/Purpose: Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and physical activity are both independent predictors of Type 2 diabetes. Physical activity and overall obesity are inversely associated with each other. Yet the nature of the association between objectively measured dimensions of physical...... activity and abdominal fat distribution has not been well characterized. We aimed to do so in a middle-age to elderly population at high risk of diabetes. Methods: A cross-sectional analysis of 1134 participants of the ADDITION-PRO study. VAT and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) were assessed one......-dimensionally by ultrasonography and physical activity with combined accelerometry and HR monitoring. Linear regression of physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) and time spent in different physical activity intensity levels on VAT and SAT was performed. Results: Median body mass index (BMI) was 26.6 kg.m(-2) and PAEE was 28...

  4. THE FEATURES OF LASER EMISSION ENERGY DISTRIBUTION AT MATHEMATIC MODELING OF WORKING PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Avsiyevich

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The space laser emission energy distribution of different continuous operation settings depends from many factors, first on the settings design. For more accurate describing of multimode laser emission energy distribution intensity the experimental and theoretic model, which based on experimental laser emission distribution shift presentation with given accuracy rating in superposition basic function form, is proposed. This model provides the approximation error only 2,2 percent as compared with 24,6 % and 61 % for uniform and Gauss approximation accordingly. The proposed model usage lets more accurate take into consideration the laser emission and working surface interaction peculiarity, increases temperature fields calculation accuracy for mathematic modeling of laser treatment processes. The method of experimental laser emission energy distribution studying for given source and mathematic apparatus for calculation of laser emission energy distribution intensity parameters depended from the distance in radial direction on surface heating zone are shown.

  5. Radial transport processes as a precursor to particle deposition in drinking water distribution systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Thienen, P; Vreeburg, J H G; Blokker, E J M

    2011-02-01

    Various particle transport mechanisms play a role in the build-up of discoloration potential in drinking water distribution networks. In order to enhance our understanding of and ability to predict this build-up, it is essential to recognize and understand their role. Gravitational settling with drag has primarily been considered in this context. However, since flow in water distribution pipes is nearly always in the turbulent regime, turbulent processes should be considered also. In addition to these, single particle effects and forces may affect radial particle transport. In this work, we present an application of a previously published turbulent particle deposition theory to conditions relevant for drinking water distribution systems. We predict quantitatively under which conditions turbophoresis, including the virtual mass effect, the Saffman lift force, and the Magnus force may contribute significantly to sediment transport in radial direction and compare these results to experimental observations. The contribution of turbophoresis is mostly limited to large particles (>50 μm) in transport mains, and not expected to play a major role in distribution mains. The Saffman lift force may enhance this process to some degree. The Magnus force is not expected to play any significant role in drinking water distribution systems. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Monitoring activities of satellite data processing services in real-time with SDDS Live Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duc Nguyen, Minh

    2017-10-01

    This work describes Live Monitor, the monitoring subsystem of SDDS - an automated system for space experiment data processing, storage, and distribution created at SINP MSU. Live Monitor allows operators and developers of satellite data centers to identify errors occurred in data processing quickly and to prevent further consequences caused by the errors. All activities of the whole data processing cycle are illustrated via a web interface in real-time. Notification messages are delivered to responsible people via emails and Telegram messenger service. The flexible monitoring mechanism implemented in Live Monitor allows us to dynamically change and control events being shown on the web interface on our demands. Physicists, whose space weather analysis models are functioning upon satellite data provided by SDDS, can use the developed RESTful API to monitor their own events and deliver customized notification messages by their needs.

  7. Asymptotic Approximations to the Non-Isothermal Distributed Activation Energy Model for Bio-Mass Pyrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhaundiyal Alok

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the influence of some parameters significant to biomass pyrolysis on the numerical solutions of the non-isothermal nth order distributed activation energy model (DAEM using the Gamma distribution and discusses the special case for the positive integer value of the scale parameter (λ, i.e. the Erlang distribution. Investigated parameters are the integral upper limit, the frequency factor, the heating rate, the reaction order, and the shape and rate parameters of the Gamma distribution. Influence of these parameters has been considered for the determination of the kinetic parameters of the non-isothermal nth order Gamma distribution from the experimentally derived thermoanalytical data of biomass pyrolysis. Mathematically, the effect of parameters on numerical solution is also used for predicting the behaviour of the unpyrolysized fraction of biomass with respect to temperature. Analysis of the mathematical model is based upon asymptotic expansions, which leads to the systematic methods for efficient way to determine the accurate approximations. The proposed method, therefore, provides a rapid and highly effective way for estimating the kinetic parameters and the distribution of activation energies.

  8. Innovation as a distributed, collaborative process of knowledge generation: open, networked innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloep, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Sloep, P. B. (2009). Innovation as a distributed, collaborative process of knowledge generation: open, networked innovation. In V. Hornung-Prähauser & M. Luckmann (Eds.), Kreativität und Innovationskompetenz im digitalen Netz - Creativity and Innovation Competencies in the Web, Sammlung von

  9. Pitch angle distributions of electrons at dipolarization sites during geomagnetic activity: THEMIS observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kaiti; Lin, Ching-Huei; Wang, Lu-Yin; Hada, Tohru; Nishimura, Yukitoshi; Turner, Drew L.; Angelopoulos, Vassilis

    2014-12-01

    Changes in pitch angle distributions of electrons with energies from a few eV to 1 MeV at dipolarization sites in Earth's magnetotail are investigated statistically to determine the extent to which adiabatic acceleration may contribute to these changes. Forty-two dipolarization events from 2008 and 2009 observed by Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms probes covering the inner plasma sheet from 8 RE to 12 RE during geomagnetic activity identified by the AL index are analyzed. The number of observed events with cigar-type distributions (peaks at 0° and 180°) decreases sharply below 1 keV after dipolarization because in many of these events, electron distributions became more isotropized. From above 1 keV to a few tens of keV, however, the observed number of cigar-type events increases after dipolarization and the number of isotropic events decreases. These changes can be related to the ineffectiveness of Fermi acceleration below 1 keV (at those energies, dipolarization time becomes comparable to electron bounce time). Model-calculated pitch angle distributions after dipolarization with the effect of betatron and Fermi acceleration tested indicate that these adiabatic acceleration mechanisms can explain the observed patterns of event number changes over a large range of energies for cigar events and isotropic events. Other factors still need to be considered to assess the observed increase in cigar events around 2 keV. Indeed, preferential directional increase/loss of electron fluxes, which may contribute to the formation of cigar events, was observed. Nonadiabatic processes to accelerate electrons in a parallel direction may also be important for future study.

  10. DNA scanning mechanism of T4 endonuclease V. Effect of NaCl concentration on processive nicking activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruskin, E.A.; Lloyd, R.S.

    1986-01-01

    T4 endonuclease V is a pyrimidine dimer-specific endonuclease which generates incisions in DNA at the sites of pyrimidine dimers by a processive reaction mechanism. A model is presented in which the degree of processivity is directly related to the efficacy of the one-dimensional diffusion of endonuclease V on DNA by which the enzyme locates pyrimidine dimers. The modulation of the processive nicking activity of T4 endonuclease V on superhelical covalently closed circular DNA (form I) which contains pyrimidine dimers has been investigated as a function of the ionic strength of the reaction. Agarose gel electrophoresis was used to separate the three topological forms of the DNA which were generated in time course reactions of endonuclease V with dimer-containing form I DNA in the absence of NaCl, and in 25, 50, and 100 mM NaCl. The degree of processivity was evaluated in terms of the mass fraction of form III (linear) DNA which was produced as a function of the fraction of form I DNA remaining. Processivity is maximal in the absence of NaCl and decreases as the NaCl concentration is increased. At 100 mM NaCl, processivity is abolished and endonuclease V generates incisions in DNA at the site of dimers by a distributive reaction mechanism. The change from the distributive to a processive reaction mechanism occurs at NaCl concentrations slightly below 50 mM. The high degree of processivity which is observed in the absence of NaCl is reversible to the distributive mechanism, as demonstrated by experiments in which the NaCl concentration was increased during the time course reaction. In addition, unirradiated DNA inhibited the incision of irradiated DNA only at NaCl concentrations at which processivity was observed

  11. Novel scaling of the multiplicity distributions in the sequential fragmentation process and in the percolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botet, R.

    1996-01-01

    A novel scaling of the multiplicity distributions is found in the shattering phase of the sequential fragmentation process with inhibition. The same scaling law is shown to hold in the percolation process. (author)

  12. Distributed genetic process mining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bratosin, C.C.; Sidorova, N.; Aalst, van der W.M.P.

    2010-01-01

    Process mining aims at discovering process models from data logs in order to offer insight into the real use of information systems. Most of the existing process mining algorithms fail to discover complex constructs or have problems dealing with noise and infrequent behavior. The genetic process

  13. A pilot study of physical activity and sedentary behavior distribution patterns in older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortune, Emma; Mundell, Benjamin; Amin, Shreyasee; Kaufman, Kenton

    2017-09-01

    The study aims were to investigate free-living physical activity and sedentary behavior distribution patterns in a group of older women, and assess the cross-sectional associations with body mass index (BMI). Eleven older women (mean (SD) age: 77 (9) yrs) wore custom-built activity monitors, each containing a tri-axial accelerometer (±16g, 100Hz), on the waist and ankle for lab-based walking trials and 4 days in free-living. Daily active time, step counts, cadence, and sedentary break number were estimated from acceleration data. The sedentary bout length distribution and sedentary time accumulation pattern, using the Gini index, were investigated. Associations of the parameters' total daily values and coefficients of variation (CVs) of their hourly values with BMI were assessed using linear regression. The algorithm demonstrated median sensitivity, positive predictive value, and agreement values >98% and <1% mean error in cadence calculations with video identification during lab trials. Participants' sedentary bouts were found to be power law distributed with 56% of their sedentary time occurring in 20min bouts or longer. Meaningful associations were detectable in the relationships of total active time, step count, sedentary break number and their CVs with BMI. Active time and step counts had moderate negative associations with BMI while sedentary break number had a strong negative association. Active time, step count and sedentary break number CVs also had strong positive associations with BMI. The results highlight the importance of measuring sedentary behavior and suggest a more even distribution of physical activity throughout the day is associated with lower BMI. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Technical and economic impacts of active management on distribution network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Jietan; Cheng, Haozhong; Wang, Chun

    2009-01-01

    With the deregulation of energy market and the appeal for environment protection, more and more distributed generation (DG) is embedded in the distribution network. However the approach of connecting DG in most cases is based on a so-called ''fit and forget'' policy and the capacity of DG is limited rigidly by distribution network operator (DNO) to avoid the negative effects of high level penetration. Therefore active management (AM) is put forward as an effective method to network reinforcement for the connection and operation of DG. In this paper, the concept and principle of AM are introduced, and several indices are proposed to evaluate both technical and economic impacts of AM on distribution network with DG. To simplify the simulation fuzzy C-means clustering (FCM) algorithm is introduced. The test results on a sample system represent that AM will lead to decrease of power generation of DG, but it can reduce energy losses and improve voltage profile effectively. Furthermore, AM will take great economic incentives to DG developer as well as DNO with reasonable policy. (author)

  15. A Coordinated Initialization Process for the Distributed Space Exploration Simulation (DSES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Robert; Dexter, Dan; Hasan, David; Crues, Edwin Z.

    2007-01-01

    This document describes the federate initialization process that was developed at the NASA Johnson Space Center with the HIIA Transfer Vehicle Flight Controller Trainer (HTV FCT) simulations and refined in the Distributed Space Exploration Simulation (DSES). These simulations use the High Level Architecture (HLA) IEEE 1516 to provide the communication and coordination between the distributed parts of the simulation. The purpose of the paper is to describe a generic initialization sequence that can be used to create a federate that can: 1. Properly initialize all HLA objects, object instances, interactions, and time management 2. Check for the presence of all federates 3. Coordinate startup with other federates 4. Robustly initialize and share initial object instance data with other federates.

  16. Methods of Run-Time Error Detection in Distributed Process Control Software

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drejer, N.

    In this thesis, methods of run-time error detection in application software for distributed process control is designed. The error detection is based upon a monitoring approach in which application software is monitored by system software during the entire execution. The thesis includes definition...... and constraint evaluation is designed for the modt interesting error types. These include: a) semantical errors in data communicated between application tasks; b) errors in the execution of application tasks; and c) errors in the timing of distributed events emitted by the application software. The design...... of error detection methods includes a high level software specification. this has the purpose of illustrating that the designed can be used in practice....

  17. The measurement of activity-weighted size distributions of radon progeny: methods and laboratory intercomparison studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopke, P.K.; Strydom, R.; Ramamurthi, M.; Knutson, E.O.; Tu, K.W.; Scofield, P.; Holub, R.F.; Cheng, Y.S.; Su, Y.F.; Winklmayr, W.

    1992-01-01

    Over the past 5 y, there have been significant improvements in measurement of activity-weighted size distributions of airborne radon decay products. The modification of screen diffusion batteries to incorporate multiple screens of differing mesh number, called graded screen arrays, have permitted improved size resolution below 10 nm such that the size distributions can now be determined down to molecular sized activities (0.5 nm). In order to ascertain the utility and reliability of such systems, several intercomparison tests have been performed in a 2.4 m3 radon chamber in which particles of varying size have been produced by introducing SO2 and H2O along with the radon to the chamber. In April 1988, intercomparison studies were performed between direct measurements of the activity-weighted size distributions as measured by graded screen arrays and an indirect measurement of the distribution obtained by measuring the number size distribution with a differential mobility analyzer and multiplying by the theoretical attachment rate. Good agreement was obtained in these measurements. A second set of intercomparison studies among a number of groups with graded screen array systems was made in April 1989 with the objective of resolving spectral structure below 10 nm. Again, generally good agreement among the various groups was obtained although some differences were noted. It is thus concluded that such systems can be constructed and can be useful in making routine measurements of activity-weighted size distributions with reasonable confidence in the results obtained

  18. Process benchmarking for improvement of environmental restoration activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celorie, J.A.; Selman, J.R.; Larson, N.B.

    1995-01-01

    A process benchmarking study was initiated by the Office of Environmental Management (EM) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) to analyze and improve the department's environmental assessment and environmental restoration (ER) processes. The purpose of this study was to identify specific differences in the processes and implementation procedures used at comparable remediation sites to determine best practices which had the greatest potential to minimize the cost and time required to conduct remedial investigation/ feasibility study (RI/FS) activities. Technical criteria were identified and used to select four DOE, two Department of Defense (DOD), and two Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) restoration sites that exhibited comparable characteristics and regulatory environments. By comparing the process elements and activities executed at the different sites for similar endpoints, best practices were identified for streamlining process elements and minimizing non-value-added activities. Critical measures that influenced process performance were identified and characterized for the sites. This benchmarking study focused on two processes and the internal/external review of documents and the development of the initial evaluation and data collection plan (IEDCP)--since these had a great potential for savings, a high impact on other processes, and a high probability for implementation

  19. Core power distribution measurement and data processing in Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Hong

    1997-01-01

    For the first time in China, Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station applied the advanced technology of worldwide commercial pressurized reactors to the in-core detectors, the leading excore six-chamber instrumentation for precise axial power distribution, and the related data processing. Described in this article are the neutron flux measurement in Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station, and the detailed data processing

  20. Vivaldi: A Domain-Specific Language for Volume Processing and Visualization on Distributed Heterogeneous Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyungsuk; Choi, Woohyuk; Quan, Tran Minh; Hildebrand, David G C; Pfister, Hanspeter; Jeong, Won-Ki

    2014-12-01

    As the size of image data from microscopes and telescopes increases, the need for high-throughput processing and visualization of large volumetric data has become more pressing. At the same time, many-core processors and GPU accelerators are commonplace, making high-performance distributed heterogeneous computing systems affordable. However, effectively utilizing GPU clusters is difficult for novice programmers, and even experienced programmers often fail to fully leverage the computing power of new parallel architectures due to their steep learning curve and programming complexity. In this paper, we propose Vivaldi, a new domain-specific language for volume processing and visualization on distributed heterogeneous computing systems. Vivaldi's Python-like grammar and parallel processing abstractions provide flexible programming tools for non-experts to easily write high-performance parallel computing code. Vivaldi provides commonly used functions and numerical operators for customized visualization and high-throughput image processing applications. We demonstrate the performance and usability of Vivaldi on several examples ranging from volume rendering to image segmentation.

  1. On the distributive patterns of ATPase activity and its functional significance in retinae of certain birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewari, H B; Tyagi, H R

    1977-01-01

    The present study incorporates the details of distribution of adenosine triphosphatase amongst the various constituents of retinae of Passer, Psittacula, Streptopelia and Athene. The outer segments in all the cases are intensely positive for the enzyme. This is the part where the light strikes first and initiates the visual processes. The nuclear layers are also positive for the enzyme activity. It is interesting to note that inner plexiform layers show clear-out demarcations of various sub-synaptic layers in all the birds except Psittacula. The ganglion cells and optic nerve fibres are also positive for the enzyme.

  2. Distribution and rate of microbial processes in ammonia-loaded air filter biofilm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhler, Susanne; Nielsen, Lars Peter; Schramm, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    The in situ activity and distribution of heterotrophic and nitrifying bacteria and their potential interactions were investigated in a full-scale, two-section, trickling filter designed for biological degradation of volatile organics and NH3 in ventilation air from pig farms. The filter biofilm...

  3. Process of activation of a palladium catalyst system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobolevskiy, Anatoly [Orlando, FL; Rossin, Joseph A [Columbus, OH; Knapke, Michael J [Columbus, OH

    2011-08-02

    Improved processes for activating a catalyst system used for the reduction of nitrogen oxides are provided. In one embodiment, the catalyst system is activated by passing an activation gas stream having an amount of each of oxygen, water vapor, nitrogen oxides, and hydrogen over the catalyst system and increasing a temperature of the catalyst system to a temperature of at least 180.degree. C. at a heating rate of from 1-20.degree./min. Use of activation processes described herein leads to a catalyst system with superior NOx reduction capabilities.

  4. Site selection of active damper for stabilizing power electronics based power distribution system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yoon, Changwoo; Wang, Xiongfei; Bak, Claus Leth

    2015-01-01

    electronics based power device, which provides an adjustable damping capability to the power system where the voltage harmonic instability is measured. It can stabilize by adjusting the equivalent node impedance with its plug and play feature. This feature gives many degrees of freedom of its installation......Stability in the nowadays distribution power system is endangered by interaction problems that may arise from newly added power-electronics based power devices. Recently, a new concept to deal with this higher frequency instability, the active damper, has been proposed. The active damper is a power...... point when the system has many nodes. Therefore, this paper addresses the proper placement of an active damper in an unstable small-scale power distribution system. A time-domain model of the Cigre benchmark low-vltage network is used as a test field. The result shows the active damper location...

  5. Edge effect modeling and experiments on active lap processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haitao; Wu, Fan; Zeng, Zhige; Fan, Bin; Wan, Yongjian

    2014-05-05

    Edge effect is regarded as one of the most difficult technical issues for fabricating large primary mirrors, especially for large polishing tools. Computer controlled active lap (CCAL) uses a large size pad (e.g., 1/3 to 1/5 workpiece diameters) to grind and polish the primary mirror. Edge effect also exists in the CCAL process in our previous fabrication. In this paper the material removal rules when edge effects happen (i.e. edge tool influence functions (TIFs)) are obtained through experiments, which are carried out on a Φ1090-mm circular flat mirror with a 375-mm-diameter lap. Two methods are proposed to model the edge TIFs for CCAL. One is adopting the pressure distribution which is calculated based on the finite element analysis method. The other is building up a parametric equivalent pressure model to fit the removed material curve directly. Experimental results show that these two methods both effectively model the edge TIF of CCAL.

  6. Processing-Efficient Distributed Adaptive RLS Filtering for Computationally Constrained Platforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor M. Khan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel processing-efficient architecture of a group of inexpensive and computationally incapable small platforms is proposed for a parallely distributed adaptive signal processing (PDASP operation. The proposed architecture runs computationally expensive procedures like complex adaptive recursive least square (RLS algorithm cooperatively. The proposed PDASP architecture operates properly even if perfect time alignment among the participating platforms is not available. An RLS algorithm with the application of MIMO channel estimation is deployed on the proposed architecture. Complexity and processing time of the PDASP scheme with MIMO RLS algorithm are compared with sequentially operated MIMO RLS algorithm and liner Kalman filter. It is observed that PDASP scheme exhibits much lesser computational complexity parallely than the sequential MIMO RLS algorithm as well as Kalman filter. Moreover, the proposed architecture provides an improvement of 95.83% and 82.29% decreased processing time parallely compared to the sequentially operated Kalman filter and MIMO RLS algorithm for low doppler rate, respectively. Likewise, for high doppler rate, the proposed architecture entails an improvement of 94.12% and 77.28% decreased processing time compared to the Kalman and RLS algorithms, respectively.

  7. GLN standard as a facilitator of physical location identification within process of distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davor Dujak

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Distribution, from the business point of view, is a set of decisions and actions that will provide the right products at the right time and place, in line with customer expectations. It is a process that generates significant cost, but also effectively implemented, significantly affects the positive perception of the company. Institute of Logistics and Warehousing (IliM, based on the research results related to the optimization of the distribution network and consulting projects for companies, indicates the high importance of the correct description of the physical location within the supply chains in order to make transport processes more effective. Individual companies work on their own geocoding of warehouse locations and location of their business partners (suppliers, customers, but the lack of standardization in this area causes delays related to delivery problems with reaching the right destination. Furthermore, the cooperating companies do not have a precise indication of the operating conditions of each location, e.g. Time windows of the plant, logistic units accepted at parties, supported transport etc. Lack of this information generates additional costs associated with re-operation and the costs of lost benefits for the lack of goods on time. The solution to this problem seems to be a wide-scale implementation of GS1 standard which is the Global Location Number (GLN, that, thanks to a broad base of information will assist the distribution processes. Material and methods: The results of survey conducted among Polish companies in the second half of 2016 indicate an unsatisfactory degree of implementation of the transport processes, resulting from incorrect or inaccurate description of the location, and thus, a significant number of errors in deliveries. Accordingly, authors studied literature and examined case studies indicating the possibility of using GLN standard to identify the physical location and to show the

  8. The field measurements of the activity-weighted size distributions of radon decay products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wasiolek, P.; Montassier, N.; Hopke, P.K.

