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Sample records for processes bench-scale tests

  1. BENCH SCALE SALTSTONE PROCESS DEVELOPMENT MIXING STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cozzi, A.; Hansen, E.

    2011-08-03

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested to develop a bench scale test facility, using a mixer, transfer pump, and transfer line to determine the impact of conveying the grout through the transfer lines to the vault on grout properties. Bench scale testing focused on the effect the transfer line has on the rheological property of the grout as it was processed through the transfer line. Rheological and other physical properties of grout samples were obtained prior to and after pumping through a transfer line. The Bench Scale Mixing Rig (BSMR) consisted of two mixing tanks, grout feed tank, transfer pump and transfer hose. The mixing tanks were used to batch the grout which was then transferred into the grout feed tank. The contents of the feed tank were then pumped through the transfer line (hose) using a progressive cavity pump. The grout flow rate and pump discharge pressure were monitored. Four sampling stations were located along the length of the transfer line at the 5, 105 and 205 feet past the transfer pump and at 305 feet, the discharge of the hose. Scaling between the full scale piping at Saltstone to bench scale testing at SRNL was performed by maintaining the same shear rate and total shear at the wall of the transfer line. The results of scaling down resulted in a shorter transfer line, a lower average velocity, the same transfer time and similar pressure drops. The condition of flow in the bench scale transfer line is laminar. The flow in the full scale pipe is in the transition region, but is more laminar than turbulent. The resulting plug in laminar flow in the bench scale results in a region of no-mixing. Hence mixing, or shearing, at the bench scale should be less than that observed in the full scale, where this plug is non existent due to the turbulent flow. The bench scale tests should be considered to be conservative due to the highly laminar condition of flow that exists. Two BSMR runs were performed. In both cases, wall

  2. Bench-scale testing of a micronized magnetite, fine-coal cleaning process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suardini, P.J. [Custom Coals, International, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Custom Coals, International has installed and is presently testing a 500 lb/hr. micronized-magnetite, fine-coal cleaning circuit at PETC`s Process Research Facility (PRF). The cost-shared project was awarded as part of the Coal Preparation Program`s, High Efficiency Preparation Subprogram. The project includes design, construction, testing, and decommissioning of a fully-integrated, bench-scale circuit, complete with feed coal classification to remove the minus 30 micron slimes, dense medium cycloning of the 300 by 30 micron feed coal using a nominal minus 10 micron size magnetite medium, and medium recovery using drain and rinse screens and various stages and types of magnetic separators. This paper describes the project circuit and goals, including a description of the current project status and the sources of coal and magnetite which are being tested.

  3. Study on saccharification of cellulosic wastes with bench scale test plant, (5)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasai, Noboru; Tamada, Masao; Kumakura, Minoru

    1989-05-01

    This report completed the results that were obtained on the studies of continuous saccharification of radiation pretreated chaff with a saccharification equipment unit of bench scale test plant for cellulosic wastes. The problem on the continuous saccharification in bench scale and its countermeasure were clarified. The glucose concentration obtained in the continuous saccharification was examined from the point of a scale up effect. It was found that there are not a scale up effect between flask scale (100 ml) and bench scale (50 l) and then the same concentration of glucose was obtained in both scales. It was clarified that the contamination of the process let decrease markedly the concentration of produced glucose solution and brings on a large trouble for the saccharification. The addition of 1 % ethyl acetate made it possible to prevent the contamination of the saccharification process in flask scale. However, in the case of continuous saccharification in bench scale, the addition of ethyl acetate in nitrogen gas atmosphere was necessary to prevent the contamination. It was found that the solution of 1.7 % glucose concentration was continuously produced in the continuous saccharification with the most longest period for 26 days. It was, also, suggested that the selection of a suitable retention time is necessary to attain a high glucose productivity in the continuous saccharification. (author)

  4. Bench-Scale Development of a Non-Aqueous Solvent (NAS) CO2 Capture Process for Coal-Fired Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lail, Marty

    2017-09-12

    The project aimed to advance RTI’s non-aqueous amine solvent technology by improving the solvent to reduce volatility, demonstrating long-term continuous operation at lab- (0.5 liters solvent) and bench-scale (~120 liters solvent), showing low reboiler heat duty measured during bench-scale testing, evaluating degradation products, building a rate-based process model, and evaluating the techno-economic performance of the process. The project team (RTI, SINTEF, Linde Engineering) and the technology performed well in each area of advancement. The modifications incorporated throughout the project enabled the attainment of target absorber and regenerator conditions for the process. Reboiler duties below 2,000 kJt/kg CO2 were observed in a bench-scale test unit operated at RTI.

  5. Genifuel Hydrothermal Processing Bench Scale Technology Evaluation Project (WE&RF Report LIFT6T14)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrothermal Liquefaction (HTL) and Catalytic Hydrothermal Gasification (CHG) proof-of-concept bench-scale tests were performed to assess the potential of the Genifuel hydrothermal process technology for handling municipal wastewater sludge. HTL tests were conducted at 300-350◦C ...

  6. Bench scale demonstration and conceptual engineering for DETOXSM catalyzed wet oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moslander, J.; Bell, R.; Robertson, D.; Dhooge, P.; Goldblatt, S.

    1994-01-01

    Laboratory and bench scale studies of the DETOX SM catalyzed wet oxidation process have been performed with the object of developing the process for treatment of hazardous and mixed wastes. Reaction orders, apparent rates, and activation energies have been determined for a range of organic waste surrogates. Reaction intermediates and products have been analyzed. Metals' fates have been determined. Bench scale units have been designed, fabricated, and tested with solid and liquid organic waste surrogates. Results from the laboratory and bench scale studies have been used to develop conceptual designs for application of the process to hazardous and mixed wastes

  7. Results of bench-scale plasma system testing in support of the Plasma Hearth Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leatherman, G.L.; Cornelison, C.; Frank, S.

    1996-01-01

    The Plasma Hearth Process (PHP) is a high-temperature process that destroys hazardous organic components and stabilizes the radioactive components and hazardous metals in a leach-resistant vitreous slag waste form. The PHP technology development program is targeted at mixed waste that cannot be easily treated by conventional means. For example, heterogeneous debris, which may contain hazardous organics, toxic metals, and radionuclides, is difficult to characterize and cannot be treated with conventional thermal, chemical, or physical treatment methods. A major advantage of the PHP over other plasma processes is its ability to separate nonradioactive, non-hazardous metals from the non-metallic and radioactive components which are contained in the vitreous slag. The overall PHP program involves the design, fabrication, and operation of test hardware to demonstrate and certify that the PHP concept is viable for DOE waste treatment. The program involves bench-scale testing of PHP equipment in radioactive service, as well as pilot-scale demonstration of the PHP concept using nonradioactive, surrogate test materials. The fate of secondary waste streams is an important consideration for any technology considered for processing mixed waste. The main secondary waste stream generated by the PHP is flyash captured by the fabric- filter baghouse. The PHP concept is that flyash generated by the process can, to a large extent, be treated by processing this secondary waste stream in the PHP. Prior to the work presented in the paper, however, the PHP project has not quantitatively demonstrated the ability to treat PHP generated flyash. A major consideration is the quantity of radionuclides and RCRA-regulated metals in the flyash that can be retained the resultant waste form

  8. Performance study of protective clothing against hot water splashes: from bench scale test to instrumented manikin test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yehu; Song, Guowen; Wang, Faming

    2015-03-01

    Hot liquid hazards existing in work environments are shown to be a considerable risk for industrial workers. In this study, the predicted protection from fabric was assessed by a modified hot liquid splash tester. In these tests, conditions with and without an air spacer were applied. The protective performance of a garment exposed to hot water spray was investigated by a spray manikin evaluation system. Three-dimensional body scanning technique was used to characterize the air gap size between the protective clothing and the manikin skin. The relationship between bench scale test and manikin test was discussed and the regression model was established to predict the overall percentage of skin burn while wearing protective clothing. The results demonstrated strong correlations between bench scale test and manikin test. Based on these studies, the overall performance of protective clothing against hot water spray can be estimated on the basis of the results of the bench scale hot water splashes test and the information of air gap size entrapped in clothing. The findings provide effective guides for the design and material selection while developing high performance protective clothing. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Occupational Hygiene Society 2014.

  9. Data Quality Objectives For Selecting Waste Samples For Bench-Scale Reformer Treatability Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banning, D.L.

    2011-01-01

    This document describes the data quality objectives to select archived samples located at the 222-S Laboratory for Bench-Scale Reforming testing. The type, quantity, and quality of the data required to select the samples for Fluid Bed Steam Reformer testing are discussed. In order to maximize the efficiency and minimize the time to treat Hanford tank waste in the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant, additional treatment processes may be required. One of the potential treatment processes is the fluidized bed steam reformer. A determination of the adequacy of the fluidized bed steam reformer process to treat Hanford tank waste is required. The initial step in determining the adequacy of the fluidized bed steam reformer process is to select archived waste samples from the 222-S Laboratory that will be used in a bench scale tests. Analyses of the selected samples will be required to confirm the samples meet the shipping requirements and for comparison to the bench scale reformer (BSR) test sample selection requirements.

  10. Bench-scale Kinetics Study of Mercury Reactions in FGD Liquors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary Blythe; John Currie; David DeBerry

    2008-03-31

    This document is the final report for Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42314, 'Kinetics Study of Mercury Reactions in FGD Liquors'. The project was co-funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory and EPRI. The objective of the project has been to determine the mechanisms and kinetics of the aqueous reactions of mercury absorbed by wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems, and develop a kinetics model to predict mercury reactions in wet FGD systems. The model may be used to determine optimum wet FGD design and operating conditions to maximize mercury capture in wet FGD systems. Initially, a series of bench-top, liquid-phase reactor tests were conducted and mercury species concentrations were measured by UV/visible light spectroscopy to determine reactant and byproduct concentrations over time. Other measurement methods, such as atomic absorption, were used to measure concentrations of vapor-phase elemental mercury, that cannot be measured by UV/visible light spectroscopy. Next, a series of bench-scale wet FGD simulation tests were conducted. Because of the significant effects of sulfite concentration on mercury re-emission rates, new methods were developed for operating and controlling the bench-scale FGD experiments. Approximately 140 bench-scale wet FGD tests were conducted and several unusual and pertinent effects of process chemistry on mercury re-emissions were identified and characterized. These data have been used to develop an empirically adjusted, theoretically based kinetics model to predict mercury species reactions in wet FGD systems. The model has been verified in tests conducted with the bench-scale wet FGD system, where both gas-phase and liquid-phase mercury concentrations were measured to determine if the model accurately predicts the tendency for mercury re-emissions. This report presents and discusses results from the initial laboratory kinetics measurements, the bench-scale wet FGD tests, and the kinetics modeling

  11. Performance evaluation of the DCMD desalination process under bench scale and large scale module operating conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Francis, Lijo

    2014-04-01

    The flux performance of different hydrophobic microporous flat sheet commercial membranes made of poly tetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and poly propylene (PP) was tested for Red Sea water desalination using the direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) process, under bench scale (high δT) and large scale module (low δT) operating conditions. Membranes were characterized for their surface morphology, water contact angle, thickness, porosity, pore size and pore size distribution. The DCMD process performance was optimized using a locally designed and fabricated module aiming to maximize the flux at different levels of operating parameters, mainly feed water and coolant inlet temperatures at different temperature differences across the membrane (δT). Water vapor flux of 88.8kg/m2h was obtained using a PTFE membrane at high δT (60°C). In addition, the flux performance was compared to the first generation of a new locally synthesized and fabricated membrane made of a different class of polymer under the same conditions. A total salt rejection of 99.99% and boron rejection of 99.41% were achieved under extreme operating conditions. On the other hand, a detailed water characterization revealed that low molecular weight non-ionic molecules (ppb level) were transported with the water vapor molecules through the membrane structure. The membrane which provided the highest flux was then tested under large scale module operating conditions. The average flux of the latter study (low δT) was found to be eight times lower than that of the bench scale (high δT) operating conditions.

  12. Performance evaluation of the DCMD desalination process under bench scale and large scale module operating conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Francis, Lijo; Ghaffour, NorEddine; Alsaadi, Ahmad Salem; Nunes, Suzana Pereira; Amy, Gary L.

    2014-01-01

    The flux performance of different hydrophobic microporous flat sheet commercial membranes made of poly tetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and poly propylene (PP) was tested for Red Sea water desalination using the direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) process, under bench scale (high δT) and large scale module (low δT) operating conditions. Membranes were characterized for their surface morphology, water contact angle, thickness, porosity, pore size and pore size distribution. The DCMD process performance was optimized using a locally designed and fabricated module aiming to maximize the flux at different levels of operating parameters, mainly feed water and coolant inlet temperatures at different temperature differences across the membrane (δT). Water vapor flux of 88.8kg/m2h was obtained using a PTFE membrane at high δT (60°C). In addition, the flux performance was compared to the first generation of a new locally synthesized and fabricated membrane made of a different class of polymer under the same conditions. A total salt rejection of 99.99% and boron rejection of 99.41% were achieved under extreme operating conditions. On the other hand, a detailed water characterization revealed that low molecular weight non-ionic molecules (ppb level) were transported with the water vapor molecules through the membrane structure. The membrane which provided the highest flux was then tested under large scale module operating conditions. The average flux of the latter study (low δT) was found to be eight times lower than that of the bench scale (high δT) operating conditions.

  13. Design and fabrication of a glovebox for the Plasma Hearth Process radioactive bench-scale system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahlquist, D.R.

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents some of the design considerations and fabrication techniques for building a glovebox for the Plasma Hearth Process (PHP) radioactive bench-scale system. The PHP radioactive bench-scale system uses a plasma torch to process a variety of radioactive materials into a final vitrified waste form. The processed waste will contain plutonium and trace amounts of other radioactive materials. The glovebox used in this system is located directly below the plasma chamber and is called the Hearth Handling Enclosure (HHE). The HHE is designed to maintain a confinement boundary between the processed waste and the operator. Operations that take place inside the HHE include raising and lowering the hearth using a hydraulic lift table, transporting the hearth within the HHE using an overhead monorail and hoist system, sampling and disassembly of the processed waste and hearth, weighing the hearth, rebuilding a hearth, and sampling HEPA filters. The PHP radioactive bench-scale system is located at the TREAT facility at Argonne National Laboratory-West in Idaho Falls, Idaho

  14. Bench Scale Process for Low Cost CO2 Capture Using a Phase-Changing Absorbent: Final Scientific/Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westendorf, Tiffany [GE Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); Buddle, Stanlee [GE Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); Caraher, Joel [GE Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); Chen, Wei [GE Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); Doherty, Mark [GE Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); Farnum, Rachel [GE Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); Giammattei, Mark [GE Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); Hancu, Dan [GE Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); Miebach, Barbara [GE Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); Perry, Robert [GE Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); Rubinsztajn, Gosia; Spiry, Irina; Wilson, Paul; Wood, Benjamin

    2017-05-31

    The objective of this project is to design and build a bench-scale process for a novel phase-changing aminosilicone-based CO2-capture solvent. The project will establish scalability and technical and economic feasibility of using a phase-changing CO2-capture absorbent for post-combustion capture of CO2 from coal-fired power plants. The U.S. Department of Energy’s goal for Transformational Carbon Capture Technologies is the development of technologies available for demonstration by 2025 that can capture 90% of emitted CO2 with at least 95% CO2 purity for less than $40/tonne of CO2 captured. In the first budget period of the project, the bench-scale phase-changing CO2 capture process was designed using data and operating experience generated under a previous project (ARPA-e project DE-AR0000084). Sizing and specification of all major unit operations was completed, including detailed process and instrumentation diagrams. The system was designed to operate over a wide range of operating conditions to allow for exploration of the effect of process variables on CO2 capture performance. In the second budget period of the project, individual bench-scale unit operations were tested to determine the performance of each of each unit. Solids production was demonstrated in dry simulated flue gas across a wide range of absorber operating conditions, with single stage CO2 conversion rates up to 75mol%. Desorber operation was demonstrated in batch mode, resulting in desorption performance consistent with the equilibrium isotherms for GAP-0/CO2 reaction. Important risks associated with gas humidity impact on solids consistency and desorber temperature impact on thermal degradation were explored, and adjustments to the bench-scale process were made to address those effects. Corrosion experiments were conducted to support selection of suitable materials of construction for the major

  15. Bench-Scale Silicone Process for Low-Cost CO{sub 2} Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Benjamin; Genovese, Sarah; Perry, Robert; Spiry, Irina; Farnum, Rachael; Sing, Surinder; Wilson, Paul; Buckley, Paul; Acharya, Harish; Chen, Wei; McDermott, John; Vipperia, Ravikumar; Yee, Michael; Steele, Ray; Fresia, Megan; Vogt, Kirk

    2013-12-31

    A bench-scale system was designed and built to test an aminosilicone-based solvent. A model was built of the bench-scale system and this model was scaled up to model the performance of a carbon capture unit, using aminosilicones, for CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration (CCS) for a pulverized coal (PC) boiler at 550 MW. System and economic analysis for the carbon capture unit demonstrates that the aminosilicone solvent has significant advantages relative to a monoethanol amine (MEA)-based system. The CCS energy penalty for MEA is 35.9% and the energy penalty for aminosilicone solvent is 30.4% using a steam temperature of 395 °C (743 °F). If the steam temperature is lowered to 204 °C (400 °F), the energy penalty for the aminosilicone solvent is reduced to 29%. The increase in cost of electricity (COE) over the non-capture case for MEA is ~109% and increase in COE for aminosilicone solvent is ~98 to 103% depending on the solvent cost at a steam temperature of 395 °C (743 °F). If the steam temperature is lowered to 204 °C (400 °F), the increase in COE for the aminosilicone solvent is reduced to ~95-100%.

  16. Environmental data from laboratory- and bench-scale Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Hydroretorting of Eastern oil shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mensinger, M.C.; Rue, D.M.; Roberts, M.J.

    1991-01-01

    As part of a 3-year program to develop the Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Hydroretorting (PFH) Process for Eastern oil shales, IGT conducted tests in laboratory-scale batch and continuous units as well as a 45-kg/h bench-scale unit to generate a data base for 6 Eastern shales. Data were collected during PFH processing of raw Alabama and Indiana shales and a beneficiated Indiana shale for environmental mitigation analyses. The data generated include trace element analyses of the raw feeds and spent shales, product oils, and sour waters. The sulfur compounds present in the product gas and trace components in the sour water were also determined. In addition, the leaching characteristics of the feed and residue solids were determined. The data obtained were used to evaluate the environmental impact of a shale processing plant based on the PFH process. This paper presents the environmental data obtained from bench-scale tests conducted during the program.

  17. Environmental data from laboratory- and bench-scale Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Hydroretorting of Eastern oil shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mensinger, M.C.; Rue, D.M.; Roberts, M.J.

    1991-12-31

    As part of a 3-year program to develop the Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Hydroretorting (PFH) Process for Eastern oil shales, IGT conducted tests in laboratory-scale batch and continuous units as well as a 45-kg/h bench-scale unit to generate a data base for 6 Eastern shales. Data were collected during PFH processing of raw Alabama and Indiana shales and a beneficiated Indiana shale for environmental mitigation analyses. The data generated include trace element analyses of the raw feeds and spent shales, product oils, and sour waters. The sulfur compounds present in the product gas and trace components in the sour water were also determined. In addition, the leaching characteristics of the feed and residue solids were determined. The data obtained were used to evaluate the environmental impact of a shale processing plant based on the PFH process. This paper presents the environmental data obtained from bench-scale tests conducted during the program.

  18. Bench- and field-scale evaluation of chromium and cadmium extraction by electrokinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gent, David B.; Bricka, R. Mark; Alshawabkeh, Akram N.; Larson, Steven L.; Fabian, Gene; Granade, Steve

    2004-01-01

    The results of bench-scale laboratory tests and in situ, pilot-scale demonstration of electrokinetic extraction of chromium and cadmium from contaminated soil are presented. The laboratory tests were conducted using 10 cm long samples under current density of 5 A/m 2 for 1200 h. Tests were conducted with and without citric acid amendment at the cathode. The results showed that citric acid improved extraction, especially in the sections near the cathode. However, processing was not enough to result in complete cleanup. The field demo was conducted at the Naval Air Weapon Station (NAWS), Point Mugu, California. Three cathodes were centered between six anodes. The anode-cathode spacing was 4.45 m (15 ft). Constant voltage of 60 V (∼13 V/m) was applied for 20 days and then was reduced to 45 V (10 V/m) for 6 months. Citric acid was used to maintain the cathode pH at 4. After 6 months of treatment, 78% of the soil volume has been cleared of chromium or treated to below natural background levels. The results also indicated that 70% of the soil between the electrodes had been cleared of cadmium contamination. A comparison between the bench-scale and field demo showed that the field process was more effective than the lab tests. This indicated that small sample size will induce a negative effect on the efficiency of the process due to an increased impact of the boundaries on the overall process

  19. Bench-scale treatability studies for simulated incinerator scrubber blowdown containing radioactive cesium and strontium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coroneos, A.C.; Taylor, P.A.; Arnold, W.D. Jr.; Bostick, D.A.; Perona, J.J.

    1994-12-01

    The purpose of this report is to document the results of bench-scale testing completed to remove 137 Cs and 90 Sr from the Oak Ridge K-25 Site Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) Incinerator blowdown at the K-25 Site Central Neutralization Facility, a wastewater treatment facility designed to remove heavy metals and uranium from various wastewaters. The report presents results of bench-scale testing using chabazite and clinoptilolite zeolites to remove cesium and strontium; using potassium cobalt ferrocyanide (KCCF) to remove cesium; and using strontium chloride coprecipitation, sodium phosphate coprecipitation, and calcium sulfate coprecipitation to remove strontium. Low-range, average-range, and high-range concentration blowdown surrogates were used to complete the bench-scale testing

  20. Bench-Scale Evaluation of Hydrothermal Processing Technology for Conversion of Wastewater Solids to Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marrone, Philip A.; Elliott, Douglas C.; Billing, Justin M.; Hallen, Richard T.; Hart, Todd R.; Kadota, Paul; Moeller, Jeff C.; Randel, Margaaret A.; Schmidt, Andrew J.

    2018-04-01

    Hydrothermal Liquefaction (HTL) and Catalytic Hydrothermal Gasification (CHG) proof-of-concept bench-scale tests were performed to assess the potential of hydrothermal treatment for handling municipal wastewater sludge. HTL tests were conducted at 300-350°C and 20 MPa on three different feeds: primary sludge, secondary sludge, and digested solids. Corresponding CHG tests were conducted at 350°C and 20 MPa on the HTL aqueous phase output using a ruthenium based catalyst. Biocrude yields ranged from 25-37%. Biocrude composition and quality were comparable to biocrudes generated from algae feeds. Subsequent hydrotreating of biocrude resulted in a product with comparable physical and chemical properties to crude oil. CHG product gas methane yields on a carbon basis ranged from 47-64%. Siloxane concentrations in the CHG product gas were below engine limits. The HTL-CHG process resulted in a chemical oxygen demand (COD) reduction of > 99.9% and a reduction in residual solids for disposal of 94-99%.

  1. Domestic Wastewater Reuse in Concrete Using Bench-Scale Testing and Full-Scale Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayoup M. Ghrair

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Demand for fresh water by the construction sector is expected to increase due to the high increase in the growth of construction activities in Jordan. This study aims to evaluate the potential of scale-up of the application of treated domestic wastewater in concrete from bench-scale to a full-scale. On the lab scale, concrete and mortar mixes using Primary and Secondary Treated Wastewater (PTW, STW and Distilled Water (DW were cast and tested after various curing ages (7, 28, 120, and 200 days. Based on wastewater quality, according to IS 456-2000, the STW is suitable for mortar and concrete production. Mortar made with STW at curing time up to 200 days has no significant negative effect on the mortar’s compressive strength. Conversely, the PTW exceeded the maximum permissible limits of total organic content and E coli. for concrete mixing-water. Using PTW results, a significant increase in the initial setting time of up to 16.7% and a decrease in the concrete workability are observed. In addition, using PTW as mixing water led to a significant reduction in the compressive strength up to 19.6%. The results that came out from scaling up to real production operation of ready-mix concrete were in harmony with the lab-scale results.

  2. Goethite Bench-scale and Large-scale Preparation Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Josephson, Gary B.; Westsik, Joseph H.

    2011-10-23

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is the keystone for cleanup of high-level radioactive waste from our nation's nuclear defense program. The WTP will process high-level waste from the Hanford tanks and produce immobilized high-level waste glass for disposal at a national repository, low activity waste (LAW) glass, and liquid effluent from the vitrification off-gas scrubbers. The liquid effluent will be stabilized into a secondary waste form (e.g. grout-like material) and disposed on the Hanford site in the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) along with the low-activity waste glass. The major long-term environmental impact at Hanford results from technetium that volatilizes from the WTP melters and finally resides in the secondary waste. Laboratory studies have indicated that pertechnetate ({sup 99}TcO{sub 4}{sup -}) can be reduced and captured into a solid solution of {alpha}-FeOOH, goethite (Um 2010). Goethite is a stable mineral and can significantly retard the release of technetium to the environment from the IDF. The laboratory studies were conducted using reaction times of many days, which is typical of environmental subsurface reactions that were the genesis of this new process. This study was the first step in considering adaptation of the slow laboratory steps to a larger-scale and faster process that could be conducted either within the WTP or within the effluent treatment facility (ETF). Two levels of scale-up tests were conducted (25x and 400x). The largest scale-up produced slurries of Fe-rich precipitates that contained rhenium as a nonradioactive surrogate for {sup 99}Tc. The slurries were used in melter tests at Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL) to determine whether captured rhenium was less volatile in the vitrification process than rhenium in an unmodified feed. A critical step in the technetium immobilization process is to chemically reduce Tc(VII) in the pertechnetate (TcO{sub 4}{sup -}) to Tc(Iv)by reaction with the

  3. Evaluation of malodor for automobile air conditioner evaporator by using laboratory-scale test cooling bench.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung Hwan; Kim, Sun Hwa; Jung, Young Rim; Kim, Man Goo

    2008-09-12

    As one of the measures to improve the environment in an automobile, malodor caused by the automobile air-conditioning system evaporator was evaluated and analyzed using laboratory-scale test cooling bench. The odor was simulated with an evaporator test cooling bench equipped with an airflow controller, air temperature and relative humidity controller. To simulate the same odor characteristics that occur from automobiles, one previously used automobile air conditioner evaporator associated with unpleasant odors was selected. The odor was evaluated by trained panels and collected with aluminum polyester bags. Collected samples were analyzed by thermal desorption into a cryotrap and subsequent gas chromatographic separation, followed by simultaneous olfactometry, flame ionization detector and identified by atomic emission detection and mass spectrometry. Compounds such as alcohols, aldehydes, and organic acids were identified as responsible odor-active compounds. Gas chromatography/flame ionization detection/olfactometry combined sensory method with instrumental analysis was very effective as an odor evaluation method in an automobile air-conditioning system evaporator.

  4. Application of bench-scale biocalorimetry to photoautotrophic cultures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, M.; Patino, R.; Stockar, von U.

    2005-01-01

    Bench-scale biocalorimetry (=1 L) allows for the determination of the metabolic heat flow during bioprocesses under complete control of all process conditions for extended periods of time. It can be combined with a number of on-line and off-line measurement techniques. This combination can

  5. Bench-scale magnetic separation of Department of Energy wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoegler, J.M.

    1987-07-01

    Criteria were developed for selection of candidate wastes for testing magnetic separation of uranium and/or other paramagnetic materials. A survey of Department of Energy (DOE) hazardous wastes was conducted to determine good candidates for bench-scale magnetic separation tests. Representatives of 21 DOE sites were contacted, and 11 materials were identified as potential candidates for magnetic separation. To date, seven samples have been obtained and tested for separability of uranium with a bench-scale magnetic assaying device. The samples tested have been obtained from the K-1401B and K-1401C ponds in Oak Ridge, Tennessee; from waste piles in Maywood, New Jersey; from North and South Ponds in Richland, Washington; and from magnesium fluoride drums in Fernald, Ohio. The magnetic device utilized in these tests can be used in an open-gradient mode with dry particulate or liquid-suspended materials. Uranium separation from magnesium fluoride has shown exceptionally good performance in both open- and high-gradient modes and could be an important application of the technology

  6. Bench scale studies: Ozonation as a potential treatment for waters contaminated with hydrocarbons or dioxins and furans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaal, W.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of the bench scale studies was to examine the destruction efficiency and efficacy of ozone on chemicals of concern (COC's) commonly found in contaminated ground water and rhenoformer wash water. The ground water used in these tests contained aromatic petroleum hydrocarbons, chlorinated hydrocarbons, and mineral spirits. The rhenoformer wash water used in these tests contained a variety of dioxins (including 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin) and furans. Summaries are presented of the bench scale studies by describing the COCs, methodologies, test reactors, observations, and results. The summaries also detail which applications hold promise with respect to ozonation and which ones do not. Bench test results for the experiments in which aromatic petroleum hydrocarbons, chlorinated hydrocarbons, and mineral spirits where the COCs were relatively successful. Concentrations for the COCs ranging from 300 to 3,400 micrograms per liter (microg/L) were brought below levels specified for storm sewer discharge per the National Priority Discharge Elimination Systems (NPDES) permit requirements. Bench test results for the experiments in which dioxins and furans were the COCs were less promising and revealed that additional processes would have to be used in conjunction with ozonation to bring the concentration of COCs within the targeted ranges. It was realized, however, that the effectiveness and efficacy of ozonation were diminished by the presence of particulates, to which some of the dioxin and furan compounds adhered

  7. Bench-Scale Evaluation of the Genifuel Hydrothermal Processing Technology for Wastewater Solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marrone, Philip A.; Elliott, Douglas C.; Billing, Justin M.; Hallen, Richard T.; Hart, Todd R.; Kadota, Paul; Moeller, Jeff C.; Randel, Margaaret A.; Schmidt, Andrew J.

    2017-10-03

    Hydrothermal Liquefaction (HTL) and Catalytic Hydrothermal Gasification (CHG) proof-of-concept bench-scale tests were performed to assess the potential of the Genifuel hydrothermal process technology for handling municipal wastewater sludge. HTL tests were conducted at 300-350°C and 20 MPa on three different feeds: primary sludge (11.9 wt% solids), secondary sludge (9.7 wt% solids), and post-digester sludge (also referred to as digested solids) (16.0 wt% solids). Corresponding CHG tests were conducted at 350°C and 20 MPa on the HTL aqueous phase output using a ruthenium based catalyst. A comprehensive analysis of all feed and effluent phases was also performed. Total mass and carbon balances closed to within ± 15% in all but one case. Biocrude yields from HTL tests were 37%, 25%, and 34% for primary sludge, secondary sludge, and digested solids feeds, respectively. The biocrude yields accounted for 59%, 39%, and 49% of the carbon in the feed for primary sludge, secondary sludge, and digested solids feeds, respectively. Biocrude composition and quality were comparable to that seen with biocrudes generated from algae feeds. Subsequent hydrotreating (i.e., upgrading) of the biocrude produced from primary sludge and digested solids resulted in a product with comparable physical and chemical properties to petroleum crude oil. CHG product gas consisted primarily of methane, with methane yields (relative to CHG input) on a carbon basis of 47%, 61%, and 64% for aqueous feeds that were the output of HTL tests with primary sludge, secondary sludge, and digested solids, respectively. Siloxane concentrations in the CHG product gas were below the detection limit and well below fuel input composition limits set by several engine manufacturers. Relative to that of the sludge feeds, the HTL-CHG process resulted in a reduction in chemical oxygen demand (COD) of greater than 99.9% and a reduction in residual solids for disposal of 94-99%. The test results, as a whole, support

  8. 100 Area soil washing: Bench scale tests on 116-F-4 pluto crib soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field, J.G.

    1994-01-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted a bench-scale treatability study on a pluto crib soil sample from 100 Area of the Hanford Site. The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of physical separation (wet sieving), treatment processes (attrition scrubbing, and autogenous surface grinding), and chemical extraction methods as a means of separating radioactively-contaminated soil fractions from uncontaminated soil fractions. The soil washing treatability study was conducted on a soil sample from the 116-F-4 Pluto Crib that had been dug up as part of an excavation treatability study. Trace element analyses of this soil showed no elevated concentrations above typically uncontaminated soil background levels. Data on the distribution of radionuclide in various size fractions indicated that the soil-washing tests should be focused on the gravel and sand fractions of the 116-F-4 soil. The radionuclide data also showed that 137 Cs was the only contaminant in this soil that exceeded the test performance goal (TPG). Therefore, the effectiveness of subsequent soil-washing tests for 116-F-4 soil was evaluated on the basis of activity attenuation of 137 Cs in the gravel- and sand-size fractions

  9. 100 Area soil washing: Bench scale tests on 116-F-4 pluto crib soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Field, J.G.

    1994-06-10

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted a bench-scale treatability study on a pluto crib soil sample from 100 Area of the Hanford Site. The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of physical separation (wet sieving), treatment processes (attrition scrubbing, and autogenous surface grinding), and chemical extraction methods as a means of separating radioactively-contaminated soil fractions from uncontaminated soil fractions. The soil washing treatability study was conducted on a soil sample from the 116-F-4 Pluto Crib that had been dug up as part of an excavation treatability study. Trace element analyses of this soil showed no elevated concentrations above typically uncontaminated soil background levels. Data on the distribution of radionuclide in various size fractions indicated that the soil-washing tests should be focused on the gravel and sand fractions of the 116-F-4 soil. The radionuclide data also showed that {sup 137}Cs was the only contaminant in this soil that exceeded the test performance goal (TPG). Therefore, the effectiveness of subsequent soil-washing tests for 116-F-4 soil was evaluated on the basis of activity attenuation of {sup 137}Cs in the gravel- and sand-size fractions.

  10. Thermochemical water-splitting cycle, bench-scale investigations and process engineering. Annual report, October 1, 1978-September 30, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caprioglio, G.; McCorkle, K.H.; Besenbruch, G.E.; Rode, J.S.

    1980-03-01

    A program to investigate thermochemical water splitting has been under way at General Atomic Company (GA) since October 1972. This document is an annual progress report of Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored process development work on the GA sulfur-iodine thermochemical water splitting cycle. The work consisted of laboratory bench-scale investigations, demonstration of the process in a closed-loop cycle demonstrator, and process engineering design studies. A bench-scale system, consisting of three subunits, has been designed to study the cycle under continuous flow conditions. The designs of subunit I, which models the main solution reaction and product separation, and subunit II, which models the concentration and decomposition of sulfuric acid, were presented in an earlier annual report. The design of subunit III, which models the purification and decomposition of hydrogen iodide, is given in this report. Progress on the installation and operation of subunits I and II is described. A closed-loop cycle demonstrator was installed and operated based on a DOE request. Operation of the GA sulfur-iodine cycle was demonstrated in this system under recycle conditions. The process engineering addresses the flowsheet design of a large-scale production process consisting of four chemical sections (I through IV) and one helium heat supply section (V). The completed designs for sections I through V are presented. The thermal efficiency of the process calculated from the present flowsheet is 47%.

  11. Treatment of Synthetic Wastewater Containing AB14 Pigment by Electrooxidation in both Pilot and Bench Scale Reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalal Basiri parsa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The electrochemical oxidation process was used for the degradation of Acid Brown 14 in both bench and pilot scale reactors. The bench scale one with a working volume of 0.5 L was equipped with platinum plate used as the anode and stainless steel (SS-304 plates as the cathode. The pilot scale reactor had a volume of 9 L and was equipped with SS-304 plates used as both the anode and the cathode. Experiments were run using these reactors to investigate the two parameters of energy consumption and anode efficiency. The bench scale reactor was capable of removing 92% and 36% of the dye and COD, respectively, after 18 min of operation. The pilot scale reactor, however, was capable of removing 87% and 59% of the dye and the COD content, respectively, after 60 min of operation. The kinetic study of both the bench and pilot reactors for dye and COD removals showed that both processes followed a zero order kinetic.

  12. Bench-Scale Demonstration of Hot-Gas Desulfurization Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portzer, Jeffrey W.; Gangwal, Santosh K.

    1997-01-01

    Prior to the current project, development of the DSRP was done in a laboratory setting, using synthetic gas mixtures to simulate the regeneration off-gas and coal gas feeds. The objective of the current work is to further the development of zinc titanate fluidized-bed desulfurization (ZTFBD) and the DSRP for hot-gas cleanup by testing with actual coal gas. The objectives of this project are to: (1) Develop and test an integrated, skid-mounted, bench-scale ZTFBD/DSRP reactor system with a slipstream of actual coal gas; (2) Test the bench-scale DSRP over an extended period with a slipstream of actual coal gas to quantify the degradation in performance, if any, caused by the trace contaminants present in coal gas (including heavy metals, chlorides, fluorides, and ammonia); (3) Expose the DSRP catalyst to actual coal gas for extended periods and then test its activity in a laboratory reactor to quantify the degradation in performance, if any, caused by static exposure to the trace contaminants in coal gas; (4) Design and fabricate a six-fold larger-scale DSRP reactor system for future slipstream testing; (5) Further develop the fluidized-bed DSRP to handle high concentrations (up to 14 percent) of SO 2 that are likely to be encountered when pure air is used for regeneration of desulfurization sorbents; and (6) Conduct extended field testing of the 6X DSRP reactor with actual coal gas and high concentrations of SO 2 . The accomplishment of the first three objectives--testing the DSRP with actual coal gas, integration with hot-gas desulfurization, and catalyst exposure testing--was described previously (Portzer and Gangwal, 1994, 1995; Portzer et al., 1996). This paper summarizes the results of previous work and describes the current activities and plans to accomplish the remaining objectives

  13. Simulation of Induction Traction Drive with Supercapacitor Energy Storage System Test Bench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stana Girts

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the application of supercapacitor energy storage system for induction traction drive test bench that replaces a real electric public transport for performing testing and researches. The suitability and usage of such bench for research purposes is explained and the importance of the development of software mathematical model for performing simulations to be done before physical implementation measures is reasoned. The working principle of the bench and applied components are described. A virtual model of the bench was built and simulations were performed using Matlab/Simulink software. The basic topology of the virtual bench model is described as well. The calculations of this work show the scaling of supercapacitor energy storage system by setting different limits of working voltage range in order to adjust them to test bench parameters, whereas the modelling compares two simulation cases – the application of less supercapacitors and the application of more supercapacitors with the same common rated voltage. The autonomous mode simulations were also performed. Simulation results are analyzed and recommendations for the application of the supercapacitor energy storage system, with respect to initial supercapacitor circuit voltage, are given.

  14. A test-bench for measurement of electrical static parameters of strip silicon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golutvin, I.A.; Dmitriev, A.Yu.; Elsha, V.V.

    2003-01-01

    An automated test-bench for electrical parameters input control of the strip silicon detectors, used in the End-Cap Preshower detector of the CMS experiment, is described. The test-bench application allows one to solve a problem of silicon detectors input control in conditions of mass production - 1800 detectors over 2 years. The test-bench software is realized in Delphi environment and contains a user-friendly operator interface for data processing and visualization as well as up-to-date facilities for MS-Windows used for the network database. High operating characteristics and reliability of the test-bench were confirmed while more than 800 detectors were tested. Some technical solutions applied to the test-bench could be useful for design and construction of automated facilities for electrical parameters measurements of the microstrip detectors input control. (author)

  15. A Test-Bench for Measurement of Electrical Static Parameters of Strip Silicon Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Golutvin, I A; Danilevich, V G; Dmitriev, A Yu; Elsha, V V; Zamiatin, Y I; Zubarev, E V; Ziaziulia, F E; Kozus, V I; Lomako, V M; Stepankov, D V; Khomich, A P; Shumeiko, N M; Cheremuhin, A E

    2003-01-01

    An automated test-bench for electrical parameters input control of the strip silicon detectors, used in the End-Cap Preshower detector of the CMS experiment, is described. The test-bench application allows one to solve a problem of silicon detectors input control in conditions of mass production - 1800 detectors over 2 years. The test-bench software is realized in Delphi environment and contains a user-friendly operator interface for measurement data processing and visualization as well as up-to-date facilities for MS-Windows used for the network database. High operating characteristics and reliability of the test-bench were confirmed while more than 800 detectors were tested. Some technical solutions applied to the test-bench could be useful for design and construction of automated facilities for electrical parameters measurements of the microstrip detectors input control.

  16. In situ remediation of hexavalent chromium with pyrite fines : bench scale demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cathum, S.; Wong, W.P.; Brown, C.E.

    2002-01-01

    An in situ remediation technique for chromium contaminated soil with pyrite fines was presented. Past industrial activities and lack of disposal facilities have contributed to a serious problem dealing with chromium, which cannot be eliminated from the environment because it is an element. Both bench-scale and laboratory testing was conducted to confirm the efficiency of the proposed process which successfully converted Cr(VI) into Cr(III) in soil and water. Cr(III) is less toxic and immobile in the environment compared to Cr(VI) which moves freely in the soil matrix, posing a risk to the groundwater quality. pH in the range of 2.0 to 7.6 has no effect on the reactivity of pyrite towards Cr(VI). The optimization of the bench-scale treatment resulted in a large volume of chromium waste, mostly from the control experiments and column hydrology testing. These waste streams were treated according to municipal guidelines before disposal to the environment. Samples of chromium waste before and after treatment were analyzed. Cr (VI) was completely mineralized to below guideline levels. It was determined that several conditions, including contact time between pyrite and Cr(VI), are crucial for complete mineralization of Cr(VI). 13 refs., 8 tabs., 9 figs

  17. Bench-Scale Development of a Hot Carbonate Absorption Process with Crystallization-Enabled High-Pressure Stripping for Post-Combustion CO{sub 2} Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Yongqi; DeVries, Nicholas; Ruhter, David; Manoranjan, Sahu; Ye, Qing; Ye, Xinhuai; Zhang, Shihan; Chen, Scott; Li, Zhiwei; O' Brien, Kevin

    2014-03-31

    A novel Hot Carbonate Absorption Process with Crystallization-Enabled High-Pressure Stripping (Hot-CAP) has been developed by the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and Carbon Capture Scientific, LLC in this three-year, bench-scale project. The Hot-CAP features a concentrated carbonate solution (e.g., K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}) for CO{sub 2} absorption and a bicarbonate slurry (e.g., KHCO{sub 3}) for high-pressure CO{sub 2} stripping to overcome the energy use and other disadvantages associated with the benchmark monoethanolamine (MEA) process. The project was aimed at performing laboratory- and bench-scale experiments to prove its technical feasibility and generate process engineering and scale-up data, and conducting a techno-economic analysis (TEA) to demonstrate its energy use and cost competitiveness over MEA. To meet project goals and objectives, a combination of experimental, modeling, process simulation, and economic analysis studies were applied. Carefully designed and intensive experiments were conducted to measure thermodynamic and reaction engineering data relevant to four major unit operations in the Hot-CAP (i.e., CO{sub 2} absorption, CO{sub 2} stripping, bicarbonate crystallization, and sulfate reclamation). The rate promoters that could accelerate the CO{sub 2} absorption rate into the potassium carbonate/bicarbonate (PCB) solution to a level greater than that into the 5 M MEA solution were identified, and the superior performance of CO{sub 2} absorption into PCB was demonstrated in a bench-scale packed-bed column. Kinetic data on bicarbonate crystallization were developed and applied for crystallizer design and sizing. Parametric testing of high-pressure CO{sub 2} stripping with concentrated bicarbonate-dominant slurries at high temperatures ({>=}140{degrees}C) in a bench-scale stripping column demonstrated lower heat use than with MEA. The feasibility of a modified process for combining SO{sub 2} removal with CO{sub 2} capture was preliminarily

  18. Test Bench Development for Femur Stability Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel SANCHEZ-CABALLERO

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows the design and development of a test bench for humanfemurs. The main uses of this test bench will run from artificial femurs comparisonwith real femurs, to join stability assessment after bone a fracture repair. Amongthis uses is specially designed for condylar fractures testing. The test bench isdeveloped from a self-made existing tensile/compression testing machine. Thedesign procedure is supported by a literature review about the bone mechanicalbehavior and composition generally and the knee joint performance and repairparticularly. On the basis of this review, the machine was designed to simulate theadduction and abduction movements of the joint. The magnitudes to be measuredare: the compression force, the bone displacement (vertical and the knee jointrotation

  19. BENCH-SCALE STEAM REFORMING OF ACTUAL TANK 48H WASTE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burket, P; Gene Daniel, G; Charles Nash, C; Carol Jantzen, C; Michael Williams, M

    2008-01-01

    Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) has been demonstrated to be a viable technology to remove >99% of the organics from Tank 48H simulant, to remove >99% of the nitrate/nitrite from Tank 48H simulant, and to form a solid product that is primarily carbonate based. The technology was demonstrated in October of 2006 in the Engineering Scale Test Demonstration Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer1 (ESTD FBSR) at the Hazen Research Inc. (HRI) facility in Golden, CO. The purpose of the Bench-scale Steam Reformer (BSR) testing was to demonstrate that the same reactions occur and the same product is formed when steam reforming actual radioactive Tank 48H waste. The approach used in the current study was to test the BSR with the same Tank 48H simulant and same Erwin coal as was used at the ESTD FBSR under the same operating conditions. This comparison would allow verification that the same chemical reactions occur in both the BSR and ESTD FBSR. Then, actual radioactive Tank 48H material would be steam reformed in the BSR to verify that the actual tank 48H sample reacts the same way chemically as the simulant Tank 48H material. The conclusions from the BSR study and comparison to the ESTD FBSR are the following: (1) A Bench-scale Steam Reforming (BSR) unit was successfully designed and built that: (a) Emulated the chemistry of the ESTD FBSR Denitration Mineralization Reformer (DMR) and Carbon Reduction Reformer (CRR) known collectively as the dual reformer flowsheet. (b) Measured and controlled the off-gas stream. (c) Processed real (radioactive) Tank 48H waste. (d) Met the standards and specifications for radiological testing in the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Shielded Cells Facility (SCF). (2) Three runs with radioactive Tank 48H material were performed. (3) The Tetraphenylborate (TPB) was destroyed to > 99% for all radioactive Bench-scale tests. (4) The feed nitrate/nitrite was destroyed to >99% for all radioactive BSR tests the same as the ESTD FBSR. (5) The

  20. BENCH-SCALE STEAM REFORMING OF ACTUAL TANK 48H WASTE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burket, P; Gene Daniel, G; Charles Nash, C; Carol Jantzen, C; Michael Williams, M

    2008-09-25

    Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) has been demonstrated to be a viable technology to remove >99% of the organics from Tank 48H simulant, to remove >99% of the nitrate/nitrite from Tank 48H simulant, and to form a solid product that is primarily carbonate based. The technology was demonstrated in October of 2006 in the Engineering Scale Test Demonstration Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer1 (ESTD FBSR) at the Hazen Research Inc. (HRI) facility in Golden, CO. The purpose of the Bench-scale Steam Reformer (BSR) testing was to demonstrate that the same reactions occur and the same product is formed when steam reforming actual radioactive Tank 48H waste. The approach used in the current study was to test the BSR with the same Tank 48H simulant and same Erwin coal as was used at the ESTD FBSR under the same operating conditions. This comparison would allow verification that the same chemical reactions occur in both the BSR and ESTD FBSR. Then, actual radioactive Tank 48H material would be steam reformed in the BSR to verify that the actual tank 48H sample reacts the same way chemically as the simulant Tank 48H material. The conclusions from the BSR study and comparison to the ESTD FBSR are the following: (1) A Bench-scale Steam Reforming (BSR) unit was successfully designed and built that: (a) Emulated the chemistry of the ESTD FBSR Denitration Mineralization Reformer (DMR) and Carbon Reduction Reformer (CRR) known collectively as the dual reformer flowsheet. (b) Measured and controlled the off-gas stream. (c) Processed real (radioactive) Tank 48H waste. (d) Met the standards and specifications for radiological testing in the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Shielded Cells Facility (SCF). (2) Three runs with radioactive Tank 48H material were performed. (3) The Tetraphenylborate (TPB) was destroyed to > 99% for all radioactive Bench-scale tests. (4) The feed nitrate/nitrite was destroyed to >99% for all radioactive BSR tests the same as the ESTD FBSR. (5) The

  1. Continuous bench-scale slurry catalyst testing direct coal liquefaction rawhide sub-bituminous coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauman, R.F.; Coless, L.A.; Davis, S.M. [and others

    1995-12-31

    In 1992, the Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored research to demonstrate a dispersed catalyst system using a combination of molybdenum and iron precursors for direct coal liquefaction. This dispersed catalyst system was successfully demonstrated using Black Thunder sub-bituminous coal at Wilsonville, Alabama by Southern Electric International, Inc. The DOE sponsored research continues at Exxon Research and Development Laboratories (ERDL). A six month continuous bench-scale program using ERDL`s Recycle Coal Liquefaction Unit (RCLU) is planned, three months in 1994 and three months in 1995. The initial conditions in RCLU reflect experience gained from the Wilsonville facility in their Test Run 263. Rawhide sub-bituminous coal which is similar to the Black Thunder coal tested at Wilsonville was used as the feed coal. A slate of five dispersed catalysts for direct coal liquefaction of Rawhide sub-bituminous coal has been tested. Throughout the experiments, the molybdenum addition rate was held constant at 100 wppm while the iron oxide addition rate was varied from 0.25 to 1.0 weight percent (dry coal basis). This report covers the 1994 operations and accomplishments.

  2. Bench Scale Development and Testing of Aerogel Sorbents for CO2 Capture Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Begag, Redouane [Aspen Aerogels, Northborough, MA (United States)

    2017-03-30

    The primary objective of this project was scaling up and evaluating a novel Amine Functionalized Aerogel (AFA) sorbent in a bench scale fluidized bed reactor. The project team (Aspen Aerogels, University of Akron, ADA-ES, and Longtail Consulting) has carried out numerous tests and optimization studies to demonstrate the CO2 capture performance of the AFA sorbent in all its forms: powder, pellet, and bead. The CO2 capture target performance of the AFA sorbent (all forms) were set at > 12 wt.% and > 6 wt.% for total and working CO2 capacity, respectively (@ 40 °C adsorption / 100 – 120 °C desorption). The optimized AFA powders outperformed the performance targets by more than 30%, for the total CO2 capacity (14 - 20 wt.%), and an average of 10 % more for working CO2 capacity (6.6 – 7.0 wt.%, and could be as high as 9.6 wt. % when desorbed at 120 °C). The University of Akron developed binder formulations, pellet production methods, and post treatment technology for increased resistance to attrition and flue gas contaminants. In pellet form the AFA total CO2 capacity was ~ 12 wt.% (over 85% capacity retention of that of the powder), and there was less than 13% degradation in CO2 capture capacity after 20 cycles in the presence of 40 ppm SO2. ADA-ES assessed the performance of the AFA powder, pellet, and bead by analyzing sorption isotherms, water uptake analysis, cycling stability, jet cup attrition and crush tests. At bench scale, the hydrodynamic and heat transfer properties of the AFA sorbent pellet in fluidized bed conditions were evaluated at Particulate Solid Research, Inc. (PSRI). After the process design requirements were completed, by Longtail Consulting LLC, a techno-economic analysis was achieved using guidance from The National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) report. This report provides the necessary framework to estimate costs for a temperature swing post

  3. HEV Test Bench Based on CAN Bus Sensor Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shupeng ZHAO

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The HEV test bench based on Controller Area Network bus was studied and developed. Control system of HEV power test bench used the CAN bus technology. The application of CAN bus technology on control system development has opened up a new research direction for domestic automobile experimental platform. The HEV power control system development work was completed, including power master controller, electric throttle controller, driving simulation platform, CAN2.0 B communication protocol procedures for formulation, CAN communication monitoring system, the simulation model based on MATLAB code automatic generation technology research, etc. Maximum absorption power of the test bench is 90 kW, the test bench top speed is 6000 r/min, the CAN communication data baud rate is 10~500 k, the conventional electric measurement parameter part precision satisfies the requirement of development of HEV. On the HEV test bench the result of regenerative braking experiment shows that the result got by the test bench was closer to the results got by outdoor road test. And the fuel consumption experiment test results show that the HEV fuel consumption and the charge-discharge character are in linear relationship. The establishment of the test platform for the evaluation of the development of hybrid electric vehicle and power provides physical simulation and test platform.

  4. Appling hydrolysis acidification-anoxic–oxic process in the treatment of petrochemical wastewater: From bench scale reactor to full scale wastewater treatment plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Changyong; Zhou, Yuexi; Sun, Qingliang; Fu, Liya; Xi, Hongbo; Yu, Yin; Yu, Ruozhen

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Hydrolysis acidification-anoxic–oxic process can be used to treat petrochemical wastewater. • The toxicity and treatability changed significantly after hydrolysis acidification. • The type and concentration of organics reduced greatly after treatment. • The effluent shows low acute toxicity by luminescent bacteria assay. • Advanced treatment is recommended for the effluent. - Abstract: A hydrolysis acidification (HA)-anoxic–oxic (A/O) process was adopted to treat a petrochemical wastewater. The operation optimization was carried out firstly by a bench scale experimental reactor. Then a full scale petrochemical wastewater treatment plant (PCWWTP, 6500 m 3 h −1 ) was operated with the same parameters. The results showed that the BOD 5 /COD of the wastewater increased from 0.30 to 0.43 by HA. The effluent COD was 54.4 mg L −1 for bench scale reactor and 60.9 mg L −1 for PCWWTP when the influent COD was about 480 mg L −1 on optimized conditions. The organics measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC–MS) reduced obviously and the total concentration of the 5 organics (1,3-dioxolane, 2-pentanone, ethylbenzene, 2-chloromethyl-1,3-dioxolane and indene) detected in the effluent was only 0.24 mg L −1 . There was no obvious toxicity of the effluent. However, low acute toxicity of the effluent could be detected by the luminescent bacteria assay, indicating the advanced treatment is needed. The clone library profiling analysis showed that the dominant bacteria in the system were Acidobacteria, Proteobacteria and Bacteriodetes. HA-A/O process is suitable for the petrochemical wastewater treatment.

  5. Catalytic multi-stage liquefaction of coal at HTI: Bench-scale studies in coal/waste plastics coprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pradhan, V.R.; Lee, L.K.; Stalzer, R.H. [Hydrocarbon Technologies, Inc., Lawrenceville, NJ (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The development of Catalytic Multi-Stage Liquefaction (CMSL) at HTI has focused on both bituminous and sub-bituminous coals using laboratory, bench and PDU scale operations. The crude oil equivalent cost of liquid fuels from coal has been curtailed to about $30 per barrel, thus achieving over 30% reduction in the price that was evaluated for the liquefaction technologies demonstrated in the late seventies and early eighties. Contrary to the common belief, the new generation of catalytic multistage coal liquefaction process is environmentally very benign and can produce clean, premium distillates with a very low (<10ppm) heteroatoms content. The HTI Staff has been involved over the years in process development and has made significant improvements in the CMSL processing of coals. A 24 month program (extended to September 30, 1995) to study novel concepts, using a continuous bench scale Catalytic Multi-Stage unit (30kg coal/day), has been initiated since December, 1992. This program consists of ten bench-scale operations supported by Laboratory Studies, Modelling, Process Simulation and Economic Assessments. The Catalytic Multi-Stage Liquefaction is a continuation of the second generation yields using a low/high temperature approach. This paper covers work performed between October 1994- August 1995, especially results obtained from the microautoclave support activities and the bench-scale operations for runs CMSL-08 and CMSL-09, during which, coal and the plastic components for municipal solid wastes (MSW) such as high density polyethylene (HDPE)m, polypropylene (PP), polystyrene (PS), and polythylene terphthlate (PET) were coprocessed.

  6. CESIUM REMOVAL FROM TANKS 241-AN-103 & 241-SX-105 & 241-AZ-101 & 241AZ-102 COMPOSITE FOR TESTING IN BENCH SCALE STEAM REFORMER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DUNCAN JB; HUBER HJ

    2011-04-21

    This report documents the preparation of three actual Hanford tank waste samples for shipment to the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). Two of the samples were dissolved saltcakes from tank 241-AN-103 (hereafter AN-103) and tank 241-SX-105 (hereafter SX-105); one sample was a supernate composite from tanks 241-AZ-101 and 241-AZ-102 (hereafter AZ-101/102). The preparation of the samples was executed following the test plans LAB-PLAN-10-00006, Test Plan for the Preparation of Samples from Hanford Tanks 241-SX-105, 241-AN-103, 241-AN-107, and LAB-PLN-l0-00014, Test Plan for the Preparation of a Composite Sample from Hanford Tanks 241-AZ-101 and 241-AZ-102 for Steam Reformer Testing at the Savannah River National Laboratory. All procedural steps were recorded in laboratory notebook HNF-N-274 3. Sample breakdown diagrams for AN-103 and SX-105 are presented in Appendix A. The tank samples were prepared in support of a series of treatability studies of the Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) process using a Bench-Scale Reformer (BSR) at SRNL. Tests with simulants have shown that the FBSR mineralized waste form is comparable to low-activity waste glass with respect to environmental durability (WSRC-STI-2008-00268, Mineralization of Radioactive Wastes by Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR): Comparisons to Vitreous Waste Forms and Pertinent Durability Testing). However, a rigorous assessment requires long-term performance data from FBSR product formed from actual Hanford tank waste. Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS) has initiated a Waste Form Qualification Program (WP-5.2.1-2010-001, Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer Low-level Waste Form Qualification) to gather the data required to demonstrate that an adequate FBSR mineralized waste form can be produced. The documentation of the selection process of the three tank samples has been separately reported in RPP-48824, Sample Selection Process for Bench-Scale Steam Reforming Treatability Studies Using

  7. Bench Scale Development and Testing of a Novel Adsorption Process for Post-Combustion CO₂ Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Ravi [Innosepra Limited Liability Company, Middlesex, NJ (United States)

    2015-09-01

    A physical sorption process to produce dry CO₂ at high purity (>98%) and high recovery (>90%) from the flue gas taken before or after the FGD was demonstrated both in the lab and in the field (one ton per day scale). A CO₂ recovery of over 94% and a CO₂ purity of over 99% were obtained in the field tests. The process has a moisture, SOX, and Hg removal stage followed by a CO₂ adsorption stage. Evaluations based on field testing, process simulation and detailed engineering studies indicate that the process has the potential for more than 40% reduction in the capital and more than 40% reduction in parasitic power for CO₂ capture compared to MEA. The process has the potential to provide CO₂ at a cost (<$40/tonne) and quality (<1 ppm H₂O, <1 ppm SOX, <10 ppm O₂) suitable for EOR applications which can make CO₂ capture profitable even in the absence of climate legislation. The process is applicable to power plants without SOX, Hg and NOX removal equipment.

  8. DESTRUCTION OF TETRAPHENYLBORATE IN TANK 48H USING WET AIR OXIDATION BATCH BENCH SCALE AUTOCLAVE TESTING WITH ACTUAL RADIOACTIVE TANK 48H WASTE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adu-Wusu, K; Paul Burket, P

    2009-03-31

    Wet Air Oxidation (WAO) is one of the two technologies being considered for the destruction of Tetraphenylborate (TPB) in Tank 48H. Batch bench-scale autoclave testing with radioactive (actual) Tank 48H waste is among the tests required in the WAO Technology Maturation Plan. The goal of the autoclave testing is to validate that the simulant being used for extensive WAO vendor testing adequately represents the Tank 48H waste. The test objective was to demonstrate comparable test results when running simulated waste and real waste under similar test conditions. Specifically: (1) Confirm the TPB destruction efficiency and rate (same reaction times) obtained from comparable simulant tests, (2) Determine the destruction efficiency of other organics including biphenyl, (3) Identify and quantify the reaction byproducts, and (4) Determine off-gas composition. Batch bench-scale stirred autoclave tests were conducted with simulated and actual Tank 48H wastes at SRNL. Experimental conditions were chosen based on continuous-flow pilot-scale simulant testing performed at Siemens Water Technologies Corporation (SWT) in Rothschild, Wisconsin. The following items were demonstrated as a result of this testing. (1) Tetraphenylborate was destroyed to below detection limits during the 1-hour reaction time at 280 C. Destruction efficiency of TPB was > 99.997%. (2) Other organics (TPB associated compounds), except biphenyl, were destroyed to below their respective detection limits. Biphenyl was partially destroyed in the process, mainly due to its propensity to reside in the vapor phase during the WAO reaction. Biphenyl is expected to be removed in the gas phase during the actual process, which is a continuous-flow system. (3) Reaction byproducts, remnants of MST, and the PUREX sludge, were characterized in this work. Radioactive species, such as Pu, Sr-90 and Cs-137 were quantified in the filtrate and slurry samples. Notably, Cs-137, boron and potassium were shown as soluble as a

  9. Bench Scale Saltcake Dissolution Test Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BECHTOLD, D.B.; PACQUET, E.A.

    2000-01-01

    A potential scenario for retrieving saltcake from single shell tanks is the ''Rainbird(reg s ign) sprinkler'' method. Water is distributed evenly across the surface of the saltcake and allowed to percolate by gravity through the waste. The salt dissolves in the water, forming a saturated solution. The saturated liquid is removed by a saltwell pump situated near the bottom of the tank. By this method, there is never a large inventory of liquid in the tank that could pose a threat of leakage. There are many variables or factors that can influence the hydrodynamics of this retrieval process. They include saltcake porosity; saltwell pumping rate; salt dissolution chemistry; factors that could promote flow channeling (e.g. tank walls, dry wells, inclusions or discontinuities in the saltcake); method of water distribution; plug formation due to crystal formations or accumulation of insoluble solids. A brief literature search indicates that very little experimental data exist on these aspects of saltcake dissolution (Wiersma 1996, 1997). The tests reported here were planned (Herting, 2000) to provide preliminary data and information for planning future, scaled-up tests of the sprinkler method

  10. Saltstone studies using the scaled continuous processing facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowley, M. D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Cozzi, A. D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hansen, E. K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-08-01

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has supported the Saltstone Facility since its conception with bench-scale laboratory experiments, mid-scale testing at vendor facilities, and consultations and testing at the Saltstone Facility. There have been minimal opportunities for the measurement of rheological properties of the grout slurry at the Saltstone Production Facility (SPF); thus, the Scaled Continuous Processing Facility (SCPF), constructed to provide processing data related to mixing, transfer, and other operations conducted in the SPF, is the most representative process data for determining the expected rheological properties in the SPF. These results can be used to verify the laboratory scale experiments that support the SPF using conventional mixing processes that appropriately represent the shear imparted to the slurry in the SPF.

  11. Bench-scale demonstration of treatment technologies for contaminated sediments in Sydney Tar Ponds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volchek, K.; Velicogna, D.; Punt, M.; Wong, B.; Weimer, L.; Tsangaris, A.; Brown, C.E.

    2003-01-01

    A series of bench-scale tests were conducted to determine the capabilities of selected commercially available technologies for treating contaminated sediments from the South Pond of Sydney Tar Ponds. This study was conducted under the umbrella of a technology demonstration program aimed at evaluating technologies to be used in the remediation of such sediments. The following approach was proposed by SAIC Canada for the treatment of the sediments: (1) solvent extraction for the removal of organic contaminants, (2) acid/chelant leaching for the removal of inorganic contaminants such as heavy metals, and (3) plasma hearth process for the destruction of toxic streams resulting from the first two processes. Solvent extraction followed by plasma treatment proved effective for removing and destroying organic contaminants. The removal of metals did not achieve the expected results through leaching. An approach was proposed for treating those sediments based on the results of the study. The approach differed depending on the level of organic content. An assessment of associated process costs for both a pilot-scale field demonstration and a full-scale treatment was provided. 11 tabs., 4 figs

  12. Study of the boron homogenizing process employing an experimental low-pressure bench simulating the IRIS reactor pressurizer – Part I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezerra, Jair de Lima; Lira, Carlos Alberto Brayner de Oliveira; Barroso, Antonio Carlos de Oliveira; Lima, Fernando Roberto de Andrade; Bezerra da Silva, Mário Augusto

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Experimental bench with test section made of transparent acrylic, simulating the pressurizer reactor IRIS. ► Workbench used to study the process of homogenization of boron in the pressurizer IRIS nuclear reactor. ► Results were obtained through videos and digital photos of the test section. - Abstract: The reactivity control of a nuclear reactor to pressurized water is made by means of controlling bars or by boron dilution in the water from the coolant of a primary circuit. The control with boron dilution has great importance, despite inserting small variations in the reactivity in the reactor, as it does not significantly affect the distribution of the neutron flux. A simplified experimental bench with a test section manufactured in transparent acrylic, was built in reduced scale as to be used in a boron homogenizing process, simulating an IRIS reactor pressurizer (International Reactor Innovative and Secure). The bench was assembled in the Centro Regional de Ciências Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE), an entity linked to the Comissão Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Recife – PE

  13. Study of the boron homogenizing process employing an experimental low-pressure bench simulating the IRIS reactor pressurizer – Part II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezerra, Jair de Lima; Lira, Carlos Alberto Brayner de Oliveira; Barroso, Antonio Carlos de Oliveira; Lima, Fernando Roberto de Andrade; Silva, Mário Augusto Bezerra da

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Experimental bench with test section made of transparent acrylic, simulating the pressurizer reactor IRIS. • Workbench used to study the process of homogenization of boron in the pressurizer IRIS nuclear reactor. • Results were obtained through videos and digital photos of the test section. - Abstract: The reactivity control of a nuclear reactor to pressurized water is made by means of controlling bars or by boron dilution in the water from the coolant of a primary circuit. The control with boron dilution has great importance, despite inserting small variations in the reactivity in the reactor, as it does not significantly affect the distribution of the neutron flux. A simplified experimental bench with a test section manufactured in transparent acrylic, was built in reduced scale as to be used in a boron homogenizing process, simulating an IRIS reactor pressurizer (International Reactor Innovative and Secure). The bench was assembled in the Centro Regional de Ciências Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE), an entity linked to the Comissão Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Recife–PE

  14. A PMT-Block test bench

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adragna, P.; Antonaki, A.

