WorldWideScience

Sample records for process energy savings

  1. Minimum energy consumption process synthesis for energy saving

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao-Ping, Jia [Institute for Petroleum and Chemical Industry, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266042, Shandong (China); Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Fang, Wang; Shu-Guang, Xiang; Xin-Sun, Tan; Fang-Yu, Han [Institute for Petroleum and Chemical Industry, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266042, Shandong (China)

    2008-05-15

    The paper presents a synthesis strategy for the chemical processes with energy saving. The concept of minimum energy consumption process (MECP) is proposed. Three characteristics of MECP are introduced, including thermodynamic minimum energy demand, energy consumption efficiency and integration degree. These characteristics are evaluated according to quantitative thermodynamic analysis and qualitative knowledge rules. The procedure of synthesis strategy is proposed to support the generation of MECP alternatives, which combine flowsheet integration and heat integration. The cases studies will focus on how integration degrees of a process affect the energy-saving results. The separation sequences of the hydrodealkylation of toluene (HDA) process and ethanol distillation process as case studies are used to illustrate. (author)

  2. Energy saving analysis and management modeling based on index decomposition analysis integrated energy saving potential method: Application to complex chemical processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geng, Zhiqiang; Gao, Huachao; Wang, Yanqing; Han, Yongming; Zhu, Qunxiong

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The integrated framework that combines IDA with energy-saving potential method is proposed. • Energy saving analysis and management framework of complex chemical processes is obtained. • This proposed method is efficient in energy optimization and carbon emissions of complex chemical processes. - Abstract: Energy saving and management of complex chemical processes play a crucial role in the sustainable development procedure. In order to analyze the effect of the technology, management level, and production structure having on energy efficiency and energy saving potential, this paper proposed a novel integrated framework that combines index decomposition analysis (IDA) with energy saving potential method. The IDA method can obtain the level of energy activity, energy hierarchy and energy intensity effectively based on data-drive to reflect the impact of energy usage. The energy saving potential method can verify the correctness of the improvement direction proposed by the IDA method. Meanwhile, energy efficiency improvement, energy consumption reduction and energy savings can be visually discovered by the proposed framework. The demonstration analysis of ethylene production has verified the practicality of the proposed method. Moreover, we can obtain the corresponding improvement for the ethylene production based on the demonstration analysis. The energy efficiency index and the energy saving potential of these worst months can be increased by 6.7% and 7.4%, respectively. And the carbon emissions can be reduced by 7.4–8.2%.

  3. Energy saving estimation on radiation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneko, Hideaki; Maekawa, H.; Ito, Y.; Nishikawa, I.; Fujii, H.; Murata, K.

    1982-01-01

    When the quantity of paint used for industrial coating is assumed to be 420,000 tons, it is estimated that the area being coated is 2.8 billion m 2 , the petroleum required for pretreatment steam, drying and baking is 1.68 million tons, and the required amount of energy saving is 120,000 tons per year in terms of petroleum. The authors examined how the adoption of electron beam curing for surface coating contributes to the energy saving. So far, it has been said that electron beam curing is more efficient than thermal or light curing in energy consumption, but the premise condition was not clear. The theoretical energy requirement for thermal curing, light curing and electron beam curing was calculated and compared. The comparison of the measured values was also performed. The amount of energy required for thermal curing, UV light curing and electron beam curing was roughly 100:10:1, and the cost of energy for them was 50:5:1. In spite of the large merit of electron beam curing, it has not spread as expected, because of the repayment cost of the facility and the cost of inert gas required for the process. Energy saving is brought about by electron beam curing, but the overall cost must be examined case by case. (Kako, I.)

  4. Approximation of theoretical energy-saving potentials for the petrochemical industry using energy balances for 68 key processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neelis, Maarten; Patel, Martin; Blok, Kornelis; Haije, Wim; Bach, Pieter

    2007-01-01

    We prepared energy and carbon balances for 68 petrochemical processes in the petrochemical industry for Western Europe, the Netherlands and the world. We analysed the process energy use in relation to the heat effects of the chemical reactions and quantified in this way the sum of all energy inputs into the processes that do not end up in the useful products of the process, but are lost as waste heat to the environment. We showed that both process energy use and heat effects of reaction contribute significantly to the overall energy loss of the processes studied and recommend addressing reaction effects explicitly in energy-efficiency studies. We estimated the energy loss in Western Europe in the year 2000 at 1620 PJ of final energy and 1936 PJ of primary energy, resulting in a total of 127 Mt CO 2 . The losses identified can be regarded as good approximations of the theoretical energy-saving potentials of the processes analysed. The processes with large energy losses in relative (per tonne of product) and absolute (in PJ per year) terms are recommended for more detailed analysis taking into account further thermodynamic, economic, and practical considerations to identify technical and economic energy-saving potentials

  5. Cogeneration an opportunity for industrial energy saving

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasha, R.A.; Butt, Z.S.

    2011-01-01

    This paper is about the cogeneration from industrial energy savings opportunities perspective. The energy crisis in these days forces industry to find ways to cope with critical situation. There are several energy savings options which if properly planned and implemented would be beneficial both for industry and community. One way of energy saving is Cogeneration i.e. Combined Heat and Power. The paper will review the basic methods, types and then discuss the suitability of these options for specific industry. It has been identified that generally process industry can get benefits of energy savings. (author)

  6. Energy savings: persuasion and persistence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eijadi, David; McDougall, Tom; Leaf, Kris; Douglas, Jim; Steinbock, Jason; Reimer, Paul [The Weidt Group, Minnetonka, MN (United States); Gauthier, Julia [Xcel Energy, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Wild, Doug; Richards McDaniel, Stephanie [BWBR Architects, Inc., Saint Paul, MN (United States)

    2005-07-01

    In this study, the architects, sponsoring utility and energy simulation specialist joined together to investigate the persistence of energy savings in three completed projects: a college library; a municipal transportation facility; and a hospital. The primary question being 'How well did the design decisions made with the help of simulation analysis translate into building operations over several years?' Design simulation and metered performance data are compared for specific energy-saving strategies. The paper provides a brief overview of the basis of selection of the three projects, the energy design assistance methods employed and the decisions made, along with their savings expectations. For each case, design characteristics, modelling assumptions, selected strategies and actual metered performance are outlined. We find evidence of appropriate levels of energy conservation, but they are not the absolute values predicted. In each case, the discrepancies between modelling assumptions and final construction or operating procedures are identified, examined and rectified. The paper illustrates that while owners are saving energy, they are not always getting the full savings potential for what they install. The paper concludes with a re-examination of the overall process. It evaluates the potential for additional savings of individual technologies and related larger utility incentives to design teams and building owners.

  7. Energy saving certificates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-11-01

    The French ministry of economy, finances and industry and the French agency of environment and energy mastery (Ademe) have organized on November 8, 2005, a colloquium for the presentation of the energy saving certificates, a new tool to oblige the energy suppliers to encourage their clients to make energy savings. This document gathers the transparencies presented at this colloquium about the following topics: state-of-the-art and presentation of the energy saving certificates system: presentation of the EEC system, presentation of the EEC standard operations; the energy saving certificates in Europe today: energy efficiency commitment in UK, Italian white certificate scheme, perspectives of the different European systems. (J.S.)

  8. Advanced Energy Saving and its Applications in Industry

    CERN Document Server

    Matsuda, Kazuo; Fushimi, Chihiro; Tsutsumi, Atsushi; Kishimoto, Akira

    2013-01-01

    The conventional approach for energy saving in a process system is to maximize heat recovery without changing any process conditions by using pinch technology. “Self-heat recuperation technology” was developed to achieve further energy saving in the process system by eliminating the necessity for any external heat input, such as firing or imported steam. Advanced Energy Saving and its Applications in Industry introduces the concept of self-heat recuperation and the application of such technology to a wide range of processes from heavy chemical complexes to other processes such as drying and gas separation processes, which require heating and cooling during operation.   Conventional energy saving items in a utility system are applied and implemented based on a single site approach, however, when looking at heavy chemical complexes, it was apparent that the low-grade heat discharged as waste from a refinery could also be used in an adjacent petrochemical plant. There could therefore be a large energy savin...

  9. [Energy Consumption Comparison and Energy Saving Approaches for Different Wastewater Treatment Processes in a Large-scale Reclaimed Water Plant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Min; Li, Ya-ming; Wei, Yuan-song; Lü, Jian; Yu, Da-wei; Liu, Ji-bao; Fan, Yao-bo

    2015-06-01

    Energy consumption is the main performance indicator of reclaimed water plant (RWP) operation. Methods of specific energy consumption analysis, unit energy consumption analysis and redundancy analysis were applied to investigate the composition and spatio-temporal distribution of energy consumption in Qinghe RWP with inverted A2/O, A2/O and A2/O-MBR processes. And the A2/ O-MBR process was mainly analyzed to identify the main nodes and causes for high energy consumption, approaches for energy saving were explored, and the energy consumption before and after upgrading for energy saving was compared. The results showed that aeration was the key factor affecting energy consumption in both conventional and A2/O-MBR processes, accounting for 42.97% and 50.65% of total energy consumption, respectively. A pulsating aeration allowed an increasing membrane flux and remarkably reduced the energy consumption of the A2/O-MBR process while still meeting the effluent standard, e.g., the membrane flux was increased by 20%, and the energy consumptions per kiloton wastewater and kilogram COD(removed) were decreased by 42.39% to 0.53 kW-h-kg-3 and by 54.74% to 1.29 kW x h x kg(-1), respectively. The decrease of backflow ratio in the A2/O-MBR process within a certain range would not deteriorate the effluent quality due to its insignificant correlation with the effluent quality, and therefore may be considered as one of the ways for further energy saving.

  10. Energy saving of benzene separation process for environmentally friendly gasoline using an extended DWC (divided wall column)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Han

    2016-01-01

    Benzene is a known carcinogen, and is desired to be removed from the gasoline additive for environmental reason. A benzene removal process from the additive, reformate of catalytic reformers, is proposed utilizing an extended DWC (divided wall column). The DWC reduces the processing load of the whole process especially in extractor, which employs high boiling point solvent requiring large amount of energy and costly utility. In this study the design of the proposed process is addressed along with the evaluation of energy saving, economics and thermodynamic efficiency. The evaluation results indicate the heating duty reduction of 56.8% from the proposed process over the conventional process and 64.6% reduction of cooling duty. The economics reveals the 26% reduction of investment and 56% reduction of utility cost from the proposed process. However, no significant improvement of thermodynamic efficiency is yielded. - Highlights: • Energy saving benzene separation process is proposed. • Extraction load is reduced by feed separation. • Heat duty saving of 57% is yielded. • Investment and utility cost savings are 26% and 56%. • Commercially proven DWC is utilized.

  11. Save Energy Now Assessments Results 2008 Detailed Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, Anthony L [ORNL; Martin, Michaela A [ORNL; Nimbalkar, Sachin U [ORNL; Quinn, James [U.S. Department of Energy; Glatt, Ms. Sandy [DOE Industrial Technologies Program; Orthwein, Mr. Bill [U.S. Department of Energy

    2010-09-01

    In October 2005, U.S. Department of Energy Secretary Bodman launched his Easy Ways to Save Energy campaign with a promise to provide energy assessments to 200 of the largest U.S. manufacturing plants. DOE's Industrial Technologies Program (ITP) responded to the Secretary's campaign with its Save Energy Now initiative, featuring a new and highly cost-effective form of energy savings assessment. The approach for these assessments drew heavily on the existing resources of ITP's technology delivery component. Over the years, ITP Technology Delivery has worked with industry partners to assemble a suite of respected software tools, proven assessment protocols, training curricula, certified energy experts, and strong partnerships for deployment. The Save Energy Now assessments conducted in calendar year 2006 focused on natural gas savings and targeted many of the nation's largest manufacturing plants - those that consume at least 1 TBtu of energy annually. The 2006 Save Energy Now assessments focused primarily on assessments of steam and process heating systems, which account for an estimated 74% of all natural gas use by U.S. manufacturing plants. Because of the success of the Save Energy Now assessments conducted in 2006 and 2007, the program was expanded and enhanced in two major ways in 2008: (1) a new goal was set to perform at least 260 assessments; and (2) the assessment focus was expanded to include pumping, compressed air, and fan systems in addition to steam and process heating. DOE ITP also has developed software tools to assess energy efficiency improvement opportunities in pumping, compressed air, and fan systems. The Save Energy Now assessments integrate a strong training component designed to teach industrial plant personnel how to use DOE's opportunity assessment software tools. This approach has the advantages of promoting strong buy-in of plant personnel for the assessment and its outcomes and preparing them better to

  12. Bandwidth Study on Energy Use and Potential Energy Savings Opportunities in U.S. Petroleum Refining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabine Brueske, Caroline Kramer, Aaron Fisher

    2015-06-01

    Energy bandwidth studies of U.S. manufacturing sectors can serve as foundational references in framing the range (or bandwidth) of potential energy savings opportunities. This bandwidth study examines energy consumption and potential energy savings opportunities in U.S. petroleum refining. The study relies on multiple sources to estimate the energy used in nine individual process areas, representing 68% of sector-wide energy consumption. Energy savings opportunities for individual processes are based on technologies currently in use or under development; these potential savings are then extrapolated to estimate sector-wide energy savings opportunity.

  13. Fossil energy savings potential of sugar cane bio-energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Thu Lan T; Hermansen, John Erik; Sagisaka, Masayuki

    2009-01-01

    One important rationale for bio-energy systems is their potential to save fossil energy. Converting a conventional sugar mill into a bio-energy process plant would contribute to fossil energy savings via the extraction of renewable electricity and ethanol substituting for fossil electricity...... and gasoline, respectively. This paper takes a closer look at the Thai sugar industry and examines two practical approaches that will enhance fossil energy savings. The first one addresses an efficient extraction of energy in the form of electricity from the excess bagasse and cane trash. The second while...... proposing to convert molasses or sugar cane to ethanol stresses the use of bagasse as well as distillery spent wash to replace coal in meeting ethanol plants' energy needs. The savings potential achieved with extracting ethanol from surplus sugar versus current practice in sugar industry in Thailand amounts...

  14. Energy saving synergies in national energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thellufsen, Jakob Zinck; Lund, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    In the transition towards a 100% renewable energy system, energy savings are essential. The possibility of energy savings through conservation or efficiency increases can be identified in, for instance, the heating and electricity sectors, in industry, and in transport. Several studies point...... to various optimal levels of savings in the different sectors of the energy system. However, these studies do not investigate the idea of energy savings being system dependent. This paper argues that such system dependency is critical to understand, as it does not make sense to analyse an energy saving...... without taking into account the actual benefit of the saving in relation to the energy system. The study therefore identifies a need to understand how saving methods may interact with each other and the system in which they are conducted. By using energy system analysis to do hourly simulation...

  15. Measuring industrial energy savings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly Kissock, J.; Eger, Carl

    2008-01-01

    Accurate measurement of energy savings from industrial energy efficiency projects can reduce uncertainty about the efficacy of the projects, guide the selection of future projects, improve future estimates of expected savings, promote financing of energy efficiency projects through shared-savings agreements, and improve utilization of capital resources. Many efforts to measure industrial energy savings, or simply track progress toward efficiency goals, have had difficulty incorporating changing weather and production, which are frequently major drivers of plant energy use. This paper presents a general method for measuring plant-wide industrial energy savings that takes into account changing weather and production between the pre and post-retrofit periods. In addition, the method can disaggregate savings into components, which provides additional resolution for understanding the effectiveness of individual projects when several projects are implemented together. The method uses multivariable piece-wise regression models to characterize baseline energy use, and disaggregates savings by taking the total derivative of the energy use equation. Although the method incorporates search techniques, multi-variable least-squares regression and calculus, it is easily implemented using data analysis software, and can use readily available temperature, production and utility billing data. This is important, since more complicated methods may be too complex for widespread use. The method is demonstrated using case studies of actual energy assessments. The case studies demonstrate the importance of adjusting for weather and production between the pre- and post-retrofit periods, how plant-wide savings can be disaggregated to evaluate the effectiveness of individual retrofits, how the method can identify the time-dependence of savings, and limitations of engineering models when used to estimate future savings

  16. Energy saving baking methods. Energibesparende bagemetoder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gry, P.

    1988-01-01

    The project ''Energy Saving Baking Methods'', run as part of the Energy Research Project-1984, and has as its aim to investigate potentials for energy saving by employing microwaves in the baking process. The project is a follow-up of the Nordic Industry Fund project which was completed in 1983. Smaller test ovens with IR long waves, warm air convection and microwaves of 2,47 GHz were used. Measurements of heat distribution from all three energy sources have been made. Extensive experiments have been carried out in order to develope baking methods for white loaves which are energy saving, but where the quality of the bread does not undergo any form of deterioration. Tests were made using microwaves alone, and in combination with hot air and IR. A resulting saving 35% baking time was achieved, and a further reduction of baking time can be reached where a greater improvement of energy distribution can take place, especially in the case of microwaves and IR. (AB).

  17. Fossil energy savings potential of sugar cane bio-energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Thu Lan T. [Department of Agroecology, Aarhus University, Tjele (Denmark); The Joint Graduate School of Energy and Environment, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok (Thailand); Hermansen, John E. [Department of Agroecology, Aarhus University, Tjele (Denmark); Sagisaka, Masayuki [Institute of Science for Safety and Sustainability, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba (Japan)

    2009-11-15

    One important rationale for bio-energy systems is their potential to save fossil energy. Converting a conventional sugar mill into a bio-energy process plant would contribute to fossil energy savings via the extraction of renewable electricity and ethanol substituting for fossil electricity and gasoline, respectively. This paper takes a closer look at the Thai sugar industry and examines two practical approaches that will enhance fossil energy savings. The first one addresses an efficient extraction of energy in the form of electricity from the excess bagasse and cane trash. The second while proposing to convert molasses or sugar cane to ethanol stresses the use of bagasse as well as distillery spent wash to replace coal in meeting ethanol plants' energy needs. The savings potential achieved with extracting ethanol from surplus sugar versus current practice in sugar industry in Thailand amounts to 15 million barrels of oil a year. Whether the saving benefits could be fully realized, however, depends on how well the potential land use change resulting from an expansion of ethanol production is managed. The results presented serve as a useful guidance to formulate strategies that enable optimum utilization of biomass as an energy source. (author)

  18. Bandwidth Study on Energy Use and Potential Energy Saving Opportunities in U.S. Pulp and Paper Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabine Brueske, Caroline Kramer, Aaron Fisher

    2015-06-01

    Energy bandwidth studies of U.S. manufacturing sectors can serve as foundational references in framing the range (or bandwidth) of potential energy savings opportunities. This bandwidth study examines energy consumption and potential energy savings opportunities in U.S. pulp and paper manufacturing. The study relies on multiple sources to estimate the energy used in six individual process areas, representing 52% of sector-wide energy consumption. Energy savings opportunities for individual processes are based on technologies currently in use or under development; the potential savings are then extrapolated to estimate sector-wide energy savings opportunity

  19. Energy conservation. Federal shared energy savings contracting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fultz, Keith O.; Milans, Flora H.; Kirk, Roy J.; Welker, Robert A.; Sparling, William J.; Butler, Sharon E.; Irwin, Susan W.

    1989-04-01

    A number of impediments have discouraged federal agencies from using shared energy savings contracts. As of November 30, 1988, only two federal agencies - the U.S. Postal Service (USPS) and the Department of the Army -had awarded such contracts even though they can yield significant energy and cost savings. The three major impediments we identified were uncertainty about the applicability of a particular procurement policy and practice, lack of management incentives, and difficulty in measuring energy and cost savings. To address the first impediment, the Department of Energy (DOE) developed a manual on shared energy savings contracting. The second impediment was addressed when the 100th Congress authorized incentives for federal agencies to enter into shared savings contracts. DOE addressed the third impediment by developing a methodology for calculating energy consumption and cost savings. However, because of differing methodological preferences, this issue will need to be addressed on a contract-by-contract basis. Some state governments and private sector firms are using performance contracts to reduce energy costs in their buildings and facilities. We were able to identify six states that were using performance contracts. Five have established programs, and all six states have projects under contract. The seven energy service companies we contacted indicated interest in federal shared energy savings contracting

  20. Energy Savings Lifetimes and Persistence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, Ian M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Schiller, Steven R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Todd, Annika [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Billingsley, Megan A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Goldman, Charles A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Schwartz, Lisa C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-02-01

    This technical brief explains the concepts of energy savings lifetimes and savings persistence and discusses how program administrators use these factors to calculate savings for efficiency measures, programs and portfolios. Savings lifetime is the length of time that one or more energy efficiency measures or activities save energy, and savings persistence is the change in savings throughout the functional life of a given efficiency measure or activity. Savings lifetimes are essential for assessing the lifecycle benefits and cost effectiveness of efficiency activities and for forecasting loads in resource planning. The brief also provides estimates of savings lifetimes derived from a national collection of costs and savings for electric efficiency programs and portfolios.

  1. Bandwidth Study on Energy Use and Potential Energy Saving Opportunities in U.S. Iron and Steel Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keith Jamison, Caroline Kramer, Sabine Brueske, Aaron Fisher

    2015-06-01

    Energy bandwidth studies of U.S. manufacturing sectors can serve as foundational references in framing the range (or bandwidth) of potential energy savings opportunities. This bandwidth study examines energy consumption and potential energy savings opportunities in U.S. iron and steel manufacturing. The study relies on multiple sources to estimate the energy used in six individual process areas and select subareas, representing 82% of sector-wide energy consumption. Energy savings opportunities for individual processes and subareas are based on technologies currently in use or under development; the potential savings are then extrapolated to estimate sector-wide energy savings opportunity.

  2. Does Daylight Saving Save Energy? A Meta-Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Havránek, Tomáš; Herman, Dominik; Irsova, Zuzana

    2016-01-01

    The original rationale for adopting daylight saving time (DST) was energy savings. Modern research studies, however, question the magnitude and even direction of the effect of DST on energy consumption. Representing the first meta-analysis in this literature, we collect 162 estimates from 44 studies and find that the mean reported estimate indicates modest energy savings: 0.34% during the days when DST applies. The literature is not affected by publication bias, but the results vary systemati...

  3. The Impact of Process Scaling on Scratchpad Memory Energy Savings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bennion Redd

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Scratchpad memories have been shown to reduce power consumption, but the different characteristics of nanometer scale processes, such as increased leakage power, motivate an examination of how the benefits of these memories change with process scaling. Process and application characteristics affect the amount of energy saved by a scratchpad memory. Increases in leakage as a percentage of total power particularly impact applications that rarely access memory. This study examines how the benefits of scratchpad memories have changed in newer processes, based on the measured performance of the WIMS (Wireless Integrated MicroSystems microcontroller implemented in 180- and 65-nm processes and upon simulations of this microcontroller implemented in a 32-nm process. The results demonstrate that scratchpad memories will continue to improve the power dissipation of many applications, given the leakage anticipated in the foreseeable future.

  4. Risk transfer via energy-savings insurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, Evan

    2003-01-01

    Among the key barriers to investment in energy efficiency are uncertainties about attaining projected energy savings and potential disputes over stipulated savings. The fields of energy management and risk management are thus intertwined. While many technical methods have emerged to manage performance risks (e.g. building diagnostics and commissioning), financial methods are less developed in the energy management arena than in other segments of the economy. Energy-savings insurance (ESI) - formal insurance of predicted energy savings - transfers and spreads both types of risk over a larger pool of energy efficiency projects and reduces barriers to market entry of smaller energy service firms who lack sufficiently strong balance sheets to self-insure the savings. ESI encourages those implementing energy-saving projects to go beyond standard measures and thereby achieve more significant levels of energy savings. Insurance providers are proponents of improved savings measurement and verification techniques, as well as maintenance, thereby contributing to national energy-saving objectives. If properly applied, ESI can potentially reduce the net cost of energy-saving projects by reducing the interest rates charged by lenders, and by increasing the level of savings through quality control. Governmental agencies have been pioneers in the use of ESI and could continue to play a role

  5. Risk transfer via energy savings insurance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, Evan

    2001-10-01

    Among the key barriers to investment in energy efficiency improvements are uncertainties about attaining projected energy savings and apprehension about potential disputes over these savings. The fields of energy management and risk management are thus intertwined. While many technical methods have emerged to manage performance risks (e.g. building commissioning), financial risk transfer techniques are less developed in the energy management arena than in other more mature segments of the economy. Energy Savings Insurance (ESI) - formal insurance of predicted energy savings - is one method of transferring financial risks away from the facility owner or energy services contractor. ESI offers a number of significant advantages over other forms of financial risk transfer, e.g. savings guarantees or performance bonds. ESI providers manage risk via pre-construction design review as well as post-construction commissioning and measurement and verification of savings. We found that the two mos t common criticisms of ESI - excessive pricing and onerous exclusions - are not born out in practice. In fact, if properly applied, ESI can potentially reduce the net cost of energy savings projects by reducing the interest rates charged by lenders, and by increasing the level of savings through quality control. Debt service can also be ensured by matching loan payments to projected energy savings while designing the insurance mechanism so that payments are made by the insurer in the event of a savings shortfall. We estimate the U.S. ESI market potential of $875 million/year in premium income. From an energy-policy perspective, ESI offers a number of potential benefits: ESI transfers performance risk from the balance sheet of the entity implementing the energy savings project, thereby freeing up capital otherwise needed to ''self-insure'' the savings. ESI reduces barriers to market entry of smaller energy services firms who do not have sufficiently strong balance

  6. Moonlight project promotes energy-saving technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, A.

    1986-01-01

    In promoting energy saving, development of energy conservation technologies aimed at raising energy efficiency in the fields of energy conversion, its transportation, its storage, and its consumption is considered, along with enactment of legal actions urging rational use of energies and implementation of an enlightenment campaign for energy conservation to play a crucial role. Under the Moonlight Project, technical development is at present being centered around the following six pillars: (1) large scale energy saving technology; (2) pioneering and fundamental energy saving technology; (3) international cooperative research project; (4) research and survey of energy saving technology; (5) energy saving technology development by private industry; and (6) promotion of energy saving through standardization. Heat pumps, magnetohydrodynamic generators and fuel cells are discussed.

  7. Save Energy: Save Money!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eccli, Eugene; And Others

    This publication is a collection of inexpensive energy saving tips and home improvements for home owners, particularly in low-income areas or in older homes. Section titles are: (1) Keeping Warm; (2) Getting Heat Where You Need It; (3) Using the Sun; (4) Furnaces, Stoves, and Fireplaces; (5) Insulation and Other Energy Needs; (6) Do-It-Yourself…

  8. Energy savings in CSFR - building sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobsen, F.R.

    1993-01-01

    The Czechoslovak/Danish project on energy savings in buildings proves that it is possible to save up to 30% of the energy in buildings. 10% can be saved at an investment of 27 bill KCS. The total investment that is needed to save 30% is 140 bill KCS. Further energy savings can be obtained through more energy efficient supply systems. Information dissemination is important for the energy saving programme as are economic incentives. Investments in energy savings should be profitable for the investor, but this is not the case in the Czech and Slovak republics today. Changes are needed. Energy prices are still to low, compared to investment costs. Financial possibilities are not satisfactory for private investors. Price systems are not favourable to investment in energy savings. Training is needed for boiler men and energy consultants. Legislation is essential for the support of the full range of activities in the energy sector. Research and Development activities must back up the development of the sector. Pilot projects can illuminate the savings potential. The production of technical equipment for control and metering and production of insulation materials must be promoted. (AB)

  9. Study on energy-saving performance of a transcritical CO2 heat pump for food thermal process applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yefeng; Meng, Deren; Chen, Shen

    2018-02-01

    In food processing, there are significant simultaneous demands of cooling, warm water and hot water. Most of the heated water is used only once rather than recycled. Current heating and cooling systems consume much energy and emit lots of greenhouse gases. In order to reduce energy consumption and greenhouse gases emission, a transcritical CO2 heat pump system is proposed that can supply not only cooling, but also warm water and hot water simultaneously to meet the thermal demands of food processing. Because the inlet water temperature from environment varies through a year, the energy-saving performance for different seasons is simulated. The results showed that the potential primary energy saving rate of the proposed CO2 heat pump is 50% to 60% during a year.

  10. An energy saving system for hospital laundries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katsanis, J.S.; Tsarabaris, P.T.; Polykrati, A.D.; Proios, A.N. [National Technical Univ. of Athens, Athens (Greece). School of Electrical and Computer Engineering; Koufakis, E.I. [Public Power Corp. S.A., Crete (Greece)

    2009-07-01

    Hospital laundries are one of the largest consumers of water and electrical and thermal energy. This paper examined the energy savings achieved by a system using the hot wastewater from the washing process. Hospital laundries consume thermal energy using steam, which is produced in boilers by burning diesel oil or natural gas. Electrical energy for the mechanical drives, ventilation and also the lighting required in the laundry area are big consumers of energy. The paper presented the proposed system and discussed the parameters of the system and system dimensioning. The paper also provided and discussed an interpretation of steam and energy savings. The proposed system was considered to be economically viable, simple in its construction, installation and operation. From the application of the suggested system, the cost savings resulted in a satisfactory payback period for the capital invested of approximately three to five years. 14 refs., 4 tabs., 2 figs.

  11. Stakeholders’ influence on the adoption of energy-saving technologies in Italian homes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berardi, Umberto

    2013-01-01

    The instability and fragmentation of the temporary aggregations of many stakeholders in construction processes are barriers to adopting new technologies. This paper investigates the influence of different stakeholders on the adoption of mature energy-saving technologies in new residential buildings. Recent literature about the influence of different stakeholders on construction processes is reviewed focusing in their interest for energy saving technologies. To gain an insight into the specific roles played by stakeholders (general contractors, construction firms, architects, users and public governments) in different projects, a case study methodology was used. The influence on the adoption of energy-saving technologies of stakeholders was assessed through semi-structured interviews. These interviews focused on the interest and power for the adoption of several energy-saving technologies. Having recognized that the interest in adoption is often expressed late in the construction processes, the time of introduction of this interest was assessed. This paper provides an empirical insight into significant barriers for the adoption of energy saving technologies which are the low influence of highly motivated stakeholders on the decision of adoption, and the delay at which the interest in energy-saving technologies emerges. Finally, policies to overcome these barriers are suggested. - Highlights: • Why energy saving technologies are rarely adopted in buildings? • Diffusion is slowed by the late participation of stakeholders with great interest for energy technologies. • The influence of construction stakeholders for the adoption of energy saving technologies is measured in Italian case studies. • More integrated relationships among stakeholders are required to help the adoption of energy saving technologies. • Process re-organizations and policies which increase final users’ power are needed

  12. Process Industry and Energy Savings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    Over a period of two years the NAP's Special Interest Group Energy (SIG-E) has dedicated itself to studying the way in which the process industry and its supply chain has been dealing with energy as a theme. In the past it was strongly believed that many opportunities were left unused and that different forms of cooperation inside the chain should contribute to accelerated improvement of energy efficiency in the process industry. Sixteen companies that are actively involved in the entire value chain have scrutinised their daily situation wondering how to operate more successfully. With approximately one quarter of total energy consumption the Dutch process industry is a major player in reaching national energy and climate objectives by 2020. The objective (improve energy efficiency by 2% annually) is as ambitious as that 'business as usual' is insufficient. A drastic change in how matters are approached is thus essential. The question is how to proceed? By analysing energy projects, in-depth interviews with decision makers in the industry, through literature searches and by organising lectures inside and outside the sector, SlG-E has been able to develop a true picture of the mechanisms concerning energy-related investments. Two major points of interest have been energy-oriented tendering (demand side) and the market introduction of innovations (supply side). The main problems of 'how to do more in the energy domain' is: (a) the process industry is insufficiently familiar with the capabilities of the supply chain, and (b) the supply chain is insufficiently aware of the questions that exist in the process industry. Therefore, the links in the value chain understand each other poorly. The answer to this problem is compound and consists of more interaction between the process industry and the supply chain (machine constructors, engineering firms and consultancies, education and research). As for the process industry: (a) Make improved energy

  13. SAVE ENERGY IN TEXTILE SMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SCALIA Mauro

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Efficiency and competitiveness in textile and clothing manufacturing sector must take into account the current and future energy challenges. Energy efficiency is a subject of critical importance for the Textile & Clothing industry, for other sectors and for the society in general. EURATEX has initiated Energy Made-to-Measure, an information campaign running until 2016 to empower over 300 textile & clothing companies, notably SMEs, to become more energy efficient. SET( Save Energy in Textile SMEs a collaborative project co-funded within the European Programme Intelligent Energy Europe II helps companies to understand their energy consumption and allows them to compare the sector benchmarks in different production processes. SET has developed the SET tool, Energy Saving and Efficiency Tool, a free of charge tool customized for textile manufacturers. The SET tool is made up of 4 elements: a stand-alone software (SET Tool for self-assessment based on an Excel application; an on-line part (SET tool Web for advanced benchmarking and comparison of the performances across years; a guiding document for the companies and overview of financial incentives and legal obligations regarding energy efficiency. Designed specifically for small and medium enterprises (SMEs, the SET tool enables the evaluation of energy consumption and recommends measures to reduce the consumption. Prior to modifying the company’s production processes and making investments to increase energy efficiency, textile SMEs need to get different type of information, including legal context, economic and technical peculiarities.

  14. Energy Savings in a Market Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen

    1998-01-01

    The paper outlines the concept of energy savings as opposed to energy efficency. Afterwards are described briefly the up and down role of energy savings in recent Danish energy policy. It discusses the failure of leaving electricity savings and Integrated Resource Planning to the electricity...

  15. Super Energy Savings Performance Contracts: Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) Program Overview (revision)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitchford, P.

    2001-01-01

    This four-page publication describes the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) streamlined energy savings performance contracting, or ''Super ESPC,'' process, which is managed by DOE's Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP). Under a Super ESPC, a qualifying energy service company (ESCO) from the private sector pays for energy efficiency improvements or advanced renewable energy technologies (e.g., photovoltaic systems, wind turbines, or geothermal heat pumps, among others) for a facility of a government agency. The ESCO is then repaid over time from the agency's resulting energy cost savings. Delivery orders under these contracts specify the level of performance (energy savings) and the repayment schedule; the contract term can be up to 25 years, although many Super ESPCs are for about 10 years or less

  16. Risk transfer via energy savings insurance; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, Evan

    2001-01-01

    Among the key barriers to investment in energy efficiency improvements are uncertainties about attaining projected energy savings and apprehension about potential disputes over these savings. The fields of energy management and risk management are thus intertwined. While many technical methods have emerged to manage performance risks (e.g. building commissioning), financial risk transfer techniques are less developed in the energy management arena than in other more mature segments of the economy. Energy Savings Insurance (ESI) - formal insurance of predicted energy savings - is one method of transferring financial risks away from the facility owner or energy services contractor. ESI offers a number of significant advantages over other forms of financial risk transfer, e.g. savings guarantees or performance bonds. ESI providers manage risk via pre-construction design review as well as post-construction commissioning and measurement and verification of savings. We found that the two mos t common criticisms of ESI - excessive pricing and onerous exclusions - are not born out in practice. In fact, if properly applied, ESI can potentially reduce the net cost of energy savings projects by reducing the interest rates charged by lenders, and by increasing the level of savings through quality control. Debt service can also be ensured by matching loan payments to projected energy savings while designing the insurance mechanism so that payments are made by the insurer in the event of a savings shortfall. We estimate the U.S. ESI market potential of$875 million/year in premium income. From an energy-policy perspective, ESI offers a number of potential benefits: ESI transfers performance risk from the balance sheet of the entity implementing the energy savings project, thereby freeing up capital otherwise needed to ''self-insure'' the savings. ESI reduces barriers to market entry of smaller energy services firms who do not have sufficiently strong balance sheets to self

  17. Energy performance and energy saving of life-support systems in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The contemporary automation systems of buildings ensure the most efficient control automation for heating, ventilation, lighting, hot water supply systems. This leads to significant increase of operation efficiency and reduction of energy costs. The integrated energy saving processes and functions are optimized depending ...

  18. Energy Savings Measure Packages. Existing Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casey, Sean [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Booten, Chuck [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2011-11-01

    This document presents the most cost effective Energy Savings Measure Packages (ESMP) for existing mixed-fuel and all electric homes to achieve 15% and 30% savings for each BetterBuildings grantee location across the United States. These packages are optimized for minimum cost to homeowners for source energy savings given the local climate and prevalent building characteristics (i.e. foundation types). Maximum cost savings are typically found between 30% and 50% energy savings over the reference home; this typically amounts to $300 - $700/year.

  19. Energy saving and cost saving cooling; Energie und Kosten sparende Kuehlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenig, Klaus W. [Architektur- und Fachpressebuero Klaus W. Koenig, Ueberlingen (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    In the case of cost reduction, energy conservation and resource savings, rain water is an ideal medium offering more advantages in comparison to the cooling with drinking water. There are no fees for the drinking water and drainage of rain water. It is not necessary to soften rain water so that further operational costs for the treatment and drainage of waste water can be saved. The avoidance of the related material flows and necessary energy is a practiced environmental protection and climate protection.

  20. Improved methods to evaluate realised energy savings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonekamp, P.G.M.

    2005-01-01

    This thesis regards the calculation of realised energy savings at national and sectoral level, and the policy contribution to total savings. It is observed that the results of monitoring and evaluation studies on realised energy savings are hardly applied in energy saving policy. Causes are the lack

  1. Energy saving in refineries and petrochemical complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verde, L

    1975-01-01

    Possible measures applicable in the design of refineries and petrochemical complexes, to effect energy savings were investigated. This was not limited to the single process unit problems, on the contrary the attention is mainly addressed to the identification of the interrelations between different units, emphasizing possible integrations. Particularly, the optimization of the pressure levels and number of the utility networks for steam distribution inside plant facilities, is considered, in order to maximize heat recovery in the process units, and electric power production in the central steampower generation plant. A computer program of general application, based on profitability evaluation at various fuel oil prices and different project configurations, has been developed for these purposes. The general measures applicable within certain limits are then briefly examined. The task of the process engineer is discussed in the perspective of the ''energy saving'' goal.

  2. Structured packing: an opportunity for energy savings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chavez T, R.H.; Guadarrama G, J.J.

    1996-01-01

    This work emphasizes the advantages about the use of structured packing. This type of packings allows by its geometry to reduce the processing time giving energy savings and throw down the production costs in several industries such as heavy water production plants, petrochemical industry and all industries involved with separation processes. There is a comparative results of energy consumption utilizing the structured vs. Raschig packings. (Author)

  3. Energy-saving management modelling and optimization for lead-acid battery formation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, T.; Chen, Z.; Xu, J. Y.; Wang, F. Y.; Liu, H. M.

    2017-11-01

    In this context, a typical lead-acid battery producing process is introduced. Based on the formation process, an efficiency management method is proposed. An optimization model with the objective to minimize the formation electricity cost in a single period is established. This optimization model considers several related constraints, together with two influencing factors including the transformation efficiency of IGBT charge-and-discharge machine and the time-of-use price. An example simulation is shown using PSO algorithm to solve this mathematic model, and the proposed optimization strategy is proved to be effective and learnable for energy-saving and efficiency optimization in battery producing industries.

  4. Consumer behaviours: Teaching children to save energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grønhøj, Alice

    2016-08-01

    Energy-saving programmes are increasingly targeted at children to encourage household energy conservation. A study involving the assignment of energy-saving interventions to Girl Scouts shows that a child-focused intervention can improve energy-saving behaviours among children and their parents.

  5. Directions of organisational and low-cost energy saving of engineering enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dzhedzhula Viacheslav V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses directions of energy saving of industrial enterprises. Taking into account the tendency to continuous growth of cost of energy resources, introduction of measures that would allow reduction of energy consumption of enterprises is an urgent task. One of the most important obstacles in the process of introduction of energy efficient solutions are fund limits and low awareness of owners and managers of industrial enterprises. The article offers a new classification of energy saving measures: apart from traditional expense and organisation measures it introduces the low-cost measures notion. It offers to consider low-cost those measures that are realised by the enterprise by means of own funds, moreover, their repayment term is not more than one year. It offers analytical expression for identification of annual funds saving from introduction of low-cost measures. It considers the process of identification of saving of funds from introduction of some of the main low-cost measures in detail: replacement of lighting units, balancing of ventilation networks and elimination of water leakages from pipelines and water supply equipment. Based on the analysis of bibliography information the article provides a list of main measures on energy saving, which could be referred to the low-cost ones. The proposed approaches would allow paying more attention to practical aspects of realisation of the concept of energy saving in the industry.

  6. Energy savings potential from energy-conserving irrigation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilfert, G.L.; Patton, W.P.; Harrer, B.J.; Clark, M.A.

    1982-11-01

    This report systematically compares, within a consistent framework, the technical and economic characteristics of energy-conserving irrigation systems with those of conventional irrigation systems and to determine total energy savings. Levelized annual costs of owning and operating both energy-conserving and conventional irrigation systems have been developed and compared for all 17 states to account for the differences in energy costs and irrigation conditions in each state. Market penetration of energy-conserving systems is assessed for those systems having lower levelized annual costs than conventional systems performing the same function. Annual energy savings were computed by matching the energy savings per system with an assumed maximum market penetration of 100 percent in those markets where the levelized annual costs of energy-conserving systems are lower than the levelized annual costs of conventional systems.

  7. Implementation of energy-saving policies in China: How local governments assisted industrial enterprises in achieving energy-saving targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Xiaofan; Li, Huimin; Wu, Liang; Qi, Ye

    2014-01-01

    Local governments have replaced the national ministries that are in charge of various industries to become the primary implementer of energy-saving policies in China since 2000. This paper employs a case study-based approach to demonstrate the significance of local governments’ policy measures in assisting industrial enterprises with energy-saving activities in China. Based on the longitudinal case of the Jasmine Thermal Electric Power Company, this paper hypothesizes that sub-national governments have played a major role in implementing energy-saving policies in China since the 11th Five-year-plan period. A wide range of provincial and municipal agencies collaborated in implementing five types of policy measures – informational policy, skill building, improved enforcement of central directives, price adjustment, and funding – that reduced barriers to energy saving and motivated active pursuit of energy-saving activities at industrial enterprises. The case study demonstrates how an enterprise and local governments work together to achieve the enterprise's energy-saving target. The authors will investigate the hypothesis of this paper in the context of multiple case studies that they plan to undertake in the future. - Highlights: • We employ a case study-based approach to study policy implementation in China. • Local governments have played a major role in implementing energy-saving policies. • Local public agencies collaborated in implementing five types of policy measures. • Local policy measures reduced barriers to energy saving at industrial enterprises. • Enterprises and local governments work together to achieve energy-saving targets

  8. Advertising energy saving programs: The potential environmental cost of emphasizing monetary savings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Daniel; Bruine de Bruin, Wändi; Fischhoff, Baruch; Lave, Lester

    2015-06-01

    Many consumers have monetary or environmental motivations for saving energy. Indeed, saving energy produces both monetary benefits, by reducing energy bills, and environmental benefits, by reducing carbon footprints. We examined how consumers' willingness and reasons to enroll in energy-savings programs are affected by whether advertisements emphasize monetary benefits, environmental benefits, or both. From a normative perspective, having 2 noteworthy kinds of benefit should not decrease a program's attractiveness. In contrast, psychological research suggests that adding external incentives to an intrinsically motivating task may backfire. To date, however, it remains unclear whether this is the case when both extrinsic and intrinsic motivations are inherent to the task, as with energy savings, and whether removing explicit mention of extrinsic motivation will reduce its importance. We found that emphasizing a program's monetary benefits reduced participants' willingness to enroll. In addition, participants' explanations about enrollment revealed less attention to environmental concerns when programs emphasized monetary savings, even when environmental savings were also emphasized. We found equal attention to monetary motivations in all conditions, revealing an asymmetric attention to monetary and environmental motives. These results also provide practical guidance regarding the positioning of energy-saving programs: emphasize intrinsic benefits; the extrinsic ones may speak for themselves. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Energy saving potential in existing industrial compressors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vittorini, Diego; Cipollone, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    The Compressed Air Sector accounts for a mean 10% worldwide electricity consumption, which ensures about its importance, when energy saving and CO_2 emissions reduction are in question. Since the compressors alone account for 15% overall industry electricity consumption, it appears vital to pay attention to machine performances. The paper presents an overview of present compressor technology and focuses on saving directions for screw and sliding vanes machines, according to data provided by the Compressed Air and Gas Institute and PNEUROP. Data were processed to obtain consistency with fixed reference pressures and organized as a function of main operating parameters. Each sub-term, contributing to the overall efficiency (adiabatic, volumetric, mechanical, electric, organic), was considered separately: the analysis showed that the thermodynamic improvement during compression achievable by splitting the compression in two stages, with a lower compression ratio, opens the way to significantly reduce the energy specific consumption. - Highlights: • Compressors technology overview in industrial compressed air systems. • Market compressors efficiency baseline definition. • Energy breakdown and evaluation of main efficiency terms. • Assessment of air cooling-related energy saving potential. • Energy specific consumption reduction through dual stage compression.

  10. Material and energy flows in rotary kiln-electric furnace smelting of ferronickel alloy with energy saving

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Peng; Li, Baokuan; Cheung, Sherman C.P.; Wu, Wenyuan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Establish the synergy relationship of material and energy in key RKEF processes. • Develop an analysis model to study energy saving with internal cycling of energy. • Analyze material and energy flow parameters and assess its associated synergy effect. • A methodology to evaluate the synergy and design indices of RKEF processes. - Abstract: An energy saving strategy with two energy saving measures has been proposed for reducing energy loss in the rotary kiln-electric furnace (RKEF) for the smelting of ferronickel alloy. One of the measures is to recover the waste heat of exhaust gas from the rotary kiln for preheating and dehydrating the wet laterite ores in the rotary dryer. Another measure is to recycle the furnace gas from the electric furnace into the rotary kiln as fuel. Based on the mass conservation and energy conservation laws, an analysis model of material and energy flows has been developed to understand the potential energy saving with the internal cycling of material and energy in the RKEF process. The analysis model not only considers the energy efficiency but also assess the synergy degree of system. Furthermore, the model also predicts the ratio of raw materials and the energy flow distribution to investigate residual heat and energy and analyze the effects of nickel content on energy flow. Finally, the evaluation methodology of synergy and the technic indices are also presented. Through the investigation of the synergy effect, the performance of the RKEF process can be evaluated and quantified for performance optimization in future.

  11. Energy savings in Danish residential building stock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommerup, Henrik M.; Svendsen, Svend

    2006-01-01

    a short account of the technical energy-saving possibilities that are present in existing dwellings and presents a financial methodology used for assessing energy-saving measures. In order to estimate the total savings potential detailed calculations have been performed in a case with two typical...... buildings representing the residential building stock and based on these calculations an assessment of the energy-saving potential is performed. A profitable savings potential of energy used for space heating of about 80% is identified over 45 years (until 2050) within the residential building stock......A large potential for energy savings exists in the Danish residential building stock due to the fact that 75% of the buildings were constructed before 1979 when the first important demands for energy performance of building were introduced. It is also a fact that many buildings in Denmark face...

  12. Stepless control system for reciprocating compressors: energy savings + process control improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grande, Alvaro; Wenisch, Markus [Hoerbiger Ventilwerke GmbH and Co KG, Wien (Austria); Jacobs, Denis [HOERBIGER do Brasil Industria de Equipamentos, Cajamar, SP (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    In the past, the capacity of reciprocating compressors was typically controlled by on/off unloaders (step-control) and recycle valves. But due to the fact that the power ratings of new reciprocating compressors for the oil and gas industry increase significantly, advanced control systems are required to reduce power costs and save energy. On top of that, multi-stage compressors are frequently integrated into complex process plants that demand precise control and operational flexibility. There are several solutions for this equation, but maybe the most successful is the use of the reverse flow principle applied to an electronically controlled and hydraulically actuated suction valve unloaders system. (author)

  13. First Results of Energy Saving at Process Redesign of Die Forging Al-Alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pepelnjak, Tomaz; Kuzman, Karl; Kokol, Anton

    2011-01-01

    The contribution deals with eco-friendly solutions for shortened production chains of forging light alloys. During the die forging operations a remarkable amount of material goes into the flash and later on into chips during finish machining. These low value side products are rich with embedded energy therefore recycling or reprocessing could be very energy saving procedure.In cooperation with a die forging company a shortened reprocessing cycle has been studied starting from re-melting the forging flash and without additional heating to cast preforms for subsequent die forging. As such preforms have not as good formability characteristics as those done from extruded billets the isothermal forging process has been adopted. First results showed that without cracks and other defects the formability is sufficient for a broad spectrum of forgings.To improve the formability a homogenization process of cast preforms has been implemented. As the process started immediately after casting, amount of additional energy for heating was minimized. To reduce voids forging process was redesigned in a way to assure greater hydrostatic pressures in parts during forging. First results were promising therefore research is going towards improving processes without adding significantly more energy as it is needed for casting with homogenization and die forging.

  14. Review of the Application of Green Building and Energy Saving Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Zhineng

    2017-12-01

    The use of energy-saving technologies in green buildings should run through the entire process of building design, construction and use, enabling green energy-saving technologies to maximize their effectiveness in construction. Realize the sustainable development of green building, reduce energy consumption, reduce people’s interference with the natural environment, suitable for people living in “green” building.

  15. Evaluating energy saving system of data centers based on AHP and fuzzy comprehensive evaluation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yingni

    2018-03-01

    Due to the high energy consumption of communication, energy saving of data centers must be enforced. But the lack of evaluation mechanisms has restrained the process on energy saving construction of data centers. In this paper, energy saving evaluation index system of data centers was constructed on the basis of clarifying the influence factors. Based on the evaluation index system, analytical hierarchy process was used to determine the weights of the evaluation indexes. Subsequently, a three-grade fuzzy comprehensive evaluation model was constructed to evaluate the energy saving system of data centers.

  16. Concepts. Environmental care through energy saving

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, G.

    1987-04-01

    Energy saving is an important ingredient of a preventive energy policy. It helps to reduce pollutants which are one essential source of damage done to air, water and soil. But even the environmentally damaging side effects of energy production, storage and distribution can be cut down through energy saving.

  17. Potential for the Use of Energy Savings Performance Contracts to Reduce Energy Consumption and Provide Energy and Cost Savings in Non-Building Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Charles; Green, Andrew S.; Dahle, Douglas; Barnett, John; Butler, Pat; Kerner, David

    2013-08-01

    The findings of this study indicate that potential exists in non-building applications to save energy and costs. This potential could save billions of federal dollars, reduce reliance on fossil fuels, increase energy independence and security, and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The Federal Government has nearly twenty years of experience with achieving similar energy cost reductions, and letting the energy costs savings pay for themselves, by applying energy savings performance contracts (ESPC) inits buildings. Currently, the application of ESPCs is limited by statute to federal buildings. This study indicates that ESPCs can be a compatible and effective contracting tool for achieving savings in non-building applications.

  18. Predictive Maintenance (PdM) Centralization for Significant Energy Savings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Dale

    2010-09-15

    Cost effective predictive maintenance (PdM) technologies and basic energy calculations can mine energy savings form processes or maintenance activities. Centralizing and packaging this information correctly empowers facility maintenance and reliability professionals to build financial justification and support for strategies and personnel to weather global economic downturns and competition. Attendees will learn how to: Systematically build a 'pilot project' for applying PdM and tracking systems; Break down a typical electrical bill to calculate energy savings; Use return on investment (ROI) calculations to identify the best and highest value options, strategies and tips for substantiating your energy reduction maintenance strategies.

  19. How to estimate realistic energy savings in Energy Performance Certificates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wittchen, Kim Bjarne; Altmann, Nagmeh; Berecová, Monika

    Given the fact that most MS use fixed or other kinds of default values as boundary condition input for energy performance calculations, it is not surprising that the calculated energy performance differs from the measured energy consumption. As a consequence, the calculated energy savings due...... stationary calculation tools using monthly average values. The optimum solution for energy performance certificates and calculating realistic energy savings is to have two calculations. One calculation, using default values to calculate the label itself, and one with actual input parameters for calculating...... energy performance before and after implementing energy saving measures. Actual values though, may be difficult to identify, so there is a need to make adaptations to reality easy. Even if actual values are available, there are still issues that cause calculated energy savings to differ from the obtained...

  20. Energy conservation, energy efficiency and energy savings regulatory hypotheses - taxation, subsidies and underlying economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trumpy, T. [International Legal Counsel, Brussels (Belgium)

    1995-12-01

    More efficient use of energy resources can be promoted by various regulatory means, i.e., taxation, subsidies, and pricing. Various incentives can be provided by income and revenue tax breaks-deductible energy audit fees, energy saving investment credits, breaks for energy saving entrepreneurs, and energy savings accounts run through utility accounts. Value added and excise taxes can also be adjusted to reward energy saving investments and energy saving entrepreneurial activity. Incentives can be provided in the form of cash refunds, including trade-in-and-scrap programs and reimbursements or subsidies on audit costs and liability insurance. Pricing incentives include lower rates for less energy use, prepayment of deposit related to peak load use, electronically dispatched multiple tariffs, savings credits based on prior peak use, and subsidized {open_quotes}leasing{close_quotes} of more efficient appliances and lights. Credits, with an emphasis on pooling small loans, and 5-year energy savings contracts are also discussed.

  1. China energy-water nexus: Assessing the water-saving synergy effects of energy-saving policies during the eleventh Five-year Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu, Alun; Teng, Fei; Wang, Yu

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Energy and water limit China’s sustainable development. • Current energy policies fail to address water saving issues. • The energy-water coefficient is estimated for both direct use and indirect use. • Water saving effects associated with energy-saving policies is calculated. • Water-energy nexus should be enhanced in key industrial sectors. - Abstract: Energy and water have become major factors limiting sustainable development in China. Energy efficiency and optimization of water management are critical for the healthy growth of the Chinese economy. Current national energy policies fail to adequately address water use issues. Similarly, current water policies do not consider the impact of energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. Consequently, few studies have investigated the relationship between energy consumption and water use. The present study analyzes the energy-water nexus in Chinese industries using input–output tables. Coefficients that characterize the relationship between energy consumption and water are used to describe the supply-consumption relationship between the water supply and primary energy sectors. Next, we calculate the water-saving effects associated with the enforcement of energy-saving policies in selected industrial sectors during the eleventh Five-year Plan, from 2005 to 2010. These calculations address the ferrous metals, non-ferrous metals, petrochemical engineering, building materials, and electricity industries as well as key light industries. Our findings indicate that energy-saving efforts in these industries will result in savings in water consumption. This study suggests that a cooperative relationship between water and energy conservation efforts should be an important factor in creating policies that encourage simultaneous savings of both resources. Additionally, the study indicates that government should promote water- and energy-saving techniques in key industrial sectors to encourage

  2. Does energy labelling on residential housing cause energy savings?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjaerbye, V.H.

    2009-07-01

    Danish households use more than 30% of the total amount of energy being used in Denmark. More than 80% of this energy is dedicated to space heating. The same relation is seen in many OECD countries. The corresponding energy savings potential was recently estimated at 30% of the energy used in buildings. Energy labelling is seen as an important instrument to target these potential energy savings. This paper evaluates the effects of the Danish Energy Labelling Scheme on energy consumption in existing single-family houses with propensity score matching using real metered natural gas consumption and a very wide range of register data describing the houses and households. The study did not find significant energy savings due to the Danish Energy Labelling Scheme, but more research would be needed to complement this conclusion

  3. Energy Saving Glass Lamination via Selective Radio-Frequency Heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shulman, Holly S.; Allan, Shawn M.

    2009-11-11

    This Inventions and Innovations program supported the technical and commercial research and development needed to elevate Ceralink's energy saving process for flat glass lamination from bench scale to a self-supporting technology with significant potential for growth. Radio-frequency heating was any un-explored option for laminating glass prior to this program. With significant commercial success through time and energy savings in the wood, paper, and plastics industries, RF heating was found to have significant promise for the energy intensive glass lamination industry. A major technical goal of the program was to demonstrate RF lamination across a wide range of laminate sizes and materials. This was successfully accomplished, dispelling many skeptics' concerns about the abilities of the technology. Ceralink laminated panels up to 2 ft x 3 ft, with four sets processed simultaneously, in a 3 minute cycle. All major categories of interlayer materials were found to work with RF lamination. In addition to laminating glass, other materials including photovoltaic silicon solar cells, light emitting diodes, metallized glass, plastics (acrylic and polycarbonate), and ceramics (alumina) were found compatible with the RF process. This opens up a wide range of commercial opportunities beyond the initially targeted automotive industry. The dramatic energy savings reported for RF lamination at the bench scale were found to be maintained through the scale up of the process. Even at 2 ft x 3 ft panel sizes, energy savings are estimated to be at least 90% compared to autoclaving or vacuum lamination. With targeted promotion through conference presentations, press releases and internet presence, RF lamination has gained significant attention, drawing large audiences at American Ceramic Society meetings. The commercialization success of the project includes the establishment of a revenue-generating business model for providing process development and demonstrations for

  4. Energy saving processes for nitrogen removal in organic wastewater from food processing industries in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, N H; Suksawad, N; Balslev, P

    2004-01-01

    Nitrogen removal from organic wastewater is becoming a demand in developed communities. The use of nitrite as intermediate in the treatment of wastewater has been largely ignored, but is actually a relevant energy saving process compared to conventional nitrification/denitrification using nitrate as intermediate. Full-scale results and pilot-scale results using this process are presented. The process needs some additional process considerations and process control to be utilized. Especially under tropical conditions the nitritation process will round easily, and it must be expected that many AS treatment plants in the food industry already produce NO2-N. This uncontrolled nitrogen conversion can be the main cause for sludge bulking problems. It is expected that sludge bulking problems in many cases can be solved just by changing the process control in order to run a more consequent nitritation. Theoretically this process will decrease the oxygen consumption for oxidation by 25% and the use of carbon source for the reduction will be decreased by 40% compared to the conventional process.