    1991-01-01

    Because of the importance of particle size in the calculations of dose deposited in the respiratory tract by radon progeny, the determination of the size distribution of radon decay products in indoor air had increased in interest in recent years. A system for the measurement of the activity-weighted size distribution of radon decay products at environmental levels has been developed. The system (ASC-GSA) utilizes a combination of six multiple wire screens (Graded Screen Array) sampler detector units operated in parallel. The cut off points of the samplers and the data deconvolution procedure allow to obtain the activity fractions of radon progeny in the size range 0.5-500 mn. The computer control of sampling, alpha counting and data storage permits the operation of the system on the semi-continuous basis. The primary application of the ASC-GSA system has been to collect data of activity-weighted size distributions of radon progeny in real house environments. The results of field measurements in several houses with elevated radon levels are presented

  9. Comparison of the depth distribution processes for 137Cs and 210Pbex in cultivated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yunqi; Zhang Xinbao; Long Yi; He Xiubin; Yu Xingxiu

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on the different processes of 137 Cs and 210 Pb ex depth distribution in cultivated soils. In view of their different fallout deposition processes, considering radionuclide will diffuse from the plough layer to the plough pan layer duo to the concentration gradient between the two layers, the 137 Cs and 210 Pb ex depth distribution processes were theoretically derived. Additionally, the theoretical derivation was verified by the measured 137 Cs and 210 Pb ex values in the soil core collected from wheat field in Fujianzhuang, Shanxi Province, China, and the 137 Cs and 210 Pb ex concentrations variation with depth in soils of the wheat field was explained rationally. The 137 Cs depth distribution state in cultivated soils will consistently vary with time due to 137 Cs continual decay and diffusion as an artificial radionuclide without sustainable fallout input since 1960s. In contrast, the 210 Pb ex depth distribution in cultivated soils will achieve steady state because of sustainable deposition of the naturally occurring 210 Pb ex fallout, and it can be concluded that the differences between the theoretical and the measured values, especially for 210 Pb ex , might be associated with the history of plough depth variation or LUCC. (authors)

  10. Active damage localization for plate-like structures using wireless sensors and a distributed algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, L; Yuan, F G

    2008-01-01

    Wireless structural health monitoring (SHM) systems have emerged as a promising technology for robust and cost-effective structural monitoring. However, the applications of wireless sensors on active diagnosis for structural health monitoring (SHM) have not been extensively investigated. Due to limited energy sources, battery-powered wireless sensors can only perform limited functions and are expected to operate at a low duty cycle. Conventional designs are not suitable for sensing high frequency signals, e.g. in the ultrasonic frequency range. More importantly, algorithms to detect structural damage with a vast amount of data usually require considerable processing and communication time and result in unaffordable power consumption for wireless sensors. In this study, an energy-efficient wireless sensor for supporting high frequency signals and a distributed damage localization algorithm for plate-like structures are proposed, discussed and validated to supplement recent advances made for active sensing-based SHM. First, the power consumption of a wireless sensor is discussed and identified. Then the design of a wireless sensor for active diagnosis using piezoelectric sensors is introduced. The newly developed wireless sensor utilizes an optimized combination of field programmable gate array (FPGA) and conventional microcontroller to address the tradeoff between power consumption and speed requirement. The proposed damage localization algorithm, based on an energy decay model, enables wireless sensors to be practically used in active diagnosis. The power consumption for data communication can be minimized while the power budget for data processing can still be affordable for a battery-powered wireless sensor. The Levenberg–Marquardt method is employed in a mains-powered sensor node or PC to locate damage. Experimental results and discussion on the improvement of power efficiency are given

  11. Identification and verification of critical performance dimensions. Phase 1 of the systematic process redesign of drug distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colen, Hadewig B; Neef, Cees; Schuring, Roel W

    2003-06-01

    Worldwide patient safety has become a major social policy problem for healthcare organisations. As in other organisations, the patients in our hospital also suffer from an inadequate distribution process, as becomes clear from incident reports involving medication errors. Medisch Spectrum Twente is a top primary-care, clinical, teaching hospital. The hospital pharmacy takes care of 1070 internal beds and 1120 beds in an affiliated psychiatric hospital and nursing homes. In the beginning of 1999, our pharmacy group started a large interdisciplinary research project to develop a safe, effective and efficient drug distribution system by using systematic process redesign. The process redesign includes both organisational and technological components. This article describes the identification and verification of critical performance dimensions for the design of drug distribution processes in hospitals (phase 1 of the systematic process redesign of drug distribution). Based on reported errors and related causes, we suggested six generic performance domains. To assess the role of the performance dimensions, we used three approaches: flowcharts, interviews with stakeholders and review of the existing performance using time studies and medication error studies. We were able to set targets for costs, quality of information, responsiveness, employee satisfaction, and degree of innovation. We still have to establish what drug distribution system, in respect of quality and cost-effectiveness, represents the best and most cost-effective way of preventing medication errors. We intend to develop an evaluation model, using the critical performance dimensions as a starting point. This model can be used as a simulation template to compare different drug distribution concepts in order to define the differences in quality and cost-effectiveness.

  12. The Particle Distribution in Liquid Metal with Ceramic Particles Mould Filling Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Qi; Xing, Shu-ming

    2017-09-01

    Adding ceramic particles in the plate hammer is an effective method to increase the wear resistance of the hammer. The liquid phase method is based on the “with the flow of mixed liquid forging composite preparation of ZTA ceramic particle reinforced high chromium cast iron hammer. Preparation method for this system is using CFD simulation analysis the particles distribution of flow mixing and filling process. Taking the 30% volume fraction of ZTA ceramic composite of high chromium cast iron hammer as example, by changing the speed of liquid metal viscosity to control and make reasonable predictions of particles distribution before solidification.

  13. The time course of syntactic activation during language processing: a model based on neuropsychological and neurophysiological data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friederici, A D

    1995-09-01

    This paper presents a model describing the temporal and neurotopological structure of syntactic processes during comprehension. It postulates three distinct phases of language comprehension, two of which are primarily syntactic in nature. During the first phase the parser assigns the initial syntactic structure on the basis of word category information. These early structural processes are assumed to be subserved by the anterior parts of the left hemisphere, as event-related brain potentials show this area to be maximally activated when phrase structure violations are processed and as circumscribed lesions in this area lead to an impairment of the on-line structural assignment. During the second phase lexical-semantic and verb-argument structure information is processed. This phase is neurophysiologically manifest in a negative component in the event-related brain potential around 400 ms after stimulus onset which is distributed over the left and right temporo-parietal areas when lexical-semantic information is processed and over left anterior areas when verb-argument structure information is processed. During the third phase the parser tries to map the initial syntactic structure onto the available lexical-semantic and verb-argument structure information. In case of an unsuccessful match between the two types of information reanalyses may become necessary. These processes of structural reanalysis are correlated with a centroparietally distributed late positive component in the event-related brain potential.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. PROCESS CAPABILITY ESTIMATION FOR NON-NORMALLY DISTRIBUTED DATA USING ROBUST METHODS - A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yerriswamy Wooluru

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Process capability indices are very important process quality assessment tools in automotive industries. The common process capability indices (PCIs Cp, Cpk, Cpm are widely used in practice. The use of these PCIs based on the assumption that process is in control and its output is normally distributed. In practice, normality is not always fulfilled. Indices developed based on normality assumption are very sensitive to non- normal processes. When distribution of a product quality characteristic is non-normal, Cp and Cpk indices calculated using conventional methods often lead to erroneous interpretation of process capability. In the literature, various methods have been proposed for surrogate process capability indices under non normality but few literature sources offer their comprehensive evaluation and comparison of their ability to capture true capability in non-normal situation. In this paper, five methods have been reviewed and capability evaluation is carried out for the data pertaining to resistivity of silicon wafer. The final results revealed that the Burr based percentile method is better than Clements method. Modelling of non-normal data and Box-Cox transformation method using statistical software (Minitab 14 provides reasonably good result as they are very promising methods for non - normal and moderately skewed data (Skewness <= 1.5.

  15. A lightweight messaging-based distributed processing and workflow execution framework for real-time and big data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laban, Shaban; El-Desouky, Aly

    2014-05-01

    To achieve a rapid, simple and reliable parallel processing of different types of tasks and big data processing on any compute cluster, a lightweight messaging-based distributed applications processing and workflow execution framework model is proposed. The framework is based on Apache ActiveMQ and Simple (or Streaming) Text Oriented Message Protocol (STOMP). ActiveMQ , a popular and powerful open source persistence messaging and integration patterns server with scheduler capabilities, acts as a message broker in the framework. STOMP provides an interoperable wire format that allows framework programs to talk and interact between each other and ActiveMQ easily. In order to efficiently use the message broker a unified message and topic naming pattern is utilized to achieve the required operation. Only three Python programs and simple library, used to unify and simplify the implementation of activeMQ and STOMP protocol, are needed to use the framework. A watchdog program is used to monitor, remove, add, start and stop any machine and/or its different tasks when necessary. For every machine a dedicated one and only one zoo keeper program is used to start different functions or tasks, stompShell program, needed for executing the user required workflow. The stompShell instances are used to execute any workflow jobs based on received message. A well-defined, simple and flexible message structure, based on JavaScript Object Notation (JSON), is used to build any complex workflow systems. Also, JSON format is used in configuration, communication between machines and programs. The framework is platform independent. Although, the framework is built using Python the actual workflow programs or jobs can be implemented by any programming language. The generic framework can be used in small national data centres for processing seismological and radionuclide data received from the International Data Centre (IDC) of the Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear

  16. 15 CFR 400.33 - Restrictions on manufacturing and processing activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...-TRADE ZONES BOARD Manufacturing and Processing Activity-Reviews § 400.33 Restrictions on manufacturing and processing activity. (a) In general. In approving manufacturing or processing activity for a zone... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Restrictions on manufacturing and...

  17. Facility optimization to improve activation rate distributions during IVNAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebrahimi Khankook, Atiyeh; Rafat Motavalli, Laleh; Miri Hakimabad, Hashem

    2013-01-01

    Currently, determination of body composition is the most useful method for distinguishing between certain diseases. The prompt-gamma in vivo neutron activation analysis (IVNAA) facility for non-destructive elemental analysis of the human body is the gold standard method for this type of analysis. In order to obtain accurate measurements using the IVNAA system, the activation probability in the body must be uniform. This can be difficult to achieve, as body shape and body composition affect the rate of activation. The aim of this study was to determine the optimum pre-moderator, in terms of material for attaining uniform activation probability with a CV value of about 10% and changing the collimator role to increase activation rate within the body. Such uniformity was obtained with a high thickness of paraffin pre-moderator, however, because of increasing secondary photon flux received by the detectors it was not an appropriate choice. Our final calculations indicated that using two paraffin slabs with a thickness of 3 cm as a pre-moderator, in the presence of 2 cm Bi on the collimator, achieves a satisfactory distribution of activation rate in the body. (author)

  18. Capacity management within a multi-agent market-based active distribution network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greunsven, J. A. W.; Veldman, E.; Nguyen, P.H.; Slootweg, J.G.; Kamphuis, I.G.

    2012-01-01

    Normal operation of an active distribution network (ADN) requires simultaneous optimization of different objectives of the various involved actors. This results in a multi-objective optimization problem which has not yet been treated completely. This paper considers a particular relationship between

  19. Secured Session-key Distribution using control Vector Encryption / Decryption Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail Jabiullah, M.; Abdullah Al-Shamim; Khaleqdad Khan, ANM; Lutfar Rahman, M.

    2006-01-01

    Frequent key changes are very much desirable for the secret communications and are thus in high demand. A session-key distribution technique has been designed and implemented using the programming language C on which the communication between the end-users is encrypted is used for the duration of a logical connection. Each session-key is obtained from the key distribution center (KDC) over the same networking facilities used for end-user communication. The control vector is cryptographically coupled with the session-key at the time of key generation in the KDC. For this, the generated hash function, master key and the session-key are used for producing the encrypted session-key, which has to be transferred. All the operations have been performed using the C programming language. This process can be widely applicable to all sorts of electronic transactions online or offline; commercially and academically.(authors)

  20. Monitoring activities of satellite data processing services in real-time with SDDS Live Monitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duc Nguyen Minh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This work describes Live Monitor, the monitoring subsystem of SDDS – an automated system for space experiment data processing, storage, and distribution created at SINP MSU. Live Monitor allows operators and developers of satellite data centers to identify errors occurred in data processing quickly and to prevent further consequences caused by the errors. All activities of the whole data processing cycle are illustrated via a web interface in real-time. Notification messages are delivered to responsible people via emails and Telegram messenger service. The flexible monitoring mechanism implemented in Live Monitor allows us to dynamically change and control events being shown on the web interface on our demands. Physicists, whose space weather analysis models are functioning upon satellite data provided by SDDS, can use the developed RESTful API to monitor their own events and deliver customized notification messages by their needs.

  1. Distribution network tariffs: A closed question?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Ortega, Maria Pia; Perez-Arriaga, J. Ignacio; Rivier Abbad, Juan Rivier; Gonzalez, Jesus Peco

    2008-01-01

    Electricity regulators are facing new challenges to keep the pace of the liberalization process and the revision of regulatory schemes that is taking place all over the world. The pressure is also felt by regulated activities such as distribution. One of the main objectives of this process is to improve efficiency. Electricity rates and more specifically distribution network tariffs should also be adapted to these new requirements. This paper describes the main rate design approaches that are used to recover distribution costs. Drawbacks of the current methods are highlighted, and a new tariff design methodology based on cost causality is presented. Efficiency achievement as well as compliance with legal and regulatory criteria, such as cost recovery and non-discrimination, is analyzed

  2. Parallel Distributed Processing at 25: Further Explorations in the Microstructure of Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Timothy T.; McClelland, James L.

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces a special issue of "Cognitive Science" initiated on the 25th anniversary of the publication of "Parallel Distributed Processing" (PDP), a two-volume work that introduced the use of neural network models as vehicles for understanding cognition. The collection surveys the core commitments of the PDP…

  3. Time Optimal Run-time Evaluation of Distributed Timing Constraints in Process Control Software

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drejer, N.; Kristensen, C.H.

    1993-01-01

    This paper considers run-time evaluation of an important class of constraints; Timing constraints. These appear extensively in process control systems. Timing constraints are considered in distributed systems, i.e. systems consisting of multiple autonomous nodes......

  4. Activity rhythms and distribution of natal dens for red foxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenyang, Zhou; Wanhong, Wei; Biggins, Dean E.

    1995-01-01

    The red fox, Vulpes vulpes, was investigated with snow tracking, radiotracking and directive observation at the Haibei Research Station of Alpine Meadow Ecosystem, Academia Sinica, from March to September 1994. The objectives of this study were to determine the distribution and use of natal dens, activity rhythms, and home range sizes for the foxes.

  5. Strange quark distribution and parton charge symmetry violation in a semi-inclusive process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitagawa, Hisashi; Sakemi, Yasuhiro

    2000-01-01

    It is possible to observe a semi-inclusive reaction with tagged charged kaons using the RICH detector at DESY-HERA. Using the semi-inclusive process we study two kinds of parton properties in the nucleon. We study relations between cross sections and strange quark distributions, which are expected to be measured more precisely in such a process than in the process in which pions are tagged. We also investigate charge symmetry violation (CSV) in the nucleon, which appears in the region x ≤ 0.1. (author)

  6. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Beta vulgaris: Role of process conditions on size distribution and surface structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parameshwaran, R., E-mail: parameshviews@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Anna University, Chennai 600 025 (India); Centre for Nanoscience and Technology, Anna University, Chennai 600 025 (India); Kalaiselvam, S., E-mail: kalai@annauniv.edu [Centre for Nanoscience and Technology, Anna University, Chennai 600 025 (India); Department of Applied Science and Technology, Anna University, Chennai 600 025 (India); Jayavel, R., E-mail: rjvel@annauniv.edu [Centre for Nanoscience and Technology, Anna University, Chennai 600 025 (India)

    2013-06-15

    The present work reports the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles, using Beta vulgaris peel extract with a subsequent investigation on the size distribution and surface structure of nanoparticles formed under various process conditions. The green-chemical reduction mechanism of silver ions to nanoparticles by the active organic functional groups present in the extract was characterized, using the respective spectroscopic techniques. The effects of various process parameters, including induced intraparticle ripening, were attributed to the controlled formation of anisotropic silver nanoparticles within the supporting matrix of the extract. The plasmon absorption and resonance scattering properties were expected to be favourable for small and larger size nanoparticles (below 25 nm and above 75 nm) respectively, which was considered to be an indicative aspect for synthesizing nanoparticles of narrow size distribution. The zeta potential and dynamic light scattering (DLS) results suggest the good stability and mono-dispersed size distribution of the silver nanoparticles. The transmission electron microscope, selective area electron diffraction (SAED) and X-ray diffraction studies infer that the nanoparticles formed were spherical/quasi-spherical in shape, which primarily exhibited a face centred cubic crystal (FCC) structure. The green-chemical reduction of organic phases in the extract (especially amine (NH{sub 2}) groups) as reflected through shifts observed in the Fourier-transform infra red (FTIR) peaks, reveal the possible interaction of the organic molecules with the silver ions in the effective formation, surface modification and stabilization of the silver nanoparticles. - Highlights: • Functionally stable and crystalline silver nanoparticles were green synthesized. • Beta vulgaris peel extract was used as potential reducing and stabilizing agent. • Amine groups in extract were expected to reduce Ag{sup +} and stabilize nanoparticles. • Induced

  7. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Beta vulgaris: Role of process conditions on size distribution and surface structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parameshwaran, R.; Kalaiselvam, S.; Jayavel, R.

    2013-01-01

    The present work reports the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles, using Beta vulgaris peel extract with a subsequent investigation on the size distribution and surface structure of nanoparticles formed under various process conditions. The green-chemical reduction mechanism of silver ions to nanoparticles by the active organic functional groups present in the extract was characterized, using the respective spectroscopic techniques. The effects of various process parameters, including induced intraparticle ripening, were attributed to the controlled formation of anisotropic silver nanoparticles within the supporting matrix of the extract. The plasmon absorption and resonance scattering properties were expected to be favourable for small and larger size nanoparticles (below 25 nm and above 75 nm) respectively, which was considered to be an indicative aspect for synthesizing nanoparticles of narrow size distribution. The zeta potential and dynamic light scattering (DLS) results suggest the good stability and mono-dispersed size distribution of the silver nanoparticles. The transmission electron microscope, selective area electron diffraction (SAED) and X-ray diffraction studies infer that the nanoparticles formed were spherical/quasi-spherical in shape, which primarily exhibited a face centred cubic crystal (FCC) structure. The green-chemical reduction of organic phases in the extract (especially amine (NH 2 ) groups) as reflected through shifts observed in the Fourier-transform infra red (FTIR) peaks, reveal the possible interaction of the organic molecules with the silver ions in the effective formation, surface modification and stabilization of the silver nanoparticles. - Highlights: • Functionally stable and crystalline silver nanoparticles were green synthesized. • Beta vulgaris peel extract was used as potential reducing and stabilizing agent. • Amine groups in extract were expected to reduce Ag + and stabilize nanoparticles. • Induced intraparticle

  8. Abundance and distribution of fatty acids within the walls of an active deep-sea sulfide chimney

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiwei; Zhou, Huaiyang; Peng, Xiaotong; Fu, Meiyan; Chen, Zhiqiang; Yao, Huiqiang

    2011-04-01

    Abundance and distribution of total fatty acids (TFAs) were examined along the physicochemical gradient within an active hydrothermal chimney collected from the Main Endeavour segment of Juan de Fuca Ridge. Approximately 27 fatty acids are identified with a chain-length ranging from C12 to C22. From the exterior to the interior of the chimney walls, the total concentrations of TFAs (∑ TFAs) show a trend of evident decrease. The observed compositions of TFAs are rich in bacterial biomarkers especially monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) and minor branched and cyclopropyl FAs. On the basis of the species-specific FAs and bacterial 16SrRNA gene analysis (Li et al., unpublished data), sulfur-based metabolism appears to be the essential metabolic process in the chimney. Furthermore, the sulfur oxidizing bacteria (SOB) are identified as a basic component of microbial communities at the exterior of the hydrothermal chimney, and its proportion shows an inward decrease while the sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) have an inverse distribution.

  9. The application of thermoluminescence dosimeters to studies of released activity distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruden, B.I.

    1969-06-01

    In this report the theoretical conditions necessary for the study of the behaviour of released activity by the use of CaSO 4 : Mn thermoluminescence dosimeters are considered. A method is derived for calculating exposure distributions from drifting volume activity. The correlation between exposure distributions and concentration distributions is discussed. One of thirty experiments where Br 82 was released into water through a nozzle some metres above the bottom is described. The resulting exposure distribution was measured in a vertical plane at distances of 10, 50 and 200 metres by CaSO 4 : Mn thermoluminescence dosimeters. The measured exposures are described and discussed. The advantages and disadvantages of the technique are compared with other methods. The method using exposure measurements for the study of active release in water has given satisfactory results in practice. The measurements have been made at concentration levels which are considerably below that permissible for drinking water according to the recommendations by ICRPA special advantage with this method is that the measurements can be made simultaneously at a large number of places and that integration is possible over sufficiently long periods of time. An experiment is described where Ar 41 was released in free air at a height of one metre above ground and the resulting exposure distribution was measured in a vertical plane at 100 and 250 metres distance by CaSO 4 : Mn thermoluminescence dosimeters. Shielding problems in connection with the experiments have been small since the method permits the measurement of very small doses. An account is given of the possibility of using the beta emitting isotope Kr 85 instead of the gamma emitting Ar 41 for diffusion experiments in air. The results obtained from some experiments are presented and discussed. The thermoluminescent signal from the dosimeters are, at the same concentration and exposure time, 2.5 times greater for Kr 85 than for Ar 41. The Kr

  10. Active voltammetric microsensors with neural signal processing.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogt, M. C.

    1998-12-11

    Many industrial and environmental processes, including bioremediation, would benefit from the feedback and control information provided by a local multi-analyte chemical sensor. For most processes, such a sensor would need to be rugged enough to be placed in situ for long-term remote monitoring, and inexpensive enough to be fielded in useful numbers. The multi-analyte capability is difficult to obtain from common passive sensors, but can be provided by an active device that produces a spectrum-type response. Such new active gas microsensor technology has been developed at Argonne National Laboratory. The technology couples an electrocatalytic ceramic-metallic (cermet) microsensor with a voltammetric measurement technique and advanced neural signal processing. It has been demonstrated to be flexible, rugged, and very economical to produce and deploy. Both narrow interest detectors and wide spectrum instruments have been developed around this technology. Much of this technology's strength lies in the active measurement technique employed. The technique involves applying voltammetry to a miniature electrocatalytic cell to produce unique chemical ''signatures'' from the analytes. These signatures are processed with neural pattern recognition algorithms to identify and quantify the components in the analyte. The neural signal processing allows for innovative sampling and analysis strategies to be employed with the microsensor. In most situations, the whole response signature from the voltammogram can be used to identify, classify, and quantify an analyte, without dissecting it into component parts. This allows an instrument to be calibrated once for a specific gas or mixture of gases by simple exposure to a multi-component standard rather than by a series of individual gases. The sampled unknown analytes can vary in composition or in concentration, the calibration, sensing, and processing methods of these active voltammetric microsensors can

  11. Active voltammetric microsensors with neural signal processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Michael C.; Skubal, Laura R.