    2006-01-01

    The front-end electronics of the ATLAS hadronic calorimeter (Tile Cal) is housed in a unit, called PMT-Block. The PMT-Block is a compact instrument comprising a light mixer, a PMT together with its divider and a 3-in-1 card, which provides shaping, amplification and integration for the signals. This instrument needs to be qualified before being assembled on the detector. A PMT-Block test bench has been developed for this purpose. This test bench is a system which allows fast, albeit accurate enough, measurements of the main properties of a complete PMT-Block. The system, both hardware and software, and the protocol used for the PMT-Blocks characterization are described in detail in this report. The results obtained in the test of about 10 000 PMT-Blocks needed for the instrumentation of the ATLAS (LHC-CERN) hadronic Tile Calorimeter are also reported

  15. A PMT-Block test bench

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adragna, P [Dipartimento di Fisica ' E.Fermi' , Universita di Pisa and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, Pisa 56127 (Italy); Universita degli studi di Siena, via Roma 56, 53100 Siena (Italy); Antonaki, A [Institute of Accelerating Systems and Applications, P.O. Box 17214, Athens 10024 (Greece); National Capodistrian University of Athens, 30 Panepistimiou st., Athens 10679 (Greece)] (and others)

    2006-08-01

    The front-end electronics of the ATLAS hadronic calorimeter (Tile Cal) is housed in a unit, called PMT-Block. The PMT-Block is a compact instrument comprising a light mixer, a PMT together with its divider and a 3-in-1 card, which provides shaping, amplification and integration for the signals. This instrument needs to be qualified before being assembled on the detector. A PMT-Block test bench has been developed for this purpose. This test bench is a system which allows fast, albeit accurate enough, measurements of the main properties of a complete PMT-Block. The system, both hardware and software, and the protocol used for the PMT-Blocks characterization are described in detail in this report. The results obtained in the test of about 10 000 PMT-Blocks needed for the instrumentation of the ATLAS (LHC-CERN) hadronic Tile Calorimeter are also reported.

  16. The R and D D's bearing test benches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vialettes, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    In power generation plants, rotating machines are involved in energy transformation processes and safety systems. The bearings supporting the rotors and the thrust bearings play a crucial role in the reliability of these machines. The phenomena encountered straddle several disciplines: hydrodynamics, tribology, thermomechanics, materials and vibrations in a specific environment, namely: thin fluid film, solid mechanical components and shaft rotation. Means of analysing the behaviour of these components (bearings and thrust bearings) have been developed and implemented. These consists of the EDYOS (Etude Dynamique des Organes de Supportage) code for dynamically studying bearing devices and several related bench tests. In reality, in order to understand the complex physical phenomena encountered in these components, it is vital to carry out analyses and experimental validations. Since these investigations cannot be carried out on actual machines, test benches have been built which can subject the sample bearings to the equivalent stresses. (author)

  17. Bench-Scale and Pilot-Scale Treatment Technologies for the ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coal mine water (CMW) is typically treated to remove suspended solids, acidity, and soluble metals, but high concentrations of total dissolved solids (TDS) have been reported to impact the environment at several CMW discharge points. Consequently, various states have established TDS wastewater regulations and the US EPA has proposed a benchmark conductivity limit to reduce TDS impacts in streams near mining sites. Traditional CMW treatment effectively removes some TDS components, but is not effective in removing major salt ions due to their higher solubility. This paper describes the basic principles, effectiveness, advantages and disadvantages of various TDS removal technologies (adsorption, bioremediation, capacitive deionization, desalination, electro-chemical ion exchange, electrocoagulation, electrodialysis, ion exchange, membrane filtration, precipitation, and reverse osmosis) that have at least been tested in bench- and pilot-scale experiments. Recent discussions about new regulations to include total dissolved solids TDS) limits would propel interest in the TDS removal technologies focused on coal mine water. TDS removal is not a new concept and has been developed using different technologies for a number of applications, but coal mine water has unique characteristics (depending on the site, mining process, and solid-water-oxygen interactions), which make it unlikely to have a single technology predominating over others. What are some novel technolog

  18. Bench-scale testing of on-line control of column flotation using a novel analyzer. Third quarterly technical progress report, April 1, 1993--June 30, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-24

    This document contains the third quarterly technical progress report for PTI`s Bench-Scale Testing Project of a circuit integrating PTI`s KEN-FLOTETM Column Flotation Technology and PTI`s On-Line Quality Monitor and Control System. The twelve-month project involves installation and testing of a 200--300 lb/hr. bench-scale flotation circuit at PETC`s Coal Preparation Process Research Facility (CPPRF) for two bituminous coals (Upper Freeport and Pittsburgh No. 8 Seam Raw Coals). Figure 1 contains the project plan, as well as the approach to completing the major tasks within the twelve-month project schedule. The project is broken down into three phases, which include: Phase I -- Preparation: The preparation phase was performed principally at PTI`s Calumet offices from October through December, 1992. It involved building of the equipment and circuitry, as well as some preliminary design and equipment testing; Phase II -- ET Circuit Installation and Testing: This installation and testing phase of the project was performed at PETC`s CPPRF from January through June, 1993, and was the major focus of the project. It involved testing of the continuous 200--300 lb/hr. circuit; and Phase III -- Project Finalization: The project finalization phase is occurring from July through September, 1993, at PTI`s Calumet offices and involves finalizing analytical work and data evaluation, as well as final project reporting. This Third Quarterly Technical Progress Report principally summarizes the results from the benchscale testing with the second coal (Pittsburgh No. 8 Seam Coal), which occurred in April through June, 1993. It also contains preliminary economic evaluations that will go into the Final Report, as well as the plan for the final reporting task.

  19. Embedded Sensors and Controls to Improve Component Performance and Reliability -- Bench-scale Testbed Design Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melin, Alexander M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kisner, Roger A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Drira, Anis [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Reed, Frederick K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Embedded instrumentation and control systems that can operate in extreme environments are challenging due to restrictions on sensors and materials. As a part of the Department of Energy's Nuclear Energy Enabling Technology cross-cutting technology development programs Advanced Sensors and Instrumentation topic, this report details the design of a bench-scale embedded instrumentation and control testbed. The design goal of the bench-scale testbed is to build a re-configurable system that can rapidly deploy and test advanced control algorithms in a hardware in the loop setup. The bench-scale testbed will be designed as a fluid pump analog that uses active magnetic bearings to support the shaft. The testbed represents an application that would improve the efficiency and performance of high temperature (700 C) pumps for liquid salt reactors that operate in an extreme environment and provide many engineering challenges that can be overcome with embedded instrumentation and control. This report will give details of the mechanical design, electromagnetic design, geometry optimization, power electronics design, and initial control system design.

  20. Accumulation of uranium, cesium, and radium by microbial cells: bench-scale studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strandberg, G.W.; Shumate, S.E. II.

    1982-07-01

    This report describes bench-scale studies on the utilization of microbial cells for the concentration and removal of uranium, radium, and cesium from nuclear processing waste streams. Included are studies aimed at elucidating the basic mechanism of uranium uptake, process development efforts for the use of a combined denitrification-uranium removal process to treat a specific nuclear processing waste stream, and a preliminary investigation of the applicability of microorganisms for the removal of 137 Cs and 226 Ra from existing waste solutions

  1. Final PHP bench-scale report for the DOE-ID/SAIC sole source contract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-04-01

    The Plasma Hearth Process (PHP) Technology Development Project was established to develop, test, and evaluate a new concept for treating mixed waste. The new concept uses direct current (dc) transferred-arc plasma torch technology to process mixed waste into a glass-like end-product. Under the cognizance of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development (OTD) Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA), the technology is being explored for its potential to treat mixed waste. Because it is a mature technology, well-understood and commercially available, it is expected to develop rapidly in this new application. This report summarizes the radioactive bench-scale system activities funded under PHP Sole Source Contract DE-AC07-94ID13266 through the end of the contract

  2. Comparative tests of bench equipment for fuel control system testing of gas-turbine engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shendaleva, E. V.

    2018-04-01

    The relevance of interlaboratory comparative researches is confirmed by attention of world metrological community to this field of activity. Use of the interlaboratory comparative research methodology not only for single gages collation, but also for bench equipment complexes, such as modeling stands for fuel control system testing of gas-turbine engine, is offered. In this case a comparative measure of different bench equipment will be the control fuel pump. Ensuring traceability of measuring result received at test benches of various air enterprises, development and introduction of national standards to practice of bench tests and, eventually, improvement of quality and safety of a aircraft equipment is result of this approach.

  3. Test benches for studying the properties of car tyres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, N. Yu.; Fedotov, A. I.; Vlasov, V. G.

    2017-12-01

    The article describes the design of the measuring systems of test benches used to study the properties of elastic tyres. The bench has two autonomous systems - for testing the braking properties of elastic tyres rolling in a plane parallel way and for testing tyre slip properties. The system for testing braking properties determines experimental characteristics of elastic tyres as the following dependencies: longitudinal response vs time, braking torque vs slip, angular velocity vs slip, and longitudinal response vs slip. The system for studying tyre slip properties determines both steady (dependence of the lateral response in a contact area on the slipping angle) and non-steady characteristics (time variation of the slipping angle as a result of turning from -40 to +40 degrees) of tyre slip. The article presents the diagrams of bench tests of elastic tyres. The experimental results show metrological parameters and functional capabilities of the bench for studying tyre properties in driving and braking modes. The metrological indices of the recorded parameters of the measuring system for studying tyre properties are presented in the table.

  4. PXIe-based LLRF architecture and versatile test bench for heavy ion linear acceleration

    OpenAIRE

    Jugo, I. Badillo J.; Portilla, J.; Feutchwanger, J.; Vicente, C. San; Etxebarria, V.

    2014-01-01

    This work describes the architecture of a digital LLRF system for heavy-ion acceleration developed under the specification of the projected future heavy-ion accelerator facility in Huelva, Spain. A prototype LLRF test bench operating at 80MHz in CW mode has been designed and built. The core LLRF control has been digitally implemented on a PXIe chassis, including an FPGA for digital signal processing and a real time controller. The test bench is completed with a good quality signal generator u...

  5. Bioleaching of heavy metals from soil using fungal-organic acids : bench scale testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cathum, S.J.; Ousmanova, D.; Somers, A.; Punt, M. [SAIC Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Brown, C.E. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Emergencies Engineering Division]|[Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Environmental Technology Centre

    2006-07-01

    The ability of fungi to solubilize metals from solid materials may present new opportunities in environmental remediation. This paper presented details of a bench scale experiment that evaluated the leaching of heavy metals from contaminated soil using in situ fungal-generated organic acids. Rice was used as the growing media for organic acid production by A. foetidus. The cultivated fungus was placed on large pieces of potato-dextrose agar (PDA) plates and suspended in 5 L of sterilized water. The cooked rice was inoculated by pouring the 5 L spore suspension over the rice layer. Soil was obtained from a soil pile impacted with heavy metals at a private industrial site and augmented with Pb-contaminated soil. A polyethylene tub was used with a drain pipe leading to a leachate vessel. Crushed stone was spread over the bottom of the tub to assist leachate drainage. Approximately 45 kg of the contaminated soil was spread evenly over the stone layer to a depth of 10 cm. The concentrated spore suspension was sprinkled over the rice. Each week the leachate collection vessel was removed from the bioleaching system and the fine soil particles were allowed to settle. A control was run using the contaminated soil and solid substrate without fungus. Growth of A. foetidus was observed in both control experiment and test experiment after a period of 35 days. The pH of the leachate was measured as the fungal growth progressed. The process was assessed using ICP Mass Spectroscopy and electron spectroscopy, which showed that approximately 65 g of heavy metals were mobilized from 45 kg of soil, and that the biological leaching process resulted in greater mobilization of heavy metals relative to the control experiment. It was concluded that organic acids generated by A. foetidus were capable of leaching heavy metals from the soil. 30 refs., 4 tabs., 15 figs.

  6. Pilot-scale treatability test plan for the 100-HR-3 operable unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    This document presents the treatability test plan for pilot-scale pump-and-treat testing at the 100-HR-3 Operable Unit. The test will be conducted in fulfillment of interim Milestone M-15-06E to begin pilot-scale pump-and-treat operations by August 1994. The scope of the test was determined based on the results of lab/bench-scale tests (WHC 1993a) conducted in fulfillment of Milestone M-15-06B. These milestones were established per agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Washington State Department of Ecology and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and documented on Hanford Federal of Ecology Facility Agreement and Consent Order Change Control Form M-15-93-02. This test plan discusses a pilot-scale pump-and-treat test for the chromium plume associated with the D Reactor portion of the 100-HR-3 Operable Unit. Data will be collected during the pilot test to assess the effectiveness, operating parameters, and resource needs of the ion exchange (IX) pump-and-treat system. The test will provide information to assess the ability to remove contaminants by extracting groundwater from wells and treating extracted groundwater using IX. Bench-scale tests were conducted previously in which chromium VI was identified as the primary contaminant of concern in the 100-D reactor plume. The DOWEX 21K trademark resin was recommended for pilot-scale testing of an IX pump-and-treat system. The bench-scale test demonstrated that the system could remove chromium VI from groundwater to concentrations less than 50 ppb. The test also identified process parameters to monitor during pilot-scale testing. Water will be re-injected into the plume using wells outside the zone of influence and upgradient of the extraction well

  7. Cesium Removal From Tanks 241-AN-103 and 241-SX-105 and 241-AZ-101 and 241-AZ-102 Composite For Testing In Bench Scale Steam Reformer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, J.B.; Huber, H.J.

    2011-01-01

    This report documents the preparation of three actual Hanford tank waste samples for shipment to the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). Two of the samples were dissolved saltcakes from tank 241-AN-103 (hereafter AN-103) and tank 241-SX-105 (hereafter SX-105); one sample was a supernate composite from tanks 241-AZ-101 and 241-AZ-102 (hereafter AZ-101/102). The preparation of the samples was executed following the test plans LAB-PLAN-10-00006, Test Plan for the Preparation of Samples from Hanford Tanks 241-SX-105, 241-AN-103, 241-AN-107, and LAB-PLN-l0-00014, Test Plan for the Preparation of a Composite Sample from Hanford Tanks 241-AZ-101 and 241-AZ-102 for Steam Reformer Testing at the Savannah River National Laboratory. All procedural steps were recorded in laboratory notebook HNF-N-274 3. Sample breakdown diagrams for AN-103 and SX-105 are presented in Appendix A. The tank samples were prepared in support of a series of treatability studies of the Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) process using a Bench-Scale Reformer (BSR) at SRNL. Tests with simulants have shown that the FBSR mineralized waste form is comparable to low-activity waste glass with respect to environmental durability (WSRC-STI-2008-00268, Mineralization of Radioactive Wastes by Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR): Comparisons to Vitreous Waste Forms and Pertinent Durability Testing). However, a rigorous assessment requires long-term performance data from FBSR product formed from actual Hanford tank waste. Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS) has initiated a Waste Form Qualification Program (WP-5.2.1-2010-001, Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer Low-level Waste Form Qualification) to gather the data required to demonstrate that an adequate FBSR mineralized waste form can be produced. The documentation of the selection process of the three tank samples has been separately reported in RPP-48824, Sample Selection Process for Bench-Scale Steam Reforming Treatability Studies Using

  8. Cometabolic biotreatment of TCE-contaminated groundwater: Laboratory and bench-scale development studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donaldson, T.L.; Jennings, H.L.; Lucero, A.J.; Strandberg, G.W.; Morris, M.I.; Palumbo, A.V.; Boerman, P.A.; Tyndall, R.L.

    1992-01-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory is conducting a demonstration of two cometabolic technologies for biotreatment of groundwater contaminated with trichloroethylene (TCE) and other organics. Technologies based on methanotrophic (methane-utilizing) and toluene-degrading microorganisms will be compared side-by-side on the same groundwater stream. Laboratory and bench-scale bioreactor studies have been conducted to guide selection of microbial cultures and operating conditions for the field demonstration. This report presents the results of the laboratory and bench-scale studies for the methanotrophic system

  9. A high frequency test bench for rapid single-flux-quantum circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engseth, H; Intiso, S; Rafique, M R; Tolkacheva, E; Kidiyarova-Shevchenko, A

    2006-01-01

    We have designed and experimentally verified a test bench for high frequency testing of rapid single-flux-quantum (RSFQ) circuits. This test bench uses an external tunable clock signal that is stable in amplitude, phase and frequency. The high frequency external clock reads out the clock pattern stored in a long shift register. The clock pattern is consequently shifted out at high speed and split to feed both the circuit under test and an additional shift register in the test bench for later verification at low speed. This method can be employed for reliable high speed verification of RSFQ circuit operation, with use of only low speed read-out electronics. The test bench consists of 158 Josephson junctions and the occupied area is 3300 x 660 μm 2 . It was experimentally verified up to 33 GHz with ± 21.7% margins on the global bias supply current

  10. Research on Test-bench for Sonic Logging Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianping Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the test-bench for sonic logging tool is proposed and designed to realize automatic calibration and testing of the sonic logging tool. The test-bench System consists of Host Computer, Embedded Controlling Board, and functional boards. The Host Computer serves as the Human Machine Interface (HMI and processes uploaded data. The software running on Host Computer is designed on VC++, which is developed based on multithreading, Dynamic Linkable Library (DLL and Multiple Document Interface (MDI techniques. The Embedded Controlling Board uses ARM7 as the microcontroller and communicates with Host Computer via Ethernet. The Embedded Controlling Board software is realized based on embedded uclinux operating system with a layered architecture. The functional boards are designed based on Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA and provide test interfaces for the logging tool. The functional board software is divided into independent sub-modules that can repeatedly be used by various functional boards and then integrated those sub-modules in the top layer. With the layered architecture and modularized design, the software system is highly reliable and extensible. With the help of designed system, a test has been conducted quickly and successfully on the electronic receiving cabin of the sonic logging tool. It demonstrated that the system could greatly improve the production efficiency of the sonic logging tool.

  11. Cometabolic biotreatment of TCE-contaminated groundwater - Laboratory and bench-scale development studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donaldson, T L; Palumbo, A V; Boerman, P A; Jennings, H L; Lucero, A J; Tyndall, R L; Strandberg, G W; Morris, M I [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1992-07-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory is conducting a demonstration of two cometabolic technologies for biotreatment of groundwater contaminated with trichloroethylene (TCE) and other organics. Technologies based on methanotrophic (methane-utilizing) and toluene-degrading microorganisms will be compared side-by-side on the same groundwater stream. Laboratory and bench-scale bioreactor studies have been conducted to guide selection of microbial cultures and operating conditions for the field demonstration. This report presents the results of the laboratory and bench-scale studies for the methanotrophic system. (author)

  12. Bench-scale Development of an Advanced Solid Sorbent-based CO2 Capture Process for Coal-fired Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Thomas [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Kataria, Atish [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Soukri, Mustapha [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Farmer, Justin [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Mobley, Paul [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Tanthana, Jak [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Wang, Dongxiang [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Wang, Xiaoxing [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Song, Chunshan [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    2015-12-31

    It is increasingly clear that CO2 capture and sequestration (CCS) must play a critical role in curbing worldwide CO2 emissions to the atmosphere. Development of these technologies to cost-effectively remove CO2 from coal-fired power plants is very important to mitigating the impact these power plants have within the world’s power generation portfolio. Currently, conventional CO2 capture technologies, such as aqueous-monoethanolamine based solvent systems, are prohibitively expensive and if implemented could result in a 75 to 100% increase in the cost of electricity for consumers worldwide. Solid sorbent CO2 capture processes – such as RTI’s Advanced Solid Sorbent CO2, Capture Process – are promising alternatives to conventional, liquid solvents. Supported amine sorbents – of the nature RTI has developed – are particularly attractive due to their high CO2 loadings, low heat capacities, reduced corrosivity/volatility and the potential to reduce the regeneration energy needed to carry out CO2 capture. Previous work in this area has failed to adequately address various technology challenges such as sorbent stability and regenerability, sorbent scale-up, improved physical strength and attrition-resistance, proper heat management and temperature control, proper solids handling and circulation control, as well as the proper coupling of process engineering advancements that are tailored for a promising sorbent technology. The remaining challenges for these sorbent processes have provided the framework for the project team’s research and development and target for advancing the technology beyond lab- and bench-scale testing. Under a cooperative agreement with the US Department of Energy, and part of NETL’s CO2 Capture Program, RTI has led an effort to address and mitigate the challenges associated with solid sorbent CO2 capture. The overall objective

  13. System of Thermal Balance Maintenance in Modern Test Benches for Centrifugal Pumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Petrov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article “Systems of the heat balance maintenance in modern test benches for centrifugal pumps” makes the case to include cooling systems of a working fluid (heat setting in test bench for impeller pumps. It briefly summarizes an experience of bench building to test centrifugal pumps, developed at the BMSTU Department E-10 over the last 10 years. The article gives the formulas and the algorithm to calculate the heat capacity of different types of impeller pumps when tested at the bench as ell as to determine the heating time of the liquid in the bench without external cooling. Based on analysis of the power balance of a centrifugal pump, it is shown that about 90% of the pump unit-consumed electric power in terminals is used for heating up the working fluid in the loop of the test bench. The article gives examples of elementary heat calculation of the pump operation within the test bench. It presents the main types of systems to maintain thermal balance, their advantages, disadvantages and possible applications. The cooling system schemes for open and closed version of the benches both with built-in and with an independent cooling circuit are analysed. The paper separately considers options of such systems for large benches using the cooling tower as a cooling device in the loop, and to test the pumps using the hydraulic fluids other than water, including those at high temperatures of working fluids; in the latter case a diagram of dual-circuit cooling system "liquid-liquid-air" is shown. The paper depicts a necessity to use ethylene glycol coolant in the two-loop cooling bench. It provides an example of combining the functions of cooling and filtration in a single cooling circuit. Criteria for effectiveness of these systems are stated. Possible ways for developing systems to maintain a thermal balance, modern methods of regulation and control are described. In particular, the paper shows the efficiency of frequency control of the

  14. Errors of car wheels rotation rate measurement using roller follower on test benches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potapov, A. S.; Svirbutovich, O. A.; Krivtsov, S. N.

    2018-03-01

    The article deals with rotation rate measurement errors, which depend on the motor vehicle rate, on the roller, test benches. Monitoring of the vehicle performance under operating conditions is performed on roller test benches. Roller test benches are not flawless. They have some drawbacks affecting the accuracy of vehicle performance monitoring. Increase in basic velocity of the vehicle requires increase in accuracy of wheel rotation rate monitoring. It determines the degree of accuracy of mode identification for a wheel of the tested vehicle. To ensure measurement accuracy for rotation velocity of rollers is not an issue. The problem arises when measuring rotation velocity of a car wheel. The higher the rotation velocity of the wheel is, the lower the accuracy of measurement is. At present, wheel rotation frequency monitoring on roller test benches is carried out by following-up systems. Their sensors are rollers following wheel rotation. The rollers of the system are not kinematically linked to supporting rollers of the test bench. The roller follower is forced against the wheels of the tested vehicle by means of a spring-lever mechanism. Experience of the test bench equipment operation has shown that measurement accuracy is satisfactory at small rates of vehicles diagnosed on roller test benches. With a rising diagnostics rate, rotation velocity measurement errors occur in both braking and pulling modes because a roller spins about a tire tread. The paper shows oscillograms of changes in wheel rotation velocity and rotation velocity measurement system’s signals when testing a vehicle on roller test benches at specified rates.

  15. Bench-Scale Silicone Process for Low-Cost CO{sub 2} Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fresia, Megan; Vogt, Kirk

    2013-12-31

    GE Global Research is developing technology to remove carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from the flue gas of coal-fired power plants. A mixture of 3-aminopropyl end-capped polydimethylsiloxane (GAP-1m) and triethylene glycol (TEG) is the preferred CO{sub 2} capture solvent. GE Global Research was contracted by the Department of Energy to test a bench-scale continuous CO{sub 2} absorption/desorption system using a GAP-1m/TEG mixture as the solvent. SiVance LLC was sub-contracted to provide the GAP-1m material and conduct an Environmental, Health, and Safety (EH&S) assessment for a 550 MW coal-fired power plant. Five components of the solvent, CAS#2469-55-8 (GAP-0), CAS#106214-84-0 (GAP-1-4), TEG, and methanol and xylene (minor contaminants from the aminosilicone) are included in this assessment. One by-product, GAP-1m/SOX salt, and dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid (DDBSA) were also identified for analysis. All of the solvent components and DDBSA are listed on the EPA’s TSCA Inventory allowing companies to manufacture and use the chemicals commercially. The toxicological effects of each component were defined, and control mechanisms necessary to comply with U.S. EH&S regulations are summarized. An engineering and control system, including environmental abatement, was described for minimizing exposure and release of the chemical components. Proper handling and storage recommendations are made for each chemical to minimize risk to workers and the surrounding community.

  16. Investigations into NOx emissions and burnout for coals with high ash content in a bench scale test facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greul, U.; Kluger, F.; Peter, G.; Spliethoff, H.; Hein, K.R.G. [University of Stuttgart, Stuttgart (Germany). Inst. fuer Verfahrenstechnik und Dampfkesselwesen

    2000-07-01

    At the Stuttgart University's Institute of Process Engineering and Power Plant Technology (IVD) investigations of in-furnace DeNOx technologies with regard to their NOx reduction efficiency are carried out using an electrically heated bench-scale test facility to evaluate the effect of different process parameters independently. The DeNOx technologies of air and fuel staging have been demonstrated to be effective control techniques to reduce NOx from stationary sources. For a wide range of brown and hard coals from Europe, South Africa and Australia test runs with air-staged combustion have been carried out. The ash content of the hard coals used was in the range between 8 and 28%. The investigated parameters were temperature (1000-1300{degree}C), stoichiometry (1.25-0.55), and residence time (1-6 s) in the fuel rich primary zone. With increasing temperatures and residence times in fuel-rich conditions in air-staged combustion NOx emissions below 300 mg/m{sup 3} can be achieved even with hard coals. For a few brown coals NOx values lower than 100 mg/m{sup 3} are possible. Dependent on the coal rank individual parameters are more important than others. For low and medium volatile hard coals the increasing of the residence time is more effective than higher temperature or lower air ratios in the primary zone. However, with high volatile hard coal or brown coal as primary fuel the influence of temperature and stoichiometry in the primary zone plays a key role for NOx reduction effectiveness. The burnout led to restrictions in large scale applications for air-staged combustion especially with hard coals as primary fuel. Investigations at different primary air ratios and temperatures show the effect of these parameters on the burnout values along the course of combustion. 7 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. On line isotopic separator test benches at GANIL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anne, R.; Bru, B.; Joubert, A.; Leroy, R.; Obert, J.; Putaux, J.C.; Liang, C.F.; Paris, P.; Orr, N.; Steckmeyer, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    A first version of isotopic separator on line test bench has been built in order to test the feasibility of the production of radioactive species from 96 MeV/u of 20 Ne impinging a thick target of MgO. This test bench was equipped with a very compact ECR ion source (Nanogan) entirely made from permanent magnets and operating at 10 Ghz. 18 Ne 2,4+ ; 19N e 1,2,3,4+ and 23,24 Ne 1+ has been produced and ionized. A new more performing separator (SIRa) allowing the use of different types of ion sources will be completed by the end of 1993. (author) 4 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  18. Design and Construction of a Test Bench to Characterize Efficiency and Reliability of High Voltage Battery Energy Storage Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blank, Tobias; Thomas, Stephan; Roggendorf, Christoph

    2010-01-01

    system efficiency. High voltage batteries may be advantageous for future medium voltage DC-grids as well. In all cases, high availability and reliability is indispensable. Investigations on the operating behavior of such systems are needed. For this purpose, a test bench for high voltage storage systems...... was built to analyze these processes for different battery technologies. A special safety infrastructure for the test bench was developed due to the high voltage and the storable energy of approximately 120 kWh. This paper presents the layout of the test bench for analyzing high voltage batteries with about...... 4,300 volts including all components, the safety requirements with the resultant safety circuit and the aim of the investigations to be performed with the test bench....

  19. Production of uranium hexafluoride by the catalysed fluorox process: pilot plant and supporting bench-scale studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janov, J.; Charlton, B.G.; LePage, A.H.; Vilkaitis, V.K.

    1982-04-01

    The feasibility of producing UF 6 by the catalysed reaction of UF 4 with oxygen (the Fluorox process) was investigated in a 150 mm diameter fluidised bed reactor and in supporting bench-scale experiments. The rate of the Fluorox reaction in batch experiments was increased by an order of magnitude with 1 to 5 per cent catalyst (containing 3 to 4 per cent platinum on alumina). The maximum UF 6 production rate at 650 deg. C was 0.9 kg h -1 . However, the platinum catalyst was completely poisoned after production of only 1 and 20 kg UF 6 per kg of catalyst when using respectively French and British UF 4 . Regeneration of the catalyst was demonstrated to be technically feasible by washing with water or ammonium oxalate solution or treating with hydrogen and hydrogen fluoride at 350-650 deg. C. However, since the very fast rate of poisoning would necessitate higher catalyst concentrations and/or frequent regeneration, the catalysed Fluorox process in unlikely to be economically competitive with the direct fluorination of UF 4

  20. DEGRADATION OF POLYNUCLEAR AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS UNDER BENCH-SCALE COMPOST CONDITIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The relationship between biomass growth and degradation of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil, and subsequent toxicity reduction, was evaluated in 10 in-vessel, bench-scale compost units. Field soil was aquired from the Reilly Tar and Chemical Company Superfund site...

  1. A new BETSI test bench at CEA/Saclay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyckees, S.; Adroit, G.; Delferriere, O.; Duperrier, R.; Gauthier, Y.; Gobin, R.; Harrault, F.; Mateo, C.M.; Napoly, O.; Pottin, B.; Sauce, Y.; Senee, F.; Tuske, O.; Vacher, T.

    2012-01-01

    In the nineties, CEA has undertaken to develop the production of high intensity light ion beams from plasma generated by electron cyclotron resonance (ECR). Important results were obtained with the SILHI source in pulsed or continuous mode. Presently, CEA/Saclay is now involved in the construction of different injectors dedicated to large infrastructures like IFMIF or SPIRAL2. Other installations are also interested by high intensity ion sources like ESS or FAIR. To improve and test new sources, a new test bench named BETSI (Banc d'Etudes et de Tests des Sources d'Ions) has been operating for several years. Low energy beam line diagnostics consist of a Faraday cup, cameras and a species analyzer. The SILHI emittance scanner can also be installed on the beam line. On this test bench, different permanent magnet source configurations are tested. The paper is followed by the associated poster. (authors)

  2. Runoff and sediment generation on bench -terraced hillsides: measurements and up-scaling of a field-based model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, A.I.J.M.; Bruijnzeel, L.A.; Vertessy, R.A.; Ruijter, J.

    2006-01-01

    Despite widespread bench-terracing, stream sediment yields from agricultural hillsides in upland West Java remain high. We studied the causes of this lack of effect by combining measurements at different spatial scales using an erosion process model. Event runoff and sediment yield from two 4-ha

  3. A Coupling Vibration Test Bench and the Simulation Research of a Maglev Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weihua Ma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To study the characteristics of the coupling vibration between a maglev vehicle and its track beam system and to improve the performance of the levitation system, a new type of vibration test bench was developed. Take a single maglev frame as the study object; simulation of the coupling vibration of the maglev vehicle, levitation system, and track beam were achieved. In addition, all types of real track irregularity excitations can be simulated using hydraulic actuators of the test bench. To expand the research scope, a simulation model was developed that can conduct the simulation research synergistically with the test bench. Based on a dynamics model of the test bench, the dynamics simulation method determined the influence on the levitation control performance of three factors: the track beam support stiffness, the track beam mass, and the track irregularity. The vibration resonance phenomenon of the vehicle/track system was reproduced by the dynamics simulation, and a portion of the simulation results were validated by the test results. By combining the test bench and the dynamics model, experiments can be guided by the simulation results, and the experimental results can validate the dynamics simulation results.

  4. Improvement of bench life-tests for automotive batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, G.

    A common method for rating the endurance of automotive batteries is the bench life-test according to DIN, IEC, SAE or JIS. With an increasing number of maintenance-free batteries on the market, the application of these tests becomes more problematic. This is due to a step-by-step capacity decline during cycling if the content of autimony in the grid-alloy is decreased. The degradation in performance is caused by the phenomenon of acid stratification. Because this debilitating effect occurs only rarely in service (vehicle movement) if charging and discharging is well balanced, there is a need for a new bench life-test with conditions that are more representative of practical conditions. Research has shown that the main changes should be: (i) an accelerated (moved) battery during cycling; (ii) slightly lower charging or discharging capacity amplitude, also with a lower mean value.

  5. A bench-scale biotreatability methodology to evaluate field bioremediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saberiyan, A.G.; MacPherson, J.R. Jr.; Moore, R.; Pruess, A.J.; Andrilenas, J.S.

    1995-01-01

    A bench-scale biotreatability methodology was designed to assess field bioremediation of petroleum contaminated soil samples. This methodology was performed successfully on soil samples from more than 40 sites. The methodology is composed of two phases, characterization and experimentation. The first phase is physical, chemical, and biological characterization of the contaminated soil sample. This phase determines soil parameters, contaminant type, presence of indigenous contaminant-degrading bacteria, and bacterial population size. The second phase, experimentation, consists of a respirometry test to measure the growth of microbes indirectly (via generation of CO 2 ) and the consumption of their food source directly (via contaminant loss). Based on a Monod kinetic analysis, the half-life of a contaminant can be calculated. Abiotic losses are accounted for based on a control test. The contaminant molecular structure is used to generate a stoichiometric equation. The stoichiometric equation yields a theoretical ratio for mg of contaminant degraded per mg of CO 2 produced. Data collected from the respirometry test are compared to theoretical values to evaluate bioremediation feasibility

  6. Test-bench for characterization of steady state magnetic sensors parameters in wide temperature range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovařík, Karel; Ďuran, Ivan; Sentkerestiová, Jana; Šesták, David

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Prepared test bench for calibration of steady state magnetic sensors. •Test-bench design optimized for calibration up to 300 °C. •Test-bench is remotely controllable and allows long term measurements. •Construction allows easy manipulation with even irradiated samples. -- Abstract: Magnetic sensors in ITER tokamak and in other future fusion devices will face an environment with temperature often elevated well above 200 °C. Dedicated test benches are needed to allow characterization of performance of magnetic sensors at such elevated temperatures. This contribution describes realization of test bench for calibration of steady state magnetic sensors based on Hall effect. The core of the set-up is the coil providing DC calibration magnetic field. Optimization of coils design to ensure its compatibility with elevated temperature up to 300 °C is described. Optimized coil was manufactured, and calibrated both at room temperature and at temperature of 250 °C. Measured calibration magnetic field of the coil biased by a 30 A commercial laboratory power supplies is 224 mT. The coil is supplemented by PID regulated air cooling system for fine control of sensors temperature during measurements. Data acquisition system is composed from PC A/D converter boards with resolution below 1 μV. The key parameters of the test bench are remotely controllable and the system allows long term continuous measurements including tests of irradiated samples. The performance of the test bench is demonstrated on recent measurements with metal Hall sensors based on thin copper sensing layers

  7. NetBench. Automated Network Performance Testing

    CERN Document Server

    Cadeddu, Mattia

    2016-01-01

    In order to evaluate the operation of high performance routers, CERN has developed the NetBench software to run benchmarking tests by injecting various traffic patterns and observing the network devices behaviour in real-time. The tool features a modular design with a Python based console used to inject traffic and collect the results in a database, and a web user

  8. Loading Intensity Prediction by Velocity and the OMNI-RES 0-10 Scale in Bench Press.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naclerio, Fernando; Larumbe-Zabala, Eneko

    2017-02-01

    Naclerio, F and Larumbe-Zabala, E. Loading intensity prediction by velocity and the OMNI-RES 0-10 scale in bench press. J Strength Cond Res 32(1): 323-329, 2017-This study examined the possibility of using movement velocity and the perceived exertion as indicators of relative load in the bench press (BP) exercise. A total of 308 young, healthy, resistance trained athletes (242 men and 66 women) performed a progressive strength test up to the one repetition maximum for the individual determination of the full load-velocity and load-exertion relationships. Longitudinal regression models were used to predict the relative load from the average velocity (AV) and the OMNI-Resistance Exercise Scales (OMNI-RES 0-10 scale), considering sets as the time-related variable. Load associated with the AV and the OMNI-RES 0-10 scale value expressed after performing a set of 1-3 repetitions were used to construct 2 adjusted predictive equations: Relative load = 107.75 - 62.97 × average velocity; and Relative load = 29.03 + 7.26 × OMNI-RES 0-10 scale value. The 2 models were capable of estimating the relative load with an accuracy of 84 and 93%, respectively. These findings confirm the ability of the 2 calculated regression models, using load-velocity and load-exertion from the OMNI-RES 0-10 scale, to accurately predict strength performance in BP.

  9. 100 Area soil washing bench-scale test procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, H.D.; Gerber, M.A.; Mattigod, S.V.; Serne, R.J.

    1993-03-01

    This document describes methodologies and procedures for conducting soil washing treatability tests in accordance with the 100 Area Soil Washing Treatability Test Plan (DOE-RL 1992, Draft A). The objective of this treatability study is to evaluate the use of physical separation systems and chemical extraction methods as a means of separating chemically and radioactively contaminated soil fractions from uncontaminated soil fractions. These data will be primarily used for determining feasibility of the individual unit operations and defining the requirements for a system, or systems, for pilot-scale testing

  10. Development of remote data acquisition system based on OPC for brake test bench

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yiwei; Wu, Mengling; Tian, Chun; Ma, Tianhe

    2017-08-01

    The 1:1 train brake system test bench can be used to carry out brake-related adhesion-slid control, stability test, noise test and dynamic test. To collect data of the test bench, a data acquisition method is needed. In this paper, the remote data acquisition system of test bench is built by LabVIEW based on OPC technology. Unlike the traditional hardwire way connecting PLC acquisition module with sensors, the novel method is used to collect data and share them through the internal LAN built by Ethernet switches, which avoids the complex wiring interference in an easy, efficient and flexible way. The system has been successfully applied to the data acquisition activities of the comprehensive brake system test bench of CRRC Nanjing Puzhen Haitai Brake Equipment Co., Ltd., and the relationship test between the adhesion coefficient and the slip-ratio is realized. The speed signal, torque signal and brake disc temperature can be collected and displayed. The results show that the system is reliable, convenient, and efficient, and can meet the requirements of data acquisition.

  11. Application of high-throughput mini-bioreactor system for systematic scale-down modeling, process characterization, and control strategy development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janakiraman, Vijay; Kwiatkowski, Chris; Kshirsagar, Rashmi; Ryll, Thomas; Huang, Yao-Ming

    2015-01-01

    High-throughput systems and processes have typically been targeted for process development and optimization in the bioprocessing industry. For process characterization, bench scale bioreactors have been the system of choice. Due to the need for performing different process conditions for multiple process parameters, the process characterization studies typically span several months and are considered time and resource intensive. In this study, we have shown the application of a high-throughput mini-bioreactor system viz. the Advanced Microscale Bioreactor (ambr15(TM) ), to perform process characterization in less than a month and develop an input control strategy. As a pre-requisite to process characterization, a scale-down model was first developed in the ambr system (15 mL) using statistical multivariate analysis techniques that showed comparability with both manufacturing scale (15,000 L) and bench scale (5 L). Volumetric sparge rates were matched between ambr and manufacturing scale, and the ambr process matched the pCO2 profiles as well as several other process and product quality parameters. The scale-down model was used to perform the process characterization DoE study and product quality results were generated. Upon comparison with DoE data from the bench scale bioreactors, similar effects of process parameters on process yield and product quality were identified between the two systems. We used the ambr data for setting action limits for the critical controlled parameters (CCPs), which were comparable to those from bench scale bioreactor data. In other words, the current work shows that the ambr15(TM) system is capable of replacing the bench scale bioreactor system for routine process development and process characterization. © 2015 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  12. Bench Scale Process for Low Cost CO2 Capture Using a Phase-Changing Absorbent: Topical Report EH&S Risk Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westendorf, Tiffany; Farnum, Rachel; Perry, Robert; Herwig, Mark; Giolando, Salvatore; Green, Dianne; Morall, Donna

    2016-05-11

    GE Global Research was contracted by the Department of Energy to design and build a bench-scale process for a novel phase-changing aminosilicone-based CO2 capture solvent (award number DEFE0013687). As part of this program, a technology EH&S assessment (Subtask 5.1) has been completed for a CO2 capture system for a 550 MW coal-fired power plant. The assessment focuses on two chemicals used in the process, the aminosilicone solvent, GAP-0, and dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid (DDBSA), the GAP-0 carbamate formed upon reaction of the GAP-0 with CO2, and two potential byproducts formed in the process, GAP-0/SOx salts and amine-terminated, urea-containing silicone (also referred to as “ureas” in this report). The EH&S assessment identifies and estimates the magnitude of the potential air and water emissions and solid waste generated by the process and reviews the toxicological profiles of the chemicals associated with the process. Details regarding regulatory requirements, engineering controls, and storage and handling procedures are also provided in the following sections.

  13. Enhanced durability and reactivity for zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent. Volume 1, Bench-scale testing and analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jha, M.C.; Berggren, M.H.

    1989-05-02

    AMAX Research & Development Center (AMAX R&D) has been investigating methods for enhancing the reactivity and durability of the zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent. Zinc ferrite sorbents are intended for use in desulfurization of hot coal gas in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) or molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) applications. For the present program, the reactivity of the sorbent may be defined as its sulfur sorption capacity at the breakthrough point and at saturation in a bench-scale, fixed-bed reactor. Durability may be defined as the ability of the sorbent to maintain important physical characteristics such As size, strength, and specific surface area during 10 cycles of sulfidation and oxidation.

  14. BWR Mark I pressure suppression study: bench mark experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, W.; McCauley, E.W.

    1977-01-01

    Computer simulations representative of the wetwell of Mark I BWR's have predicted pressures and related phenomena. However, calculational predictions for purposes of engineering decision will be possible only if the code can be verified, i.e., shown to compute in accord with measured values. Described in the report is a set of single downcomer spherical flask bench mark experiments designed to produce quantitative data to validate various air-water dynamic computations; the experiments were performed since relevant bench mark data were not available from outside sources. Secondary purposes of the study were to provide a test bed for the instrumentation and post-experiment data processing techniques to be used in the Laboratory's reactor safety research program and to provide additional masurements for the air-water scaling study

  15. Coal flotation - bench-scale study. Flotacao de carvao estudo em escala de bancada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, A.R. de; Almeida, S L.M. de; Santos, A.T. dos

    1979-01-01

    Run-of-mine coal and pre-washed coal from Santa Catarina, Brazil, were characterized using washability curves and by particle size analysis after crushing. Bench-scale froth flotation tests were then conducted with the pre-washed coal. Kerosene and diesel oil were used as the collectors, and pine oil as the frother. The influence of starch (as depressor) on flotation was also studied. The effects of feed particle size, pH, collector addition, frother addition, depressor addition and flotation time were investigated. A 9.5% ash content coal could be obtained with a mass recovery of about 29%. (17 refs.)

  16. Test bench for measurements of NOvA scintillator properties at JINR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velikanova, D. S.; Antoshkin, A. I.; Anfimov, N. V.; Samoylov, O. B.

    2018-04-01

    The NOvA experiment was built to study oscillation parameters, mass hierarchy, CP- violation phase in the lepton sector and θ23 octant, via vɛ appearance and vμ disappearance modes in both neutrino and antineutrino beams. These scientific goals require good knowledge about NOvA scintillator basic properties. The new test bench was constructed and upgraded at JINR. The main goal of this bench is to measure scintillator properties (for solid and liquid scintillators), namely α/β discrimination and Birk's coefficients for protons and other hadrons (quenching factors). This knowledge will be crucial for recovering the energy of the hadronic part of neutrino interactions with scintillator nuclei. α/β discrimination was performed on the first version of the bench for LAB-based and NOvA scintillators. It was performed again on the upgraded version of the bench with higher statistic and precision level. Preliminary result of quenching factors for protons was obtained. A technical description of both versions of the bench and current results of the measurements and analysis are presented in this work.

  17. Polyethylene encapsulation of mixed wastes: Scale-up feasibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalb, P.D.; Heiser, J.H.; Colombo, P.

    1991-01-01

    A polyethylene process for the improved encapsulation of radioactive, hazardous, and mixed wastes have been developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). Improvements in waste loading and waste form performance have been demonstrated through bench-scale development and testing. Maximum waste loadings of up to 70 dry wt % mixed waste nitrate salt were achieved, compared with 13--20 dry wt % using conventional cement processes. Stability under anticipated storage and disposal conditions and compliance with applicable hazardous waste regulations were demonstrated through a series of lab-scale waste form performance tests. Full-scale demonstration of this process using actual or surrogate waste is currently planned. A scale-up feasibility test was successfully conducted, demonstrating the ability to process nitrate salts at production rates (up to 450 kg/hr) and the close agreement between bench- and full-scale process parameters. Cored samples from the resulting pilot-scale (114 liter) waste form were used to verify homogeneity and to provide additional specimens for confirmatory performance testing

  18. Passive flux meter measurement of water and nutrient flux in saturated porous media: bench-scale laboratory tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jaehyun; Annable, Michael D; Jawitz, James W; Hatfield, Kirk

    2007-01-01

    The passive nutrient flux meter (PNFM) is introduced for simultaneous measurement of both water and nutrient flux through saturated porous media. The PNFM comprises a porous sorbent pre-equilibrated with a suite of alcohol tracers, which have different partitioning coefficients. Water flux was estimated based on the loss of loaded resident tracers during deployment, while nutrient flux was quantified based on the nutrient solute mass captured on the sorbent. An anionic resin, Lewatit 6328 A, was used as a permeable sorbent and phosphate (PO4(3-)) was the nutrient studied. The phosphate sorption capacity of the resin was measured in batch equilibration tests as 56 mg PO4(3-) g(-1), which was determined to be adequate capacity to retain PO4(3-) loads intercepted over typical PNFM deployment periods in most natural systems. The PNFM design was validated with bench-scale laboratory tests for a range of 9.8 to 28.3 cm d(-1) Darcy velocities and 6 to 43 h deployment durations. Nutrient and water fluxes measured by the PNFM averaged within 6 and 12% of the applied values, respectively, indicating that the PNFM shows promise as a tool for simultaneous measurement of water and nutrient fluxes.

  19. Test bench HEATREC for heat loss measurement on solar receiver tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márquez, José M.; López-Martín, Rafael; Valenzuela, Loreto; Zarza, Eduardo

    2016-05-01

    In Solar Thermal Electricity (STE) plants the thermal energy of solar radiation is absorbed by solar receiver tubes (HCEs) and it is transferred to a heat transfer fluid. Therefore, heat losses of receiver tubes have a direct influence on STE plants efficiency. A new test bench called HEATREC has been developed by Plataforma Solar de Almería (PSA) in order to determinate the heat losses of receiver tubes under laboratory conditions. The innovation of this test bench consists in the possibility to determine heat losses under controlled vacuum.

  20. Treatment studies of plutonium-bearing INEEL waste surrogates in a bench-scale arc furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, C.J.

    1997-05-01

    Since 1989, the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) at the Idaho National Environmental and Engineering Laboratory (INEEL) has been included on the National Priority List for remediation. Arc- and plasma-heated furnaces are being considered for converting the radioactive mixed waste buried in the SDA to a stabilized-vitreous form. Nonradioactive, surrogate SDA wastes have been melted during tests in these types of furnaces, but data are needed on the behavior of transuranic (TRU) constituents, primarily plutonium, during thermal treatment. To begin collecting this data, plutonium-spiked SDA surrogates were processed in a bench-scale arc furnace to quantify the fate of the plutonium and other hazardous and nonhazardous metals. Test conditions included elevating the organic, lead, chloride, and sodium contents of the surrogates. Blends having higher organic contents caused furnace power levels to fluctuate. An organic content corresponding to 50% INEEL soil in a soil-waste blend was the highest achievable before power fluctuations made operating conditions unacceptable. The glass, metal, and off-gas solids produced from each surrogate blend tested were analyzed for elemental (including plutonium) content and the partitioning of each element to the corresponding phase was calculated

  1. Treatment studies of plutonium-bearing INEEL waste surrogates in a bench-scale arc furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, C.J.

    1997-05-01

    Since 1989, the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) at the Idaho National Environmental and Engineering Laboratory (INEEL) has been included on the National Priority List for remediation. Arc- and plasma-heated furnaces are being considered for converting the radioactive mixed waste buried in the SDA to a stabilized-vitreous form. Nonradioactive, surrogate SDA wastes have been melted during tests in these types of furnaces, but data are needed on the behavior of transuranic (TRU) constituents, primarily plutonium, during thermal treatment. To begin collecting this data, plutonium-spiked SDA surrogates were processed in a bench-scale arc furnace to quantify the fate of the plutonium and other hazardous and nonhazardous metals. Test conditions included elevating the organic, lead, chloride, and sodium contents of the surrogates. Blends having higher organic contents caused furnace power levels to fluctuate. An organic content corresponding to 50% INEEL soil in a soil-waste blend was the highest achievable before power fluctuations made operating conditions unacceptable. The glass, metal, and off-gas solids produced from each surrogate blend tested were analyzed for elemental (including plutonium) content and the partitioning of each element to the corresponding phase was calculated.

  2. Old star clusters: Bench tests of low mass stellar models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salaris M.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Old star clusters in the Milky Way and external galaxies have been (and still are traditionally used to constrain the age of the universe and the timescales of galaxy formation. A parallel avenue of old star cluster research considers these objects as bench tests of low-mass stellar models. This short review will highlight some recent tests of stellar evolution models that make use of photometric and spectroscopic observations of resolved old star clusters. In some cases these tests have pointed to additional physical processes efficient in low-mass stars, that are not routinely included in model computations. Moreover, recent results from the Kepler mission about the old open cluster NGC6791 are adding new tight constraints to the models.

  3. A comparison of large-scale electron beam and bench-scale 60Co irradiations of simulated aqueous waste streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurucz, Charles N.; Waite, Thomas D.; Otaño, Suzana E.; Cooper, William J.; Nickelsen, Michael G.

    2002-11-01

    The effectiveness of using high energy electron beam irradiation for the removal of toxic organic chemicals from water and wastewater has been demonstrated by commercial-scale experiments conducted at the Electron Beam Research Facility (EBRF) located in Miami, Florida and elsewhere. The EBRF treats various waste and water streams up to 450 l min -1 (120 gal min -1) with doses up to 8 kilogray (kGy). Many experiments have been conducted by injecting toxic organic compounds into various plant feed streams and measuring the concentrations of compound(s) before and after exposure to the electron beam at various doses. Extensive experimentation has also been performed by dissolving selected chemicals in 22,700 l (6000 gal) tank trucks of potable water to simulate contaminated groundwater, and pumping the resulting solutions through the electron beam. These large-scale experiments, although necessary to demonstrate the commercial viability of the process, require a great deal of time and effort. This paper compares the results of large-scale electron beam irradiations to those obtained from bench-scale irradiations using gamma rays generated by a 60Co source. Dose constants from exponential contaminant removal models are found to depend on the source of radiation and initial contaminant concentration. Possible reasons for observed differences such as a dose rate effect are discussed. Models for estimating electron beam dose constants from bench-scale gamma experiments are presented. Data used to compare the removal of organic compounds using gamma irradiation and electron beam irradiation are taken from the literature and a series of experiments designed to examine the effects of pH, the presence of turbidity, and initial concentration on the removal of various organic compounds (benzene, toluene, phenol, PCE, TCE and chloroform) from simulated groundwater.

  4. A comparison of large-scale electron beam and bench-scale 60Co irradiations of simulated aqueous waste streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurucz, Charles N.; Waite, Thomas D.; Otano, Suzana E.; Cooper, William J.; Nickelsen, Michael G.

    2002-01-01

    The effectiveness of using high energy electron beam irradiation for the removal of toxic organic chemicals from water and wastewater has been demonstrated by commercial-scale experiments conducted at the Electron Beam Research Facility (EBRF) located in Miami, Florida and elsewhere. The EBRF treats various waste and water streams up to 450 l min -1 (120 gal min -1 ) with doses up to 8 kilogray (kGy). Many experiments have been conducted by injecting toxic organic compounds into various plant feed streams and measuring the concentrations of compound(s) before and after exposure to the electron beam at various doses. Extensive experimentation has also been performed by dissolving selected chemicals in 22,700 l (6000 gal) tank trucks of potable water to simulate contaminated groundwater, and pumping the resulting solutions through the electron beam. These large-scale experiments, although necessary to demonstrate the commercial viability of the process, require a great deal of time and effort. This paper compares the results of large-scale electron beam irradiations to those obtained from bench-scale irradiations using gamma rays generated by a 60 Co source. Dose constants from exponential contaminant removal models are found to depend on the source of radiation and initial contaminant concentration. Possible reasons for observed differences such as a dose rate effect are discussed. Models for estimating electron beam dose constants from bench-scale gamma experiments are presented. Data used to compare the removal of organic compounds using gamma irradiation and electron beam irradiation are taken from the literature and a series of experiments designed to examine the effects of pH, the presence of turbidity, and initial concentration on the removal of various organic compounds (benzene, toluene, phenol, PCE, TCE and chloroform) from simulated groundwater

  5. Automatic integrated testing bench for tubes in translation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dufayet, J.P.; Perdijon, J.

    1976-01-01

    All the nondestructive tests required for receiving the cladding tubes intended for fast nuclear reactor are integrated on this bench: quality control by eddy currents and ultra-sounds, thickness and (inner and outer) diameter measurement. The linear displacement of the tube allows very high rates to be attained [fr

  6. Bench-scale studies with mercury contaminated SRS soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cicero, C.A.

    1995-01-01

    Bench-scale studies with mercury contaminated soil were performed at the SRTC to determine the optimum waste loading obtainable in the glass product without sacrificing durability, leach resistance, and processability. Vitrifying this waste stream also required offgas treatment for the capture of the vaporized mercury. Four soil glasses with slight variations in composition were produced, which were capable of passing the Product Consistency Test (PCT) and the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP). The optimum glass feed composition contained 60 weight percent soil and produced a soda-lime-silica glass when melted at 1,350 C. The glass additives used to produce this glass were 24 weight percent Na 2 CO 3 and 16 weight percent CaCO 3 . Volatilized mercury released during the vitrification process was released to the proposed mercury collection system. The proposed mercury collection system consisted of quartz and silica tubing with a Na 2 S wash bottle followed by a NaOH wash bottle. Once in the system, the volatile mercury would pass through the wash bottle containing Na 2 S, where it would be converted to Hg 2 S, which is a stable form of mercury. However, attempts to capture the volatilized mercury in a Na 2 S solution wash bottle were not as successful as anticipated. Maximum mercury captured was only about 3.24% of the mercury contained in the feed. Mercury capture efforts then shifted to condensing and capturing the volatilized mercury. These attempts were much more successful at capturing the volatile mercury, with a capture efficiency of 34.24% when dry ice was used to pack the condenser. This captured mercury was treated on a mercury specific resin after digestion of the volatilized mercury

  7. Bench-scale and full-scale studies of nitric oxides reduction by gaseous fuel reburning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, S.; Xiang, J.; Sun, L.S.; Hu, S.; Zhu, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    Nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions from coal-fired boilers are significant contributors to atmospheric pollution. China has specified more rigorous legal limits for NOx emissions from power plants. As a result of the need to reduce NOx emissions, cost-effective NOx reduction strategies must be explored. This paper presented detailed experimental studies on a gaseous fuel reburning process that was performed in a 36 kilowatt bench-scale down-fired furnace to define the optimal reburning operating conditions when different Chinese coals were fired in the furnace. In addition, the combustion system of a 350 megawatt full-scale boiler was retrofitted according to the experimental results. Finally, the gaseous fuel reburning was applied to the retrofitted full-scale boiler. The purpose of the study was to obtain a better understanding of the influence of the key parameters on nitric oxide (NO) reduction efficiency of the reburning process and demonstrate the gaseous fuel reburning on a 350 MWe coal-fired boiler in China. The paper described the experimental procedure with particular reference to the experimental facility and measurement; a schematic diagram of the experimental system; experimental fuels; and characteristics of coals for the reburning experiments. Results that were presented included influence of reburn zone residence time; influence of gaseous reburn fuel per cent; influence of excess air coefficient; and unburned carbon in fly ash. It was concluded that both an above 50 per cent NO reduction efficiency and low carbon loss can be obtained by the gaseous fuel reburning process under the optimal operating conditions. 20 refs., 5 tabs., 10 figs

  8. Electrokinetic soil decontamination - summary of results of various studies in laboratory, bench-scale and field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutschan, B.; Wutzler, R.; Goldmann, T. [INTUS Inst. fuer Technologie und Umweltschutz e.V., Berlin (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    In electroremediation, contaminants are removed form soil and groundwater by the action of an electric potential applied across electrodes embedded in the contaminated medium. Driving the remediation are the electrokinetic phenomena of electro-osmosis, ion migration and electrophoresis. Other common physicochemical phenomena that are also present are diffusion, chemical reactions, hydrolysis (change of pH-value), ion exchange, complexation and others. The complex interactions between all these phenomena determine the processes. Important process parameters are transition rates, bulk liquid velocity, {zeta}-potential (Helmholtz-Smoluchowski-equation) and others. Some parameters are determined at laboratory-, bench- and field scale. (orig.)

  9. Engineering development of selective agglomeration: Task 5, Bench- scale process testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    Under the overall objectives of DOE Contract ``Engineering Development of Selective Agglomeration,`` there were a number of specific objectives in the Task 5 program. The prime objectives of Task 5 are highlighted below: (1) Maximize process performance in pyritic sulfur rejection and BTU recovery, (2) Produce a low ash product, (3) Compare the performance of the heavy agglomerant process based on diesel and the light agglomerant process using heptane, (4) Define optimum processing conditions for engineering design, (5) Provide first-level evaluation of product handleability, and (6) Explore and investigate process options/ideas which may enhance process performance and/or product handleability.

  10. Engineering development of selective agglomeration: Task 5, Bench- scale process testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    Under the overall objectives of DOE Contract Engineering Development of Selective Agglomeration,'' there were a number of specific objectives in the Task 5 program. The prime objectives of Task 5 are highlighted below: (1) Maximize process performance in pyritic sulfur rejection and BTU recovery, (2) Produce a low ash product, (3) Compare the performance of the heavy agglomerant process based on diesel and the light agglomerant process using heptane, (4) Define optimum processing conditions for engineering design, (5) Provide first-level evaluation of product handleability, and (6) Explore and investigate process options/ideas which may enhance process performance and/or product handleability.

  11. Developing of a software for determining advanced brake failures in brakes test bench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Köylü

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available At present time, the brake test bench conducts the braking and suspension tests of front or rear axles and the test results are evaluated through one axle. The purpose of the brake testing system is to determine braking force and damping coefficient dissymmetry of one axle. Thus, this test system evaluates the performance of service brake, hand brake and suspension systems by considering separately front and rear axle dissymmetry. For this reason, the effects of different braking and damping forces applied by right and left wheels of both axles on braking performance of all vehicle are not determined due to available algorithm of the test bench. Also, the other brake failures are not occurred due to the algorithm of brake test system. In this study, the interface has been developed to determine the other effects of dissymmetry and the other brake failures by using the one axle results of brake test bench. The interface has algorithm computing the parameters according to the interaction between front and rear axles by only using measured test results. Also, it gives the warnings by comparing changes in the parameters with braking performance rules. Braking and suspension tests of three different vehicles have been conducted by using brake test bench to determine the performance of the algorithm. Parameters based on the axle interaction have been calculated by transferring brake test results to the interface and the test results have been evaluated. As a result, the effects of brake and suspension failures on braking performance of both axle and vehicle have been determined thanks to the developed interface.

  12. Hydrogen production with short contact time. Catalytic partial oxidation of hydrocarbons and oxygenated compounds: Recent advances in pilot- and bench-scale testing and process design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guarinoni, A.; Ponzo, R.; Basini, L. [ENI Refining and Marketing Div., San Donato Milanese (Italy)

    2010-12-30

    ENI R and D has been active for fifteen years in the development of Short Contact Time - Catalytic Partial Oxidation (SCT-CPO) technologies for producing Hydrogen/Synthesis Gas. From the beginning the experimental work addressed either at defining the fundamental principles or the technical and economical potential of the technology. Good experimental responses, technical solutions' simplicity and flexibility, favourable techno-economical evaluations promoted the progressive widening of the field of the investigations. From Natural Gas (NG) the range of ''processable'' Hydrocarbons extended to Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) and Gasoils, including those characterised by high levels of unsaturated and sulphurated molecules and, lately, to other compounds with biological origin. The extensive work led to the definition of different technological solutions, grouped as follows: Technology 1: Air Blown SCT-CPO of Gaseous Hydrocarbons and/or Light Compounds with biological origin Technology 2: Enriched Air/Oxygen Blown SCT-CPO of Gaseous Hydrocarbons and/or Light Compounds with biological origin Technology 3: Enriched Air/Oxygen Blown SCT-CPO of Liquid Hydrocarbons and/or Compounds with biological origin Recently, the licence rights on a non-exclusive basis for the commercialisation of SCT-CPO based processes for H{sub 2}/Synthesis gas production from light hydrocarbons with production capacity lower than 5,000 Nm{sup 3}/h of H{sub 2} or 7,500 Nm3/h of syngas have been assigned to two external companies. In parallel, development of medium- and large-scale plant solutions is progressing within the ENI group framework. These last activities are addressed to the utilisation of SCT-CPO for matching the variable Hydrogen demand in several contexts of oil refining operation. This paper will report on the current status of SCT-CPO with a focus on experimental results obtained, either at pilot- and bench- scale level. (orig.)

  13. Tests of the Daimler D-IVa Engine at a High Altitude Test Bench

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noack, W G

    1920-01-01

    Reports of tests of a Daimler IVa engine at the test-bench at Friedrichshafen, show that the decrease of power of that engine, at high altitudes, was established, and that the manner of its working when air is supplied at a certain pressure was explained. These tests were preparatory to the installation of compressors in giant aircraft for the purpose of maintaining constant power at high altitudes.

  14. Wind Generators Test Bench. Optimal Design of PI Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TUDORACHE, T.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel and robust strategy for the optimal design of the drive system integrated in a wind generators test bench. The PI regulator coefficients used in control systems are usually computed based on simplified hypotheses and then tuned manually so as the system response meet certain specifications in terms of stability, accuracy and speed. The proposed methodology permits the automatic identification of PI regulator coefficients using intelligent optimization algorithms, the initial guess for the search procedure being determined based on particular simplified hypotheses. The proposed procedure can help the design engineers to drastically reduce the effort for finding the best PI regulator coefficients offering a range of feasible solutions depending on the imposed optimum criteria. The characteristics and performances of the optimization strategy are highlighted by using it for the design of a DC motor drive system used to simulate the wind prime mover integrated in a wind generators test bench.

  15. Optimization of an Optical Test Bench for Tire Properties Measurement and Tread Defects Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Jesús Castillo Aguilar

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Tire characteristics and behavior are of great importance in vehicle dynamics since the forces transmitted in the tire-road contact are the main contributors to global vehicle performance. Several research groups have focused on the study and modeling of tires. Some of the most important factors that need to be known are tread characteristics and pressure distribution in the tire-ground contact patch. In this work, a test bench has been used to adequately determine the aforementioned factors. The measurement principle of the test bench is the frustration of total internal reflection (FTIR of light. It makes use of a laterally illuminated glass on which the tire leans. An interposed plastic interface between them causes the reflection of light. Finally, a video camera captures the bright image formed through the glass. The brightness level in each pixel of the image is related to existing normal pressure. A study of the parameters that affect the test bench calibration such as type of interface material used, diffuse light, hysteresis, creep and transverse light absorption is performed. Experimental tests are conducted to relate tire inflation pressure and camber angle to the pressure distribution. Furthermore, the test bench is used to detect and evaluate the influence of defects in the tire on the contact pressures.

  16. Bench- and pilot-scale demonstration of thermal desorption for removal of mercury from the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek floodplain soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, M.I.; Sams, R.J.; Gillis, G.; Helsel, R.W.; Alperin, E.S.; Geisler, T.J.; Groen, A.; Root, D.

    1995-01-01

    Thermal desorption is an innovative technology that has seen significant growth in applications to organically contaminated soils and sludges for the remediation of hazardous, radioactive and mixed waste sites. This paper will present the results of a bench and pilot-scale demonstration of this technology for the removal of mercury from the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek floodplain soil. Results demonstrate that the mercury in this soil can be successfully removed to the target treatment levels of 10 milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg) and that all process residuals could be rendered RCRA-nonhazardous as defined by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Sampling and analyses of the desorber off-gas before and after the air pollution control system demonstrated effective collection of mercury and organic constituents. Pilot-scale testing was also conducted to verify requirements for material handling of soil into and out of the process. This paper will also present a conceptual design and preliminary costs of a full-scale system, including feed preparation, thermal treatment, and residuals handling for the soil

  17. Bench-scale enhanced sludge washing and gravity settling of Hanford Tank C-106 Sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, K.P.; Myers, R.L.; Rappe, K.G.

    1997-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of a bench-scale sludge pretreatment demonstration of the Hanford baseline flowsheet using liter-quantities of sludge from Hanford Site single-shell tank 241-C-106 (tank C-106). The leached and washed sludge from these tests provided Envelope D material for the contractors supporting Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Privatization. Pretreatment of the sludge included enhanced sludge washing and gravity settling tests and providing scale-up data for both these unit operations. Initial and final solids as well as decanted supernatants from each step of the process were analyzed chemically and radiochemically. The results of this work were compared to those of Lumetta et al. (1996a) who performed a similar experiment with 15 grams of C-106, sludge. A summary of the results are shown in Table S.1. Of the major nonradioactive components, those that were significantly removed with enhanced sludge washing included aluminum (31%), chromium (49%), sodium (57%), and phosphorus (35%). Of the radioactive components, a significant amount of 137 Cs (49%) were removed during the enhanced sludge wash. Only a very small fraction of the remaining radionuclides were removed, including 90 Sr (0.4%) and TRU elements (1.5%). These results are consistent with those of the screening test. All of the supernatants (both individually and as a blend) removed from these washing steps, once vitrified as LLW glasses (at 20 wt% Na 2 O), would be less than NRC Class C in TRU elements and less than NRC Class B in 90 Sr

  18. Simulation of the LHC injection kicker impedance test bench

    CERN Document Server

    Tsutsui, H

    2003-01-01

    The coupling impedance measurements of the LHC injection kicker test bench are simulated by HFSS code. The simulation gives qualitatively good agreement with the measurement. In order to damp the resonances, some ferrite rings are tested in the simulation. Longitudinal resonances are damped by a ferrite ring of large tan$\\delta_{\\mu}$. The effect of the ferrite ring is small for damping the transverse impedance resonance around 30 MHz.