  5. Energy-saving method for technogenic waste processing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayandy Dikhanbaev

    Full Text Available Dumps of a mining-metallurgical complex of post-Soviet Republics have accumulated a huge amount of technogenic waste products. Out of them, Kazakhstan alone has preserved about 20 billion tons. In the field of technogenic waste treatment, there is still no technical solution that leads it to be a profitable process. Recent global trends prompted scientists to focus on developing energy-saving and a highly efficient melting unit that can significantly reduce specific fuel consumption. This paper reports, the development of a new technological method-smelt layer of inversion phase. The introducing method is characterized by a combination of ideal stirring and ideal displacement regimes. Using the method of affine modelling, recalculation of pilot plant's test results on industrial sample has been obtained. Experiments show that in comparison with bubbling and boiling layers of smelt, the degree of zinc recovery increases in the layer of inversion phase. That indicates the reduction of the possibility of new formation of zinc silicates and ferrites from recombined molecules of ZnO, SiO2, and Fe2O3. Calculations show that in industrial samples of the pilot plant, the consumption of natural gas has reduced approximately by two times in comparison with fuming-furnace. The specific fuel consumption has reduced by approximately four times in comparison with Waelz-kiln.

  6. Energy-saving method for technogenic waste processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikhanbaev, Bayandy; Dikhanbaev, Aristan Bayandievich

    2017-01-01

    Dumps of a mining-metallurgical complex of post-Soviet Republics have accumulated a huge amount of technogenic waste products. Out of them, Kazakhstan alone has preserved about 20 billion tons. In the field of technogenic waste treatment, there is still no technical solution that leads it to be a profitable process. Recent global trends prompted scientists to focus on developing energy-saving and a highly efficient melting unit that can significantly reduce specific fuel consumption. This paper reports, the development of a new technological method—smelt layer of inversion phase. The introducing method is characterized by a combination of ideal stirring and ideal displacement regimes. Using the method of affine modelling, recalculation of pilot plant’s test results on industrial sample has been obtained. Experiments show that in comparison with bubbling and boiling layers of smelt, the degree of zinc recovery increases in the layer of inversion phase. That indicates the reduction of the possibility of new formation of zinc silicates and ferrites from recombined molecules of ZnO, SiO2, and Fe2O3. Calculations show that in industrial samples of the pilot plant, the consumption of natural gas has reduced approximately by two times in comparison with fuming-furnace. The specific fuel consumption has reduced by approximately four times in comparison with Waelz-kiln. PMID:29281646

  7. Chinese hotel general managers' perspectives on energy-saving practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yidan

    As hotels' concern about sustainability and budget-control is growing steadily, energy-saving issues have become one of the important management concerns hospitality industry face. By executing proper energy-saving practices, previous scholars believed that hotel operation costs can decrease dramatically. Moreover, they believed that conducting energy-saving practices may eventually help the hotel to gain other benefits such as an improved reputation and stronger competitive advantage. The energy-saving issue also has become a critical management problem for the hotel industry in China. Previous research has not investigated energy-saving in China's hotel segment. To achieve a better understanding of the importance of energy-saving, this document attempts to present some insights into China's energy-saving practices in the tourist accommodations sector. Results of the study show the Chinese general managers' attitudes toward energy-saving issues and the differences among the diverse hotel managers who responded to the study. Study results indicate that in China, most of the hotels' energy bills decrease due to the implementation of energy-saving equipments. General managers of hotels in operation for a shorter period of time are typically responsible for making decisions about energy-saving issues; older hotels are used to choosing corporate level concerning to this issue. Larger Chinese hotels generally have official energy-saving usage training sessions for employees, but smaller Chinese hotels sometimes overlook the importance of employee training. The study also found that for the Chinese hospitality industry, energy-saving practices related to electricity are the most efficient and common way to save energy, but older hotels also should pay attention to other ways of saving energy such as water conservation or heating/cooling system.

  8. Public-opinion poll on energy saving

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    A public-opinion poll was carried out on energy saving from November 26 to December 2, 1981, across the country. The number of persons participated in the survey was 5,000, whose age was 20 and above. The recovery ratio was 4,007 persons (80.1 %). The results of the survey and also the question-answer form are given with respective percentages. The questions were in the following three categories: (1) cognizance of energy saving - space-heating temperature, energy saving conscience use of private cars, purchase of highenergy consumption appliances; (2) energy for future - energy consumption, energy consumption trend, new types of energy, main sources of power generation, nuclear power in the overall electric power, apprehension toward nuclear power plants, safety measures in nuclear power plants; (3) governmental energy policy measures. (J.P.N.)

  9. A multifunctional energy-saving magnetic field generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Hui; Sun, Wanpeng; Liu, Jinzhen; Shi, Jinhua

    2018-03-01

    To improve the energy utilization of magnetic field generators for biological applications, a multifunctional energy-saving magnetic field generator (ESMFG) is presented. It is capable of producing both an alternating magnetic field (AMF) and a bipolar pulse magnetic field (BPMF) with high energy-saving and energy-reuse rates. Based on a theoretical analysis of an RLC second-order circuit, the energy-saving and energy-reuse rates of both types of magnetic fields can be calculated and are found to have acceptable values. The results of an experimental study using the proposed generator show that for the BPMF, the peak current reaches 130 A and the intensity reaches 70.3 mT. For the AMF, the intensity is 11.0 mT and the RMS current is 20 A. The energy-saving and energy-reuse rates for the AMF generator are 61.3% and 63.5%, respectively, while for the BPMF generator, the energy-saving rate is 33.6%. Thus, the proposed ESMFG has excellent potential for use in biomedical applications.

  10. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Dairy Processing Industry: An ENERGY STAR? Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brush, Adrian [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Masanet, Eric [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Worrell, Ernst [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2011-10-01

    The U.S. dairy processing industry—defined in this Energy Guide as facilities engaged in the conversion of raw milk to consumable dairy products—consumes around $1.5 billion worth of purchased fuels and electricity per year. Energy efficiency improvement is an important way to reduce these costs and to increase predictable earnings, especially in times of high energy price volatility. There are a variety of opportunities available at individual plants in the U.S. dairy processing industry to reduce energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions in a cost-effective manner. This Energy Guide discusses energy efficiency practices and energy-efficient technologies that can be implemented at the component, process, facility, and organizational levels. A discussion of the trends, structure, and energy consumption characteristics of the U.S. dairy processing industry is provided along with a description of the major process technologies used within the industry. Next, a wide variety of energy efficiency measures applicable to dairy processing plants are described. Many measure descriptions include expected savings in energy and energy-related costs, based on case study data from real-world applications in dairy processing facilities and related industries worldwide. Typical measure payback periods and references to further information in the technical literature are also provided, when available. Given the importance of water in dairy processing, a summary of basic, proven measures for improving water efficiency are also provided. The information in this Energy Guide is intended to help energy and plant managers in the U.S. dairy processing industry reduce energy and water consumption in a cost-effective manner while maintaining the quality of products manufactured. Further research on the economics of all measures—as well as on their applicability to different production practices—is needed to assess their cost effectiveness at individual plants.

  11. Energy saving certificates; Les certificats d'economies d'energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-11-15

    The French ministry of economy, finances and industry and the French agency of environment and energy mastery (Ademe) have organized on November 8, 2005, a colloquium for the presentation of the energy saving certificates, a new tool to oblige the energy suppliers to encourage their clients to make energy savings. This document gathers the transparencies presented at this colloquium about the following topics: state-of-the-art and presentation of the energy saving certificates system: presentation of the EEC system, presentation of the EEC standard operations; the energy saving certificates in Europe today: energy efficiency commitment in UK, Italian white certificate scheme, perspectives of the different European systems. (J.S.)

  12. Revolving fund for energy saving

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prebensen, K.

    1993-01-01

    A key issue in Eastern Europe is the adjustment of prices from the former COMECON level to a level conforming with free market conditions. In the case of household heating, this issue involves the removal of government subsidies leading to sharply increasing prices, metering of individual consumption, improving the efficiency of energy production, distribution and use - where savings of 30-50% in each link are technically feasible - thereby providing a potential for a adapting consumption patterns to higher energy prices, provided that funds are available. Currently, investment in commercial heat production and distribution systems have received substantial international support - whereas investment in reduction of demand has been little exploited. The Revolving Fund for Energy Savings in Polish Households is a concept for efficient financing of small-scale projects. It aims at financing, on the level of housing cooperatives, on the basis of a simplified lending and project evaluation procedure, well suited to current Polish conditions or an organizationally and financially weak banking system and little developed technical knowledge in the field of energy saving. A general introduction to the issue is given and technical problems are elaborated. The implementation of Energy Savings in Housing seen from the banking point of view, and a current pilot scheme for financing, are described. (AB)

  13. Refrigeration: Introducing energy saving opportunities for business

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-04-15

    In some industries, most notably food and drink and chemicals, refrigeration accounts for a significant proportion of overall site energy costs. For instance, in the industrial handling of meat, poultry and fish, it often accounts for 50% of total energy costs. In ice-cream production the proportion is 70%. In a number of commercial sectors, refrigeration also represents a significant proportion of overall energy costs. For example: Cold storage 90%; Food supermarkets 50%; Small shops with refrigerated cabinets 70% or over; Pubs and clubs 30%. Against these high costs, even a small reduction in refrigeration energy use can offer significant cost savings, resulting in increased profits. Energy saving need not be expensive. Energy savings of up to 20% can be realised in many refrigeration plant through actions that require little or no investment. In addition, improving the efficiency and reducing the load on a refrigeration plant can improve reliability and reduce the likelihood of a breakdown. Most organisations can save energy and money on refrigeration by: More efficient equipment; Good maintenance; Housekeeping and control. This publication provides an understanding of the operation of refrigeration systems, identifies where savings can be realised and will enable readers to present an informed case on energy savings to key decision makers within their organisation. (GB)

  14. District energy-saving visions for Town of Towa; Towa machi chiiki sho energy vision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-02-01

    The energy-saving visions are drawn for Town of Towa, Iwate Pref., to promote energy saving and abatement of gas emissions which cause global warming. The priority projects in the energy-saving visions include introduction of energy-saving type vehicles, houses/buildings, illuminators; introduction of solar energy utilization systems and alternative energy (e.g., wood, wastes from domestic animals and microhydroelectric power generation); and monitoring/observation of energy consumption situations and energy-saving education. The energy-saving target is set at 3,120kL as crude oil. The energy-saving activities studied for the administrative and public sectors include introduction of energy-saving type vehicles and buildings; introduction of solar energy utilization systems (for roads and public facilities when they are replaced) and microhydroelectric power generation; and monitoring/observation of energy consumption situations and energy-saving education. The energy-saving target is set at 80kL as crude oil. (NEDO)

  15. Housing-related lifestyle and energy saving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    2017-01-01

    of relevant background characteristics. A multivariate GLM analysis reveals that when differences in housing-related lifestyles are controlled, neither country of residence nor the interaction between lifestyle and country of residence influence energy saving innovativeness or everyday energy-saving efforts...

  16. Potential energy savings and thermal comfort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten Ingerslev; Rudbeck, Claus Christian; Schultz, Jørgen Munthe

    1996-01-01

    The simulation results on the energy saving potential and influence on indoor thermal comfort by replacement of common windows with aerogel windows as well as commercial low-energy windows are described and analysed.......The simulation results on the energy saving potential and influence on indoor thermal comfort by replacement of common windows with aerogel windows as well as commercial low-energy windows are described and analysed....

  17. Incorporating Non-energy Benefits into Energy Savings Performance Contracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, Peter; Goldman, Charles; Gilligan, Donald; Singer, Terry

    2012-06-01

    This paper evaluates the issue of non-energy benefits within the context of the U.S. energy services company (ESCO) industry?a growing industry comprised of companies that provide energy savings and other benefits to customers through the use of performance-based contracting. Recent analysis has found that ESCO projects in the public/institutional sector, especially at K-12 schools, are using performance-based contracting, at the behest of the customers, to partially -- but not fully -- offset substantial accumulated deferred maintenance needs (e.g., asbestos removal, wiring) and measures that have very long paybacks (roof replacement). This trend is affecting the traditional economic measures policymakers use to evaluate success on a benefit to cost basis. Moreover, the value of non-energy benefits which can offset some or all of the cost of the non-energy measures -- including operations and maintenance (O&M) savings, avoided capital costs, and tradable pollution emissions allowances-- are not always incorporated into a formal cost-effectiveness analysis of ESCO projects. Nonenergy benefits are clearly important to customers, but state and federal laws that govern the acceptance of these types of benefits for ESCO projects vary widely (i.e., 0-100percent of allowable savings can come from one or more non-energy categories). Clear and consistent guidance on what types of savings are recognized in Energy Savings agreements under performance contracts is necessary, particularly where customers are searching for deep energy efficiency gains in the building sector.

  18. Technical energy savings versus changes in human behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen

    1996-01-01

    Energy savings seems to be the most environmentally benign element in an energy policy. The paper is a reflection on the work on saving energy both by improving technology and by adapting human daily behaviour. A simple model is suggested for the energy chain which converts the primary energy all...... the way into human satisfaction via energy services. Results of various analyses and field experiments show saving potentials for electricity of 50 - 80 per cents. Barriers for implementing these technical saving options are discussed. Also the necessity and potentials for changing behavioural or life...

  19. Energy Saving in Data Processing and Communication Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Iazeolla

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The power management of ICT systems, that is, data processing (Dp and telecommunication (Tlc systems, is becoming a relevant problem in economical terms. Dp systems totalize millions of servers and associated subsystems (processors, monitors, storage devices, etc. all over the world that need to be electrically powered. Dp systems are also used in the government of Tlc systems, which, besides requiring Dp electrical power, also require Tlc-specific power, both for mobile networks (with their cell-phone towers and associated subsystems: base stations, subscriber stations, switching nodes, etc. and for wired networks (with their routers, gateways, switches, etc.. ICT research is thus expected to investigate into methods to reduce Dp- and Tlc-specific power consumption. However, saving power may turn into waste of performance, in other words, into waste of ICT quality of service (QoS. This paper investigates the Dp and Tlc power management policies that look at compromises between power saving and QoS.

  20. An improved crude oil atmospheric distillation process for energy integration: Part II: New approach for energy saving by use of residual heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benali, Tahar; Tondeur, Daniel; Jaubert, Jean Noël

    2012-01-01

    In Part I of this paper, it was shown on thermodynamic grounds that introducing a flash in the preheating train of an atmospheric oil distillation process, together with an appropriate introduction of the resulting vapour into the column, could potentially bring substantial energy savings, by reducing the duty of the preheating furnace, by doing some pre-fractionation and by reducing the column irreversibilities. Part II expands on this idea by showing how this can be done while keeping the throughput and the product characteristics unchanged. The outcome is that placing several flashes after the heat exchangers and feeding the corresponding vapour streams to the appropriate trays of the column reduces the pumparound flows and the heat brought to the preheating train. The resulting heat deficit may then be compensated in an additional heat exchanger by using low level heat recuperated from the products of the distillation and/or imported from other processes. The use of this residual heat reduces the furnace duty by approximately an equivalent amount. Thus high level energy (fuel-gas burnt in the furnace) is replaced by residual low level heat. The simulation with an example flowsheet shows that the savings on fuel could be as high as 21%. - Highlights: ► Flash installation in the preheating train of the crude oil distillation process. ► Pumparound streams and heat sent to the preheating train are reduced. ► A high level heat deficit is induced and replaced by low level heat. ► Considerable energy savings and greenhouse gas emissions are achieved.

  1. Risk transfer via energy savings insurance

    OpenAIRE

    Mills, Evan

    2001-01-01

    Among the key barriers to investment in energy efficiency improvements are uncertainties about attaining projected energy savings and apprehension about potential disputes over these savings. The fields of energy management and risk management are thus intertwined. While many technical methods have emerged to manage performance risks (e.g. building commissioning), financial risk transfer techniques are less developed in the energy management arena than in other more mature segments of t...

  2. What actions in the domain of energy saving?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gourlia, J.P.; Richard, P.

    2007-01-01

    The energy saving potentialities are very often put forward to justify actions of mastery of energy demand. What are the possible substitutes and their result in terms of energy saving? What are the tools implemented and the services proposed by energy suppliers to end-users? What is the optimum mix between the regulatory measures and the market instruments to perform energy saving? What are the costs generated by such measures with respect to the expected results? How to sensibilize citizens to energy saving actions? These questions were debated during a round table which gathered 4 participants and two chairmen. (J.S.)

  3. User behaviour impact on energy savings potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    and the residents' behaviour and if these defaults do not reflect actual circumstances, it can result in non-realisation of expected energy savings. Furthermore, a risk also exists that residents' behaviour change after the energy upgrading, e.g. to obtain improved comfort than what was possible before......, 3) Domestic hot water consumption and 4) Air change rate. Based on the analysis, a methodology is established that can be used to make more realistic and accurate predictions of expected energy savings associated with energy upgrading taking into account user behaviour....... the upgrading and this could lead to further discrepancies between the calculated and the actual energy savings. This paper presents an analysis on how residents’ behaviour and the use of standard assumptions may influence expected energy savings. The analysis is performed on two typical single-family houses...

  4. Saving Energy. Managing School Facilities, Guide 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department for Education and Employment, London (England). Architects and Building Branch.

    This guide offers information on how schools can implement an energy saving action plan to reduce their energy costs. Various low-cost energy-saving measures are recommended covering heating levels and heating systems, electricity demand reduction and lighting, ventilation, hot water usage, and swimming pool energy management. Additional…

  5. Energy auditing in connection with subsidy schemes for energy saving investments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broend, Evald

    1979-07-01

    A review of the energy situation in Denmark is presented. Government subsidies for investments aiding projects aimed at reducing process energy consumption are discussed. The law serves as an incentive for the implementation of energy saving measures which would not otherwise be carried out because they would not be sufficiently economic. Subsidies of up to 40% of the amount invested are available. The special form of energy auditing carried out on the part of society concerning industrial energy consumption and some idea of how energy auditing is practiced in the individual enterprise are discussed.

  6. Technical Support Document: Strategies for 50% Energy Savings in Large Office Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leach, M.; Lobato, C.; Hirsch, A.; Pless, S.; Torcellini, P.

    2010-09-01

    This Technical Support Document (TSD) documents technical analysis that informs design guidance for designing and constructing large office buildings that achieve 50% net site energy savings over baseline buildings defined by minimal compliance with respect to ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2004. This report also represents a step toward developing a methodology for using energy modeling in the design process to achieve aggressive energy savings targets. This report documents the modeling and analysis methods used to identify design recommendations for six climate zones that capture the range of U.S. climate variability; demonstrates how energy savings change between ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2007 and Standard 90.1-2004 to determine baseline energy use; uses a four-story 'low-rise' prototype to analyze the effect of building aspect ratio on energy use intensity; explores comparisons between baseline and low-energy building energy use for alternate energy metrics (net source energy, energy emissions, and energy cost); and examines the extent to which glass curtain construction limits achieve energy savings by using a 12-story 'high-rise' prototype.

  7. ORC waste heat recovery in European energy intensive industries: Energy and GHG savings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campana, F.; Bianchi, M.; Branchini, L.; De Pascale, A.; Peretto, A.; Baresi, M.; Fermi, A.; Rossetti, N.; Vescovo, R.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • A methodology to estimate ORC industrial heat recovery potential is defined. • Heat recovery applications for different industrial processes are shown. • Cement, steel, glass and oil and gas applications are considered in EU27. • Savings in electricity costs and greenhouse gases are quantified. - Abstract: Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) is a technology with important opportunities in heat recovery from energy intensive industrial processes. This paper represents the first comprehensive estimate of ORC units that can be installed in cement, steel, glass and oil and gas industries in the 27 countries of the European Union based on an accurate methodology related to real plants in operation or under construction. An evaluation of energy savings, depending on the number of operating hours per year and of the consequent decrease in CO 2 emission and electricity expenditure, is also provided. The study, carried out in the framework of an European research project on heat recovery in energy intensive industries, found that, in the most convenient considered scenario, up to about 20,000 GW h of thermal energy per year can be recovered and 7.6 M ton of CO 2 can be saved by the application of ORC technology to the investigated and most promising industrial sectors

  8. Does energy labelling on residential housing cause energy savings? Working paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjaerbye, V.H.

    2008-12-15

    More than 80% of energy used in households is dedicated to space heating. Large potential energy savings have been identified in the existing housing stock. Energy labelling of single-family houses is seen as an important instrument to provide new house owners with information on efficient energy saving investments that can be made on the house. This paper evaluates the effects of the Danish Energy Labelling Scheme on energy consumption in existing single-family houses with propensity score matching using actual consumption of energy and register data describing the houses and households. We do not find significant energy savings due to the Danish Energy Labelling Scheme. (Author)

  9. Energy Saver: Tips on Saving Energy and Money in Your Home

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casey, Allison L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-10-04

    This guide shows you how easy it is to reduce your energy use at home and on the road. You'll find quick tips you can use to start saving today, as well as information on larger projects that will help save you money over the long term. Find even more information about saving money and energy at home by visiting our website, EnergySaver.gov.

  10. Opportunities of energy saving in lighting systems for public buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman Abd El-khalek

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The lighting system provides many options for cost-effective energy saving with low or no inconvenience. Lighting improvements are excellent investments in most public buildings, it is usually cost-effective to address because lighting improvements are often easier to make than many process upgrades.For public buildings, the easy no and low cost options to help save money and improve the energy performance are:Understand energy use.Identify optionsPrioritize actionsMake the changes and measure the savings.Continue managing energy efficiency.The challenge is to retrofit traditional lamps with LED lamps of good quality. The benefits of LED light bulbs are long-lasting, durable, cool, mercury free, more efficient, and cost effective.The light Emitting Diode (LED bulb uses a semiconductor as its light source, and is currently one of the most energy efficient and quickly developing types of bulbs for lighting. LEDs increasingly are being purchased to replace traditional bulbs. LEDs are relatively more expensive than other types of bulbs, but are very cost-effective because they use only a fraction of electricity of traditional lighting methods nd can last for longer.Benchmarking guides decision makers to policies aimed at the energy sector through better understanding of energy consumption trends nationwide, e.g.: energy price, moderating, peak demand, and encouraging sectors, low energy expansions.The “Improving Energy Efficiency Project of Lighting and Appliances” carried out energy audits and implemented opportunities of energy saving in lighting for different type of public buildings.To rationalize the use of energy by giving guidelines to consumers, the IEEL&A project prepared some brochures.This paper leads with the results of case studies as energy audits, opportunities in lighting systems, energy saving and CO2 reduction.

  11. Values and Technologies in Energy Savings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgård, Jørgen Stig

    2000-01-01

    of this saving can cause what is called the rebound effect, which reduces the savings obtained from the technology. Ways to avoid this effect are suggested, and they require value changes, primarly around frugality, consumption, and hard-working. There are indications that some of the necessary changes are well......The chapter is based on the assumption, that technology improvement is not sufficient to achieve a sustainable world community. Changes in people´s values are necessary. A simple model suggest how values, together with basic needs and with the environmental and societal frames, determine people......´s behavioural pattern and lifestyles. Deliberate changes in social values are illustrated by a historical example. From the side of technology the basic principles in the economy of energy savings are briefly described. The marginally profitable energy savings provides an economic saving. The application...

  12. Acquiring energy savings in manufactured housing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davey, D.

    1993-01-01

    In 1991, the Northwest utilities faced a complex situation. They needed new sources of electrical power to avoid future deficits. A significant block of energy savings was available in the manufactured housing sector in the form of energy savings from increased insulation to new manufactured homes. The manufacturers were interested in saving the electricity in the homes, but would only deal with the utility sector as a whole. Half of the homes targeted were sited in investor-owned utility (IOU) service territories, and half in the public sector made up of utilities that purchased some or all of their electricity from the Bonneville Power Administration. Utilities agreed to acquire energy from manufacturers In the form of thermal efficiency measures specified by the Bonneville Power Administration. The program that resulted from over one year of negotiations was called the Manufactured Housing Acquisition Program, or MAP. Manufacturers, the utilities, State Energy Offices, the Northwest Power Planning Council and Bonneville all worked closely and with tenacity to build the program that went into effect on April 1, 1992, and should save the region between 7 and 9 megawatts, enough energy to supply 11,000 homes in the Northwest

  13. Technical Support Document: 50% Energy Savings Design Technology Packages for Highway Lodging Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Wei; Gowri, Krishnan; Lane, Michael D.; Thornton, Brian A.; Rosenberg, Michael I.; Liu, Bing

    2009-09-28

    This Technical Support Document (TSD) describes the process, methodology and assumptions for development of the 50% Energy Savings Design Technology Packages for Highway Lodging Buildings, a design guidance document intended to provide recommendations for achieving 50% energy savings in highway lodging properties over the energy-efficiency levels contained in ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2004, Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings.

  14. Energy supply and energy saving in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.M. Ilchenko

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the main problems and solutions of energy saving and energy supply in Ukraine. Low energy efficiency has become one of the main factors of the crisis in the Ukrainian economy. The most relevant scientific and methodical approaches to assessment of the level of energy consumption and saving are indicated. The comparative analysis of annual energy use has been made. A potential to solve energy supply problems is strongly correlated with the ability to ensure the innovative development of economy for efficient and economical use of existing and imported energy resources. The ways for reducing of energy resource consumption have been suggested. Creation of technological conditions for the use of alternative energy sources is considered to be rational also. The development of renewable sources of energy (alternative and renewable energy sources will provide a significant effect in reducing the use of traditional energy sources, harmful emissions and greenhouse gas. Under these conditions, increasing of energy efficiency of economy and its competitiveness can be real. Improvement of environmental and social conditions of citizens of the country will mark a positive step towards the EU, and also will cancel some problems of the future generation.

  15. Large Hospital 50% Energy Savings: Technical Support Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonnema, E.; Studer, D.; Parker, A.; Pless, S.; Torcellini, P.

    2010-09-01

    This Technical Support Document documents the technical analysis and design guidance for large hospitals to achieve whole-building energy savings of at least 50% over ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2004 and represents a step toward determining how to provide design guidance for aggressive energy savings targets. This report documents the modeling methods used to demonstrate that the design recommendations meet or exceed the 50% goal. EnergyPlus was used to model the predicted energy performance of the baseline and low-energy buildings to verify that 50% energy savings are achievable. Percent energy savings are based on a nominal minimally code-compliant building and whole-building, net site energy use intensity. The report defines architectural-program characteristics for typical large hospitals, thereby defining a prototype model; creates baseline energy models for each climate zone that are elaborations of the prototype models and are minimally compliant with Standard 90.1-2004; creates a list of energy design measures that can be applied to the prototype model to create low-energy models; uses industry feedback to strengthen inputs for baseline energy models and energy design measures; and simulates low-energy models for each climate zone to show that when the energy design measures are applied to the prototype model, 50% energy savings (or more) are achieved.

  16. Energy-Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology (E-SMARRT): Final Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Thornton C [SCRA Appiled R& D

    2014-03-31

    Energy-Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology (E-SMARRT) is a balanced portfolio of R&D tasks that address energy-saving opportunities in the metalcasting industry. E-SMARRT was created to: • Improve important capabilities of castings • Reduce carbon footprint of the foundry industry • Develop new job opportunities in manufacturing • Significantly reduce metalcasting process energy consumption and includes R&D in the areas of: • Improvements in Melting Efficiency • Innovative Casting Processes for Yield Improvement/Revert Reduction • Instrumentation and Control Improvement • Material properties for Casting or Tooling Design Improvement The energy savings and process improvements developed under E-SMARRT have been made possible through the unique collaborative structure of the E-SMARRT partnership. The E-SMARRT team consisted of DOE’s Office of Industrial Technology, the three leading metalcasting technical associations in the U.S: the American Foundry Society; the North American Die Casting Association; and the Steel Founders’ Society of America; and SCRA Applied R&D, doing business as the Advanced Technology Institute (ATI), a recognized leader in distributed technology management. This team provided collaborative leadership to a complex industry composed of approximately 2,000 companies, 80% of which employ less than 100 people, and only 4% of which employ more than 250 people. Without collaboration, these new processes and technologies that enable energy efficiencies and environment-friendly improvements would have been slow to develop and had trouble obtaining a broad application. The E-SMARRT R&D tasks featured low-threshold energy efficiency improvements that are attractive to the domestic industry because they do not require major capital investment. The results of this portfolio of projects are significantly reducing metalcasting process energy consumption while improving the important capabilities of metalcastings. Through June

  17. Energy saving potential of energy services - experimentation on the life cycle of energy conversion equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupont, M.

    2006-12-01

    Energy efficiency services are growing in Europe but their role is still limited. In order to evaluate the potential, we focused first of all on policy, economical and environmental mechanisms that support their development. European natural gas and electricity markets, that are now almost wholly de-regulated, are analysed and compared to their historical structure. By introducing uncertainty on energy prices, this new deal translates better the real energy costs. Energy performance contracts (EPC) limit the impact of these uncertainties on the customer energy bills by guaranteeing a financial result. As a result of the modelling of these contracts, namely operation and maintenance ones, we prove that they transfer technical and financial risks from building owners to energy service companies (ESCO) making energy saving measures easier and less expensive at the same time. These contracts are relatively widespread for heating or compressed-air processes but remain marginal for air-conditioning systems. So new methods were needed to guarantee on the long terms the efficiency of air-conditioning systems demand (1) to master the process and its performances and (2) to be able to determine precisely the energy saving potential and its realisation costs. A detailed energy audit is thus necessary for which we propose a guidance. Conclusions of audits carried out prove that energy saving potential is mainly located in equipment management and control. These optimizations are not always carried out because of a lack of contractual incentive and due to the weaknesses of audit methods. Through the involvement of an independent expert, the mandatory and regular inspection of air-conditioning systems may allow to verify and guide such practices. A three-step analysis procedure has been developed in order to maximize the inspection potential and to get higher benefits from service contracts. (author)

  18. Energy Savings from Industrial Water Reductions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, Prakash; McKane, Aimee; de Fontaine, Andre

    2015-08-03

    Although it is widely recognized that reducing freshwater consumption is of critical importance, generating interest in industrial water reduction programs can be hindered for a variety of reasons. These include the low cost of water, greater focus on water use in other sectors such as the agriculture and residential sectors, high levels of unbilled and/or unregulated self-supplied water use in industry, and lack of water metering and tracking capabilities at industrial facilities. However, there are many additional components to the resource savings associated with reducing site water use beyond the water savings alone, such as reductions in energy consumption, greenhouse gas emissions, treatment chemicals, and impact on the local watershed. Understanding and quantifying these additional resource savings can expand the community of businesses, NGOs, government agencies, and researchers with a vested interest in water reduction. This paper will develop a methodology for evaluating the embedded energy consumption associated with water use at an industrial facility. The methodology developed will use available data and references to evaluate the energy consumption associated with water supply and wastewater treatment outside of a facility’s fence line for various water sources. It will also include a framework for evaluating the energy consumption associated with water use within a facility’s fence line. The methodology will develop a more complete picture of the total resource savings associated with water reduction efforts and allow industrial water reduction programs to assess the energy and CO2 savings associated with their efforts.

  19. Energy saving and consumption reducing evaluation of thermal power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xiu; Han, Miaomiao

    2018-03-01

    At present, energy saving and consumption reduction require energy saving and consumption reduction measures for thermal power plant, establishing an evaluation system for energy conservation and consumption reduction is instructive for the whole energy saving work of thermal power plant. By analysing the existing evaluation system of energy conservation and consumption reduction, this paper points out that in addition to the technical indicators of power plant, market activities should also be introduced in the evaluation of energy saving and consumption reduction in power plant. Ttherefore, a new evaluation index of energy saving and consumption reduction is set up and the example power plant is calculated in this paper. Rresults show that after introducing the new evaluation index of energy saving and consumption reduction, the energy saving effect of the power plant can be judged more comprehensively, so as to better guide the work of energy saving and consumption reduction in power plant.

  20. Saving energy in 1-D : tailoring energy-saving advice using a Rasch-based energy recommender system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Starke, Alain; Willemsen, Martijn; Snijders, Chris; Ge, Mouhzi; Ricci, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Although there are numerous possibilities to save energy, conservation initiatives often do not tailor their content to the consumer. By considering energy conservation as a one-dimensional construct, where different behaviors have different execution difficulties, we have set out a Rasch-based

  1. Biopulping: A new energy-saving technology for papermaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, G.M.; Akhtar, M.; Lentz, M.J.; Kirk, T.K.; Swaney, R.; Shipley, D.F.

    1997-01-01

    Biopulping is defined as the treatment of wood chips with lignin-degrading fungi prior to pulping. Fungal pretreatment prior to mechanical pulping reduces electrical energy requirements during refining or increases mill throughput, improves paper strength, reduces the pitch content, reduces cooking time for sulfite pulping, and reduces the environmental impact of pulping. The recent work involved scaling up the biopulping process towards the industrial level, investigating both the engineering and economic feasibility of the technology. The authors envision the process to be done in either a chip-pile or silo-based system for which several factors need to be considered. These factors include the degree of decontamination, a hospitable environment for the fungus, and the overall process economics. Currently, treatment of the chips with low pressure steam is sufficient for decontamination. Furthermore, a simple, forced ventilation system can be used to maintain the proper temperature, humidity, and moisture content throughout the chip bed, thus promoting uniform growth of the fungus. The pilot-scale trial resulted in the successful treatment of 4 tons, of wood chips (dry weight basis) with results comparable to those on a laboratory scale. For mechanical pulping, a 2-week treatment results in approximately 30% energy savings that, considering the additional equipment and operating costs, results in an overall savings of $9 to $20/ton of pulp in a chip-pile system. The other benefits that biopulping confers improve the economics considerably A larger, 40-ton trial was also successful, with energy savings and paper properties comparable with the laboratory scale

  2. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Fruit and Vegetable Processing Industry. An ENERGY STAR Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masanet, Eric; Masanet, Eric; Worrell, Ernst; Graus, Wina; Galitsky, Christina

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. fruit and vegetable processing industry--defined in this Energy Guide as facilities engaged in the canning, freezing, and drying or dehydrating of fruits and vegetables--consumes over $800 million worth of purchased fuels and electricity per year. Energy efficiency improvement isan important way to reduce these costs and to increase predictable earnings, especially in times of high energy price volatility. There are a variety of opportunities available at individual plants in the U.S. fruit and vegetable processing industry to reduce energy consumption in a cost-effective manner. This Energy Guide discusses energy efficiency practices and energy-efficient technologies that can be implemented at the component, process, facility, and organizational levels. A discussion of the trends, structure, and energy consumption characteristics of the U.S. fruit and vegetable processing industry is provided along with a description of the major process technologies used within the industry. Next, a wide variety of energy efficiency measures applicable to fruit and vegetable processing plants are described. Many measure descriptions include expected savings in energy and energy-related costs, based on case study data from real-world applications in fruit and vegetable processing facilities and related industries worldwide. Typical measure payback periods and references to further information in the technical literature are also provided, when available. Given the importance of water in fruit and vegetable processing, a summary of basic, proven measures for improving plant-level water efficiency are also provided. The information in this Energy Guide is intended to help energy and plant managers in the U.S. fruit and vegetable processing industry reduce energy and water consumption in a cost-effective manner while maintaining the quality of products manufactured. Further research on the economics of all measures--as well as on their applicability to different production

  3. Energy savings in Polish buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markel, L.C.; Gula, A.; Reeves, G.

    1995-12-31

    A demonstration of low-cost insulation and weatherization techniques was a part of phase 1 of the Krakow Clean Fossil Fuels and Energy Efficient Project. The objectives were to identify a cost-effective set of measures to reduce energy used for space heating, determine how much energy could be saved, and foster widespread implementation of those measures. The demonstration project focused on 4 11-story buildings in a Krakow housing cooperative. Energy savings of over 20% were obtained. Most important, the procedures and materials implemented in the demonstration project have been adapted to Polish conditions and applied to other housing cooperatives, schools, and hospitals. Additional projects are being planned, in Krakow and other cities, under the direction of FEWE-Krakow, the Polish Energie Cities Network, and Biuro Rozwoju Krakowa.

  4. Savings impact of a corporate energy manager

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sikorski, B.D.; O'Donnell, B.A.

    1999-01-01

    This paper discusses the cost savings impact of employing an energy manager with a 16,000-employee corporation. The corporation, Canada's second largest airline, is currently operating nearly 3,000,000 ft 2 of mixed-use facilities spread across the country, with an annual energy budget for ground facilities of over Cdn $4,000,000. This paper outlines the methodology used by the energy manager to deploy an energy management program over a two-year period between April 1995 and May 1997. The paper examines the successes and the lessons learned during the period and summarizes the costs and benefits of the program. The energy manager position was responsible for developing an energy history database with more than 100 active accounts and for monitoring and verifying energy savings. The energy manager implemented many relatively low-cost energy conservation measures, as well as some capital projects, during the first two years of the program. In total, these measures provided energy cost savings of $210,000 per year, or 5% of the total budget. In each case, technologies installed as part of the energy retrofit projects provided not only cost savings but also better control, reduced maintenance, and improved working conditions for employees

  5. The model of creation of energy-saving competence of students of high school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeer Evald

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the most important conditions for the creationof energy-saving competence of students – undergraduate training. The actualityof the problem is caused by low energy efficiency of industrial production, significantly reduces the competitiveness of the domestic economy and, consequently, the need to intensify activities on the rational use of energy resources. The definition of energy-saving expertise, marked its structural components (value-motivational, cognitive activity-reflexive. Stages of creationof energy-saving expertise in system of continuous vocational training: diagnosis, motivation, learning and reflective-evaluative. The possibilities of educational technology and psycho designed to work with the psychological barriers and resistance to the process of regulation of energy consumption, the production facilities at its energy efficiency and energy saving. In particular, it is recommended to use active learning methods (discussion, games, analysis of problem situations, etc., Information and communication technologies for the implementation of educational and research projects in the field of energy conservation, the development and implementation of interactive multimedia learning environments.

  6. Engaging energy saving through motivation-specific social comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Petkov, Petromil;Köbler, Felix;Foth, Marcus;Medland, Richard C.;Krcmar, Helmut

    2014-01-01

    Comparison is widely used in research projects and commercial products whose goal is to motivate energy saving at home. This research builds on fundamental theories from social psychology in an attempt to shed light on how to motivate consumers to conserve energy by providing relevant people for social comparison depending on consumer?s motivation to compare. To support the research process, the mobile application EnergyWiz was developed through a theory-driven design approach. Along with oth...

  7. Technical Support Document: Development of the Advanced Energy Design Guide for K-12 Schools--30% Energy Savings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pless, S.; Torcellini, P.; Long, N.

    2007-09-01

    This Technical Support Document describes the process and methodology for the development of the Advanced Energy Design Guide for K-12 School Buildings (K-12 AEDG), a design guidance document intended to provide recommendations for achieving 30% energy savings in K-12 Schools over levels contained in ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-1999, Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings. The 30% energy savings target is the first step toward achieving net-zero energy schools; schools that, on an annual basis, draw from outside sources less or equal energy than they generate on site from renewable energy sources.

  8. Energy-saving measures in multi-storage housing construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Мария Дмитриевна Коровина

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article the main directions of energy saving in multi-storey housing construction and methods for increasing energy efficiency are considered. The main problems of implementing energy-saving measures were touched; the need for their analysis during the development of each construction project with a view to choosing the most effective complex from the energy, economic, ecological and social points of view was justified. It is noted that such an approach can become an important factor of saving energy in the sphere of housing construction and reducing the energy intensity of the entire Russian economy.

  9. A CLS-based survivable and energy-saving WDM-PON architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Min; Zhong, Wen-De; Zhang, Zhenrong; Luan, Feng

    2013-11-01

    We propose and demonstrate an improved survivable and energy-saving WDM-PON with colorless ONUs. It incorporates both energy-saving and self-healing operations. A simple effective energy-saving scheme is proposed by including an energy-saving control unit in the OLT and a control unit at each ONU. The energy-saving scheme realizes both dozing and sleep (offline) modes, which greatly improves the energy-saving efficiency for WDM-PONs. An intelligent protection switching scheme is designed in the OLT, which can distinguish if an ONU is in dozing/sleep (offline) state or a fiber is faulty. Moreover, by monitoring the optical power of each channel on both working and protection paths, the OLT can know the connection status of every fiber path, thus facilitating an effective protection switching and a faster failure recovery. The improved WDM-PON architecture not only significantly reduces energy consumption, but also performs self-healing operation in practical operation scenarios. The scheme feasibility is experimentally verified with 10 Gbit/s downstream and 1.25 Gbit/s upstream transmissions. We also examine the energy-saving efficiency of our proposed energy-saving scheme by simulation, which reveals that energy saving mainly arises from the dozing mode, not from the sleep mode when the ONU is in the online state.

  10. Energy Saver: Tips on Saving Money & Energy at Home

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2017-09-01

    Provides consumers with home energy and money savings tips such as insulation, weatherization, heating, cooling, water heating, energy efficient windows, landscaping, lighting, and energy efficient appliances.

  11. Energy Savers: Tips on Saving Money & Energy at Home

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2011-12-01

    Provides consumers with home energy and money savings tips such as insulation, weatherization, heating, cooling, water heating, energy efficient windows, landscaping, lighting, and energy efficient appliances.

  12. Energy Savers: Tips on Saving Money & Energy at Home

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-05-01

    Provides consumers with home energy and money savings tips such as insulation, weatherization, heating, cooling, water heating, energy efficient windows, landscaping, lighting, and energy efficient appliances.

  13. Energy Savers Tips on Saving Energy& Money at Home

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2003-06-01

    Provides consumers with home energy and money savings tips such as insulation, weatherization, heating, cooling, water heating, energy efficient windows, landscaping, lighting, and energy efficient appliances

  14. The EU must triple its energy saving policy effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesselink, B.; Eichhammer, W.; Harmsen, R.

    2010-01-01

    The impact of EU energy savings policy must triple to achieve the bloc’s 2020 energy savings goal. But such efforts could get a much better foundation if European leaders set a binding energy consumption target, rather than the current indicative savings target. The evidence for such

  15. Development of the Advanced Energy Design Guide for K-12 Schools -- 50% Energy Savings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonnema, E.; Leach, M.; Pless, S.; Torcellini, P.

    2013-02-01

    This Technical Support Document (TSD) describes the process and methodology for the development of the Advanced Energy Design Guide for K-12 School Buildings: Achieving 50% Energy Savings Toward a Net Zero Energy Building (AEDG-K12) (ASHRAE et al. 2011a). The AEDG-K12 provides recommendations for achieving 50% whole-building energy savings in K-12 schools over levels achieved by following ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2004, Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings (Standard 90.1-2004) (ASHRAE 2004b). The AEDG-K12 was developed in collaboration with the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), the American Institute of Architects (AIA), the Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (IES), the U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC), and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE).

  16. Mission aware energy saving strategies for Army ground vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dattathreya, Macam S.

    Fuel energy is a basic necessity for this planet and the modern technology to perform many activities on earth. On the other hand, quadrupled automotive vehicle usage by the commercial industry and military has increased fuel consumption. Military readiness of Army ground vehicles is very important for a country to protect its people and resources. Fuel energy is a major requirement for Army ground vehicles. According to a report, a department of defense has spent nearly $13.6 billion on fuel and electricity to conduct ground missions. On the contrary, energy availability on this plant is slowly decreasing. Therefore, saving energy in Army ground vehicles is very important. Army ground vehicles are embedded with numerous electronic systems to conduct missions such as silent and normal stationary surveillance missions. Increasing electrical energy consumption of these systems is influencing higher fuel consumption of the vehicle. To save energy, the vehicles can use any of the existing techniques, but they require complex, expensive, and time consuming implementations. Therefore, cheaper and simpler approaches are required. In addition, the solutions have to save energy according to mission needs and also overcome size and weight constraints of the vehicle. Existing research in the current literature do not have any mission aware approaches to save energy. This dissertation research proposes mission aware online energy saving strategies for stationary Army ground vehicles to save energy as well as to meet the electrical needs of the vehicle during surveillance missions. The research also proposes theoretical models of surveillance missions, fuzzy logic models of engine and alternator efficiency data, and fuzzy logic algorithms. Based on these models, two energy saving strategies are proposed for silent and normal surveillance type of missions. During silent mission, the engine is on and batteries power the systems. During normal surveillance mission, the engine is

  17. Energy savings for solar heating systems; Solvarmeanlaegs energibesparelser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furbo, S.; Fan, J.

    2011-01-15

    Energy savings for a number of new solar heating systems in one family houses have been determined by means of information on the energy consumption of the houses before and after installation of the solar heating systems. The investigated solar heating systems are marketed by Velux Danmark A/S, Sonnnenkraft Scandinavia A/S and Batec Solvarme A/S. Solar domestic hot water systems as well as solar combi systems are included in the investigations The houses have different auxiliary energy supply systems: Natural gas boilers, oil fired burners, electrical heating and district heating. Some of the houses have a second auxiliary energy supply system. The collector areas vary from 1.83 m{sup 2} to 9.28 m{sup 2}. Some of the solar heating systems are based on energy units with a new integrated natural gas boiler and a heat storage for the solar heating system. The existing energy systems in the houses are for most of the houses used as the auxiliary energy systems for the solar heating systems. The yearly energy savings for the houses where the only change is the installation of the solar heating system vary from 300 kWh per m{sup 2} solar collector to 1300 kWh per m{sup 2} solar collector. The average yearly energy savings is about 670 kWh per m{sup 2} solar collector for these solar heating systems. The energy savings per m{sup 2} solar collector are not influenced by the solar heating system type, the company marketing the system, the auxiliary energy supply system, the collector area, the collector tilt, the collector azimuth, the energy consumption of the house or the location of the house. The yearly energy savings for the houses with solar heating systems based on energy units including a new natural gas boiler vary from 790 kWh per m{sup 2} solar collector to 2090 kWh per m{sup 2} solar collector. The average yearly energy savings is about 1520 kWh per m{sup 2} solar collector for these solar heating systems. The energy savings per m{sup 2} solar collector for

  18. Estimating the energy saving potential of telecom operators in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Tian-Jian; Zhang, Yue-Jun; Huang, Jin; Peng, Ruo-Hong

    2013-01-01

    A set of models are employed to estimate the potential of total energy saved of productions and segmented energy saving for telecom operators in China. During the estimation, the total energy saving is divided into that by technology and management, which are derived from technical reform and progress, and management control measures and even marketing respectively, and the estimating methodologies for energy saving potential of each segment are elaborated. Empirical results from China Mobile indicate that, first, the technical advance in communications technology accounts for the largest proportion (70%–80%) of the total energy saved of productions in telecom sector of China. Second, technical reform brings about 20%–30% of the total energy saving. Third, the proportions of energy saving brought by marketing and control measures appear relatively smaller, just less than 3%. Therefore, China's telecom operators should seize the opportunity of the revolution of communications network techniques in recent years to create an advanced network with lower energy consumption

  19. Energy-saving methodology for material handling applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makris, P.A.; Makri, A.P.; Provatidis, C.G. [National Technical University of Athens, School of Mechanical Engineering, Mechanical Design and Control Systems Division, 9 Iroon Polytechniou Street, Zografou Campus, GR-15773 Athens (Greece)

    2006-10-15

    This paper presents an energy saving approach to the problem of order picking in warehousing environment, which is directly related to the well-known Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP). While the available heuristic algorithms for the order-picking problem search for the route that minimizes the travel time, here the problem is addressed from the energy saving point of view. In a few words, the least energy-consuming route is identified in order to quantify the trade off in time and energy between the fastest route and the most energy economic one. Keeping in mind that often energy is as important as time, especially during a low-demand period, the current paper sheds some light into a two dimensional way of addressing the warehouse material handling problem, which saves time as well as energy. A very interesting finding is that a relatively small loss of service time in many cases may lead to a significant decrease of consumed energy without any additional cost. (author)

  20. Measured energy savings and cost-effectiveness of conservation retrofits in commercial buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greely, K.M.; Harris, J.P.; Hatcher, A.M.

    1990-01-01

    In this study, the authors examine the measured savings and cost-effectiveness of 447 commercial retrofit projects in the US, Canada, and Europe, representing over 1,700 buildings. For these projects, they examine savings and cost-effectiveness by building type and retrofit strategy, savings from individual measures, peak electric demand savings, comparisons of measured vs. predicted savings, and the persistence of savings in the years following a retrofit. Median annual site energy savings amounted to 20 kBtu/ft 2 , or 18% of whole-building usage; median retrofit cost was $0.56/ft 2 (1988 $), the median payback time was 3.1 years, and the median cost of conserved energy was $3.10/site MBtu. When examined by retrofit strategy, they found that projects with only HVAC and/or lighting retrofits had median payback times of one to three years, while those affecting the building shell, either alone or in combination with other types of measures, had payback times of five or more years. Projects in which only maintenance practices were changed typically saved 12% of their pre-retrofit consumption, often using in-house labor. Their research suggests that, despite significant savings and short payback times for the majority of projects, optimum savings are often not being achieved, due to limited owner willingness to invest in all cost-effective measures, as well as to improper retrofit installation and/or maintenance. A comprehensive understanding of energy management as a process is needed, including both inspection and commissioning of installed retrofits and ongoing tracking of energy consumption as an indicator of operating problems

  1. Analysis of the overall energy intensity of alumina refinery process using unit process energy intensity and product ratio method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Liru; Aye, Lu [International Technologies Center (IDTC), Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering,The University of Melbourne, Vic. 3010 (Australia); Lu, Zhongwu [Institute of Materials and Metallurgy, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110004 (China); Zhang, Peihong [Department of Municipal and Environmental Engineering, Shenyang Architecture University, Shenyang 110168 (China)

    2006-07-15

    Alumina refinery is an energy intensive industry. Traditional energy saving methods employed have been single-equipment-orientated. Based on two concepts of 'energy carrier' and 'system', this paper presents a method that analyzes the effects of unit process energy intensity (e) and product ratio (p) on overall energy intensity of alumina. The important conclusion drawn from this method is that it is necessary to decrease both the unit process energy intensity and the product ratios in order to decrease the overall energy intensity of alumina, which may be taken as a future policy for energy saving. As a case study, the overall energy intensity of the Chinese Zhenzhou alumina refinery plant with Bayer-sinter combined method between 1995 and 2000 was analyzed. The result shows that the overall energy intensity of alumina in this plant decreased by 7.36 GJ/t-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} over this period, 49% of total energy saving is due to direct energy saving, and 51% is due to indirect energy saving. The emphasis in this paper is on decreasing product ratios of high-energy consumption unit processes, such as evaporation, slurry sintering, aluminium trihydrate calcining and desilication. Energy savings can be made (1) by increasing the proportion of Bayer and indirect digestion, (2) by increasing the grade of ore by ore dressing or importing some rich gibbsite and (3) by promoting the advancement in technology. (author)

  2. Energy Saving and Efficient Energy Use By Power Electronic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Wang, Huai; Davari, Pooya

    2017-01-01

    In the development of the modern society, one of the key factors is to save energy in order to become more independent of other energy resources. Two important approaches can be taken—one is to change behavior and thereby save energy—the second one is to develop new technology which is able to sa...

  3. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Oportunities for the Concrete Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kermeli, Katerina; Worrell, Ernst; Masanet, Eric

    2011-12-01

    The U.S. concrete industry is the main consumer of U.S.-produced cement. The manufacturing of ready mixed concrete accounts for more than 75% of the U.S. concrete production following the manufacturing of precast concrete and masonry units. The most significant expenditure is the cost of materials accounting for more than 50% of total concrete production costs - cement only accounts for nearly 24%. In 2009, energy costs of the U.S. concrete industry were over $610 million. Hence, energy efficiency improvements along with efficient use of materials without negatively affecting product quality and yield, especially in times of increased fuel and material costs, can significantly reduce production costs and increase competitiveness. The Energy Guide starts with an overview of the U.S. concrete industry’s structure and energy use, a description of the various manufacturing processes, and identification of the major energy consuming areas in the different industry segments. This is followed by a description of general and process related energy- and cost-efficiency measures applicable to the concrete industry. Specific energy and cost savings and a typical payback period are included based on literature and case studies, when available. The Energy Guide intends to provide information on cost reduction opportunities to energy and plant managers in the U.S. concrete industry. Every cost saving opportunity should be assessed carefully prior to implementation in individual plants, as the economics and the potential energy and material savings may differ.

  4. Modelling the impact of social network on energy savings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Feng; Zhang, Jiangfeng; Li, Hailong; Yan, Jinyue; Galloway, Stuart; Lo, Kwok L.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Energy saving propagation along a social network is modelled. • This model consists of a time evolving weighted directed network. • Network weights and information decay are applied in savings calculation. - Abstract: It is noted that human behaviour changes can have a significant impact on energy consumption, however, qualitative study on such an impact is still very limited, and it is necessary to develop the corresponding mathematical models to describe how much energy savings can be achieved through human engagement. In this paper a mathematical model of human behavioural dynamic interactions on a social network is derived to calculate energy savings. This model consists of a weighted directed network with time evolving information on each node. Energy savings from the whole network is expressed as mathematical expectation from probability theory. This expected energy savings model includes both direct and indirect energy savings of individuals in the network. The savings model is obtained by network weights and modified by the decay of information. Expected energy savings are calculated for cases where individuals in the social network are treated as a single information source or multiple sources. This model is tested on a social network consisting of 40 people. The results show that the strength of relations between individuals is more important to information diffusion than the number of connections individuals have. The expected energy savings of optimally chosen node can be 25.32% more than randomly chosen nodes at the end of the second month for the case of single information source in the network, and 16.96% more than random nodes for the case of multiple information sources. This illustrates that the model presented in this paper can be used to determine which individuals will have the most influence on the social network, which in turn provides a useful guide to identify targeted customers in energy efficiency technology rollout

  5. Net-Zero Building Technologies Create Substantial Energy Savings -

    Science.gov (United States)

    only an estimated 1% of commercial buildings are built to net-zero energy criteria. One reason for this Continuum Magazine | NREL Net-Zero Building Technologies Create Substantial Energy Savings Net -Zero Building Technologies Create Substantial Energy Savings Researchers work to package and share step

  6. Bandwidth Study on Energy Use and Potential Energy Saving Opportunities in U.S. Chemical Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabine Brueske, Caroline Kramer, Aaron Fisher

    2015-06-01

    Energy bandwidth studies of U.S. manufacturing sectors can serve as foundational references in framing the range (or bandwidth) of potential energy savings opportunities. This bandwidth study examines energy consumption and potential energy savings opportunities in U.S. chemical manufacturing. The study relies on multiple sources to estimate the energy used in the production of 74 individual chemicals, representing 57% of sector-wide energy consumption. Energy savings opportunities for individual chemicals and for 15 subsectors of chemicals manufacturing are based on technologies currently in use or under development; these potential savings are then extrapolated to estimate sector-wide energy savings opportunity.

  7. INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES IN MANAGEMENT OF ENERGY SAVING PROJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Дмитро Валерійович МАРГАСОВ

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The information technology structure is considered of energy saving projects. The project management diagram of energy saving projects is developed, using GIS, ICS, BIM and other control and visual systems.

  8. Energy saving and energy efficiency concepts for policy making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oikonomou, V.; Becchis, F.; Steg, L.; Russolillo, D.

    2009-01-01

    Departing from the concept of rational use of energy, the paper outlines the microeconomics of end-use energy saving as a result of frugality or efficiency measures. Frugality refers to the behaviour that is aimed at energy conservation, and with efficiency we refer to the technical ratio between energy input and output services that can be modified with technical improvements (e.g. technology substitution). Changing behaviour from one side and technology from the other are key issues for public energy policy. In this paper, we attempt to identify the effects of parameters that determine energy saving behaviour with the use of the microeconomic theory. The role of these parameters is crucial and can determine the outcome of energy efficiency policies; therefore policymakers should properly address them when designing policies.

