WorldWideScience

Sample records for procedures wind river

  1. Wind River Watershed Restoration 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connolly, Patrick J.; Jezorek, Ian G. [U.S. Geological Survey

    2008-11-10

    During 2004, researchers from U.S. Geological Survey's Columbia River Research Laboratory (USGS-CRRL) collected temperature, flow, and habitat data to characterize physical habitat condition and variation within and among tributaries and mainstem sections in the Wind River subbasin. Juvenile salmonid population surveys were conducted within select study areas throughout the subbasin. We expanded our survey coverage of the mainstem Wind River to a reach in the vicinity of Carson National Fish Hatchery to assess effects of non-indigenous Chinook on native steelhead. These efforts add to a database of habitat and fish data collected in the Wind River since 1996. This research contributes to the Wind River Restoration Project, which includes active stream habitat restoration and monitoring of adult and juvenile steelhead populations. We maintained a network of 32 thermographs in the Wind River subbasin during 2004. Additionally, Underwood Conservation District provided us with data from seven thermographs that they maintained during 2004. Thermograph data are identifying areas with chronic high water temperatures and stream sections where high rates of warming are occurring. During 2004, water temperatures at 26 thermograph sites exceeded the 16 C limit for surface waters set by the Washington Department of Ecology. Water temperatures exceeded 20 C at five sites in the Trout Creek watershed. Our thermograph dataset includes information from as early as 1996 at some sites and has become a valuable long-term dataset, which will be crucial in determining bioenergetic relationships with habitat and life-histories. We have monitored salmonid populations throughout the Wind River subbasin by electrofishing and snorkeling. We electrofished four stream sections for population estimates during 2004. In these sections, and others where we simply collected fish without a population estimate, we tagged juvenile steelhead and Chinook salmon with Passive Integrated Transponder

  2. Tribal Wind Assessment by the Eastern Shoshone Tribe of the Wind River Reservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pete, Belvin; Perry, Jeremy W.; Stump, Raphaella Q.

    2009-08-28

    The Tribes, through its consultant and advisor, Distributed Generation Systems (Disgen) -Native American Program and Resources Division, of Lakewood CO, assessed and qualified, from a resource and economic perspective, a wind energy generation facility on tribal lands. The goal of this feasibility project is to provide wind monitoring and to engage in preproject planning activities designed to provide a preliminary evaluation of the technical, economic, social and environmental feasibility of developing a sustainable, integrated wind energy plan for the Eastern Shoshone and the Northern Arapahoe Tribes, who resides on the Wind River Indian Reservation. The specific deliverables of the feasibility study are: 1) Assessments of the wind resources on the Wind River Indian Reservation 2) Assessments of the potential environmental impacts of renewable development 3) Assessments of the transmission capacity and capability of a renewable energy project 4) Established an economic models for tribal considerations 5) Define economic, cultural and societal impacts on the Tribe

  3. Wind River Watershed Restoration: 1999 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connolly, Patrick J.

    2001-09-01

    This document represents work conducted as part of the Wind River Watershed Restoration Project during its first year of funding through the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). The project is a comprehensive effort involving public and private entities seeking to restore water quality and fishery resources in the basin through cooperative actions. Project elements include coordination, watershed assessment, restoration, monitoring, and education. Entities involved with implementing project components are the Underwood Conservation District (UCD), USDA Forest Service (USFS), U.S. Geological Survey--Columbia River Research Lab (USGS-CRRL), and WA Department of Fish & Wildlife (WDFW). Following categories given in the FY1999 Statement of Work, the broad categories, the related objectives, and the entities associated with each objective (lead entity in boldface) were as follows: Coordination--Objective 1: Coordinate the Wind River watershed Action Committee (AC) and Technical Advisory Committee (TAC) to develop a prioritized list of watershed enhancement projects. Monitoring--Objective 2: Monitor natural production of juvenile, smolt, and adult steelhead in the Wind River subbasin. Objective 3: Evaluate physical habitat conditions in the Wind River subbasin. Assessment--Objective 4: Assess watershed health using an ecosystem-based diagnostic model that will provide the technical basis to prioritize out-year restoration projects. Restoration--Objective 5: Reduce road related sediment sources by reducing road densities to less than 2 miles per square mile. Objective 6: Rehabilitate riparian corridors, flood plains, and channel morphology to reduce maximum water temperatures to less than 61 F, to increase bank stability to greater than 90%, to reduce bankfull width to depth ratios to less than 30, and to provide natural levels of pools and cover for fish. Objective 7: Maintain and evaluate passage for adult and juvenile steelhead at artificial barriers. Education

  4. Towards a generalization procedure for WRF mesoscale wind climatologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hahmann, Andrea N.; Casso, P.; Campmany, E.

    We present a method for generalizing wind climatologies generated from mesoscale model output (e.g. the Weather, Research and Forecasting (WRF) model.) The generalization procedure is based on Wind Atlas framework of WAsP and KAMM/WAsP, and been extensively in wind resources assessment in DTU Wind...... generalized wind climatologies estimated by the microscale model WAsP and the methodology presented here. For the Danish wind measurements the mean absolute error in the ‘raw’ wind speeds is 9.2%, while the mean absolute error in the generalized wind speeds is 4.1%. The generalization procedure has been...

  5. Eocene fluvial drainage patterns and their implications for uranium and hydrocarbon exploration in the Wind River Basin, Wyoming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeland, D.A.

    1978-01-01

    Paleocurrent maps of the fluvial lower Eocene Wind River Formation in the Wind River Basin of central Wyoming define promising uranium- and hydrocarbon-exploration target areas. The Wind River Formation is thought to have the greatest potential for uranium mineralization in areas where it includes arkosic channel sandstones derived from the granitic core of the Granite Mountains, as in the channel-sandstone bodies deposited in Eocene time by a 40-kilometer segment of the eastward-flowing paleo-Wind River that exended westward from near the town of Powder River on the east edge of the basin. Channel-sandstone bodies with a Granite Mountains source occur south of this segment of the paleo-Wind River and north of the Granite Mountains. The southwestern part of this area includes the Gas Hills uranium district, but the channel-sandstone bodies between the Gas Hills district and the 40-kilometer segment of the paleo-Wind River may also be mineralized. This area includes the southeasternmost part of the Wind River Basin southeast of Powder River and contains northeasterly trending channel-sandstone bodies derived from the Granite Mountains. Limited paleocurrent information from the margins of the Wind River Basin suggests that the paleo-Wind River in Paleocene time flowed eastward and had approximately the same location as the eastward-flowing paleo-Wind River of Eocene time. The channel-sandstone bodies of the paleo-Wind Rivers are potential hydrocarbon reservoirs, particularly where they are underlain or overlain by the organic-rich shale and siltstone of the Waltman Shale Member of the Fort Union Formation. If leaks of sulfur-containing gas have created a reducing environment in the Eocene paleo-Wind River channel-sandstone bodies, then I speculate that the areas of overlap of the channel-sandstone bodies and natural-gas fields in the underlying rocks may be particularly favorable areas in which to search for uranium deposits

  6. Eocene fluvial drainage patterns and their implications for uranium and hydrocarbon exploration in the Wind River Basin, Wyoming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeland, D.A.

    1975-01-01

    Paleocurrent maps of the fluvial early Eocene Wind River Formation in the Wind River Basin of central Wyoming define promising uranium and hydrocarbon exploration target areas. The Wind River Formation is thought to have the greatest potential for uranium mineralization in areas where it includes arkosic channel sandstones derived from the granitic core of the Granite Mountains as in the channel sandstones deposited by the 25-mile segment of the Eocene Wind River extending westward from near the town of Powder River on the east edge of the basin. Channel sandstones with a Granite Mountain source occur south of this segment of the Eocene Wind River and north of the Granite Mountains. The southwestern part of this area includes the Gas Hills uranium district but channel sandstones between the Gas Hills district and the 25-mile segment of the Eocene Wind River are potentially mineralized. This area includes the entire southeasternmost part of the Wind River Basin southeast of Powder River and contains northeasterly trending channel sandstones derived from the Granite Mountains. Limited paleocurrent information from the margins of the Wind River Basin suggests that the Paleocene Wind River flowed eastward and had approximately the same location as the eastward-flowing Eocene Wind River. If leaks of sulfur-containing gas have created a reducing environment in the Eocene Wind River channel sandstones, then I speculate that the areas of overlap of the channel sandstones and natural gas fields in the underlying rocks may be particularly favorable areas in which to search for uranium deposits. The channel sandstones of the Paleocene and Eocene Wind Rivers are potential hydrocarbon reservoirs, particularly where underlain or overlain by the organic-rich shale and siltstone of the Waltman Shale Member of the Fort Union Formation

  7. Wind River Watershed Restoration Project; Underwood Conservation District, Annual Report 2002-2003.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Jim

    2004-02-01

    The goal of the Wind River project is to preserve, protect and restore Wind River steelhead. In March, 1998, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed the steelhead of the lower Columbia as 'threatened' under the Endangered Species Act. In 1997, the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife rated the status of the Wind River summer run steelhead as critical. Due to the status of this stock, the Wind River summer steelhead have the highest priority for recovery and restoration in the state of Washington's Lower Columbia Steelhead Conservation Initiative. The Wind River Project includes four cooperating agencies. Those are the Underwood Conservation District (UCD), United States Geological Service (USGS), US Forest Service (USFS), and Washington State Department of Fish & Wildlife (WDFW). Tasks include monitoring steelhead populations (USGS and WDFW), Coordinating a Watershed Committee and Technical Advisory Group (UCD), evaluating physical habitat conditions (USFS and UCD), assessing watershed health (all), reducing road sediments sources (USFS), rehabilitating riparian corridors, floodplains, and channel geometry (UCD, USFS), evaluate removal of Hemlock Dam (USFS), and promote local watershed stewardship (UCD, USFS). UCD's major efforts have included coordination of the Wind River Watershed Committee and Technical Advisory Committee (TAC), water temperature and water chemistry monitoring, riparian habitat improvement projects, and educational activities. Our coordination work enables the local Watershed Committee and TAC to function and provide essential input to Agencies, and our habitat improvement work focuses on riparian revegetation. Water chemistry and temperature data collection provide information for monitoring watershed conditions and fish habitat, and are comparable with data gathered in previous years. Water chemistry information collected on Trout Creek should, with 2 years data, determine whether pH levels make conditions

  8. Wind River Watershed restoration: 1999 annual report; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connolly, Patrick J.

    2001-01-01

    This document represents work conducted as part of the Wind River Watershed Restoration Project during its first year of funding through the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). The project is a comprehensive effort involving public and private entities seeking to restore water quality and fishery resources in the basin through cooperative actions. Project elements include coordination, watershed assessment, restoration, monitoring, and education. Entities involved with implementing project components are the Underwood Conservation District (UCD), USDA Forest Service (USFS), U.S. Geological Survey-Columbia River Research Lab (USGS-CRRL), and WA Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW). Following categories given in the FY1999 Statement of Work, the broad categories, the related objectives, and the entities associated with each objective (lead entity in boldface) were as follows: Coordination-Objective 1: Coordinate the Wind River watershed Action Committee (AC) and Technical Advisory Committee (TAC) to develop a prioritized list of watershed enhancement projects. Monitoring-Objective 2: Monitor natural production of juvenile, smolt, and adult steelhead in the Wind River subbasin. Objective 3: Evaluate physical habitat conditions in the Wind River subbasin. Assessment-Objective 4: Assess watershed health using an ecosystem-based diagnostic model that will provide the technical basis to prioritize out-year restoration projects. Restoration-Objective 5: Reduce road related sediment sources by reducing road densities to less than 2 miles per square mile. Objective 6: Rehabilitate riparian corridors, flood plains, and channel morphology to reduce maximum water temperatures to less than 61 F, to increase bank stability to greater than 90%, to reduce bankfull width to depth ratios to less than 30, and to provide natural levels of pools and cover for fish. Objective 7: Maintain and evaluate passage for adult and juvenile steelhead at artificial barriers. Education

  9. Study of airborne gamma-ray spectrometer data procedures: Wind River Basin, Wyoming, Thermopolis Quadrangle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    This volume contains the following data from the Thermopolis Quadrangle, Wind River Basin, Wyoming: statistical summary tables; flight-line averages; geologic map units; geologic map with record locations; uranium mines and occurrences, uranium location map; eU symbol anomaly map; eU/eTh symbol anomaly map; eU/K symbol anomaly map; eTh symbol anomaly map; K symbol anomaly map; eU profile anomaly map; eU/eTh profile anomaly map; eU/K profile anomaly map; eTh profile anomaly map; K profile anomaly map; eTh/K profile anomaly map; preferred anomaly maps (4- and 7-point), combined 4- and 7-point preferred anomaly map; and stacked significance factor profiles

  10. Wind River Watershed Restoration, 2005-2006 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jezorek, Ian G.; Connolly, Patrick J.; Munz, Carrie [U.S. Geological Survey

    2008-11-10

    This report summarizes work completed by U.S. Geological Survey's Columbia River Research Laboratory (USGS-CRRL) in the Wind River subbasin during the period April 2005 through March 2006 under Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) contract 22095. During this period, we collected temperature, flow, and habitat data to characterize habitat condition and variation within and among tributaries and mainstem sections in the Wind River subbasin. We also conducted electrofishing and snorkeling surveys to determine juvenile salmonid populations within select study areas throughout the subbasin. Portions of this work were completed with additional funding from U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) and the Lower Columbia Fish Enhancement Group (LCFEG). A statement of work (SOW) was submitted to BPA in March 2005 that outlined work to be performed by USGS-CRRL. The SOW was organized by work elements, with each describing a research task. This report summarizes the progress completed under each work element.

  11. Surface Wind Gust Statistics at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, A.H.

    2001-01-01

    The Atmospheric Technologies Group (ATG) of the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) collects meteorological data for many purposes at the Savannah River Site (SRS) including weather forecasting. This study focuses on wind gusts and also, to a lesser degree, turbulence intensities that occur in fair weather conditions near the surface over time periods from 1 hour to one week (168 hours)

  12. Wind River Watershed Restoration, 2006-2007 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connolly, Patrick J.; Jezorek, Ian G.; Munz, Carrie S. [U.S. Geological Survey

    2008-11-04

    This report summarizes work completed by U.S. Geological Survey's Columbia River Research Laboratory (USGS-CRRL) in the Wind River subbasin during the period April 2006 through March 2007 under Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) contract 26922. During this period, we collected temperature, flow, and habitat data to characterize physical habitat condition and variation within and among tributaries and mainstem sections in the Wind River subbasin. We also conducted electrofishing and snorkeling surveys to determine juvenile salmonid populations within select study areas throughout the subbasin. Portions of this work were completed with additional funding from U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) and the Lower Columbia Fish Enhancement Group (LCFEG). Funding from USFWS was for work to contribute to a study of potential interactions between introduced Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and wild steelhead O. mykiss. Funding from LCFEG was for work to evaluate the effects of nutrient enrichment in small streams. A statement of work (SOW) was submitted to BPA in March 2006 that outlined work to be performed by USGS-CRRL. The SOW was organized by work elements, with each describing a research task. This report summarizes the progress completed under each work element.

  13. Wind observations above an urban river using a new lidar technique, scintillometry and anemometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, C.R. [Department of Meteorology, University of Reading, Reading, RG6 6BB (United Kingdom); Finnish Meteorological Institute, Erik Palmenin aukio 1, Helsinki, 00101 (Finland); Pauscher, L. [King' s College London, Department of Geography, London, WC2R 2LS (United Kingdom); Ward, H.C. [King' s College London, Department of Geography, London, WC2R 2LS (United Kingdom); Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Wallingford, Oxfordshire, OX10 8BB (United Kingdom); Kotthaus, S. [King' s College London, Department of Geography, London, WC2R 2LS (United Kingdom); Barlow, J.F., E-mail: j.f.barlow@reading.ac.uk [Department of Meteorology, University of Reading, Reading, RG6 6BB (United Kingdom); Gouvea, M. [King' s College London, Department of Geography, London, WC2R 2LS (United Kingdom); Lane, S.E. [Department of Meteorology, University of Reading, Reading, RG6 6BB (United Kingdom); Grimmond, C.S.B. [King' s College London, Department of Geography, London, WC2R 2LS (United Kingdom)

    2013-01-01

    Airflow along rivers might provide a key mechanism for ventilation in cities: important for air quality and thermal comfort. Airflow varies in space and time in the vicinity of rivers. Consequently, there is limited utility in point measurements. Ground-based remote sensing offers the opportunity to study 3D airflow in locations which are difficult to observe with conventional approaches. For three months in the winter and spring of 2011, the airflow above the River Thames in central London was observed using a scanning Doppler lidar, a scintillometer and sonic anemometers. First, an inter-comparison showed that lidar-derived mean wind-speed estimates compare almost as well to sonic anemometers (root-mean-square error (rmse) 0.65-0.68 m s{sup -1}) as comparisons between sonic anemometers (0.35-0.73 m s{sup -1}). Second, the lidar duo-beam operating strategy provided horizontal transects of wind vectors (comparison with scintillometer rmse 1.12-1.63 m s{sup -1}) which revealed mean and turbulent airflow across the river and surrounds; in particular, channelled airflow along the river and changes in turbulence quantities consistent with the roughness changes between built and river environments. The results have important consequences for air quality and dispersion around urban rivers, especially given that many cities have high traffic rates on roads located on riverbanks. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An inter-comparison was made between lidar-derived winds and regular anemometry. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A new lidar operating technique was developed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Airflow features above an urban river included channelling of wind.

  14. Wind observations above an urban river using a new lidar technique, scintillometry and anemometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, C.R.; Pauscher, L.; Ward, H.C.; Kotthaus, S.; Barlow, J.F.; Gouvea, M.; Lane, S.E.; Grimmond, C.S.B.

    2013-01-01

    Airflow along rivers might provide a key mechanism for ventilation in cities: important for air quality and thermal comfort. Airflow varies in space and time in the vicinity of rivers. Consequently, there is limited utility in point measurements. Ground-based remote sensing offers the opportunity to study 3D airflow in locations which are difficult to observe with conventional approaches. For three months in the winter and spring of 2011, the airflow above the River Thames in central London was observed using a scanning Doppler lidar, a scintillometer and sonic anemometers. First, an inter-comparison showed that lidar-derived mean wind-speed estimates compare almost as well to sonic anemometers (root-mean-square error (rmse) 0.65–0.68 m s −1 ) as comparisons between sonic anemometers (0.35–0.73 m s −1 ). Second, the lidar duo-beam operating strategy provided horizontal transects of wind vectors (comparison with scintillometer rmse 1.12–1.63 m s −1 ) which revealed mean and turbulent airflow across the river and surrounds; in particular, channelled airflow along the river and changes in turbulence quantities consistent with the roughness changes between built and river environments. The results have important consequences for air quality and dispersion around urban rivers, especially given that many cities have high traffic rates on roads located on riverbanks. -- Highlights: ► An inter-comparison was made between lidar-derived winds and regular anemometry. ► A new lidar operating technique was developed. ► Airflow features above an urban river included channelling of wind.

  15. European wind turbine testing procedure developments. Task 2: Power quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Poul Ejnar; Friis Pedersen, Troels; Gerdes, G.

    2001-01-01

    The present report describes the work done in the power quality subtask of the European Wind Turbine Testing Procedure Developments project funded by the EU SMT program. The objective of the power quality subtask has been to make recommendations andprovide background for new standards...... for measurement and testing of wind turbine power quality. The focus in the work has been to support the ongoing standardisation work in IEC with a new standard IEC61400-21 for measurement and assessment of powerquality characteristics of grid connected wind turbines. The work has also been based on the power...... quality measuremnet procedure in the Measnet cooperation of European test stations for wind turbines. The first working item of the project has been toverify the state of the art of the measurement procedures by analyses and comparisons of the measurements and data processing software of the participating...

  16. European wind turbine testing procedure developments. Task 1: Measurement method to verify wind turbine performance characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hunter, R.; Friis Pedersen, Troels; Dunbabin, P.

    2001-01-01

    There is currently significant standardisation work ongoing in the context of wind farm energy yield warranty assessment and wind turbine power performance testing. A standards maintenance team is revising the current IEC (EN) 61400-12 Ed 1 standard forwind turbine power performance testing....... The standard is being divided into four documents. Two of them are drafted for evaluation and verification of complete wind farms and of individual wind turbines within wind farms. This document, and the project itdescribes, has been designed to help provide a solid technical foundation for this revised...... standard. The work was wide ranging and addressed 'grey' areas of knowledge, regarding existing methodologies or to carry out basic research in support offundamentally new procedures. The work has given rise to recommendations in all areas of the work, including site calibration procedures, nacelle...

  17. European wind turbine testing procedure developments. Task 1: Measurement method to verify wind turbine performance characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunter, R.; Friis Pedersen, T.; Dunbabin, P.; Antoniou, I.; Frandsen, S.; Klug, H.; Albers, A.; Lee, W.K.

    2001-01-01

    There is currently significant standardisation work ongoing in the context of wind farm energy yield warranty assessment and wind turbine power performance testing. A standards maintenance team is revising the current IEC (EN) 61400-12 Ed 1 standard for wind turbine power performance testing. The standard is being divided into four documents. Two of them are drafted for evaluation and verification of complete wind farms and of individual wind turbines within wind farms. This document, and the project it describes, has been designed to help provide a solid technical foundation for this revised standard. The work was wide ranging and addressed 'grey' areas of knowledge, regarding existing methodologies or to carry out basic research in support of fundamentally new procedures. The work has given rise to recommendations in all areas of the work, including site calibration procedures, nacelle anemometry, multi-variate regression analysis and density normalisation. (au)

  18. Heuristic and probabilistic wind power availability estimation procedures: Improved tools for technology and site selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nigim, K.A. [University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ont. (Canada). Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering; Parker, Paul [University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ont. (Canada). Department of Geography, Environmental Studies

    2007-04-15

    The paper describes two investigative procedures to estimate wind power from measured wind velocities. Wind velocity data are manipulated to visualize the site potential by investigating the probable wind power availability and its capacity to meet a targeted demand. The first procedure is an availability procedure that looks at the wind characteristics and its probable energy capturing profile. This profile of wind enables the probable maximum operating wind velocity profile for a selected wind turbine design to be predicted. The structured procedures allow for a consequent adjustment, sorting and grouping of the measured wind velocity data taken at different time intervals and hub heights. The second procedure is the adequacy procedure that investigates the probable degree of availability and the application consequences. Both procedures are programmed using MathCAD symbolic mathematical software. The math tool is used to generate a visual interpolation of the data as well as numerical results from extensive data sets that exceed the capacity of conventional spreadsheet tools. Two sites located in Southern Ontario, Canada are investigated using the procedures. Successful implementation of the procedures supports informed decision making where a hill site is shown to have much higher wind potential than that measured at the local airport. The process is suitable for a wide spectrum of users who are considering the energy potential for either a grid-tied or off-grid wind energy system. (author)

  19. Evaluation of Mineral Deposits Along the Little Wind River, Riverton, WY, Processing Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, Sam [Navarro Research and Engineering, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Dam, Wiliam [US Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Legacy Management

    2014-12-01

    In 2012, the U.S.Department of Energy (DOE) began reassessing the former Riverton, Wyoming, Processing Site area for potential contaminant sources impacting groundwater. A flood in 2010 along the Little Wind River resulted in increases in groundwater contamination (DOE 2013).This investigation is a small part of continued efforts by DOE and other stakeholders to update human health and ecological risk assessments, to make a comprehensive examination of all exposure pathways to ensure that the site remains protective through established institutional controls. During field inspections at the Riverton Site in 2013, a white evaporitic mineral deposit was identified along the bank of the Little Wind River within the discharge zone of the groundwater contamination plume. In December 2013, Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) personnel collected a sample for analysis by X-ray fluorescence (Figure 1 shows the type of material sampled). The sample had a uranium concentration of approximately 64 to 73 parts per million. Although the uranium in this mineral deposit is within the expected range for evaporatic minerals in the western United States (SRNL 2014), DOE determined that additional assessment of the mineral deposit was warranted. In response to the initial collection and analysis of a sample of the mineral deposit, DOE developed a work plan (Work Plan to Sample Mineral Deposits Along the Little Wind River, Riverton, Wyoming, Processing Site [DOE 2014]) to further define the extent of these mineral deposits and the concentration of the associated contaminants (Appendix A). The work plan addressed field reconnaissance, mapping, sampling, and the assessment of risk associated with the mineral deposits adjacent to the Little Wind River.

  20. Inverse load calculation procedure for offshore wind turbines and application to a 5-MW wind turbine support structure: Inverse load calculation procedure for offshore wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pahn, T. [Pahn Ingenieure, Am Seegraben 17b 03051 Cottbus Germany; Rolfes, R. [Institut f?r Statik und Dynamik, Leibniz Universit?t Hannover, Appelstra?e 9A 30167 Hannover Germany; Jonkman, J. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 15013 Denver West Parkway Golden Colorado 80401 USA

    2017-02-20

    A significant number of wind turbines installed today have reached their designed service life of 20 years, and the number will rise continuously. Most of these turbines promise a more economical performance if they operate for more than 20 years. To assess a continued operation, we have to analyze the load-bearing capacity of the support structure with respect to site-specific conditions. Such an analysis requires the comparison of the loads used for the design of the support structure with the actual loads experienced. This publication presents the application of a so-called inverse load calculation to a 5-MW wind turbine support structure. The inverse load calculation determines external loads derived from a mechanical description of the support structure and from measured structural responses. Using numerical simulations with the software fast, we investigated the influence of wind-turbine-specific effects such as the wind turbine control or the dynamic interaction between the loads and the support structure to the presented inverse load calculation procedure. fast is used to study the inverse calculation of simultaneously acting wind and wave loads, which has not been carried out until now. Furthermore, the application of the inverse load calculation procedure to a real 5-MW wind turbine support structure is demonstrated. In terms of this practical application, setting up the mechanical system for the support structure using measurement data is discussed. The paper presents results for defined load cases and assesses the accuracy of the inversely derived dynamic loads for both the simulations and the practical application.

  1. Policy analysis of authorisation procedures for wind energy deployment in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iglesias, Guillermo; Rio, Pablo del; Dopico, Jesus Angel

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyse the administrative procedures for the granting of authorisations for the siting of wind farms in Spain, currently the competency of regional authorities. The analysis reveals some commonalities and differences between the procedures across regions. Furthermore, some aspects regarding these procedures have raised the concern of different stakeholders, including the central government and wind energy investors. A conflict between the interests of the central and regional governments can be observed. Lack of coordination between the different administrative levels and the 'more is better mentality' of regional authorities have led to a significant growth of wind energy requests for the (national) feed-in tariff. In turn, investors have complained about the discretionarity and non-transparency of those procedures and the lack of homogeneity across regions. This is likely to result in delays, uncertainty for investors and higher transaction costs. Although there has been a trend to a model which involves the use of multicriteria bidding procedures with more explicit, objective and precise criteria regarding project selection, the aforementioned problems suggest the need to improve coordination between the different administrative levels. - Highlights: → A conflict between the interests of the central and regional governments in the granting of administrative procedures can be observed. → Lack of coordination between different administrative levels have led to a significant growth of wind energy requests for the (national) feed-in tariff. → The resulting increase in the total costs of wind energy promotion has been a major concern for national policy-makers. → In turn, investors have complained about the discretionarity and non-transparency of those procedures and the lack of homogeneity across regions. → Those problems suggest the need to improve coordination between the different administrative levels.

  2. Procedural justice in wind facility siting: Recommendations for state-led siting processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ottinger, Gwen; Hargrave, Timothy J.; Hopson, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Evidence suggests that state control of wind facility siting decisions fosters new project development more effectively than local control, yet the literature suggests that affected citizens tend to be more fairly represented in local siting processes. We argue that successful renewable energy policy must satisfy both the need for new project development and the obligation to procedural justice. To suggest how it can do so, we analyze existing state- and county-level siting processes in Washington state, finding that both fall short on measures of procedural justice. To overcome this limitation and address the tension between procedural justice and project development, we then propose a collaborative governance approach to wind facility siting, in which state governments retain ultimate authority over permitting decisions but encourage and support local-level deliberations as the primary means of making those decisions. Such an approach, we argue, would be more just, facilitate wind development by addressing community concerns constructively and result in better projects through the input of diverse stakeholders. - Highlights: • States have made wind energy development a priority. • Local opposition to new projects could hinder future wind energy development. • Procedural justice is necessary to resolve local issues and ensure timely wind facility siting. • Both state- and county-led siting processes fall short with respect to criteria for procedural justice, though local processes have some advantages. • States could instead induce counties, developers to engage in deliberation

  3. Detailed measured sections, cross sections, and paleogeographic reconstructions of the upper cretaceous and lower tertiary nonmarine interval, Wind River Basin, Wyoming: Chapter 10 in Petroleum systems and geologic assessment of oil and gas resources in the Wind River Basin Province, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ronald C.

    2007-01-01

    Detailed measured sections and regional stratigraphic cross sections are used to reconstruct facies maps and interpret paleogeographic settings for the interval from the base of Upper Cretaceous Mesaverde Formation to top of lower member of the Paleocene Fort Union Formation in the Wind River Basin, Wyoming. The Mesaverde Formation spans the time during which the Upper Cretaceous seaway retreated eastward out of central Wyoming in Campanian time and the initial stages of the Lewis transgression in earliest Maastrichtian time. This retreat stalled for a considerable period of time during deposition of the lower part of the Mesaverde, creating a thick buildup of marginal marine sandstones and coaly coastal plain deposits across the western part of the basin. The Lewis sea transgressed into the northeast part of Wind River Basin, beginning in early Maastrichtian time during deposition of the Teapot Sandstone Member of the Mesaverde Formation. The Meeteetse Formation, which overlies the Teapot, was deposited in a poorly-drained coastal plain setting southwest of the Lewis seaway. The Lewis seaway, at maximum transgression, covered much of the northeast half of the Wind River Basin area but was clearly deflected around the present site of the Wind River Range, southwest of the basin, providing the first direct evidence of Laramide uplift on that range. Uplift of the Wind River Range continued during deposition of the overlying Maastrichtian Lance Formation. The Granite Mountains south of the basin also became a positive feature during this time. A rapidly subsiding trough during the Maastrichtian time formed near the presentday trough of the Wind River Basin in which more than 6,000 feet of Lance was deposited. The development of this trough appears to have begun before the adjacent Owl Creek Mountains to the north started to rise; however, a muddy facies in the upper part of Lance in the deep subsurface, just to the south, might be interpreted to indicate that the

  4. Paleogene Vertebrate Paleontology, Geology and Remote Sensing in the Wind River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stucky, R. K.; Krishtalka, L.

    1985-01-01

    Biostratigraphic and lithostratigraphic studies were used to correlate different events in the geologic evolution of the northeastern part of the Wind River Basin and have suggested several conclusions. Laterally equivalent exposures of the Lysite member from Cedar Ridge to Bridger Creek show a gradation in lithology from interbedded boulder conglomerates and sandstones to interbedded lenticular sandstones and mudstones to interbedded carbonaceous shales, coals and tabular sandstones. This gradation suggests a shift from alluvial fan to braided stream to paludal or lacustrine sedimentary environments during the late early Eocene. The Lysite and Lost Cabin members of the Wind River Formation are in fault contact in the Bridger Creek area and may intertongue to the east along Cedar Ridge. Ways in which remote sensing could be used in these studies are discussed.

  5. Ecological setting of the Wind River old-growth forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David C. Shaw; Jerry F. Franklin; Ken Bible; Jeffrey Klopatek; Elizabeth Freeman; Sarah Greene; Geoffrey G. Parker

    2004-01-01

    The Wind River old-growth forest, in the southern Cascade Range of Washington State, is a cool (average annual temperature, 8.7°C), moist (average annual precipitation, 2223 mm), 500-year-old Douglas-fir-western hemlock forest of moderate to low productivity at 371-m elevation on a less than 10% slope. There is a seasonal snowpack (November-March), and rain-on-snow and...

  6. Wind River Watershed Restoration Project, Segment II, 2000-2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bair, Brian; Olegario, Anthony; Powers, Paul

    2002-06-01

    This document represents work conducted as part of the Wind River Watershed Restoration Project during its second year of funding through the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). The project is a comprehensive effort involving public and private entities seeking to restore water quality and fishery resources in the basin through cooperative actions. Project elements include coordination, watershed assessment, restoration, monitoring, and education. Entities involved with implementing project components are the Underwood Conservation District (UCD), USDA Forest Service (USFS), U.S. Geological Survey - Columbia River Research Lab (USGS-CRRL), and WA Department of Fish & Wildlife (WDFW).

  7. Cold weather damages promising species in the Wind River Arboretum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.W. Steele

    1954-01-01

    Before an introduced tree species is. recommended for wide-scale forest planting, its adaption to the local climate and soil should be carefully checked over a long period of years. This need has been clearly demonstrated at the Wind River Arboretum where many introduced species are being evaluated for possible use in plantations. The purpose of this note is to call...