  19. Design and construction of the HESR BPM prototype wire test bench at COSY, Forschungzentrum Juelich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srinivasan, Sudharsan; Kamerdzhiev, Vsevolod; Boehme, Christian [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The Institute of Nuclear Physics 4(IKP-4), of the Research Center Juelich (FZJ), is in charge of building and commissioning the High Energy Storage Ring (HESR) within the international facility, Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) at Darmstadt. Beam Position Monitors (BPMs) are an essential instrument for any accelerator allowing operators to accurately monitor and control the accelerated beam. The demand for a BPM test bench will be showcased which will help to assess the design's ability to meet the system requirements. The weight is on the factors considered for the development of the initial test bench, its functional components, the metrology tests for ensuring positional measurement accuracy, and the design modifications from metrology investigations leading to the conceptual development of a new test bench.

  20. JV TASK 45-MERCURY CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES FOR ELECTRIC UTILITIES BURNING LIGNITE COAL, PHASE I BENCH-AND PILOT-SCALE TESTING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John H. Pavlish; Michael J. Holmes; Steven A. Benson; Charlene R. Crocker; Edwin S. Olson; Kevin C. Galbreath; Ye Zhuang; Brandon M. Pavlish

    2003-10-01

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center has completed the first phase of a 3-year, two-phase consortium project to develop and demonstrate mercury control technologies for utilities that burn lignite coal. The overall project goal is to maintain the viability of lignite-based energy production by providing utilities with low-cost options for meeting future mercury regulations. Phase I objectives are to develop a better understanding of mercury interactions with flue gas constituents, test a range of sorbent-based technologies targeted at removing elemental mercury (Hg{sup o}) from flue gases, and demonstrate the effectiveness of the most promising technologies at the pilot scale. The Phase II objectives are to demonstrate and quantify sorbent technology effectiveness, performance, and cost at a sponsor-owned and operated power plant. Phase I results are presented in this report along with a brief overview of the Phase II plans. Bench-scale testing provided information on mercury interactions with flue gas constituents and relative performances of the various sorbents. Activated carbons were prepared from relatively high-sodium lignites by carbonization at 400 C (752 F), followed by steam activation at 750 C (1382 F) and 800 C (1472 F). Luscar char was also steam-activated at these conditions. These lignite-based activated carbons, along with commercially available DARCO FGD and an oxidized calcium silicate, were tested in a thin-film, fixed-bed, bench-scale reactor using a simulated lignitic flue gas consisting of 10 {micro}g/Nm{sup 3} Hg{sup 0}, 6% O{sub 2}, 12% CO{sub 2}, 15% H{sub 2}O, 580 ppm SO{sub 2}, 120 ppm NO, 6 ppm NO{sub 2}, and 1 ppm HCl in N{sub 2}. All of the lignite-based activated (750 C, 1382 F) carbons required a 30-45-minute conditioning period in the simulated lignite flue gas before they exhibited good mercury sorption capacities. The unactivated Luscar char and oxidized calcium silicate were ineffective in capturing mercury. Lignite

  1. Hydrothermal and alkaline hydrothermal pretreatments plus anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge for dewatering and biogas production: Bench-scale research and pilot-scale verification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunxing; Wang, Xingdong; Zhang, Guangyi; Yu, Guangwei; Lin, Jingjiang; Wang, Yin

    2017-06-15

    To test the feasibility and practicability of the process combing hydrothermal pretreatment for dewatering with biogas production for full utilization of sewage sludge, hydrothermal/alkaline hydrothermal pretreatments and in turn anaerobic digestion of the filtrates obtained after dewatering the pretreated sludge were performed at bench- and pilot-scales. The hydrothermal temperature fell within the range of 140 °C-220 °C and the pretreatment time varied from 30 min to 120 min. For the alkaline hydrothermal pretreatment the pH value of the sludge was adjusted to 9.0-11.0 by adding Ca(OH) 2 . The results showed that the dewaterability of the sewage sludge was improved with increasing pretreatment temperature but the impact of the pretreatment time was not significant. The addition of Ca(OH) 2 gave better performance on the subsequent mechanical dewatering of the pretreated sludge compared to pure hydrothermal pretreatment, and the higher the pH value was, the better the dewaterability of the pretreated sludge was. The conditions of 180 °C/30 min and 160 °C/60 min/pH = 10.0 (for hydrothermal and alkaline hydrothermal pretreatments, respectively) resulted in relatively good results in the theoretical energy balance, which were verified in the pilot-scale tests. Based on the data from the pilot tests, the alkaline hydrothermal process realized self-sufficiency in energy at the cost of a proper amount of CaO. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. CO2 Employment as Refrigerant Fluid with a Low Environmental Impact. Experimental Tests on Arugula and Design Criteria for a Test Bench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biagio Bianchi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to define design criteria for CO2 refrigeration systems to be used for agricultural products and foodstuff storage, a variable geometrical system was realized, with the goal of meeting a wide range of environmental and process conditions, such as producing low environmental impact and maintaining the highest Coefficient of Performance (COP, at the same time. This test-bench, at semi-industrial scale, was designed as a result of experimental tests carried out on Arugula. The storage tests showed that all samples stored in cold rooms with R.H. control showed a slight increase of weight but also small rot zones in all the boxes due to an excessive accumulation of water condensation; thus, the system may not have achieved conditions that RH requires in a given range, without reaching saturation condition. At the same time, the use of CO2 must be adequately tested along its thermodynamic cycle, during steady state and/or transient conditions, imposing variable working conditions that can simulate plant starting phase or some striking conservation process, like those that characterize sausages. The designed plant will allow studying these specific performances and evaluate COP variation, according to environmental and plant operating conditions.

  3. Centrifuge - dewatering of oil sand fluid tailings: phase 2 field-scale test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seto, Jack T.C. [BGC Engineering Inc (Canada); O' Kane, Mike [O' Kane Consultants Inc (Canada); Donahue, Robert [Applied Geochemical Solutions Engineering (Canada); Lahaie, Rick [Syncrude Canada Ltd (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    In order to reduce the accumulation of oil sand fluid fine tailings (FFT) and to create trafficable surfaces for reclamation, Syncrude Canada Ltd. has been studying several tailings technologies. Centrifuge-dewatering is one such technology. This paper discusses the phase 2 field-scale tests for centrifuge-dewatering of oil sand FFT. In centrifuge-dewatering, FFT is diluted and treated with flocculant, then processed through a centrifuge plant and the high-density underflow is transported to a tailings deposit. This technology has evolved since 2005 from laboratory bench scale tests. More than 10,000 cubic meters of centrifuge cake was treated, produced and transported to ten different deposits over a 12-week period from August to October 2010. The amount of solids in FFT was increased from 30% to 50% by centrifuging. Sampled deposits were tested and instrumented for in situ strength. It can be concluded that the deposits can be strengthened and densified by natural dewatering processes like freeze-thaw action and evaporative drying.

  4. Development of training simulator based on critical assemblies test bench

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narozhnyi, A.T.; Vorontsov, S.V.; Golubeva, O.A.; Dyudyaev, A.M.; Il'in, V.I.; Kuvshinov, M.I.; Panin, A.V.; Peshekhonov, D.P.

    2007-01-01

    When preparing critical mass experiment, multiplying system (MS) parts are assembled manually. This work is connected with maximum professional risk to personnel. Personnel training and keeping the skill of working experts is the important factor of nuclear safety maintenance. For this purpose authors develop a training simulator based on functioning critical assemblies test bench (CATB), allowing simulation of the MS assemblage using training mockups made of inert materials. The control program traces the current status of MS under simulation. A change in the assembly neutron physical parameters is mapped in readings of the regular devices. The simulator information support is provided by the computer database on physical characteristics of typical MS components The work in the training mode ensures complete simulation of real MS assemblage on the critical test bench. It makes it possible to elaborate the procedures related to CATB operation in a standard mode safely and effectively and simulate possible abnormal situations. (author)

  5. Oxygen-controlled Biosurfactant Production in a Bench Scale Bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kronemberger, Frederico Araujo; Anna, Lidia Maria Melo Santa; Fernandes, Ana Carolina Loureiro Brito; de Menezes, Reginaldo Ramos; Borges, Cristiano Piacsek; Freire, Denise Maria Guimarães

    Rhamnolipids have been pointed out as promising biosurfactants. The most studied microorganisms for the aerobic production of these molecules are the bacteria of the genus Pseudomonas. The aim of this work was to produce a rhamnolipid-type biosurfactant in a bench-scale bioreactor by one strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from oil environments. To study the microorganism growth and production dependency on oxygen, a nondispersive oxygenation device was developed, and a programmable logic controller (PLC) was used to set the dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration. Using the data stored in a computer and the predetermined characteristics of the oxygenation device, it was possible to evaluate the oxygen uptake rate (OUR) and the specific OUR (SOUR) of this microorganism. These rates, obtained for some different DO concentrations, were then compared to the bacterial growth, to the carbon source consumption, and to the rhamnolipid and other virulence factors production. The SOUR presented an initial value of about 60.0 mg02/gdw h. Then, when the exponential growth phase begins, there is a rise in this rate. After that, the SOUR reduces to about 20.0 mg02/gdw h. The carbon source consumption is linear during the whole process.

  6. A novel bench-scale column assay to investigate site-specific nitrification biokinetics in biological rapid sand filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tatari, Karolina; Smets, Barth F.; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    A bench-scale assay was developed to obtain site-specific nitrification biokinetic information from biological rapid sand filters employed in groundwater treatment. The experimental set-up uses granular material subsampled from a full-scale filter, packed in a column, and operated with controlled...

  7. Bench-scale crossflow filtration of Hanford tank C-106, C-107, B-110, and U-110 sludge slurries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geeting, J.G.H.; Reynolds, B.A.

    1997-09-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has a bench-scale crossflow filter installed in a shielded hot cell for testing radioactive feeds. During FY97 experiments were conducted on slurries from radioactive Hanford waste from tanks C-106, C-107, B-110, and U-110. Each tank was tested at three slurry concentrations (8, 1.5, and 0.05 wt% solids). A two-parameter central composite design which tested transmembrane pressure from 5 to 40 psig and axial velocity from 3 to 9 ft/s was used for all feeds. Crossflow filtration was found to remove solids effectively, as judged by filtrate clarity and radiochemical analysis. If the filtrates from these tests were immobilized in a glass matrix, the resulting transuranic and ( 90 Sr) activity would not breach low activity waste glass limits of 100nCi/g (TRU) and 20 μCi/ml ( 90 Sr). Two exceptions were the transuranic activity in filtrates from processing 1.5 and 8 wt% C-106 tank waste. Subsequent analyses indicated that the source of the TRU activity in the filtrate was most likely due to soluble activity, but obviously proved ineffective at removing the soluble plutonium species. Re-testing of the C-106 supported this hypothesis. These data suggest the need to control carbonate and pH when processing tank wastes for immobilization

  8. Bidirectional converter interface for a battery energy storage test bench

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trintis, Ionut; Thomas, Stephan; Blank, Tobias

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the bidirectional converter interface for a 6 kV battery energy storage test bench. The power electronic interface consists a two stage converter topology having a low voltage dc-ac grid connected converter and a new dual active bridge dc-dc converter with high transformation...

  9. Runoff and sediment generation on bench-terraced hillsides: measurements and up-scaling of a field-based model

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, A. I. J. M.; Bruijnzeel, L. A.; Vertessy, R. A.; Ruijter, J.

    2005-05-01

    Despite widespread bench-terracing, stream sediment yields from agricultural hillsides in upland West Java remain high. We studied the causes of this lack of effect by combining measurements at different spatial scales using an erosion process model. Event runoff and sediment yield from two 4-ha terraced hillside subcatchments were measured and field surveys of land use, bench-terrace geometry and storage of sediment in the drainage network were conducted for two consecutive years. Runoff was 3.0-3.9% of rainfall and sediment yield was 11-30 t ha-1 yr-1 for different years, subcatchments and calculation techniques. Sediment storage changes in the subcatchment drainage network were less than 2 t ha-1, whereas an additional 0.3-1.5 t ha-1 was stored in the gully between the subcatchment flumes and the main stream. This suggests mean annual sediment delivery ratios of 86-125%, or 80-104% if this additional storage is included. The Terrace Erosion and Sediment Transport (TEST) model developed and validated for the studied environment was parameterized using erosion plot studies, land use surveys and digital terrain analysis to simulate runoff and sediment generation on the terraced hillsides. This resulted in over-estimates of runoff and under-estimates of runoff sediment concentration. Relatively poor model performance was attributed to sample bias in the six erosion plots used for model calibration and unaccounted covariance between important terrain attributes such as slope, infiltration capacity, soil conservation works and vegetation cover.

  10. The National Football League-225 Bench Press Test and the Size-Weight Illusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luebbers, Paul E; Buckingham, Gavin; Butler, Michael S

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to test reports that size and arrangement manipulations of weight plates (i.e., inducing a size-weight illusion [SWI]) effect athletic weightlifting performance. The participants were 72 experienced, weight-trained collegiate American football players. Across three weeks, each athlete performed three different repetitions-to-fatigue bench press tests (NFL-225, SWI-225, and SWI-215). A multiple regression revealed a positive association between participants' strength relative to the test load and repetitions for NFL-225 and SWI-215, but no association with SWI-225. To explore these results, players were ranked into quartiles based on their one-repetition maximum relative to 102.27 kg (225 lb), and a 3 × 4 repeated measures analysis of variance was conducted. The primary finding was a significant Test Condition × Quartile interaction ( p = .004). Bonferroni-corrected pairwise comparisons revealed that Quartile 4 (those with lowest strength relative to test load) completed more repetitions for SWI-225 compared with NFL-225 ( p = .049). These results suggest that alternate weight plate arrangements may be beneficial for those whose bench press load is near the lifter's one-repetition maximum. However, variations of the SWI do not appear to affect the performance of repetitions-to-fatigue bench press tests for the majority of collegiate American football players.

  11. EFRT M12 Issue Resolution: Comparison of PEP and Bench-Scale Oxidative Leaching Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapko, Brian M.; Brown, Christopher F.; Eslinger, Paul W.; Fountain, Matthew S.; Hausmann, Tom S.; Huckaby, James L.; Hanson, Brady D.; Kurath, Dean E.; Minette, Michael J.

    2009-08-14

    20 wt% solids using cross-flow ultrafiltration before the addition of caustic. For wastes that have significantly high chromium content, the caustic leaching and slurry dewatering is followed by adding sodium permanganate to UFP-VSL-T02A, and the slurry is subjected to oxidative leaching at nominally ambient temperature. The purpose of the oxidative leaching is to selectively oxidize the poorly alkaline-soluble Cr(III) believed to be the insoluble form in Hanford tank sludge to the much more alkaline-soluble Cr(VI), e.g., chromate. The work described in this report provides the test results that are related to the efficiency of the oxidative leaching process to support process modeling based on tests performed with a Hanford waste simulant. The tests were completed both at the lab-bench scale and in the PEP. The purpose of this report is to summarize the results from both scales that are related to oxidative leaching chemistry to support a scale factor for the submodels to be used in the G2 model, which predicts WTP operating performance. Owing to schedule constraints, the PEP test data to be included in this report are limited to those from Integrated Tests A (T01 A/B caustic leaching) and B (T02A caustic leaching).

  12. Pilot-scale tests of HEME and HEPA dissolution process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qureshi, Z.H.; Strege, D.K.

    1994-06-01

    A series of pilot-scale demonstration tests for the dissolution of High Efficiency Mist Eliminators (HEME`s) and High Efficiency Particulate Airfilters (HEPA) were performed on a 1/5th linear scale. These fiberglass filters are to be used in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) to decontaminate the effluents from the off-gases generated during the feed preparation process and vitrification. When removed, these filters will be dissolved in the Decontamination Waste Treatment Tank (DWTT) using 5 wt% NaOH solution. The contaminated fiberglass is converted to an aqueous stream which will be transferred to the waste tanks. The filter metal structure will be rinsed with process water before its disposal as low-level solid waste. The pilot-scale study reported here successfully demonstrated a simple one step process using 5 wt% NaOH solution. The proposed process requires the installation of a new water spray ring with 30 nozzles. In addition to the reduced waste generated, the total process time is reduced to 48 hours only (66% saving in time). The pilot-scale tests clearly demonstrated that the dissolution process of HEMEs has two stages - chemical digestion of the filter and mechanical erosion of the digested filter. The digestion is achieved by a boiling 5 wt% caustic solutions, whereas the mechanical break down of the digested filter is successfully achieved by spraying process water on the digested filter. An alternate method of breaking down the digested filter by increased air sparging of the solution was found to be marginally successful are best. The pilot-scale tests also demonstrated that the products of dissolution are easily pumpable by a centrifugal pump.

  13. Pilot-scale tests of HEME and HEPA dissolution process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, Z.H.; Strege, D.K.

    1994-06-01

    A series of pilot-scale demonstration tests for the dissolution of High Efficiency Mist Eliminators (HEME's) and High Efficiency Particulate Airfilters (HEPA) were performed on a 1/5th linear scale. These fiberglass filters are to be used in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) to decontaminate the effluents from the off-gases generated during the feed preparation process and vitrification. When removed, these filters will be dissolved in the Decontamination Waste Treatment Tank (DWTT) using 5 wt% NaOH solution. The contaminated fiberglass is converted to an aqueous stream which will be transferred to the waste tanks. The filter metal structure will be rinsed with process water before its disposal as low-level solid waste. The pilot-scale study reported here successfully demonstrated a simple one step process using 5 wt% NaOH solution. The proposed process requires the installation of a new water spray ring with 30 nozzles. In addition to the reduced waste generated, the total process time is reduced to 48 hours only (66% saving in time). The pilot-scale tests clearly demonstrated that the dissolution process of HEMEs has two stages - chemical digestion of the filter and mechanical erosion of the digested filter. The digestion is achieved by a boiling 5 wt% caustic solutions, whereas the mechanical break down of the digested filter is successfully achieved by spraying process water on the digested filter. An alternate method of breaking down the digested filter by increased air sparging of the solution was found to be marginally successful are best. The pilot-scale tests also demonstrated that the products of dissolution are easily pumpable by a centrifugal pump

  14. Bench-Scale Evaluation of Peracetic Acid and Twin Oxide ™ as Disinfectants in Drinking Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chlorine is widely used as an inexpensive and potent disinfectant in the United States for drinking water. However, chlorine has the potential for forming carcinogenic and mutagenic disinfection by-products (DBPs). In this study, bench scale experiments were conducted at the U.S...

  15. Study of ignition, combustion, and production of harmful substances upon burning solid organic fuel at a test bench with a vortex chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdukov, A. P.; Chernetskiy, M. Yu.; Dekterev, A. A.; Anufriev, I. S.; Strizhak, P. A.; Greben'kov, P. Yu.

    2016-01-01

    Results of investigation of furnace processes upon burning of pulverized fuel at a test bench with a power of 5 MW are presented. The test bench consists of two stages with tangential air and pulverized coal feed, and it is equipped by a vibrocentrifugal mill and a disintegrator. Such milling devices have an intensive mechanical impact on solid organic fuel, which, in a number of cases, increases the reactivity of ground material. The processes of ignition and stable combustion of a mixture of gas coal and sludge (wastes of concentration plant), as well as Ekibastus coal, ground in the disintegrator, were studied at the test bench. The results of experimental burning demonstrated that preliminary fuel grinding in the disintegrator provides autothermal combustion mode even for hardly inflammable organic fuels. Experimental combustion of biomass, wheat straw with different lignin content (18, 30, 60%) after grinding in the disintegrator, was performed at the test bench in order to determine the possibility of supporting stable autothermal burning. Stable biofuel combustion mode without lighting by highly reactive fuel was achieved in the experiments. The influence of the additive GTS-Powder (L.O.M. Leaders Co., Ltd., Republic of Korea) in the solid and liquid state on reducing sulfur oxide production upon burning Mugun coal was studied. The results of experimental combustion testify that, for an additive concentration from 1 to 15% of the total mass of the burned mixture, the maximum SO2 concentration reduction in ejected gases was not more than 18% with respect to the amount for the case of burning pure coal.

  16. The use of bench- and field-scale data for design of an in situ carbon tetrachloride bioremediation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peyton, B.M.; Truex, M.J.; Skeen, R.S.

    1995-04-01

    A suite of simulation models were developed as a design tool in support of an in situ bioremediation demonstration at the Hanford site in Washington state. The design tool, calibrated with field - and bench-scale data, was used to answer four field-scale system design questions: (1) What are the important reaction processes and kinetics? (2) How will biomass distribute in the aquifer in response to injected substrate? (3) What well configuration best ensures proper nutrient transport and process control? (4) What operating and monitoring strategy should be used to confirm effective remediation? This paper does not describe the design tool itself, but describes how the design tool was used to optimize field site design parameters such as well spacing, hydraulic control, contaminant destruction, and nutrient injection strategies

  17. Submicronic Particle Measurement Instrumentation Test Bench Data Acquisition and Control System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberdi, J.; Barcala, J. M.; Sanz, D.; Gomez, F. J.; Molinero, A.; Navarrete, J. J.

    1999-01-01

    This document describes the SAD-100 system characteristics. The unit makes the instrumentation test bench data acquisition and control, SAD-100 was designed and developed by Electronic and Automation Area (CIEMAT) and Aerosol Technology in Energy Generation Project (CIEMAT). (Author) 2 refs

  18. Test-retest reliability of barbell velocity during the free-weight bench-press exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Matt S; Beck, Travis W; DeFreitas, Jason M; Dillon, Michael A

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to calculate test-retest reliability statistics for peak barbell velocity during the free-weight bench-press exercise for loads corresponding to 10-90% of the 1-repetition maximum (1RM). Twenty-one healthy, resistance-trained men (mean ± SD age = 23.5 ± 2.7 years; body mass = 90.5 ± 14.6 kg; 1RM bench press = 125.4 ± 18.4 kg) volunteered for this study. A minimum of 48 hours after a maximal strength testing and familiarization session, the subjects performed single repetitions of the free-weight bench-press exercise at each tenth percentile (10-90%) of the 1RM on 2 separate occasions. For each repetition, the subjects were instructed to press the barbell as rapidly as possible, and peak barbell velocity was measured with a Tendo Weightlifting Analyzer. The test-retest intraclass correlation coefficients (model 2,1) and corresponding standard errors of measurement (expressed as percentages of the mean barbell velocity values) were 0.717 (4.2%), 0.572 (5.0%), 0.805 (3.1%), 0.669 (4.7%), 0.790 (4.6%), 0.785 (4.8%), 0.811 (5.8%), 0.714 (10.3%), and 0.594 (12.6%) for the weights corresponding to 10-90% 1RM. There were no mean differences between the barbell velocity values from trials 1 and 2. These results indicated moderate to high test-retest reliability for barbell velocity from 10 to 70% 1RM but decreased consistency at 80 and 90% 1RM. When examining barbell velocity during the free-weight bench-press exercise, greater measurement error must be overcome at 80 and 90% 1RM to be confident that an observed change is meaningful.

  19. Development program of hydrogen production by thermo-chemical water splitting is process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryutaro Hino

    2005-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) has been conducting R and D on the HTGR and also on thermo-chemical water splitting hydrogen production by using a iodine-sulfur cycle (IS process) in the HTTR project. The continuous hydrogen production for one week was demonstrated with a bench-scale test apparatus made of glass, and the hydrogen production rare was about 31 NL/h. Based on the test results and know-how obtained through the bench-scale test, a pilot test plant, which has a hydrogen production performance of 30 Nm 3 /h and will be operated under the high pressure up to 2 MPa, is being designed conceptually as the next step of the IS process development aiming to realize a future nuclear hydrogen production coupled with the HTGR. In this paper, we will introduce one-week continuous hydrogen production conducted with the bench-scale test apparatus and the pilot test program including R and D and an analytical system necessary for designing the pilot test plant. MW. Figure 1 shows an overview of the HTTR-IS plant. In this paper, we will introduce latest test results obtained with the bench-scale test apparatus and concepts of key components of the IS process, a sulfuric acid (H 2 SO 4 ) and a sulfur trioxide (SO 3 ) decomposers working under high-temperature corrosive circumstance, are also introduced as well as relating R and D and an analytical system for the pilot plant design. (authors)

  20. Design of a Test Bench for Intraocular Lens Optical Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alba-Bueno, Francisco; Vega, Fidel; Millan, Maria S, E-mail: francisco.alba-bueno@upc.edu, E-mail: fvega@oo.upc.edu, E-mail: millan@oo.upc.edu [Departamento de Optica y Optometria, Universidad Politecnica de Cataluna, C/ Violinista Vellsola 37, 08222 Terrassa (Spain)

    2011-01-01

    The crystalline lens is the responsible for focusing at different distances (accommodation) in the human eye. This organ grows throughout life increasing in size and rigidity. Moreover, due this growth it loses transparency through life, and becomes gradually opacified causing what is known as cataracts. Cataract is the most common cause of visual loss in the world. At present, this visual loss is recoverable by surgery in which the opacified lens is destroyed (phacoemulsification) and replaced by the implantation of an intraocular lens (IOL). If the IOL implanted is mono-focal the patient loses its natural capacity of accommodation, and as a consequence they would depend on an external optic correction to focus at different distances. In order to avoid this dependency, multifocal IOLs designs have been developed. The multi-focality can be achieved by using either, a refractive surface with different radii of curvature (refractive IOLs) or incorporating a diffractive surface (diffractive IOLs). To analyze the optical quality of IOLs it is necessary to test them in an optical bench that agrees with the ISO119679-2 1999 standard (Ophthalmic implants. Intraocular lenses. Part 2. Optical Properties and Test Methods). In addition to analyze the IOLs according to the ISO standard, we have designed an optical bench that allows us to simulate the conditions of a real human eye. To do that, we will use artificial corneas with different amounts of optical aberrations and several illumination sources with different spectral distributions. Moreover, the design of the test bench includes the possibility of testing the IOLs under off-axis conditions as well as in the presence of decentration and/or tilt. Finally, the optical imaging quality of the IOLs is assessed by using common metrics like the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF), the Point Spread Function (PSF) and/or the Strehl ratio (SR), or via registration of the IOL's wavefront with a Hartmann-Shack sensor and its

  1. Laboratory simulated slipstream testing of novel sulfur removal processes for gasification application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, Roland; Tsang, Albert; Cross, Joe; Summers, Clinton; Kornosky, Bob

    2008-01-01

    The Wabash River Integrated Methanol and Power Production from Clean Coal Technologies (IMPPCCT) project is investigating an Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) concept to evaluate integrated electrical power generation and methanol production from coal and other carbonaceous feedstocks. Research, development and testing (RD and T) that is currently being conducted under the project is evaluating cost effective process systems for removing contaminants, particularly sulfur species, from the generated gas which contains mainly synthesis gas (syngas), CO 2 and steam at concentrations acceptable for the methanol synthesis catalyst. The RD and T includes laboratory testing followed by bench-scale and field testing at the SG Solutions Gasification Plant located in West Terre Haute, Indiana. Actual synthesis gas produced by the plant was utilized at system pressure and temperature for bench-scale field testing. ConocoPhillips Company (COP) developed a sulfur removal technology based on a novel, regenerable sorbent - S Zorb trademark - to remove sulfur contaminants from gasoline at high temperatures. The sorbent was evaluated for its sulfur removal performance from the generated syngas especially in the presence of other components such as water and CO 2 which often cause sorbent performance to decline over time. This publication also evaluates the performance of a regenerable activated carbon system developed by Nucon International, Inc. in polishing industrial gas stream by removing sulfur species to parts-per-billion (ppb) levels. (author)

  2. The hot bench scale plant Ester for the vitrification of high level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nannicini, R.; Strazzer, A.; Cantale, C; Donato, A.; Grossi, G.

    1985-01-01

    In this paper the hot bench-scale plant ESTER for the vitrification of the high-level radioactive wastes is described, and the main results of the first radioactive campaign are reported. The ESTER plant, which is placed in the ADECO-ESSOR hot cells of the C.C.R.-EURATOM-ISPRA, has been built and is operated by the ENEA, Departement of Fuel Cycle. It began operating with real radioactive wastes about 1 year ago, solidifying a total of 12 Ci of fission products into 2,02 Kg of borosilicate glass, corresponding to 757 ml of glass. During the vitrification many samples of liquid and gaseous streams have been taken and analyzed. A radioactivity balance in the plant has been calculated, as well as a mass balance of nitrates and of the 137 Cs and 106 Ru volatized in the process

  3. Bench-scale experimental determination of the thermal diffusivity of crushed tuff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryder, E.E.; Finley, R.E.; George, J.T.; Ho, C.K.; Longenbaugh, R.S.; Connolly, J.R.

    1996-06-01

    A bench-scale experiment was designed and constructed to determine the effective thermal diffusivity of crushed tuff. Crushed tuff particles ranging from 12.5 mm to 37.5 mm (0.5 in. to 1.5 in.) were used to fill a cylindrical volume of 1.58 m 3 at an effective porosity of 0.48. Two iterations of the experiment were completed; the first spanning approximately 502 hours and the second 237 hours. Temperatures near the axial heater reached 700 degrees C, with a significant volume of the test bed exceeding 100 degrees C. Three post-test analysis techniques were used to estimate the thermal diffusivity of the crushed tuff. The first approach used nonlinear parameter estimation linked to a one dimensional radial conduction model to estimate thermal diffusivity from the first 6 hours of test data. The second method used the multiphase TOUGH2 code in conjunction with the first 20 hours of test data not only to estimate the crushed tuffs thermal diffusivity, but also to explore convective behavior within the test bed. Finally, the nonlinear conduction code COYOTE-II was used to determine thermal properties based on 111 hours of cool-down data. The post-test thermal diffusivity estimates of 5.0 x 10-7 m 2 /s to 6.6 x 10-7 m 2 /s were converted to effective thermal conductivities and compared to estimates obtained from published porosity-based relationships. No obvious match between the experimental data and published relationships was found to exist; however, additional data for other particle sizes and porosities are needed

  4. A Comparison between Bench Press Throw and Ballistic Push-Up tests to assess upper-body power in trained individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolomei, Sandro; Nigro, Federico; Ruggeri, Sandro; Lanzoni, Ivan Malagoli; Ciacci, Simone; Merni, Franco; Sadres, Eliahu; Hoffman, Jay R; Semprini, Gabriele

    2018-03-06

    The purpose of the present study was to validate the ballistic push-up test performed with hands on a force plate (BPU) as a method to measure upper-body power. Twenty-eight experienced resistance trained men (age = 25.4 ± 5.2 y; body mass = 78.5 ± 9.0 kg; body height = 179.6 ± 7.8 cm) performed, two days apart, a bench press 1RM test and upper-body power tests. Mean power and peak power were assessed using the bench press throw test (BT) and the BPU test performed in randomized order. The area under the force/power curve (AUC) obtained at BT was also calculated. Power expressed at BPU was estimated using a time-based prediction equation. Mean force and the participant's body weight were used to predict the bench press 1RM. Pearson product moment correlations were used to examine relationships between the power assessment methods and between the predicted 1RM bench and the actual value. Large correlations (0.79; p bench and the 1RM predicted by the BPU. Results of the present study indicate that BPU represents a valid and reliable method to estimate the upper-body power in resistance-trained individuals.

  5. A Novel 100 kW Power Hardware-in-the-Loop Emulation Test Bench for Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machines with Nonlinear Magnetics

    OpenAIRE

    Schmitt, Alexander; Richter, Jan; Gommeringer, Mario; Wersal, Thomas; Braun, Michael

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a high dynamic power hardware-inthe-loop (PHIL) emulation test bench to mimic arbitrary permanent magnet synchronous machines with nonlinear magnetics. The proposed PHIL test bench is composed of a high performance real-time simulation system to calculate the machine behaviour and a seven level modular multiphase multilevel converter to emulate the power flow of the virtual machine. The PHIL test bench is parametrized for an automotive synchronous machine and controlled by...

  6. Additive Manufactured Coronagraph Bench for Detection of Exoplanets

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to use additive manufacturing (AM) to build a Coronagraph Bench engineering test unit.  The versatility inherent in the 3D-printing process allows for a...

  7. Bench-scale studies of reactor-based treatment of fuel-contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truax, D.D.; Britto, R.; Sherrard, J.H.

    1995-01-01

    Biological treatment of hazardous wastes from accidental spills or underground storage tank leaks has generated interest in bioremediation as a natural, economical mechanism for site decontamination. Because of drawbacks of batch systems, and the successful use of continuous flow treatment of wastewater for several decades, it was felt that continuous treatment of such soils would be a feasible alternative treatment technique. Therefore, bench-scale bioreactor treatability studies were conducted and used contaminated soil made in the laboratory using No. 2 diesel fuel and sand. Contamination levels studied were from 1,335--6,675 mg (TPH) as derived from No. 2 fuel oil per kg sand. Variation in mean cell age was obtained between reactors, with sufficient nutrients and oxygen made available to ensure the fuel oil organics were the only limit to microbial growth. A theoretical biokinetic model was formulated based on Monod's theory of limiting substrate and continuous cultures. Biokinetic constants and removal efficiencies were evaluated. The off-gases, CO 2 , and volatile hydrocarbons were monitored for mass balance analysis of the process. The solids retention times for evaluating final TPH concentration of 100 mg/kg were also calculated. Removal efficiencies of up to 91% were attained at a loading of 1,335 mg TPH/kg wet sand, operated at a biological solid retention time (BSRT) of 60 days. Experiments also showed that TPH desorption and volatilization were not rate-limiting in the overall removal process. Sand-to-moisture ratios in excess of 3:1 were also shown to retard TPH removal rates very little. However, biokinetic constants were found to vary over a range of values. This was particularly true at varying diesel loading levels. Nevertheless, significant removal efficiency (up to 86%) was noted at the highest loading level tested, 6,675 mg TPH/kg wet sand

  8. The R and D D`s bearing test benches; Les bancs d`essais de paliers de la DER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vialettes, J.M. [Service Ensembles de Production, Departement Machines, Direction des Etudes et Recherches, Electricite de France (EDF), 92 - Clamart (France)

    1997-01-01

    In power generation plants, rotating machines are involved in energy transformation processes and safety systems. The bearings supporting the rotors and the thrust bearings play a crucial role in the reliability of these machines. The phenomena encountered straddle several disciplines: hydrodynamics, tribology, thermomechanics, materials and vibrations in a specific environment, namely: thin fluid film, solid mechanical components and shaft rotation. Means of analysing the behaviour of these components (bearings and thrust bearings) have been developed and implemented. These consists of the EDYOS (Etude Dynamique des Organes de Supportage) code for dynamically studying bearing devices and several related bench tests. In reality, in order to understand the complex physical phenomena encountered in these components, it is vital to carry out analyses and experimental validations. Since these investigations cannot be carried out on actual machines, test benches have been built which can subject the sample bearings to the equivalent stresses. (author) 14 figs.

  9. Procedure and layout for the development of a fatigue test on an agricultural implement by a four poster test bench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cutini

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The increasing demand in agricultural vehicles’ power requirements, payloads and driving speeds increases issues related to tractors and farm implements exposure to solicitations. One of the main factors to be taken into account for fatigue test developing on agricultural machines is the heterogeneity of the environment and activity in which the tractor operates. In particular, for contractors the use in transport conditions both on terrain and road becomes important. As far as transport is concerned. factors mainly affecting solicitations on carried implement are soil profile roughness, tractor settings and forward speed. In this paper, CRA-ING laboratory of Treviglio, Italy, together with Frandent Group s.r.l. (Osasco, Italy, analyse the possibility of creating a solicitation profile by means of one four poster test bench for fatigue test on a carried implement simulating transport conditions. Accelerations at the hubs of the tractor were acquired during transport on terrain and reproduced with one electro-hydraulic four posters test bench on one dummy of a tractor developed for carrying the implement. Artificial bumps were mathematically created and introduced in the time history to simulate squares solicitations. Twelve hours of test were carried out. This experience confirmed the possibility of carrying out laboratory fatigue test on agricultural implements by reproducing specific field conditions solicitations with four poster test bench.

  10. Bench-scale arc melter for R&D in thermal treatment of mixed wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, P.C.; Grandy, J.D.; Watkins, A.D.; Eddy, T.L.; Anderson, G.L.

    1993-05-01

    A small dc arc melter was designed and constructed to run bench-scale investigations on various aspects of development for high-temperature (1,500-1,800{degrees}C) processing of simulated transuranic-contaminated waste and soil located at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). Several recent system design and treatment studies have shown that high-temperature melting is the preferred treatment. The small arc melter is needed to establish techniques and procedures (with surrogates) prior to using a similar melter with the transuranic-contaminated wastes in appropriate facilities at the site. This report documents the design and construction, starting and heating procedures, and tests evaluating the melter`s ability to process several waste types stored at the RWMC. It is found that a thin graphite strip provides reliable starting with initial high current capability for partially melting the soil/waste mixture. The heating procedure includes (1) the initial high current-low voltage mode, (2) a low current-high voltage mode that commences after some slag has formed and arcing dominates over the receding graphite conduction path, and (3) a predominantly Joule heating mode during which the current can be increased within the limits to maintain relatively quiescent operation. Several experiments involving the melting of simulated wastes are discussed. Energy balance, slag temperature, and electrode wear measurements are presented. Recommendations for further refinements to enhance its processing capabilities are identified. Future studies anticipated with the arc melter include waste form processing development; dissolution, retention, volatilization, and collection for transuranic and low-level radionuclides, as well as high vapor pressure metals; electrode material development to minimize corrosion and erosion; refractory corrosion and/or skull formation effects; crucible or melter geometry; metal oxidation; and melt reduction/oxidation (redox) conditions.

  11. Pilot-scale tests of HEME and HEPA dissolution process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, Z.H.; Strege, D.K.

    1996-01-01

    A series of pilot-scale demonstration tests for the dissolution of High Efficiency Mist Eliminators (BEME's) and High Efficiency Particulate Airfilters (BEPA) were performed on a 1/5th linear scale. These filters are to be used in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) to decontaminate the effluents from the off-gases generated during the feed preparation process and vitrification. When removed, these radioactively contaminated filters will be dissolved using caustic solutions. As a result of these tests, a simple dissolution process was developed. In this process, the contaminated filter is first immersed in boiling 5% caustic solution for 24 hours and then water is sprayed on the filter. These steps break down the filter first chemically and then mechanically. The metal cage is rinsed and considered low level waste. The dissolved filter is pumpable and mixed with high level waste. Compared to earlier dissolution studies using caustic-acid-caustic solutions, the proposed method represents a 66% savings in cycle time and amount of liquid waste generated. This paper provides the details of filter mockups and results of the dissolution tests

  12. Relationship of pectoralis major muscle size with bench press and bench throw performances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akagi, Ryota; Tohdoh, Yukihiro; Hirayama, Kuniaki; Kobayashi, Yuji

    2014-06-01

    This study examined the relationship of muscle size indices of the pectoralis major muscle with bench press and bench throw performances in 18 male collegiate athletes. The maximal cross-sectional area (MCSAMAx) and volume (MV) of the pectoralis major muscle were determined by magnetic resonance imaging. First, subjects were tested for their one repetition maximum bench press strength (1RMBP) using a Smith machine. At a later date, subjects performed bench throws using the Smith machine with several different loads ranging from 30.0 kg to 90% of 1RMBP. Barbell positions were measured by a linear position transducer, and bench throw power was calculated using a dynamic equation. Three trials were performed for each load. In all the trials, the maximal peak power was adopted as bench throw peak power (PPBT). The 1RMBP was significantly correlated with MCSAMAx. Similarly, the correlation coefficient between MV and PPBT was significant. In contrast to the y-intercept of the MV-PPBT regression line, that of the MCSAMAx-1RMBP regression line was not significantly different from 0. These results suggested that, although the dependence on pectoralis major muscle size is slightly different between bench press strength and bench throw power, the pectoralis major muscle size has a significant impact on bench press and throw performances. Greater muscle size leads to heavier body weight, which can be a negative factor in some sports. We therefore recommend that athletes and their coaches develop training programs for improving sports performance by balancing the advantage of increased muscle size and the potential disadvantage of increased body weight.

  13. Simulation of large scale air detritiation operations by computer modeling and bench-scale experimentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clemmer, R.G.; Land, R.H.; Maroni, V.A.; Mintz, J.M.

    1978-01-01

    Although some experience has been gained in the design and construction of 0.5 to 5 m 3 /s air-detritiation systems, little information is available on the performance of these systems under realistic conditions. Recently completed studies at ANL have attempted to provide some perspective on this subject. A time-dependent computer model was developed to study the effects of various reaction and soaking mechanisms that could occur in a typically-sized fusion reactor building (approximately 10 5 m 3 ) following a range of tritium releases (2 to 200 g). In parallel with the computer study, a small (approximately 50 liter) test chamber was set up to investigate cleanup characteristics under conditions which could also be simulated with the computer code. Whereas results of computer analyses indicated that only approximately 10 -3 percent of the tritium released to an ambient enclosure should be converted to tritiated water, the bench-scale experiments gave evidence of conversions to water greater than 1%. Furthermore, although the amounts (both calculated and observed) of soaked-in tritium are usually only a very small fraction of the total tritium release, the soaked tritium is significant, in that its continuous return to the enclosure extends the cleanup time beyond the predicted value in the absence of any soaking mechanisms

  14. Interferometric 30 m bench for calibrations of 1D scales and optical distance measuring instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unkuri, J; Rantanen, A; Manninen, J; Esala, V-P; Lassila, A

    2012-01-01

    During construction of a new metrology building for MIKES, a 30 m interferometric bench was designed. The objective was to implement a straight, stable, adjustable and multifunctional 30 m measuring bench for calibrations. Special attention was paid to eliminating the effects of thermal expansion and inevitable concrete shrinkage. The linear guide, situated on top of a monolithic concrete beam, comprises two parallel round shafts with adjustable fixtures every 1 m. A carriage is moved along the rail and its position is followed by a reference interferometer. Depending on the measurement task, one or two retro-reflectors are fixed on the carriage. A microscope with a CCD camera and a monitor can be used to detect line mark positions on different line standards. When calibrating optical distance measuring instruments, various targets can be fixed to the carriage. For the most accurate measurements an online Abbe-error correction based on simultaneous carriage pitch measurement by a separate laser interferometer is applied. The bench is used for calibrations of machinist scales, tapes, circometers, electronic distance meters, total stations and laser trackers. The estimated expanded uncertainty for 30 m displacement for highest accuracy calibrations is 2.6 µm. (paper)

  15. Development and pilot testing of full-scale membrane distillation modules for deployment of waste heat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, A.E.; Assink, J.W.; Hanemaaijer, J.H.; Medevoort, J. van; Sonsbeek, E. van

    2013-01-01

    Membrane distillation is an attractive technology for extracting fresh water from seawater. Newly developed modules have been used in pilot tests and bench scale tests to demonstrate the potential of producing excellent product water quality in a single step, little need for water pretreatment and a

  16. Dynamic MTF, an innovative test bench for detector characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmanuel, Rossi; Raphaël, Lardière; Delmonte, Stephane

    2017-11-01

    PLEIADES HR are High Resolution satellites for Earth observation. Placed at 695km they reach a 0.7m spatial resolution. To allow such performances, the detectors are working in a TDI mode (Time and Delay Integration) which consists in a continuous charge transfer from one line to the consecutive one while the image is passing on the detector. The spatial resolution, one of the most important parameter to test, is characterized by the MTF (Modulation Transfer Function). Usually, detectors are tested in a staring mode. For a higher level of performances assessment, a dedicated bench has been set-up, allowing detectors' MTF characterization in the TDI mode. Accuracy and reproducibility are impressive, opening the door to new perspectives in term of HR imaging systems testing.

  17. Radioactive Bench-scale Steam Reformer Demonstration of a Monolithic Steam Reformed Mineralized Waste Form for Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Secondary Waste - 12306

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Brent; Olson, Arlin; Mason, J. Bradley; Ryan, Kevin [THOR Treatment Technologies, LLC - 106 Newberry St. SW, Aiken, SC 29801 (United States); Jantzen, Carol; Crawford, Charles [Savannah River Nuclear Solutions (SRNL), LLC, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Hanford currently has 212,000 m{sup 3} (56 million gallons) of highly radioactive mixed waste stored in the Hanford tank farm. This waste will be processed to produce both high-level and low-level activity fractions, both of which are to be vitrified. Supplemental treatment options have been under evaluation for treating portions of the low-activity waste, as well as the liquid secondary waste from the low-activity waste vitrification process. One technology under consideration has been the THOR{sup R} fluidized bed steam reforming process offered by THOR Treatment Technologies, LLC (TTT). As a follow-on effort to TTT's 2008 pilot plant FBSR non-radioactive demonstration for treating low-activity waste and waste treatment plant secondary waste, TTT, in conjunction with Savannah River National Laboratory, has completed a bench scale evaluation of this same technology on a chemically adjusted radioactive surrogate of Hanford's waste treatment plant secondary waste stream. This test generated a granular product that was subsequently formed into monoliths, using a geo-polymer as the binding agent, that were subjected to compressibility testing, the Product Consistency Test and other leachability tests, and chemical composition analyses. This testing has demonstrated that the mineralized waste form, produced by co-processing waste with kaolin clay using the TTT process, is as durable as low-activity waste glass. Testing has shown the resulting monolith waste form is durable, leach resistant, and chemically stable, and has the added benefit of capturing and retaining the majority of Tc-99, I-129, and other target species at high levels. (authors)

  18. Effect of temperature downshifts on a bench-scale hybrid A/O system: Process performance and microbial community dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hexi; Li, Xiangkun; Chu, Zhaorui; Zhang, Jie

    2016-06-01

    Effect of temperature downshifts on process performance and bacterial community dynamics was investigated in a bench-scale hybrid A/O system treating real domestic wastewater. Results showed that the average COD removal in this system reached 90.5%, 89.1% and 90.3% for Run 1 (25 °C), Run 2 (15 °C) and Run 3 (10 °C), respectively, and variations in temperature barely affected the effluent COD concentration. The average removal efficiencies of NH4(+)-N were 98.4%, 97.8%, 95.7%, and that of TN were 77.1%, 61.8%, 72% at 25 °C, 15 °C and 10 °C, respectively. Although the hybrid system was subjected to low temperature, this process effectively removed NH4(+)-N and TN even at 10 °C with the average effluent concentrations of 2.4 mg/L and 14.3 mg/L, respectively. Results from high-throughput sequencing analysis revealed that when the operation temperature decreased from 25 °C to 10 °C, the richness and diversity indexes of the system decreased in the sludge samples, while underwent an increase in the biofilm samples. Furthermore, the major heterotrophic bacteria consisted of Lewinella, Lutimonas, Chitinophaga and Fluviicola at 10 °C, which could be central to effective COD removal at low temperature. Additionally, Azospira, one denitrifying-related genus increased from 0.4% to 4.45% in the biofilm samples, with a stable TN removal in response to temperature downshifts. Nitrosomonas and Nitrospira increased significantly in the biofilm samples, implying that the attached biofilm contributed to more nitrification at low temperature. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Pattern Generator for Bench Test of Digital Boards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkun, Andrew C.; Chu, Anhua J.

    2012-01-01

    All efforts to develop electronic equipment reach a stage where they need a board test station for each board. The SMAP digital system consists of three board types that interact with each other using interfaces with critical timing. Each board needs to be tested individually before combining into the integrated digital electronics system. Each board needs critical timing signals from the others to be able to operate. A bench test system was developed to support test of each board. The test system produces all the outputs of the control and timing unit, and is delivered much earlier than the timing unit. Timing signals are treated as data. A large file is generated containing the state of every timing signal at any instant. This file is streamed out to an IO card, which is wired directly to the device-under-test (DUT) input pins. This provides a flexible test environment that can be adapted to any of the boards required to test in a standalone configuration. The problem of generating the critical timing signals is then transferred from a hardware problem to a software problem where it is more easily dealt with.

  20. Case Study Analysis of Linear Chirp and Multitones (OFDM) Radar Signals Through Simulations and Measurement with HYCAM-Research Test Bench

    OpenAIRE

    Le Kernec, Julien; Dreuillet, Philippe; Bobillot, Gerard; Garda, Patrick; Romain, Olivier; Denoulet, Julien

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a experimental platform that allows comparing objectively any radar waveforms. This is realized by equating radar characteristics, using the same test-bench HYCAM-Research, the same signal processing and also insuring the reproducibility of the experiments. The experimental measurements on linear chirp and multitones are analyzed through distance and velocity imaging.

  1. Bench-scale arc melter for R ampersand D in thermal treatment of mixed wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong, P.C.; Grandy, J.D.; Watkins, A.D.; Eddy, T.L.; Anderson, G.L.

    1993-05-01

    A small dc arc melter was designed and constructed to run bench-scale investigations on various aspects of development for high-temperature (1,500-1,800 degrees C) processing of simulated transuranic-contaminated waste and soil located at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). Several recent system design and treatment studies have shown that high-temperature melting is the preferred treatment. The small arc melter is needed to establish techniques and procedures (with surrogates) prior to using a similar melter with the transuranic-contaminated wastes in appropriate facilities at the site. This report documents the design and construction, starting and heating procedures, and tests evaluating the melter's ability to process several waste types stored at the RWMC. It is found that a thin graphite strip provides reliable starting with initial high current capability for partially melting the soil/waste mixture. The heating procedure includes (1) the initial high current-low voltage mode, (2) a low current-high voltage mode that commences after some slag has formed and arcing dominates over the receding graphite conduction path, and (3) a predominantly Joule heating mode during which the current can be increased within the limits to maintain relatively quiescent operation. Several experiments involving the melting of simulated wastes are discussed. Energy balance, slag temperature, and electrode wear measurements are presented. Recommendations for further refinements to enhance its processing capabilities are identified. Future studies anticipated with the arc melter include waste form processing development; dissolution, retention, volatilization, and collection for transuranic and low-level radionuclides, as well as high vapor pressure metals; electrode material development to minimize corrosion and erosion; refractory corrosion and/or skull formation effects; crucible or melter geometry; metal oxidation; and melt reduction/oxidation (redox) conditions

  2. Catalytic Two-Stage Liquefaction (CTSL{trademark}) process: Laboratory scale studies modelling and technical assessment. Final report, [October 1, 1988--June 30, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comolli, A.G.; Johanson, E.S.; Lee, L.K.; Popper, G.A.; Smith, T.O.

    1993-06-01

    Reported herein are the details and results of Laboratory-Scale experiments using sub-bituminous and bituminous coal concluded at Hydrocarbon Research, Inc., under DOE Contract No. AC22-88PCB8818 during the period October 1, 1988 to June 30, 1993. The work described in this report is primarily concerned with tests on a Laboratory Scale primarily using microautoclaves. Experiments were conducted evaluating coal, solvents, start-up oils, catalysts, thermal treatments, C0{sub 2} addition and sulfur compound effects. Other microautoclave tests are included in the companion topical reports for this contract, DE-88818-TOP-01 & 02 on Sub-Bituminous and Bituminous Bench-Scale and PDU activities. In addition to the Laboratory Scale Studies, kinetic data and modelling results from Bench-Scale and Microautoclave tests are interpreted and presented along with some economic updates and sensitivity studies.

  3. Characterizing the Influence of Abstraction in Full-Scale Wind Turbine Nacelle Testing: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schkoda, Ryan; Bibo, Amin; Guo, Yi; Lambert, Scott; Wallen, Robb

    2016-08-01

    In recent years, there has been a growing interest in full-scale wind turbine nacelle testing to complement individual component testing. As a result, several wind turbine nacelle test benches have been built to perform such testing with the intent of loading the integrated components as they are in the field. However, when mounted on a test bench the nacelle is not on the top of a tower and does not have blades attached to it--this is a form of abstraction. This paper aims to quantify the influence of such an abstraction on the dynamic response of the nacelle through a series of simulation case studies. The responses of several nacelle components are studied including the main bearing, main shaft, gearbox supports, generator, and yaw bearing interface. Results are presented to highlight the differences in the dynamic response of the nacelle caused by the abstraction. Additionally, the authors provide recommendations for mitigating the effects of the abstraction.

  4. Modification of a compressor performance test bench for liquid slugging observation in refrigeration compressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ola, Max; Thomas, Christiane; Hesse, Ullrich

    2017-08-01

    Compressor performance test procedures are defined by the standard DIN EN 13771, wherein a variety of possible calorimeter and flow rate measurement methods are suggested. One option is the selection of two independent measurement methods. The accuracies of both selected measurement methods are essential. The second option requires only one method. However the measurement accuracy of the used device has to be verified and recalibrated on a regular basis. The compressor performance test facility at the Technische Universitaet Dresden uses a calibrated flow measurement sensor, a hot gas bypass and a mixed flow heat exchanger. The test bench can easily be modified for tests of various compressor types at different operating ranges and with various refrigerants. In addition, the modified test setup enables the investigation of long term liquid slug and its effects on the compressor. The modification comprises observational components, adjustments of the control system, safety measures and a customized oil recirculation system for compressors which do not contain an integrated oil sump or oil level regulation system. This paper describes the setup of the test bench, its functional principle, the key modifications, first test results and an evaluation of the energy balance.

  5. Influence of toluene and salinity on biosurfactant production by Bacillus sp.: scale up from flasks to a bench-scale bioreactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Cristina Souza

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT To select the best biosurfactant producer, Pseudomonas putida, Bacillus megatherium, Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus subtilis were cultured in flasks on media with different salinity [low salinity (LS, Bushnell-Haas (BH and artificial sea water (SW media] supplemented or not with toluene as a model pollutant. Toluene inhibited the growth of all microorganisms and stimulated the biosurfactant production. B. subtilis exhibited the best performance, being able to lower the surface tension (ST in the LS medium to 65.5 mN/min in the absence of toluene, and to 46.5 mN/min in the BH medium in the presence of toluene, corresponding to ST reductions of 13.0 and 27.5 mN/m, respectively. Scaling up the process to a bench-scale fermentor, the best results were obtained in the LS medium, where B. subtilis was able to reduce the toluene concentration from 26.0 to 4.3 g/L within 12 h and ST by 17.2 mN/m within 18 h. The results of this study point out that B. subtilis is an interesting biosurfactant producer, which could be used in the bioremediation of toluene-contaminated water.

  6. Impact of compost process conditions on organic micro pollutant degradation during full scale composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadef, Yumna; Poulsen, Tjalfe Gorm; Bester, Kai

    2015-06-01

    Knowledge about the effects of oxygen concentration, nutrient availability and moisture content on removal of organic micro-pollutants during aerobic composting is at present very limited. Impact of oxygen concentration, readily available nitrogen content (NH4(+), NO3(-)), and moisture content on biological transformation of 15 key organic micro-pollutants during composting, was therefore investigated using bench-scale degradation experiments based on non-sterile compost samples, collected at full-scale composting facilities. In addition, the adequacy of bench-scale composting experiments for representing full-scale composting conditions, was investigated using micro-pollutant concentration measurements from both bench- and full-scale composting experiments. Results showed that lack of oxygen generally prevented transformation of organic micro-pollutants. Increasing readily available nitrogen content from about 50 mg N per 100 g compost to about 140 mg N per 100 g compost actually reduced micro-pollutant transformation, while changes in compost moisture content from 50% to 20% by weight, only had minor influence on micro-pollutant transformation. First-order micro-pollutant degradation rates for 13 organic micro-pollutants were calculated using data from both full- and bench-scale experiments. First-order degradation coefficients for both types of experiments were similar and ranged from 0.02 to 0.03 d(-1) on average, indicating that if a proper sampling strategy is employed, bench-scale experiments can be used to represent full-scale composting conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Qualification of an out-of-pile Thermohydraulic test Bench (BETHY) developed to calibrate calorimetric cells under specific JHR experimental conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Vita, C.; Brun, J.; Carette, M.; Reynard-Carette, C.; Lyoussi, A.; Fourmentel, D.; Villard, J.F.; Guimbal, P.; Malo, J.Y.

    2013-06-01

    Online in-pile measurement methods are crucial during irradiations in material testing reactors to better understand the behavior of materials under accelerated ageing conditions and of nuclear fuels under high irradiation levels. Thus, the construction of a new Material Testing Reactor such as the Jules Horowitz Reactor (JHR) leads to new research and development programs devoted to innovative instrumentation and measurement methods. The presented works are performed in the framework of the IN-CORE program, 'Instrumentation for Nuclear radiations and Calorimetry Online in Reactor', between CEA and Aix-Marseille University. The program aim is to develop experimental devices and test bench to quantify more precisely the nuclear heating parameter in the JHR experimental channels. This in-pile parameter is usually measured by means of calorimeter or gamma thermometer. This paper focuses on a new out-of-pile test bench called BETHY. This bench was developed to study the response of a differential calorimeter during its preliminary calibration step according to specific thermal and hydraulic conditions occurring inside one type of JHR core channel. The first section of this paper is dedicated to a detailed description of the bench. The second part presents the study of the thermal characteristics established in the bench for two main thermal running modes. The last one concerns the calibration curve of the reference cell of the differential calorimeter in the case of homogenous temperature. (authors)

  8. Enriched-air fluidized bed gasification using bench and pilot scale reactors of dairy manure with sand bedding based on response surface methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, Hyungseok; Maglinao, Amado L.; Capareda, Sergio C.; Rodriguez-Alejandro, David Aaron

    2016-01-01

    Enriched-air gasification was performed in fluidized bed reactors using the processed dairy manure which was mixed with sand bedding. The effects of temperature, modified equivalence ratio (ER_m), and oxygen concentration on the gas products were investigated based on the statistical models using a bench-scale reactor in order to obtain empirical correlations. Then, the empirical equations were applied to compare the produced gases from a pilot-scale fluidized bed gasifier. The empirical and actual H_2 and CH_4 compositions were within a 10% error, while the sum of produced CO and CO_2 gases showed similar composition within 3% error. The most influential factors for the syngas heating value were temperature followed by the oxygen concentration and ER (equivalence ratio). The composition of H_2 (2.1–11.5%) and CO (5.9–20.3%) rose with an increase in temperature and oxygen concentration. The variation of CO_2 (16.8–31.6%) was mainly affected by the degree of oxygen concentration in the gasifying agent. The ranges of the LHV (lower heating value), carbon conversion efficiency and cold gas efficiency were discussed. An economic review showed favorable indications for on-site dairy manure gasification process for electric power based on the depreciable payback period and the power production costs. - Highlights: • Sand mixed dairy manure obtained directly from a dairy farm was processed and used. • Response surface methodology was used to investigate the enriched-air gasification. • Syngas results from bench and pilot scale gasifiers were compared and reviewed. • A highest LVH of 8 MJ/Nm"3 was obtained from the enriched-air gasification. • The power production costs were determined to be $0.053/kWh

  9. Automated ECU software tests on hardware-in-the-loop test benches; Automatisierte ECU-Software-Tests an Hardware-in-the-Loop-Pruefstaenden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voegl, R. [AVL List GmbH, Graz (Austria). Abteilung Kalibrierung Ottomotoren; Duerager, Ch. [AVL List GmbH, Graz (Austria). Abteilung Kalibriermethodik; Beer, W.; Martini, E. [AVL List GmbH, Graz (Austria)

    2005-08-01

    Due to the continuous increase in complexity of engine application, AVL List decided to develop methods for automated ECU software commissioning on HiL test benches. This required the intensive co-operation of the departments for calibration methodology, calibration and electrical/electronic engineering. The result is a practical orientated collection of methods that significantly increase the test coverage for a new software version without extending the commissioning time. (orig.)

  10. A new reference tip-timing test bench and simulator for blade synchronous and asynchronous vibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajnayeb, Ali; Nikpour, Masood; Moradi, Shapour; Rossi, Gianluca

    2018-02-01

    The blade tip-timing (BTT) measurement technique is at present the most promising technique for monitoring the blades of axial turbines and aircraft engines in operating conditions. It is generally used as an alternative to strain gauges in turbine testing. By conducting a comparison with the standard methods such as those based on strain gauges, one determines that the technique is not intrusive and does not require a complicated installation process. Despite its superiority to other methods, the experimental performance analysis of a new BTT method needs a test stand that includes a reference measurement system (e.g. strain gauges equipped with telemetry or other complex optical measurement systems, like rotating laser Doppler vibrometers). In this article, a new reliable, low-cost BTT test setup is proposed for simulating and analyzing blade vibrations based on kinematic inversion. In the proposed test bench, instead of the blades vibrating, it is the BTT sensor that vibrates. The vibration of the sensor is generated by a shaker and can therefore be easily controlled in terms of frequency, amplitude and waveform shape. The amplitude of vibration excitation is measured by a simple accelerometer. After introducing the components of the simulator, the proposed test bench is used in practice to simulate both synchronous and asynchronous vibration scenarios. Then two BTT methods are used to evaluate the quality of the acquired data. The results demonstrate that the proposed setup is able to generate simulated pulse sequences which are almost the same as those generated by the conventional BTT systems installed around a bladed disk. Moreover, the test setup enables its users to evaluate BTT methods by using a limited number of sensors. This significantly reduces the total costs of the experiments.

  11. Large Scale Leach Test Facility: Development of equipment and methods, and comparison to MCC-1 leach tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellarin, D.J.; Bickford, D.F.

    1985-01-01

    This report describes the test equipment and methods, and documents the results of the first large-scale MCC-1 experiments in the Large Scale Leach Test Facility (LSLTF). Two experiments were performed using 1-ft-long samples sectioned from the middle of canister MS-11. The leachant used in the experiments was ultrapure deionized water - an aggressive and well characterized leachant providing high sensitivity for liquid sample analyses. All the original test plan objectives have been successfully met. Equipment and procedures have been developed for large-sample-size leach testing. The statistical reliability of the method has been determined, and ''bench mark'' data developed to relate small scale leach testing to full size waste forms. The facility is unique, and provides sampling reliability and flexibility not possible in smaller laboratory scale tests. Future use of this facility should simplify and accelerate the development of leaching models and repository specific data. The factor of less than 3 for leachability, corresponding to a 200,000/1 increase in sample volume, enhances the credibility of small scale test data which precedes this work, and supports the ability of the DWPF waste form to meet repository criteria

  12. Studies of cooling tower components on the Mistral test bench

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legrand, G.

    1992-07-01

    The conception of a humid air cooling tower with natural or forced draught, requires the knowledge of the thermal and aerodynamic exchange surfaces performances. Several points, among which the distribution nozzles and drift eliminators efficiencies, or the mechanical behavior of the components, should be considered. In order to be able to test this type of equipment and analyse its behavior, ELECTRICITE DE FRANCE set up in 1987 of a large dimensions test bench: MISTRAL. The investigations performed over the 3000 working hours of MISTRAL concern mainly the optimization of the counterflow and crossflow exchange surfaces proposed by the industrial cooling tower equipment suppliers. The quality of the experimental results is assured by the implementation of an extensive instrumentation on the air and water circuits, and by a severe control of the tests conditions

  13. Bench Scale Thin Film Composite Hollow Fiber Membranes for Post-Combustion Carbon Dioxide Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glaser, Paul [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Bhandari, Dhaval [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Narang, Kristi [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States); McCloskey, Pat [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Singh, Surinder [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Ananthasayanam, Balajee [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Howson, Paul [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Lee, Julia [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Wroczynski, Ron [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Stewart, Frederick [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Orme, Christopher [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Klaehn, John [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); McNally, Joshua [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Rownaghi, Ali [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Lu, Liu [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Koros, William [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Goizueta, Roberto [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Sethi, Vijay [Western Research Inst., Laramie, WY (United States)

    2015-04-01

    GE Global Research, Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech), and Western Research Institute (WRI) proposed to develop high performance thin film polymer composite hollow fiber membranes and advanced processes for economical post-combustion carbon dioxide (CO2) capture from pulverized coal flue gas at temperatures typical of existing flue gas cleanup processes. The project sought to develop and then optimize new gas separations membrane systems at the bench scale, including tuning the properties of a novel polyphosphazene polymer in a coating solution and fabricating highly engineered porous hollow fiber supports. The project also sought to define the processes needed to coat the fiber support to manufacture composite hollow fiber membranes with high performance, ultra-thin separation layers. Physical, chemical, and mechanical stability of the materials (individual and composite) towards coal flue gas components was considered via exposure and performance tests. Preliminary design, technoeconomic, and economic feasibility analyses were conducted to evaluate the overall performance and impact of the process on the cost of electricity (COE) for a coal-fired plant including capture technologies. At the onset of the project, Membranes based on coupling a novel selective material polyphosphazene with an engineered hollow fiber support was found to have the potential to capture greater than 90% of the CO2 in flue gas with less than 35% increase in COE, which would achieve the DOE-targeted performance criteria. While lab-scale results for the polyphosphazene materials were very promising, and the material was incorporated into hollow-fiber modules, difficulties were encountered relating to the performance of these membrane systems over time. Performance, as measured by both flux of and selectivity for CO2 over other flue gas constituents was found to deteriorate over time, suggesting a system that was

  14. Bench Scale Process for Low Cost CO2 Capture Using a PhaseChanging Absorbent: Techno-Economic Analysis Topical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miebach, Barbara [GE Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); McDuffie, Dwayne [GE Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); Spiry, Irina [GE Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); Westendorf, Tiffany [GE Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States)

    2017-01-27

    The objective of this project is to design and build a bench-scale process for a novel phase-changing CO2 capture solvent. The project will establish scalability and technical and economic feasibility of using a phase-changing CO2 capture absorbent for post-combustion capture of CO2 from coal-fired power plants with 90% capture efficiency and 95% CO2 purity at a cost of $40/tonne of CO2 captured by 2025 and a cost of <$10/tonne of CO2 captured by 2035. This report presents system and economic analysis for a process that uses a phase changing aminosilicone solvent to remove CO2 from pulverized coal (PC) power plant flue gas. The aminosilicone solvent is a pure 1,3-bis(3-aminopropyl)-1,1,3,3-tetramethyldisiloxane (GAP-0). Performance of the phase-changing aminosilicone technology is compared to that of a conventional carbon capture system using aqueous monoethanolamine (MEA). This analysis demonstrates that the aminosilicone process has significant advantages relative to an MEA-based system. The first-year CO2 removal cost for the phase-changing CO2 capture process is $52.1/tonne, compared to $66.4/tonne for the aqueous amine process. The phase-changing CO2 capture process is less costly than MEA because of advantageous solvent properties that include higher working capacity, lower corrosivity, lower vapor pressure, and lower heat capacity. The phase-changing aminosilicone process has approximately 32% lower equipment capital cost compared to that of the aqueous amine process. However, this solvent is susceptible to thermal degradation at CSTR desorber operating temperatures, which could add as much as $88/tonne to the CO2 capture cost associated with solvent makeup. Future work is focused on mitigating this critical risk by developing an advanced low-temperature desorber that can deliver comparable desorption performance and significantly reduced

  15. Experimental and modelling studies on continuous synthesis and refining of biodiesel in a dedicated bench scale unit using centrifugal contactor separator technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abduh, Muhammad Yusuf; Martinez, Alberto Fernandez; Kloekhorst, Arjan; Manurung, Robert; Heeres, Hero J.