  9. Energy saving and energy efficiency concepts for policy making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oikonomou, V. [SOM, University of Groningen, PO Box 800, 9700 AV Groningen (Netherlands); Becchis, F. [POLIS Department, University of East Piedmont, via Duomo, 6-13100 Vercelli (Italy); Steg, L. [Faculty of Behavioural and Social Sciences, University of Groningen, P.O. Box 72 9700 AB (Netherlands); Russolillo, D. [Fondazione per l' Ambiente ' T. Fenoglio' , Via Gaudenzio Ferrari 1, I-10124 Torino (Italy)

    2009-11-15

    Departing from the concept of rational use of energy, the paper outlines the microeconomics of end-use energy saving as a result of frugality or efficiency measures. Frugality refers to the behaviour that is aimed at energy conservation, and with efficiency we refer to the technical ratio between energy input and output services that can be modified with technical improvements (e.g. technology substitution). Changing behaviour from one side and technology from the other are key issues for public energy policy. In this paper, we attempt to identify the effects of parameters that determine energy saving behaviour with the use of the microeconomic theory. The role of these parameters is crucial and can determine the outcome of energy efficiency policies; therefore policymakers should properly address them when designing policies. (author)

  10. Feasibility study on an energy-saving desiccant wheel system with CO2 heat pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yefeng; Meng, Deren; Chen, Shen

    2018-02-01

    In traditional desiccant wheel, air regeneration process occurs inside an open loop, and lots of energy is consumed. In this paper, an energy-saving desiccant wheel system with CO2 heat pump and closed loop air regeneration is proposed. The general theory and features of the desiccant wheel are analysed. The main feature of the proposed system is that the air regeneration process occurs inside a closed loop, and a CO2 heat pump is utilized inside this loop for the air regeneration process as well as supplying cooling for the process air. The simulation results show that the proposed system can save significant energy.

  11. Quantifying Adoption Rates and Energy Savings Over Time for Advanced Manufacturing Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanes, Rebecca [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Carpenter Petri, Alberta C [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Riddle, Matt [Argonne National Laboratory; Graziano, Diane [Argonne National Laboratory

    2017-10-09

    Energy-efficient manufacturing technologies can reduce energy consumption and lower operating costs for an individual manufacturing facility, but increased process complexity and the resulting risk of disruption means that manufacturers may be reluctant to adopt such technologies. In order to quantify potential energy savings at scales larger than a single facility, it is necessary to account for how quickly and how widely the technology will be adopted by manufacturers. This work develops a methodology for estimating energy-efficient manufacturing technology adoption rates using quantitative, objectively measurable technology characteristics, including energetic, economic and technical criteria. Twelve technology characteristics are considered, and each characteristic is assigned an importance weight that reflects its impact on the overall technology adoption rate. Technology characteristic data and importance weights are used to calculate the adoption score, a number between 0 and 1 that represents how quickly the technology is likely to be adopted. The adoption score is then used to estimate parameters for the Bass diffusion curve, which quantifies the change in the number of new technology adopters in a population over time. Finally, energy savings at the sector level are calculated over time by multiplying the number of new technology adopters at each time step with the technology's facility-level energy savings. The proposed methodology will be applied to five state-of-the-art energy-efficient technologies in the carbon fiber composites sector, with technology data obtained from the Department of Energy's 2016 bandwidth study. Because the importance weights used in estimating the Bass curve parameters are subjective, a sensitivity analysis will be performed on the weights to obtain a range of parameters for each technology. The potential energy savings for each technology and the rate at which each technology is adopted in the sector are quantified

  12. Design of energy saving monitoring system on isothermal oilless lubricated air compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, S. N.; Liu, Q.; Xu, B. L.; Liu, Y.; Hu, F.

    2017-10-01

    This design introduces a kind of STM32F051C8T6 circuit monitoring system which is based on the ARM core. According to the operating principle of air compressor, the reduction of temperature and current is converted to save electricity and directly displayed, save electricity information stored at the same time, to achieve real-time monitoring air compressor energy saving effect in the process of operation.

  13. Energy Savings Performance Contract Energy Sales Agreement Toolkit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2017-08-14

    FEMP developed the Energy Savings Performance Contracting Energy Sales Agreement (ESPC ESA) Toolkit to provide federal agency contracting officers and other acquisition team members with information that will facilitate the timely execution of ESPC ESA projects.

  14. Energy Savings Analysis of the Proposed NYStretch-Energy Code 2018

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Bing [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhang, Jian [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Chen, Yan [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Edelson, Jim [New Buildings Inst. (NBI), Portland, OR (United States); Lyles, Mark [New Buildings Inst. (NBI), Portland, OR (United States)

    2018-01-20

    This study was conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in support of the stretch energy code development led by the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA). In 2017 NYSERDA developed its 2016 Stretch Code Supplement to the 2016 New York State Energy Conservation Construction Code (hereinafter referred to as “NYStretch-Energy”). NYStretch-Energy is intended as a model energy code for statewide voluntary adoption that anticipates other code advancements culminating in the goal of a statewide Net Zero Energy Code by 2028. Since then, NYSERDA continues to develop the NYStretch-Energy Code 2018 edition. To support the effort, PNNL conducted energy simulation analysis to quantify the energy savings of proposed commercial provisions of the NYStretch-Energy Code (2018) in New York. The focus of this project is the 20% improvement over existing commercial model energy codes. A key requirement of the proposed stretch code is that it be ‘adoptable’ as an energy code, meaning that it must align with current code scope and limitations, and primarily impact building components that are currently regulated by local building departments. It is largely limited to prescriptive measures, which are what most building departments and design projects are most familiar with. This report describes a set of energy-efficiency measures (EEMs) that demonstrate 20% energy savings over ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-2013 (ASHRAE 2013) across a broad range of commercial building types and all three climate zones in New York. In collaboration with New Building Institute, the EEMs were developed from national model codes and standards, high-performance building codes and standards, regional energy codes, and measures being proposed as part of the on-going code development process. PNNL analyzed these measures using whole building energy models for selected prototype commercial buildings and multifamily buildings representing buildings in New

  15. Natural gas decompression energy recovery: Energy savings potential in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piatti, A.; Piemonte, C.; Rampini, E.; Vatrano, F.; Techint SpA, Milan; ENEA, Rome

    1992-01-01

    This paper surveyed the natural gas distribution systems employed in the Italian civil, industrial and thermoelectric sectors to identify those installations which can make use of gas decompression energy recovery systems (consisting of turbo-expanders or alternative expanders) to economically generate electric power. Estimates were then made of the total amount of potential energy savings. The study considered as eligible for energy savings interventions only those plants with a greater than 5,000 standard cubic meter per hour plant capacity. It was evaluated that, with suitable decompression equipment installed at 50 key installations (33 civil, 15 industrial), about 200 GWh of power could be produced annually, representing potential savings of about 22,000 petroleum equivalent tonnes of energy. A comparative analysis was done on three investment alternatives involving inputs of varying amounts of Government financial assistance

  16. Year-round daylight saving time will save more energy in India than corresponding DST or time zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahuja, Dilip R.; SenGupta, D.P.

    2012-01-01

    Many countries have experimented with daylight saving time (DST) to save energy and to align human activities more closely to the daily cycle of light and darkness. Using a novel methodology, we estimate the year-round energy savings to be obtained from advancing Indian Standard Time (IST), from the introduction of DST, and from dividing the country into two time zones. We find that the option of advancing IST consistently saves more energy than the corresponding DST option, which in turn saves more energy than the corresponding time zones option. This is because the energy benefits of advancing IST accrue for the entire year throughout the country, whereas the benefits of DST are confined to summer months and the benefits of two time zones are largely in the lower energy consuming eastern region. We recommend advancing IST by half-hour to being six hours ahead of UTC. This confers the advantages of DST and time zones without their disadvantages and is forecast to save more than 2 billion kWh of electricity every year during evening peaks that are difficult to supply. While these results are India-specific, similar exercises would be useful to many other countries. - Highlights: ► Advancing IST (YRDST) consistently saves more energy than the corresponding DST. ► DST consistently saves more energy than dividing India into two time zones. ► There are also many non-energy benefits of advancing IST. ► Results are for India; countries with DST may find it useful to consider YRDST.

  17. Quantification of energy savings from Ireland's Home Energy Saving scheme. An ex post billing analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheer, J.; Clancy, M.; Ni Hogain, S. [Sustainable Energy Authority of Ireland, Wilton Park House, Wilton Terrace, Dublin 2 (Ireland)

    2013-02-15

    This paper quantifies the energy savings realised by a sample of participants in the Sustainable Energy Authority of Ireland's Home Energy Saving (HES) residential retrofit scheme (currently branded as the Better Energy Homes scheme), through an ex post billing analysis. The billing data are used to evaluate: (1) the reduction in gas consumption of the sample between pre- (2008) and post- (2010) scheme participation when compared to the gas consumption of a control group, (2) an estimate of the shortfall when this result is compared to engineering-type ex ante savings estimates and (3) the degree to which these results may apply to the wider population. All dwellings in the study underwent energy efficiency improvements, including insulation upgrades (wall and/or roof), installation of high-efficiency boilers and/or improved heating controls, as part of the HES scheme. Metered gas use data for the 210 households were obtained from meter operators for a number of years preceding dwelling upgrades and for a post-intervention period of 1 year. Dwelling characteristics and some household behavioural data were obtained through a survey of the sample. The gas network operator provided anonymised data on gas usage for 640,000 customers collected over the same period as the HES sample. Dwelling type data provided with the population dataset enabled matching with the HES sample to increase the internal validity of the comparison between the control (matched population data) and the treatment (HES sample). Using a difference-in-difference methodology, the change in demand of the sample was compared with that of the matched population subset of gas-using customers in Ireland over the same time period. The mean reduction in gas demand as a result of energy efficiency upgrades for the HES sample is estimated as 21 % or 3,664{+-}603 kWh between 2008 and 2010. An ex ante estimate of average energy savings, based on engineering calculations (u value reductions and improved boiler

  18. Trigeneration primary energy saving evaluation for energy planning and policy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chicco, Gianfranco; Mancarella, Pierluigi

    2007-01-01

    Trigeneration or combined heat, cooling and power (CHCP) is becoming an increasingly important energy option, particularly on a small-scale basis (below 1 MW e ), with several alternatives nowadays available for the cooling power production and the coupling to cogeneration systems. This paper deals with the introduction of a suitable framework for assessing the energy saving performance of trigeneration alternatives, orientated towards energy planning studies and the development of regulatory policies. In particular, a new generalized performance indicator-the trigeneration primary energy saving (TPES)-is introduced and discussed, with the aim of effectively evaluating the primary energy savings from different CHCP alternatives. The potential of the TPES indicator is illustrated through specific analyses run over different combinations of trigeneration equipment, providing numerical examples based on time-domain simulations to illustrate the dependence of the energy saving characteristics on the CHCP system configurations and equipment, as well as on the loading levels. In addition, the key aspect of adequately establishing the reference efficiencies for the conventional separate production of electrical, thermal and cooling power is addressed in detail. This aspect affects both equipment selection and potential profitability of the considered solutions under the outlook of receiving financial incentives

  19. Evaluation of methods used to determine realized energy savings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boonekamp, Piet G.M.

    2006-01-01

    Most methods to determine realized total energy savings at national or sectoral level make choices, or neglect problems, which hamper the calculation of sound and useful energy-saving figures. Issues are the choice of the right aggregation level, the appropriate variables to construct a reference energy consumption trend, the energy quantities to be applied and interaction between various effects. Uncertainty margins for results lack in most presentations as well. This paper presents six methods, illustrates the adverse effects of certain choices and problems, and investigates how these methods deal with them. The methods are scored with respect to the issues mentioned above. Finally, a number of improvements are suggested, among which the use of final energy demand expressed in primary energy units, and bottom-up analyses at the level of real saving options. The last option is the more important, as it could provide top-down evaluation results (total savings from decomposition) as well as bottom-up policy monitoring results, both being crucial to new European energy-saving policy

  20. Measured energy savings from using night temperature setback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szydlowski, R.F.; Wrench, L.E.; O'Neill, P.J.

    1993-01-01

    The measured energy savings resulting from using night temperature setback in typical light-construction wooden office buildings was determined. Researchers installed monitoring equipment in a six-building sample of two-story wooden buildings at Fort Devens, Massachusetts. Data obtained during both single-setting and night-setback operating modes were used to develop models of each building's heat consumption as a function of the difference between inside and outside temperature. These models were used to estimate seasonal savings that could be obtained from the use of night-setback thermostat control. The measured savings in heating energy from using night temperature setback for the six Fort Devens buildings ranged from 14% to 25%; the mean savings was 19.2%. Based on an energy cost of $0.65/therm of natural gas, the estimated average cost savings of using automatic setback thermostats in these buildings is $780 per year per building

  1. Factors influencing energy-saving behavior of urban households in Jiangsu Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yue, Ting; Long, Ruyin; Chen, Hong

    2013-01-01

    In this research, the willingness of households to adopt different energy-saving behavior has been analyzed, and factors influencing energy-saving behavior in Jiangsu Province, China, have been examined. The study builds on a broad and practical conceptual framework that embraces three types of energy-saving behavior and four dimensions of influencing factors, including socio-demographics, energy-saving awareness, behavioral ability, and situational factors. The empirical results are based on an Internet survey that was sent out to 638 households. The results indicate that socio-demographic characteristics, including age, gender, income level, household structure, and educational background, are all important factors influencing energy-saving behavior. At present, respondents adopt the usage-reduction type of behavior more often than the other two types, which require a greater capacity to pay for energy-efficient products and a higher level of energy-saving awareness. Situational factors have significant positive moderating effects when the variables of behavioral ability and energy-saving awareness act on energy-saving behavior. In addition, the results also show that spatial differences exist among the three regions of Jiangsu Province. Finally, some implications of these results for the design of future incentive policies and measures to encourage energy-saving behavior are presented. -- Highlights: •A broad and practical conceptual framework of energy-saving behaviors is built. •Socio-demographic characteristics are determinants of energy-saving behavior. •Respondents adopt the usage-reduction type more often than the other two types. •Situational factors have positive moderating effects on the other two variables. •Spatial differences exist among the three regions of Jiangsu Province

  2. Energy Savings Potential and Research & Development Opportunities for Commercial Refrigeration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2009-09-01

    This study documents the energy consumption of commercial refrigeration equipment (CRE) in the U.S. and evaluated the energy savings potential of various technologies and energy efficiency measures that could be applied to such equipment. The study provided an overview of CRE applications, assessed the energy-savings potential of CRE in the U.S., outline key barriers to adoption of energy-savings technologies, and recommended opportunities for advanced energy saving technology research. The study was modeled after an earlier 1996 report by Arthur D. Little, Inc., and updated key information, examined more equipment types, and outlined long-term research and development opportunities.

  3. Energy consumption, energy savings, and emission analysis in Malaysian office buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saidur, R.

    2009-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the estimation of energy use in office buildings in Malaysia and with the energy use of major equipment. Energy intensity (EI) - a measure of a building's energy performance - is estimated for Malaysia and compared with a number of selected countries. Air conditioners are shown to be the major energy users (57%) in office buildings, followed by lighting (19%), lifts and pumps (18%) and other equipment (6%). It is estimated that 77,569 MWh of energy can be saved and a huge reduction of emissions achieved through the application of advance glazing, compact fluorescent lamps (CFL), insulation, housekeeping, and by raising thermostat set point temperature of air conditioners, and reducing EI. It is also estimated that a very substantial amount of energy can be saved by making use of energy-efficient motors in building systems with different motor loading percentages. Finally, it can be shown that the use of variable speed drives (VSDs) and energy-efficient motors leads to substantial energy savings and an enormous reduction in emissions.

  4. Housing-related lifestyle and energy saving: A multi-level approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thøgersen, John

    2017-01-01

    A new instrument for measuring housing-related lifestyle (HRL) is introduced and employed for identifying national and cross-national HRL segments in 10 European countries (N=3190). The identified HRL segments are profiled and the practical importance of HRL for everyday energy-saving efforts in the home and for the energy-consumer's openness to new energy saving opportunities (i.e., energy saving innovativeness) is investigated. The HRL instrument's 71 items load on 16 dimensions within five lifestyle elements. Multi-group confirmatory factor analysis reveals that the instrument possesses metric but not scalar (measurement) invariance across the 10 countries. Multilevel latent class analysis is used to classify participants to HRL segments and the 10 countries into regions with similar segment structure. The optimal solution has seven HRL segments and three country classes, which are profiled in terms of relevant background characteristics. A multivariate GLM analysis reveals that when differences in housing-related lifestyles are controlled, neither country of residence nor the interaction between lifestyle and country of residence influence energy saving innovativeness or everyday energy-saving efforts. However, these two behavioural tendencies vary significantly and substantially between lifestyle segments. The study shows that HRL segmentation is a useful tool for creating more targeted and effective energy-saving campaigns. - Highlights: • 7 housing-related lifestyle segments identified in 10 European countries. • The 10 countries cluster in 3 regions with similar housing-related lifestyle pattern. • Lifestyle segments differ significantly with regard to energy saving efforts. • Lifestyle segments also differ with regard to energy saving innovativeness. • Housing-related lifestyle mediate all effects of country on energy saving.

  5. About instrumental innovation. Energy saving certificates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baiz, Adam; Monnoyer-Smith, Laurence

    2016-09-01

    Energy saving certificates (in French CEE for certificats d'economie d'energie) have been implemented in 2006, and have proven to be a rather efficient tool of public policy, with a low cost, and a good social acceptability, notably due to its hybrid nature (incentive and coercive) in function of the targeted actors. Thus, this document addresses and discusses the interest of such instruments for the public environmental policy. It outlines that instruments tend to be always less coercive, and then comments the example of these energy saving certificates: brief presentation, discussion and explanation of their efficiency, multi-dimensional nature of this instrument, benefits of more or less coercive instruments depending on the actors (State, households, energy providers)

  6. Reported Energy and Cost Savings from the DOE ESPC Program: FY 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slattery, Bob S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this work was to determine the realization rate of energy and cost savings from the Department of Energy’s Energy Savings Performance Contract (ESPC) program based on information reported by the energy services companies (ESCOs) that are carrying out ESPC projects at federal sites. Information was extracted from 156 Measurement and Verification (M&V) reports to determine reported, estimated, and guaranteed cost savings and reported and estimated energy savings for the previous contract year. Because the quality of the reports varied, it was not possible to determine all of these parameters for each project. For all 156 projects, there was sufficient information to compare estimated, reported, and guaranteed cost savings. For this group, the total estimated cost savings for the reporting periods addressed were $210.6 million, total reported cost savings were $215.1 million, and total guaranteed cost savings were $204.5 million. This means that on average: ESPC contractors guaranteed 97% of the estimated cost savings; projects reported achieving 102% of the estimated cost savings; and projects reported achieving 105% of the guaranteed cost savings. For 155 of the projects examined, there was sufficient information to compare estimated and reported energy savings. On the basis of site energy, estimated savings for those projects for the previous year totaled 11.938 million MMBtu, and reported savings were 12.138 million MMBtu, 101.7% of the estimated energy savings. On the basis of source energy, total estimated energy savings for the 155 projects were 19.052 million MMBtu, and reported saving were 19.516 million MMBtu, 102.4% of the estimated energy savings.

  7. Energy saving behaviours: Development of a practice-based model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sweeney, Jillian C.; Kresling, Johannes; Webb, Dave; Soutar, Geoffrey N.; Mazzarol, Tim

    2013-01-01

    Financial pressure and concern for the environment has meant many consumers are aware of the need to reduce their consumption of many resources, including energy, which is the focus of the present study. While potential energy use deterrents in the form of access constraints and price increases are forms of extrinsic control, it is not clear how effective these are at reducing consumption and, indeed, it is not clear if such measures are consistent with people's underlying energy saving motivations. Beyond behavioural motivations, people's desires to reduce energy can be thwarted (barriers) and/or supported by a variety of factors, some within their control, while others are perhaps less so. Using a practice-based framework and a qualitative focus group approach, this study presents an exploratory study of these issues. Policy suggestions for overcoming barriers, as well suggestions as to how energy saving behaviours can be supported are offered. - Highlights: • We obtained consumers views about energy saving motivations, barriers and support. • Attitudes towards energy saving are not sufficient to change behaviours. • A practice-based approach to understanding energy saving behaviours is applied. • A practice-based energy-cultures framework (PBECF) is developed. • Barriers and support factors are identified that can be conceptualised within a PBECF

  8. Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology: Improved Die Casting Process to Preserve the Life of the Inserts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Schwam, PI; Xuejun Zhu, Sr. Research Associate

    2012-09-30

    lubricants and technical support. Experiments conducted with these lubricants demonstrated good protection of the substrate steel. Graphite and boron nitride used as benchmarks are capable of completely eliminating soldering and washout. However, because of cost and environmental considerations these materials are not widely used in industry. The best water-based die lubricants evaluated in this program were capable of providing similar protection from soldering and washout. In addition to improved part quality and higher production rates, improving die casting processes to preserve the life of the inserts will result in energy savings and a reduction in environmental wastes. Improving die life by means of optimized cooling line placement, baffles and bubblers in the die will allow for reduced die temperatures during processing, saving energy associated with production. The utilization of optimized die lubricants will also reduce heat requirements in addition to reducing waste associated with soldering and washout. This new technology was predicted to result in an average energy savings of 1.1 trillion BTU's/year over a 10 year period. Current (2012) annual energy saving estimates, based on commercial introduction in 2010, a market penetration of 70% by 2020 is 1.26 trillion BTU's/year. Along with these energy savings, reduction of scrap and improvement in casting yield will result in a reduction of the environmental emissions associated with the melting and pouring of the metal which will be saved as a result of this technology. The average annual estimate of CO2 reduction per year through 2020 is 0.025 Million Metric Tons of Carbon Equivalent (MM TCE).

  9. To understand the new world of energy - Energy saving and energy efficiency: the world of energy 2.0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maestroni, Myriam; Chevalier, J.M.; Derdevet, Michel

    2013-01-01

    This bibliographical note contains the table of contents and a brief presentation of a book which proposes a general overview of the world of modern energy, focuses on the main associated political and climatic stakes and challenges. It also addresses the crucial issue of energy efficiency and energy savings which are the pillars of the current energy transition. The chapters address the world energy stakes and challenges, the emergence of a new energetic paradigm, the issues of energy efficiency and energy savings, the main sources of energy savings to be exploited and valorised, the situation in Europe and in the World regarding energy efficiency, the relationship between energy transition and local territories, the necessary continuous innovation

  10. Barriers to investments in energy saving technologies. Case study for the industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masselink, Dirk Jan

    2007-01-01

    To realise future energy saving targets, the government needs to increase energy reduction rates. One option to increase energy savings is found in removing barriers to investments in cost-effective energy saving technologies. Many technologies save energ

  11. Heat Saving Strategies in Sustainable Smart Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Thellufsen, Jakob Zinck; Aggerholm, Søren

    that a least‐cost strategy will be to provide approximately 2/3 of the heat demand from district heating and the rest from individual heat pumps. Keywords: Energy Efficiency, Renewable energy, Heating strategy, Heat savings, District heating, Smart energy......One of the important issues related to the implementation of future sustainable smart energy systems based on renewable energy sources is the heating of buildings. Especially, when it comes to long‐term investment in savings and heating infrastructures it is essential to identify long‐term least......‐cost strategies. With Denmark as a case, this paper investigates to which extent heat should be saved rather than produced and to which extent district heating infrastructures, rather than individual heating solutions, should be used. Based on a concrete proposal to implement the Danish governmental long...

  12. Empirical Study on Annual Energy-Saving Performance of Energy Performance Contracting in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongquan Ruan

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available A lack of trust in Energy Service Company (ESCo is the most critical factor affecting the development of Energy Performance Contracting (EPC in China, compared with other constraints. One cannot easily estimate the energy-saving performance of an EPC project. Under that condition, lack of trust may cause the Energy-Consuming Unit (ECU to suspect the energy-saving performance promised by the ESCo, thus leaving potentially profitable projects without necessary funding. Currently, specific studies taking an across-projects viewpoint on annual energy-saving performance of EPC projects in multiple subsectors, objectively and quantitatively, are lacking. This paper studies the regression relationships of annual energy-saving quantity in terms of revamping cost and the regression relationships of annual cost saving in terms of revamping cost. The regression results show that there are statistically significant correlations in the above relationships in the nine subsectors investigated. This is significant for ESCos and ECUs, because knowledge on energy-saving performance could contribute to EPC investment decisions and trust relationships between ESCos and ECUs. Then, a multiple linear regression model of revamping cost is set up to analyze its influencing factors. The model indicates that the subsector the sample belongs to, financing, registered capital of the ESCo, and contract period have significant effects on revamping cost. Thus, policy implications regarding innovation of EE promotion technology, clarifying ESCos’ exit mechanism, innovation of financing mechanism, and improving the market credit environment for promoting investment in EPC projects, are provided.

  13. Energy consumption and energy saving : their evolution in Spain and other countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serrano Martinez, F.

    1995-01-01

    The article shows the development of energy consumption since the seventies in three main energy consuming sectors: industry, residential services and transport. While the energy intensity and consumption in the industrial sector have considerably decreased- taking 100 as index in 1973, this was 68 in 1988-in the other sectors, the increase of comfort in houses and business offices, as well as the number or automobiles, have made consumption in these sectors increase despite the efforts made in the improvement of return of installations and reduction of cars consumption. In the industry, large energy savings coincide with remarkable technological innovations and for the future, the achieved savings and future trends, as well as conditions for the energy saving, are analyzed for the rest of the sectors. (Author)

  14. Management of energy-save and environment on the boiler system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishiyama, Toru; Asano, Naoki; Kawasaki, Ichio

    2010-02-01

    Tokai Utility Center (TUC) is the facility that products and feeds steam for Tokai Reprocessing Plant (TRP), Plutonium Fuel Production Facility (PFPF), etc. The boiler system needs the management based on the law of 'Industrial safety and Health Act' and 'Act on the Regulation of Nuclear Source Material, Nuclear Fuel Material and Reactors'. In this situation, activity of preservation of environment and energy-save are carried out by means of the improvement of steam generation process and the change of additive to water. Quality assurance procedure has been applied in order to improve the boiler operation continuously. This report describes about various activities of the management, the environment, the energy-saving, and a future action. (author)

  15. Electric energy savings from new technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moe, R.J.; Harrer, B.J.; Kellogg, M.A.; Lyke, A.J.; Imhoff, K.L.; Fisher, Z.J.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose of the report is to provide information about the electricity-saving potential of new technologies to OCEP that it can use in developing alternative long-term projections of US electricity consumption. Low-, base-, and high-case scenarios of the electricity savings for ten technologies were prepared. The total projected annual savings for the year 2000 for all ten technologies were 137 billion kilowatt hours (BkWh), 279 BkWh, and 470 BkWh, respectively, for the three cases. The magnitude of these savings projections can be gauged by comparing them to the Department's reference case projection for the 1985 National Energy Policy Plan. In the Department's reference case, total consumption in 2000 is projected to be 3319 BkWh. Thus, the savings projected here represent between 4% and 14% of total consumption projected for 2000. Because approximately 75% of the base-case estimate of savings are already incorporated into the reference forecast, reducing projected electricity consumption from what it otherwise would have been, the savings estimated here should not be directly subtracted from the reference forecast.

  16. Cogeneration plant in a pasta factory: Energy saving and environmental benefit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panno, Domenico; Messineo, Antonio; Dispenza, Antonella

    2007-01-01

    Italy produces approximately 4,520,000 tons of pasta annually, which is about 67% of its total productive potential. As factories need electric and thermal energy simultaneously, combined heat and power (CHP) systems are the most suitable. This paper describes a feasibility study of a CHP plant in a pasta factory in Italy while analyzing energy saving and environmental benefits. Commercially available CHP systems suitable for the power range of energy demand in pasta production use reciprocating engines or gas turbines. This study demonstrates how their use can reduce both energy costs and CO 2 equivalent greenhouse gas emission in the environment. An economic analysis was performed following the methodology set out by Italian National Agency for Technology, Energy and Environment (ENEA) based on a discounted cash flow (DCF) method called 'Valore Attuale Netto' (VAN), which uses a cash flow based on the saving of energy when using different energy processes

  17. Analysis of interactions among the barriers to energy saving in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Guohong; Wang Yunxia; Zhao Tao

    2008-01-01

    Since China became the second largest energy consumer and carbon dioxide emitter, the problem of energy consumption and environmental pollution has drawn the world's attention. Meanwhile, Chinese government has put high emphasis on the problem. One project of energy saving initiated by Chinese government has been put into practice. However, many difficulties need to be dealt with to meet the expected aim of social development. The objective of this article is to investigate the interactions among the major barriers which prevent the practice of energy saving in China. Obviously, a clear definition of relationships among the barriers to energy saving helps top leaders make relevant decisions to solve the problem of economic sustainability, energy security and environment pollution in the future. To date, studies specifying energy-saving barriers have often focused on analyzing these barriers separately. As a result, a holistic view in understanding the barriers to energy-saving project is lacking. Interpretive structural modeling (ISM) is utilized to summarize the critical barriers hindering the project of energy saving in China and to explain the interrelationships among them. Suggestions for energy-saving practice and future research are provided

  18. A comprehensive analysis of China's regional energy saving and emission reduction efficiency: From production and treatment perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Jie; Lv, Lin; Sun, Jiasen; Ji, Xiang

    2015-01-01

    Energy and environmental issues have recently aroused increasing interest in China and many approaches are used to evaluate energy and environmental performance. In this paper, a two-stage network DEA framework is applied to evaluate the efficiency of energy saving and emission reduction in China during the period of the eleventh five-year plan, from 2006 to 2010. In this study, economic activities are divided into production and treatment processes. This is different from previous research which generally focused on either environmental efficiency or energy efficiency, omitting the integration of energy and environmental measures. Today, energy saving and emission reduction are both parts of the basic state policy of China and are equally important. The empirical results in this study show that: (i) eastern China has the best energy saving and emission reduction efficiency, performing is better than western and central China. (ii) The efficiency of the production process in central China is better than that in western China while the western area performs better than the central area in term of treatment efficiency. (iii) Integrated efficiency of energy saving and emission reduction of China was relatively stable in the five years and the pollution treatment efficiency maintained a rising trend. -- Highlights: •We measured China's regional energy saving and emission reduction efficiency using two-stage DEA approach. •The production and treatment processes are incorporated in evaluation. •Eastern China performs best in terms of energy saving and emission reduction efficiency. •Integrated efficiency of energy saving and emission reduction of China kept a stable trend during 2006–2010

  19. Save energy - for industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    The article is an interview with Glenn Bjorklund, Vice President of SCalEd (Southern California Edison). The variations in Californian power demand and public electricity consumption habits are explained, together with types of power source used in electricity production. Questions are posed concerning SCalEd's energy saving strategy. The political implications of electricity charge changes are discussed. The planned energy resources for 1982-1992 are given with nuclear power being the largest contributor. (H.J.P./G.T.H.)

  20. Energy savings assessment for digital-to-analog converter boxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheung, Hoi Ying; Meier, Alan; Brown, Richard

    2011-01-01

    The Digital Television (DTV) Converter Box Coupon Program was administered by the U.S. government to subsidize purchases of digital-to-analog converter boxes, with up to two $40 coupons for each eligible household. In order to qualify as Coupon Eligible Converter Boxes (CECBs), these devices had to meet a number of minimum performance specifications, including energy efficiency standards. The Energy Star Program also established voluntary energy efficiency specifications that are more stringent than the CECB requirements. In this study, we measured the power and energy consumptions for a sample of 12 CECBs (including 6 Energy Star labeled models) in-use in homes and estimated aggregate energy savings produced by the energy efficiency policies. Based on the 35 million coupons redeemed through the end of the program, our analysis indicates that between 2500 and 3700 GWh per year are saved as a result of the energy efficiency policies implemented on digital-to-analog converter boxes. The energy savings generated are equivalent to the annual electricity use of 280,000 average US homes. - Research highlights: → We examined energy efficiency policies on digital-to-analog converter boxes in US. → The government assistance program resulted in high participation. → 35 million coupons were redeemed for the purchases of energy efficient DTAs. → Between 2500 and 3700 GWh per year are saved as a result of the policies. → Savings are equivalent to the annual electricity use of 280,000 average US homes.

  1. Energy savings Measures in Agriculture - Overview on the Basis of National Reports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, de C.L.M.; Buisonjé, de F.E.; Ellen, H.H.; Stanghellini, C.; Voort, van der M.P.J.

    2012-01-01

    The reduction of energy inputs in agricultural production is a process of practical implementation of a set of energy saving (ES) measures associated with a given type of production, farm infrastructure and managerial or organizational activities. In six national reports from Finland, Germany,

  2. Study on measuring analysis for estimating effect of energy saving policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Joong Ku; Park, Jeong Soon [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    1999-12-01

    Since the study on measuring analysis for estimating effect of energy saving policy is too broad to implement all industries, so it limited its study only on manufacturing industry. This study is concentrated on its effort to measure energy saving using energy saving model by putting energy saving policy as an input and regarding its result as energy saving. It used B/C theory for positive analysis methodology and the result of analysis is investment effect on manufacturing industry. The total cost invested on manufacturing sector from 1982 to 1996 was 5,871 billion won based on constant cost in 1990, and the energy saving cost directly acquired from it reached 1,534.5 billion won based on constant cost in 1990, so B/C rate reached 2.56. Particularly, if you separated the amount supported by the government policy, energy saving support cost reached 3,904.2 billion won (based on constant cost in 1990) and the total benefit was 10,146.4 billion won (based on constant cost in 1990) by adding saving cost 9,997.9 billion won and environmental improvement effect 223.2 billion won. (author). 51 refs., 17 figs., 35 tabs.

  3. Defining The Energy Saving Potential of Architectural Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naboni, Emanuele; Malcangi, Antonio; Zhang, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Designers, in response to codes or voluntary " green building " programs, are increasingly concerned with building energy demand reduction, but they are not fully aware of the energy saving potential of architectural design. According to literature, building form, construction and material choices...... on sustainable design: " Design With Climate " by Olgyay (1963), which discussed strategies for climate-adapted architecture, and Lechner´s " Heating, Cooling and Lighting " (1991), on how to reduce building energy needs by as much as 60 – 80 percent with proper architectural design decisions. Both books used...... behaviour. The research shows the best solution for each of the climates and compares them with Olgyay´s findings. Finally, for each climate the energy saving potential is defined and then compared to Lechner's conclusions. Defining The Energy Saving Potential of Architectural Design (PDF Download Available...

  4. Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology (E-SMARRT): Design Support for Tooling Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Dongtao

    2011-09-23

    High pressure die casting is an intrinsically efficient net shape process and improvements in energy efficiency are strongly dependent on design and process improvements that reduce scrap rates so that more of the total consumed energy goes into acceptable, usable castings. Computer simulation has become widely used within the industry but use is not universal. Further, many key design decisions must be made before the simulation can be run and expense in terms of money and time often limits the number of decision iterations that can be explored. This work continues several years of work creating simple, very fast, design tools that can assist with the early stage design decisions so that the benefits of simulation can be maximized and, more importantly, so that the chances of first shot success are maximized. First shot success and better running processes contributes to less scrap and significantly better energy utilization by the process. This new technology was predicted to result in an average energy savings of 1.83 trillion BTUs/year over a 10 year period. Current (2011) annual energy saving estimates over a ten year period, based on commercial introduction in 2012, a market penetration of 30% by 2015 is 1.89 trillion BTUs/year by 2022. Along with these energy savings, reduction of scrap and improvement in yield will result in a reduction of the environmental emissions associated with the melting and pouring of the metal which will be saved as a result of this technology. The average annual estimate of CO2 reduction per year through 2022 is 0.037 Million Metric Tons of Carbon Equivalent (MM TCE).

  5. Energy saving and energy efficiency concepts for policy making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oikonomou, V.; Becchis, F.; Steg, L.; Russolillo, D.

    Departing from the concept of rational use of energy, the paper outlines the microeconomics of end-use energy saving as a result of frugality or efficiency measures. Frugality refers to the behaviour that is aimed at energy conservation, and with efficiency we refer to the technical ratio between

  6. Energy saving and energy efficiency concepts for policy making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oikonomou, V.; Becchis, F.; Steg, L.; Russolillo, D.

    2009-01-01

    Departing from the concept of rational use of energy, the paper outlines the microeconomics of end-use energy saving as a result of frugality or efficiency measures. Frugality refers to the behaviour that is aimed at energy conservation, and with efficiency we refer to the technical ratio between

  7. A review of different strategies for HVAC energy saving

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vakiloroaya, Vahid; Samali, Bijan; Fakhar, Ahmad; Pishghadam, Kambiz

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Various strategies for HVAC energy saving are described and reviewed. • The influence of each strategy on the HVAC energy saving is investigated. • Combination of existing air conditioning technologies appears to be effective for the energy conservation and comfort. • A comparison study between these approaches is carried out. • Changing the HVAC configuration has the potential to increase or reduce energy savings, depending on several factors. - Abstract: Decreasing the energy consumption of heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems is becoming increasingly important due to rising cost of fossil fuels and environmental concerns. Therefore, finding novel ways to reduce energy consumption in buildings without compromising comfort and indoor air quality is an ongoing research challenge. One proven way of achieving energy efficiency in HVAC systems is to design systems that use novel configurations of existing system components. Each HVAC discipline has specific design requirements and each presents opportunities for energy savings. Energy efficient HVAC systems can be created by re-configuring traditional systems to make more strategic use of existing system parts. Recent research has demonstrated that a combination of existing air conditioning technologies can offer effective solutions for energy conservation and thermal comfort. This paper investigates and reviews the different technologies and approaches, and demonstrates their ability to improve the performance of HVAC systems in order to reduce energy consumption. For each strategy, a brief description is first presented and then by reviewing the previous studies, the influence of that method on the HVAC energy saving is investigated. Finally, a comparison study between these approaches is carried out

  8. Caustic saving potentile in textile processing mills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latif, M.; Rehman, A.; Ghafar, A.; Hafeez, N.M.

    2010-01-01

    The textile processing industry of pakistan has great potential of improvement in resource consumption in various production processes. One major concern is the heavy usage of caustic soda (sodium hydroxide) especially during the mercerization process which incurs a significant cost to a textile processing mill. To reduce the unit fabric production cost and stay competitive, the industry need to minimize the caustic wastage and explore the caustic saving potential. This paper describe the detailed caustic consumption practices and saving potentials in woven textile sector based on the data base of 100 industries. Region wise caustic saving potential is also investigated . Three caustic conservation option including process improvement, reuse and recycling, and caustic recovery plants are discussed. Detailed technical and and financial requirements. saving potentials and paybacks of these options are provided. (author)

  9. The High Cost of Saving Energy Dollars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Patricia

    1985-01-01

    In alternative financing a private company provides the capital and expertise for improving school energy efficiency. Savings are split between the school system and the company. Options for municipal leasing, cost sharing, and shared savings are explained along with financial, procedural, and legal considerations. (MLF)

  10. Chapter 10: Peak Demand and Time-Differentiated Energy Savings Cross-Cutting Protocol. The Uniform Methods Project: Methods for Determining Energy Efficiency Savings for Specific Measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurnik, Charles W [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Stern, Frank [Navigant, Boulder, CO (United States); Spencer, Justin [Navigant, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2017-10-03

    Savings from electric energy efficiency measures and programs are often expressed in terms of annual energy and presented as kilowatt-hours per year (kWh/year). However, for a full assessment of the value of these savings, it is usually necessary to consider the measure or program's impact on peak demand as well as time-differentiated energy savings. This cross-cutting protocol describes methods for estimating the peak demand and time-differentiated energy impacts of measures implemented through energy efficiency programs.

  11. Proceedings of VI International Conference for Renewable Energy, Energy Saving and Energy Education (CIER 2009)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The CD-ROM presents papers submitted to the International Conference of Renewable Energy, Energy Saving and Energy Education. CIER 2009, held in Havana, Cuba, on Jun 9-13, 2009 May. The purpose of the CIER 2009 are to offer an opportunity to engineers, investigators, academic, makers and specialists in the energy topic from all over the world to exchange experiences, to share their successes and to discuss their focuses to future in the topic of the energy renewable, the energy saving, the energy efficiency and the energy education

  12. ANALYSIS OF ENERGY SAVING AND ENERGY EFFICIENCY ISSUES DURING OPERATION OF THE METRO ROLLING STOCK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Donchenko

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose.Nowadays a problem of significant power consumption of the rolling stock during its operation is a current issue. In connection with staged electricity rates increase further development of the rail electric transport, including metro rolling stock is impossible without a use of modern energy saving solutions and energy-efficient systems. To solve the specified problem it is necessary to carry out analysis of measures and determine prospective directions in energy saving and increase of energy efficiency on the metro rolling stock. Methodology. Using methods of scientific analysis, generalization, comparative analysis, forecasting and using results of experimental studies, the authors determined main ways for reduction of energy consumption during operation of the metro rolling stock. Energy cost analysis for metro rolling stock of the public utility (PU «Kiev Metro» was carried out. A great number of research works of native and foreign authors concerning the above mentioned problem were analyzed. Findings. Principal directions in energy saving and increase of energy efficiency of the metro rolling stock are implementation of recuperation systems, energy storage systems and energy-efficient control systems. It was determined that implementation of recuperation and energy storage systems helps to save a considerable amount of energy, consumed for traction, but it involves substantial investments. It is pointed out that in current complicated conditions of economic development of Ukraine, use of energy-efficient control systems is a perspective direction in energy saving. Main advantage of this direction is the economic effect obtaining without significant investments. Originality. For the first time was performed potential assessment for energy saving as a result of energy-efficient control systems use at type routine rolling stock operation modes on sections «Khreschatik –Teatralnaya – Khreschatik» and «Shulyavskaya

  13. Economic Energy Savings Potential in Federal Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Daryl R.; Dirks, James A.; Hunt, Diane M.

    2000-09-04

    The primary objective of this study was to estimate the current life-cycle cost-effective (i.e., economic) energy savings potential in Federal buildings and the corresponding capital investment required to achieve these savings, with Federal financing. Estimates were developed for major categories of energy efficiency measures such as building envelope, heating system, cooling system, and lighting. The analysis was based on conditions (building stock and characteristics, retrofit technologies, interest rates, energy prices, etc.) existing in the late 1990s. The potential impact of changes to any of these factors in the future was not considered.

  14. Contribution of promoting the green residence assessment scheme to energy saving

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Zhiyu; Yuan, Hongping; Shen, Liyin

    2012-01-01

    Green residence development has been one of the important strategies for promoting sustainable urban development. Governments throughout the world have been encouraging property developers to deliver green properties. In line with this development, governments have been implementing various assessment programs to certify green residential buildings with the aim of contributing to sustainable urban development. With reference to the Chinese construction practice, this paper examines the effectiveness of the green residence assessment scheme toward its defined aim through investigating the contents and procedures of the green residence assessment scheme by referring to the practices of Chongqing city in western China. Based on the results of five case studies and five semi-structured interviews, this study reveals the significant contribution from implementing the green residence assessment scheme particularly to energy saving in residential buildings. Further, the green residence assessment scheme promotes the application of green building materials and green construction technologies in the entire process of delivering and operating residential buildings. The findings provide valuable references for further investigating alternative methods to achieve better energy saving in developing residential buildings. - Highlights: ► Energy saving in residence development is important for sustainable urban development. ► Green residence assessment scheme contributes significantly to energy saving in residences. ► Green residence assessment promotes application of environmentally friendly building materials and technologies

  15. The PO production chain and possibilities for energy saving. Public summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donszelmann, E.; De Buck, A.; Croezen, H.; Wielders, L.

    2012-01-15

    The Dutch Industry and the Dutch government have made long term agreements on energy efficiency (LEE) for companies that are under the European Trading Scheme (ETS). These companies have to report frequently on their possibilities and achievements in energy efficiency. These reports describe the current state of energy use, the possible measures that can be taken and the measures already taken and their results. LyondellBasell is one of the companies that take part in LEE. Based on the agreements of LEE linked to ETS, companies make an effort to realise a significant energy saving within their business community, and the government supports them by means of process coordination and financing additional studies. Agentschap NL coordinates the governmental support. LyondellBasell asked Agentschap NL for support in assessing their energy efficiency on site and through the chain of its products. CE Delft has been commissioned by Agentschap NL and LyondellBasell to determine the carbon footprint and cumulative energy demand of the two production sites of LyondellBasell in the Rotterdam area. Purpose of the project is to identify energy saving potential within the PO (propylene oxide), Styrene and tert-butyl alcohol production chains. This study also focuses on those options that require cooperation with other companies or yield savings for more than one company within the PO production chains. The project consisted of two pathways. The first assessed the possibilities of energy saving in the supply chain. Both the Maasvlakte and the Botlek site of LyondellBasell were addressed. The second pathway focused on three product chains: Styrene, Polyols and ETBE/MTBE. This report presents the results of the projects second pathway: the product chains.

  16. Demonstration of energy-saving construction works; Shoshigenka wo mezashita kenchiku koji no jissho kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, T.; Yamagishi, M.; Kakimi, S. [Chubu Electric Power Co. Inc., Nagoya (Japan)

    1997-11-01

    Studies are conducted to promote energy-saving in construction works as part of environment protection programs. The first phase is for survey and analysis works for energy-saving in the current building design and construction works, and for processes, procedures and materials in model works (construction of sub-stations). The second phase is for studying energy-saving designs, materials and procedures, which are applied to model works, to assess their energy-saving effects , costs and applicability. The horizontally developed samples are prepared for the future development, based on the `continuous improvement of environment-management systems by establishing the PDCA cycles,` which is one of the basic requirements of the ISO14001 (environment management system). These efforts have reduced CO2 emissions associated with the manufacture of construction materials by 20%, mixed wastes by 45%, and plywood frame requirement by 70%. It is also confirmed that they can be realized at only around 3% higher cost. 9 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Multi-fuctional heat recovery systems. Really energy saving; Multifunktionale Waermerueckgewinnung. Wie man wirklich Energie spart

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schilling, Heinz [SEW Systemtechnik fuer Energierecycling und Waermeflussbegrenzung GmbH, Kempen (Germany)

    2009-10-15

    An energy saving leeds only to a correct optimized operation, if a demand-oriented total design is integrated into the building. In special for air-conditioning energy saving measures are presented and essential criteria named, to save in fact effectively, efficiently, reliably and profitably energy and enhance simultanously user quality. (orig./GL)

  18. Grant management procedure for energy saving TDM-PONs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaelddin, Fuad Yousif Mohammed; Newaz, S. H. Shah; AL-Hazemi, Fawaz; Choi, Jun Kyun

    2018-01-01

    In order to minimize energy consumption in Time Division Multiplexing-Passive Optical Network (TDM-PON), IEEE and ITU-T have mandated sleep mode mechanism for Optical Network Units (ONUs) in the latest TDM-PON standards (e.g. IEEE P1904.1 SIEPON, ITU-T G.sup45). The sleep mode mechanism is a promising mean for maximizing energy saving in an ONU. An ONU in sleep mode flips between sleep and active state depending on the presence or absent of upstream and downstream frames. To ensure Quality of Service (QoS) of upstream frames, the recent TDM-PON standards introduced an early wake-up mechanism, in which an ONU is forced to leave the sleep state on upstream frame arrival. When the Optical Line Terminal (OLT) of a TDM-PON allows early wake-up of its connected ONUs, it allocates gratuitous grants for the sleeping ONUs along with allocating upstream grants for the ONUs in active state. Note that, the gratuitous grants control message sent periodically by the OLT on Inter-Gratuitous grant Interval (IGI) time. After leaving sleep state due to the arrival of upstream frame, the ONU uses its allocated gratuitous grant to send a control message mentioning the amount of upstream bandwidth (upstream grant) required in order to forward the remaining frames in its buffer. However, the existing early wake-up process of ONU can lead to increase the energy consumption of an ONU. It is because of the ONU wakes-up immediately from the sleep state on arrival of the upstream frame, but even so, it needs to wait for forwarding the frame until its allocated gratuitous grant period, resulting in spending energy unnecessarily. In addition, current energy saving solution for TDM-PONs do not provide a clear solution on how to manage different types of grants (e.g. listening grant, upstream transmission grant) within a Dynamic Bandwidth Allocation (DBA) polling cycle. To address this problem, we propose a state-of-art Grant Management Procedure (GMP) in order to maximize energy saving in a TDM

  19. Development of strategies for saving energy by temperature reduction in warm forging processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela, Sonia; Santos, Maite; Vadillo, Leire; Idoyaga, Zuriñe; Valbuena, Óscar

    2016-10-01

    This paper is associated to the European policy of increasing efficiency in raw material and energy usage. This policy becomes even more important in sectors consuming high amount of resources, like hot forging industry, where material costs sums up to 50% of component price and energy ones are continuously raising. The warm forging shows a clear potential of raw material reduction (near-net-shape components) and also of energy saving (forging temperature under 1000°C). However and due to the increment of the energy costs, new solutions are required by the forging sector in order to reduce the temperature below 900°C. The reported research is based on several approaches to reduce the forging temperature applied to a flanged shaft of the automotive sector as demonstration case. The developed investigations have included several aspects: raw material, process parameters, tools and dies behavior during forging process and also metallographic evaluation of the forged parts. This paper summarizes analysis of the ductility and the admissible forces of the flanged shaft material Ck45 in as-supplied state (as-rolled) and also in two additional heat treated states. Hot compression and tensile tests using a GLEEBLE 3800C Thermo mechanical simulator have been performed pursuing this target. In the same way, a coupled numerical model based on Finite Element Method (FEM) has been developed to predict the material flow, the forging loads and the stresses on the tools at lower temperature with the new heat treatments of the raw material. In order to validate the previous development, experimental trials at 850 °C and 750 °C were carried out in a mechanical press and the results were very promising.

  20. Guide to resource conservation and cost savings opportunities in the dairy processing sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    This guide identifies and promotes opportunities for conserving energy and water, as well as reducing waste, in the dairy processing sector. The guide begins with an introduction and a profile of Ontario`s dairy processing sector, outlining the context for resource conservation and cost savings opportunities. It then outlines the rationale and the generic processes selected for careful examination of resource conservation and cost savings opportunities. Subsequent chapters describe the energy, water, and material resources commonly used in relation to the generic processes; the air, water, and solid waste residuals commonly derived from those processes; and new technologies with potential application in dairy processing. The generic processes covered in the guide are for fluid milk, cheese, ice cream and frozen products, cultured products such as yogurt, butter, and dried or evaporated products. The report ends with additional useful information for dairy processors.

  1. 76 FR 2029 - Small Business Investment Companies-Energy Saving Qualified Investments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-12

    ... 3245-AF86 Small Business Investment Companies--Energy Saving Qualified Investments AGENCY: U.S. Small... Administration (SBA) is setting forth the new defined terms, ``Energy Saving Qualified Investment'' and ``Energy Saving Activities'', for the Small Business Investment Company (SBIC) Program. The new definitions are...

  2. Technical Support Document: 50% Energy Savings for Small Office Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornton, Brian A.; Wang, Weimin; Huang, Yunzhi; Lane, Michael D.; Liu, Bing

    2010-04-30

    The Technical Support Document (TSD) for 50% energy savings in small office buildings documents the analysis and results for a recommended package of energy efficiency measures (EEMs) referred to as the advanced EEMs. These are changes to a building design that will reduce energy usage. The package of advanced EEMs achieves a minimum of 50% energy savings and a construction area weighted average energy savings of 56.6% over the ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2004 for 16 cities which represent the full range of climate zones in the United States. The 50% goal is for site energy usage reduction. The weighted average is based on data on the building area of construction in the various climate locations. Cost-effectiveness of the EEMs is determined showing an average simple payback of 6.7 years for all 16 climate locations. An alternative set of results is provided which includes a variable air volume HVAC system that achieves at least 50% energy savings in 7 of the 16 climate zones with a construction area weighted average savings of 48.5%. Other packages of EEMs may also achieve 50% energy savings; this report does not consider all alternatives but rather presents at least one way to reach the goal. Design teams using this TSD should follow an integrated design approach and utilize additional analysis to evaluate the specific conditions of a project.

  3. Where to place the saving obligation: Energy end-users or suppliers?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertoldi, Paolo; Labanca, Nicola; Rezessy, Silvia; Steuwer, Sibyl; Oikonomou, Vlasis

    2013-01-01

    Obligations to save energy differentiate, among other features, by obliged parties. These are obligations on energy suppliers and energy end-users. Supplier obligations have been introduced in North America, Europe and Australia. Under supplier obligations energy suppliers have to comply with mandatory energy saving targets and thus they implement (directly or via third parties) energy efficiency projects on their clients’ premises, or they decide to trade certified project savings if this option is envisaged by their obligation scheme. In several emerging schemes such as the UK Carbon Reduction Commitment (CRC) Energy Efficiency Scheme, the Tokyo Emission Trading Scheme or the Perform Achieve and Trade (PAT) Scheme in India, the obligation to reduce energy consumption is placed on large end-users directly and end-users are allowed to trade emissions allowances or energy saving certificates. The paper starts with presenting these two conceptually different ways for introducing energy saving obligations. Then it analyses advantages and disadvantages of end-users obligations compared to suppliers obligations. The preliminary conclusion of the paper is that supplier obligations seem to be well-suited for the residential sector, but end-user saving obligations may offer advantages when it comes to the industrial and commercial sectors. - Highlights: • We present different ways for introducing energy saving obligations. • We analyse energy end-users obligations vs. supplier obligations. • Supplier obligations seem to be well-suited for the residential sector. • End-user obligations offer advantages in the industrial and commercial sectors

  4. China's energy saving potential from the perspective of energy efficiency advantages of foreign-invested enterprises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Xuemei; Zhu, Kunfu; Green, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    The paper investigates the energy saving potential associated with firm ownership-related differences in energy efficiency such as those between domestically and foreign-owned firms. Because of a gap in official statistics this topic has barely been touched upon in the scholarly literature. This paper employs a new energy input–output table that distinguishes firm ownership (Chinese owned enterprises, COEs; and foreign-invested enterprises, FIEs) and trade mode (export processing and normal goods production) to analyze the energy efficiency advantage of FIEs in China in 2007. The results show that the total energy intensities of COEs in the industrial sector are generally 5%–35% higher than that of FIEs across industry groups. At an aggregate level, China could save up to 20.3% of its energy use, if industrial COEs could duplicate the energy use efficiency and production technology of FIEs. This gain would require major technology upgrades among COEs. - Highlights: • A new input–output table distinguishing firm ownership and trade mode is employed. • The foreign-invested enterprises are 5%–35% energy efficient than Chinese enterprises in 2007. • China could save 20.3% of energy use if industrial COEs could duplicate the technologies of FIEs

  5. Energy savings in the Danish building stock until 2050

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wittchen, Kim Bjarne; Kragh, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    are energy upgraded according to the requirements stipulated in the Danish Building Regulations 2010. Furthermore, scenario analyses was made for the potential impact on the energy consumption of introducing different levels of tightening of the energy requirements for existing buildings in the Danish...... Building Regulations. Compliance with the requirements in the Danish Building Regulations will potentially result in energy savings for space heating and domestic hot water around 30 % until 2050. Further tightening of the component insulation level requirements will only result in marginally higher......A study has been conducted analysing the energy savings for space heating and domestic hot water in the Danish building stock due to renovation of building components at the end of their service life. The purpose of the study was to estimate the energy savings until 2050 as building components...

  6. Save with Renewable Energy: A Technical Bulletin for Federal Renewable Energy Champions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2003-11-01

    This eight-page publication, prepared in 2003 for the U.S. Department of Energy's Federal Energy Management Program by the DOE National Renewable Energy Laboratory, is an updated version of the former Save with Solar and Wind bulletin. Save with Renewable Energy provides up-to-date information about the progress that the government is making in achieving federal goals for renewable energy use; agencies have achieved about 60% of the current goal for 2005 of 1384 gigawatt-hours from renewable energy systems. This publication also describes current and planned federal projects featuring wind, solar, and geothermal systems in several different states.

  7. Achieving the 30% Goal: Energy and Cost Savings Analysis of ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornton, Brian A.; Rosenberg, Michael I.; Richman, Eric E.; Wang, Weimin; Xie, YuLong; Zhang, Jian; Cho, Heejin; Mendon, Vrushali V.; Athalye, Rahul A.; Liu, Bing

    2011-05-24

    This Technical Support Document presents the energy and cost savings analysis that PNNL conducted to measure the potential energy savings of 90.1-2010 relative to 90.1-2004. PNNL conducted this analysis with inputs from many other contributors and source of information. In particular, guidance and direction was provided by the Simulation Working Group under the auspices of the SSPC90.1. This report documents the approach and methodologies that PNNL developed to evaluate the energy saving achieved from use of ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-2010. Specifically, this report provides PNNL’s Progress Indicator process and methodology, EnergyPlus simulation framework, prototype model descriptions. This report covers the combined upgrades from 90.1-2004 to 90.1-2010, resulting in a total of 153 addenda. PNNL has reviewed and considered all 153 addenda for quantitative analysis in the Progress Indicator process. 53 of those are included in the quantitative analysis. This report provides information on the categorization of all of the addenda, a summary of the content, and deeper explanation of the impact and modeling of 53 identified addenda with quantitative savings.