    1999-02-01

    Many industrial and environmental processes, including bioremediation, would benefit from the feedback and control information provided by a local multi-analyte chemical sensor. For most processes, such a sensor would need to be rugged enough to be placed in situ for long-term remote monitoring, and inexpensive enough to be fielded in useful numbers. The multi-analyte capability is difficult to obtain from common passive sensors, but can be provided by an active device that produces a spectrum-type response. Such new active gas microsensor technology has been developed at Argonne National Laboratory. The technology couples an electrocatalytic ceramic-metallic (cermet) microsensor with a voltammetric measurement technique and advanced neural signal processing. It has been demonstrated to be flexible, rugged, and very economical to produce and deploy. Both narrow interest detectors and wide spectrum instruments have been developed around this technology. Much of this technology's strength lies in the active measurement technique employed. The technique involves applying voltammetry to a miniature electrocatalytic cell to produce unique chemical 'signatures' from the analytes. These signatures are processed with neural pattern recognition algorithms to identify and quantify the components in the analyte. The neural signal processing allows for innovative sampling and analysis strategies to be employed with the microsensor. In most situations, the whole response signature from the voltammogram can be used to identify, classify, and quantify an analyte, without dissecting it into component parts. This allows an instrument to be calibrated once for a specific gas or mixture of gases by simple exposure to a multi-component standard rather than by a series of individual gases. The sampled unknown analytes can vary in composition or in concentration; the calibration, sensing, and processing methods of these active voltammetric microsensors can detect, recognize, and

  12. Experience with antimony activity removal process in Indian PHWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velmurugan, S.; Mittal, Vinit K.; Kumbhar, A.G.; Narasimhan, S.V.; Bhat, H.R.; Krishna Rao, K.S.; Upadhyay, S.K.; Jain, A.K.

    2008-01-01

    The problem of antimony (Sb) activity during decontamination was first encountered in NAPS-1 and Sb activity deposition took place during the decontamination resulting in poor decontamination factors (DF). Sb problem has been observed in PWRs and PHWRs elsewhere also. These utilities use an oxidative process involving the addition of H 2 O 2 to remove these Sb activities from the core and remove it on ion exchange resins. Experience in CANDU PHWRs indicated disappearance of H 2 O 2 in quantities higher than that observed in PWRs. This is attributed to the higher pick-up of H 2 O 2 by the magnetite/ferrites over large carbon steel surface present in the primary coolant system of PHWRs. Systematic work was carried out to understand the deposition of Sb on PHT system surfaces and a new method was evolved to remove the Sb activities from the system. This alternative reductive chemical process involve the addition of Nitrilo Tri Acetic Acid, Citric Acid and Rodine-92B and circulating the chemicals for a short period and then the Sb and other activities released from the core are removed by the mixed bed. Subsequent to the Sb removal process, the normal chemical decontamination of the system is carried out to remove 60 Co and other activities. This non-oxidizing Sb removal process was applied to NAPS-2 primary system prior to EMCCR. During this Sb removal process of NAPS-2, around 450 μCi/L activity of 124 Sb was released from the system surfaces to the formulation. Activity measurement in the samples collected and the on-line radiation field data indicated that deposition of Sb activities on system surfaces has been prevented by Rodine-92B and subsequently these activities have been removed by mixed bed IX columns. Antimony removal process worked successfully, but in the second normal decontamination process around 150 μCi/L activities came in the formulation which was not anticipated. As a result DF observed immediately after the decontamination campaign was not good

  13. Investigation of distribution of elements in a Korean ginseng by using a neutron activation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yu Na; Sun, Gwang Min; Chung, Yong Sam; Kim, Young Jin [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-10-15

    The Distinction of production areas of Korean ginsengs has been tried by using neutron activation techniques such as an instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and a prompt gamma activation analysis (PGAA). This study was done as a part of those efforts. As is well known, the distribution of elements varies according to the part of plant due to the difference of enrichment effect and influence from a soil where the plants have been grown. So a correlation study between plants and soil is an important issue. In this study, the distribution of trace elements within a Korean ginseng was investigated by using an instrumental neutron activation analysis.

  14. Acquiring and processing verb argument structure: distributional learning in a miniature language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wonnacott, Elizabeth; Newport, Elissa L; Tanenhaus, Michael K

    2008-05-01

    Adult knowledge of a language involves correctly balancing lexically-based and more language-general patterns. For example, verb argument structures may sometimes readily generalize to new verbs, yet with particular verbs may resist generalization. From the perspective of acquisition, this creates significant learnability problems, with some researchers claiming a crucial role for verb semantics in the determination of when generalization may and may not occur. Similarly, there has been debate regarding how verb-specific and more generalized constraints interact in sentence processing and on the role of semantics in this process. The current work explores these issues using artificial language learning. In three experiments using languages without semantic cues to verb distribution, we demonstrate that learners can acquire both verb-specific and verb-general patterns, based on distributional information in the linguistic input regarding each of the verbs as well as across the language as a whole. As with natural languages, these factors are shown to affect production, judgments and real-time processing. We demonstrate that learners apply a rational procedure in determining their usage of these different input statistics and conclude by suggesting that a Bayesian perspective on statistical learning may be an appropriate framework for capturing our findings.

  15. Word and face processing engage overlapping distributed networks: Evidence from RSVP and EEG investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Amanda K; Plaut, David C; Behrmann, Marlene

    2017-07-01

    Words and faces have vastly different visual properties, but increasing evidence suggests that word and face processing engage overlapping distributed networks. For instance, fMRI studies have shown overlapping activity for face and word processing in the fusiform gyrus despite well-characterized lateralization of these objects to the left and right hemispheres, respectively. To investigate whether face and word perception influences perception of the other stimulus class and elucidate the mechanisms underlying such interactions, we presented images using rapid serial visual presentations. Across 3 experiments, participants discriminated 2 face, word, and glasses targets (T1 and T2) embedded in a stream of images. As expected, T2 discrimination was impaired when it followed T1 by 200 to 300 ms relative to longer intertarget lags, the so-called attentional blink. Interestingly, T2 discrimination accuracy was significantly reduced at short intertarget lags when a face was followed by a word (face-word) compared with glasses-word and word-word combinations, indicating that face processing interfered with word perception. The reverse effect was not observed; that is, word-face performance was no different than the other object combinations. EEG results indicated the left N170 to T1 was correlated with the word decrement for face-word trials, but not for other object combinations. Taken together, the results suggest face processing interferes with word processing, providing evidence for overlapping neural mechanisms of these 2 object types. Furthermore, asymmetrical face-word interference points to greater overlap of face and word representations in the left than the right hemisphere. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Distribution of activity at the solar active longitudes between 1979 - 2011 in the northern hemisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyenge, N.; Baranyi, T.; Ludmány, A.

    The solar active longitudes were studied in the northern hemisphere in cycles 22 and 23 by using data of DPD sunspot catalogue. The active longitudes are not fixed in the Carrington system, they have a well recognizable migration path between the descending phase of cycle 21 (from about 1984) and ascending phase of cycle 23 (until about 1996), out of this interval the migration path is ambiguous. The longitudinal distribution on both sides of the path has been computed and averaged for the length of the path. The so-called flip-flop phenomenon, when the activity temporarily gets to the opposite longitude, can also be recognized. The widths of the active domains are fairly narrow in the increasing and decaying phases of cycle 22, their half widths are about 20°-30° for both the main and secondary active belts but it is more flat and stretched around the maximum with a half width of about 60°.

  17. Integration of in-home electricity storage systems in a multi-agent active distribution network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, E.A.M.; Reulink, M.H.B.; Haytema, A.P.; Frunt, J.; Slootweg, J.G.

    2014-01-01

    The living lab demonstration project PowerMatching City is a clear example of how distribution networks can take advantage of the increasing number of Distributed Energy Resources (DER). Due to the applied decentralized market model in this project, DER become active players on the local market.

  18. Neighbor-dependent Ramachandran probability distributions of amino acids developed from a hierarchical Dirichlet process model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Ting

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Distributions of the backbone dihedral angles of proteins have been studied for over 40 years. While many statistical analyses have been presented, only a handful of probability densities are publicly available for use in structure validation and structure prediction methods. The available distributions differ in a number of important ways, which determine their usefulness for various purposes. These include: 1 input data size and criteria for structure inclusion (resolution, R-factor, etc.; 2 filtering of suspect conformations and outliers using B-factors or other features; 3 secondary structure of input data (e.g., whether helix and sheet are included; whether beta turns are included; 4 the method used for determining probability densities ranging from simple histograms to modern nonparametric density estimation; and 5 whether they include nearest neighbor effects on the distribution of conformations in different regions of the Ramachandran map. In this work, Ramachandran probability distributions are presented for residues in protein loops from a high-resolution data set with filtering based on calculated electron densities. Distributions for all 20 amino acids (with cis and trans proline treated separately have been determined, as well as 420 left-neighbor and 420 right-neighbor dependent distributions. The neighbor-independent and neighbor-dependent probability densities have been accurately estimated using Bayesian nonparametric statistical analysis based on the Dirichlet process. In particular, we used hierarchical Dirichlet process priors, which allow sharing of information between densities for a particular residue type and different neighbor residue types. The resulting distributions are tested in a loop modeling benchmark with the program Rosetta, and are shown to improve protein loop conformation prediction significantly. The distributions are available at http://dunbrack.fccc.edu/hdp.

  19. Effects of active conductance distribution over dendrites on the synaptic integration in an identified nonspiking interneuron.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Takashima

    Full Text Available The synaptic integration in individual central neuron is critically affected by how active conductances are distributed over dendrites. It has been well known that the dendrites of central neurons are richly endowed with voltage- and ligand-regulated ion conductances. Nonspiking interneurons (NSIs, almost exclusively characteristic to arthropod central nervous systems, do not generate action potentials and hence lack voltage-regulated sodium channels, yet having a variety of voltage-regulated potassium conductances on their dendritic membrane including the one similar to the delayed-rectifier type potassium conductance. It remains unknown, however, how the active conductances are distributed over dendrites and how the synaptic integration is affected by those conductances in NSIs and other invertebrate neurons where the cell body is not included in the signal pathway from input synapses to output sites. In the present study, we quantitatively investigated the functional significance of active conductance distribution pattern in the spatio-temporal spread of synaptic potentials over dendrites of an identified NSI in the crayfish central nervous system by computer simulation. We systematically changed the distribution pattern of active conductances in the neuron's multicompartment model and examined how the synaptic potential waveform was affected by each distribution pattern. It was revealed that specific patterns of nonuniform distribution of potassium conductances were consistent, while other patterns were not, with the waveform of compound synaptic potentials recorded physiologically in the major input-output pathway of the cell, suggesting that the possibility of nonuniform distribution of potassium conductances over the dendrite cannot be excluded as well as the possibility of uniform distribution. Local synaptic circuits involving input and output synapses on the same branch or on the same side were found to be potentially affected under

  20. s-process studies in the light of new experimental cross sections: Distribution of neutron fluences and r-process residuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaeppeler, F.; Beer, H.; Wisshak, K.; Clayton, D.D.; Macklin, R.L.; Ward, R.A.

    1981-08-01

    A best set of neutron-capture cross sections has been evaluated for the most important s-process isotopes. With this data base, s-process studies have been carried out using the traditional model which assumes a steady neutron flux and an exponential distribution of neutron irradiations. The calculated sigmaN-curve is in excellent agreement with the empirical sigmaN-values of pure s-process nuclei. Simultaneously, good agreement is found between the difference of solar and s-process abundances and the abundances of pure r-process nuclei. We also discuss the abundance pattern of the iron group elements where our s-process results complement the abundances obtained from explosive nuclear burning. The results obtained from the traditional s-process model such as seed abundances, mean neutron irradiations, or neutron densities are compared to recent stellar model calculations which assume the He-burning shells of red giant stars as the site for the s-process. (orig.) [de

  1. Charged particle multiplicity distributions in e+e--annihilation processes in the LEP experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shlyapnikov, P.V.

    1992-01-01

    Results of studies of the charged particle multiplicity distributions in the process of e + e - -annihilation into hadrons obtained in experiments at LEP accelerator in CERN are reviewed. Universality in energy dependence of the average charged particle multiplicity in e + e - and p ± p collisions, evidence for KNO-scaling in e + e - data, structure in multiplicity distribution and its relation to the jet structure of events, average particle multiplicities or quark and gluon jets, 'clan' picture and other topics are discussed. 73 refs.; 20 figs.; 3 tabs

  2. Effect of process parameters on temperature distribution in twin-electrode TIG coupling arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guangjun; Xiong, Jun; Gao, Hongming; Wu, Lin

    2012-10-01

    The twin-electrode TIG coupling arc is a new type of welding heat source, which is generated in a single welding torch that has two tungsten electrodes insulated from each other. This paper aims at determining the distribution of temperature for the coupling arc using the Fowler-Milne method under the assumption of local thermodynamic equilibrium. The influences of welding current, arc length, and distance between both electrode tips on temperature distribution of the coupling arc were analyzed. Based on the results, a better understanding of the twin-electrode TIG welding process was obtained.

  3. Active non-volatile memory post-processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kannan, Sudarsun; Milojicic, Dejan S.; Talwar, Vanish

    2017-04-11

    A computing node includes an active Non-Volatile Random Access Memory (NVRAM) component which includes memory and a sub-processor component. The memory is to store data chunks received from a processor core, the data chunks comprising metadata indicating a type of post-processing to be performed on data within the data chunks. The sub-processor component is to perform post-processing of said data chunks based on said metadata.

  4. Equipment for automatic measurement of gamma activity distribution in a column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalincak, M.; Machan, V.; Vilcek, S.; Balkovsky, K.

    1978-01-01

    The design of a device for stepwise scanning of gamma activity distributions along chromatographic columns is described. In connection with a single-channel gamma spectrometer and a counting ratemeter with a recorder this device permits the resolution of a number of gamma emitters on the column, the determination of the gamma nuclide content in different chemical forms in the sample by means of column separation methods - Gel Chromatography Columns Scanning Method - and the determination of gamma nuclide distribution along the columns. The device permits the scanning of columns of up to 20 mm in diameter and 700 mm in length and continual scanning over a 450 mm column length with one clamping. With minor adaptations it is possible to scan columns up to 30 mm in diameter. The length of the scanned sections is 5 or 10 mm, the scanning time setting is arbitrary and variable activity levels and radiation energies may be measured. (author)

  5. Development of laboratory and process sensors to monitor particle size distribution of industrial slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pendse, H.P.

    1992-10-01

    In this paper we present a novel measurement technique for monitoring particle size distributions of industrial colloidal slurries based on ultrasonic spectroscopy and mathematical deconvolution. An on-line sensor prototype has been developed and tested extensively in laboratory and production settings using mineral pigment slurries. Evaluation to date shows that the sensor is capable of providing particle size distributions, without any assumptions regarding their functional form, over diameters ranging from 0.1 to 100 micrometers in slurries with particle concentrations of 10 to 50 volume percents. The newly developed on-line sensor allows one to obtain particle size distributions of commonly encountered inorganic pigment slurries under industrial processing conditions without dilution.

  6. Local and Widely Distributed EEG Activity in Schizophrenia With Prevalence of Negative Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grin-Yatsenko, Vera A; Ponomarev, Valery A; Pronina, Marina V; Poliakov, Yury I; Plotnikova, Irina V; Kropotov, Juri D

    2017-09-01

    We evaluated EEG frequency abnormalities in resting state (eyes closed and eyes open) EEG in a group of chronic schizophrenia patients as compared with healthy subjects. The study included 3 methods of analysis of deviation of EEG characteristics: genuine EEG, current source density (CSD), and group independent component (gIC). All 3 methods have shown that the EEG in schizophrenia patients is characterized by enhanced low-frequency (delta and theta) and high-frequency (beta) activity in comparison with the control group. However, the spatial pattern of differences was dependent on the type of method used. Comparative analysis has shown that increased EEG power in schizophrenia patients apparently concerns both widely spatially distributed components and local components of signal. Furthermore, the observed differences in the delta and theta range can be described mainly by the local components, and those in the beta range mostly by spatially widely distributed ones. The possible nature of the widely distributed activity is discussed.

  7. CHARACTERIZING THE HEAVY ELEMENTS IN GLOBULAR CLUSTER M22 AND AN EMPIRICAL s-PROCESS ABUNDANCE DISTRIBUTION DERIVED FROM THE TWO STELLAR GROUPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roederer, I. U.; Marino, A. F.; Sneden, C.

    2011-01-01

    We present an empirical s-process abundance distribution derived with explicit knowledge of the r-process component in the low-metallicity globular cluster M22. We have obtained high-resolution, high signal-to-noise spectra for six red giants in M22 using the Magellan Inamori Kyocera Echelle spectrograph on the Magellan-Clay Telescope at Las Campanas Observatory. In each star we derive abundances for 44 species of 40 elements, including 24 elements heavier than zinc (Z = 30) produced by neutron-capture reactions. Previous studies determined that three of these stars (the 'r+s group') have an enhancement of s-process material relative to the other three stars (the 'r-only group'). We confirm that the r+s group is moderately enriched in Pb relative to the r-only group. Both groups of stars were born with the same amount of r-process material, but s-process material was also present in the gas from which the r+s group formed. The s-process abundances are inconsistent with predictions for asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars with M ≤ 3 M ☉ and suggest an origin in more massive AGB stars capable of activating the 22 Ne(α,n) 25 Mg reaction. We calculate the s-process 'residual' by subtracting the r-process pattern in the r-only group from the abundances in the r+s group. In contrast to previous r- and s-process decompositions, this approach makes no assumptions about the r- and s-process distributions in the solar system and provides a unique opportunity to explore s-process yields in a metal-poor environment.

  8. Vocal activities reflect the temporal distribution of bottlenose dolphin social and non-social activity in a zoological park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Alice; Lemasson, Alban; Boye, Martin; Hausberger, Martine

    2017-12-01

    Under natural conditions bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) spend their time mostly feeding and then travelling, socializing, or resting. These activities are not randomly distributed, with feeding being higher in early morning and late afternoon. Social activities and vocal behavior seem to be very important in dolphin daily activity. This study aimed to describe the activity time-budget and its relation to vocal behavior for dolphins in a zoological park. We recorded behaviors and vocalizations of six dolphins over 2 months. All subjects performed more non-agonistic social interactions and play in the morning than in the afternoon. The different categories of vocalizations were distributed non-randomly throughout the day, with more chirps in the afternoon, when the animals were "less social." The most striking result was the strong correlation between activities and the categories of vocalizations produced. The results confirm the association between burst pulses and whistles with social activities, but also reveal that both are also associated with solitary play. More chirps were produced when dolphins were engaged in socio-sexual behaviors, emphasizing the need for further questioning about the function of this vocal category. This study reveals that: (i) in a group kept in zoological management, social activities are mostly present in the morning; and (ii) the acoustic signals produced by dolphins may give a reliable representation of their current activities. While more studies on the context of signal production are needed, our findings provide a useful tool for understanding free ranging dolphin behavior when they are not visible. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Use of neutron activation techniques for studying elements distribution. Applications in geochemistry, ecology and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flitsyan, E.S.

    1997-01-01

    The essence of the radiography method, sensitivity of which is within a range of 10 -2 - 10 -7 g · mm -2 and resolution ability extend from 0,01 to 100 μm, consists in determining the distributions of ionising irradiation sources on a surface under study by using the two-dimensional field of their irradiation registered by means of photoemulsion or dielectric track detector. Statistical analysis and computer processing of the radiographic images have allowed one to solve the two main tasks of the method , namely, the determination of true distributions of ionising irradiation sources on the surface of an object under study and the quantitative estimation within given accuracy of the content of an element under study in a sample. A complex of radiographic techniques based on the registration of secondary irradiation of the activated nuclei, instantaneous products of the nuclear reactions, and fusion fragments of the transuranium elements, has been developed to solve a series of the problem in geology and geochemistry, as well as for an analysis of technological and environment samples. Upon designing and constructing special comparison standards modelling a sample in composition and structure, the quantitative data on distributions of more than forty elements in rock sections and these of the main microcomponents, including oxygen, in the superconducting ceramics samples have also been obtained. (author)

  10. A convergent model for distributed processing of Big Sensor Data in urban engineering networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parygin, D. S.; Finogeev, A. G.; Kamaev, V. A.; Finogeev, A. A.; Gnedkova, E. P.; Tyukov, A. P.

    2017-01-01

    The problems of development and research of a convergent model of the grid, cloud, fog and mobile computing for analytical Big Sensor Data processing are reviewed. The model is meant to create monitoring systems of spatially distributed objects of urban engineering networks and processes. The proposed approach is the convergence model of the distributed data processing organization. The fog computing model is used for the processing and aggregation of sensor data at the network nodes and/or industrial controllers. The program agents are loaded to perform computing tasks for the primary processing and data aggregation. The grid and the cloud computing models are used for integral indicators mining and accumulating. A computing cluster has a three-tier architecture, which includes the main server at the first level, a cluster of SCADA system servers at the second level, a lot of GPU video cards with the support for the Compute Unified Device Architecture at the third level. The mobile computing model is applied to visualize the results of intellectual analysis with the elements of augmented reality and geo-information technologies. The integrated indicators are transferred to the data center for accumulation in a multidimensional storage for the purpose of data mining and knowledge gaining.

  11. Standardization of a method to study the distribution of Americium in purex process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dapolikar, T.T.; Pant, D.K.; Kapur, H.N.; Kumar, Rajendra; Dubey, K.

    2017-01-01

    In the present work the distribution of Americium in PUREX process is investigated in various process streams. For this purpose a method has been standardized for the determination of Am in process samples. The method involves extraction of Am with associated actinides using 30% TRPO-NPH at 0.3M HNO 3 followed by selective stripping of Am from the organic phase into aqueous phase at 6M HNO 3 . The assay of aqueous phase for Am content is carried out by alpha radiometry. The investigation has revealed that 100% Am follows the HLLW route. (author)

  12. Transforming Internal Activities of Business Process Models to Services Compositions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirgahayu, Teduh; Quartel, Dick; van Sinderen, Marten J.; Mostefaoui, S.K.; Maamar, Z.; Ferreira Pires, L.; Hammoudi, S.; Rinderle-Ma, S.; Sadiq, S.; Schulz, K.