    Continuous synthesis and refining of biodiesel (FAME) using a laboratory scale bench scale unit was explored. The unit consists of three major parts: (i) a continuous centrifugal contactor separator (CCCS) to perform the reaction between sunflower oil and methanol; (ii) a washing unit for the crude

  16. Bench-scale/field-scale interpretations: Session overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunningham, A.B.; Peyton, B.M.

    1995-04-01

    In situ bioremediation involves complex interactions between biological, chemical, and physical processes and requires integration of phenomena operating at scales ranging from that of a microbial cell (10 -6 ) to that of a remediation site (10 to 1000 m). Laboratory investigations of biodegradation are usually performed at a relatively small scale, governed by convenience, cost, and expedience. However, extending the results from a laboratory-scale experimental system to the design and operation of a field-scale system introduces (1) additional mass transport mechanisms and limitations; (2) the presence of multiple phases, contants, and competing microorganisms (3) spatial geologic heterogeneities; and (4) subsurface environmental factors that may inhibit bacterial growth such as temperature, pH, nutrient, or redox conditions. Field bioremediation rates may be limited by the availability of one of the necessary constituents for biotransformation: substrate, contaminant, electron acceptor, nutrients, or microorganisms capable of degrading the target compound. The factor that limits the rate of bioremediation may not be the same in the laboratory as it is in the field, thereby leading, to development of unsuccessful remediation strategies

  17. Bench-scale cross flow filtration of Tank S-107 sludge slurries and Tank C-107 supernatant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geeting, J.G.H.; Reynolds, B.A.

    1996-10-01

    Hanford tank waste filtration experiments were conducted using a bench-scale cross flow filter on 8 wt%, 1.5 wt%, and 0.05 wt% Tank S- 107 sludge slurries and on Tank C-107 supernatant. For comparison, two simulants each with solids loadings of 8 wt% and 0.05 wt% were also tested. The purpose of the tests was to determine the efficacy of cross flow filtration on slurries of various solids loadings. -In addition, filtrate flux dependency on axial velocity and transmembrane pressure was sought so that conditions for future experiments might be better selected. The data gathered are compared to the simulants and three cross flow filtration models. A two- parameter central composite design which tested. transmembrane pressure from 5 to 40 psig and axial Velocity from 3 to 9 ft/s was used for all feeds. The cross flow filter effectively removed solids from the liquid, as 19 of 20 filtrate samples had particle concentrations below the resolution limit of the photon correlation spectrometer used in the Hanford Radiocolloid Laboratory. Radiochemical analysis indicate that all filtrate samples were below Class A waste classification standards for 9OSr and transuranics

  18. Development of Fuzzy Logic Controller for Quanser Bench-Top Helicopter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafri, M. H.; Mansor, H.; Gunawan, T. S.

    2017-11-01

    Bench-top helicopter is a laboratory scale helicopter that usually used as a testing bench of the real helicopter behavior. This helicopter is a 3 Degree of Freedom (DOF) helicopter which works by three different axes wshich are elevation, pitch and travel. Thus, fuzzy logic controller has been proposed to be implemented into Quanser bench-top helicopter because of its ability to work with non-linear system. The objective for this project is to design and apply fuzzy logic controller for Quanser bench-top helicopter. Other than that, fuzzy logic controller performance system has been simulated to analyze and verify its behavior over existing PID controller by using Matlab & Simulink software. In this research, fuzzy logic controller has been designed to control the elevation angle. After simulation has been performed, it can be seen that simulation result shows that fuzzy logic elevation control is working for 4°, 5° and 6°. These three angles produce zero steady state error and has a fast response. Other than that, performance comparisons have been performed between fuzzy logic controller and PID controller. Fuzzy logic elevation control has a better performance compared to PID controller where lower percentage overshoot and faster settling time have been achieved in 4°, 5° and 6° step response test. Both controller are have zero steady state error but fuzzy logic controller is managed to produce a better performance in term of settling time and percentage overshoot which make the proposed controller is reliable compared to the existing PID controller.

  19. Removal of 226Ra from tailings pond effluents and stabilization of uranium mine tailings. Bench and pilot scale studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidtke, N.W.; Averill, D.; Bryant, D.N.; Wilkinson, P.; Schmidt, J.W.

    1978-01-01

    Increased world demand for uranium has resulted in recent expansion of Canadian uranium mining operations. Problems have been identified with the discharge of radionuclides such as 226 Ra from tailings pond effluents and with the stabilization of mine tailings. At Environment Canada's Wastewater Technology Centre (WTC) two projects were undertaken in cooperation with the Canadian Uranium Mining Industry and other federal government agencies to address these problems. The first project reports on the progress of bench and pilot scale process simulations for the development of a data base for the design of a full scale mechanical physical/chemical 226 Ra removal waste treatment system with an effluent target level of 10 pCi 226 Ra total per litre. The second project addresses problems of the leachability of radionuclides and the stabilization of both uranium mine tailings and BaRaSO 4 sediments from the treatment of acid seepages

  20. ESPRESSO optical bench: from mind to reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenegi, F.; Santana, S.; Gómez, J.; Rodilla, E.; Hughes, I.; Mégevand, D.; Rebolo, R.; Riva, M.; Luis-Simoes, R.

    2016-07-01

    ESPRESSO [1] is a high-resolution spectrograph under development for the VLT telescope. In general, the Optical Bench (OB) structure can be considered as a 3D one, conformed by welding thin plates of Structural Steel (St-52) with a nickelplated surface treatment, combined for getting maximum stiffness and minimum weight, that will be finally re-machined to get stringent geometrical and dimensional tolerances at I/Fs positions. TIG conventional welding procedure has been selected to minimize the cost and facilitate the own welding process. This solution follows the inheritance from HARPS [2] due to its success to achieve the required performance for the bench. This paper contains an overview of the whole process of designing and manufacturing the Optical Bench of ESPRESSO, from the very first beginning with the specifications to the current status of the bench with its integration on the Spectrograph (including the Finite Element Models and the delivery of the final structure by the supplier) and lessons learned.

  1. Comparison of different cryogenic control strategies via simulation applied to a superconducting magnet test bench at CERN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arpaia, P.; Coppier, H.; De Paola, D.; di Bernardo, M.; Guarino, A.; Pedemonte, B. Luz; Pezzetti, M.

    2017-12-01

    Industrial process controllers for cryogenic systems used in test facilities for superconducting magnets are typically PIDs, tuned by operational expertise according to users’ requirements (covering cryogenic transients and associated thermo-mechanical constraints). In this paper, an alternative fully-automatic solution, equally based on PID controllers, is proposed. Following the comparison of the operational expertise and alternative fully-automatic approaches, a new process control configuration, based on an estimated multiple-input/multiple-output (MIMO) model is proposed. The new MIMO model-based approach fulfils the required operational constraints while improving performance compared to existing solutions. The analysis and design work is carried out using both theoretical and numerical tools and is validated on the case study of the High Field Magnet (HFM) cryogenic test bench running at the SM18 test facility located at CERN. The proposed solution have been validated by simulation using the CERN ECOSIMPRO software tools using the cryogenic library (CRYOLIB [1]) developed at CERN.

  2. Results of a bench mark test on the crack opening and leak rate calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grebner, H.

    1995-01-01

    Results of a bench mark test on the standard problem calculation of crack opening and leak rate in piping components are presented. The bench mark test is based on two experiments performed in phase III of the German HDR safety program. The pipe sections considered in these experiments were a straight pipe with an 80 mm diameter containing a circumferential wall penetrating crack and a pipe branch DN 100/DN 25 with a crack in the weldment between the nozzle and the main pipe. Both test pieces were made of austenitic steel and were loaded by internal pressure and bending moment. For the evaluation of the crack opening either analytical methods or estimation schemes or the finite element method were used, while leak rates were calculated by means of two-phase flow methods. The compilation of the results shows very large scatter bands in general, with deviations between calculated and measured values of up to some one hundred percent. Reasons for this behaviour are uncertainties in the measured data and their evaluation as well as the different methods of calculation and their uncertainties. (author)

  3. Optimization of a micro-scale, high throughput process development tool and the demonstration of comparable process performance and product quality with biopharmaceutical manufacturing processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Steven T; Stewart, Kevin D; Afdahl, Chris; Patel, Rohan; Newell, Kelcy J

    2017-07-14

    In this paper, we discuss the optimization and implementation of a high throughput process development (HTPD) tool that utilizes commercially available micro-liter sized column technology for the purification of multiple clinically significant monoclonal antibodies. Chromatographic profiles generated using this optimized tool are shown to overlay with comparable profiles from the conventional bench-scale and clinical manufacturing scale. Further, all product quality attributes measured are comparable across scales for the mAb purifications. In addition to supporting chromatography process development efforts (e.g., optimization screening), comparable product quality results at all scales makes this tool is an appropriate scale model to enable purification and product quality comparisons of HTPD bioreactors conditions. The ability to perform up to 8 chromatography purifications in parallel with reduced material requirements per run creates opportunities for gathering more process knowledge in less time. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. A new portable test bench for the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter front-end electronics certification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, J.; Carrio, F.; Moreno, P.; Usai, G.; Valero, A.; Kim, H.Y.; Minashvili, I.; Shalyugin, A.; Reed, R.; Schettino, V.; Souza, J.; Solans, C.

    2013-06-01

    This paper describes the upgraded portable test bench for the Tile Calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment at CERN. The previous version of the portable test bench was extensively used for certification and qualification of the front-end electronics during the commissioning phase as well as during the short maintenance periods of 2010 and 2011. The new version described here is designed to be an easily upgradable version of the 10-year-old system, able to evaluate the new technologies planned for the ATLAS upgrade as well as provide new functionalities to the present system. It will be used in the consolidation of electronics campaign during the long shutdown of the LHC in 2013-14 and during future maintenance periods. The system, based on a global re-design with state-of-the-art devices, is based on a back-end electronics crate instrumented with commercial and custom modules and a front-end GUI that is executed on an external portable computer and communicates with the controller in the crate through an Ethernet connection. (authors)

  5. Experience gained in bench scale and pilot scale fluidised bed processing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hadley, TD

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available of titanium dioxide. Expertise in the design and commissioning of industrial-scale plants has led to the supply (through licensees) of a biomass sludge incinerator/boiler generating 26t/h steam, a 20 MW high-sulphur pitch incinerator and a 12 MW fluidised bed...

  6. Application of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to determine the influence of fluid dynamics on desulfurization in Bench scale reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, N.L.; Reimert, R. [Engler-Bunte-Institut, Bereich Gas, Erdoel und Kohle, Universitaet Karlsruhe (T.H.) (Germany); Hardy, E.H. [Institut fuer Mechanische Verfahrenstechnik und Mechanik, Universitaet Karlsruhe (T.H.) (Germany)

    2006-07-15

    The influence of fluid dynamics on the hydrodesulfurization (HDS) reactions of a diesel oil in bench-scale reactors was evaluated. The porosities and liquid saturations of catalyst beds were quantified by using the MRI technique. The gas-liquid systems used in the experiments were nitrogen diesel and hydrogen diesel. An apparatus was especially constructed, allowing in situ measurements of gas and liquid distributions in packed beds at elevated pressure and temperature up to 20 bar and 200 C, respectively. The reactor itself had a length of 500 mm and an internal diameter of 19 mm. The packed beds used in this MRI study consisted of: (1) 2 mm diameter nonporous spherical glass beads and (2) 1.3 mm diameter porous Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} trilobes having the same size as the original trilobe catalyst used in HDS bench-scale experiments. The superficial gas and liquid velocities were set within the range of trickle flow, e.g., u{sub 0G} = 20-500 mm/s and u{sub 0L} = 0.1-6 mm/s. In parallel with the MRI experiments, the hydrodesulfurization of a gas oil was investigated in a bench-scale plant. Its reactor had the same dimensions of the trickle-bed column used in the MRI experiments and was filled with original trilobe catalyst. These catalytic experiments were carried out at a wide range of operating conditions (p = 30-80 bar, T = 300-380 C, LHSV = 1-4 h{sup -1}). The results of both fluid dynamic and catalytic reaction experiments were then combined for developing a simulation model to predict the HDS performance by accounting for fluid dynamic nonidealities. (Abstract Copyright [2006], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  7. Validation Testing of the Nitric Acid Dissolution Step Within the K Basin Sludge Pretreatment Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AJ Schmidt; CH Delegard; KL Silvers; PR Bredt; CD Carlson; EW Hoppe; JC Hayes; DE Rinehart; SR Gano; BM Thornton

    1999-01-01

    The work described in this report involved comprehensive bench-scale testing of nitric acid (HNO 3 ) dissolution of actual sludge materials from the Hanford K East (KE) Basin to confirm the baseline chemical pretreatment process. In addition, process monitoring and material balance information was collected to support the development and refinement of process flow diagrams. The testing was performed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)for the US Department of Energy's Office of Spent Fuel Stabilization (EM-67) and Numatec Hanford Corporation (NHC) to assist in the development of the K Basin Sludge Pretreatment Process. The baseline chemical pretreatment process for K Basin sludge is nitric acid dissolution of all particulate material passing a 1/4-in. screen. The acid-insoluble fraction (residual solids) will be stabilized (possibly by chemical leaching/rinsing and grouting), packaged, and transferred to the Hanford Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF). The liquid fraction is to be diluted with depleted uranium for uranium criticality safety and iron nitrate for plutonium criticality safety, and neutralized with sodium hydroxide. The liquid fraction and associated precipitates are to be stored in the Hanford Tank Waste Remediation Systems (TWRS) pending vitrification. It is expected that most of the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), associated with some K Basin sludges, will remain with the residual solids for ultimate disposal to ERDF. Filtration and precipitation during the neutralization step will further remove trace quantities of PCBs within the liquid fraction. The purpose of the work discussed in this report was to examine the dissolution behavior of actual KE Basin sludge materials at baseline flowsheet conditions and validate the.dissolution process step through bench-scale testing. The progress of the dissolution was evaluated by measuring the solution electrical conductivity and concentrations of key species in the dissolver

  8. Validation Testing of the Nitric Acid Dissolution Step Within the K Basin Sludge Pretreatment Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AJ Schmidt; CH Delegard; KL Silvers; PR Bredt; CD Carlson; EW Hoppe; JC Hayes; DE Rinehart; SR Gano; BM Thornton

    1999-03-24

    The work described in this report involved comprehensive bench-scale testing of nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}) dissolution of actual sludge materials from the Hanford K East (KE) Basin to confirm the baseline chemical pretreatment process. In addition, process monitoring and material balance information was collected to support the development and refinement of process flow diagrams. The testing was performed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)for the US Department of Energy's Office of Spent Fuel Stabilization (EM-67) and Numatec Hanford Corporation (NHC) to assist in the development of the K Basin Sludge Pretreatment Process. The baseline chemical pretreatment process for K Basin sludge is nitric acid dissolution of all particulate material passing a 1/4-in. screen. The acid-insoluble fraction (residual solids) will be stabilized (possibly by chemical leaching/rinsing and grouting), packaged, and transferred to the Hanford Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF). The liquid fraction is to be diluted with depleted uranium for uranium criticality safety and iron nitrate for plutonium criticality safety, and neutralized with sodium hydroxide. The liquid fraction and associated precipitates are to be stored in the Hanford Tank Waste Remediation Systems (TWRS) pending vitrification. It is expected that most of the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), associated with some K Basin sludges, will remain with the residual solids for ultimate disposal to ERDF. Filtration and precipitation during the neutralization step will further remove trace quantities of PCBs within the liquid fraction. The purpose of the work discussed in this report was to examine the dissolution behavior of actual KE Basin sludge materials at baseline flowsheet conditions and validate the.dissolution process step through bench-scale testing. The progress of the dissolution was evaluated by measuring the solution electrical conductivity and concentrations of key species in the

  9. Evaluation of induced seismicity forecast models in the Induced Seismicity Test Bench

    Science.gov (United States)

    Király, Eszter; Gischig, Valentin; Zechar, Jeremy; Doetsch, Joseph; Karvounis, Dimitrios; Wiemer, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    Induced earthquakes often accompany fluid injection, and the seismic hazard they pose threatens various underground engineering projects. Models to monitor and control induced seismic hazard with traffic light systems should be probabilistic, forward-looking, and updated as new data arrive. Here, we propose an Induced Seismicity Test Bench to test and rank such models. We apply the test bench to data from the Basel 2006 and Soultz-sous-Forêts 2004 geothermal stimulation projects, and we assess forecasts from two models that incorporate a different mix of physical understanding and stochastic representation of the induced sequences: Shapiro in Space (SiS) and Hydraulics and Seismics (HySei). SiS is based on three pillars: the seismicity rate is computed with help of the seismogenic index and a simple exponential decay of the seismicity; the magnitude distribution follows the Gutenberg-Richter relation; and seismicity is distributed in space based on smoothing seismicity during the learning period with 3D Gaussian kernels. The HySei model describes seismicity triggered by pressure diffusion with irreversible permeability enhancement. Our results show that neither model is fully superior to the other. HySei forecasts the seismicity rate well, but is only mediocre at forecasting the spatial distribution. On the other hand, SiS forecasts the spatial distribution well but not the seismicity rate. The shut-in phase is a difficult moment for both models in both reservoirs: the models tend to underpredict the seismicity rate around, and shortly after, shut-in. Ensemble models that combine HySei's rate forecast with SiS's spatial forecast outperform each individual model.

  10. Distal clavicular osteolysis in adults: association with bench pressing intensity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nevalainen, Mika T.; Morrison, William B.; Zoga, Adam C.; Roedl, Johannes B.; Ciccotti, Michael G.

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the association between distal clavicular osteolysis (DCO) and bench pressing intensity. From a retrospective review of MRI shoulder reports of individuals between 20 and 40 years of age, 262 male patients with DCO and 227 age-matched male patients without DCO were selected. All patients had completed a bench pressing questionnaire. The patients' bench pressing frequency (times per week), duration (years of bench pressing), bench pressing weight (maximum bench pressing weight with one repetition = 1RM) and the ratio of bench pressing weight to body weight were compared between both groups using Chi-square and Mann-Whitney tests. The results showed that 56 % (146/262) of patients with DCO were high-intensity bench pressers (1RM more than 1.5 times the body weight) compared to 6 % (14/227) in patients without DCO. High-intensity bench pressing was a risk factor for DCO (OR = 19; 95 %CI = 11-35; p 1 x /week) and duration (>5 years) of bench pressing were risk factors. In bench pressers who suffered from DCO, the mean 1RM was 283 lbs (±SD 57) compared to 209 lbs (±SD 60) in bench pressers not affected by DCO (p < 0.001, Mann-Whitney). High-intensity, but not low-intensity bench pressing is a risk factor for DCO. (orig.)

  11. Bench-marking beam-beam simulations using coherent quadrupole effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnagopal, S.; Chin, Y.H.

    1992-06-01

    Computer simulations are used extensively in the study of the beam-beam interaction. The proliferation of such codes raises the important question of their reliability, and motivates the development of a dependable set of bench-marks. We argue that rather than detailed quantitative comparisons, the ability of different codes to predict the same qualitative physics should be used as a criterion for such bench-marks. We use the striking phenomenon of coherent quadrupole oscillations as one such bench-mark, and demonstrate that our codes do indeed observe this behaviour. We also suggest some other tests that could be used as bench-marks

  12. Bench-marking beam-beam simulations using coherent quadrupole effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnagopal, S.; Chin, Y.H.

    1992-01-01

    Computer simulations are used extensively in the study of the beam-beam interaction. The proliferation of such codes raises the important question of their reliability, and motivates the development of a dependable set of bench-marks. We argue that rather than detailed quantitative comparisons, the ability of different codes to predict the same qualitative physics should be used as a criterion for such bench-marks. We use the striking phenomenon of coherent quadrupole oscillations as one such bench-mark, and demonstrate that our codes do indeed observe this behavior. We also suggest some other tests that could be used as bench-marks

  13. Bench for mechanical cleaning of circular welded joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sklifasovskij, V.M.

    1986-01-01

    A special bench for weld reinforcement removal and mechanical cleaning of the heat affected zones was designed to provide for a possibility of an ultrasonic testing of welded joints in the course of steam generator section fabrication. The bench comprises a mechanized roller support for fixing and rotating the workpiece; a lap-cutting device for external machining; milling/grinding tractor for internal machining and a delivery table for tractor approach and departure. The bench performance and overall view are presented. The operation succession is described

  14. The HSOB GAIA: a cryogenic high stability cesic optical bench for missions requiring sub-nanometric optical stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courteau, Pascal; Poupinet, Anne; Kroedel, Mathias; Sarri, Giuseppe

    2017-11-01

    Global astrometry, very demanding in term of stability, requires extremely stable material for optical bench. CeSiC developed by ECM and Alcatel Alenia Space for mirrors and high stability structures, offers the best compromise in term of structural strength, stability and very high lightweight capability, with characteristics leading to be insensitive to thermo-elastic at cryogenic T°. The HSOB GAIA study realised by Alcatel Alenia Space under ESA contract aimed to design, develop and test a full scale representative High Stability Optical Bench in CeSiC. The bench has been equipped with SAGEIS-CSO laser metrology system MOUSE1, Michelson interferometer composed of integrated optics with a nm resolution. The HSOB bench has been submitted to an homogeneous T° step under vacuum to characterise the homothetic behaviour of its two arms. The quite negligible inter-arms differential measured with a nm range reproducibility, demonstrates that a complete 3D structure in CeSiC has the same CTE homogeneity as characterisation samples, fully in line with the GAIA need (1pm at 120K). This participates to the demonstration that CeSiC properties at cryogenic T° is fully appropriate to the manufacturing of complex highly stable optical structures. This successful study confirms ECM and Alcatel Alenia Space ability to define and manufacture monolithic lightweight highly stable optical structures, based on inner cells triangular design made only possible by the unique CeSiC manufacturing process.

  15. A Methodology for Reducing Bench Strength in Information Technology Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boby John

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the major risks in information technology (IT project execution is the non-availability of resources with required skill sets to meet the project demands. To mitigate this risk, almost every IT organization maintains a portion of their resources on bench. The bench strength reduces the delay in starting the project due to the non-availability of skilled resources. But bench strength or buffer is cost to the company. A medium scale Indian IT company incurs around USD 142,347 monthly on maintaining the bench strength. Hence this study is undertaken to develop a methodology to reduce the bench strength in IT companies. The proposed methodology is to obtain an optimum mix of resources from bench and through recruitment to meet the demands at a minimum cost. This is done by formulating the problem as an integer programming problem. The problem aims to minimize the total cost of obtaining the skilled resources without violating the constraints on demand, bench strength availability and recruitment lead time. The problem can be solved using Microsoft excel solver function or any other optimization packages like CPLEX, Gurobi, etc. A case study on the application of proposed methodology is also discussed in the paper. The case study showed that the proposed methodology is superior to the existing practice of maintaining large bench strengths to meet the demands for resources with various skills.

  16. Practical-scale tests of cryogenic molecular sieve for separating low-concentration hydrogen isotopes from helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willms, R.S.; Taylor, D.J.; Enoeda, Mikio; Okuno, Kenji

    1994-01-01

    Earlier bench-scale work at the Tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA) at Los Alamos National Laboratory examined a number of adsorbents for their suitability for separating low-concentration hydrogen (no tritium) from helium. One of the effective adsorbents was Linde 5A molecular sieve. Recently, experiments including tritium were conducted using practical-scale adsorbers. These tests used existing cryogenic molecular sieve beds (CMSB's) which each contain about 1.6 kg of Linde 5A molecular sieve. They are part of the TSTA integrated tritium processing system. Gas was fed to each CMSB at about 13 SLPM with a nominal composition of 99% He, 0.98% H 2 and 0.02% HT. In all cases, for an extended period of time, the beds allowed no detectable (via Raman spectroscopy) hydrogen isotopes to escape in the bed effluent. Thereafter, the hydrogen isotopes appeared in the bed exit with a relatively sharp breakthrough curve. This work concludes that cryogenic molecular sieve adsorption is an practical and effective means of separating low-concentration hydrogen isotopes from a helium carrier

  17. Distal clavicular osteolysis in adults: association with bench pressing intensity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nevalainen, Mika T.; Morrison, William B.; Zoga, Adam C.; Roedl, Johannes B. [Sidney Kimmel Medical College at Thomas Jefferson University, Division of Musculoskeletal Imaging and Interventions, Department of Radiology, Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Ciccotti, Michael G. [Sidney Kimmel Medical College at Thomas Jefferson University, Division of Sports Medicine, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Rothman Institute, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2016-11-15

    To investigate the association between distal clavicular osteolysis (DCO) and bench pressing intensity. From a retrospective review of MRI shoulder reports of individuals between 20 and 40 years of age, 262 male patients with DCO and 227 age-matched male patients without DCO were selected. All patients had completed a bench pressing questionnaire. The patients' bench pressing frequency (times per week), duration (years of bench pressing), bench pressing weight (maximum bench pressing weight with one repetition = 1RM) and the ratio of bench pressing weight to body weight were compared between both groups using Chi-square and Mann-Whitney tests. The results showed that 56 % (146/262) of patients with DCO were high-intensity bench pressers (1RM more than 1.5 times the body weight) compared to 6 % (14/227) in patients without DCO. High-intensity bench pressing was a risk factor for DCO (OR = 19; 95 %CI = 11-35; p < 0.001). Low-intensity bench pressing (1RM less than 1.5 times the body weight) was not a risk factor for DCO (OR = 0.6; 95 % CI = 0.4-0.8). High frequency (>1 x /week) and duration (>5 years) of bench pressing were risk factors. In bench pressers who suffered from DCO, the mean 1RM was 283 lbs (±SD 57) compared to 209 lbs (±SD 60) in bench pressers not affected by DCO (p < 0.001, Mann-Whitney). High-intensity, but not low-intensity bench pressing is a risk factor for DCO. (orig.)

  18. Polyethylene encapsulatin of nitrate salt wastes: Waste form stability, process scale-up, and economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalb, P.D.; Heiser, J.H. III; Colombo, P.

    1991-07-01

    A polyethylene encapsulation system for treatment of low-level radioactive, hazardous, and mixed wastes has been developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Polyethylene has several advantages compared with conventional solidification/stabilization materials such as hydraulic cements. Waste can be encapsulated with greater efficiency and with better waste form performance than is possible with hydraulic cement. The properties of polyethylene relevant to its long-term durability in storage and disposal environments are reviewed. Response to specific potential failure mechanisms including biodegradation, radiation, chemical attack, flammability, environmental stress cracking, and photodegradation are examined. These data are supported by results from extensive waste form performance testing including compressive yield strength, water immersion, thermal cycling, leachability of radioactive and hazardous species, irradiation, biodegradation, and flammability. The bench-scale process has been successfully tested for application with a number of specific ''problem'' waste streams. Quality assurance and performance testing of the resulting waste form confirmed scale-up feasibility. Use of this system at Rocky Flats Plant can result in over 70% fewer drums processed and shipped for disposal, compared with optimal cement formulations. Based on the current Rocky Flats production of nitrate salt per year, polyethylene encapsulation can yield an estimated annual savings between $1.5 million and $2.7 million, compared with conventional hydraulic cement systems. 72 refs., 23 figs., 16 tabs

  19. Development of enhanced sulfur rejection processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, R.H.; Luttrell, G.H.; Adel, G.T.; Richardson, P.E.

    1996-03-01

    Research at Virginia Tech led to the development of two complementary concepts for improving the removal of inorganic sulfur from many eastern U.S. coals. These concepts are referred to as Electrochemically Enhanced Sulfur Rejection (EESR) and Polymer Enhanced Sulfur Rejection (PESR) processes. The EESR process uses electrochemical techniques to suppress the formation of hydrophobic oxidation products believed to be responsible for the floatability of coal pyrite. The PESR process uses polymeric reagents that react with pyrite and convert floatable middlings, i.e., composite particles composed of pyrite with coal inclusions, into hydrophilic particles. These new pyritic-sulfur rejection processes do not require significant modifications to existing coal preparation facilities, thereby enhancing their adoptability by the coal industry. It is believed that these processes can be used simultaneously to maximize the rejection of both well-liberated pyrite and composite coal-pyrite particles. The project was initiated on October 1, 1992 and all technical work has been completed. This report is based on the research carried out under Tasks 2-7 described in the project proposal. These tasks include Characterization, Electrochemical Studies, In Situ Monitoring of Reagent Adsorption on Pyrite, Bench Scale Testing of the EESR Process, Bench Scale Testing of the PESR Process, and Modeling and Simulation.

  20. A comparison of muscle activation between a Smith machine and free weight bench press.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schick, Evan E; Coburn, Jared W; Brown, Lee E; Judelson, Daniel A; Khamoui, Andy V; Tran, Tai T; Uribe, Brandon P

    2010-03-01

    The bench press exercise exists in multiple forms including the machine and free weight bench press. It is not clear though how each mode differs in its effect on muscle activation. The purpose of this study was to compare muscle activation of the anterior deltoid, medial deltoid, and pectoralis major during a Smith machine and free weight bench press at lower (70% 1 repetition maximum [1RM]) and higher (90% 1RM) intensities. Normalized electromyography amplitude values were used during the concentric phase of the bench press to compare muscle activity between a free weight and Smith machine bench press. Participants were classified as either experienced or inexperienced bench pressers. Two testing sessions were used, each of which entailed either all free weight or all Smith machine testing. In each testing session, each participant's 1RM was established followed by 2 repetitions at 70% of 1RM and 2 repetitions at 90% of 1RM. Results indicated greater activation of the medial deltoid on the free weight bench press than on the Smith machine bench press. Also, there was greater muscle activation at the 90% 1RM load than at the 70% 1RM load. The results of this study suggest that strength coaches should consider choosing the free weight bench press over the Smith machine bench press because of its potential for greater upper-body muscular development.

  1. Benchmarking network for clinical and humanistic outcomes in diabetes (BENCH-D) study: protocol, tools, and population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolucci, Antonio; Rossi, Maria C; Pellegrini, Fabio; Lucisano, Giuseppe; Pintaudi, Basilio; Gentile, Sandro; Marra, Giampiero; Skovlund, Soren E; Vespasiani, Giacomo

    2014-01-01

    In the context of the DAWN-2 initiatives, the BENCH-D Study aims to test a model of regional benchmarking to improve not only the quality of diabetes care, but also patient-centred outcomes. As part of the AMD-Annals quality improvement program, 32 diabetes clinics in 4 Italian regions extracted clinical data from electronic databases for measuring process and outcome quality indicators. A random sample of patients with type 2 diabetes filled in a questionnaire including validated instruments to assess patient-centred indicators: SF-12 Health Survey, WHO-5 Well-Being Index, Diabetes Empowerment Scale, Problem Areas in Diabetes, Health Care Climate Questionnaire, Patients Assessment of Chronic Illness Care, Barriers to Medications, Patient Support, Diabetes Self-care Activities, and Global Satisfaction for Diabetes Treatment. Data were discussed with participants in regional meetings. Main problems, obstacles and solutions were identified through a standardized process, and a regional mandate was produced to drive the priority actions. Overall, clinical indicators on 78,854 patients have been measured; additionally, 2,390 patients filled-in the questionnaire. The regional mandates were officially launched in March 2012. Clinical and patient-centred indicators will be evaluated again after 18 months. A final assessment of clinical indicators will take place after 30 months. In the context of the BENCH-D study, a set of instruments has been validated to measure patient well-being and satisfaction with the care. In the four regional meetings, different priorities were identified, reflecting different organizational resources of the different areas. In all the regions, a major challenge was represented by the need of skills and instruments to address psychosocial issues of people with diabetes. The BENCH-D study allows a field testing of benchmarking activities focused on clinical and patient-centred indicators.

  2. Bench test results on a new technique for far-infrared polarimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barry, S.; Nieswand, C.; Prunty, S.L.; Mansfield, H.M.; O'Leary, P.

    1996-11-01

    The results of bench tests performed on a new method of combined interferometry/polarimetry for the magnetic field reconstruction of tokamak plasmas is presented. In particular, the sensitivity obtained in the polarimetric measurement shows the feasibility of Faraday rotation determination approaching a precision of ±0.2 o . The method is based on an optically pumped far-infrared (FIR) laser with a rotating polarization where both the interferometric and polarimetric information is determined from phase measurements. Specific sources which introduce disturbances in the optical arrangement and which can limit the attainment of the polarimetric precision, mentioned above, are discussed. (author) 4 figs., 6 refs

  3. Performance analysis of K-based KEP-CO2P1 solid sorbents in a bench-scale continuous dry-sorbent CO{sub 2} capture process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Young Cheol; Jo, Sung-Ho; Lee, Seung-Yong; Moon, Jong-Ho; Yi, Chang-Keun [Korea Institute of Energy Research, 152, Gajeong-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Chong Kul; Lee, Joong Beom [Korea Electric Power Corporation Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-01-15

    Korea Institute of Energy Research (KIER) and Korea Electric Power Corporation Research Institute (KEPCORI) have been developing a CO{sub 2} capture technology using dry sorbents. In this study, KEP-CO2P1, a potassium-based dry sorbent manufactured by a spray-drying method, was used. We employed a bench-scale dry-sorbent CO{sub 2} capture fluidized-bed process capable of capturing 0.5 ton CO{sub 2}/day at most. We investigated the sorbent performance in continuous operation mode with solid circulation between a fast fluidized-bed-type carbonator and a bubbling fluidizedbed- type regenerator. We used a slip stream of a real flue gas from 2MWe coal-fired circulating fluidized-bed (CFB) power facilities installed at KIER. Throughout more than 50 hours of continuous operation, the temperature of the carbonator was maintained around 70-80 .deg. C using a jacket-type heat exchanger, while that of the regenerator was kept above 180 .deg. C using an electric furnace. The differential pressure of both the carbonator and regenerator was maintained at a stable level. The maximum CO{sub 2} removal was greater than 90%, and the average CO{sub 2} removal was about 83% during 50 hours of continuous operation.

  4. Development and experimental validation of a thermoelectric test bench for laboratory lessons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Rodríguez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The refrigeration process reduces the temperature of a space or a given volume while the power generation process employs a source of thermal energy to generate electrical power. Because of the importance of these two processes, training of engineers in this area is of great interest. In engineering courses it is normally studied the vapor compression and absorption refrigeration, and power generation systems such as gas turbine and steam turbine. Another type of cooling and generation less studied within the engineering curriculum, having a great interest, it is cooling and thermal generation based on Peltier and Seebeck effects. The theoretical concepts are useful, but students have difficulties understanding the physical meaning of their possible applications. Providing students with tools to test and apply the theory in real applications, will lead to a better understanding of the subject. Engineers must have strong theoretical, computational and also experimental skills. A prototype test bench has been built and experimentally validated to perform practical lessons of thermoelectric generation and refrigeration. Using this prototype students learn the most effective way of cooling systems and thermal power generation as well as basic concepts associated with thermoelectricity. It has been proven that students learn the process of data acquisition, and the technology used in thermoelectric devices. These practical lessons are implemented for a 60 people group of students in the development of subject of Thermodynamic including in the Degree in Engineering in Industrial Technologies of Public University of Navarra. Normal 0 21 false false false ES X-NONE X-NONE Normal 0 21 false false false ES X-NONE X-NONE Mixing of process heels, process solutions, and recycle streams: Results of the small-scale radioactive tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lumetta, G.J.; Bramson, J.P.; Farmer III, O.T.; Greenwood, L.R.; Hoopes, F.V.; Mann, M.A.; Steele, M.J.; Steele, R.T.; Swoboda, R.G.; Urie, M.W.

    2000-01-01

    Various recycle streams will be combined with the low-activity waste (LAW) or the high-level waste (HLW) feed solutions during the processing of the Hanford tank wastes by BNFL, Inc. In addition, the LAW and HLW feed solutions will also be mixed with heels present in the processing equipment. This report describes the results of a test conducted by Battelle to assess the effects of mixing specific process streams. Observations were made regarding adverse reactions (mainly precipitation) and effects on the Tc oxidation state (as indicated by K d measurements with SuperLigreg s ign 639). The work was conducted according to test plan BNFL-TP-29953-023, Rev. 0, Small Scale Mixing of Process Heels, Solutions, and Recycle Streams. The test went according to plan, with only minor deviations from the test plan. The deviations from the test plan are discussed in the experimental section

  5. Determining standard of academic potential based on the Indonesian Scholastic Aptitude Test (TBS benchmark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idwin Irma Krisna

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article was to classify The Indonesian Scholastic Aptitude Test or Tes Bakat Skolastik (TBS results for each subtest and describe scholastic aptitudes in each subtest. The subject of this study was 36,125 prospective students who took the selection test in some universities. Data analysis began by estimating  testees’ ability using the Item Response Theory, and benchmarking process using the scale anchoring method applying ASP.net web server technology. The results of this research are four benchmarks (based on cutoff scores on each subtest, characters which differentiate potential for each benchmark, and measurement error on each benchmark. The items netted give a description of the scholastic aptitude potential clearly and indicate uniqueness so that it could distinguish difference in potential between a lower bench and a higher bench. At a higher bench, a higher level of reasoning power is required in analyzing and processing needed information so that the individual concerned could do the problem solving with the right solution. The items netted at a lower bench in the three subtests tend to be few so that the error of measurement at such a bench still tends to be higher compared to that at a higher bench.

  6. Influence of bench angle on upper extremity muscular activation during bench press exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauver, Jakob D; Cayot, Trent E; Scheuermann, Barry W

    2016-01-01

    This study compared the muscular activation of the pectoralis major, anterior deltoid and triceps brachii during a free-weight barbell bench press performed at 0°, 30°, 45° and -15° bench angles. Fourteen healthy resistance trained males (age 21.4 ± 0.4 years) participated in this study. One set of six repetitions for each bench press conditions at 65% one repetition maximum were performed. Surface electromyography (sEMG) was utilised to examine the muscular activation of the selected muscles during the eccentric and concentric phases. In addition, each phase was subdivided into 25% contraction durations, resulting in four separate time points for comparison between bench conditions. The sEMG of upper pectoralis displayed no difference during any of the bench conditions when examining the complete concentric contraction, however differences during 26-50% contraction duration were found for both the 30° [122.5 ± 10.1% maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC)] and 45° (124 ± 9.1% MVIC) bench condition, resulting in greater sEMG compared to horizontal (98.2 ± 5.4% MVIC) and -15 (96.1 ± 5.5% MVIC). The sEMG of lower pectoralis was greater during -15° (100.4 ± 5.7% MVIC), 30° (86.6 ± 4.8% MVIC) and horizontal (100.1 ± 5.2% MVIC) bench conditions compared to the 45° (71.9 ± 4.5% MVIC) for the whole concentric contraction. The results of this study support the use of a horizontal bench to achieve muscular activation of both the upper and lower heads of the pectoralis. However, a bench incline angle of 30° or 45° resulted in greater muscular activation during certain time points, suggesting that it is important to consider how muscular activation is affected at various time points when selecting bench press exercises.

  7. Development of Real-Time Dual-Display Handheld and Bench-Top Hybrid-Mode SD-OCTs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nam Hyun Cho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of a dual-display handheld optical coherence tomography (OCT system for retina and optic-nerve-head diagnosis beyond the volunteer motion constraints is reported. The developed system is portable and easily movable, containing the compact portable OCT system that includes the handheld probe and computer. Eye posterior chambers were diagnosed using the handheld probe, and the probe could be fixed to the bench-top cradle depending on the volunteers’ physical condition. The images obtained using this handheld probe were displayed in real time on the computer monitor and on a small secondary built-in monitor; the displayed images were saved using the handheld probe’s built-in button. Large-scale signal-processing procedures such as k-domain linearization, fast Fourier transform (FFT, and log-scaling signal processing can be rapidly applied using graphics-processing-unit (GPU accelerated processing rather than central-processing-unit (CPU processing. The Labview-based system resolution is 1,024 × 512 pixels, and the frame rate is 56 frames/s, useful for real-time display. The 3D images of the posterior chambers including the retina, optic-nerve head, blood vessels, and optic nerve were composed using real-time displayed images with 500 × 500 × 500 pixel resolution. A handheld and bench-top hybrid mode with a dual-display handheld OCT was developed to overcome the drawbacks of the conventional method.

  8. W5″ Test: A simple method for measuring mean power output in the bench press exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tous-Fajardo, Julio; Moras, Gerard; Rodríguez-Jiménez, Sergio; Gonzalo-Skok, Oliver; Busquets, Albert; Mujika, Iñigo

    2016-11-01

    The aims of the present study were to assess the validity and reliability of a novel simple test [Five Seconds Power Test (W5″ Test)] for estimating the mean power output during the bench press exercise at different loads, and its sensitivity to detect training-induced changes. Thirty trained young men completed as many repetitions as possible in a time of ≈5 s at 25%, 45%, 65% and 85% of one-repetition maximum (1RM) in two test sessions separated by four days. The number of repetitions, linear displacement of the bar and time needed to complete the test were recorded by two independent testers, and a linear encoder was used as the criterion measure. For each load, the mean power output was calculated in the W5″ Test as mechanical work per time unit and compared with that obtained from the linear encoder. Subsequently, 20 additional subjects (10 training group vs. 10 control group) were assessed before and after completing a seven-week training programme designed to improve maximal power. Results showed that both assessment methods correlated highly in estimating mean power output at different loads (r range: 0.86-0.94; p bench press exercise in subjects who have previous resistance training experience.

  9. Treatment of discharge water from hydrostatic testing of natural gas pipelines. Volume 4. Topical report, January 1989-June 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tallon, J.T.; Lee-Ryan, P.B.; Volpi, K.A.; Fillo, J.P.

    1992-06-01

    The report presents results developed from bench- and full-scale treatment testing conducted on discharge water from hydrostatic testing of natural gas pipelines. Bench-scale testing examined sedimentation with and without chemical coagulants for reducing iron and total suspended solids, aeration for removal of volatile organics, and activated carbon adsorption for removal of organic constituents. Treatment results are provided for a full-scale treatment process, which utilized a hay bale structure and adsorbent booms for removing suspended solids and oil from the discharge water. Detailed characterization results are presented for test water collected before and after treatment. Results developed from an economic analysis of other potential treatment/disposal alternatives are also presented. A total of eight approaches that may be applied for managing constituents present in hydrostatic test waters are examined. The report is Volume 4 of a five-volume report series

  10. Sulfur-Iodine Integrated Lab Scale Experiment Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russ, Ben

    2011-05-27

    The sulfur-iodine (SI) cycle was deermined to be the best cycle for coupling to a high temperature reactor (HTR) because of its high efficiency and potential for further improvement. The Japanese Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has also selected the SI process for further development and has successfully completed bench-scale demonstrations of the SI process at atmospheric pressure. JEA also plans to proceed with pilot-scale demonstrations of the SI process and eventually plans to couple an SI demonstration plant to its High Temperature Test Reactor (HHTR). As part of an international NERI project, GA, SNL, and the Frech Commissariat L'Energie Atomique performed laboratory-scale demonstrations of the SI process at prototypical temperatures and pressures. This demonstration was performed at GA in San Diego, CA and concluded in April 2009.

  11. Sulfur-Iodine Integrated Lab Scale Experiment Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russ, Ben

    2011-01-01

    The sulfur-iodine (SI) cycle was determined to be the best cycle for coupling to a high temperature reactor (HTR) because of its high efficiency and potential for further improvement. The Japanese Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has also selected the SI process for further development and has successfully completed bench-scale demonstrations of the SI process at atmospheric pressure. JEA also plans to proceed with pilot-scale demonstrations of the SI process and eventually plans to couple an SI demonstration plant to its High Temperature Test Reactor (HHTR). As part of an international NERI project, GA, SNL, and the Frech Commissariat L'Energie Atomique performed laboratory-scale demonstrations of the SI process at prototypical temperatures and pressures. This demonstration was performed at GA in San Diego, CA and concluded in April 2009.

  12. Performance of flash ADCs in the 100 MHz range: I. Test bench and preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawley, H.B.; McKay, R.; Meyer, W.T.; Rosenberg, E.I.; Thomas, W.D.

    1990-01-01

    We describe a systematic study of the performance of commercially available Flash ADCs in the 100 Megasample per second range, which might be suitable for use in the Superconducting Super Collider. Performance characteristics are measured using a CAMAC based test bench which is described. Among the FADC performance characteristics reported are linearity, differential linearity and the effective number of bits. This paper is the first in a series of reports to be presented within the next year as our tests continue. 6 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  13. Contextual interference effects on the acquisition of skill and strength of the bench press.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naimo, Marshall A; Zourdos, Michael C; Wilson, Jacob M; Kim, Jeong-Su; Ward, Emery G; Eccles, David W; Panton, Lynn B

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate contextual interference effects on skill acquisition and strength gains during the learning of the bench press movement. Twenty-four healthy, college-aged males and females were stratified to control, high contextual interference (HCI), and low contextual interference (LCI) groups. Treatment groups were provided with written and visual instruction on proper bench press form and practiced the bench press and dart throwing for four weeks. Within each session, LCI performed all bench press sets before undertaking dart-throws. HCI undertook dart-throws immediately following each set of bench press. Control only did testing. Measurements, including one repetition maximum (1RM), checklist scores based on video recordings of participants' 1RM's, and dart-throw test scores were taken at pre-test, 1 week, 2 week, post-test, and retention test. Results were consistent with the basic premise of the contextual interference effect. LCI had significant improvements in percent 1RM and checklist scores during training, but were mostly absent after training (post-test and retention test). HCI had significant improvements in percent 1RM and checklist scores both during and after training. Thus, HCI may augment strength and movement skill on the bench press since proper technique is an important component of resistance exercise movements. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Terrace erosion and sediment transport model: a new tool for soil conservation planning in bench-terraced steeplands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, A.I.J.M.; Bruijnzeel, L.A.

    2003-01-01

    Despite widespread bench-terracing soil erosion remains a major problem in Java's uplands. To elucidate the causes for this lack of impact, runoff and erosion processes were studied at a variety of spatial scales within a volcanic catchment in West Java. Research indicated that soil loss occurs via

  15. BWR Mark I pressure suppression study: characterization of the vertical load function utilizing bench top model tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCauley, E.W.; Lai, W.

    1977-02-01

    A study was conducted to characterize the mechanisms which give rise to observed oscillations in the vertical load function (VLF) of bench top pool dynamics tests. This is part of a continuing investigation at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory of the General Electric Mark I Nuclear Reactor pressure suppression system

  16. Real-time cavity simulator-based low-level radio-frequency test bench and applications for accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Feng; Michizono, Shinichiro; Miura, Takako; Matsumoto, Toshihiro; Liu, Na; Wibowo, Sigit Basuki

    2018-03-01

    A Low-level radio-frequency (LLRF) control systems is required to regulate the rf field in the rf cavity used for beam acceleration. As the LLRF system is usually complex, testing of the basic functions or control algorithms of this system in real time and in advance of beam commissioning is strongly recommended. However, the equipment necessary to test the LLRF system, such as superconducting cavities and high-power rf sources, is very expensive; therefore, we have developed a field-programmable gate array (FPGA)-based cavity simulator as a substitute for real rf cavities. Digital models of the cavity and other rf systems are implemented in the FPGA. The main components include cavity baseband models for the fundamental and parasitic modes, a mechanical model of the Lorentz force detuning, and a model of the beam current. Furthermore, in our simulator, the disturbance model used to simulate the power-supply ripples and microphonics is also carefully considered. Based on the presented cavity simulator, we have established an LLRF system test bench that can be applied to different cavity operational conditions. The simulator performance has been verified by comparison with real cavities in KEK accelerators. In this paper, the development and implementation of this cavity simulator is presented first, and the LLRF test bench based on the presented simulator is constructed. The results are then compared with those for KEK accelerators. Finally, several LLRF applications of the cavity simulator are illustrated.

  17. Real-time cavity simulator-based low-level radio-frequency test bench and applications for accelerators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Qiu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A Low-level radio-frequency (LLRF control systems is required to regulate the rf field in the rf cavity used for beam acceleration. As the LLRF system is usually complex, testing of the basic functions or control algorithms of this system in real time and in advance of beam commissioning is strongly recommended. However, the equipment necessary to test the LLRF system, such as superconducting cavities and high-power rf sources, is very expensive; therefore, we have developed a field-programmable gate array (FPGA-based cavity simulator as a substitute for real rf cavities. Digital models of the cavity and other rf systems are implemented in the FPGA. The main components include cavity baseband models for the fundamental and parasitic modes, a mechanical model of the Lorentz force detuning, and a model of the beam current. Furthermore, in our simulator, the disturbance model used to simulate the power-supply ripples and microphonics is also carefully considered. Based on the presented cavity simulator, we have established an LLRF system test bench that can be applied to different cavity operational conditions. The simulator performance has been verified by comparison with real cavities in KEK accelerators. In this paper, the development and implementation of this cavity simulator is presented first, and the LLRF test bench based on the presented simulator is constructed. The results are then compared with those for KEK accelerators. Finally, several LLRF applications of the cavity simulator are illustrated.

  18. Loading intensity prediction by velocity and the OMNI-RES 0–10 scale in bench press

    OpenAIRE

    Naclerio, Fernando; Larumbe-Zabala, Eneko

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the possibility of using movement velocity and the perceived exertion as indicators of relative load in the bench press exercise. Three hundred eight young, healthy, resistance trained athletes (242 male and 66 female) performed a progressive strength test up to the one-repetition maximum for the individual determination of the full load-velocity and load-exertion relationships. Longitudinal regression models were used to predict the relative load from the average velocity...

  19. PNNL Report on the Development of Bench-scale CFD Simulations for Gas Absorption across a Wetted Wall Column

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Chao; Xu, Zhijie; Lai, Canhai; Whyatt, Greg A.; Marcy, Peter; Gattiker, J. R.; Sun, Xin

    2016-05-01

    This report is prepared for the demonstration of hierarchical prediction of carbon capture efficiency of a solvent-based absorption column. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model is first developed to simulate the core phenomena of solvent-based carbon capture, i.e., the CO2 physical absorption and chemical reaction, on a simplified geometry of wetted wall column (WWC) at bench scale. Aqueous solutions of ethanolamine (MEA) are commonly selected as a CO2 stream scrubbing liquid. CO2 is captured by both physical and chemical absorption using highly CO2 soluble and reactive solvent, MEA, during the scrubbing process. In order to provide confidence bound on the computational predictions of this complex engineering system, a hierarchical calibration and validation framework is proposed. The overall goal of this effort is to provide a mechanism-based predictive framework with confidence bound for overall mass transfer coefficient of the wetted wall column (WWC) with statistical analyses of the corresponding WWC experiments with increasing physical complexity.

  1. Process engineering and scale-up of autotrophic Clostridium strain P11 syngas fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundiyana, Dimple Kumar Aiyanna

    Scope and Method of Study. Biomass gasification followed by fermentation of syngas to ethanol is a potential process to produce bioenergy. The process is currently being researched under laboratory- and pilot-scale in an effort to optimize the process conditions and make the process feasible for commercial production of ethanol and other biofuels such as butanol and propanol. The broad research objectives for the research were to improve ethanol yields during syngas fermentation and to design a economical fermentation process. The research included four statistically designed experimental studies in serum bottles, bench-scale and pilot-scale fermentors to screen alternate fermentation media components, to determine the effect of process parameters such as pH, temperature and buffer on syngas fermentation, to determine the effect of key limiting nutrients of the acetyl-CoA pathway in a continuous series reactor design, and to scale-up the syngas fermentation in a 100-L pilot scale fermentor. Findings and Conclusions. The first experimental study identified cotton seed extract (CSE) as a feasible medium for Clostridium strain P11 fermentation. The study showed that CSE at 0.5 g L-1 can potentially replace all the standard Clostridium strain P11 fermentation media components while using a media buffer did not significantly improve the ethanol production when used in fermentation with CSE. Scale-up of the CSE fermentation in 2-L and 5-L stirred tank fermentors showed 25% increase in ethanol yield. The second experimental study showed that syngas fermentation at 32°C without buffer was associated with higher ethanol concentration and reduced lag time in switching to solventogenesis. Conducting fermentation at 40°C or by lowering incubation pH to 5.0 resulted in reduced cell growth and no production of ethanol or acetic acid. The third experiment studied the effect of three limiting nutrients, calcium pantothenate, vitamin B12 and CoCl2 on syngas fermentation. Results

  2. Construction and Bench Testing of a Rotatable Collimator for the LHC Collimation Upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    The Phase II upgrade to the LHC collimation system calls for complementing the 30 high robust Phase I graphite secondary collimators with 30 high Z Phase II collimators. The Phase II collimators must be robust in various operating conditions and accident scenarios. This paper reports on the final construction and testing of the prototype collimator to be installed in the SPS (Super Proton Synchrotron) at CERN. Bench-top measurements will demonstrate that the device is fully operational and has the mechanical and vacuum characteristics acceptable for installation in the SPS.

  3. Ultrafine particle emission characteristics of diesel engine by on-board and test bench measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Cheng; Lou, Diming; Hu, Zhiyuan; Tan, Piqiang; Yao, Di; Hu, Wei; Li, Peng; Ren, Jin; Chen, Changhong

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the emission characteristics of ultrafine particles based on test bench and on-board measurements. The bench test results showed the ultrafine particle number concentration of the diesel engine to be in the range of (0.56-8.35) x 10(8) cm(-3). The on-board measurement results illustrated that the ultrafine particles were strongly correlated with changes in real-world driving cycles. The particle number concentration was down to 2.0 x 10(6) cm(-3) and 2.7 x 10(7) cm(-3) under decelerating and idling operations and as high as 5.0 x 10(8) cm(-3) under accelerating operation. It was also indicated that the particle number measured by the two methods increased with the growth of engine load at each engine speed in both cases. The particle number presented a "U" shaped distribution with changing speed at high engine load conditions, which implies that the particle number will reach its lowest level at medium engine speeds. The particle sizes of both measurements showed single mode distributions. The peak of particle size was located at about 50-80 nm in the accumulation mode particle range. Nucleation mode particles will significantly increase at low engine load operations like idling and decelerating caused by the high concentration of unburned organic compounds.

  4. Process Testing Results and Scaling for the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Pretreatment Engineering Platform - 10173

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurath, Dean E.; Daniel, Richard C.; Baldwin, David L.; Rapko, Brian M.; Barnes, Steven M.; Gilbert, Robert A.; Mahoney, Lenna A.; Huckaby, James L.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy-Office of River Protections Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is being designed and built to pretreat and then vitrify a large portion of the wastes in Hanfords 177 underground waste storage tanks at Richland, Washington. In support of this effort, engineering-scale tests at the Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP) have been completed to confirm the process design and provide improved projections of system capacity. The PEP is a 1/4.5-scale facility designed, constructed, and operated to test the integrated leaching and ultrafiltration processes being deployed at the WTP. The PEP replicates the WTP leaching processes with prototypic equipment and control strategies and non-prototypic ancillary equipment to support the core processing. The testing approach used a nonradioactive aqueous slurry simulant to demonstrate the unit operations of caustic and oxidative leaching, cross-flow ultrafiltration solids concentration, and solids washing. Parallel tests conducted at the laboratory scale with identical simulants provided results that allow scale-up factors to be developed between the laboratory and PEP performance. This paper presents the scale-up factors determined between the laboratory and engineering-scale results and presents arguments that extend these results to the full-scale process.

  5. Influence of the "Slingshot" bench press training aid on bench press kinematics and neuromuscular activity in competitive powerlifters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugdale, James H; Hunter, Angus; Di Virgilio, Thomas; Macgregor, Lewis J; Hamilton, D Lee

    2017-02-13

    This study examined the acute effects of the 'Slingshot' on bench-press performance, prime-mover surface electromyographic (sEMG) amplitude, and barbell velocity during maximal and submaximal bench-pressing in competitive male powerlifters. Fifteen male powerlifters (mean ± SD age: 27.05 ± 5.94 years; mass: 94.15kg; 1RM bench-press: 139.7 ± 16.79kg) participated in the study. Bench-press strength, average barbell velocity, and sEMG amplitude of the prime mover muscles (triceps brachii, pectoralis major and anterior deltoid) were measured during two conditions; 'Raw' (without use of any assistance) and 'Slingshot' [using the 'Slingshot' to perform both the weight achieved during 'Raw' 1RM testing (Raw max/SS), and absolute 1RM using the 'Slingshot' (SS)]. The results showed that the 'Slingshot' significantly increased bench press 1RM performance by a mean ± SD of 20.67kg ± 3.4kg. Barbell velocity and stick point analysis indicate that this improvement is likely driven by an increase in peak and pre-stick barbell velocity as triceps RMS was lower throughout all rep max phases with the 'Slingshot'. The 'Slingshot' also caused reductions in RMS, specifically of the triceps at all rep ranges but barbell velocity was better maintained in the last reps of all sets. These data indicate that the 'Slingshot' specifically de-loaded the triceps muscle throughout all rep ranges and provide assistance to maintaining barbell velocity under fatigue during later repetitions of multiple-repetition sets. The 'Slingshot' training aid could therefore be used in de-load phases of bench press training or as an over-reaching and velocity training aid.

  6. Portable test bench for the studies concerning ion sources and ion beam extraction and focusing systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordero Lopez, F.

    1961-01-01

    A portable test bench is described, which was designed to check ion sources, ion beam extraction and focusing systems before its use in a 600 KeV Cockcroft-Walton accelerator. The vacuum possibilities of the system are specially analyzed in connection with its particular use. The whole can be considered as a portable accelerator of low energy (50 keV). (Author)

  7. Treatment of waste gas containing low concentration of dimethyl sulphide (DMS) in a bench-scale biofilter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giri, B S; Mudliar, S N; Deshmukh, S C; Banerjee, S; Pandey, R A

    2010-04-01

    Biological treatment of dimethyl sulphide (DMS) was investigated in a bench-scale biofilter, packed with compost along with wood chips, and enriched with DMS degrading microorganism Bacillus sphaericus. The biofilter could remove 62-74% of the inlet DMS, at an optimum loading of 0.484 g/m(3)/h with optimum empty bed contact time (EBCT) of 384 s and an average moisture range of 65-70%. The biodegradative products of DMS were sulphide, thiosulphate and sulphate. Evaluation of microbiological status of the biofilter indicated the presence of other bacterial cultures viz. Paenibacillus polymyxa, and Bacillus megaterium, besides B. sphaericus. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Simulation-based rhomboid flap skills training during medical education: comparing low- and high-fidelity bench models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denadai, Rafael; Saad-Hossne, Rogerio; Raposo-Amaral, Cassio Eduardo

    2014-11-01

    To assess if the bench model fidelity interferes in the acquisition of rhomboid flap skills by medical students. Sixty novice medical students were randomly assigned to 5 practice conditions with instructor-directed Limberg rhomboid flap skills training: didactic materials (control group 1), low-fidelity rubberized line (group 2) or ethylene-vinyl acetate (group 3) bench models; high-fidelity chicken leg skin (group 4) or pig foot skin (group 5) bench models. Pretests and posttests were applied, and Global Rating Scale, effect size, and self-perceived confidence were used to evaluate all flap performances. Medical students from groups 2 to 5 showed better flap performances based on the Global Rating Scale (all P 0.05). The magnitude of the effect was considered large (>0.80) in all measurements. There was acquisition of rhomboid flap skills regardless of bench model fidelity.

  9. Final Report, University of California Merced: Uranium and strontium fate in waste-weathered sediments: Scaling of molecular processes to predict reactive transport (DE-SC0007095)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Day, Peggy Anne [University of California Merced; Chorover, Jon [University of Arizona; Steefel, Carl [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Mueller, Karl [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Um, Wooyong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-06-30

    Objectives of the Project: 1. Determine the process coupling that occurs between mineral transformation and contaminant (U and Sr) speciation in acid-uranium waste weathered Hanford sediments. 2. Establish linkages between molecular-scale contaminant speciation and meso-scale contaminant lability, release and reactive transport. 3. Make conjunctive use of molecular- to bench-scale data to constrain the development of a mechanistic, reactive transport model that includes coupling of contaminant sorption-desorption and mineral transformation reactions. Hypotheses Tested: Uranium and strontium speciation in legacy sediments from the U-8 and U-12 Crib sites can be reproduced in bench-scale weathering experiments conducted on unimpacted Hanford sediments from the same formations; Reactive transport modeling of future uranium and strontium releases from the vadose zone of acid-waste weathered sediments can be effectively constrained by combining molecular-scale information on contaminant bonding environment with grain-scale information on contaminant phase partitioning, and meso-scale kinetic data on contaminant release from the waste-weathered porous media; Although field contamination and laboratory experiments differ in their diagenetic time scales (decades for field vs. months to years for lab), sediment dissolution, neophase nucleation, and crystal growth reactions that occur during the initial disequilibrium induced by waste-sediment interaction leave a strong imprint that persists over subsequent longer-term equilibration time scales and, therefore, give rise to long-term memory effects. Enabling Capabilities Developed: Our team developed an iterative measure-model approach that is broadly applicable to elucidate the mechanistic underpinnings of reactive contaminant transport in geomedia subject to active weathering.

  10. ESCRIME: testing bench for advanced operator workstations in future plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poujol, A.; Papin, B.

    1994-01-01

    The problem of optimal task allocation between man and computer for the operation of nuclear power plants is of major concern for the design of future plants. As the increased level of automation induces the modification of the tasks actually devoted to the operator in the control room, it is very important to anticipate these consequences at the plant design stage. The improvement of man machine cooperation is expected to play a major role in minimizing the impact of human errors on plant safety. The CEA has launched a research program concerning the evolution of the plant operation in order to optimize the efficiency of the human/computer systems for a better safety. The objective of this program is to evaluate different modalities of man-machine share of tasks, in a representative context. It relies strongly upon the development of a specific testing facility, the ESCRIME work bench, which is presented in this paper. It consists of an EDF 1300MWe PWR plant simulator connected to an operator workstation. The plant simulator model presents at a significant level of details the instrumentation and control of the plant and the main connected circuits. The operator interface is based on the generalization of the use of interactive graphic displays, and is intended to be consistent to the tasks to be performed by the operator. The functional architecture of the workstation is modular, so that different cooperation mechanisms can be implemented within the same framework. It is based on a thorough analysis and structuration of plant control tasks, in normal as well as in accident situations. The software architecture design follows the distributed artificial intelligence approach. Cognitive agents cooperate in order to operate the process. The paper presents the basic principles and the functional architecture of the test bed and describes the steps and the present status of the program. (author)

  11. Taking the Test Taker's Perspective: Response Process and Test Motivation in Multidimensional Forced-Choice Versus Rating Scale Instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sass, Rachelle; Frick, Susanne; Reips, Ulf-Dietrich; Wetzel, Eunike

    2018-03-01

    The multidimensional forced-choice (MFC) format has been proposed as an alternative to the rating scale (RS) response format. However, it is unclear how changing the response format may affect the response process and test motivation of participants. In Study 1, we investigated the MFC response process using the think-aloud technique. In Study 2, we compared test motivation between the RS format and different versions of the MFC format (presenting 2, 3, 4, and 5 items simultaneously). The response process to MFC item blocks was similar to the RS response process but involved an additional step of weighing the items within a block against each other. The RS and MFC response format groups did not differ in their test motivation. Thus, from the test taker's perspective, the MFC format is somewhat more demanding to respond to, but this does not appear to decrease test motivation.

  12. Hydropyrolysis of sugar cane bagasse: effect of sample configuration on bio-oil yields and structures from two bench-scale reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pindoria, R.V.; Chatzakis, I.N.; Lim, J.-Y.; Herod, A.A.; Dugwell, D.R.; Kandiyoti, R. [Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Chemical Technology

    1999-01-01

    A wire-mesh reactor has been used as base-case in the study of product yields and structures from the pyrolysis and hydropyrolysis of a sample of sugar cane bagasse in a fixed bed `hot-rod` reactor. Results from the two reactors have been compared to determine how best to assess bench-scale data which might be used for eventual process development. Experiments have been carried out at 600{degree}C at pressures up to 70 bar. Structural features of the bio-oils have been examined by size exclusion chromatography and FT-infrared spectroscopy. In both reactors the effect of increasing pressure was to reduce the bio-oil and total volatile yields: hydropyrolysis bio-oil yields were marginally higher than pyrolysis yields under equivalent operating conditions. The data indicate that about one-third of the original biomass may be converted to oil by direct pyrolysis. 33 refs., 10 figs.

  13. Development and Validity of a Scale of Perception of Velocity in Resistance Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iker J. Bautista

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This aims of this study were twofold; 1 to development a new scale of perceived velocity in the bench press exercise and 2 to examine the scales concurrent validity. Twenty one physically active males with mean ±SD age, height and weights of: 27.5 ± 4.7 years, 1.77 ± 0.07 m, and 79.8 ± 10.3 kg respectively, took part in the study. The criterion variable used to test the validity of the new scale was the mean execution velocity (Velreal of the bench press exercise. Three intensities (light loads [ 70% 1RM] were measured randomly during 5 days of testing. Perceived velocity (Velscale was measured immediately after each exercise set using the new scale. A positive linear correlation (r range = 0.69 to 0.81 was found in all three intensities, analyzed individually, between the Velreal and Velscale. Pearson correlations showed a greater frequency of scale use resulted higher correlation values (range r = 0.88 to 0.96. This study provides evidence of the concurrent validity of a new scale of perceived velocity in the bench press exercise in trained adult males. These results suggest the exercise intensity of the bench press can be quantified quickly and effective using this new scale of perceived velocity, particularly when training for maximum power.

  14. Pilot-scale tests for EB flue gas treatment process in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, S.; Tokunaga, O.; Namba, H.