  8. Thermodynamic and energy saving benefits of hydraulic free-piston engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Zhenfeng; Wang, Shan; Zhang, Shuanlu; Zhang, Fujun

    2016-01-01

    The hydraulic free-piston engine integrates the internal combustion engine with a hydraulic pump. The piston of an HFPE is not connected to the crankshaft and the piston movement is determined by the forces that act upon it. These features optimize combustion and make higher power density and efficiency increase. In this paper, a detailed thermodynamic and energy saving analysis is performed to demonstrate the fundamental efficiency advantage of an HFPE. The thermodynamic results show that the combustion process can be optimized to an ideal engine cycle. The experimental results show that the HFPE combustion process is a nearly constant-volume process; the efficiency is approximately 50%; the piston displacement and velocity curves for a cycle are the same at any frequency, even at a 1.25 Hz. The maximum velocities are of the same value at high or low frequencies. Similarly, pump output flow is not influenced by frequency. The independent cyclic characteristics of HFPE determine that it should work in higher frequencies when the vehicle runs in Japanese 10–15 road conditions. It indicates that a higher working frequency will lead to the starting frequency of HFPE, and a lower frequency will decrease the pressurized pressure of the hydraulic accumulator. - Highlights: • The thermodynamic and energy saving benefits of the HFPEs was investigated. • The approach of combustion optimization was obtained by adjusting the injection timing and compression ratio. • The high efficiency area of HFPE was given as a function of injection timing and compression pressure. • The maximum efficiency of HFPE of 50% was obtained from the prototype. • The method of energy saving with adjusting the piston frequency was examined.

  9. A DFuzzy-DAHP Decision-Making Model for Evaluating Energy-Saving Design Strategies for Residential Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Lung Chen

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The construction industry is a high-pollution and high-energy-consumption industry. Energy-saving designs for residential buildings not only reduce the energy consumed during construction, but also reduce long-term energy consumption in completed residential buildings. Because building design affects investment costs, designs are often influenced by investors’ decisions. A set of appropriate decision-support tools for residential buildings are required to examine how building design influences corporations externally and internally. From the perspective of energy savings and environmental protection, we combined three methods to develop a unique model for evaluating the energy-saving design of residential buildings. Among these methods, the Delphi group decision-making method provides a co-design feature, the analytical hierarchy process (AHP includes multi-criteria decision-making techniques, and fuzzy logic theory can simplify complex internal and external factors into easy-to-understand numbers or ratios that facilitate decisions. The results of this study show that incorporating solar building materials, double-skin facades, and green roof designs can effectively provide high energy-saving building designs.

  10. REVIEW OF ENERGY-SAVING TECHNOLOGIES IN MODERN HYDRAULIC DRIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mykola Karpenko

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on review of modern energy­saving technologies in hydraulic drives. Described main areas of energy conservation in hydraulic drive (which in turn are divided into many under the directions and was established the popularity of them. Reviewed the comparative analysis of efficiency application of various strategies for energy saving in a hydraulic drive. Based on the review for further research a combined method of real­time control systems with energy­saving algorithms and regeneration unit – selected for maxing efficiency in hydraulic drive. Scientific papers (40 papers, what introduced in review, is not older than 15 years in the databases “Sciencedirect” and “Scopus”.

  11. Energy-saving analysis of hydraulic hybrid excavator based on common pressure rail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Wei; Jiang, Jihai; Su, Xiaoyu; Karimi, Hamid Reza

    2013-01-01

    Energy-saving research of excavators is becoming one hot topic due to the increasing energy crisis and environmental deterioration recently. Hydraulic hybrid excavator based on common pressure rail (HHEC) provides an alternative with electric hybrid excavator because it has high power density and environment friendly and easy to modify based on the existing manufacture process. This paper is focused on the fuel consumption of HHEC and the actuator dynamic response to assure that the new system can save energy without sacrificing performance. Firstly, we introduce the basic principle of HHEC; then, the sizing process is presented; furthermore, the modeling period which combined mathematical analysis and experiment identification is listed. Finally, simulation results show that HHEC has a fast dynamic response which can be accepted in engineering and the fuel consumption can be reduced 21% to compare the original LS excavator and even 32% after adopting another smaller engine.

  12. Locomotive energy savings possibilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonas Povilas LINGAITIS

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Economic indicators of electrodynamic braking have not been properly estimated. Vehicles with alternative power trains are transitional stage between development of pollution- free vehicles. According to these aspects the investigation on conventional hybrids drives and their control system is carried out in the article. The equation that allows evaluating effectiveness of regenerative braking for different variants of hybrid drive are given. Presenting different types of locomotive energy savings power systems, which are using regenerative braking energy any form of hybrid traction vehicles systems, circuit diagrams, electrical parameters curves.

  13. Energy Saving Scheme Based On Traffic Forwarding For Optical Fiber Access Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopez, G. Arturo Rodes; Estaran Tolosa, Jose Manuel; Vegas Olmos, Juan José

    2013-01-01

    We report on an energy saving block that regroups and powers off OLTs during low traffic periods, resulting in energy savings up to 87,5% in the central office of optical access networks.......We report on an energy saving block that regroups and powers off OLTs during low traffic periods, resulting in energy savings up to 87,5% in the central office of optical access networks....

  14. Technical Support Document: Development of the Advanced Energy Design Guide for Large Hospitals - 50% Energy Savings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonnema, E.; Leach, M.; Pless, S.

    2013-06-01

    This Technical Support Document describes the process and methodology for the development of the Advanced Energy Design Guide for Large Hospitals: Achieving 50% Energy Savings Toward a Net Zero Energy Building (AEDG-LH) ASHRAE et al. (2011b). The AEDG-LH is intended to provide recommendations for achieving 50% whole-building energy savings in large hospitals over levels achieved by following Standard 90.1-2004. The AEDG-LH was created for a 'standard' mid- to large-size hospital, typically at least 100,000 ft2, but the strategies apply to all sizes and classifications of new construction hospital buildings. Its primary focus is new construction, but recommendations may be applicable to facilities undergoing total renovation, and in part to many other hospital renovation, addition, remodeling, and modernization projects (including changes to one or more systems in existing buildings).

  15. Evaluating direct energy savings and market transformation effects: A decade of technical design assistance in the northwestern USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Den Wymelenberg, Kevin; Brown, G.Z.; Burpee, Heather; Djunaedy, Ery; Gladics, Gunnar; Kline, Jeff; Loveland, Joel; Meek, Christopher; Thimmanna, Harshana

    2013-01-01

    This paper documents the direct energy savings and energy efficiency market transformation impacts of a multi-state design assistance program in the northwestern US. The paper addresses four specific aims. (1) It provides a conservative and justified estimate of the direct energy savings associated with design assistance activities of a market transformation program from 2001 to 2010. (2) It provides a rigorous methodology to evaluate direct energy savings associated with design assistance market transformation programs. (3) It provides a low-cost replicable method to predict energy savings in new buildings by evaluating the integrated design process. (4) It provides quantitative indicators useful for estimating indirect energy savings from market transformation. Applying the recommended analysis method and assuming a 12-year measure life, the direct energy savings of the population (626 buildings; 51,262,000 ft 2 ) is estimated as 45.3 aMW (average megawatts) (electric), and 265,738.089 therms (non-electric). If the entire program budget were divided into the electric savings only, the Lab Network cost per kWh saved ranged from $0.0016 to $0.003 using the recommended method and $0.0092/kWh using the most conservative method. These figures do not isolate contextual influences or represent total resource cost. Statistically significant correlations (r 2 =0.1−0.3) between integrated design scores and energy savings are reported. - Highlights: ► Estimated direct energy savings of a market transformation program are presented. ► A methodology to evaluate energy savings from multiple baselines is documented. ► Level of integrated design can be used to estimate energy savings in new buildings. ► Quantitative evaluation indicators of efficiency market transformation are provided. ► Electric energy saved from design assistance costs between $0.0016 and $0.0092/kWh.

  16. Evaluation of energy and cost savings in mobile Cloud RAN

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Checko, Aleksandra; Christiansen, Henrik Lehrmann; Berger, Michael Stübert

    2013-01-01

    , is sub optimal, comparing to a novel, cloud based architecture called Cloud Radio Access Network (C-RAN). In C-RAN a group of cells shares processing resources, and hence benefit from statistical multiplexing gain is expected. In this paper, the energy and cost savings in C-RAN are evaluated numerically...

  17. Ultra high benefits system for electric energy saving and management of lighting energy in buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fathabadi, Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Presenting a novel multi channel smart system to manage lighting energy in buildings. • Saving considerable electric energy which is converted to lighting in buildings. • Providing desired constant and adjustable luminance for each location in buildings. • Capability of working with all AC electric power sources. • To automatically control and manage lighting energy in buildings. - Abstract: This paper presents a smart system, including a multi channel dimmer and a central process unit (CPU) together with an exact multi channel feedback mechanism, which automatically regulates and manages lighting in buildings. Based on a multi channel luminance feedback, a high benefits technique is utilized to convert the electric energy to lighting energy. Saving a lot of the electric energy which should be converted to lighting energy in buildings, managing the lighting energy in buildings, providing desired constant and adjustable luminance for each room (location), and the capability of working with all AC electric power sources regardless of frequency and voltage amplitude are some advantages of using the proposed system and technique, thus it will be widely used in buildings. An experimental prototype of the proposed smart system has been constructed to validate the theoretical results and to carry out the experimental tests. Experimental results earned by utilizing the proposed smart system in a sample building are presented to prove the benefits of using the system. The experimental results explicitly show a considerable electric energy saving (about 27%) in the sample building while the proposed system has provided desired constant and adjustable luminance for each location of the building

  18. Report on energy saving vision in Santo-cho region; Santocho chiiki sho energy vision hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-02-01

    An energy-saving vision was decided on in Santo-cho region in Hyogo Prefecture, with its outline reported. This town is such that about 80% of the region is mountains, forests and wilderness and that aging is advancing at the rate above that of Hyogo Prefecture or the national average. Nearly entire energy of the town is dependent on the supply from outside. The energy consumption is somewhat increasing as a whole, with that of the people's livelihood/domestic sector and of transportation sector are rising. In the classification of fuels, electricity is growing in consumption. As an energy-saving vision, it aimed principally at personal surroundings in which every one got into the habit of saving energy continuously without being forced. The basic plan for the energy conservation drive consisted of inducement to an energy-saving life style, energy conservation to be spread by the next generation children, continuation of energy saving activity rooted in the region, and promotion of energy conservation as a basis for introducing new energy. The diffusion and enlightenment for children destined to lead the next generation were defined as a particularly important assignment, as was the promotion of energy conservation and environmental education. (NEDO)

  19. Energy saving certificates: an improved instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-02-01

    This report first presents Energy Saving Certificates as one of among other instruments aimed at reducing energy consumption, and indicates how the French consumer is concerned. The benefits of this instrument are outlined: low cost, autonomy, awareness-raising, quantitative assessment of achieved energy savings. Its objectives and results since its creation in 2006 are commented, and the report outlines that this type of instrument is spreading over Europe. The authors show that its efficiency has been improved along the years due to a periodic review of standardised operation sheets, a simplification of the declaration, and an optimization of related programmes. Besides, targets have been better identified. The report outlines that assessment and controls must however be strengthened in order to reduce financial risks and potential drifts. Answers to this report by the concerned minister and ADEME are provided

  20. More than 30 per cent energy savings possible with LEDs in gerbera : substantial energy savings and little loss in production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helm, van der F.P.M.

    2015-01-01

    By installing LED-lighting and limiting it to 80 instead of 100 μmol gerbera growers can save 30 per cent on energy without any great loss in production, according to research. Light integration and interlighting don’t yet deliver any savings.

  1. Consumers’ perceptions of energy use and energy savings: A literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesic, Vedran; Bruine de Bruin, Wändi; Davis, Matthew C.; Krishnamurti, Tamar; Azevedo, Inês M. L.

    2018-03-01

    Background. Policy makers and program managers need to better understand consumers’ perceptions of their energy use and savings to design effective strategies for promoting energy savings. Methods. We reviewed 14 studies from the emerging interdisciplinary literature examining consumers’ perceptions electricity use by specific appliances, and potential savings. Results. We find that: (1) electricity use is often overestimated for low-energy consuming appliances, and underestimated for high-energy consuming appliances; (2) curtailment strategies are typically preferred over energy efficiency strategies; (3) consumers lack information about how much electricity can be saved through specific strategies; (4) consumers use heuristics for assessing the electricity use of specific appliances, with some indication that more accurate judgments are made among consumers with higher numeracy and stronger pro-environmental attitudes. However, design differences between studies, such as variations in reference points, reporting units and assessed time periods, may affect consumers’ reported perceptions. Moreover, studies differ with regard to whether accuracy of perceptions was evaluated through comparisons with general estimates of actual use, self-reported use, household-level meter readings, or real-time smart meter readings. Conclusion. Although emerging findings are promising, systematic variations in the measurement of perceived and actual electricity use are potential cause for concern. We propose avenues for future research, so as to better understand, and possibly inform, consumers’ perceptions of their electricity use. Ultimately, this literature will have implications for the design of effective electricity feedback for consumers, and related policies.

  2. Psychological interventions for energy saving. Development and evaluation of an electricity consumption reduction campaign in an urban development of energy-saving buildings; Energiesparen foerdern durch psychologische Intervention. Entwicklung und Evaluation einer Stromsparkampagne in einer Energiesparhaussiedlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mack, B.

    2007-07-01

    The study analyzes models of action of social psychology - in particular also an approach to institutionalize routine behaviour patterns - in order to identify the influencing factors that are described and the strategies for energy saving which are promoted. It also presents a comprehensive outline of current intervention studies and identifies effective strategy combinations which may serve as a basis for effective energy conservation campaigns. Against this background, an intervention measure for a neighbourhood context is developed and evaluated which is to promote energy-saving patterns of energy use in private households. The long-term effects suggest that it is a promising strategy to use a combination of information, commitment, goal identification, and individual and comparative feedback and to make use of group processes in a social context for developing energy-saving (routine) behaviour patterns. (orig.)

  3. Conceptual provisions of the implementation of energy saving measures in the residential facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meshcheryakova Tatiana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Research purpose is identification of sales problems of energy saving actions for residential sector of economy, including with use of the power service contract. The choice of the object of the study is related to the general issues on energy saving of residential facilities and increasing the number of unresolved problems. Unfortunately, the efficiency of energy consumption of housing stock is extremely low that directly leads to an increase in citizens’ payments for public utilities (housing and communal services. There are many problems associated with the aging of fixed assets: it becomes especially evident in winter seasons. The level of quality of delivery, distribution and consumption of expensive heat resources that has the greatest impact on a residence comfort and sometimes human life and health, is very low. Our population faces to year overheating or freezing, to leakages through worn pipes and the subsequent disconnection of water and heat. Despite the public declaration of the of the active processes of modernization of the housing municipal economy in the Russian Federation, the implementation of the necessary energy-saving elements in the housing sector is evolving very slowly. The article presents conceptual positions, which will bring the issues related to energy saving and efficiency to a new level.

  4. Intervention strategy to stimulate energy-saving behavior of local residents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Q.; Nieuwenhijsen, I.; Vries, B. de; Blokhuis, E.; Schaefer, W.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates intervention strategy in stimulating energy-saving behavior to achieve energy neutral urban development. A tree structure overview of potential interventions classified into three categories is revealed. An integrated behaviour model is developed reflecting the relations between behaviour and influence factors. A latent class model is used to identify segments of local residents who differ regarding their preferences for interventions. Data are collected from a sample of residents in the Eindhoven region of the Netherlands in 2010. The results indicate that social-demographic characteristics, knowledge, motivation and context factors play important roles in energy-saving behaviour. Specifically, four segments of residents in the study area were identified that clearly differed in their preferences of interventions: cost driven residents, conscious residents, ease driven residents and environment minded residents. These findings emphasize that the intervention strategy should be focused on specific target groups to have the right mixture of interventions to achieve effective results on stimulating them to save energy. - Highlights: ► A latent class model to identify segments with preferred energy-saving interventions. ► An integrated energy-saving behavior model of casual relations. ► A tree structure overview of potential interventions

  5. Chapter 21: Estimating Net Savings - Common Practices. The Uniform Methods Project: Methods for Determining Energy Efficiency Savings for Specific Measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurnik, Charles W [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Violette, Daniel M. [Navigant, Boulder, CO (United States); Rathbun, Pamela [Tetra Tech, Madison, WI (United States)

    2017-11-02

    This chapter focuses on the methods used to estimate net energy savings in evaluation, measurement, and verification (EM and V) studies for energy efficiency (EE) programs. The chapter provides a definition of net savings, which remains an unsettled topic both within the EE evaluation community and across the broader public policy evaluation community, particularly in the context of attribution of savings to a program. The chapter differs from the measure-specific Uniform Methods Project (UMP) chapters in both its approach and work product. Unlike other UMP resources that provide recommended protocols for determining gross energy savings, this chapter describes and compares the current industry practices for determining net energy savings but does not prescribe methods.

  6. Measuring energy-saving retrofits: Experiences from the Texas LoanSTAR program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haberl, J.S.; Reddy, T.A.; Claridge, D.E.; Turner, W.D.; O`Neal, D.L.; Heffington, W.M. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Energy Systems Lab.

    1996-02-01

    In 1988 the Governor`s Energy Management Center of Texas received approval from the US Department of Energy to establish a $98.6 million state-wide retrofit demonstration revolving loan program to fund energy-conserving retrofits in state, public school, and local government buildings. As part of this program, a first-of-its-kind, statewide Monitoring and Analysis Program (MAP) was established to verify energy and dollar savings of the retrofits, reduce energy costs by identifying operational and maintenance improvements, improve retrofit selection in future rounds of the LoanSTAR program, and initiate a data base of energy use in institutional and commercial buildings located in Texas. This report discusses the LoanSTAR MAP with an emphasis on the process of acquiring and analyzing data to measure savings from energy conservation retrofits when budgets are a constraint. This report includes a discussion of the program structure, basic measurement techniques, data archiving and handling, data reporting and analysis, and includes selected examples from LoanSTAR agencies. A summary of the program results for the first two years of monitoring is also included.

  7. An energy saving mechanism of EPON networks for real time video transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chien-Ping; Wu, Ho-Ting; Chiang, Yun-Ting; Chien, Shieh-Chieh; Ke, Kai-Wei

    2015-07-01

    Modern access networks are constructed widely by passive optical networks (PONs) to meet the growing bandwidth demand. However, higher bandwidth means more energy consumption. To save energy, a few research works propose the dual-mode energy saving mechanism that allows the ONU to operate between active and sleep modes periodically. However, such dual-mode energy saving design may induce unnecessary power consumption or packet delay increase in the case where only downstream data exist for most of the time. In this paper, we propose a new tri-mode energy saving scheme for Ethernet PON (EPON). The new tri-mode energy saving design, combining the dual-mode saving mechanism with the doze mode, allows the ONU to switch among these three modes alternatively. In the doze mode, the ONU may receive downstream data while keeping its transmitter close. Such scenario is often observed for real time video downstream transmission. Furthermore, the low packet delay of high priority upstream data can be attained through the use of early wake-up mechanism employed in both energy saving modes. The energy saving and system efficiency can thus be achieved jointly while maintaining the differentiated QoS for data with various priorities. Performance results via simulation have demonstrated the effectiveness of such mechanism.

  8. ASSESSMENT OF ENERGY SAVING IN WASTE RECYCLING USING SYSTEM DYNAMICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugênio de Oliveira Simonetto

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Recycling is a topic of great importance in integrated waste management, evidence of this is verified in the National Policy of Solid Waste, decreed in 2010, where it is considered one of the priorities. In this article is presented a computer simulation model, since their development until its validation, which aims to support environmental managers in their decisions regarding the definition and / or maintenance of solid waste policies recycling, as well as evaluating the benefits of process in the environment (in this article we evaluated the energy savings. For the model development was considered: the rate of natural population growth (births and deaths, percentage of solid waste recycled (for each type of material, gravimetric composition of the material in the total waste generated, the amount of waste generated per inhabitant and energy savings caused by each distinct type of material. Through the model results generated, end users (environmental managers thereof may, for example, set incentives to reduce the total generation of solid waste, produce campaigns enhancing reuse and recycling and to assess the relative benefits of energy savings caused by recycling. Model validation was through analysis of future scenarios for a given municipality in southern Brazil. For modeling and system validation was used Vensim from Ventana Systems.

  9. The impact on energy consumption of daylight saving clock changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, S.I.; Desobry, F. [Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge (United Kingdom); Garnsey, E.W. [Institute for Manufacturing, University of Cambridge (United Kingdom); Chong, Y.-F. [IPA Energy and Water Consulting (United Kingdom)

    2010-09-15

    The focus of this work is an investigation of the effect of prevailing time regime on energy consumption. In particular we perform analysis demonstrating potential energy savings which could be obtained were Great Britain to maintain daylight savings time (DST) over winter, instead of reverting to Greenwich mean time (GMT). We review the literature on the effect of DST on energy consumption and show that this indicates a justification for considering the issue. Our headline result is in agreement with many related studies in that advancing the clock by an hour in winter would lead to energy savings of at least 0.3% of daily demand in Great Britain. In deriving this result we have adopted methodologies currently used in load prediction, in particular Support Vector Regression, to estimate energy demand on a half-hourly basis. Corresponding cost savings are found to be higher (due to the nonlinear increase of costs) and we find them to be on the order of 0.6% over the months considered. In terms of environmental impact we find the saving to be approximately equivalent to 450,000 ton of CO{sub 2}. In deriving these results we adopt a conservative approach such that we consider them lower bounds on any true savings. (author)

  10. The impact on energy consumption of daylight saving clock changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, S.I.; Desobry, F.; Garnsey, E.W.; Chong, Y.-F.

    2010-01-01

    The focus of this work is an investigation of the effect of prevailing time regime on energy consumption. In particular we perform analysis demonstrating potential energy savings which could be obtained were Great Britain to maintain daylight savings time (DST) over winter, instead of reverting to Greenwich mean time (GMT). We review the literature on the effect of DST on energy consumption and show that this indicates a justification for considering the issue. Our headline result is in agreement with many related studies in that advancing the clock by an hour in winter would lead to energy savings of at least 0.3% of daily demand in Great Britain. In deriving this result we have adopted methodologies currently used in load prediction, in particular Support Vector Regression, to estimate energy demand on a half-hourly basis. Corresponding cost savings are found to be higher (due to the nonlinear increase of costs) and we find them to be on the order of 0.6% over the months considered. In terms of environmental impact we find the saving to be approximately equivalent to 450,000 ton of CO 2 . In deriving these results we adopt a conservative approach such that we consider them lower bounds on any true savings.

  11. Enershield : energy saving air barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallihan, D. [Enershield Industries Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    Enershield Industries is a leader in air barrier technology and provides solution for the Canadian climate. This presentation described the advantages of air barriers and the impact of rising energy costs. An air barrier is used to separate areas of differing environments and makes existing building systems more efficient. This presentation discussed how an air barrier works. It also identified how Enershield Industries calculates energy savings. It described air barrier applications and those who use barrier technology. These include the commercial and industrial sector as well as the personnel and retail sector. Barrier technology can be used for cold storage; vehicle and equipment washes; food processing; and environmental separation. Features and benefits such as the ability to create seal, acoustic insulation, and long term durability were also discussed. Last, the presentation addressed model selection and design criteria issues. Design criteria that were presented included a discussion of acoustic installation, articulating nozzles, scroll cased fans, and structural frame. Other design criteria presented were galvanized frames, telescopic sliders, and off the shelf parts. It was concluded that the ability to reduce energy consumption and enhance employee/client comfort is beneficial to the employer as well as to the employee. figs.

  12. Analysis on energy saving and emission reduction of clean energy technology in ports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Li; Qin, Cuihong; Peng, Chuansheng

    2018-02-01

    This paper discusses the application of clean energy technology in ports. Using Ningbo port Co. Ltd. Beilun second container terminal branch as an example, we analyze the effect of energy saving and emission reduction of CO2 and SO2 by clean energy alternative to fuel oil, and conclude that the application of clean energy technology in the container terminal is mature, and can achieve effect of energy-saving and emission reduction of CO2 and SO2. This paper can provide as a reference for the promotion and application of clean energy in ports.

  13. Savings potential of ENERGY STAR (registered trademark) voluntary labeling programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webber, Carrie A.; Brown, Richard E.

    1998-01-01

    In 1993 the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) introduced ENERGY STAR (registered trademark), a voluntary labeling program designed to identify and promote energy-efficient products. Since then EPA, now in partnership with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), has introduced programs for more than twenty products, spanning office equipment, residential heating and cooling equipment, new homes, commercial and residential lighting, home electronics, and major appliances. We present potential energy, dollar and carbon savings forecasts for these programs for the period 1998 to 2010. Our target market penetration case represents our best estimate of future ENERGY STAR savings. It is based on realistic market penetration goals for each of the products. We also provide results under the assumption of 100% market penetration; that is, we assume that all purchasers buy ENERGY STAR-compliant products instead of standard efficiency products throughout the analysis period. Finally, we assess the sensitivity of our target penetration case forecasts to greater or lesser marketing success by EPA and DOE, lower-than-expected future energy prices, and higher or lower rates of carbon emission by electricity generators. The potential savings of ENERGY STAR are substantial. If all purchasers chose Energy Star-compliant products instead of standard efficiency products over the next 15 years, they would save more than$100 billion on their energy bills during those 15 years. (Bill savings are in 1995 dollars, discounted at a 4% real discount rate.)

  14. Process control, energy recovery and cost savings in acetic acid wastewater treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaiopoulou, E.; Melidis, P.; Aivasidis, A.

    2011-01-01

    An anaerobic fixed bed loop (AFBL) reactor was applied for treatment of acetic acid (HAc) wastewater. Two pH process control concepts were investigated; auxostatic and chemostatic control. In the auxostatic pH control, feed pump is interrupted when pH falls below a certain pH value in the bioreactor, which results in reactor operation at maximum load. Chemostatic control assures alkaline conditions by setting a certain pH value in the influent, preventing initial reactor acidification. The AFBL reactor treated HAc wastewater at low hydraulic residence time (HRT) (10-12 h), performed at high space time loads (40-45 kg COD/m 3 d) and high space time yield (30-35 kg COD/m 3 d) to achieve high COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand) removal (80%). Material and cost savings were accomplished by utilizing the microbial potential for wastewater neutralization during anaerobic treatment along with application of favourable pH-auxostatic control. NaOH requirement for neutralization was reduced by 75% and HRT was increased up to 20 h. Energy was recovered by applying costless CO 2 contained in the biogas for neutralization of alkaline wastewater. Biogas was enriched in methane by 4 times. This actually brings in more energy profits, since biogas extra heating for CO 2 content during biogas combustion is minimized and usage of other acidifying agents is omitted.

  15. 78 FR 20097 - Energy Savings Performance Contracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-03

    ... procedures, scope definition, Measurement and Verification (M&V), financing procurement, and definition of... government. More than $2.71 billion has been invested in Federal energy efficiency and renewable energy... more than $7.18 billion of cumulative energy cost savings for the Federal Government. While FEMP has...

  16. Energy Savers--Tips on Saving Energy and Money at Home (Fifth Printing)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DOE Office of Building Technology, State and Community Programs

    2001-01-01

    Provides consumers with home energy and money savings tips such as insulation, weatherization, heating, cooling, water heating, energy efficient windows, landscaping, lighting, and energy efficient appliances

  17. Energy Savers---Tips on Saving Energy and Money at Home (Fifth Printing)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOE Office of Building Technology, State and Community Programs

    2001-08-13

    Provides consumers with home energy and money savings tips such as insulation, weatherization, heating, cooling, water heating, energy efficient windows, landscaping, lighting, and energy efficient appliances.

  18. Energy Savings From System Efficiency Improvements in Iowa's HVAC SAVE Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yee, S. [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, Chicago, IL (United States); Baker, J. [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, Chicago, IL (United States); Brand, L. [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, Chicago, IL (United States); Wells, J. [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this project is to explore the energy savings potential of maximizing furnace and distribution system performance by adjusting operating, installation, and distribution conditions. The goal of the Iowa HVAC System Adjusted and Verified Efficiency (SAVE) program is to train contractors to measure installed system efficiency as a diagnostic tool to ensure that the homeowner achieves the energy reduction target for the home rather than simply performing a tune-up on the furnace or having a replacement furnace added to a leaky system. The PARR research team first examined baseline energy usage from a sample of 48 existing homes, before any repairs or adjustments were made, to calculate an average energy savings potential and to determine which system deficiencies were prevalent. The results of the baseline study of these homes found that, on average, about 10% of the space heating energy available from the furnace was not reaching the conditioned space. In the second part of the project, the team examined a sample of 10 homes that had completed the initial evaluation for more in-depth study. For these homes, the diagnostic data shows that it is possible to deliver up to 23% more energy from the furnace to the conditioned space by doing system tune ups with or without upgrading the furnace. Replacing the furnace provides additional energy reduction. The results support the author's belief that residential heating and cooling equipment should be tested and improved as a system rather than a collection of individual components.

  19. Annual Energy Usage Reduction and Cost Savings of a School: End-Use Energy Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alghoul, M. A.; Bakhtyar, B.; Asim, Nilofar; Sopian, K.

    2014-01-01

    Buildings are among the largest consumers of energy. Part of the energy is wasted due to the habits of users and equipment conditions. A solution to this problem is efficient energy usage. To this end, an energy audit can be conducted to assess the energy efficiency. This study aims to analyze the energy usage of a primary school and identify the potential energy reductions and cost savings. A preliminary audit was conducted, and several energy conservation measures were proposed. The energy conservation measures, with reference to the MS1525:2007 standard, were modelled to identify the potential energy reduction and cost savings. It was found that the school's usage of electricity exceeded its need, incurring an excess expenditure of RM 2947.42. From the lighting system alone, it was found that there is a potential energy reduction of 5489.06 kWh, which gives a cost saving of RM 2282.52 via the improvement of lighting system design and its operating hours. Overall, it was found that there is a potential energy reduction and cost saving of 20.7% when the energy conservation measures are earnestly implemented. The previous energy intensity of the school was found to be 50.6 kWh/m2/year, but can theoretically be reduced to 40.19 kWh/mm2/year. PMID:25485294

  20. Traffic-aware Elastic Optical Networks to leverage Energy Savings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turus, Ioan; Fagertun, Anna Manolova; Dittmann, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Because of the static nature of the deployed optical networks, large energy wastage is experienced today in production networks such as Telecom networks . With power-adaptive optical interfaces and suitable grooming procedures, we propose the design of more energy efficient transport networks....... Optical network reconfigurations are performed by GMPLS node controllers according to monitored traffic information. The investigated energy reduction strategies are simulated on two large scale transport networks (DT17 and COST37). The results show that the energy savings obtained by these strategies......-Europea n COST37 network, for both symbol-rate and modulation format adaptations significant savings are obtained . Mixed adaptation (jointly performing symbol-rate and modulation format adaptations) used together with optical grooming allows up to 4 4 % and 4 7 % power savings in DT17 and COST37 networks...

  1. Studies on energy system for an energy-saving society; Sho energy gata shakai ni okeru energy system kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    The system to which new energy technology and energy saving technology were introduced was constructed for case studies of urban areas including core cities and the peripheral areas, and the quantitative analysis was conducted on environmental effects, etc. In the energy supply system model, the following element technologies were all considered: cogeneration system, sewage water heat, river water heat, the photovoltaic power generation, energy storage/heat storage/cold heat storage, adsorption type refrigerator, etc. Also considered were power interchange between clusters, system power buying/power selling, heat interchange or no heat interchange, etc. As a result, it was found that when constructing the energy system which synthetically takes into account thermoelectric ratios, rates of simultaneous loads, ratios of daytime/nighttime in the energy supply and demand in the urban area, the energy saving effect multiplicatively increases, and the energy system using cogeneration and unused energy such as refuse and sewage in the urban area and river water brings an energy saving effect of 32% especially in the concentrated cluster. 83 figs., 45 tabs.

  2. Strategic design of cost savings guarantee in energy performance contracting under uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, Qianli; Jiang, Xianglin; Cui, Qingbin; Zhang, Limao

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A methodology is proposed to assist Energy Service Companies to maintain competitiveness in winning bids. • Uncertainties within the energy cost savings are modeled stochastically using the Monte-Carlo simulation. • A strategic energy savings guarantee design curve is derived, where all points return as appropriate guarantees. • A campus case is presented to demonstrate the applicability for finding appropriate guaranteed savings value. - Abstract: Among the key barriers to profit in Energy Performance Contracting (EPC) are uncertainties about attaining the realized energy cost savings and potential disputes over the guaranteed cost savings. In this paper, a methodology has been proposed to assist the Energy Service Company (ESCO): (1) to evaluate the risk threshold if the guarantee has already been made, and (2) to determine the guarantee design, if the guarantee has not been made yet, that not only promises the ESCO’s profitability from EPC but also maintains its competitiveness to win the bid. Uncertainties within the energy cost savings are modeled stochastically using Monte-Carlo simulation, taking both the energy price fluctuation and the facility performance variability into account. Based on that, a strategic energy savings guarantee design curve is derived, that all the points on it would return as appropriate guarantees. Finally, a campus case is presented to demonstrate the applicability for finding the appropriate guaranteed savings value. This method is also worth popularizing in similar performance-based projects

  3. The unrecognized contribution of renewable energy to Europe's energy savings target

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harmsen, R.; Wesselink, B.; Eichhammer, W.; Worrell, E.

    2011-01-01

    We show that renewable energy contributes to Europe's 2020 primary energy savings target. This contribution, which is to a large extent still unknown and not recognized by policy makers, results from the way renewable energy is dealt with in Europe's energy statistics. We discuss the policy

  4. Economic and Environmental Impact of Energy Saving in Healthcare Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justo García-Sanz-Calcedo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to estimate the economic and environmental impacts of energy consumption derived from healthcare buildings and proposes several energy-saving options in the sector. An experimental energy consumption study was development between 2005 and 2013 in 12 hospitals and 70 healthcare centres in Spain, built between 1980 and 2005 through audits carried out between 2005 and 2012, performed by the Extremadura Energy Agency. The study focused on electric energy, HVAC, DWH, lighting systems, renewable energies, maintenance strategy, thermal insulation, and optimal building size. Specifically, the following parameters were evaluated: energy savings, investment emission of CO2, NO2, and SO2 gases, and payback. The results revealed that through an appropriate energy management of healthcare buildings it is possible to save up to 8.60 kWh/m2 per year, for buildings of less than 5000 m2 (with no beds, which represents an expense of 1.55 €/m2. In healthcare buildings larger than 5000 m2 (with beds, it was possible to save up to 6.88 kWh/m2 per year, which represents an expense of 1.25 €/m2.

  5. Food industry hungry for energy savings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blackburn, D

    1989-04-01

    The United Kingdom food and drink industry is a significant user of energy. Energy use figures are given showing the breakdown in terms of different sectors of the industry and also in terms of the fuel used. Four energy monitoring and target setting demonstration projects are outlined at factories typical of their type in different sectors. The projects have resulted in a much greater awareness by management in the factories involved of energy consumption and waste. Examples are given of improved energy efficiency and consequent energy savings which have resulted from this awareness. (U.K.).

  6. Understanding the spectrum of residential energy-saving behaviours: French evidence using disaggregated data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belaïd, Fateh; Garcia, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Analysing household energy-saving behaviours is crucial to improve energy consumption predictions and energy policy making. How should we quantitatively measure them? What are their determinants? This study explores the main factors influencing residential energy-saving behaviours based on a bottom-up multivariate statistical approach using data from the recent French PHEBUS survey. Firstly, we assess energy-saving behaviours on a one-dimension scale using IRT. Secondly, we use linear regression with an innovative variable selection method via adaptive lasso to tease out the effects of both macro and micro factors on the behavioural score. The results highlight the impact of five main attributes incentivizing energy-saving behaviours based on cross-variable analyses: energy price, household income, education level, age of head of household and dwelling energy performance. In addition, our results suggest that the analysis of the inverted U-shape impact of age enables the expansion of the energy consumption life cycle theory to energy-saving behaviours. - Highlights: • We examine the main factors influencing residential energy-saving behaviours. • We use data from the recent French PHEBUS survey. • We use IRT to assess energy-saving behaviours on a one-dimension scale. • We use linear regression with an innovative variable selection method via adaptive lasso. • We highlight the impact of five main attributes incentivizing energy-saving behaviours.

  7. FY1998 research report on the energy saving research for Magnitogorsk steelworks in Russia; 1998 nendo Roshia Magnitogorsk seitetsusho shoenen chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    In order to find out promising projects for the joint research, basic research was made on energy saving for Magnitogorsk steelworks in Russia. It was confirmed that introduction of a large waste heat recovery system and energy saving equipment could be met effectively by reduction of natural gas consumption by the 3 in-house power plants installed in the steelworks, and there is no problem for promotion of the project from the viewpoint of energy structure. Feasibility study was made on energy saving measures every process. The study results for the following are presented: (1) Coking process: CDQ, CMC, ACC, (2) Sintering process: reduction of ignition fuel by remodeling the ignition furnace, (3) Blast furnace process: TRT equipment, (4) BOF process: exhaust gas recovery system, (5) Hot rolling process: reduction of heating unit consumption by remodeling the reheating furnace and power saving measures for the reheating furnace blower and exhauster, and (6) Energy process: renewal of the oxygen plant. Annual CO{sub 2} emission reduction by complete implementation of these measures is estimated to be nearly 750,000t. (NEDO)

  8. Fundamental research on sintering technology with super deep bed achieving energy saving and reduction of emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hongliang Han; Shengli Wu; Gensheng Feng; Luowen Ma; Weizhong Jiang

    2012-01-01

    In the general frame of energy saving, environment protection and the concept of circular economy, the fundamental research on the sintering technology with super deep bed, achieving energy saving and emission reduction, was carried out. At first, the characteristics of the process and exhaust emission in the sintering with super deep bed was mastered through the study of the influence of different bed depths on the sintering process. Then, considering the bed permeability and the fuel combustion, their influence on the sinter yield and quality, their potential for energy saving and emission reduction was studied. The results show that the improvement of the bed permeability and of the fuel combustibility respectively and simultaneously, leads to an improvement of the sintering technical indices, to energy saving and emission reduction in the condition of super deep bed. At 1000 mm bed depth, and taking the appropriate countermeasure, it is possible to decrease the solid fuel consumption and the emission of CO 2 , SO 2 , NO x by 10.08%, 11.20%, 22.62% and 25.86% respectively; and at 700 mm bed depth, it is possible to reduce the solid fuel consumption and the emission of CO 2 , SO 2 , NO x by 20.71%, 22.01%, 58.86% and 13.13% respectively. This research provides the theoretical and technical basis for the new technology of sintering with super deep bed, achieving energy saving and reduction of emission. (authors)

  9. Optimal energy control of a crushing process based on vertical shaft impactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numbi, B.P.; Xia, X.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Energy optimal control strategy of a VSI crushing process is modeled. • Potential of a daily energy cost saving of about 49.7% is shown. • Potential of a daily energy saving of about 15.3% is shown. • Most of energy cost saving is due to the optimal load shifting under time-of-use tariff. • Energy saving is due to the operation of the process at the boundary of the admissible region. - Abstract: This paper presents an optimal control model to improve the operation energy efficiency of a vertical shaft impact (VSI) crushing process. The optimal control model takes the energy cost as the performance index to be minimized by accounting for the time-of-use tariff and process constraints such as storage capacity of the VSI crusher hopper, capacity of the main storage system, flow rate limits, cascade ratio setting, production requirement and product quality requirement. The control variables in the developed model are the belt conveyor feed rate, the material feed rate into the VSI crusher rotor, the bi-flow or cascade feed rate and the rotor tip speed of the crusher. These four control variables are optimally coordinated in order to improve the operation energy efficiency of the VSI crushing process. Simulation results based on a crushing process in a coal-fired power plant demonstrate a potential of a daily energy cost saving of about 49.7% and energy saving of about 15.3% in a high-demand season weekday.

  10. Investing EU ETS auction revenues into energy savings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sijm, J.P.M.; Boonekamp, P.G.M. [ECN Policy Studies, Petten (Netherlands); Summerton, P.; Pollitt, H.; Billington, S. [Cambridge Econometrics CE, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2013-05-15

    The overall objective of this study is to analyse the effects of using EU ETS auction revenues to stimulate investments in energy savings in three key target sectors, i.e. Households, Tertiary and Industry (including both ETS and non-ETS industrial installations). The scenarios used refer basically to the situation before the recent agreement on the Energy Efficiency Directive (EED) and include (a mixture of) different policy options to enhance energy savings in the target sectors, in particular (1) reducing the ETS cap, (2) introducing an Energy Efficiency Obligation (EEO) for energy suppliers or distributors, and/or (3) using ETS auction revenues to support additional (private) investments in raising energy efficiency. In order to meet this objective a variety of different policy scenarios have been defined and analysed by means of the 'Energy-Environment-Economy Model for Europe (E3ME)'. The study presents and discusses a large variety of scenario modelling results by the year 2020 at the EU27 level. These results refer to, among others, energy savings, GHG emissions, the ETS carbon price, household electricity bills and to changes in some macro- or socio-economic outcomes such as GDP, inflation, employment or international trade. Finally, the study discusses some policy findings and implications, including options to enhance the effectiveness of some EE policies, in particular those having a potential adverse effect on the ETS carbon price.

  11. Energy Saving Glass Lamination via Selective Radio Frequency Heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shawn M. Allan; Patricia M. Strickland; Holly S. Shulman

    2009-11-11

    Ceralink Inc. developed FastFuse™, a rapid, new, energy saving process for lamination of glass and composites using radio frequency (RF) heating technology. The Inventions and Innovations program supported the technical and commercial research and development needed to elevate the innovation from bench scale to a self-supporting technology with significant potential for growth. The attached report provides an overview of the technical and commerical progress achieved for FastFuse™ during the course of the project. FastFuse™ has the potential to revolutionize the laminate manufacturing industries by replacing energy intensive, multi-step processes with an energy efficient, single-step process that allows higher throughput. FastFuse™ transmits RF energy directly into the interlayer to generate heat, eliminating the need to directly heat glass layers and the surrounding enclosures, such as autoclaves or vacuum systems. FastFuse™ offers lower start-up and energy costs (up to 90% or more reduction in energy costs), and faster cycles times (less than 5 minutes). FastFuse™ is compatible with EVA, TPU, and PVB interlayers, and has been demonstrated for glass, plastics, and multi-material structures such as photovoltaics and transparent armor.

  12. Putting science into practice: saving energy in buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shove, E.

    1994-12-31

    A research project is described which has investigated the relationship between science-based knowledge of energy efficient building and practical energy saving action. A comparison of government funded research and development programmes has shown how knowledge of energy efficient building technology has been developed and applied. Beliefs about the nature of social change which underly these technical programmes have been revealed by an analysis of the theory and practice of technology transfer. An examination of three specific energy saving action contexts illustrates the tensions between standardised scientific knowledge and the diverse social and organisational situations in which technical expertise is applied. The report raises questions about the interaction of natural and social science and environmental policy. (UK)

  13. Group Home Energy Efficiency Retrofit for 30% Energy Savings: Washington, D.C. (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2013-11-01

    Energy efficiency retrofits (EERs) face many challenges on the path to scalability. Limited budgets, cost effectiveness, risk factors, and accessibility impact the type and the extent of measures that can be implemented feasibly to achieve energy savings goals. Group home retrofits can face additional challenges than those in single family homes - such as reduced access (occupant-in-place restrictions) and lack of incentives for occupant behavioral change. This project studies the specification, implementation, and energy savings from an EER in a group home, with an energy savings goal of 30%. This short term test report chronicles the retrofit measures specified, their projected cost-effectiveness using building energy simulations, and the short term test results that were used to characterize pre-retrofit and post-retrofit conditions. Additionally, the final report for the project will include analysis of pre- and post-retrofit performance data on whole building energy use, and an assessment of the energy impact of occupant interface with the building (i.e., window operation). Ultimately, the study's results will be used to identify cost effective EER measures that can be implemented in group homes, given constraints that are characteristic of these buildings. Results will also point towards opportunities for future energy savings.

  14. Chapter 24: Strategic Energy Management (SEM) Evaluation Protocol. The Uniform Methods Project: Methods for Determining Energy Efficiency Savings for Specific Measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, James [The Cadmus Group, Portland, OR (United States)

    2017-05-18

    Strategic energy management (SEM) focuses on achieving energy-efficiency improvements through systematic and planned changes in facility operations, maintenance, and behaviors (OM&B) and capital equipment upgrades in large energy-using facilities, including industrial buildings, commercial buildings, and multi-facility organizations such as campuses or communities. Facilities can institute a spectrum of SEM actions, ranging from a simple process for regularly identifying energy-savings actions, to establishing a formal, third-party recognized or certified SEM framework for continuous improvement of energy performance. In general, SEM programs that would be considered part of a utility program will contain a set of energy-reducing goals, principles, and practices emphasizing continuous improvements in energy performance or savings through energy management and an energy management system (EnMS).

  15. Energy saving work of frequency controlled induction cage machine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gnacinski, P. [Gdynia Maritime University, Department of Ship Electrical Power Engineering, Morska Str. 8, 81-225 Gdynia (Poland)]. E-mail: piotrg@am.gdynia.pl

    2007-03-15

    Energy saving work, understood as lowering the supply voltage when load torque is much less than rated, is one way of reducing power losses in an induction cage machine working with a variable load. Reduction in power losses also affects the thermal properties of an induction machine because the energy saving work allows the temperature rise of the windings to decrease. Thanks to a lower temperature of the windings, the same load torque can be carried by a machine of less rated power. The ability of energy saving work to reduce the temperature of windings depends on the thermal properties of an induction machine, which are different in the case of a machine with foreign ventilation and its own ventilation. This paper deals with the thermal effect of energy saving work on a frequency controlled induction cage machine. A comparison of the properties of a machine with its own and outside ventilation is presented. The results of the investigations are shown for a 3 kW induction cage machine with the two previously mentioned ways of ventilation: one provided with a fan placed on a shaft and the other provided with a fan driven by an auxiliary motor.

  16. Energy saving work of frequency controlled induction cage machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gnacinski, P.

    2007-01-01

    Energy saving work, understood as lowering the supply voltage when load torque is much less than rated, is one way of reducing power losses in an induction cage machine working with a variable load. Reduction in power losses also affects the thermal properties of an induction machine because the energy saving work allows the temperature rise of the windings to decrease. Thanks to a lower temperature of the windings, the same load torque can be carried by a machine of less rated power. The ability of energy saving work to reduce the temperature of windings depends on the thermal properties of an induction machine, which are different in the case of a machine with foreign ventilation and its own ventilation. This paper deals with the thermal effect of energy saving work on a frequency controlled induction cage machine. A comparison of the properties of a machine with its own and outside ventilation is presented. The results of the investigations are shown for a 3 kW induction cage machine with the two previously mentioned ways of ventilation: one provided with a fan placed on a shaft and the other provided with a fan driven by an auxiliary motor

  17. Energy Saving Potential of PCMs in Buildings under Future Climate Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdo Abdullah Ahmed Gassar

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Energy consumption reduction under changing climate conditions is a major challenge in buildings design, where excessive energy consumption creates an economic and environmental burden. Improving thermal performance of the buildings through support applying phase change material (PCM is a promising strategy for reducing building energy consumption under future climate change. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the energy saving potentials in buildings under future climate conditions in the humid and snowy regions in the hot continental and humid subtropical climates of the east Asia (Seoul, Tokyo and Hong Kong when various PCMs with different phase change temperatures are applied to a lightweight building envelope. Methodology in this work is implemented in two phases: firstly, investigation of energy saving potentials in buildings through inclusion of three types of PCMs with different phase temperatures into the building envelop separately and use weather file in the present (2017; and, secondly, evaluation of the effect of future climate change on the performance of PCMs by analyzing energy saving potentials of PCMs with 2020, 2050 and 2080 weather data. The results show that the inclusion of PCM into the building envelope is a promising strategy to increase the energy performance in buildings during both heating and cooling seasons in Seoul, Tokyo and Hong Kong under future climate conditions. The energy savings achieved by using PCMs in those regions are electricity savings of 4.48–8.21%, 3.81–9.69%, and 1.94–5.15%, and gas savings of 1.65–16.59%, 7.60–61.76%, and 62.07–93.33% in Seoul, Tokyo and Hong Kong, respectively, for the years 2017, 2020, 2050 and 2080. In addition, BioPCM and RUBITHERMPCM are the most efficient for improving thermal performance and saving energy in buildings in the tested regions and years.

  18. Strategies for Power/Energy Saving in Distribution Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GRIGORAS, G.

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The power/energy losses reduction in distribution systems is an important issue during planning and operation, with important technical and economical implications. Thus, the energy losses minimization implies not only the technical improvement of the network, through its renewal with the introduction of the technological innovations in the equipment and circuit components as well as the optimal planning of the design and development of the network, but also requires the use of the methods and software tools to facilitate the operation process. The paper presents a strategy for power/energy saving which replacement of the 6 kV voltage level with 20 kV voltage level in correlation with the extent of using efficient transformers. In this line, different urban distribution networks were analyzed using fuzzy techniques.

  19. Targeting utility customers to improve energy savings from conservation and efficiency programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, Nicholas W.; Jones, Pierce H.; Kipp, M. Jennison

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Improving DSM program impacts by targeting high energy users. • DSM energy savings potential hinges on pre-participation performance. • Targeting can benefit different utilities and energy efficiency programs. • Overall performance can be improved by up to 250% via targeting strategies. - Abstract: Electric utilities, government agencies, and private interests in the US have committed and continue to invest substantial resources – including billions of dollars of financial capital – in the pursuit of energy efficiency and conservation through demand-side management (DSM) programs. While most of these programs are deemed to be cost effective, and therefore in the public interest, opportunities exist to improve cost effectiveness by targeting programs to those customers with the greatest potential for energy savings. This article details an analysis of three DSM programs offered by three Florida municipal electric utilities to explore such opportunities. First, we estimate programs’ energy savings impacts; second, we measure and compare energy savings across subgroups of program participants as determined by their pre-intervention energy performance, and third, we explore potential changes in program impacts that might be realized by targeting specific customers for participation in the DSM programs. All three programs resulted in statistically significant average (per-participant) energy savings, yet average savings varied widely, with the customers who performed best (i.e., most efficient) before the intervention saving the least energy and those who performed worst (i.e., least efficient) before the intervention saving the most. Assessment of alternative program participation scenarios with varying levels of customer targeting suggests that program impacts could be increased by as much as 80% for a professional energy audit program, just over 100% for a high-efficiency heat pump upgrade program, and nearly 250% for an attic insulation

  20. Energy Consumption and Saving Analysis for Laser Engineered Net Shaping of Metal Powders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhichao Liu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing awareness of environmental protection and sustainable manufacturing, the environmental impact of laser additive manufacturing (LAM technology has been attracting more and more attention. Aiming to quantitatively analyze the energy consumption and extract possible ways to save energy during the LAM process, this investigation studies the effects of input variables including laser power, scanning speed, and powder feed rate on the overall energy consumption during the laser deposition processes. Considering microhardness as a standard quality, the energy consumption of unit deposition volume (ECUDV, in J/mm3 is proposed as a measure for the average applied energy of the fabricated metal part. The potential energy-saving benefits of the ultrasonic vibration–assisted laser engineering net shaping (LENS process are also examined in this paper. The experimental results suggest that the theoretical and actual values of the energy consumption present different trends along with the same input variables. It is possible to reduce the energy consumption and, at the same time, maintain a good part quality and the optimal combination of the parameters referring to Inconel 718 as a material is laser power of 300 W, scanning speed of 8.47 mm/s and powder feed rate of 4 rpm. When the geometry shaping and microhardness are selected as evaluating criterions, American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI 4140 powder will cause the largest energy consumption per unit volume. The ultrasonic vibration–assisted LENS process cannot only improve the clad quality, but can also decrease the energy consumption to a considerable extent.

  1. The socioeconomic impact of energy saving renovation measures in urban buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Mikulić, Davor; Rašić Bakarić, Ivana; Slijepčević, Sunčana

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to investigate the role of measures oriented to energy savings in residential buildings in the economic development at the regional level. The aim of the paper is to estimate overall socio-economic impact of energy saving renovation measures in the Croatian urban areas. Impact assessment is based on input–output methodology which is able to quantify direct and indirect effects of investment in the energy saving projects on the economic activity and employment...

  2. Energy-Saving Tunnel Illumination System Based on LED's Intelligent Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Shanshan; Wu Lan; Gu Hanting; Jiang Shuixiu

    2011-01-01

    At present there is a lot of electric energy wastage in tunnel illumination, whose design is based on the maximum brightness outside and the maximum vehicle speed all year round. LED's energy consumption is low, and the control of its brightness is simple and effective. It can be quickly adjusted between 0-100% of its maximum brightness, and will not affect the service life. Therefore, using LED as tunnel's illumination source, we can achieve a good energy saving effect. According to real-time data acquisition of vehicle speed, traffic flow and brightness outside the tunnel, the auto real-time control of tunnel illumination can be achieved. And the system regulated the LED luminance by means of combination of LED power module and intelligent control module. The tunnel information was detected by inspection equipments, which included luminometer, vehicle detector, and received by RTU(Remote Terminal Unit), then synchronously transmitted to PC. After data processing, RTU emitted the dimming signal to the LED driver to adjust the brightness of LED. Despite the relatively high cost of high-power LED lights, the enormous energy-saving effect and the well-behaved controllability is beyond compare to other lighting devices.

  3. Regional politics of energy savings and instruments of its realization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simkiv Lilya Yevgenivna

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with theoretical and methodological foundations and applied aspects of the regional policy of energy saving aimed at the efficient use of energy resources in the region, diversification of energy supplies, modernization of energy infrastructure through the introduction of new technologies and protection of regional interests in the energy sector. The basic approaches and methods for the formation of regional policy of energy saving are determined. It allows deepening and expanding of the basic applied researches, and solving of more complex theoretical and applied problems of regional development. It is mentioned, that the development of regional energy saving policy involves the formation of appropriate legal, financial and credit policy; scientific research, economic, organizational and management measures; advertising and marketing support. It is proved, that for the practical implementation of regional policy the complex combination of economic feasibility, social effectiveness and environmental safety is required.

  4. Reported Energy and Cost Savings from the DOE ESPC Program: FY 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slattery, Bob S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this work was to determine the realization rate of energy and cost savings from the Department of Energy’s Energy Savings Performance Contract (ESPC) program based on information reported by the energy services companies (ESCOs) that are carrying out ESPC projects at federal sites. Information was extracted from 151 Measurement and Verification (M&V) reports to determine reported, estimated, and guaranteed cost savings and reported and estimated energy savings for the previous contract year. Because the quality of the reports varied, it was not possible to determine all of these parameters for each project.

  5. Energy saving in Swedish households. The (relative) importance of environmental attitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinsson, Johan; Lundqvist, Lennart J.; Sundstroem, Aksel

    2011-01-01

    The objectives for energy saving in the housing sector set by recent Swedish energy and climate policies are quite demanding. This article uses nation-wide Swedish survey data from 2004 to 2007 to explore the potential for achieving those targets. Earlier findings that socio-economic characteristics such as age, housing type and income are strongly linked to higher propensities to save on heating and hot water usage are confirmed by ordered logistic regression models. However, general environmental attitudes are also found to play a crucial role. When assessing the relative importance of socio-economic factors and environmental attitudes, the effect on energy saving is generally greater for the former than the latter. In addition, important interaction effects are identified. In relative terms, the effect of environmental attitudes is clearly stronger among households in apartment blocks than among those in detached housing, and stronger among households with higher income than among those with lower income. We end by discussing the implications for the selection and targeting of policy measures to tap the energy savings potential in the population. - Highlights: → We use Swedish survey data to analyse the determinants of household energy saving. → Housing type plays a crucial role for individuals' propensity to save energy. → Environmental attitudes are clearly more important in high-income households. → Environmental attitudes are clearly more important for people in apartment blocks.

  6. Selected bibliography: cost and energy savings of conservation and renewable energy technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-05-01

    This bibliography is a compilation of reports on the cost and energy savings of conservation and renewable energy applications throughout the United States. It is part of an overall effort to inform utilities of technological developments in conservation and renewable energy technologies and so aid utilities in their planning process to determine the most effective and economic combination of capital investments to meet customer needs. Department of Energy assessments of the applications, current costs and cost goals for the various technologies included in this bibliography are presented. These assessments are based on analyses performed by or for the respective DOE Program Offices. The results are sensitive to a number of variables and assumptions; however, the estimates presented are considered representative. These assessments are presented, followed by some conclusions regarding the potential role of the conservation and renewable energy alternative. The approach used to classify the bibliographic citations and abstracts is outlined.