    As a service composition language, BPEL imposes as constraint that a business process model should consist only of activities for interacting with other business processes. BPEL provides limited support for implementing internal activities, i.e. activities that are performed by a single business

  13. A Cyber Physical Model Based on a Hybrid System for Flexible Load Control in an Active Distribution Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Wang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available To strengthen the integration of the primary and secondary systems, a concept of Cyber Physical Systems (CPS is introduced to construct a CPS in Power Systems (Power CPS. The most basic work of the Power CPS is to build an integration model which combines both a continuous process and a discrete process. The advanced form of smart grid, the Active Distribution Network (ADN is a typical example of Power CPS. After designing the Power CPS model architecture and its application in ADN, a Hybrid System based model and control method of Power CPS is proposed in this paper. As an application example, ADN flexible load is modeled and controlled with ADN feeder power control by a control strategy which includes the normal condition and the underpowered condition. In this model and strategy, some factors like load power consumption and load functional demand are considered and optimized. In order to make up some of the deficiencies of centralized control, a distributed control method is presented to reduce model complexity and improve calculation speed. The effectiveness of all the models and methods are demonstrated in the case study.

  14. Thermal oxidative degradation kinetics of agricultural residues using distributed activation energy model and global kinetic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xiu'e; Chen, Jianbiao; Li, Gang; Wang, Yanhong; Lang, Xuemei; Fan, Shuanshi

    2018-08-01

    The study concerned the thermal oxidative degradation kinetics of agricultural residues, peanut shell (PS) and sunflower shell (SS). The thermal behaviors were evaluated via thermogravimetric analysis and the kinetic parameters were determined by using distributed activation energy model (DAEM) and global kinetic model (GKM). Results showed that thermal oxidative decomposition of two samples processed in three zones; the ignition, burnout, and comprehensive combustibility between two agricultural residues were of great difference; and the combustion performance could be improved by boosting heating rate. The activation energy ranges calculated by the DAEM for the thermal oxidative degradation of PS and SS were 88.94-145.30 kJ mol -1 and 94.86-169.18 kJ mol -1 , respectively. The activation energy obtained by the GKM for the oxidative decomposition of hemicellulose and cellulose was obviously lower than that for the lignin oxidation at identical heating rate. To some degree, the determined kinetic parameters could acceptably simulate experimental data. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The process of developing distributed-efficacy and social practice in the context of ‘ending AIDS’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Burman

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: this article reflects on data that emanated from a programme evaluation and focuses on a concept we label ‘distributed-efficacy’. We argue that the process of developing and sustaining ‘distributed-efficacy’ is complex and indeterminate, thus difficult to manage or predict. We situate the discussion within the context of UNAIDS’ recent strategy — Vision 95:95:95 — to ‘end AIDS’ by 2030 which the South African National Department of Health is currently rolling out across the country. Method: A qualitative method was applied. It included a Value Network Analysis, the Most Significant Change technique and a thematic content analysis of factors associated with a ‘competent community’ model. During the analysis it was noticed that there were unexpected references to a shift in social relations. This prompted a re-analysis of the narrative findings using a second thematic content analysis that focused on factors associated with complexity science, the environmental sciences and shifts is social relations. Findings: the efficacy associated with new social practices relating to HIV risk-reduction was distributed amongst networks that included mother—son networks and participant—facilitator networks and included a shift in social relations within these networks. Discussion: it is suggested that for new social practices to emerge requires the establishment of ‘distributed-efficacy’ which facilitates localised social sanctioning, sometimes including shifts in social relations, and this process is a ‘complex’, dialectical interplay between ‘agency’ and ‘structure’. Conclusion: the ambition of ‘ending AIDS’ by 2030 represents a compressed timeframe that will require the uptake of multiple new bio-social practises. This will involve many nonlinear, complex challenges and the process of developing ‘distributed-efficacy’ could play a role in this process. Further research into the factors we

  16. ATLAS Distributed Computing Automation

    CERN Document Server

    Schovancova, J; The ATLAS collaboration; Borrego, C; Campana, S; Di Girolamo, A; Elmsheuser, J; Hejbal, J; Kouba, T; Legger, F; Magradze, E; Medrano Llamas, R; Negri, G; Rinaldi, L; Sciacca, G; Serfon, C; Van Der Ster, D C

    2012-01-01

    The ATLAS Experiment benefits from computing resources distributed worldwide at more than 100 WLCG sites. The ATLAS Grid sites provide over 100k CPU job slots, over 100 PB of storage space on disk or tape. Monitoring of status of such a complex infrastructure is essential. The ATLAS Grid infrastructure is monitored 24/7 by two teams of shifters distributed world-wide, by the ATLAS Distributed Computing experts, and by site administrators. In this paper we summarize automation efforts performed within the ATLAS Distributed Computing team in order to reduce manpower costs and improve the reliability of the system. Different aspects of the automation process are described: from the ATLAS Grid site topology provided by the ATLAS Grid Information System, via automatic site testing by the HammerCloud, to automatic exclusion from production or analysis activities.

  17. Magnetohydrodynamic process in solar activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingxiu Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnetohydrodynamics is one of the major disciplines in solar physics. Vigorous magnetohydrodynamic process is taking place in the solar convection zone and atmosphere. It controls the generating and structuring of the solar magnetic fields, causes the accumulation of magnetic non-potential energy in the solar atmosphere and triggers the explosive magnetic energy release, manifested as violent solar flares and coronal mass ejections. Nowadays detailed observations in solar astrophysics from space and on the ground urge a great need for the studies of magnetohydrodynamics and plasma physics to achieve better understanding of the mechanism or mechanisms of solar activity. On the other hand, the spectacular solar activity always serves as a great laboratory of magnetohydrodynamics. In this article, we reviewed a few key unresolved problems in solar activity studies and discussed the relevant issues in solar magnetohydrodynamics.

  18. Methods of Run-Time Error Detection in Distributed Process Control Software

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drejer, N.

    of generic run-time error types, design of methods of observing application software behaviorduring execution and design of methods of evaluating run time constraints. In the definition of error types it is attempted to cover all relevant aspects of the application softwaree behavior. Methods of observation......In this thesis, methods of run-time error detection in application software for distributed process control is designed. The error detection is based upon a monitoring approach in which application software is monitored by system software during the entire execution. The thesis includes definition...... and constraint evaluation is designed for the modt interesting error types. These include: a) semantical errors in data communicated between application tasks; b) errors in the execution of application tasks; and c) errors in the timing of distributed events emitted by the application software. The design...

  19. Effects of ventilation strategy on distribution of lung inflammatory cell activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Leukocyte infiltration is central to the development of acute lung injury, but it is not known how mechanical ventilation strategy alters the distribution or activation of inflammatory cells. We explored how protective (vs. injurious) ventilation alters the magnitude and distribution of lung leukocyte activation following systemic endotoxin administration. Methods Anesthetized sheep received intravenous endotoxin (10 ng/kg/min) followed by 2 h of either injurious or protective mechanical ventilation (n = 6 per group). We used positron emission tomography to obtain images of regional perfusion and shunting with infused 13N[nitrogen]-saline and images of neutrophilic inflammation with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG). The Sokoloff model was used to quantify 18F-FDG uptake (Ki), as well as its components: the phosphorylation rate (k3, a surrogate of hexokinase activity) and the distribution volume of 18F-FDG (Fe) as a fraction of lung volume (Ki = Fe × k3). Regional gas fractions (fgas) were assessed by examining transmission scans. Results Before endotoxin administration, protective (vs. injurious) ventilation was associated with a higher ratio of partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood to fraction of inspired oxygen (PaO2/FiO2) (351 ± 117 vs. 255 ± 74 mmHg; P ventilation, which also increased the shunt fraction in dependent lung. Protective ventilation resulted in less nonaerated lung (20-fold; P protective (vs. injurious) ventilation, especially in dependent lung regions (0.0075 ± 0.0043/min vs. 0.0157 ± 0.0072/min; P ventilation and accounted for most of the between-group difference in Ki. Dependent regions of the protective ventilation group exhibited lower k3 values per neutrophil than those in the injurious ventilation group (P = 0.01). In contrast, Fe was not affected by ventilation strategy (P = 0.52). Lung neutrophil counts were not different between groups, even when regional inflation was accounted for. Conclusions During systemic

  20. [Distribution of acetylcholinesterase activity in the digestive system of the gastropod molluscs Littorina littorea and Achatina fulica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaĭtseva, O V; Kuznetsova, T V

    2008-01-01

    With the use of the histochemical procedure for the demonstration of acetylcholinesterase (AchE) activity, the distribution cholinergic regulatory elements was studied in the esophagus, the pharynx, the stomach, the liver (the digestive gland) and the intestine in sea and terrestrial gastropod molluscs that differed in their general organization level, lifestyle, habitat and feeding type. In both molluscs, all the parts of the digestive tract contained the significant amount of intraepithelial AchE-positive cells of the open type, single subepithelial neurons and the nervous fibers localized among the muscle cells of the wall of the organs. The basal processes of the AchE-positive intraepithelial cells were shown to form the intraepithelial nerve plexus and to pass under the epithelium. The peculiarities and common principles in the distribution of the nervous elements detected, their possible function and the regulatory role in the digestion in gastropod molluscs and other animals are discussed.

  1. An Analysis of Resilience of a Cloud Based Incident Notification Process

    OpenAIRE

    Vrieze , Paul ,; Xu , Lai

    2015-01-01

    Part 2: Agility and Resilience in Collaborative Networks; International audience; Cloud based Business Process Management (BPM) systems have provided SMEs with BPM in a pay-per-use manner. Previous work has focused on looking at cloud based BPM from the perspectives of distribution of data, activity or/and process engine and related issues, such as scalability of system, security of data, distribution of data and activities. To achieve business agility, business process collaboration needs to...

  2. Process for encapsulating active agents in gels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yilmaz, G.; Jongboom, R.O.J.; Oosterhaven, J.

    2001-01-01

    The present invention relates to a process for encapsulating an active agent in a biopolymer in the form of a gel, comprising the steps of: a) forming a dispersion or solution of the biopolymer in water; and b) adding the active agent to the dispersion or solution obtained in step a); wherein the

  3. Multi-objective optimal power flow for active distribution network considering the stochastic characteristic of photovoltaic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Bao-Rong; Liu, Si-Liang; Zhang, Yong-Jun; Yi, Ying-Qi; Lin, Xiao-Ming

    2017-05-01

    To mitigate the impact on the distribution networks caused by the stochastic characteristic and high penetration of photovoltaic, a multi-objective optimal power flow model is proposed in this paper. The regulation capability of capacitor, inverter of photovoltaic and energy storage system embedded in active distribution network are considered to minimize the expected value of active power the T loss and probability of voltage violation in this model. Firstly, a probabilistic power flow based on cumulant method is introduced to calculate the value of the objectives. Secondly, NSGA-II algorithm is adopted for optimization to obtain the Pareto optimal solutions. Finally, the best compromise solution can be achieved through fuzzy membership degree method. By the multi-objective optimization calculation of IEEE34-node distribution network, the results show that the model can effectively improve the voltage security and economy of the distribution network on different levels of photovoltaic penetration.

  4. Quality control of the documentation process in electronic economic activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krutova A.S.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available It is proved that the main tool that will provide adequate information resources e economic activities of social and economic relations are documenting quality control processes as the basis of global information space. Directions problems as formation evaluation information resources in the process of documentation, namely development tools assess the efficiency of the system components – qualitative assessment; development of mathematical modeling tools – quantitative evaluation. A qualitative assessment of electronic documentation of economic activity through exercise performance, efficiency of communication; document management efficiency; effectiveness of flow control operations; relationship management effectiveness. The concept of quality control process documents electronically economic activity to components which include: the level of workflow; forms adequacy of information; consumer quality documents; quality attributes; type of income data; condition monitoring systems; organizational level process documentation; attributes of quality, performance quality consumer; type of management system; type of income data; condition monitoring systems. Grounded components of the control system electronic document subjects of economic activity. Detected components IT-audit management system economic activity: compliance audit; audit of internal control; detailed multilevel analysis; corporate risk assessment methodology. The stages and methods of processing electronic transactions economic activity during condition monitoring of electronic economic activity.

  5. Security Assessment of Web Based Distributed Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalin BOJA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an overview about the evaluation of risks and vulnerabilities in a web based distributed application by emphasizing aspects concerning the process of security assessment with regards to the audit field. In the audit process, an important activity is dedicated to the measurement of the characteristics taken into consideration for evaluation. From this point of view, the quality of the audit process depends on the quality of assessment methods and techniques. By doing a review of the fields involved in the research process, the approach wants to reflect the main concerns that address the web based distributed applications using exploratory research techniques. The results show that many are the aspects which must carefully be worked with, across a distributed system and they can be revealed by doing a depth introspective analyze upon the information flow and internal processes that are part of the system. This paper reveals the limitations of a non-existing unified security risk assessment model that could prevent such risks and vulnerabilities debated. Based on such standardize models, secure web based distributed applications can be easily audited and many vulnerabilities which can appear due to the lack of access to information can be avoided.

  6. Activated sludge process simulator ASP-Sim, Part-1: Bod and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The most commonly used biological treatment of municipal and industrial wastewater is the Activated Sludge Process. The design of activated process is usually done manually; this is ... is a useful tool for predicting the effect of temperature on design and operation of completely mixed activated plant design and operation.

  7. Calculation of the spallation product distribution in the evaporation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishida, T.; Kanno, I.; Nakahara, Y.; Takada, H.

    1989-01-01

    Some investigations are performed for the calculational model of nuclear spallation reaction in the evaporation process. A new version of a spallation reaction simulation code NUCLEUS has been developed by incorporating the newly revised Uno ampersand Yamada's mass formula and extending the counting region of produced nuclei. The differences between the new and original mass formulas are shown in the comparisons of mass excess values. The distributions of spallation products of a uranium target nucleus bombarded by energy (0.38 - 2.9 GeV) protons have been calculated with the new and original versions of NUCLEUS. In the fission component Uno ampersand Yamada's mass formula reproduces the measured data obtained from thin foil experiments significantly better, especially in the neutron excess side, than the combination of the Cameron's mass formula and the mass table compiled by Wapstra, et al., in the original version of NUCLEUS. Discussions are also made on how the mass-yield distribution of products varies dependent on the level density parameter a characterizing the particle evaporation. 16 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  8. Calculation of the spallation product distribution in the evaporation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishida, T.; Kanno, I.; Nakahara, Y.; Takada, H.

    1989-01-01

    Some investigations are performed for the calculational model of nuclear spallation reaction in the evaporation process. A new version of a spallation reaction simulation code NUCLEUS has been developed by incorporating the newly revised Uno and Yamada's mass formula and extending the counting region of produced nuclei. The differences between the new and original mass formulas are shown in the comparisons of mass excess values. The distributions of spallation products of a uranium target nucleus bombarded by energy (0.38 - 2.9 GeV) protons have been calculated with the new and original versions of NUCLEUS. In the fission component Uno and Yamada's mass formula reproduces the measured data obtained from thin foil experiments significantly better, especially in the neutron excess side, than the combination of the Cameron's mass formula and the mass table compiled by Wapstra, et al., in the original version of NUCLEUS. Discussions are also made on how the mass-yield distribution of products varies dependent on the level density parameter α characterizing the particle evaporation. (author)

  9. Speech perception as an active cognitive process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon eHeald

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available One view of speech perception is that acoustic signals are transformed into representations for pattern matching to determine linguistic structure. This process can be taken as a statistical pattern-matching problem, assuming realtively stable linguistic categories are characterized by neural representations related to auditory properties of speech that can be compared to speech input. This kind of pattern matching can be termed a passive process which implies rigidity of processingd with few demands on cognitive processing. An alternative view is that speech recognition, even in early stages, is an active process in which speech analysis is attentionally guided. Note that this does not mean consciously guided but that information-contingent changes in early auditory encoding can occur as a function of context and experience. Active processing assumes that attention, plasticity, and listening goals are important in considering how listeners cope with adverse circumstances that impair hearing by masking noise in the environment or hearing loss. Although theories of speech perception have begun to incorporate some active processing, they seldom treat early speech encoding as plastic and attentionally guided. Recent research has suggested that speech perception is the product of both feedforward and feedback interactions between a number of brain regions that include descending projections perhaps as far downstream as the cochlea. It is important to understand how the ambiguity of the speech signal and constraints of context dynamically determine cognitive resources recruited during perception including focused attention, learning, and working memory. Theories of speech perception need to go beyond the current corticocentric approach in order to account for the intrinsic dynamics of the auditory encoding of speech. In doing so, this may provide new insights into ways in which hearing disorders and loss may be treated either through augementation or

  10. Distributed Prognostic Health Management with Gaussian Process Regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Sankalita; Saha, Bhaskar; Saxena, Abhinav; Goebel, Kai Frank

    2010-01-01

    Distributed prognostics architecture design is an enabling step for efficient implementation of health management systems. A major challenge encountered in such design is formulation of optimal distributed prognostics algorithms. In this paper. we present a distributed GPR based prognostics algorithm whose target platform is a wireless sensor network. In addition to challenges encountered in a distributed implementation, a wireless network poses constraints on communication patterns, thereby making the problem more challenging. The prognostics application that was used to demonstrate our new algorithms is battery prognostics. In order to present trade-offs within different prognostic approaches, we present comparison with the distributed implementation of a particle filter based prognostics for the same battery data.

  11. Estimating the transmission potential of supercritical processes based on the final size distribution of minor outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiura, Hiroshi; Yan, Ping; Sleeman, Candace K; Mode, Charles J

    2012-02-07

    Use of the final size distribution of minor outbreaks for the estimation of the reproduction numbers of supercritical epidemic processes has yet to be considered. We used a branching process model to derive the final size distribution of minor outbreaks, assuming a reproduction number above unity, and applying the method to final size data for pneumonic plague. Pneumonic plague is a rare disease with only one documented major epidemic in a spatially limited setting. Because the final size distribution of a minor outbreak needs to be normalized by the probability of extinction, we assume that the dispersion parameter (k) of the negative-binomial offspring distribution is known, and examine the sensitivity of the reproduction number to variation in dispersion. Assuming a geometric offspring distribution with k=1, the reproduction number was estimated at 1.16 (95% confidence interval: 0.97-1.38). When less dispersed with k=2, the maximum likelihood estimate of the reproduction number was 1.14. These estimates agreed with those published from transmission network analysis, indicating that the human-to-human transmission potential of the pneumonic plague is not very high. Given only minor outbreaks, transmission potential is not sufficiently assessed by directly counting the number of offspring. Since the absence of a major epidemic does not guarantee a subcritical process, the proposed method allows us to conservatively regard epidemic data from minor outbreaks as supercritical, and yield estimates of threshold values above unity. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Spatial Patterns in Distribution of Kimberlites: Relationship to Tectonic Processes and Lithosphere Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chemia, Zurab; Artemieva, Irina; Thybo, Hans

    2014-01-01

    of kimberlite melts through the lithospheric mantle, which forms the major pipe. Stage 2 (second-order process) begins when the major pipe splits into daughter sub-pipes (tree-like pattern) at crustal depths. We apply cluster analysis to the spatial distribution of all known kimberlite fields with the goal...

  13. Modification of the natural radionuclide distribution by some human activities in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knight, G.B.; Makepeace, C.E.

    1980-01-01

    Examples are presented of three types of human activity that have resulted in elevated natural radiation levels. Investigations carried out by a Federal-Provincial Task Force are described. The distributions of grab sample measurements of radon and radon daughter concentrations are compared for the Bancroft area, Cobourg, Deloro, Elliot Lake, and Port Hope in Ontario, and Uranium City in Saskatchewan; it is concluded that the major point of difference between the communities that were investigated and the reference community of Cobourg is the departure from a symmetrical lognormal distribution at the higher concentrations

  14. Aero-Effected Distributed Adaptive Control of Flexible Aircraft Using Active Bleed, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed research focuses on the development of a new adaptive control methodology for active control of wing aerodynamic shape to effect distributed aerodynamic...

  15. Frequency distributions from birth, death, and creation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartley, David L; Ogden, Trevor; Song, Ruiguang

    2002-01-01

    The time-dependent frequency distribution of groups of individuals versus group size was investigated within a continuum approximation, assuming a simplified individual growth, death and creation model. The analogy of the system to a physical fluid exhibiting both convection and diffusion was exploited in obtaining various solutions to the distribution equation. A general solution was approximated through the application of a Green's function. More specific exact solutions were also found to be useful. The solutions were continually checked against the continuum approximation through extensive simulation of the discrete system. Over limited ranges of group size, the frequency distributions were shown to closely exhibit a power-law dependence on group size, as found in many realizations of this type of system, ranging from colonies of mutated bacteria to the distribution of surnames in a given population. As an example, the modeled distributions were successfully fit to the distribution of surnames in several countries by adjusting the parameters specifying growth, death and creation rates.

  16. A Multiscale Survival Process for Modeling Human Activity Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tianyang; Cui, Peng; Song, Chaoming; Zhu, Wenwu; Yang, Shiqiang

    2016-01-01

    Human activity plays a central role in understanding large-scale social dynamics. It is well documented that individual activity pattern follows bursty dynamics characterized by heavy-tailed interevent time distributions. Here we study a large-scale online chatting dataset consisting of 5,549,570 users, finding that individual activity pattern varies with timescales whereas existing models only approximate empirical observations within a limited timescale. We propose a novel approach that models the intensity rate of an individual triggering an activity. We demonstrate that the model precisely captures corresponding human dynamics across multiple timescales over five orders of magnitudes. Our model also allows extracting the population heterogeneity of activity patterns, characterized by a set of individual-specific ingredients. Integrating our approach with social interactions leads to a wide range of implications.

  17. Coalescent Processes with Skewed Offspring Distributions and Nonequilibrium Demography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matuszewski, Sebastian; Hildebrandt, Marcel E; Achaz, Guillaume; Jensen, Jeffrey D

    2018-01-01

    Nonequilibrium demography impacts coalescent genealogies leaving detectable, well-studied signatures of variation. However, similar genomic footprints are also expected under models of large reproductive skew, posing a serious problem when trying to make inference. Furthermore, current approaches consider only one of the two processes at a time, neglecting any genomic signal that could arise from their simultaneous effects, preventing the possibility of jointly inferring parameters relating to both offspring distribution and population history. Here, we develop an extended Moran model with exponential population growth, and demonstrate that the underlying ancestral process converges to a time-inhomogeneous psi-coalescent. However, by applying a nonlinear change of time scale-analogous to the Kingman coalescent-we find that the ancestral process can be rescaled to its time-homogeneous analog, allowing the process to be simulated quickly and efficiently. Furthermore, we derive analytical expressions for the expected site-frequency spectrum under the time-inhomogeneous psi-coalescent, and develop an approximate-likelihood framework for the joint estimation of the coalescent and growth parameters. By means of extensive simulation, we demonstrate that both can be estimated accurately from whole-genome data. In addition, not accounting for demography can lead to serious biases in the inferred coalescent model, with broad implications for genomic studies ranging from ecology to conservation biology. Finally, we use our method to analyze sequence data from Japanese sardine populations, and find evidence of high variation in individual reproductive success, but few signs of a recent demographic expansion. Copyright © 2018 by the Genetics Society of America.