  8. Observations and Predictability of Gap Winds in the Salmon River Canyon of Central Idaho, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie S. Wagenbrenner

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This work investigates gap winds in a steep, deep river canyon prone to wildland fire. The driving mechanisms and the potential for forecasting the gap winds are investigated. The onset and strength of the gap winds are found to be correlated to the formation of an along-gap pressure gradient linked to periodic development of a thermal trough in the Pacific Northwest, USA. Numerical simulations are performed using a reanalysis dataset to investigate the ability of numerical weather prediction (NWP to simulate the observed gap wind events, including the timing and flow characteristics within the canyon. The effects of model horizontal grid spacing and terrain representation are considered. The reanalysis simulations suggest that horizontal grid spacings used in operational NWP could be sufficient for simulating the gap flow events given the regional-scale depression in which the Salmon River Canyon is situated. The strength of the events, however, is under-predicted due, at least in part, to terrain smoothing in the model. Routine NWP, however, is found to have mixed results in terms of forecasting the gap wind events, primarily due to problems in simulating the regional sea level pressure system correctly.

  9. 76 FR 76153 - Notice of Effectiveness of Exempt Wholesale Generator Status; Caney River Wind Project, LLC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-06

    ...] Notice of Effectiveness of Exempt Wholesale Generator Status; Caney River Wind Project, LLC, Mesquite Solar 1, LLC, Copper Crossing Solar LLC, Copper Mountain Solar 1, LLC, Pinnacle Wind, LLC, Bellevue... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket Nos. EG11-115-000, EG11-116-000...

  10. 75 FR 6020 - Electrical Interconnection of the Lower Snake River Wind Energy Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Bonneville Power Administration Electrical Interconnection of the Lower Snake River Wind Energy Project AGENCY: Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), Department of Energy (DOE... (BPA) has decided to offer Puget Sound Energy Inc., a Large Generator Interconnection Agreement for...

  11. Recommendation for an administrative procedure for certification and licensing of wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harvoee, P.; Hjuler Jensen, P. (eds.)

    1986-10-15

    The lack of existing rules concerning the setting up of wind turbines makes it possible to establish common standards and certification rules for wind turbines in the whole EEC market. Free trade within EEC is necessary if a European wind turbine industry is to enjoy a fair share of the large global market which is anticipated. The report suggests the setting up of national test stations for certifying wind tubines in the EEC-countries and by cooperation between these test centres to create common certification rules. A draft for this procedure is given.

  12. Effect of winds and waves on salt intrusion in the Pearl River estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Wenping; Lin, Zhongyuan; Chen, Yunzhen; Chen, Zhaoyun; Zhang, Heng

    2018-02-01

    Salt intrusion in the Pearl River estuary (PRE) is a dynamic process that is influenced by a range of factors and to date, few studies have examined the effects of winds and waves on salt intrusion in the PRE. We investigate these effects using the Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere-Wave-Sediment Transport (COAWST) modeling system applied to the PRE. After careful validation, the model is used for a series of diagnostic simulations. It is revealed that the local wind considerably strengthens the salt intrusion by lowering the water level in the eastern part of the estuary and increasing the bottom landward flow. The remote wind increases the water mixing on the continental shelf, elevates the water level on the shelf and in the PRE and pumps saltier shelf water into the estuary by Ekman transport. Enhancement of the salt intrusion is comparable between the remote and local winds. Waves decrease the salt intrusion by increasing the water mixing. Sensitivity analysis shows that the axial down-estuary wind, is most efficient in driving increases in salt intrusion via wind straining effect.

  13. High-resolution observations of the near-surface wind field over an isolated mountain and in a steep river canyon

    Science.gov (United States)

    B. W. Butler; N. S. Wagenbrenner; J. M. Forthofer; B. K. Lamb; K. S. Shannon; D. Finn; R. M. Eckman; K. Clawson; L. Bradshaw; P. Sopko; S. Beard; D. Jimenez; C. Wold; M. Vosburgh

    2015-01-01

    A number of numerical wind flow models have been developed for simulating wind flow at relatively fine spatial resolutions (e.g., 100 m); however, there are very limited observational data available for evaluating these high-resolution models. This study presents high-resolution surface wind data sets collected from an isolated mountain and a steep river canyon. The...

  14. Effect of winds and waves on salt intrusion in the Pearl River estuary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Gong

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Salt intrusion in the Pearl River estuary (PRE is a dynamic process that is influenced by a range of factors and to date, few studies have examined the effects of winds and waves on salt intrusion in the PRE. We investigate these effects using the Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere-Wave-Sediment Transport (COAWST modeling system applied to the PRE. After careful validation, the model is used for a series of diagnostic simulations. It is revealed that the local wind considerably strengthens the salt intrusion by lowering the water level in the eastern part of the estuary and increasing the bottom landward flow. The remote wind increases the water mixing on the continental shelf, elevates the water level on the shelf and in the PRE and pumps saltier shelf water into the estuary by Ekman transport. Enhancement of the salt intrusion is comparable between the remote and local winds. Waves decrease the salt intrusion by increasing the water mixing. Sensitivity analysis shows that the axial down-estuary wind, is most efficient in driving increases in salt intrusion via wind straining effect.

  15. European wind turbine procedure development blade test methods and techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulder, B H; Dam, J J.D. van; Delft, D R.V. van [and others

    1999-03-01

    In this paper the preliminary results obtained by performing the second task of the `European Wind Turbine Testing Procedure Development` project are presented. This project is performed within and with financial support of the Standards, Measurements and Testing programme of the European Commission. (au)

  16. RIVERTON DOME GAS EXPLORATION AND STIMULATION TECHNOLOGY DEMONSTRATION, WIND RIVER BASIN, WYOMING; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dr. Ronald C. Surdam

    1999-01-01

    A primary objective of the Institute for Energy Research (IER)-Santa Fe Snyder Corporation DOE Riverton Dome project is to test the validity of a new conceptual model and resultant exploration paradigm for so-called ''basin center'' gas accumulations. This paradigm and derivative exploration strategy suggest that the two most important elements crucial to the development of prospects in the deep, gas-saturated portions of Rocky Mountain Laramide Basins (RMLB) are (1) the determination and, if possible, three-dimensional evaluation of the pressure boundary between normal and anomalous pressure regimes (i.e., this boundary is typically expressed as a significant inversion in both sonic and seismic velocity-depth profiles) , and (2) the detection and delineation of porosity/permeability ''sweet spots'' (i.e., areas of enhanced storage capacity and deliverability) in potential reservoir targets below this boundary. There are other critical aspects in searching for basin center gas accumulations, but completion of these two tasks is essential to the successful exploration for the unconventional gas resources present in anomalously pressured rock/fluid systems in the Rocky Mountain Laramide Basins. The southern Wind River Basin, in particular the Riverton Dome and Emigrant areas, is a neat location for testing this exploration paradigm. Preliminary work within the Wind River Basin has demonstrated that there is a regionally prominent pressure surface boundary that can be detected by inversions in sonic velocity depth gradients in individual well log profiles and that can be seen as a velocity inversion on seismic lines. Also, the Wind River Basin in general-and the Riverton Dome area specially-is characterized by a significant number of anomalously pressured gas accumulations. Most importantly, Santa Fe Snyder Corporation has provided the study with sonic logs, two 3-D seismic studies (40 mi(sup 2) and 30 mi(sup 2)) and a variety of other necessary geological and

  17. Inclusion of routine wind and turbulence forecasts in the Savannah River Plant's emergency response capabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pendergast, M.M.; Gilhousen, D.B.

    1980-01-01

    The Savannah River Plant's emergency response computer system was improved by the implementation of automatic forecasts of wind and turbulence for periods up to 30 hours. The forecasts include wind direction, wind speed, and horizontal and vertical turbulence intensity at 10, 91, and 243 m above ground for the SRP area, and were obtained by using the Model Output Statistics (MOS) technique. A technique was developed and tested to use the 30-hour MOS forecasts of wind and turbulence issued twice daily from the National Weather Service at Suitland, Maryland, into SRP's emergency response program. The technique for combining MOS forecasts, persistence, and adjusted-MOS forecast is used to generate good forecasts any time of day. Wind speed and turbulence forecasts have been shown to produce smaller root mean square errors (RMSE) than forecasts of persistence for time periods over about two hours. For wind direction, the adjusted-MOS forecasts produce smaller RMSE than persistence for times greater than four hours

  18. Testing a ground-based canopy model using the wind river canopy crane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert Van Pelt; Malcolm P. North

    1999-01-01

    A ground-based canopy model that estimates the volume of occupied space in forest canopies was tested using the Wind River Canopy Crane. A total of 126 trees in a 0.25 ha area were measured from the ground and directly from a gondola suspended from the crane. The trees were located in a low elevation, old-growth forest in the southern Washington Cascades. The ground-...

  19. A CFD-based aerodynamic design procedure for hypersonic wind-tunnel nozzles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korte, John J.

    1993-01-01

    A new procedure which unifies the best of current classical design practices, computational fluid dynamics (CFD), and optimization procedures is demonstrated for designing the aerodynamic lines of hypersonic wind-tunnel nozzles. The new procedure can be used to design hypersonic wind tunnel nozzles with thick boundary layers where the classical design procedure has been shown to break down. An efficient CFD code, which solves the parabolized Navier-Stokes (PNS) equations using an explicit upwind algorithm, is coupled to a least-squares (LS) optimization procedure. A LS problem is formulated to minimize the difference between the computed flow field and the objective function, consisting of the centerline Mach number distribution and the exit Mach number and flow angle profiles. The aerodynamic lines of the nozzle are defined using a cubic spline, the slopes of which are optimized with the design procedure. The advantages of the new procedure are that it allows full use of powerful CFD codes in the design process, solves an optimization problem to determine the new contour, can be used to design new nozzles or improve sections of existing nozzles, and automatically compensates the nozzle contour for viscous effects as part of the unified design procedure. The new procedure is demonstrated by designing two Mach 15, a Mach 12, and a Mach 18 helium nozzles. The flexibility of the procedure is demonstrated by designing the two Mach 15 nozzles using different constraints, the first nozzle for a fixed length and exit diameter and the second nozzle for a fixed length and throat diameter. The computed flow field for the Mach 15 least squares parabolized Navier-Stokes (LS/PNS) designed nozzle is compared with the classically designed nozzle and demonstrates a significant improvement in the flow expansion process and uniform core region.

  20. A testing procedure for wind turbine generators based on the power grid statistical model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farajzadehbibalan, Saber; Ramezani, Mohammad Hossein; Nielsen, Peter

    2017-01-01

    In this study, a comprehensive test procedure is developed to test wind turbine generators with a hardware-in-loop setup. The procedure employs the statistical model of the power grid considering the restrictions of the test facility and system dynamics. Given the model in the latent space...

  1. Response of small glaciers to climate change: runoff from glaciers of the Wind River range, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliss, A. K.; Stamper, B.

    2017-12-01

    Runoff from glaciers affects downstream ecosystems by influencing the quantity, seasonality, and chemistry of the water. We describe the present state of glaciers in the Wind River range, Wyoming and consider how these glaciers will change in the future. Wind River glaciers have been losing mass in recent decades, as seen with geodetic techniques and by examining glacier morphology. Interestingly, the 2016/7 winter featured one of the largest snowfalls on record. Our primary focus is the Dinwoody Glacier ( 3 km^2, 3300-4000 m above sea level). We present data collected in mid-August 2017 including glacier ablation rates, snow line elevations, and streamflow. We compare measured glacier mass loss to streamflow at the glacier terminus and at a USGS stream gauge farther downstream. Using a hydrological model, we explore the fate of glacial runoff as it moves into downstream ecosystems and through ranchlands important to local people. The techniques used here can be applied to similar small-glacier systems in other parts of the world.

  2. Development of an automated desktop procedure for defining macro-reaches for river longitudinal profiles

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dollar, LH

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an automated desktop procedure for delineating river longitudinal profiles into macro-reaches for use in Ecological Reserve assessments and to aid freshwater ecosystem conservation planning. The procedure was developed for use...

  3. A Research Plan for Assessing the Power and Energy Capability of a River Network Under an Integrated Wind/Hydro-Electric Dispatchable Regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banka, John Czeslaw

    The world strives for more clean and renewable energy, but the amount of dispatchable energy in river networks is not accurately known and difficult to assess. When wind is integrated with water, the dispatchable yield can be greatly increased, but the uncertainty of the wind further degrades predictability. This thesis demonstrates how simulating the flows is a river network integrated with wind over a long time domain yields a solution. Time-shifting the freshet and pumped storage will ameliorate the seasonal summer drought; the risk of ice jams and uncontrolled flooding is reduced. An artificial market eliminates the issue of surplus energy from wind at night. Furthermore, this thesis shows how the necessary infrastructure can be built to accomplish the goals of the intended research. While specific to Northern Ontario and sensitive to the lives of the Native peoples living there, it indicates where the research might be applicable elsewhere in the world.

  4. Retrospection of recent 30-year changes in the process of soil wind erosion in the Luanhe River Source Area of North China using Cesium-137

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Zhifan [State Key Laboratory of Water Environment Simulation, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, 19 Xin Jie Kou Wai St., Beijing 100875 (China) and College of Environment and Planning, Henan University, Kaifeng 475001 (China)], E-mail: chenzhf0604@163.com; Zhao Ye [State Key Laboratory of Water Environment Simulation, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, 19 Xin Jie Kou Wai St., Beijing 100875 (China)], E-mail: zhaoye@bnu.edu.cn; Qiao Jiejuan [State Key Laboratory of Water Environment Simulation, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, 19 Xin Jie Kou Wai St., Beijing 100875 (China); Zhang Qing [National Institute for Radiological Protection, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Protection, Beijing 100088 (China); Zhu Yuen [State Key Laboratory of Water Environment Simulation, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, 19 Xin Jie Kou Wai St., Beijing 100875 (China); Xu Cuihua [National Institute for Radiological Protection, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Protection, Beijing 100088 (China)

    2009-10-15

    The Luanhe River Source Area belongs to typical semi-arid, agro-pastoral ecotone of North China. It is very important for the prevention and treatment of soil erosion in North China to analyze and evaluate quantitatively the recent 30-year changes in the process of soil wind erosion in this area. Based on long field observations, soil samples from different depths in a representative wind-deposited soil profile in the Luanhe River Source Area were collected. Then the {sup 137}Cs activity of soil samples from different depths in the soil profile was determined using a GEM series HPGe (high-purity germanium) coaxial detector system (ADCAM-100), and their soil properties, such as the soil particle fraction and so on, were analyzed. According to the detected {sup 137}Cs activity of different depths, a continuous time sequence of the wind-deposited soil profile in the study area was established. Furthermore, through assumption on a soil relative wind erosion intensity index (SWEI), recent 30-year changes in the process of soil wind erosion in the Luanhe River Source Area were retrospected . The analysis results revealed that weaker soil wind erosion occurred in the study area from the 1970s to the early 1980s and from the late 1980s to the mid to late 1990s. Conversely, intense periods of soil wind erosion occurred in the mid-1980s and from the late 1990s to 2002.

  5. Retrospection of recent 30-year changes in the process of soil wind erosion in the Luanhe River Source Area of North China using Cesium-137

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zhifan; Zhao Ye; Qiao Jiejuan; Zhang Qing; Zhu Yuen; Xu Cuihua

    2009-01-01

    The Luanhe River Source Area belongs to typical semi-arid, agro-pastoral ecotone of North China. It is very important for the prevention and treatment of soil erosion in North China to analyze and evaluate quantitatively the recent 30-year changes in the process of soil wind erosion in this area. Based on long field observations, soil samples from different depths in a representative wind-deposited soil profile in the Luanhe River Source Area were collected. Then the 137 Cs activity of soil samples from different depths in the soil profile was determined using a GEM series HPGe (high-purity germanium) coaxial detector system (ADCAM-100), and their soil properties, such as the soil particle fraction and so on, were analyzed. According to the detected 137 Cs activity of different depths, a continuous time sequence of the wind-deposited soil profile in the study area was established. Furthermore, through assumption on a soil relative wind erosion intensity index (SWEI), recent 30-year changes in the process of soil wind erosion in the Luanhe River Source Area were retrospected . The analysis results revealed that weaker soil wind erosion occurred in the study area from the 1970s to the early 1980s and from the late 1980s to the mid to late 1990s. Conversely, intense periods of soil wind erosion occurred in the mid-1980s and from the late 1990s to 2002.

  6. Short-Term Optimal Operation of a Wind-PV-Hydro Complementary Installation: Yalong River, Sichuan Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinshuo Zhang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available How to effectively use clean renewable energy to improve the capacity of the power grid to absorb new energy and optimize the power grid structure has become one of China’s current issues. The Yalong River Wind-PV-Hydro complementary clean energy base was chosen as the research object from which to analyze the output complementarity principle and characteristics of wind farms, photovoltaic power plants, and hydropower stations. Then, an optimization scheduling model was established with the objective of minimizing the amount of abandoned wind and photovoltaic power and maximizing the stored energy in cascade hydropower stations. A Progress Optimality Algorithm (POA was used for the short-term optimal operation of Wind-PV-Hydro combinations. The results show that use of cascaded hydropower storage capacity can compensate for large-scale wind power and photovoltaic power, provide a relatively sustained and stable power supply for the grid. Wind-PV-Hydro complementary operation not only promotes wind power and photovoltaic power consumption but also improves the efficiency of using the original transmission channel of hydropower. This is of great significance to many developing countries in formatting a new green approach, realizing low-carbon power dispatch and trade and promoting regional economic development.

  7. The impacts of wind power integration on sub-daily variation in river flows downstream of hydroelectric dams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Jordan D; Patino-Echeverri, Dalia; Characklis, Gregory W

    2014-08-19

    Due to their operational flexibility, hydroelectric dams are ideal candidates to compensate for the intermittency and unpredictability of wind energy production. However, more coordinated use of wind and hydropower resources may exacerbate the impacts dams have on downstream environmental flows, that is, the timing and magnitude of water flows needed to sustain river ecosystems. In this paper, we examine the effects of increased (i.e., 5%, 15%, and 25%) wind market penetration on prices for electricity and reserves, and assess the potential for altered price dynamics to disrupt reservoir release schedules at a hydroelectric dam and cause more variable and unpredictable hourly flow patterns (measured in terms of the Richards-Baker Flashiness (RBF) index). Results show that the greatest potential for wind energy to impact downstream flows occurs at high (∼25%) wind market penetration, when the dam sells more reserves in order to exploit spikes in real-time electricity prices caused by negative wind forecast errors. Nonetheless, compared to the initial impacts of dam construction (and the dam's subsequent operation as a peaking resource under baseline conditions) the marginal effects of any increased wind market penetration on downstream flows are found to be relatively minor.

  8. The response of source-bordering aeolian dunefields to sediment-supply changes 1: Effects of wind variability and river-valley morphodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankey, Joel B.; Kasprak, Alan; Caster, Joshua; East, Amy E.; Fairley, Helen C.

    2018-06-01

    Source-bordering dunefields (SBDs), which are primarily built and maintained with river-derived sediment, are found in many large river valleys and are currently impacted by changes in sediment supply due to climate change, land use changes, and river regulation. Despite their importance, a physically based, applied approach for quantifying the response of SBDs to changes in sediment supply does not exist. To address this knowledge gap, here we develop an approach for quantifying the geomorphic responses to sediment-supply alteration based on the interpretation of dunefield morphodynamics from geomorphic change detection and wind characteristics. We use the approach to test hypotheses about the response of individual dunefields to variability in sediment supply at three SBDs along the Colorado River in Grand Canyon, Arizona, USA during the 11 years between 2002 and 2013 when several river floods rebuilt some river sandbars and channel margin deposits that serve as sediment source areas for the SBDs. We demonstrate that resupply of fluvially sourced aeolian sediment occurred at one of the SBDs, but not at the other two, and attribute this differential response to site-specific variability in geomorphology, wind, and sediment source areas. The approach we present is applied in a companion study to shorter time periods with high-resolution topographic data that bracket individual floods in order to infer the resupply of fluvially sourced aeolian sediment to SBDs by managed river flows. Such an applied methodology could also be useful for measuring sediment connectivity and anthropogenic alterations of connectivity in other coupled fluvial-aeolian environments.

  9. The response of source-bordering aeolian dunefields to sediment-supply changes 1: Effects of wind variability and river-valley morphodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankey, Joel B.; Kasprak, Alan; Caster, Joshua; East, Amy; Fairley, Helen C.

    2018-01-01

    Source-bordering dunefields (SBDs), which are primarily built and maintained with river-derived sediment, are found in many large river valleys and are currently impacted by changes in sediment supply due to climate change, land use changes, and river regulation. Despite their importance, a physically based, applied approach for quantifying the response of SBDs to changes in sediment supply does not exist. To address this knowledge gap, here we develop an approach for quantifying the geomorphic responses to sediment-supply alteration based on the interpretation of dunefield morphodynamics from geomorphic change detection and wind characteristics. We use the approach to test hypotheses about the response of individual dunefields to variability in sediment supply at three SBDs along the Colorado River in Grand Canyon, Arizona, USA during the 11 years between 2002 and 2013 when several river floods rebuilt some river sandbars and channel margin deposits that serve as sediment source areas for the SBDs. We demonstrate that resupply of fluvially sourced aeolian sediment occurred at one of the SBDs, but not at the other two, and attribute this differential response to site-specific variability in geomorphology, wind, and sediment source areas. The approach we present is applied in a companion study to shorter time periods with high-resolution topographic data that bracket individual floods in order to infer the resupply of fluvially sourced aeolian sediment to SBDs by managed river flows. Such an applied methodology could also be useful for measuring sediment connectivity and anthropogenic alterations of connectivity in other coupled fluvial-aeolian environments.

  10. Tree growth and soil relations at the 1925 Wind River spacing test in coast Douglas-fir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard E. Miller; Donald L. Reukema; Harry W. Anderson

    2004-01-01

    The 1925 Wind River spacing test is the earliest field trial seeking to determine the most appropriate spacing for planting Douglas-fir. Spacing treatments were not replicated, although individual spacings were subsampled by two to four tree-measurement plots. Previously, greater growth occurred at the wider spacings (10 and 12 ft) than at the closer spacings (4, 5, 6...

  11. Quality assurance and quality control procedures in river water radioecological monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nalbandyan, A.; Stepanyan, A.

    2006-01-01

    For recent decades the issue of radioactive pollution of environmental components has acquired a global character as a result of nuclear weapon testing, accidents in NPPs, development of nuclear technologies and so on. A study object of this research is river water as it is known to be radionuclide transport and accumulation mediums and radioactive elements in river water are available as radioactive salts and mechanic and biological pollutants. Moreover, river water is widely used for various economic and commercial purposes and serves a drinking water supply source as well. The ongoing research is performed in the frame of a NATO/OSCE project 'South Caucasus River Monitoring'. The topicality of the problem dictates a necessity of getting credible and compatible results. For adequate radioactive pollution assessment, decisive are the application and keeping standard QA/QC procedures at all the stages of radioecological monitoring. In our research we apply the following ISO standard-based QA/QC procedures: sampling (emphasizing sample identification: sample collection site, date and method), sample transportation (keeping sample conservation and storing requirements), sample treatment and preparation in the lab, radiometric measurements of samples with regard for the time that past from sampling moment to analysis, control and calibration of analytic instruments, control analysis of samples. The obtained data are processed through standard statistic methods of QC to check measurement errors. Gamma-spectrometric measurements are maid using a Genie-2000 (Canberra) software that includes a separate program for measurement QC. The ultimate outcomes are arranged in special protocols (analysis and sampling tasks protocols, sampling task form, field measurement protocol, sample chain of custody form, sample analysis protocol) and compiled in appropriate databases

  12. Wind tunnel experiments of air flow patterns over nabkhas modeled after those from the Hotan River basin,Xinjiang,China(Ⅱ):vegetated

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhizhong LI; Rong MA; ShengLi WU; Janis DALE; Lin GE; Mudan HE; Xiaofeng WANG; Jianhui JIN; Jinwei LIU; Wanjuan LI

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the results of wind tunnel experiments on models of nabkha,based on those studied in the Hotan River basin.Semi-spherical and conical models of nabkhas were constructed at a ratio of 40:1 in light of the on-site observation.Artificial vegetation of simulated Tamarix spp.was put on top of each model.Parameters of the shape,including height,width,and diameter of vegetated semi-spherical and conical nabkha.were measured in the Hotan River basin.Wind tunnel experiments on the semi-spherical and conical nabkha used clean air devoid of additional sediments at five different wind speeds (6-14 m/s)to study the influence of vegetation on airflow patterns.Results of the experiments indicate that vegetation at the top of the nabkhas enhances the surface roughness of the sand mounds,retards airflow over the sand mounds,reduces airflow energy,eliminates erosional pits occurring on the top surface of non-vegetated sand mounds and enhances the range of influence of the vortex that forms on the leeward slope.Vegetation changes the airflow pattern upwind and downwind of the sand mound and reduces the transport of sand away from the nabkha.This entrapment of sediment by the vegetation plays an important role in sustaining the nabkha landscape of the study area.The existence of vegetation makes fine materials in wind-sand flow to possibly deposit,and promotes nabkha formation.The imitative flow patterns Of different morphological nabkhas have also been verified by on-site observation in the river basin.

  13. InfraSound from wind turbines : observations from Castle River wind farm. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edworthy, J.; Hepburn, H.

    2005-01-01

    Although infrasound has been discussed as a concern by groups opposed to wind farm facilities, there is very little information available about infrasound and wind turbines. This paper presented details of a project conducted by VisionQuest, the largest wind power producer in Canada. Three sensor types were used: precision sound analyzer, seismic geophones, and calibrated microphones to take measurements in low, medium and high winds. The project also measured infrasound when the wind farm was not operating. Acquisition geometry was presented, as well as details of apparent attenuations of wind noise. It was noted that high wind noise was a dominant factor and that there was little difference when the wind farm was not operational. It was suggested that turbines have no impact with high wind, since wind noise is not attenuated with distance. It was noted that increased geophone amplitudes indicate high wind coupled motion which is attenuated when the turbines are on. Results indicate that all frequencies showed attenuation with distance. Evidence showed that low frequency sound pressure levels were often lower when the turbines were switched on. Where turbines contributed to sound pressure levels, the magnitude of the contribution was below levels of concern to human health. Ambient sound pressure levels were much higher than contributions from wind turbines. It was concluded that wind itself generates infrasound. Wind turbines generate low levels of infrasound, detectable very close to facilities at low to medium wind speeds. Wind turbines may reduce ambient infrasound levels at high wind speeds by converting the energy from the wind into electricity. refs., tabs., figs

  14. Analysis of Eocene depositional environments - Preliminary TM and TIMS results, Wind River Basin, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stucky, Richard K.; Krishtalka, Leonard; Redline, Andrew D.; Lang, Harold R.

    1987-01-01

    Both Landsat TM and aircraft Thermal IR Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) data have been used to map the lithofacies of the Wind River Basin's Eocene physical and biological environments. Preliminary analyses of these data have furnished maps of a fault contact boundary and a complex network of fluvial ribbon channel sandstones. The synoptic view thereby emerging for Eocene fluvial facies clarifies the relationships of ribbon channel sandstones to fossil-bearing overbank/floodplain facies and certain peleosols. The utility of TM and TIMS data is thereby demonstrated.

  15. Application of a Monte Carlo procedure for probabilistic fatigue design of floating offshore wind turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Müller

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Fatigue load assessment of floating offshore wind turbines poses new challenges on the feasibility of numerical procedures. Due to the increased sensitivity of the considered system with respect to the environmental conditions from wind and ocean, the application of common procedures used for fixed-bottom structures results in either inaccurate simulation results or hard-to-quantify conservatism in the system design. Monte Carlo-based sampling procedures provide a more realistic approach to deal with the large variation in the environmental conditions, although basic randomization has shown slow convergence. Specialized sampling methods allow efficient coverage of the complete design space, resulting in faster convergence and hence a reduced number of required simulations. In this study, a quasi-random sampling approach based on Sobol sequences is applied to select representative events for the determination of the lifetime damage. This is calculated applying Monte Carlo integration, using subsets of a resulting total of 16 200 coupled time–domain simulations performed with the simulation code FAST. The considered system is the Danmarks Tekniske Universitet (DTU 10 MW reference turbine installed on the LIFES50+ OO-Star Wind Floater Semi 10 MW floating platform. Statistical properties of the considered environmental parameters (i.e., wind speed, wave height and wave period are determined based on the measurement data from the Gulf of Maine, USA. Convergence analyses show that it is sufficient to perform around 200 simulations in order to reach less than 10 % uncertainty of lifetime fatigue damage-equivalent loading. Complementary in-depth investigation is performed, focusing on the load sensitivity and the impact of outliers (i.e., values far away from the mean. Recommendations for the implementation of the proposed methodology in the design process are also provided.

  16. Thomas Gold's Intense Solar Wind; It's evidence in prehistoric petroglyphs recorded along rivers in North and South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peratt, A. L.

    2008-11-01

    A past intense solar outburst and its effect on Earth circa 8,000 BCE was proposed by Gold who based his hypotheses on astronomical and geophysical evidence [1]. The discovery of high-current Z-pinch patterns in Neolithic petroglyphs provides evidence for this occurrence and insight into the origin and meaning of these ancient symbols produced by mankind. These correspond to mankind's visual observations of ancient aurora if the solar wind had increased between one and two orders of magnitude millennia ago [2]. Our data show identical MHD patterns from surveys along 300 km of the Orinoco River (Venezuela), the Chuluut River (Mongolia), the Columbia River (USA), Red Gorge (South Australia) and the Urubamba River (Peru). Three-dimensional, high-fidelity PIC simulations of intense Z-pinches replicate the carved data [3]. 1. T. Gold, Pontificiae Academiae Scientiarvm Scripta Varia, 25, 159, 1962. 2. A. L. Peratt. Trans. Plasma Sci. 35. 778. 2007. 3. A. L. Peratt and W. F. Yao, Physica Scripta, T130, August 2008.

  17. Upgrade of the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site's reactor operations and maintenance procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walsh, T.E.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes the program in progress at the Savannah River Site (SRS) to upgrade the existing reactor operating and maintenance procedures to current commercial nuclear industry standards. In order to meet this goal, the following elements were established: administrative procedures to govern the upgrade process, tracking system to provide status and accountability; and procedure writing guides. The goal is to establish a benchmark of excellence by which other Department of Energy (DOE) sites will measure themselves. The above three elements are addressed in detail in this paper

  18. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report : Priest River, 2004-2005 Technical Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Entz, Ray

    2005-02-01

    On July 6, 2004, the Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP) was used to determine baseline habitat suitability on the Priest River property, an acquisition completed by the Kalispel Tribe of Indians in 2001. Evaluation species and appropriate models include bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, Canada goose, mallard, yellow warbler, and white-tailed deer. Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) values were visually estimated and agreed upon by all HEP team members. The Priest River Project provides a total of 105.41 Habitat Units (HUs) for the species evaluated. Conifer forest habitat provides 26.95 HUs for bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, and white-tailed deer. Grassland habitat provides 23.78 HUs for Canada goose and mallard. Scmb-shrub vegetation provides 54.68 HUs for mallard, yellow warbler, and white-tailed deer.

  19. Hydroeconomic Analysis of the Balance between Renewable Wind Energy, Hydropower, and Ecosystems Services in the Roanoke River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, A.; Blumsack, S.; Reed, P.

    2012-04-01

    Hydropower can provide inexpensive, flexible fill-in power to compensate for intermittent renewable generation. Policies for hydropower dams maintain multiple services beyond electric generation, including environmental protection, flood control and recreation. We model the decision of a hydroelectric generator to shift some of its power production capacity away from the day-ahead energy market into a "wind-following" service that smoothes the intermittent production of wind turbines. Offering such a service imposes both private and social opportunity costs. Since fluctuations in wind energy output are not perfectly correlated with day-ahead energy prices, a wind-following service will necessarily affect generator revenues. Seasonal wind patterns produce conflicts with the goal of managing rivers for "ecosystem services" - the maintenance or enhancement of downstream ecosystems. We illustrate our decision model using the Kerr Dam in PJM's territory in North Carolina. We simulate the operation of Kerr Dam over a three-year period that features hydrologic variability from normal water years to extreme drought conditions. We use an optimization framework to estimate reservation prices for Kerr Dam offering wind-following services in the PJM market. Wind-following may be profitable for Kerr Dam at low capacity levels during some time periods if ecosystems services are neglected and if side payments, or reserves-type payments, are provided. Wind-following with ecosystem services yields revenue losses that typically cannot be recovered with reserves market payments. Water release patterns are inconsistent with ecosystem-services goals when Kerr Dam dedicates significant capacity to wind-following, particularly in drought years.