  7. Data on energy saving measures on the basis of real consumption data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menkveld, M.; Vethman, P.; Leidelmeijer, K.; Cozijnsen, E.

    2012-05-01

    On assignment of NLAgency, RIGO and ECN have established the indicative savings of energy saving measures in existing dwellings based on actual (measured) energy use data. This is done with statistical analysis on a database with energy uses and data on energy saving measures in dwellings. This database is made by combination of data on dwellings from the energy label database of NLAgency and registrations of actual electricity and gas use from the customer files of Statistics Netherlands. The energy label database contains the data used for the label calculation of the dwellings that have received a label. The information consists of the heating system, the type of boiler, insulation, the type of glass, the type of ventilation system, but also the type of dwelling, the size of the dwelling and the year of construction. Linkage of these databases by Statistics Netherlands leads to a file containing data on over 600.000 dwellings. The relations between energy saving measures and energy cannot simply be calculated by comparing average uses of dwellings with a high-efficiency boiler and dwellings with an improved-efficiency boiler. After all, these dwellings will most likely have more differences with regard to other features (for example the extent to which double glazing has been installed). Comparison of these averages would lead to an overestimation of the effect of implementing a high-efficiency boiler. The energy use in dwellings that have a high-efficiency boiler is expected to be lower because of a combination of (other) measures. To arrive at useful statements about savings and effects, certain features of the dwellings and other measures were verified in the analyses. A statistical check of variables examines whether the variable has any influence on a (possible) relation, and if this is true, the influence is subsequently 'corrected' mathematically. The statistical analysis has not only been conducted for the actual energy use data from the customer files

  8. RESULTS FROM THE U.S. DOE 2006 SAVE ENERGY NOW ASSESSMENT INITIATIVE: DOE's Partnership with U.S. Industry to Reduce Energy Consumption, Energy Costs, and Carbon Dioxide Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, Anthony L [ORNL; Martin, Michaela A [ORNL; Gemmer, Bob [U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy; Scheihing, Paul [U.S. Department of Energy, Industrial Technologies Program; Quinn, James [U.S. Department of Energy

    2007-09-01

    nation's largest manufacturing plants--those that consume a total of 1 trillion British thermal units (Btu) or more annually. The approximately 6800 U.S. facilities that fall into this category collectively account for about 53% of all energy consumed by industry in the United States. The 2006 Save Energy Now energy assessments departed from earlier DOE plant assessments by concentrating solely on steam and process heating systems, which are estimated to account for approximately 74% of all natural gas use for manufacturing. The assessments also integrated a strong training component designed to teach industrial plant personnel how to use DOE's steam or process heating opportunity assessment software tools. This approach had the advantages of promoting strong buy-in of plant personnel for the assessment and its outcomes and preparing them better to independently replicate the assessment process at the company's other facilities. The Save Energy Now initiative also included provisions to help plants that applied for but did not qualify for assessments (based on the 1 trillion Btu criterion). Services offered to these plants included (1) an assessment by one of DOE's 26 university-based Industrial Assessment Centers (IACs), (2) a telephone consultation with a systems expert at the DOE's Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Information Center, or (3) other technical materials and services available through ITP (e.g., the Save Energy Now CD). By the end of 2006, DOE had completed all 200 of the promised assessments, identifying potential natural gas savings of more than 50 trillion Btu and energy cost savings of about $500 million. These savings, if fully implemented, could reduce CO2 emissions by 4.04 million metric tons annually. These results, along with the fact that a large percentage of U.S. energy is used by a relatively small number of very large plants, clearly suggest that assessments are an expedient and cost-effective way to

  9. VO2 thermochromic smart window for energy savings and generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jiadong; Gao, Yanfeng; Zhang, Zongtao; Luo, Hongjie; Cao, Chuanxiang; Chen, Zhang; Dai, Lei; Liu, Xinling

    2013-10-01

    The ability to achieve energy saving in architectures and optimal solar energy utilisation affects the sustainable development of the human race. Traditional smart windows and solar cells cannot be combined into one device for energy saving and electricity generation. A VO2 film can respond to the environmental temperature to intelligently regulate infrared transmittance while maintaining visible transparency, and can be applied as a thermochromic smart window. Herein, we report for the first time a novel VO2-based smart window that partially utilises light scattering to solar cells around the glass panel for electricity generation. This smart window combines energy-saving and generation in one device, and offers potential to intelligently regulate and utilise solar radiation in an efficient manner.

  10. Technical Support Document: 50% Energy Savings Design Technology Packages for Medium Office Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornton, Brian A.; Wang, Weimin; Lane, Michael D.; Rosenberg, Michael I.; Liu, Bing

    2009-09-01

    This Technical Support Document (TSD) describes the process and methodology for development of the Advanced Energy Design Guide for Medium Offices (AEDG-MO or the Guide), a design guidance document which intends to provide recommendations for achieving 50% energy savings in medium office buildings that just meet the requirements of ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2004, Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings.

  11. CROSS LAYER COORDINATED ENERGY SAVING STRATEGY IN MANET

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Li; Zheng Baoyu

    2003-01-01

    Mobile Ad hoc NETwork (MANET) consists of a set of mobile hosts which can operate independently without infrastructure base stations. Energy saving is a critical issue for MANET since most mobile hosts will operate on battery powers. A cross layer coordinated framework for energy saving is proposed in this letter. On-demand power management, physical layer and medium access control layer dialogue based multi-packet reception, mobile agent based topology discovery and topology control based transmit power-aware and battery power-aware dynamic source routing are some of new ideas in this framework.

  12. Influence of process operating parameters on dryness level and energy saving during wastewater sludge electro-dewatering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Akrama; Hoadley, Andrew F A; Conrardy, Jean-Baptiste; Olivier, Jérémy; Vaxelaire, Jean

    2016-10-15

    Electrically assisted mechanical dewatering, known as electro-dewatering (EDW), is an alternative emerging technology for energy-efficient liquid/solids separation in the dewatering of wastewater sludge. In this study, the performance of the electro-dewatering (EDW) process for activated wastewater sludge was investigated. The influence of the operating modes; being the timing of voltage (U-EDW) or current (I-EDW) application to either or both the filtration and compression stages, and the influence of the applied pressure (in successive 30 min pressure steps) were studied. The results showed that by delaying the application of the electric field to the filter cake compression stage, there was a potential saving in power consumption of around 10-12% in the case of U-EDW and about 30-46% in the case of I-EDW. The increase of the applied pressure from 0.5 to 12 bar during the filter cake compression stage leads to an increase in electro-dewatering kinetics. The results also reveal that at a low electric field level the increase of the processing pressure has a relatively pronounced effect on the dewatering process. At high levels of the electric field, a minimum processing pressure (4-6 bar) is required to improve the electrical contact between the electrode and the sludge and thus lower the energy consumption. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. User's Manual for BEST-Dairy: Benchmarking and Energy/water-Saving Tool (BEST) for the Dairy Processing Industry (Version 1.2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, T.; Ke, J.; Sathaye, J.

    2011-04-20

    This User's Manual summarizes the background information of the Benchmarking and Energy/water-Saving Tool (BEST) for the Dairy Processing Industry (Version 1.2, 2011), including'Read Me' portion of the tool, the sections of Introduction, and Instructions for the BEST-Dairy tool that is developed and distributed by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL).

  14. Technical Support Document: Development of the Advanced Energy Design Guide for Medium to Big Box Retail Buildings - 50% Energy Savings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonnema, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Leach, Matt [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Pless, Shanti [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-06-05

    This Technical Support Document describes the process and methodology for the development of the Advanced Energy Design Guide for Medium to Big Box Retail Buildings: Achieving 50% Energy Savings Toward a Net Zero Energy Building (AEDG-MBBR) ASHRAE et al. (2011b). The AEDG-MBBR is intended to provide recommendations for achieving 50% whole-building energy savings in retail stores over levels achieved by following ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2004, Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings (Standard 90.1-2004) (ASHRAE 2004b). The AEDG-MBBR was developed in collaboration with the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), the American Institute of Architects (AIA), the Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (IES), the U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC), and the U.S. Department of Energy.

  15. Technical Support Document: Development of the Advanced Energy Design Guide for Medium to Big Box Retail Buildings - 50% Energy Savings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonnema, E.; Leach, M.; Pless, S.

    2013-06-01

    This Technical Support Document describes the process and methodology for the development of the Advanced Energy Design Guide for Medium to Big Box Retail Buildings: Achieving 50% Energy Savings Toward a Net Zero Energy Building (AEDG-MBBR) ASHRAE et al. (2011b). The AEDG-MBBR is intended to provide recommendations for achieving 50% whole-building energy savings in retail stores over levels achieved by following ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2004, Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings (Standard 90.1-2004) (ASHRAE 2004b). The AEDG-MBBR was developed in collaboration with the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), the American Institute of Architects (AIA), the Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (IES), the U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC), and the U.S. Department of Energy.

  16. Plans for promoting district energy-saving visions for City of Wakkanai; Wakkanai-shi chiiki sho energy vision suishin keikakusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-02-01

    The district energy-saving visions and promotion plans therefor are drawn for City of Wakkanai, to promote energy saving and abatement of gas emissions which cause global warming. The conception of the energy-saving introduction project includes introduction of co-generation systems in the facilities of pivotal functions in the city center, and energy-saving systems in a municipal heated pool and public hot spring facilities. The facilities of pivotal functions in the city, e.g., the municipal office buildings, municipal hospital and all-around culture center of the city are supplied with heat in a centralized manner from the energy center, and the energy-saving effect is expected when co-generation systems are introduced in the energy center. The study results indicate that introduction of the co-generation systems in the energy center has a potential energy-saving effect of 2,400Gcal/y. The energy-saving effects are also analyzed for each of the municipal office buildings, municipal hospital, all-around culture center, municipal heated pool and public hot spring facilities, including those potentially realized by improving illumination and air supply/discharge facilities. (NEDO)

  17. The role of CSR in promoting companies’ energy-saving actions in two Asian cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hori, Shiro; Shinozaki, Mami; Nogata, Daisuke; Fujita, Toshiyuki

    2014-01-01

    In Asian developing countries, energy saving has become a crucial issue in sustainable development. However, in countries that possess weak government regulations and market mechanisms, industries are expected to save energy voluntarily. Therefore, corporate social responsibility (CSR) can serve as an important incentive to encourage companies to take voluntary actions. In this paper, we analyze CSR recognition and energy-saving actions taken by companies located in two Asian cities. The results of a questionnaire survey revealed that a positive relation exists between CSR recognition and energy saving. In developing countries, CSR develops based on concerns expressed by local cultures and communities. This indicates that the positive relationships that exist between CSR and energy-saving actions reflect the social norms of these communities. The results suggest that policies that encourage companies to enhance their CSR activities in society can serve as effective incentives to encourage energy-saving actions. - Highlights: • In Asian cities, energy saving has become a crucial issue in sustainable development. • CSR can serve as an important incentive to take voluntary energy saving actions. • The survey revealed a positive relation between CSR and energy saving. • The policies enhancing their CSR activities in society can serve as effective incentives

  18. Synergistic energy conversion process using nuclear energy and fossil fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hori, Masao

    2007-01-01

    Because primary energies such as fossil fuels, nuclear energy and renewable energy are limited in quantity of supply, it is necessary to use available energies effectively for the increase of energy demand that is inevitable this century while keeping environment in good condition. For this purpose, an efficient synergistic energy conversion process using nuclear energy and fossil fuels together converted to energy carriers such are electricity, hydrogen, and synthetic fuels seems to be effective. Synergistic energy conversion processes containing nuclear energy were surveyed and effects of these processes on resource saving and the CO 2 emission reduction were discussed. (T.T.)

  19. Simulation of Energy Savings in Automotive Coatings Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerini Romagnoli, Marco

    Recently, the automakers have become more and more aware of the environmental and economic impact of their manufacturing processes. The paint shop is the largest energy user in a vehicle manufacturing plant, and one way to reduce costs and energy usage is the optimization of this area. This project aims at providing a tool to model and simulate a paint shop, in order to run and analyze some scenarios and case studies, helping to take strategic decisions. Analytical computations and real data were merged to build a tool that can be used by FCA for their Sterling Heights plant. Convection and conduction heat losses were modeled for the dip processes and the ovens. Thermal balances were used to compute the consumptions of booths, decks and ovens, while pump and fan energy consumptions were modeled for each sub-process. The user acts on a calendar, scheduling a year of production, and the model predicts the energy consumption of the paint shop. Five scenarios were run to test different conditions and the influence of scheduling on the energy consumption. Two different sets of production schedules have been evaluated, the first one fulfilling the production requirement in one shift of 10 hours, at high rate, the second one using two 7-hour-long shifts at medium production rate. It was found that the unit cost was minimized in the warmest months of spring and fall, and system shutdown was a crucial factor to reduce energy consumption. A fifth hypothetical scenario was run, with a 4 month continuous production and an 8 month total shutdown, which reduced the energy consumption to a half of the best realistic scenario. When the plant was run in a two-shifts configuration, the cost to coat a vehicle was found to be 29 with weekend shutdown, and 39 without. In the one-shift configuration, the cost was slightly higher, but the difference was less than 5%. While the fifth scenario showed a consistent reduction of the unit cost, inventory and logistic expenses deriving from the

  20. Prices make energy savings more then a slogan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jesny, M.; Hruz, J.

    2003-01-01

    Energy has become a commodity with economic price in Slovakia. For years the energy price has not fulfilled the basic economic criteria - covering of production costs. It was used as one of the instruments of Governments social policy. But the situation is changing. Another phase of bringing the prices to a realistic level brought along a price increase by tens of percents. As the energy prices are increasing and there is a perspective that they will grow further all possible reserves and cheaper energy sources have to be identified. A simplified energetic model of Slovak economy identifies three basic energy-consumer kinds - industry, buildings and transport. Industry uses about one half of the Slovakia's yearly energy-consume. Aim private companies to survive in a competitive environment guarantees of a rational approach towards energy consume. The fact that even in companies that use high volumes of primary raw material the energy consume is the highest cost item (many times higher then the labour costs) is the main incentive for looking for saving possibilities in this area. A decrease of the industries' share in energy consume may indicate some positive trends. The energy consume in industries has dropped by ten percent within ten years and its share on the overall consume is approaching the 45-percent level. This was partially caused by decreasing production volumes or closing down of production in several companies. Energy consume of buildings represents about 35 - 40 percent of the national consume i.e. is on a level similar to other European countries. This is a sector is the most important. It is its structure that is important. Currently there are 1,8 million flat units in Slovakia. Family houses represent 48 percent and the remaining 52 percent go to flats. In close to 800-thousand family houses owned by the people living in them nobody has to stress the importance of energy savings. The user knows exactly how much energy has been used. The ownership is

  1. Save energy, without entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinmeyer, D.

    1992-01-01

    When we talk about saving energy what we usually mean is not wasting work. What we try to do when we design a process, is to use work as effectively as possible. It's hard to do that if we can't see it clearly. This paper illustrates how work can be seen (or calculated) without imposing entropy as a screen in front of it. We've all heard that the second law tells us that the entropy of the universe is increasing, and we are left with the feeling that the universe is ultimately headed for chaos, but receive little other information from this statement. A slightly more useful statement of the second law is the work potential of the universe is decreasing. However, this statement carries a needlessly negative ring. A simplified definition of the second law is: It takes work to change things. With these two corollaries: We can calculate the theoretical minimum work needed for a given change; and We can express the value of all changes in terms of work

  2. Exploring the range of energy savings likely from energy efficiency retrofit measures in Ireland's residential sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dineen, D.; Ó Gallachóir, B.P.

    2017-01-01

    This paper estimates the potential energy savings in the Irish residential sector by 2020 due to the introduction of an ambitious retrofit programme. We estimate the technical energy savings potential of retrofit measures targeting energy efficiency of the space and water heating end uses of the 2011 stock of residential dwellings between 2012 and 2020. We build eight separate scenarios, varying the number of dwellings retrofitted and the depth of retrofit carried out in order to investigate the range of energy savings possible. In 2020 the estimated technical savings potential lies in the range from 1713 GWh to 10,817 GWh, but is more likely to fall within the lower end of this range, i.e. between 1700 and 4360 GWh. When rebound effects are taken into account this reduces further to 1100 GWh and 2800 GWh per annum. The purpose of this paper was to test the robustness of the NEEAP target savings for residential retrofit, i.e. 3000 GWh by 2020. We conclude that this target is technically feasible but very challenging and unlikely to be achieved based on progress to date. It will require a significant shift towards deeper retrofit measures compared to what has been achieved by previous schemes. - Highlights: • Paper estimates range of energy savings likely from Irish residential retrofit. • Achieving NEEAP target savings of 3000 GWh by 2020 is feasible but very challenging. • Likely savings of 1100–2800 GWh per annum in 2020, including rebound. • NEEAP target unlikely to be achieved based on current trends.

  3. Maintaining a Viable Energy Savings Performance Contract

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Weber, Katherine L; Huckeby, Michael A

    2005-01-01

    Substantial amounts of information are available on Energy Savings Performance Contract award requirements, measurement, and verification, but we have found very little information on the day-to-day...

  4. Making the results of bottom-up energy savings comparable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moser Simon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Energy Service Directive (ESD has pushed forward the issue of energy savings calculations without clarifying the methodological basis. Savings achieved in the Member States are calculated with rather non-transparent and hardly comparable Bottom-up (BU methods. This paper develops the idea of parallel evaluation tracks separating the Member States’ issue of ESD verification and comparable savings calculations. Comparability is ensured by developing a standardised BU calculation kernel for different energy efficiency improvement (EEI actions which simultaneously depicts the different calculation options in a structured way (e.g. baseline definition, system boundaries, double counting. Due to the heterogeneity of BU calculations the approach requires a central database where Member States feed in input data on BU actions according to a predefined structure. The paper demonstrates the proposed approach including a concrete example of application.

  5. Kennecott Utah Copper Corporation: Facility Utilizes Energy Assessments to Identify $930,000 in Potential Annual Savings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2004-07-01

    Kennecott Utah Copper Corporation (KUCC) used targeted energy assessments in the smelter and refinery at its Bingham Canyon Mine, near Salt Lake City, Utah. The assessment focused mainly on the energy-intensive processes of copper smelting and refining. By implementing the projects identified, KUCC could realize annual cost savings of $930,000 and annual energy savings of 452,000 MMBtu. The projects would also reduce maintenance, repair costs, waste, and environmental emissions. One project would use methane gas from an adjacent municipal dump to replace natural gas currently used to heat the refinery electrolyte.

  6. Potential energy savings from cool roofs in Spain and Andalusia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boixo, Sergio; Diaz-Vicente, Marian; Colmenar, Antonio; Castro, Manuel Alonso

    2012-01-01

    Cool roofs are an inexpensive method to save energy and to improve the comfort level in buildings in mild and hot climates. A high scale implementation of cool roofs in Andalusia, in the south of Spain, could potentially save 295,000 kWh per year, considering only residential buildings with flat roofs using electrical heating. At the current energy prices, consumers can save 59 million euros annually in electricity costs and the emission of 136,000 metric tons of CO 2 can be directly avoided every year from the production of that electricity. If radiative forcings are considered, Andalucía can potentially offset between 9.44 and 12 Mt of CO 2 . All the provinces in the rest of Spain are also studied in this paper. The biggest savings are achieved in Gran Canaria (48%), Tenerife (48%), Cádiz (36%), Murcia (33%), Huelva (30%), Málaga (29%), Almería (29%) and Sevilla (28%), where savings are greater than 2 euros per square meter of flat roof for old buildings with dark roofs. For the biggest cities the range of savings obtained are: between 7.4% and 11% in Madrid, between 12% and 18% in Barcelona and between 14% and 20% in Valencia. -- Highlights: ► We estimate potential savings in energy, CO 2 , and money for cool roofs in Spain (residential sector with flat roofs). ► Average savings are of around one euro per square meter in the biggest cities. ► Potential savings are of more than 2 €/m 2 in the hottest cities. ► In Andalusia the potential savings are 300 MWh, 60 millions euro and 136,000 tons of CO 2 per year. ► With forcings, the CO 2 equivalence of cool roofs in Andalusia is between 9 and 12 Mt.

  7. Comparison of Software Models for Energy Savings from Cool Roofs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    New, Joshua Ryan [ORNL; Miller, William A [ORNL; Huang, Yu (Joe) [White Box Technologies; Levinson, Ronnen [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL)

    2014-01-01

    A web-based Roof Savings Calculator (RSC) has been deployed for the United States Department of Energy as an industry-consensus tool to help building owners, manufacturers, distributors, contractors and researchers easily run complex roof and attic simulations. This tool employs modern web technologies, usability design, and national average defaults as an interface to annual simulations of hour-by-hour, whole-building performance using the world-class simulation tools DOE-2.1E and AtticSim in order to provide estimated annual energy and cost savings. In addition to cool reflective roofs, RSC simulates multiple roof and attic configurations including different roof slopes, above sheathing ventilation, radiant barriers, low-emittance roof surfaces, duct location, duct leakage rates, multiple substrate types, and insulation levels. A base case and energy-efficient alternative can be compared side-by-side to estimate monthly energy. RSC was benchmarked against field data from demonstration homes in Ft. Irwin, California; while cooling savings were similar, heating penalty varied significantly across different simulation engines. RSC results reduce cool roofing cost-effectiveness thus mitigating expected economic incentives for this countermeasure to the urban heat island effect. This paper consolidates comparison of RSC s projected energy savings to other simulation engines including DOE-2.1E, AtticSim, Micropas, and EnergyPlus, and presents preliminary analyses. RSC s algorithms for capturing radiant heat transfer and duct interaction in the attic assembly are considered major contributing factors to increased cooling savings and heating penalties. Comparison to previous simulation-based studies, analysis on the force multiplier of RSC cooling savings and heating penalties, the role of radiative heat exchange in an attic assembly, and changes made for increased accuracy of the duct model are included.

  8. How to prevent greenhouse gas emissions in electrical installations: lighting energy savings and solar energy approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yavuz, C.; Aksoy, C. [Sakarya University, Faculty of Engineering, Electrical and Electronics Engineering Department, Serdivan (Turkey)

    2012-07-01

    Day by day greenhouse gas emissions increase dramatically. A passive adaptive method of lighting energy savings, daylight responsive systems are considered one of the best solutions for energy efficiency, saving and prevent CO{sub 2} emissions. Results of an annual experiment which was held in Sakarya University proves the necessity of daylight responsive systems with a 41% energy saving and 942.5 kg of prevented CO{sub 2} emissions Thinking this prevention is realized just only in a 36 m{sup 2} room with the use of 8 luminaries spreading such systems to nationwide, a major amount of greenhouse gas emissions would be prohibited. On the other hand energy saving is not the only way to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. Again in Sakarya University a project has started to investigate the possibility of illumination of a complete building by using solar energy. This paper evaluates these mentioned systems both in energy efficiency, greenhouse gas emissions prevention and economic point of views. (author)

  9. Energy and cost savings results for advanced technology systems from the Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study /CTAS/

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagerman, G. D.; Barna, G. J.; Burns, R. K.

    1979-01-01

    The Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study (CTAS), a program undertaken to identify the most attractive advanced energy conversion systems for industrial cogeneration applications in the 1985-2000 time period, is described, and preliminary results are presented. Two cogeneration options are included in the analysis: a topping application, in which fuel is input to the energy conversion system which generates electricity and waste heat from the conversion system is used to provide heat to the process, and a bottoming application, in which fuel is burned to provide high temperature process heat and waste heat from the process is used as thermal input to the energy conversion system which generates energy. Steam turbines, open and closed cycle gas turbines, combined cycles, diesel engines, Stirling engines, phosphoric acid and molten carbonate fuel cells and thermionics are examined. Expected plant level energy savings, annual energy cost savings, and other results of the economic analysis are given, and the sensitivity of these results to the assumptions concerning fuel prices, price of purchased electricity and the potential effects of regional energy use characteristics is discussed.

  10. Electric energy savings from new technologies. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrer, B.J.; Kellogg, M.A.; Lyke, A.J.; Imhoff, K.L.; Fisher, Z.J.

    1986-09-01

    Purpose of the report is to provide information about the electricity-saving potential of new technologies to OCEP that it can use in developing alternative long-term projections of US electricity consumption. Low-, base-, and high-case scenarios of the electricity savings for 10 technologies were prepared. The total projected annual savings for the year 2000 for all 10 technologies were 137 billion kilowatt hours (BkWh), 279 BkWh, and 470 BkWh, respectively, for the three cases. The magnitude of these savings projections can be gauged by comparing them to the Department's reference case projection for the 1985 National Energy Policy Plan. In the Department's reference case, total consumption in 2000 is projected to be 3319 BkWh. Because approximately 75% of the base-case estimate of savings are already incorporated into the reference projection, only 25% of the savings estimated here should be subtracted from the reference projection for analysis purposes.

  11. Efficient energy-saving targets for APEC economies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, J.-L.; Kao, C.-H.

    2007-01-01

    Energy-saving target ratios (ESTR) for 17 APEC economies during 1991-2000 are computed in a total-factor framework. All nominal variables are transformed into real variables by the purchasing power parity (PPP) at the 1995 price level. The data envelopment analysis (DEA) approach is used to find the energy-saving target (EST) for APEC economies without reducing their maximum potential gross domestic productions (GDPs) in each year. Energy, labor, and capital are the three inputs, while GDP is the single output. Our major findings are as follows: (1) China has the largest EST up to almost half of its current usage. (2) Hong Kong, the Philippines, and the United States have the highest energy efficiency. (3) The energy efficiency generally increases for APEC economies except for Canada and New Zealand. (4) Chile, Mexico, and Taiwan have significantly improved their energy efficiency in the last 5 years. (5) An inverted U-shape relation exists between per capita EST and per capita GDP. (6) ESTR has a positive relation with the value-added percentage of GDP of the industry sector and a negative relation with that of the service sector

  12. The impact of translucent fabric shades and control strategies on energy savings and visual quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wankanapon, Pimonmart

    Translucent fabric shades provide opportunities for building occupants to control sunlight penetration for heat reduction, thermal comfort, and visual quality. Regulating shades affects building energy and can potentially reduce the size of mechanical cooling systems. Shades are not normally included in energy model studies during the design process, even though shades potential impact energy use. This is because the occupants normally leave shades closed a large fraction of the time, but models are generally performed with no shades. Automatic shade control is now available, so it is necessary to understand the impact of shades on visual quality and their energy saving potential in order to optimize their overall performance. There are very limited studies that have address shades and their integrated performance on energy consumption and visual quality. Most of these do not reflected modern shade types and their application. The goals of this study are: First, to determine the impact of shades on total, heating, cooling and lighting energy savings with different design and operation parameters. Second, to study and develop different automatic shade control strategies to promote and optimize energy savings and visual quality. A simulation-based approach using EnergyPlus in a parametric study provide better understanding energy savings under different shade conditions. The parametric runs addressed various building parameters such as geometry, orientation, site climate, glazing/shade properties, and shade control strategies with integrated lighting control. The impact of shades was determined for total building and space heating, cooling and lighting energy savings. The effect of shades on visual quality was studied using EnergyPlus, AGI32 and DAYSIM for several indices such as daylight glare index (DGI), work plane illuminance, luminance ratios and view. Different shade control strategies and integrated lighting control were considered with two translucent fabric

  13. Identifying and quantifying energy savings on fired plant using low cost modelling techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tucker, Robert; Ward, John

    2012-01-01

    Research highlights: → Furnace models based on the zone method for radiation calculation are described. → Validated steady-state and transient models have been developed. → We show how these simple models can identify the best options for saving energy. → High emissivity coatings predicted to give performance enhancement on a fired heater. → Optimal heat recovery strategies on a steel reheating furnace are predicted. -- Abstract: Combustion in fired heaters, boilers and furnaces often accounts for the major energy consumption on industrial processes. Small improvements in efficiency can result in large reductions in energy consumption, CO 2 emissions, and operating costs. This paper will describe some useful low cost modelling techniques based on the zone method to help identify energy saving opportunities on high temperature fuel-fired process plant. The zone method has for many decades, been successfully applied to small batch furnaces through to large steel-reheating furnaces, glass tanks, boilers and fired heaters on petrochemical plant. Zone models can simulate both steady-state furnace operation and more complex transient operation typical of a production environment. These models can be used to predict thermal efficiency and performance, and more importantly, to assist in identifying and predicting energy saving opportunities from such measures as: ·Improving air/fuel ratio and temperature controls. ·Improved insulation. ·Use of oxygen or oxygen enrichment. ·Air preheating via flue gas heat recovery. ·Modification to furnace geometry and hearth loading. There is also increasing interest in the application of refractory coatings for increasing surface radiation in fired plant. All of the techniques can yield savings ranging from a few percent upwards and can deliver rapid financial payback, but their evaluation often requires robust and reliable models in order to increase confidence in making financial investment decisions. This paper gives

  14. Model projections and policy reviews for energy saving in China's service sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Lin

    2013-01-01

    Energy efficiency of buildings in the service sector is becoming increasingly important in China due to the structural shift of the economy from industry to services. This paper employs a bottom-up cohort model to simulate current energy saving policies and to make projections for future energy use and CO 2 emissions for the period 2000–2030 in the Chinese service sector. The analysis shows that energy demand in the service sector will approximately triple in 2030, far beyond the target of quadrupling GDP while only doubling energy use. However, it is feasible to achieve the target of emission reduction by 40% in 2020 even under the poor state of compliance rate of building standard. This paper also highlights four crucial aspects of designing optimal energy saving policies for China's service sector based on the model results. - Highlights: • Government energy saving target cannot realize with current policies in services. • Energy savings policies for new buildings are crucial than building retrofitting. • Cooling energy use increases significantly to reach equal weight as heating. • CO 2 tax can contribute to change in fuel mix, and thus emission reductions. • Low compliance rate limits further energy saving, hence green fund is required

  15. Community based social marketing for implementation of energy saving targets at local level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalia Streimikiene

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Energy saving and greenhouse gas (GHG emission reduction policies at local level need to be investigated and new tools for climate change mitigation are necessary seeking to achieve GHG emission targets in Lithuania. Most Lithuanian municipalities have signed Covenant of Mayors and have prepared local energy action plans. However, all these plans include just energy saving measures on supply side and renovation of buildings. Nevertheless, the significant energy savings and GHG emission reductions can be achieved through behavioural changes. The aim of the paper is to apply community based social marketing approach in assessment of achievable energy saving and GHG emission reduction targets set by local energy action plans. The paper presents the results of case study implemented in Kaunas region municipality. The case study was conducted by creating focus groups and applying two scenarios: baseline or doing nothing and climate change mitigation scenario including intervention measures. The results of case study revealed that the total energy consumption reduction target set in Sustainable energy development strategy of Kaunas region county - 11% - can be achieved by combining results of energy consumption reduction in both focus groups. The survey conducted after study finalization revealed that respondents were provided with a lot of additional knowledge during the study and achieved real money savings. The major barriers of energy savings in households are related with the lack of information on energy savings and GHG emission reduction.

  16. Does extending daylight saving time save energy? Evidence from an Australian experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kellogg, R. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Agricultural and Resource Economics; Wolff, H. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Agricultural and Resource Economics]|[Forschungsinstitut zur Zukunft der Arbeit (IZA), Bonn (Germany)

    2007-03-15

    Several countries are considering extending Daylight Saving Time (DST) in order to conserve energy, and the U.S. will extend DST by one month beginning in 2007. However, projections that these extensions will reduce electricity consumption rely on extrapolations and simulations rather than empirical evidence. This paper, in contrast, examines a quasiexperiment in which parts of Australia extended DST in 2000 to facilitate the Sydney Olympics. Using detailed panel data and a triple differences specification, we show that the extension did not conserve electricity, and that a prominent simulation model overstates electricity savings when it is applied to Australia. (orig.)

  17. Solar Energy as an Alternative to Energy Saving and Pollutant Emissions Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arina Negoițescu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In the paper is analyzed thermal solar systems efficiency from the point of view of energy savings and pollutant emissions concentrations exhausted during these installations operation. For this purpose were taking into account four versions of solar panel systems combined with different types of conventional heating sources, for which were simulated the operation conditions. As a result of the simulation, there were obtained the values of energy savings and pollutant emissions during the four systems operation. By analyzing these values, the combined thermal system optimum solution was selected.

  18. Energy-saving behavior and marginal abatement cost for household CO2 emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamamoto, Mitsutsugu

    2013-01-01

    This paper attempts to measure consumers' perceived net benefits (or net costs) of energy-saving measures in using energy-consuming durable goods. Using the estimated net costs and the volume of CO 2 reduced by the measures, a marginal abatement cost (MAC) curve for the average household's CO 2 emissions is produced. An analysis using the curve suggests that in order to provide households with an incentive to take actions that can lead to CO 2 emission reductions in using energy-consuming durables, a high level of carbon price is needed. In addition, a regression analysis reveals that the net benefits of the measures are larger for households that put a higher priority on energy saving, for those living in detached houses, for those with a smaller number of persons living together, and for those with less income. The result of the analysis using the MAC curve may suggest that promoting energy-saving behavior will require not only a policy to provide economic incentives but also interventions to influence psychological factors of household behavior. - Highlights: • Consumers' perceived net costs of energy-saving measures in using energy-consuming durables are measured. • Using the estimated net costs, a marginal abatement cost (MAC) curve for the average household's CO 2 emissions is produced. • A high carbon price is needed in order to provide households with an incentive to take actions for energy-savings. • Households' attributes affecting their energy-saving behavior are revealed by a regression analysis

  19. 2004 status report: Savings estimates for the Energy Star(R)voluntarylabeling program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webber, Carrie A.; Brown, Richard E.; McWhinney, Marla

    2004-03-09

    ENERGY STAR(R) is a voluntary labeling program designed toidentify and promote energy-efficient products, buildings and practices.Operated jointly by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and theU.S. Department of Energy (DOE), ENERGY STAR labels exist for more thanthirty products, spanning office equipment, residential heating andcooling equipment, commercial and residential lighting, home electronics,and major appliances. This report presents savings estimates for a subsetof ENERGY STAR labeled products. We present estimates of the energy,dollar and carbon savings achieved by the program in the year 2003, whatwe expect in 2004, and provide savings forecasts for two marketpenetration scenarios for the periods 2004 to 2010 and 2004 to 2020. Thetarget market penetration forecast represents our best estimate of futureENERGY STAR savings. It is based on realistic market penetration goalsfor each of the products. We also provide a forecast under the assumptionof 100 percent market penetration; that is, we assume that all purchasersbuy ENERGY STAR-compliant products instead of standard efficiencyproducts throughout the analysis period.

  20. Saving energy: bringing down Europe's enery prices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molenbroek, E.; Blok, K.

    2012-01-01

    In June 2011 the European Commission proposed a new Directive on Energy Efficiency. Its purpose is to put forward a framework to deliver the EU’s target of reducing its energy consumption by 20% by 2020. Currently, the EU is only on track to achieve half of those savings. Apart from the

  1. Energy savings certificates 2011-2013 - Companies. Knowledge for action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-03-01

    As fossil energy resources are depleted and the environmental impacts of their use are increasingly addressed, energy costs will continue to rise. In this context it is vital for businesses - in the service sector, industry or agriculture - to take steps now to start managing their energy consumption. A number of tools and mechanisms are currently being implemented to help companies in this process, at the national and European levels. Among these, Energy Savings Certificates (ESCs) were introduced in France by the Energy Policy Law of 13 July 2005, with the aim of achieving energy savings in sectors of dispersed activity, mainly buildings, but also light industry, agriculture and transport. For businesses this mechanism is an additional financial leverage tool that can be used to support their energy management projects. Under this scheme energy suppliers must promote energy-efficient investments, and thus are potential sources of financing for project owners. The Grenelle environmental conference forcefully reiterated the need to take action, in particular to renovate existing building stock. In order to achieve the ambitious goals that have been set, the financial mechanisms put into place, including the ESC scheme, must be amplified. Following the first conclusive test period (2006-2009), the ESC scheme is being ramped up during a second and more ambitious three-year period that began on 1 January 2011. The present document is intended to inform companies of changes in the ESC scheme to be implemented for the second period covering 2011-2013. This guidance is divided into two parts: the first section describes the principles of the ESC scheme, and the second offers advice to companies that want to use this scheme for an energy management project. You will also find a practical information sheet listing all the steps to be taken to submit an ESC claim

  2. Energy-saving operation of a converter-fed synchronous machine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, I.; Veszpremi, K. [Technical University of Budapest, Department of Electrical Machines and Drives, Budapest (Hungary)

    1997-12-31

    In the Converter-Fed Synchronous Machine (CFSM) there is no need for forced commutation the CL and CF converters operate with line commutation, the CM is commutated by the machine voltages. This drive is applied mainly for large power and high speed controlled drives. Considering the large power, the investigation of energy-saving operation is important. As in the DC and the induction motor drives the energy-saving operation is implemented by flux control. (orig.) 6 refs.

  3. A Study on Development of a Cost Optimal and Energy Saving Building Model: Focused on Industrial Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye Yeon Kim

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study suggests an optimization method for the life cycle cost (LCC in an economic feasibility analysis when applying energy saving techniques in the early design stage of a building. Literature and previous studies were reviewed to select appropriate optimization and LCC analysis techniques. The energy simulation (Energy Plus and computational program (MATLAB were linked to provide an automated optimization process. From the results, it is suggested that this process could outline the cost optimization model with which it is possible to minimize the LCC. To aid in understanding the model, a case study on an industrial building was performed to outline the operations of the cost optimization model including energy savings. An energy optimization model was also presented to illustrate the need for the cost optimization model.

  4. A meta model-based methodology for an energy savings uncertainty assessment of building retrofitting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caucheteux Antoine

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To reduce greenhouse gas emissions, energy retrofitting of building stock presents significant potential for energy savings. In the design stage, energy savings are usually assessed through Building Energy Simulation (BES. The main difficulty is to first assess the energy efficiency of the existing buildings, in other words, to calibrate the model. As calibration is an under determined problem, there is many solutions for building representation in simulation tools. In this paper, a method is proposed to assess not only energy savings but also their uncertainty. Meta models, using experimental designs, are used to identify many acceptable calibrations: sets of parameters that provide the most accurate representation of the building are retained to calculate energy savings. The method was applied on an existing office building modeled with the TRNsys BES. The meta model, using 13 parameters, is built with no more than 105 simulations. The evaluation of the meta model on thousands of new simulations gives a normalized mean bias error between the meta model and BES of <4%. Energy savings are assessed based on six energy savings concepts, which indicate savings of 2–45% with a standard deviation ranging between 1.3% and 2.5%.

  5. Finally clarity when energy saving; Endlich Klarheit beim Energiesparen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2012-07-01

    How much money do users in mechanical engineering and plant construction save in the implementation of energy efficiency measures? What actions bring which savings? Festo AG and Co. KG (Esslingen, Federal Republic of Germany) provides answers to these questions in terms of the pneumatic control system.

  6. Impact of Extended Daylight Saving Time on National Energy Consumption Report to Congress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belzer, D. B.; Hadley, S. W.; Chin, S-M.

    2008-10-01

    The Energy Policy Act of 2005 (Pub. L. No. 109-58; EPAct 2005) amended the Uniform Time Act of 1966 (Pub. L. No. 89-387) to increase the portion of the year that is subject to Daylight Saving Time. (15 U.S.C. 260a note) EPAct 2005 extended the duration of Daylight Saving Time in the spring by changing its start date from the first Sunday in April to the second Sunday in March, and in the fall by changing its end date from the last Sunday in October to the first Sunday in November. (15 U.S.C. 260a note) EPAct 2005 also called for the Department of Energy to evaluate the impact of Extended Daylight Saving Time on energy consumption in the United States and to submit a report to Congress. (15 U.S.C. 260a note) This report presents the results of impacts of Extended Daylight Saving Time on the national energy consumption in the United States. The key findings are: (1) The total electricity savings of Extended Daylight Saving Time were about 1.3 Tera Watt-hour (TWh). This corresponds to 0.5 percent per each day of Extended Daylight Saving Time, or 0.03 percent of electricity consumption over the year. In reference, the total 2007 electricity consumption in the United States was 3,900 TWh. (2) In terms of national primary energy consumption, the electricity savings translate to a reduction of 17 Trillion Btu (TBtu) over the spring and fall Extended Daylight Saving Time periods, or roughly 0.02 percent of total U.S. energy consumption during 2007 of 101,000 TBtu. (3) During Extended Daylight Saving Time, electricity savings generally occurred over a three- to five-hour period in the evening with small increases in usage during the early-morning hours. On a daily percentage basis, electricity savings were slightly greater during the March (spring) extension of Extended Daylight Saving Time than the November (fall) extension. On a regional basis, some southern portions of the United States exhibited slightly smaller impacts of Extended Daylight Saving Time on energy savings

  7. New technology and energy-saving equipment for production of composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanovich, A. A.; Glagolev, S. N.; Babaevsky, A. N.

    2018-03-01

    The article considers industrial technology and energy-saving equipment for cement and composite binder production with a reduction in energy intensity of the process up to 50% due to the synergetic effect during mechanic activation of the raw mix with the replacement of part of the clinker component with the mineral hydro-active additive. The technological process is based on the sequential introduction of components in dispersed phases into the feed mixture in the grinding path and at the stage of product separation with certain dispersed characteristics. The increase in the energy efficiency of the line is achieved by the joint operation of the press roller aggregate, which is the development of BSTU named after V.G. Shoukhov, and rotor-vortex mills of a very fine grinding of a new design. The experienced design of the aggregate with the device for deagglomeration of the pressed tape allows combining the processes of grinding and disaggregation of the pressed material, thereby reducing the operating costs and increasing the efficiency of using the grinding unit. Comparative tests of cement samples obtained in energy-saving aggregates (PRA + RVM) are given which allowed establishing that their beam strength for compression and bending is higher by 15-20% than the traditional method obtained in a ball mill. An analytical expression is also given that allows one to determine the power consumed for the deagglomeration of crushed and pressed material between the main rolls, taking into account the geometric dimensions of the rolls and the physico-mechanical characteristics of the material.

  8. Analysis of Energy Saving Potential and Optimization of Thermally Broken Fiberglass Window Frames

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zajas, Jan Jakub; Heiselberg, Per

    2011-01-01

    This paper elaborates on the energy saving potential and development process of fiberglass window frames, with intention for application in cold climates. A method is presented, where different means of improving thermal performance of a window frame are evaluated. Firstly, very simple geometries...

  9. Willingness to pay for energy-saving measures in residential buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banfi, Silvia; Farsi, Mehdi; Jakob, Martin; Filippini, Massimo

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses a choice experiment to evaluate the consumers' willingness to pay for energy-saving measures in Switzerland's residential buildings. These measures include air renewal (ventilation) systems and insulation of windows and facades. Two groups of respondents consisting respectively of 163 apartment tenants and 142 house owners were asked to choose between their housing status quo and each one of the several hypothetical situations with different attributes and prices. The estimation method is based on a fixed-effects logit model. The results suggest that the benefits of the energy-saving attributes are significantly valued by the consumers. These benefits include both individual energy savings and environmental benefits as well as comfort benefits namely, thermal comfort, air quality and noise protection. (author)

  10. Smart Metering Guide. Energy Saving and the Customer. Edition 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kester, J.C.P. (ed.) [Energy research Centre of the Netherlands ECN, Petten (Netherlands); Gonzalez Burgos, M.J. (ed.) [Endesa Ingenieria, Madrid (Spain); Parsons, J. (ed.) [British Electrotechnical and Allied Manufacturers Association BEAMA, London (United Kingdom)

    2010-11-15

    Smart metering can provide the foundations for a radically different approach to energy reduction schemes. However, the implementation of smart metering is a complex undertaking and its success depends on getting many factors right, from technology choice to how the information is presented to final customers. Making the expected reduction in energy consumption depends on achieving a positive reaction from final customers. Maintaining and increasing these savings will need the engagement of Energy Retailers, energy agencies and others. This Guide has been produced to bring together the lessons learnt from smart metering systems and trials, targeted on the promotion of End Use Energy Efficiency. The aim is to assist those groups who are considering implementing smart metering for this purpose and to maximise the benefits arising from those implementations. . The main target audience for the Guide are utilities, ESCO's and service providers across Europe. In most countries these are the parties investing in the smart metering systems and providing the smart metering services. In addition to these, governments, regulators, consumer bodies and energy agencies, as well as suppliers and system integrators, will also find valuable information in the Guide. As the subtitle of the Guide indicates, the focus of this Guide is on the application of smart metering for delivering energy saving. Making the expected reduction in energy consumption depends on achieving a positive reaction from final customers. In general, the successful provision of smart metering services is highly dependent on the right involvement of the energy final customer. This guide is not a ready-to-go manual for the installation of a specific type of smart metering system. Rather, the authors have tried to give the reader an insight into some of the complexities of the whole implementation process of smart metering systems. Also the guide is impartial regarding different technologies unless there is

  11. When financiers are concerned with energy saving

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauveau, J.

    2005-01-01

    Innovative financial systems allow to finance investments for the energy efficiency improvement of public or residential buildings. Such solutions are implemented in Belgium and Germany. They are based on the association between a financial company, an energy supplier who makes an energy audit and the building owner who refunds the investments with the saving made on the space heating and power consumption of the building. Short paper. (J.S.)

  12. [Optimization of Energy Saving Measures with ABR-MBR Integrated Process].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Peng; Lu, Shuang-jun; Xu, Yue-zhong; Liu, Jie; Shen, Yao-liang

    2015-08-01

    High energy consumption and membrane fouling are important factors that limit the wide use of membrane bioreactor (MBR). In order to reduce energy consumption and delay the process of membrane fouling, the process of anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR)-MBR was used to treat domestic sewage. The structure of the process and conditions of nitrogen and phosphorus removal were optimized in this study. The results showed that energy consumption was reduced by 43% through optimizing the structure of ABR-MBR process. Meanwhile, the process achieved a high level of COD, NH: -N, TN and TP removal, with the average removal efficiencies of 91%, 85%, 76% and 86%, respectively. In addition, the added particulate media could effectively delay membrane fouling, while the formation process of membrane fouling was changed. The extracted amount of carbohydrates increased while the amount of proteins decreased. Finally, the potential was enhanced for the practical application of MBR.

  13. End users heat energy savings using thermostat regulation valves radiators, v. 16(64)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakimovska, Emilija Misheva; Potsev, Eftim

    2008-01-01

    Billing the used heat energy offers the opportunity to motivate end users to use the heat energy rationally and to save the energy. Installing the thermostat valves on the radiators it is possible frequently to regulate the room temperature and to use the heat gains, obtaining comfortable climate in the apartments and saving the energy. Thermostat valves give the possibility to use the heat energy rationally and save the energy, and these way and users can regulate the heat energy consumption according to their own level of thermal comfort. (Author)

  14. End users heat energy savings using thermostat regulation valves radiators, v. 16(63)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakimovska, Emilija Misheva; Potsev, Eftim

    2008-01-01

    Billing the used heat energy offers the opportunity to motivate end users to use the heat energy rationally and to save the energy. Installing the thermostat valves on the radiators it is possible frequently to regulate the room temperature and to use the heat gains, obtaining comfortable climate in the apartments and saving the energy. Thermostat valves give the possibility to use the heat energy rationally and save the energy, and these way and users can regulate the heat energy consumption according to their own level of thermal comfort. (Author)

  15. Enthalpy estimation for thermal comfort and energy saving in air conditioning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, C.-M.; Jong, T.-L.

    2008-01-01

    The thermal comfort control of a room must consider not only the thermal comfort level but also energy saving. This paper proposes an enthalpy estimation that is conducive for thermal comfort control and energy saving. The least enthalpy estimator (LEE) combines the concept of human thermal comfort with the theory of enthalpy to predict the load for a suitable setting pair in order to maintain more precisely the thermal comfort level and save energy in the air conditioning system

  16. Public participation in energy saving retrofitting of residential buildings in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Wenling; Zhang, Jinyun; Bluemling, Bettina; Mol, Arthur P.J.; Wang, Can

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We compare public participation in three early cases of residential retrofitting in Beijing. • Residents’ involvement in pre-retrofit activities as well as in the choice and use of technologies varied. • More involvement of residents during retrofitting improves energy saving performance. • Taking into account motives and energy use practices of residents improves energy saving through retrofitting. - Abstract: Retrofitting existing residential buildings has been claimed as one crucial way to reduce energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions within the Chinese residential sector. In China’s government-dominated retrofitting projects, the participation of residents is often neglected. The objective of this paper is to assess the influence level of public participation (before, during and after retrofit) on energy saving by comparing three Beijing neighborhoods with different retrofitting models: a central government-led model, a local government-led model, and an old neighborhood retrofit model. In the three cases data were collected through interviews with neighborhood workers and residents. The results show that residents’ involvement in pre-retrofit activities, in technology selection and in the use of technology differs greatly among the three cases. This study concludes that in order to improve the effectiveness of energy saving interventions, the motives, intentions and living habits of residents need to be given more consideration when designing and implementing retrofitting. By highlighting the importance of public participation this paper contributes to energy saving policy development in China

  17. Energy Savings Analysis of the Proposed Revision of the Washington D.C. Non-Residential Energy Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberg, Michael I.; Athalye, Rahul A.; Hart, Philip R.

    2017-12-01

    This report presents the results of an assessment of savings for the proposed Washington D.C. energy code relative to ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2010. It includes annual and life cycle savings for site energy, source energy, energy cost, and carbon dioxide emissions that would result from adoption and enforcement of the proposed code for newly constructed buildings in Washington D.C. over a five year period.

  18. Maximizing Energy Savings Reliability in BC Hydro Industrial Demand-side Management Programs: An Assessment of Performance Incentive Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosman, Nathaniel

    For energy utilities faced with expanded jurisdictional energy efficiency requirements and pursuing demand-side management (DSM) incentive programs in the large industrial sector, performance incentive programs can be an effective means to maximize the reliability of planned energy savings. Performance incentive programs balance the objectives of high participation rates with persistent energy savings by: (1) providing financial incentives and resources to minimize constraints to investment in energy efficiency, and (2) requiring that incentive payments be dependent on measured energy savings over time. As BC Hydro increases its DSM initiatives to meet the Clean Energy Act objective to reduce at least 66 per cent of new electricity demand with DSM by 2020, the utility is faced with a higher level of DSM risk, or uncertainties that impact the costeffective acquisition of planned energy savings. For industrial DSM incentive programs, DSM risk can be broken down into project development and project performance risks. Development risk represents the project ramp-up phase and is the risk that planned energy savings do not materialize due to low customer response to program incentives. Performance risk represents the operational phase and is the risk that planned energy savings do not persist over the effective measure life. DSM project development and performance risks are, in turn, a result of industrial economic, technological and organizational conditions, or DSM risk factors. In the BC large industrial sector, and characteristic of large industrial sectors in general, these DSM risk factors include: (1) capital constraints to investment in energy efficiency, (2) commodity price volatility, (3) limited internal staffing resources to deploy towards energy efficiency, (4) variable load, process-based energy saving potential, and (5) a lack of organizational awareness of an operation's energy efficiency over time (energy performance). This research assessed the capacity

  19. Unexpected water impacts of energy-saving measures in the iron and steel sector: Tradeoffs or synergies?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Can; Zheng, Xinzhu; Cai, Wenjia; Gao, Xue; Berrill, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •Associated water impacts of individual energy conservation measures were evaluated. •Water-energy tradeoffs exist in the production process adjustment of iron sector. •Considering the water impacts can change the priority ranks of technology choice. -- Abstract: Moving towards integrated governance of water and energy requires balancing tradeoffs and taking advantage of synergies through specific technology choice. However, the water-energy conservation relationships of individual conservation measures in industries other than the water and energy sectors have not been investigated in detail. This study develops a hybrid model to estimate the associated water impacts of individual energy conservation measures, using China’s iron and steel industry as a case study. The results reveal that water-energy tradeoffs exist in the production process adjustment, which is conventionally promoted as a key energy-saving measure in iron and steel industry. It is found that replacing the Blast Oxygen Furnace (BOF) process with the Electric Arc Furnace (EAF) in 2007 could save 131–156 kg coal equivalent (kgce) (13.2–15.7%) of embodied energy per ton of crude steel (tcs) at the expenses of an additional 2.5–3.9 m 3 /tcs (10.6–16.4%) of water footprint. Nineteen energy efficiency technologies are studied in this research, and most of them are identified as having water-saving synergies except for the Low Temperature Rolling Technology. Taking these water impacts into consideration can update the priority ranks of the technology choices and inform policy decisions. Although this study focuses on China’s iron and steel sector, the methods and analysis can be extended to other countries, sectors, technologies and environmental impacts.

  20. Streamlined energy-savings calculations for heat-island reduction strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akbari, Hashem; Konopacki, Steven J.

    2003-03-15

    We have developed summary tables (sorted by heating- and cooling-degree-days) to estimate the potential of Heat-Island Reduction (HIR) strategies (i.e., solar-reflective roofs, shade trees, reflective pavements, and urban vegetation) to reduce cooling-energy use in buildings. The tables provide estimates of savings for both direct effect (reducing heat gain through the building shell) and indirect effect (reducing the ambient air temperature). In this analysis, we considered three building types that offer the most savings potential : residences, offices, and retail stores. Each building type was characterized in detail by Pre-1980 (old) or 1980+ (new) construction vintage and with natural gas or electricity as heating fuel. We defined prototypical-building characteristics for each building type and simulated the effects of HIR strategies on building cooling and heating energy use and peak power demand using the DOE-2.1E model and weather data for about 240 locations in the U.S. A statistical analysis of previously completed simulations for five cities was used to estimate the indirect savings. Our simulations included the effect of (1) solar-reflective roofing material on building [direct effect], (2) placement of deciduous shade trees near south and west walls of building [direct effect], and (3) ambient cooling achieved by urban reforestation and reflective building surfaces and pavements [indirect effect]. Upon completion of estimating the direct and indirect energy savings for all the selected locations, we integrated the results in tables arranged by heating- and cooling-degree-days. We considered 15 bins for heating-degree-days, and 11 bins for cooling-degree-days. Energy use and savings are presented per 1000 ft2 of roof area. In residences heated with gas and in climates with greater than 1000 cooling-degree-days, the annual electricity savings in Pre-1980 stock ranged from 650 to 1300 kWh/1000ft2; for 1980+ stock savings ranged 300 to 600 kWh/1000 ft2

  1. Market structure and investor interests frustrate energy savings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Eck, T.

    2008-01-01

    Major energy savings can be achieved in the Netherlands by bringing demand and supply of heating of cooling closer together and by connecting processes in the correct energetic order. This is already done when one party owns an entire chain, for example in the case of refineries. As soon as several parties are involved, this is seldom achieved. Analysis shows that technical incompetence is seldom an obstacle. Most of the time organizational and economic actors are to blame. Moreover, main influences come from the attitude of the required investors and the position of the government. [mk] [nl

  2. Energy and Resource Saving of Steelmaking Process: Utilization of Innovative Multi-phase Flux During Dephosphorization Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Hiroyuki; Hamano, Tasuku; Zhong, Ming; Gao, Xu; Yang, Xiao; Tsukihashi, Fumitaka

    2014-09-01

    An increase in the utilization efficiency of CaO, one of the major fluxing agents used in various steelmaking processes, is required to reduce the amount of discharged slag and energy consumption of the process. The authors have intensively focused on the development of innovative dephosphorization process by using so called "multi-phase flux" composed of solid and liquid phases. This article summarizes the research on the above topic done by the authors, in which the formation mechanisms of P2O5-containing phase during CaO or 2CaO·SiO2 dissolution into molten slag, the phase relationship between solid and liquid phases at equilibrium, and thermodynamic properties of P2O5-containing phase have been clarified. The reactions between solid CaO or 2CaO·SiO2 and molten CaO-FeO x -SiO2-P2O5 slag were observed by dipping solid specimen in the synthesized slag at 1573 K or 1673 K. The formation of the CaO-FeO layer and dual-phase layer of solid 2CaO·SiO2 and FeO x -rich liquid phase was observed around the interface from the solid CaO side toward the bulk slag phase side. Condensation of P2O5 into 2CaO·SiO2 phase as 2CaO·SiO2-3CaO·P2O5 solid solution was observed in both cases of CaO and 2CaO·SiO2 as solid specimens. Measurement of the phase relationship for the CaO-FeO x -SiO2-P2O5 system confirmed the condensation of P2O5 in solid phase at low oxygen partial pressure. The thermodynamics of 2CaO·SiO2-3CaO·P2O5 solid solution are to be clarified to quantitatively simulate the dephosphorization process, and the current results are also introduced. Based on the above results, the reduction of CaO consumption, the discharged slag curtailment, and energy-saving effects have been discussed.