  18. Measurement of the activity size distribution of the polonium-218 under laboratory conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Suk Chul; Ha, Chung Woo

    1992-01-01

    A number of investigators have reported the formation of the radiolytic ultrafine particles produced by the interaction of ionizing radiation with water vapor. Previous studies have suggested that a very high localized concentration of the OH radical produced by the radiolysis of water can react with trace gas like organic vapors and produce lower vapor pressure compounds that can then nucleate. In order to determine water vapor and trace gas dependence of the active, positive-charged, first radon daughter, an experiment was conducted using a radon chamber. The activity size distribution of the radon daughter in the range of 0.5 - 100 nm was measured using the stacked wire screens sampler. Measurements were taken for different relative humidity. The resultant activity size distributions were analyzed. The addition of water vapor to the radon carrier gases resulted in the formation of ultrafine particles by OH radicals formed radon radiolysis. It may be due to the neutralization of charged Po-218 ion with water vapor through the radiolysis

  19. A Coordinated Initialization Process for the Distributed Space Exploration Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crues, Edwin Z.; Phillips, Robert G.; Dexter, Dan; Hasan, David

    2007-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on the federate initialization process for the Distributed Space Exploration Simulation (DSES) is described. The topics include: 1) Background: DSES; 2) Simulation requirements; 3) Nine Step Initialization; 4) Step 1: Create the Federation; 5) Step 2: Publish and Subscribe; 6) Step 3: Create Object Instances; 7) Step 4: Confirm All Federates Have Joined; 8) Step 5: Achieve initialize Synchronization Point; 9) Step 6: Update Object Instances With Initial Data; 10) Step 7: Wait for Object Reflections; 11) Step 8: Set Up Time Management; 12) Step 9: Achieve startup Synchronization Point; and 13) Conclusions

  20. Characterizing the Heavy Elements in Globular Cluster M22 and an Empirical s-process Abundance Distribution Derived from the Two Stellar Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roederer, I. U.; Marino, A. F.; Sneden, C.

    2011-11-01

    We present an empirical s-process abundance distribution derived with explicit knowledge of the r-process component in the low-metallicity globular cluster M22. We have obtained high-resolution, high signal-to-noise spectra for six red giants in M22 using the Magellan Inamori Kyocera Echelle spectrograph on the Magellan-Clay Telescope at Las Campanas Observatory. In each star we derive abundances for 44 species of 40 elements, including 24 elements heavier than zinc (Z = 30) produced by neutron-capture reactions. Previous studies determined that three of these stars (the "r+s group") have an enhancement of s-process material relative to the other three stars (the "r-only group"). We confirm that the r+s group is moderately enriched in Pb relative to the r-only group. Both groups of stars were born with the same amount of r-process material, but s-process material was also present in the gas from which the r+s group formed. The s-process abundances are inconsistent with predictions for asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars with M <= 3 M ⊙ and suggest an origin in more massive AGB stars capable of activating the 22Ne(α,n)25Mg reaction. We calculate the s-process "residual" by subtracting the r-process pattern in the r-only group from the abundances in the r+s group. In contrast to previous r- and s-process decompositions, this approach makes no assumptions about the r- and s-process distributions in the solar system and provides a unique opportunity to explore s-process yields in a metal-poor environment. This paper includes data gathered with the 6.5 m Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile.

  1. Influence of the proton pump inhibitor lansoprazole on distribution and activity of doxorubicin in solid tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Man; Lee, Carol; Wang, Marina; Tannock, Ian F

    2015-10-01

    Cellular causes of resistance and limited drug distribution within solid tumors limit therapeutic efficacy of anticancer drugs. Acidic endosomes in cancer cells mediate autophagy, which facilitates survival of stressed cells, and may contribute to drug resistance. Basic drugs (e.g. doxorubicin) are sequestered in acidic endosomes, thereby diverting drugs from their target DNA and decreasing penetration to distal cells. Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) may raise endosomal pH, with potential to improve drug efficacy and distribution in solid tumors. We determined the effects of the PPI lansoprazole to modify the activity of doxorubicin. To gain insight into its mechanisms, we studied the effects of lansoprazole on endosomal pH, and on the spatial distribution of doxorubicin, and of biomarkers reflecting its activity, using in vitro and murine models. Lansoprazole showed concentration-dependent effects to raise endosomal pH and to inhibit endosomal sequestration of doxorubicin in cultured tumor cells. Lansoprazole was not toxic to cancer cells but potentiated the cytotoxicity of doxorubicin and enhanced its penetration through multilayered cell cultures. In solid tumors, lansoprazole improved the distribution of doxorubicin but also increased expression of biomarkers of drug activity throughout the tumor. Combined treatment with lansoprazole and doxorubicin was more effective in delaying tumor growth as compared to either agent alone. Together, lansoprazole enhances the therapeutic effects of doxorubicin both by improving its distribution and increasing its activity in solid tumors. Use of PPIs to improve drug distribution and to inhibit autophagy represents a promising strategy to enhance the effectiveness of anticancer drugs in solid tumors. © 2015 The Authors. Cancer Science published by Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  2. Distribution flow: a general process in the top layer of water repellent soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ritsema, C.J.; Dekker, L.W.

    1995-01-01

    Distribution flow is the process of water and solute flowing in a lateral direction over and through the very first millimetre or centimetre of the soil profile. A potassium bromide tracer was applied in two water-repellent sandy soils to follow the actual flow paths of water and solutes in the

  3. Exact protein distributions for stochastic models of gene expression using partitioning of Poisson processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendar, Hodjat; Platini, Thierry; Kulkarni, Rahul V

    2013-04-01

    Stochasticity in gene expression gives rise to fluctuations in protein levels across a population of genetically identical cells. Such fluctuations can lead to phenotypic variation in clonal populations; hence, there is considerable interest in quantifying noise in gene expression using stochastic models. However, obtaining exact analytical results for protein distributions has been an intractable task for all but the simplest models. Here, we invoke the partitioning property of Poisson processes to develop a mapping that significantly simplifies the analysis of stochastic models of gene expression. The mapping leads to exact protein distributions using results for mRNA distributions in models with promoter-based regulation. Using this approach, we derive exact analytical results for steady-state and time-dependent distributions for the basic two-stage model of gene expression. Furthermore, we show how the mapping leads to exact protein distributions for extensions of the basic model that include the effects of posttranscriptional and posttranslational regulation. The approach developed in this work is widely applicable and can contribute to a quantitative understanding of stochasticity in gene expression and its regulation.

  4. Exact protein distributions for stochastic models of gene expression using partitioning of Poisson processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendar, Hodjat; Platini, Thierry; Kulkarni, Rahul V.

    2013-04-01

    Stochasticity in gene expression gives rise to fluctuations in protein levels across a population of genetically identical cells. Such fluctuations can lead to phenotypic variation in clonal populations; hence, there is considerable interest in quantifying noise in gene expression using stochastic models. However, obtaining exact analytical results for protein distributions has been an intractable task for all but the simplest models. Here, we invoke the partitioning property of Poisson processes to develop a mapping that significantly simplifies the analysis of stochastic models of gene expression. The mapping leads to exact protein distributions using results for mRNA distributions in models with promoter-based regulation. Using this approach, we derive exact analytical results for steady-state and time-dependent distributions for the basic two-stage model of gene expression. Furthermore, we show how the mapping leads to exact protein distributions for extensions of the basic model that include the effects of posttranscriptional and posttranslational regulation. The approach developed in this work is widely applicable and can contribute to a quantitative understanding of stochasticity in gene expression and its regulation.

  5. Unitarity corrections in the pT distribution for the Drell-Yan process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betempts, M.A.; Gay Ducaty, M.B.; Machado, M.V.T.

    2001-01-01

    In this contribution we investigate the Drell-Yan transverse momentum distribution considering the color dipole approach, taking into account unitarity aspects in the dipole cross section. The process is analyzed in the current energies on pp collisions (√s = 62 GeV) and at LHC energies (√s = 8.8 TeV. The unitarity corrections are implemented through the multiple scattering Glauber-Mueller approach. (author)

  6. Eel calcitonin binding site distribution and antinociceptive activity in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guidobono, F.; Netti, C.; Sibilia, V.; Villa, I.; Zamboni, A.; Pecile, A.

    1986-01-01

    The distribution of binding site for [ 125 I]-eel-calcitonin (ECT) to rat central nervous system, studied by an autoradiographic technique, showed concentrations of binding in the diencephalon, the brain stem and the spinal cord. Large accumulations of grains were seen in the hypothalamus, the amygdala, in the fasciculus medialis prosencephali, in the fasciculus longitudinalis medialis, in the ventrolateral part of the periventricular gray matter, in the lemniscus medialis and in the raphe nuclei. The density of grains in the reticular formation and in the nucleus tractus spinalis nervi trigemini was more moderate. In the spinal cord, grains were scattered throughout the dorsal horns. Binding of the ligand was displaced equally by cold ECT and by salmon CT(sCT), indicating that both peptides bind to the same receptors. Human CT was much weaker than sCT in displacing [ 125 I]-ECT binding. The administration of ECT into the brain ventricles of rats dose-dependently induced a significant and long-lasting enhancement of hot-plate latencies comparable with that obtained with sCT. The antinociceptive activity induced by ECT is compatible with the topographical distribution of binding sites for the peptide and is a further indication that fish CTs are active in the mammalian brain

  7. On generalisations of the log-Normal distribution by means of a new product definition in the Kapteyn process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte Queirós, Sílvio M.

    2012-07-01

    We discuss the modification of the Kapteyn multiplicative process using the q-product of Borges [E.P. Borges, A possible deformed algebra and calculus inspired in nonextensive thermostatistics, Physica A 340 (2004) 95]. Depending on the value of the index q a generalisation of the log-Normal distribution is yielded. Namely, the distribution increases the tail for small (when q1) values of the variable upon analysis. The usual log-Normal distribution is retrieved when q=1, which corresponds to the traditional Kapteyn multiplicative process. The main statistical features of this distribution as well as related random number generators and tables of quantiles of the Kolmogorov-Smirnov distance are presented. Finally, we illustrate the validity of this scenario by describing a set of variables of biological and financial origin.

  8. Building a cloud based distributed active archive data center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Rahul; Baynes, Katie; Murphy, Kevin

    2017-04-01

    NASA's Earth Science Data System (ESDS) Program serves as a central cog in facilitating the implementation of NASA's Earth Science strategic plan. Since 1994, the ESDS Program has committed to the full and open sharing of Earth science data obtained from NASA instruments to all users. One of the key responsibilities of the ESDS Program is to continuously evolve the entire data and information system to maximize returns on the collected NASA data. An independent review was conducted in 2015 to holistically review the EOSDIS in order to identify gaps. The review recommendations were to investigate two areas: one, whether commercial cloud providers offer potential for storage, processing, and operational efficiencies, and two, the potential development of new data access and analysis paradigms. In response, ESDS has initiated several prototypes investigating the advantages and risks of leveraging cloud computing. This poster will provide an overview of one such prototyping activity, "Cumulus". Cumulus is being designed and developed as a "native" cloud-based data ingest, archive and management system that can be used for all future NASA Earth science data streams. The long term vision for Cumulus, its requirements, overall architecture, and implementation details, as well as lessons learned from the completion of the first phase of this prototype will be covered. We envision Cumulus will foster design of new analysis/visualization tools to leverage collocated data from all of the distributed DAACs as well as elastic cloud computing resources to open new research opportunities.

  9. Estimation of dislocations density and distribution of dislocations during ECAP-Conform process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derakhshan, Jaber Fakhimi; Parsa, Mohammad Habibi; Ayati, Vahid; Jafarian, Hamidreza

    2018-01-01

    Dislocation density of coarse grain aluminum AA1100 alloy (140 µm) that was severely deformed by Equal Channel Angular Pressing-Conform (ECAP-Conform) are studied at various stages of the process by electron backscattering diffraction (EBSD) method. The geometrically necessary dislocations (GNDs) density and statistically stored dislocations (SSDs) densities were estimate. Then the total dislocations densities are calculated and the dislocation distributions are presented as the contour maps. Estimated average dislocations density for annealed of about 2×1012 m-2 increases to 4×1013 m-2 at the middle of the groove (135° from the entrance), and they reach to 6.4×1013 m-2 at the end of groove just before ECAP region. Calculated average dislocations density for one pass severely deformed Al sample reached to 6.2×1014 m-2. At micrometer scale the behavior of metals especially mechanical properties largely depend on the dislocation density and dislocation distribution. So, yield stresses at different conditions were estimated based on the calculated dislocation densities. Then estimated yield stresses were compared with experimental results and good agreements were found. Although grain size of material did not clearly change, yield stress shown intensive increase due to the development of cell structure. A considerable increase in dislocations density in this process is a good justification for forming subgrains and cell structures during process which it can be reason of increasing in yield stress.

  10. The distribution characteristics of trace elements in airborne particulates from an urban industrial complex area of Korea using instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Jong Myoung; Lee, Jin Hong; Chung, Yong Sam

    2005-01-01

    An instrumental neutron activation analysis was used to measure the concentrations of about 24 elements associated with airborne particulates (PM10) that were collected in the most polluted urban region of Daejeon city, Korea from 2000 to 2002. Using the measurement data for various elements, both the extent of elemental pollution in the study area and the seasonality in their distribution characteristics were examined. Examinations of their distribution patterns indicated that most elements with crustal origin tend to exhibit seasonal peaks during spring, while most elements with anthropogenic origin tend to exhibit seasonal peaks during fall or winter. In order to explain the factors regulating their mobilization properties, the data were processed by a factor analysis. Results of the factor analysis suggested competing roles of both industrial and natural source processes, despite that the study site is located at a downwind position of the industrial complex. Based on the overall results of this study, it is concluded that the site may be strongly impacted by man-made sources but the general patterns of elemental distributions in the study area inspected over a seasonal scale are quite consistent with those typically observed from natural environment

  11. Quasi-stationary distributions for structured birth and death processes with mutations

    OpenAIRE

    Collet , Pierre; Martinez , Servet; Méléard , Sylvie; San Martin , Jaime

    2009-01-01

    39 pages; We study the probabilistic evolution of a birth and death continuous time measure-valued process with mutations and ecological interactions. The individuals are characterized by (phenotypic) traits that take values in a compact metric space. Each individual can die or generate a new individual. The birth and death rates may depend on the environment through the action of the whole population. The offspring can have the same trait or can mutate to a randomly distributed trait. We ass...

  12. The Global Terrestrial Network for Permafrost Database: metadata statistics and prospective analysis on future permafrost temperature and active layer depth monitoring site distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biskaborn, B. K.; Lanckman, J.-P.; Lantuit, H.; Elger, K.; Streletskiy, D. A.; Cable, W. L.; Romanovsky, V. E.

    2015-03-01

    The Global Terrestrial Network for Permafrost (GTN-P) provides the first dynamic database associated with the Thermal State of Permafrost (TSP) and the Circumpolar Active Layer Monitoring (CALM) programs, which extensively collect permafrost temperature and active layer thickness data from Arctic, Antarctic and Mountain permafrost regions. The purpose of the database is to establish an "early warning system" for the consequences of climate change in permafrost regions and to provide standardized thermal permafrost data to global models. In this paper we perform statistical analysis of the GTN-P metadata aiming to identify the spatial gaps in the GTN-P site distribution in relation to climate-effective environmental parameters. We describe the concept and structure of the Data Management System in regard to user operability, data transfer and data policy. We outline data sources and data processing including quality control strategies. Assessment of the metadata and data quality reveals 63% metadata completeness at active layer sites and 50% metadata completeness for boreholes. Voronoi Tessellation Analysis on the spatial sample distribution of boreholes and active layer measurement sites quantifies the distribution inhomogeneity and provides potential locations of additional permafrost research sites to improve the representativeness of thermal monitoring across areas underlain by permafrost. The depth distribution of the boreholes reveals that 73% are shallower than 25 m and 27% are deeper, reaching a maximum of 1 km depth. Comparison of the GTN-P site distribution with permafrost zones, soil organic carbon contents and vegetation types exhibits different local to regional monitoring situations on maps. Preferential slope orientation at the sites most likely causes a bias in the temperature monitoring and should be taken into account when using the data for global models. The distribution of GTN-P sites within zones of projected temperature change show a high

  13. Cumulative processes and quark distribution in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondratyuk, L.; Shmatikov, M.

    1984-01-01

    Assuming existence of multiquark (mainly 12q) bags in nuclei the spectra of cumulative nucleons and mesons produced in high-energy particle-nucleus collisions are discussed. The exponential form of quark momentum distribution in 12q-bag (agreeing well with the experimental data on lepton-nucleus interactions at large q 2 ) is shown to result in quasi-exponential distribution of cumulative particles over the light-cone variable αsub(B). The dependence of f(αsub(B); psub(perpendicular)) (where psub(perpendicular) is the transverse momentum of the bag) upon psub(perpendicular) is considered. The yields of cumulative resonances as well as effects related to the u- and d-quark distributions in N > Z nuclei being different are dicscussed

  14. Comparing performances of clements, box-cox, Johnson methods with weibull distributions for assessing process capability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozlem Senvar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study examines Clements’ Approach (CA, Box-Cox transformation (BCT, and Johnson transformation (JT methods for process capability assessments through Weibull-distributed data with different parameters to figure out the effects of the tail behaviours on process capability and compares their estimation performances in terms of accuracy and precision. Design/methodology/approach: Usage of process performance index (PPI Ppu is handled for process capability analysis (PCA because the comparison issues are performed through generating Weibull data without subgroups. Box plots, descriptive statistics, the root-mean-square deviation (RMSD, which is used as a measure of error, and a radar chart are utilized all together for evaluating the performances of the methods. In addition, the bias of the estimated values is important as the efficiency measured by the mean square error. In this regard, Relative Bias (RB and the Relative Root Mean Square Error (RRMSE are also considered. Findings: The results reveal that the performance of a method is dependent on its capability to fit the tail behavior of the Weibull distribution and on targeted values of the PPIs. It is observed that the effect of tail behavior is more significant when the process is more capable. Research limitations/implications: Some other methods such as Weighted Variance method, which also give good results, were also conducted. However, we later realized that it would be confusing in terms of comparison issues between the methods for consistent interpretations. Practical implications: Weibull distribution covers a wide class of non-normal processes due to its capability to yield a variety of distinct curves based on its parameters. Weibull distributions are known to have significantly different tail behaviors, which greatly affects the process capability. In quality and reliability applications, they are widely used for the analyses of failure data in order to understand how

  15. Production of granular activated carbon from food-processing wastes (walnut shells and jujube seeds) and its adsorptive properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Wookeun; Kim, Jongho; Chung, Jinwook

    2014-08-01

    Commercial activated carbon is a highly effective absorbent that can be used to remove micropollutants from water. As a result, the demand for activated carbon is increasing. In this study, we investigated the optimum manufacturing conditions for producing activated carbon from ligneous wastes generated from food processing. Jujube seeds and walnut shells were selected as raw materials. Carbonization and steam activation were performed in a fixed-bed laboratory electric furnace. To obtain the highest iodine number, the optimum conditions for producing activated carbon from jujube seeds and walnut shells were 2 hr and 1.5 hr (carbonization at 700 degrees C) followed by 1 hr and 0.5 hr (activation at 1000 degrees C), respectively. The surface area and iodine number of activated carbon made from jujube seeds and walnut shells were 1,477 and 1,184 m2/g and 1,450 and 1,200 mg/g, respectively. A pore-distribution analysis revealed that most pores had a pore diameter within or around 30-40 angstroms, and adsorption capacity for surfactants was about 2 times larger than the commercial activated carbon, indicating that waste-based activated carbon can be used as alternative. Implications: Wastes discharged from agricultural and food industries results in a serious environmental problem. A method is proposed to convert food-processing wastes such as jujube seeds and walnut shells into high-grade granular activated carbon. Especially, the performance of jujube seeds as activated carbon is worthy of close attention. There is little research about the application ofjujube seeds. Also, when compared to two commercial carbons (Samchully and Calgon samples), the results show that it is possible to produce high-quality carbon, particularly from jujube seed, using a one-stage, 1,000 degrees C, steam pyrolysis. The preparation of activated carbon from food-processing wastes could increase economic return and reduce pollution.

  16. Distribution of radioactivity in the Esk Estuary and its relationship to sedimentary processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, M.; Emptage, M.