  20. Using epiphytic lichens to monitor nitrogen deposition near natural gas drilling operations in the Wind River Range, WY, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jill A. McMurray; Dave W. Roberts; Mark E. Fenn; Linda H. Geiser; Sarah Jovan

    2013-01-01

    Rapid expansion of natural gas drilling in Sublette County, WY (1999-present), has raised concerns about the potential ecological effects of enhanced atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition to the Wind River Range (WRR) including the Class I BridgerWilderness. We sampled annual throughfall (TF) N deposition and lichen thalli N concentrations under forest canopies in four...

  1. Structural optimization procedure of a composite wind turbine blade for reducing both material cost and blade weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Weifei; Park, Dohyun; Choi, DongHoon

    2013-12-01

    A composite blade structure for a 2 MW horizontal axis wind turbine is optimally designed. Design requirements are simultaneously minimizing material cost and blade weight while satisfying the constraints on stress ratio, tip deflection, fatigue life and laminate layup requirements. The stress ratio and tip deflection under extreme gust loads and the fatigue life under a stochastic normal wind load are evaluated. A blade element wind load model is proposed to explain the wind pressure difference due to blade height change during rotor rotation. For fatigue life evaluation, the stress result of an implicit nonlinear dynamic analysis under a time-varying fluctuating wind is converted to the histograms of mean and amplitude of maximum stress ratio using the rainflow counting algorithm Miner's rule is employed to predict the fatigue life. After integrating and automating the whole analysis procedure an evolutionary algorithm is used to solve the discrete optimization problem.

  2. Test Operations Procedure (TOP) 06-2-301 Wind Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-14

    The wind direction should be perpendicular to the faces selected for exposure. If testing is performed outdoors, cross winds can change the wind...14 June 2017 4 b. The item geometry will influence the requirements for the wind direction tolerance. For example , if the item is symmetrical...3 3.2 Wind Direction

  3. Automated prediction of boundary layer winds and turbulence for the Savannah River Laboratory. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilhousen, D.B.

    1979-01-01

    Objective forecasts of many weather elements produced twice daily for about 230 US cities are made by applying the Model Output Statistics (MOS) technique (Glahn and Lowry, 1972). This technique relates by a statistical method the output of numerical models interpolated to a location (predictors) to a corresponding sample of observed local weather at that location (predictand). This study describes the development and testing of MOS wind forecasts for an instrumented TV tower located near the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL). If shown to be useful, these forecasts could serve as valuable guidance in case of a nuclear incident at the installation. This study introduces several new applications of the MOS technique. In addition to forecasts of wind speed and direction, forecasts of two turbulence parameters were developed and evaluated. These turbulence parameters were the standard deviations of both the azimuth and elevation of the wind. These quantities help to estimate the amount of plume and puff spread. Forecasts of all these elements were produced for several levels on the 335 m WJBF-TV tower. Tests were conducted to see if MOS forecasts of each element were capable of resolving differences between tower levels. MOS forecasts were compared to two other types of forecasts to determine their utility. Short range persistence forecasts served as one type of comparison since SRL uses the current observed winds in their diffusion models. Climatology forecasts served as the other comparison set

  4. Airborne geophysical survey, Wind River Basin area, Wyoming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    Results are reported of AEC-sponsored, high sensitivity, reconnaisance airborne gamma-ray survey of the Wind River Basin area, Wyoming. The objective of the survey was to define those areas showing surface indications of a generally higher uranium content (uraniferous provinces) and where detailed exploration for uranium would most likely be successful. For the data collection tasks, a TI high sensitivity gamma-ray system consisting of seven large-volume NaI detectors, two 400-channel analyzers, and ancillary geophysical and electronic equipment was used. Gamma-ray spectrometric data were processed to correct for variations in atmospheric and flight conditions and statistically evaluated to remove the effect of surface geologic variations. Data were then compared to regional geomorphic lineaments derived from ERTS-1 imagery. Aeromagnetic data were collected simultaneously with the airborne gamma-ray survey and interpreted in terms of regional structure. Ten major anomalous uranium areas and ten less strong anomalous areas were defined within the region surveyed. These anomalies and the known mining districts and uranium occurrences demonstrated good correlation with the ERTS lineaments. The basins were defined by the aeromagnetic data. It is suggested that gamma-ray spectrometer data be supplemented by both the ERTS and aeromagnetic data to best define the targets of greatest potential for further exploration. (U.S.)

  5. Thinning shock and response to fertilizer less than expected in young Douglas-fir stand at Wind River Experimental Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean S. DeBell; Constance A. Harrington; John. Shumway

    2002-01-01

    Three thinning treatments (thinned to 3.7 by 3.7 m, thinned to 4.3 by 4.3 m, and an unthinned control treatment with nominal spacing averaging 2.6 by 2.6 m) were installed in a 10-year-old Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) plantation growing on a low-quality site at the Wind River Experimental Forest in southwest Washington. Two...

  6. NW Iberia Shelf Dynamics. Study of the Douro River Plume.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Iglesias

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available River plumes are one of the most important mechanisms that transport the terrestrial materials to the coast and the ocean. Some examples of those materials are pollutants, essential nutrients, which enhance the phytoplankton productivity or sediments, which settle on the seabed producing modifications on the bathymetry affecting the navigation channels. The mixing between the riverine and the oceanic waters can induce instabilities, which might generate bulges, filaments, and buoyant currents over the continental shelf. Offshore, the buoyant riverine water could form a front with the oceanic waters often related with the occurrence of current-jets, eddies and strong mixing. The study and modelling of the river plumes is a key factor for the complete understanding of sediment transport mechanisms and patterns, and of coastal physics and dynamic processes. On this study the Douro River plume will be simulated. The Douro River is located on the north-west Iberian coast and its daily averaged freshwater discharge can range values from 0 to 13000 m3/s. This variability impacts the formation of the river plumes and its dispersion along the continental shelf. This study builds on the long-term objective of generate a Douro River plume forecasting system as part of the RAIA and RAIA.co projects. Satellite imagery was analyzed showing that the river Douro is one of the main sources of suspended particles, dissolved material and chlorophyll in the NW Iberian Shelf. The Regional Oceanic Modeling System (ROMS model was selected to reproduce scenarios of plume generation, retention and dispersion. Whit this model, three types of simulations were performed: (i schematic winds simulations with prescribed river flow, wind speed and direction; (ii multi-year climatological simulation, with river flow and temperature change for each month; (iii extreme case simulation, based on the Entre-os-Rios accident situation. The schematic wind case-studies suggest that the

  7. Wind turbine power performance verification in complex terrain and wind farms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friis Pedersen, T.; Gjerding, S.; Ingham, P.; Enevoldsen, P.; Kjaer Hansen, J.; Kanstrup Joergensen, H.

    2002-04-01

    The IEC/EN 61400-12 Ed 1 standard for wind turbine power performance testing is being revised. The standard will be divided into four documents. The first one of these is more or less a revision of the existing document on power performance measurements on individual wind turbines. The second one is a power performance verification procedure for individual wind turbines. The third is a power performance measurement procedure of whole wind farms, and the fourth is a power performance measurement procedure for non-grid (small) wind turbines. This report presents work that was made to support the basis for this standardisation work. The work addressed experience from several national and international research projects and contractual and field experience gained within the wind energy community on this matter. The work was wide ranging and addressed 'grey' areas of knowledge regarding existing methodologies, which has then been investigated in more detail. The work has given rise to a range of conclusions and recommendations regarding: guaranties on power curves in complex terrain; investors and bankers experience with verification of power curves; power performance in relation to regional correction curves for Denmark; anemometry and the influence of inclined flow. (au)

  8. HUSUM Wind Energy 2012 - side event on wind energy in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolff, Nicolas; Cassin, Fabrice

    2012-01-01

    The French-German office for Renewable energies (OFAEnR) organised a conference on wind energy in France. In the framework of this French-German exchange of experience, about a hundred participants exchanged views on the status of the French wind energy market and to present the perspectives of this industry for the coming years. Emphasis was given on the legal framework and on the authorization procedures actually in force. This document brings together the two presentations (slides) made during this event: 1 - Current status and perspectives of the French wind energy market (Nicolas Wolff); 2 - Regulatory framework for wind energy and authorisation procedures in France (Fabrice Cassin)

  9. Model county ordinance for wind projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bain, D.A. [Oregon Office of Energy, Portland, OR (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Permitting is a crucial step in the development cycle of a wind project and permits affect the timing, cost, location, feasibility, layout, and impacts of wind projects. Counties often have the lead responsibility for permitting yet few have appropriate siting regulations for wind projects. A model ordinance allows a county to quickly adopt appropriate permitting procedures. The model county wind ordinance developed for use by northwest states is generally applicable across the country and counties seeking to adopt siting or zoning regulations for wind will find it a good starting place. The model includes permitting procedures for wind measurement devices and two types of wind systems. Both discretionary and nondiscretionary standards apply to wind systems and a conditional use permit would be issued. The standards, criteria, conditions for approval, and process procedures are defined for each. Adaptation examples for the four northwest states are provided along with a model Wind Resource Overlay Zone.

  10. Wind born(e) landscapes: the role of wind erosion in agricultural land management and nature development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riksen, M.J.P.M.

    2006-01-01

    Wind has played an important role in the geological development of the north-western Europe. Various aeolian deposits such as inland dunes, river dunes, cover sands, drift sands and coastal dunes, form the base of large areas in our present landscape. The role of wind erosion in today's north-west

  11. Wind River Watershed Project; 1998 Annual Report; Volume II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connolly, Patrick J.

    1999-01-01

    The authors report here their on-ground restoration actions. Part 1 describes work conducted by the Underwood Conservation District (UCD) on private lands. This work involves the Stabler Cut-Bank project. Part 2 describes work conducted by the U.S. Forest Service. The Stabler Cut-Bank Project is a cooperative stream restoration effort between Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), the UCD, private landowners, the U.S. Forest Service (USFS), and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). The Stabler site was identified by UCD during stream surveys conducted in 1996 as part of a USFWS funded project aimed at initiating water quality and habitat restoration efforts on private lands in the basin. In 1997 the Wind River Watershed Council selected the project as a top priority demonstration project. The landowners were approached by the UCD and a partnership developed. Due to their expertise in channel rehabilitation, the Forest Service was consulted for the design and assisted with the implementation of the project. A portion of the initial phase of the project was funded by USFWS. However, the majority of funding (approximately 80%) has been provided by BPA and it is anticipated that additional work that is planned for the site will be conducted with BPA funds

  12. Siting guidelines for utility application of wind turbines. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pennell, W.T.

    1983-01-01

    Utility-oriented guidelines are described for identifying viable sites for wind turbines. Topics and procedures are also discussed that are important in carrying out a wind turbine siting program. These topics include: a description of the Department of Energy wind resource atlases; procedures for predicting wind turbine performance at potential sites; methods for analyzing wind turbine economics; procedures for estimating installation and maintenance costs; methods for anlayzing the distribution of wind resources over an area; and instrumentation for documenting wind behavior at potential sites. The procedure described is applicable to small and large utilities. Although the procedure was developed as a site-selection tool, it can also be used by a utility who wishes to estimate the potential for wind turbine penetration into its future generation mix.

  13. Wind turbine power performance verification in complex terrain and wind farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis Pedersen, Troels; Gjerding, S.; Enevoldsen, P.

    2002-01-01

    is a power performance verification procedure for individual wind turbines. The third is a power performance measurement procedure of whole wind farms, and the fourth is a power performance measurement procedurefor non-grid (small) wind turbines. This report presents work that was made to support the basis......The IEC/EN 61400-12 Ed 1 standard for wind turbine power performance testing is being revised. The standard will be divided into four documents. The first one of these is more or less a revision of the existing document on power performance measurementson individual wind turbines. The second one...... then been investigated in more detail. The work has given rise to a range of conclusionsand recommendations regarding: guaranties on power curves in complex terrain; investors and bankers experience with verification of power curves; power performance in relation to regional correction curves for Denmark...

  14. RESERVES IN WESTERN BASINS PART IV: WIND RIVER BASIN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Caldwell

    1998-04-01

    Vast quantities of natural gas are entrapped within various tight formations in the Rocky Mountain area. This report seeks to quantify what proportion of that resource can be considered recoverable under today's technological and economic conditions and discusses factors controlling recovery. The ultimate goal of this project is to encourage development of tight gas reserves by industry through reducing the technical and economic risks of locating, drilling and completing commercial tight gas wells. This report is the fourth in a series and focuses on the Wind River Basin located in west central Wyoming. The first three reports presented analyses of the tight gas reserves and resources in the Greater Green River Basin (Scotia, 1993), Piceance Basin (Scotia, 1995) and the Uinta Basin (Scotia, 1995). Since each report is a stand-alone document, duplication of language will exist where common aspects are discussed. This study, and the previous three, describe basin-centered gas deposits (Masters, 1979) which contain vast quantities of natural gas entrapped in low permeability (tight), overpressured sandstones occupying a central basin location. Such deposits are generally continuous and are not conventionally trapped by a structural or stratigraphic seal. Rather, the tight character of the reservoirs prevents rapid migration of the gas, and where rates of gas generation exceed rates of escape, an overpressured basin-centered gas deposit results (Spencer, 1987). Since the temperature is a primary controlling factor for the onset and rate of gas generation, these deposits exist in the deeper, central parts of a basin where temperatures generally exceed 200 F and drill depths exceed 8,000 feet. The abbreviation OPT (overpressured tight) is used when referring to sandstone reservoirs that comprise the basin-centered gas deposit. Because the gas resources trapped in this setting are so large, they represent an important source of future gas supply, prompting studies

  15. Ice accreditation vs wind

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabourin, G. [Hydro-Quebec, PQ (Canada). TransEnergie Div.; Chouinard, L. [McGill Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada); Feknous, N. [SNC-Lavalin, Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    Wind and ice data from Hydro Quebec and Environment Canada indicates that winds during ice storms are in the general direction of the St. Lawrence River. This observation is important for upgrading existing power transmission lines from the Manicouagan and Churchill generation system because they are parallel to the St. Lawrence and they were designed with lower criteria than is currently accepted. ASCE 74 suggests an accumulation ratio based on thickness of 0.70 for winds parallel to the line. The Goodwin model was used to calculate this ratio. The presentation includes illustrations showing the accumulation ratio for a north wind, as well as the accumulation ratios and wind roses at Quebec. A table showing a comparison of ratios from passive ice meters shows that results are similar to mean values from the theoretical model.

  16. Modelling and analysis of transient state during improved coupling procedure with the grid for DFIG based wind turbine generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammoun, Soulaymen; Sallem, Souhir; Ben Ali Kammoun, Mohamed

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study is to enhance DFIG based Wind Energy Conversion Systems (WECS) dynamics during grid coupling. In this paper, a system modelling and a starting/coupling procedure for this generator to the grid are proposed. The proposed non-linear system is a variable structure system (VSS) and has two different states, before and after coupling. So, two different state models are given to the system to analyse transient stability during the coupling. The given model represents well the transient state of the machine, through which, a behaviour assessment of the generator before, during and after connection is given based on simulation results. For this, a 300 kW DFIG based wind generation system model was simulated on the Matlab/SIMULINK environment. We judge the proposed procedure to be practical, smooth and stability improved.

  17. RIVERTON DOME GAS EXPLORATION AND STIMULATION TECHNOLOGY DEMONSTRATION, WIND RIVER BASIN, WYOMING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dr. Ronald C. Surdam

    1999-01-01

    This project will provide a full demonstration of an entirely new package of exploration technologies that will result in the discovery and development of significant new gas reserves now trapped in unconventional low-permeability reservoirs. This demonstration includes the field application of these technologies, prospect definition and well siting, and a test of this new strategy through wildcat drilling. In addition this project includes a demonstration of a new stimulation technology that will improve completion success in these unconventional low permeability reservoirs which are sensitive to drilling and completion damage. The work includes two test wells to be drilled by Snyder Oil Company on the Shoshone/Arapahoe Tribal Lands in the Wind River Basin. This basin is a foreland basin whose petroleum systems include Paleozoic and Cretaceous source beds and reservoirs which were buried, folded by Laramide compressional folding, and subsequently uplifted asymmetrically. The anomalous pressure boundary is also asymmetric, following differential uplift trends

  18. Draft-circular on wind turbines. Concept-circulaire wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-01-01

    Criteria for providing licenses to build and operate a wind turbine are surveyed. Factors to consider are: characteristics of the landscape, density of population, town and country planning, environmental aspects (birds), safety and nuisance. National regulations for wind turbines will simplify licensing procedures and improve legal security.

  19. Wind influence on a coastal buoyant outflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, Michael M.; Garvine, Richard W.

    2005-03-01

    This paper investigates the interplay between river discharge and winds in forcing coastal buoyant outflows. During light winds a plume influenced by the Earth's rotation will flow down shelf (in the direction of Kelvin wave propagation) as a slender buoyancy-driven coastal current. Downwelling favorable winds augment this down-shelf flow, narrow the plume, and mix the water column. Upwelling favorable winds drive currents that counter the buoyancy-driven flow, spread plume waters offshore, and rapidly mix buoyant waters. Two criteria are developed to assess the wind influence on a buoyant outflow. The wind strength index (Ws) determines whether a plume's along-shelf flow is in a wind-driven or buoyancy-driven state. Ws is the ratio of the wind-driven and buoyancy-driven along-shelf velocities. Wind influence on across-shelf plume structure is rated with a timescale (ttilt) for the isopycnal tilting caused by wind-driven Ekman circulation. These criteria are used to characterize wind influence on the Delaware Coastal Current and can be applied to other coastal buoyant outflows. The Delaware buoyant outflow is simulated for springtime high-river discharge conditions. Simulation results and Ws values reveal that the coastal current is buoyancy-driven most of the time (∣Ws∣ Wind events, however, overwhelm the buoyancy-driven flow (∣Ws∣ > 1) several times during the high-discharge period. Strong upwelling events reverse the buoyant outflow; they constitute an important mechanism for transporting fresh water up shelf. Across-shelf plume structure is more sensitive to wind influence than the along-shelf flow. Values of ttilt indicate that moderate or strong winds persisting throughout a day can modify plume width significantly. Plume widening during upwelling events is accompanied by mixing that can erase the buoyant outflow.

  20. Anatomy of an interrupted irrigation season: Micro-drought at the Wind River Indian Reservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon M. McNeeley

    Full Text Available Drought is a complex phenomenon manifested through interactions between biophysical and social factors. At the Wind River Indian Reservation (WRIR in west-central Wyoming, water shortages have become increasingly common since the turn of the 21st century. Here we discuss the 2015 water year as an exemplar year, which was characterized by wetter-than-normal conditions across the reservation and, according to the U.S. Drought Monitor, remained drought-free throughout the year. Yet parts of the reservation experienced harmful water shortages, or “micro-drought” conditions, during the growing season in 2015. In this assessment of the 2015 water year at the WRIR we: (1 describe the hydroclimatic and social processes under way that contributed to the 2015 water year micro-drought in the Little Wind Basin; (2 compare water availability conditions within and between other basins at the WRIR to illustrate how micro-droughts can result from social and environmental features unique to local systems; and (3 describe how a collaborative project is supporting drought preparedness at the WRIR. We combine a social science assessment with an analysis of the hydroclimate to deconstruct how shortages manifest at the WRIR. We provide insights from this study to help guide drought assessments at local scales. Keywords: Drought, Climate vulnerability, Drought preparedness, Indigenous adaptation, Co-production

  1. Preliminary Geologic/spectral Analysis of LANDSAT-4 Thematic Mapper Data, Wind River/bighorn Basin Area, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, H. R.; Conel, J. E.; Paylor, E. D.

    1984-01-01

    A LIDQA evaluation for geologic applications of a LANDSAT TM scene covering the Wind River/Bighorn Basin area, Wyoming, is examined. This involves a quantitative assessment of data quality including spatial and spectral characteristics. Analysis is concentrated on the 6 visible, near infrared, and short wavelength infrared bands. Preliminary analysis demonstrates that: (1) principal component images derived from the correlation matrix provide the most useful geologic information. To extract surface spectral reflectance, the TM radiance data must be calibrated. Scatterplots demonstrate that TM data can be calibrated and sensor response is essentially linear. Low instrumental offset and gain settings result in spectral data that do not utilize the full dynamic range of the TM system.

  2. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report; Priest River Project, Technical Report 2005.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Entz, Ray

    2005-05-01

    On July 6, 2004, the Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP) was used to determine baseline habitat suitability on the Priest River property, an acquisition completed by the Kalispel Tribe of Indians in 2001. Evaluation species and appropriate models include bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, Canada goose, mallard, yellow warbler, and white-tailed deer. Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) values were visually estimated and agreed upon by all HEP team members. The Priest River Project provides a total of 140.73 Habitat Units (HUs) for the species evaluated. Conifer forest habitat provides 60.05 HUs for bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, and white-tailed deer. Grassland meadow habitat provides 7.39 HUs for Canada goose and mallard. Scrub-shrub vegetation provides 71.13 HUs for mallard, yellow warbler, and white-tailed deer. Open water habitat provides 2.16 HUs for Canada goose and mallard. The objective of using HEP at the Priest River Project and other protected properties is to document the quality and quantity of available habitat for selected wildlife species. In this way, HEP provides information on the relative value of the same area at future points in time so that the effect of management activities on wildlife habitat can be quantified. When combined with other tools, the baseline HEP will be used to determine the most effective on-site management, restoration, and enhancement actions to increase habitat suitability for targeted species. The same process will be replicated every five years to quantitatively evaluate the effectiveness of management strategies in improving and maintaining habitat conditions while providing additional crediting to BPA for enhanced habitat values.

  3. A numerical study of the plume in Cape Fear River Estuary and adjacent coastal ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, M.; Xia, L.; Pietrafesa, L. J.

    2006-12-01

    Cape Fear River Estuary (CFRE), located in southeast North Carolina, is the only river estuary system in the state which is directly connected to the Atlantic Ocean. It is also an important nursery for economically and ecologically important juvenile fish, crabs, shrimp, and other species because of the tidal influence and saline waters. In this study, Environmental Fluid Dynamic Code (EFDC) is used to simulate the salinity plume and trajectory distribution at the mouth of the CFRE and adjacent coastal ocean. Prescribed with the climatological freshwater discharge rates in the rivers, the modeling system was used to simulate the salinity plume and trajectory distribution distribution in the mouth of the CFRE under the influence of climatological wind conditions and tidal effect. We analyzed the plume formation processes and the strong relationship between the various plume distributions with respect to the wind and river discharge in the region. The simulations also indicate that strong winds tend to reduce the surface CFRE plume size and distorting the bulge region near the estuary mouth due to enhanced wind induced surface mixing. Even moderate wind speeds could fully reverse the buoyancy-driven plume structure in CFRE under normal river discharge conditions. Tide and the river discharge also are important factors to influence the plume structure. The comparions between the distribution of salinity plume and trajectory also are discussed in the study.

  4. Wind energy. To produce electricity with the wind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bareau, Helene

    2015-11-01

    This guide addresses the different aspects of wind-based power generation. It outlines the role of wind energy to meet objectives related to the share of renewable energies in the French energy mix, that wind energy is actually replacing fossil energies, that it is based on local resources within higher safety and less wastage, that current advances are made to integrate wind energy production into the grid, and that it is a solution to diversify energy production. Some figures are presented and commented, regarding onshore wind energy production in France, the location of wind farms, and wind energy production in comparison with other renewable sources. The operation of a wind turbine is described and the different types of wind turbines are evoked. The issue of wind farm planning with citizen participation is addressed: regional planning, studies of pre-feasibility for location selection, procedure, and content of the impact study (radars, fauna and flora, landscapes, safety, health). Other features are outlined: a planned dismantling, and a globally favourable perception. The next part addresses offshore wind energy: the interesting potential of stronger and more reliable wind at sea (European situation, French opportunities, elements comprised in an offshore wind farm), impacts (on marine ecosystems, on neighbouring localities, and interests for visitors). Economic aspects are then addressed: cost and profitability, economic spin-offs, and perspectives. The last part concerns individuals and the possibilities to participate to wind farm projects or to invest in small wind turbines with some prerequisites (constant and steady winds, installation assessment, required expertise, indispensable preliminary steps, costs, aids and profitability)

  5. 77 FR 55455 - Approval for Manufacturing Authority Foreign-Trade Zone 72, Brevini Wind USA, Inc., (Wind Turbine...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-10

    ... Authority Foreign-Trade Zone 72, Brevini Wind USA, Inc., (Wind Turbine Gear Boxes), Yorktown, IN Pursuant to... Wind USA, Inc., within FTZ 72 in Yorktown, Indiana (FTZ Docket 54-2011, filed 8-11-2011); Whereas... procedures within FTZ 72 on behalf of Brevini Wind USA, Inc., as described in the application and Federal...

  6. NW Iberia shelf dynamics and the behaviour of the Douro River plume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias, Isabel; Couvelard, Xavier; Avilez-Valente, Paulo; Caldeira, Rui M. A.

    2015-04-01

    The study and modelling of the river plumes is a key factor to complete understand the coastal physics and dynamic processes and sediment transport mechanisms. Some the terrestrial materials that they transport to the ocean are pollutants, essential nutrients, which enhance the phytoplankton productivity or sediments, which settle on the seabed producing bathymetric modifications. When the riverine water join the ocean several instabilities can be induced, generating bulges, filaments, and buoyant currents over the continental shelf. Offshore, the riverine water could form fronts that could be related with the occurrence of current-jets, eddies and strong mixing. This study focused on the Douro River plume simulation. This river is located on the north-west Iberian coast. Its daily averaged freshwater discharge can range values from 0 to 13000 m3/s, which impacts on the formation of the river plumes and its dispersion along the continental shelf. The Regional Oceanic Modeling System (ROMS) model was used to reproduce scenarios of plume generation, retention and dispersion (Shchepetkin and McWilliams, 2005). Three types of simulations were performed: schematic winds simulations with prescribed river flow, wind speed and direction; multi-year climatological simulation, with river flow and temperature change for each month; extreme case simulation. The schematic wind case-studies suggest that the plume is wind-driven. Important differences appear in its structure and dispersion pathways depending on the wind direction and strength. Northerly winds induce plumes with a narrow coastal current meanwhile southerly winds push the river water to the north finding water associated with the Douro River in the Galician Rías. The high surface salinity on the plume regions during strong wind events suggests that the wind enhances the vertical mixing. Extreme river discharges, associated with southerly winds, can transport debris to the Galician coast in about 60 h, helping to

  7. Coherence of river and ocean conditions along the US West Coast during storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kniskern, T.A.; Warrick, J.A.; Farnsworth, K.L.; Wheatcroft, R.A.; Goni, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    The majority of water and sediment discharge from the small, mountainous watersheds of the US West Coast occurs during and immediately following winter storms. The physical conditions (waves, currents, and winds) within and acting upon the proximal coastal ocean during these winter storms strongly influence dispersal patterns. We examined this river-ocean temporal coherence for four coastal river-shelf systems of the US West Coast (Umpqua, Eel, Salinas, and Santa Clara) to evaluate whether specific ocean conditions occur during floods that may influence coastal dispersal of sediment. Eleven years of corresponding river discharge, wind, and wave data were obtained for each river-shelf system from USGS and NOAA historical records, and each record was evaluated for seasonal and event-based patterns. Because near-bed shear stresses due to waves influence sediment resuspension and transport, we used spectral wave data to compute and evaluate wave-generated bottom-orbital velocities. The highest values of wave energy and discharge for all four systems were consistently observed between October 15 and March 15, and there were strong latitudinal patterns observed in these data with lower discharge and wave energies in the southernmost systems. During floods we observed patterns of river-ocean coherence that differed from the overall seasonal patterns. For example, downwelling winds generally prevailed during floods in the northern two systems (Umpqua and Eel), whereas winds in the southern systems (Salinas and Santa Clara) were generally downwelling before peak discharge and upwelling after peak discharge. Winds not associated with floods were generally upwelling on all four river-shelf systems. Although there are seasonal variations in river-ocean coherence, waves generally led floods in the three northern systems, while they lagged floods in the Santa Clara. Combined, these observations suggest that there are consistent river-ocean coherence patterns along the US West

  8. Early-season wind erosion influenced by soil-incorporated green manure in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Management strategies are sought to minimize wind erosion of irrigated agricultural soils along the Columbia River of the Inland Pacific Northwest, particularly during the early season (March-April) when high winds coincide with sowing of vegetable crops. Early-season wind erosion potential from soi...

  9. Wind energy and spatial planning procedures; La programmation spatiale des projects eoliens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    Wind turbines projects have been increasing, but some are very conflicted. May be it is a reason why some local authorities have to deal with different point of view, above the only energy question and including local specificity. To give local authorities the possibility to be implicated and to be in control of wind projects in their territory, wind spatial planning should permit to choose suitable areas and to optimize wind power development. In this context this synthesis presents the wind spatial planning in Finistere (France), the french regulation, some international experiences (Danish, Flemish, Walloon region, Dutch) and the different approaches of spatial planning. (A.L.B.)

  10. Turbulent Structure Under Short Fetch Wind Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    maximum 200 words ) Momentum transfer from wind forcing into the ocean is complicated by the presence of surface waves. Wind momentum and energy are...1,520 m from the mouth of the river to the deployment site ). Map created in Google Earth, October 12, 2015, http://www.google.com/earth/. 33...Doppler processing electronics for each transducer uses 14 bit analog to digital converter to digitize the 1.2 MHz acoustic frequency from the four

  11. Blowing in the wind: evaluating wind energy projects on the national forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerry Schlichting; Evan Mercer

    2011-01-01

    The 650 million ac of federal lands are facing increased scrutiny for wind energy development. As a result, the US Forest Service has been directed to develop policies and procedures for siting wind energy projects. We incorporate geospatial site suitability analysis with applicable policy and management principles to illustrate the use of a Spatial Decision Support...

  12. The Forecasting Procedure for Long-Term Wind Speed in the Zhangye Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenhai Guo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy crisis has made it urgent to find alternative energy sources for sustainable energy supply; wind energy is one of the attractive alternatives. Within a wind energy system, the wind speed is one key parameter; accurately forecasting of wind speed can minimize the scheduling errors and in turn increase the reliability of the electric power grid and reduce the power market ancillary service costs. This paper proposes a new hybrid model for long-term wind speed forecasting based on the first definite season index method and the Autoregressive Moving Average (ARMA models or the Generalized Autoregressive Conditional Heteroskedasticity (GARCH forecasting models. The forecasting errors are analyzed and compared with the ones obtained from the ARMA, GARCH model, and Support Vector Machine (SVM; the simulation process and results show that the developed method is simple and quite efficient for daily average wind speed forecasting of Hexi Corridor in China.

  13. A new low threshold bi-directional wind vane and its potential impact on unplanned atmospheric release prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    At the Savannah River Site, the Environmental Transport Group (ETG) maintains and develops a comprehensive meteorological monitoring program which employs bi-directional wind vanes (bivanes) for the measurement of horizontal and vertical wind direction and turbulence. Wind data collected near and below instrument starting thresholds under stable nighttime conditions with these bivanes can result in artificially large standard deviations of horizontal wind direction (σA). In one hypothetical case, downwind concentrations could be underestimated by a factor of 40 by using artificially high σA data in a Gaussian dispersion model. In an effort to improve low wind speed measurements of wind direction, a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between Met One Instruments and the Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) has been created to improve the dynamic performance of the Met One Model 1585 Bi-Directional Wind Vane

  14. Wind effect on salt transport variability in the Bay of Bengal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandeep, K. K.; Pant, V.

    2017-12-01

    The Bay of Bengal (BoB) exhibits large spatial variability in sea surface salinity (SSS) pattern caused by its unique hydrological, meteorological and oceanographical characteristics. This SSS variability is largely controlled by the seasonally reversing monsoon winds and the associated currents. Further, the BoB receives substantial freshwater inputs through excess precipitation over evaporation and river discharge. Rivers like Ganges, Brahmaputra, Mahanadi, Krishna, Godavari, and Irawwady discharge annually a freshwater volume in range between 1.5 x 1012 and 1.83 x 1013 m3 into the bay. A major volume of this freshwater input to the bay occurs during the southwest monsoon (June-September) period. In the present study, a relative role of winds in the SSS variability in the bay is investigated by using an eddy-resolving three dimensional Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) numerical model. The model is configured with realistic bathymetry, coastline of study region and forced with daily climatology of atmospheric variables. River discharges from the major rivers are distributed in the model grid points representing their respective geographic locations. Salt transport estimate from the model simulation for realistic case are compared with the standard reference datasets. Further, different experiments were carried out with idealized surface wind forcing representing the normal, low, high, and very high wind speed conditions in the bay while retaining the realistic daily varying directions for all the cases. The experimental simulations exhibit distinct dispersal patterns of the freshwater plume and SSS in different experiments in response to the idealized winds. Comparison of the meridional and zonal surface salt transport estimated for each experiment showed strong seasonality with varying magnitude in the bay with a maximum spatial and temporal variability in the western and northern parts of the BoB.