  3. French people, energy transition, and energy savings. IFOP for Energie Perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fourquet, Jerome; Chasles-Parot, Marion

    2014-10-01

    After a presentation of the adopted methodology, this report presents under the form of tables, and comments the results of a survey performed on the perception and relationship French people have on and with energy transition and energy savings. Different aspects have been addressed and assessed by this survey: confidence in local authorities, recognition of energy transition, sensitivity of the issue of energy transition, an example of a local authority communication about energy issues, notoriety of subsidies and primes awarded by the local authority for energy-related works, assessment of well-being in housing, housing occupation status, intention to perform energy-related renovation works in the housing, choice between a large national group or a local company to perform these works

  4. Compressive behavior of energy-saving fired facing brick composite wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Kai; Wu, Cai

    2018-03-01

    The energy-saving fired facing brick composite wall has a broad development prospects due to its merits of thermal insulation, energy conservation, beautiful, and natural. The construction and characteristics of this wall are introduced and analyzed in this paper. Experimental studies of samples are also conducted to investigate its compressive performance. The results show that the energy-saving fired facing brick composite wall has high compressive capacity. It has considerable application prospect, the study in this paper provides foundation to further studies.

  5. Energy saving in energy market reform—The feed-in tariffs option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eyre, Nick

    2013-01-01

    The use of feed-in tariffs (FITs) is now widespread for renewable energy and under discussion for other low carbon electricity generation, but not for energy efficiency. There is a small literature on FITs for electricity demand reduction, but not energy efficiency more generally. This paper considers the general application of FITs on the demand side and sets out the economic arguments in the context of changing energy markets. It then discusses the implications of some practical issues, including the definitional problems arising from the difference between energy efficiency and demand reduction. Using experience from historical energy efficiency programmes, it considers the public benefits, payment methods and policy scope that need to be considered and how these might affect policy design. It makes some provisional estimates of economically justified payments in the context of the proposed UK energy market reform. It concludes that FITs for energy saving might be a powerful tool for incentivising energy efficiency. - Highlights: ► The concept of an energy saving feed-in tariff (ESFIT) is introduced and analysed. ► ESFITs are potentially an alternative to supplier energy efficiency obligations. ► To maximise effectiveness, ESFITs should be paid as capital grants. ► ESFITs are justifiable if there are premium prices for low carbon generation. ► Higher rates of ESFIT may be justified to overcome barriers to energy efficiency.

  6. Energy-Saving Opportunities for Manufacturing Companies (English/Portuguese Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-07-01

    This English/Portuguese brochure describes the Industrial Technologies Program Save Energy Now model and provides information on tools and resources to help manufacturing facilities reduce industrial energy intensity.

  7. Energy saving in industrial varnishing techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirst, W.

    1978-01-01

    The search for more effective varnishing techniques and better varnish surfaces and the increasing consideration of environmental protection, energy and raw materials conservation have helped to promote electron beam hardening. Also the development of high-solid varnishes have brought about the following improvements: Better quality of the varnish surface, possible saving of one layer in multilayer coatings, reduced emission in the waste air of the spray booth, conservation of valuable raw materials and energy. (orig.) [de

  8. Potential energy savings in renovation projects of residential and service buildings; Energiansaeaestoemahdollisuudet rakennuskannan korjaustoiminnassa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heljo, J.; Vihola, J.

    2012-11-01

    The study estimates the feasible energy savings potential in the 2010 building stock by 2050. The focus is on energy-saving measures related to renovation of residential and service buildings. The calculations were done by building types and age groups using the EKOREM calculation model. The calculations indicate the building types and structural elements where potential for savings exists. The study did not consider energy-saving measures related to changes in heating systems, electrical equipment, property maintenance or use habits. The study disproved the common belief that considerably more energy savings could be achieved faster by focussing on the existing building stock instead of new construction. That is mainly due the fact that it generally pays to implement structural energy-saving measures only when the targeted elements also require other significant repairs besides energy-efficiency improvements. Thus, energy renovations cannot be speeded up very much. The clearest exception are the extra insulations added to roof assemblies that are easy to implement. Attempts to save more energy in the building stock than can be achieved at a small additional cost in connection with needed renovations may multiply costs, and the saving in energy costs will not necessarily cover the additional investments. The efficiency of energy-saving measures can be affected by recommending or ordering use of more energy efficient windows, thicker extra insulations or more efficient ventilation heat recovery systems than the standard solution selected in connection with renovations. The goal of preserving the characteristics of buildings of cultural-historical or architectural value and the typical solutions and materials used in all buildings of a certain period limit the repair and renovation of structural elements. In the case of these buildings, improvement of energy efficiency can be considered in connection with the planning of renovations and the buildings' use and

  9. Energy savings potential from improved building controls for the US commercial building sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, Nick; Katipamula, Srinivas; Wang, Weimin; Xie, Yulong; Zhao, Mingjie

    2017-09-27

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Building Technologies Office (BTO) sponsored a study to determine the potential national savings achievable in the commercial building sector through widespread deployment of best practice controls, elimination of system and component faults, and use of better sensing. Detailed characterization of potential savings was one source of input to set research, development, and deployment (RD&D) goals in the field of building sensors and controls. DOE’s building energy simulation software, EnergyPlus, was employed to estimate the potential savings from 34 measures in 9 building types and across 16 climates representing almost 57% of commercial building sector energy consumption. In addition to estimating savings from individual measures, three packages of measures were created to estimate savings from the packages. These packages represented an 1) efficient building, 2) typical building, and 3) inefficient building. To scale the results from individual measures or a package to the national scale, building weights by building type and climate locations from the Energy Information Administration’s 2012 Commercial Building Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) were used. The results showed significant potential for energy savings across all building types and climates. The total site potential savings from individual measures by building type and climate location ranged between 0% and 25%. The total site potential savings by building type aggregated across all climates (using the CBECS building weights) for each measure varied between 0% and 16%. The total site potential savings aggregated across all building types and climates for each measure varied between 0% and 11%. Some individual measures had negative savings because correcting underlying operational problems (e.g., inadequate ventilation) resulted in increased energy consumption. When combined into packages, the overall national savings potential is estimated to be 29

  10. Options for Water, Energy and Chemical Savings for Finitex, Cape Town

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Zsig; Wenzel, Henrik

    An analysis of the options identified for saving of water, energy and chemicals was conducted at Finitex, Cape Town on the 18th October 2002. Cost savings were calculated from an estimation of the reduction in cost of water, energy and chemical usage associated with various interventions. Capital...

  11. Addressing and overcoming barriers for energy savings in business

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dirckinck-Holmfeld, Kasper

    Energy savings are generally viewed as an effective way to cut GHG emissions, as there are huge potentials for improvements because of several barriers and constraining factors for implementing otherwise profitable solutions. Several different polity tools have been applied to overcome these barr......Energy savings are generally viewed as an effective way to cut GHG emissions, as there are huge potentials for improvements because of several barriers and constraining factors for implementing otherwise profitable solutions. Several different polity tools have been applied to overcome...

  12. Thermodynamics of greenhouse systems for the northern latitudes: analysis, evaluation and prospects for primary energy saving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronchart, Filip; De Paepe, Michel; Dewulf, Jo; Schrevens, Eddie; Demeyer, Peter

    2013-04-15

    In Flanders and the Netherlands greenhouse production systems produce economically important quantities of vegetables, fruit and ornamentals. Indoor environmental control has resulted in high primary energy use. Until now, the research on saving primary energy in greenhouse systems has been mainly based on analysis of energy balances. However, according to the thermodynamic theory, an analysis based on the concept of exergy (free energy) and energy can result in new insights and primary energy savings. Therefore in this paper, we analyse the exergy and energy of various processes, inputs and outputs of a general greenhouse system. Also a total system analysis is then performed by linking the exergy analysis with a dynamic greenhouse climate growth simulation model. The exergy analysis indicates that some processes ("Sources") lie at the origin of several other processes, both destroying the exergy of primary energy inputs. The exergy destruction of these Sources is caused primarily by heat and vapour loss. Their impact can be compensated by exergy input from heating, solar radiation, or both. If the exergy destruction of these Sources is reduced, the necessary compensation can also be reduced. This can be accomplished through insulating the greenhouse and making the building more airtight. Other necessary Sources, namely transpiration and loss of CO2, have a low exergy destruction compared to the other Sources. They are therefore the best candidate for "pump" technologies ("vapour heat pump" and "CO2 pump") designed to have a low primary energy use. The combination of these proposed technologies results in an exergy efficient greenhouse with the highest primary energy savings. It can be concluded that exergy analyses add additional information compared to only energy analyses and it supports the development of primary energy efficient greenhouse systems. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Economic evaluation of energy saving measures in a common type of Greek building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolaidis, Yiannis; Pilavachi, Petros A.; Chletsis, Alexandros

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with the economic analysis and evaluation of various energy saving measures in the building sector, focusing on a domestic detached house in Greece, i.e. in a typical Mediterranean climate. In order to detect the energy saving measures that, in addition to energy benefits, can also provide economic profits, the study examines the following measures: all kinds of insulation; upgrading of the heating system; use of thermal solar systems; upgrading of lighting; upgrading of electric appliances; upgrading of the cooling system. The economic evaluation methods used for ranking the energy saving measures are the Net Present Value, the Internal Rate of Return, the Savings to Investment Ratio and the Depreciated Payback Period. It has been found that amongst the most effective energy saving methods are the upgrading of lighting, the insulation of the roof of the building and the installation of an automatic temperature control system.

  14. Consumer Products Advertised to Save Energy--Let the Buyer Beware.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-07-24

    AD-AL06 653 GENERAL ACCOUNTING OFFICE WASHINGTON DC HUMAN RESOUR--ETC F/G 5/3 CONSUMER PRODUCTS ADVERTISED TO SAVE ENERGY--LET THE BUYER BEWA-ETC...COMPTROLLER GENERAL’S CONSUMER PRODUCTS ADVERTISED REPORT TO THE CONGRESS TO SAVE ENERGY- - LET THE BUYER BEWARE D IG E ST In efforts to reduce energy costs...and comparable, GAO believes that the best ad- vice for consumers is "let the buyer beware." (See p. 42.) F’TC ’S COMMENTS FTC said that GAO

  15. Unilever chooses a reverse osmosis system to improve efficiency and save energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2006-11-15

    Rising energy prices have created new energy efficiency practices at Unilever's plant in Rexdale, Ontario. In order to meet an aggressive goal of reducing energy consumption by at least 6 per cent per year, the plant's energy team has implemented and documented 120 projects since 1999, saving more than $4.2 million in energy costs while eliminating 23,000 tonnes of greenhouse gases (GHGs). The team recently consulted with GE Water and Process Technologies to investigate efficiency measures for their steam plant operations. After analyzing the cost of purchasing and treating water used to produce the 218 million pounds of steam that the plant uses each year, GE recommended a reverse osmosis (RO) system to replace the water softeners and chloride anion de-alkalizers that treated the municipal water used throughout the plant. RO is a mechanical process involving the reversal of flow through a semi-permeable membrane from a high salinity solution to a high purity stream on the opposite side of the membrane. Pressure is used as the driving force for the separation. A turnkey system was installed at the plant in 2005, which also recycles process water captured throughout the plant for use as boiler make-up. The RO feed water allows the boilers to operate at 100 feedwater cycles instead of 10, dramatically increasing energy efficiency. By converting to the RO system, the plant is now consuming 13 million gallons less of municipal water and 8 per cent less natural gas, for a total savings of $68,000 and $299,000 respectively per year. The plant is also saving $11,700 in boiler chemicals and $22,000 in commodity softening chemicals. The RO system has also qualified the Rexdale plant for a $50,000 incentive grant from the City of Toronto for decreased water consumption. It was concluded that while the project has provided financial benefit to Unilever, the company is equally proud of the environmental benefits of the system, which both reduces chemical use and the

  16. Energy saving and solar energy use in the University of Valencia (Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Amo, J.L.; Tena, F.; Martinez-Lozano, J.A.; Utrillas, M.P. [Universitat de Valencia (Spain). Grupo de Radiacion Solar

    2004-04-01

    Recent years have seen increasing public interest in issues related to energy saving and concern for the environment. It is important to highlight the work of public institutions in this respect. This was the motive that led the University of Valencia to finance a pilot project with the objective of studying useful initiatives for optimising energy consumption in accordance with the institution's needs as well as the incorporation of innovative and more efficient technologies. The approach was to consider various aspects ranging from the analysis of the current energy consumption and the state of the installations, through the substitution of some energy inefficient components, to the study of the possible installation of a photovoltaic solar powered electricity generation station connected to the network. Also purely technical questions on economic efficiency should not be forgotten as this could lead to a reduction in energy consumption and the optimisation of the current energy consuming equipment, since generally, it is this question that limits the possible energy saving actions. (author)

  17. Time-saving innovations, time allocation, and energy use. Evidence from Canadian households

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brencic, Vera; Young, Denise [University of Alberta, 8-14 HM Tory, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2009-09-15

    Time and energy are major inputs into the production of household goods and services. As a result, the market penetration of time-saving technologies for general household use is expected to affect both a household's (1) allocation of time across home production and leisure activities; and (2) energy use. For example, with a household's adoption of a microwave or a dishwasher, cooking food and washing dishes will require less time, and therefore in-home meal preparation may increase. Households with microwaves or dishwashers may also opt to spend more time undertaking other production activities, inside or outside the home, or engage in more leisure (watching TV, reading, exercising). To the extent that time is reallocated from less to more energy-intensive activities in the home, residential energy use will increase as households adopt appliances that embody time-saving technology. Furthermore, an adoption of time-saving technologies for basic household chores, such as meal preparation and laundry, can impact energy use due to the fact that many time-saving technologies are more energy intensive than alternative technologies that require larger time commitments. In this paper, we use the Canadian Survey of Household Energy Use data from 2003 to examine the extent to which ownership of products that embody time-saving innovations affects time allocation and energy use at the household level. (author)

  18. Project report on drawing district energy-saving visions for Town of Nishi Senboku; Nishi Senboku machi sho energy vision sakutei nado jigyo hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Studied in this project are concrete energy-saving procedures, and potentially saved energy and abated CO2 emissions in Town of Nishi Senboku, to promote energy saving and abatement of gas emissions which cause global warming. The energy-saving procedures studied include co-generation, utilization of waste heat, wind power generation, utilization of low-temperature heat by snow, fuel-efficient vehicles, use of insulators for houses, energy-saving type electric appliances, energy-saving activities, and eco-driving. The results indicate that the energy-saving activities and eco-driving can potentially more contribute to energy saving than the others. The study on introduction of energy-saving facilities in the 'Nukumori Hot Spring/Umeria' project indicates that the heat pump plus co-generation case is the most advantageous, because it can potentially reduce primary energy by 2,845,215MJ/y and CO2 emissions by 22,688kg-C/y. Introduction of energy-saving facilities is also studied for an information center in the Nishi-Senboku service area for the Akita Highway. The results indicate that the introduction can potentially reduce primary energy and CO2 emissions by 25 and 13%, respectively. (NEDO)

  19. Does nuclear energy save global environment?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsui, Kazuaki

    2006-01-01

    Since the ecological footprint analysis in 1970s suggested changing consumption patterns and overpopulation concerns, energy policy such as energy conservation and use of renewable energy has become of prime importance. Several results of the long-term energy demand and supply analysis in 2050 or 2100 to reduce drastically carbon dioxide emission as a measure against global warming, showed the necessity of nuclear power deployment as well as maximum efforts to save energy, exploitation of the separation and disposal of carbon dioxide, and shifting energy sources to fuels that emit less greenhouse gases or non-fossil fuels. As a promising means to contribute to long-term energy supply, nuclear power generation is expected with improving safety, economic efficiency, environmental adaptability, and nuclear proliferation resistance of the technologies. (T.Tanaka)

  20. The energy saving manual; Das Energiesparbuch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goetze, Monika; Pinn, Gudrun

    2009-07-01

    The constant increase in the cost of electric power, petroleum, gasoline and gas burden the household budget. At the same time, greenhouse gases are speeding up global warming alarmingly. It is time to reconsider our style of living. This guide presents simple and practical hints to reduce energy costs and protect the climate. Exemplary calculations show how up to 1100 Euro can be saved per household member and per annum. Subjects: Identifying fields of excess energy consumption; No wasting of electricity, heat, and warm water; Food, shopping and climate; Mobility and climate protection; How to establish an individual energy conservation profile. (orig.)

  1. Fiscal 1998 research report on the basic research on energy saving for Huta Katowice, Poland; 1998 nendo Poland Katowice seitetsusho sho energy kihon chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    For reduction of greenhouse effect gas emission by Japan- Poland joint project, research was made on the improvement plan of Huta Katowice, a typical ironworks in Poland. The applicability of energy saving facilities was studied for the coke factory, sintering factory, blast furnace and converter which are consuming the most amount of energy in Huta Katowice, from the viewpoints of the amount of energy saving and CO{sub 2} reduction, and an investment effect. Research was also made on the power plant, flow of by-product gas, generated energy and purchased energy for obtaining the total energy consumption. From the energy saving research results for every process, the priority of the improvement plan was prepared. The proposed plan showed huge reduction of energy and greenhouse effect gas emission. Although the plan is too serious for comfort because of current low energy cost in Poland, it becomes reasonable if a lower-interest fund loan is granted, from the viewpoint of an investment effect. (NEDO)

  2. The Energy Savings and Environmental Benefits for Small and Medium Enterprises by Cloud Energy Management System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Chieh Tseng

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Small and medium enterprises (SMES play an important role in Taiwan’s economy. The reduction of energy costs and carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions are critical to preserving the environment. This paper uses the experimental results from 65 sites, gathered over two years since 2012, to determine how the integration of Internet communication, cloud computing technologies and a cloud energy management service (cloud EMS can reduce energy consumption by cost-effective means. The EMS has three levels: infrastructure as a service (IaaS, platform as a service (PaaS and software as a service (SaaS. Working jointly with ChungHwa Telecom, Taiwan’s leading telecom service provider, data from detection devices, control devices, air-conditioning and lighting systems are all uploaded to a cloud EMS platform, to give a so called intelligent energy management network application service platform (IEN-ASP. Various energy saving management functions are developed using this platform: (1 air conditioning optimization; (2 lighting system optimization; (3 scheduling control; (4 power billing control and (5 occupancy detection and timing control. Using the international performance measurement and verification protocol (IPMVP, the energy used at the test sites, before and after the use of the IEN-ASP, are compared to calculate the energy saved. The experimental results show that there is an average energy saving of 5724 kWh per year, which represents a saving ratio of 5.84%. This translates to a total reduction in CO2 emissions of 9,926,829 kg per year. Using the data collected, a regression model is used to demonstrate the correlation between the power that is consumed, the energy that is saved and the area of the sites. Another interesting result is that, if the experimental sites are maintained by experienced electricians or other personnel and EMS protocols are followed, the energy saving can be as great as 6.59%.

  3. Regional Super ESPC Saves Energy and Dollars at NASA's Johnson Space Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Federal Energy Management Program

    2001-01-01

    This case study about energy saving performance contacts (ESPCs) presents an overview of how the NASA's Johnson Space Flight Center established an ESPC contract and the benefits derived from it. The Federal Energy Management Program instituted these special contracts to help federal agencies finance energy-saving projects at their facilities

  4. Energy and Energy Cost Savings Analysis of the 2015 IECC for Commercial Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jian [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Xie, YuLong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Athalye, Rahul A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhuge, Jing Wei [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rosenberg, Michael I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hart, Philip R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Liu, Bing [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-06-01

    As required by statute (42 USC 6833), DOE recently issued a determination that ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-2013 would achieve greater energy efficiency in buildings subject to the code compared to the 2010 edition of the standard. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted an energy savings analysis for Standard 90.1-2013 in support of its determination . While Standard 90.1 is the model energy standard for commercial and multi-family residential buildings over three floors (42 USC 6833), many states have historically adopted the International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) for both residential and commercial buildings. This report provides an assessment as to whether buildings constructed to the commercial energy efficiency provisions of the 2015 IECC would save energy and energy costs as compared to the 2012 IECC. PNNL also compared the energy performance of the 2015 IECC with the corresponding Standard 90.1-2013. The goal of this analysis is to help states and local jurisdictions make informed decisions regarding model code adoption.

  5. Energy and Energy Cost Savings Analysis of the 2015 IECC for Commercial Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jian [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Xie, YuLong [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Athalye, Rahul A. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhuge, Jing Wei [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rosenberg, Michael I. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hart, Philip R. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Liu, Bing [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    As required by statute (42 USC 6833), DOE recently issued a determination that ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-2013 would achieve greater energy efficiency in buildings subject to the code compared to the 2010 edition of the standard. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted an energy savings analysis for Standard 90.1-2013 in support of its determination . While Standard 90.1 is the model energy standard for commercial and multi-family residential buildings over three floors (42 USC 6833), many states have historically adopted the International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) for both residential and commercial buildings. This report provides an assessment as to whether buildings constructed to the commercial energy efficiency provisions of the 2015 IECC would save energy and energy costs as compared to the 2012 IECC. PNNL also compared the energy performance of the 2015 IECC with the corresponding Standard 90.1-2013. The goal of this analysis is to help states and local jurisdictions make informed decisions regarding model code adoption.

  6. The Program Administrator Cost of Saved Energy for Utility Customer-Funded Energy Efficiency Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billingsley, Megan A.; Hoffman, Ian M.; Stuart, Elizabeth; Schiller, Steven R.; Goldman, Charles A.; LaCommare, Kristina

    2014-03-19

    End-use energy efficiency is increasingly being relied upon as a resource for meeting electricity and natural gas utility system needs within the United States. There is a direct connection between the maturation of energy efficiency as a resource and the need for consistent, high-quality data and reporting of efficiency program costs and impacts. To support this effort, LBNL initiated the Cost of Saved Energy Project (CSE Project) and created a Demand-Side Management (DSM) Program Impacts Database to provide a resource for policy makers, regulators, and the efficiency industry as a whole. This study is the first technical report of the LBNL CSE Project and provides an overview of the project scope, approach, and initial findings, including: • Providing a proof of concept that the program-level cost and savings data can be collected, organized, and analyzed in a systematic fashion; • Presenting initial program, sector, and portfolio level results for the program administrator CSE for a recent time period (2009-2011); and • Encouraging state and regional entities to establish common reporting definitions and formats that would make the collection and comparison of CSE data more reliable. The LBNL DSM Program Impacts Database includes the program results reported to state regulators by more than 100 program administrators in 31 states, primarily for the years 2009–2011. In total, we have compiled cost and energy savings data on more than 1,700 programs over one or more program-years for a total of more than 4,000 program-years’ worth of data, providing a rich dataset for analyses. We use the information to report costs-per-unit of electricity and natural gas savings for utility customer-funded, end-use energy efficiency programs. The program administrator CSE values are presented at national, state, and regional levels by market sector (e.g., commercial, industrial, residential) and by program type (e.g., residential whole home programs, commercial new

  7. Application of the modified Tobin's q to an uncertain energy-saving project with the real options concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Tyrone T.; Huang, Shio-Ling

    2011-01-01

    This paper is to develop a modified Tobin's q evaluation method which successfully combines the evaluation criteria of the traditional Tobin's q and the real options. This study provides flexible thinking for decision making criteria. That is, it clearly provides decision-makers with a reference in choosing enter or exit strategies, such as quantitative indicators references. The proposed model introduces two variables stochastic process in continuous time and explores the impact of the occurrence of unexpected events on the project value, so that, it can more authentically response to the project value. The studied issue deals with the firms that have not established energy-saving equipment yet. It attempts to figure out the optimal timing to adopt an energy-saving investment project when it is beneficial and the optimal timing to terminate it when the continuous operation of that business is unprofitable. The future discounted benefit-cost ratio, Q, follows the geometric Brownian motion with the Poisson jump process and the replacement of investment equipment. Except for the evaluation of energy-saving equipment investment project, the proposed model can be applied to other related project evaluation issues, such as energy-saving, CO 2 emission reduction, or general investment projects. - Research highlights: → Develops an approach which combines the traditional Tobin's q and the real options. → Applies to general energy-saving project or other investment projects. → Can more authentically response to the project value with strategic entry and exit. → Provides flexible thinking for decision making criteria via modified Tobin's q model. → Reduces the model complexity and increases the flexibility in practice application.

  8. Risk control in energy saving projects; Control de riesgo en los proyectos de ahorro de energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, Evan [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, CA (United States)

    2005-10-15

    Since one of the restrictive problems when investing in energy saving is the uncertainty of obtaining the planed savings, a technique in the risk handling for energy efficiency projects, called Insurance for the Energy Saving (IES) is presented. IES economically stimulates those who implement projects for energy saving so they go beyond the normal measures and really obtain significant saving levels, thus contributing to the fulfillment of national objectives in energy saving. In order to reduce the risk of low performance in energy caused by saving projects there exist the international performance measurement and the protocol of investment (IMPVP) as well as diagnoses and starting processes, whereas in order to transfer the financial risk that a saving project represents, mechanisms such as FDIC insurance, conversion of the debt in values, Saving's Guarantees, Performance Bonuses or Guarantee Bonuses and Insurances for Energy Saving can be of great help. This article deals on the IES insurance policies, their loss control management, successful cases, benefits, particular advantages, place in the market and refers argued insurance exceptions and perception surveys. [Spanish] Dado que uno de los problemas restrictivos a la hora de invertir en el ahorro de energia es la incertidumbre de obtener los ahorros proyectados, se presenta una tecnica en el manejo del riesgo para proyectos de eficiencia energetica llamada Seguro para el Ahorro de Energia (SAE). SAE estimula financieramente a quienes implementan proyectos para el ahorro de energia con el fin de que vayan mas alla de las medidas normales y consigan niveles significativos de ahorro, contribuyendo asi al cumplimiento de objetivos nacionales de ahorro energetico. Para reducir el riesgo de bajo desempeno de energia provocados por proyectos de ahorro existe la medicion del desempeno internacional y el protocolo de inversion (IMPVP) asi como diagnosticos y procesos de arranque, mientras que para transferir el

  9. What have pneumatic manufacturers tried in energy saving; Kukiatsu maker wa sho energy ni tsuite donoyona kokoromi wo shitekitaka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oneyama, N [SMC Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-05-15

    Presented herein are new energy-saving type products by pneumatic manufacturers. The pneumatic slide rule was developed in 1974, when the whirlwind of energy-saving as a result of the oil crisis raved all over the industries. The word energy-saving for pneumatic systems is changed into the word air-saving, which is more straightforward and directly related to saved money, and the slide rule exhibits its ability as a diagnostic tool for air-saving without adversely affecting the system functions. Noting that output required by clamping, calking and conveyance as typical works for a double acting cylinder is generated only by the forward stroke, the PFC valve was developed, in which the return stroke is set at a minimum indispensable pressure. This reduces air consumption by 20 to 30%. The other products developed include energy-saving lifter and economy valve. A new cylinder driving method was developed to reduce air consumption. The system concept of the right pressure in the right place was proposed to provide a local compressor in a production line of low pressure and high capacity. It is necessary to develop in the future an index which allows direct comparison of an energy-saving system with other driving systems. 5 refs., 14 figs.

  10. Evaluation of Savings in Energy-Efficient Public Housing in the Pacific Northwest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-10-01

    This report presents the results of an energy performance and cost-effectiveness analysis. The Salishan phase 7 and demonstration homes were compared to Salishan phase 6 homes built to 2006 Washington State Energy Code specifications 2. Predicted annual energy savings (over Salishan phase 6) was 19% for Salishan phase 7, and between 19-24% for the demonstration homes (depending on ventilation strategy). Approximately two-thirds of the savings are attributable to the DHP. Working with the electric utility provider, Tacoma Public Utilities, researchers conducted a billing analysis for Salishan phase 7. Median energy use for the development is 11,000 kWh; annual energy costs are $780, with a fair amount of variation dependent on size of home. Preliminary analysis of savings between Salishan 7 and previous phases (4 through 6) suggest savings of between 20 and 30 percent. A more comprehensive comparison between Salishan 7 and previous phases will take place in year two of this project.

  11. Evaluation of Savings in Energy-Efficient Public Housing in the Pacific Northwest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, A. [Washington State Univ. Extension Energy Office, Cocoa, FL (United States); Lubliner, M. [Washington State Univ. Extension Energy Office, Cocoa, FL (United States); Howard, L. [Washington State Univ. Extension Energy Office, Cocoa, FL (United States); Kunkle, R. [Washington State Univ. Extension Energy Office, Cocoa, FL (United States); Martin, E. [Washington State Univ. Extension Energy Office, Cocoa, FL (United States)

    2013-10-01

    This report presents the results of an energy performance and cost-effectiveness analysis. The Salishan phase 7 and demonstration homes were compared to Salishan phase 6 homes built to 2006 Washington State Energy Code specifications 2. Predicted annual energy savings (over Salishan phase 6) was 19% for Salishan phase 7, and between 19-24% for the demonstration homes (depending on ventilationstrategy). Approximately two-thirds of the savings are attributable to the DHP. Working with the electric utility provider, Tacoma Public Utilities, researchers conducted a billing analysis for Salishan phase 7. Median energy use for the development is 11,000 kWh; annual energy costs are $780, with a fair amount of variation dependent on size of home. Preliminary analysis of savings betweenSalishan 7 and previous phases (4 through 6) suggest savings of between 20 and 30 percent. A more comprehensive comparison between Salishan 7 and previous phases will take place in year two of this project.

  12. A Summary of Research on Energy Saving and Emission Reduction of Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Dongxiang; Wu, Lufen

    2017-12-01

    Road transport is an important part of transportation, and road in the field of energy-saving emission reduction is a very important industry. According to the existing problems of road energy saving and emission reduction, this paper elaborates the domestic and international research on energy saving and emission reduction from three aspects: road network optimization, pavement material and pavement maintenance. Road network optimization may be overlooked, and the research content is still relatively preliminary; pavement materials mainly from the asphalt pavement temperature mixed asphalt technology research; pavement maintenance technology development is relatively comprehensive.

  13. Energy savings in dynamic and resilient optical networks based on traffic-aware strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turus, Ioan; Fagertun, Anna Manolova; Dittmann, Lars

    2014-01-01

    andconnections. Results show that symbol-rateadaptation provides high savings for unprotected scenarios (37% energy savings w.r.t. unprotected Baseline), while for theprotected scenarios better results are obtained for modulationformat adaptation which includes sleep-mode (57.1% energysavings w.r.t. protected...... Baseline). Moreover, compared to theBaseline scenarios the Mixed adaptation, combining bothsymbol-rate and modulation format, is the most power-efficientstrategy providing 39% energy savings for unprotected scenarioand 70% energy savings for dedicated protection scenario.......An analysis of the energy savingsis presentedwhen taking into account a complete traffic model for a one-yeartime period. Daily and weekly traffic fluctuations as well asyearly traffic growth are considered whenanalyzing the powerconsumption.Low power mode in optoelectronic devices (sleep...

  14. Energy-saving decomposition and power consumption forecast: The case of liaoning province in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Y.X.; Zhao, Y.S.; Wang, Y.J. [School of Business Administration, North China Electric Power University, Zhu Xin Zhuang, Bei Nong Lu No. 2, Changping District, Beijing (China); Zhang, S.L. [Finance Department, Nanning Power Supply Bureau, Xingguang Street No. 43, Nanning, Guangxi Autonomous Region (China); Li, F.R. [University of Bath, Bath, BA2 7AY (United Kingdom)

    2011-01-15

    To achieve sustainable development of the society, the People's Republic of China (PRC) proposed in its 11th Five-Year Plan for National Economic and Social Development Program a shift in energy-saving target of decreasing energy intensity by 20% in 2010 compared with that of 2005. Liaoning province is one of the oldest industrial bases in China. Policymakers are often confronted with problems relating to adjustment in the development pattern as a means to secure steady economic growth. The power industry is a fundamental energy industry; it plays an important role in realizing of energy-saving targets. Based on the input-output model, this paper sets extensive, planning and 20% energy-saving scenarios in order to analyze energy-saving and power consumption situations for Liaoning by 2010. Through extensive simulations, the levels of energy-saving and power demand under different scenarios are obtained. Results from the analysis show that under the premises of adjusting the ratio of investment and consumption, optimizing products structure, and improving energy use efficiency, it is possible to achieve the proposed energy-saving target. Liaoning's power consumption can maintain a stable growth trend in the future. The percentage of electricity to the total energy use can also increase to 16% in 2010. (author)

  15. 2005 Status Report Savings Estimates for the ENERGY STAR(R)Voluntary Labeling Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webber, Carrie A.; Brown, Richard E.; Sanchez, Marla

    2006-03-07

    ENERGY STAR(R) is a voluntary labeling program designed toidentify and promote energy-efficient products, buildings and practices.Operated jointly by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and theU.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Star labels exist for more thanforty products, spanning office equipment, residential heating andcooling equipment, commercial and residential lighting, home electronics,and major appliances. This report presents savings estimates for a subsetof ENERGY STAR labeled products. We present estimates of the energy,dollar and carbon savings achieved by the program in the year 2004, whatwe expect in 2005, and provide savings forecasts for two marketpenetration scenarios for the periods 2005 to 2010 and 2005 to 2020. Thetarget market penetration forecast represents our best estimate of futureENERGY STAR savings. It is based on realistic market penetration goalsfor each of the products. We also provide a forecast under the assumptionof 100 percent market penetration; that is, we assume that all purchasersbuy ENERGY STAR-compliant products instead of standard efficiencyproducts throughout the analysis period.

  16. 2007 Status Report: Savings Estimates for the ENERGY STAR(R)VoluntaryLabeling Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, Marla; Webber, Carrie A.; Brown, Richard E.; Homan,Gregory K.

    2007-03-23

    ENERGY STAR(R) is a voluntary labeling program designed toidentify and promote energy-efficient products, buildings and practices.Operated jointly by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and theU.S. Department of Energy (DOE), ENERGY STAR labels exist for more thanthirty products, spanning office equipment, residential heating andcooling equipment, commercial and residential lighting, home electronics,and major appliances. This report presents savings estimates for a subsetof ENERGY STAR labeled products. We present estimates of the energy,dollar and carbon savings achieved by the program in the year 2006, whatwe expect in 2007, and provide savings forecasts for two marketpenetration scenarios for the periods 2007 to 2015 and 2007 to 2025. Thetarget market penetration forecast represents our best estimate of futureENERGY STAR savings. It is based on realistic market penetration goalsfor each of the products. We also provide a forecast under the assumptionof 100 percent market penetration; that is, we assume that all purchasersbuy ENERGY STAR-compliant products instead of standard efficiencyproducts throughout the analysis period.

  17. Energy saving screw compressor technology; Energiebesparende schroefcompressortechnologie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, A. [RefComp, Lonigo (Italy); Neus, M. [Delta Technics Engineering, Breda (Netherlands)

    2011-03-15

    Smart solutions to reduce the energy consumption are continuously part of investigation in the refrigeration technology. This article subscribed the technology on which way energy can be saved at the operation of screw compressors which are used in air conditioners and refrigerating machinery. The combination of frequency control and Vi-control (intrinsic volumetric ratio) such as researched in the laboratory of RefComp is for the user attractive because the energy efficiency during part load operation is much better. Smart uses of thermodynamics, electric technology and electronic control are the basics of these applications. According to the manufacturer's information it is possible with these new generation screw compressors to save approx. 26% energy in comparison with the standard screw compressor. [Dutch] In dit artikel wordt de technologie omschreven waarmee veel energie bespaard kan worden bij schroefcompressoren die worden gebruikt in airconditioningsystemen en koel- en vriesinstallaties. De combinatie van frequentieregeling en Vi- regeling (Vi is de intrinsieke volumetrische verhouding) zoals onderzocht in het laboratorium van RefComp biedt de gebruiker veel voordelen doordat de energie-efficintie van de compressor tijdens deellast enorm wordt verbeterd. Slim gebruik van thermodynamika, elektrotechniek en elektronica vormen de basis van deze toepassing. Volgens de fabrikant kan met deze nieuwe generatie schroefcompressoren circa 26 procent op het energiegebruik tijdens deellast worden bespaard in vergelijking met de standaard serie schroefcompressoren.

  18. Energy-saving approaches to solid state street lighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitta, Pranciškus; Stanikūnas, Rytis; Tuzikas, Arūnas; Reklaitis, Ignas; Stonkus, Andrius; Petrulis, Andrius; Vaitkevičius, Henrikas; Žukauskas, Artūras

    2011-10-01

    We consider the energy-saving potential of solid-state street lighting due to improved visual performance, weather sensitive luminance control and tracking of pedestrians and vehicles. A psychophysical experiment on the measurement of reaction time with a decision making task was performed under mesopic levels of illumination provided by a highpressure sodium (HPS) lamp and different solid-state light sources, such as daylight and warm-white phosphor converted light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and red-green-blue LED clusters. The results of the experiment imply that photopic luminances of road surface provided by solid-state light sources with an optimized spectral power distribution might be up to twice as low as those provided by the HPS lamp. Dynamical correction of road luminance against road surface conditions typical of Lithuanian climate was estimated to save about 20% of energy in comparison with constant-level illumination. The estimated energy savings due to the tracking of pedestrians and vehicles amount at least 25% with the cumulative effect of intelligent control of at least 40%. A solid-state street lighting system with intelligent control was demonstrated using a 300 m long test ground consisting of 10 solid-state street luminaires, a meteorological station and microwave motion sensor network operated via power line communication.

  19. Assessing drivers and barriers of energy-saving measures in Oklahoma’s public schools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castleberry, Becca; Gliedt, Travis; Greene, J. Scott

    2016-01-01

    Implementing energy conservation initiatives within public schools, including both behavioral changes as well as building retrofits, can generate cost saving and educational benefits. However, the level of energy efficiency improvements that can be achieved may depend on the socio-economic characteristics of the school or the underlying district. The purpose of this research is to identify and examine the factors that have a role in influencing the adoption of energy-saving practices and/or building retrofits within Oklahoma’s public schools. In order to investigate these factors, a survey was administered to public school administrators across the state. The results illustrate different factors that drive schools to make decisions associated with energy conservation and retrofitting efforts. A comparative analysis between different types of schools (e.g., rural vs. urban, low- vs. high-income) was also conducted to discover the combination of characteristics that are associated with energy-saving measures. The findings could help school administrators and teachers understand how they might adopt new behaviors or technologies. - Highlights: • Energy performance improvements depend on characteristics of a school district. • Districts with environmental science classes more likely to take energy measures. • Cost savings motivated energy measures in high-income/large-population districts. • A cluster analysis revealed geographic patterns of energy saving measures.

  20. Heat-electrical regeneration way to intensive energy saving in an electric arc furnaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartavtcev, S.; Matveev, S.; Neshporenko, E.

    2018-03-01

    Energy saving in steel production is of great significance for its large economical scale of 1500 mil t/year and high-energy consumption. Steady trend of last years is an increase of steel production in electric arc furnaces (EAF) with a very high consumption of electricity up to 750 kWh/ton. The intention to reduce so much energy consumption they can reach by many ways. One of such way is a transforming heat energy of liquid steel to electricity and destine it to steel electric arc process. Under certain conditions, it may lead to “zero” consumption of electric power in the process. The development of these conditions leads to the formation of energy-efficient heat schemes, with a minimum electricity consumption from the external network.

  1. Energy-Saving Performance of Flap-Adjustment-Based Centrifugal Fan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genglin Chen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The current paper mainly focuses on finding a more appropriate way to enhance the fan performance at off-design conditions. The centrifugal fan (CF based on flap-adjustment (FA has been investigated through theoretical, experimental, and finite element methods. To obtain a more predominant performance of CF from the different adjustments, we carried out a comparative analysis on FA and leading-adjustment (LA in aerodynamic performances, which included the adjusted angle of blades, total pressure, efficiency, system-efficiency, adjustment-efficiency, and energy-saving rate. The contribution of this paper is the integrated performance curve of the CF. Finally, the results showed that the effects of FA and LA on economic performance and energy savings of the fan varied with the blade angles. Furthermore, FA was feasible, which is more sensitive than LA. Moreover, the CF with FA offered a more extended flow-range of high economic characteristic in comparison with LA. Finally, when the operation flow-range extends, energy-saving rate of the fan with FA would have improvement.

  2. Effect of daylight saving time on lighting energy use: a literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aries, M.B.C.; Newsham, G.R.

    2008-01-01

    The principal reason for introducing (and extending) daylight saving time (DST) was, and still is, projected energy savings, particularly for electric lighting. This paper presents a literature review concerning the effects of DST on energy use. Simple estimates suggest a reduction in national

  3. Qualitative assessment of the CEE arrangement - Second period 2011-2013. The Certificates of Energy Savings: an arrangement which catalyses decision by households for energy saving works. Synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-04-01

    After previous assessments on energy savings, costs, and potentials, this publication reports a qualitative assessment of the CEE arrangement (certificate of energy savings). The objective is to get a better insight into decision making by the final consumer. After a brief presentation of the survey methodology, the report describes the CEEs as a catalyst for higher performance works. The survey highlighted the incentive effect of the CEE premium, and the lever effect of advice and information. The report also outlines that the CEE is an additional tool to other public aids. It indicates that works are highly motivated by a search for energy savings, and are actually efficient to meet this objective

  4. Proceedings of V International Conference of Renewable Energy, Energy Saving and Energy Education. CIER 2007. International Workshop of Eolic Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-05-01

    The CD-ROM presents papers submitted to the International Conference of Renewable Energy, Energy Saving and Energy Education. CIER 2007, held in Havana, Cuba, on May 22-25, 2007. The purpose of the CIER 2007 are to offer an opportunity to engineers, investigators, academic, makers and specialists in the energy topic from all over the world to exchange experiences, to share their successes and to discuss their focuses to future in the topic of the energy renewable, the energy saving, the energy efficiency and the energy education. The objective of the International Workshop of Eolic Energy is in advancing in the dialogue international on the systems in question and their applications around the world, you they analyzed the perspectives of possible programs of cooperation in this field and their use in Cuba

  5. Optimizing Energy Savings from Direct-DC in U.S. Residential Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garbesi, Karina; Vossos, Vagelis; Sanstad, Alan; Burch, Gabriel

    2011-10-13

    An increasing number of energy efficient appliances operate on direct current (DC) internally, offering the potential to use DC from renewable energy systems directly and avoiding the losses inherent in converting power to alternating current (AC) and back. This paper investigates that potential for net-metered residences with on-site photovoltaics (PV) by modeling the net power draw of the ‘direct-DC house’ with respect to today’s typical configuration, assuming identical DC-internal loads. Power draws were modeled for houses in 14 U.S. cities, using hourly, simulated PV-system output and residential loads. The latter were adjusted to reflect a 33% load reduction, representative of the most efficient DC-internal technology, based on an analysis of 32 electricity end-uses. The model tested the effect of climate, electric vehicle (EV) loads, electricity storage, and load shifting on electricity savings; a sensitivity analysis was conducted to determine how future changes in the efficiencies of power system components might affect savings potential. Based on this work, we estimate that net-metered PV residences could save 5% of their total electricity load for houses without storage and 14% for houses with storage. Based on residential PV penetration projections for year 2035 obtained from the National Energy Modeling System (2.7% for the reference case and 11.2% for the extended policy case), direct-DC could save the nation 10 trillion Btu (without storage) or 40 trillion Btu (with storage). Shifting the cooling load by two hours earlier in the day (pre-cooling) has negligible benefits for energy savings. Direct-DC provides no energy savings benefits for EV charging, to the extent that charging occurs at night. However, if charging occurred during the day, for example with employees charging while at work, the benefits would be large. Direct-DC energy savings are sensitive to power system and appliance conversion efficiencies but are not significantly

  6. Will Renewable Energy Save Our Planet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojić, Milorad

    2010-06-01

    This paper discusses some important fundamental issues behind application of renewable energy (RE) to evaluate its impact as a climate change mitigation technology. The discussed issues are the following: definition of renewable energy, concentration of RE by weight and volume, generation of electrical energy and its power at unit area, electrical energy demand per unit area, life time approach vs. layman approach, energy return time, energy return ratio, CO2 return time, energy mix for RES production and use, geographical distribution of RES use, huge scale of energy shift from RES to non-RES, increase in energy consumption, Thermodynamic equilibrium of earth, and probable solutions for energy future of our energy and environmental crisis of today. The future solution (that would enable to human civilization further welfare, and good living, but with lower release of CO2 in atmosphere) may not be only RES. This will rather be an energy mix that may contain nuclear energy, non-nuclear renewable energy, or fossil energy with CO2 sequestration, efficient energy technologies, energy saving, and energy consumption decrease.

  7. Good practice in saving energy at school

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veronesi, Paola; Bonazzi, Enrico

    2014-05-01

    We teach students between 14 and 18 years old at a high school in Italy. In the first class, one of the topics we treat is related to the atmosphere. The students learn the composition of air, the importance of the natural greenhouse effect in keeping the average temperature of the planet and how human activity is increasing the level of greenhouse gases, enhancing greenhouse effect and causing global warming. It is possible to reach this knowledge using different materials and methods such as schoolbooks, articles, websites or films, individual or group work, but as students gradually become aware of the problem of climate change due to global warming, it is necessary to propose a solution that can be experienced and measured by students. This is the aim of the project "Switch off the light, to switch on the future". The project doesn't need special materials to be carried out but all the people in the community who work and "live" at school should participate in it. The project deals directly with saving electric energy, by changing the habits of the use of electricity. Saving electric energy means saving CO2 emitted to atmosphere, and consequently contributing to the reduction of greenhouse gases emission. Normally, lights in the school are switched on in the early morning and switched off at the end of lessons. Nobody is responsible to turn out the lights in classes, so students choose one or two "Light guardians" who are responsible for the light management. Simple rules for light management are written and distributed in the classes so that the action of saving energy is spread all over the school. One class participates in the daily data collection from the electricity meter, before and after the beginning of the action. At the end of the year the data are treated and presented to the community, verifying if the electric consumption has been cut down or not. This presentation is public, with students who directly introduce collected data, results and

  8. The determinants of household energy-saving behavior: Survey and comparison in five major Asian cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hori, Shiro; Kondo, Kayoko; Nogata, Daisuke; Ben, Han

    2013-01-01

    It is difficult to control household energy consumption through regulation. From a policy standpoint, it is particularly challenging to identify the factors that influence people’s actions. Moreover, whatever these factors are, they are unlikely to uniformly span multiple cities in the Asian region. In this paper, we conduct a survey of energy-saving behavior to clarify the differences among such factors across five major Asian cities. The results from these surveys in Dalian, Chongqing, Fukuoka, Bangkok, and Ho Chi Minh indicate that global warming consciousness, environmental behavior, and social interaction significantly affect energy-saving behavior. Income and age also had weak positive effects on energy-saving behaviors. Social interaction was strongly linked to energy-saving behaviors, particularly in the rural areas of Dalian and Chongqing. This result indicates that community-based activities impact energy-saving behaviors. - Highlights: ► We conduct a survey of energy saving behavior in household in major Asian cities. ► We identify the factors that influence people's actions. ► Global warming consciousness and social interaction affect people behavior. ► This indicates community-based activities impact energy-saving behaviors in Asia.

  9. Tip Saves Energy, Money for Pennsylvania Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    A wastewater treatment plant in Berks County, Pennsylvania is saving nearly $45,000 a year and reducing hundreds of metric tons of greenhouse gases since employing an energy conservation tip offered by the Water Protection Division in EPA’s R3 and PADEP.

  10. Energy Saving by Chopping off Peak Demand Using Day Light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Kumar Maitra

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available An artificial intelligent technique has been implemented in this research using real time datas to calculate how much energy can be chopped from peak load demand. The results are based on real time data that are taken from power delivering centers. These datas do reflect the present condition of power and a solution to those critical conditions during the peak period. These are done in such a way such that helps in judicious scheduling of load. The time based load scheduling has been done so as to understand the basic criteria for solving power crisis during morning peak and early evening peak. The sunray availability and percentage of load that will use day light saving (DLS technique has been taken into account in this work. The results shows that about 0.5% to 1% of load can be shedded off from the peak load period which otherwise is reduction of power. Thus it otherwise also means that an equivalent amount of energy is saved which amounts to a large saving of national money. This result is obtained on monthly and even daily basis. Thus this paper justifies DLS gives a new renewable technique to save energy.

  11. Innovative Phase Change Approach for Significant Energy Savings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    related to the production, use, transmission , storage, control, or conservation of energy that will – (A) reduce the need for additional energy supplies...Conditions set for operation were: a. The computer with the broadband wireless card is to be used for data collection, transmission and...FINAL REPORT Innovative Phase Change Approach for Significant Energy Savings ESTCP Project EW-201138 SEPTEMBER 2016 Dr. Aly H Shaaban Applied

  12. Estimating potential saving with energy consumption behaviour model in higher education institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Hafizal Ishak

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Towards sustainable Higher Education Institutions (HEIs, energy consumption behaviour is one of several issues that require an attention by facilities manager. Information from the behavioural aspect would be useful for facilities manager on managing the energy and determining potential energy saving. A lack of information negatively affects this aim. Hence, this paper proposes a methodology for assessing the energy consumption behaviour with the objective determining potential energy saving. The method used energy culture framework as basis and joined with centrographic approach and multiple-regression analysis. A self-administrated survey carried out involving 1400 respondents in selected HEIs. There are four types of energy use among students in HEIs namely, 'high', 'low', ‘medium’ and 'conserve' determined from the centrographic analysis. The energy consumption behaviour model was developed and tested against the holdout sample. Through the model's application, there is a vast potential for energy savings with over 55 kWh daily among the students.

  13. How to tackle energy saving and load leveling. Energy saving towards 2000 and measures for the coming winter (energy-saving activities by California`s SCE, demand side management activities); Sho energy fuka heijunka ni do torikumuka. Seireki 2000 nen ni muketa sho energy to konto no shoene taisaku, Kashu SCE no sho energy (DSM katsudo wo saguru)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasu, S. [The Energy Conservation Center Japan, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-02-01

    Tokyo Electric Power has realized a peak shift of 5% for the maximum power demand by various measures to cope with increasing power demand and differential rate by time zone, including expansion of the differential rate system and heat-storage systems. Some of more notable recent techniques are eco-ice and eco-vendor systems, the former storing ice in the heat-storage tanks and the latter strongly cooling vending machines during nighttime. The NAS battery system is being developed as the new technique for load leveling. The energy-related advisory organ for Minister of International Trade and Industry asks each industrial unit to save at least 1% of power on the annual average as the energy-saving measure towards 2000. The energy-saving measures promoted by the government for the coming winter are controlled release of wastes, efficient use of power, setting room temperature at 19{degree}C or lower and voluntarily refrain from commuting by cars. The US power industry is abandoning the concept of DSM in the midst of deregulation and increased competition, and cutting budgets for new energy development. California`s SCE is promoting energy-saving through expanded use of high-efficiency motors, accurate grasp of customers` needs and publicity activities through internet systems. 4 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Energy savings from temperature setpoints and deadband: Quantifying the influence of building and system properties on savings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghahramani, Ali; Zhang, Kenan; Dutta, Kanu; Yang, Zheng; Becerik-Gerber, Burcin

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We provide a systematic approach to quantify the impact of factors on energy usage. • We study setpoints, deadbands, building size, construction, occupancy, and climate. • We derive the HVAC optimal control parameters with respect to dynamic factors. • We present quantification of optimal setpoints and deadbands energy usages. • Daily optimal setpoints based on outside temperature improves energy efficiency. - Abstract: This paper provides a systematic approach for quantifying the influence of building size, construction category, climate, occupancy schedule, setpoint, and deadband on HVAC energy consumption in office buildings. Simulating the DOE reference office buildings of three sizes and three construction categories in all United States climate zones, using the EnergyPlus, we conducted several N-way ANOVA analyses to study the interrelationships between setpoints, deadbands and several building related and environment related factors. In summary, daily optimal deadband selection of 0, 1, 2, 4, 5, and 6 K would result in an average energy savings of −70.0%, −34.9%, −13.7%, 9.6%, 16.4%, and 21.2%, respectively, compared to baseline deadline of 3 K. Selecting the daily optimal setpoint in the range of 22.5 ± 1 °C, 22.5 ± 2 °C, and 22.5 ± 3 °C would result in an average savings of 7.5%, 12.7%, and 16.4%, respectively, compared to the baseline setpoint of 22.5 °C. Additionally, we found that when the outdoor temperature is within −20 to 30 °C, the optimal setpoint depends on the building size. We also observed a range of outdoor temperatures (e.g., 9–14 °C for small buildings and 8–11 °C for medium buildings) where the setpoint selection would only slightly influence the energy consumption. However, the choice of setpoints becomes very influential (up to 30% of energy savings) where the outdoor temperatures are slightly outside the mentioned ranges on either direction. The potential savings from selecting daily optimal

  15. Time-Saving Innovations, Time Allocation, and Energy Use: Evidence from Canadian Households

    OpenAIRE

    Brencic, Vera; Young, Denise

    2009-01-01

    Time and energy are major inputs into the production of household goods and services. The introduction of time-saving innovations allows households to change their activity patterns and to reallocate their time across competing activities. As a result, the market penetration of time-saving technologies for general household use is expected to have a two-fold impact on energy use in the residential sector. Firstly, increased use of time-saving technologies for basic household chores (cooking, ...

  16. Energy-saving scheme based on downstream packet scheduling in ethernet passive optical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lincong; Liu, Yejun; Guo, Lei; Gong, Xiaoxue

    2013-03-01

    With increasing network sizes, the energy consumption of Passive Optical Networks (PONs) has grown significantly. Therefore, it is important to design effective energy-saving schemes in PONs. Generally, energy-saving schemes have focused on sleeping the low-loaded Optical Network Units (ONUs), which tends to bring large packet delays. Further, the traditional ONU sleep modes are not capable of sleeping the transmitter and receiver independently, though they are not required to transmit or receive packets. Clearly, this approach contributes to wasted energy. Thus, in this paper, we propose an Energy-Saving scheme that is based on downstream Packet Scheduling (ESPS) in Ethernet PON (EPON). First, we design both an algorithm and a rule for downstream packet scheduling at the inter- and intra-ONU levels, respectively, to reduce the downstream packet delay. After that, we propose a hybrid sleep mode that contains not only ONU deep sleep mode but also independent sleep modes for the transmitter and the receiver. This ensures that the energy consumed by the ONUs is minimal. To realize the hybrid sleep mode, a modified GATE control message is designed that involves 10 time points for sleep processes. In ESPS, the 10 time points are calculated according to the allocated bandwidths in both the upstream and the downstream. The simulation results show that ESPS outperforms traditional Upstream Centric Scheduling (UCS) scheme in terms of energy consumption and the average delay for both real-time and non-real-time packets downstream. The simulation results also show that the average energy consumption of each ONU in larger-sized networks is less than that in smaller-sized networks; hence, our ESPS is better suited for larger-sized networks.

  17. 2003 status report savings estimates for the energy star(R)voluntary labeling program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webber, Carrie A.; Brown, Richard E.; McWhinney, Marla

    2004-11-09

    ENERGY STAR(R) is a voluntary labeling program designed to identify and promote energy-efficient products, buildings and practices. Operated jointly by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), ENERGY STAR labels exist for more than thirty products, spanning office equipment, residential heating and cooling equipment, commercial and residential lighting, home electronics, and major appliances. This report presents savings estimates for a subset of ENERGY STAR program activities, focused primarily on labeled products. We present estimates of the energy, dollar and carbon savings achieved by the program in the year 2002, what we expect in 2003, and provide savings forecasts for two market penetration scenarios for the period 2003 to 2020. The target market penetration forecast represents our best estimate of future ENERGY STAR savings. It is based on realistic market penetration goals for each of the products. We also provide a forecast under the assumption of 100 percent market penetration; that is, we assume that all purchasers buy ENERGY STAR-compliant products instead of standard efficiency products throughout the analysis period.

  18. 2002 status report: Savings estimates for the ENERGY STAR(R) voluntary labeling program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webber, Carrie A.; Brown, Richard E.; McWhinney, Marla; Koomey, Jonathan

    2003-03-03

    ENERGY STAR [registered trademark] is a voluntary labeling program designed to identify and promote energy-efficient products, buildings and practices. Operated jointly by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), ENERGY STAR labels exist for more than thirty products, spanning office equipment, residential heating and cooling equipment, commercial and residential lighting, home electronics, and major appliances. This report presents savings estimates for a subset of ENERGY STAR program activities, focused primarily on labeled products. We present estimates of the energy, dollar and carbon savings achieved by the program in the year 2001, what we expect in 2002, and provide savings forecasts for two market penetration scenarios for the period 2002 to 2020. The target market penetration forecast represents our best estimate of future ENERGY STAR savings. It is based on realistic market penetration goals for each of the products. We also provide a forecast under the assumption of 100 percent market penetration; that is, we assume that all purchasers buy ENERGY STAR-compliant products instead of standard efficiency products throughout the analysis period.