    1992-01-01

    In the Esk Estuary, Cumbria, the distribution of sediment lithology and facies has been determined and related to radionuclide surface and sub-surface distribution. The total volume of sediment contaminated with artificial radionuclides is estimated at 1.2 Mm 3 and the inventory of 137 Cs at 4.5 TBq. The fine grained sediments of the bank facies are the main reservoir for radionuclides, comprising 73% of the 137 Cs inventory. Time scales for the reworking of these sediments are estimated at tens to hundreds of years. Measurements of sediment and radionuclide deposition demonstrate that direct sediment deposition is the main method for radionuclide recruitment to the deposits but solution labelling can also occur. Bioturbation and other diagenetic processes modify the distribution of radionuclides in the deposits. Gamma dose rates in air can be related to the sediment grain size and sedimentation rate. (Author)

  17. On the degree distribution of horizontal visibility graphs associated with Markov processes and dynamical systems: diagrammatic and variational approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacasa, Lucas

    2014-01-01

    Dynamical processes can be transformed into graphs through a family of mappings called visibility algorithms, enabling the possibility of (i) making empirical time series analysis and signal processing and (ii) characterizing classes of dynamical systems and stochastic processes using the tools of graph theory. Recent works show that the degree distribution of these graphs encapsulates much information on the signals' variability, and therefore constitutes a fundamental feature for statistical learning purposes. However, exact solutions for the degree distributions are only known in a few cases, such as for uncorrelated random processes. Here we analytically explore these distributions in a list of situations. We present a diagrammatic formalism which computes for all degrees their corresponding probability as a series expansion in a coupling constant which is the number of hidden variables. We offer a constructive solution for general Markovian stochastic processes and deterministic maps. As case tests we focus on Ornstein–Uhlenbeck processes, fully chaotic and quasiperiodic maps. Whereas only for certain degree probabilities can all diagrams be summed exactly, in the general case we show that the perturbation theory converges. In a second part, we make use of a variational technique to predict the complete degree distribution for special classes of Markovian dynamics with fast-decaying correlations. In every case we compare the theory with numerical experiments. (paper)

  18. Effect of inhomogeneous activity distributions and airway geometry on cellular doses in radon lung dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szoke, Istvan; Balashazy, Imre; Farkas, Arpad; Hofmann, Werner

    2007-01-01

    The human tracheobronchial system has a very complex structure including cylindrical airway ducts connected by airway bifurcation units. The deposition of the inhaled aerosols within the airways exhibits a very inhomogeneous pattern. The formation of deposition hot spots near the carinal ridge has been confirmed by experimental and computational fluid and particle dynamics (CFPD) methods. In spite of these observations, current radon lung dosimetry models apply infinitely long cylinders as models of the airway system and assume uniform deposition of the inhaled radon progenies along the airway walls. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of airway geometry and non-uniform activity distributions within bronchial bifurcations on cellular dose distributions. In order to answer these questions, the nuclear doses of the bronchial epithelium were calculated in three different irradiation situations. (1) First, CFPD methods were applied to calculate the distribution of the deposited alpha-emitting nuclides in a numerically constructed idealized airway bifurcation. (2) Second, the deposited radionuclides were randomly distributed along the surface of the above-mentioned geometry. (3) Finally, calculations were made in cylindrical geometries corresponding to the parent and daughter branches of the bifurcation geometry assuming random nuclide activity distribution. In all three models, the same 218 Po and 214 Po surface activities per tissue volumes were assumed. Two conclusions can be drawn from this analysis: (i) average nuclear doses are very similar in all three cases (minor differences can be attributed to differences in the linear energy transfer (LET) spectra) and (ii) dose distributions are significantly different in all three cases, with the highest doses at the carinal ridge in case 3. (authors)

  19. A Photo Storm Report Mobile Application, Processing/Distribution System, and AWIPS-II Display Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longmore, S. P.; Bikos, D.; Szoke, E.; Miller, S. D.; Brummer, R.; Lindsey, D. T.; Hillger, D.

    2014-12-01

    The increasing use of mobile phones equipped with digital cameras and the ability to post images and information to the Internet in real-time has significantly improved the ability to report events almost instantaneously. In the context of severe weather reports, a representative digital image conveys significantly more information than a simple text or phone relayed report to a weather forecaster issuing severe weather warnings. It also allows the forecaster to reasonably discern the validity and quality of a storm report. Posting geo-located, time stamped storm report photographs utilizing a mobile phone application to NWS social media weather forecast office pages has generated recent positive feedback from forecasters. Building upon this feedback, this discussion advances the concept, development, and implementation of a formalized Photo Storm Report (PSR) mobile application, processing and distribution system and Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System II (AWIPS-II) plug-in display software.The PSR system would be composed of three core components: i) a mobile phone application, ii) a processing and distribution software and hardware system, and iii) AWIPS-II data, exchange and visualization plug-in software. i) The mobile phone application would allow web-registered users to send geo-location, view direction, and time stamped PSRs along with severe weather type and comments to the processing and distribution servers. ii) The servers would receive PSRs, convert images and information to NWS network bandwidth manageable sizes in an AWIPS-II data format, distribute them on the NWS data communications network, and archive the original PSRs for possible future research datasets. iii) The AWIPS-II data and exchange plug-ins would archive PSRs, and the visualization plug-in would display PSR locations, times and directions by hour, similar to surface observations. Hovering on individual PSRs would reveal photo thumbnails and clicking on them would display the

  20. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the conventional activated sludge treatment process: fate and mass balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsoyiannis, Athanasios; Samara, Constantini

    2005-01-01

    The fate and the mass balance of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) during the conventional activated sludge treatment process were investigated in the wastewater treatment plant of the city of Thessaloniki, northern Greece. The POPs of interest were 7 polychlorinated biphenyls and 19 organochlorine pesticides. Target compounds were determined at six different points across the treatment system: the influent, the effluent of the primary sedimentation tank, the effluent of the secondary sedimentation tank, the primary sludge, the activated sludge from the recirculation stream, and the digested/dewatered sludge. The distribution of POPs between the dissolved and the adsorbed phases of wastewater and sludge was investigated. A good linear relationship between the distribution coefficients, K d , and the octanol-water partition coefficients, K ow , of the solutes was observed only in raw wastewater, suggesting that other factors affect the phase distribution of organic compounds in treated wastewater. For all POPs, a significant increase in partitioning with a decreasing solids concentration was observed, revealing an effect from non-settling microparticles remaining in the 'dissolved' phase during the separation procedure. A good linear relationship was also revealed between logK d and the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) content of wastewater, suggesting that DOC favors the advective transport of POPs in the dissolved phase. Almost all POPs showed good mass balance agreements at both the primary and the secondary treatment. The losses observed for some species could be attributed to biodegradation/biotransformation rather than volatilization. The relative distribution between the treated effluent and the waste sludge streams varied largely among different compounds, with p-p'-DDE being highly accumulated in the waste sludge (98%) but almost 60% of α-HCH remaining in the treated effluent

  1. Active Suppression of Rotating Stall Inception with Distributed Jet Actuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huu Duc Vo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available An analytical and experimental investigation of the effectiveness of full-span distributed jet actuation for active suppression of long length-scale rotating stall inception is carried out. Detailed modeling and experimental verification highlight the important effects of mass addition, discrete injectors, and feedback dynamics, which may be overlooked in preliminary theoretical studies of active control with jet injection. A model of the compression system incorporating nonideal injection and feedback dynamics is verified with forced response measurements to predict the right trends in the movement of the critical pole associated with the stall precursor. Active control experiments with proportional feedback control show that the predicted stall precursors are suppressed to give a 5.5% range extension in compressor flow coefficient. In addition, results suggest that the proposed model could be used to design a more sophisticated controller to further improve performance while reducing actuator bandwidth requirements.

  2. A Dirichlet process mixture of generalized Dirichlet distributions for proportional data modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouguila, Nizar; Ziou, Djemel

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a clustering algorithm based on both Dirichlet processes and generalized Dirichlet distribution which has been shown to be very flexible for proportional data modeling. Our approach can be viewed as an extension of the finite generalized Dirichlet mixture model to the infinite case. The extension is based on nonparametric Bayesian analysis. This clustering algorithm does not require the specification of the number of mixture components to be given in advance and estimates it in a principled manner. Our approach is Bayesian and relies on the estimation of the posterior distribution of clusterings using Gibbs sampler. Through some applications involving real-data classification and image databases categorization using visual words, we show that clustering via infinite mixture models offers a more powerful and robust performance than classic finite mixtures.

  3. The distributed neural system for top-down letter processing: an fMRI study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiangang; Feng, Lu; Li, Ling; Tian, Jie

    2011-03-01

    This fMRI study used Psychophysiological interaction (PPI) to investigate top-down letter processing with an illusory letter detection task. After an initial training that became increasingly difficult, participant was instructed to detect a letter from pure noise images where there was actually no letter. Such experimental paradigm allowed for isolating top-down components of letter processing and minimizing the influence of bottom-up perceptual input. A distributed cortical network of top-down letter processing was identified by analyzing the functional connectivity patterns of letter-preferential area (LA) within the left fusiform gyrus. Such network extends from the visual cortex to high level cognitive cortexes, including the left middle frontal gyrus, left medial frontal gyrus, left superior parietal gyrus, bilateral precuneus, and left inferior occipital gyrus. These findings suggest that top-down letter processing contains not only regions for processing of letter phonology and appearance, but also those involved in internal information generation and maintenance, and attention and memory processing.

  4. Process and installation for producing tomographic images of the distribution of a radiotracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonroget, Jacques; Brunol, Jean.

    1977-01-01

    The invention particularly concerns a process for obtaining tomographic images of an object formed by a radiotracer distributed spacially over three dimensions. This process, using a detection device with an appreciably plane detection surface and at least one collimation orifice provided in a partition between the detection surface and the object, enables tomographic sections to be obtained with an excellent three-dimensional resolution of the images achieved. It is employed to advantage in an installation that includes a detection device or gamma camera on an appreciably plane surface, a device having a series of collimation apertures which may be used in succession, these holes being appreciably distributed over a common plane parallel to the detection surface, and a holder for the object. This holder can be moved in appreciably parallel translation to the common plane. The aim of this invention is, inter alia, to meet two requirements: localization in space and obtaining good contrasts. This aim is achieved by the fact that at least one tomographic image is obtained from a series of intermediate images of the object [fr

  5. Students’ learning activities while studying biological process diagrams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kragten, M.; Admiraal, W.; Rijlaarsdam, G.

    2015-01-01

    Process diagrams describe how a system functions (e.g. photosynthesis) and are an important type of representation in Biology education. In the present study, we examined students’ learning activities while studying process diagrams, related to their resulting comprehension of these diagrams. Each

  6. Hydraulic experimental investigation on spatial distribution and formation process of tsunami deposit on a slope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, K.; Takahashi, T.; Yamamoto, A.; Sakuraba, M.; Nojima, K.

    2017-12-01

    An important aim of the study of tsunami deposits is to estimate the characteristics of past tsunamis from the tsunami deposits found locally. Based on the tsunami characteristics estimated from tsunami deposit, it is possible to examine tsunami risk assessment in coastal areas. It is considered that tsunami deposits are formed based on the dynamic correlation between tsunami's hydraulic values, sediment particle size, topography, etc. However, it is currently not enough to evaluate the characteristics of tsunamis from tsunami deposits. This is considered to be one of the reasons that the understanding of the formation process of tsunami deposits is not sufficiently understood. In this study, we analyze the measurement results of hydraulic experiment (Yamamoto et al., 2016) and focus on the formation process and distribution of tsunami deposits. Hydraulic experiment was conducted with two-dimensional water channel with a slope. Tsunami was inputted as a bore wave flow. The moving floor section was installed as a seabed slope connecting to shoreline and grain size distribution was set some cases. The water level was measured using ultrasonic displacement gauges, and the flow velocity was measured using propeller current meters and an electromagnetic current meter. The water level and flow velocity was measured at some points. The distribution of tsunami deposit was measured from shoreline to run-up limit on the slope. Yamamoto et al. (2016) reported the measurement results on the distribution of tsunami deposit with wave height and sand grain size. Therefore, in this study, hydraulic analysis of tsunami sediment formation process was examined based on the measurement data. Time series fluctuation of hydraulic parameters such as Froude number, Shields number, Rouse number etc. was calculated to understand on the formation process of tsunami deposit. In the front part of the tsunami, the flow velocity take strong flow from shoreline to around the middle of slope. From

  7. Suppression of resistive wall instabilities with distributed, independently controlled, active feedback coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cates, C.; Shilov, M.; Mauel, M. E.; Navratil, G. A.; Maurer, D.; Mukherjee, S.; Nadle, D.; Bialek, J.; Boozer, A.

    2000-01-01

    External kink instabilities are suppressed in a tokamak experiment by either (1) energizing a distributed array of independently controlled active feedback coils mounted outside a segmented resistive wall or (2) inserting a second segmented wall having much higher electrical conductivity. When the active feedback coils are off and the highly conducting wall is withdrawn, kink instabilities excited by plasma current gradients grow at a rate comparable to the magnetic diffusion rate of the resistive wall. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  8. Physical activity (PA) and the disablement process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz-Larsen, Kirsten; Rahmanfard, Naghmeh; Holst, Claus

    2012-01-01

    . Among older women, the association between RPA and incidence of disability was attenuated in analyses that controlled for baseline mobility function. Thus, the association between physical activity and mortality reflected processes different from those underlying a simple relation between physical...... activity, disability and mortality. Physical activity was an ubiquitous predictor of longevity, but only for women....... community-living persons, aged 75-83 years, we evaluated the 1021 who reported no disability in basic activities of daily living. Participants were followed for a median of 8.34 years in public registers to determine onset of disability and mortality. RPA predicted mortality in older women (HR=1.77, 95%CI=1...

  9. Distributed Real-Time Embedded Video Processing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lv, Tiehan

    2004-01-01

    .... A deployable multi-camera video system must perform distributed computation, including computation near the camera as well as remote computations, in order to meet performance and power requirements...

  10. Mathematical modeling of heat treatment processes conserving biological activity of plant bioresources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodionova, N. S.; Popov, E. S.; Pozhidaeva, E. A.; Pynzar, S. S.; Ryaskina, L. O.

    2018-05-01

    The aim of this study is to develop a mathematical model of the heat exchange process of LT-processing to estimate the dynamics of temperature field changes and optimize the regime parameters, due to the non-stationarity process, the physicochemical and thermophysical properties of food systems. The application of LT-processing, based on the use of low-temperature modes in thermal culinary processing of raw materials with preliminary vacuum packaging in a polymer heat- resistant film is a promising trend in the development of technics and technology in the catering field. LT-processing application of food raw materials guarantees the preservation of biologically active substances in food environments, which are characterized by a certain thermolability, as well as extend the shelf life and high consumer characteristics of food systems that are capillary-porous bodies. When performing the mathematical modeling of the LT-processing process, the packet of symbolic mathematics “Maple” was used, as well as the mathematical packet flexPDE that uses the finite element method for modeling objects with distributed parameters. The processing of experimental results was evaluated with the help of the developed software in the programming language Python 3.4. To calculate and optimize the parameters of the LT processing process of polycomponent food systems, the differential equation of non-stationary thermal conductivity was used, the solution of which makes it possible to identify the temperature change at any point of the solid at different moments. The present study specifies data on the thermophysical characteristics of the polycomponent food system based on plant raw materials, with the help of which the physico-mathematical model of the LT- processing process has been developed. The obtained mathematical model allows defining of the dynamics of the temperature field in different sections of the LT-processed polycomponent food systems on the basis of calculating the

  11. Configuration and supervision of advanced distributed data acquisition and processing systems for long pulse experiments using JINI technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, Joaquin; Ruiz, Mariano; Barrera, Eduardo; Lopez, Juan Manuel; de Arcas, Guillermo; Vega, Jesus

    2009-01-01

    The development of tools for managing the capabilities and functionalities of distributed data acquisition systems is essential in long pulse fusion experiments. The intelligent test and measurement system (ITMS) developed by UPM and CIEMAT is a technology that permits implementation of a scalable data acquisition and processing system based on PXI or CompactPCI hardware. Several applications based on JINI technology have been developed to enable use of this platform for extensive implementation of distributed data acquisition and processing systems. JINI provides a framework for developing service-oriented, distributed applications. The applications are based on the paradigm of a JINI federation that supports mechanisms for publication, discovering, subscription, and links to remote services. The model we implemented in the ITMS platform included services in the system CPU (SCPU) and peripheral CPUs (PCPUs). The resulting system demonstrated the following capabilities: (1) setup of the data acquisition and processing to apply to the signals, (2) information about the evolution of the data acquisition, (3) information about the applied data processing and (4) detection and distribution of the events detected by the ITMS software applications. With this approach, software applications running on the ITMS platform can be understood, from the perspective of their implementation details, as a set of dynamic, accessible, and transparent services. The search for services is performed using the publication and subscription mechanisms of the JINI specification. The configuration and supervision applications were developed using remotely accessible (LAN or WAN) objects. The consequence of this approach is a hardware and software architecture that provides a transparent model of remote configuration and supervision, and thereby a means to simplify the implementation of a distributed data acquisition system with scalable and dynamic local processing capability developed in a

  12. Configuration and supervision of advanced distributed data acquisition and processing systems for long pulse experiments using JINI technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, Joaquin; Ruiz, Mariano [Grupo de Investigacion en Instrumentacion y Acustica Aplicada, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (UPM), Ctra. Valencia Km-7, 28031, Madrid (Spain); Barrera, Eduardo [Grupo de Investigacion en Instrumentacion y Acustica Aplicada, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (UPM), Ctra. Valencia Km-7, 28031, Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: eduardo.barrera@upm.es; Lopez, Juan Manuel; de Arcas, Guillermo [Grupo de Investigacion en Instrumentacion y Acustica Aplicada, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (UPM), Ctra. Valencia Km-7, 28031, Madrid (Spain); Vega, Jesus [Asociacion EURATOM/CIEMAT para Fusion, Avda. Complutense 22, 28040, Madrid (Spain)

    2009-06-15

    The development of tools for managing the capabilities and functionalities of distributed data acquisition systems is essential in long pulse fusion experiments. The intelligent test and measurement system (ITMS) developed by UPM and CIEMAT is a technology that permits implementation of a scalable data acquisition and processing system based on PXI or CompactPCI hardware. Several applications based on JINI technology have been developed to enable use of this platform for extensive implementation of distributed data acquisition and processing systems. JINI provides a framework for developing service-oriented, distributed applications. The applications are based on the paradigm of a JINI federation that supports mechanisms for publication, discovering, subscription, and links to remote services. The model we implemented in the ITMS platform included services in the system CPU (SCPU) and peripheral CPUs (PCPUs). The resulting system demonstrated the following capabilities: (1) setup of the data acquisition and processing to apply to the signals, (2) information about the evolution of the data acquisition, (3) information about the applied data processing and (4) detection and distribution of the events detected by the ITMS software applications. With this approach, software applications running on the ITMS platform can be understood, from the perspective of their implementation details, as a set of dynamic, accessible, and transparent services. The search for services is performed using the publication and subscription mechanisms of the JINI specification. The configuration and supervision applications were developed using remotely accessible (LAN or WAN) objects. The consequence of this approach is a hardware and software architecture that provides a transparent model of remote configuration and supervision, and thereby a means to simplify the implementation of a distributed data acquisition system with scalable and dynamic local processing capability developed in a

  13. Research on distributed optical fiber sensing data processing method based on LabVIEW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhonghu; Yang, Meifang; Wang, Luling; Wang, Jinming; Yan, Junhong; Zuo, Jing

    2018-01-01

    The pipeline leak detection and leak location problem have gotten extensive attention in the industry. In this paper, the distributed optical fiber sensing system is designed based on the heat supply pipeline. The data processing method of distributed optical fiber sensing based on LabVIEW is studied emphatically. The hardware system includes laser, sensing optical fiber, wavelength division multiplexer, photoelectric detector, data acquisition card and computer etc. The software system is developed using LabVIEW. The software system adopts wavelet denoising method to deal with the temperature information, which improved the SNR. By extracting the characteristic value of the fiber temperature information, the system can realize the functions of temperature measurement, leak location and measurement signal storage and inquiry etc. Compared with traditional negative pressure wave method or acoustic signal method, the distributed optical fiber temperature measuring system can measure several temperatures in one measurement and locate the leak point accurately. It has a broad application prospect.

  14. Evaluating Distributed Usability: the role of user interfaces in an activity system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lejla Vrazalic

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Traditional definitions of usability localise this fundamental Human Computer Interaction (HCI concept in the user interface and reduce it to a variety of qualitative and quantitative attributes of the computer system. This simplistic view of usability has been used as the basis for developing design and evaluation methods in the discipline. This paper argues that, as a result, HCI methods are ineffective and suffer from various shortcomings. It is proposed that the notion of usability must be extended to include contextual factors, and viewed as being distributed across an activity system. Adopting this notion of distributed usability then requires a review of existing HCI methods. Usability testing, as a complete and self-contained HCI method, was chosen for this purpose, and the result, a distributed usability evaluation method (DUEM, is presented in this paper.

  15. Three-dimensional distribution of sensory stimulation-evoked neuronal activity of spinal dorsal horn neurons analyzed by in vivo calcium imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Kazuhiko; Matsumura, Shinji; Taniguchi, Wataru; Uta, Daisuke; Furue, Hidemasa; Ito, Seiji

    2014-01-01

    The spinal dorsal horn comprises heterogeneous populations of interneurons and projection neurons, which form neuronal circuits crucial for processing of primary sensory information. Although electrophysiological analyses have uncovered sensory stimulation-evoked neuronal activity of various spinal dorsal horn neurons, monitoring these activities from large ensembles of neurons is needed to obtain a comprehensive view of the spinal dorsal horn circuitry. In the present study, we established in vivo calcium imaging of multiple spinal dorsal horn neurons by using a two-photon microscope and extracted three-dimensional neuronal activity maps of these neurons in response to cutaneous sensory stimulation. For calcium imaging, a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based calcium indicator protein, Yellow Cameleon, which is insensitive to motion artifacts of living animals was introduced into spinal dorsal horn neurons by in utero electroporation. In vivo calcium imaging following pinch, brush, and heat stimulation suggests that laminar distribution of sensory stimulation-evoked neuronal activity in the spinal dorsal horn largely corresponds to that of primary afferent inputs. In addition, cutaneous pinch stimulation elicited activities of neurons in the spinal cord at least until 2 spinal segments away from the central projection field of primary sensory neurons responsible for the stimulated skin point. These results provide a clue to understand neuronal processing of sensory information in the spinal dorsal horn.

  16. Three-dimensional distribution of sensory stimulation-evoked neuronal activity of spinal dorsal horn neurons analyzed by in vivo calcium imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhiko Nishida

    Full Text Available The spinal dorsal horn comprises heterogeneous populations of interneurons and projection neurons, which form neuronal circuits crucial for processing of primary sensory information. Although electrophysiological analyses have uncovered sensory stimulation-evoked neuronal activity of various spinal dorsal horn neurons, monitoring these activities from large ensembles of neurons is needed to obtain a comprehensive view of the spinal dorsal horn circuitry. In the present study, we established in vivo calcium imaging of multiple spinal dorsal horn neurons by using a two-photon microscope and extracted three-dimensional neuronal activity maps of these neurons in response to cutaneous sensory stimulation. For calcium imaging, a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET-based calcium indicator protein, Yellow Cameleon, which is insensitive to motion artifacts of living animals was introduced into spinal dorsal horn neurons by in utero electroporation. In vivo calcium imaging following pinch, brush, and heat stimulation suggests that laminar distribution of sensory stimulation-evoked neuronal activity in the spinal dorsal horn largely corresponds to that of primary afferent inputs. In addition, cutaneous pinch stimulation elicited activities of neurons in the spinal cord at least until 2 spinal segments away from the central projection field of primary sensory neurons responsible for the stimulated skin point. These results provide a clue to understand neuronal processing of sensory information in the spinal dorsal horn.