  15. Procedures for the design of the main mechanical components of a wind system; Dimensionamento dos componentes mecanicos principais de aerogeradores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirata, M.H.; Marco Filho, F. de [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia

    1990-12-31

    Procedures for the design of the main mechanical components of a wind system were developed. One of the main concerns was related to the possibility of its use in small micro-computers. This goal was reached and an APPLE II computer was used. The resulting algorithm permits a friendly interaction between man and machine. 5 refs., 12 figs

  16. Design procedure for a wind-wheel with self-adjusting blade mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gennady A. Oborsky

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Developed is a wind-wheel design equipped with the self-adjusting blade. The blade is positioned eccentrically to the balance wheel and can freely rotate around its axis. Elaborated is the method of calculating the energy characteristics for a wind-wheel with the self-adjusting blade, considering not only the wind force but the force of air counter flow resistance to the blade’s rotation. Initially, the blade being located at an angle α = 45 to the wheel rotation plane, the air flow rotates the wheel with the maximum force. Thus, the speed of rotation increases that involves the increase in air counter flow resistance and results in blade turning with respective angle α reduction. This, consequently, reduces the torque. When the torsional force and the resistance enter into equilibrium, the blade takes a certain angle α, and the wheel speed becomes constant. This wind-wheel design including a self-adjusting blade allows increasing the air flow load ratio when compared to the wind-wheel equipped with a jammed blade.

  17. Diurnal Evolution and Annual Variability of Boundary Layer Height in the Columbia River Gorge through the `Eye' of Wind Profiling Radars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, L.; Djalalova, I.; Konopleva-Akish, E.; Kenyon, J.; Olson, J. B.; Wilczak, J. M.

    2016-12-01

    The Second Wind Forecast Improvement Project (WFIP2) is a DoE- and NOAA-sponsored program whose goal is to improve the accuracy of numerical weather prediction (NWP) forecasts in complex terrain. WFIP2 consists of an 18-month (October 2015 - March 2017) field campaign held in the Columbia River basin, in the Pacific Northwest of the U.S. As part of WFIP2 a large suite of in-situ and remote sensing instrumentation has been deployed, including, among several others, a network of eight 915-MHz wind profiling radars (WPRs) equipped with radio acoustic sounding systems (RASSs), and many surface meteorological stations. The diurnal evolution and annual variability of boundary layer height in the area of WFIP2 will be investigated through the `eye' of WPRs, employing state-of-the-art automated algorithms, based on fuzzy logic and artificial intelligence. The results will be used to evaluate possible errors in NWP models in this area of complex terrain.

  18. River runoff influences on the Central Mediterranean overturning circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verri, Giorgia; Pinardi, N.; Oddo, P.; Ciliberti, S. A.; Coppini, G.

    2018-03-01

    The role of riverine freshwater inflow on the Central Mediterranean Overturning Circulation (CMOC) was studied using a high-resolution ocean model with a complete distribution of rivers in the Adriatic and Ionian catchment areas. The impact of river runoff on the Adriatic and Ionian Sea basins was assessed by a twin experiment, with and without runoff, from 1999 to 2012. This study tries to show the connection between the Adriatic as a marginal sea containing the downwelling branch of the anti-estuarine CMOC and the large runoff occurring there. It is found that the multiannual CMOC is a persistent anti-estuarine structure with secondary estuarine cells that strengthen in years of large realistic river runoff. The CMOC is demonstrated to be controlled by wind forcing at least as much as by buoyancy fluxes. It is found that river runoff affects the CMOC strength, enhancing the amplitude of the secondary estuarine cells and reducing the intensity of the dominant anti-estuarine cell. A large river runoff can produce a positive buoyancy flux without switching off the antiestuarine CMOC cell, but a particularly low heat flux and wind work with normal river runoff can reverse it. Overall by comparing experiments with, without and with unrealistically augmented runoff we demonstrate that rivers affect the CMOC strength but they can never represent its dominant forcing mechanism and the potential role of river runoff has to be considered jointly with wind work and heat flux, as they largely contribute to the energy budget of the basin. Looking at the downwelling branch of the CMOC in the Adriatic basin, rivers are demonstrated to locally reduce the volume of Adriatic dense water formed in the Southern Adriatic Sea as a result of increased water stratification. The spreading of the Adriatic dense water into the Ionian abyss is affected as well: dense waters overflowing the Otranto Strait are less dense in a realistic runoff regime, with respect to no runoff experiment, and

  19. Wind Power in Georgia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-11-01

    Georgia has good wind power potential. Preliminary analyses show that the technical wind power potential in Georgia is good. Meteorological data shows that Georgia has four main areas in Georgia with annual average wind speeds of over 6 m/s and two main areas with 5-6 m/s at 80m. The most promising areas are the high mountain zone of the Great Caucasus, The Kura river valley, The South-Georgian highland and the Southern part of the Georgian Black Sea coast. Czech company Wind Energy Invest has recently signed a Memorandum of Understanding with Georgian authorities for development of the first wind farm in Georgia, a 50MW wind park in Paravani, Southern Georgia, to be completed in 2014. Annual generation is estimated to 170.00 GWh and the investment estimated to 101 million US$. Wind power is suited to balance hydropower in the Georgian electricity sector Electricity generation in Georgia is dominated by hydro power, constituting 88% of total generation in 2009. Limited storage capacity and significant spring and summer peaks in river flows result in an uneven annual generation profile and winter time shortages that are covered by three gas power plants. Wind power is a carbon-free energy source well suited to balance hydropower, as it is available (often strongest) in the winter and can be exported when there is a surplus. Another advantage with wind power is the lead time for the projects; the time from site selection to operation for a wind power park (approximately 2.5 years) is much shorter than for hydro power (often 6-8 years). There is no support system or scheme for renewable sources in Georgia, so wind power has to compete directly with other energy sources and is in most cases more expensive to build than hydro power. In a country and region with rapidly increasing energy demands, the factors described above nevertheless indicate that there is a commercial niche and a role to play for Georgian wind power. Skra: An example of a wind power development

  20. Wind Stress Variability Observed Over Coastal Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Suslow, D. G.; Haus, B. K.; Laxague, N.; Williams, N. J.; Graber, H. C.

    2016-02-01

    The wind stress on the ocean surface generates waves, drives currents, and enhances gas exchange; and a significant amount of work has been done to characterize the air-sea momentum flux in terms of bulk oceanographic and atmospheric parameters. However, the majority of this work to develop operational algorithms has been focused on the deep ocean and the suitability of these methods in the coastal regime has not been evaluated. The findings from a two-part field campaign will be presented which highlight the divergence of nearshore wind stress observations from conventional, deep water results. The first set of data comes from a coastal region near a relatively small, natural tidal inlet. A high degree of spatial variability was observed in both the wind stress magnitude and direction, suggestive of coastal processes (e.g., depth-limited wave affects and horizontal current shear) modulating the momentum flux from the atmosphere to the ocean surface. These shallow-water processes are typically not accounted for in conventional parameterizations. Across the experimental domain and for a given wind speed, the stress magnitude was found to be nearly 2.5 times that predicted by conventional methods; also, a high propensity for stress steering off the mean azimuthal wind direction (up to ±70 degrees) was observed and linked to horizontal current gradients produced by the tidal inlet. The preliminary findings from a second data set taken in the vicinity of the macrotidal Columbia River Mouth will also be presented. Compared to the first data set, a similar degree of variability is observed here, but the processes responsible for this are present at a much larger scale. Specifically, the Columbia River Mouth observations were made in the presence of significant swell wave energy and during periods of very high estuarine discharge. The relative angle between the wind and swell direction is expected to be significant with regards to the observed momentum flux. Also, these

  1. Wind farms in hostile terrain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    This report summarises the results of a study aimed at reducing risks associated with wind farms in hostile conditions, evaluating and refining design procedures for such sites, and reviewing the results in terms of the current design practice. The scientific and technical background to the study is described, and measurements taken at two hostile sites in the UK and Italy, the wind data, wind turbine loads, the impact of icing, and wind turbine design for hostile conditions are examined, and actual and planned activities are compared.

  2. Field Tests of Wind Turbine Unit with Tandem Wind Rotors and Double Rotational Armatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galal, Ahmed Mohamed; Kanemoto, Toshiaki

    This paper discusses the field tests of the wind turbine unit, in which the front and the rear wind rotors drive the inner and the outer armatures of the synchronous generator. The wind rotors were designed conveniently by the traditional procedure for the single wind rotor, where the diameters of the front and the rear wind rotors are 2 m and 1.33 m. The tests were done on a pick-up type truck driven straightly at constant speed. The rotational torque of the unit is directly proportional to the induced electric current irrespective of the rotational speeds of the wind rotors, while the induced voltage is proportional to the relative rotational speed. The performance of the unit is significantly affected not only by the wind velocity, but also by the blade setting angles of both wind rotors and the applied load especially at lower wind velocity.

  3. Influence of main forcing affecting the Tagus turbid plume under high river discharges using MODIS imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Nóvoa, D; Gómez-Gesteira, M; Mendes, R; deCastro, M; Vaz, N; Dias, J M

    2017-01-01

    The role of river discharge, wind and tide on the extension and variability of the Tagus River plume was analyzed from 2003 to 2015. This study was performed combining daily images obtained from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor located onboard the Aqua and Terra satellites. Composites were generated by averaging pixels with the same forcing conditions. River discharge shows a strong relation with the extension of the Tagus plume. The plume grows with the increasing river discharge and express a two day lag caused by the long residence time of water within the estuary. The Tagus turbid plume was found to be smaller under northerly and easterly winds, than under southerly and westerly winds. It is suggested that upwelling favoring winds provoke the offshore movement of the plume material with a rapidly decrease in turbidity values whereas downwelling favoring winds retain plume material in the north coast close to the Tagus mouth. Eastern cross-shore (oceanward) winds spread the plume seaward and to the north following the coast geometry, whereas western cross-shore (landward) winds keep the plume material in both alongshore directions occupying a large part of the area enclosed by the bay. Low tides produce larger and more turbid plumes than high tides. In terms of fortnightly periodicity, the maximum plume extension corresponding to the highest turbidity is observed during and after spring tides. Minimum plume extension associated with the lowest turbidity occurs during and after neap tides.

  4. Influence of main forcing affecting the Tagus turbid plume under high river discharges using MODIS imagery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Fernández-Nóvoa

    Full Text Available The role of river discharge, wind and tide on the extension and variability of the Tagus River plume was analyzed from 2003 to 2015. This study was performed combining daily images obtained from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS sensor located onboard the Aqua and Terra satellites. Composites were generated by averaging pixels with the same forcing conditions. River discharge shows a strong relation with the extension of the Tagus plume. The plume grows with the increasing river discharge and express a two day lag caused by the long residence time of water within the estuary. The Tagus turbid plume was found to be smaller under northerly and easterly winds, than under southerly and westerly winds. It is suggested that upwelling favoring winds provoke the offshore movement of the plume material with a rapidly decrease in turbidity values whereas downwelling favoring winds retain plume material in the north coast close to the Tagus mouth. Eastern cross-shore (oceanward winds spread the plume seaward and to the north following the coast geometry, whereas western cross-shore (landward winds keep the plume material in both alongshore directions occupying a large part of the area enclosed by the bay. Low tides produce larger and more turbid plumes than high tides. In terms of fortnightly periodicity, the maximum plume extension corresponding to the highest turbidity is observed during and after spring tides. Minimum plume extension associated with the lowest turbidity occurs during and after neap tides.

  5. Field intercomparison of channel master ADCP with RiverSonde Radar for measuring river discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spain, P.; Marsden, R.; Barrick, D.; Teague, C.; Ruhl, C.

    2005-01-01

    The RiverSonde radar makes non-contact measurement of a horizontal swath of surface velocity across a river section. This radar, which has worked successfully at several rivers in the Western USA, has shown encouraging correlation with simultaneous measurements of average currents at one level recorded by an acoustic travel-time system. This work reports a field study intercomparing data sets from a 600 kHz Channel Master ADCP with the RiverSonde radar. The primary goal was to begin to explore the robustness of the radar data as a reliable index of discharge. This site Is at Three Mile Slough in Northern California, USA. The larger intent of the work is to examine variability in space and time of the radar's surface currents compared with subsurface flows across the river section. Here we examine data from a couple of periods with strong winds. ?? 2005 IEEE.

  6. Wind system documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froggatt, J.R.; Tatum, C.P.

    1993-01-15

    Atmospheric transport and diffusion models have been developed by the Environmental Technology Section (ETS) of the Savannah River Technology Center to calculate the location and concentration of toxic or radioactive materials during an accidental release at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The output from these models has been used to support initial on-site and off-site emergency response activities such as protective action decision making and field monitoring coordination. These atmospheric transport and diffusion models have been incorporated into an automated computer-based system called the (Weather Information and Display) System and linked to real-time meteorological and radiological monitoring instruments to provide timely information for these emergency response activities (Hunter, 1990). This report documents various aspects of the WIND system.

  7. Wind turbine optimal control during storms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrović, V; Bottasso, C L

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a control algorithm that enables wind turbine operation in high winds. With this objective, an online optimization procedure is formulated that, based on the wind turbine state, estimates those extremal wind speed variations that would produce maximal allowable wind turbine loads. Optimization results are compared to the actual wind speed and, if there is a danger of excessive loading, the wind turbine power reference is adjusted to ensure that loads stay within allowed limits. This way, the machine can operate safely even above the cut-out wind speed, thereby realizing a soft envelope-protecting cut-out. The proposed control strategy is tested and verified using a high-fidelity aeroservoelastic simulation model

  8. Annoyance rating of wind turbine noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iredale, R.A.

    1992-01-01

    This paper proposes a simple criterion for noise limitation of wind turbines: 'The La A50 from a Wind Farm should not exceeding the L A50 of the wind generated background plus 5dB at any place of potential complaint'. This criterion is then examined and developed in the light of experience to date with turbine noise complaint and procedures. (author)

  9. Grid Integration of Wind Farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giæver Tande, John Olav

    2003-07-01

    This article gives an overview of grid integration of wind farms with respect to impact on voltage quality and power system stability. The recommended procedure for assessing the impact of wind turbines on voltage quality in distribution grids is presented. The procedure uses the power quality characteristic data of wind turbines to determine the impact on slow voltage variations, flicker, voltage dips and harmonics. The detailed assessment allows for substantially more wind power in distribution grids compared with previously used rule-of-thumb guidelines. Power system stability is a concern in conjunction with large wind farms or very weak grids. Assessment requires the use of power system simulation tools, and wind farm models for inclusion in such tools are presently being developed. A fixed-speed wind turbine model is described. The model may be considered a good starting point for development of more advanced models, hereunder the concept of variable-speed wind turbines with a doubly fed induction generator is briefly explained. The use of dynamic wind farm models as part of power system simulation tools allows for detailed studies and development of innovative grid integration techniques. It is demonstrated that the use of reactive compensation may relax the short-term voltage stability limit and allow integration of significantly more wind power, and that application of automatic generation control technology may be an efficient means to circumvent thermal transmission capacity constraints. The continuous development of analysis tools and technology for cost-effective and secure grid integration is an important aid to ensure the increasing use of wind energy. A key factor for success, however, is the communication of results and gained experience, and in this regard it is hoped that this article may contribute.

  10. Standards for measurements and testing of wind turbine power quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soerensen, P [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark); Gerdes, G; Klosse, R; Santjer, F [DEWI, Wilhelmshaven (Germany); Robertson, N; Davy, W [NEL, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Koulouvari, M; Morfiadakis, E [CRES, Pikermi (Greece); Larsson, Aa [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    1999-03-01

    The present paper describes the work done in power quality sub-task of the project `European Wind Turbine Testing Procedure Developments` funded by the EU SMT program. The objective of the power quality sub-task has been to make analyses and new recommendation(s) for the standardisation of measurement and verification of wind turbine power quality. The work has been organised in three major activities. The first activity has been to propose measurement procedures and to verify existing and new measurement procedures. This activity has also involved a comparison of the measurements and data processing of the participating partners. The second activity has been to investigate the influence of terrain, grid properties and wind farm summation on the power quality of wind turbines with constant rotor speed. The third activity has been to investigate the influence of terrain, grid properties and wind farm summation on the power quality of wind turbines with variable rotor speed. (au)

  11. Calculating wind profiles above a pine forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, C.E.; Dexter, A.H.

    1978-01-01

    A major part of the environmental transport work at the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) involves the dispersion of airborne pollutants (aerosols and gases). A major part of the Savannah River Plant (SRP) site is covered with pine forests. Because forests are ''rough'' surfaces which increase turbulence and surface shear stress and, hence, alter the dispersion patterns, the nature of the wind profiles above the forests is being investigated. Two methods for determining the surface shear caused by the atmospheric wind field over a pine plantation were compared. Friction velocity [the square root of the ratio of shearing stress over the density of air; U/sub */ = (stress/density)1/2] calculated by eddy correlation was compared with friction velocity calculated from wind profiles. Data from the first five meters above the pine forest were compared. The data indicated that there was no significant difference in the mean friction velocity measured by each method. However, there were large differences in individual values calculated by the two methods for many of the measurement periods. An attempt was made to reconcile the differences in the measured values, but no satisfactory method was found

  12. Quality and Control of Water Vapor Winds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedlovec, Gary J.; Atkinson, Robert J.

    1996-01-01

    Water vapor imagery from the geostationary satellites such as GOES, Meteosat, and GMS provides synoptic views of dynamical events on a continual basis. Because the imagery represents a non-linear combination of mid- and upper-tropospheric thermodynamic parameters (three-dimensional variations in temperature and humidity), video loops of these image products provide enlightening views of regional flow fields, the movement of tropical and extratropical storm systems, the transfer of moisture between hemispheres and from the tropics to the mid- latitudes, and the dominance of high pressure systems over particular regions of the Earth. Despite the obvious larger scale features, the water vapor imagery contains significant image variability down to the single 8 km GOES pixel. These features can be quantitatively identified and tracked from one time to the next using various image processing techniques. Merrill et al. (1991), Hayden and Schmidt (1992), and Laurent (1993) have documented the operational procedures and capabilities of NOAA and ESOC to produce cloud and water vapor winds. These techniques employ standard correlation and template matching approaches to wind tracking and use qualitative and quantitative procedures to eliminate bad wind vectors from the wind data set. Techniques have also been developed to improve the quality of the operational winds though robust editing procedures (Hayden and Veldon 1991). These quality and control approaches have limitations, are often subjective, and constrain wind variability to be consistent with model derived wind fields. This paper describes research focused on the refinement of objective quality and control parameters for water vapor wind vector data sets. New quality and control measures are developed and employed to provide a more robust wind data set for climate analysis, data assimilation studies, as well as operational weather forecasting. The parameters are applicable to cloud-tracked winds as well with minor

  13. Spatio-temporal analysis of prodelta dynamics by means of new satellite generation: the case of Po river by Landsat-8 data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzo, Ciro; Braga, Federica; Zaggia, Luca; Brando, Vittorio Ernesto; Giardino, Claudia; Bresciani, Mariano; Bassani, Cristiana

    2018-04-01

    This paper describes a procedure to perform spatio-temporal analysis of river plume dispersion in prodelta areas by multi-temporal Landsat-8-derived products for identifying zones sensitive to water discharge and for providing geostatistical patterns of turbidity linked to different meteo-marine forcings. In particular, we characterized the temporal and spatial variability of turbidity and sea surface temperature (SST) in the Po River prodelta (Northern Adriatic Sea, Italy) during the period 2013-2016. To perform this analysis, a two-pronged processing methodology was implemented and the resulting outputs were analysed through a series of statistical tools. A pixel-based spatial correlation analysis was carried out by comparing temporal curves of turbidity and SST hypercubes with in situ time series of wind speed and water discharge, providing correlation coefficient maps. A geostatistical analysis was performed to determine the spatial dependency of the turbidity datasets per each satellite image, providing maps of correlation and variograms. The results show a linear correlation between water discharge and turbidity variations in the points more affected by the buoyant plumes and along the southern coast of Po River delta. Better inverse correlation was found between turbidity and SST during floods rather than other periods. The correlation maps of wind speed with turbidity show different spatial patterns depending on local or basin-scale wind effects. Variogram maps identify different spatial anisotropy structures of turbidity in response to ambient conditions (i.e. strong Bora or Scirocco winds, floods). Since the implemented processing methodology is based on open source software and free satellite data, it represents a promising tool for the monitoring of maritime ecosystems and to address water quality analyses and the investigations of sediment dynamics in estuarine and coastal waters.

  14. Toward Isolation of Salient Features in Stable Boundary Layer Wind Fields that Influence Loads on Wind Turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinkyoo Park

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Neutral boundary layer (NBL flow fields, commonly used in turbine load studies and design, are generated using spectral procedures in stochastic simulation. For large utility-scale turbines, stable boundary layer (SBL flow fields are of great interest because they are often accompanied by enhanced wind shear, wind veer, and even low-level jets (LLJs. The generation of SBL flow fields, in contrast to simpler stochastic simulation for NBL, requires computational fluid dynamics (CFD procedures to capture the physics and noted characteristics—such as shear and veer—that are distinct from those seen in NBL flows. At present, large-eddy simulation (LES is the most efficient CFD procedure for SBL flow field generation and related wind turbine loads studies. Design standards, such as from the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC, provide guidance albeit with simplifying assumptions (one such deals with assuming constant variance of turbulence over the rotor and recommend standard target turbulence power spectra and coherence functions to allow NBL flow field simulation. In contrast, a systematic SBL flow field simulation procedure has not been offered for design or for site assessment. It is instructive to compare LES-generated SBL flow fields with stochastic NBL flow fields and associated loads which we evaluate for a 5-MW turbine; in doing so, we seek to isolate distinguishing characteristics of wind shear, wind veer, and turbulence variation over the rotor plane in the alternative flow fields and in the turbine loads. Because of known differences in NBL-stochastic and SBL-LES wind fields but an industry preference for simpler stochastic simulation in design practice, this study investigates if one can reproduce stable atmospheric conditions using stochastic approaches with appropriate corrections for shear, veer, turbulence, etc. We find that such simple tuning cannot consistently match turbine target SBL load statistics, even though

  15. Acoustic and geophysical measurement of infrasound from turbines at wind farms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hepburn, H.G. [Hepburn Exploration Inc., Canmore, AB (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    An experiment was conducted at the Castle River Wind Farm in southern Alberta to measure and characterize infrasound from the turbines. The wind farm contains one 600 MW turbine and fifty-nine 660 MW wind turbines. Three types of sensors were used to measure both the low and high frequency acoustic energy and geophysical sound levels. These included low frequency geophones, acoustic microphones and a precision sound analyzer. Data was recorded for low, medium and high wind states, with the entire wind turbine array operating, and with the entire wind farm stopped. Downwind telemetry measurements were recorded for 30 continuous 50 metre offsets, up to a distance of 1450 metres from the wind farm. The objective of the project was to characterize the ambient noise levels and sound emitted by the turbines. Measurements were taken for wind speed and direction, atmospheric pressure, atmospheric temperature and turbine related data. Visual observations included atmospheric conditions, extraneous sources of noise such as aircraft, trains, motor vehicle traffic, highway noise, bird song, crickets and the rotational state of the turbines. It was concluded that for studying low frequency sound, the linear dB scale should be used instead of the dBA scale. Measurements of frequencies down to 6.3 Hz, showed that infrasound emission from the Castle River Wind Farm is not a significant concern. Lower frequencies down to about 2.5 Hz also confirmed that infrasound emissions are not significantly above the ambient noise levels. Any infrasound emissions were strongly coupled to the ground and were attenuated quickly. Time domain measurements showed that at all wind speeds and for frequencies up to 270 Hz, wind noise was actually attenuated when the wind farm is in operation. The noise levels were higher when the turbines were not turning. This finding was confirmed through spectral analysis. 12 refs., 2 tabs., 46 figs.

  16. The Effect of Wind Forcing on Modeling Coastal Circulation at a Marine Renewable Test Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Ren

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The hydrodynamic circulation in estuaries is primarily driven by tides, river inflows and surface winds. While tidal and river data can be quite easily obtained for input to hydrodynamic models, sourcing accurate surface wind data is problematic. Inaccurate wind data can lead to inaccuracies in the surface currents computed by three-dimensional hydrodynamic models. In this research, a high-resolution wind model was coupled with a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model of Galway Bay, a semi-enclosed estuary on the west coast of Ireland, to investigate the effect of wind forcing on model accuracy. Two wind-forcing conditions were investigated: (1 using wind data measured onshore on the NUI Galway campus (NUIG and (2 using offshore wind data provided by a high resolution wind model (HR. A scenario with no wind forcing (NW was also assessed. The onshore wind data varied with time but the speed and direction were applied across the full model domain. The modeled offshore wind fields varied with both time and space. The effect of wind forcing on modeled hydrodynamics was assessed via comparison of modeled surface currents with surface current measurements obtained from a High-Frequency (HF radar Coastal Ocean Dynamics Applications Radar (CODAR observation system. Results indicated that winds were most significant in simulating the north-south surface velocity component. The model using high resolution temporally- and spatially-varying wind data achieved better agreement with the CODAR surface currents than the model using the onshore wind measurements and the model without any wind forcing.

  17. Measurements of Waves in a Wind-wave Tank Under Steady and Time-varying Wind Forcing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavadsky, Andrey; Shemer, Lev

    2018-02-13

    This manuscript describes an experimental procedure that allows obtaining diverse quantitative information on temporal and spatial evolution of water waves excited by time-dependent and steady wind forcing. Capacitance-type wave gauge and Laser Slope Gauge (LSG) are used to measure instantaneous water surface elevation and two components of the instantaneous surface slope at a number of locations along the test section of a wind-wave facility. The computer-controlled blower provides airflow over the water in the tank whose rate can vary in time. In the present experiments, the wind speed in the test section initially increases quickly from rest to the set value. It is then kept constant for the prescribed duration; finally, the airflow is shut down. At the beginning of each experimental run, the water surface is calm and there is no wind. Operation of the blower is initiated simultaneously with the acquisition of data provided by all sensors by a computer; data acquisition continues until the waves in the tank fully decay. Multiple independent runs performed under identical forcing conditions allow determining statistically reliable ensemble-averaged characteristic parameters that quantitatively describe wind-waves' variation in time for the initial development stage as a function of fetch. The procedure also allows characterizing the spatial evolution of the wave field under steady wind forcing, as well as decay of waves in time, once the wind is shut down, as a function of fetch.

  18. Procedures for Computing Transonic Flows for Control of Adaptive Wind Tunnels. Ph.D. Thesis - Technische Univ., Berlin, Mar. 1986

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebstock, Rainer

    1987-01-01

    Numerical methods are developed for control of three dimensional adaptive test sections. The physical properties of the design problem occurring in the external field computation are analyzed, and a design procedure suited for solution of the problem is worked out. To do this, the desired wall shape is determined by stepwise modification of an initial contour. The necessary changes in geometry are determined with the aid of a panel procedure, or, with incident flow near the sonic range, with a transonic small perturbation (TSP) procedure. The designed wall shape, together with the wall deflections set during the tunnel run, are the input to a newly derived one-step formula which immediately yields the adapted wall contour. This is particularly important since the classical iterative adaptation scheme is shown to converge poorly for 3D flows. Experimental results obtained in the adaptive test section with eight flexible walls are presented to demonstrate the potential of the procedure. Finally, a method is described to minimize wall interference in 3D flows by adapting only the top and bottom wind tunnel walls.

  19. ACCUWIND - Accurate wind speed measurements in wind energy - Summary report[Cup and sonic anemometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friis Pedersen, T.; Dahlberg, J.Aa.; Cuerva, A.; Mouzakis, F.; Busche, P.; Eecen, P.; Sanz-Andres, A.; Franchini, S.; Markkilde Petersen, S.

    2006-07-15

    The cup anemometer is at present the standard instrument used for mean wind speed measurement in wind energy. It is being applied in high numbers around the world for wind energy assessments. It is also applied exclusively for accredited power performance measurements for certification and verification purposes, and for purposes of optimisation in research and development. The revised IEC standard on power performance measurements has now included requirements for classification of cup anemometers. The basis for setting up such requirements of cup anemometers is two EU projects SITEPARIDEN and CLASSCUP from which the proposed classification method for cup anemometers was developed for the IEC standard. While cup anemometers at present are the standard anemometer being used for average wind speed measurements, sonic anemometers have been developed significantly over the last years, and prices have come down. The application of sonic anemometers may increase in wind energy if they prove to have comparable or better operational characteristics compared to cup anemometers, and if similar requirements to sonic anemometers are established as for cup anemometers. Sonic anemometers have historically been used by meteorologists for turbulence measurements, but have also found a role on wind turbine nacelles for wind speed and yaw control purposes. The report on cup and sonic anemometry deals with establishment of robustness in assessment and classification by focus on methods and procedures for analysis of characteristics of cup and sonic anemometers. The methods and procedures provide a platform, hopefully for use in meeting the requirements of the IEC standard on power performance measurements, as well as for development of improved instruments. (au)

  20. Morphology of the Zambezi River plume in the Sofala Bank ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, hydrographic data collected in the vicinity of the Zambezi River plume between 2004-2007 is discussed alongside historical data to infer the plume morphology. The sampling plan called for 73 CTD stations that were interspersed with sampling of shrimp recruitment. Satellite-derived wind speed and river ...

  1. Grid-wide subdaily hydrologic alteration under massive wind power penetration in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, J; Olivares, M A; Palma-Behnke, R

    2015-05-01

    Hydropeaking operations can severely degrade ecosystems. As variable renewable sources (e.g. wind power) are integrated into a power grid, fluctuations in the generation-demand balance are expected to increase. In this context, compensating technologies, notably hydropower reservoir plants, could operate in a stronger peaking scheme. This issue calls for an integrated modeling of the entire power system, including not only hydropower reservoirs, but also all other plants. A novel methodology to study the link between the short-term variability of renewable energies and the subdaily hydrologic alteration, due to hydropower reservoir operations is presented. Grid operations under selected wind power portfolios are simulated using a short-term hydro-thermal coordination tool. The resulting turbined flows by relevant reservoir plants are then compared in terms of the Richard-Baker flashiness index to both the baseline and the natural flow regime. Those are then analyzed in order to: i) detect if there is a significant change in the degree of subdaily hydrologic alteration (SDHA) due to a larger wind penetration, and ii) identify which rivers are most affected. The proposed scheme is applied to Chile's Central Interconnect System (SIC) for scenarios up to 15% of wind energy penetration. Results show a major degree of SDHA under the baseline as compared to the natural regime. As wind power increases, so does the SDHA in two important rivers. This suggests a need for further ecological studies in those rivers, along with an analysis of operational constraints to limit the SDHA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. AUTOMATIC DETECTION ALGORITHM OF DYNAMIC PRESSURE PULSES IN THE SOLAR WIND

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuo, Pingbing; Feng, Xueshang; Wang, Yi; Xie, Yanqiong; Li, Huijun; Xu, Xiaojun

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic pressure pulses (DPPs) in the solar wind are a significant phenomenon closely related to the solar-terrestrial connection and physical processes of solar wind dynamics. In order to automatically identify DPPs from solar wind measurements, we develop a procedure with a three-step detection algorithm that is able to rapidly select DPPs from the plasma data stream and simultaneously define the transition region where large dynamic pressure variations occur and demarcate the upstream and downstream region by selecting the relatively quiet status before and after the abrupt change in dynamic pressure. To demonstrate the usefulness, efficiency, and accuracy of this procedure, we have applied it to the Wind observations from 1996 to 2008 by successfully obtaining the DPPs. The procedure can also be applied to other solar wind spacecraft observation data sets with different time resolutions

  3. Wind Energy Department annual progress report 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansen, B.D.; Riis, U. (eds.)