    1994-01-01

    A review of electron beam applications for flue gas treatment in Japan has been done. Several pilot plants are being performed for commercial use of electron beams process for cleaning of flue gas from low-sulfur coal burning boiler, a municipal waste incinerator and for removal of NO x from a ventilation exhaust of a highway tunnel. Outlines of three pilot-scale tests are introduced. 9 refs, 4 figs

  15. Bench-Scale Synthetic Optimization of 1,2-bis(2-aminophenylthio)ethane (APO-Link) Used in the Production of APO-BMI Resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilary Wheeler; Crystal Densmore

    2007-07-31

    The diamine reagent 1,2-bis(2-aminophenylthio)ethane is no longer commercially available but still required for the synthesis of the bismaleimide resin, APO-BMI, used in syntactic foams. In this work, we examined the hydrolysis of benzothiazole followed the by reaction with dichloroethane or dibromoethane. We also studied the deprotonation of 2-aminothiophenol followed by the reaction with dibromoethane. We optimized the latter for scale-up by scrutinizing all aspects of the reaction conditions, work-up and recrystallization. On bench-scale, our optimized procedure consistently produced a 75-80% overall yield of finely divided, high purity product (>95%).

  16. Process engineering challenges of uranium extraction from phosphoric acid on industrial scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mouriya, Govind; Singh, Dhirendra; Nath, A.K.; Majumdar, D.

    2014-01-01

    Heavy Water Board (HWB) is a constituent unit of the Department of Atomic Energy. One of the diversified activities undertaken by HWB is pursuing exploitation of non-conventional resources for recovery of uranium from wet phosphoric acid being the most prominent one. Amongst the feasible processes for recovery of uranium from phosphoric acid is solvent extraction. Use of in-house solvent produced by HWB, is another key driver. To garner necessary information for developing the industrial scale facilities, the process has been studied in the laboratory scale, mini scale, bench scale at Heavy Water Plant, Talcher. The process was subsequently scaled up to an industrial prototype scale unit and was set up as a Technology Demonstration Plant coupled with a commercial phosphoric acid plant. The plant has successfully processed more than 2 lakh m 3 of wet phosphoric acid and all the parameters including the product, Yellow Cake have been qualified. No adverse effect has been observed in the fertilizer produced. The main characteristics of the process and subsequent process innovations are discussed in this paper. These innovations have been carried out to overcome hurdles faced during commissioning and subsequent operations of the Plant. The innovations include improved pretreatment of the wet phosphoric acid for feeding to the extraction cycle, improved control of the first cycle chemical environment, reducing the strength of the phosphoric acid used for stripping, reducing the number of equipment and machineries, alteration in solvent composition used in the first and second cycle in the solvent extraction units of the plant. (author)

  17. Toxic Combustion Product Yields as a Function of Equivalence Ratio and Flame Retardants in Under-Ventilated Fires: Bench-Large-Scale Comparisons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Purser

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In large-scale compartment fires; combustion product yields vary with combustion conditions mainly in relation to the fuel:air equivalence ratio (Φ and the effects of gas-phase flame retardants. Yields of products of inefficient combustion; including the major toxic products CO; HCN and organic irritants; increase considerably as combustion changes from well-ventilated (Φ < 1 to under-ventilated (Φ = 1–3. It is therefore essential that bench-scale toxicity tests reproduce this behaviour across the Φ range. Yield data from repeat compartment fire tests for any specific fuel show some variation on either side of a best-fit curve for CO yield as a function of Φ. In order to quantify the extent to which data from the steady state tube furnace (SSTF [1]; ISO TS19700 [2] represents compartment fire yields; the range and average deviations of SSTF data for CO yields from the compartment fire best-fit curve were compared to those for direct compartment fire measurements for six different polymeric fuels with textile and non-textile applications and for generic post-flashover fire CO yield data. The average yields; range and standard deviations of the SSTF data around the best-fit compartment fire curves were found to be close to those for the compartment fire data. It is concluded that SSTF data are as good a predictor of compartment fire yields as are repeat compartment fire test data.

  18. Modeling industrial centrifugation of mammalian cell culture using a capillary based scale-down system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westoby, Matthew; Rogers, Jameson K; Haverstock, Ryan; Romero, Jonathan; Pieracci, John

    2011-05-01

    Continuous-flow centrifugation is widely utilized as the primary clarification step in the recovery of biopharmaceuticals from cell culture. However, it is a challenging operation to develop and characterize due to the lack of easy to use, small-scale, systems that can be used to model industrial processes. As a result, pilot-scale continuous centrifugation is typically employed to model large-scale systems requiring a significant amount of resources. In an effort to reduce resource requirements and create a system which is easy to construct and utilize, a capillary shear device, capable of producing energy dissipation rates equivalent to those present in the feed zones of industrial disk stack centrifuges, was developed and evaluated. When coupled to a bench-top, batch centrifuge, the capillary device reduced centrate turbidity prediction error from 37% to 4% compared to using a bench-top centrifuge alone. Laboratory-scale parameters that are analogous to those routinely varied during industrial-scale continuous centrifugation were identified and evaluated for their utility in emulating disk stack centrifuge performance. The resulting relationships enable bench-scale process modeling of continuous disk stack centrifuges using an easily constructed, scalable, capillary shear device coupled to a typical bench-top centrifuge. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Method, apparatus and system for managing queue operations of a test bench environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostler, Farrell Lynn

    2016-07-19

    Techniques and mechanisms for performing dequeue operations for agents of a test bench environment. In an embodiment, a first group of agents are each allocated a respective ripe reservation and a second set of agents are each allocated a respective unripe reservation. Over time, queue management logic allocates respective reservations to agents and variously changes one or more such reservations from unripe to ripe. In another embodiment, an order of servicing agents allocated unripe reservations is based on relative priorities of the unripe reservations with respect to one another. An order of servicing agents allocated ripe reservations is on a first come, first served basis.

  20. Determination of uranium in bench test by L_Ⅲ-absorption edge method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song You; Zheng Weiming; Liu Guijiao; Chen Chen

    2014-01-01

    By independent research L_Ⅲ--absorption edge densimeter, an analytical method for uranium sample with the concentration from 20 g/L to 200 g/L was developed. The fitting area for uranium measurement was determined through experiment. The left fitting area was 1659-1856 channel, and the right one was 2063-2280 channel. The uranium L_Ⅲ--absorption edge was at 1995 channel. The results show that the influence of HNO_3 concentration lower than 9 mol/L, Al and Fe concentration lower than 10 g/L was negligibly small. The uranium measurement precision is better than 0.5%, and the instrument stability is good. Some samples in bench test of uranium recovery were determined. The results are satisfactory. (authors)

  1. Linearly chirped fiber Bragg grating response to thermal gradient: from bench tests to the real-time assessment during in vivo laser ablations of biological tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saccomandi, Paola; Varalda, Ambra; Gassino, Riccardo; Tosi, Daniele; Massaroni, Carlo; Caponero, Michele A.; Pop, Raoul; Korganbayev, Sanzhar; Perrone, Guido; Diana, Michele; Vallan, Alberto; Costamagna, Guido; Marescaux, Jacques; Schena, Emiliano

    2017-09-01

    The response of a fiber optic sensor [linearly chirped fiber Bragg grating (LCFBG)] to a linear thermal gradient applied on its sensing length (i.e., 1.5 cm) has been investigated. After these bench tests, we assessed their feasibility for temperature monitoring during thermal tumor treatment. In particular, we performed experiments during ex vivo laser ablation (LA) in pig liver and in vivo thermal ablation in animal models (pigs). We investigated the following: (i) the relationship between the full width at half maximum of the LCFBG spectrum and the temperature difference among the extremities of the LCFBG and (ii) the relationship between the mean spectrum wavelength and the mean temperature acting on the LCFBG sensing area. These relationships showed a linear trend during both bench tests and LA in animal models. Thermal sensitivity was significant although different values were found with regards to bench tests and animal experiments. The linear trend and significant sensitivity allow hypothesizing a future use of this kind of sensor to monitor both temperature gradient and mean temperature within a tissue undergoing thermal treatment.

  2. Kinematics and kinetics of the bench-press and bench-pull exercises in a strength-trained sporting population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Simon N; Cronin, John B; Hume, Patria A; Slyfield, David

    2009-09-01

    Understanding how loading affects power production in resistance training is a key step in identifying the most optimal way of training muscular power - an essential trait in most sporting movements. Twelve elite male sailors with extensive strength-training experience participated in a comparison of kinematics and kinetics from the upper body musculature, with upper body push (bench press) and pull (bench pull) movements performed across loads of 10-100% of one repetition maximum (1RM). 1RM strength and force were shown to be greater in the bench press, while velocity and power outputs were greater for the bench pull across the range of loads. While power output was at a similar level for the two movements at a low load (10% 1RM), significantly greater power outputs were observed for the bench pull in comparison to the bench press with increased load. Power output (Pmax) was maximized at higher relative loads for both mean and peak power in the bench pull (78.6 +/- 5.7% and 70.4 +/- 5.4% of 1RM) compared to the bench press (53.3 +/- 1.7% and 49.7 +/- 4.4% of 1RM). Findings can most likely be attributed to differences in muscle architecture, which may have training implications for these muscles.

  3. Status of the bench-test system for the tubes in the HIMAC DTL linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimoto, T.; Ishikawa, S.; Kobayashi, C.

    2000-01-01

    The tetrode tube of SIEMENS RS2074SK is used for HIMAC DTL (Drift Tube Linac) 1.4 MW final amplifiers. We installed a bench-test system for this tube in 1999. This system can be used under low power operation with CW mainly for filament aging. This system consists of DC sources, drive-amplifier (5 kW transistor amplifier) and 3/4λ coaxial input and output circuits. We will also use this system to improve the DTL final amplifiers, for example to reduce the parasitic oscillation level. This paper describes status of this system. (author)

  4. POC-SCALE TESTING OF A DRY TRIBOELECTROSTATIC SEPARATOR FOR FINE COAL CLEANING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.H. Yoon; G.H. Luttrell; E.S. Yan; A.D. Walters

    2001-04-30

    Numerous advanced coal cleaning processes have been developed in recent years that are capable of substantially reducing both ash- and sulfur-forming minerals from coal. However, most of the processes involve fine grinding and use water as the cleaning medium; therefore, the clean coal products must be dewatered before they can be transported and burned. Unfortunately, dewatering fine coal is costly, which makes it difficult to deploy advanced coal cleaning processes for commercial applications. As a means of avoiding problems associated with the fine coal dewatering, the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) developed a dry coal cleaning process in which mineral matter is separated from coal without using water. In this process, pulverized coal is subjected to triboelectrification before being placed in an electric field for electrostatic separation. The triboelectrification is accomplished by passing a pulverized coal through an in-line mixer made of copper. Copper has a work function that lies between that of carbonaceous material (coal) and mineral matter. Thus, coal particles impinging on the copper wall lose electrons to the metal thereby acquiring positive charges, while mineral matter impinging on the wall gain electrons to acquire negative charges. The charged particles then pass through an electric field where they are separated according to their charges into two or more products depending on the configuration of the separator. The results obtained at NETL showed that it is capable of removing more than 90% of the pyritic sulfur and 70% of the ash-forming minerals from a number of eastern U.S. coals. However, the BTU recoveries were less than desirable. The laboratory-scale batch triboelectrostatic separator (TES) used by NETL relied on adhering charged particles on parallel electrode surfaces and scraping them off. Therefore, its throughput will be proportional to the electrode surface area. If this laboratory device is scaled-up as is, it would

  5. Design of full scale debris washing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, M.L.; Dosani, M.A.; Wentz, J.A.; Patkar, A.N.; Barkley, N.P.

    1992-01-01

    Since 1987, IT Environmental Programs Inc. (ITEP, a subsidiary of International Technology Corporation) in conjunction with EPA/RREL in Cincinnati, Ohio, have been developing and conducting bench scale and pilot scale testing of a transportable debris washing system which can be used on-site for the decontamination of debris. During the initial phase of the debris decontamination project, a series of bench scale tests were performed in the laboratory to assess the ability of the system to remove contaminants from debris and to facilitate selection of the most efficient surfactant solution. Five nonionic, non-toxic, low foaming, surfactant solution (BG-5, MC-2000, LF-330, BB-100, and L-433) were selected for an experimental evaluation to determine their capacity to solubilize and remove contaminants from the surfaces of corroded steel places. The pieces of corroded steel were coated with a heavy grease mixture prepared in the laboratory and these pieces of debris were placed in a bench scale spray tank on a metal tray and subjected in a high-pressure spray for each surfactant solution for 15 minutes. At the end of the spray cycle, The tray was transferred to a second bench scale system, a high-turbulence wash tank, where the debris was washed for 30 minutes with the same surfactant solution as the used in the spray tank. After the was cycle was completed, the tray was removed from the wash tank and the debris was allowed to air-dry. Before and after treatment, surface-wipe samples were obtained from each of the six pieces of debris and were analyzed for oil and graese. Based on the results, BG-5 was selected as the solution best suited for cleaning grease-laden, metallic debris. 2 refs

  6. Flexible Bench-Scale Recirculating Flow CPC Photoreactor for Solar Photocatalytic Degradation of Methylene Blue Using Removable TiO2 Immobilized on PET Sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doaa M. EL-Mekkawi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available TiO2 immobilized on polyethylene (PET nonwoven sheet was used in the solar photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue (MB. TiO2 Evonik Aeroxide P25 was used in this study. The amount of loaded TiO2 on PET was approximately 24%. Immobilization of TiO2 on PET was conducted by dip coating process followed by exposing to mild heat and pressure. TiO2/PET sheets were wrapped on removable Teflon rods inside home-made bench-scale recirculating flow Compound Parabolic Concentrator (CPC photoreactor prototype (platform 0.7 × 0.2 × 0.4 m3. CPC photoreactor is made up of seven low iron borosilicate glass tubes connected in series. CPC reflectors are made of stainless steel 304. The prototype was mounted on a platform tilted at 30°N local latitude in Cairo. A centrifugal pump was used to circulate water containing methylene blue (MB dye inside the glass tubes. Efficient photocatalytic degradation of MB using TiO2/PET was achieved upon the exposure to direct sunlight. Chemical oxygen demand (COD analyses reveal the complete mineralization of MB. Durability of TiO2/PET composite was also tested under sunlight irradiation. Results indicate only 6% reduction in the amount of TiO2 after seven cycles. No significant change was observed for the physicochemical characteristics of TiO2/PET after the successive irradiation processes.

  7. Characterization of L-asparaginase from marine-derived Aspergillus niger AKV-MKBU, its antiproliferative activity and bench scale production using industrial waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vala, Anjana K; Sachaniya, Bhumi; Dudhagara, Dushyant; Panseriya, Haresh Z; Gosai, Haren; Rawal, Rakesh; Dave, Bharti P

    2018-03-01

    L-asparaginase (LA), an enzyme with anticancer activities, produced by marine-derived Aspergillus niger was subjected to purification and characterization. The purified enzyme was observed to have molecular weight ∼90KDa. The enzyme retained activity over a wide range of pH, i.e. pH 4-10. The enzyme was quite stable in temperature range 20-40°C. Tween 80 and Triton X-100 were observed to enhance LA activity while inhibition of LA activity was observed in presence of heavy metals. The values for K m was found to be 0.8141 mM and V max was 6.228μM/mg/min. The enzyme exhibited noteworthy antiproliferative activity against various cancer cell lines tested. Successful bench scale production (in 5L bioreacator) of LA using groundnut oil cake as low cost substrate has also been carried out. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Design of a test-bench to validate a model of a thermal window design; Diseno de un banco de ensayos para la validacion de un modelo de diseno termico de ventanas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saavedra O, Claudio; Fissore Sch, Adelqui; Mottard, Jean-Michel [Universidad de Concepcion (Chile). Facultad de Ingenieria. Dept. de Ingenieria Mecanica]. E-mail: clsaaved @udec.cl; afissore@udec.cl

    2000-07-01

    Paper presents the design of a test-bench and instrumentation to validate a window thermal mathematical model. The test-bench simulate the thermal performance of a office with a only one wall in directly contact with outdoors, where a single glass window is mounted. To obtain a similar heat transfer relation as the real building, the chamber has been designed and manufactured with an inner and an outer envelope, and with an air spacing maintaining at the same temperature that the test chamber. To change the window size, the test-bench is equipped with a single modifiable outer wall. Instrumentation and methods of measurement for solar radiation, infra red outdoor radiation, indoor and outdoor air temperatures, wind velocity, heat transfer, air ventilating flow and temperature, wall temperatures, etc. are specified. (author)

  9. Soluble Microbial Product Characterization of Biofilm Formation in Bench-Scale

    KAUST Repository

    Mines, Paul

    2012-12-01

    The biological process known as activated sludge (AS) in conjunction with membrane separation technology for the treatment of wastewater has been employed for over four decades. While, membrane biological reactors (MBR) are now widely employed, the phenomenon of membrane fouling is still the most significant factor leading to performance decline of MBRs. Although much research has been done on the subject of MBR fouling over the past two decades, many questions remain unanswered, and consensus within the scientific community is rare. However, research has led to one system parameter generally being regarded as a contributor to membrane fouling, extracellular polymeric compounds (EPS). EPS, and more specifically, the soluble fraction of EPS known as soluble microbial products (SMP), must be further investigated in order to better understand membrane fouling. The biological activity and performance of the MBR is affected by myriad operational parameters, which in turn affects the SMP generated. A commonly varied operational parameter is, depending on the specific treatment needs of a MBR, the sludge retention time (SRT). This study aims to characterize the SMP in three bench-scale MBRs as the SRT is gradually lowered. By studying how the SMP change as the operation of the system is altered, greater understanding of how SMP are related to fouling can be achieved. At the onset of the study, a steady state was established in the system with a SRT of 20 days. Upon stabilization of a 20 day SRT, the system was gradually transitioned to a five and a half day SRT, in stepwise adjustments. Initially, both the trans-membrane pressure (TMP) and the SMP concentrations were at relatively low values, indicating the presence of minimal amounts of biofilm on the membrane surfaces. As the system was altered and more activated sludge was wasted from the reactors, the SRT inherently decreased. As the lower SRT was transitioned and established, the data from TMP measurements, as well

  10. Wall and corner fire tests on selected wood products

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. C. Tran; M. L. Janssens

    1991-01-01

    As part of a fire growth program to develop and validate a compartment fire model, several bench-scale and full-scale tests were conducted. This paper reports the full-scale wall and corner test results of step 2 of this study. A room fire test following the ASTM proposed standard specifications was used for these full-scale tests. In step 1, we investigated the...

  11. In Developping a Bench-Scale Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustor to Burn High Ash Brazilian Coal-Dolomites Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez Behainne, Jhon Jairo; Hory, Rogério Ishikawa; Goldstein, Leonardo; Bernárdez Pécora, Araí Augusta

    This work considers some of the questions in burning high ash Brazilian coal-dolomite mixtures in a bench-scale circulating fluidized bed combustor (CFBC). Experimental tests were performed with the CE4500 coal from Santa Catarina State, in southern Brazil, with a Sauter mean diameter d p =43 μm. The coal particles were mixed with dolomite particles of d p = 111 μm and this fuel mixture was fed into the circulating fluidized reactor, previously loaded with quartz sand particles of d p =353 μm. This inert material was previously heated by the combustion of liquefied petroleum gas up to the ignition temperature of the fuel mixture. The CFBC unit has a 100mm internal diameter riser, 4.0m high, as well as a 62.8mm internal diameter downcomer. The loop has a cyclone, a sampling valve to collect particles and a 62.8mm internal diameter L-valve to recirculate the particles in the loop. A screw feeder with a rotation control system was used to feed the fuel mixture to the reactor. The operational conditions were monitored by pressure taps and thermocouples installed along the loop. A data acquisition system showed the main operational conditions to control. Experimental tests performed put in evidence the problems found during bed operation, with special attention to the solids feed device, to the L-valve operation, to particle size, solids inventory, fluidized gas velocity, fuel mixture and recirculated solids feeding positions.

  12. Efficacy of the National Football League-225 Test to Track Changes in One Repetition Maximum Bench Press After Training in National Collegiate Athletic Association Division IA Football Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, J Bryan; Ivey, Pat A; Stoner, Josh D; Mayhew, Jerry L; Brechue, William F

    2015-11-01

    Numerous investigations have attested to the efficacy of the National Football League (NFL)-225 test to estimate one repetition maximum (1RM) bench press. However, no studies have assessed the efficacy of the test to track changes in strength across a training program. The purpose of this study was to determine the accuracy of the NFL-225 test for determining the change in 1RM bench press in National Collegiate Athletic Association Division IA college football players after training. Over a 4-year period, players (n = 203) were assessed before and after a 6-week off-season resistance program for 1RM bench press and repetitions completed with 102.3 kg (225 lbs). Test sessions typically occurred within 1 week of each other. Players significantly increased 1RM by 4.2 ± 8.6 kg and NFL-225 repetitions by 0.9 ± 2.3, although the effect size (ES) for each was trivial (ES = 0.03 and 0.07, respectively). National Football League 225 prediction equations had higher correlations with 1RM before training (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC] = 0.95) than after training (ICC = 0.75). The correlation between the change in NFL-225 repetitions and change in 1RM was low and negative (r = -0.22, p bench press strength after short-term training.

  13. Supercritical water oxidation benchscale testing metallurgical analysis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norby, B.C.

    1993-02-01

    This report describes metallurgical evaluation of witness wires from a series of tests using supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) to process cutting oil containing a simulated radionuclide. The goal of the tests was to evaluate the technology's ability to process a highly chlorinated waste representative of many mixed waste streams generated in the DOE complex. The testing was conducted with a bench-scale SCWO system developed by the Modell Development Corporation. Significant test objectives included process optimization for adequate destruction efficiency, tracking the radionuclide simulant and certain metals in the effluent streams, and assessment of reactor material degradation resulting from processing a highly chlorinated waste. The metallurgical evaluation described herein includes results of metallographic analysis and Scanning Electron Microscopy analysis of witness wires exposed to the SCWO environment for one test series

  14. Destruction of hazardous and mixed wastes using mediated electrochemical oxidation in a Ag(II)HNO3 bench scale system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balazs, B.; Chiba, Z.; Hsu, P.; Lewis, P.; Murguia, L.; Adamson, M.

    1997-01-01

    Mediated Electrochemical Oxidation (MEO) is a promising technology for the destruction of organic containing wastes and the remediation of mixed wastes containing transuranic components. The combination of a powerful oxidant and an acid solution allows the conversion of nearly all organics, whether present in hazardous or in mixed waste, to carbon dioxide. Insoluble transuranics are dissolved in this process and may be recovered by separation and precipitation.The MEO technique offers several advantages which are inherent in the system. First, the oxidation/dissolution processes are accomplished at near ambient pressures and temperatures (30-70 degrees C). Second, all waste stream components and oxidation products (with the exception of evolved gases) are contained in an aqueous environment. This electrolyte acts as an accumulator for inorganics which were present in the original waste stream, and the large volume of electrolyte provides a thermal buffer for the energy released during oxidation of the organics. Third, the generation of secondary waste is minimal, as the process needs no additional reagents. Finally, the entire process can be shut down by simply turning off the power, affording a level of control unavailable in some other techniques.Numerous groups, both in the United States and Europe, have made substantial progress in the last decade towards understanding the mechanistic pathways, kinetics, and engineering aspects of the process. At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, substantial contributions have been made to this knowledge base in these areas and others. Conceptual design and engineering development have been completed for a pilot plant-scale MEO system, and numerous data have been gathered on the efficacy of the process for a wide variety of anticipated waste components. This presentation will review the data collected at LLNL for a bench scale system based primarily on the use of a Ag(II) mediator in a nitric acid electrolyte; results

  15. Development and Validity of a Scale of Perception of Velocity in Resistance Exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Bautista, Iker J.; Chirosa, Ignacio J.; Chirosa, Luis J.; Martín, Ignacio; González, Andrés; Robertson, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    This aims of this study were twofold; 1) to development a new scale of perceived velocity in the bench press exercise and 2) to examine the scales concurrent validity. Twenty one physically active males with mean ±SD age, height and weights of: 27.5 ± 4.7 years, 1.77 ± 0.07 m, and 79.8 ± 10.3 kg respectively, took part in the study. The criterion variable used to test the validity of the new scale was the mean execution velocity (Velreal) of the bench press exercise. Three intensities (light ...

  16. A long-term bench-scale investigation of permanganate consumption by aquifer materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiuyuan; Thomson, Neil R

    2009-11-20

    In situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) applications using permanganate involve the injection or release of permanganate into the subsurface to destroy various target contaminants. Naturally occurring reduced components associated with aquifer materials can exert a significant oxidant demand thereby reducing the amount of permanganate available for the destruction of contaminants as well as reducing the overall rate of oxidation. Quantification of this natural oxidant demand (NOD) is a requirement for site-specific assessment and the design of cost-effective oxidant delivery systems. To further our understanding of the interaction between permanganate and aquifer materials, aerobic and anaerobic aquifer materials from eight representative sites throughout North America were tested in a series of systematic bench-scale experiments. Various permanganate to aquifer solids mass loading ratios at different initial permanganate concentrations in well-mixed batch reactors were monitored for >300 days. All NOD temporal profiles demonstrated an initial fast consumption rate followed by a persistent slower consumption rate. The data generated show that the mass loading ratio, the initial permanganate concentration, and the nature and quantity of reduced aquifer material species are the main factors controlling permanganate consumption rates. A higher initial permanganate concentration or a larger mass loading ratio produced a larger fast NOD consumption rate and generated a corresponding higher maximum NOD value. Hence, both the NOD temporal profile and the maximum NOD are not single-valued but are heavily dependent on the experimental conditions. Predictive relationships were developed to estimate the maximum NOD and the NOD at 7 days based on aquifer material properties. The concentration of manganese oxides deposited on the aquifer solids was highly correlated with the mass of permanganate consumed suggesting that passivation of NOD reaction sites occurred due to the formation

  17. Encounters on a Shape-changing Bench

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinch, Sofie; Grönvall, Erik; Petersen, Marianne Graves

    2014-01-01

    ; a concert hall, an airport and a shopping mall. We gathered insights from more than 120 people, as they unexpectedly encountered the shape changing capabilities of the bench. By taking the user tests out of the lab and into the wild, we explored the influence of context on the users experience of a shape...

  18. In-situ biogas upgrading during anaerobic digestion of food waste amended with walnut shell biochar at bench scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linville, Jessica L; Shen, Yanwen; Ignacio-de Leon, Patricia A; Schoene, Robin P; Urgun-Demirtas, Meltem

    2017-06-01

    A modified version of an in-situ CO 2 removal process was applied during anaerobic digestion of food waste with two types of walnut shell biochar at bench scale under batch operating mode. Compared with the coarse walnut shell biochar, the fine walnut shell biochar has a higher ash content (43 vs. 36 wt%) and higher concentrations of calcium (31 vs. 19 wt% of ash), magnesium (8.4 vs. 5.6 wt% of ash) and sodium (23.4 vs. 0.3 wt% of ash), but a lower potassium concentration (0.2 vs. 40% wt% of ash). The 0.96-3.83 g biochar (g VS added ) -1 fine walnut shell biochar amended digesters produced biogas with 77.5%-98.1% CH 4 content by removing 40%-96% of the CO 2 compared with the control digesters at mesophilic and thermophilic temperature conditions. In a direct comparison at 1.83 g biochar (g VS added ) -1 , the fine walnut shell biochar amended digesters (85.7% CH 4 content and 61% CO 2 removal) outperformed the coarse walnut shell biochar amended digesters (78.9% CH 4 content and 51% CO 2 removal). Biochar addition also increased alkalinity as CaCO 3 from 2800 mg L -1 in the control digesters to 4800-6800 mg L -1 , providing process stability for food waste anaerobic digestion.

  19. Report on results of R and D of coal liquefaction technology under Sunshine Project in fiscal 1981. Development of direct hydro-liquefaction plant (research on liquefaction by bench scale equipment, and research on solid-liquid separation method); 1981 nendo sekitan ekika gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu, chokusetsu suiten ekika plant no kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Bench scale sochi ni yoru ekika kenkyu, koeki bunriho ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1982-03-01

    This paper explains the results of development of direct hydro-liquefaction plant under the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1981. As element studies for supplementing and supporting a 2.4 t/day PDU (process development unit), in the research using a 0.1 t/day bench scale continuous type equipment of fiscal 1981, a hydrogenation experiment was conducted for anthracene oil and also, an examination was made on the reaction conditions of Taiheiyo coal and Horonai coal, as well as on the catalyst and reaction ratio and on the product material distribution. A medium oil equalizing test was performed using Taiheiyo coal in order to obtain knowledge about equalized medium oil. Liquefaction characteristics in the preheating process and reaction process were elucidated by means of a semi-batch device. Comparative studies were made between domestic and overseas coals, in coal properties and liquefaction characteristics using a shaking type autoclave. The performance of iron-sulfur based catalysts was also examined. In the research on a solid-liquid separation method, the basic properties of coal liquefied crude oil were measured such as general properties, solid grading distribution and distillation characteristics, with the basic tests carried out for standing separation, filtrating separation and centrifuging separation, providing selected materials of the solid-liquid separation method suitable for the crude oil produced by the direct hydro-liquefaction method. In addition, studies were conducted on the use of residual oil generated by solid-liquid separation, providing knowledge of the viscosity and thermal cracking. (NEDO)

  20. Effect of bench time polymerization on depth of cure of dental composite resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harahap, K.; Yudhit, A.; Sari, F.

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate the effect of bench time before light cured polymerization on the depth of cure of dental composite resin. Nanofiller composite resin (Filtek Z350 XT,3M, ESPE,China) was used in this study. Sixty samples of nanofiller composite resin were made and divided into control and test groups with bench time for 0, 15, 30, 45, and 60 min. For the test group, composite resins were stored in refrigerator with 4°C temperatures. Meanwhile, for the control groups, the composite resin was stored at room temperature. The samples were prepared using metal mould with size diameter of 6 mm and 4 mm in thickness. Samples were cured for 20 s by using visible blue light curing unit. Part of samples that unpolymerized were removed by using a plastic spatula. The remaining parts of samples were measured by digital caliper and noted as depth of cure (mm). Data were analyzed to one-way ANOVA and LSD tests (p≤0.05). Results showed there was no significance differences between test groups (p=0.5). A 60 minutes bench time group showed the highest depth of cure value among test group, and it was almost similar with control group value. It can be concluded that longer bench time can increase the depth of cure of composite resin.

  1. Design of a new front-end electronics test-bench for the upgraded ATLAS detector's Tile Calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kureba, C O; Govender, M; Hofsajer, I; Ruan, X; Sandrock, C; Spoor, M

    2015-01-01

    The year 2022 has been scheduled to see an upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), in order to increase its instantaneous luminosity. The High Luminosity LHC, also referred to as the upgrade Phase-II, means an inevitable complete re-design of the read-out electronics in the Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) of the A Toroidal LHC Apparatus (ATLAS) detector. Here, the new read-out architecture is expected to have the front-end electronics transmit fully digitized information of the detector to the back-end electronics system. Fully digitized signals will allow more sophisticated reconstruction algorithms which will contribute to the required improved triggers at high pile-up. In Phase II, the current Mobile Drawer Integrity ChecKing (MobiDICK) test-bench will be replaced by the next generation test-bench for the TileCal superdrawers, the new Prometeo (A Portable ReadOut ModulE for Tilecal ElectrOnics). Prometeo is a portable, high-throughput electronic system for full certification of the front-end electronics of the ATLAS TileCal. It is designed to interface to the fast links and perform a series of tests on the data to assess the certification of the electronics. The Prometeo's prototype is being assembled by the University of the Witwatersrand and installed at CERN for further developing, tuning and tests. This article describes the overall design of the new Prometeo, and how it fits into the TileCal electronics upgrade. (paper)

  2. Accuracy improvement in a calibration test bench for accelerometers by a vision system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D’Emilia, Giulio; Di Gasbarro, David; Gaspari, Antonella; Natale, Emanuela

    2016-01-01

    A procedure is described in this paper for the accuracy improvement of calibration of low-cost accelerometers in a prototype rotary test bench, driven by a brushless servo-motor and operating in a low frequency range of vibrations (0 to 5 Hz). Vibration measurements by a vision system based on a low frequency camera have been carried out, in order to reduce the uncertainty of the real acceleration evaluation at the installation point of the sensor to be calibrated. A preliminary test device has been realized and operated in order to evaluate the metrological performances of the vision system, showing a satisfactory behavior if the uncertainty measurement is taken into account. A combination of suitable settings of the control parameters of the motion control system and of the information gained by the vision system allowed to fit the information about the reference acceleration at the installation point to the needs of the procedure for static and dynamic calibration of three-axis accelerometers.

  3. Accuracy improvement in a calibration test bench for accelerometers by a vision system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D’Emilia, Giulio, E-mail: giulio.demilia@univaq.it; Di Gasbarro, David, E-mail: david.digasbarro@graduate.univaq.it; Gaspari, Antonella, E-mail: antonella.gaspari@graduate.univaq.it; Natale, Emanuela, E-mail: emanuela.natale@univaq.it [University of L’Aquila, Department of Industrial and Information Engineering and Economics (DIIIE), via G. Gronchi, 18, 67100 L’Aquila (Italy)

    2016-06-28

    A procedure is described in this paper for the accuracy improvement of calibration of low-cost accelerometers in a prototype rotary test bench, driven by a brushless servo-motor and operating in a low frequency range of vibrations (0 to 5 Hz). Vibration measurements by a vision system based on a low frequency camera have been carried out, in order to reduce the uncertainty of the real acceleration evaluation at the installation point of the sensor to be calibrated. A preliminary test device has been realized and operated in order to evaluate the metrological performances of the vision system, showing a satisfactory behavior if the uncertainty measurement is taken into account. A combination of suitable settings of the control parameters of the motion control system and of the information gained by the vision system allowed to fit the information about the reference acceleration at the installation point to the needs of the procedure for static and dynamic calibration of three-axis accelerometers.

  4. Electromagnetic mixed-waste processing system for asbestos decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-04-01

    The first phase of a program to develop and demonstrate a cost-effective, integrated process for remediation of asbestos-containing material that is contaminated with organics, heavy metals, and radioactive compounds was successfully completed. Laboratory scale tests were performed to demonstrate initial process viability for asbestos conversion, organics removal, and radionuclide and heavy metal removal. All success criteria for the laboratory tests were met. (1) Ohio DSI demonstrated greater than 99% asbestos conversion to amorphous solids using their commercial process. (2) KAI demonstrated 90% removal of organics from the asbestos suspension. (3) Westinghouse STC achieved the required metals removal criteria on a laboratory scale (e.g., 92% removal of uranium from solution, resin loadings of 0.6 equivalents per liter, and greater than 50% regeneration of resin in a batch test.) Using the information gained in the laboratory tests, the process was reconfigured to provide the basis for the mixed waste remediation system. An integrated process is conceptually developed, and a Phase 2 program plan is proposed to provide the bench-scale development needed in order to refine the design basis for a pilot processing system

  5. Pilot-scale treatability testing -- Recycle, reuse, and disposal of materials from decontamination and decommissioning activities: Soda blasting demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-08-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of defining the nature and magnitude of decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) obligations at its sites. With disposal costs rising and available storage facilities decreasing, DOE is exploring and implementing new waste minimizing D and D techniques. Technology demonstrations are being conducted by LMES at a DOE gaseous diffusion processing plant, the K-25 Site, in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The gaseous diffusion process employed at Oak Ridge separated uranium-235 from uranium ore for use in atomic weapons and commercial reactors. These activities contaminated concrete and other surfaces within the plant with uranium, technetium, and other constituents. The objective of current K-25 D and D research is to make available cost-effective and energy-efficient techniques to advance remediation and waste management methods at the K-25 Site and other DOE sites. To support this objective, O'Brien and Gere tested a decontamination system on K-25 Site concrete and steel surfaces contaminated with radioactive and hazardous waste. A scouring system has been developed that removes fixed hazardous and radioactive surface contamination and minimizes residual waste. This system utilizes an abrasive sodium bicarbonate medium that is projected at contaminated surfaces. It mechanically removes surface contamination while leaving the surface intact. Blasting residuals are captured and dissolved in water and treated using physical/chemical processes. Pilot-scale testing of this soda blasting system and bench and pilot-scale treatment of the generated residuals were conducted from December 1993 to September 1994

  6. Development and validity of a scale of perception of velocity in resistance exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista, Iker J; Chirosa, Ignacio J; Chirosa, Luis J; Martín, Ignacio; González, Andrés; Robertson, Robert J

    2014-09-01

    This aims of this study were twofold; 1) to development a new scale of perceived velocity in the bench press exercise and 2) to examine the scales concurrent validity. Twenty one physically active males with mean ±SD age, height and weights of: 27.5 ± 4.7 years, 1.77 ± 0.07 m, and 79.8 ± 10.3 kg respectively, took part in the study. The criterion variable used to test the validity of the new scale was the mean execution velocity (Velreal) of the bench press exercise. Three intensities (light loads [ 70% 1RM]) were measured randomly during 5 days of testing. Perceived velocity (Velscale) was measured immediately after each exercise set using the new scale. A positive linear correlation (r range = 0.69 to 0.81) was found in all three intensities, analyzed individually, between the Velreal and Velscale. Pearson correlations showed a greater frequency of scale use resulted higher correlation values (range r = 0.88 to 0.96). This study provides evidence of the concurrent validity of a new scale of perceived velocity in the bench press exercise in trained adult males. These results suggest the exercise intensity of the bench press can be quantified quickly and effective using this new scale of perceived velocity, particularly when training for maximum power. Key PointsMeasurement of perception of velocity can complement other scales of perception such as the 15 category Borg scale or the OMNI-RES.The results obtained in this study show that there was a positive correlation between the perceived velocity measured by the scale and actual velocityRegular use of the new scale of perceived velocity in external resistance training provides athletes with continuous feedback of execution velocity in each repetition and set, especially with high power loads.

  7. Contribution to design and to integrate a flywheel-based storage system in a test bench for electric vehicles with hybrid source; Contribution a la conception et a l'integration d'un accumulateur cinetique d'energie dans une plate-forme de test pour vehicules electriques a source hybride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briat, O.

    2002-11-01

    This work deals with the design and the integration of a flywheel-based storage system in a test bench for EV with hybrid source. The flywheel used to supply/recover the peak power during acceleration/braking is associated to a battery which supplies the average power. The main goal is to prove the interest of such a sources hybridization for heavy duty EV. First, a simulation tool has been used for EV studies. Models have been validated thanks to on-board vehicle measurements. Then, a EV test bench has been designed on a reduced power scale. The representativeness of this experimental tool has allowed us to validate simulation models. A flywheel module has been integrated and associated to a battery in order to validate the hybridization principle. Experimental results have shown the performances of the battery power limitation and have proved the interest of a systematic regenerative braking on the battery. In these conditions, an increase of the vehicle payload can be expected. (author)

  8. An elegant Breadboard of the optical bench for eLISA/NGO

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Arcio, Luigi; Bogenstahl, Johanna; Diekmann, Christian; Fitzsimons, Ewan D.; Heinzel, Gerhard; Hogenhuis, Harm; Killow, Christian J.; Lieser, Maike; Nikolov, Susanne; Perreur-Lloyd, Michael; Pijnenburg, Joep; Robertson, David I.; Taylor, Alasdair; Tröbs, Michael; Ward, Harry; Weise, Dennis

    2017-11-01

    The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna, as well as its reformulated European-only evolution, the New Gravitational-Wave Observatory, both employ heterodyne laser interferometry on million kilometer scale arm lengths in a triangular spacecraft formation, to observe gravitational waves at frequencies between 3 × 10-5 Hz and 1 Hz. The Optical Bench as central payload element realizes both the inter-spacecraft as well as local laser metrology with respect to inertial proof masses, and provides further functions, such as point-ahead accommodation, acquisition sensing, transmit beam conditioning, optical power monitoring, and laser redundancy switching. These functions have been combined in a detailed design of an Optical Bench Elegant Breadboard, which is currently under assembly and integration. We present an overview of the realization and current performances of the Optical Bench subsystems, which employ ultraprecise piezo mechanism, ultrastable assembly techniques, and shot noise limited RF detection to achieve translation and tilt metrology at Picometer and Nanoradian noise levels.

  9. Experimental investigation of pyrolysis of rice straw using bench-scale auger, batch and fluidized bed reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, Hyungseok; Capareda, Sergio C.; Ashwath, Nanjappa; Kongkasawan, Jinjuta

    2015-01-01

    Energy conversion efficiencies of three pyrolysis reactors (bench-scale auger, batch, and fluidized bed) were investigated using rice straw as the feedstock at a temperature of 500 °C. The highest bio-oil yield of 43% was obtained from the fluidized bed reactor, while the maximum bio-char yield of 48% was obtained from the batch reactor. Similar bio-oil yields were obtained from the auger and batch type reactors. The GCMS and FTIR were used to evaluate the liquid products from all reactors. The best quality bio-oil and bio-char from the batch reactor was determined to have a heating value of 31 MJ/kg and 19 MJ/kg, respectively. The highest alkali mineral was found in the bio-char produced from the auger reactor. The energy conversion efficiencies of the three reactors indicated that the majority of the energy (50–64%) was in the bio-char products from the auger and batch reactors, while the bio-oil from the fluidized bed reactor contained the highest energy (47%). A Sankey diagram has been produced to show the flows of product energy from each pyrolysis process. The result will help determine which conversion process would be optimal for producing specific products of bio-char, bio-oil, and gas depending on the needs. - Highlights: • Pyrolysis products from auger, batch, and fluidized bed reactor were examined. • O/C ratios of bio-oils stayed in specific ranges depending on the process reactors. • The largest quantity of bio-oil from fluidized, while the best quality from batch. • The highest alkali concentration of 37 g/kg included in the auger based bio-char. • Sankey diagram was used to understand the energy distribution from reactors.

  10. Use of Strain Measurements from Acoustic Bench Tests of the Battleship Flowliner Test Articles To Link Analytical Model Results to In-Service Resonant Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frady, Greg; Smaolloey, Kurt; LaVerde, Bruce; Bishop, Jim

    2004-01-01

    The paper will discuss practical and analytical findings of a test program conducted to assist engineers in determining which analytical strain fields are most appropriate to describe the crack initiating and crack propagating stresses in thin walled cylindrical hardware that serves as part of the Space Shuttle Main Engine's fuel system. In service the hardware is excited by fluctuating dynamic pressures in a cryogenic fuel that arise from turbulent flow/pump cavitation. A bench test using a simplified system was conducted using acoustic energy in air to excite the test articles. Strain measurements were used to reveal response characteristics of two Flowliner test articles that are assembled as a pair when installed in the engine feed system.

  11. Continuous thermal degradation of pyrolytic oil in a bench scale CSTR reaction system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyong Hwan; Nam, Ki Yun [Climate Change Technology Research Division, Korea Institute of Energy Research, 102 Gajeong-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-343 (Korea)

    2010-05-15

    Continuous thermal degradation of two pyrolytic oils with low (LPO) and high boiling point distribution (HPO) was conducted in a constant stirrer tank reactor (CSTR) with bench scale. Raw pyrolytic oil as a reactant was obtained from the commercial rotary kiln pyrolysis plant for municipal plastic waste. The degradation experiment was conducted by temperature programming with 10 C/min of heating rate up to 450 C and then maintained with long lapse time at 450 C. Liquid product was sampled at initial reaction time with different degradation temperatures up to 450 C and then constant interval lapse time at 450 C. The product characteristics over two pyrolytic oils were compared by using a continuous reaction system. As a reactant, heavy pyrolytic oil (HPO) showed higher boiling point distribution than that of diesel and also light pyrolytic oil (LPO) was mainly consisting of a mixture of gasoline and kerosene range components. In the continuous reaction, LPO showed higher yield of liquid product and lower residue than those of HPO. The characteristics of liquid products were influenced by the type of raw pyrolytic oil. Also, the result obtained under degradation temperature programming was described. (author)

  12. Destruction of chemical agent simulants in a supercritical water oxidation bench-scale reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veriansyah, Bambang [Supercritical Fluid Research Laboratory, Clean Technology Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST), 39-1 Hawolgok-dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of) and Department of Green Process and System Engineering, University of Science and Technology, 39-1 Hawolgok-dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: vaveri@kist.re.kr; Kim, Jae-Duck [Supercritical Fluid Research Laboratory, Clean Technology Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST), 39-1 Hawolgok-dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of) and Department of Green Process and System Engineering, University of Science and Technology, 39-1 Hawolgok-dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: jdkim@kist.re.kr; Lee, Jong-Chol [Agency for Defense Development (ADD), P.O. Box 35-1, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: jcleeadd@hanafos.com

    2007-08-17

    A new design of supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) bench-scale reactor has been developed to handle high-risk wastes resulting from munitions demilitarization. The reactor consists of a concentric vertical double wall in which SCWO reaction takes place inside an inner tube (titanium grade 2, non-porous) whereas pressure resistance is ensured by a Hastelloy C-276 external vessel. The performances of this reactor were investigated with two different kinds of chemical warfare agent simulants: OPA (a mixture of isopropyl amine and isopropyl alcohol) as the binary precursor for nerve agent of sarin and thiodiglycol [TDG (HOC{sub 2}H{sub 4}){sub 2}S] as the model organic sulfur heteroatom. High destruction rates based on total organic carbon (TOC) were achieved (>99.99%) without production of chars or undesired gases such as carbon monoxide and methane. The carbon-containing product was carbon dioxide whereas the nitrogen-containing products were nitrogen and nitrous oxide. Sulfur was totally recovered in the aqueous effluent as sulfuric acid. No corrosion was noticed in the reactor after a cumulative operation time of more than 250 h. The titanium tube shielded successfully the pressure vessel from corrosion.

  13. The effect of active recovery on power performance during the bench press exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Felipe A S; Panissa, Valéria L G; Julio, Ursula F; Menegon, Elton M; Franchini, Emerson

    2014-03-27

    The objective of this study was to verify the effect of active and passive recovery on blood lactate concentration and power performance. Twelve male subjects were submitted to a maximal strength test in the the bench press, a maximal aerobic test in the bench step, and to four sets of bench press exercise performed as fast and as long as possible, using 80% of maximal strength when active or passive recovery was performed. The maximum number of repetitions, mean and peak power in eccentric and concentric phases were computed and blood lactate concentration was measured. Comparisons for the variables were made using a two-way variance analysis (recovery type and set numer) with repeated measures in the second factor. When significant differences were detected (p 2, 3, and 4; 2 > 3 and 4; 3 > 4). Mean and peak power in both eccentric and concentric phases also differed across sets (1 > 2, 3, and 4; 2 > 4). There was also a main effect for the recovery type, with lower values (p bench press exercise.

  14. Safety analysis of the CSTR-1 bench-scale coal liquefaction unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hulburt, D.A.

    1981-05-01

    The objective of the program reported herein was to provide a Safety Analysis of the CSTR-1 bench scale unit located in Building 167 at the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center. It was apparent that considerable effort was expended in the design and construction of the unit, and in the development of operating procedures, with regard to safety. Exhaust ventilation, H/sub 2/ and H/sub 2/S monitoring, overpressure protection, overtemperature protection, and interlock systems have been provided. Present settings on the pressure and temperature safety systems are too high, however, to insure prevention of vessel deformation or damage in all cases. While the occurrence of catastrophic rupture of a system pressure vessel (e.g., reactor, high pressure separators) is unlikely, the potential consequences to personnel are severe. Feasibility of providing shielding for these components should be considered. A more probable mode of vessel failure in the event of overpressure or overtemperature and failure of the safety system is yielding of the closure bolts followed by high pressure flow across the mating surfaces. As a minimum, shielding should be designed to restrict travel of resultant spray. The requirements for personal protective equipment are presently stated in rather broad and general terms in the operating procedures. Safe practices and procedures would be more assured if specific requirements were stated and included for each operational step. Recommendations were developed for all hazards triggered by the guidelines.

  15. Recovery of Rare Earth Elements from Coal and Coal Byproducts via a Closed Loop Leaching Process: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, Richard [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Heinrichs, Michael [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Argumedo, Darwin [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Taha, Rachid [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Winecki, Slawomir [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Johnson, Kathryn [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Lane, Ann [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Riordan, Daniel [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States)

    2017-08-31

    Objectives: Through this grant, Battelle proposes to address Area of Interest (AOI) 1 to develop a bench-scale technology to economically separate, extract, and concentrate mixed REEs from coal ash. U.S. coal and coal byproducts provide the opportunity for a domestic source of REEs. The DOE’s National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) has characterized various coal and coal byproducts samples and has found varying concentrations of REE ranging up to 1,000 parts per million by weight. The primary project objective is to validate the economic viability of recovering REEs from the coal byproduct coal ash using Battelle’s patented closed-loop Acid Digestion Process (ADP). This will be accomplished by selecting coal sources with the potential to provide REE concentrations above 300 parts per million by weight, collecting characterization data for coal ash samples generated via three different methods, and performing a Techno-Economic Analysis (TEA) for the proposed process. The regional availability of REE-laden coal ash, the regional market for rare earth concentrates, and the system capital and operating costs for rare earth recovery using the ADP technology will be accounted for in the TEA. Limited laboratory testing will be conducted to generate the parameters needed for the design of a bench scale system for REE recovery. The ultimate project outcome will be the design for an optimized, closed loop process to economically recovery REEs such that the process may be demonstrated at the bench scale in a Phase 2 project. Project Description: The project will encompass evaluation of the ADP technology for the economic recovery of REEs from coal and coal ash. The ADP was originally designed and demonstrated for the U.S. Army to facilitate demilitarization of cast-cured munitions via acid digestion in a closed-loop process. Proof of concept testing has been conducted on a sample of Ohio-based Middle Kittanning coal and has demonstrated the feasibility of recovering

  16. Test plan: Potash Core Test. WIPP experimental program borehole plugging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, C.L.

    1979-09-01

    The Potash Core Test will utilize a WIPP emplaced plug to obtain samples of an in-situ cured plug of known mix constituents for bench scale testing. An earlier effort involved recovery at the salt horizon of Plug 217, a 17 year old plug in a potash exploration hole for bond testing, but the lack of particulars in the emplacement precluded significant determination of plug performance

  17. Development of an improved two-cycle process for recovering uranium from wet-process phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, H.M.; Chen, H.J.; Tsai, Y.M.; Lee, T.W.; Ting, G.

    1987-01-01

    An improved two-cycle separation process for the recovery of uranium from wet-process phosphoric acid by extraction with bis(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid (D2EHPA) plus dibutyl butylphosphonate (DBBP) in kerosene has been developed and demonstrated successfully in bench-scale, continuous mixer-settler tests. The sulfuric acid and water scrubbing steps for the recycled extraction in the second cycle solve the problems of the contamination and dilution of the phosphoric acid by the ammonium ion and water and also avoid the formation of undesirable phosphatic precipitates during the subsequent extraction of uranium by recycled organic extractant

  18. Removal of strontium and transuranics from Hanford waste via hydrothermal processing -- FY 1994/95 test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orth, R.J.; Schmidt, A.J.; Elmore, M.R.; Hart, T.R.; Neuenschwander, G.G.; Gano, S.R.; Lehmann, R.W.; Momont, J.A.

    1995-09-01

    Under the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Pretreatment Technology Development Project, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is evaluating and developing organic destruction technologies that may be incorporated into the Initial Pretreatment Module (IPM) to treat Hanford tank waste. Organic (and ferrocyanide) destruction removes the compounds responsible for waste safety issues, and conditions the supernatant for low-level waste disposal by removing compounds that may be responsible for promoting strontium and transuranic (TRU) components solubility. Destruction or defunctionalization of complexing organics in tank wastes eliminates organic species that can reduce the efficiency of radionuclide (E.g., 90 Sr) separation processes, such as ion exchange, solvent extraction, and precipitation. The technologies being evaluated and tested for organic destruction are low-temperature hydrothermal processing (HTP) and wet air oxidation (WAO). Four activities are described: Batch HTP/WAO testing with Actual Tank Waste (Section 3.0), Batch HTP Testing with Simulant (Section 4.0), Batch WAO testing with Simulant (Section 5.0), and Continuous Bench-scale WAO Testing with Simulant (Section 6.0). For each of these activities, the objectives, test approach, results, status, and direction of future investigations are discussed. The background and history of the HTP/WAO technology is summarized below. Conclusions and Recommendations are provided in Section 2.0. A continuous HTP off-gas safety evaluation conducted in FY 1994 is included as Appendix A

  19. Comparison of concentric and eccentric bench press repetitions to failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Stephen B; Brown, Lee E; Hooker, Steven P; Swan, Pamela D; Buman, Matthew P; Alvar, Brent A; Black, Laurie E

    2015-04-01

    Eccentric muscle actions (ECC) are characterized by muscle lengthening, despite actin-myosin crossbridge formation. Muscles acting eccentrically are capable of producing higher levels of force compared with muscles acting concentrically. The purpose of this study was to determine whether ECC bench press yields greater strength than concentric (CON) as determined by 1 repetition maximum (1RM). Additionally, a comparison was made examining differences in the number of repetitions to failure at different relative intensities of 1RM. Thirty healthy men (age = 24.63 ± 5.6 years) were tested for 1RM in CON and ECC bench press and the number of repetitions completed at 60, 70, 80, and 90% 1RM. For CON repetitions, the weight was mechanically lowered to the chest, and the participant pressed it up until the elbows were fully extended. The ECC bench press consisted of lowering a barbell from a fully extended elbow position to the chest in a continuous controlled manner for 3 seconds as determined by electronic metronome. Paired t-tests showed that ECC 1RM (115.99 ± 31.08 kg) was significantly (p ≤ 0.05) greater than CON 1RM (93.56 ± 26.56 kg), and the number of repetitions completed at 90% 1RM was significantly (p ≤ 0.05) greater in ECC (7.67 ± 3.24) as compared with CON (4.57 ± 2.21). There were no significant differences in number of completed repetitions during CON and ECC bench press at 60, 70, and 80% 1RM. These data indicate that ECC actions yield increased force capabilities (∼120%) as compared with CON in the bench press and may be less prone to fatigue, especially at higher intensities. These differences suggest a need to develop unique strategies for training eccentrically.

  20. Bench-test comparison of 26 emergency and transport ventilators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    L'Her, Erwan; Roy, Annie; Marjanovic, Nicolas

    2014-10-15

    Numerous emergency and transport ventilators are commercialized and new generations arise constantly. The aim of this study was to evaluate a large panel of ventilators to allow clinicians to choose a device, taking into account their specificities of use. This experimental bench-test took into account general characteristics and technical performances. Performances were assessed under different levels of FIO2 (100%, 50% or Air-Mix), respiratory mechanics (compliance 30,70,120 mL/cmH2O; resistance 5,10,20 cmH2O/mL/s), and levels of leaks (3.5 to 12.5 L/min), using a test lung. In total 26 emergency and transport ventilators were analyzed and classified into four categories (ICU-like, n = 5; Sophisticated, n = 10; Simple, n = 9; Mass-casualty and military, n = 2). Oxygen consumption (7.1 to 15.8 L/min at FIO2 100%) and the Air-Mix mode (FIO2 45 to 86%) differed from one device to the other. Triggering performance was heterogeneous, but several sophisticated ventilators depicted triggering capabilities as efficient as ICU-like ventilators. Pressurization was not adequate for all devices. At baseline, all the ventilators were able to synchronize, but with variations among respiratory conditions. Leak compensation in most ICU-like and 4/10 sophisticated devices was able to correct at least partially for system leaks, but with variations among ventilators. Major differences were observed between devices and categories, either in terms of general characteristics or technical reliability, across the spectrum of operation. Huge variability of tidal volume delivery with some devices in response to modifications in respiratory mechanics and FIO2 should make clinicians question their use in the clinical setting.

  1. Processing of high-temperature simulated waste glass in a continuous ceramic melter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, S.M.; Brouns, R.A.; Hanson, M.S.

    1980-01-01

    Recent operations have demonstrated that high-melting-point glasses and glass-ceramics can be successfully processed in joule-heated, ceramic-lined melters with minor modifications to the existing technology. Over 500 kg of simulated waste glasses have been processed at temperatures up to 1410 0 C. The processability of the two high-temperature waste forms tested is similar to existing borosilicate waste glasses. High-temperature waste glass formulations produced in the bench-scale melter exhibit quality comparing favorably to standard waste glass formulations

  2. Bench-scale production of liquid fuel from woody biomass via gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanaoka, Toshiaki; Liu, Yanyong; Matsunaga, Kotetsu; Miyazawa, Tomohisa; Hirata, Satoshi; Sakanishi, Kinya [Biomass Technology Research Center, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Suehiro 2-2-2, Hiro, Kure, Hiroshima 737-0197 (Japan)

    2010-08-15

    The bench-scale production of hydrocarbon liquid fuel was achieved from woody biomass via gasification. The daily production capacity of the biomass-to-liquid (BTL) plant used in this study was 7.8 L of hydrocarbon liquid from 48 kg of woody biomass (on a dry basis), corresponding to 0.05 barrels. The BTL process involved the following steps: oxygen-enriched air gasification of the woody biomass, wet and dry gas cleaning, gas compression, carbon dioxide removal, and the Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis reaction. In the gasification step, oxygen-enriched air gasification was carried out using a downdraft fixed-bed gasifier. The content of oxygen, which acts as the gasifying agent, was increased from 21.0 to 56.7 vol%; maximum values of the conversion to gas on a carbon basis and cold gas efficiency-approximately 96 C-mol% and 87.8%, respectively-were obtained at an oxygen content of around 30 vol%. With the increased oxygen content, the concentrations of CO, H{sub 2}, and CO{sub 2} increased from 22.8 to 36.5 vol%, from 16.8 to 28.1 vol%, and from 9.8 to 14.8 vol%, respectively, while that of N{sub 2} decreased from 48.8 to 16.0 vol%. The feed gas for the FT synthesis reaction was obtained by passing the product gas from the gasification step through a scrubber, carbon dioxide removal tower, and desulfurization tower; its composition was 30.8 vol% CO, 25.2 vol% H{sub 2}, 0.9 vol% CO{sub 2}, 2.5 vol% CH{sub 4}, 40.6 vol% N{sub 2}, < 5 ppb H{sub 2}S, and < 5 ppb COS. The hydrocarbon fuel was synthesized in a slurry bed reactor using hexadecane as the solvent and a Co/SiO{sub 2} catalyst. For hydrocarbons with carbon chain lengths of more than 5 carbon atoms (collectively referred to as C{sub 5+}) in the liquid fuel, a selectivity of 87.5% was obtained along with a chain growth probability of 0.84 under the following conditions: 4 MPa, 280 to 340 C, and a ratio of catalyst weight to feed gas rate (W/F) of 9.3 g.h/mol. (author)

  3. Astrophysics on the Lab Bench

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Stephen W.

    2010-01-01

    In this article some basic laboratory bench experiments are described that are useful for teaching high school students some of the basic principles of stellar astrophysics. For example, in one experiment, students slam a plastic water-filled bottle down onto a bench, ejecting water towards the ceiling, illustrating the physics associated with a…

  4. Association Between Maximal Bench Press Strength and Isometric Handgrip Strength Among Breast Cancer Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Benjamin H; Brown, Justin C; Gater, David R; Schmitz, Kathryn H

    2017-02-01

    To characterize the relationship between 1-repetition maximum (1-RM) bench press strength and isometric handgrip strength among breast cancer survivors. Cross-sectional study. Laboratory. Community-dwelling breast cancer survivors (N=295). Not applicable. 1-RM bench press strength was measured with a barbell and exercise bench. Isometric handgrip strength was measured using an isometric dynamometer, with 3 maximal contractions of the left and right hands. All measures were conducted by staff with training in clinical exercise testing. Among 295 breast cancer survivors, 1-RM bench press strength was 18.2±6.1kg (range, 2.2-43.0kg), and isometric handgrip strength was 23.5±5.8kg (range, 9.0-43.0kg). The strongest correlate of 1-RM bench press strength was the average isometric handgrip strength of both hands (r=.399; Pisometric handgrip strength of both hands overestimated 1-RM bench press strength by 4.7kg (95% limits of agreement, -8.2 to 17.6kg). In a multivariable linear regression model, the average isometric handgrip strength of both hands (β=.31; Pstrength (R 2 =.23). Isometric handgrip strength is a poor surrogate for 1-RM bench press strength among breast cancer survivors. 1-RM bench press strength and isometric handgrip strength quantify distinct components of muscular strength. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Algal toxins and reverse osmosis desalination operations: Laboratory bench testing and field monitoring of domoic acid, saxitoxin, brevetoxin and okadaic acid

    KAUST Repository

    Seubert, Erica L.

    2012-12-01

    The occurrence and intensity of harmful algal blooms (HABs) have been increasing globally during the past few decades. The impact of these events on seawater desalination facilities has become an important topic in recent years due to enhanced societal interest and reliance on this technology for augmenting world water supplies. A variety of harmful bloom-forming species of microalgae occur in southern California, as well as many other locations throughout the world, and several of these species are known to produce potent neurotoxins. These algal toxins can cause a myriad of human health issues, including death, when ingested via contaminated seafood. This study was designed to investigate the impact that algal toxin presence may have on both the intake and reverse osmosis (RO) desalination process; most importantly, whether or not the naturally occurring algal toxins can pass through the RO membrane and into the desalination product. Bench-scale RO experiments were conducted to explore the potential of extracellular algal toxins contaminating the RO product. Concentrations exceeding maximal values previously reported during natural blooms were used in the laboratory experiments, with treatments comprised of 50 μg/L of domoic acid (DA), 2 μg/L of saxitoxin (STX) and 20 μg/L of brevetoxin (PbTx). None of the algal toxins used in the bench-scale experiments were detectable in the desalinated product water. Monitoring for intracellular and extracellular concentrations of DA, STX, PbTx and okadaic acid (OA) within the intake and desalinated water from a pilot RO desalination plant in El Segundo, CA, was conducted from 2005 to 2009. During the five-year monitoring period, DA and STX were detected sporadically in the intake waters but never in the desalinated water. PbTx and OA were not detected in either the intake or desalinated water. The results of this study demonstrate the potential for HAB toxins to be inducted into coastal RO intake facilities, and the

  6. Algal toxins and reverse osmosis desalination operations: Laboratory bench testing and field monitoring of domoic acid, saxitoxin, brevetoxin and okadaic acid

    KAUST Repository

    Seubert, Erica L.; Trussell, Shane; Eagleton, John; Schnetzer, Astrid; Cetinić, Ivona; Lauri, Phil; Jones, Burton; Caron, David A.

    2012-01-01

    The occurrence and intensity of harmful algal blooms (HABs) have been increasing globally during the past few decades. The impact of these events on seawater desalination facilities has become an important topic in recent years due to enhanced societal interest and reliance on this technology for augmenting world water supplies. A variety of harmful bloom-forming species of microalgae occur in southern California, as well as many other locations throughout the world, and several of these species are known to produce potent neurotoxins. These algal toxins can cause a myriad of human health issues, including death, when ingested via contaminated seafood. This study was designed to investigate the impact that algal toxin presence may have on both the intake and reverse osmosis (RO) desalination process; most importantly, whether or not the naturally occurring algal toxins can pass through the RO membrane and into the desalination product. Bench-scale RO experiments were conducted to explore the potential of extracellular algal toxins contaminating the RO product. Concentrations exceeding maximal values previously reported during natural blooms were used in the laboratory experiments, with treatments comprised of 50 μg/L of domoic acid (DA), 2 μg/L of saxitoxin (STX) and 20 μg/L of brevetoxin (PbTx). None of the algal toxins used in the bench-scale experiments were detectable in the desalinated product water. Monitoring for intracellular and extracellular concentrations of DA, STX, PbTx and okadaic acid (OA) within the intake and desalinated water from a pilot RO desalination plant in El Segundo, CA, was conducted from 2005 to 2009. During the five-year monitoring period, DA and STX were detected sporadically in the intake waters but never in the desalinated water. PbTx and OA were not detected in either the intake or desalinated water. The results of this study demonstrate the potential for HAB toxins to be inducted into coastal RO intake facilities, and the

  7. Scaled Vitrification System III (SVS III) Process Development and Laboratory Tests at the West Valley Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, V.; Barnes, S.M.; Bindi, B.G.; Palmer, R.A.

    2000-01-01

    At the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP),the Vitrification Facility (VF)is designed to convert the high-level radioactive waste (HLW)stored on the site to a stable glass for disposal at a Department of Energy (DOE)-specified federal repository. The Scaled Vitrification System III (SVS-III)verification tests were conducted between February 1995 and August 1995 as a supplemental means to support the vitrification process flowsheet, but at only one seventh the scale.During these tests,the process flowsheet was refined and optimized. The SVS-III test series was conducted with a focus on confirming the applicability of the Redox Forecasting Model, which was based on the Index of Feed Oxidation (IFO)developed during the Functional and Checkout Testing of Systems (FACTS)and SVS-I tests. Additional goals were to investigate the prototypical feed preparation cycle and test the new target glass composition. Included in this report are the basis and current designs of the major components of the Scale Vitrification System and the results of the SVS-III tests.The major subsystems described are the feed preparation and delivery, melter, and off-gas treatment systems. In addition,the correlation between the melter's operation and its various parameters;which included feed rate,cold cap coverage,oxygen reduction (redox)state of the glass,melter power,plenum temperature,and airlift analysis;were developed

  8. SAFIRA project B.3.3: in-situ-treatment of contaminated ground water by catalytic oxidation. Final report; Sanierungsforschung in regional kontaminierten Aquiferen (SAFIRA). Projekt B.3.3: In situ-Behandlung von kontaminierten Grundwaessern durch katalytische Oxidation. Teilvorhaben 1: Untersuchungen im Labormassstab. Teilvorhaben 2: Tests in der bench-scale-Anlage und Teilvorhaben 3: Die Erprobung in der Pilotanlage am Modellstandort. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofmann, J.; Haentzschel, D.; Freier, U.; Wecks, M.