  17. Process and device for determining the spatial distribution of a radioactive substance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    This invention describes a process for determining the spatial distribution of a radioactive substance consisting in determining the positions and energy losses associated to the interactions of the Compton effect and the photoelectric interactions that occur owing to the emission of gamma photons by the radioactive material and in deducing an information on the spatial distribution of the radioactive substance, depending on the positions and energy losses associated to the interactions of the Compton effect of these gamma photons and the positions and energy losses associated to the subsequent photoelectric interactions of these same photons. The invention also concerns a processing system for identifying, among the signals representing the positions and energy losses of the interactions of the Compton effect and the photoelectric interactions of the gamma photons emitted by a radioactive source, those signals that are in keeping with the gamma photons that have been subjected to an initial interaction of the Compton effect and a second and last photoelectric interaction. It further concerns a system for determining, among the identified signals, the positions of the sources of several gamma photons. This detector of Compton interaction can be used with conventional Auger-type imaging system (gamma camera) for detecting photoelectric interactions [fr

  18. Single- versus dual-process models of lexical decision performance: insights from response time distributional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Melvin J; Balota, David A; Cortese, Michael J; Watson, Jason M

    2006-12-01

    This article evaluates 2 competing models that address the decision-making processes mediating word recognition and lexical decision performance: a hybrid 2-stage model of lexical decision performance and a random-walk model. In 2 experiments, nonword type and word frequency were manipulated across 2 contrasts (pseudohomophone-legal nonword and legal-illegal nonword). When nonwords became more wordlike (i.e., BRNTA vs. BRANT vs. BRANE), response latencies to nonwords were slowed and the word frequency effect increased. More important, distributional analyses revealed that the Nonword Type = Word Frequency interaction was modulated by different components of the response time distribution, depending on the specific nonword contrast. A single-process random-walk model was able to account for this particular set of findings more successfully than the hybrid 2-stage model. (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved.

  19. Inventory calculations in sediment samples with heterogeneous plutonium activity distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksson, M.; Dahlgaard, H.

    2002-01-01

    A method to determine the total inventory of a heterogeneously distributed contamination of marine sediments is described. The study site is the Bylot Sound off the Thule Airbase, NW Greenland, where marine sediments became contaminated with plutonium in 1968 after a nuclear weapons accident. The calculation is based on a gamma spectrometric screening of the 241 Am concentration in 450 one-gram aliquots from 6 sediment cores. A Monte Carlo programme then simulates a probable distribution of the activity, and based on that, a total inventory is estimated by integrating a double exponential function. The present data indicate a total inventory around 3.5 kg, which is 7 times higher than earlier estimates (0.5 kg). The difference is partly explained by the inclusion of hot particles in the present calculation. A large uncertainty is connected to this estimate, and it should be regarded as preliminary. (au)

  20. Aerobic storage under dynamic conditions in activated sludge processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majone, M.; Dircks, K.

    1999-01-01

    In activated sludge processes, several plant configurations (like plug-flow configuration of the aeration tanks, systems with selectors, contact-stabilization processes or SBR processes) impose a concentration gradient of the carbon sources to the biomass. As a consequence, the biomass grows unde...

  1. Thermal activation of dislocations in large scale obstacle bypass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobie, Cameron; Capolungo, Laurent; McDowell, David L.; Martinez, Enrique

    2017-08-01

    Dislocation dynamics simulations have been used extensively to predict hardening caused by dislocation-obstacle interactions, including irradiation defect hardening in the athermal case. Incorporating the role of thermal energy on these interactions is possible with a framework provided by harmonic transition state theory (HTST) enabling direct access to thermally activated reaction rates using the Arrhenius equation, including rates of dislocation-obstacle bypass processes. Moving beyond unit dislocation-defect reactions to a representative environment containing a large number of defects requires coarse-graining the activation energy barriers of a population of obstacles into an effective energy barrier that accurately represents the large scale collective process. The work presented here investigates the relationship between unit dislocation-defect bypass processes and the distribution of activation energy barriers calculated for ensemble bypass processes. A significant difference between these cases is observed, which is attributed to the inherent cooperative nature of dislocation bypass processes. In addition to the dislocation-defect interaction, the morphology of the dislocation segments pinned to the defects play an important role on the activation energies for bypass. A phenomenological model for activation energy stress dependence is shown to describe well the effect of a distribution of activation energies, and a probabilistic activation energy model incorporating the stress distribution in a material is presented.

  2. DEVELOPMENT OF A HETEROGENIC DISTRIBUTED ENVIRONMENT FOR SPATIAL DATA PROCESSING USING CLOUD TECHNOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Garov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We are developing a unified distributed communication environment for processing of spatial data which integrates web-, desktop- and mobile platforms and combines volunteer computing model and public cloud possibilities. The main idea is to create a flexible working environment for research groups, which may be scaled according to required data volume and computing power, while keeping infrastructure costs at minimum. It is based upon the "single window" principle, which combines data access via geoportal functionality, processing possibilities and communication between researchers. Using an innovative software environment the recently developed planetary information system (http://cartsrv.mexlab.ru/geoportal will be updated. The new system will provide spatial data processing, analysis and 3D-visualization and will be tested based on freely available Earth remote sensing data as well as Solar system planetary images from various missions. Based on this approach it will be possible to organize the research and representation of results on a new technology level, which provides more possibilities for immediate and direct reuse of research materials, including data, algorithms, methodology, and components. The new software environment is targeted at remote scientific teams, and will provide access to existing spatial distributed information for which we suggest implementation of a user interface as an advanced front-end, e.g., for virtual globe system.

  3. Development of a Heterogenic Distributed Environment for Spatial Data Processing Using Cloud Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garov, A. S.; Karachevtseva, I. P.; Matveev, E. V.; Zubarev, A. E.; Florinsky, I. V.

    2016-06-01

    We are developing a unified distributed communication environment for processing of spatial data which integrates web-, desktop- and mobile platforms and combines volunteer computing model and public cloud possibilities. The main idea is to create a flexible working environment for research groups, which may be scaled according to required data volume and computing power, while keeping infrastructure costs at minimum. It is based upon the "single window" principle, which combines data access via geoportal functionality, processing possibilities and communication between researchers. Using an innovative software environment the recently developed planetary information system (geoportal"target="_blank">http://cartsrv.mexlab.ru/geoportal) will be updated. The new system will provide spatial data processing, analysis and 3D-visualization and will be tested based on freely available Earth remote sensing data as well as Solar system planetary images from various missions. Based on this approach it will be possible to organize the research and representation of results on a new technology level, which provides more possibilities for immediate and direct reuse of research materials, including data, algorithms, methodology, and components. The new software environment is targeted at remote scientific teams, and will provide access to existing spatial distributed information for which we suggest implementation of a user interface as an advanced front-end, e.g., for virtual globe system.

  4. The debt of nations and the distribution of ecological impacts from human activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, U Thara; Carey, Susan P; Hallstein, Eric; Higgins, Paul A T; Kerr, Amber C; Koteen, Laura E; Smith, Adam B; Watson, Reg; Harte, John; Norgaard, Richard B

    2008-02-05

    As human impacts to the environment accelerate, disparities in the distribution of damages between rich and poor nations mount. Globally, environmental change is dramatically affecting the flow of ecosystem services, but the distribution of ecological damages and their driving forces has not been estimated. Here, we conservatively estimate the environmental costs of human activities over 1961-2000 in six major categories (climate change, stratospheric ozone depletion, agricultural intensification and expansion, deforestation, overfishing, and mangrove conversion), quantitatively connecting costs borne by poor, middle-income, and rich nations to specific activities by each of these groups. Adjusting impact valuations for different standards of living across the groups as commonly practiced, we find striking imbalances. Climate change and ozone depletion impacts predicted for low-income nations have been overwhelmingly driven by emissions from the other two groups, a pattern also observed for overfishing damages indirectly driven by the consumption of fishery products. Indeed, through disproportionate emissions of greenhouse gases alone, the rich group may have imposed climate damages on the poor group greater than the latter's current foreign debt. Our analysis provides prima facie evidence for an uneven distribution pattern of damages across income groups. Moreover, our estimates of each group's share in various damaging activities are independent from controversies in environmental valuation methods. In a world increasingly connected ecologically and economically, our analysis is thus an early step toward reframing issues of environmental responsibility, development, and globalization in accordance with ecological costs.

  5. Seasonally adjusted birth frequencies follow the Poisson distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barra, Mathias; Lindstrøm, Jonas C; Adams, Samantha S; Augestad, Liv A

    2015-12-15

    Variations in birth frequencies have an impact on activity planning in maternity wards. Previous studies of this phenomenon have commonly included elective births. A Danish study of spontaneous births found that birth frequencies were well modelled by a Poisson process. Somewhat unexpectedly, there were also weekly variations in the frequency of spontaneous births. Another study claimed that birth frequencies follow the Benford distribution. Our objective was to test these results. We analysed 50,017 spontaneous births at Akershus University Hospital in the period 1999-2014. To investigate the Poisson distribution of these births, we plotted their variance over a sliding average. We specified various Poisson regression models, with the number of births on a given day as the outcome variable. The explanatory variables included various combinations of years, months, days of the week and the digit sum of the date. The relationship between the variance and the average fits well with an underlying Poisson process. A Benford distribution was disproved by a goodness-of-fit test (p Poisson process when monthly and day-of-the-week variation is included. The frequency is highest in summer towards June and July, Friday and Tuesday stand out as particularly busy days, and the activity level is at its lowest during weekends.

  6. Hydrothermal activity and subsoil complexity: implication for degassing processes at Solfatara crater, Campi Flegrei caldera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montanaro, Cristian; Mayer, Klaus; Isaia, Roberto; Gresse, Marceau; Scheu, Bettina; Yilmaz, Tim I.; Vandemeulebrouck, Jean; Ricci, Tullio; Dingwell, Donald B.

    2017-12-01

    The Solfatara area and its fumaroles are the main surface expression of the vigorous hydrothermal activity within the active Campi Flegrei caldera system. At depth, a range of volcanic and structural processes dictate the actual state of the hydrothermal system below the crater. The presence of a large variety of volcanic products at shallow depth (including pyroclastic fallout ash beds, pyroclastic density current deposits, breccias, and lavas), and the existence of a maar-related fault system appears to exert major controls on the degassing and alteration behavior. Adding further to the complexity of this environment, variations in permeability and porosity, due to subsoil lithology and alteration effects, may further influence fluid flow towards the surface. Here, we report results from a field campaign conducted in July 2015 that was designed to characterize the in situ physical (temperature, humidity) and mechanical (permeability, strength, stiffness) properties of the Solfatara crater subsoil. The survey also included a mapping of the surficial hydrothermal features and their distributions. Finally, laboratory measurements (porosity, granulometry) of selected samples were performed. Our results enable the discrimination of four main subsoils around the crater: (1) the Fangaia domain located in a topographic low in the southwestern sector, (2) the silica flat domain on the western altered side, (3) the new crust domain in the central area, and (4) the crusted hummocks domain that dominates the north, east, and south parts. These domains are surrounded by encrusted areas, reworked material, and vegetated soil. The distribution of these heterogeneous subsoils suggests that their formation is mostly related to (i) the presence of the Fangaia domain within the crater and (ii) a system of ring faults bordering it. The subsoils show an alternation between very high and very low permeabilities, a fact which seems to affect both the temperature distribution and

  7. General distributions in process algebra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katoen, Joost P.; d' Argenio, P.R.; Brinksma, Hendrik; Hermanns, H.; Katoen, Joost P.

    2001-01-01

    This paper is an informal tutorial on stochastic process algebras, i.e., process calculi where action occurrences may be subject to a delay that is governed by a (mostly continuous) random variable. Whereas most stochastic process algebras consider delays determined by negative exponential

  8. Estrogenic activity, chemical levels and health risk assessment of municipal distribution point water from Pretoria and Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Zijl, Magdalena Catherina; Aneck-Hahn, Natalie Hildegard; Swart, Pieter; Hayward, Stefan; Genthe, Bettina; De Jager, Christiaan

    2017-11-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are ubiquitous in the environment and have been detected in drinking water from various countries. Although various water treatment processes can remove EDCs, chemicals can also migrate from pipes that transport water and contaminate drinking water. This study investigated the estrogenic activity in drinking water from various distribution points in Pretoria (City of Tshwane) (n = 40) and Cape Town (n = 40), South Africa, using the recombinant yeast estrogen screen (YES) and the T47D-KBluc reporter gene assay. The samples were collected seasonally over four sampling periods. The samples were also analysed for bisphenol A (BPA), nonylphenol (NP), di(2-ethylhexyl) adipate (DEHA), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), diisononylphthalate (DINP), 17β-estradiol (E 2 ), estrone (E 1 ) and ethynylestradiol (EE 2 ) using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrophotometry (UPLC-MS/MS). This was followed by a scenario based health risk assessment to assess the carcinogenic and toxic human health risks associated with the consumption of distribution point water. None of the water extracts from the distribution points were above the detection limit in the YES bioassay, but the EEq values ranged from 0.002 to 0.114 ng/L using the T47D-KBluc bioassay. BPA, DEHA, DBP, DEHP, DINP E 1 , E 2, and EE 2 were detected in distribution point water samples. NP was below the detection limit for all the samples. The estrogenic activity and levels of target chemicals were comparable to the levels found in other countries. Overall the health risk assessment revealed acceptable health and carcinogenic risks associated with the consumption of distribution point water. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Interevent time distributions of human multi-level activity in a virtual world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mryglod, O.; Fuchs, B.; Szell, M.; Holovatch, Yu.; Thurner, S.

    2015-02-01

    Studying human behavior in virtual environments provides extraordinary opportunities for a quantitative analysis of social phenomena with levels of accuracy that approach those of the natural sciences. In this paper we use records of player activities in the massive multiplayer online game Pardus over 1238 consecutive days, and analyze dynamical features of sequences of actions of players. We build on previous work where temporal structures of human actions of the same type were quantified, and provide an empirical understanding of human actions of different types. This study of multi-level human activity can be seen as a dynamic counterpart of static multiplex network analysis. We show that the interevent time distributions of actions in the Pardus universe follow highly non-trivial distribution functions, from which we extract action-type specific characteristic 'decay constants'. We discuss characteristic features of interevent time distributions, including periodic patterns on different time scales, bursty dynamics, and various functional forms on different time scales. We comment on gender differences of players in emotional actions, and find that while males and females act similarly when performing some positive actions, females are slightly faster for negative actions. We also observe effects on the age of players: more experienced players are generally faster in making decisions about engaging in and terminating enmity and friendship, respectively.

  10. Concentration distribution of trace elements: from normal distribution to Levy flights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubala-Kukus, A.; Banas, D.; Braziewicz, J.; Majewska, U.; Pajek, M.

    2003-01-01

    The paper discusses a nature of concentration distributions of trace elements in biomedical samples, which were measured by using the X-ray fluorescence techniques (XRF, TXRF). Our earlier observation, that the lognormal distribution well describes the measured concentration distribution is explained here on a more general ground. Particularly, the role of random multiplicative process, which models the concentration distributions of trace elements in biomedical samples, is discussed in detail. It is demonstrated that the lognormal distribution, appearing when the multiplicative process is driven by normal distribution, can be generalized to the so-called log-stable distribution. Such distribution describes the random multiplicative process, which is driven, instead of normal distribution, by more general stable distribution, being known as the Levy flights. The presented ideas are exemplified by the results of the study of trace element concentration distributions in selected biomedical samples, obtained by using the conventional (XRF) and (TXRF) X-ray fluorescence methods. Particularly, the first observation of log-stable concentration distribution of trace elements is reported and discussed here in detail

  11. MIGRATION OF SEISMIC AND VOLCANIC ACTIVITY AS DISPLAY OF WAVE GEODYNAMIC PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander V. Vikulin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Publications about the earthquake foci migration have been reviewed. An important result of such studies is establishment of wave nature of seismic activity migration that is manifested by two types of rotational waves; such waves are responsible for interaction between earthquakes foci and propagate with different velocities. Waves determining long-range interaction of earthquake foci are classified as Type 1; their limiting velocities range from 1 to 10 cm/s. Waves determining short-range interaction of foreshocks and aftershocks of individual earthquakes are classified as Type 2; their velocities range from 1 to 10 km/s. According to the classification described in [Bykov, 2005], these two types of migration waves correspond to slow and fast tectonic waves. The most complete data on earthquakes (for a period over 4.1 million of years and volcanic eruptions (for 12 thousand years of the planet are consolidated in a unified systematic format and analyzed by methods developed by the authors. For the Pacific margin, Alpine-Himalayan belt and the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, which are the three most active zones of the Earth, new patterns of spatial and temporal distribution of seismic and volcanic activity are revealed; they correspond to Type 1 of rotational waves. The wave nature of the migration of seismic and volcanic activity is confirmed. A new approach to solving problems of geodynamics is proposed with application of the data on migration of seismic and volcanic activity, which are consolidated in this study, in combination with data on velocities of movement of tectonic plate boundaries. This approach is based on the concept of integration of seismic, volcanic and tectonic processes that develop in the block geomedium and interact with each other through rotating waves with a symmetric stress tensor. The data obtained in this study give grounds to suggest that a geodynamic value, that is mechanically analogous to an impulse

  12. Active processes in one dimension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demaerel, Thibaut; Maes, Christian

    2018-03-01

    We consider the thermal and athermal overdamped motion of particles in one-dimensional geometries where discrete internal degrees of freedom (spin) are coupled with the translational motion. Adding a driving velocity that depends on the time-dependent spin constitutes the simplest model of active particles (run-and-tumble processes) where the violation of the equipartition principle and of the Sutherland-Einstein relation can be studied in detail even when there is generalized reversibility. We give an example (with four spin values) where the irreversibility of the translational motion manifests itself only in higher-order (than two) time correlations. We derive a generalized telegraph equation as the Smoluchowski equation for the spatial density for an arbitrary number of spin values. We also investigate the Arrhenius exponential law for run-and-tumble particles; due to their activity the slope of the potential becomes important in contrast to the passive diffusion case and activity enhances the escape from a potential well (if that slope is high enough). Finally, in the absence of a driving velocity, the presence of internal currents such as in the chemistry of molecular motors may be transmitted to the translational motion and the internal activity is crucial for the direction of the emerging spatial current.

  13. A Hands-on Activity for Teaching the Poisson Distribution Using the Stock Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlap, Mickey; Studstill, Sharyn

    2014-01-01

    The number of increases a particular stock makes over a fixed period follows a Poisson distribution. This article discusses using this easily-found data as an opportunity to let students become involved in the data collection and analysis process.

  14. Combining Generalized Renewal Processes with Non-Extensive Entropy-Based q-Distributions for Reliability Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isis Didier Lins

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The Generalized Renewal Process (GRP is a probabilistic model for repairable systems that can represent the usual states of a system after a repair: as new, as old, or in a condition between new and old. It is often coupled with the Weibull distribution, widely used in the reliability context. In this paper, we develop novel GRP models based on probability distributions that stem from the Tsallis’ non-extensive entropy, namely the q-Exponential and the q-Weibull distributions. The q-Exponential and Weibull distributions can model decreasing, constant or increasing failure intensity functions. However, the power law behavior of the q-Exponential probability density function for specific parameter values is an advantage over the Weibull distribution when adjusting data containing extreme values. The q-Weibull probability distribution, in turn, can also fit data with bathtub-shaped or unimodal failure intensities in addition to the behaviors already mentioned. Therefore, the q-Exponential-GRP is an alternative for the Weibull-GRP model and the q-Weibull-GRP generalizes both. The method of maximum likelihood is used for their parameters’ estimation by means of a particle swarm optimization algorithm, and Monte Carlo simulations are performed for the sake of validation. The proposed models and algorithms are applied to examples involving reliability-related data of complex systems and the obtained results suggest GRP plus q-distributions are promising techniques for the analyses of repairable systems.

  15. Spatial distribution of bremsstrahlung in water and water-iron by 22-MeV electron bombardment measured with activation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Takashi; Nishimoto, Takanao; Hirayama, Hideo.

    1977-01-01

    The spatial distributions of bremsstrahlung in water (1 m thick) and water (60 cm thick)-iron (6.3 cm thick) bombarded by 22-MeV electrons were measured by using a new activation method which we developed. These informations are useful for studying shielding, residual activity and radiation damage of accelerator and target materials. From the measured activities, the bremsstrahlung spectra in water were evaluated with the LYRA and the SAND-II unfolding codes. The evaluated spectra were in good agreement with the analytical calculation by the DIBRE code, except for the higher energy ends. The longitudinal and the lateral distributions of bremsstrahlung flux in water were obtained by integrating the evaluated spectra above 8 MeV. The agreement of the experimental and the calculated flux distributions was very good except for a large angle to beam direction. The total photon number crossing a plane normal to the beam axis attenuates exponentially along the axial depth. The iso-flux contour of bremsstrahlung flux was given by interpolating the flux distribution curves. Only the saturated activities of gold detectors were obtained for water-iron in good experimental accuracy. The spatial distribution of gold saturated activities in water-iron clearly shows the attenuating effect due to strong absorption in iron. (auth.)

  16. Medication errors in residential aged care facilities: a distributed cognition analysis of the information exchange process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tariq, Amina; Georgiou, Andrew; Westbrook, Johanna

    2013-05-01

    Medication safety is a pressing concern for residential aged care facilities (RACFs). Retrospective studies in RACF settings identify inadequate communication between RACFs, doctors, hospitals and community pharmacies as the major cause of medication errors. Existing literature offers limited insight about the gaps in the existing information exchange process that may lead to medication errors. The aim of this research was to explicate the cognitive distribution that underlies RACF medication ordering and delivery to identify gaps in medication-related information exchange which lead to medication errors in RACFs. The study was undertaken in three RACFs in Sydney, Australia. Data were generated through ethnographic field work over a period of five months (May-September 2011). Triangulated analysis of data primarily focused on examining the transformation and exchange of information between different media across the process. The findings of this study highlight the extensive scope and intense nature of information exchange in RACF medication ordering and delivery. Rather than attributing error to individual care providers, the explication of distributed cognition processes enabled the identification of gaps in three information exchange dimensions which potentially contribute to the occurrence of medication errors namely: (1) design of medication charts which complicates order processing and record keeping (2) lack of coordination mechanisms between participants which results in misalignment of local practices (3) reliance on restricted communication bandwidth channels mainly telephone and fax which complicates the information processing requirements. The study demonstrates how the identification of these gaps enhances understanding of medication errors in RACFs. Application of the theoretical lens of distributed cognition can assist in enhancing our understanding of medication errors in RACFs through identification of gaps in information exchange. Understanding

  17. Spatial patterns in the distribution of kimberlites: relationship to tectonic processes and lithosphere structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chemia, Zurab; Artemieva, Irina; Thybo, Hans

    2015-01-01

    of kimberlite melts through the lithospheric mantle, which forms the major pipe. Stage 2 (second-order process) begins when the major pipe splits into daughter sub-pipes (tree-like pattern) at crustal depths. We apply cluster analysis to the spatial distribution of all known kimberlite fields with the goal...