    2003-12-01

    Research and development activities of the Wind Energy Department range from boundary layer meteorology, fluid dynamics, and structural mechanics to power and control engineering as well as wind turbine loading and safety. The overall purpose of our work is to meet the needs for knowledge, methods and procedures from government, the scientific community, and the wind turbine industry in particular. Our assistance to the wind turbine manufacturers serve to pave the way for technological development and thus further the exploitation of wind energy worldwide. We do this by means of research and innovation, education, testing and consultancy. In providing services for the wind turbine industry, we are involved in technology development, design, testing, procedures for operation and maintenance, certification and international wind turbine projects s as well as the solution of problems encountered in the application of wind energy, e.g. grid connection. A major proportion of these activities are on a commercial basis, for instance consultancy, software development, accredited testing of wind turbines and blades as well as approval and certification in co-operation with Det Norske Veritas. The departments activities also include research into atmospheric physics and environmental issues related to the atmosphere. One example is the development of online warning systems for airborne bacteria and other harmful substances. The department is organized in programmes according to its main scientific and technical activities. Research programmes: 1) Aeroelastic Design, AED; 2) Atmospheric Phyrics, ATM; 3) Electrical DEsign and Control, EDS; 4) Wind Power Meteorology, VKM; 5) Wind Turbines, VIM; 6) Wind Turbine Diagnostics, VMD. Commercial programmes: 1) The Test Station for Large Wind Turbines, Hoevsoere, HOeV; 2) Risoe Wind Consult, INR; 3) Wind Turbine Testing; 4) Sparkaer Blade Test Centre.(au)

  4. Wind Climate Analyses for a 61-M Tower in the Southeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, A.H.

    2003-01-01

    The Savannah River Technology Center's (SRTC) Atmospheric Technologies Group (ATG) has operated nine 61-m tower sites including the Central Climatology (CC) tower which is located near the center of the Savannah River Site (SRS) since 1985. Data from the weather instruments on this tower have provided answers to questions involving risk analyses, dose studies, forecast verifications, and wind/temperature conditions during extreme events and planned tests. Most recently, data from these towers are being used for initial and boundary conditions for computationally intensive numerical simulations using mesoscale forecasting models that are run on a three-hourly basis by ATG for SRS and the surrounding vicinity. We found that a series of wind roses based on relatively short time scales (from two weeks to one hour) were a convenient method to depict the predominant wind speeds and directions at anemometer sites in the Southeast operated by the NWS. That report also revealed some interesting spatial and temporal relationships among thirteen NWS stations in the Carolinas, Georgia, and Florida. Our study here will focus on the CC tower to show changes in the wind speed and direction distributions with height during diurnal and annual cycles. This study will concentrate on mean wind speed and direction statistics

  5. Operating-procedure system at Savannah River Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tope, C.W.

    1981-05-01

    Three types of procedures are widely used at SRP: Du Pont Savannah Operating Logsheet, Du Pont Savannah Operating Procedure, and Plant Manual. This document briefly reviews originating of the procedures, their preparation, control, and indexing

  6. Determination of dispersion coefficients in the River Plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maggio, G.E.; Graino, J.G.; Kopp, U.I.; Tripoli, C.R.

    1987-01-01

    The determination of dispersion coefficients of contaminants through a radioactive tracer was performed as a contribution to the development of a mathematical model for a zone of the River Plate, close to the effluent discharge. During March 1987, six operations of tracer (I-131) injection and follow-up were carried out. The injection was performed by breaking a bulb under water and the follow-up of the 'radioactive spot' was done by means of a boat. Once the 'radioactive spot' was located (approximately 2 hours after the injection) a series of transversal movements over it was effected, measuring the activity concentration by means of a submerged detector. At the same time the coordinates of each point were determined in order to draw a map of the activity distribution. This procedure was repeated for different spot positions. This set of data can be plotted on a map of the zone under study, so as to obtain a set of iso activity curves. However, these curves would be representative provided that corrections are made for the boat speed, the water speed and the half-life of radionuclide. From each set of iso activity curves, the variance and the increase of variance, as well as the dispersion coefficients, can be determined. This procedure was applied to each one of the six above mentioned operations. Presently, different values of dispersion coefficient are available for different river conditions. These values, together with other parameters, such as wind velocity, temperature, salinity, bacterial behaviour, etc., will allow the calibration of the mathematical model. (Author)

  7. Objective and subjective assessment of tonal components in noise from UK wind farm sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenzie, A.R.

    1997-01-01

    The level of any tonal components in the noise from a wind farm site can be quantified using objective analysis procedures. These procedures are, however, open to a certain amount of interpretation. an automated assessment procedure has, therefore, been developed which is appropriate to the needs of the wind turbine industry. This paper describes a study to compare the results of objective assessments carried out using this method with the results of carefully controlled subjective listening tests for samples of wind turbine noise from nine U.K. wind farm sites. (author)

  8. Needs versus bottlenecks in utilization of wind energy in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Semery, M.M.

    1991-01-01

    The company AOI Engine Factory in Cairo, Egypt, is involved in the production of renewable energy systems. It is shown, that with respect to wind, Egypt has a good potential. However, along the river Nile wind speed is moderate (<4,4 m/s). The three main wind energy developments in Egypt are discussed. Four 100 kW machines for grid connection have been imported from Denmark. These machines have been adapted for local production and operation circumstances. After a testing period the first batch of 100 turbines is now being manufactured. For water pumping in isolated areas, a 15 kW wind generator with two submergible electric pumps have been tested. For small wind generators a considerable market exists, but a design, suitable for local production and adapted to the local wind regime, is not available yet

  9. Design Procedure Enhanced with Numerical Modeling to Mitigate River-Bank Erosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elhakeem Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the 2D Finite Element Surface Water Modeling System (FESWMS is used to design barb structures to mitigate river bank erosion in a stream reach located on the Raccoon River near Adel, Iowa, USA just upstream of the US Highway Bridge 169. FESWMS is used also to access the barbs effect on the study reach. The model results showed that the proposed barb structures successfully reduced the flow velocity along the outside bank and increased the velocity in the center of the stream, thereby successfully increased the conveyance towards the core of the river. The estimated velocities values along the river-banks where the barbs exist were within the recommended values for channel stability design. Thus, the barb structures were able to reduce the erosion along the bankline.

  10. Wind tunnel test of musi VI bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Permata, Robby; Andika, Matza Gusto; Syariefatunnisa, Risdhiawan, Eri; Hermawan, Budi; Noordiana, Indra

    2017-11-01

    Musi VI Bridge is planned to cross the Musi River in Palembang City, South Sumatera Province, Indonesia. The main span is a steel arch type with 200 m length and side span length is 75 m. Finite element analysis results showed that the bridge has frequency ratio for torsional and heaving mode (torsional frequency/heaving frequency)=1.14. This close to unity value rises concern about aerodynamic behaviour and stability of the bridge deck under wind loading. Sectional static and free vibration wind tunnel test were performed to clarify this phenomena in B2TA3 facility in Serpong, Indonesia. The test followed the draft of Guide of Wind Tunnel Test for Bridges developed by Indonesian Ministry of Public Works. Results from wind tunnel testing show that the bridge is safe from flutter instability and no coupled motion vibration observed. Therefore, low value of frequency ratio has no effect to aerodynamic behaviour of the bridge deck. Vortex-induced vibration in heaving mode occurred in relatively low wind velocity with permissible maximum amplitude value.

  11. Analysis of the most important river plumes on the Atlantic and Mediterranean Iberian coast by means of satellite imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Fernandez Novoa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Rivers discharges cause the formation of buoyant plumes in the adjacent coastal area at their mouths, which are characterized by low-salinity water and controlled by outflow inertia, rotation (Coriolis effects, buoyancy, wind, and tide forcing. The turbid plumes influence the adjacent coastal area, since they control the patterns of nutrients, sediments and/or pollutants of fluvial origin on the coastal ocean and can promote strong physical and chemical changes on seawater. These changes affect the biological characteristics of the area, such as primary production, species composition, abundance and distribution of existing microorganism, which demonstrates its high ecological importance. The characterization of the most important river plumes along the Atlantic Iberian coast and the influence of the main forcing drivers (river discharge, wind and tide on them, was carried out through the analysis of plume mean-state images calculated using water leaving radiance data (nLw555 obtained from the MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer sensor onboard the Aqua satellite during 2003-2013. Satellite data are downloaded from Ocean Color web site (http://oceancolor.gsfc.nasa.gov. Daily high-resolution L1 files from MODIS-Aqua were processed through SeaDAS software. Composite images, interpolated to a regular pixel grid with an approximate resolution of 500m, were built for different synoptic conditions of river discharge, wind regimes and tide, in order to obtain a representative average plume image of each situation and river for the posterior analysis. Results showed that the river discharge is the main forcing factor in the river plume extension. Wind effect is noticeable under high river discharge and tide is important for the estuarine outflow regimes although with some remarkable similarities and differences between the Atlantic rivers due to their intrinsic characteristics.

  12. Sanitary impacts generated by wind turbines. situation of the wind sector. Proposition for the implementation of the setting-up procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The National Academy of Medicine has evaluated the effects on health of wind turbines. This report recommends that the wind turbine construction is at a minimal distance of 1500 m for wind turbines having a power superior to 2.5 MW. The French agency of sanitary safety of environment and work (A.F.S.S.E.T.) is in charge by the Ministry of Health and Environment to evaluate the relevance of this distance recommendation. The work group recommends the implementation of a specifications text of the environmental impact study as well as a compulsory administrative check of the study. It is more particularly a question of: Defining a perimeter of study: indicate all the zones susceptible to be concerned by the noise of wind turbines, even those which are not inhabited; calculating the durations of impact of concerned zones, according to the predictable weather conditions over the year; indicating the measures taken by the developer of the wind farm in case of overtaking of the authorized emergence; the impact studies of the other projects have to take into account a possible incidence in the zones of impact of the wind farm; a cartography of the zones of impact of a wind site must be available in town hall. A particular attention must be attached to the duration and to the representativeness of the study of the existing situation. The method of appreciation of the sound level impact on the environment must be improved, what passes by a deepening of the knowledge in criterion of embarrassment due to the noise, of existence of threshold, spectral validity, validity according to the exposure time. The search for the simplicity in statutory subject should lead to engage efforts of clarification as regards the nuisances criteria. (N.C.)

  13. Wind farm struggles in Flanders fields: A sociological perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pepermans, Yves; Loots, Ilse

    2013-01-01

    In this article we analyse how protests against wind farms reflect symbolic distances or alienations, typical to Flanders (Belgium), as consequences of wider societal trends. A thorough qualitative study of three wind farm projects in Flanders, including group discussions and interviews with crucial stakeholders, shows that the current siting process reinforces disagreements and leads to a stalemate between different framings of the wind farms. Using insights from our case studies and the literature, we argue for spatial planning which strives for a negotiation over acceptable solutions rather than acceptance of fixed proposals. - Highlights: • Flemish wind farm siting is characterized by social, spatial and political distances. • These symbolic distances make the legitimacy of new infrastructure less self-evident. • The current ‘decide-announce and defend’ siting procedure is a problem for acceptance. • We propose a siting procedure for wind farms which allows democratic debate over alternatives between stakeholders

  14. Cambrian rivers and floodplains: the significance of microbial cementation, groundwater and aeolian sediment transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reesink, A. J. H.; Best, J.; Freiburg, J. T.; Nathan, W.

    2016-12-01

    Rivers that existed before land plants colonized the Earth are commonly considered to be unaffected by microbial activity on their floodplains, because the limited cementation produced by microbial activity is insufficient to stabilize the river banks. Although this assumption is likely correct, such emphasis on channel dynamics ignores the potential role of floodplain dynamics as an integral component of the river system. Detailed analysis of cores from the Cambrian Mount Simon Sandstone, Illinois, suggests that a significant proportion of the terrestrial sequence is composed of flat-bedded `crinkly' structures that provide evidence of cementation by soil crusts and microbial biofilms, and that promoted the adhesion of sediment to sticky surfaces. Wind ripples and local desert pavements were abundant. These findings highlight that sediment deposition on Cambrian floodplains was often dominated by wind in locations where the ground water table reached the surface, and was thus likely independent of sediment transport within the river channel. Erosion by wind would thus have been hindered by surface cementation and the formation of desert pavements. Such ground water control on deposition, and resistance to erosion by floodplain surface hardening, appear to have been the primary controls on Cambrian floodplain topography. Because floodplain topography poses a key control on channel and floodplain flow, these processes may have affected patterns of erosion and deposition, as well as reach-scale dynamics such as channel avulsions. The autonomous operation of wind-and-groundwater controlled floodplains makes pre-vegetated river systems more sensitive to climatic conditions such as precipitation and evaporation, and strikingly different from those that occurred after the development of land plants.

  15. Fates of dissolved and particulate materials from the Mississippi river immediately after discharge into the northern Gulf of Mexico, USA, during a period of low wind stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagg, M. J.; Bianchi, T.; McKee, B.; Powell, R.

    2008-07-01

    In June 2003, we conducted a two-part field exercise to examine biogeochemical characteristics of water in the lower Mississippi river during the 4 days prior to discharge and in the Mississippi river plume over 2 days after discharge. Here we describe the fates of materials immediately after their discharge through Southwest Pass of the Mississippi delta into the northern Gulf of Mexico. Changes in surface water properties immediately after discharge were much larger and more rapid than changes prior to discharge. Total suspended matter (TSM) declined, probably due to sinking, dissolved macronutrients were rapidly diminished by mixing and biological uptake, and phytoplankton populations increased dramatically, and then declined. This decline appeared to begin at salinities of approximately 10 and was nearly complete by 15. A large increase in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) occurred over approximately the same salinity range. Weak winds (releasing large amounts of DOC. Macronutrients from the river were utilized by the river phytoplankton community in the extensive freshwater lens. This contrasted with the more typical situation in which river nutrients stimulate a marine phytoplankton bloom at salinities in the mid-20s. We concluded that the direct effects of dissolved and particulate bio-reactive materials discharged by the Mississippi river were spatially restricted at this time to low-salinity water, at least as surface phenomena. After being transported through the lower river essentially unaltered, these materials were biogeochemically processed within days and tens of km. More generally, the mixing rate of plume water with receiving oceanic water has profound effects on the food web structure and biogeochemical cycling in the plume.

  16. Power Generation for River and Tidal Generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muljadi, Eduard [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wright, Alan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gevorgian, Vahan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Donegan, James [Ocean Renewable Power Company (ORPC), Portland, ME (United States); Marnagh, Cian [Ocean Renewable Power Company (ORPC), Portland, ME (United States); McEntee, Jarlath [Ocean Renewable Power Company (ORPC), Portland, ME (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Renewable energy sources are the second largest contributor to global electricity production, after fossil fuels. The integration of renewable energy continued to grow in 2014 against a backdrop of increasing global energy consumption and a dramatic decline in oil prices during the second half of the year. As renewable generation has become less expensive during recent decades, and it becomes more accepted by the global population, the focus on renewable generation has expanded from primarily wind and solar to include new types with promising future applications, such as hydropower generation, including river and tidal generation. Today, hydropower is considered one of the most important renewable energy sources. In river and tidal generation, the input resource flow is slower but also steadier than it is in wind or solar generation, yet the level of water turbulent flow may vary from one place to another. This report focuses on hydrokinetic power conversion.

  17. Quality controls for wind measurement of a 1290-MHz boundary layer profiler under strong wind conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhao; Zheng, Chaorong; Wu, Yue

    2017-09-01

    Wind profilers have been widely adopted to observe the wind field information in the atmosphere for different purposes. But accuracy of its observation has limitations due to various noises or disturbances and hence need to be further improved. In this paper, the data measured under strong wind conditions, using a 1290-MHz boundary layer profiler (BLP), are quality controlled via a composite quality control (QC) procedure proposed by the authors. Then, through the comparison with the data measured by radiosonde flights (balloon observations), the critical thresholds in the composite QC procedure, including consensus average threshold T 1 and vertical shear threshold T 3 , are systematically discussed. And the performance of the BLP operated under precipitation is also evaluated. It is found that to ensure the high accuracy and high data collectable rate, the optimal range of subsets is determined to be 4 m/s. Although the number of data rejected by the combined algorithm of vertical shear examination and small median test is quite limited, it is proved that the algorithm is quite useful to recognize the outlier with a large discrepancy. And the optimal wind shear threshold T 3 can be recommended as 5 ms -1 /100m. During patchy precipitation, the quality of data measured by the four oblique beams (using the DBS measuring technique) can still be ensured. After the BLP data are quality controlled by the composite QC procedure, the output can show good agreement with the balloon observation.

  18. European wind turbine standards 2 (EWTS-2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierik, J T.G.; Dekker, J W.M.; Braam, H [and others

    1999-03-01

    A summary is given of the main results of the European Wind Turbine Standards II project. EWTS-II was completed in 1998 and included investigations on: 1) wind farms-wind field and turbine loading; 2) complex terrain and fatigue loading; 3) extreme wind conditions; 4) quantification of failure probabilities; 5) integration of blade tests in design; 6) power performance in complex terrain; 7) site evaluation. In addition to these scientific evaluations, the EWTS-II participants established an organization of qualified measuring institute in the field of wind energy, the MEASNET organization. MEASNET unified measurement procedures of the participating institutes and guarantees qualified measurements and mutual acceptance among its members. (LN)

  19. Modeling and implementation of wind shear data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Walter

    1987-01-01

    The problems of implementing the JAWS wind shear data are discussed. The data sets are described from the view of utilizing them in an aircraft performance computer program. Then, some of the problems of nonstandard procedures are described in terms of programming the equations of aircraft motion when the effects of temporal and spatially variable winds are included. Finally, some of the computed effects of the various wind shear terms are shown.

  20. Genetics, recruitment, and migration patterns of Arctic Cisco (Coregonus autumnalis) in the Colville River, Alaska and Mackenzie River, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Christian E.; Ramey, Andy M.; Turner, S.; Mueter, Franz J.; Murphy, S.; Nielsen, Jennifer L.

    2013-01-01

    Arctic cisco Coregonus autumnalis have a complex anadromous life history, many aspects of which remain poorly understood. Some life history traits of Arctic cisco from the Colville River, Alaska, and Mackenzie River basin, Canada, were investigated using molecular genetics, harvest data, and otolith microchemistry. The Mackenzie hypothesis, which suggests that Arctic cisco found in Alaskan waters originate from the Mackenzie River system, was tested using 11 microsatellite loci and a single mitochondrial DNA gene. No genetic differentiation was found among sample collections from the Colville River and the Mackenzie River system using molecular markers (P > 0.19 in all comparisons). Model-based clustering methods also supported genetic admixture between sample collections from the Colville River and Mackenzie River basin. A reanalysis of recruitment patterns to Alaska, which included data from recent warm periods and suspected changes in atmospheric circulation patterns, still finds that recruitment is correlated to wind conditions. Otolith microchemistry (Sr/Ca ratios) confirmed repeated, annual movements of Arctic cisco between low-salinity habitats in winter and marine waters in summer.

  1. Is ENSO related to 2015 Easter Star Capsized on the Yangtze River of China?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, P.

    2015-12-01

    Natural disasters have profound effects on community security and economic damage of China's Hubei province. In June 1st, 2015, a cruise ship, Easter Star, capsized on Yangtze River in Hubei province with 442 died. What reason gives rise to such strong convection causing ship sunk? Based on the wind disasters of Hubei province happened in 1963-2015, this study analyzes their features bytime-series regression, and correlates them to global El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events. The compared results demonstrated that the wind disasters shown an increasing tendency. There are two peaks corresponding to the strongest ENSO peaks during the past 50 years; each peak lasts two-three years. The facts demonstrated an essential linear relation between the ENSO phenomena and wind disasters in Hubei province. 2015 Easter Star capsized happened at current El Niño event in 2014-2015. We also observed that the historical wind disasters appeared in seasonal variation. Over 90% events concentrated in spring and summer; very few events happened in autumn and winter. Moreover, the disasters depend on the geographic conditions. Most disasters concentrated in four zones, named as Xingshan-Baokang, Xuanen, Wufeng-Yichang, Jingzhou-Gongan, in which Xingshan and Changyang are the two most density of zones. Yangtze River provides an air flowing conduct for strong convective winds. It can be concluded that the strong convection causing 2015 Easter Star capsized is related to current global ENSO phenomenon.Keywords: ENSO, wind disaster, time-series regression analysis, Easter Star, Yangtze River, Hubei Province,

  2. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report; Big Island - The McKenzie River, Technical Report 1998-2001.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sieglitz, Greg

    2001-03-01

    The Big Island site is located in the McKenzie River flood plain, containing remnant habitats of what was once more common in this area. A diverse array of flora and fauna, representing significant wildlife habitats, is present on the site. Stands of undisturbed forested wetlands, along with riparian shrub habitats and numerous streams and ponds, support a diversity of wildlife species, including neotropical migratory songbirds, raptors, mammals, reptiles, and amphibians (including two State-listed Sensitive Critical species). The project is located in eastern Springfield, Oregon (Figure 1). The project area encompasses 187 acres under several ownerships in Section 27 of Township 17S, Range 2W. Despite some invasion of non-native species, the site contains large areas of relatively undisturbed wildlife habitat. Over several site visits, a variety of wildlife and signs of wildlife were observed, including an active great blue heron rookery, red-Legged frog egg masses, signs of beaver, and a bald eagle, Wildlife habitat values resulting from the purchase of this site will contribute toward the goal of mitigating for habitat lost as outlined in the Bonneville Power Administration's (BPA) Mitigation and Enhancement Plan for the Willamette River Basin. Under this Plan, mitigation goals and objectives were developed as a result of the loss of wildlife habitat due to the construction of Federal hydroelectric facilities in the Willamette River Basin. Results of the Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) will be used to: (1) determine the current habitat status of the study area and habitat enhancement potential of the site consistent with wildlife mitigation goals and objectives; and (2) develop a management plan for the area.

  3. Optimized Placement of Wind Turbines in Large-Scale Offshore Wind Farm using Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Peng; Hu, Weihao; Soltani, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    With the increasing size of wind farm, the impact of the wake effect on wind farm energy yields become more and more evident. The arrangement of the wind turbines’ (WT) locations will influence the capital investment and contribute to the wake losses which incur the reduction of energy production....... As a consequence, the optimized placement of the wind turbines may be done by considering the wake effect as well as the components cost within the wind farm. In this paper, a mathematical model which includes the variation of both wind direction and wake deficit is proposed. The problem is formulated by using...... Levelized Production Cost (LPC) as the objective function. The optimization procedure is performed by Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm with the purpose of maximizing the energy yields while minimizing the total investment. The simulation results indicate that the proposed method is effective...

  4. Preliminary manual of the wind farms impacts study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-11-01

    This document aims to present and propose tools and methods allowing the improve the environmental quality of the future wind farms projects. After a presentation of general notions on the wind farms and the economy of the wind energy, it presents the regulation and the procedures concerning the environmental impact. It proposes then the main possible effects and the impacts study themes. (A.L.B.)

  5. Bird interactions with wind turbines : a Canadian case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, K.; Hamilton, B. [TAEM Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    An environmental study has been conducted on a wind farm adjacent to Castle River, in the foothills of the Rocky Mountains in Alberta. The objective was to determine the impact of the many wind turbines on birds. The study involved observations of different bird species including raptors, waterfowl and passerines. The observations looked at bird numbers, location relative to turbines, and changes in flight pattern. The study found that raptors flew around or over the turbine blades, while passerines remained below, and waterfowl flew up and over the blades. Very few dead birds were found over the monitoring period, suggesting that wind turbines do not have a major impact on birds. figs.

  6. On long-term fatigue damage and reliability analysis of gears under wind loads in offshore wind turbine drivetrains

    OpenAIRE

    Rasekhi Nejad, Amir; Gao, Zhen; Moan, Torgeir

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a long-term fatigue damage analysis method for gear tooth root bending in wind turbine’s drivetrains is presented. The proposed method is established based on the ISO gear design codes which are basically developed for gears in general applications, not specifically for wind turbine gears. The ISO procedure is adapted and further improved to include the long-term fatigue damage of wind turbine’s gears. The load duration distribution (LDD) method is used to obtain the short-term...

  7. On the energy pattern factor in wind measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buick, T R; Doherty, M A; McMullan, J.T., Morgan, R.; Murray, R B

    1977-01-01

    Measurements of energy pattern factor K/sub e/ were made using a continuous-analogue wind-power metering technique, rather than by the more usual sampling procedure. The values obtained were significantly larger than the usually accepted figure. The discrepancy is attributed partly to the method of measurement, which includes the actual power present rather than the amount that can be extracted, and partly to the use of rather more typical wind speeds. It is concluded, however, that more energy can be derived from wind schemes than was thought, even during periods of light wind. These conclusions improve the viability of wind power plants.

  8. Wind energy in France: impossible?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marie-Josette, R.

    2005-01-01

    Since the end of 2004, the European Union is the first producer of wind energy in the world (34205 MW), far beyond the USA (6740 MW) and India (2110 MW). Three countries are in the pole position: Germany (16629 MW), Spain (8263 MW) and Denmark (3117 MW). On the other hand, despite a voluntarist policy, the other countries encounter administrative and local difficulties in the development of wind energy. This is the case with France which has the second biggest potential wind resource of Europe, behind the UK. The French situation is explained by its centralized energy system, by the priority given to nuclear power, by important wind variations, and by a bad image of wind turbines in general (aesthetic, environmental). This situation should change in the future with the scheduling of pluri-annual investments, with adapted tariffs and with improved administrative procedures. (J.S.)

  9. Conference on offshore wind power in France and Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, Ronny; Furois, Timothee; Nolte, Nico; Lanoe, Frederic; Lehmann-Matthaei, Bjoern; Ifflaender, Andree; Courcambeck, Alexandre; Giese, Norbert; Kavafyan, Philippe; Bjaert, Niels; Wagner, Andreas; Guillet, Jerome

    2014-01-01

    The French-German office for Renewable energies (OFAEnR) organised a conference on offshore wind power in France and Germany. In the framework of this French-German exchange of experience, about 120 participants exchanged views on the planning and authorisation procedures implemented in both countries and on the installation, connection to the grid and maintenance of offshore wind turbines. environmental impacts and usage conflicts linked with offshore wind farms exploitation were addressed as well. This document brings together the available presentations (slides) made during this event: 1 - Update: Offshore Wind In Germany (Ronny Meyer); 2 - Offshore wind development in France (Timothee Furois); 3 - The Licensing Procedure for Offshore Wind Farms in the German EEZ (Nico Nolte); 4 - Spatial Planning and Permitting in France: What leverage for more efficiency? (Frederic Lanoe); 5 - Results of 10 years environmental research on FINO-platforms (Bjoern Lehmann-Matthaei); 6 - Offshore Grid Connection - Status Quo and Overview (Andree Ifflaender); 7 - Grid connection of Offshore Wind in France: Situation, perspectives and recommendations (Alexandre Courcambeck); 8 - Controlling risks and warranting safety: Best practices for the installation, exploitation and maintenance of offshore wind turbines (Norbert Giese); 9 - Offshore wind Bremerhaven experience: An essential asset for the development of a complete Wind Offshore industry in France (Philippe Kavafyan); 10 - Standardizing and Cost Reduction -Lessons Learned from London Array (Niels Bjaert); 11 - Offshore Wind energy in Germany: System Benefits and Cost Reduction Potentials. Presentation of study results from prognos/fichtner and Fraunhofer-IWeS (Andreas Wagner); 12 - Offshore Wind energy financing - opportunities and risks (Jerome Guillet)

  10. Conference on wind energy and grid integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laffaille, Didier; Boemer, Jens; Fraisse, Jean-Luc; Mignon, Herve; Gonot, Jean-Pierre; Rohrig, Kurt; Lange, Matthias; Bagusche, Daniel; Wagner, Stefan; Schiel, Johannes

    2008-01-01

    The French-German office for Renewable energies (OFAEnR) organised a conference on the grid integration of wind farms. In the framework of this French-German exchange of experience, more than 80 participants exchanged views on the evolutions of tariffs and licensing procedures, and on grid capacity improvements and production forecasts. This document brings together the available presentations (slides) made during this event: 1 - The necessary evolution of billing and procedures for wind turbines connection to the grid in France (Didier Laffaille); 2 - Improvement of wind turbines integration to the grid in the framework of the EEG 2009 law (Jens Boemer); 3 - Decentralized power generation on the French power grids - 15, 20 kV and low voltage (Jean-Luc Fraisse); 4 - GOTTESWIND? Solution for the future: towards a grid evolution (Herve Mignon); 5 - Production forecasts in Germany - State-of-the-art and challenges for the grid exploitation (Kurt Rohrig); 6 - High-voltage lines capacity evaluation in meteorological situations with high wind energy production (Matthias Lange); 7 - The IPES project for the integration of wind energy production in the exploitation of the French power system (Jean-Pierre Gonot); 8 - Experience feedback from a wind turbine manufacturer in France and in Germany (Daniel Bagusche); 9 - Solutions for grid security improvement and capacity enhancement: cooperation between grid and power plant operators (Stefan Wagner); 10 - Open questions on wind energy integration to French and German grids (Johannes Schiel)

  11. Effects of the Horns Reef wind farm on harbour porpoises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tougaard, J.; Teilmann, J.; Rye Hansen, J.

    2004-09-01

    Horns Reef offshore wind farm was established in 2002. It consists of 80 2 MW wind turbines, mounted on steel monopile foundations. A harbour porpoise monitoring program was set up in connection with the environmental impact assessment (EIA) of the wind farm project. This monitoring program started in 1999 with collection of baseline data and has continued though construction and operational period. The program continues through 2005. Baseline studies showed that harbour porpoises are abundant in the area, including the area where the wind farm is now located. Significant effects on behaviour and distribution of the porpoises were observed during the construction of the wind farm. Changes could be linked to pile driving operations, where monopile foundations were rammed into the seabed. This procedure produced high levels of underwater noise and mitigation procedures in the form of a ramp up procedure and deployment of acoustic alarms were employed. During the construction period very few animals were observed inside the wind farm area. Acoustic monitoring data showed a significant increase in waiting time between porpoise encounters in connection with pile driving operations, followed by a rapid return to levels normal for the construction period as a whole. However, when the entire construction period was considered as a whole, T-POD activity increased relative to baseline. Observations during operation of the wind farm in 2003 showed a return to baseline levels on most of the indicators derived from the acoustic monitoring and animals were again seen inside the wind farm area. (au)

  12. Radar-cross-section reduction of wind turbines. part 1.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brock, Billy C.; Loui, Hung; McDonald, Jacob J.; Paquette, Joshua A.; Calkins, David A.; Miller, William K.; Allen, Steven E.; Clem, Paul Gilbert; Patitz, Ward E.

    2012-03-05

    In recent years, increasing deployment of large wind-turbine farms has become an issue of growing concern for the radar community. The large radar cross section (RCS) presented by wind turbines interferes with radar operation, and the Doppler shift caused by blade rotation causes problems identifying and tracking moving targets. Each new wind-turbine farm installation must be carefully evaluated for potential disruption of radar operation for air defense, air traffic control, weather sensing, and other applications. Several approaches currently exist to minimize conflict between wind-turbine farms and radar installations, including procedural adjustments, radar upgrades, and proper choice of low-impact wind-farm sites, but each has problems with limited effectiveness or prohibitive cost. An alternative approach, heretofore not technically feasible, is to reduce the RCS of wind turbines to the extent that they can be installed near existing radar installations. This report summarizes efforts to reduce wind-turbine RCS, with a particular emphasis on the blades. The report begins with a survey of the wind-turbine RCS-reduction literature to establish a baseline for comparison. The following topics are then addressed: electromagnetic model development and validation, novel material development, integration into wind-turbine fabrication processes, integrated-absorber design, and wind-turbine RCS modeling. Related topics of interest, including alternative mitigation techniques (procedural, at-the-radar, etc.), an introduction to RCS and electromagnetic scattering, and RCS-reduction modeling techniques, can be found in a previous report.

  13. Using Bayes Model Averaging for Wind Power Forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preede Revheim, Pål; Beyer, Hans Georg

    2014-05-01

    For operational purposes predictions of the forecasts of the lumped output of groups of wind farms spread over larger geographic areas will often be of interest. A naive approach is to make forecasts for each individual site and sum them up to get the group forecast. It is however well documented that a better choice is to use a model that also takes advantage of spatial smoothing effects. It might however be the case that some sites tends to more accurately reflect the total output of the region, either in general or for certain wind directions. It will then be of interest giving these a greater influence over the group forecast. Bayesian model averaging (BMA) is a statistical post-processing method for producing probabilistic forecasts from ensembles. Raftery et al. [1] show how BMA can be used for statistical post processing of forecast ensembles, producing PDFs of future weather quantities. The BMA predictive PDF of a future weather quantity is a weighted average of the ensemble members' PDFs, where the weights can be interpreted as posterior probabilities and reflect the ensemble members' contribution to overall forecasting skill over a training period. In Revheim and Beyer [2] the BMA procedure used in Sloughter, Gneiting and Raftery [3] were found to produce fairly accurate PDFs for the future mean wind speed of a group of sites from the single sites wind speeds. However, when the procedure was attempted applied to wind power it resulted in either problems with the estimation of the parameters (mainly caused by longer consecutive periods of no power production) or severe underestimation (mainly caused by problems with reflecting the power curve). In this paper the problems that arose when applying BMA to wind power forecasting is met through two strategies. First, the BMA procedure is run with a combination of single site wind speeds and single site wind power production as input. This solves the problem with longer consecutive periods where the input data

  14. Research into the Eutrophication of an Artificial Playground Lake near the Yangtze River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Pang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Water pollution in urban rivers is serious in China. Eutrophication and other issues are prominent. Taking the artificial Playground Lake in Zhenjiang as an example, a numerical model combining particle tracing, hydrodynamics, water quality and eutrophication was constructed to simulate the water quality improvement in Playground Lake with or without water diversion by pump and sluice. Simulation results using particle tracking showed that the water residence time depended on wind direction: east wind, 125 h; southeast wind, 115 h; south wind, 95 h. With no water diversion, the lower the flow velocity of Playground Lake under three wind fields, the more serious the eutrophication. Under pump diversion, the water body in Playground Lake can be entirely replaced by water diversion for 30 h. When the temperature is lower than 15 °C, from 15 °C to 25 °C and higher than 25 °C, the water quality can be maintained for 15 d, 10 d and 7 d, respectively. During high tide periods of spring tides in the Yangtze River from June to August, the water can be diverted into the lake through sluices. The greater the Δh (the water head between the Yangtze River and Playground Lake, the more the water quality will improve. Overall, the good-to-bad order of water quality improvements for Playground Lake is as follows: pumping 30 h > sluice diversion > no water diversion. This article is relevant for the environmental management of the artificial Playground Lake, and similar lakes elsewhere.