    2003-06-27

    A new technology for treatment of contaminated ground water was developed. In this process heterogeneous catalysts (full metal catalyst, mixed oxide catalyst or iron-containing zeolites) in combination with hydrogen peroxide are used. In the reactor catalytic oxidation and aerob biological degradation occur simultaneously. A complete degradation of chlorobenzene was observed in a bench-scale-equipment (2 liter) and also in the pilot plant at the model site located in Bitterfeld (30 liter reactor). The technology can be applied to the ground and waste water treatment. (orig.) [German] Fuer die Behandlung von Grundwaessern, die mit organischen Schadstoffen belastet sind, wurde ein neuartiges Verfahren entwickelt. Bei der katalytischen Oxidation werden heterogene Katalysatoren in Form von Vollmetall-, Mischoxid- und Traegerkatalysatoren in Verbindung mit Wasserstoffperoxid als Oxidationsmittel eingesetzt. In den Katalysereaktoren laufen die heterogen-katalytische Oxidation und der aerob-biologische Abbau nebeneinander ab. Es werden synergistische Effekte erzielt. Mit dem Verfahren wurde in einer bench-scale-Angle (2 Liter) und in der Pilotanlage am Modellstandort in Bitterfeld (30 l Reaktor) der Schadstoff Chlorbenzol vollstaendig umgesetzt. Das Verfahren kann zur Grund- und Abwasserbehandlung eingesetzt werden. (orig.)

  9. Upscaling of U(VI) Desorption and Transport Using Decimeter-Scale Tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, Derrick [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-12-22

    Experimental work was used to validate modeling studies and develop multicontinuum models of U(VI) transport in a contaminated aquifer. At the bench scale, it has been shown that U(VI) desorption is rate-limited and that rates are dependent on the bicarbonate concentration. Two decimeter-scale experiments were conducted in order to help establish rigorous upscaling approaches that could be tested at the tracer test and plume scales.

  10. Bench-scale study of active mine water treatment using cement kiln dust (CKD) as a neutralization agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackie, Allison L; Walsh, Margaret E

    2012-02-01

    The overall objective of this study was to investigate the potential impact on settled water quality of using cement kiln dust (CKD), a waste by-product, to replace quicklime in the active treatment of acidic mine water. Bench-scale experiments were conducted to evaluate the treatment performance of calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)(2)) slurries generated using four different CKD samples compared to a control treatment with quicklime (CaO) in terms of reducing acidity and metals concentrations in acid mine drainage (AMD) samples taken from the effluent of a lead/zinc mine in Atlantic Canada. Results of the study showed that all of the CKD samples evaluated were capable of achieving greater than 97% removal of total zinc and iron. The amount of solid alkaline material required to achieve pH targets required for neutralization of the AMD was found to be higher for treatment with the CKD slurries compared to the quicklime slurry control experiments, and varied linearly with the free lime content of the CKD. The results of this study also showed that a potential benefit of treating mine water with CKD could be reduced settled sludge volumes generated in the active treatment process, and further research into the characteristics of the sludge generated from the use of CKD-generated calcium hydroxide slurries is recommended. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. An optical test bench for the precision characterization of absolute quantum efficiency for the TESS CCD detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnamurthy, A.; Villasenor, J.; Kissel, S.; Ricker, G.; Vanderspek, R.

    2017-01-01

    The Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) will search for planets transiting bright stars with Ic ∼< 13. TESS has been selected by NASA for launch in 2018 as an Astrophysics Explorer mission, and is expected to discover a thousand or more planets that are smaller in size than Neptune. TESS will employ four wide-field optical charge-coupled device (CCD) cameras with a band-pass of 650 nm–1050 nm to detect temporary drops in brightness of stars due to planetary transits. The 1050 nm limit is set by the quantum efficiency (QE) of the CCDs. The detector assembly consists of four back-illuminated MIT Lincoln Laboratory CCID-80 devices. Each CCID-80 device consists of 2048×2048 imaging array and 2048×2048 frame store regions. Very precise on-ground calibration and characterization of CCD detectors will significantly assist in the analysis of the science data obtained in space. The characterization of the absolute QE of the CCD detectors is a crucial part of the characterization process because QE affects the performance of the CCD significantly over the redder wavelengths at which TESS will be operating. An optical test bench with significantly high photometric stability has been developed to perform precise QE measurements. The design of the test setup along with key hardware, methodology, and results from the test campaign are presented.

  12. Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant full-scale feed preparation testing with water and process simulant slurries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaskill, J.R.; Larson, D.E.; Abrigo, G.P.

    1996-03-01

    The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant was intended to convert selected, pretreated defense high-level waste and transuranic waste from the Hanford Site into a borosilicate glass. A full-scale testing program was conducted with nonradioactive waste simulants to develop information for process and equipment design of the feed-preparation system. The equipment systems tested included the Slurry Receipt and Adjustment Tank, Slurry Mix Evaporator, and Melter-Feed Tank. The areas of data generation included heat transfer (boiling, heating, and cooling), slurry mixing, slurry pumping and transport, slurry sampling, and process chemistry. 13 refs., 129 figs., 68 tabs

  13. Bench press exercise: the key points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padulo, J; Laffaye, G; Chaouachi, A; Chamari, K

    2015-06-01

    The bench press exercise (BPE) is receiving increasing interest as a field testing, training/therapeutic modality to improve neuromuscular performance or to increase bone mass density. Several studies have been performed using BPE as a standard for increasing upper-limb strength. For this purpose, the position of the bar, the loads, the sets, the number of repetitions, the recovery time in-between sets, the movement speed, the muscular work and the use of the determination of the one repetition maximum (1-RM) are the classical tools investigated in the literature that have been shown to affect the BPE effect on neuromuscular. The goal of the present short review is to make a picture of the current knowledge on the bench press exercise, which could be very helpful for a better understanding of this standard movement and its effects. Based on the related literature, several recommendations on these key points are presented here.

  14. Development of the virtual experimental bench on the basis of modernized research centrifugal compressor stage test unit with the 3D impeller.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksenov, A. A.; Danilishin, A. M.; Dubenko, A. M.; Kozhukov, Y. V.

    2017-08-01

    Design modernization of the centrifugal compressor stage test bench with three dimensional impeller blades was carried out for the possibility of holding a series of experimental studies of different 3D impeller models. The studies relates to the problem of joint work of the impeller and the stationary channels of the housing when carrying out works on modernization with the aim of improving the parameters of the volumetric capacity or pressure in the presence of design constraints. The object of study is the experimental single end centrifugal compressor stage with the 3D impeller. Compressor stage consists of the 3D impeller, vaneless diffuser (VLD), outlet collector - folded side scroll and downstream pipe. The drive is a DC motor 75 kW. The increase gear (multiplier) was set between the compressor and DC motor, gear ratio is i = 9.8. To obtain the characteristics of the compressor and the flow area the following values were measured: total pressure, static pressure, direction (angles) of the stream in different cross sections. Additional pneumometric probes on the front wall of the VLD of the test bench have been installed. Total pressure probes and foster holes for the measurement of total and static pressure by the new drainage scheme. This allowed carrying out full experimental studies for two elements of centrifugal compressor stage. After the experimental tests the comprehensive information about the performance of model stage were obtained. Was measured geometric parameters and the constructed virtual model of the experimental bench flow part with the help of Creo Parametric 3.0 and ANSYS v. 16.2. Conducted CFD calculations and verification with experimental data. Identifies the steps for further experimental and virtual works.

  15. Using bench press load to predict upper body exercise loads in physically active individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Del P; Ngo, Kwan-Lung; Tse, Michael A; Smith, Andrew W

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated whether loads for assistance exercises of the upper body can be predicted from the loads of the bench press exercise. Twenty-nine physically active collegiate students (age: 22.6 ± 2.5; weight training experience: 2.9 ± 2.1 years; estimated 1RM bench press: 54.31 ± 14.60 kg; 1RM: body weight ratio: 0.80 ± 0.22; BMI: 22.7 ± 2.1 kg·m(-2)) were recruited. The 6RM loads for bench press, barbell bicep curl, overhead dumbbell triceps extension, hammer curl and dumbbell shoulder press were measured. Test-retest reliability for the 5 exercises as determined by Pearson product moment correlation coefficient was very high to nearly perfect (0.82-0.98, p bench press load was significantly correlated with the loads of the 4 assistance exercises (r ranged from 0.80 to 0.93, p bench press load was a significant (R(2) range from 0.64 to 0.86, p Bench press load (0.28) + 6.30 kg, (b) Barbell biceps curl = Bench press load (0.33) + 6.20 kg, (c) Overhead triceps extension = Bench press load (0.33) - 0.60 kg, and (d) Dumbbell shoulder press = Bench press load (0.42) + 5.84 kg. The difference between the actual load and the predicted load using the four equations ranged between 6.52% and 8.54%, such difference was not significant. Fitness professionals can use the 6RM bench press load as a time effective and accurate method to predict training loads for upper body assistance exercises. Key pointsThe bench press load was significantly correlated with the loads of the 4 assistance exercises.No significant differences were found between the actual load and the predicted load in the four equations.6RM bench press load can be a time effective and accurate method to predict training loads for upper body assistance exercises.

  16. Design of the ANTARES LCM-DAQ board test bench using a FPGA-based system-on-chip approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anvar, S. [CEA Saclay, DAPNIA/SEDI, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Kestener, P. [CEA Saclay, DAPNIA/SEDI, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France)]. E-mail: pierre.kestener@cea.fr; Le Provost, H. [CEA Saclay, DAPNIA/SEDI, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France)

    2006-11-15

    The System-on-Chip (SoC) approach consists in using state-of-the-art FPGA devices with embedded RISC processor cores, high-speed differential LVDS links and ready-to-use multi-gigabit transceivers allowing development of compact systems with substantial number of IO channels. Required performances are obtained through a subtle separation of tasks between closely cooperating programmable hardware logic and user-friendly software environment. We report about our experience in using the SoC approach for designing the production test bench of the off-shore readout system for the ANTARES neutrino experiment.

  17. An Integrated Hydrogen Production-CO2 Capture Process from Fossil Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhicheng Wang

    2007-03-15

    The new technology concept integrates two significant complementary hydrogen production and CO{sub 2}-sequestration approaches that have been developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Clark Atlanta University. The process can convert biomass into hydrogen and char. Hydrogen can be efficiently used for stationary power and mobile applications, or it can be synthesized into Ammonia which can be used for CO{sub 2}-sequestration, while char can be used for making time-release fertilizers (NH{sub 4}HCO{sub 3}) by absorption of CO{sub 2} and other acid gases from exhaust flows. Fertilizers are then used for the growth of biomass back to fields. This project includes bench scale experiments and pilot scale tests. The Combustion and Emission Lab at Clark Atlanta University has conducted the bench scale experiments. The facility used for pilot scale tests was built in Athens, GA. The overall yield from this process is 7 wt% hydrogen and 32 wt% charcoal/activated carbon of feedstock (peanut shell). The value of co-product activated carbon is about $1.1/GJ and this coproduct reduced the selling price of hydrogen. And the selling price of hydrogen is estimated to be $6.95/GJ. The green house experimental results show that the samples added carbon-fertilizers have effectively growth increase of three different types of plants and improvement ability of keeping fertilizer in soil to avoid the fertilizer leaching with water.

  18. RemBench: A Digital Workbench for Rembrandt Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verberne, Suzan; Van Leeuwen, Rudie; Gerritsen, G.H.; Boves, Lou

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present RemBench, a search engine for research into the life and works of Rembrandt van Rijn. RemBench combines the data from four different databases behind one interface using federated search technology. Metadata filtering is enabled through faceted search. RemBench enables art

  19. Acute chest pain after bench press exercise in a healthy young adult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smereck, Janet A; Papafilippaki, Argyro; Sudarshan, Sawali

    2016-01-01

    Bench press exercise, which involves repetitive lifting of weights to full arm extension while lying supine on a narrow bench, has been associated with complications ranging in acuity from simple pectoral muscle strain, to aortic and coronary artery dissection. A 39-year-old man, physically fit and previously asymptomatic, presented with acute chest pain following bench press exercise. Diagnostic evaluation led to the discovery of critical multivessel coronary occlusive disease, and subsequently, highly elevated levels of lipoprotein (a). Judicious use of ancillary testing may identify the presence of "high-risk" conditions in a seemingly "low-risk" patient. Emergency department evaluation of the young adult with acute chest pain must take into consideration an extended spectrum of potential etiologies, so as to best guide appropriate management.

  20. Impact of relative position vehicle-wind blower in a roller test bench under climatic chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernández-Yáñez, P.; Armas, O.; Martínez-Martínez, S.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Air simulation model was developed for a vehicle test bench under climatic chamber. • Good accuracy between experimental data and simulated values were obtained. • Wind blower-vehicle relative position alters external cooling of after-treatment devices. • Vehicle emission certification can be affected by wind blower-vehicle relative position. - Abstract: In terms of energy efficiency and exhaust emissions control, an appropriate design of cooling systems of climatic chambers destined to vehicle certification and/or perform scientific research is becoming increasingly important. European vehicle emissions certification (New European Driving Cycle, NEDC) establishes the position of the wind-simulation blower at 200 mm above floor level. This height is fixed and kept constant independently of the vehicle tested. The position of the blower with respect to the vehicle can modify the external forced convection under the car, where after-treatment devices are located. Consequently, the performance of such devices could be modified and emission results during the certification cycle could be non-representative of real-world driving conditions. The aim of this work is to study the influence of different wind blower-vehicle relative heights on the air velocity and temperature profiles under the car by means of a simple computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach. A steady state three-dimensional CFD model was developed and applied to the estimation of the air velocity and temperature profiles inside of a climatic chamber equipped with a vehicle roller (chassis dyno) test bench. The simulations reproduce one steady-state condition from NEDC, specifically the EU17 mode (120 km/h, maximum velocity during the cycle). The cool air propelling temperature was 20 °C (minimum temperature in the NEDC range). Simulations were performed employing the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) approach with the realizable k-ε model to provide closure. Air velocity and

  1. Treatment of simulated high-level radioactive waste with formic acid: Bench-scale study on hydrogen evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, C.L.W.; Ritter, J.A.

    1996-01-01

    At the Savannah River Site, the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) was constructed to vitrify high-level radioactive liquid waste in borosilicate glass for permanent storage. Formic acid, which serves as both an acid and a reducing agent, is used to treat the washed alkaline sludge during melter feed preparation primarily to improve the processability of the feed and to reduce mercury to its zero state for steam stripping. The high-level sludge is composed of many transition metal hydroxides. Among them, there are small quantities of platinum group metals. During the treatment of simulated sludge with formic acid, significant amounts of hydrogen were generated when the platinum group metals were included in the sludge. Apparently the noble metals in the sludge were reduced to their zero states and caused formic acid to decompose catalytically into hydrogen and carbon dioxide, usually with an induction period. The production of hydrogen gas presented the DWPF with a safety issue. Therefore, the objective of this research was to gain a fundamental understanding of what controlled the hydrogen evolution so that a practical solution to the safety issue could be obtained. A bench-scale parametric study revealed the following: increasing the amount of formic acid added to the sludge increased the hydrogen generation rate dramatically; once the catalysts were activated, the hydrogen generation rate decreased significantly with a lowering of the temperature of the sludge; the relative catalytic activities of the noble metals in the sludge decreased in the following order: rhodium > ruthenium much-gt palladium; ammonium ions were generated catalytically from the reaction between formic acid and nitrate; and when present, the noble metals caused higher upward drifts of the sludge pH

  2. Assessment of the removal of estrogenicity in biological nutrient removal wastewater treatment processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogunlaja, O.O.; Parker, W.J.

    2015-01-01

    The removal of estrogenicity in a University of Cape Town-biological nutrient removal (UCT-BNR) wastewater treatment process was investigated using pilot and bench scale systems, batch experiments and mathematical modeling. In the pilot BNR process, 96 ± 5% of the estrogenicity exerted by the influent wastewater was removed by the treatment process. The degradation efficiencies in the anaerobic, anoxic and aerobic zones of the pilot BNR bioreactor were 11 ± 9%, 18 ± 2% and 93 ± 10%, respectively. In order to further understand the performance of the BNR process in the removal of estrogenicity from wastewater, a bench scale BNR process was operated with synthetic wastewater dosed with E1 and E2. The removal of estrogenicity in the bench scale system (95 ± 5%) was comparable to the pilot BNR process and the degradation efficiencies were estimated to be 8 ± 0.8%, 38 ± 4% and 85 ± 22% in the anaerobic, anoxic and aerobic zones, respectively. A biotransformation model developed to predict the fate of E1 and E2 in batch tests using the sludge from the BNR process was calibrated using the data from the experiments. The biotransformation rate constants for the transformation of E2 to E1 were estimated as 71 ± 1.5, 31 ± 3.3 and 1 ± 0.9 L g COD −1 d −1 for the aerobic, anoxic and anaerobic batch tests, respectively, while the corresponding biotransformation rate constants for the transformation of E1 were estimated to be 7.3 ± 1.0, 3 ± 2.0, and 0.85 ± 0.6 L·g COD −1 d −1 . A steady state mass balance model formulated to describe the interactions between E2 and E1 in BNR activated sludge reasonably described the fate of E1 and E2 in the BNR process. - Highlights: • Comparable estrogenicity removal was observed from two BNR processes. • Pseudo first order model described the transformation of E2 and E1 in BNR process. • Biotransformation of E1 in BNR activated sludge controls the degradation of E2

  3. Assessment of the removal of estrogenicity in biological nutrient removal wastewater treatment processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogunlaja, O.O., E-mail: oogunlaj@uwaterloo.ca; Parker, W.J., E-mail: wjparker@uwaterloo.ca

    2015-05-01

    The removal of estrogenicity in a University of Cape Town-biological nutrient removal (UCT-BNR) wastewater treatment process was investigated using pilot and bench scale systems, batch experiments and mathematical modeling. In the pilot BNR process, 96 ± 5% of the estrogenicity exerted by the influent wastewater was removed by the treatment process. The degradation efficiencies in the anaerobic, anoxic and aerobic zones of the pilot BNR bioreactor were 11 ± 9%, 18 ± 2% and 93 ± 10%, respectively. In order to further understand the performance of the BNR process in the removal of estrogenicity from wastewater, a bench scale BNR process was operated with synthetic wastewater dosed with E1 and E2. The removal of estrogenicity in the bench scale system (95 ± 5%) was comparable to the pilot BNR process and the degradation efficiencies were estimated to be 8 ± 0.8%, 38 ± 4% and 85 ± 22% in the anaerobic, anoxic and aerobic zones, respectively. A biotransformation model developed to predict the fate of E1 and E2 in batch tests using the sludge from the BNR process was calibrated using the data from the experiments. The biotransformation rate constants for the transformation of E2 to E1 were estimated as 71 ± 1.5, 31 ± 3.3 and 1 ± 0.9 L g COD{sup −1} d{sup −1} for the aerobic, anoxic and anaerobic batch tests, respectively, while the corresponding biotransformation rate constants for the transformation of E1 were estimated to be 7.3 ± 1.0, 3 ± 2.0, and 0.85 ± 0.6 L·g COD{sup −1} d{sup −1}. A steady state mass balance model formulated to describe the interactions between E2 and E1 in BNR activated sludge reasonably described the fate of E1 and E2 in the BNR process. - Highlights: • Comparable estrogenicity removal was observed from two BNR processes. • Pseudo first order model described the transformation of E2 and E1 in BNR process. • Biotransformation of E1 in BNR activated sludge controls the degradation of E2.

  4. Low power digital signal processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paker, Ozgun

    2003-01-01

    hardwired ASICs and more than 6 21 times lower than current state of the art low-power DSP processors. An orthogonal but practical contribution of this thesis is the test bench implementation. A PCI-based FPGA board has been used to equip a standard desktop PC with tester facilities. The test bench proved...... to be a viable alternative to conventional expensive test equipment. Finally, the work presented in this thesis has been published at several IEEE workshops and conferences, and in the Journal of VLSI Signal Processing....

  5. Study and designing of the ''caliprax'' measurement bench

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barriere, J.Ch.

    2001-09-01

    Probing the matter in order to check its elementary constituents, that is the goal of the particle physic. In this field, the experiments consist in colliding highly energetic particle beams and observing the new born particles. These observations are based on big particle detectors whose running is dependant on the precise knowledge of their geometry (position of the detection chambers). To achieve this, the detectors are equipped with alignment sensors, which have to be calibrated before. This document describes the study and the making of a calibration bench for the 'Praxial' (PRoximity AXIAL) type sensors, and other works related to these sensors. In a first part, we determine and apply a method to set the tools used to fix the sensor stands on the detection chambers. These settings are made with the use of a tridimensional measuring machine. Then, we study the stands themselves. These investigations concern mechanics: positioning quality of the sensors in their stands, bending of the supports due to the tightening. In this part too, the studies are in the field of dimensional metrology. After this, the works are reoriented toward the bench, with the choice of the displacement sensors among two different technologies: optical, with the Rasnik system, and mechanical, with linear probes as LVDT (Linear Variable Differential Transformer). Following the discovery of an ambiguity on the Rasnik system, we go on the tests to understand its behaviour. We introduce the theory of the alignment sensors calibration, which is based on a minimization calculation. The computer programs are explained in a chapter, and in an other, the implementation of the quality assurance procedures. An other part describes the mechanical studies and the problems they cause. Because of a delay onset of the project, we make a model of the bench. This dummy allows us to test every single function of the final bench. With this device, we record manually the first calibration data and use them

  6. The Association between Maximal Bench Press Strength and Isometric Handgrip Strength among Breast Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Benjamin H.; Brown, Justin C.; Gater, David R.; Schmitz, Kathryn H.

    2016-01-01

    Objective One-repetition maximum (1-RM) bench press strength is considered the gold standard to quantify upper-body muscular strength. Isometric handgrip strength is frequently used as a surrogate for 1-RM bench press strength among breast cancer (BrCa) survivors. The relationship between 1-RM bench press strength and isometric handgrip strength, however, has not been characterized among BrCa survivors. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Laboratory. Participants Community-dwelling BrCa survivors. Interventions Not applicable. Main Outcome Measure 1-RM bench press strength was measured with a barbell and exercise bench. Isometric handgrip strength was measured using an isometric dynamometer with three maximal contractions of left and right hands. All measures were conducted by staff with training in clinical exercise testing. Results Among 295 BrCa survivors, 1-RM bench press strength was 18.2±6.1 kg (range: 2.2-43.0) and isometric handgrip strength was 23.5±5.8 kg (range: 9.0-43.0). The strongest correlate of 1-RM bench press strength was the average isometric handgrip strength of both hands (r=0.399; Pisometric handgrip strength of both hands overestimated 1-RM bench press strength by 4.7 kg (95% limits of agreement: −8.2 to 17.6). In a multivariable linear regression model, the average isometric handgrip strength of both hands (β=0.31; Pstrength (R2=0.23). Conclusions Isometric handgrip strength is a poor surrogate for 1-RM bench press strength among BrCa survivors. 1-RM bench press and isometric handgrip strength quantify distinct components of muscular strength. PMID:27543047

  7. Effects of a 6-Week Bench Press Program Using the Freak Bar in a Sample of Collegiate Club Powerlifters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghigiarelli, Jamie J; Pelton, Luke M; Gonzalez, Adam M; Fulop, Andras M; Gee, Joshua Y; Sell, Katie M

    2018-04-01

    Ghigiarelli, JJ, Pelton, LM, Gonzalez, AM, Fulop, AM, Gee, JY, and Sell, KM. Effects of a 6-week bench press program using the freak bar in a sample of collegiate club powerlifters. J Strength Cond Res 32(4): 938-949, 2018-Powerlifters train using specialty bars for unstable load (UL) training. For the bench press, the acute effects of UL are mixed, with few studies that examine training interventions. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a 6-week bench press training program that uses the Freak Bar (FB) as compared to a traditional barbell (TB) on maximum bench press, peak force, and peak impulse. Seven men and 3 women (21 ± 2.0 years, 172.2 ± 2.9 cm, and 95.3 ± 20.3 kg) were required to bench press 2 days per week as part of a structured program. On the second bench press day, the FB and TB groups performed 3-position pause bench presses at 60-70% one repetition maximum (1RM). One repetition maximum, peak force, and peak impulse were measured before test and after test after the 6-week program. Peak force and peak impulse were tested at 3 bench positions, including the presticking, sticking, and poststicking points, defined by the distance of the barbell from the chest. Posttraining 1RM for the FB group and TB group increased 6.7% (6.78 ± 1.6 kg, p = 0.006) and 4.3% (4.5 ± 2.7 kg, p = 0.23), respectively, with no significant differences between the groups (p = 0.589, ηp = 0.044). There were no significant differences between the groups at each bench position for peak force (p = 0.606) or peak impulse (p = 0.542). Freak Bar can be an alternative for improving maximum strength and peak force but is not significantly better than TB training when performing the 3-position pause bench press.

  8. Validity of the Myotest® in measuring force and power production in the squat and bench press.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comstock, Brett A; Solomon-Hill, Glenn; Flanagan, Shawn D; Earp, Jacob E; Luk, Hui-Ying; Dobbins, Kathryn A; Dunn-Lewis, Courtenay; Fragala, Maren S; Ho, Jen-Yu; Hatfield, Disa L; Vingren, Jakob L; Denegar, Craig R; Volek, Jeff S; Kupchak, Brian R; Maresh, Carl M; Kraemer, William J

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to verify the concurrent validity of a bar-mounted Myotest® instrument in measuring the force and power production in the squat and bench press exercises when compared to the gold standard of a computerized linear transducer and force platform system. Fifty-four men (bench press: 39-171 kg; squat: 75-221 kg) and 43 women (bench press: 18-80 kg; squat: 30-115 kg) (age range 18-30 years) performed a 1 repetition maximum (1RM) strength test in bench press and squat exercises. Power testing consisted of the jump squat and the bench throw at 30% of each subject's 1RM. During each measurement, both the Myotest® instrument and the Celesco linear transducer of the directly interfaced BMS system (Ballistic Measurement System [BMS] Innervations Inc, Fitness Technology force plate, Skye, South Australia, Australia) were mounted to the weight bar. A strong, positive correlation (r) between the Myotest and BMS systems and a high correlation of determination (R2) was demonstrated for bench throw force (r = 0.95, p bench throw power (r = 0.96, p < 0.05) (R2 = 0.93); squat jump force (r = 0.98, p < 0.05) (R2 = 0.97); and squat jump power (r = 0.91, p < 0.05) (R2 = 0.82). In conclusion, when fixed on the bar in the vertical axis, the Myotest is a valid field instrument for measuring force and power in commonly used exercise movements.

  9. Comparison of glassy slag waste forms produced in laboratory crucibles and in a bench-scale plasma furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, X.; Wronkiewicz, D.J.; Brown, N.R.; Gong, M.; Whitworth, C.; Filius, K.; Battleson, D.

    1994-01-01

    Vitrification is currently the best demonstrated available technology for the disposal of high-level radioactive wastes. An innovative vitrification approach known as minimum additive waste stabilization (MAWS) is being developed. Both homogeneous glass and glassy slags have been used in implementing MAWS. Glassy slags (vitro-ceramics) are glass-crystal composites, and they are composed of various metal oxide crystalline phases embedded in an aluminosilicate glass matrix. Glassy slags with compositions developed in crucible melts at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) were successfully produced in a bench-scale Retech plasma centrifugal furnace (PCF) by MSE, Inc. Detailed examinations of these materials showed that the crucible melts and the PCF produced similar glass and crystalline phases. The two sets of glassy slags exhibited similar chemical durability in terms of normalized releases of their major components. The slags produced in the PCF furnace using metals were usually less oxidized, although this had no effect on the corrosion behavior of the major components of the slags. However, the normalized release rate of cerium was initially lower for the PCF slags. This difference diminished with time as the redox sates of the metal oxides in slags began to be controlled by exposure to air in the tests. Thus, the deference in cerium release due to the differences in slag redox state may be transitory. The cerium solubility is a complex function of redox state and solution pH and Eh

  10. Characterization benches for neutrino telescope Optical Modules at the APC laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avgitas, Theodore; Creusot, Alexandre; Kouchner, Antoine

    2016-04-01

    As has been demonstrated by the first generation of neutrino telescopes Antares and IceCube, precise knowledge of the photon detection efficiency of optical modules is of fundamental importance for the understanding of the instrument and accurate event reconstruction. Dedicated test benches have been developed to measure all related quantities for the Digital Optical Modules of the KM3NeT neutrino telescope being currently deployed in the Mediterranean sea. The first bench is a black box with robotic arms equipped with a calibrated single photon source or laser which enable a precise mapping of the detection efficiency at arbitrary incident angles as well as precise measurements of the time delays induced by the photodetection chain. These measurement can be incorporated and compared to full GEANT MonteCarlo simulations of the optical modules. The second bench is a 2 m×2 m ×2 m water tank equipped with muon hodoscopes on top and bottom. It enables to study and measure the angular dependence of the DOM's detection efficiency of the Cherenkov light produced in water by relativistic muons, thus reproducing in situ detection conditions. We describe these two benches and present their first results and status.

  11. Design of an FPGA-based embedded system for the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter front-end electronics test-bench

    CERN Document Server

    Carrio, F; The ATLAS collaboration; Moreno, P; Reed, R; Sandrock, C; Shalyugin, A; Schettino, V; Solans, C; Souza, J; Usai, G; Valero, A

    2013-01-01

    The portable test bench (VME based) used for the certification of the Tile calorimeter front-end electronics has been redesigned for the LHC Long Shutdown (2013-2014) improving its portability. The new version is based on a Xilinx Virtex 5 FPGA that implements an embedded system using a hard core PowerPC 440 microprocessor and custom IP cores. The PowerPC microprocessor runs a light Linux version and handles the IP cores written in VHDL that implement the different functionalities (TTC, G-Link, CAN-Bus) Description of the system and performance measurements of the different components will be shown.

  12. Initial field test of High-Energy Corona process for treating a contaminated soil-offgas stream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, R.R.; Garcia, R.E.; Jeffs, J.T.; Virden, J.W.; Heath, W.O.

    1995-04-01

    The High-Energy Corona (HEC) technology for treating process offgases has been under development at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) since 1991. The HEC process uses high-voltage electrical discharges in air to ionize the air, forming a low-temperature plasma that would be expected to destroy a wide variety of organic compounds in air. The plasma contains strong oxidants, possibly including hydroxyl radicals, hydroperoxy radicals, superoxide radicals, various excited as well as ionized forms of oxygen, high-energy electrons, and ultraviolet (UV) light. Because the high-voltage plasma is produced near ambient temperatures and pressures, yet exhibits extremely rapid destruction kinetics with relatively low power requirements, the HEC technique appears promising as a low-cost treatment technique (Virden et al. 1992). As part of the Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Nonarid Integrated Demonstration (ID) at the DOE Savannah River Site, research activities were initiated in December 1991 to develop a prototype HEC process for a small-scale field demonstration to treat a soil-offgas stream contaminated with trichloroethylene (TCE) and perchloroethylene (PCE) at varying concentrations. Over an 18-month period, the HEC technology was developed on a fast track, through bench and pilot scales into a trailer-mounted system that was tested at the Nonarid ID. Other national laboratories, universities, and private companies have also participated at the Nonarid ID to demonstrate a number of conventional, emerging and innovative approaches for treating the same soil-offgas stream

  13. EFRT M-12 Issue Resolution: Comparison of PEP and Bench-Scale Oxidative Leaching Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapko, Brian M.; Schonewill, Philip P.; Brown, Christopher F.; Eslinger, Paul W.; Fountain, Matthew S.; Hausmann, Tom S.; Huckaby, James L.; Hanson, Brady D.; Kurath, Dean E.; Minette, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been tasked by Bechtel National Inc. (BNI) on the River Protection Project-Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (RPP-WTP) project to perform research and development activities to resolve technical issues identified for the Pretreatment Facility (PTF). The Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP) was designed, constructed, and operated as part of a plan to respond to issue M12, 'Undemonstrated Leaching Processes' of the External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan. The PEP is a 1/4.5-scale test platform designed to simulate the WTP pretreatment caustic leaching, oxidative leaching, ultrafiltration solids concentration, and slurry washing processes. The PEP replicates the WTP leaching processes using prototypic equipment and control strategies. The PEP also includes non-prototypic ancillary equipment to support the core processing.

  14. Lightweight, high-opacity paper : process costs and energy use reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    John H. Klungness; Fabienne. Pianta; Mathew L. Stroika; Marguerite. Sykes; Freya. Tan; Said. AbuBakr

    1999-01-01

    Fiber loading is an environmentally friendly, energy efficient, and economical method for depositing precipitated calcium carbonate (PCC) partly within pulp fibers. Fiber loading can easily be done within the existing pulp processing system. This paper is a review of the process development from bench-scale to industrial-scale demonstrations, with additional...

  15. Hybrid Membrane/Absorption Process for Post-combustion CO2 Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Shiguang; Shou, S.; Pyrzynski, Travis; Makkuni, Ajay; Meyer, Howard

    2013-12-31

    This report summarizes scientific/technical progress made for bench-scale membrane contactor technology for post-combustion CO2 capture from DOE Contract No. DE-FE-0004787. Budget Period 1 (BP1) membrane absorber, Budget Period 2 (BP2) membrane desorber and Budget Period 3 (BP3) integrated system and field testing studies have been completed successfully and met or exceeded the technical targets (≥ 90% CO2 removal and CO2 purity of 97% in one membrane stage). Significant breakthroughs are summarized below: BP1 research: The feasibility of utilizing the poly (ether ether ketone), PEEK, based hollow fiber contractor (HFC) in combination with chemical solvents to separate and capture at least 90% of the CO2 from simulated flue gases has been successfully established. Excellent progress has been made as we have achieved the BP1 goal: ≥ 1,000 membrane intrinsic CO2 permeance, ≥ 90% CO2 removal in one stage, ≤ 2 psi gas side pressure drop, and ≥ 1 (sec)-1 mass transfer coefficient. Initial test results also show that the CO2 capture performance, using activated Methyl Diethanol Amine (aMDEA) solvent, was not affected by flue gas contaminants O2 (~3%), NO2 (66 ppmv), and SO2 (145 ppmv). BP2 research: The feasibility of utilizing the PEEK HFC for CO2-loaded solvent regeneration has been successfully established High CO2 stripping flux, one order of magnitude higher than CO2 absorption flux, have been achieved. Refined economic evaluation based on BP1 membrane absorber and BP2 membrane desorber laboratory test data indicate that the CO2 capture costs are 36% lower than DOE’s benchmark amine absorption technology. BP3 research: A bench-scale system utilizing a membrane absorber and desorber was integrated into a continuous CO2 capture process using contactors containing 10 to 20 ft2 of membrane area. The integrated process operation was stable through a 100-hour laboratory test, utilizing a simulated flue gas stream. Greater than 90% CO2 capture combined with 97

  16. Predicting Power Output of Upper Body using the OMNI-RES Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bautista Iker J.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this study was to determine the optimal training zone for maximum power output. This was to be achieved through estimating mean bar velocity of the concentric phase of a bench press using a prediction equation. The values for the prediction equation would be obtained using OMNI-RES scale values of different loads of the bench press exercise. Sixty males ( voluntarily participated in the study and were tested using an incremental protocol on a Smith machine to determine one repetition maximum (1RM in the bench press exercise. A linear regression analysis produced a strong correlation (r = -0.94 between rating of perceived exertion (RPE and mean bar velocity (Velmean. The Pearson correlation analysis between real power output (PotReal and estimated power (PotEst showed a strong correlation coefficient of r = 0.77, significant at a level of p = 0.01. Therefore, the OMNI-RES scale can be used to predict Velmean in the bench press exercise to control the intensity of the exercise. The positive relationship between PotReal and PotEst allowed for the identification of a maximum power-training zone.

  17. Velocity- and power-load relationships of the bench pull vs. bench press exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Medina, L; González-Badillo, J J; Pérez, C E; Pallarés, J G

    2014-03-01

    This study compared the velocity- and power-load relationships of the antagonistic upper-body exercises of prone bench pull (PBP) and bench press (BP). 75 resistance-trained athletes performed a progressive loading test in each exercise up to the one-repetition maximum (1RM) in random order. Velocity and power output across the 30-100% 1RM were significantly higher for PBP, whereas 1RM strength was greater for BP. A very close relationship was observed between relative load and mean propulsive velocity for both BP (R2=0.97) and PBP (R2=0.94) which enables us to estimate %1RM from velocity using the obtained prediction equations. Important differences in the load that maximizes power output (Pmax) and the power profiles of both exercises were found according to the outcome variable used: mean (MP), peak (PP) or mean propulsive power (MPP). When MP was considered, the Pmax load was higher (56% BP, 70% PBP) than when PP (37% BP, 41% PBP) or MPP (37% BP, 46% PBP) were used. For each variable there was a broad range of loads at which power output was not significantly different. The differing velocity- and power-load relationships between PBP and BP seem attributable to the distinct muscle architecture and moment arm levers involved in these exercises. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. Incremental Validity of the Subscales of the Emotional Regulation Related to Testing Scale for Predicting Test Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldt, Ronald; Lindley, Kyla; Louison, Rebecca; Roe, Allison; Timm, Megan; Utinkova, Nikola

    2015-01-01

    The Emotional Regulation Related to Testing Scale (ERT Scale) assesses strategies students use to regulate emotion related to academic testing. It has four dimensions: Cognitive Appraising Processes (CAP), Emotion-Focusing Processes (EFP), Task-Focusing Processes (TFP), and Regaining Task-Focusing Processes (RTFP). The study examined the factor…

  19. Elbow joint fatigue and bench-press training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yen-Po; Chou, You-Li; Chen, Feng-Chun; Wang, Rong-Tyai; Huang, Ming-Jer; Chou, Paul Pei-Hsi

    2014-01-01

    Bench-press exercises are among the most common form of training exercise for the upper extremity because they yield a notable improvement in both muscle strength and muscle endurance. The literature contains various investigations into the effects of different bench-press positions on the degree of muscle activation. However, the effects of fatigue on the muscular performance and kinetics of the elbow joint are not understood fully. To investigate the effects of fatigue on the kinetics and myodynamic performance of the elbow joint in bench-press training. Controlled laboratory study. Motion research laboratory. A total of 18 physically healthy male students (age = 19.6 ± 0.8 years, height = 168.7 ± 5.5 cm, mass = 69.6 ± 8.6 kg) participated in the investigation. All participants were right-hand dominant, and none had a history of upper extremity injuries or disorders. Participants performed bench-press training until fatigued. Maximal possible number of repetitions, cycle time, myodynamic decline rate, elbow-joint force, and elbow-joint moment. We observed a difference in cycle time in the initial (2.1 ± 0.42 seconds) and fatigue (2.58 ± 0.46 seconds) stages of the bench-press exercise (P = .04). As the participants fatigued, we observed an increase in the medial-lateral force (P = .03) and internal-external moment (P ≤ .04) acting on the elbow joint. Moreover, a reduction in the elbow muscle strength was observed in the elbow extension-flexion (P ≤ .003) and forearm supination-pronation (P ≤ .001) conditions. The results suggest that performing bench-press exercises to the point of fatigue increases elbow-joint loading and may further increase the risk of injury. Therefore, when clinicians design bench-press exercise regimens for general athletic training, muscle strengthening, or physical rehabilitation, they should control carefully the maximal number of repetitions.

  20. AVM branch vibration test equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anne, J.P.

    1995-01-01

    An inventory of the test equipment of the AVM Branch ''Acoustic and Vibratory Mechanics Analysis Methods'' group has been undertaken. The purpose of this inventory is to enable better acquaintance with the technical characteristics of the equipment, providing an accurate definition of their functionalities, ad to inform potential users of the possibilities and equipment available in this field. The report first summarizes the various experimental surveys conduced. Then, using the AVM equipment database to draw up an exhaustive list of available equipment, it provides a full-scope picture of the vibration measurement systems (sensors, conditioners and exciters) and data processing resources commonly used on industrial sites and in laboratories. A definition is also given of a mobile test unit, called 'shelter', and a test bench used for the testing and performance rating of the experimental analysis methods developed by the group. The report concludes with a description of two fixed installations: - the calibration bench ensuring the requisite quality level for the vibration measurement systems ; - the training bench, whereby know-how acquired in the field in the field of measurement and experimental analysis processes is made available to others. (author). 27 refs., 15 figs., 2 appends

  1. Large-Scale Spray Releases: Additional Aerosol Test Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel, Richard C.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Fountain, Matthew S.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Billing, Justin M.; Bontha, Jagannadha R.; Kurath, Dean E.; Jenks, Jeromy WJ; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Mahoney, Lenna A.

    2013-08-01

    One of the events postulated in the hazard analysis for the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities is a breach in process piping that produces aerosols with droplet sizes in the respirable range. The current approach for predicting the size and concentration of aerosols produced in a spray leak event involves extrapolating from correlations reported in the literature. These correlations are based on results obtained from small engineered spray nozzles using pure liquids that behave as a Newtonian fluid. The narrow ranges of physical properties on which the correlations are based do not cover the wide range of slurries and viscous materials that will be processed in the WTP and in processing facilities across the DOE complex. To expand the data set upon which the WTP accident and safety analyses were based, an aerosol spray leak testing program was conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL’s test program addressed two key technical areas to improve the WTP methodology (Larson and Allen 2010). The first technical area was to quantify the role of slurry particles in small breaches where slurry particles may plug the hole and prevent high-pressure sprays. The results from an effort to address this first technical area can be found in Mahoney et al. (2012a). The second technical area was to determine aerosol droplet size distribution and total droplet volume from prototypic breaches and fluids, including sprays from larger breaches and sprays of slurries for which literature data are mostly absent. To address the second technical area, the testing program collected aerosol generation data at two scales, commonly referred to as small-scale and large-scale testing. The small-scale testing and resultant data are described in Mahoney et al. (2012b), and the large-scale testing and resultant data are presented in Schonewill et al. (2012). In tests at both scales, simulants were used

  2. Test equating, scaling, and linking methods and practices

    CERN Document Server

    Kolen, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    This book provides an introduction to test equating, scaling, and linking, including those concepts and practical issues that are critical for developers and all other testing professionals.  In addition to statistical procedures, successful equating, scaling, and linking involves many aspects of testing, including procedures to develop tests, to administer and score tests, and to interpret scores earned on tests. Test equating methods are used with many standardized tests in education and psychology to ensure that scores from multiple test forms can be used interchangeably.  Test scaling is the process of developing score scales that are used when scores on standardized tests are reported. In test linking, scores from two or more tests are related to one another. Linking has received much recent attention, due largely to investigations of linking similarly named tests from different test publishers or tests constructed for different purposes. In recent years, researchers from the education, psychology, and...

  3. Multi-Column Experimental Test Bed Using CaSDB MOF for Xe/Kr Separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welty, Amy Keil [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Greenhalgh, Mitchell Randy [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Garn, Troy Gerry [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Processing of spent nuclear fuel produces off-gas from which several volatile radioactive components must be separated for further treatment or storage. As part of the Off-gas Sigma Team, parallel research at INL and PNNL has produced several promising sorbents for the selective capture of xenon and krypton from these off-gas streams. In order to design full-scale treatment systems, sorbents that are promising on a laboratory scale must be proven under process conditions to be considered for pilot and then full-scale use. To that end, a bench-scale multi-column system with capability to test multiple sorbents was designed and constructed at INL. This report details bench-scale testing of CaSDB MOF, produced at PNNL, and compares the results to those reported last year using INL engineered sorbents. Two multi-column tests were performed with the CaSDB MOF installed in the first column, followed with HZ-PAN installed in the second column. The CaSDB MOF column was placed in a Stirling cryocooler while the cryostat was employed for the HZ-PAN column. Test temperatures of 253 K and 191 K were selected for the first column while the second column was held at 191 K for both tests. Calibrated volume sample bombs were utilized for gas stream analyses. At the conclusion of each test, samples were collected from each column and analyzed for gas composition. While CaSDB MOF does appear to have good capacity for Xe, the short time to initial breakthrough would make design of a continuous adsorption/desorption cycle difficult, requiring either very large columns or a large number of smaller columns. Because of the tenacity with which Xe and Kr adhere to the material once adsorbed, this CaSDB MOF may be more suitable for use as a long-term storage solution. Further testing is recommended to determine if CaSDB MOF is suitable for this purpose.

  4. Rapid pyrolysis of wheat straw in a Bench-Scale circulating Fluidized-Bed downer reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, T. [State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Complex Systems, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Li, S.; Xie, J.; Song, W.; Yao, J.; Lin, W. [State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Complex Systems, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China)

    2012-12-15

    The effects of acid washing treatment on the pyrolysis product distribution and product properties were investigated in a bench-scale circulating fluidized-bed (CFB) downer reactor with wheat straw as feedstock. The acid treatment not only removes most of the inorganic species present in the biomass but also alters the distribution of the remaining organic constituents. It was found that the removal of the inorganic species increases the yield of liquid product and reduces char formation and gas yield. CO and CO{sub 2} are the dominant components in the gaseous product, accounting for over 90 %. The concentration of CO in the gaseous product increases after acid treatment, while the CO{sub 2} concentration decreases. The oxygen and water contents in the liquid product are decreased on acid treatment, leading to a relatively high heating value and viscosity. More volatiles can be found in the char derived from the acid-treated wheat straw than from the raw wheat straw. This may suggest that a longer residence time is needed for pyrolysis of the acid-treated wheat straw in order to obtain the maximal yield of volatile matter. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  5. Diagnostics at JINR LHEP photogun bench

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nozdrin, M.A.; Balalykin, N.I.; Minashkin, V.F.; Shirkov, G.D.

    2016-01-01

    The photoinjector electron beam quality dramatically depends on the laser driver beam quality. For laser beam diagnostics a 'virtual cathode' system was realized at the JINR LHEP photogun bench. The system allows one to image laser beam profile at the cathode. The AVINE software complex developed in DESY Zeuthen is being used for imaging. Equipment for emittance measurement using the slit method was installed. The original emittance calculation software EmCa was created and tested with the laser beam.

  6. Bench tests of simple, handy ventilators for pandemics: performance, autonomy, and ergonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    L'Her, Erwan; Roy, Annie

    2011-06-01

    It has been pointed out that in the wake of a virulent flu strain, patients with survivable illness will die from lack of resources unless more ventilators are made available. Numerous disaster-type ventilators are available, but few evaluations have been performed. To compare simple, lightweight, and handy ventilators that could be used in the initial care of patients with respiratory distress. We bench-tested 4 volume-cycled ventilators (Carevent ALS, EPV100, Pneupac VR1, and Medumat Easy) and 2 pressure-cycled ventilators (Oxylator EMX and VAR-Plus). We studied their general physical characteristics, sonometry, gas consumption, technical performance, ergonomy, and user-friendliness. With a test lung we assessed performance at F(IO(2)) of 0.50 and 1.0, set compliance of 30, 70, and 120 mL/cm H(2)O, and set resistance of 5, 10, and 20 cm H(2)O/L/s. To study user-friendliness and ergonomy we conducted, in randomized order, 7 or 8 objective, quantitative tests and 2 subjective tests. Compliance and resistance strongly affected tidal volume with the pressure-cycled ventilators (from 418 ± 49 mL to 1,377 ± 444 mL with the VAR-Plus, at the lowest pressure level), whereas the volume-cycled ventilators provided a consistent tidal volume in the face of changing test lung characteristics. We are concerned that the pressure-cycled ventilators did not provide a consistent tidal volume, and under certain conditions the volume delivered would be unsafe (too large or too small). Most of the volume-cycled ventilators proved to be technically efficient and reliable. Their reliability, portability, and ease of use could make them valuable in natural disasters and mass-casualty events.

  7. TESTING OF A FULL-SCALE ROTARY MICROFILTER FOR THE ENHANCED PROCESS FOR RADIONUCLIDES REMOVAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herman, D; David Stefanko, D; Michael Poirier, M; Samuel Fink, S

    2009-01-01

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) researchers are investigating and developing a rotary microfilter for solid-liquid separation applications in the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. One application involves use in the Enhanced Processes for Radionuclide Removal (EPRR) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). To assess this application, the authors performed rotary filter testing with a full-scale, 25-disk unit manufactured by SpinTek Filtration with 0.5 micron filter media manufactured by Pall Corporation. The filter includes proprietary enhancements by SRNL. The most recent enhancement is replacement of the filter's main shaft seal with a John Crane Type 28LD gas-cooled seal. The feed material was SRS Tank 8F simulated sludge blended with monosodium titanate (MST). Testing examined total insoluble solids concentrations of 0.06 wt % (126 hours of testing) and 5 wt % (82 hours of testing). The following are conclusions from this testing.

  8. The effect of recovery time on strength performance following a high-intensity bench press workout in males and females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, Lawrence W; Burke, Jeanmarie R

    2010-06-01

    To determine the effects of training sessions, involving high-resistance, low-repetition bench press exercise, on strength recovery patterns, as a function of gender and training background. The subjects were 12 athletes (6 males and 6 females) and age-matched college students of both genders (4 males and 4 females). The subjects completed a 3-wk resistance training program involving a bench press exercise, 3 d/wk, to become familiar with the testing procedure. After the completion of the resistance training program, the subjects, on three consecutive weeks, participated in two testing sessions per week, baseline session and recovery session. During the testing sessions, subjects performed five sets of the bench press exercise at 50% to 100% of perceived five repetition maximum (5-RM). Following the weekly baseline sessions, subjects rested during a 4-, 24-, or 48-h recovery period. Strength measurements were estimates of one repetition maximum (1-RM), using equivalent percentages for the number of repetitions completed by the subject at the perceived 5-RM effort of the bench press exercise. The full-factorial ANOVA model revealed a Gender by Recovery Period by Testing Session interaction effect, F(2, 32) = 10.65; P bench press exercises, using different recovery times of 48 h for males and 4 h for females may optimize strength development as a function of gender.

  9. CRUCIBLE TESTING OF TANK 48 RADIOACTIVE WASTE SAMPLE USING FBSR TECHNOLOGY FOR ORGANIC DESTRUCTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammond, C; William Pepper, W

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of crucible scale testing with actual radioactive Tank 48H material was to duplicate the test results that had been previously performed on simulant Tank 48H material. The earlier crucible scale testing using simulants was successful in demonstrating that bench scale crucible tests produce results that are indicative of actual Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) pilot scale tests. Thus, comparison of the results using radioactive Tank 48H feed to those reported earlier with simulants would then provide proof that the radioactive tank waste behaves in a similar manner to the simulant. Demonstration of similar behavior for the actual radioactive Tank 48H slurry to the simulant is important as a preliminary or preparation step for the more complex bench-scale steam reformer unit that is planned for radioactive application in the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Shielded Cells Facility (SCF) later in 2008. The goals of this crucible-scale testing were to show 99% destruction of tetraphenylborate and to demonstrate that the final solid product produced is sodium carbonate. Testing protocol was repeated using the specifications of earlier simulant crucible scale testing, that is sealed high purity alumina crucibles containing a pre-carbonated and evaporated Tank 48H material. Sealing of the crucibles was accomplished by using an inorganic 'nepheline' sealant. The sealed crucibles were heat-treated at 650 C under constant argon flow to inert the system. Final product REDOX measurements were performed to establish the REDuction/OXidation (REDOX) state of known amounts of added iron species in the final product. These REDOX measurements confirm the processing conditions (pyrolysis occurring at low oxygen fugacity) of the sealed crucible environment which is the environment actually achieved in the fluidized bed steam reformer process. Solid product dissolution in water was used to measure soluble cations and anions, and to investigate insoluble

  10. Comparison of Myoelectric Activity of a Selection of Upper Extremity Muscles while Doing Bench Press in Two Training Methods of TRX and Barbell Bench Press

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Reza Zibaei

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: Considering these results it can be maintained that TRX bench press resistance training can be an alternative and effective practice for barbell bench press because, given the results, it can be appreciated that TRX bench press, dips low in the trunk, can lead to muscle activity close to the level of muscle activity during the barbell bench press drill.

  11. Design and test of the benches for the magnetic measurement of the LHC dipoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billan, J.; Buckley, J.; Saban, R.; Sievers, P.; Walckiers, L.

    1994-01-01

    The magnetic measurement of more than 1,300 LHC dipoles comprises the content of higher harmonic field components, field direction and field integrals. The measurements will be carried out along a warm bore installed inside the magnet cold bore, thus allowing the use of rotating coils at room temperature. This coil, together with Hall and NMR detectors is mounted at one end of a 12.5 m long shaft which is specially designed for very high rotational stiffness and which is controlled from its far end by a motor, an angular encoder and a level meter, all standard components placed outside the magnetic field without space restrictions. Particular emphasis has been put on the user-friendliness of the bench and its automated, computer-controlled operation requiring a minimum of staff, an important issue during production measurements of large series of magnets. The bench and its performed and precision achieved during its commissioning are described

  12. Small-Scale Spray Releases: Additional Aerosol Test Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schonewill, Philip P.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Kimura, Marcia L.; Brown, G. N.; Mahoney, Lenna A.; Tran, Diana N.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Kurath, Dean E.

    2013-08-01

    One of the events postulated in the hazard analysis at the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities is a breach in process piping that produces aerosols with droplet sizes in the respirable range. The current approach for predicting the size and concentration of aerosols produced in a spray leak involves extrapolating from correlations reported in the literature. These correlations are based on results obtained from small engineered spray nozzles using pure liquids with Newtonian fluid behavior. The narrow ranges of physical properties on which the correlations are based do not cover the wide range of slurries and viscous materials that will be processed in the WTP and across processing facilities in the DOE complex. To expand the data set upon which the WTP accident and safety analyses were based, an aerosol spray leak testing program was conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL’s test program addressed two key technical areas to improve the WTP methodology (Larson and Allen 2010). The first technical area was to quantify the role of slurry particles in small breaches where slurry particles may plug the hole and prevent high-pressure sprays. The results from an effort to address this first technical area can be found in Mahoney et al. (2012a). The second technical area was to determine aerosol droplet size distribution and total droplet volume from prototypic breaches and fluids, including sprays from larger breaches and sprays of slurries for which literature data are largely absent. To address the second technical area, the testing program collected aerosol generation data at two scales, commonly referred to as small-scale and large-scale. The small-scale testing and resultant data are described in Mahoney et al. (2012b) and the large-scale testing and resultant data are presented in Schonewill et al. (2012). In tests at both scales, simulants were used to mimic the

  13. DECOVALEX I - Bench-Mark Test 3: Thermo-hydro-mechanical modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Israelsson, J.

    1995-12-01

    The bench-mark test concerns the excavation of a tunnel, located 500 m below the ground surface, and the establishment of mechanical equilibrium and steady-state fluid flow. Following this, a thermal heating due to the nuclear waste, stored in a borehole below the tunnel, was simulated. The results are reported at (1) 30 days after tunnel excavation, (2) steady state, (3) one year after thermal loading, and (4) at the time of maximum temperature. The problem specification included the excavation and waste geometry, materials properties for intact rock and joints, location of more than 6500 joints observed in the 50 by 50 m area, and calculated hydraulic conductivities. However, due to the large number of joints and the lack of dominating orientations, it was decided to treat the problem as a continuum using the computer code FLAC. The problem was modeled using a vertical symmetry plane through the tunnel and the borehole. Flow equilibrium was obtained approx. 40 days after the opening of the tunnel. Since the hydraulic conductivity was set to be stress dependent, a noticeable difference in the horizontal and vertical conductivity and flow was observed. After 40 days, an oedometer-type consolidation of the model was observed. Approx. 4 years after the initiation of the heat source, a maximum temperature of 171 C was obtained. The stress-dependent hydraulic conductivity and the temperature-dependent dynamic viscosity caused minor changes to the flow pattern. The specified mechanical boundary conditions imply that the tunnel is part of a system of parallel tunnels. However, the fixed temperature at the top boundary maintains the temperature below the temperature anticipated for an equivalent repository. The combination of mechanical and hydraulic boundary conditions cause the model to behave like an oedometer test in which the consolidation rate goes asymptotically to zero. 17 refs, 55 figs, 22 tabs

  14. Nitrogen removal process optimization in New York City WPCPS: a case study of Wards Island WPCP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramalingam, K; Fillos, J; Musabyimana, M; Deur, A; Beckmann, K

    2009-01-01

    The New York City Department of Environmental Protection has been engaged in a continuous process to develop a nitrogen removal program to reduce the nitrogen mass discharge from its water pollution control plants, (WPCPs), from 49,158 kg/d to 20,105 kg/d by the year 2017 as recommended by the Long Island Sound Study. As part of the process, a comprehensive research effort was undertaken involving bench, pilot and full scale studies to identify the most effective way to upgrade and optimize the existing WPCPs. Aeration tank 13 (AT-13) at the Wards Island WPCP was particularly attractive as a full-scale research facility because its aeration tank with its dedicated final settling tanks and RAS pumps could be isolated from the remaining treatment facilities. The nitrogen removal performance of AT-13, which, at the time, was operated as a "basic step feed BNR Facility", was evaluated and concurrently nitrification kinetic parameters were measured using in-situ bench scale experiments. Additional bench scale experiments provided denitrification rates using different sources of carbon and measurement of the maximum specific growth rate of nitrifying bacteria. The combined findings were then used to upgrade AT-13 to a "full" BNR facility with carbon and alkalinity addition. This paper will focus on the combined bench and full scale results that were the basis for the consequent upgrade.

  15. EFRT M-12 Issue Resolution: Comparison of PEP and Bench-Scale Oxidative Leaching Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapko, Brian M.; Schonewill, Philip P.; Brown, Christopher F.; Eslinger, Paul W.; Fountain, Matthew S.; Hausmann, Tom S.; Huckaby, James L.; Hanson, Brady D.; Kurath, Dean E.; Minette, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been tasked by Bechtel National Inc. (BNI) on the River Protection Project-Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (RPP-WTP) project to perform research and development activities to resolve technical issues identified for the Pretreatment Facility (PTF). The Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP) was designed, constructed, and operated as part of a plan to respond to issue M12, “Undemonstrated Leaching Processes” of the External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan.( ) The PEP is a 1/4.5-scale test platform designed to simulate the WTP pretreatment caustic leaching, oxidative leaching, ultrafiltration solids concentration, and slurry washing processes. The PEP replicates the WTP leaching processes using prototypic equipment and control strategies. The PEP also includes non-prototypic ancillary equipment to support the core processing.

  16. Development of Head-end Pyrochemical Reduction Process for Advanced Oxide Fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, B. H.; Seo, C. S.; Hur, J. M.; Jeong, S. M.; Hong, S. S.; Choi, I. K.; Choung, W. M.; Kwon, K. C.; Lee, I. W.

    2008-12-01

    The development of an electrolytic reduction technology for spent fuels in the form of oxide is of essence to introduce LWR SFs to a pyroprocessing. In this research, the technology was investigated to scale a reactor up, the electrochemical behaviors of FPs were studied to understand the process and a reaction rate data by using U 3 O 8 was obtained with a bench scale reactor. In a scale of 20 kgHM/batch reactor, U 3 O 8 and Simfuel were successfully reduced into metals. Electrochemical characteristics of LiBr, LiI and Li 2 Se were measured in a bench scale reactor and an electrolytic reduction cell was modeled by a computational tool

  17. Recommendations for Filler Material Composition and Delivery Method for Bench-Scale Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardin, Ernest [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Brady, Patrick Vane [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2018-03-01

    This report supplements Joint Workplan on Filler Investigations for DPCs (SNL 2017) providing new and some corrected information for use in planning Phase 1 laboratory testing of slurry cements as possible DPC fillers. The scope description is to "Describe a complete laboratory testing program for filler composition, delivery, emplacement in surrogate canisters, and post-test examination. To the extent possible specify filler material and equipment sources." This report includes results from an independent expert review (Dr. Arun Wagh, retired from Argonne National Laboratory and contracted by Sandia) that helped to narrow the range of cement types for consideration, and to provide further guidance on mix variations to optimize injectability, durability, and other aspects of filler performance.

  18. Foaming and Antifoaming in Radioactive Waste Pretreatment and Immobilization Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wasan, Darsh T.; Nikolov, Alex D.; Lamber, D.P.; Calloway, T. Bond; Stone, M.E.

    2005-01-01

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has reported severe foaminess in the bench scale evaporation of the Hanford River Protection - Waste Treatment Plant (RPP-WPT) envelope C waste. Excessive foaming in waste evaporators can cause carryover of radionuclides and non-radioactive waste to the condensate system. The antifoams used at Hanford and tested by SRNL are believed to degrade and become inactive in high pH solutions. Hanford wastes have been known to foam during evaporation causing excessive down time and processing delays

  19. Emerging technologies and approaches to minimize discharges into Lake Michigan Phase 2, Module 3 report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negri, M. C.; Gillenwater, P.; Urgun Demirtas, M. (Energy Systems)

    2011-05-11

    Purdue University Calumet (Purdue) and Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) have conducted an independent study to identify deployable technologies that could help the BP Whiting Refinery, and other petroleum refineries, meet future wastewater discharge limits. This study has been funded by BP. Each organization tested a subset of the target technologies and retains sole responsibility for its respective test design and implementation, quality assurance and control, test results obtained from each of the technologies, and corresponding conclusions and recommendations. This project was divided in two phases and modules. This report summarizes the work conducted by Argonne in Phase II Module 3 (Bench Scale Testing). Other Modules are discussed elsewhere (Emerging Technologies and Approaches to Minimize Discharges into Lake Michigan, Phase 2, Modules 1-3 Report, April 2011, prepared for BP Americas by the Argonne - Purdue Task Force). The goal of this project was to identify and assess available and emerging wastewater treatment technologies for removing mercury and vanadium from the Whiting Refinery wastewater and to conduct bench-scale tests to provide comparable, transparent, and uniform results across the broad range of technologies tested. After the bench-scale testing phase, a previously developed decision matrix was refined and applied by Argonne to process and review test data to estimate and compare the preliminary performance, engineering configuration, preliminary cost, energy usage, and waste generation of technologies that were shown to be able to remove Hg and/or V to below the target limit at the bench scale. The data were used as the basis to identify the best candidates for further testing at the bench or pilot scale on a slip stream of effluent to lake (ETL) or clarifier effluent (CE) at the Whiting Refinery to determine whether future limits could be met and to generate other pertinent data for scale-up and sustainability evaluation. As a result of

  20. PEROXIDE DESTRUCTION TESTING FOR THE 200 AREA EFFLUENT TREATMENT FACILITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halgren, D.L.

    2010-01-01

    The hydrogen peroxide decomposer columns at the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) have been taken out of service due to ongoing problems with particulate fines and poor destruction performance from the granular activated carbon (GAC) used in the columns. An alternative search was initiated and led to bench scale testing and then pilot scale testing. Based on the bench scale testing three manganese dioxide based catalysts were evaluated in the peroxide destruction pilot column installed at the 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility. The ten inch diameter, nine foot tall, clear polyvinyl chloride (PVC) column allowed for the same six foot catalyst bed depth as is in the existing ETF system. The flow rate to the column was controlled to evaluate the performance at the same superficial velocity (gpm/ft 2 ) as the full scale design flow and normal process flow. Each catalyst was evaluated on peroxide destruction performance and particulate fines capacity and carryover. Peroxide destruction was measured by hydrogen peroxide concentration analysis of samples taken before and after the column. The presence of fines in the column headspace and the discharge from carryover was generally assessed by visual observation. All three catalysts met the peroxide destruction criteria by achieving hydrogen peroxide discharge concentrations of less than 0.5 mg/L at the design flow with inlet peroxide concentrations greater than 100 mg/L. The Sud-Chemie T-2525 catalyst was markedly better in the minimization of fines and particle carryover. It is anticipated the T-2525 can be installed as a direct replacement for the GAC in the peroxide decomposer columns. Based on the results of the peroxide method development work the recommendation is to purchase the T-2525 catalyst and initially load one of the ETF decomposer columns for full scale testing.

  1. Usage of DNA Fingerprinting Technology for Quality Control in Molecular Lab Bench Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Linda Y; Lal, Janella E; Qin, Dahui

    2018-01-01

    One of the major quality assurance (QA) goals in many molecular laboratories is to avoid sample pipetting errors on the lab bench; especially when pipetting into multiwell plates. A pipetting error can cause a switch in patient samples, which can lead to recording the wrong results for the patient samples involved. Such pipetting errors are difficult to identify when it happens in lab bench work. DNA fingerprinting is a powerful tool in determining sample identities. Our laboratory has explored the usage of this technology in our QA process and successfully established that DNA fingerprinting can be used to monitor possible sample switch in gene rearrangement lab bench work. We use florescent light to quench the florescence in the gene rearrangement polymerase chain reaction products. After that, DNA fingerprinting technology is used to identify the sample DNA in the gene rearrangement polymerase chain reaction plate. The result is compared with the corresponding patient's blood sample DNA to determine whether there is a sample switch during the lab bench work.

  2. Analysis of Monolith Cores from an Engineering Scale Demonstration of a Prospective Cast Stone Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, C. L.; Cozzi, A. D.; Hill, K. A.