  19. Social Optimization and Pricing Policy in Cognitive Radio Networks with an Energy Saving Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunfu Jin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The rapid growth of wireless application results in an increase in demand for spectrum resource and communication energy. In this paper, we firstly introduce a novel energy saving strategy in cognitive radio networks (CRNs and then propose an appropriate pricing policy for secondary user (SU packets. We analyze the behavior of data packets in a discrete-time single-server priority queue under multiple-vacation discipline. With the help of a Quasi-Birth-Death (QBD process model, we obtain the joint distribution for the number of SU packets and the state of base station (BS via the Matrix-Geometric Solution method. We assess the average latency of SU packets and the energy saving ratio of system. According to a natural reward-cost structure, we study the individually optimal behavior and the socially optimal behavior of the energy saving strategy and use an optimization algorithm based on standard particle swarm optimization (SPSO method to search the socially optimal arrival rate of SU packets. By comparing the individually optimal behavior and the socially optimal behavior, we impose an appropriate admission fee to SU packets. Finally, we present numerical results to show the impacts of system parameters on the system performance and the pricing policy.

  20. Assessment of Energy-Saving Practices of the Hospitality Industry in Macau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Macau is building a world tourism and leisure center. In the context of flourishing hospitality development, energy issues have attracted more and more attention in recent years. On the basis of the field survey of 28 hotels, an evaluation index system is built to assess the status of energy-saving and environmental protection practices in the hospitality industry in Macau. This system is built by selecting some credits from Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED and adding several new indices according to the social and economic characteristics of Macau. The results show that the hotels have made significant efforts to improve the energy efficiency in recent years. A total of 71.4% of the hotels have formulated and implemented the energy-saving and environmental protection programs. However, there is an apparent gap in energy and environmental performance between different star-level hotels. The higher is the star-level of a hotel, the higher enthusiasm on energy-saving a hotel has, e.g., 63.6% of the 5-star hotels carried out the carbon auditing and energy management measures, but there is no 2-star hotel that adopted them. The energy-saving performance can be great improved if more efforts are made in the future, especially for the 2-star hotels. Finally, we put forward some suggestions for how to bridge this gap and present a possible roadmap for the further improvement of energy efficiency of the hotel industry in Macau. The results from this work are useful to help the government and hotel managers to take actions for improving the energy utilization and efficiency of the hospitality industry in Macau.

  1. FY 2000 Project report on survey for drawing district energy-saving visions for City of Ginowan; 2000 nendo Ginowan-shi sho energy vision sakutei chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-02-01

    The Ginowan municipal energy-saving vision drawing committee is established. It is responsible for drawing the energy-saving visions for the city, to study the basic guidelines and promotion measures for energy saving and promote the energy-saving measures suitable for the local characteristics. The studied items include background of and basic guidelines for the plans, analysis of energy consumption, survey on energy-saving consciousness and actual situations, prediction of potentially saved energy, drawing of the basic plans for energy saving and plan implementation programs, and surveys on preceding examples. The action plans include green planning for and revamping of public facilities, green purchasing, energy-saving diagnosis, drawing the design guidelines for energy saving and environmental considerations in public facilities, introduction of low-pollution local transportation systems, drawing the environment-related technology lists, including energy saving, and promotion of clean energy vehicles. (NEDO)

  2. Evaluation of realised energy savings with simulation models. A new policy tool for the Netherlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boonekamp, P.G.M. [ECN Policy Studies, Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-01-15

    This report describes a new analysis tool for the evaluation of realised energy savings, and effects of savings policy, in the Netherlands. It aims to meet the information needs of policymakers, both at national and EU level, using the monitoring results of the NL Agency. The system builds on the Protocol Monitoring Energy Savings to calculate realised savings. The innovation consists of the option to adjust energy models per sector, as already used for scenario analysis, to simulate past developments. The simulations can estimate total savings and assess the contribution of policy measures. The detailed simulation approach also enables the decomposition of energy trends into volume-effects due to growth, structural effects such as fuel substitution and import/exports, and various saving effects. As the modeling system is already used for the analysis of future trends, it enables a good comparison between ex-ante (expected) savings and ex-post (realised) savings. Finally, the system enables a faster delivery of calculation results than presently is the case.

  3. Max Tech Appliance Design: Potential for Maximizing U.S. Energy Savings through Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garbesi, Karina; Desroches, Louis-Benoit; Bolduc, Christopher; Burch, Gabriel; Hosseinzadeh, Griffin; Saltiel, Seth

    2011-05-06

    This study surveyed the technical potential for efficiency improvements in 150 categories of appliances and equipment representing 33 quads of primary energy use across the US economy in 2010 and (1) documented efficient product designs, (2) identified the most promising cross-cutting strategies, and (3) ranked national energy savings potential by end use. Savings were estimated using a method modeled after US Department of Energy priority-setting reports - simplified versions of the full technical and economic analyses performed for rulemakings. This study demonstrates that large savings are possible by replacing products at the end-of-life with ultra-efficient models that use existing technology. Replacing the 50 top energy-saving end-uses (constituting 30 quads of primary energy consumption in 2010) with today's best-on-market equivalents would save {approx}200 quads of US primary energy over 30 years (25% of consumption anticipated there from). For the 29 products for maximum feasible savings potential could be estimated, the savings were twice as high. These results demonstrate that pushing ultra-efficient products to market could significantly escalate carbon emission reductions and is a viable strategy for sustaining large emissions reductions through standards. The results of this analysis were used by DOE for new coverage prioritization, to identify key opportunities for product prototyping and market development, and will leverage future standards rulemakings by identifying the full scope of maximum feasible technology options. High leverage products include advances lighting systems, HVAC, and televisions. High leverage technologies include electronic lighting, heat pumps, variable speed motors, and a host of controls-related technologies.

  4. Assessing Potential Energy Cost Savings from Increased Energy Code Compliance in Commercial Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberg, Michael I.; Hart, Philip R.; Athalye, Rahul A.; Zhang, Jian; Wang, Weimin

    2016-02-15

    The US Department of Energy’s most recent commercial energy code compliance evaluation efforts focused on determining a percent compliance rating for states to help them meet requirements under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) of 2009. That approach included a checklist of code requirements, each of which was graded pass or fail. Percent compliance for any given building was simply the percent of individual requirements that passed. With its binary approach to compliance determination, the previous methodology failed to answer some important questions. In particular, how much energy cost could be saved by better compliance with the commercial energy code and what are the relative priorities of code requirements from an energy cost savings perspective? This paper explores an analytical approach and pilot study using a single building type and climate zone to answer those questions.

  5. Replacement or additional purchase: The impact of energy-efficient appliances on household electricity saving under public pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizobuchi, Kenichi; Takeuchi, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the influence of additional and replacement purchases of energy-efficient air-conditioners on power savings. We used a questionnaire survey and measured electricity use data from 339 Japanese households, collected from two city areas with different level of government-requested electricity-saving rates, namely, Osaka (10%) and Matsuyama (5%). The main findings of our study are as follows: (1) Households that purchased energy-efficient air-conditioners saved more electricity than those that did not. (2) “Additional-purchase households” showed significant energy savings, whereas “replacement households” did not. The rebound effect may negate the energy-saving effects of a new air-conditioner. (3) Altruistic attitude is associated with more active participation in power saving. (4) Households in Osaka saved more electricity than those in Matsuyama, probably because the government call to save electricity was more forceful. - Highlights: •Energy efficient air conditioner purchases affect household power savings. •Additional air conditioner purchase led to significant energy savings. •Replacement units did not produce more savings than non-purchase. • “Electricity conservation directives” amount had a significant power-saving effect. •Altruistic households were more likely to cooperate with power-saving requests.

  6. Energy Savings Forecast of Solid-State Lighting in General Illumination Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2014-08-29

    With declining production costs and increasing technical capabilities, LED adoption has recently gained momentum in general illumination applications. This is a positive development for our energy infrastructure, as LEDs use significantly less electricity per lumen produced than many traditional lighting technologies. The U.S. Department of Energy’s Energy Savings Forecast of Solid-State Lighting in General Illumination Applications examines the expected market penetration and resulting energy savings of light-emitting diode, or LED, lamps and luminaires from today through 2030.

  7. General Merchandise 50% Energy Savings Technical Support Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hale, E.; Leach, M.; Hirsch, A.; Torcellini, P.

    2009-09-01

    This report documents technical analysis for medium-box general merchandise stores aimed at providing design guidance that achieves whole-building energy savings of at least 50% over ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2004.

  8. Savings estimates for the Energy Star(registered trademark) voluntary labeling program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webber, Carrie A.; Brown, Richard E.; Koomey, Jonathan G.

    2000-01-01

    ENERGY STAR7 is a voluntary labeling program designed to identify and promote energy-efficient products. Operated jointly by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), ENERGY STAR labels exist for more than twenty products, spanning office equipment, residential heating and cooling equipment, new homes, commercial and residential lighting, home electronics, and major appliances. We present estimates of the energy, dollar and carbon savings already achieved by the program and provide savings forecasts for several market penetration scenarios for the period 2001 to 2010. The target market penetration forecast represents our best estimate of future ENERGY STAR savings. It is based on realistic market penetration goals for each of the products. We also provide a forecast under the assumption of 100 percent market penetration; that is, we assume that all purchasers buy ENERGY STAR-compliant products instead of standard efficiency products throughout the analysis period. Finally, we assess the sensitivity of our target penetration case forecasts to greater or lesser marketing success by EPA and DOE, lower-than-expected future energy prices, and higher or lower rates of carbon emissions by electricity generators

  9. Main trends of energy savings in dwelling houses for Lithuanian conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stankevicius, V.; Karbauskaite, J.; Dapkus, G. [Institute of Architecture and construction (Lithuania)

    1995-12-31

    Incentive measures for efficient consumption of energy in buildings in Lithuania, were presented. Statistics have shown that the average annual building heat losses are 350 kW/sq.m of heated area. It was estimated, that if every building was insulated according to the requirements of the Lithuanian National Building Code, the annual energy savings would be in the order of 50 to 60 percent. Essential energy saving measures with due regard to Lithuania`s current financial and technical resources were detailed. It was suggested that installing energy efficient windows would be the cheapest and most effective measure to begin energy conservation. The addition of effective insulation of external walls would be a favoured but more costly measure, especially as far as insulating existing houses is concerned. The pay-back period of adding extra insulation was also described, although this option is not of the highest priority. It was suggested that a system of special incentives, if offered by the Lithuanian government, could prove to be powerful motivators to carry out these energy saving measures. 2 tabs., 1 fig.

  10. Potential energy savings and CO2 emissions reduction of China's cement industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ke, Jing; Zheng, Nina; Fridley, David; Price, Lynn; Zhou, Nan

    2012-01-01

    This study analyzes current energy and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emission trends in China's cement industry as the basis for modeling different levels of cement production and rates of efficiency improvement and carbon reduction in 2011–2030. Three cement output projections are developed based on analyses of historical production and physical and macroeconomic drivers. For each of these three production projections, energy savings and CO 2 emission reduction potentials are estimated in a best practice scenario and two continuous improvement scenarios relative to a frozen scenario. The results reveal the potential for cumulative final energy savings of 27.1 to 37.5 exajoules and energy-related direct emission reductions of 3.2 to 4.4 gigatonnes in 2011–2030 under the best practice scenarios. The continuous improvement scenarios produce cumulative final energy savings of 6.0 to 18.9 exajoules and reduce CO 2 emissions by 1.0 to 2.4 gigatonnes. This analysis highlights that increasing energy efficiency is the most important policy measure for reducing the cement industry's energy and emissions intensity, given the current state of the industry and the unlikelihood of significant carbon capture and storage before 2030. In addition, policies to reduce total cement production offer the most direct way of reducing total energy consumption and CO 2 emissions. - Highlights: ► This study models output and efficiency improvements in Chinese cement industry from 2011–2030. ► Energy savings and CO 2 emission reductions estimated for 3 scenarios relative to frozen scenario. ► Results reveal cumulative final energy savings potential of 27.1–37.5 EJ and 3.2–4.4 Gt CO 2 reductions. ► Increasing efficiency is the most important policy for reducing cement energy and emissions intensity.

  11. Use of passive solar architecture design in energy saving, Morena tourist village

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mina, M.B.

    1993-12-31

    This document deals with energy saving in buildings,more precisely in the Morena tourist village. The concept of passive solar technology is developed in villas. The first prototype enabled to have measurements of temperatures and thermal graphs. A comparison between the initial architectural design and this prototype shows the efficiency of the use of passive solar energy (energy and money saving). (TEC). 5 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Use of passive solar architecture design in energy saving, Morena tourist village

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mina, M B

    1994-12-31

    This document deals with energy saving in buildings,more precisely in the Morena tourist village. The concept of passive solar technology is developed in villas. The first prototype enabled to have measurements of temperatures and thermal graphs. A comparison between the initial architectural design and this prototype shows the efficiency of the use of passive solar energy (energy and money saving). (TEC). 5 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Potential opportunities for energy savings in a Jordanian poultry company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AlQdah, K.

    2010-01-01

    Rising concern about energy resource availability and energy prices in Jordan, cost of energy has become an issue that cannot be ignored in Jordan's industrial sector. In this study, energy auditing in a meat production factory related to poultry company was carried out. Based on the collected data and the conservation laws of energy, the performance of steam boilers, domestic hot water boilers, compressors, refrigeration systems, chillers, pumps, daily consumption of diesel and water were reviewed. The percentage of energy consumed by the refrigeration units, with respect to the total energy consumed, has been estimated. The results demonstrated a normal operation with thermal efficiency of 80.66% for the steam boiler, ability to save 18818.99 JD by installing economizer with payback period of 0.637 year and a 12.3% reduction of the energy cost achieved by reducing the blow down rate. The rate of diesel consumption was reduced by 12.87% over the last period of the study as a result of the recommendations that have been submitted to the technicians and professionals. The sum of 22223.77 JD can be saved by using heavy fuel oil instead of diesel oil. Moreover, this study demonstrated that energy saving can be considered as an ideal choice to increase profit and promote competition within the poultry industry if the company adopts all the proposals and recommendations that have been offered by this study.

  14. Can energy utilities play a role in local political energy savings programs?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dirckinck-Holmfeld, Kasper

    2012-01-01

    Danish municipalities are putting climate change high on the agenda with action plans and targets to cut greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. To reach these targets the municipalities need to engage citizens and the local business sector. In order to find new routes on how to engage and motivate local...... businesses to achieve GHG reductions, seven Danish municipalities (Copenhagen, Albertslund, Allerød, Ballerup, Herning, Kolding and Næstved) have joined forces in an EU LIFE project “Carbon 20”. A key element in the Carbon 20 project is to offer an energy screening free of charge for the participating...... the screening to small companies since the savings are rather limited in absolute terms. This article will focus on the appropriateness of using energy utilities (or consultants working on their behalf) in a local political context of engaging the local business sector in achieving energy savings and GHG...

  15. Energy-Saving Opportunities for Manufacturing Companies, International Fact Sheet (Spanish)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-08-01

    This English/Spanish fact sheet describes the Industrial Technologies Program Save Energy Now model and provides information on tools and resources to help manufacturing facilities reduce industrial energy intensity.

  16. Energy saving and emission reduction: A project of coal-resource integration in Shanxi Province, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jianjun; Fu Meichen; Geng Yuhuan; Tao Jin

    2011-01-01

    The small or middle coal mines with illegal operations in developing countries or regions can cause bad energy waste and environmental disruption. The project of coal-resource integration in Shanxi Province of China gives a new idea or an approach to energy saving and emission reduction. It is a social- and economic-ecological project. The paper shows the targets of energy saving and emission reduction in Shanxi Province, and analyses the aims, significance, design process and implementation of the integration project. Based on that, the paper discusses the challenges and opportunities the project brings. The analysis shows that the project of coal-resource integration in developing countries or regions can effectively improve mining technologies, collect capital and impel international cooperation and exchange. Finally, the paper analyses the concerns about the future, including the possible problems of implementation period, industrial updating, environmental impact and re-employment. However, the successful integration of coal resources can mitigate energy crisis and climate crisis and promote cleaner production effectively. - Highlights: → Coal-resource integration gives a new idea or an approach to energy saving and emission reduction. → Coal-resource integration mitigates climate crisis and promotes cleaner production. → Coal-resource integration brings challenges and opportunities to traditional mining industries.

  17. Proceedings of VI International Conference for Renewable Energy, Energy Saving and Energy Education (CIER 2009)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    In this work scientists, engineers, manufactures, investors, policy makers, energy users and other specialists present their professional experiences and commercial samples with view to reach common objectives in a climate of friendship and solidarity. Within the conference's framework there will be multiple workshops in Renewable Energy, Energy Saving and Energy Education and related fields. CIER provides an excellent platform to share experiences and promote synergies towards the challenge of achieving a sustainable energy culture

  18. Proceedings of VII International Conference for Renewable Energy, Energy Saving and Energy Education (CIER 2011)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    In this work scientists, engineers, manufactures, investors, policy makers, energy users, businessmen and other specialists present their professional experiences and commercial samples with view to reach common objectives in a climate of friendship and solidarity. Within the conference's framework there will be multiple workshops in Renewable Energy, Energy Saving and Energy Education and related fields. CIER provides an excellent platform to share experiences and promote synergies towards the challenge of achieving a sustainable energy culture

  19. Energy-saving motor; Energiesparmotor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindegger, M.

    2002-07-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) describes the development and testing of an advanced electrical motor using a permanent-magnet rotor. The aims of the project - to study the technical feasibility and market potential of the Eco-Motor - are discussed and the three phases of the project described. These include the calculation and realisation of a 250-watt prototype operating at 230 V, the measurement of the motor's characteristics as well as those of a comparable asynchronous motor on the test bed at the University of Applied Science in Lucerne, Switzerland, and a market study to establish if the Eco-Motor and its controller can compete against normal asynchronous motors. Also, the results of an analysis of the energy-savings potential is made, should such Eco-Motors be used. Detailed results of the three phases of the project are presented and the prospects of producing such motors in Switzerland for home use as well as for export are examined.

  20. Energy saving in housing in Syria; Energieeinsparung im Wohnungsbau in Syrien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hantouch, Yaser

    2009-06-03

    The demand for energy is increasing in Syria annually by 10-11% and the population increases annually 2.54% This growth leads also to increase in the housing,that it is energy-unconscious and consumes many energy. This large increase in energy consumption is an important problem in the housing in Syria, particularly with the lack of observance of various climatic factors,this leads to install the heating or cooling system in all housing in order to improve thermal comfort. The aim of this work is to provide insights into residential buildings with very high energy efficiency. The starting point is the experience from other countries (such as Germany), which have extensive policies, experience and rules for energy-saving buildings. The aim of this work is to provide insights into residential buildings with very high energy efficiency to win. The starting point is the experience from other countries such as Germany, which has extensive policies and rules for energy-saving buildings have. These are transferred with appropriate additions to residential buildings in Syria, and they are specified for special conditions, as well as the economic, social, climatic and regulatory requirements in Syria. There is a new architectural concepts in the design of residential buildings in Syria on their energy issues to research.it was discussed the links between architecture, energy and ecology, concepts of energy-saving building and influencing factors in energy consumption in buildings analyzed and influence of these factors on building and energy in the study area (Syria). This work includes the calculations of energy-efficient building (temperature and energy consumption) for different variants with different simulation programs, and these are assessed socially and economically through interviews, surveys and calculations of Energy Price and the Cost of Buildings. It turns out that there are many opportunities for energy saving in housing in Syria by architectural, design

  1. Olefins from conventional and heavy feedstocks: Energy use in steam cracking and alternative processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren Tao; Patel, Martin; Blok, Kornelis

    2006-01-01

    Steam cracking for the production of light olefins, such as ethylene and propylene, is the single most energy-consuming process in the chemical industry. This paper reviews conventional steam cracking and innovative olefin technologies in terms of energy efficiency. It is found that the pyrolysis section of a naphtha steam cracker alone consumes approximately 65% of the total process energy and approximately 75% of the total exergy loss. A family portrait of olefin technologies by feedstocks is drawn to search for alternatives. An overview of state-of-the-art naphtha cracking technologies shows that approximately 20% savings on the current average process energy use are possible. Advanced naphtha cracking technologies in the pyrolysis section, such as advanced coil and furnace materials, could together lead to up to approximately 20% savings on the process energy use by state-of-the-art technologies. Improvements in the compression and separation sections could together lead to up to approximately 15% savings. Alternative processes, i.e. catalytic olefin technologies, can save up to approximately 20%

  2. Chapter 16: Retrocommissioning Evaluation Protocol. The Uniform Methods Project: Methods for Determining Energy Efficiency Savings for Specific Measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurnik, Charles W. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tiessen, Alex [Posterity Group, Derwood, MD (United States)

    2017-10-09

    Retrocommissioning (RCx) is a systematic process for optimizing energy performance in existing buildings. It specifically focuses on improving the control of energy-using equipment (e.g., heating, ventilation, and air conditioning [HVAC] equipment and lighting) and typically does not involve equipment replacement. Field results have shown proper RCx can achieve energy savings ranging from 5 percent to 20 percent, with a typical payback of two years or less (Thorne 2003). The method presented in this protocol provides direction regarding: (1) how to account for each measure's specific characteristics and (2) how to choose the most appropriate savings verification approach.

  3. Low-cost, highly transparent flexible low-e coating film to enable electrochromic windows with increased energy savings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berland, Brian [ITN Energy Systems, Inc., Littleton, CO (United States); Hollingsworth, Russell [ITN Energy Systems, Inc., Littleton, CO (United States)

    2015-03-31

    Five Quads of energy are lost through windows annually in the U.S. Low-e coatings are increasingly employed to reduce the wasted energy. Most commonly, the low-e coating is an oxide material applied directly to the glass at high temperature. With over 100,000,000 existing homes, a retrofit product is crucial to achieve widespread energy savings. Low-e films, i.e. coatings on polymeric substrates, are now also available to meet this need. However, the traditional oxide materials and process is incompatible with low temperature plastics. Alternate high performing low-e films typically incorporate materials that limit visible transmission to 35% or less. Further, the cost is high. The objective of this award was to develop a retrofit, integrated low-e/electrochromic window film to dramatically reduce energy lost through windows. While field testing of state-of-the-art electrochromic (EC) windows show the energy savings are maximized if a low-e coating is used in conjunction with the EC, available low-e films have a low visible transmission (~70% or less) that limits the achievable clear state and therefore, appearance and energy savings potential. Comprehensive energy savings models were completed at Lawrence Berkeley National Lab (LBNL). A parametric approach was used to project energy usage for windows with a large range of low-e properties across all U.S. climate zones, without limiting the study to materials that had already been produced commercially or made in a lab. The model enables projection of energy savings for low-e films as well as integrated low-e/EC products. This project developed a novel low-e film, optimized for compatibility with EC windows, using low temperature, high deposition rate processes for the growth of low-e coatings on plastic films by microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. Silica films with good density and optical properties were demonstrated at deposition rates as high as 130Å/sec. A simple bi-layer low-e stack of

  4. Survey report on establishing a new energy and energy saving vision in Fukui Prefecture; Fukuiken shin energy sho energy vision sakutei chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Surveys and discussions were given on establishing a new energy and energy saving vision in Fukui Prefecture. The energy consumption in Fukui Prefecture for fiscal 1996 was 25242 x 1 billion kcal, being 0.7% of the nation's total consumption. The per capita energy consumption is about a little greater than the national average. The energy consumption structure is characterized by large consumption in the transportation department, especially in automotive consumption. Carbon dioxide discharge is as little as being ranked 13th among all the prefectures in Japan. The availability and usable quantity of new energies in Fukui Prefecture is estimated as 1659939 x 10{sup 3} kWh/year as electric power, 9436 x 10{sup 6} kcal/year as gas, and 3536720 x 10{sup 6} kcal/year as heat. Energies could be saved most greatly by enhancing automotive fuel consumption rate, followed by effects of energy saving activities based on spontaneous action plans established by the industrial departments. New energies selected to be worked on importantly include: solar energy power generation, wind power generation, clean energy fueled automobiles, wastes energy, co-generation and solar heat. (NEDO)

  5. Suitability assessment of building energy saving technologies for office buildings in cold areas of China based on an assessment framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geng, Geng; Wang, Zhaoxia; Zhao, Jing; Zhu, Neng

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • An assessment method considering economy, environment and technology is proposed. • Office buildings are classified into 3 types and weights are calculated respectively. • BESTs were summed up as 3 suitability levels. • Recommendations are proposed for adopting in design stage. - Abstract: Blind application and extensive copy of building energy saving technologies have been found very common through investigation in China. Emphases should be put on the suitability assessment when selecting and optimizing building energy saving technologies. This paper created an assessment method, namely an assessment framework to assess the suitability level of building energy saving technologies from a holistic point of view. Fuzzy analytic hierarchy process was adopted. 3 factors and 8 sub-factors were included in the framework. The office buildings were classified into 3 types to calculate weights of factors and sub-factors. The assessment framework was established for each type of office buildings. 20 energy saving technologies from surveyed cases was selected as case study. Ranks of suitability level of the assessment objects were obtained for each type of office buildings. The assessment results could be referred when selecting building energy saving technologies in the design stage

  6. Energy Savings Potential and Research, Development, & Demonstration Opportunities for Commercial Building Appliances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zogg, Robert [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Goetzler, William [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Ahlfeldt, Christopher [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Hiraiwa, Hirokazu [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Sathe, Amul [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Sutherland, Timothy [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States)

    2009-12-01

    This study characterizes and assesses the appliances used in commercial buildings. The primary objectives of this study were to document the energy consumed by commercial appliances and identify research, development and demonstration (RD&D) opportunities for efficiency improvements, excluding product categories such as HVAC, building lighting, refrigeration equipment, and distributed generation systems. The study included equipment descriptions, characteristics of the equipment’s market, national energy consumption, estimates of technical potential for energy-saving technologies, and recommendations for U.S. Department of Energy programs that can promote energy savings in commercial appliances.

  7. Energy at the author's house for saving conventional fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nandwani, S.S.

    2006-01-01

    About 20 years ago, we decided to make our house. Being working on the utilization of solar energy and with the objective of saving maximum conventional fuel and some family budget, we dicided to make use of maximum this free and clean fuel. After buying the land with proper orientation, we installed different cheap devices and left the proper provision for another devices to installed in future. At present we solar energy mainly for cooking, water heating for bath and dish washing, drying clothes/fruits/vegetables, purification (pasteurization) of water. In addition. we also use solar cells for some electrical devices like solar radio, solar lamp for emergency, charging batteries and mobile phone etc. For our family of five persons, having 3 coloured TV, 2 computers using many hours of Internet, without any use of fuel other than electricity and sun, our electricity consumption is of the order of 270 (dry/summer)-350 (wet/rainy) kWh/month, depending on the season (US$16-21/month). This is roughly 40-50% of the electricity consumed by my other colleagues who do not use solar energy. With this saving, the initial cost of solar devices (US$1200-1400) is already recovered. In this presentation, construction and results of working of these solar thermal, electrical devices and other energy saving means at our house are mentioned.(Author)

  8. DSM energy saving pilot project report. Company Augstceltne Ltd., Riga, Latvia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krievins, P.; Cakuls, A.; Kaross, V.; Jansons, D.

    1995-05-01

    This report is a part of the Joint Latvian - Danish Project DEMAND SIDE MANAGEMENT AND ENERGY SAVING. The Project is a part of the Danish aid and technology transfer to Latvia. It is the result of collaborative efforts between a Latvian team, consisting of the specialists from Latvenergo and a Danish team, which was represented by Danish Power Consult. The purpose of this pilot project was not only to carry out energy audit in the company Augstceltne Ltd and propose demand side management and energy saving measures. Another task of the project was the application of DPC energy audit methodic, measuring equipment and software in Latvian conditions and the promotion of energy saving programs in Latvia in this way. The Company Augstceltne Ltd was created to rent the rest of premises for many other independent companys and to earn money for surviving. Now the Company has 9 buildings with a total area of 26,920 square meters. The tower block has 23 floors and it is the main business centre. 66 companies are located in the building. (EG)

  9. Renewable energy for Canada's northern communities - quantifying potential fuel savings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brothers, C.

    1998-01-01

    The probable impact of renewable energy technologies on fuel consumption in Canada's remote northern communities was discussed. These communities currently meet their electricity requirements using expensive diesel powered generators. It was noted that change to renewable energy in Canada's remote communities will only be made if the economic benefits can be clearly demonstrated. A study was conducted in Cambridge Bay, Northwest Territories, in which electrical load requirements and wind and solar resource data from the community was acquired to estimate savings in diesel fuel consumption for various renewable energy technologies. Wind was found to provide the most fuel displacement and was considered to be the most appropriate technology for these communities. A photovoltaic (PV) system of equivalent size would have significantly less impact on fuel savings in a community like Cambridge Bay, in part because a PV system would be poorly correlated on a seasonal basis with the energy requirements of the community. A wind-diesel system would be the most advantageous in terms of fuel savings due to its relatively high capacity factor, and due to the fact that is it is available year around. 4 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs

  10. Evaluation of energy saving tasks performed by the energy transmission and distribution companies; Denmark; Evaluering af energiselskabernes energibespareaktiviteter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Togeby, M. (Ea Energianalyse A/S, Copenhagen (Denmark))

    2012-05-15

    The evaluation is described in the Agreement of 20 November 2009 between the Danish Climate and Energy Minister and the distribution companies for electricity, natural gas, district heating and oil about the companies' future energy conservation efforts. The evaluation was conducted to provide recommendations for adjusting the system. The results of the evaluation show that energy companies and utilities meet the overall savings obligation. In 2011, 2,098 GWh savings are recorded, which is more than the obligation. The evaluation shows that the net effect is about 760 GWh (36%). When looking at types of energy companies, then the oil companies' activities generally have a low net effect and additionally is assessed to be low in relation to the district heating companies' renovation of the district heating network. The greatest additionally exists among large savings in the industry. The means that energy companies use to achieve savings obligations are significantly different today than a few years ago. Today there are grants for more than 85% of registered savings. Before 2006 primarily information and advice was used. Thus an estimated 400 million DKK annually is used for grants. Socio-economics is positive for the part of the effort that is aimed at businesses. The socio-economic value of the savings is calculated to be twice as large as the total cost when you only look at the industry. The system can thus be readily seen as a useful instrument to promote energy conservation in industry. For households, it is estimated that the net effect is 20% of the reported savings, while for industry the net effect is estimated to be 45%. Also, for renovations of the heat distribution networks the net effect is estimated to be low. (LN)

  11. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Pharmaceutical Industry. An ENERGY STAR Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galitsky, Christina; Galitsky, Christina; Chang, Sheng-chieh; Worrell, Ernst; Masanet, Eric

    2008-03-01

    The U.S. pharmaceutical industry consumes almost $1 billion in energy annually. Energy efficiency improvement is an important way to reduce these costs and to increase predictable earnings, especially in times of high energy price volatility. There are a variety of opportunities available at individual plants in the U.S. pharmaceutical industry to reduce energy consumption in a cost-effective manner. This Energy Guide discusses energy efficiency practices and energy efficient technologies that can be implemented at the component, process, system, and organizational levels. A discussion of the trends, structure, and energy consumption characteristics of the U.S. pharmaceutical industry is provided along with a description of the major process steps in the pharmaceutical manufacturing process. Expected savings in energy and energy-related costs are given for many energy efficiency measures, based on case study data from real-world applications in pharmaceutical and related facilities worldwide. Typical measure payback periods and references to further information in the technical literature are also provided, when available. The information in this Energy Guide is intended to help energy and plant managers reduce energy consumption in a cost-effective manner while meeting regulatory requirements and maintaining the quality of products manufactured. At individual plants, further research on the economics of the measures?as well as their applicability to different production practices?is needed to assess potential implementation of selected technologies.

  12. Energy usage and technical potential for energy saving measures in the Swedish residential building stock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mata, Érika; Sasic Kalagasidis, Angela; Johnsson, Filip

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides an analysis of the current energy usage (net energy and final energy by fuels) and associated carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions of the Swedish residential building stock, which includes single-family dwellings and multi-family dwellings. Twelve energy saving measures (ESMs) are assessed using a bottom–up modeling methodology, in which the Swedish residential stock is represented by a sample of 1400 buildings (based on data from the year 2005). Application of the ESMs studied gives a maximum technical reduction potential in energy demand of 53%, corresponding to a 63% reduction in CO 2 emissions. Although application of the investigated ESMs would reduce CO 2 emissions, the measures that reduce electricity consumption for lighting and appliances (LA) will increase CO 2 emissions, since the saved electricity production is less CO 2 -intensive than the fuel mix used for the increased space heating required to make up for the loss in indirect heating obtained from LA. - Highlights: ► Analysis of year 2005energy use and CO2 emissions of Swedish residential buildings. ► Includes all single-family dwellings and multi-family dwellings. ► Bottom–up modeling of building stock represented by 1400 buildings. ► Technical effects of 12 energy saving measures are assessed. ► Energy demand can be reduced by53% and associated CO 2 emissions by 63%

  13. Measuring the effect of procrastination and environmental awareness on households' energy-saving behaviours: An empirical approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lillemo, Shuling Chen, E-mail: shulic@umb.no

    2014-03-01

    A common finding in behavioural economics is that people often procrastinate, i.e., keep postponing planned tasks or decisions that require effort to execute. The effect of procrastination on inter-temporal energy choice behaviours could be even more serious because energy is an abstract, invisible and intangible commodity. This paper uses a web survey to investigate how people's procrastination propensity and environmental awareness affect their heating-energy-saving behaviours. The results indicate that people who state that they have a higher tendency to procrastinate are significantly less likely to have engaged in most of the heating energy-saving activities, especially regarding larger purchases or investments in equipment and the insulation of doors and windows. I also found a positive relationship between environmental awareness and engaging in everyday energy-saving activities such as reducing the indoor temperature. The findings suggest that measures aimed at reducing procrastination are needed to realise energy-saving potential. It is important to find ways to either bring future benefits closer to the present or to magnify the costs of delayed action. For example, one can employ certain feedback systems and commitment devices to make current gains and future costs more visible or tangible. - Highlights: • Norwegian online survey on factors affecting households' heating energy saving activities. • Identify the effect of procrastination and environmental awareness in energy saving decision making. • People with a higher tendency to procrastinate are less likely to engage in energy saving activities. • Procrastination can limit the positive effect of environmental awareness on energy saving. • Innovative behavioural measures are suggested to bring people's “energy saving plans or decisions” to action.

  14. Problems of Technology of Energy-Saving Buildings and Their Impact on Energy Efficiency in Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwasnowski, Pawel; Fedorczak-Cisak, Malgorzata; Knap, Katarzyna

    2017-10-01

    Introduction of EPBD in legislation of the EU member states caused that buildings must meet very stringent requirements of thermal protection and energy efficiency. On the basis of EPBD provisions, EU Member States introduce standard of NZEB (Nearly Zero-Energy Buildings). Such activities cause a need for new, innovative materials and technologies, and new approaches to design, construction and retrofitting of buildings. Indispensable is the precise coordination of the design of structure and technical installations of building, which may be provided in an integrated design process in the system BIM. Good coordination and cooperation of all contractors during the construction phase is also necessary. The article presents the problems and the new methodology for the design, construction and use of energy efficient buildings in terms of energy saving technologies, including discussion of the significant impact of the automation of technical installations on the building energy efficiency.

  15. Energy-saving strategies with personalized ventilation in cold climates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shiavon, Stefano; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2009-01-01

    In this study the influence of the personalized supply air temperature control strategy on energy consumption and the energy-saving potentials of a personalized ventilation system have been investigated by means of simulations with IDA-ICE software. GenOpt software was used to determine the optimal...

  16. Measure Guideline: Replacing Single-Speed Pool Pumps with Variable Speed Pumps for Energy Savings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, A.; Easley, S.

    2012-05-01

    The report evaluates potential energy savings by replacing traditional single-speed pool pumps with variable speed pool pumps, and provide a basic cost comparison between continued uses of traditional pumps verses new pumps. A simple step-by-step process for inspecting the pool area and installing a new pool pump follows.

  17. DSM energy saving pilot project report. Furniture Plant Teika, Riga, Latvia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ananevski, V.; Kalejs, M.; Hercogs, J.; Blumbergs, U.

    1995-07-01

    The purpose of this pilot project was to carry out energy audit into the furniture plant TEIKA and energy saving measures. Another aim was to transfer the Danish know how and experience obtained through the Danish effort in Latvian industries consumers. Therefore great attention is paid to energy mapping in order to show possibilities of the Danish methodisms. This report is a part of the Joint Latvian - Danish Project Demand Side Management and Energy Saving. It is a results of collaborative efforts between a Latvian team, consisting of the specialists from Latvenergo and on the other hand a Danish team, which was represented by the Danish Power Consult company NESA. (EG)

  18. Promoting energy-saving and environmentally friendly generation dispatching model in China: Phase development and case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, Yi; Yang, Hongliang

    2013-01-01

    Energy saving and environmental protection are important conditions for the sustainable development of Chinese economy. However current widely used generation scheduling model based on predefined production quota and tariff results in heavy energy consumption and severe environment pollution. From 2007, as concerns over energy shortage and environmental pollution, the Chinese authorities introduced the implementation of energy-saving generation dispatching model, which is an important approach to facilitating energy-saving and reduction of pollutant emission. The objective of implementing energy-saving generation dispatching model is to prioritize the use of renewable energy resources and new power plants with high efficiency without compromising power system security and reliability. This paper analyzes the necessity and feasibility of implementing energy-efficient and environmentally friendly generation scheduling models in China. The institutional and technical barriers impeding the implementation of energy-saving generation dispatching model are identified. The development of advanced energy-saving generation scheduling models towards competitive market models and phased planning programs are emphasized in this paper. The effectiveness and experience of provinces piloted energy-saving generation dispatching projects are also discussed. - Highlights: ► Introducing problems of current power generation scheduling model in China. ► Discussing necessity of implementing ESGD model and corresponding barriers. ► Proposing phased planning programs for developing ESGD models. ► Discussing the effectiveness and experience of provinces piloted ESGD projects

  19. Intelligent control of energy-saving power generation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Zhiyuan; Zhang, Guoqing; Guo, Zhizhong [Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin (China). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    2013-07-01

    Highway power generation system which is environmentally friendly and sustainable provides an innovative method of energy conversion. It is also as a kind of city science and technology innovation, which has the characteristics of environmental protection and sustainable utilization. Making full use of vehicle impact speed control humps, we design a new kind of highway speed control humps combined with solar electric generation system integration. Developing green energy, energy saving and environment protection can be achieved.

  20. Computational Support for the Selection of Energy Saving Building Components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Wilde, P.J.C.J.

    2004-01-01

    Buildings use energy for heating, cooling and lighting, contributing to the problems of exhaustion of fossil fuel supplies and environmental pollution. In order to make buildings more energy-efficient an extensive set of âenergy saving building componentsâ has been developed that contributes to

  1. Existing Whole-House Solutions Case Study: Group Home Energy Efficiency Retrofit for 30% Energy Savings, Washington, D.C.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-11-01

    Energy efficiency retrofits (EERs) face many challenges on the path to scalability. Limited budgets, cost effectiveness, risk factors, and accessibility impact the type and the extent of measures that can be implemented feasibly to achieve energy savings goals. Group home retrofits can face additional challenges than those in single family homes – such as reduced access (occupant-in-place restrictions) and lack of incentives for occupant behavioral change. This project studies the specification, implementation, and energy savings from an EER in a group home, with an energy savings goal of 30%. This short term test report chronicles the retrofit measures specified, their projected cost-effectiveness using building energy simulations, and the short term test results that were used to characterize pre-retrofit and post-retrofit conditions. Additionally, the final report for the project will include analysis of pre- and post-retrofit performance data on whole building energy use, and an assessment of the energy impact of occupant interface with the building (i.e., window operation). Ultimately, the study’s results will be used to identify cost effective EER measures that can be implemented in group homes, given constraints that are characteristic of these buildings. Results will also point towards opportunities for future energy savings.

  2. Occupant-in-Place Energy Efficiency Retrofit in a Group Home for 30% Energy Savings in Climate Zone 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, M.

    2013-08-01

    Energy efficiency retrofits (EERs) face many challenges on the path to scalability. Limited budgets, cost effectiveness, risk factors, and accessibility impact the type and the extent of measures that can be implemented feasibly to achieve energy savings goals. Group home retrofits can face additional challenges than those in single family homes - such as reduced access (occupant-in-place restrictions) and lack of incentives for occupant behavioral change. This project studies the specification, implementation, and energy savings from an EER in a group home, with an energy savings goal of 30%. This short term test report chronicles the retrofit measures specified, their projected cost-effectiveness using building energy simulations, and the short term test results that were used to characterize pre-retrofit and post-retrofit conditions. Additionally, the final report for the project will include analysis of pre- and post-retrofit performance data on whole building energy use, and an assessment of the energy impact of occupant interface with the building (i.e., window operation). Ultimately, the study's results will be used to identify cost effective EER measures that can be implemented in group homes, given constraints that are characteristic of these buildings. Results will also point towards opportunities for future energy savings.

  3. Occupant-in-Place Energy Efficiency Retrofit in a Group Home for 30% Energy Savings in Climate Zone 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Mike [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction (BA-PIRC), Cocoa, FL (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Energy efficiency retrofits (EERs) face many challenges on the path to scalability. Limited budgets, cost effectiveness, risk factors, and accessibility impact the type and the extent of measures that can be implemented feasibly to achieve energy savings goals. Group home retrofits can face additional challenges than those in single family homes – such as reduced access (occupant-in-place restrictions) and lack of incentives for occupant behavioral change. This project studies the specification, implementation, and energy savings from an EER in a group home, with an energy savings goal of 30%. This short term test report chronicles the retrofit measures specified, their projected cost effectiveness using building energy simulations, and the short term test results that were used to characterize pre-retrofit and post-retrofit conditions. Additionally, the final report for the project will include analysis of pre- and post-retrofit performance data on whole building energy use, and an assessment of the energy impact of occupant interface with the building (i.e., window operation). Ultimately, the study’s results will be used to identify cost-effective EER measures that can be implemented in group homes, given constraints that are characteristic of these buildings. Results will also point towards opportunities for future energy savings.

  4. Energy savings through self-backhauling for future heterogeneous networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faruk, Nasir; Ruttik, Kalle; Mutafungwa, Edward; Jäntti, Riku

    2016-01-01

    Mobile operators face continuous challenge of enhancing network capacity and coverage so as to meet demand for ubiquitous high-speed mobile data connectivity. Unfortunately, these enhancements are typically accompanied by increased burden of network energy consumption. Heterogeneous network (HetNet) deployments of a large number of low power small base stations (SBS) to complement existing macro base stations is an approach that increases network capacity but potentially reduces overall network energy consumption. The SBS backhaul links in HetNets present a significant powering burden. In this paper, we show how self backhauling of SBS can reduce overall network power demand. A backhaul-energy consumption model is developed and used to investigate the energy efficiency of different backhauling options. We note that significant energy savings could be achieved through the use of self-backhauling when compared with the conventional microwave backhauling. The results presented would provide guidelines for energy- and cost-efficient backhaul implementation for future HetNets. - Highlights: • A backhaul-energy consumption model is developed. • Self backhauling of small base stations can reduce overall network power demand. • Energy saving strategy presented would relieved the burden on the power networks. • Results provide guidelines for energy and cost effective backhaul implementation.

  5. Energy Savings in Cellular Networks Based on Space-Time Structure of Traffic Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jingbo; Wang, Yue; Yuan, Jian; Shan, Xiuming

    Since most of energy consumed by the telecommunication infrastructure is due to the Base Transceiver Station (BTS), switching off BTSs when traffic load is low has been recognized as an effective way of saving energy. In this letter, an energy saving scheme is proposed to minimize the number of active BTSs based on the space-time structure of traffic loads as determined by principal component analysis. Compared to existing methods, our approach models traffic loads more accurately, and has a much smaller input size. As it is implemented in an off-line manner, our scheme also avoids excessive communications and computing overheads. Simulation results show that the proposed method has a comparable performance in energy savings.

  6. Save production: a bottom-up energy model for Dutch industry and agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniels, B.W.; Dril, A.W.N. van

    2007-01-01

    A new version of the model Save production simulates the development of energy use in the Dutch industry and agriculture, including combined heat and power generation. The model disaggregates national energy consumption into fuel types, industrial sectors, energy functions and energy technologies. Simulation is based on microeconomic investment behavior. Examples of model application show results on the penetration of combined heat and power in relation to policy instruments such as CO 2 prices, electricity price support and investment subsidies. Policies that discriminate on CO 2 emissions result in a slightly more efficient heat and power generation. Tailored to the Dutch situation, Save production is well equipped to generate outlooks for the Dutch industrial and agricultural energy use, and for analyzing the role of policies in detail. Its main strength lies in the middle term simulation of decision-making on energy saving technologies and analysis of policy effects. Specific precautions are required when the model is used for analysis on the longer-term, for simulating extreme policies or for the analysis of extremely fluctuating energy prices. (author)

  7. Energy conservation and cost benefits in the dairy processing industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-01-01

    Guidance is given on measuring energy consumption in the plant and pinpointing areas where energy-conservation activities can return the most favorable economics. General energy-conservation techniques applicable to most or all segments of the dairy processing industry, including the fluid milk segment, are emphasized. These general techniques include waste heat recovery, improvements in electric motor efficiency, added insulation, refrigeration improvements, upgrading of evaporators, and increases in boiler efficiency. Specific examples are given in which these techniques are applied to dairy processing plants. The potential for energy savings by cogeneration of process steam and electricity in the dairy industry is also discussed. Process changes primarily applicable to specific milk products which have resulted in significant energy cost savings at some facilities or which promise significant contributions in the future are examined. A summary checklist of plant housekeeping measures for energy conservation and guidelines for economic evaluation of conservation alternatives are provided. (MHR)

  8. Achieving 50% Energy Savings in New Schools, Advanced Energy Design Guides: K-12 Schools (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-09-01

    This fact sheet summarizes recommendations for designing elementary, middle, and high school buildings that will result in 50% less energy use than conventional new schools built to minimum code requirements. The recommendations are drawn from the Advanced Energy Design Guide for K-12 School Buildings, an ASHRAE publication that provides comprehensive recommendations for designing low-energy-use school buildings (see sidebar). Designed as a stand-alone document, this fact sheet provides key principles and a set of prescriptive design recommendations appropriate for smaller schools with insufficient budgets to fully implement best practices for integrated design and optimized performance. The recommendations have undergone a thorough analysis and review process through ASHRAE, and have been deemed the best combination of measures to achieve 50% savings in the greatest number of schools.

  9. Energy Saving Recommended: Delivering improved product standards, market presence and quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lock, Tom; Galvanoni, Frances [Energy Saving Trust (United Kingdom)

    2007-07-01

    CO{sub 2} emissions from the home equate to 27 % of UK total emissions. In order for consumers to use less energy, and reduce their environmental impact, the Energy Saving Recommended (ESR) voluntary product labelling scheme for domestic energy saving products was established to direct the consumer to choose better products and make smarter choices. With over 2000 certified products, ESR is present across 5 sectors and covers 24 product categories; 9 sets of standards were reviewed and revised in 2005/6 and a further 13 were delivered in 2006/7. ESR is now implementing existing and developing new standards in consumer electronics - from integrated digital televisions and recorders, to intelligent mains sockets and set-top-boxes, as well as assessing the feasibility of endorsing domestic ICT equipment. The Energy Saving Trust, through its marketing activities, acts as an enabler to make energy saving action simpler, easier and cheaper for the consumer to undertake. Using a variety of communication strategies the trade is engaged through the provision of value added member benefits; a holistic approach is taken with key partners to integrate energy efficiency throughout their businesses. Merchandising support helps product standards to be implemented in the market place; evaluation and research work demonstrates that markets can be changed and shows a 1 in 3 label recognition rate. The credibility and integrity of the label are reinforced through compliance testing, in-store and online label monitoring and legal enforcement, frequent data checks and the integration of ISO best practice standards through the certification system.

  10. Heat Saving Strategies in Sustainable Smart Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Thellufsen, Jakob Zinck; Aggerholm, Søren

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates to which extent heat should be saved rather than produced and to which extent district heating infrastructures, rather than individual heating solutions, should be used in future sustainable smart energy systems. Based on a concrete proposal to implement the Danish...... governmental 2050 fossil-free vision, this paper identifies marginal heat production costs and compares these to marginal heat savings costs for two different levels of district heating. A suitable least-cost heating strategy seems to be to invest in an approximately 50% decrease in net heat demands in new...... buildings and buildings that are being renovated anyway, while the implementation of heat savings in buildings that are not being renovated hardly pays. Moreover, the analysis points in the direction that a least-cost strategy will be to provide approximately 2/3 of the heat demand from district heating...

  11. Reactors Save Energy, Costs for Hydrogen Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    While examining fuel-reforming technology for fuel cells onboard aircraft, Glenn Research Center partnered with Garrettsville, Ohio-based Catacel Corporation through the Glenn Alliance Technology Exchange program and a Space Act Agreement. Catacel developed a stackable structural reactor that is now employed for commercial hydrogen production and results in energy savings of about 20 percent.

  12. Energy-saving construction. A practice book for architects, engineers and energy consultants; Energiesparendes Bauen. Ein Praxisbuch fuer Architekten, Ingenieure und Energieberater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marquardt, Helmut

    2011-07-01

    Due to a rapid amendment of the Energy Saving Ordinance in 2007 and 2009, the opportunities for energy conservation in buildings come more clearly into the public consciousness. The energy consultancy increasingly is in demand. Under this aspect, the author of te book under consideration reports on the fundamentals of thermal protection, on designs for compliance with the Energy Saving Ordinance, on the appropriate plant engineering as well as on the calculation of residential buildings according to the Energy Saving Ordinance and Act on Power Generation from Renewable Energy Sources.

  13. Measure Guideline. Replacing Single-Speed Pool Pumps with Variable Speed Pumps for Energy Savings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, A. [Building Media and the Building America Retrofit Alliance (BARA), Wilmington, DE (United States); Easley, S. [Building Media and the Building America Retrofit Alliance (BARA), Wilmington, DE (United States)

    2012-05-01

    This measure guideline evaluates potential energy savings by replacing traditional single-speed pool pumps with variable speed pool pumps, and provides a basic cost comparison between continued uses of traditional pumps verses new pumps. A simple step-by-step process for inspecting the pool area and installing a new pool pump follows.

  14. Savings estimates for the ENERGY STAR (registered trademark) voluntary labeling program: 2001 status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webber, Carrie A.; Brown, Richard E.; Mahajan, Akshay; Koomey, Jonathan G.

    2002-02-15

    ENERGY STAR(Registered Trademark) is a voluntary labeling program designed to identify and promote energy-efficient products, buildings and practices. Operated jointly by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), ENERGY STAR labels exist for more than thirty products, spanning office equipment, residential heating and cooling equipment, commercial and residential lighting, home electronics, and major appliances. This report presents savings estimates for a subset of ENERGY STAR program activities, focused primarily on labeled products. We present estimates of the energy, dollar and carbon savings achieved by the program in the year 2000, what we expect in 2001, and provide savings forecasts for two market penetration scenarios for the period 2001 to 2020. The target market penetration forecast represents our best estimate of future ENERGY STAR savings. It is based on realistic market penetration goals for each of the products. We also provide a forecast under the assumption of 100 percent market penetration; that is, we assume that all purchasers buy ENERGY STAR-compliant products instead of standard efficiency products throughout the analysis period.

  15. Strategy on energy saving reconstruction of distribution networks based on life cycle cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaofei; Qiu, Zejing; Xu, Zhaoyang; Xiao, Chupeng

    2017-08-01

    Because the actual distribution network reconstruction project funds are often limited, the cost-benefit model and the decision-making method are crucial for distribution network energy saving reconstruction project. From the perspective of life cycle cost (LCC), firstly the research life cycle is determined for the energy saving reconstruction of distribution networks with multi-devices. Then, a new life cycle cost-benefit model for energy-saving reconstruction of distribution network is developed, in which the modification schemes include distribution transformers replacement, lines replacement and reactive power compensation. In the operation loss cost and maintenance cost area, the operation cost model considering the influence of load season characteristics and the maintenance cost segmental model of transformers are proposed. Finally, aiming at the highest energy saving profit per LCC, a decision-making method is developed while considering financial and technical constraints as well. The model and method are applied to a real distribution network reconstruction, and the results prove that the model and method are effective.

  16. Energy booklet. Part 2. Energy saving tips for more pocket money and environment; EnergieFibel. Heft 2. EnergieSparTipps fuer mehr Taschengeld und Umwelt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    The effective environmental protection begins when saving. Energy which is not used at all also cannot burden the environment. Pleasant side effect: also the purse is treated gently. One of the most important measures for the reduction of energy consumption is the correct thermal insulation of a building so that heating energy cannot escape unused in the free. Thus, between 50 and 75 per cent of energy can be saved. Investments within this range usually are profitable already after a short time. The utilization of damming materials from regenerative raw materials enables application of financial incentives. In addition, within other ranges of the house modernizations and a change of the behaviour of utilization help to save energy. The contribution under consideration gives advices in order to improve dwellings energy-technically. The environment and the purse will thank it.

  17. An approach for holistic energy retrofitting based on assessment of economic viability and durability of energy saving measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morelli, Martin

    2014-01-01

    saving measures and forget to consider, whether it is more prudent to demolished the building and erect a new building. An evaluation approach is presented to assess whether to retrofit an existing building or to demolish and replace it. The primary concept of the method is to develop a retrofitting...... as constraint to determine the amount of building retrofitting for implementation. The approach includes also durability assessments of the energy saving measures. An example is carried out to illustrate the application of the approach. The example highlights the importance of including risk assessment...... and durability evaluation of the energy saving measures when performing holistic energy retrofitting of buildings....

  18. Technical Support Document: 50% Energy Savings for Quick-Service Restaurants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jian; Schrock, D. W.; Fisher, D. R.; Livchak, A.; Zabrowski, D. A.; Athalye, Rahul A.; Liu, Bing

    2010-09-30

    Document describing PNNL's project to develop a package of energy efficiency measures that demonstrate the feasibility of achieving a 50% energy savings for quick-service restaurants with a simple payback of 5 years or less.

  19. Energy-Saving Mechanism in WDM/TDM-PON Based on Upstream Network Traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Garfias

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the main challenges of Passive Optical Networks (PONs is the resource (bandwidth and wavelength management. Since it has been shown that access networks consume a significant part of the overall energy of the telecom networks, the resource management schemes should also consider energy minimization strategies. To sustain the increased bandwidth demand of emerging applications in the access section of the network, it is expected that next generation optical access networks will adopt the wavelength division/time division multiplexing (WDM/TDM technique to increase PONs capacity. Compared with traditional PONs, the architecture of a WDM/TDM-PON requires more transceivers/receivers, hence they are expected to consume more energy. In this paper, we focus on the energy minimization in WDM/TDM-PONs and we propose an energy-efficient Dynamic Bandwidth and Wavelength Allocation mechanism whose objective is to turn off, whenever possible, the unnecessary upstream traffic receivers at the Optical Line Terminal (OLT. We evaluate our mechanism in different scenarios and show that the proper use of upstream channels leads to relevant energy savings. Our proposed energy-saving mechanism is able to save energy at the OLT while maintaining the introduced penalties in terms of packet delay and cycle time within an acceptable range. We might highlight the benefits of our proposal as a mechanism that maximizes the channel utilization. Detailed implementation of the proposed algorithm is presented, and simulation results are reported to quantify energy savings and effects on network performance on different network scenarios.

  20. Estimating the cost of saving electricity through U.S. utility customer-funded energy efficiency programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, Ian M.; Goldman, Charles A.; Rybka, Gregory; Leventis, Greg; Schwartz, Lisa; Sanstad, Alan H.; Schiller, Steven

    2017-01-01

    The program administrator and total cost of saved energy allow comparison of the cost of efficiency across utilities, states, and program types, and can identify potential performance improvements. Comparing program administrator cost with the total cost of saved energy can indicate the degree to which programs leverage investment by participants. Based on reported total costs and savings information for U.S. utility efficiency programs from 2009 to 2013, we estimate the savings-weighted average total cost of saved electricity across 20 states at $0.046 per kilowatt-hour (kW h), comparing favorably with energy supply costs and retail rates. Programs targeted on the residential market averaged $0.030 per kW h compared to $0.053 per kW h for non-residential programs. Lighting programs, with an average total cost of $0.018 per kW h, drove lower savings costs in the residential market. We provide estimates for the most common program types and find that program administrators and participants on average are splitting the costs of efficiency in half. More consistent, standardized and complete reporting on efficiency programs is needed. Differing definitions and quantification of costs, savings and savings lifetimes pose challenges for comparing program results. Reducing these uncertainties could increase confidence in efficiency as a resource among planners and policymakers. - Highlights: • The cost of saved energy allows comparisons among energy resource investments. • Findings from the most expansive collection yet of total energy efficiency program costs. • The weighted average total cost of saved electricity was $0.046 for 20 states in 2009–2013. • Averages in the residential and non-residential sectors were $0.030 and $0.053 per kW h, respectively. • Results strongly indicate need for more consistent, reliable and complete reporting on efficiency programs.