  15. Generalized gain scheduling for deloaded wind turbine operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Venne, Philippe; Guillaud, X.; Teodorescu, Remus

    2010-01-01

    to regulate both power production and rotor speed under any wind speed conditions. In this paper, a novel controller for deloaded wind turbine operation is presented. This controller is made possible by a Cp table inversion procedure allowing generalized gain scheduling for linearization of the pitch response......The ability to produce less power than what is available from a wind source, a condition known as deloaded operation, is needed for a wind turbine to reproduce synchronous machine behavior in terms of inertial response and frequency droop regulation. Deloaded operation requires the ability...

  16. Sunshine Duration Variability in Haihe River Basin, China, during 1966–2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Ren

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Sunshine can have a profound impact on the systematic change in climate elements, such as temperature and wind speed, and in turn affects many aspects of the human society. In recent years, there has been a substantial interest in the variation of sunshine duration due to the dramatic global climate change. Hence, there is a need to better understand the variation of sunshine duration in order to cope with climate change. This study aimed to analyze the variation of sunshine duration in Haihe River basin, China, and its relationship with temperature, wind speed and low-level cloudiness. The annual, seasonal and monthly changes of sunshine duration were analyzed based on the data collected from 33 meteorological stations over the Haihe River basin during 1966–2015. It is evident that the annual, seasonal and monthly sunshine duration shows a decreasing trend over time. In addition, the annual sunshine duration is lower with a higher climate tendency rate in the southern and eastern coastal regions than that in the northwestern regions. It is negatively correlated with temperature (r = −0.50 and low-level cloudiness (r = −0.29, but positively with wind speed (r = 0.61. Wind speed may be one of the important causes of the decrease of sunshine duration in the Haihe River basin during 1966–2015. These changes may have significant implications for the hydrological cycle in the area.

  17. Synoptic thermodynamic and dynamic patterns associated with Quitandinha River flooding events in Petropolis, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Fabricio Polifke; Justi da Silva, Maria Gertrudes Alvarez; Rotunno Filho, Otto Corrêa; Pires, Gisele Dornelles; Sampaio, Rafael João; de Araújo, Afonso Augusto Magalhães

    2018-05-01

    Natural disasters are the result of extreme or intense natural phenomena that cause severe impacts on society. These impacts can be mitigated through preventive measures that can be aided by better knowledge of extreme phenomena and monitoring of forecasting and alert systems. The city of Petropolis (in a mountainous region of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil) is prone to heavy rain events, often leading to River overflows, landslides, and loss of life. In that context, this work endeavored to characterize the thermodynamic and dynamic synoptic patterns that trigger heavy rainfall episodes and the corresponding flooding of Quitandinha River. More specifically, we reviewed events from the time period between January 2013 and December 2014 using reanalysis data. We expect that the overall description obtained of synoptic patterns should provide adequate qualitative aid to the decision-making processes involved in operational forecasting procedures. We noticed that flooding events were related to the presence of the South Atlantic Convergence Zone (SACZ), frontal systems (FS), and convective storms (CS). These systems showed a similar behavior on high-frequency wind components, notably with respect to northwest winds before precipitation and to a strong southwest wind component during rainfall events. Clustering analyses indicated that the main component for precipitation formation with regard to CS systems comes from daytime heating, with the dynamic component presenting greater efficiency for the FS configurations. The SACZ events were influenced by moisture availability along the vertical column of the atmosphere and also due to dynamic components of precipitation efficiency and daytime heating, the latter related to the continuous transport of moisture from the Amazon region and South Atlantic Ocean towards Rio de Janeiro state.

  18. Red River Wildlife Management Area HEP Report, Habitat Evaluation Procedures, Technical Report 2004.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashley, Paul

    2004-11-01

    A habitat evaluation procedures (HEP) analysis conducted on the 314-acre Red River Wildlife Management Area (RRWMA) managed by the Idaho Department of Fish and Game resulted in 401.38 habitat units (HUs). Habitat variables from six habitat suitability index (HSI) models, comprised of mink (Mustela vison), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), common snipe (Capella gallinago), black-capped chickadee (Parus altricapillus), yellow warbler (Dendroica petechia), and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), were measured by Regional HEP Team (RHT) members in August 2004. Cover types included wet meadow, riverine, riparian shrub, conifer forest, conifer forest wetland, and urban. HSI model outputs indicate that the shrub component is lacking in riparian shrub and conifer forest cover types and that snag density should be increased in conifer stands. The quality of wet meadow habitat, comprised primarily of introduced grass species and sedges, could be improved through development of ephemeral open water ponds and increasing the amount of persistent wetland herbaceous vegetation e.g. cattails (Typha spp.) and bulrushes (Scirpus spp.).

  19. Measuring Gas Concentration and Wind Intensity in a Turbulent Wind Tunnel with a Mobile Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dani Martínez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the measurement of gas concentration and wind intensity performed with a mobile robot in a custom turbulent wind tunnel designed for experimentation with customizable wind and gas leak sources. This paper presents the representation in different information layers of the measurements obtained in the turbulent wind tunnel under different controlled environmental conditions in order to describe the plume of the gas and wind intensities inside the experimentation chamber. The information layers have been generated from the measurements gathered by individual onboard gas and wind sensors carried out by an autonomous mobile robot. On the one hand, the assumption was that the size and cost of these specialized sensors do not allow the creation of a net of sensors or other measurement alternatives based on the simultaneous use of several sensors, and on the other hand, the assumption is that the information layers created will have application on the development and test of automatic gas source location procedures based on reactive or nonreactive algorithms.

  20. Wind Energy Resource Assessment on Alaska Native Lands in Cordova Region of Prince William Sound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whissel, John C. [Native Village of Eyak, Cordova, AK (United States); Piche, Matthew [Native Village of Eyak, Cordova, AK (United States)

    2015-06-29

    The Native Village of Eyak (NVE) has been monitoring wind resources around Cordova, Alaska in order to determine whether there is a role for wind energy to play in the city’s energy scheme, which is now supplies entirely by two run-of-the-river hydro plants and diesel generators. These data are reported in Appendices A and B. Because the hydro resources decline during winter months, and wind resources increase, wind is perhaps an ideal counterpart to round out Cordova’s renewable energy supply. The results of this effort suggests that this is the case, and that developing wind resources makes sense for our small, isolated community.

  1. River plume patterns and dynamics within the Southern California Bight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrick, J.A.; DiGiacomo, P.M.; Weisberg, S.B.; Nezlin, N.P.; Mengel, M.; Jones, B.H.; Ohlmann, J.C.; Washburn, L.; Terrill, E.J.; Farnsworth, K.L.

    2007-01-01

    Stormwater river plumes are important vectors of marine contaminants and pathogens in the Southern California Bight. Here we report the results of a multi-institution investigation of the river plumes across eight major river systems of southern California. We use in situ water samples from multi-day cruises in combination with MODIS satellite remote sensing, buoy meteorological observations, drifters, and HF radar current measurements to evaluate the dispersal patterns and dynamics of the freshwater plumes. River discharge was exceptionally episodic, and the majority of storm discharge occurred in a few hours. The combined plume observing techniques revealed that plumes commonly detach from the coast and turn to the left, which is the opposite direction of Coriolis influence. Although initial offshore velocity of the buoyant plumes was ∼50 cm/s and was influenced by river discharge inertia (i.e., the direct momentum of the river flux) and buoyancy, subsequent advection of the plumes was largely observed in an alongshore direction and dominated by local winds. Due to the multiple day upwelling wind conditions that commonly follow discharge events, plumes were observed to flow from their respective river mouths to down-coast waters at rates of 20–40 km/d. Lastly, we note that suspended-sediment concentration and beam-attenuation were poorly correlated with plume salinity across and within the sampled plumes (mean r2=0.12 and 0.25, respectively), while colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) fluorescence was well correlated (mean r2=0.56), suggesting that CDOM may serve as a good tracer of the discharged freshwater in subsequent remote sensing and monitoring efforts of plumes.

  2. Harmonisation of wind turbine certification in Europe JOULE project EWTC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nath, C [Germanischer Lloyd, Hamburg (Germany); Eriksson, C [Det Norske Veritas, Hellerup (Denmark); Hulle, F van [Frans van Hulle, Petten (Netherlands); Skamris, C [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark); Stam, W [CIWI Holland, Arnheim (Netherlands); Vionis, P [CRES, Attki (Greece)

    1999-03-01

    Wind turbine certification requirements are currently fairly divers within Europe. Therefore the leading European certification bodies initiated a JOULE project to harmonise the certification procedure on the basis of the current set of IEC/EN 61400 series standards. The paper presents a review of the state of the art of wind turbine certification in European countries and an outline of the sturcture of the project. The main steps of the project are (a) the collection of differences in certification practices by round robin certification of three wind turbine types; (b) assessment of the different certification results and (c) the development of a harmonised certification procedure. (au) EU-JOULE-3. 19 refs.

  3. Database on wind characteristics. Users manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, G.C.; Hansen, K.S.

    2001-11-01

    The main objective of IEA R and D Wind Annex XVII - Database on Wind Characteristics - is to provide wind energy planners and designers, as well as the international wind engineering community in general, with easy access to quality controlled measured wind field time series observed in a wide range of environments. The project partners are Sweden, Norway, U.S.A., The Netherlands, Japan and Denmark, with Denmark as the Operating Agent. The reporting of IEA R and D Annex XVII falls in three separate parts. Part one deals with the overall structure and philosophy behind the database (including the applied data quality control procedures), part two accounts in details for the available data in the established database bank and part three is the Users Manual describing the various ways to access and analyse the data. The present report constitutes part three of the Annex XVII reporting and contains a trough description of the available online facilities for identifying, selecting, downloading and handling measured wind field time series and resource data from 'Database on Wind Characteristics'. (au)

  4. Perceived Uncertainty Sources in Wind Power Plant Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damiani, Rick R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-01-03

    This presentation for the Fourth Wind Energy Systems Engineering Workshop covers some of the uncertainties that still impact turbulent wind operation and how these affect design and structural reliability; identifies key sources and prioritization for R and D; and summarizes an analysis of current procedures, industry best practice, standards, and expert opinions.

  5. Sandia SWiFT Wind Turbine Manual.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Jonathan; LeBlanc, Bruce Philip; Berg, Jonathan Charles; Bryant, Joshua; Johnson, Wesley D.; Paquette, Joshua

    2016-01-01

    The Scaled Wind Farm Technology (SWiFT) facility, operated by Sandia National Laboratories for the U.S. Department of Energy's Wind and Water Power Program, is a wind energy research site with multiple wind turbines scaled for the experimental study of wake dynamics, advanced rotor development, turbine control, and advanced sensing for production-scale wind farms. The SWiFT site currently includes three variable-speed, pitch-regulated, three-bladed wind turbines. The six volumes of this manual provide a detailed description of the SWiFT wind turbines, including their operation and user interfaces, electrical and mechanical systems, assembly and commissioning procedures, and safety systems. Further dissemination only as authorized to U.S. Government agencies and their contractors; other requests shall be approved by the originating facility or higher DOE programmatic authority. 111 UNCLASSIFIED UNLIMITED RELEASE Sandia SWiFT Wind Turbine Manual (SAND2016-0746 ) approved by: Department Manager SWiFT Site Lead Dave Minster (6121) Date Jonathan White (6121) Date SWiFT Site Supervisor Dave Mitchell (6121) Date Note: Document revision logs are found after the title page of each volume of this manual. iv

  6. Tension layer winding of cable-in-conduit conductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devernoe, A.; Ciancetta, G.; King, M.; Parizh, M.; Painter, T.; Miller, J.

    1996-01-01

    A 710 mm i.d. by 440 mm long, 6 layer Cable-in-Conduit (CIC) coil was precision tension layer wound with Incoloy 908 jacketed conductor to model winding technology that will be used for the Nb 3 Sn outsert coils of the 45 Tesla Hybrid Magnet Project at the US National High Magnetic Field Laboratory. This paper reports on the set up of a new winding facility with unique capabilities for insulating and winding long length CIC conductor and on special procedures which were developed to wind and support layer to layer transitions and to safely form conductor into and out of the winding. Analytical methods used to predict conduit keystoning, springback and back tensioning requirements before winding are reported in comparison to results obtained during winding and actual winding build-up dimensions on a layer by layer basis in comparison to design requirements

  7. Integrating Water Quality and River Rehabilitation Management - A Decision-Analytical Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert, P.; Langhans, S.; Lienert, J.; Schuwirth, N.

    2009-04-01

    Integrative river management involves difficult decisions about alternative measures to improve their ecological state. For this reason, it seems useful to apply knowledge from the decision sciences to support river management. We discuss how decision-analytical elements can be employed for designing an integrated river management procedure. An important aspect of this procedure is to clearly separate scientific predictions of the consequences of alternatives from objectives to be achieved by river management. The key elements of the suggested procedure are (i) the quantitative elicitation of the objectives from different stakeholder groups, (ii) the compilation of the current scientific knowledge about the consequences of the effects resulting from suggested measures in the form of a probabilistic mathematical model, and (iii) the use of these predictions and valuations to prioritize alternatives, to uncover conflicting objectives, to support the design of better alternatives, and to improve the transparency of communication about the chosen management strategy. The development of this procedure led to insights regarding necessary steps to be taken for rational decision-making in river management, to guidelines about the use of decision-analytical techniques for performing these steps, but also to new insights about the application of decision-analytical techniques in general. In particular, the consideration of the spatial distribution of the effects of measures and the potential added value of connected rehabilitated river reaches leads to favoring measures that have a positive effect beyond a single river reach. As these effects only propagate within the river network, this results in a river basin oriented management concept as a consequence of a rational decision support procedure, rather than as an a priori management paradigm. There are also limitations to the support that can be expected from the decision-analytical perspective. It will not provide the

  8. Design winds during ice storm as a function of direction for transmission lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chouinard, L. [McGill Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada); Feknous, N. [SNC-Lavalin, Montreal, PQ (Canada); Sabourin, G. [Hydro-Quebec, Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    The effects of wind directionality are important considerations in the design of electric transmission lines. A procedure for the estimation of the probability distribution function of maximum wind speed as a function of direction was proposed. The procedure was applied to the sample of annual maximum wind speeds using the Gumbal distribution method and then used to estimate the maximum wind speed as a function of direction for the sample of maximum annual wind speeds, and maximum annual wind speeds during ice storms at 22 locations throughout Quebec. Wind direction obtained from the meteorological stations was recorded in 10 degrees sectors. The data set was used to obtain maximum wind speed for each year in each of 36 sectors. The joint probability distribution function was obtained by assuming that extreme distribution for non-directional winds was common to all directions during a season or period, as well as by assuming independence between wind speed and wind direction during a storm pattern. Structural effects were obtained by integrating the joint probability distribution with design equations. Results were then presented in the form of a ratio relative to the reference wind speed for each location. The procedure was demonstrated using a meteorological data set as well as glaze ice data from Quebec City, and covered a period of 30 years. Results indicated that a reduction factor of 25 per cent can be achieved on ice accumulations when overhead lines are directed parallel to dominant winds. It was concluded that the method will represent significant savings in the design and up-grading of existing lines. Further research will be conducted to address issues related to regional criteria and local adjustments for topographical features. 7 refs., 4 figs.

  9. Solar wind velocity and daily variation of cosmic rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahluwalia, H.S.; Riker, J.F.

    1985-01-01

    Recently parameters applicable to the solar wind and the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) have become much better defined. Superior quality of data bases that are now available, particularly for the post-1971 period, make it possible to believe the long-term trends in the data. These data are correlated with the secular changes observed in the diurnal variation parameters obtained from neutron monitor data at Deep River and underground muon telescope data at Embudo (30 MEW) and Socorro (82 MWE). The annual mean amplitudes appear to have large values during the epochs of high speed solar wind streams. Results are discussed

  10. IEA-Task 31 WAKEBENCH: Towards a protocol for wind farm flow model evaluation. Part 2: Wind farm wake models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moriarty, Patrick; Rodrigo, Javier Sanz; Gancarski, Pawel

    2014-01-01

    Researchers within the International Energy Agency (IEA) Task 31: Wakebench have created a framework for the evaluation of wind farm flow models operating at the microscale level. The framework consists of a model evaluation protocol integrated with a web-based portal for model benchmarking (www.......windbench.net). This paper provides an overview of the building-block validation approach applied to wind farm wake models, including best practices for the benchmarking and data processing procedures for validation datasets from wind farm SCADA and meteorological databases. A hierarchy of test cases has been proposed...

  11. Stable isotope characteristics of precipitation of Pamba River basin ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    highly essential input function for isotope hydro- ... Wind speed in the Pamba River basin varies from 8.5 to. 13.6 km/hr (NWDA 2008). ... ets of low values in the hill stations of the Ghats ... reservoir for the hydroelectric power production in.

  12. Wind power research at Oregon State University. [for selecting windpowered machinery sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewson, E. W.

    1973-01-01

    There have been two primary thrusts of the research effort to date, along with several supplementary ones. One primary area has been an investigation of the wind fields along coastal areas of the Pacific Northwest, not only at the shoreline but also for a number of miles inland and offshore as well. Estimates have been made of the influence of the wind turbulence as measured at coastal sites in modifying the predicted dependence of power generated on the cube of the wind speed. Wind flow patterns in the Columbia River valley have also been studied. The second primary thrust has been to substantially modify and improve an existing wind tunnel to permit the build up of a boundary layer in which various model studies will be conducted. One of the secondary studies involved estimating the cost of building an aerogenerator.

  13. Assessing river health in Europe and Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milano, Marianne; Chèvre, Nathalie; Reynard, Emmanuel

    2017-04-01

    River conditions and welfare of aquatic ecosystems are threatened by anthropogenic and climatic changes. The release of personal-care products, pharmaceuticals and crop protection products is increasing and climate change is likely to cause significant changes in hydrological regimes affecting water resources' capacity to dissolve pollutants. Assessing river health, i.e. the ability of a river to support and maintain a balanced ecosystem close to the natural habitat, is thus of major concern to ensure the development of ecosystems and to provide enough clean useable water to users. Such studies involve physical, chemical and biological processes and characteristics. In Europe and Switzerland, standardized procedures have been developed to assess the hydromorphological, ecological and toxicological status of rivers. The European Water Framework Directive sets ecological requirements and chemical guidelines while the Swiss Modular Stepwise Procedure suggests methods to apprehend ecological deficits and promote water management plans. In this study, both procedures were applied and compared in order (i) to address their capacity to follow-up the spatial and temporal variability of the river's water quality and (ii) to identify challenges that still need to be addressed to assess river's health. Applied on the Boiron River (canton of Vaud, Switzerland) for a 11-year period (2005-2015), both frameworks highlight that no section of the river currently meets a good environmental state. This river flows through a diversified agricultural area causing a progressive deterioration of its chemical and biological quality. The two methods also identify two periods of time with significant changes of the river's water quality. The 2009-2011 period is characterized by a significant deterioration of the river's ecological and toxicological state due to severe low flows and an increased use of pesticides. However, since 2013, an improvement in water quality is identified in

  14. Comparison of wind turbines based on power curve analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    In the study measured power curves for 46 wind turbines were analyzed with the purpose to establish the basis for a consistent comparison of the efficiency of the wind turbines. Emphasis is on wind turbines above 500 kW rated power, with power curves measured after 1994 according to international recommendations. The available power curves fulfilling these requirements were smoothened according to a procedure developed for the purpose in such a way that the smoothened power curves are equally representative as the measured curves. The resulting smoothened power curves are presented in a standardized format for the subsequent processing. Using wind turbine data from the power curve documentation the analysis results in curves for specific energy production (kWh/M{sup 2}/yr) versus specific rotor load (kW/M{sup 2}) for a range of mean wind speeds. On this basis generalized curves for specific annual energy production versus specific rotor load are established for a number of generalized wind turbine concepts. The 46 smoothened standardized power curves presented in the report, the procedure developed to establish them, and the results of the analysis based on them aim at providers of measured power curves as well as users of them including manufacturers, advisors and decision makers. (au)

  15. Assessment of wind turbine load measurement instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morfiadakis, E; Papadopoulos, K [CRES (Greece); Borg, N van der [ECN, Petten (Netherlands); Petersen, S M [Risoe, Roskilde (Denmark); Seifert, H [DEWI, Wilhelmshaven (Germany)

    1999-03-01

    In the framework of Sub-Task3 `Wind turbine load measurement instrumentation` of EU-project `European Wind Turbine Testing Procedure Development`, the load measurement techniques have been assessed by laboratory, full scale and numerical tests. The existing methods have been reviewed with emphasis on the strain gage application techniques on composite materials and recommendations are provided for the optimisation of load measurement techniques. (au) EU. 14 refs.

  16. Rotor Speed Control of a Direct-Driven Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator-Based Wind Turbine Using Phase-Lag Compensators to Optimize Wind Power Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ester Hamatwi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the intermittent nature of wind, the wind power output tends to be inconsistent, and hence maximum power point tracking (MPPT is usually employed to optimize the power extracted from the wind resource at a wide range of wind speeds. This paper deals with the rotor speed control of a 2 MW direct-driven permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG to achieve MPPT. The proportional-integral (PI, proportional-derivative (PD, and proportional-integral-derivative (PID controllers have widely been employed in MPPT studies owing to their simple structure and simple design procedure. However, there are a number of shortcomings associated with these controllers; the trial-and-error design procedure used to determine the P, I, and D gains presents a possibility for poorly tuned controller gains, which reduces the accuracy and the dynamic performance of the entire control system. Moreover, these controllers’ linear nature, constricted operating range, and their sensitivity to changes in machine parameters make them ineffective when applied to nonlinear and uncertain systems. On the other hand, phase-lag compensators are associated with a design procedure that is well defined from fundamental principles as opposed to the aforementioned trial-and-error design procedure. This makes the latter controller type more accurate, although it is not well developed yet, and hence it is the focus of this paper. The simulation results demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed MPPT controller.

  17. Global surface wind and flux fields from model assimilation of Seasat data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atlas, R.; Busalacchi, A. J.; Kalnay, E.; Bloom, S.; Ghil, M.

    1986-01-01

    Procedures for dealiasing Seasat data and developing global surface wind and latent and sensible heat flux fields are discussed. Seasat data from September 20, 1978 was dealiased using the Goddard Laboratory for Atmospheres (GLA) analysis/forecast system. The wind data obtained with the objective GLA forecast model are compared to the data subjectively dealiased by Peteherych et al. (1984) and Hoffman (1982, 1984). The GLA procedure is also verified using simulated Seasat data. The areas of high and low heat fluxes and cyclonic and anticyclonic wind stresses detected in the generated fields are analyzed and compared to climatological fields. It is observed that there is good correlation between the time-averaged analyses of wind stress obtained subjectively and objectively, and the monthly mean wind stress and latent fluxes agree with climatological fields and atmospheric and oceanic features.

  18. Development of Chemical and Mechanical Cleaning Procedures for Genesis Solar Wind Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeling, M.; Jurewicz, A. J. G.; Gonzalez, C.; Allums, K. K.; Allton, J. H.

    2018-01-01

    The Genesis mission was the only mission returning pristine solar material to Earth since the Apollo program. Unfortunately, the return of the spacecraft on September 8, 2004 resulted in a crash landing shattering the solar wind collectors into smaller fragments and exposing them to desert soil and other debris. Thorough surface cleaning is required for almost all fragments to allow for subsequent analysis of solar wind material embedded within. However, each collector fragment calls for an individual cleaning approach, as contamination not only varies by collector material but also by sample itself.

  19. River as a part of ground battlefield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vračar, Miodrag S.; Pokrajac, Ivan; Okiljević, Predrag

    2013-05-01

    The rivers are in some circumstances part of the ground battlefield. Microseisms induced at the riverbed or ground at the river surrounding might be consequence of military activities (military ground transports, explosions, troop's activities, etc). Vibrations of those fluid-solid structures are modeled in terms of solid displacement and change of fluid pressure. This time varying fluid pressure in river, which originates from ground microseisms, is possible to detect with hydrophones. Therefore, hydroacoustic measurements in rivers enables detecting, identification and localization various types of military noisy activities at the ground as and those, which origin is in the river water (hydrodynamics of water flow, wind, waves, river vessels, etc). In this paper are presented river ambient noise measurements of the three great rivers: the Danube, the Sava and the Tisa, which flows in north part of Serbia in purpose to establish limits in detection of the ground vibrations in relatively wide frequency range from zero to 20 kHz. To confirm statement that the river is a part of ground battlefield, and that hydroacoustic noise is possible to use in detecting and analyzing ground microseisms induced by civil or military activities, some previous collected data of hydroacoustic noise measurement in the rivers are used. The data of the river ambient noise include noise induced by civil engineering activities, that ordinary take place in large cities, noise that produced ships and ambient noise of the river when human activities are significantly reduced. The poly spectral method was used in analysis such events.

  20. Pressure integration technique for predicting wind-induced response in high-rise buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aly Mousaad Aly

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a procedure for response prediction in high-rise buildings under wind loads. The procedure is illustrated in an application example of a tall building exposed to both cross-wind and along-wind loads. The responses of the building in the lateral directions combined with torsion are estimated simultaneously. Results show good agreement with recent design standards; however, the proposed procedure has the advantages of accounting for complex mode shapes, non-uniform mass distribution, and interference effects from the surrounding. In addition, the technique allows for the contribution of higher modes. For accurate estimation of the acceleration response, it is important to consider not only the first two lateral vibrational modes, but also higher modes. Ignoring the contribution of higher modes may lead to underestimation of the acceleration response; on the other hand, it could result in overestimation of the displacement response. Furthermore, the procedure presented in this study can help decision makers, involved in a tall building design/retrofit to choose among innovative solutions like aerodynamic mitigation, structural member size adjustment, damping enhancement, and/or materials change, with an objective to improve the resiliency and the serviceability under extreme wind actions.

  1. Full scale testing for investigation of wind turbine seismic response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prowell, I.; Veletzos, M.; Elgamal, A. [California Univ., San Diego, CA (United States). Dept. of Structural Engineering

    2008-07-01

    In 2007, much of the growth in wind energy development was concentrated in North America and Asia, two regions which periodically experience strong earthquakes that may impact the final turbine design. As such, rational prediction of seismic hazards must be considered in order to maintain and enhance the ability of wind power to compete economically with other energy sources. In response to this challenge, researchers at the University of California, San Diego (UCSD) have experimentally investigated wind turbines to gain an understanding of expected earthquake forces. This paper described the experimental setup for a full scale shake table test of a 65 kW wind turbine. The turbine was excited perpendicular to the axis of the rotor with a seismic base shaking record scaled to various levels. The data was analyzed using simple but effective procedures to provide insight into the observed structural damping of the wind turbine. The experimental investigation showed that full scale seismic testing of wind turbines is possible and can provide valuable insight into dynamic behaviour of wind turbines. The results can be used to develop a more accurate picture of how wind turbines are impacted by earthquakes. The data regarding the low observed super-structure damping provides a basis for calibration and further development of verified design procedures. 20 refs., 3 tabs.

  2. United States Air Force Academy (USAFA) Vertical Axis Wind Turbine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    Rotors, SAND76-0131. Albuquerque: July 1977. 10. Oliver, R.C. and P.R. Nixon. "Design Procedure for Coupling Savonius and Darrieus Wind Turbines ", Air...May 17-20, 1976. -65- 16. Blackwell, B.F., R.E. Sheldahl, and L.V. Feltz. Wind Tunnel Performance Data for the Darrieus Wind Turbine with NACA 0012...a 5.8 m/s (13 mph) wind . At 100 rpm, the Darrieus turbine would be fully self-sustaining and acceleration would continue to an operating tip speed

  3. Optimum hub height of a wind turbine for maximizing annual net profit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jaehwan; Kim, Dong Rip; Lee, Kwan-Soo

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Annual Net Profit was proposed to optimize the hub height of a wind turbine. • Procedures of the hub height optimization method were introduced. • Effect of local wind speed characteristics on optimum hub height was illustrated. • Effect of rated power on optimum hub height was negligible in the range 0.75–3 MW. • Rated speed and cut-out speed had great effects on optimum hub height. - Abstract: The optimization method of the hub height, which can ensure the economic feasibility of the wind turbine, is proposed in this study. Annual Net Profit is suggested as an objective function and the optimization procedure is developed. The effects of local wind speed and wind turbine power characteristics on the optimum hub height are investigated. The optimum hub height decreased as the mean wind speed and wind shear exponent increased. Rated power had little effect on optimum hub height; it follows that the economies of scale are negligible in the rated power range of 0.75–3 MW. Among the wind turbine power characteristics, rated speed and cut-out speed most strongly affected the optimum hub height

  4. Development of Danish wind power market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, Niels I.

    2004-01-01

    The modern phase of Danish wind power started after the oil crisis in 1973. Based on long traditions of Danish wind power dating back to the beginning of the century a new commercial phase was initiated by small industrial entrepreneurs with support by the Danish government, the Danish Academy of Technical Sciences and green organizations. During the eighties technological development resulted in increased cost efficiency, while the investment subsidies from the state were gradually phased out. Conflicts between utilities and wind power producers over tariffs and the costs of grid connections, then slowed down the penetration of wind power on the Danish market. In addition, many local municipalities were setting up administrative barriers for wind turbines. These barriers were removed by government intervention in the early nineties when favourable feed-in tariffs were introduced together with easy access to the grid, simple procedures for construction allowances and priority to green electricity. As a result wind power was booming in the Danish home market and Danish turbines achieved a global market share of around 50%. After a change of government in December 2001, however the Danish home market for wind power has more or less collapsed. (Author)

  5. Numerical study of a novel procedure for installing the tower and Rotor Nacelle Assembly of offshore wind turbines based on the inverted pendulum principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guachamin Acero, Wilson; Gao, Zhen; Moan, Torgeir

    2017-09-01

    Current installation costs of offshore wind turbines (OWTs) are high and profit margins in the offshore wind energy sector are low, it is thus necessary to develop installation methods that are more efficient and practical. This paper presents a numerical study (based on a global response analysis of marine operations) of a novel procedure for installing the tower and Rotor Nacelle Assemblies (RNAs) on bottom-fixed foundations of OWTs. The installation procedure is based on the inverted pendulum principle. A cargo barge is used to transport the OWT assembly in a horizontal position to the site, and a medium-size Heavy Lift Vessel (HLV) is then employed to lift and up-end the OWT assembly using a special upending frame. The main advantage of this novel procedure is that the need for a huge HLV (in terms of lifting height and capacity) is eliminated. This novel method requires that the cargo barge is in the leeward side of the HLV (which can be positioned with the best heading) during the entire installation. This is to benefit from shielding effects of the HLV on the motions of the cargo barge, so the foundations need to be installed with a specific heading based on wave direction statistics of the site and a typical installation season. Following a systematic approach based on numerical simulations of actual operations, potential critical installation activities, corresponding critical events, and limiting (response) parameters are identified. In addition, operational limits for some of the limiting parameters are established in terms of allowable limits of sea states. Following a preliminary assessment of these operational limits, the duration of the entire operation, the equipment used, and weather- and water depth-sensitivity, this novel procedure is demonstrated to be viable.

  6. Channel mapping river miles 29–62 of the Colorado River in Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona, May 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplinski, Matt; Hazel, Joseph E.; Grams, Paul E.; Kohl, Keith; Buscombe, Daniel D.; Tusso, Robert B.