    2016-01-01

    The primary disposition path of Low Activity Waste (LAW) at the DOE Hanford Site is vitrification. A cementitious waste form is one of the alternatives being considered for the supplemental immobilization of the LAW that will not be treated by the primary vitrification facility. Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) has been directed to generate and collect data on cementitious or pozzolanic waste forms such as Cast Stone. This report documents the coring and leach testing of monolithic samples cored from an engineering-scale demonstration (ES Demo) with non-radioactive simulants. The ES Demo was performed at SRNL in October of 2013 using the Scaled Continuous Processing Facility (SCPF) to fill an 8.5 ft. diameter x 3.25 ft. high container with simulated Cast Stone grout. The Cast Stone formulation was chosen from the previous screening tests. Legacy salt solution from previous Hanford salt waste testing was adjusted to correspond to the average LAW composition generated from the Hanford Tank Waste Operation Simulator (HTWOS). The dry blend materials, ordinary portland cement (OPC), Class F fly ash, and ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS or BFS), were obtained from Lafarge North America in Pasco, WA. In 2014 core samples originally obtained approximately six months after filling the ES Demo were tested along with bench scale molded samples that were collected during the original pour. A latter set of core samples were obtained in late March of 2015, eighteen months after completion of the original ES Demo. Core samples were obtained using a 2'' diameter x 11'' long coring bit. The ES Demo was sampled in three different regions consisting of an outer ring, a middle ring and an inner core zone. Cores from these three lateral zones were further segregated into upper, middle and lower vertical segments. Monolithic core samples were tested using the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Method 1315, which is designed to provide mass

  3. Dry syngas purification process for coal gas produced in oxy-fuel type integrated gasification combined cycle power generation with carbon dioxide capturing feature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Makoto; Akiho, Hiroyuki

    2017-12-01

    Electricity production from coal fuel with minimizing efficiency penalty for the carbon dioxide abatement will bring us sustainable and compatible energy utilization. One of the promising options is oxy-fuel type Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (oxy-fuel IGCC) power generation that is estimated to achieve thermal efficiency of 44% at lower heating value (LHV) base and provide compressed carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) with concentration of 93 vol%. The proper operation of the plant is established by introducing dry syngas cleaning processes to control halide and sulfur compounds satisfying tolerate contaminants level of gas turbine. To realize the dry process, the bench scale test facility was planned to demonstrate the first-ever halide and sulfur removal with fixed bed reactor using actual syngas from O 2 -CO 2 blown gasifier for the oxy-fuel IGCC power generation. Design parameter for the test facility was required for the candidate sorbents for halide removal and sulfur removal. Breakthrough test was performed on two kinds of halide sorbents at accelerated condition and on honeycomb desulfurization sorbent at varied space velocity condition. The results for the both sorbents for halide and sulfur exhibited sufficient removal within the satisfactory short depth of sorbent bed, as well as superior bed conversion of the impurity removal reaction. These performance evaluation of the candidate sorbents of halide and sulfur removal provided rational and affordable design parameters for the bench scale test facility to demonstrate the dry syngas cleaning process for oxy-fuel IGCC system as the scaled up step of process development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Cesium removal demonstration utilizing crystalline silicotitanate sorbent for processing Melton Valley Storage Tank supernate: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, J.F. Jr.; Taylor, P.A.; Cummins, R.L. [and others

    1998-03-01

    This report provides details of the Cesium Removal Demonstration (CsRD), which was conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on radioactive waste from the Melton Valley Storage Tanks. The CsRD was the first large-scale use of state-of-the-art sorbents being developed by private industry for the selective removal of cesium and other radionuclides from liquid wastes stored across the DOE complex. The crystalline silicotitanate sorbent used in the demonstration was chosen because of its effectiveness in laboratory tests using bench-scale columns. The demonstration showed that the cesium could be removed from the supernate and concentrated on a small-volume, solid waste form that would meet the waste acceptance criteria for the Nevada Test Site. During this project, the CsRD system processed > 115,000 L (30,000 gal) of radioactive supernate with minimal operational problems. Sluicing, drying, and remote transportation of the sorbent, which could not be done on a bench scale, were successfully demonstrated. The system was then decontaminated to the extent that it could be contact maintained with the use of localized shielding only. By utilizing a modular, transportable design and placement within existing facilities, the system can be transferred to different sites for reuse. The initial unit has now been removed from the process building and is presently being reinstalled for use in baseline operations at ORNL.

  5. Cesium removal demonstration utilizing crystalline silicotitanate sorbent for processing Melton Valley Storage Tank supernate: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, J.F. Jr.; Taylor, P.A.; Cummins, R.L.

    1998-03-01

    This report provides details of the Cesium Removal Demonstration (CsRD), which was conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on radioactive waste from the Melton Valley Storage Tanks. The CsRD was the first large-scale use of state-of-the-art sorbents being developed by private industry for the selective removal of cesium and other radionuclides from liquid wastes stored across the DOE complex. The crystalline silicotitanate sorbent used in the demonstration was chosen because of its effectiveness in laboratory tests using bench-scale columns. The demonstration showed that the cesium could be removed from the supernate and concentrated on a small-volume, solid waste form that would meet the waste acceptance criteria for the Nevada Test Site. During this project, the CsRD system processed > 115,000 L (30,000 gal) of radioactive supernate with minimal operational problems. Sluicing, drying, and remote transportation of the sorbent, which could not be done on a bench scale, were successfully demonstrated. The system was then decontaminated to the extent that it could be contact maintained with the use of localized shielding only. By utilizing a modular, transportable design and placement within existing facilities, the system can be transferred to different sites for reuse. The initial unit has now been removed from the process building and is presently being reinstalled for use in baseline operations at ORNL

  6. Prometeo: A portable test-bench for the upgraded front-end electronics of the ATLAS Tile calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Bullock, D; The ATLAS collaboration; Govender, M; Hofsajer, I; Mellado, B; Moreno, P; Reed, R; Ruan, X; Sandrock, C; Solans, C; Suter, R; Usai, G; Valero, A

    2014-01-01

    Prometeo is a portable test-bench for full certification of the front-end electronics of the ATLAS Tile calorimeter, designed for the upgrade phase-II. It is a high-throughput electronic system designed to simultaneously read out all the digitized samples from 12 channels at the LHC bunch crossing frequency and assess the quality of the data in real-time. The core of the system is a Xilinx Virtex 7 evaluation board extended with a dual QSFP FMC module to read out and control the on-detector electronics. The rest of the functionalities of the system are provided by a HV mezzanine board that supplied the HV to the photo-multipliers, an LED board that sends light to illuminate them, and a 12 channel ADC board that samples the analog trigger output of the front- end. The system is connected by ethernet to a GUI client from which QA tests are performed on the electronics such as noise measurements and linearity response to an injected charge.

  7. Prometeo: A portable test-bench for the upgraded front-end electronics of the ATLAS Tile calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Bullock, D; The ATLAS collaboration; Hofsajer, I; Govender, M; Mellado, B; Moreno, P; Reed, R; Ruan, X; Sandrock, C; Solans, C; Suter, R; Usai, G; Valero, A

    2014-01-01

    Prometeo is the portable test-bench for the full certification of the front-end electronics of the ATLAS Tile calorimeter designed for the upgrade phase-II. It is a high throughput electronics system designed to simultaneously read-out all the samples from 12 channels at the LHC bunch crossing frequency and assess the quality of the data in real-time. The core of the system is a Xilinx Virtex 7 evaluation board extended with a dual QSFP FMC module to read-out and control the front-end boards. The rest of the functionalities of the system are provided by a HV mezzanine board that to turn on the gain of the photo-multipliers, an LED board that sends light to illuminate them, and a 12 channel ADC board that samples the analog output of the front-end. The system is connected by ethernet to a GUI client from which QA tests are performed on the electronics such as noise measurements and linearity response to an injected charge.

  8. Predicting Power Output of Upper Body using the OMNI-RES Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista, Iker J; Chirosa, Ignacio J; Tamayo, Ignacio Martín; González, Andrés; Robinson, Joseph E; Chirosa, Luis J; Robertson, Robert J

    2014-12-09

    The main aim of this study was to determine the optimal training zone for maximum power output. This was to be achieved through estimating mean bar velocity of the concentric phase of a bench press using a prediction equation. The values for the prediction equation would be obtained using OMNI-RES scale values of different loads of the bench press exercise. Sixty males (age 23.61 2.81 year; body height 176.29 6.73 cm; body mass 73.28 4.75 kg) voluntarily participated in the study and were tested using an incremental protocol on a Smith machine to determine one repetition maximum (1RM) in the bench press exercise. A linear regression analysis produced a strong correlation (r = -0.94) between rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and mean bar velocity (Velmean). The Pearson correlation analysis between real power output (PotReal) and estimated power (PotEst) showed a strong correlation coefficient of r = 0.77, significant at a level of p = 0.01. Therefore, the OMNI-RES scale can be used to predict Velmean in the bench press exercise to control the intensity of the exercise. The positive relationship between PotReal and PotEst allowed for the identification of a maximum power-training zone.

  9. Final air test results for the 1/5-scale Mark I boiling water reactor pressure suppression experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, E.K.; Lai, W.

    1977-01-01

    A loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) in a boiling-water reactor (BWR) power plant has never occurred. However, because this type of accident is particularly severe, it is used as a principal basis for design. During a hypothetical LOCA in a Mark I BWR, air followed by steam is injected from a drywell into a toroidal wetwell about half-filled with water. A series of consistent, versatile, and accurate air-water tests simulating LOCA conditions was completed in the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory 1/5-Scale Mark I BWR Pressure Suppression Experimental Facility. Results from this test series were used to quantify the vertical loading function and to study the associated fluid dynamic phenomena. Detailed histories of vertical loads on the wetwell are shown. In particular, variations of hydrodynamic-generated vertical loads with changes in drywell pressurization rate, downcomer submergence, and the vent-line loss coefficient are established. Initial drywell overpressure, which partially preclears the downcomers of water, substantially reduces the peak vertical loads. Scaling relationships, developed from dimensional analysis and verified by bench-top experiments, allow the 1/5-scale results to be applied to a full-scale BWR power plant. This analysis leads to dimensionless groupings which are invariant. These groupongs show that if water is used as the working fluid, the magnitude of the forces in a scaled facility is reduced by the cube of the scale factor; the time when these forces occur is reduced by the square root of the scale factor

  10. PILOT SCALE TESTING OF MONOSODIUM TITANATE MIXING FOR THE SRS SMALL COLUMN ION EXCHANGE PROCESS - 11224

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poirier, M.; Restivo, M.; Williams, M.; Herman, D.; Steeper, T.

    2011-01-25

    The Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) process is being developed to remove cesium, strontium, and select actinides from Savannah River Site (SRS) Liquid Waste using an existing waste tank (i.e., Tank 41H) to house the process. Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is conducting pilot-scale mixing tests to determine the pump requirements for suspending monosodium titanate (MST), crystalline silicotitanate (CST), and simulated sludge. The purpose of this pilot scale testing is to determine the requirements for the pumps to suspend the MST particles so that they can contact the strontium and actinides in the liquid and be removed from the tank. The pilot-scale tank is a 1/10.85 linear scaled model of SRS Tank 41H. The tank diameter, tank liquid level, pump nozzle diameter, pump elevation, and cooling coil diameter are all 1/10.85 of their dimensions in Tank 41H. The pump locations correspond to the proposed locations in Tank 41H by the SCIX program (Risers B5 and B2 for two pump configurations and Risers B5, B3, and B1 for three pump configurations). The conclusions from this work follow: (i) Neither two standard slurry pumps nor two quad volute slurry pumps will provide sufficient power to initially suspend MST in an SRS waste tank. (ii) Two Submersible Mixer Pumps (SMPs) will provide sufficient power to initially suspend MST in an SRS waste tank. However, the testing shows the required pump discharge velocity is close to the maximum discharge velocity of the pump (within 12%). (iii) Three SMPs will provide sufficient power to initially suspend MST in an SRS waste tank. The testing shows the required pump discharge velocity is 66% of the maximum discharge velocity of the pump. (iv) Three SMPs are needed to resuspend MST that has settled in a waste tank at nominal 45 C for four weeks. The testing shows the required pump discharge velocity is 77% of the maximum discharge velocity of the pump. Two SMPs are not sufficient to resuspend MST that settled under these

  11. Postactivation potentiation: effect of various recovery intervals on bench press power performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Sandra Lívia de Assis; Panissa, Valéria Leme Gonçalves; Miarka, Bianca; Franchini, Emerson

    2012-03-01

    Postactivation potentiation (PAP) is a strategy used to improve performance in power activities. The aim of this study was to determine if power during bench press exercise was increased when preceded by 1 repetition maximum (1RM) in the same exercise and to determine which time interval could optimize PAP response. For this, 11 healthy male subjects (age, 25 ± 4 years; height, 178 ± 6 cm; body mass, 74 ± 8 kg; bench press 1RM, 76 ± 19 kg) underwent 6 sessions. Two control sessions were conducted to determine both bench press 1RM and power (6 repetitions at 50% 1RM). The 4 experimental sessions were composed of a 1RM exercise followed by power sets with different recovery intervals (1, 3, 5, and 7 minutes), performed on different days, and determined randomly. Power values were measured via Peak Power equipment (Cefise, Nova Odessa, São Paulo, Brazil). The conditions were compared using an analysis of variance with repeated measures, followed by a Tukey test. The significance level was set at p bench press and that such a strategy could be applied as an interesting alternative to enhance the performance in tasks aimed at increasing upper-body power performance.

  12. Movement Features Which Describe the Flat Bench Press

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Król Henryk

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. In sport technique studies, motion features can be useful as they have a certain defined measure [1]. In this work, we examined the following three features: the structure of the movement (all the characteristics of the movement, the fluency of the movement, and the rhythm of the movement. The aim of the study was to determine the usefulness of the selected movement features in the evaluation of the flat bench press. The protocol of the study included a flat bench press with free weights and a “touch-and-go” technique. Material and methods. The study involved twenty healthy men; however, only two were selected for analysis. The first subject was a 25-year-old powerlifter (body mass = 95 kg; body height = 182 cm; 1-RM in flat bench press = 145 kg. The second one was a 25-year-old bodybuilder (body mass = 77 kg; body height = 175 cm; 1-RM in flat bench press = 100 kg. The subjects performed consecutive sets of a single repetition of flat bench pressing with an increasing load (70, 80, 90, and 100% 1-RM, with the anticipated maximum weight, until the completion of one repetition maximum. Multidimensional movement analysis was made with the measuring system Smart-E (BTS, Italy, which consisted of six infrared cameras (120 Hz and a wireless module to measure muscle bioelectric activity (Pocket EMG. Results. It was demonstrated that the internal structure of the bench press performed by the bodybuilder and the powerlifter was different. As the time-history of barbell kinematics (the acceleration-time curve showed, with increased loading of the barbell, the rhythm of the flat bench press changed, and the fluidity of the movement worsened.

  13. Grout Placement and Property Evaluation for Closing Hanford High-Level Waste Tanks - Scale-Up Testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LANGTON, CHRISTINE

    2003-01-01

    Hanford has 149 single-shell high level waste (HLW) tanks that were constructed between 1943 and 1964. Many of these tanks have leaked or are suspected of leaking HLW into the soil above the ground water. Consequently, a major effort is ongoing to transfer the liquid portion of the waste to the 28 newer, double-shell tanks. Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was tasked to develop grout formulations for the three-layer closure concept selected by CH2M HILL for closing Tank C-106. These grout formulations were also evaluated for use as fill materials in the next six tanks scheduled to be closed. The overall scope consisted of both bench-scale testing to confirm mix designs and scale-up testing to confirm placement properties. This report provides results of the scale-up testing for the three-phase tank closure strategy. It also contains information on grouts for equipment and riser filling. The three-phase fill strategy is summarized as follows: Phase I fill encapsulates and minimizes dispersion of the residual waste in the tank. This fill is referred to as the Stabilization Layer and consists of the Stabilization Grout. The Phase II fill provides structural stability to the tank system and prevents subsidence. It is referred to as the Structural Layer and consists of the Structural Grout. A final Phase III fill consists of a grout designed to provide protection against intrusion and is referred to as the Capping Layer or Capping Grout

  14. Comparison of muscle force production using the Smith machine and free weights for bench press and squat exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotterman, Michael L; Darby, Lynn A; Skelly, William A

    2005-02-01

    The Smith machine (SM) (vertical motion of bar on fixed path; fixed-form exercise) and free weights (FWs) (free-form path) are commonly used strength training modes. Exercisers may need to alternate between types of equipment, depending on testing, training, rehabilitation, and/or the exercisers' goals. The purposes of this study were to compare muscle force production for SM and FWs using a 1 repetition maximum (1RM) for the parallel back squat and supine bench press exercises and to predict the 1RM for one mode from 1RM on the other mode. Men (n = 16) and women (n = 16) alternately completed 1RM testing for squat and bench press using SM and FWs. Analyses of variance (type of equipment x sex) and linear regression models were calculated. A significant difference was found between bench press and squat 1RMs for each mode of equipment for all participants. The squat 1RM was greater for the SM than the FWs; conversely, the bench 1RM was greater for FWs than the SM. When sex was considered, bench 1RM for FWs was greater than SM for men and women. The squat 1RM was greater for SM than FWs for women only. The 1RM on one mode of equipment was the best predictor of 1RM for the other mode. For both sexes, the equation SM bench 1RM (in kilograms) = -6.76 + 0.95 (FW bench 1RM) can be used. For women only, SM squat 1RM (in kilograms) = 28.3 + 0.73 (FW squat 1RM). These findings provide equations for converting between SM and FW equipment for training.

  15. Stored energy analysis in the scaled-down test facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, Chengcheng; Chang, Huajian; Qin, Benke; Wu, Qiao

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Three methods are developed to evaluate stored energy in the scaled-down test facilities. • The mechanism behind stored energy distortion in the test facilities is revealed. • The application of stored energy analysis is demonstrated for the ACME facility of China. - Abstract: In the scaled-down test facilities that simulate the accident transient process of the prototype nuclear power plant, the stored energy release in the metal structures has an important influence on the accuracy and effectiveness of the experimental data. Three methods of stored energy analysis are developed, and the mechanism behind stored energy distortion in the test facilities is revealed. Moreover, the application of stored energy analysis is demonstrated for the ACME test facility newly built in China. The results show that the similarity requirements of three methods analyzing the stored energy release decrease gradually. The physical mechanism of stored energy release process can be characterized by the dimensionless numbers including Stanton number, Fourier number and Biot number. Under the premise of satisfying the overall similarity of natural circulation, the stored energy release process in the scale-down test facilities cannot maintain exact similarity. The results of the application of stored energy analysis illustrate that both the transient release process and integral total stored energy of the reactor pressure vessel wall of CAP1400 power plant can be well reproduced in the ACME test facility.

  16. The development of an integrated multistaged fluid-bed retorting process. Final report, September 1990--August 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, S.D.; Taulbee, D.N.; Stehn, J.L.; Vego, A.; Robl, T.L.

    1995-02-01

    This summarizes the development of the KENTORT II retorting process, which includes integral fluidized bed zones for pyrolysis, gasification, and combustion of oil shale. Purpose was to design and test the process at the 50-lb/hr scale. The program included bench- scale studies of coking and cracking reactions of shale oil vapors over processed shale particles to address issues of scaleup associated with solid-recycle retorting. The bench-scale studies showed that higher amounts of carbon coverage reduce the rate of subsequent carbon deposition by shale oil vapors onto processed shale particles; however carbon-covered materials were also active in terms of cracking and coking. Main focus was the 50-lb/hr KENTORT II PDU. Cold-flow modeling and shakedown were done before the PDU was made ready for operation. Seven mass-balanced, steady-state runs were completed within the window of design operating conditions. Goals were achieved: shale feedrate, run duration (10 hr), shale recirculation rates (4:1 to pyrolyzer and 10:1 to combustor), bed temperatures (pyrolyzer 530{degree}C, gasifier 750{degree}C, combustor 830{degree}C), and general operating stability. Highest oil yields (up to 109% of Fischer assay) were achieved for runs lasting {ge} 10 hours. High C content of the solids used for heat transfer to the pyrolysis zone contributed to the enhanced oil yield achieved.

  17. Development of Head-end Pyrochemical Reduction Process for Advanced Oxide Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, B. H.; Seo, C. S.; Hur, J. M.; Jeong, S. M.; Hong, S. S.; Choi, I. K.; Choung, W. M.; Kwon, K. C.; Lee, I. W. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-12-15

    The development of an electrolytic reduction technology for spent fuels in the form of oxide is of essence to introduce LWR SFs to a pyroprocessing. In this research, the technology was investigated to scale a reactor up, the electrochemical behaviors of FPs were studied to understand the process and a reaction rate data by using U{sub 3}O{sub 8} was obtained with a bench scale reactor. In a scale of 20 kgHM/batch reactor, U{sub 3}O{sub 8} and Simfuel were successfully reduced into metals. Electrochemical characteristics of LiBr, LiI and Li{sub 2}Se were measured in a bench scale reactor and an electrolytic reduction cell was modeled by a computational tool.

  18. Cost-benefit of bench terraces, a case study in Peru

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Posthumus, H.; Graaff, de J.

    2005-01-01

    Soil and water conservation measures like bench terraces can reduce erosion in highland crop production. A cost-benefit analysis for 11 cases of bench terraces was undertaken on the basis of both measured data and data obtained from farmers. It showed that the profitability of bench terraces was

  19. Evaluation of the Magnesium Hydroxide Treatment Process for Stabilizing PFP Plutonium/Nitric Acid Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerber, Mark A.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Silvers, Kurt L.; Baker, Aaron B.; Gano, Susan R.; Thornton, Brenda M.

    2000-09-28

    This document summarizes an evaluation of the magnesium hydroxide [Mg(OH)2] process to be used at the Hanford Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) for stabilizing plutonium/nitric acid solutions to meet the goal of stabilizing the plutonium in an oxide form suitable for storage under DOE-STD-3013-99. During the treatment process, nitric acid solutions bearing plutonium nitrate are neutralized with Mg(OH)2 in an air sparge reactor. The resulting slurry, containing plutonium hydroxide, is filtered and calcined. The process evaluation included a literature review and extensive laboratory- and bench-scale testing. The testing was conducted using cerium as a surrogate for plutonium to identify and quantify the effects of key processing variables on processing time (primarily neutralization and filtration time) and calcined product properties.

  20. Comparative Performance of Rear Facing Child Restraint Systems on the CMVSS 213 Bench and Vehicle Seats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tylko, Suzanne; Locey, Caitlin M.; Garcia-Espana, J. Felipe; Arbogast, Kristy B.; Maltese, Matthew R.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the dynamic response of rear-facing child restraint systems (RFCRS) installed on the CMVSS 213 sled bench and a selection of vehicle seats. Thirty-six sled tests were conducted: three models of rear facing CRS with an anthropomorphic test device (ATD) representing a 12 month old child (CRABI) were affixed via lower anchors (LATCH), 3 point belt without CRS base, and 3 point belt with CRS base to one of three vehicle seats or the CMVSS 213 bench seat. All CRS were subjected to an identical sled acceleration pulse. Two types of matched pair analysis: “bench-to-vehicle” and “method of attachment” were conducted. Statistically significant differences were observed in the kinematic responses of the ATD and the CRS. This is the first study to quantify differences between the regulatory bench and vehicle seats on a system level and evaluate the influence of attachment method. Our results show that the difference in RFCRS forward excursion between 3-point belt with base and LATCH installations was between 1 and 7 percent on the bench and 22 to 76 percent on the vehicle seats. When evaluating the dynamic performance of RFCRS, the use of real vehicle seats from vehicles that commonly carry children may provide valuable insight. The findings would require further confirmation using a broader selection of RFCRS and vehicle seats, before generalizable conclusions can be drawn. PMID:24406967

  1. Muscle synergies during bench press are reliable across days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristiansen, Mathias; Samani, Afshin; Madeleine, Pascal; Hansen, Ernst Albin

    2016-10-01

    Muscle synergies have been investigated during different types of human movement using nonnegative matrix factorization. However, there are not any reports available on the reliability of the method. To evaluate between-day reliability, 21 subjects performed bench press, in two test sessions separated by approximately 7days. The movement consisted of 3 sets of 8 repetitions at 60% of the three repetition maximum in bench press. Muscle synergies were extracted from electromyography data of 13 muscles, using nonnegative matrix factorization. To evaluate between-day reliability, we performed a cross-correlation analysis and a cross-validation analysis, in which the synergy components extracted in the first test session were recomputed, using the fixed synergy components from the second test session. Two muscle synergies accounted for >90% of the total variance, and reflected the concentric and eccentric phase, respectively. The cross-correlation values were strong to very strong (r-values between 0.58 and 0.89), while the cross-validation values ranged from substantial to almost perfect (ICC3, 1 values between 0.70 and 0.95). The present findings revealed that the same general structure of the muscle synergies was present across days and the extraction of muscle synergies is thus deemed reliable. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The effects of combined elastic- and free-weight tension vs. free-weight tension on one-repetition maximum strength in the bench press.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellar, David M; Muller, Matthew D; Barkley, Jacob E; Kim, Chul-Ho; Ida, Keisuke; Ryan, Edward J; Bliss, Mathew V; Glickman, Ellen L

    2011-02-01

    The present study investigated the effects of training combining elastic tension, free weights, and the bench press. Eleven college-aged men (untrained) in the bench press participated in the 13-week study. The participants were first given instructions and then practiced the bench press, followed by a one-repetition maximum (1RM) test of baseline strength. Subjects were then trained in the bench press for 3 weeks to allow for the beginning of neural adaptation. After another 1RM test, participants were assigned to 1 of 2 conditions for the next 3 weeks of training: 85% Free-Weight Tension, 15% Elastic Tension (BAND), or 100% Free-Weight Tension (STAND). After 3 weeks of training and a third 1RM max test, participants switched treatments, under which they completed the final 3 weeks of training and the fourth 1RM test. Analysis via analysis of covariance revealed a significant (p ≤ 0.05) main effect for time and interaction effect for Treatment (BAND vs. STAND). Subsequent analysis via paired-samples t-test revealed the BAND condition was significantly better (p = 0.05) at producing raw gains in 1RM strength. (BAND 9.95 ± 3.7 kg vs. STAND 7.56 ± 2.8 kg). These results suggest that the addition of elastic tension to the bench press may be an effective method of increasing strength.

  3. Tecnored process - high potential in using different kinds of solid fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Henrique Noldin Júnior

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available One important feature of the Brazilian Tecnored ironmaking process is its flexibility to use different types of solid fuels, other than metallurgical coke, as proved in the pilot plant tests by extensively using green petroleum coke, biomasses, high ash cokes, etc. Even if new solid fuels not thus far used are envisaged for a given project, thru the bench scale simulator of the process it is possible to predict the behavior of such solid fuels in the Tecnored furnace and establish the best techno-economical-environmental equation for its use. This paper discusses the key aspects involved in the use of alternative solid fuels in the Tecnored process.

  4. Modeling of hydrologic conditions and solute movement in processed oil shale waste embankments under simulated climatic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, J.P.; Reeves, T.L.; Skinner, Q.D.; Hasfurther, V.

    1992-11-01

    The scope of the original research program and of its continuation is to study interacting hydrologic, geotechnical, and chemical factors affecting the behavior and disposal of combusted processed oil shale. The research combines bench-scale testing with large-scale testing sufficient to describe commercial-scale embankment behavior. The large-scale testing was accomplished by constructing five lysimeters, each 7.3x3.0x3.0 m deep, filled with processed oil shale that has been retorted and combusted by the Lurgi-Ruhrgas (Lurgi) process (Schmalfield 1975). Approximately 400 tons of Lurgi processed oil shale waste was provided by Rio Blanco Oil Shale Co., Inc. to carry out this study. Three of the lysimeters were established at the RBOSC Tract C-a in the Piceance Basin near Rifle, Colorado. Two lysimeters were established in the Environmental Simulation Laboratory (ESL) at UW. The ESL was specifically designed and constructed so that a large range of climatic conditions could be physically applied to the processed oil shale which was placed in the lysimeter cells. This report discusses and summarizes results from scientific efforts conducted between October 1991 and September 1992 for Fiscal Year 1992

  5. The national hydrologic bench-mark network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, Ernest D.; Biesecker, J.E.

    1971-01-01

    The United States is undergoing a dramatic growth of population and demands on its natural resources. The effects are widespread and often produce significant alterations of the environment. The hydrologic bench-mark network was established to provide data on stream basins which are little affected by these changes. The network is made up of selected stream basins which are not expected to be significantly altered by man. Data obtained from these basins can be used to document natural changes in hydrologic characteristics with time, to provide a better understanding of the hydrologic structure of natural basins, and to provide a comparative base for studying the effects of man on the hydrologic environment. There are 57 bench-mark basins in 37 States. These basins are in areas having a wide variety of climate and topography. The bench-mark basins and the types of data collected in the basins are described.

  6. Validity of a Commercial Linear Encoder to Estimate Bench Press 1 RM from the Force-Velocity Relationship

    OpenAIRE

    Bosquet, Laurent; Porta-Benache, Jeremy; Blais, Jérôme

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the validity and accuracy of a commercial linear encoder (Musclelab, Ergotest, Norway) to estimate Bench press 1 repetition maximum (1RM) from the force - velocity relationship. Twenty seven physical education students and teachers (5 women and 22 men) with a heterogeneous history of strength training participated in this study. They performed a 1 RM test and a force - velocity test using a Bench press lifting task in a random order. Mean 1 RM was 61.8 ± 15...

  7. Assistance in MSD Research and Development: Part 1, Small scale research, development and testing: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worsey, P.N.; Canon, C.

    1988-03-01

    The development and testing of a simple mechanical stemming aid is described. The aid comprises a solid unit placed in the stemming above the explosive column and is designed to improve blasting efficiency and reduce drilling and blasting costs. It is designed to work with back filled drill cuttings or any other suitable stemming material. To date it has consisted of the testing of the aid in small diameter (1.5 and 1.625 inch) holes in Jefferson City Dolomite for both bench and crater blasting configurations. Full scale field trials are being conducted nearby in similar rock in an aggregate quarry. The data acquisition equipment used in Phase 1 included both a Spin Physics SP2000 high speed video motion analysis system and acoustic and seismic monitoring units. Measurements for each test included peak air over pressure, ground surface ppv, stemming displacement and velocity and face movement and extent. The results illustrate that the concept is sound and that its successful application to production blasting at full scale will be a function of manufacturing cost, the development of suitable insertion techniques for large diameter boreholes and the selection of a suitable low cost material for the aid. 17 refs., 20 figs.

  8. Comparative Study of Laboratory-Scale and Prototypic Production-Scale Fuel Fabrication Processes and Product Characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, Douglas W.

    2014-01-01

    An objective of the High Temperature Gas Reactor fuel development and qualification program for the United States Department of Energy has been to qualify fuel fabricated in prototypic production-scale equipment. The quality and characteristics of the tristructural isotropic (TRISO) coatings on fuel kernels are influenced by the equipment scale and processing parameters. The standard deviations of some TRISO layer characteristics were diminished while others have become more significant in the larger processing equipment. The impact on statistical variability of the processes and the products, as equipment was scaled, are discussed. The prototypic production-scale processes produce test fuels meeting all fuel quality specifications. (author)

  9. Stored energy analysis in scale-down test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Chengcheng; Qin Benke; Fang Fangfang; Chang Huajian; Ye Zishen

    2013-01-01

    In the integral test facilities that simulate the accident transient process of the prototype nuclear power plant, the stored energy in the metal components has a direct influence on the simulation range and the test results of the facilities. Based on the heat transfer theory, three methods analyzing the stored energy were developed, and a thorough study on the stored energy problem in the scale-down test facilities was further carried out. The lumped parameter method and power integration method were applied to analyze the transient process of energy releasing and to evaluate the average total energy stored in the reactor pressure vessel of the ACME (advanced core-cooling mechanism experiment) facility, which is now being built in China. The results show that the similarity requirements for such three methods to analyze the stored energy in the test facilities are reduced gradually. Under the condition of satisfying the integral similarity of natural circulation, the stored energy releasing process in the scale-down test facilities can't maintain exact similarity. The stored energy in the reactor pressure vessel wall of ACME, which is released quickly during the early stage of rapid depressurization of system, will not make a major impact on the long-term behavior of system. And the scaling distortion of integral average total energy of the stored heat is acceptable. (authors)

  10. CRUCIBLE TESTING OF TANK 48H RADIOACTIVE WASTE SAMPLE USING FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING TECHNOLOGY FOR ORGANIC DESTRUCTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, C

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of crucible scale testing with actual radioactive Tank 48H material was to duplicate the test results that had been previously performed on simulant Tank 48H material. The earlier crucible scale testing using simulants was successful in demonstrating that bench scale crucible tests produce results that are indicative of actual Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) pilot scale tests. Thus, comparison of the results using radioactive Tank 48H feed to those reported earlier with simulants would then provide proof that the radioactive tank waste behaves in a similar manner to the simulant. Demonstration of similar behavior for the actual radioactive Tank 48H slurry to the simulant is important as a preliminary or preparation step for the more complex bench-scale steam reformer unit that is planned for radioactive application in the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Shielded Cells Facility (SCF) later in 2008. The goals of this crucible-scale testing were to show 99% destruction of tetraphenylborate and to demonstrate that the final solid product produced is sodium carbonate. Testing protocol was repeated using the specifications of earlier simulant crucible scale testing, that is sealed high purity alumina crucibles containing a pre-carbonated and evaporated Tank 48H material. Sealing of the crucibles was accomplished by using an inorganic 'nepheline' sealant. The sealed crucibles were heat-treated at 650 C under constant argon flow to inert the system. Final product REDOX measurements were performed to establish the REDuction/OXidation (REDOX) state of known amounts of added iron species in the final product. These REDOX measurements confirm the processing conditions (pyrolysis occurring at low oxygen fugacity) of the sealed crucible environment which is the environment actually achieved in the fluidized bed steam reformer process. Solid product dissolution in water was used to measure soluble cations and anions, and to investigate insoluble

  11. Evaluation of the Small-Tank Tetraphenylborate Process Using a Bench-Scale, 20-L Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor System at Oak Ridge National Laboratory: Results of Test 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D.D.

    2001-01-01

    The goal of the Savannah River Salt Waste Processing Program (SPP) is to evaluate the presently available technologies and select the most effective approach for treatment of high-level waste salt solutions currently stored in underground tanks at the U.S. Department of Energy's Savannah River Site in Aiken, South Carolina. One of the three technologies currently being developed for this application is the Small-Tank Tetraphenylborate Process (STTP). This process uses sodium tetraphenylborate (TPB) to precipitate and remove radioactive cesium from the waste and monosodium titanate (MST) to sorb and remove radioactive strontium and actinides. Oak Ridge National Laboratory is demonstrating this process at the 1:4000 scale using a 20-L-capacity continuous-flow stirred-tank reactor (CSTR) system. Since March 1999, five operating campaigns of the 20-L CSTR have been conducted. The ultimate goal is to verify that this process, under certain extremes of operating conditions, can meet the minimum treatment criteria necessary for processing and disposing of the salt waste at the Savannah River Saltstone Facility. The waste acceptance criteria (WAC) for 137 Cs, 90 Sr, and total alpha nuclides are 137 Cs and 90 Sr are to obtain decontamination factors (DFs) of 40,000 (99.998% removal) and 26 (96.15% removal), respectively. (DF is mathematically defined as the concentration of contaminant in the waste feed divided by the concentration of contaminant in the effluent stream.)

  12. Validity and reliability of a novel iPhone app for the measurement of barbell velocity and 1RM on the bench-press exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Balsalobre Fernández, Carlos; Marchante Domingo, David; Muñoz López, Mario; Jiménez Sáiz, Sergio Lorenzo

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse the validity and reliability of a novel iPhone app (named: PowerLift) for the measurement of mean velocity on the bench-press exercise. Additionally, the accuracy of the estimation of the 1-Repetition maximum (1RM) using the load-velocity relationship was tested. To do this, 10 powerlifters (Mean (SD): age = 26.5 ± 6.5 years; bench press 1RM · kg-1 = 1.34 ± 0.25) completed an incremental test on the bench-press exercise with 5 different loads (75-100% ...

  13. Development of the fluidized bed thermal treatment process for treating mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semones, G.B.; Williams, P.M.; Stiefvater, S.P.; Mitchell, D.L.; Roecker, B.D.

    1993-01-01

    A fluidized bed system is being developed at Rocky Flats for the treatment of mixed waste (a mixture of radioactive and chemically hazardous waste). The current program builds on experience gained in the 1970's and 1980's in tests with bench-scale, pilot-scale, and demonstration-scale fluidized bed systems. The system operates at low temperatures (∼ 525--600 degree C) which eliminates many of the disadvantages associated with high temperature thermal treatment processes. The process has shown the ability to destroy polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) with 99.9999% (''six-nines'') destruction efficiency in tests monitored by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The bed makes use of in situ neutralization of acidic off-gases by incorporating sodium carbonate (Na 2 CO 3 ) in the bed media. This eliminates using wet scrubbers to treat the off-gas; these produce a high volume of secondary waste. Once in operation, it is expected that the fluidized bed process will yield up to a 40:1 reduction in the volume of the waste

  14. Development of a Novel Gas Pressurized Stripping Process-Based Technology for CO₂ Capture from Post-Combustion Flue Gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Shiaoguo

    2015-09-30

    A novel Gas Pressurized Stripping (GPS) post-combustion carbon capture (PCC) process has been developed by Carbon Capture Scientific, LLC, CONSOL Energy Inc., Nexant Inc., and Western Kentucky University in this bench-scale project. The GPS-based process presents a unique approach that uses a gas pressurized technology for CO₂ stripping at an elevated pressure to overcome the energy use and other disadvantages associated with the benchmark monoethanolamine (MEA) process. The project was aimed at performing laboratory- and bench-scale experiments to prove its technical feasibility and generate process engineering and scale-up data, and conducting a techno-economic analysis (TEA) to demonstrate its energy use and cost competitiveness over the MEA process. To meet project goals and objectives, a combination of experimental work, process simulation, and technical and economic analysis studies were applied. The project conducted individual unit lab-scale tests for major process components, including a first absorption column, a GPS column, a second absorption column, and a flasher. Computer simulations were carried out to study the GPS column behavior under different operating conditions, to optimize the column design and operation, and to optimize the GPS process for an existing and a new power plant. The vapor-liquid equilibrium data under high loading and high temperature for the selected amines were also measured. The thermal and oxidative stability of the selected solvents were also tested experimentally and presented. A bench-scale column-based unit capable of achieving at least 90% CO₂ capture from a nominal 500 SLPM coal-derived flue gas slipstream was designed and built. This integrated, continuous, skid-mounted GPS system was tested using real flue gas from a coal-fired boiler at the National Carbon Capture Center (NCCC). The technical challenges of the GPS technology in stability, corrosion, and foaming of selected solvents, and environmental, health and

  15. Test design requirements: Canister-scale heater test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schauer, M.I.; Craig, P.A.; Stickney, R.G.

    1986-03-01

    This document establishes the Test Design Requirements for the design of a canister scale heater test to be performed in the Exploratory Shaft test facility. The purpose of the test is to obtain thermomechanical rock mass response data for use in validation of the numerical models. The canister scale heater test is a full scale simulation of a high-level nuclear waste container in a prototypic emplacement borehole. Electric heaters are used to simulate the heat loads expected in an actual waste container. This document presents an overview of the test including objectives and justification for the test. A description of the test as it is presently envisioned is included. Discussions on Quality Assurance and Safety are also included in the document. 12 refs., 1 fig

  16. Test program of the drop tests with full scale and 1/2.5 scale models of spent nuclear fuel transport and storage cask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuri, S.; Matsuoka, T.; Kishimoto, J.; Ishiko, D.; Saito, Y.; Kimura, T.

    2004-01-01

    MHI have been developing 5 types of spent nuclear fuel transport and storage cask (MSF cask fleet) as a cask line-up. In order to demonstrate their safety, a representative cask model for the cask fleet have been designed for drop test regulated in IAEA TS-R-1. The drop test with a full and a 1/2.5 scale models are to be performed. It describes the test program of the drop test and manufacturing process of the scale models used for the tests

  17. Development of upgraded brown coal process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komatsu, N.; Sugita, S.; Deguchi, T.; Shigehisa, T.; Makino, E. [Kobe Steel Ltd., Hyogo (Japan). Coal and Energy Project Department

    2004-07-01

    Half of the world's coal resources are so-called low rank coal (LRC) such as lignite, subbituminous coal. Utilization of such coal is limited due to low heat value and high propensity of spontaneous combustion. Since some of LRCs have advantages as clean coal, i.e. low ash and low sulfur content, LRC can be the excellent feedstock for power generation and metallurgy depending on the upgrading technology. The UBC (upgraded brown coal) process introduced here converts LRC to solid fuel with high heat value and less propensity of self-heating. Various world coals, such as Australian, Indonesian and USA LRC, were tested using the Autoclave and Bench Scale Unit, and the process application to LRC of wide range is proven. The R & D activities of the UBC process are introduced including a demonstration project with a 5 ton/day test plant in progress in Indonesia, expecting near future commercialisation in order to utilize abundant LRC of clean properties. 8 refs., 12 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Treatment of reactive process wastewater with high-level ammonia by blow-off method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xiaotong; Quan Ying; Wang Yang; Fu Genna; Liu Bing; Tang Yaping

    2012-01-01

    The ceramic UO 2 kernels for nuclear fuel elements of high temperature gas cooled reactors were prepared through sol-gel process with uranyl nitrate, which produces process wastewater containing high-level ammonia and uranium. The blow-off method on a bench scale was investigated to remove ammonia from reactive wastewater. Under the optimized operating conditions, the ammonia can be removed by more than 95%, with little reactive uranium distilled. The effects of pH, heating temperature and stripping time were studied. Static tests with ion-exchange resin indicate that ammonia removal treatment increases uranium accumulation in anion exchange resin. (authors)

  19. The Effects of Bench Press Variations in Competitive Athletes on Muscle Activity and Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeterbakken, Atle Hole; Mo, Dag-André; Scott, Suzanne; Andersen, Vidar

    2017-06-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the EMG activity performing 6RM competition style bench press (flat bench-wide grip) with 1) medium and narrow grip widths on a flat bench and 1) inclined and declined bench positions with a wide grip. Twelve bench press athletes competing at national and international level participated in the study. EMG activity was measured in the pectoralis major, anterior and posterior deltoid, biceps brachii, triceps brachii and latissimus dorsi. Non-significant differences in activation were observed between the three bench positions with the exception of 58.5-62.6% lower triceps brachii activation, but 48.3-68.7% greater biceps brachii activation in the inclined bench compared with the flat and declined bench position. Comparing the three grip widths, non-significant differences in activations were observed, with the exception of 25.9-30.5% lower EMG activity in the biceps brachii using a narrow grip, compared to the medium and wide grip conditions. The 6-RM loads were 5.8-11.1% greater using a medium and wide grip compared to narrow grip width and 18.5-21.5% lower in the inclined bench position compared with flat and declined. Comparing the EMG activity during the competition bench press style with either the inclined and declined bench position (wide grip) or using a narrow and medium grip (flat bench), only resulted in different EMG activity in the biceps- and triceps brachii. The 6RM loads varied with each bench press variation and we recommend the use of a wide grip on a flat bench during high load hypertrophy training to bench press athletes.

  20. Calibration bench of flowmeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bremond, J.; Da Costa, D.; Calvet, A.; Vieuxmaire, C.

    1966-01-01

    This equipment is devoted to the comparison of signals from two turbines installed in the Cabri experimental loop. The signal is compared to the standard turbine. The characteristics and the performance of the calibration bench are presented. (A.L.B.)

  1. Test Plan for Cask Identification Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rauch, Eric Benton [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-29

    This document serves to outline the testing of a Used Fuel Cask Identification Detector (CID) currently being designed under the DOE-NE MPACT Campaign. A bench-scale prototype detector will be constructed and tested using surrogate neutron sources. The testing will serve to inform the design of the full detector that is to be used as a way of fingerprinting used fuel storage casks based on the neutron signature produced by the used fuel inside the cask.

  2. New treatment facility for low level process effluents at the Savannah River site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebra, M.A.; Bibler, J.P.; Johnston, B.S.; Kilpatrick, L.L.; Poy, F.L.; Wallace, R.M.

    1987-01-01

    A new facility, the F/H Effluent Treatment Facility (F/H ETF) is under construction at the Savannah River site. It will decontaminate process effluents containing low levels of radionuclides and hazardous chemicals prior to discharge to a surface stream. These effluents, which are currently discharged to seepage basins, originate in the chemical separations and high-level radioactive waste processing areas, known as F-Area and H-Area. The new facility will allow closure of the basins in order to meet the provisions of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act by November 1988. A high degree of reliability is expected from this design as a result of extensive process development work that has been conducted at the Savannah River Laboratory. This work has included both bench scale testing of individual unit operations and pilot scale testing of an integrated facility, 150 to 285 L/min (40 to 75 gpm), that contains the major operations

  3. SP2Bench: A SPARQL Performance Benchmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Michael; Hornung, Thomas; Meier, Michael; Pinkel, Christoph; Lausen, Georg

    A meaningful analysis and comparison of both existing storage schemes for RDF data and evaluation approaches for SPARQL queries necessitates a comprehensive and universal benchmark platform. We present SP2Bench, a publicly available, language-specific performance benchmark for the SPARQL query language. SP2Bench is settled in the DBLP scenario and comprises a data generator for creating arbitrarily large DBLP-like documents and a set of carefully designed benchmark queries. The generated documents mirror vital key characteristics and social-world distributions encountered in the original DBLP data set, while the queries implement meaningful requests on top of this data, covering a variety of SPARQL operator constellations and RDF access patterns. In this chapter, we discuss requirements and desiderata for SPARQL benchmarks and present the SP2Bench framework, including its data generator, benchmark queries and performance metrics.

  4. 1/3-scale model testing program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimura, H.R.; Attaway, S.W.; Bronowski, D.R.; Uncapher, W.L.; Huerta, M.; Abbott, D.G.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the drop testing of a one-third scale model transport cask system. Two casks were supplied by Transnuclear, Inc. (TN) to demonstrate dual purpose shipping/storage casks. These casks will be used to ship spent fuel from DOEs West Valley demonstration project in New York to the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) for long term spent fuel dry storage demonstration. As part of the certification process, one-third scale model tests were performed to obtain experimental data. Two 9-m (30-ft) drop tests were conducted on a mass model of the cask body and scaled balsa and redwood filled impact limiters. In the first test, the cask system was tested in an end-on configuration. In the second test, the system was tested in a slap-down configuration where the axis of the cask was oriented at a 10 degree angle with the horizontal. Slap-down occurs for shallow angle drops where the primary impact at one end of the cask is followed by a secondary impact at the other end. The objectives of the testing program were to (1) obtain deceleration and displacement information for the cask and impact limiter system, (2) obtain dynamic force-displacement data for the impact limiters, (3) verify the integrity of the impact limiter retention system, and (4) examine the crush behavior of the limiters. This paper describes both test results in terms of measured deceleration, post test deformation measurements, and the general structural response of the system

  5. Radioactive Demonstration of Caustic Recovery from Low-Level Alkaline Nuclear Waste by an Electrochemical Separation Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobbs, D.T.

    1998-04-01

    Bench-scale radioactive tests successfully demonstrated an electrochemical process for the recovery of sodium hydroxide (caustic) from Decontaminated Salt Solution produced from the In-Tank Precipitation and Effluent Treatment Processes at the Savannah River Site (SRS). This testing evaluated two membranes: an organic-based membrane, Nafion Type 350, manufactured by E. I. duPont de Nemours ampersand Company, Inc. (DuPont) and an inorganic-based membrane, NAS D, being developed by Ceramatec. Both membranes successfully separated caustic from radioactive SRS waste.Key findings of the testing indicate the following attributes and disadvantages of each membrane. The commercially-available Nafion membrane proved highly conductive. Thus, the electrochemical cell can operate at high current density minimizing the number of cells at the desired volumetric processing rate. Testing indicated cesium transported across the Nafion membrane into the caustic product. Therefore, the caustic product will contain low-levels of radioactive cesium due to the presence of 134,137 Cs in the waste feed. To meet customer requirements, a post treatment stage may prove necessary to remove radioactive cesium resulting in increased overall process costs and decreased cost savings. In contrast to the Nafion membrane, the NAS D membrane demonstrated the production of caustic with much lower levels of gamma radioactivity ( 137 Cs activity was < 51 dpm/g). Therefore, the caustic product could possibly release for onsite/offsite use without further treatment. The NAS D membrane remains in the development stage and does not exist as a commercial product. Operating costs and long-term membrane durability remain unknown.Caustic recovery has been successfully demonstrated in a bench-scale, 2-compartment electrochemical reactor operated for brief periods of time with simulated and radioactive waste solutions and two different types of membranes. The next phase of testing should be directed at (1

  6. Bench-scale study of the effect of phosphate on an aerobic iron oxidation plant for mine water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tischler, Judith S; Wiacek, Claudia; Janneck, Eberhard; Schlömann, Michael

    2014-01-01

    At the opencast pit Nochten acidic iron- and sulfate-rich mine waters are treated biotechnologically in a mine-water treatment plant by microbial iron oxidation. Due to the low phosphate concentration in such waters the treatment plant was simulated in bench-scale to investigate the influence of addition of potassium dihydrogen phosphate on chemical and biological parameters of the mine-water treatment. As a result of the phosphate addition the number of cells increased, which resulted in an increase of the iron oxidation rate in the reactor with phosphate addition by a factor of 1.7 compared to a reference approach without phosphate addition. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis during the cultivation revealed a shift of the microbial community depending on the phosphate addition. While almost exclusively iron-oxidizing bacteria related to "Ferrovum" sp. were detected with phosphate addition, the microbial community was more diverse without phosphate addition. In the latter case, iron-oxidizing bacteria ("Ferrovum" sp., Acidithiobacillus spp.) as well as non-iron-oxidizing bacteria (Acidiphilium sp.) were identified. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Electromyographic activity and 6RM strength in bench press on stable and unstable surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeterbakken, Atle H; Fimland, Marius S

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare 6-repetition maximum (6RM) loads and muscle activity in bench press on 3 surfaces, namely, stable bench, balance cushion, and Swiss ball. Sixteen healthy, resistance-trained men (age 22.5 ± 2.0 years, stature 1.82 ± 6.6 m, and body mass 82.0 ± 7.8 kg) volunteered for 3 habituation/strength testing sessions and 1 experimental session. In randomized order on the 3 surfaces, 6RM strength and electromyographic activity of pectoralis major, deltoid anterior, biceps brachii, triceps brachii, rectus abdominis, oblique external and erector spinae were assessed. Relative to stable bench, the 6RM strength was approximately 93% for balance cushion (p ≤ 0.001) and approximately 92% for Swiss ball (p = 0.008); the pectoralis major electromyographic (EMG) activity was approximately 90% using the balance cushion (p = 0.080) and approximately 81% using Swiss ball (p = 0.006); the triceps EMG was approximately 79% using the balance cushion (p = 0.028) and approximately 69% using the Swiss ball (p = 0.002). Relative to balance cushion, the EMG activity in pectoralis, triceps, and erector spinae using Swiss ball was approximately 89% (p = 0.016), approximately 88% (p = 0.014) and approximately 80% (p = 0.020), respectively. In rectus abdominis, the EMG activity relative to Swiss ball was approximately 69% using stable bench (p = 0.042) and approximately 65% using the balance cushion (p = 0.046). Similar EMG activities between stable and unstable surfaces were observed for deltoid anterior, biceps brachii, and oblique external. In conclusion, stable bench press had greater 6RM strength and triceps and pectoralis EMG activity compared with the unstable surfaces. These findings have implications for athletic training and rehabilitation, because they demonstrate an inferior effect of unstable surfaces on muscle activation of prime movers and strength in bench press. If an unstable surface in bench press is desirable, a balance cushion should

  8. Silver removal process development for the MEO cleanout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, P.C.; Chiba, Z.; Schumacher, B.J.; Murguia, L.C.; Adamson, M.G.

    1996-02-01

    The Mediated Electrochemical Oxidation (MEO) system is an aqueous process which treats low-level mixed wastes by oxidizing the organic components of he waste into carbon dioxide and water. As MEO system continues to run, dissolved ash and radionuclides slowly accumulate in the anolyte and must be removed to maintain process efficiency. At such time, all of the anolyte is pumped into a still feed tank, and the silver ions need to be removed before sending the solution to a thin-film evaporator for further concentration. The efficiency of removing silver ions in the solution needs to be high enough such that the residual silver sent to Final Forms would be less than 1% wt. The purpose of this work is to develop an efficient process to remove silver ions during the MEO cleanout and to demonstrate the capability of centrifugation for separating small silver chloride particles from the solution. This development work includes lab scale experiments and bench scale tests. This report summarizes the results

  9. Minimum scale controlled topology optimization and experimental test of a micro thermal actuator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heo, S.; Yoon, Gil Ho; Kim, Y.Y.

    2008-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the optimal topology design, fabrication and test of a micro thermal actuator. Because the minimum scale was controlled during the design optimization process, the production yield rate of the actuator was improved considerably; alternatively, the optimization design ...... tested. The test showed that control over the minimum length scale in the design process greatly improves the yield rate and reduces the performance deviation....... without scale control resulted in a very low yield rate. Using the minimum scale controlling topology design method developed earlier by the authors, micro thermal actuators were designed and fabricated through a MEMS process. Moreover, both their performance and production yield were experimentally...

  10. Design guidelines for high dimensional stability of CFRP optical bench

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desnoyers, Nichola; Boucher, Marc-André; Goyette, Philippe

    2013-09-01

    In carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) optomechanical structures, particularly when embodying reflective optics, angular stability is critical. Angular stability or warping stability is greatly affected by moisture absorption and thermal gradients. Unfortunately, it is impossible to achieve the perfect laminate and there will always be manufacturing errors in trying to reach a quasi-iso laminate. Some errors, such as those related to the angular position of each ply and the facesheet parallelism (for a bench) can be easily monitored in order to control the stability more adequately. This paper presents warping experiments and finite-element analyses (FEA) obtained from typical optomechanical sandwich structures. Experiments were done using a thermal vacuum chamber to cycle the structures from -40°C to 50°C. Moisture desorption tests were also performed for a number of specific configurations. The selected composite material for the study is the unidirectional prepreg from Tencate M55J/TC410. M55J is a high modulus fiber and TC410 is a new-generation cyanate ester designed for dimensionally stable optical benches. In the studied cases, the main contributors were found to be: the ply angular errors, laminate in-plane parallelism (between 0° ply direction of both facesheets), fiber volume fraction tolerance and joints. Final results show that some tested configurations demonstrated good warping stability. FEA and measurements are in good agreement despite the fact that some defects or fabrication errors remain unpredictable. Design guidelines to maximize the warping stability by taking into account the main dimensional stability contributors, the bench geometry and the optical mount interface are then proposed.

  11. Research on signal processing of shock absorber test bench based on zero-phase filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yi; Ding, Guoqing

    2017-10-01

    The quality of force-displacement diagram is significant to help evaluate the performance of shock absorbers. Damping force sampling data is often interfered by Gauss white noise, 50Hz power interference and its harmonic wave during the process of testing; data de-noising has become the core problem of drawing true, accurate and real-time indicator diagram. The noise and interference can be filtered out through generic IIR or FIR low-pass filter, but addition phase lag of useful signal will be caused due to the inherent attribute of IIR and FIR filter. The paper uses FRR method to realize zero-phase digital filtering in a software way based on mutual cancellation of phase lag between the forward and reverse sequences after through the filter. High-frequency interference above 40Hz are filtered out completely and noise attenuation is more than -40dB, with no additional phase lag. The method is able to restore the true signal as far as possible. Theoretical simulation and practical test indicate high-frequency noises have been effectively inhibited in multiple typical speed cases, signal-to-noise ratio being greatly improved; the curve in indicator diagram has better smoothness and fidelity. The FRR algorithm has low computational complexity, fast running time, and can be easily transplanted in multiple platforms.

  12. Development of the chemical stabilization and solidification process for the treatment of radioactive raffinate sludges at the DOE Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, P.M.; Kakaria, V.; Enger, J.

    1996-01-01

    Chemical Solidification and Stabilization (CSS) is the mixing of chemical reagents with waste to solidify and chemically stabilize the contaminated material. The resulting product is resistant to leaching of certain contaminants. CSS treatment using Class C fly ash and Portland cement was chosen as the most feasible method for treatment of the chemically and radioactively contaminated sludge (raffinate) contained in raffinate pits on the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP) located outside of St. Louis, Missouri. Due to the uniqueness of the material, substantial bench-scale testing was performed on the raffinate to better understand its properties. Similarly, due to mixed results in the application of CSS treatment to radioactive materials, a pilot-scale testing facility was built to verify bench testing results and to establish and quantify design parameters for the full-scale CSS production facility. This paper discusses the development of the pilot-scale testing facility, the testing plan, and the results of the testing activities. Particular attention has been given to the applicability of the CSS treatment method and to the value of pilot-scale testing

  13. Shell launches its Claus off-gas desulfurization process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groenendaal, W; van Meurs, H C.A.

    1972-01-01

    The Shell Flue Gas Desulfurization (SFGD) Process was developed for removal of sulfur oxides from flue gases originating from oil-fired boilers or furnaces. It can also be used to remove sulfur dioxide from Claus sulfur recovery tail gases if they are combined with boiler/furnace flue gases. For Claus tail gas only, the Shell Claus off-gas desulfurization process was developed. Claus unit operation and desulfurization by low temperature Claus processes and conversion/concentration processes are discussed. The new Shell process consists of a conversion/concentration process involving a reduction section and an amine absorption section. In the reduction section, all sulfur compounds and free sulfur are completely reduced to hydrogen sulfide with hydrogen, or hydrogen plus carbon monoxide, over a cobalt/molybdenum-on-alumina catalyst at a temperature of about 300/sup 0/C. Extensive bench scale studies on the reduction system have been carried out. A life test of more than 4000 hr showed a stable activity of the reduction catalyst, which means that in commercial units, very long catalyst lives can be expected. The commercial feasibility of the reduction section was further demonstrated in the Godorf refinery of Deutsche Shell AG. More than 80 absorption units using alkanolamine (AIDP) solutions have been installed. Bench scale studies of the ADIP absorption units were compared to commercial experience.The total capital investment of the new Shell process is 0.7, 2.0, and 3.2 $ times 10 to the 6th power for 100, 500, and 1000 tons of sulfur/sd capacity Claus units, respectively. The total operating costs for these units are, respectively, 610, 1930 and 3310 $/stream day. The capital investment corresponds to about 75% of the capital investment of the preceding Claus unit.

  14. Hydrogen production via catalytic processing of renewable feedstocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazim Muradov; Franklyn Smith; Ali T-Raissi

    2006-01-01

    Landfill gas (LFG) and biogas can potentially become important feedstocks for renewable hydrogen production. The objectives of this work were: (1) to develop a catalytic process for direct reforming of CH 4 -CO 2 gaseous mixture mimicking LFG, (2) perform thermodynamic analysis of the reforming process using AspenPlus chemical process simulator, (3) determine operational conditions for auto-thermal (or thermo-neutral) reforming of a model CH 4 -CO 2 feedstock, and (4) fabricate and test a bench-scale hydrogen production unit. Experimental data obtained from catalytic reformation of the CH 4 -CO 2 and CH 4 -CO 2 -O 2 gaseous mixtures using Ni-catalyst were in a good agreement with the simulation results. It was demonstrated that catalytic reforming of LFG-mimicking gas produced hydrogen with the purity of 99.9 vol.%. (authors)

  15. Hanford Waste Vitrification Program process development: Melt testing subtask, pilot-scale ceramic melter experiment, run summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakaoka, R.K.; Bates, S.O.; Elmore, M.R.; Goles, R.W.; Perez, J.M.; Scott, P.A.; Westsik, J.H.

    1996-03-01

    Hanford Waste Vitrification Program (HWVP) activities for FY 1985 have included engineering and pilot-scale melter experiments HWVP-11/HBCM-85-1 and HWVP-12/PSCM-22. Major objectives designated by HWVP fo these tests were to evaluate the processing characteristics of the current HWVP melter feed during actual melter operation and establish the product quality of HW-39 borosilicate glass. The current melter feed, defined during FY 85, consists of reference feed (HWVP-RF) and glass-forming chemicals added as frit

  16. Removal of soluble toxic metals from water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckley, L.P.; Vijayan, S.; McConeghy, G.J.; Maves, S.R.; Martin, J.F.

    1990-05-01

    The removal of selected, soluble toxic metals from aqueous solutions has been accomplished using a combination of chemical treatment and ultrafiltration. The process has been evaluated at the bench-scale and is undergoing pilot-scale testing. Removal efficiencies in excess of 95-99% have been realized. The test program at the bench-scale investigated the limitations and established the optimum range of operating parameters for the process, while the tests conducted with the pilot-scale process equipment are providing information on longer-term process efficiencies, effective processing rates, and fouling potential of the membranes. With the typically found average concentrations of the toxic metals in groundwaters at Superfund sites used as the feed solution, the process has decreased levels up to 100-fold or more. Experiments were also conducted with concentrated solutions to determine their release from silica-based matrices. The solidified wastes were subjected to EP Toxicity test procedures and met the criteria successfully. The final phase of the program involving a field demonstration at a uranium tailings site will be outlined

  17. Reaction-to-Fire of Wood Products and Other Building Materials: Part 1, Room/Corner Test Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ondrej Grexa; Mark A. Dietenberger; Robert H. White

    2012-01-01

    This project researched the assessment of reaction-to-fire of common materials using the full-scale room/corner test (ISO 9705) protocol and the predictions of time to flashover using results from the bench-scale cone calorimeter test (ISO 5660-1). Using a burner protocol of 100 kW for 10 min, followed by 300 kW for 10 min and the test materials on the walls only, we...

  18. Submicronic Particle Measurement Instrumentation Test Bench Data Acquisition and Control System; Sistema de Toma de Datos y Control de un Banco de Calibracion de Instrumentacion para Medida de Particulas Submicrometricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alberdi, J; Barcala, J M; Gomez, F J; Molinero, A; Navarrete, J J [Ciemat. Madrid (Spain)

    1999-05-01

    This document describes the SAD-100 system characteristics. The unit makes the instrumentation test bench data acquisition and control, SAD-100 was designed and developed by Electronic and Automation Area (CIEMAT) and Aerosol Technology in Energy Generation Project (CIEMAT). (Author) 2 refs.

  19. Neuromuscular Control During the Bench Press Movement in an Elite Disabled and Able-Bodied Athlete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gołaś Artur

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The disabled population varies significantly in regard to physical fitness, what is conditioned by the damage to the locomotor system. Recently there has been an increased emphasis on the role of competitive sport in enhancing health and the quality of life of individuals with disability. One of the sport disciplines of Paralympics is the flat bench press. The bench press is one of the most popular resistance exercises used for the upper body in healthy individuals. It is used not only by powerlifters, but also by athletes in most strength-speed oriented sport disciplines. The objective of the study was to compare neuromuscular control for various external loads (from 60 to 100% 1RM during the flat bench press performed by an elite able-bodied athlete and an athlete with lower limb disability. The research project is a case study of two elite bench press athletes with similar sport results: an able-bodied athlete (M.W., age 34 years, body mass 103 kg, body height 1.72 m, 1RM in the flat bench press 200 kg and a disabled athlete (M.T., age 31 years, body mass 92 kg, body height 1.70 m, 1RM in the flat bench press 190 kg. The activity was recorded for four muscles: pectoralis major (PM, anterior deltoid (AD, as well as for the lateral and long heads of the triceps brachii (TBlat and TBlong. The T-test revealed statistically significant differences between peak activity of all the considered muscles (AD with p = 0.001; PM with p = 0.001; TBlat with p = 0.0021 and TBlong with p = 0.002 between the 2 athletes. The analysis of peak activity differences of M.W and M.T. in relation to the load revealed statistically significant differences for load changes between: 60 to 100% 1RM (p = 0.007, 70 to 100% 1RM (p = 0.016 and 80 to 100% 1RM (p = 0.032. The flat bench press performed without legs resting firmly on the ground leads to the increased engagement of upper body muscles and to their greater activation. Isolated initial positions can be used to

  20. Neuromuscular Control During the Bench Press Movement in an Elite Disabled and Able-Bodied Athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gołaś, Artur; Zwierzchowska, Anna; Maszczyk, Adam; Wilk, Michał; Stastny, Petr; Zając, Adam

    2017-12-01

    The disabled population varies significantly in regard to physical fitness, what is conditioned by the damage to the locomotor system. Recently there has been an increased emphasis on the role of competitive sport in enhancing health and the quality of life of individuals with disability. One of the sport disciplines of Paralympics is the flat bench press. The bench press is one of the most popular resistance exercises used for the upper body in healthy individuals. It is used not only by powerlifters, but also by athletes in most strength-speed oriented sport disciplines. The objective of the study was to compare neuromuscular control for various external loads (from 60 to 100% 1RM) during the flat bench press performed by an elite able-bodied athlete and an athlete with lower limb disability. The research project is a case study of two elite bench press athletes with similar sport results: an able-bodied athlete (M.W., age 34 years, body mass 103 kg, body height 1.72 m, 1RM in the flat bench press 200 kg) and a disabled athlete (M.T., age 31 years, body mass 92 kg, body height 1.70 m, 1RM in the flat bench press 190 kg). The activity was recorded for four muscles: pectoralis major (PM), anterior deltoid (AD), as well as for the lateral and long heads of the triceps brachii (TBlat and TBlong). The T-test revealed statistically significant differences between peak activity of all the considered muscles (AD with p = 0.001; PM with p = 0.001; TBlat with p = 0.0021 and TBlong with p = 0.002) between the 2 athletes. The analysis of peak activity differences of M.W and M.T. in relation to the load revealed statistically significant differences for load changes between: 60 to 100% 1RM (p = 0.007), 70 to 100% 1RM (p = 0.016) and 80 to 100% 1RM (p = 0.032). The flat bench press performed without legs resting firmly on the ground leads to the increased engagement of upper body muscles and to their greater activation. Isolated initial positions can be used to generate

  1. Scale-up of a mixer-settler extractor using a unit operations approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindholm, D.C.; Bautista, R.G.

    1976-01-01

    The results of scale-up studies on a continuous, multistage horizontal mixer-settler extractor are presented. The chemical and mechanical system involves the separation of lanthanum from a mixture of rare earth chlorides using di(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid as the solvent and dilute HCl as a scrub solution in a bench scale extractor. Each stage has a hold-up of 2.6 l. A single stage unit is utilized for scale-up studies. Results are obtained on four sizes of geometrically similar units, the largest being six times the volume of the original bench size. A unit operations technique is chosen so that mixing and settling can be examined independently. Variables examined include type of continuous phase, flow rate of inlet streams, and power input to the mixer. Inlet flow-rate ratios are kept constant for all tests. Two potential methods of unbaffled pump-mixer scale-up are explored; the maintenance of constant impeller tip speed and constant power input. For the settler, the previously successful method of basing design on constant flow-rate per unit cross-sectional area is used

  2. National Alliance for Advance Biofuels and Bio-Products Final Technical Report Addendum Hydrothermal Processing Pilot System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oyler, James [Genifuel Corporation

    2015-12-22

    The main objective of the NAABB was to combine science, technology, and engineering expertise from across the nation to break down critical technical barriers to commercialization of algae-based biofuels. As a part of the consortium, Genifuel’s NAABB goals was to fabricate and demonstrate a pilot-scale system to convert algae into fuels. The purpose of this pilot system was to show that processes developed in the laboratory at bench-scale during the program could be successfully scaled up to a pre-commercial level, and thereby provide visibility into the ultimate viability and cost of algae biofuels. The pilot system has now been completed and tested, and this report documents what has been achieved.