  18. Drilling to investigate processes in active tectonics and magmatism

    OpenAIRE

    J. Shervais; J. Evans; V. Toy; J. Kirkpatrick; A. Clarke; J. Eichelberger

    2014-01-01

    Coordinated drilling efforts are an important method to investigate active tectonics and magmatic processes related to faults and volcanoes. The US National Science Foundation (NSF) recently sponsored a series of workshops to define the nature of future continental drilling efforts. As part of this series, we convened a workshop to explore how continental scientific drilling can be used to better understand active tectonic and magmatic processes. The workshop, held in Park C...

  19. Standardization of 32P activity determination method in soil-root cores for root distribution studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, R.B.; Ghildyal, B.P.

    1976-01-01

    The root distribution of wheat variety UP 301 was obtained by determining the 32 P activity in soil-root cores by two methods, viz., ignition and triacid digestion. Root distribution obtained by these two methods was compared with that by standard root core washing procedure. The percent error in root distribution as determined by triacid digestion method was within +- 2.1 to +- 9.0 as against +- 5.5 to +- 21.2 by ignition method. Thus triacid digestion method proved better over the ignition method. (author)

  20. Reduction Method for Active Distribution Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raboni, Pietro; Chen, Zhe

    2013-01-01

    On-line security assessment is traditionally performed by Transmission System Operators at the transmission level, ignoring the effective response of distributed generators and small loads. On the other hand the required computation time and amount of real time data for including Distribution...... Networks also would be too large. In this paper an adaptive aggregation method for subsystems with power electronic interfaced generators and voltage dependant loads is proposed. With this tool may be relatively easier including distribution networks into security assessment. The method is validated...... by comparing the results obtained in PSCAD® with the detailed network model and with the reduced one. Moreover the control schemes of a wind turbine and a photovoltaic plant included in the detailed network model are described....

  1. Distributed dendritic processing facilitates object detection: a computational analysis on the visual system of the fly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennig, Patrick; Möller, Ralf; Egelhaaf, Martin

    2008-08-28

    Detecting objects is an important task when moving through a natural environment. Flies, for example, may land on salient objects or may avoid collisions with them. The neuronal ensemble of Figure Detection cells (FD-cells) in the visual system of the fly is likely to be involved in controlling these behaviours, as these cells are more sensitive to objects than to extended background structures. Until now the computations in the presynaptic neuronal network of FD-cells and, in particular, the functional significance of the experimentally established distributed dendritic processing of excitatory and inhibitory inputs is not understood. We use model simulations to analyse the neuronal computations responsible for the preference of FD-cells for small objects. We employed a new modelling approach which allowed us to account for the spatial spread of electrical signals in the dendrites while avoiding detailed compartmental modelling. The models are based on available physiological and anatomical data. Three models were tested each implementing an inhibitory neural circuit, but differing by the spatial arrangement of the inhibitory interaction. Parameter optimisation with an evolutionary algorithm revealed that only distributed dendritic processing satisfies the constraints arising from electrophysiological experiments. In contrast to a direct dendro-dendritic inhibition of the FD-cell (Direct Distributed Inhibition model), an inhibition of its presynaptic retinotopic elements (Indirect Distributed Inhibition model) requires smaller changes in input resistance in the inhibited neurons during visual stimulation. Distributed dendritic inhibition of retinotopic elements as implemented in our Indirect Distributed Inhibition model is the most plausible wiring scheme for the neuronal circuit of FD-cells. This microcircuit is computationally similar to lateral inhibition between the retinotopic elements. Hence, distributed inhibition might be an alternative explanation of

  2. Visualization of the distribution of surface-active block copolymers in PDMS-based coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noguer, A. Camós; Latipov, R.; Madsen, F. B.

    2018-01-01

    the distribution and release of these block copolymers from PDMS-based coatings has been previously reported. However, the distribution and behaviour of these compounds in the bulk of the PDMS coating are not fully understood. A novel fluorescent-labelled triblock PEG-b-PDMS-b-PEG copolymer was synthesized...... results in non-specific protein adsorption and wettability issues. Poly(ethylene glycol)-based surface-active block copolymers and surfactants have been added to PDMS coatings and films to impart biofouling resistance and hydrophilicity to the PDMS surface with successful results. Information regarding...

  3. Validation of a Robust Neural Real-Time Voltage Estimator for Active Distribution Grids on Field Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pertl, Michael; Douglass, Philip James; Heussen, Kai

    2018-01-01

    network approach for voltage estimation in active distribution grids by means of measured data from two feeders of a real low voltage distribution grid. The approach enables a real-time voltage estimation at locations in the distribution grid, where otherwise only non-real-time measurements are available......The installation of measurements in distribution grids enables the development of data driven methods for the power system. However, these methods have to be validated in order to understand the limitations and capabilities for their use. This paper presents a systematic validation of a neural...

  4. A distributed data base management system. [for Deep Space Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, A. I.

    1975-01-01

    Major system design features of a distributed data management system for the NASA Deep Space Network (DSN) designed for continuous two-way deep space communications are described. The reasons for which the distributed data base utilizing third-generation minicomputers is selected as the optimum approach for the DSN are threefold: (1) with a distributed master data base, valid data is available in real-time to support DSN management activities at each location; (2) data base integrity is the responsibility of local management; and (3) the data acquisition/distribution and processing power of a third-generation computer enables the computer to function successfully as a data handler or as an on-line process controller. The concept of the distributed data base is discussed along with the software, data base integrity, and hardware used. The data analysis/update constraint is examined.

  5. Distributed H2 Supply for Fuel Cell Utility Vehicles Year 6 - Activity 3.5 - Development fo a National Center for Hydrogen Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almlie, Jay

    2012-04-15

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) has developed a high-pressure hydrogen production system that reforms a liquid organic feedstock and water at operating pressures up to 800 bar (~12,000 psig). The advantages of this system include the elimination of energy-intensive hydrogen compression, a smaller process footprint, and the elimination of gaseous or liquid hydrogen transport. This system could also potentially enable distributed hydrogen production from centralized coal. Processes have been investigated to gasify coal and then convert the syngas into alcohol or alkanes. These alcohols and alkanes could then be easily transported in bulk to distributed high-pressure water-reforming (HPWR)-based systems to deliver hydrogen economically. The intent of this activity was to utilize the EERC’s existing HPWR hydrogen production process, previously designed and constructed in a prior project phase, as a basis to improve operational and production performance of an existing demonstration unit. Parameters to be pursued included higher hydrogen delivery pressure, higher hydrogen production rates, and the ability to refill within a 5-minute time frame.

  6. Process for encapsulating active agents obtaining a gel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yilmaz, G.; Jongboom, R.O.J.

    2001-01-01

    The present invention relates to a process for encapsulating an active agent in a biopolymer in the form of a gel, comprising the steps of: a) forming a dispersion or solution of the biopolymer in water; and b) adding the active agent to the dispersion or solution obtained in step a); wherein the

  7. Minimal processing - preservation methods of the future: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohlsson, T.

    1994-01-01

    Minimal-processing technologies are modern techniques that provide sufficient shelf life to foods to allow their distribution, while also meeting the demands of the consumers for convenience and fresh-like quality. Minimal-processing technologies can be applied at various stages of the food distribution chain, in storage, in processing and/or in packaging. Examples of methods will be reviewed, including modified-atmosphere packaging, high-pressure treatment, sous-vide cooking and active packaging

  8. Improved Extreme-Scenario Extraction Method For The Economic Dispatch Of Active Distribution Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yipu; Ai, Xiaomeng; Fang, Jiakun

    2017-01-01

    ) of active distribution network with renewables. The extreme scenarios are selected from the historical data using the improved minimum volume enclosing ellipsoid (MVEE) algorithm to guarantee the security of system operation while avoid frequently switching the transformer tap. It is theoretically proved...

  9. Interevent Time Distribution of Renewal Point Process, Case Study: Extreme Rainfall in South Sulawesi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunusi, Nurtiti

    2018-03-01

    The study of time distribution of occurrences of extreme rain phenomena plays a very important role in the analysis and weather forecast in an area. The timing of extreme rainfall is difficult to predict because its occurrence is random. This paper aims to determine the inter event time distribution of extreme rain events and minimum waiting time until the occurrence of next extreme event through a point process approach. The phenomenon of extreme rain events over a given period of time is following a renewal process in which the time for events is a random variable τ. The distribution of random variable τ is assumed to be a Pareto, Log Normal, and Gamma. To estimate model parameters, a moment method is used. Consider Rt as the time of the last extreme rain event at one location is the time difference since the last extreme rainfall event. if there are no extreme rain events up to t 0, there will be an opportunity for extreme rainfall events at (t 0, t 0 + δt 0). Furthermore from the three models reviewed, the minimum waiting time until the next extreme rainfall will be determined. The result shows that Log Nrmal model is better than Pareto and Gamma model for predicting the next extreme rainfall in South Sulawesi while the Pareto model can not be used.

  10. Processing statistics: an examination of focused and distributed attention using event related potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baijal, Shruti; Nakatani, Chie; van Leeuwen, Cees; Srinivasan, Narayanan

    2013-06-07

    Human observers show remarkable efficiency in statistical estimation; they are able, for instance, to estimate the mean size of visual objects, even if their number exceeds the capacity limits of focused attention. This ability has been understood as the result of a distinct mode of attention, i.e. distributed attention. Compared to the focused attention mode, working memory representations under distributed attention are proposed to be more compressed, leading to reduced working memory loads. An alternate proposal is that distributed attention uses less structured, feature-level representations. These would fill up working memory (WM) more, even when target set size is low. Using event-related potentials, we compared WM loading in a typical distributed attention task (mean size estimation) to that in a corresponding focused attention task (object recognition), using a measure called contralateral delay activity (CDA). Participants performed both tasks on 2, 4, or 8 different-sized target disks. In the recognition task, CDA amplitude increased with set size; notably, however, in the mean estimation task the CDA amplitude was high regardless of set size. In particular for set-size 2, the amplitude was higher in the mean estimation task than in the recognition task. The result showed that the task involves full WM loading even with a low target set size. This suggests that in the distributed attention mode, representations are not compressed, but rather less structured than under focused attention conditions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Human-induced shifts in geomorphic process rates: An example of landslide activity following forest cover change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guns, Marie; Balthazar, Vincent; Vanacker, Veerle

    2013-04-01

    Mountain regions present unique challenges and opportunities to land use change research. Very few, if any, mountain ecosystems remain unaffected by human impact. Based on the exemplary evidence from local case studies, it is not yet possible to have an overall assessment of the extent and impact of human activities on mountain erosion as mountain regions are typically characterized by rapid changes in geomorphic, cryospheric, climatic, hydrologic, ecological and socio-economic conditions over relatively short distances. Here, we present a conceptual model that allows evaluating human-induced shifts in geomorphic process rates. The basic idea behind this model is that the magnitude-frequency distribution of geomorphic processes is dependent on the intensity of human disturbance. The conceptual model is here applied for characterising landslide activity following forest cover change. We selected a tropical Andean catchment with a deforestation rate of 1.4% over the last 45 years. Landslide inventories were established based on historical aerial photographs (1963, 1977, and 1989) and very high-resolution satellite images (2010). Statistical analyses show that the total number of landslides is rising, and that they are increasingly associated with human disturbances (deforestation, road construction). This is particularly the case for shallow landslides that become more frequent after clearcutting. As the human-induced shifts in landslide activity are significant for the low-magnitude events only, the total impact on geomorphic process rates is rather limited in this particular area. This work shows that including information on the magnitude-frequency of geomorphic events before, during and after human disturbances offers new possibilities to quantify the complex response of geomorphic processes to human disturbances.

  12. Implementing and Investigating Distributed Leadership in a National University Network--SaMnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Manjula D.; Rifkin, Will; Tzioumis, Vicky; Hill, Matthew; Johnson, Elizabeth; Varsavsky, Cristina; Jones, Susan; Beames, Stephanie; Crampton, Andrea; Zadnik, Marjan; Pyke, Simon

    2017-01-01

    The literature suggests that collaborative approaches to leadership, such as distributed leadership, are essential for supporting educational innovators in leading change in teaching in universities. This paper briefly describes the array of activities, processes and resources to support distributed leadership in the implementation of a network,…

  13. Predicting Wetland Distribution Changes under Climate Change and Human Activities in a Mid- and High-Latitude Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dandan Zhao

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Wetlands in the mid- and high-latitudes are particularly vulnerable to environmental changes and have declined dramatically in recent decades. Climate change and human activities are arguably the most important factors driving wetland distribution changes which will have important implications for wetland ecological functions and services. We analyzed the importance of driving variables for wetland distribution and investigated the relative importance of climatic factors and human activity factors in driving historical wetland distribution changes. We predicted wetland distribution changes under climate change and human activities over the 21st century using the Random Forest model in a mid- and high-latitude region of Northeast China. Climate change scenarios included three Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs based on five general circulation models (GCMs downloaded from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, Phase 5 (CMIP5. The three scenarios (RCP 2.6, RCP 4.5, and RCP 8.5 predicted radiative forcing to peak at 2.6, 4.5, and 8.5 W/m2 by the 2100s, respectively. Our results showed that the variables with high importance scores were agricultural population proportion, warmness index, distance to water body, coldness index, and annual mean precipitation; climatic variables were given higher importance scores than human activity variables on average. Average predicted wetland area among three emission scenarios were 340,000 ha, 123,000 ha, and 113,000 ha for the 2040s, 2070s, and 2100s, respectively. Average change percent in predicted wetland area among three periods was greatest under the RCP 8.5 emission scenario followed by RCP 4.5 and RCP 2.6 emission scenarios, which were 78%, 64%, and 55%, respectively. Losses in predicted wetland distribution were generally around agricultural lands and expanded continually from the north to the whole region over time, while the gains were mostly associated with grasslands and water in the

  14. A model for the distribution channels planning process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neves, M.F.; Zuurbier, P.; Campomar, M.C.

    2001-01-01

    Research of existing literature reveals some models (sequence of steps) for companies that want to plan distribution channels. None of these models uses strong contributions from transaction cost economics, bringing a possibility to elaborate on a "distribution channels planning model", with these

  15. Simultaneous measurement of current and temperature distributions in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell during cold start processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiao Kui; Alaefour, Ibrahim E.; Karimi, Gholamreza; Li Xianguo

    2011-01-01

    Cold start is critical to the commercialization of proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) in automotive applications. Dynamic distributions of current and temperature in PEMFC during various cold start processes determine the cold start characteristics, and are required for the optimization of design and operational strategy. This study focuses on an investigation of the cold start characteristics of a PEMFC through the simultaneous measurements of current and temperature distributions. An analytical model for quick estimate of purging duration is also developed. During the failed cold start process, the highest current density is initially near the inlet region of the flow channels, then it moves downstream, reaching the outlet region eventually. Almost half of the cell current is produced in the inlet region before the cell current peaks, and the region around the middle of the cell has the best survivability. These two regions are therefore more important than other regions for successful cold start through design and operational strategy, such as reducing the ice formation and enhancing the heat generation in these two regions. The evolution of the overall current density distribution over time remains similar during the successful cold start process; the current density is the highest near the flow channel inlets and generally decreases along the flow direction. For both the failed and the successful cold start processes, the highest temperature is initially in the flow channel inlet region, and is then around the middle of the cell after the overall peak current density is reached. The ice melting and liquid formation during the successful cold start process have negligible influence on the general current and temperature distributions.

  16. Constraint based scheduling for the Goddard Space Flight Center distributed Active Archive Center's data archive and distribution system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Nick, Jr.; Bedet, Jean-Jacques; Bodden, Lee; Boddy, Mark; White, Jim; Beane, John

    1994-01-01

    The Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) has been operational since October 1, 1993. Its mission is to support the Earth Observing System (EOS) by providing rapid access to EOS data and analysis products, and to test Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) design concepts. One of the challenges is to ensure quick and easy retrieval of any data archived within the DAAC's Data Archive and Distributed System (DADS). Over the 15-year life of EOS project, an estimated several Petabytes (10(exp 15)) of data will be permanently stored. Accessing that amount of information is a formidable task that will require innovative approaches. As a precursor of the full EOS system, the GSFC DAAC with a few Terabits of storage, has implemented a prototype of a constraint-based task and resource scheduler to improve the performance of the DADS. This Honeywell Task and Resource Scheduler (HTRS), developed by Honeywell Technology Center in cooperation the Information Science and Technology Branch/935, the Code X Operations Technology Program, and the GSFC DAAC, makes better use of limited resources, prevents backlog of data, provides information about resources bottlenecks and performance characteristics. The prototype which is developed concurrently with the GSFC Version 0 (V0) DADS, models DADS activities such as ingestion and distribution with priority, precedence, resource requirements (disk and network bandwidth) and temporal constraints. HTRS supports schedule updates, insertions, and retrieval of task information via an Application Program Interface (API). The prototype has demonstrated with a few examples, the substantial advantages of using HTRS over scheduling algorithms such as a First In First Out (FIFO) queue. The kernel scheduling engine for HTRS, called Kronos, has been successfully applied to several other domains such as space shuttle mission scheduling, demand flow manufacturing, and avionics communications

  17. A trade-off between local and distributed information processing associated with remote episodic versus semantic memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heisz, Jennifer J; Vakorin, Vasily; Ross, Bernhard; Levine, Brian; McIntosh, Anthony R

    2014-01-01

    Episodic memory and semantic memory produce very different subjective experiences yet rely on overlapping networks of brain regions for processing. Traditional approaches for characterizing functional brain networks emphasize static states of function and thus are blind to the dynamic information processing within and across brain regions. This study used information theoretic measures of entropy to quantify changes in the complexity of the brain's response as measured by magnetoencephalography while participants listened to audio recordings describing past personal episodic and general semantic events. Personal episodic recordings evoked richer subjective mnemonic experiences and more complex brain responses than general semantic recordings. Critically, we observed a trade-off between the relative contribution of local versus distributed entropy, such that personal episodic recordings produced relatively more local entropy whereas general semantic recordings produced relatively more distributed entropy. Changes in the relative contributions of local and distributed entropy to the total complexity of the system provides a potential mechanism that allows the same network of brain regions to represent cognitive information as either specific episodes or more general semantic knowledge.

  18. Associations between initial change in physical activity level and subsequent change in regional body fat distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezekwe, Kelechi A; Adegboye, Amanda R A; Gamborg, Michael; Heitmann, Berit L

    2013-01-01

    Few studies have examined which lifestyle factors relate to the development of fat distribution. Therefore, the identification of the determinants of changes in fat deposition is highly relevant. The association between the change in physical activity (PA) and the subsequent changes in regional body fat distributions was examined. In total, 1,236 men and 1,201 women were included at baseline and participated in the Danish MONICA (MONItoring Trends and Determinants in CArdiovascular Disease) study. A questionnaire was used to assess PA at 5 and 11 years after baseline examination, while waist circumference (WC) and hip circumference (HC) were measured at both follow-ups. Among men, WC increased in the constant active group to a lesser extent than in the non-constant active group (3.4 vs. 4.1 cm; p = 0.03) concerning leisure time physical activities (LTPA). A similar pattern was observed for both WC and HC in relation to occupational physical activities (OPA) (p = 0.02). Among women, the results went in the same direction for LTPA, whereas the associations with OPA were in the opposite direction (p = 0.001). LTPA and OPA were associated with reduced subsequent 6-year changes in regional fat distribution for men. For women, no associations were observed in relation to WC; however, OPA seemed to increase HC among women. © 2013 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  19. Near-line Archive Data Mining at the Goddard Distributed Active Archive Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, L.; Mack, R.; Eng, E.; Lynnes, C.

    2002-12-01

    NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) is generating immense volumes of data, in some cases too much to provide to users with data-intensive needs. As an alternative to moving the data to the user and his/her research algorithms, we are providing a means to move the algorithms to the data. The Near-line Archive Data Mining (NADM) system is the Goddard Earth Sciences Distributed Active Archive Center's (GES DAAC) web data mining portal to the EOS Data and Information System (EOSDIS) data pool, a 50-TB online disk cache. The NADM web portal enables registered users to submit and execute data mining algorithm codes on the data in the EOSDIS data pool. A web interface allows the user to access the NADM system. The users first develops personalized data mining code on their home platform and then uploads them to the NADM system. The C, FORTRAN and IDL languages are currently supported. The user developed code is automatically audited for any potential security problems before it is installed within the NADM system and made available to the user. Once the code has been installed the user is provided a test environment where he/she can test the execution of the software against data sets of the user's choosing. When the user is satisfied with the results, he/she can promote their code to the "operational" environment. From here the user can interactively run his/her code on the data available in the EOSDIS data pool. The user can also set up a processing subscription. The subscription will automatically process new data as it becomes available in the EOSDIS data pool. The generated mined data products are then made available for FTP pickup. The NADM system uses the GES DAAC-developed Simple Scalable Script-based Science Processor (S4P) to automate tasks and perform the actual data processing. Users will also have the option of selecting a DAAC-provided data mining algorithm and using it to process the data of their choice.

  20. Enkephalin dipeptidyl carboxypeptidase (enkephalinase) activity: selective radioassay, properties, and regional distribution in human brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llorens, C.; Malfroy, B.; Schwartz, J.C.; Gacel, G.; Roques, B.P.; Roy, J.; Morgat, J.L.; Javoy-Agid, F.; Agid, Y.

    1982-01-01

    The compound [ 3 H-Tyr 1 ,D-Ala 2 ,Leu-OH 5 ]enkephalin has been synthesised as a potentially selective substrate for enkephalin dipeptidyl carboxypeptidase (enkephalinase) activity in brain. Incubations in the presence of homogenates and particulate fractions from rodent and human brain result in the formation of [ 3 H]Tyr-D-Ala-Gly, which can be conveniently isolated by polystyrene bead column chromatography. The enzyme activity responsible for the hydrolysis of the Gly 3 -Phe 4 amide bond of this substrate displays close resemblance to that hydrolysing the natural enkephalins at the same level. In addition, enkephalinase activity characterised in postmortem human brain is closely similar to that in rodent brain, with regard to optimal pH and apparent affinities of various substrates and inhibitors, including the potent compound thiorphan. Enkephalinase activity is distributed in a highly heterogeneous fashion among regions of human brain, the highest levels being found in globus pallidus and pars reticulata of the substantia nigra. This distribution is poorly correlated with that of opiate receptor binding sites but displays some resemblance to that of reported Met 5 -enkephalin levels. (author)