    2017-03-23

    Bathymetric, topographic, and grain-size data were collected in May 2009 along a 33-mi reach of the Colorado River in Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona. The study reach is located from river miles 29 to 62 at the confluence of the Colorado and Little Colorado Rivers. Channel bathymetry was mapped using multibeam and singlebeam echosounders, subaerial topography was mapped using ground-based total-stations, and bed-sediment grain-size data were collected using an underwater digital microscope system. These data were combined to produce digital elevation models, spatially variable estimates of digital elevation model uncertainty, georeferenced grain-size data, and bed-sediment distribution maps. This project is a component of a larger effort to monitor the status and trends of sand storage along the Colorado River in Grand Canyon National Park. This report documents the survey methods and post-processing procedures, digital elevation model production and uncertainty assessment, and procedures for bed-sediment classification, and presents the datasets resulting from this study.

  7. Particle transport patterns of short-distance soil erosion by wind-driven rain, rain and wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzen, Miriam; Iserloh, Thomas; de Lima, João L. M. P.; Ries, Johannes B.

    2015-04-01

    Short distance erosion of soil surface material is one of the big question marks in soil erosion studies. The exact measurement of short-distance transported soil particles, prior to the occurrence of overland flow, is a challenge to soil erosion science due to the particular requirements of the experimental setup and test procedure. To approach a quantification of amount and distance of each type of transport, we applied an especially developed multiple-gutter system installed inside the Trier Portable Wind and Rainfall Simulator (PWRS). We measured the amount and travel distance of soil particles detached and transported by raindrops (splash), wind-driven rain (splash-saltation and splash-drift) and wind (saltation). The test setup included three different erosion agents (rain/ wind-driven rain/ wind), two substrates (sandy/ loamy), three surface structures (grain roughness/ rills lengthwise/ rills transversal) and three slope angles (0°/+7°/-7°). The results present detailed transport patterns of the three erosion agents under the varying soil and surface conditions up to a distance of 1.6 m. Under the applied rain intensity and wind velocity, wind-driven rain splash generates the highest erosion. The erodibility and travel distance of the two substrates depend on the erosion agent. The total erosion is slightly higher for the slope angle -7° (downslope), but for wind-driven rain splash, the inclination is not a relevant factor. The effect of surface structures (rills) changes with traveling distance. The wind driven rain splash generates a much higher amount of erosion and a further travel distance of the particles due to the combined action of wind and rain. The wind-driven rain factor appears to be much more significant than the other factors. The study highlights the effects of different erosion agents and surface parameters on short-distance particle transport and the powerful impact of wind-driven rain on soil erosion.

  8. EWEA 2012: conference on the legal framework of wind energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froeding, Veronique; Iuga, Dorina; Lintker, Stephanus; Edlich, Sophie

    2012-01-01

    At the occasion of 2012 Europe Wind energy event (EWEA), the French-German office for Renewable energies (OFAEnR) organised a conference on the legal framework of wind energy. In the framework of this French-German exchange of experience, participants exchanged views on the French and German respective regulations and administrative procedures for wind energy projects. This document brings together the available presentations (slides) made during this event: 1 - Synthesis note of the wind turbines French regulation (Veronique Froeding); 2 - Wind Barriers Presentation - Administrative and Grid access barriers (Dorina Iuga); 3 - Wind energy in France - Legal framework: what's new? (Veronique Froeding); 4 - North Rhine-Westphalia and the Wind energy Decree from July 2011: NRW Pioneer in Wind energy in Germany (Stephanus Lintker); 5 - Duration and development costs of wind energy projects in France and in Germany (Sophie Edlich)

  9. Mobile Bay river plume mixing in the inner shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, S. M.; Book, J. W.; Warner, S. J.; Moum, J.

    2017-12-01

    The microtidal region (0.5 m spring tides) of the inner shelf outside Mobile Bay presented a complex circulation pattern driven by the pulsed river discharge and winds. Currents, salinity, temperature, and turbulence profiles were measured for up to three weeks in April 2016 at six moorings outside Mobile Bay. Currents varied between locations and with depth. During neap and spring tides the currents were reliably >0.4 and 0.5 m/s) and toward deeper waters, concurrent with the strongest stratification. The possible flow drivers considered include tides, winds, inertial oscillations, waves, and stratification. Turbulent kinetic energy production and dissipation were calculated with multiple methods using data from bottom-mounted, upward-looking acoustic Doppler current profilers sampling at 1 Hz, and using data from line-moored chi-pod turbulent temperature microstructure instruments sampling at 100 Hz. This work explores different forcing mechanisms involved in modulating the circulation and turbulence in a multi-layered pulsed-river inner shelf region in the Gulf of Mexico.

  10. Possibilities and restrictions of wind energy use in one federal state in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaltschmitt, M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses a current political topic, the request for increasing use of wind energy. The objectives of this paper are to evaluate this call in more detail in some parts of the Federal Republic of Germany by analyzing possibilities, restrictions, and production costs of electricity generation from wind energy in Baden-Wurttemberg, an inland state in the southwest of Germany. Based on zones with similar average wind velocities, the theoretical potential to install converters is assessed for each municipality, considering among other things residential areas, highways, roads, rivers, and nature conservation areas as not usable territories. The result is a technical area potential suitable for the installation of wind energy converters. Based on this area potential, a methodological approach is presented that allows the definition and the analysis of strategies of a wind energy use on a high spatial and timely resolution

  11. Modern wind energy technology for Russian applications. Main report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Peter Hauge; Winther-Jensen, Martin; Bindner, Henrik W.

    1999-01-01

    The general objective of the project is to establish a technical foundation for an intensified application of wind energy in Russia with medium to large wind turbines and transfer/adaptation of Danish and European wind turbine technology as a basis forfuture joint ventures and technology exports...... climate and in-land sites of Russia. As part of this work it is necessary to clarify the types of operationalconditions and requirements that are to be met by wind turbines operating in such conditions, and to outline suitable test procedures and test set-up’s for verifications of such adapted...

  12. SeaWinds - Oceans, Land, Polar Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    The SeaWinds scatterometer on the QuikScat satellite makes global radar measurements -- day and night, in clear sky and through clouds. The radar data over the oceans provide scientists and weather forecasters with information on surface wind speed and direction. Scientists also use the radar measurements directly to learn about changes in vegetation and ice extent over land and polar regions.This false-color image is based entirely on SeaWinds measurements obtained over oceans, land, and polar regions. Over the ocean, colors indicate wind speed with orange as the fastest wind speeds and blue as the slowest. White streamlines indicate the wind direction. The ocean winds in this image were measured by SeaWinds on September 20, 1999. The large storm in the Atlantic off the coast of Florida is Hurricane Gert. Tropical storm Harvey is evident as a high wind region in the Gulf of Mexico, while farther west in the Pacific is tropical storm Hilary. An extensive storm is also present in the South Atlantic Ocean near Antarctica.The land image was made from four days of SeaWinds data with the aid of a resolution enhancement algorithm developed by Dr. David Long at Brigham Young University. The lightest green areas correspond to the highest radar backscatter. Note the bright Amazon and Congo rainforests compared to the dark Sahara desert. The Amazon River is visible as a dark line running horizontally though the bright South American rain forest. Cities appear as bright spots on the images, especially in the U.S. and Europe.The image of Greenland and the north polar ice cap was generated from data acquired by SeaWinds on a single day. In the polar region portion of the image, white corresponds to the largest radar return, while purple is the lowest. The variations in color in Greenland and the polar ice cap reveal information about the ice and snow conditions present.NASA's Earth Science Enterprise is a long-term research and technology program designed to examine Earth

  13. Factors affecting the occurrence of saugers in small, high-elevation rivers near the western edge of the species' natural distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amadio, C.J.; Hubert, W.A.; Johnson, Kevin; Oberlie, D.; Dufek, D.

    2005-01-01

    Factors affecting the occurrence of saugers Sander canadensis were studied throughout the Wind River basin, a high-elevation watershed (> 1,440 m above mean sea level) on the western periphery of the species' natural distribution in central Wyoming. Adult saugers appeared to have a contiguous distribution over 170 km of streams among four rivers in the watershed. The upstream boundaries of sauger distribution were influenced by summer water temperatures and channel slopes in two rivers and by water diversion dams that created barriers to upstream movement in the other two rivers. Models that included summer water temperature, maximum water depth, habitat type (pool or run), dominant substrate, and alkalinity accounted for the variation in sauger occurrence across the watershed within the areas of sauger distribution. Water temperature was the most important basin-scale habitat feature associated with sauger occurrence, and maximum depth was the most important site-specific habitat feature. Saugers were found in a larger proportion of pools than runs in all segments of the watershed and occurred almost exclusively in pools in upstream segments of the watershed. Suitable summer water temperatures and deep, low-velocity habitat were available to support saugers over a large portion of the Wind River watershed. Future management of saugers in the Wind River watershed, as well as in other small river systems within the species' native range, should involve (1) preserving natural fluvial processes to maintain the summer water temperatures and physical habitat features needed by saugers and (2) assuring that barriers to movement do not reduce upstream boundaries of populations.

  14. Promotion of terrestrial wind power; Promotion de l'energie eolienne terrestre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-09-01

    This document, from the French ministries of ecology and sustainable development, of equipment, transports, dwelling, tourism and sea, and of industry, is addressed to the region and departement prefects. It recalls the main trends of the French energy and environmental policy and the role the prefects have to play for the enforcement of this policy. The present document concerns the promotion of terrestrial wind power. The recommendations are the following: 1 - warranting the clarity and transparency of the procedures leading to the building of wind farms and to their connection to the national power grid; 2 - to make easy the local setting up of wind power equipments in the respect of environmental requirements, starting from a good knowledge of the stakes and implemented in a pre-concerned way. Three documents are attached in appendixes: some additional information about the procedures linked with a wind power project, a synthetic table of these procedures, and a synthetic table of the new dispositions of the law no 2003-590 from July 2, 2003 about town planning and accommodation. (J.S.)

  15. MEASUREMENT OF WIND SPEED FROM COOLING LAKE THERMAL IMAGERY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrett, A.; Kurzeja, R.; Villa-Aleman, E.; Tuckfield, C.; Pendergast, M.

    2009-01-01

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) collected thermal imagery and ground truth data at two commercial power plant cooling lakes to investigate the applicability of laboratory empirical correlations between surface heat flux and wind speed, and statistics derived from thermal imagery. SRNL demonstrated in a previous paper (1] that a linear relationship exists between the standard deviation of image temperature and surface heat flux. In this paper, SRNL will show that the skewness of the temperature distribution derived from cooling lake thermal images correlates with instantaneous wind speed measured at the same location. SRNL collected thermal imagery, surface meteorology and water temperatures from helicopters and boats at the Comanche Peak and H. B. Robinson nuclear power plant cooling lakes. SRNL found that decreasing skewness correlated with increasing wind speed, as was the case for the laboratory experiments. Simple linear and orthogonal regression models both explained about 50% of the variance in the skewness - wind speed plots. A nonlinear (logistic) regression model produced a better fit to the data, apparently because the thermal convection and resulting skewness are related to wind speed in a highly nonlinear way in nearly calm and in windy conditions

  16. Evaluation of the Wind Flow Variability Using Scanning Doppler Lidar Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sand, S. C.; Pichugina, Y. L.; Brewer, A.

    2016-12-01

    Better understanding of the wind flow variability at the heights of the modern turbines is essential to accurately assess of generated wind power and efficient turbine operations. Nowadays the wind energy industry often utilizes scanning Doppler lidar to measure wind-speed profiles at high spatial and temporal resolution.The study presents wind flow features captured by scanning Doppler lidars during the second Wind Forecast and Improvement Project (WFIP 2) sponsored by the Department of Energy (DOE) and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). This 18-month long experiment in the Columbia River Basin aims to improve model wind forecasts complicated by mountain terrain, coastal effects, and numerous wind farms.To provide a comprehensive dataset to use for characterizing and predicting meteorological phenomena important to Wind Energy, NOAA deployed scanning, pulsed Doppler lidars to two sites in Oregon, one at Wasco, located upstream of all wind farms relative to the predominant westerly flow in the region, and one at Arlington, located in the middle of several wind farms.In this presentation we will describe lidar scanning patterns capable of providing data in conical, or vertical-slice modes. These individual scans were processed to obtain 15-min averaged profiles of wind speed and direction in real time. Visualization of these profiles as time-height cross sections allows us to analyze variability of these parameters with height, time and location, and reveal periods of rapid changes (ramp events). Examples of wind flow variability between two sites of lidar measurements along with examples of reduced wind velocity downwind of operating turbines (wakes) will be presented.

  17. Calibration procedures for improved accuracy of wind turbine blade load measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlberg, J.Aa. [Aeronautical Research Inst. of Sweden, Bromma (Sweden); Johansson, Hjalmar [Teknikgruppen AB, Sollentuna (Sweden)

    1996-12-01

    External loads acting on wind turbine blades are mainly transferred via the hub to the rest of the structure. It is therefore a normal approach to measure the loads acting on the turbine by load measurements in the blade roots. The load measurement is often accomplished by measurements of strain on the surface of the blade or the hub. The strain signals are converted to loads by applying calibration factors to the measurements. This paper deals with difficulties associated with load measurements on two different wind turbines; one with strain gauges applied to a steel hub where a linear stress-load relationship is expected and the other with strain gauges applied to the GFRP blade close to the bearings where strong non-linearity`s and temperature effects are expected. This paper suggests calibration methods to overcome these problems. 2 refs, 11 figs

  18. Small-scale wind shear definition for aerospace vehicle design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fichtl, G. H.

    1972-01-01

    Rawinsonde wind profile data provide adequate wind shear information for vertical height intervals greater than 1 km. To specify wind shears for intervals below 1 km for space vehicle design, detailed wind-profile information like that provided by the FPS-16 Radar/Jimsphere system or an extrapolation procedure is required. This paper is concerned with the latter alternative. It is assumed that any realization from an ensemble of wind profiles can be represented in terms of a Fourier integral. This permits the calculation of the ensemble standard deviation and mean of the corresponding shear ensemble for any altitude and shear interval in terms of the power spectrum of the ensemble of wind profiles. The results of these calculations show that the mean and standard deviation of the wind shear ensemble, as well as the wind shear for any percentile, asymptotically behave like the vertical interval to the 0.7 power. This result is in excellent agreement with shear data from Cape Kennedy, Fla.

  19. Random lock-in intervals for tubular structural elements subject to simulated natural wind

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Claus F.; Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager

    1999-01-01

    The paper reports on wind tunnel experiments with an elastically suspended circular cylinder vibrating under the excitation of natural wind of high turbulence degree. The natural wind turbulence was simulated bysuperposing the low frequency part of the natural wind turbulence on the background high...... structural elements subject to thenatural wind. The engineering relevance of the investigation is supported by comparing with the unrealistic highlyconservative rules of wind induced fatique commonly given in codes of practice. The stochastic lock-in model aswell as the related fatigue calculation procedure...

  20. Wind estimation around the shipwreck of Oriental Star based on field damage surveys and radar observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Zhiyong; Yao, Dan; Bai, Lanqiang; Zheng, Yongguang; Xue, Ming; Zhang, Xiaoling; Zhao, Kun; Tian, Fuyou; Wang, Mingjun

    Based on observational analyses and on-site ground and aerial damage surveys, this work aims to reveal the weather phenomena-especially the wind situation-when Oriental Star capsized in the Yangtze River on June 1, 2015. Results demonstrate that the cruise ship capsized when it encountered strong winds at speeds of at least 31 m s -1 near the apex of a bow echo embedded in a squall line. As suggested by the fallen trees within a 2-km radius around the wreck location, such strong winds were likely caused by microburst straight-line wind and/or embedded small vortices, rather than tornadoes.

  1. Assessing the representativeness of wind data for wind turbine site evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renne, D. S.; Corotis, R. B.

    1982-01-01

    Once potential wind turbine sites (either for single installations or clusters) are identified through siting procedures, actual evaluation of the sites must commence. This evaluation is needed to obtain estimates of wind turbine performance and to identify hazards to the machine from the turbulence component of the atmosphere. These estimates allow for more detailed project planning and for preliminary financing arrangements to be secured. The site evaluation process can occur in two stages: (1) utilizing existing nearby data, and (2) establishing and monitoring an onsite measurement program. Since step (2) requires a period of at least 1 yr or more from the time a potential site has been identified, step (1) is often an essential stage in the preliminary evaluation process. Both the methods that have been developed and the unknowns that still exist in assessing the representativeness of available data to a nearby wind turbine site are discussed. How the assessment of the representativeness of available data can be used to develop a more effective onsite meteorological measurement program is also discussed.

  2. Wind estimation around the shipwreck of Oriental Star based on field damage surveys and radar observations

    OpenAIRE

    Meng, Zhiyong; Yao, Dan; Bai, Lanqiang; Zheng, Yongguang; Xue, Ming; Zhang, Xiaoling; Zhao, Kun; Tian, Fuyou; Wang, Mingjun

    2016-01-01

    Based on observational analyses and on-site ground and aerial damage surveys, this work aims to reveal the weather phenomena?especially the wind situation?when Oriental Star capsized in the Yangtze River on June 1, 2015. Results demonstrate that the cruise ship capsized when it encountered strong winds at speeds of at least 31?m?s?1 near the apex of a bow echo embedded in a squall line. As suggested by the fallen trees within a 2-km radius around the wreck location, such strong winds were lik...

  3. Secondary current properties generated by wind-induced water waves in experimental conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michio Sanjou

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Secondary currents such as the Langmuir circulation are of high interest in natural rivers and the ocean because they have striking impacts on scour, sedimentation, and mass transport. Basic characteristics have been well-studied in straight open-channel flows. However, little is known regarding secondary circulation induced by wind waves. The presented study describes the generation properties of wind waves observed in the laboratory tank. Wind-induced water waves are known to produce large scale circulations. The phenomenon is observed together with high-speed and low-speed streaks, convergence and divergence zones, respectively. Therefore, it is important to determine the hydrodynamic properties of secondary currents for wind-induced water waves within rivers and lakes. In this study, using two high-speed CMOS cameras, stereoscopic particle image velocimetry (PIV measurements were conducted in order to reveal the distribution of all three components of velocity vectors. The experiments allowed us to investigate the three-dimensional turbulent structure under water waves and the generation mechanism of large-scale circulations. Additionally, a third CMOS camera was used to measure the spanwise profile of thefree-surface elevation. The time-series of velocity components and the free-surface were obtained simultaneously. From our experiments, free-surface variations were found to influence the instantaneous velocity distributions of the cross-sectional plane. We also considered thegeneration process by the phase analysis related to gravity waves and compared the contribution of the apparent stress.

  4. Wind park of the Hannover-Braunschweigische Stromversorgungs-Aktiengesellschaft (HASTRA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahnefeld; Fenske.

    1993-01-01

    In order to achieve the share of wind power in public electric power supply prognosticated for the year 2005 by the Enquete Commission it is necessary that favourable sites are utilized optimally with plants of medium size. The wind park of HASTRA serves as a reference plant. In the scope of this contribution the following subjects regarding this plant are mentioned: site and plant selection, licensing procedure, investments and profitability, energy economic aspects of wind power as well as operating experience and public acceptance. (BWI) [de

  5. An Analysis of Wintertime Winds in Washington, D.C.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, Larry K.; Allwine, K Jerry

    2006-06-20

    This report consists of a description of the wintertime climatology of wind speed and wind direction around the National Mall in Washington, D.C. Meteorological data for this study were collected at Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport (Reagan National), Dulles International Airport (Dulles), and a set of surface meteorological stations that are located on a number of building tops around the National Mall. A five-year wintertime climatology of wind speed and wind direction measured at Reagan National and Dulles are presented. A more detailed analysis was completed for the period December 2003 through February 2004 using data gathered from stations located around the National Mall, Reagan National, and Dulles. Key findings of our study include the following: * There are systematic differences between the wind speed and wind direction observed at Reagan National and the wind speed and wind direction measured by building top weather stations located in the National Mall. Although Dulles is located much further from the National Mall than Reagan National, there is better agreement between the wind speed and wind direction measured at Dulles and the weather stations in the National Mall. * When the winds are light (less than 3 ms-1 or 7 mph), there are significant differences in the wind directions reported at the various weather stations within the Mall. * Although the mean characteristics of the wind are similar at the various locations, significant, short-term differences are found when the time series are compared. These differences have important implications for the dispersion of airborne contaminants. In support of wintertime special events in the area of the National Mall, we recommend placing four additional meteorological instruments: three additional surface stations, one on the east bank of the Potomac River, one south of the Reflecting Pool (to better define the flow within the Mall), and a surface station near the Herbert C. Hoover Building; and wind

  6. Database on wind characteristics - Structure and philosophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, G.C.; Hansen, K.S.

    2001-11-01

    The main objective of IEA R and D Wind Annex XVII - Database on Wind Characteristics - is to provide wind energy planners and designers, as well as the international wind engineering community in general, with easy access to quality controlled measured wind field time series observed in a wide range of environments. The project partners are Sweden, Norway, U.S.A., The Netherlands, Japan and Denmark, with Denmark as the Operating Agent. The reporting of IEA R and D Annex XVII falls in three separate parts. Part one deals with the overall structure and philosophy behind the database, part two accounts in details for the available data in the established database bank and part three is the Users Manual describing the various ways to access and analyse the data. The present report constitutes the first part of the Annex XVII reporting, and it contains a detailed description of the database structure, the data quality control procedures, the selected indexing of the data and the hardware system. (au)

  7. Structural Reliability Analysis of Wind Turbines: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyu Jiang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a detailed review of the state-of-the-art research activities on structural reliability analysis of wind turbines between the 1990s and 2017. We describe the reliability methods including the first- and second-order reliability methods and the simulation reliability methods and show the procedure for and application areas of structural reliability analysis of wind turbines. Further, we critically review the various structural reliability studies on rotor blades, bottom-fixed support structures, floating systems and mechanical and electrical components. Finally, future applications of structural reliability methods to wind turbine designs are discussed.

  8. IEA-Task 31 WAKEBENCH: Towards a protocol for wind farm flow model evaluation. Part 2: Wind farm wake models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriarty, Patrick; Sanz Rodrigo, Javier; Gancarski, Pawel; Chuchfield, Matthew; Naughton, Jonathan W.; Hansen, Kurt S.; Machefaux, Ewan; Maguire, Eoghan; Castellani, Francesco; Terzi, Ludovico; Breton, Simon-Philippe; Ueda, Yuko

    2014-06-01

    Researchers within the International Energy Agency (IEA) Task 31: Wakebench have created a framework for the evaluation of wind farm flow models operating at the microscale level. The framework consists of a model evaluation protocol integrated with a web-based portal for model benchmarking (www.windbench.net). This paper provides an overview of the building-block validation approach applied to wind farm wake models, including best practices for the benchmarking and data processing procedures for validation datasets from wind farm SCADA and meteorological databases. A hierarchy of test cases has been proposed for wake model evaluation, from similarity theory of the axisymmetric wake and idealized infinite wind farm, to single-wake wind tunnel (UMN-EPFL) and field experiments (Sexbierum), to wind farm arrays in offshore (Horns Rev, Lillgrund) and complex terrain conditions (San Gregorio). A summary of results from the axisymmetric wake, Sexbierum, Horns Rev and Lillgrund benchmarks are used to discuss the state-of-the-art of wake model validation and highlight the most relevant issues for future development.

  9. IEA-Task 31 WAKEBENCH: Towards a protocol for wind farm flow model evaluation. Part 2: Wind farm wake models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriarty, Patrick; Rodrigo, Javier Sanz; Gancarski, Pawel; Chuchfield, Matthew; Naughton, Jonathan W; Hansen, Kurt S; Machefaux, Ewan; Maguire, Eoghan; Castellani, Francesco; Terzi, Ludovico; Breton, Simon-Philippe; Ueda, Yuko

    2014-01-01

    Researchers within the International Energy Agency (IEA) Task 31: Wakebench have created a framework for the evaluation of wind farm flow models operating at the microscale level. The framework consists of a model evaluation protocol integrated with a web-based portal for model benchmarking (www.windbench.net). This paper provides an overview of the building-block validation approach applied to wind farm wake models, including best practices for the benchmarking and data processing procedures for validation datasets from wind farm SCADA and meteorological databases. A hierarchy of test cases has been proposed for wake model evaluation, from similarity theory of the axisymmetric wake and idealized infinite wind farm, to single-wake wind tunnel (UMN-EPFL) and field experiments (Sexbierum), to wind farm arrays in offshore (Horns Rev, Lillgrund) and complex terrain conditions (San Gregorio). A summary of results from the axisymmetric wake, Sexbierum, Horns Rev and Lillgrund benchmarks are used to discuss the state-of-the-art of wake model validation and highlight the most relevant issues for future development

  10. Discontinuous Galerkin modeling of the Columbia River's coupled estuary-plume dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallaeys, Valentin; Kärnä, Tuomas; Delandmeter, Philippe; Lambrechts, Jonathan; Baptista, António M.; Deleersnijder, Eric; Hanert, Emmanuel

    2018-04-01

    The Columbia River (CR) estuary is characterized by high river discharge and strong tides that generate high velocity flows and sharp density gradients. Its dynamics strongly affects the coastal ocean circulation. Tidal straining in turn modulates the stratification in the estuary. Simulating the hydrodynamics of the CR estuary and plume therefore requires a multi-scale model as both shelf and estuarine circulations are coupled. Such a model has to keep numerical dissipation as low as possible in order to correctly represent the plume propagation and the salinity intrusion in the estuary. Here, we show that the 3D baroclinic discontinuous Galerkin finite element model SLIM 3D is able to reproduce the main features of the CR estuary-to-ocean continuum. We introduce new vertical discretization and mode splitting that allow us to model a region characterized by complex bathymetry and sharp density and velocity gradients. Our model takes into account the major forcings, i.e. tides, surface wind stress and river discharge, on a single multi-scale grid. The simulation period covers the end of spring-early summer of 2006, a period of high river flow and strong changes in the wind regime. SLIM 3D is validated with in-situ data on the shelf and at multiple locations in the estuary and compared with an operational implementation of SELFE. The model skill in the estuary and on the shelf indicate that SLIM 3D is able to reproduce the key processes driving the river plume dynamics, such as the occurrence of bidirectional plumes or reversals of the inner shelf coastal currents.

  11. Wind Tunnel Simulations of the Mock Urban Setting Test - Experimental Procedures and Data Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gailis, Ralph

    2004-01-01

    ... of the data analysis techniques is given. Emphasis is placed on the scaling arguments used to compare data between a wind tunnel and full-scale study, and on methods of uncertainty analysis to provide a rigorous underpinning to the dataset. The report serves as a complete documentation for users of the MUST wind tunnel simulation dataset, which can be obtained by contacting the author.

  12. Possible Power Estimation of Down-Regulated Offshore Wind Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gögmen, Tuhfe

    The penetration of offshore wind power is continuously increasing in the Northern European grids. To assure safety in the operation of the power system, wind power plants are required to provide ancillary services, including reserve power attained through down-regulating the wind farm from its...... power plant. The developed procedure, the PossPOW algorithm, can also be used in the wind farm control as it yields a real-time wind farm power curve. The modern wind turbines have a possible power signal at the turbine level and the current state of the art is to aggregate those signals to achieve...... the wind farm scale production capacity. However the summation of these individual signals is simply an over-estimation for the wind power plant, due to reduced wake losses during curtailment. The determination of the possible power with the PossPOW algorithm works as follows: firstly the second...

  13. Fragmented coastal boundary layer induced by gap winds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldeira, Rui M. A.; Iglesias, Isabel; Sala, Iria; Vieira, Rui R.; Bastos, Luísa

    2015-04-01

    The oceanic impact of offshore-localized winds in the NW Iberian Peninsula was studied. Satellite and in situ observations showed the formation of plumes protruding offshore from the coast. To study the dynamics of such episodes tee Coupled-Ocean-Atmosphere-Wave- Sediment Transport Modeling System (COAWST) was used to reproduce the coastal conditions of the nortwestern Iberian Peninsula, allowing the concurrent representation of local winds, waves, currents, and rivers runoff. The use of coupled models is of outmost importance in order to accurately study the impact of the local winds on the coastal currents. The NW Iberian Peninsula has prominent capes, promontories and submarine canyons, which produce persistent hydrodynamic features. Thus far, the scientific literature shows that the western Iberian rivers produce a recurrent combined plume often denominated as the Western Iberian Buoyant Plume (WIBP) which increases the stratification of the water column and produces a vertical retention mechanism that keeps the biological material inshore. The WIBP extends northward along the coast (over the inner-shelf), and forms a front with the warmer and more saline surface (offshore) waters. However during episodes of strong offshore winds this coastal boundary layer is broken interrupting the WIBP. Coastal orography allows the formation of down-valley winds that produce coastal jets, promoting the offshore transport of pollutants, larvae and sediments. Acknowledgments: Acknowledgments: Numerical model solutions were calculated at CIIMARs HPC unit, acquired and maintained by FCT pluriannual funds (PesTC/Mar/LA0015/2013), and RAIA (0313-RAIA-1-E) and RAIA.co (0520-RAIACO-1-E) projects. The NICC (POCTI/CTA/49563/2002) project provided databases for this work. Rui Caldeira was supported by funds from the ECORISK project (NORTE-07-0124-FEDER-000054), co-financed by the North Portugal Regional Operational Programme (ON.2 - O Novo Norte), under the National Strategic Reference

  14. Conference on wind energy development and biodiversity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gossement, Arnaud; Prevors, Lionel; Nagel, Paul-Bastian; Otto, Iris; Gourat, Fabrice; Sornin-Petit, Nicolas; Kelm, Volker; Beucher, Yannick; Rosenthal, Sonja; Strobl, Reinhard; Kozlowski, Sonia; Herrholz, Thomas; Hannemann, Thomas; Lange, Helmut; Behr, Oliver; Hochradel, Klaus; Mages, Juergen; Nagy, Martina; Korner-Nievergelt, Fraenzi; Niermann, Ivo; Simon, Ralph; Stiller, Florian; Weber, Natalie; Brinkmann, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The French-German office for Renewable energies (OFAEnR) organised a conference on wind energy development and biodiversity. In the framework of this French-German exchange of experience, about 90 participants exchanged views on the existing regulatory systems for nature protection in a wind energy context in both countries. In particular, birds fauna and chiropters protection were in the center of the debates. The question of wind energy development in a forest environment was addressed as well. This document brings together the available presentations (slides) made during this event: 1 - The development of onshore wind farms and the French environmental Code (Arnaud Gossement); 2 - Wind energy development priority - recent advances in environmental regulation (Lionel Prevors); 3 - environmental legislation and wind power deployment in Germany: An overview (Paul-Bastian Nagel); 4 - Avifauna and wind energy plants - To bring the expansion of wind energy in line with environmental issues (Iris Otto) 5 - environmental impact study in France and Germany: what challenges and what bird fauna specificities? (Fabrice Gourat); 6 - How to take into account the chiropters' aspect in authorization procedures? Regional scale experience feedback: the Champagne-Ardenne case (Nicolas Sornin-Petit); 7 - France and Germany - a comparison of bat monitoring experience (Volker Kelm, Yannick Beucher); 8 - Bat-friendly operation algorithms: reducing bat fatalities at wind turbines in central Europe (Oliver Behr); 9 - Wind energy use in forests? specifics from an environmental planning perspective (Sonja Rosenthal); 10 - expansion of wind energy in the Bavarian State Forest (Reinhard Strobl); 11 - Environmental impact assessment and environmental follow-up study for the forest wind farms: experience feedback (Sonia Kozlowski); 12 - German aviation light regulations - German aviation light regulations. Case study: eno 92 at wind farm Schoenerlinde (Thomas Herrholz); 13 - Welcome to

  15. 46 CFR 7.75 - Savannah River/Tybee Roads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Savannah River/Tybee Roads. 7.75 Section 7.75 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.75 Savannah River/Tybee Roads. A line drawn from the southwesternmost extremity of Braddock...

  16. A Wind Farm Controller for Load and Power Optimization in a Farm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soleimanzadeh, Maryam; Brand, Arno; Wisniewski, Rafal

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the design procedure of an optimal wind farm controller. The controller optimizes the structural load and power production simultaneously, on the basis of an analytical wind farm model. The farm model delivers maps of wind, loads and energy in the wind farm. Moreover, the model...... computes the wind speed at the turbines, turbine bending moments and aerodynamic power and torque. The optimal control problem is formulated based on the model for two different wind directions. The controller determines the reference signals for each individual wind turbine controller in two scenarios...... based on low and high wind speed. In low wind speed, the reference signals for rotor speed are adjusted, taking the trade-off between power maximization and load minimization into account. In high wind speed, the power and pitch angle reference signals are determined while structural loads are minimized....

  17. Long Term Resource Monitoring Program procedures: fish monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratcliff, Eric N.; Glittinger, Eric J.; O'Hara, T. Matt; Ickes, Brian S.