  3. Anomalous scaling of stochastic processes and the Moses effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lijian; Bassler, Kevin E; McCauley, Joseph L; Gunaratne, Gemunu H

    2017-04-01

    The state of a stochastic process evolving over a time t is typically assumed to lie on a normal distribution whose width scales like t^{1/2}. However, processes in which the probability distribution is not normal and the scaling exponent differs from 1/2 are known. The search for possible origins of such "anomalous" scaling and approaches to quantify them are the motivations for the work reported here. In processes with stationary increments, where the stochastic process is time-independent, autocorrelations between increments and infinite variance of increments can cause anomalous scaling. These sources have been referred to as the Joseph effect and the Noah effect, respectively. If the increments are nonstationary, then scaling of increments with t can also lead to anomalous scaling, a mechanism we refer to as the Moses effect. Scaling exponents quantifying the three effects are defined and related to the Hurst exponent that characterizes the overall scaling of the stochastic process. Methods of time series analysis that enable accurate independent measurement of each exponent are presented. Simple stochastic processes are used to illustrate each effect. Intraday financial time series data are analyzed, revealing that their anomalous scaling is due only to the Moses effect. In the context of financial market data, we reiterate that the Joseph exponent, not the Hurst exponent, is the appropriate measure to test the efficient market hypothesis.

  4. Anomalous scaling of stochastic processes and the Moses effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lijian; Bassler, Kevin E.; McCauley, Joseph L.; Gunaratne, Gemunu H.

    2017-04-01

    The state of a stochastic process evolving over a time t is typically assumed to lie on a normal distribution whose width scales like t1/2. However, processes in which the probability distribution is not normal and the scaling exponent differs from 1/2 are known. The search for possible origins of such "anomalous" scaling and approaches to quantify them are the motivations for the work reported here. In processes with stationary increments, where the stochastic process is time-independent, autocorrelations between increments and infinite variance of increments can cause anomalous scaling. These sources have been referred to as the Joseph effect and the Noah effect, respectively. If the increments are nonstationary, then scaling of increments with t can also lead to anomalous scaling, a mechanism we refer to as the Moses effect. Scaling exponents quantifying the three effects are defined and related to the Hurst exponent that characterizes the overall scaling of the stochastic process. Methods of time series analysis that enable accurate independent measurement of each exponent are presented. Simple stochastic processes are used to illustrate each effect. Intraday financial time series data are analyzed, revealing that their anomalous scaling is due only to the Moses effect. In the context of financial market data, we reiterate that the Joseph exponent, not the Hurst exponent, is the appropriate measure to test the efficient market hypothesis.

  5. Phase III (full scale) agitated mixing test plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruff, D.T.

    1994-01-01

    Waste Receiving and Processing Facility Module 2A (WRAP 2A) is the proposed second module of the WRAP facility. This facility will provide the required treatment for contact Handled (CH) Low Level (LL) Mixed Waste (MW) to allow its permanent disposal. Solidification of a portion of this waste using a cement based grout has been selected in order to reduce the toxicity and mobility of the waste in the disposal site. Mixing of the waste with the cement paste and material handling constraints/requirements associated with the mixed material is, therefore, a key process in the overall treatment strategy. This test plan addresses Phase 3, Full Scale Testing. The objectives of these tests are to determine if there are scale-up issues associated with the mixing results obtained in Phase 1 and 2 mixing tests, verify the workability of mixtures resulting from previous formulation development efforts (Waste Immobilization Development [WID]), and provide a baseline for WRAP 2A mixing equipment design. To this end, the following objectives are of particular interest: determine geometric influence of mixing blade at full scale (i.e., size, type, and location: height/offset); determine if similar results in terms of mixing effectiveness and product quality are achievable at this scale; determine if vibration is as effective at this larger scale in fluidizing the mixture and aiding in cleaning the vessel; determine if baffles or sweeping blades are needed to aid in mixing at the larger size and for cleaning the vessel; and determine quality of the poured monolithic product and investigate exotherm and filling influences at this larger size

  6. CALDERON COKEMAKING PROCESS/DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albert Calderon

    1998-01-01

    This project deals with the demonstration of a coking process using proprietary technology of Calderon, with the following objectives geared to facilitate commercialization: (1) making coke of such quality as to be suitable for use in hard-driving, large blast furnaces; (2) providing proof that such process is continuous and environmentally closed to prevent emissions; (3) demonstrating that high-coking-pressure (non-traditional) coal blends which cannot be safely charged into conventional by-product coke ovens can be used in the Calderon process; and (4) demonstrating that coke can be produced economically, at a level competitive with coke imports. The activities of the past quarter were focused on the following: Conducting bench-scale tests to produce coke and acceptable tar from the process to satisfy Koppers, a prospective stakeholder; Consolidation of the project team players to execute the full size commercial cokemaking reactor demonstration; and Progress made in advancing the design of the full size commercial cokemaking reactor

  7. Tests of US rock salt for long-term stability of CAES reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gehle, R.M.; Thoms, R.L.

    1986-01-01

    This is a report on laboratory tests to assess the effects of compressed air energy storage (CAES) on rock salt within the US. The project included a conventional laboratory test phase, with triaxial test machines, and a bench-scale test phase performed in salt mines in southern Louisiana. Limited numerical modeling also was performed to serve as a guide in selecting test layouts and for interpreting test data.

  8. An improved SOIL*EX trademark process for the removal of hazardous and radioactive contaminants from soils, sludges and other materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloom, R.R.; Bonnema, B.E.; Navratil, J.D.; Falconer, K.L.; Van Vliet, J.A.; Diel, B.N.

    1995-01-01

    Rust's patented SOIL*EX process is designed to remove hazardous and radioactive contaminants from soils, sludges and a matrix of other materials while destroying volatile organic compounds often associated with contaminated soil and debris. The process is comprised of three major process operations. The first operation involves the dissolution of contaminants that are chemically or mechanically bonded to the solid phase. The second process operation involves separation of the solid phase from the dissolution solution (mother liquor), which contains the dissolved contaminants. The final operation concentrates and removes the contaminants from the mother liquor. A pilot-scale SOIL*EX system was constructed at Rust's Clemson Technical Center for a Proof-of-Process demonstration. The demonstration program included the design, fabrication, and operation of pilot scale and demonstration equipment and systems. The pilot plant, an accurate scaled-down version of a proposed full-scale treatment system, was operated for five months to demonstrate the efficiency of the overall process. The pilot plant test program focused on demonstrating that the SOIL*EX process would remove and concentrate the contaminants and destroy volatile organic compounds. The pilot plant processed nearly 20 tons of soils and sludges, and test results indicated that all contaminants of concern were removed. Additionally, Rust completed numerous bench scale tests to optimize the chemistry. This paper discusses the pilot plant test criteria and results along with the salient design features of the SOIL*EX system and planned improvements

  9. Test procedures and instructions for Hanford tank waste supernatant cesium removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrickson, D.W., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-05-31

    This document provides specific test procedures and instructions to implement the test plan for the preparation and conduct of a cesium removal test using Hanford Double-Shell Slurry Feed supernatant liquor from tank 251-AW-101 in a bench-scale column.Cesium sorbents to be tested include resorcinol-formaldehyde resin and crystalline silicotitanate. The test plan for which this provides instructions is WHC-SD-RE-TP-022, Hanford Tank Waste Supernatant Cesium Removal Test Plan.

  10. Direction-specific recruitment of rotator cuff muscles during bench press and row.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wattanaprakornkul, Duangjai; Halaki, Mark; Cathers, Ian; Ginn, Karen A

    2011-12-01

    Recent studies indicate that rotator cuff (RC) muscles are recruited in a reciprocal, direction-specific pattern during shoulder flexion and extension exercises. The main purpose of this study was to determine if similar reciprocal RC recruitment occurs during bench press (flexion-like) and row (extension-like) exercises. In addition, shoulder muscle activity was comprehensively compared between bench press and flexion; row and extension; and bench press and row exercises. Electromyographic (EMG) activity was recorded from 9 shoulder muscles sites in 15 normal volunteers. All exercises were performed at 20, 50 and 70% of subjects' maximal load. EMG data were normalized to standard maximal voluntary contractions. Infraspinatus activity was significantly higher than subscapularis during bench press, with the converse pattern during the row exercise. Significant differences in activity levels were found in pectoralis major, deltoid and trapezius between the bench press and flexion exercises and in lower trapezius between the row and extension exercises. During bench press and row exercises, the recruitment pattern in each active muscle did not vary with load. During bench press and row exercises, RC muscles contract in a reciprocal direction-specific manner in their role as shoulder joint dynamic stabilizers to counterbalance antero-posterior translation forces. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Process and equipment design optimising product properties and attributes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongers, P.M.M.; Thullie, J.

    2009-01-01

    Classically, when products have been developed at the bench, process engineers will search for equipment to manufacture the product at large scale. More than often, this search is constraint to the existing equipment base, or a catalog search for standard equipment. It is then not surprising, that

  12. Multiple sclerosis: Left advantage for auditory laterality in dichotic tests of central auditory processing and relationship of psychoacoustic tests with the Multiple Sclerosis Disability Scale-EDSS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñaloza López, Yolanda Rebeca; Orozco Peña, Xóchitl Daisy; Pérez Ruiz, Santiago Jesús

    2018-04-03

    To evaluate the central auditory processing disorders in patients with multiple sclerosis, emphasizing auditory laterality by applying psychoacoustic tests and to identify their relationship with the Multiple Sclerosis Disability Scale (EDSS) functions. Depression scales (HADS), EDSS, and 9 psychoacoustic tests to study CAPD were applied to 26 individuals with multiple sclerosis and 26 controls. Correlation tests were performed between the EDSS and psychoacoustic tests. Seven out of 9 psychoacoustic tests were significantly different (P<.05); right or left (14/19 explorations) with respect to control. In dichotic digits there was a left-ear advantage compared to the usual predominance of RDD. There was significant correlation in five psychoacoustic tests and the specific functions of EDSS. The left-ear advantage detected and interpreted as an expression of deficient influences of the corpus callosum and attention in multiple sclerosis should be investigated. There was a correlation between psychoacoustic tests and specific EDSS functions. Copyright © 2018 Sociedad Española de Otorrinolaringología y Cirugía de Cabeza y Cuello. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. The Effects of Bench Press Variations in Competitive Athletes on Muscle Activity and Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Saeterbakken, Atle Hole; Mo, Dag-Andr?; Scott, Suzanne; Andersen, Vidar

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The aim of the study was to compare the EMG activity performing 6RM competition style bench press (flat bench-wide grip) with 1) medium and narrow grip widths on a flat bench and 1) inclined and declined bench positions with a wide grip. Twelve bench press athletes competing at national and international level participated in the study. EMG activity was measured in the pectoralis major, anterior and posterior deltoid, biceps brachii, triceps brachii and latissimus dorsi. Non-signific...

  14. Comparative Study of Laboratory-Scale and Prototypic Production-Scale Fuel Fabrication Processes and Product Characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    An objective of the High Temperature Gas Reactor fuel development and qualification program for the United States Department of Energy has been to qualify fuel fabricated in prototypic production-scale equipment. The quality and characteristics of the tristructural isotropic coatings on fuel kernels are influenced by the equipment scale and processing parameters. Some characteristics affecting product quality were suppressed while others have become more significant in the larger equipment. Changes to the composition and method of producing resinated graphite matrix material has eliminated the use of hazardous, flammable liquids and enabled it to be procured as a vendor-supplied feed stock. A new method of overcoating TRISO particles with the resinated graphite matrix eliminates the use of hazardous, flammable liquids, produces highly spherical particles with a narrow size distribution, and attains product yields in excess of 99%. Compact fabrication processes have been scaled-up and automated with relatively minor changes to compact quality to manual laboratory-scale processes. The impact on statistical variability of the processes and the products as equipment was scaled are discussed. The prototypic production-scale processes produce test fuels that meet fuel quality specifications.

  15. Uncertainties in coupled thermal-hydrological processes associated with the drift scale test at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Sumitra; Tsang, Y.W.

    2002-01-01

    Understanding thermally driven coupled hydrological, mechanical, and chemical processes in unsaturated fractured tuff is essential for evaluating the performance of the potential radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The Drift Scale Test (DST), intended for acquiring such an understanding of these processes, has generated a huge volume of temperature and moisture redistribution data. Sophisticated thermal hydrological (TH) conceptual models have yielded a good fit between simulation results and those measured data. However, some uncertainties in understanding the TH processes associated with the DST still exist. This paper evaluates these uncertainties and provides quantitative estimates of the range of these uncertainties. Of particular interest for the DST are the uncertainties resulting from the unmonitored loss of vapor through an open bulkhead of the test. There was concern that the outcome from the test might have been significantly altered by these losses. Using alternative conceptual models, we illustrate that predicted mean temperatures from the DST are within 1 degree C of the measured mean temperatures through the first two years of heating. The simulated spatial and temporal evolution of drying and condensation fronts is found to be qualitatively consistent with measured saturation data. Energy and mass balance computation shows that no more than 13 percent of the input energy is lost because of vapor leaving the test domain through the bulkhead. The change in average saturation in fractures is also relatively small. For a hypothetical situation in which no vapor is allowed to exit through the bulkhead, the simulated average fracture saturation is not qualitatively different enough to be discerned by measured moisture redistribution data. This leads us to conclude that the DST, despite the uncertainties associated with open field testing, has provided an excellent understanding of the TH processes

  16. Modeling of a Large-Scale High Temperature Regenerative Sulfur Removal Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konttinen, Jukka T.; Johnsson, Jan Erik

    1999-01-01

    model that does not account for bed hydrodynamics. The pilot-scale test run results, obtained in the test runs of the sulfur removal process with real coal gasifier gas, have been used for parameter estimation. The validity of the reactor model for commercial-scale design applications is discussed.......Regenerable mixed metal oxide sorbents are prime candidates for the removal of hydrogen sulfide from hot gasifier gas in the simplified integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) process. As part of the regenerative sulfur removal process development, reactor models are needed for scale......-up. Steady-state kinetic reactor models are needed for reactor sizing, and dynamic models can be used for process control design and operator training. The regenerative sulfur removal process to be studied in this paper consists of two side-by-side fluidized bed reactors operating at temperatures of 400...

  17. Qualification testing and full-scale demonstration of titanium-treated zeolite for sludge wash processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalton, W.J.

    1997-06-30

    Titanium-treated zeolite is a new ion-exchange material that is a variation of UOP (formerly Union Carbide) IONSIV IE-96 zeolite (IE-96) that has been treated with an aqueous titanium solution in a proprietary process. IE-96 zeolite, without the titanium treatment, has been used since 1988 in the West Valley Demonstration Project`s (WVDP) Supernatant Treatment System (STS) ion-exchange columns to remove Cs-137 from the liquid supernatant solution. The titanium-treated zeolite (TIE-96) was developed by Battelle-Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). Following successful lab-scale testing of the PNL-prepared TIE-96, UOP was selected as a commercial supplier of the TIE-96 zeolite. Extensive laboratory tests conducted by both the WVDP and PNL indicate that the TIE-96 will successfully remove comparable quantities of Cs-137 from Tank 8D-2 high-level radioactive liquid as was done previously with IE-96. In addition to removing Cs-137, TIE-96 also removes trace quantities of Pu, as well as Sr-90, from the liquid being processed over a wide range of operating conditions: temperature, pH, and dilution. The exact mechanism responsible for the Pu removal is not fully understood. However, the Pu that is removed by the TIE-96 remains on the ion-exchange column under anticipated sludge wash processing conditions. From May 1988 to November 1990, the WVDP processed 560,000 gallons of liquid high-level radioactive supernatant waste stored in Tank 8D-2. Supernatant is an aqueous salt solution comprised primarily of soluble sodium salts. The second stage of the high-level waste treatment process began November 1991 with the initiation of sludge washing. Sludge washing involves the mixing of Tank 8D-2 contents, both sludge and liquid, to dissolve the sulfate salts present in the sludge. Two sludge washes were required to remove sulfates from the sludge.

  18. Experimental study of the heat of combustion of electrical cables: Pitcairn/calorimetre test bench

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gautier, B.; Bosseboeuf, G.

    1995-11-01

    The R and D has been developing for about ten years, through the MAGIC software, a modeling program on the propagation of fire in power plants. The potential fuels in a power plant are mainly limited to the oils existing in engines and control systems, and electric cables. Those cables present a complex combustion due to their fire-resistant design. In order to study that combustion, two test benches, the PITCAIRN oven and the CALORIMETRE EDF/CNRS have been linked. This report presents briefly the experimental installation, then it comments on the first experimental data obtained with two types of samples, a PVC and an EPR-Hypalon cable. The tested cables are selected from those commonly used in French Nuclear Power Plants. They present complex components (fire-retarding chemical agents, mechanical reinforcement). The data show that the behavior of those cables cannot be reduced to a mass loss rate associated to a constant Heat of Combustion. The Heat of Combustion of the PVC cable tested varies little at the beginning of the pyrolysis from 5 kJ.g -1 to 10 kJ.g -1 , then increases quickly up to 30 kJ.g -1 . In the same way, the EPR-Hypalon cable shows a continuous and slow increase of the Heat of Combustion from 1 kJ.g -1 to 20 kJ.g -1 during the pyrolysis, then rises quickly up to 40 kJ.g -1 at the end. Those data corroborate the thesis of the dilution of flammable species by fire-retarding agents, which lower the Heat of combustion but seems to disappear at the end of the pyrolysis. (authors). 7 refs., 6 figs

  19. Test procedures and instructions for Hanford complexant concentrate supernatant cesium removal using CST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrickson, D.W.

    1997-01-08

    This document provides specific test procedures and instructions to implement the test plan for the preparation and conduct of a cesium removal test, using Hanford Complexant Concentrate supernatant liquor from tank 241-AN-107, in a bench-scale column. The cesium sorbent to be tested is crystalline silicotitanate. The test plan for which this provides instructions is WHC-SD-RE-TP-023, Hanford Complexant Concentrate Supernatant Cesium Removal Test Plan.

  20. Correlating optical bench performance with clinical defocus curves in varifocal and trifocal intraocular lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaza-Puche, Ana B; Alió, Jorge L; MacRae, Scott; Zheleznyak, Len; Sala, Esperanza; Yoon, Geunyoung

    2015-05-01

    To investigate the correlations existing between a trifocal intraocular lens (IOL) and a varifocal IOL using the "ex vivo" optical bench through-focus image quality analysis and the clinical visual performance in real patients by study of the defocus curves. This prospective, consecutive, nonrandomized, comparative study included a total of 64 eyes of 42 patients. Three groups of eyes were differentiated according to the IOL implanted: 22 eyes implanted with the varifocal Lentis Mplus LS-313 IOL (Oculentis GmbH, Berlin, Germany); 22 eyes implanted with the trifocal FineVision IOL (Physiol, Liege, Belgium), and 20 eyes implanted with the monofocal Acrysof SA60AT IOL (Alcon Laboratories, Inc., Fort Worth, TX). Visual outcomes and defocus curve were evaluated postoperatively. Optical bench through-focus performance was quantified by computing an image quality metric and the cross-correlation coefficient between an unaberrated reference image and captured retinal images from a model eye with a 3.0-mm artificial pupil. Statistically significant differences among defocus curves of different IOLs were detected for the levels of defocus from -4.00 to -1.00 diopters (D) (P < .01). Significant correlations were found between the optical bench image quality metric results and logMAR visual acuity scale in all groups (Lentis Mplus group: r = -0.97, P < .01; FineVision group: r = -0.82, P < .01; Acrys of group: r = -0.99, P < .01). Linear predicting models were obtained. Significant correlations were found between logMAR visual acuity and image quality metric for the multifocal and monofocal IOLs analyzed. This finding enables surgeons to predict visual outcomes from the optical bench analysis. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  1. Studies on the hydroprocessing of deashed oil. 10. ; Comparison of the reaction performance between pilot plant and BSU. Deashed oil no suisoka bunkai hanno ni kansuru kenkyu. 10. ; Pilot to bench hanno sochi no hanno tokusei no hikaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hijiriyama, M.; Kaneko, T. (Mitsubishi Kasei Co., Tokyo (Japan)); Kageyama, Y. (Nippon Brown Coal Liquefaction Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1990-11-29

    The secondary hydroprocessing process in the two-stage hydrogenating liquefaction equipment under development at Nippon Brown Coal Liquefaction Company uses a fixed bed system. This paper describes operation of a bench reaction equipment using catalyst used in the pilot plant to compare it with fresh catalyst, and compare characteristics of the bench scale equipment with those of the pilot reactor. The catalyst is Ca-Ni-No/Al2O. The reaction was carried out in a gas-liquid downward parallel-flow fixed-bed reactor using deashed oil (DAO) with the same material as that used in the pilot plant and the same equilibrium solvent. The experiment result indicates that the used catalyst had its activity fallen below the fresh catalyst, but its temperature dependence was identical, and the selectivity on products of both catalysts was also identical. The result of reactions in the bench scale equipment clarified that the relationship between the DAO conversion rate and denitrogenation activity and the relationship between fa and H/C in the products are in good agreement, and that there is no difference in reaction selectivity. 5 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Determination of the primary technical parameters of the test bench for controlling the temperature of rails and rail bars of continuous welded rail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tertychnyi Vitalii

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important factors determining the reliability and safety of operation of the continuous welded rail track is the temperature of the rails. All conditions of laying, repair and maintenance of the track during the entire cycle of rails operation depend on it. The existing rail temperature monitoring method does not take into account a few significant factors and that leads to significant errors in determining the actual temperature of the rail bar. The authors propose a new rail temperature measurement method on a special test bench which maximally simulates possible environmental operating conditions for the rail bars, the profile of the roadway (embankment or cut, as well as the actual spatial latitude and meridian location of the rail slabs. At the bench, the studied rails are fastened with the help of rail braces on half ties, in the ballast bed, with sizes in accordance with the existing reference documents. At the first stage, the most common KB-65 intermediate fastener for the continuous welded rail in Ukraine will be used, while in subsequent stages KPP-5 fastening will be used.

  3. Influence of ballistic bench press on upper body power output in professional rugby players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Daniel J; Cunningham, Daniel J; Crewther, Blair T; Cook, Christian J; Kilduff, Liam P

    2013-08-01

    The use of heavy resistance exercise provides an effective preload stimulus for inducing postactivation potentiation (PAP) and increasing peak power output (PPO). However, this approach has limited application in many sporting situations (e.g., incorporation in a precompetition warm-up); and therefore, more practical strategies for inducing PAP need to be investigated. The aim of the present study was to compare the PPO changes after performing a preload stimulus of either a ballistic exercise or a traditional heavy resistance exercise. Twenty professional rugby union players completed 3 testing sessions, each separated by 48 hours. On the first occasion, subjects underwent a 3 repetition maximum (3RM)-bench press testing session. On the next 2 occasions, subjects performed a ballistic bench throw at baseline (30% of 1RM), followed by a preload stimulus of either heavy resistance training (HRT) (heavy bench press: 3 sets of 3 repetitions at 87% 1RM) or BBP (3 sets of 3 repetitions at 30% on 1RM) followed by ballistic bench throw after 8 minutes recovery. The trials were randomized and counterbalanced. Both preload stimuli protocols increased PPO compared with baseline (BBP baseline 892 ± 108 vs. 8 minutes 924 ± 119 W, p < 0.001; HRT baseline 893 ± 104 vs. 8 minutes 931 ± 116 W; p < 0.001). There were no conditional differences between PPO at 8 minutes (p = 0.141); moreover, the change in PPO from baseline was also similar between conditions (BBP Δ + 33 ± 18; HRT Δ + 38 ± 21 W; p = 0.112). In conclusion, a ballistic exercise provided an effective method of inducing PAP and increasing upper-body PPO; moreover, this elicited similar increases in PPO as a traditional heavy resistance exercise preloading stimulus.

  4. WTP Pilot-Scale Evaporation Tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    QURESHI, ZAFAR

    2004-01-01

    This report documents the design, assembly, and operation of a Pilot-Scale Evaporator built and operated by SRTC in support of Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) Project at the DOE's Hanford Site. The WTP employs three identical evaporators, two for the Waste Feed and one for the Treated LAW. The Pilot-Scale Evaporator was designed to test simulants for both of these waste streams. The Pilot-Scale Evaporator is 1/76th scale in terms of evaporation rates. The basic configuration of forced circulation vacuum evaporator was employed. A detailed scaling analysis was performed to preserve key operating parameters such as basic loop configuration, system vacuum, boiling temperature, recirculation rates, vertical distances between important hardware pieces, reboiler heat transfer characteristics, vapor flux, configuration of demisters and water spray rings. Three evaporation test campaigns were completed. The first evaporation run used water in order to shake down the system. The water runs were important in identifying a design flaw that inhibited mixing in the evaporator vessel, thus resulting in unstable boiling operation. As a result the loop configuration was modified and the remaining runs were completed successfully. Two simulant runs followed the water runs. Test 1: Simulated Ultrafiltration Recycles with HLW SBS, and Test 2: Treated AN102 with Envelop C LAW. Several liquid and offgas samples were drawn from the evaporator facility for regulatory and non-regulatory analyses. During Test 2, the feed and the concentrate were spiked with organics to determine organic partitioning. The decontamination factor (DF) for Test 1 was measured to be 110,000 (more than the expected value of 100,000). Dow Corning Q2-3183A antifoam agent was tested during both Tests 1 and 2. It was determined that 500 ppm of this antifoam agent was sufficient to control the foaminess to less than 5 per cent of the liquid height. The long-term testing (around 100 hours of operation) did not show any

  5. Modeling of hydrologic conditions and solute movement in processed oil shale waste embankments under simulated climatic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, J.P.; Hasfurther, V.

    1992-01-01

    The scope of the research program and the continuation is to study interacting hydrologic, geotechnical, and chemical factors affecting the behavior and disposal of combusted processed oil shale. The research combines bench-scale testing with large scale research sufficient to describe commercial scale embankment behavior. The large scale approach was accomplished by establishing five lysimeters, each 7.3 x 3.0 x 3.0 m deep, filled with processed oil shale that has been retorted and combusted by the Lurgi-Ruhrgas (Lurgi) process. Approximately 400 tons of Lurgi processed oil shale waste was provided by Rio Blanco Oil Shale Co., Inc. (RBOSC) through a separate cooperative agreement with the University of Wyoming (UW) to carry out this study. Three of the lysimeters were established at the RBOSC Tract C-a in the Piceance Basin of Colorado. Two lysimeters were established in the Environmental Simulation Laboratory (ESL) at UW. The ESL was specifically designed and constructed so that a large range of climatic conditions could be physically applied to the processed oil shale which was filled in the lysimeter cells

  6. Robust, small-scale cultivation platform for Streptomyces coelicolor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sohoni, Sujata Vijay; Bapat, Prashant Madhusudan; Lantz, Anna Eliasson

    2012-01-01

    rates of antibiotics. CONCLUSION: We observed good agreement of the physiological data obtained in the developed MTP platform with bench-scale. Hence, the described MTP-based screening platform has a high potential for investigation of secondary metabolite biosynthesis in Streptomycetes and other....... The MTP cultivations were found to behave similar to bench-scale in terms of growth rate, productivity and substrate uptake rate and so was the onset of antibiotic synthesis. Shake flask cultivations however, showed discrepancy with respect to morphology and had considerably reduced volumetric production...

  7. Correlation between mass transfer coefficient kLa and relevant operating parameters in cylindrical disposable shaken bioreactors on a bench-to-pilot scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klöckner, Wolf; Gacem, Riad; Anderlei, Tibor; Raven, Nicole; Schillberg, Stefan; Lattermann, Clemens; Büchs, Jochen

    2013-12-02

    Among disposable bioreactor systems, cylindrical orbitally shaken bioreactors show important advantages. They provide a well-defined hydrodynamic flow combined with excellent mixing and oxygen transfer for mammalian and plant cell cultivations. Since there is no known universal correlation between the volumetric mass transfer coefficient for oxygen kLa and relevant operating parameters in such bioreactor systems, the aim of this current study is to experimentally determine a universal kLa correlation. A Respiration Activity Monitoring System (RAMOS) was used to measure kLa values in cylindrical disposable shaken bioreactors and Buckingham's π-Theorem was applied to define a dimensionless equation for kLa. In this way, a scale- and volume-independent kLa correlation was developed and validated in bioreactors with volumes from 2 L to 200 L. The final correlation was used to calculate cultivation parameters at different scales to allow a sufficient oxygen supply of tobacco BY-2 cell suspension cultures. The resulting equation can be universally applied to calculate the mass transfer coefficient for any of seven relevant cultivation parameters such as the reactor diameter, the shaking frequency, the filling volume, the viscosity, the oxygen diffusion coefficient, the gravitational acceleration or the shaking diameter within an accuracy range of +/- 30%. To our knowledge, this is the first kLa correlation that has been defined and validated for the cited bioreactor system on a bench-to-pilot scale.

  8. The acute effects of a caffeine-containing supplement on bench press strength and time to running exhaustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Travis W; Housh, Terry J; Malek, Moh H; Mielke, Michelle; Hendrix, Russell

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the acute effects of a caffeine-containing supplement (SUPP) on one-repetition maximum (1-RM) bench press strength and time to running exhaustion (TRE) at a velocity that corresponded to 85% of the peak oxygen uptake ([latin capital V with dot above]O2peak). The study used a double-blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover design. Thirty-one men (mean +/- SD age = 23.0 +/- 2.6 years) were randomly assigned to take either the SUPP or placebo (PLAC) first. The SUPP contained 201 mg of caffeine, and the PLAC was microcrystalline cellulose. All subjects were tested for 1-RM bench press strength and TRE at 45 minutes after taking either the SUPP or PLAC. After 1 week of rest, the subjects returned to the laboratory and ingested the opposite substance (SUPP or PLAC) from what was taken during the previous visit. The 1-RM bench press and TRE tests were then performed in the same manner as before. The results indicated that the SUPP had no effect on 1-RM bench press strength or TRE at 85% [latin capital V with dot above]O2peak. It is possible that the acute effects of caffeine are affected by differences in training status and/or the relative intensity of the exercise task. Future studies should examine these issues, in addition to testing the acute effects of various caffeine doses on performance during maximal strength, power, and aerobic activities. These findings do not, however, support the use of caffeine as an ergogenic aid in untrained to moderately trained individuals.

  9. Design and Calibration of a Full Scale Active Magnetic Bearing Based Test Facility for Investigating Rotordynamic Properties of Turbomachinery Seals in Multiphase Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voigt, Andreas Jauernik; Mandrup-Poulsen, Christian; Nielsen, Kenny Krogh

    2016-01-01

    of the subsea installed rotating machinery. It is well known that careful design of turbomachinery seals, such as interstage and balance piston seals, is pivotal for the performance of pumps and compressors. Consequently, the ability to predict the complex interaction between fluid dynamics and rotordynamics...... University of Denmark and Lloyd's Register Consulting are currently establishing a purpose built state of the art multiphase seal test facility, which is divided into three modules. Module I consists of a full scale Active Magnetic Bearing (AMB) based rotor dynamic test bench. The internally designed custom...... AMBs are equipped with an embedded Hall sensor system enabling high precision non-contact seal force quantification. Module II is a fully automatised calibration facility for the Hall sensor based force quantification system. Module III consists of the test seal housing assembly. This paper provides...

  10. Characterization of the Stabilized Test Bench of Nulling Interferometry PERSÉE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozi, Julien; Ollivier, M.; Cassaing, F.; Le Duigou, J.; CNES; Onera/Dota/HRA; IAS; LESIA; OCA; TAS

    2013-01-01

    There are two problems with the observation of exoplanets: the contrast between the planet and the star and their very low separation. One technique solving these problems is nulling interferometry: two pupils are recombined to make a destructive interference on the star, and their base is adjusted to create a constructive interference on the planet. However, to ensure a sufficient extinction of the star, the optical path difference between the beams must be around the nanometer, and the pointing must be better than one hundredth of Airy disk, despite the external disturbances.To validate the critical points of such a space mission, a laboratory demonstrator, PERSÉE, was defined by a consortium led by the french space agency CNES, including IAS, LESIA, ONERA, OCA and Thales Alenia Space and integrated in Paris Observatory. This bench simulates the entire space mission (interferometer and nanometric cophasing system). Its goal is to deliver and maintain an extinction of 10^-4 stable at better than 10^-5 over a few hours in the presence of typical injected disturbances.My thesis work consisted in integrating the bench in successive stages and to develop calibration procedures. This helped me to characterize the critical elements separately before grouping them. After having implemented the control loops of the cophasing system, their precise analysis helped me to reduce down to 0.3 nm rms the residual OPD, and 0.4 % of the Airy disk the residual tip/tilt, despite disturbances of tens of nanometers, consisting of several tens of vibrational frequencies between 1 and 100 Hz. This has been achieved by the implementation of a linear quadratic Gaussian controller, parameterized by the preliminary measurement of the disturbance to minimize. Thanks to these excellent results, I obtained on the band [1.65 - 2.45] µm a record null rate of 8.8x10^-6 stabilized at 9x10^-7 over a few hours, a decade better than the original specifications. An extrapolation of these results to

  11. Small Scale Hydrocarbon Fire Test Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim Søreng Bjørge

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In the oil and gas industry, hydrocarbon process equipment was previously often thermally insulated by applying insulation directly to the metal surface. Fire protective insulation was applied outside the thermal insulation. In some cases, severe corrosion attacks were observed due to ingress of humidity and condensation at cold surfaces. Introducing a 25 mm air gap to prevent wet thermal insulation and metal wall contact is expected to solve the corrosion issues. This improved insulation methodology does, however, require more space that may not be available when refurbishing older process plants. Relocating structural elements would introduce much hot work, which should be minimized in live plants. It is also costly. The aim of the present study is therefore to develop a test concept for testing fire resistance of equipment protected with only air-gap and thermal insulation, i.e., without the fire-protective insulation. The present work demonstrates a conceptual methodology for small scale fire testing of mockups resembling a section of a distillation column. The mockups were exposed to a small-scale propane flame in a test configuration where the flow rate and the flame zone were optimized to give heat flux levels in the range 250–350 kW/m2. Results are presented for a mockup resembling a 16 mm thick distillation column steel wall. It is demonstrated that the modern distance insulation in combination with the heat capacity of the column wall indicates 30+ minutes fire resistance. The results show that this methodology has great potentials for low cost fire testing of other configurations, and it may serve as a set-up for product development.

  12. Dynamic balance abilities of collegiate men for the bench press.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, Timothy J; Radlo, Steven J; Smith, Thomas J; Woodward, Ryan W

    2012-12-01

    This study investigated the dynamic balance detection ability of college men for the bench press exercise. Thirty-five college men (mean ± SD: age = 22.4 ± 2.76 years, bench press experience = 8.3 ± 2.79 years, and estimated 1RM = 120.1 ± 21.8 kg) completed 1 repetition of the bench press repetitions for each of 3 bar loading arrangements. In a randomized fashion, subjects performed the bench press with a 20-kg barbell loaded with one of the following: a balanced load, one 20-kg plate on each side; an imbalanced asymmetrical load, one 20-kg plate on one side and a 20-kg plate plus a 1.25-kg plate on the other side; or an imbalanced asymmetrical center of mass, 20-kg plate on one side and sixteen 1.25-kg plates on the other side. Subjects were blindfolded and wore ear protection throughout all testing to decrease the ability to otherwise detect loads. Binomial data analysis indicated that subjects correctly detected the imbalance of the imbalanced asymmetrical center of mass condition (p[correct detection] = 0.89, p < 0.01) but did not correctly detect the balanced condition (p[correct detection] = 0.46, p = 0.74) or the imbalanced asymmetrical condition (p[correct detection] = 0.60, p = 0.31). Although it appears that a substantial shift in the center of mass of plates leads to the detection of barbell imbalance, minor changes of the addition of 1.25 kg (2.5 lb) to the asymmetrical condition did not result in consistent detection. Our data indicate that the establishment of a biofeedback loop capable of determining balance detection was only realized under a high degree of imbalance. Although balance detection was not present in either the even or the slightly uneven loading condition, the inclusion of balance training for upper body may be futile if exercises are unable to establish such a feedback loop and thus eliciting an improvement of balance performance.

  13. A Comparison of Aerobic Fitness Testing on a Swim Bench and Treadmill in a Recreational Surfing Cohort: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamzeh Khundaqji

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The intermittent manner of surfing accentuates the importance of both the aerobic and anaerobic energy systems. Currently, the optimal method of assessing surfing-specific aerobic fitness is using a swim bench (SWB ergometer; however, their limited availability presents a barrier to surfers wanting to know their maximal aerobic power (VO2peak. As a result, the aims of this pilot study were to determine the VO2peak of recreational surfers using a new commercial SWB ergometer and to propose and examine the feasibility of a regression model to predict SWB ergometer VO2peak values. A total of nine recreational surfers were assessed where body measurements were conducted followed by maximal aerobic capacity testing (swim bench and treadmill to profile the cohort. Findings demonstrated that VO2peak values were significantly greater (p < 0.001 on the treadmill compared to the SWB ergometer (M = 66.01 ± 8.23 vs. 37.41 ± 8.73 mL/kg/min. Peak heart rate was also significantly greater on the treadmill compared to the SWB ergometer. Multiple regression analysis was used to produce a model which predicted SWB VO2peak values with an R2 value of 0.863 and an adjusted R2 value of 0.726. The physiological profiling of the recreational cohort coupled with a surfer’s predicted SWB VO2peak value will allow for identification of surfing-specific aerobic fitness levels and evidence-based training recommendations.

  14. 106-AN grout pilot-scale test HGTP-93-0501-02

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagaasen, L.M.

    1993-05-01

    The Grout Treatment Facility (GTF) at Hanford, Washington will process the low-level fraction of selected double-shell tank (DST) wastes into a cementitious waste form. This facility, which is operated by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC), mixes liquid waste with cementitious materials to produce a waste form that immobilizes hazardous constituents through chemical reactions and/or microencapsulation. Over 1,000,000 gal of Phosphate/Sulfate Waste were solidified in the first production campaign with this facility. The next tank scheduled for treatment is 106-AN. After conducting laboratory studies to select the grout formulation, part of the normal formulation verification process is to conduct tests using the 1/4-scale pilot facilities at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The major objectives of these pilot-scale tests were to determine if the proposed grout formulation could be processed in the pilot-scale equipment and to collect thermal information to help determine the best way to manage the grout hydration heat

  15. DEWATERING TREATMENT SCALE-UP TESTING RESULTS OF HANFORD TANK WASTES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TEDESCHI AR

    2008-01-01

    This report documents CH2M HILL Hanford Group Inc. (CH2M HILL) 2007 dryer testing results in Richland, WA at the AMEC Nuclear Ltd., GeoMelt Division (AMEC) Horn Rapids Test Site. It provides a discussion of scope and results to qualify the dryer system as a viable unit-operation in the continuing evaluation of the bulk vitrification process. A 10,000 liter (L) dryer/mixer was tested for supplemental treatment of Hanford tank low-activity wastes, drying and mixing a simulated non-radioactive salt solution with glass forming minerals. Testing validated the full scale equipment for producing dried product similar to smaller scale tests, and qualified the dryer system for a subsequent integrated dryer/vitrification test using the same simulant and glass formers. The dryer system is planned for installation at the Hanford tank farms to dry/mix radioactive waste for final treatment evaluation of the supplemental bulk vitrification process

  16. Polymeric Traypack Integrity: Bench-Scale Unit

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Canavan, Jeffrey

    2002-01-01

    .... Additional experimentation was conducted to determine the applicability of the unit for non-destructive residual gas testing since current destructive tests represent a substantial continuing expense...

  17. Muscle activation when performing the chest press and shoulder press on a stable bench vs. a Swiss ball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uribe, Brandon P; Coburn, Jared W; Brown, Lee E; Judelson, Daniel A; Khamoui, Andy V; Nguyen, Diamond

    2010-04-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of a stable surface (bench) vs. an unstable surface (Swiss ball) on muscle activation when performing the dumbbell chest press and shoulder press. Sixteen healthy men (24.19 +/- 2.17 years) performed 1 repetition maximum (1RM) tests for the chest press and shoulder press on a stable surface. A minimum of 48 hours post 1RM, subjects returned to perform 3 consecutive repetitions each of the chest press and shoulder press at 80% 1RM under 4 different randomized conditions (chest press on bench, chest press on Swiss ball, shoulder press on bench, shoulder press on Swiss ball). Electromyography was used to assess muscle activation of the anterior deltoid, pectoralis major, and rectus abdominus. The results revealed no significant difference in muscle activation between surface types for either exercise. This suggests that using an unstable surface neither improves nor impairs muscle activation under the current conditions. Coaches and other practitioners can expect similar muscle activation when using a Swiss ball vs. a bench.

  18. The development of a repetition-load scheme for the eccentric-only bench press exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moir, Gavin L; Erny, Kyle F; Davis, Shala E; Guers, John J; Witmer, Chad A

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to develop a repetition-load scheme for the eccentric-only bench press exercise. Nine resistance trained men (age: 21.6 ± 1.0 years; 1-repetition maximum [RM] bench press: 137.7 ± 30.4 kg) attended four testing sessions during a four week period. During the first session each subject's 1-RM bench press load utilizing the stretch-shortening cycle was determined. During the remaining sessions they performed eccentric-only repetitions to failure using supra-maximal loads equivalent to 110%, 120% and 130% of their 1-RM value with a constant cadence (30 reps·min(-1)). Force plates and a three dimensional motion analysis system were used during these final three sessions in order to evaluate kinematic and kinetic variables. More repetitions were completed during the 110% 1-RM condition compared to the 130% 1-RM condition (p=0.01). Mean total work (p=0.046) as well as vertical force (p=0.049), vertical work (p=0.017), and vertical power output (p=0.05) were significantly greater during the 130% 1-RM condition compared to the 110% 1-RM condition. A linear function was fitted to the number of repetitions completed under each load condition that allowed the determination of the maximum number of repetitions that could be completed under other supra-maximal loads. This linear function predicted an eccentric-only 1-RM in the bench press with a load equivalent to 164.8% 1-RM, producing a load of 227.0 ± 50.0 kg. The repetition-load scheme presented here should provide a starting point for researchers to investigate the kinematic, kinetic and metabolic responses to eccentric-only bench press workouts.

  19. 76 FR 50881 - Required Scale Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-17

    ... RIN 0580-AB10 Required Scale Tests AGENCY: Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration... required scale tests. Those documents defined ``limited seasonal basis'' incorrectly. This document... 20, 2011 (76 FR 3485) and on April 4, 2011 (76 FR 18348), concerning required scale tests. Those...

  20. Hydrogen generation from bioethanol reforming: bench-scale unit performance with Cu/Nb2O5 catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes Machado, N.R.C.; Schmal, M.; Cantao, M.P.

    2003-01-01

    As an alternative route for hydrogen production, ethanol reforming was studied in a bench-scale unit using a 5%Cu/Nb 2 O 5 catalyst previously selected in a micro reactor. X-Ray Diffraction analysis has shown that this catalyst contains copper oxide in an amorphous form, or in particles smaller than 20 nm, while the Nb 2 O 5 is highly crystalline. Analysis of the calcinated catalyst by X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy revealed that 35% of total copper was on the surface as Cu I (55%) or Cu II (45%). The catalyst presented a low surface area (35 m 2 /g), mainly from meso and macropores, as textural analysis revealed. Temperature Programmed Reduction showed a two-step reduction of Cu II to Cu, at 245 o C and 306 o C. It was also observed the reduction of 6% of Nb 2 O 5 . The reaction unit consisted of an integral reactor with 16 g of catalyst pellets, approximately 3 mm x 5 mm in size. Reaction temperature and feed rate were varied to optimize hydrogen production, with CO 2 as the main byproduct. Reagents (water and ethanol) in stoichiometric proportion were fed into an electric pre-heater and vaporized. An increase on reaction temperature from 300 o C to 400 o C has led to an increase in mean conversion from 17% to 35%. Ethene and ethyl ether were also detected as minor byproducts. (author)

  1. Bench mark spectra for high-energy neutron dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dierckx, R.

    1986-01-01

    To monitor radiation damage experiments, activation detectors are commonly used. The precision of the results obtained by the multiple foil analysis is largely increased by the intercalibration in bench-mark spectra. This technique is already used in dosimetry measurements for fission reactors. To produce neutron spectra similar to fusion reactor and high-energy high-intensity neutron sources (d-Li or spallation), accelerators can be used. Some possible solutions as p-Be and d-D 2 O neutron sources, useful as bench-mark spectra are described. (author)

  2. 76 FR 3485 - Required Scale Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-20

    ...-AB10 Required Scale Tests AGENCY: Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration, USDA. ACTION... their scales tested at least twice each calendar year at intervals of approximately 6 months. This final rule requires that regulated entities complete the first of the two scale tests between January 1 and...

  3. 76 FR 18348 - Required Scale Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-04

    ... RIN 0580-AB10 Required Scale Tests AGENCY: Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration... published a document in the Federal Register on January 20, 2011 (76 FR 3485), defining required scale tests... the last sentence of paragraph (a) to read as follows: Sec. 201.72 Scales; testing of. (a...

  4. Large scale model testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brumovsky, M.; Filip, R.; Polachova, H.; Stepanek, S.

    1989-01-01

    Fracture mechanics and fatigue calculations for WWER reactor pressure vessels were checked by large scale model testing performed using large testing machine ZZ 8000 (with a maximum load of 80 MN) at the SKODA WORKS. The results are described from testing the material resistance to fracture (non-ductile). The testing included the base materials and welded joints. The rated specimen thickness was 150 mm with defects of a depth between 15 and 100 mm. The results are also presented of nozzles of 850 mm inner diameter in a scale of 1:3; static, cyclic, and dynamic tests were performed without and with surface defects (15, 30 and 45 mm deep). During cyclic tests the crack growth rate in the elastic-plastic region was also determined. (author). 6 figs., 2 tabs., 5 refs

  5. Small-Scale Spray Releases: Initial Aerosol Test Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahoney, Lenna A.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Kimura, Marcia L.; Brown, Garrett N.; Kurath, Dean E.; Buchmiller, William C.; Smith, Dennese M.; Blanchard, Jeremy; Song, Chen; Daniel, Richard C.; Wells, Beric E.; Tran, Diana N.; Burns, Carolyn A.

    2013-05-29

    One of the events postulated in the hazard analysis at the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities is a breach in process piping that produces aerosols with droplet sizes in the respirable range. The current approach for predicting the size and concentration of aerosols produced in a spray leak involves extrapolating from correlations reported in the literature. These correlations are based on results obtained from small engineered spray nozzles using pure liquids with Newtonian fluid behavior. The narrow ranges of physical properties on which the correlations are based do not cover the wide range of slurries and viscous materials that will be processed in the WTP and across processing facilities in the DOE complex. Two key technical areas were identified where testing results were needed to improve the technical basis by reducing the uncertainty due to extrapolating existing literature results. The first technical need was to quantify the role of slurry particles in small breaches where the slurry particles may plug and result in substantially reduced, or even negligible, respirable fraction formed by high-pressure sprays. The second technical need was to determine the aerosol droplet size distribution and volume from prototypic breaches and fluids, specifically including sprays from larger breaches with slurries where data from the literature are scarce. To address these technical areas, small- and large-scale test stands were constructed and operated with simulants to determine aerosol release fractions and net generation rates from a range of breach sizes and geometries. The properties of the simulants represented the range of properties expected in the WTP process streams and included water, sodium salt solutions, slurries containing boehmite or gibbsite, and a hazardous chemical simulant. The effect of antifoam agents was assessed with most of the simulants. Orifices included round holes and

  6. Large scale reflood test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirano, Kemmei; Murao, Yoshio

    1980-01-01

    The large-scale reflood test with a view to ensuring the safety of light water reactors was started in fiscal 1976 based on the special account act for power source development promotion measures by the entrustment from the Science and Technology Agency. Thereafter, to establish the safety of PWRs in loss-of-coolant accidents by joint international efforts, the Japan-West Germany-U.S. research cooperation program was started in April, 1980. Thereupon, the large-scale reflood test is now included in this program. It consists of two tests using a cylindrical core testing apparatus for examining the overall system effect and a plate core testing apparatus for testing individual effects. Each apparatus is composed of the mock-ups of pressure vessel, primary loop, containment vessel and ECCS. The testing method, the test results and the research cooperation program are described. (J.P.N.)

  7. Integrated laboratory scale demonstration experiment of the hybrid sulphur cycle and preliminary scale-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leybros, J.; Rivalier, P.; Saturnin, A.; Charton, S.

    2010-01-01

    The hybrid sulphur cycle is today one of the most promising processes to produce hydrogen on a massive scale within the scope of high temperature nuclear reactors development. Thus, the Fuel Cycle Technology Department at CEA Marcoule is involved in studying the hybrid sulphur process from a technical and economical performance standpoint. Based on mass and energy balance calculations, a ProsimPlus TM flow sheet and a commercial plant design were prepared. This work includes a study on sizing of the main equipment. The capital cost has been estimated using the major characteristics of main equipment based upon formulae and charts published in literature. A specific approach has been developed for electrolysers. Operational costs are also proposed for a plant producing 1000 mol/s H 2 . Bench scale and pilot experiments must focus on the electrochemical step due to limited experimental data. Thus, a pilot plant with a hydrogen capacity of 100 NL/h was built with the aim of acquiring technical and technological data for electrolysis. This pilot plant was designed to cover a wide range of operating conditions: sulphuric acid concentrations up to 60 wt.%, temperatures up to 100 deg. C and pressures up to 10 bar. New materials and structures recently developed for fuel cells, which are expected to yield significant performance improvements when applied to classical electrochemical processes, will be tested. All experiments will be coupled with phenomenological simulation tools developed jointly with the experimental programme. (authors)

  8. Demonstration of FBRM as process analytical technology tool for dewatering processes via CST correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobbledick, Jeffrey; Nguyen, Alexander; Latulippe, David R

    2014-07-01

    The current challenges associated with the design and operation of net-energy positive wastewater treatment plants demand sophisticated approaches for the monitoring of polymer-induced flocculation. In anaerobic digestion (AD) processes, the dewaterability of the sludge is typically assessed from off-line lab-bench tests - the capillary suction time (CST) test is one of the most common. Focused beam reflectance measurement (FBRM) is a promising technique for real-time monitoring of critical performance attributes in large scale processes and is ideally suited for dewatering applications. The flocculation performance of twenty-four cationic polymers, that spanned a range of polymer size and charge properties, was measured using both the FBRM and CST tests. Analysis of the data revealed a decreasing monotonic trend; the samples that had the highest percent removal of particles less than 50 microns in size as determined by FBRM had the lowest CST values. A subset of the best performing polymers was used to evaluate the effects of dosage amount and digestate sources on dewatering performance. The results from this work show that FBRM is a powerful tool that can be used for optimization and on-line monitoring of dewatering processes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Medium scale test study of chemical cleaning technique for secondary side of SG in PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Mengqin; Zhang Shufeng; Yu Jinghua; Hou Shufeng

    1997-08-01

    The medium scale test study of chemical cleaning technique for removing corrosion product (Fe 3 O 4 ) in secondary side of SG in PWR has been completed. The test has been carried out in a medium scale test loop. The medium scale test evaluated the effect of the chemical cleaning technique (temperature, flow rate, cleaning time, cleaning process), the state of corrosion product deposition on magnetite (Fe 3 O 4 ) solubility and safety of materials of SG in cleaning process. The inhibitor component of chemical cleaning agent has been improved by electrochemical linear polarization method, the effect of inhibitor on corrosion resistance of materials have been examined in the medium scale test loop, the most components of chemical cleaning agent have been obtained, the EDTA is main component in cleaning agent. The electrochemical method for monitor corrosion of materials during cleaning process has been completed in the laboratory. The study of the medium scale test of chemical cleaning technique have had the optimum chemical cleaning technique for remove corrosion product in SG secondary side of PWR. (9 refs., 4 figs., 11 tabs.)

  10. New pocket tools for Physics: create a star on one's laboratory bench

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larousserie, D.

    2001-01-01

    Big science means huge investment in giant physics instruments like particle accelerators or fusion reactors. Today this way of making physics enters in competition with more bench-scale research, this research requires less financial means and then can be developed in university laboratories. This trend has been made possible by the recent technological progress in the field of power lasers. A source of X-radiation, similar to that obtained from a big synchrotron can be designed by using adequate lasers. Thermonuclear reactions have been recently produced in laser targets. (A.C.)

  11. ComprehensiveBench: a Benchmark for the Extensive Evaluation of Global Scheduling Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilla, Laércio L.; Bozzetti, Tiago C.; Castro, Márcio; Navaux, Philippe O. A.; Méhaut, Jean-François

    2015-10-01

    Parallel applications that present tasks with imbalanced loads or complex communication behavior usually do not exploit the underlying resources of parallel platforms to their full potential. In order to mitigate this issue, global scheduling algorithms are employed. As finding the optimal task distribution is an NP-Hard problem, identifying the most suitable algorithm for a specific scenario and comparing algorithms are not trivial tasks. In this context, this paper presents ComprehensiveBench, a benchmark for global scheduling algorithms that enables the variation of a vast range of parameters that affect performance. ComprehensiveBench can be used to assist in the development and evaluation of new scheduling algorithms, to help choose a specific algorithm for an arbitrary application, to emulate other applications, and to enable statistical tests. We illustrate its use in this paper with an evaluation of Charm++ periodic load balancers that stresses their characteristics.

  12. [Diagnostic test scale SI5: Assessment of sacroiliac joint dysfunction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo González, Juan C; Quintero Oliveros, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    Sacroiliac joint dysfunction is a known cause of low back pain. We think that a diagnostic score scale (SI5) may be performed to assess diagnostic utility of clinical signs of sacroiliac joint dysfunction. The primary aim of the present study was to conduct the pilot study of our new diagnostic score scale, the SI5, for sacroiliac joint syndrome. We reviewed the literature on clinical characteristics, diagnostic tests and imaging most commonly used in diagnosing sacroiliac joint dysfunction. Our group evaluated the diagnostic utility of these aspects and we used those considered most representative to develop the SI5 diagnostic scale. The SI5 scale was applied to 22 patients with low back pain; afterwards, the standard test for diagnosing this pathology (selective blockage of the SI joint) was also performed on these patients. The sensitivity and specificity for each sign were also assessed and the diagnostic scale called SI5 was then proposed, based on these data. The most sensitive clinical tests for diagnosing SI joint dysfunction were 2 patient-reported clinical characteristics, the Laguerre Test, sacroiliac rocking test and Yeomans test (greater than 80% sensitivity). The tests with greatest diagnostic specificity (>80%) were the Lewitt test, Piedallu test and Gillet test. The proposed SI5 test score scale showed sensitivity of 73% and specificity of 71%. Sacroiliac joint syndrome has been shown to produce low back pain frequently; however, the diagnostic value of examination tests for sacroiliac joint pain has been questioned by other authors. The pilot study on the SI5 diagnostic score scale showed good sensitivity and specificity. However, the process of statistical validation of the SI5 needs to be continued. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Neurocirugía. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  13. Small-Scale Spray Releases: Initial Aerosol Test Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahoney, Lenna A.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Kimura, Marcia L.; Brown, Garrett N.; Kurath, Dean E.; Buchmiller, William C.; Smith, Dennese M.; Blanchard, Jeremy; Song, Chen; Daniel, Richard C.; Wells, Beric E.; Tran, Diana N.; Burns, Carolyn A.

    2012-11-01

    One of the events postulated in the hazard analysis at the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities is a breach in process piping that produces aerosols with droplet sizes in the respirable range. The current approach for predicting the size and concentration of aerosols produced in a spray leak involves extrapolating from correlations reported in the literature. These correlations are based on results obtained from small engineered spray nozzles using pure liquids with Newtonian fluid behavior. The narrow ranges of physical properties on which the correlations are based do not cover the wide range of slurries and viscous materials that will be processed in the WTP and across processing facilities in the DOE complex. Two key technical areas were identified where testing results were needed to improve the technical basis by reducing the uncertainty due to extrapolating existing literature results. The first technical need was to quantify the role of slurry particles in small breaches where the slurry particles may plug and result in substantially reduced, or even negligible, respirable fraction formed by high-pressure sprays. The second technical need was to determine the aerosol droplet size distribution and volume from prototypic breaches and fluids, specifically including sprays from larger breaches with slurries where data from the literature are scarce. To address these technical areas, small- and large-scale test stands were constructed and operated with simulants to determine aerosol release fractions and generation rates from a range of breach sizes and geometries. The properties of the simulants represented the range of properties expected in the WTP process streams and included water, sodium salt solutions, slurries containing boehmite or gibbsite, and a hazardous chemical simulant. The effect of anti-foam agents was assessed with most of the simulants. Orifices included round holes and

  14. A computational methodology for a micro launcher engine test bench using a combined linear static and dynamic in frequency response analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion DIMA

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to provide a quick methodology to determine the critical values of the forces, displacements and stress function of frequency, under a combined linear static (101 Solution - Linear Static and dynamic load in frequency response (108 Solution - Frequency Response, Direct Method, applied to a micro launcher engine test bench, using NASTRAN 400 Solution - Implicit Nonlinear. NASTRAN/PATRAN software is used. Practically in PATRAN the preprocessor has to define a linear or nonlinear static load at step 1 and a dynamic in frequency response load (time dependent at step 2. In Analyze the following options are chosen: for Solution Type Implicit Nonlinear Solution (SOL 400 is selected, for Subcases Static Load and Transient Dynamic is chosen and for Subcase Select the two cases static and dynamic will be selected. NASTRAN solver will overlap results from static analysis with the dynamic analysis. The running time will be reduced three times if using Krylov solver. NASTRAN SYSTEM (387 = -1 instruction is used in order to activate Krylov option. Also, in Analysis the OP2 Output Format shall be selected, meaning that in bdf NASTRAN input file the PARAM POST 1 instruction shall be written. The structural damping can be defined in two different ways: either at the material card or using the PARAM, G, 0.05 instruction (in this example a damping coefficient by 5% was used. The SDAMPING instruction in pair with TABDMP1 work only for dynamic in frequency response, modal method, or in direct method with viscoelastic material, not for dynamic in frequency response, direct method (DFREQ, with linear elastic material. The Direct method – DFREQ used in this example is more accurate. A set in translation of boundary conditions was used and defined at the base of the test bench.

  15. The Plasma Hearth Process demonstration project for mixed waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geimer, R.; Dwight, C.; McClellan, G.

    1994-01-01

    The Plasma Hearth Process (PHP) demonstration project is one of the key technology projects in the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development (OTD) Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP). Testing to date has yielded encouraging results in displaying potential applications for the PHP technology. Early tests have shown that a wide range of waste materials can be readily processed in the PHP and converted to a vitreous product. Waste materials can be treated in their original container as received at the treatment facility, without pretreatment. The vitreous product, when cooled, exhibits excellent performance in leach resistance, consistently exceeding the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) requirements. Performance of the Demonstration System during test operations has been shown to meet emission requirements. An accelerated development phase, being conducted at both bench- and pilot-scale on both nonradioactive and radioactive materials, will confirm the viability of the process. It is anticipated that, as a result of this accelerated technology development and demonstration phase, the PHP will be ready for a final field-level demonstration within three years

  16. A Pulsed Electric Field (PEF) bench static system to study bacteria inactivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortese, Pietro; Dellacasa, Giuseppe; Gemme, Roberto; Bonetta, Sara; Bonetta, Silvia; Carraro, Elisabetta; Motta, Francesca; Paganoni, Marco; Pizzichemi, Marco

    2011-01-01

    Pulsed Electric Fields (PEF) technology is a promising non-thermal processing method for inactivation of microorganisms. A small PEF bench system able to treat a 0.4 ml static liquid volume has been built and tested at the laboratories of the Universita del Piemonte Orientale in Alessandria, Italy. The technique used to produce the required fields consists of charging high voltage cables of various lengths and subsequently discharge them on a cylindrical cell. The pulse intensity can be adjusted to reach a maximum electric field in the cell of about 35 kV/cm and the pulse frequency can reach 10 Hz. We describe the PEF system in some detail and, as a benchmark of its performances, we report preliminary results obtained on Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922) at 10 9 Cfu/ml concentration suspended in a McIlvaine buffer (pH 7.2).

  17. Mountain-Scale Coupled Processes (TH/THC/THM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, P.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this Model Report is to document the development of the Mountain-Scale Thermal-Hydrological (TH), Thermal-Hydrological-Chemical (THC), and Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical (THM) Models and evaluate the effects of coupled TH/THC/THM processes on mountain-scale UZ flow at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This Model Report was planned in ''Technical Work Plan (TWP) for: Performance Assessment Unsaturated Zone'' (BSC 2002 [160819], Section 1.12.7), and was developed in accordance with AP-SIII.10Q, Models. In this Model Report, any reference to ''repository'' means the nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, and any reference to ''drifts'' means the emplacement drifts at the repository horizon. This Model Report provides the necessary framework to test conceptual hypotheses for analyzing mountain-scale hydrological/chemical/mechanical changes and predict flow behavior in response to heat release by radioactive decay from the nuclear waste repository at the Yucca Mountain site. The mountain-scale coupled TH/THC/THM processes models numerically simulate the impact of nuclear waste heat release on the natural hydrogeological system, including a representation of heat-driven processes occurring in the far field. The TH simulations provide predictions for thermally affected liquid saturation, gas- and liquid-phase fluxes, and water and rock temperature (together called the flow fields). The main focus of the TH Model is to predict the changes in water flux driven by evaporation/condensation processes, and drainage between drifts. The TH Model captures mountain-scale three dimensional (3-D) flow effects, including lateral diversion at the PTn/TSw interface and mountain-scale flow patterns. The Mountain-Scale THC Model evaluates TH effects on water and gas chemistry, mineral dissolution/precipitation, and the resulting impact to UZ hydrological properties, flow and transport. The THM Model addresses changes in permeability due to mechanical and thermal disturbances in

  18. Development and Implementation of a Scaled Saltstone Facility at Savannah River National Laboratory - 13346

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reigel, Marissa M.; Fowley, Mark D.; Hansen, Erich K.; Hera, Kevin R.; Marzolf, Athneal D.; Cozzi, Alex D.

    2013-01-01

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has supported the Saltstone Production Facility (SPF) since its conception. However, bench scaled tests have not always provided process or performance data related to the mixing, transfer, and other operations utilized in the SPF. A need was identified to better understand the SPF processes and to have the capabilities at SRNL to simulate the SPF unit operations to support an active low-level radioactive waste (LLW) processing facility. At the SPF, the dry premix is weighed, mixed and transferred to the Readco '10-inch' continuous mixer where it is mixed with the LLW salt solution from the Salt Feed Tank (SFT) to produce fresh Saltstone slurry. The slurry is discharged from the mixer into a hopper. The hopper feeds the grout pump that transfers the slurry through at least 457.2 meters of piping and discharges it into the Saltstone Disposal Units (SDU) for permanent disposal. In conjunction with testing individual SPF processes over several years, SRNL has designed and fabricated a scaled Saltstone Facility. Scaling of the system is primarily based on the volume capacity of the mixer and maintaining the same shear rate and total shear at the wall of the transfer line. At present, SRNL is utilizing the modular capabilities of the scaled Saltstone Facility to investigate the erosion issues related to the augers and paddles inside the SPF mixer. Full implementation of the scaled Saltstone Facility is still ongoing, but it is proving to be a valuable resource for testing alternate Saltstone formulations, cleaning sequences, the effect of pumping Saltstone to farther SDU's, optimization of the SPF mixer, and other operational variables before they are implemented in the SPF. (authors)

  19. Scale up risk of developing oil shale processing units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oepik, I.

    1991-01-01

    The experiences in oil shale processing in three large countries, China, the U.S.A. and the U.S.S.R. have demonstrated, that the relative scale up risk of developing oil shale processing units is related to the scale up factor. On the background of large programmes for developing the oil shale industry branch, i.e. the $30 billion investments in colorado and Utah or 50 million t/year oil shale processing in Estonia and Leningrad Region planned in the late seventies, the absolute scope of the scale up risk of developing single retorting plants, seems to be justified. But under the conditions of low crude oil prices, when the large-scale development of oil shale processing industry is stopped, the absolute scope of the scale up risk is to be divided between a small number of units. Therefore, it is reasonable to build the new commercial oil shale processing plants with a minimum scale up risk. For example, in Estonia a new oil shale processing plant with gas combustion retorts projected to start in the early nineties will be equipped with four units of 1500 t/day enriched oil shale throughput each, designed with scale up factor M=1.5 and with a minimum scale up risk, only r=2.5-4.5%. The oil shale retorting unit for the PAMA plant in Israel [1] is planned to develop in three steps, also with minimum scale up risk: feasibility studies in Colorado with Israel's shale at Paraho 250 t/day retort and other tests, demonstration retort of 700 t/day and M=2.8 in Israel, and commercial retorts in the early nineties with the capacity of about 1000 t/day with M=1.4. The scale up risk of the PAMA project r=2-4% is approximately the same as that in Estonia. the knowledge of the scope of the scale up risk of developing oil shale processing retorts assists on the calculation of production costs in erecting new units. (author). 9 refs., 2 tabs

  20. Strontium Removal: Full-Scale Ohio Demonstrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives of this presentation are to present a brief overview of past bench-scale research to evaluate the impact lime softening on strontium removal from drinking water and present full-scale drinking water treatment studies to impact of lime softening and ion exchange sof...

  1. Experience gained in pilot-scale and bench-scale fluidised beds processing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hadley, TD

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available for clean coal technology thrust COMMISSIONED PLANTS Slagment Hot Gas Generator Client : Slagment Bed area : 25 m2 Plant purpose : A 10 MW plant for the combustion of duff coal at greater than 98% burnout to provide hot gases for the drying...

  2. Design studies for a tracking upgrade of the Crystal Barrel experiment at ELSA and installation of tracking test bench

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winnebeck, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    Ever since mankind was interested in the understanding of the universe and especially the matter in it. The fundamental building blocks of matter seem to be quarks and gluons, whose interactions are investigated in hadron physics. To study this strong interaction different experimental approaches can be used. One way is to do spectroscopy similar to atomic physics. The Crystal Barrel experiment at ELSA performs spectroscopy of nucleons to learn more about the strong interaction. A major improvement of this experimental setup will be the introducing of charged particle tracking as it is shown in this thesis. Different detector concepts are discussed concerning feasibility, material budget and especially momentum resolution. It turns out that a Time Projection Chamber (TPC) is the optimal solution. Then it is shown how a prototype TPC is tested using a newly installed tracking test bench with an electron beam, and obtained results are presented. The design of the final TPC and its integration into the Crystal Barrel experiment