  1. Development of an Energy-Savings Calculation Methodology for Residential Miscellaneous Electric Loads: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendron, R.; Eastment, M.

    2006-08-01

    In order to meet whole-house energy savings targets beyond 50% in residential buildings, it will be essential that new technologies and systems approaches be developed to address miscellaneous electric loads (MELs). These MELs are comprised of the small and diverse collection of energy-consuming devices found in homes, including what are commonly known as plug loads (televisions, stereos, microwaves), along with all hard-wired loads that do not fit into other major end-use categories (doorbells, security systems, garage door openers). MELs present special challenges because their purchase and operation are largely under the control of the occupants. If no steps are taken to address MELs, they can constitute 40-50% of the remaining source energy use in homes that achieve 60-70% whole-house energy savings, and this percentage is likely to increase in the future as home electronics become even more sophisticated and their use becomes more widespread. Building America (BA), a U.S. Department of Energy research program that targets 50% energy savings by 2015 and 90% savings by 2025, has begun to identify and develop advanced solutions that can reduce MELs.

  2. Energy consumption optimization of a continuous ice cream process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    González-Ramírez, J.E.; Leducq, D.; Arellano, M.; Alvarez, G.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • This work investigates potential energy savings of an ice cream freezer. • From a full load compressor to a variable speed compressor one in freezer. • 30% less of energy consumption. • It is possible to save between 11 and 14 MWh per year by optimizing freezers. - Abstract: This work investigates potential energy saves in an ice cream freezer by using a variable speed compressor and optimization’s methodology for operating conditions during the process. Two configurations to control the refrigeration capacity were analyzed, the first one, modifies the pressure through the pilot control valve (conventional refrigeration system) and the second one with a variable speed compressor, both with a float expansion valve. Variable speed compressor configuration has showed the highest coefficient of performance and around of 30% less of energy consumption than the conventional one. The optimization of operating conditions in order to minimize the energy consumption is also presented. It was calculated only in France, for all ice cream and sorbet production, it is possible to save energy between 11 and 14 MWh per year by optimizing the operation of the refrigeration system through a variable speed compressor configuration

  3. Valuing energy-saving measures in residential buildings. A choice experiment study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwak, So-Yoon; Kwak, Seung-Jun [Department of Economics, Korea University, 5-1 Anam-Dong, Seoul 136-701 (Korea); Yoo, Seung-Hoon [Department of International Area Studies, Hoseo University, 268 Anseo-Dong, Cheonan, Chungnam 330-713 (Korea)

    2010-01-15

    Air-conditioning and heating energy-saving measures can cut back the usage of energy. This paper attempts to apply a choice experiment in evaluating the consumer's willingness to pay (WTP) for air-conditioning and heating energy-saving measures in Korea's residential buildings. We consider the trade-offs between price and three attributes of energy-saving (window, facade, and ventilation) for selecting a preferred alternative and derive the marginal WTP (MWTP) estimate for each attribute. We also try to test irrelevant alternatives property for the estimation model holds and compare the estimation results of the multinomial logit (MNL) and the nested logit (NL) models. The NL model outperforms the MNL model. The NL model show that MWTPs for increasing the number of glasses and their variety, for increasing the thickness of facade for 1 mm, and for establishing a ventilation system are KRW 17,392 (USD 18.2), 1,112 (1.2), and 11,827 (12.4), respectively. Overall, the potential consumers have significant amount of WTP. (author)

  4. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for Cement Making. An ENERGY STAR Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galitsky, Christina; Worrell, Ernst; Galitsky, Christina

    2008-01-01

    The cost of energy as part of the total production costs in the cement industry is significant, warranting attention for energy efficiency to improve the bottom line. Historically, energy intensity has declined, although more recently energy intensity seems to have stabilized with the gains. Coal and coke are currently the primary fuels for the sector, supplanting the dominance of natural gas in the 1970s. Most recently, there is a slight increase in the use of waste fuels, including tires. Between 1970 and 1999, primary physical energy intensity for cement production dropped 1 percent/year from 7.3 MBtu/short ton to 5.3 MBtu/short ton. Carbon dioxide intensity due to fuel consumption and raw material calcination dropped 16 percent, from 609 lb. C/ton of cement (0.31 tC/tonne) to 510 lb. C/ton cement (0.26 tC/tonne). Despite the historic progress, there is ample room for energy efficiency improvement. The relatively high share of wet-process plants (25 percent of clinker production in 1999 in the U.S.) suggests the existence of a considerable potential, when compared to other industrialized countries. We examined over 40 energy efficient technologies and measures and estimated energy savings, carbon dioxide savings, investment costs, and operation and maintenance costs for each of the measures. The report describes the measures and experiences of cement plants around the wold with these practices and technologies. Substantial potential for energy efficiency improvement exists in the cement industry and in individual plants. A portion of this potential will be achieved as part of (natural) modernization and expansion of existing facilities, as well as construction of new plants in particular regions. Still, a relatively large potential for improved energy management practices exists.

  5. Evaluation of Missed Energy Saving Opportunity Based on Illinois Home Performance Program Field Data: Homeowner Selected Upgrades Versus Cost-Optimized Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yee, S. [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, Chicago, IL (United States); Milby, M. [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, Chicago, IL (United States); Baker, J. [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Expanding on previous research by PARR, this study compares measure packages installed during 800 Illinois Home Performance with ENERGY STAR® (IHP) residential retrofits to those recommended as cost-optimal by Building Energy Optimization (BEopt) modeling software. In previous research, cost-optimal measure packages were identified for 15 Chicagoland single family housing archetypes. In the present study, 800 IHP homes are first matched to one of these 15 housing groups, and then the average measures being installed in each housing group are modeled using BEopt to estimate energy savings. For most housing groups, the differences between recommended and installed measure packages is substantial. By comparing actual IHP retrofit measures to BEopt-recommended cost-optimal measures, missed savings opportunities are identified in some housing groups; also, valuable information is obtained regarding housing groups where IHP achieves greater savings than BEopt-modeled, cost-optimal recommendations. Additionally, a measure-level sensitivity analysis conducted for one housing group reveals which measures may be contributing the most to gas and electric savings. Overall, the study finds not only that for some housing groups, the average IHP retrofit results in more energy savings than would result from cost-optimal, BEopt recommended measure packages, but also that linking home categorization to standardized retrofit measure packages provides an opportunity to streamline the process for single family home energy retrofits and maximize both energy savings and cost effectiveness.

  6. Promoting energy-saving and environmentally friendly generation dispatching model in China: Phase development and case studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Yi; Yang, Hongliang

    2013-01-01

    Energy saving and environmental protection are important conditions for the sustainable development of Chinese economy. However current widely used generation scheduling model based on predefined production quota and tariff results in heavy energy consumption and severe environment pollution. From...... 2007, as concerns over energy shortage and environmental pollution, the Chinese authorities introduced the implementation of energy-saving generation dispatching model, which is an important approach to facilitating energy-saving and reduction of pollutant emission. The objective of implementing energy......-saving generation dispatching model is to prioritize the use of renewable energy resources and new power plants with high efficiency without compromising power system security and reliability. This paper analyzes the necessity and feasibility of implementing energy-efficient and environmentally friendly generation...

  7. Energy-saving framework for passive optical networks with ONU sleep/doze mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van, Dung Pham; Valcarenghi, Luca; Dias, Maluge Pubuduni Imali; Kondepu, Koteswararao; Castoldi, Piero; Wong, Elaine

    2015-02-09

    This paper proposes an energy-saving passive optical network framework (ESPON) that aims to incorporate optical network unit (ONU) sleep/doze mode into dynamic bandwidth allocation (DBA) algorithms to reduce ONU energy consumption. In the ESPON, the optical line terminal (OLT) schedules both downstream (DS) and upstream (US) transmissions in the same slot in an online and dynamic fashion whereas the ONU enters sleep mode outside the slot. The ONU sleep time is maximized based on both DS and US traffic. Moreover, during the slot, the ONU might enter doze mode when only its transmitter is idle to further improve energy efficiency. The scheduling order of data transmission, control message exchange, sleep period, and doze period defines an energy-efficient scheme under the ESPON. Three schemes are designed and evaluated in an extensive FPGA-based evaluation. Results show that whilst all the schemes significantly save ONU energy for different evaluation scenarios, the scheduling order has great impact on their performance. In addition, the ESPON allows for a scheduling order that saves ONU energy independently of the network reach.

  8. An entry and exit model on the energy-saving investment strategy with real options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Tyrone T.; Huang, S.-L.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an improved decision model based on the real options approach presented by for the firms that have not yet established energy-saving equipment under the entry and exit strategies. Furthermore, the proposed model takes account of the inevitable equipment renewal and the occurrence of unexpected events under the Poisson jump process. The timing for terminating an investment when continuous operations of that business are unprofitable is also explored to realize the optimal timing of implementing the energy-saving strategy. The future discounted benefit B follows the geometric Brownian motion with the Poisson jump process and the replacement of investment equipment. A numerical analysis is followed by a sensitivity study of various parameters to better realize their impacts on the entry and exit thresholds. The results show that for the jump case, the higher probability of occurrence of unfavorable events will result in a higher entry threshold and lower exit threshold. Investors are forced to request higher benefit thresholds to cover the higher probability of losses brought by unfavorable events.

  9. Missouri Agricultural Energy Saving Team-A Revolutionary Opportunity (MAESTRO)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McIntosh, Jane [MDA; Schumacher, Leon [University of Missouri

    2014-10-23

    The Missouri Agricultural Energy Saving Team-A Revolutionary Opportunity (MAESTRO) program brought together a team of representatives from government, academia, and private industry to enhance the availability of energy efficiency services for small livestock producers in the State of Missouri. The Missouri Department of Agriculture (MDA) managed the project via a subcontract with the University of Missouri (MU), College of Agriculture Food and Natural Resources, MU Extension, the MU College of Human Environmental Sciences, the MU College of Engineering, and the Missouri Agricultural and Small Business Development Authority (MASBDA). MU teamed with EnSave, Inc, a nationally-recognized expert in agricultural energy efficiency to assist with marketing, outreach, provision of farm energy audits and customer service. MU also teamed with independent home contractors to facilitate energy audits of the farm buildings and homes of these livestock producers. The goals of the project were to: (1) improve the environment by reducing fossil fuel emissions and reducing the total energy used on small animal farms; (2) stimulate the economy of local and regional communities by creating or retaining jobs; and (3) improve the profitability of Missouri livestock producers by reducing their energy expenditures. Historically, Missouri scientists/engineers conducted programs on energy use in agriculture, such as in equipment, grain handling and tillage practices. The MAESTRO program was the first to focus strictly on energy efficiency associated with livestock production systems in Missouri and to investigate the applicability and potential of addressing energy efficiency in animal production from a building efficiency perspective. A. Project Objectives The goal of the MAESTRO program was to strengthen the financial viability and environmental soundness of Missouri's small animal farms by helping them implement energy efficient technologies for the production facility, farm

  10. Generation of useful energy from process fluids using the biphase turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helgeson, N. L.

    1981-01-01

    The six largest energy consuming industries in the United States were surveyed to determine the energy savings that could result from applying the Biphase turbine to industrial process streams. A national potential energy savings of 58 million barrels of oil per year (technical market) was identified. This energy is recoverable from flashing gas liquid process streams and is separate and distinct from exhaust gas waste heat recovery. The industries surveyed in this program were the petroleum chemical, primary metals, paper and pulp, stone-clay-glass, and food. It was required to determine the applicability of the Biphase turbine to flashing operations connected with process streams, to determine the energy changes associated with these flashes if carried out in a Biphase turbine, and to determine the suitability (technical and economical feasibility) of applying the Biphase turbine to these processes.

  11. Incentives for Energy Saving and Renewable Energy in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cace, J.

    2008-01-01

    Energy saving and renewable energy are again on the Dutch political agenda. Based on the governmental energy report, market parties have developed the action plan for the realisation of national renewable energy targets. The evaluation of recently closed subsidy programmes and development of new incentives take place in close cooperation among governmental organisations and market parties. For the financing of the action plan the government has reserved the budget up to 2011. The government believes that the implementation of energy efficiency and renewable energy will strengthen the national economy and that the benefits of these measures will exceed the costs. The main obstacles related to the implementation of a large scale wind power generation are: spatial integration, permits and connection to the grid. Also, the large scale biomass plants meet problems because of the lack of clear environmental and sustainability criteria. The Dutch targets for 2020 are: increasing of energy efficiency with 20%, 20% renewable energy and decreasing of CO 2 -emissions with 30%.(author)

  12. A Novel Sensor Platform Matching the Improved Version of IPMVP Option C for Measuring Energy Savings

    OpenAIRE

    Tseng, Yen-Chieh; Lee, Da-Sheng; Lin, Cheng-Fang; Chang, Ching-Yuan

    2013-01-01

    It is easy to measure energy consumption with a power meter. However, energy savings cannot be directly computed by the powers measured using existing power meter technologies, since the power consumption only reflects parts of the real energy flows. The International Performance Measurement and Verification Protocol (IPMVP) was proposed by the Efficiency Valuation Organization (EVO) to quantify energy savings using four different methodologies of A, B, C and D. Although energy savings can be...

  13. Trend of Energy Saving in Electronic Devices for Research and Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmayanti R.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In electronic industry, energy saving is one of the performance indicators of competitiveness beside price, speed, bandwidth and reliability. This affects research and development (R&D activity in mechatronic systems which uses electronic components and electronic systems. A review of trend of electronic devices technology development has been conducted with focus on energy saving. This review includes electronic devices, semiconductor, and nanotechnology. It can be concluded that the trend in electronic devices is mainly dictated by semiconductor technology development. The trend can be concluded as smaller size, lower voltage leading to energy saving, less heat, higher speed, more reliable, and cheaper. In accordance to such technology development, R&D activities in mechatronics especially in Indonesia is being pushed to make proper alignment.Some of such alignment actions are surface mount technology (SMT for installing surface mount devices components (SMD, design layout and SMD troubleshooting tools as well as human resources training and development.

  14. Heat Saving Strategies in Sustainable Smart Energy Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Lund

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates to which extent heat should be saved rather than produced and to which extent district heating infrastructures, rather than individual heating solutions, should be used in future sustainable smart energy systems. Based on a concrete proposal to implement the Danish governmental 2050 fossil-free vision, this paper identifies marginal heat production costs and compares these to marginal heat savings costs for two different levels of district heating. A suitable least-cost heating strategy seems to be to invest in an approximately 50% decrease in net heat demands in new buildings and buildings that are being renovated anyway, while the implementation of heat savings in buildings that are not being renovated hardly pays. Moreover, the analysis points in the direction that a least-cost strategy will be to provide approximately 2/3 of the heat demand from district heating and the rest from individual heat pumps.

  15. Impacts of Commercial Building Controls on Energy Savings and Peak Load Reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, Nicholas E.P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Katipamula, Srinivas [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wang, Weimin [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Xie, YuLong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Corbin, Charles D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-05-30

    Commercial buildings in the United States use about 18 Quadrillion British thermal units (Quads) of primary energy annually . Studies have shown that as much as 30% of building energy consumption can be avoided by using more accurate sensing, using existing controls better, and deploying advanced controls; hence, the motivation for the work described in this report. Studies also have shown that 10% to 20% of the commercial building peak load can be temporarily managed/curtailed to provide grid services. Although many studies have indicated significant potential for reducing the energy consumption in commercial buildings, very few have documented the actual savings. The studies that did so only provided savings at the whole building level, which makes it difficult to assess the savings potential of each individual measure deployed.

  16. Energy and water saving measures at the Arloev sugar mill. Final report; Energi- och vattenbesparande aatgaerder vid Arloevs Sockerbruk. Slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wamsler, M. [AAF-Processdesign AB, Malmoe (Sweden)

    2001-10-01

    The project comprised several, mutually dependent, sub-projects; mapping, investigation of ways to reduce water consumption, membrane tests aiming to find ways to recover sugar, and pinch analysis to evaluate the possibilities for improved process integration. This final report deals with the overall project results. Identified savings opportunities and savings potentials are presented. The presented measures represent an overall optimisation based on the results of all the project parts. Already during the project, measures have been implemented that are calculated to save 65 000 m{sup 3} water annually, corresponding to 10 % of the total water consumption. This saving is in level with the goals for the project. In the table below, these and additional measures are presented with a total savings potential at approximately 200 000 m{sup 3} /year water. The project will then achieve a saving of just below 35 % of present water consumption. Also in the membrane study the results surpassed the expectations. It was found that with nano filtering a sugar concentration of more than 10 %(W) could be reached in the retentate at a flux 50al/m{sup 2}h. The total sugar losses were less than 5 %, i.e. 95 % should be possible to recover. In total, a savings potential of more than 300 tonnes sugar per year is indicated. The Energy savings in the project are calculated to 7,4 GWh/year, of which 0,2 GWh/year by reduced water consumption, 0,6 GWh/year by water recovery, 1,4 GWh/year by membrane technology and 5,2aGWh/year as a result of process integration. This should be compared to the target 2,5 GWh/year. Hence, the results are almost three times the expected. The savings in monetary terms are estimated at just under SEK 5 million per year. The investment is roughly estimated at between SEK 5 and 6 million, of which SEK 4 million for the membrane equipment and SEK 0,5 million for a process water buffer tank. The remaining investment costs cover heat exchangers, control equipment

  17. Sustaining high energy efficiency in existing processes with advanced process integration technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Nan; Smith, Robin; Bulatov, Igor; Klemeš, Jiří Jaromír

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Process integration with better modelling and more advanced solution methods. ► Operational changes for better environmental performance through optimisation. ► Identification of process integration technology for operational optimisation. ► Systematic implementation procedure of process integration technology. ► A case study with crude oil distillation to demonstrate the operational flexibility. -- Abstract: To reduce emissions in the process industry, much emphasis has been put on making step changes in emission reduction, by developing new process technology and making renewable energy more affordable. However, the energy saving potential of existing systems cannot be simply ignored. In recent years, there have been significant advances in process integration technology with better modelling techniques and more advanced solution methods. These methods have been applied to the new design and retrofit studies in the process industry. Here attempts are made to apply these technologies to improve the environmental performance of existing facilities with operational changes. An industrial project was carried out to demonstrate the importance and effectiveness of exploiting the operational flexibility for energy conservation. By applying advanced optimisation technique to integrate the operation of distillation and heat recovery in a crude oil distillation unit, the energy consumption was reduced by 8% without capital expenditure. It shows that with correctly identified technology and the proper execution procedure, significant energy savings and emission reduction can be achieved very quickly without major capital expenditure. This allows the industry to improve its economic and environment performance at the same time.

  18. Energy saving innovations in residential buildings. Energiesparende Innovationen im Eigenheim

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruber, E; Meyer, T

    1983-01-01

    Socio-economic studies have been carried out in the course of the ''Landstuhl demonstration project'' with the aim of evaluating supporting and hampering factors for the realization of energy saving measures, especially for the use of innovation techniques and the use of passive solar energy in residential buildings. The results of two opinion polls have been presented by means of standardized personal interviews with building-owners (in the whole Federal Republic and in the demonstration area) and with building experts (264 persons questioned). The evaluations of the results of the opinion poll show that energy conservation plays an important but not a dominant part in the planning of residential buildings. In the ''Landstuhl area'' energy saving investments took an above-average high position (large impact of the demonstration project). The building-owners and experts most frequently wanted and recommended increased conventional measures. It could be shown that the imagination of the building-owners was asked too much when taking measures for the use of passive solar energy.

  19. Fiscal 1999 report on basic research for promotion of joint implementation programs. Basic research on energy saving for Sendzimira ironworks; 1999 nendo Sendzimira seitetsusho sho energy kihon chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    The energy consuming blast furnace, sintering mill, converter, and the steel mill of the above-named Polish ironworks are subjected to a survey pursuant to the COP3 (Third Session of the Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change) protocol. The in-house power station is also checked for total energy consumption. In parallel with energy profile investigation, feasibility is studied, from a macroscopic point of view, of introducing large exhaust heat recovery facilities and energy saving facilities into the ironmaking, steelmaking, and energy processes. It is then found that, as far as the energy profile is concerned, there is no problem to impede the implementation of the energy saving program when coal consumption is reduced at the in-house power station. As energy saving measures for the respective processes, top pressure recovery turbine installation, air heating furnace exhaust heat recovery, sintering cooler exhaust heat recovery, and converter exhaust gas recovery are suggested. When these measures are fully implemented, there will be an annual greenhouse gas reduction of 180,000 tons. Although profitable investment is near impossible now that energy price is so low, yet the project may realize if low interest loans are available. (NEDO)

  20. Offshore wind energy storage concept for cost-of-rated-power savings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin, Chao; Saunders, Gordon; Loth, Eric

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •Investigated CAES + HPT system concept for offshore wind energy; •Validated cost model for offshore wind farm including CAPEX and OPEX items; •Quantified cost-of-rated-power savings associated with CAES + HPT concept; •Estimated savings of 21.6% with CAES + HPT for a sample $2.92 billion project. -- Abstract: The size and number of off-shore wind turbines over the next decade is expected to rapidly increase due to the high wind energy potential and the ability of such farms to provide utility-scale energy. In this future, inexpensive and efficient on-site wind energy storage can be critical to address short-time (hourly) mismatches between wind supply and energy demand. This study investigates a compressed air energy storage (CAES) and hydraulic power transmission (HPT) system concept. To assess cost impact, the NREL Cost and Scaling Model was modified to improve accuracy and robustness for offshore wind farms with large turbines. Special attention was paid to the support structure, installation, electrical interface and connections, land leasing, and operations and maintenance cost items as well as specific increased/reduced costs reductions associated with CAES + HPT systems. This cost model was validated and applied to a sample $2.92 billion project Virginia Offshore case It was found that adaption of CAES + HPT can lead to a substantial savings of 21.6% of this 20-year lifetime cost by dramatically reducing capital and operating cost of the generator and power transmission components. However, there are several additional variables that can impact the off-shore energy policy and planning for this new CAES + HPT concept. Furthermore, these cost-savings are only first-order estimates based on linear mass-cost relationships, and thus detailed engineering and economic analysis are recommended.

  1. Breakthrough Energy Savings with Waterjet Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee W. Saperstein; R. Larry Grayson; David A. Summers; Jorge Garcia-Joo; Greg Sutton; Mike Woodward; T.P. McNulty

    2007-05-15

    Experiments performed at the University of Missouri-Rolla's Waterjet Laboratory have demonstrated clearly the ability of waterjets to disaggregate, in a single step, four different mineral ores, including ores containing iron, lead and copper products. The study focused mainly on galena-bearing dolomite, a lead ore, and compared the new technology with that of traditional mining and milling to liberate the valuable constituent for the more voluminous host rock. The technical term for the disintegration of the ore to achieve this liberation is comminution. The potential for energy savings if this process can be improved, is immense. Further, if this separation can be made at the mining face, then the potential energy savings include avoidance of transportation (haulage and hoisting) costs to move, process and store this waste at the surface. The waste can, instead, be disposed into the available cavities within the mine. The savings also include the elimination of the comminution, crushing and grinding, stages in the processing plant. Future prototype developments are intended to determine if high-pressure waterjet mining and processing can be optimized to become cheaper than traditional fragmentation by drilling and blasting and to optimize the separation process. The basic new mining process was illustrated in tests on two local rock types, a low-strength sandstone with hematite inclusions, and a medium to high-strength dolomite commonly used for construction materials. Illustrative testing of liberation of minerals, utilized a lead-bearing dolomite, and included a parametric study of the optimal conditions needed to create a size distribution considered best for separation. The target goal was to have 50 percent of the mined material finer than 100 mesh (149 microns). Of the 21 tests that were run, five clearly achieved the target. The samples were obtained as run-of-mine lumps of ore, which exhibited a great deal of heterogeneity within the samples. This

  2. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for Breweries: An ENERGY STAR(R) Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galitsky, Christina; Martin, Nathan; Worrell, Ernst; Lehman, Bryan

    2003-09-01

    Annually, breweries in the United States spend over $200 million on energy. Energy consumption is equal to 38 percent of the production costs of beer, making energy efficiency improvement an important way to reduce costs, especially in times of high energy price volatility. After a summary of the beer making process and energy use, we examine energy efficiency opportunities available for breweries. We provide specific primary energy savings for each energy efficiency measure based on case studies that have implemented the measures, as well as references to technical literature. If available, we have also listed typical payback periods. Our findings suggest that given available technology, there are still opportunities to reduce energy consumption cost-effectively in the brewing industry. Brewers value highly the quality, taste and drinkability of their beer. Brewing companies have and are expected to continue to spend capital on cost-effective energy conservation measures that meet these quality, taste and drinkability requirements. For individual plants, further research on the economics of the measures, as well as their applicability to different brewing practices, is needed to assess implementation of selected technologies.

  3. The application of fuzzy control on energy saving for multi-unit room air-conditioners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiou, C.B.; Chiou, C.H.; Chu, C.M.; Lin, S.L.

    2009-01-01

    Most research, on energy saving methods for air-conditioners have focused on large chillers as its subject. As most school offices, laboratories, and classrooms are equipped with unitary systems for air-conditioning, this paper discusses methods for energy savings with regard to unitary systems. This paper will put forward the fuzzy temperature control method for multi-unit air-conditioners to enhance energy efficiency. The results show that the use of fuzzy control is efficient for energy saving as well as causing temperature control be steadier, even if there is a change to the thermal loading, the fuzzy control system is able to control the air-conditioning in stable conditions

  4. Measuring the effect of procrastination and environmental awareness on households' energy-saving behaviours: An empirical approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lillemo, Shuling Chen

    2014-01-01

    A common finding in behavioural economics is that people often procrastinate, i.e., keep postponing planned tasks or decisions that require effort to execute. The effect of procrastination on inter-temporal energy choice behaviours could be even more serious because energy is an abstract, invisible and intangible commodity. This paper uses a web survey to investigate how people's procrastination propensity and environmental awareness affect their heating-energy-saving behaviours. The results indicate that people who state that they have a higher tendency to procrastinate are significantly less likely to have engaged in most of the heating energy-saving activities, especially regarding larger purchases or investments in equipment and the insulation of doors and windows. I also found a positive relationship between environmental awareness and engaging in everyday energy-saving activities such as reducing the indoor temperature. The findings suggest that measures aimed at reducing procrastination are needed to realise energy-saving potential. It is important to find ways to either bring future benefits closer to the present or to magnify the costs of delayed action. For example, one can employ certain feedback systems and commitment devices to make current gains and future costs more visible or tangible. - Highlights: • Norwegian online survey on factors affecting households' heating energy saving activities. • Identify the effect of procrastination and environmental awareness in energy saving decision making. • People with a higher tendency to procrastinate are less likely to engage in energy saving activities. • Procrastination can limit the positive effect of environmental awareness on energy saving. • Innovative behavioural measures are suggested to bring people's “energy saving plans or decisions” to action

  5. Energy saving vision in Miyazu City region (FY2000); Miyazushi chiiki sho energy vision (2000 nendo)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    An energy-saving vision was decided on in Miyazu City, Kyoto Prefecture, with its outline reported. The city promulgated the 'Miyazu City plan for the prevention of global warming' earlier this year, aiming at reduction in carbon dioxide exhaust by 25% in ten years ending 2010, and accordingly, also formulated the energy-saving vision on the basis of the plan. The measures with the citizens' life in mind were, for example, encouragement to participate in energy-saving monitor activity, publication of data of survey result, implementation of 'Miyazu eco-life school', support for citizens' voluntary action, utilization of public information/home pages, renewal of equipment and facilities, and preparation of performance/price data for new housing construction and so on. In addition, survey on actual condition, examination for improvements, etc., were among the measures intended for such sectors as hotels/inns, public transportation, manufacturing, and construction, and for the City administration itself. Furthermore, as measures to collaborate with energy suppliers, building an information exchange system is under consideration. (NEDO)

  6. Future of energy savings policy in Denmark (in Japanese)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen

    2007-01-01

    After a brief description of Denmark, its energy development and CO2 emission is outlined, especially in the years after 1973. Energy consumption within the country has remained almost constant, but including the country's large merchant fleet, energy consumption has grown by more than 50% to now...... 260 GJ annually per person. Danish energy saving policies with energy taxes, etc. are described. One important measure has been the use of heat from combined heat and power plants to heat buildings, which used to account for 40% of all energy consumption....

  7. Energy Savings Potential of Radiative Cooling Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, Nicholas [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wang, Weimin [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Alvine, Kyle J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Katipamula, Srinivas [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-11-30

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), with funding from the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Building Technologies Program (BTP), conducted a study to estimate, through simulation, the potential cooling energy savings that could be achieved through novel approaches to capturing free radiative cooling in buildings, particularly photonic ‘selective emittance’ materials. This report documents the results of that study.

  8. Energy saving potential of energy services - experimentation on the life cycle of energy conversion equipment; Potentiel d'economies d'energie par les services energetiques - application au cycle de vie des equipements de conversion de l'energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupont, M

    2006-12-15

    Energy efficiency services are growing in Europe but their role is still limited. In order to evaluate the potential, we focused first of all on policy, economical and environmental mechanisms that support their development. European natural gas and electricity markets, that are now almost wholly de-regulated, are analysed and compared to their historical structure. By introducing uncertainty on energy prices, this new deal translates better the real energy costs. Energy performance contracts (EPC) limit the impact of these uncertainties on the customer energy bills by guaranteeing a financial result. As a result of the modelling of these contracts, namely operation and maintenance ones, we prove that they transfer technical and financial risks from building owners to energy service companies (ESCO) making energy saving measures easier and less expensive at the same time. These contracts are relatively widespread for heating or compressed-air processes but remain marginal for air-conditioning systems. So new methods were needed to guarantee on the long terms the efficiency of air-conditioning systems demand (1) to master the process and its performances and (2) to be able to determine precisely the energy saving potential and its realisation costs. A detailed energy audit is thus necessary for which we propose a guidance. Conclusions of audits carried out prove that energy saving potential is mainly located in equipment management and control. These optimizations are not always carried out because of a lack of contractual incentive and due to the weaknesses of audit methods. Through the involvement of an independent expert, the mandatory and regular inspection of air-conditioning systems may allow to verify and guide such practices. A three-step analysis procedure has been developed in order to maximize the inspection potential and to get higher benefits from service contracts. (author)

  9. Barriers for realisation of energy savings in buildings; Barrierer for realisering af energibesparelser i bygninger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, O.M.

    2004-07-01

    Many years' efforts within the energy labelling area have shown large saving potentials in heating and use of electricity in buildings. At the same time it has been proved that these saving potentials, even when economically advantageous, only are cashed to a limited extent. The reason to this is ascribed to barriers that meet the individual building owner who wants to start saving energy. Most barriers are known and a lot of these have been sought overcome for some time. The questions are how many barriers still exist, have new barriers arisen and the character of these barriers. On this background the objective of this survey has been to concretize and study the barriers, which are blocking reasonable energy savings. Focus has especially been on barriers for realisation of heating savings, but through a general evaluation of energy savings of barriers other forms of energy saving methods have been taken into consideration. Special interest has been directed towards houses, typically one family houses, which are affected by the Energy Labelling Scheme. The concept barriers include all kinds of barriers, also barriers that not are acknowledged as barriers by the individual house owner, or that on closer inspection turn out to be something else than actual barriers. This note suggests an alternative inertia model, in order to create an idea of the inertness characteristic of the many house owners who understand the message but fail to act on it. (BA)

  10. Reduce energy use and greenhouse gas emissions from global dairy processing facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Tengfang, E-mail: ttxu@lbl.go [International Energy Studies Group, Environmental Energy Technologies Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Flapper, Joris [International Energy Studies Group, Environmental Energy Technologies Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Centre for Energy and Environmental Studies, University of Groningen, IVEM, Nijenborgh 4, 9747, AG Groningen (Netherlands)

    2011-01-15

    Global butter, concentrated milk, and milk powder products use approximately 15% of annual raw milk production. Similar to cheese and fluid milk, dairy processing of these products can be energy intensive. In this paper, we analyzed production and energy data compiled through extensive literature reviews on butter, concentrated milk, milk and whey powder processing across various countries and plants. Magnitudes of national final and primary specific energy consumption (SEC) exhibited large variations across dairy products; in addition, the final SEC of individual plants and products exhibited significant variations within a country and between countries. Furthermore, we quantified national energy intensity indicators (EIIs) accounting for dairy product mixes and technological advancement. The significant variations of SEC and EII values indicate a high degree of likelihood that there is significant potential for energy savings in the global dairy processing industry. Based upon the study samples, we estimate potential energy savings for dairy processing industry in selected countries, and estimates annual reduction of 9-14 million metric-ton carbon-equivalent could be achieved if measures are implemented to lower SEC values by 50-80% in half of global dairy plants. The paper calls for publication of more energy data from the dairy processing industry. - Research highlights: {yields} The specific energy consumption exhibited large variations across dairy products, plants, and countries. {yields} National energy intensity indicators also exhibited significant variations. {yields} There is a large global potential for energy savings and carbon reduction in dairy processing plants. {yields} The paper calls for publication of more energy data from the dairy processing industry.

  11. Controlled ventilation in gas-heated low-energy houses. Primary energy savings in regard to the users behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luedemann, B.; Schmitz, G.

    1999-01-01

    With the introduction of the energy savings regulation in Germany (ESVO) low-energy buildings will be the standard for new buildings at the turn of the millennium. The heating energy demand will sink around 30 % facing the actual standard. Systems for controlled Ventilation with heat-recovery are often regarded as an essential component to achieve the low-energy standard for buildings. The quota of the ventilation losses in high insulated buildings is up to far over 50 % of the heating energy demand. However, in practice ventilation systems often do not achieve the calculated energy-savings on the heat requirement. Until now, both technical defects of ventilation systems and the tightness of buildings are at the centre of discussion dealing with this problem. Therefore, in a common research project of three gas supply companies, an electricity distribution company and the Department of Technical Thermodynamics at the TUHH, the bandwidth of the possible energy-savings by ventilation systems with heat recovery was investigated by dynamic simulation of the thermal behaviour of buildings and ventilation systems. Above all, the question of the influence of the user behaviour was at the centre of attention. (author)

  12. Energy/bandwidth-Saving Cooperative Spectrum Sensing for Two-hopWRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Tuo Zhou

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A two-hop wireless regional area network (WRAN providing monitoring services operating in Television White Space (TVWS, i.e., IEEE P802.22b, may employ a great number of subscriber customer-premises equipments (S-CPEs possibly without mains power supply, leading to requirement of cost-effective and power-saving design. This paper proposes a framework of cooperative spectrum sensing (CSS and an energy/bandwidth saving CSS scheme to P802.22b. In each round of sensing, S-CPEs with SNRs lower than a predefined threshold are excluded from reporting sensing results. Numerical results show that the fused missed-detection probability and false alarmprobability could remainmeeting sensing requirements, and the overall fused error probability changes very little. With 10 S-CPEs, it is possible to save more than 40% of the energy/bandwidth on a Rayleigh channel. The principle proposed can apply to other advanced sensing technologies capable of detecting primary signals with low average SNR.

  13. Energy booklet. Energy saving tips for more pocket money and environment. Booklet 2; EnergieSparFibel. EnergieSparTipps fuer mehr Taschengeld und Umwelt. Heft 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    The effective environmental protection begins when saving. Energy which is not used at all also cannot burden the environment. Pleasant side effect: also the purse is treated gently. One of the most important measures for the reduction of energy consumption is the correct thermal insulation of a building so that heating energy cannot escape unused in the free. Thus, between 50 and 75 per cent of energy can be saved. Investments within this range usually are profitable already after a short time. The utilization of damming materials from regenerative raw materials enables application of financial incentives. In addition, within other ranges of the house modernizations and a change of the behaviour of utilization help to save energy. The contribution under consideration gives advices in order to improve dwellings energy-technically. The environment and the purse will thank it.

  14. Saving more to consume more. EDF's communication ambiguities during the energy saving era

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouvier, Yves

    2012-01-01

    Since 1974, EDF is placed between a communication scheme imposed for energy savings and an industrial strategy of massive investment in nuclear power. In ten years, the company managed to increase households electricity consumption without advertising, due in particular to electric heating. But strong tensions were generated by this situation and led the company to develop an institutional communication to the employees and to the general public

  15. SWEEP - Save Water & Energy Education Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, Gregory P.; Elliott, Douglas B.; Hillman, Tim C.; Hadley, Adam; Ledbetter, Marc R.; Payson, David R.

    2001-05-03

    The objective of this study was to develop, monitor, analyze, and report on an integrated resource-conservation program highlighting efficient residential appliances and fixtures. The sites of study were 50 homes in two water-constrained communities located in Oregon. The program was designed to maximize water savings to these communities and to serve as a model for other communities seeking an integrated approach to energy and water resource efficiency. The program included the installation and in-place evaluation of energy- and water-efficient devices including the following: horizontal axis clothes washers (and the matching clothes dryers), resource-efficient dishwashers, an innovative dual flush low-flow toilet, low-flow showerheads, and faucet aerators. The significance of this activity lies in its integrated approach and unique metering evaluation of individual end-use, aggregated residential total use, and system-wide energy and water benefits.

  16. Effective and persistent changes in household energy-saving behaviors: Evidence from post-tsunami Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimi, Toshio; Kajitani, Yoshio; Chang, Stephanie E.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Some households’ adaptations to electricity shortage can be new efficient habits. • The electricity shortage in Japan was used as a natural experiment. • Some behaviors contributed to 2–4% electricity savings and persisted for two years. • Behaviors requiring frequency and discomfort cannot be effective or persistent. • Lowering the electricity-usage level of appliances might be a promising behavior. - Abstract: This paper focuses on households’ development of new energy-efficient habits as demonstrated in the context of a major electricity shortfall event. Energy conservation policies should encourage households to take measures that are actually effective in reducing energy consumption and that can be sustained over long periods of time. Few studies, however, have empirically examined what types of energy-saving measures are actually effective and persistent. The electricity shortages following the 2011 Great East Japan earthquake, tsunami, and nuclear disaster provided an opportunity to examine this question. A web survey of households in Japan was implemented to obtain data on metered electricity use in the summers of 2010–2013, household behaviors for electricity savings, and household socioeconomic attributes. Regression analysis was conducted to explain the effectiveness and persistence of energy saving behaviors. Results indicate that most households took several electricity-saving measures after the disaster to adapt to the electricity shortage. Certain types of measures led to 2–4% savings in electricity consumption (per measure) and persisted for two years. The effective and persistent electricity-saving measures tended to be those that did not require either frequent efforts or considerable discomfort. Findings suggest that electricity-saving behaviors requiring infrequent effort and little discomfort can become engrained as new habits or lifestyles. In particular, one promising measure may be to lower the electricity

  17. Evaluation of Savings in Energy-Efficient Public Housing in the Pacific Northwest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, A. [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction (BA-PIRC), Cocoa, FL (United States); Lubliner, M. [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction (BA-PIRC), Cocoa, FL (United States); Howard, L. [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction (BA-PIRC), Cocoa, FL (United States); Kunkle, R. [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction (BA-PIRC), Cocoa, FL (United States)

    2013-10-01

    This report presents the results of an energy performance and cost-effectiveness analysis. The Salishan phase 7 and demonstration homes were compared to Salishan phase 6 homes built to 2006 Washington State Energy Code specifications 2. Predicted annual energy savings (over Salishan phase 6) was 19% for Salishan phase 7, and between 19-24% for the demonstration homes (depending on ventilation strategy). Approximately two-thirds of the savings are attributable to the DHP. Working with the electric utility provider, Tacoma Public Utilities, researchers conducted a billing analysis for Salishan phase 7.

  18. FY 2000 Project report on survey for drawing district energy-saving visions for City of Oguchi; 2000 nendo Oguchi-shi chiiki sho energy vision sakutei nado jigyo chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-02-01

    The energy-saving visions are drawn for City of Oguchi to help spread the energy-saving practices through the citizens, based on the studies on more efficient and realizable energy-saving measures, including effective utilization of district energy. The energy-saving activities cover the following 6 areas: (1) energy demand trends and current status of energy-saving measures, (2) basic environmental conditions related to energy saving in the district, (3) prediction of energy demands, (4) basic conception of the district energy saving, and introduction methodology, (5) energy-saving implementation plans, and (6) promotion of and problems involved in introduction of the energy-saving measures. The energy-saving implementation plans cover the public facilities, household, schools and private enterprises, and the energy-saving measures studied for the public facilities include introduction of microhydroelectric power generation systems for service water and sewer systems, revolving doors for libraries, high-efficiency illumination systems, and various types of solar systems. Those for household include economic utilization of home electric appliances and automobiles, and those for cooperation by the administration and citizens include thorough separation of garbage. (NEDO)

  19. Uncertainty in Odyssee indicators and energy savings. Development of a methodology and first results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boonekamp, P.G.M.; Gerdes, J. [ECN Policy Studies, Petten (Netherlands); Faberi, S. [Institute of Studies for the Integration of Systems ISIS, Rome (Italy)

    2013-12-15

    The ODYSSEE database on energy efficiency indicators (www.odyssee-indicators.org) has been set up to enable the monitoring and evaluation of realised energy efficiency improvements and related energy savings. The database covers the 27 EU countries as well as Norway and Croatia. Energy indicators that relate energy consumption to a physical output (ton of steel), a performance (person-km driven per car) or the number of energy using devices (refrigerators) can show the increase in energy efficiency realised, and the amount of energy saved. By aggregating indicators, Odyssee calculates energy efficiency indices by sector and for the whole economy (so-called ODEX), in order to evaluate overall energy efficiency progress. This work contributes to the growing need for quantitative monitoring and evaluation of the impacts of energy policies and measures, both at the EU and national level, e.g. due to the Energy Service Directive. Because of the central role of Odyssee indicators in policy evaluations it becomes more important to know how reliable the Odyssee figures are, or in other words, what is the uncertainty margin for the indicator values and the related savings. This report presents a first analysis of uncertainty margins in the indicators and savings figures. The work builds on earlier work in the preceding Odyssee project with regard to the quality of input data used in Odyssee.

  20. Evaluation of Missed Energy Saving Opportunity Based on Illinois Home Performance Program Field Data: Homeowner Selected Upgrades Versus Cost-Optimized Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yee, S.; Milby, M.; Baker, J.

    2014-06-01

    Expanding on previous research by PARR, this study compares measure packages installed during 800 Illinois Home Performance with ENERGY STAR(R) (IHP) residential retrofits to those recommended as cost-optimal by Building Energy Optimization (BEopt) modeling software. In previous research, cost-optimal measure packages were identified for fifteen Chicagoland single family housing archetypes, called housing groups. In the present study, 800 IHP homes are first matched to one of these fifteen housing groups, and then the average measures being installed in each housing group are modeled using BEopt to estimate energy savings. For most housing groups, the differences between recommended and installed measure packages is substantial. By comparing actual IHP retrofit measures to BEopt-recommended cost-optimal measures, missed savings opportunities are identified in some housing groups; also, valuable information is obtained regarding housing groups where IHP achieves greater savings than BEopt-modeled, cost-optimal recommendations. Additionally, a measure-level sensitivity analysis conducted for one housing group reveals which measures may be contributing the most to gas and electric savings. Overall, the study finds not only that for some housing groups, the average IHP retrofit results in more energy savings than would result from cost-optimal, BEopt recommended measure packages, but also that linking home categorization to standardized retrofit measure packages provides an opportunity to streamline the process for single family home energy retrofits and maximize both energy savings and cost-effectiveness.

  1. Energy efficiency monitoring and economic analysis for energy saving potential in UNITEN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M Reyasudin Basir; Jidin, Razali; Yew, Kang Chin; Shaaya, Sharifah Azwa; Pasupuleti, Jagadeesh

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses on energy efficiency survey for typical buildings in Universiti Tenaga Nasional (UNITEN). Undeniably, wastage of energy will cause the increase of operation cost and depletion of fossil fuel resources which contributes to the climate change issue in the world. UNITEN was commenced in the late 1990s and most of the buildings in this university are not equipped with energy management system. Such system is the solution to reduce energy use while maximizing the comfort levels of the occupants. Disregard to the energy management system, the implementation of other energy saving measures is the main objective of this paper. By taking the right measures, the energy wastage in the buildings of this university can be reduced.

  2. Keys to the House: Unlocking Residential Savings With Program Models for Home Energy Upgrades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grevatt, Jim [Energy Futures Group (United States); Hoffman, Ian [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hoffmeyer, Dale [US Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    2017-07-05

    After more than 40 years of effort, energy efficiency program administrators and associated contractors still find it challenging to penetrate the home retrofit market, especially at levels commensurate with state and federal goals for energy savings and emissions reductions. Residential retrofit programs further have not coalesced around a reliably successful model. They still vary in design, implementation and performance, and they remain among the more difficult and costly options for acquiring savings in the residential sector. If programs are to contribute fully to meeting resource and policy objectives, administrators need to understand what program elements are key to acquiring residential savings as cost effectively as possible. To that end, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored a comprehensive review and analysis of home energy upgrade programs with proven track records, focusing on those with robustly verified savings and constituting good examples for replication. The study team reviewed evaluations for the period 2010 to 2014 for 134 programs that are funded by customers of investor-owned utilities. All are programs that promote multi-measure retrofits or major system upgrades. We paid particular attention to useful design and implementation features, costs, and savings for nearly 30 programs with rigorous evaluations of performance. This meta-analysis describes program models and implementation strategies for (1) direct install retrofits; (2) heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) replacement and early retirement; and (3) comprehensive, whole-home retrofits. We analyze costs and impacts of these program models, in terms of both energy savings and emissions avoided. These program models can be useful guides as states consider expanding their strategies for acquiring energy savings as a resource and for emissions reductions. We also discuss the challenges of using evaluations to create program models that can be confidently applied in

  3. Energy Savings Forecast of Solid-State Lighting in General Illumination Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penning, Julie [Navigant Consulting Inc., Washington, DC (United States); Stober, Kelsey [Navigant Consulting Inc., Washington, DC (United States); Taylor, Victor [Navigant Consulting Inc., Washington, DC (United States); Yamada, Mary [Navigant Consulting Inc., Washington, DC (United States)

    2016-09-01

    The DOE report, Energy Savings Forecast of Solid-State Lighting in General Illumination Applications, is a biannual report which models the adoption of LEDs in the U.S. general-lighting market, along with associated energy savings, based on the full potential DOE has determined to be technically feasible over time. This version of the report uses an updated 2016 U.S. lighting-market model that is more finely calibrated and granular than previous models, and extends the forecast period to 2035 from the 2030 limit that was used in previous editions.

  4. K2 Urbancorp, LLC.: Hot, Humid Climate Region 40+% Energy Savings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-08-13

    This case study describes a community of historically inspired energy efficient homes that met the 40% whole-house source energy savings by focusing primarily on tightening the building envelope and sealing ductwork.

  5. Energy saving in greenhouses can be obtained by energy balance-controlled screens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, N. E. (Univ. of Aarhus, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Dept. of Horticulture, Aarslev (Denmark)), e-mail: niels.andersson@agrsci.dk

    2011-03-15

    The energy screens in two greenhouses, one clad with double acrylic and one with single glass, were controlled by an energy balance model. The parameters in the model were heat transmission coefficients, air temperature in the greenhouse and outdoors, irradiance and a single constant for the solar energy efficiency. The energy consumption, screen movements and daily light integral were compared with a glass greenhouse in which the energy screens were controlled by irradiance. In the greenhouse with light-controlled screens the set point for opening and closing of the screens was 5 Wm-2. The energy-saving screens controlled by the energy balance model opened later and closed earlier than in the greenhouse with light-controlled screens. When using the energy balance model the energy saving was 14% for the glass greenhouse and 41% for the double acrylic greenhouse compared with the glass greenhouse with light-controlled screens. The air temperature was on average similar in the three greenhouses, but when the screens were controlled by energy balance the daily light integral was approximately 10% lower and the number of hours the screens were closed was prolonged with 35% for the glass-covered greenhouse and 25% for the double acrylic-covered greenhouse compared with the greenhouse with light-controlled screens. Energy peaks in connection with operation of the screens were not reduced. During the experiment Begonia elatior, Dendranthema grandiflora (Chrysanthemum), Hedera helix, Helianthus annuus, Gerbera jamesonii and Kalanchoe blossfeldiana were grown in the greenhouses. There was a trend in prolongation of the production time when the plants were grown in the glass greenhouse with energy balance control of the screens. A lower number of flowers or inflorescences were observed for some of the plant species produced in the greenhouses with energy balance-controlled screens

  6. Food Processing Contracts: Savings for Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Egmond-Pannell, Dorothy

    1983-01-01

    Food processing contracts between schools and food manufacturers can result in huge cost savings. Fairfax County, Virginia, is one of 30 "letter of credit" sites in a three-year study of alternatives. After one year it appears that schools can purchase more for the dollar in their local areas. (MD)

  7. Effectiveness of energy renovations : a reassessment based on actual consumption savings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Filippidou, F.; Nieboer, N.E.T.; Visscher, H.J.

    2018-01-01

    Energy renovations offer unique opportunities to increase the energy efficiency of the built environment and for the existing housing stock; they are the most important solution. Usually, energy savings are based on modeling calculations. However, recent research has shown that the predicted

  8. Nash Equilibrium of an Energy Saving Strategy with Dual Rate Transmission in Wireless Regional Area Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanqiang Huo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless regional area network (WRAN adopts centralized network architecture and is currently one of the most typical cognitive radio networks. In order to reduce the energy consumption of the communication networks with the constraint of spectrum resource utilization, a working sleep mechanism is introduced into the base station (BS, and a novel energy saving strategy with dual rate transmission is proposed. Combining the multiple-vacation queue and priority queue, using the quasi-birth-death process and the matrix-geometric solution method, we assess the average latency and the forced termination probability of secondary user packets, as well as the energy saving ratio and the channel utilization of system. Based on the revenue-expenditure structure, a profit function is built, and then the Nash equilibrium behavior and the socially optimal behavior are investigated. With the help of the particle swarm optimization, an intelligent optimization algorithm to search the socially optimal arrival rate of secondary user packets is presented. In order to unify the arrival rates of secondary user packets with Nash equilibrium and social optimization, a reasonable pricing policy is formulated. In addition, system experiments are carried out to verify the effectiveness of the energy saving strategy and the rationality of the pricing policy.

  9. Energy-saving technology choices by Dutch glasshouse firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pietola, K.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper estimates a sequence of energy-saving technology choices by Dutch glasshouse firms. The model allows for time-constant, firm-specific effects and serial correlation of errors and it is estimated on panel data over the period 1991¿1995. The unobserved error sequences are simulated in the

  10. Evaluation of energy efficiency options in steam assisted gravity drainage oil sands surface facilities via process integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carreon, Carlos E.; Mahmoudkhani, Maryam; Alva-Argaez, Alberto; Bergerson, Joule

    2015-01-01

    While new technologies are being developed for extracting unconventional oil, in the near term economic benefits and footprint reduction can be achieved by enhancing the energy efficiency of existing facilities. The objective of this work is to evaluate energy efficiency opportunities for in situ extraction of Canada's oil sands resource using pinch analysis. Modifications to an original plant design are analyzed in order to estimate utility savings beyond those obtained for the initial process configuration. The modifications explored in this paper are estimated to deliver energy savings of up to 6% beyond ‘business as usual’. This corresponds to GHG emissions reduction of approximately 5%. However, in some cases, this increase in energy savings comes at the cost of increasing demand for make-up water and volume of disposal water. Surplus generation of steam beyond heating requirements in the water treatment system leads to energy inefficiencies. Additional cost and energy savings are obtained by reducing or eliminating the use of glycol in the cooling circuit. - Highlights: • Pinch analysis performed for unconventional oil recovery process to identify inefficiencies. • Both the removal of pinch violations and process modifications lead to savings. • Effect of energy savings on water consumption for the process is considered. • Greenhouse gas emissions reduction and economic benefit are estimated for the studied cases

  11. Analysis and application of a novel three-dimensional energy-saving and emission-reduction dynamic evolution system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Guochang; Tian, Lixin; Sun, Mei; Fu, Min

    2012-01-01

    A novel three-dimensional energy-saving and emission-reduction chaotic system is proposed, which has not yet been reported in present literature. The system is established in accordance with the complicated relationship between energy-saving and emission-reduction, carbon emissions and economic growth. The dynamic behavior of the system is analyzed by means of Lyapunov exponents and bifurcation diagrams. With undetermined coefficient method, expressions of homoclinic orbits of the system are obtained. The Šilnikov theorem guarantees that the system has Smale horseshoes and the horseshoes chaos. Artificial neural network (ANN) is used to identify the quantitative coefficients in the simulation models according to the statistical data of China, and an empirical study of the real system is carried out with the results in perfect agreement with actual situation. It is found that the sooner and more perfect energy-saving and emission-reduction is started, the easier and sooner the maximum of the carbon emissions will be achieved so as to reduce carbon emissions and energy intensity. Numerical simulations are presented to demonstrate the results. -- Highlights: ► Use non-linear dynamical method to model the energy-saving and emission-reduction system. ► The energy-saving and emission-reduction attractor is obtained. ► Identify the unknown parameters of the energy-saving and emission-reduction system based on the statistical data. ► Evaluating the achievements of energy-saving and emission-reduction by the time-varying energy intensity calculation formula. ► Some statistical results based on the statistical data in China are presented, which are vivid and adherent to the reality.

  12. Microclimate design methods for energy-saving houses on various site conditions in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Min Kyeong

    2008-07-09

    A small area can have several different microclimates depending on how much sunlight, shade or wind are exposed on the area. Microclimate can be influenced by inclined terrain, surfaces, and 3-dimensionally geometry such as combinations of architectural elements and annex buildings. This study investigates microclimate modification for energy-saving using design elements of Korean traditional and passive house. Microclimate analysis method in this study enables to predict temporal and spatial variances in the building geometry. A combination of passive solar heating, cold wind blocking, indoor air circulation, natural ventilation cooling and shading etc, seasonally help to form a comfort condition with less energy consumption. The passive heating and cooling controls with microclimate modification are efficient to accomplish the energy efficiency in the building. This work includes the microclimate modifications of the high-performance designs, microclimate energy-saving methods, Passive House design methods, and common physical bases in energy simulation methods. For hot and humid summer in Korea, ventilation is beneficial for convective or evaporative cooling. The air flow through a building geometry is generated by differences in air temperature and pressure. The layout of surrounding buildings acts as barriers and diverts the flow into narrower. The resulted patterns of airflow are affected more by building geometry and orientation than by air speed. A novel simulation method combining multi-zone and CFD energy simulations is used to analyze energy-saving aspects in passive and microclimate design elements. EnergyPlus is a multi-zone energy simulation tool that uses a parameterization to simplify the energy-saving problem for each zone. However, the model is not appropriate to handle variations in the building geometry since it estimates only the average value for each volume. On the contrary, CFD method with subdivided grid units is more suitable to estimate

  13. Savings estimates for the ENERGY STAR (registered trademark) voluntary labeling program: 2001 status report; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webber, Carrie A.; Brown, Richard E.; Mahajan, Akshay; Koomey, Jonathan G.

    2002-01-01

    ENERGY STAR(Registered Trademark) is a voluntary labeling program designed to identify and promote energy-efficient products, buildings and practices. Operated jointly by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), ENERGY STAR labels exist for more than thirty products, spanning office equipment, residential heating and cooling equipment, commercial and residential lighting, home electronics, and major appliances. This report presents savings estimates for a subset of ENERGY STAR program activities, focused primarily on labeled products. We present estimates of the energy, dollar and carbon savings achieved by the program in the year 2000, what we expect in 2001, and provide savings forecasts for two market penetration scenarios for the period 2001 to 2020. The target market penetration forecast represents our best estimate of future ENERGY STAR savings. It is based on realistic market penetration goals for each of the products. We also provide a forecast under the assumption of 100 percent market penetration; that is, we assume that all purchasers buy ENERGY STAR-compliant products instead of standard efficiency products throughout the analysis period

  14. Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction (E-SMARRT): Precision Casting of Steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Von L. Richards

    2011-09-30

    This project addresses improvements in metal casting processes by reducing scrap and reducing the cost of production, due to scrap reduction from investment casting and yield improvement offered by lost foam casting as compared to no-bake or green sand molding. The objectives for the investment casting portion of the subtask are to improve knowledge of fracture toughness of mold shells and the sources of strength limiting flaws and to understand the effects of wax reclamation procedures on wax properties. Applying 'clean steel' approaches to pouring technology and cleanliness in investment casting of steel are anticipated to improve incoming materials inspection procedures as they affect the microstructure