    2014-01-01

    This manual constitutes the second revision of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers’ Upper Mississippi River Restoration-Environmental Management Program (UMRR-EMP) Long Term Resource Monitoring Program (LTRMP) element Fish Procedures Manual. The original (1988) manual merged and expanded on ideas and recommendations related to Upper Mississippi River fish sampling presented in several early documents. The first revision to the manual was made in 1995 reflecting important protocol changes, such as the adoption of a stratified random sampling design. The 1995 procedures manual has been an important document through the years and has been cited in many reports and scientific manuscripts. The resulting data collected by the LTRMP fish component represent the largest dataset on fish within the Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS) with more than 44,000 collections of approximately 5.7 million fish. The goal of this revision of the procedures manual is to document changes in LTRMP fish sampling procedures since 1995. Refinements to sampling methods become necessary as monitoring programs mature. Possible refinements are identified through field experiences (e.g., sampling techniques and safety protocols), data analysis (e.g., planned and studied gear efficiencies and reallocations of effort), and technological advances (e.g., electronic data entry). Other changes may be required because of financial necessity (i.e., unplanned effort reductions). This version of the LTRMP fish monitoring manual describes the most current (2014) procedures of the LTRMP fish component.

  18. Atmospheric rivers: a mini-review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis eGimeno

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric rivers (ARs are narrow regions responsible for the majority of the poleward water vapour transport across the midlatitudes. They are characterized by high water vapour content and strong low level winds, and form a part of the broader warm conveyor belt of extratropical cyclones. Although the meridional water vapour transport within ARs is critical for water resources, ARs can also cause disastrous floods especially when encountering mountainous terrain. They were labelled as atmospheric rivers in the 1990s, and have since become a well-studied feature of the midlatitude climate. We briefly review the conceptual model, the methods used to identify them, their main climatological characteristics, their impacts, the predictive ability of numerical weather prediction models, their relationship with large-scale ocean-atmosphere dynamics, possible changes under future climates, and some future challenges.

  19. On Orientation Control of Suspended Blade During Installation in Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Lasse; Roemer, Daniel Beck; Pedersen, Henrik Clemmensen

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses problems involved in the procedure for offshore installation of blades in wind turbines, due to wind loads. In general the high winds at sea provides for nearly optimal conditions for harvesting energy via wind turbines due to the often high wind speeds and low turbulence...... intensity. However, the very same features also call for great difficulties during installation of the wind turbine blades, making this process extremely difficult, expensive and time consuming. Often the blades are hoisted to the wind turbine hub via cranes and sought held in appropriate positions by so......-called taglines/wires, but still significant motion oscillations of blade root ends are experienced, even at rather low wind speeds. The paper considers the possibility to dampen the oscillating motions via control of the tagline lengths. The main control strategy considered, is the possibility to control...

  20. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report : Oleson Tracts of the Tualatin River National Wildlife Refuge, 2001-2002 Technical Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allard, Donna; Smith, maureen; Schmidt, Peter

    2004-09-01

    Located in the northern Willamette River basin, Tualatin River National Wildlife Refuge (Refuge) was established in 1992 with an approved acquisition boundary to accommodate willing sellers with potentially restorable holdings within the Tualatin River floodplain. The Refuge's floodplain of seasonal and emergent wetlands, Oregon ash riparian hardwood, riparian shrub, coniferous forest, and Garry oak communities are representative of remnant plant communities historically common in the Willamette River valley and offer an opportunity to compensate for wildlife habitat losses associated with the Willamette River basin federal hydroelectric projects. The purchase of the Oleson Units as additions to the Refuge using Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) funds will partially mitigate for wildlife habitat and target species losses incurred as a result of construction and inundation activities at Dexter and Detroit Dams. Lands acquired for mitigation of Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) impacts to wildlife are evaluated using the Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) methodology, which quantifies how many Habitat Units (HUs) are to be credited to BPA. HUs or credits gained lessen BPA's debt, which was formally tabulated in the FCRPS Loss Assessments and adopted as part of the Northwest Power and Conservation Council's Fish and Wildlife Program as a BPA obligation (NWPCC, 1994 and 2000). There are two basic management scenarios to consider for this evaluation: (1) Habitats can be managed without restoration activities to benefit wildlife populations, or (2) Habitats can be restored using a number of techniques to improve habitat values more quickly. Without restoration, upland and wetland areas may be periodically mowed and disced to prevent invasion of exotic vegetation, volunteer trees and shrubs may grow to expand forested areas, and cooperative farming may be employed to provide forage for migrating and wintering waterfowl. Abandoned cropland

  1. Wind Generators Test Bench. Optimal Design of PI Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TUDORACHE, T.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel and robust strategy for the optimal design of the drive system integrated in a wind generators test bench. The PI regulator coefficients used in control systems are usually computed based on simplified hypotheses and then tuned manually so as the system response meet certain specifications in terms of stability, accuracy and speed. The proposed methodology permits the automatic identification of PI regulator coefficients using intelligent optimization algorithms, the initial guess for the search procedure being determined based on particular simplified hypotheses. The proposed procedure can help the design engineers to drastically reduce the effort for finding the best PI regulator coefficients offering a range of feasible solutions depending on the imposed optimum criteria. The characteristics and performances of the optimization strategy are highlighted by using it for the design of a DC motor drive system used to simulate the wind prime mover integrated in a wind generators test bench.

  2. Sizing and Simulation of PV-Wind Hybrid Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Engin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A sizing procedure is developed for hybrid system with the aid of mathematical models for photovoltaic cell, wind turbine, and battery that are readily present in the literature. This sizing procedure can simulate the annual performance of different kinds of photovoltaic-wind hybrid power system structures for an identified set of renewable resources, which fulfills technical limitations with the lowest energy cost. The output of the program will display the performance of the system during the year, the total cost of the system, and the best size for the PV-generator, wind generator, and battery capacity. Security lightning application is selected, whereas system performance data and environmental operating conditions are measured and stored. This hybrid system, which includes a PV, wind turbine, inverter, and a battery, was installed to supply energy to 24 W lamps, considering that the renewable energy resources of this site where the system was installed were 1700 Wh/m2/day solar radiation and 3.43 m/s yearly average wind speed. Using the measured variables, the inverter and charge regulator efficiencies were calculated as 90% and 98%, respectively, and the overall system’s electrical efficiency is calculated as 72%. Life cycle costs per kWh are found to be $0.89 and LLP = 0.0428.

  3. Societal acceptance of wind farms: Analysis of four common themes across Australian case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, N.; Ashworth, P.; Devine-Wright, P.

    2013-01-01

    Australia's renewable energy target (RET) seeks to provide 20 per cent of Australia's electricity generation from renewable energy sources by 2020. As wind power is relatively advanced, it was anticipated that wind power will contribute a major component of the early target. However, high levels of societal resistance to wind farms, combined with new regulatory policies, indicate the RET may not be dominated by wind power. This research involved an examination of seven case studies around wind farm deployment. Qualitative interviews were the primary data for the case studies and analysed using methods informed by grounded theory. Despite the diversity of stakeholder views, the qualitative analysis identified strong community support for wind farms but four common themes emerged that influence this societal acceptance of wind farms in Australia: trust, distributional justice, procedural justice and place attachment. Without addressing these factors through integration into policy development and engagement approaches, wind energy is unlikely to provide the early and majority of new renewable energy. Similar international experiences are incorporated in the discussion of the Australian wind industry's societal acceptance. - Highlights: ► Seven case studies of wind farms in Australia are described. ► Acceptance affects whether wind significantly contributes to the Aust. RE target. ► Four themes were identified regarding societal acceptance of Australian wind farms. ► Four themes are trust, distributional and procedural justice, and place attachment. ► International similarities to the Australian experience are provided

  4. Improving acceptance in wind power planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammarlund, K.

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents important factors and planning procedures for public acceptance of wind power. Opinion surveys in Sweden show that acceptance is connected to the concept of utility rather than the aesthetic values. If wind turbines are confined by the authorities to marginal areas they will not earn their rightful place in the landscape by being of use. A positive attitude in general promotes positive experience of the effects of wind turbines. It is therefore essential to establish a sense of cooperation between the project management and the public. An open dialogue and continuous information will increase the possibilities for acceptance of future development. We must establish new codes of practice in permit processing because policies today contains idealogical and practical contradictions between the development and preservation of landscapes. (author)

  5. Improving acceptance in wind power planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammarlund, K. [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Social and Economic Geography

    1996-12-01

    This paper presents important factors and planning procedures for public acceptance of wind power. Opinion surveys in Sweden show that acceptance is connected to the concept of utility rather than the aesthetic values. If wind turbines are confined by the authorities to marginal areas, they will not earn their rightful place in the landscape by being of use. A positive attitude in general promotes a positive experience of the effects of wind turbines. It is therefore essential to establish a sense of cooperation between the project management and the public. An open dialogue and continuous information will increase the possibilities for acceptance of future development. We must establish new codes of practice in permit processing because policies today contains ideological and practical contradictions between development and preservation of landscapes. 16 refs, 2 tabs

  6. The social connectivity of urban rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondolf, G. Mathias; Pinto, Pedro J.

    2017-01-01

    By social connectivity we refer to the communication and movement of people, goods, ideas, and culture along and across rivers, recognizing longitudinal, lateral, and vertical connectivity, much as has been described for other rivers for hydrology and ecology. We focus on rivers as they pass through cities, and the relationships between these rivers and city dwellers. Historically, the most important longitudinal connectivity function of rivers was their role as major transport routes and the simplification of formerly complex, irregular banks and beds, into straight, uniform shipping channels has resulted in a loss of lateral and vertical connectivity, notably the quotidian uses such as fishing, washing clothes, water supply, swimming and other recreation. The scale of the river itself, and its scale in comparison to the scale of the city, largely determine the river's social function and the degree to which it influences city form. River width affects the perception of 'closeness' of the other bank, ease of bridging the river, influence of the river on the city's street pattern, and type of waterfront uses that occur. Up to 15 m wide, people can converse, whereas across rivers 50 to 200 m wide, people are not recognizable but still clearly visible, instilling the banks with a 'lively' atmosphere. At widths over 200 m, people blur, yet moving vehicles and trees branches shaking in wind may still provide some dynamic elements to an otherwise static landscape composed of building facades. In exceptionally wide rivers, the city on the opposite bank is little more than a skyline, which often becomes a signature and symbol of regional identity. In contemplating how people use rivers, we can define a range of human activities in relation to height above the water (i.e., instream to banktop), a vertical dimension of human connectivity with rivers. Many uses occur on the top of the bank, such as quiet contemplation, walking, or cycling along a riverside trail, while

  7. Acoustic noise production of wind turbines in practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Borg, N.J.C.M.; Vink, P.W.

    1994-10-01

    Within the framework of national and European projects ECN has conducted various acoustic noise measurements on wind turbines. The measurements can be divided into the following two categories: (1) measurements of the total noise emitted by the turbine ('standard measurements') and (2) measurement of the noise emitted by different blades on the same rotor ('research measurements'). The applied procedures for the 'standard measurements' are given in IEA and IEC documents on wind turbine noise measurements. The applied procedures for the 'research measurements' are given in this paper. General results obtained with both kind of measurements are presented. The 'research measurements' have been performed on a limited number of turbines: the UNIWEX turbine in Germany and a commercial turbine in The Netherlands. The turbines were equipped with differently shaped blade tips or trailing edges on the same rotor. The experiments showed no large differences in the sound production of the different blades on the same rotor. The detailed information on the commercial wind turbine in The Netherlands is confidential. 9 figs., 2 tabs., 3 refs

  8. 40 CFR 53.63 - Test procedure: Wind tunnel inlet aspiration test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the sampler inlet opening centered in the sampling zone. To meet the maximum blockage limit of § 53.62(c)(1) or for convenience, part of the test sampler may be positioned external to the wind tunnel... = reference method sampler volumetric flow rate; and t = sampling time. (iii) Remove the reference method...

  9. Combined preliminary–detailed design of wind turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Bortolotti

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the holistic optimization of wind turbines. A multi-disciplinary optimization procedure is presented that marries the overall sizing of the machine in terms of rotor diameter and tower height (often termed “preliminary design” with the detailed sizing of its aerodynamic and structural components. The proposed combined preliminary–detailed approach sizes the overall machine while taking into full account the subtle and complicated couplings that arise due to the mutual effects of aerodynamic and structural choices. Since controls play a central role in dictating performance and loads, control laws are also updated accordingly during optimization. As part of the approach, rotor and tower are sized simultaneously, even in this case capturing the mutual effects of one component over the other due to the tip clearance constraint. The procedure, here driven by detailed models of the cost of energy, results in a complete aero-structural design of the machine, including its associated control laws. The proposed methods are tested on the redesign of two wind turbines, a 2.2 MW onshore machine and a large 10 MW offshore one. In both cases, the optimization leads to significant changes with respect to the initial baseline configurations, with noticeable reductions in the cost of energy. The novel procedures are also exercised on the design of low-induction rotors for both considered wind turbines, showing that they are typically not competitive with conventional high-efficiency rotors.

  10. Modeling nearshore dispersal of river-derived multi-class suspended sediments and radionuclides during a flood event around the mouth of Niida River, Fukushima, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchiyama, Y.; Yamanishi, T.; Iwasaki, T.; Shimizu, Y.; Tsumune, D.; Misumi, K.; Onda, Y.

    2016-12-01

    A quadruple nested synoptic oceanic downscale modeling based on ROMS was carried out to investigate hydrodynamics, multi-class non-cohesive sediment transport and associated dispersal of suspended radionuclides (cesium-137; 137Cs) originated from the nuclear accident occurred at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Power Plant in March 2011. The innermost model has horizontal grid resolution of 50 m to marginally resolve the topography around the river mouth including the surf zone. The model is forced by the JCOPE2 oceanic reanalysis as the outermost boundary conditions, the GPV-MSM atmospheric reanalysis, and an in-house SWAN spectral wave hindcast embedded in the operational GPV-CWM wave reanalysis. A particular attention is paid to nearshore behaviors and inventory of the nuclides attached to terrestrial minerals with grain sizes ranging from 5 to 79 micrometers that have been occasionally discharged out to the coastal ocean through hydrological processes within the river basin even after several years since the accident. We examine oceanic dispersal of sediment and suspended 137Cs influxes from Niida River, Fukushima, evaluated with the iRIC-Nays2DH river model. Our focus is on the first flood event in late May of 2011 after the accident. Alongshore asymmetry in transport of suspended sediments and 137Cs is exhibited, comprising storm-driven southward transport confined in the shallow area due to shoreward Ekman transport associated with strong northerly wind, followed by northwestward wide-spread transport under mild southerly wind condition. About 70 % of the Niida River-derived suspended 137Cs remains near the mouth for 20 days after the flood event. Nevertheless, our model results as well as an observation suggest that the area is dominated by erosion as for high bed shear stress all the time, thus suspended radionuclides are redistributed to dissipate away in long term.

  11. Wind energy in Italy: state of the art and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Togni, S.

    2009-01-01

    Among renewable energy sources wind energy has the greatest potential as well as good prospects even in occupational terms. Yet a solution is still to be found to problems related to plant authorization procedures, inadequacy of the national electric grid, regularisation of trading authorisation procedures. [it

  12. Aerodynamic optimization of the blades of diffuser-augmented wind turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaz, Jerson R.P.; Wood, David H.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • An optimization procedure to design shrouded wind turbine blades is proposed. • The procedure relies on the diffuser speed-up ratio. • The diffuser speed-up ratio increases the velocity at the rotor plane. • Chord and twist angle are optimized for typical speed-up ratios. • The procedure is applicable for any tip-speed ratio greater than 1. - Abstract: Adding an exit diffuser is known to allow wind turbines to exceed the classical Betz–Joukowsky limit for a bare turbine. It is not clear, however, if there is a limit for diffuser-augmented turbines or whether the structural and other costs of the diffuser outweigh any gain in power. This work presents a new approach to the aerodynamic optimization of a wind turbine with a diffuser. It is based on an extension of the well-known Blade Element Theory and a simple model for diffuser efficiency. It is assumed that the same conditions for the axial velocity in the wake of an ordinary wind turbine can be applied on the flow far downwind of the diffuser outlet. An algorithm to optimize the blade chord and twist angle distributions in the presence of a diffuser was developed and implemented. As a result, an aerodynamic improvement of the turbine rotor geometry was achieved with the blade shape sensitive to the diffuser speed-up ratio. In order to evaluate the proposed approach, a comparison with the classical Glauert optimization was performed for a flanged diffuser, which increased the efficiency. In addition, a comparative assessment was made with experimental results available in the literature, suggesting better performance for the rotor designed with the proposed optimization procedure.

  13. Technical impacts of high penetration levels of wind power on power system stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flynn, Damian; Rather, Z.; Ardal, Atle

    2017-01-01

    With increasing penetrations of wind generation, based on power-electronic converters, power systems are transitioning away from well-understood synchronous generator-based systems, with growing implications for their stability. Issues of concern will vary with system size, wind penetration level......, geographical distribution and turbine type, network topology, electricity market structure, unit commitment procedures, and other factors. However, variable-speed wind turbines, both onshore and connected offshore through DC grids, offer many control opportunities to either replace or enhance existing...... capabilities. Achieving a complete understanding of future stability issues, and ensuring the effectiveness of new measures and policies, is an iterative procedure involving portfolio development and flexibility assessment, generation cost simulations, load flow, and security analysis, in addition...

  14. Large wood in the Snowy River estuary, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinwood, Jon B.; McLean, Errol J.

    2017-02-01

    In this paper we report on 8 years of data collection and interpretation of large wood in the Snowy River estuary in southeastern Australia, providing quantitative data on the amount, sources, transport, decay, and geomorphic actions. No prior census data for an estuary is known to the authors despite their environmental and economic importance and the significant differences between a fluvial channel and an estuarine channel. Southeastern Australian estuaries contain a significant quantity of large wood that is derived from many sources, including river flood flows, local bank erosion, and anthropogenic sources. Wind and tide are shown to be as important as river flow in transporting and stranding large wood. Tidal action facilitates trapping of large wood on intertidal bars and shoals; but channels are wider and generally deeper, so log jams are less likely than in rivers. Estuarine large wood contributes to localised scour and accretion and hence to the modification of estuarine habitat, but in the study area it did not have large-scale impacts on the hydraulic gradients nor the geomorphology.

  15. Statistical Characterization of River and Channel Network Formation in Intermittently Flowing Vortex Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, C. J.; Reichhardt, C.; Nori, F.

    1997-03-01

    Vortices moving in dirty superconductors can form intricate flow patterns, resembling fluid rivers, as they interact with the pinning landscape (F. Nori, Science 271), 1373 (1996).. Weaker pinning produces relatively straight nori>vortex channels, while stronger pinning results in the formation of one or more winding channels that carry all flow. This corresponds to a crossover from elastic flow to plastic flow as the pinning strength is increased. For several pinning parameters, we find the fractal dimension of the channels that form, the vortex trail density, the distance travelled by vortices as they pass through the sample, the branching ratio, the sinuosity, and the size distribution of the rivers, and we compare our rivers with physical rivers that follow Horton's laws.

  16. Ice accretion modeling for wind turbine rotor blades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chocron, D.; Brahimi, T.; Paraschivoiu, I.; Bombardier, J.A. [Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal (Canada)

    1997-12-31

    The increasing application of wind energy in northern climates implies operation of wind turbines under severe atmospheric icing conditions. Such conditions are well known in the Scandinavian countries, Canada and most of Eastern European countries. An extensive study to develop a procedure for the prediction of ice accretion on wind turbines rotor blades appears to be essential for the safe and economic operation of wind turbines in these cold regions. The objective of the present paper is to develop a computer code capable of simulating the shape and amount of ice which may accumulate on horizontal axis wind turbine blades when operating in icing conditions. The resulting code is capable to predict and simulate the formation of ice in rime and glaze conditions, calculate the flow field and particle trajectories and to perform thermodynamic analysis. It also gives the possibility of studying the effect of different parameters that influence ice formation such as temperature, liquid water content, droplet diameter and accretion time. The analysis has been conducted on different typical airfoils as well as on NASA/DOE Mod-0 wind turbine. Results showed that ice accretion on wind turbines may reduce the power output by more than 20%.

  17. Fundão Dam collapse: Oceanic dispersion of River Doce after the greatest Brazilian environmental accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marta-Almeida, Martinho; Mendes, Renato; Amorim, Fabiola N; Cirano, Mauro; Dias, João M

    2016-11-15

    On 5 November 2015, the Fundão tailings dam collapsed and its content first reached River Doce and then the Atlantic Ocean by 22 November. This study focuses on the oceanic time and space patterns of river discharge dispersion. By using an ocean model together with nLw(555) and RGB images from MODIS sensors, the river plume was followed for 2months after the arrival of the tailings at the ocean. The results show the huge effect of this accident and reveal that riverine waters may have dispersed hundreds of kilometres, reaching regions as far as the shelf in front of the city of Rio de Janeiro. The movement of the freshwater was essentially to the south in accordance with the seasonal wind regime. Episodic frontal systems, leading to wind reversion, and oceanic mesoscale features contribute to the offshore dispersion of the plume. The region more often in contact with the riverine waters was located at the inner shelf between the river mouth and the city of Vitória, turning to the outer shelf and shelf break at lower latitudes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Predicting wind-induced vibrations of high-rise buildings using unsteady CFD and modal analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Yue; Habashi, Wagdi G (Ed); Khurram, Rooh Ul Amin

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the wind-induced vibration of the CAARC standard tall building model, via unsteady Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and a structural modal analysis. In this numerical procedure, the natural unsteady wind in the atmospheric

  19. WWF position on wind energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Variale, M.

    2009-01-01

    WWF believes that wind power plants are an inalienable opportunity to cope with climate change, nonetheless they often have a significant impact on landscape and the environment. It is therefore necessary that site selection and plant solutions be based on EIA and SEA and transparent procedures be adopted by way of consultations with all the stake holders. [it

  20. Nitrogen and phosphorus transport between Fourleague Bay, LA, and the Gulf of Mexico: The role of winter cold fronts and Atchafalaya River discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, B.C.; Day, J.W.; Justic, D.; Twilley, R.R.

    2003-01-01

    Nutrient fluxes were measured between Fourleague Bay, a shallow Louisiana estuary, and the Gulf of Mexico every 3 h between February 1 and April 30, 1994 to determine how high velocity winds associated with cold fronts and peak Atchafalaya River discharge influenced transport. Net water fluxes were ebb-dominated throughout the study because of wind forcing and high volumes of water entering the northern Bay from the Atchafalaya River. Flushing time of the Bay averaged winds with approximately 56% of the volume of the Bay exported to the Gulf in 1 day during the strongest flushing event. Higher nitrate + nitrite (NO2+ NO3), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) concentrations were indicative of Atchafalaya River input and fluxes were greater when influenced by high velocity northerly winds associated with frontal passage. Net exports of NO2 + NO3, TN, and TP were 43.5, 98.5, and 13.6 g s-1, respectively, for the 89-day study. An average of 10.6 g s-1 of ammonium (NH4) was exported to the Gulf over the study; however, concentrations were lower when associated with riverine influence and wind-driven exports suggesting the importance of biological processes. Phosphate (PO4) fluxes were nearly balanced over the study with fairly stable concentrations indicating a well-buffered system. The results indicate that the high energy subsidy provided by natural pulsing events such as atmospheric cold fronts and seasonal river discharge are efficient mechanisms of nutrient delivery to adjacent wetlands and nearshore coastal ecosystems and are important in maintaining coastal sustainability. ?? 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. PROBABILISTIC HAZARD ASSESSMENT FOR TORNADOES, STRAIGHT-LINE WIND, AND EXTREME PRECIPITATION AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werth, D.; (NOEMAIL), A.; Shine, G.

    2013-12-04

    Recent data sets for three meteorological phenomena with the potential to inflict damage on SRS facilities - tornadoes, straight winds, and heavy precipitation - are analyzed using appropriate statistical techniques to estimate occurrence probabilities for these events in the future. Summaries of the results for DOE-mandated return periods and comparisons to similar calculations performed in 1998 by Weber, et al., are given. Using tornado statistics for the states of Georgia and South Carolina, we calculated the probability per year of any location within a 2⁰ square area surrounding SRS being struck by a tornado (the ‘strike’ probability) and the probability that any point will experience winds above set thresholds. The strike probability was calculated to be 1.15E-3 (1 chance in 870) per year and wind speeds for DOE mandated return periods of 50,000 years, 125,000 years, and 1E+7 years (USDOE, 2012) were estimated to be 136 mph, 151 mph and 221 mph, respectively. In 1998 the strike probability for SRS was estimated to be 3.53 E-4 and the return period wind speeds were 148 mph every 50,000 years and 180 mph every 125,000 years. A 1E+7 year tornado wind speed was not calculated in 1998; however a 3E+6 year wind speed was 260 mph. The lower wind speeds resulting from this most recent analysis are largely due to new data since 1998, and to a lesser degree differences in the models used. By contrast, default tornado wind speeds taken from ANSI/ANS-2.3-2011 are somewhat higher: 161 mph for return periods of 50,000 years, 173 mph every 125,000 years, and 230 mph every 1E+7 years (ANS, 2011). Although the ANS model and the SRS models are very similar, the region defined in ANS 2.3 that encompasses the SRS also includes areas of the Great Plains and lower Midwest, regions with much higher occurrence frequencies of strong tornadoes. The SRS straight wind values associated with various return periods were calculated by fitting existing wind data to a Gumbel

  2. Empirical wind retrieval model based on SAR spectrum measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panfilova, Maria; Karaev, Vladimir; Balandina, Galina; Kanevsky, Mikhail; Portabella, Marcos; Stoffelen, Ad

    The present paper considers polarimetric SAR wind vector applications. Remote-sensing measurements of the near-surface wind over the ocean are of great importance for the understanding of atmosphere-ocean interaction. In recent years investigations for wind vector retrieval using Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data have been performed. In contrast with scatterometers, a SAR has a finer spatial resolution that makes it a more suitable microwave instrument to explore wind conditions in the marginal ice zones, coastal regions and lakes. The wind speed retrieval procedure from scatterometer data matches the measured radar backscattering signal with the geophysical model function (GMF). The GMF determines the radar cross section dependence on the wind speed and direction with respect to the azimuthal angle of the radar beam. Scatterometers provide information on wind speed and direction simultaneously due to the fact that each wind vector cell (WVC) is observed at several azimuth angles. However, SAR is not designed to be used as a high resolution scatterometer. In this case, each WVC is observed at only one single azimuth angle. That is why for wind vector determination additional information such as wind streak orientation over the sea surface is required. It is shown that the wind vector can be obtained using polarimetric SAR without additional information. The main idea is to analyze the spectrum of a homogeneous SAR image area instead of the backscattering normalized radar cross section. Preliminary numerical simulations revealed that SAR image spectral maxima positions depend on the wind vector. Thus the following method for wind speed retrieval is proposed. In the first stage of the algorithm, the SAR spectrum maxima are determined. This procedure is carried out to estimate the wind speed and direction with ambiguities separated by 180 degrees due to the SAR spectrum symmetry. The second stage of the algorithm allows us to select the correct wind direction

  3. Observation of bird interaction with wind turbines : Canadian applications and challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, J.; Brown, K.; Hamilton, B. [Vision Quest Windelectric Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    An environmental study has been conducted on a wind farm adjacent to Castle River, in the foothills of the Rocky Mountains in Alberta, to determine the impact of wind turbines on birds. The wind farm includes a total of 60 turbines. The study consisted of 30 observation days between March and December 2001 during which time nearly 2000 birds were monitored. These included 27 different species, including 181 raptors, 1021 waterfowl, and 821 passerines. The observations focused on spring and fall migration of birds. The observations looked at bird numbers, location relative to turbines, and changes in flight pattern. The study found that raptors flew around or over the turbine blades, while passerines remained below, and waterfowl flew up and over the blades. In total, 4 dead birds were found over the 9 month period, which translates to 0.15 birds per turbine per year. This study demonstrates that there are few bird fatalities associated with wind turbines, therefore it was concluded that wind turbines do not have a major impact on birds. The results of this study are consistent with international studies. 2 figs.

  4. Multielement analysis of water in Yodo River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamuro, Tetsuo; Mizohata, Akira; Matsunami, Tadao; Matsuda, Yatsuka

    1980-01-01

    Yodo River is a major source of water supplies in the Osaka district. Three tributaries including Katsura River flow into this river at close positions. It is known that the Katsura River is considerably polluted due to the sewage treatment in Kyoto City. Following the previous survey in September, 1970, a similar survey by neutron activation has been carried out on the pollution of the Yodo River in October, 1977, by increasing the number of sampling points. Because it is reported that the pollution of the Katsura River has been largely lowered from that in the previous survey, the purpose was to grasp the present situation of the water pollution of the Yodo River due to metal elemens and others, and further to examine in relation of material balance. The procedures used were, first, the evaporation and solidification of sample water, and then neutron activation analysis. The correlation among the concentrations of elements, the pattern of the concentrations of elements, the material balance along the Yodo River, etc. are described in this paper. (J.P.N.)

  5. 75 FR 23263 - Alta Wind I, LLC; Alta Wind II, LLC; Alta Wind III, LLC; Alta Wind IV, LLC; Alta Wind V, LLC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. EL10-62-000] Alta Wind I, LLC; Alta Wind II, LLC; Alta Wind III, LLC; Alta Wind IV, LLC; Alta Wind V, LLC; Alta Wind VI, LLC; Alta Wind VII, LLC; Alta Wind VIII, LLC; Alta Windpower Development, LLC; TGP Development Company, LLC...

  6. 77 FR 29633 - Alta Wind VII, LLC, Alta Wind IX, LLC, Alta Wind X, LLC, Alta Wind XI, LLC, Alta Wind XII, LLC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. EL12-68-000] Alta Wind VII, LLC, Alta Wind IX, LLC, Alta Wind X, LLC, Alta Wind XI, LLC, Alta Wind XII, LLC, Alta Wind XIII, LLC, Alta Wind XIV, LLC, Alta Wind XV, LLC, Alta Windpower Development, LLC, TGP Development Company, LLC...

  7. Technical impacts of high penetration levels of wind power on power system stability

    OpenAIRE

    Flynn, Damian; Rather, Z.; Ardal, Atle; Darco, Salvatore; Hansen, Anca Daniela; Cutululis, Nicolaos Antonio; Sørensen, Poul Ejnar; Estanqueiro, Ana; Gomez, Emilio; Menemenlis, Nickie; Smith, Charlie; Wang, Ye

    2017-01-01

    With increasing penetrations of wind generation, based on power-electronic converters, power systems are transitioning away from well-understood synchronous generator-based systems, with growing implications for their stability. Issues of concern will vary with system size, wind penetration level, geographical distribution and turbine type, network topology, electricity market structure, unit commitment procedures, and other factors. However, variable-speed wind turbines, both onshore and con...

  8. A study on the survey of wind energy resources for potential areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Kyung Ho; Kim, Keon Hoon; Yoo, Seung Won; Choi, Chang Joon; Ahn, Jung Jong [Korea Inst. of Energy Research, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-01

    Among the wind energy utilization projects, the siting work for wind turbine installation is one of the most important procedure because the wind energy distribution is very different regionally and wind energy density influences greatly to the feasibility of wind energy utilization. So, the potential sites of wind generating in our country must be surveyed and analyzed the feasibility of wind energy utilization. In addition to this, the technique of wind energy prediction considered of the topography, surface roughness and obstacle condition must be established for the reliable analysis of wind energy utilization. The contents carried out in this project are shown below, 1. Determining of the measuring sites of wind data - Wyoulryung-ri, Youngrag-ri, Gapa-ri in Cheju Province - Heul-ri, Gangwon Province. 2. Analysis of wind energy at measuring sites The characteristics of wind energy at the measured sites were analysed. It will be continued to measure the wind data by wind data logger. 3. A study on wind energy prediction technique It was studied how to obtain the topographic map data for using WAsP(WIndAtlas Analysis and Application Program). (author). 21 refs., 59 figs., 19 tabs.

  9. Multi-objective genetic algorithm based innovative wind farm layout optimization method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Ying; Li, Hua; He, Bang; Wang, Pengcheng; Jin, Kai

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Innovative optimization procedures for both regular and irregular shape wind farm. • Using real wind condition and commercial wind turbine parameters. • Using multiple-objective genetic algorithm optimization method. • Optimize the selection of different wind turbine types and their hub heights. - Abstract: Layout optimization has become one of the critical approaches to increase power output and decrease total cost of a wind farm. Previous researches have applied intelligent algorithms to optimizing the wind farm layout. However, those wind conditions used in most of previous research are simplified and not accurate enough to match the real world wind conditions. In this paper, the authors propose an innovative optimization method based on multi-objective genetic algorithm, and test it with real wind condition and commercial wind turbine parameters. Four case studies are conducted to investigate the number of wind turbines needed in the given wind farm. Different cost models are also considered in the case studies. The results clearly demonstrate that the new method is able to optimize the layout of a given wind farm with real commercial data and wind conditions in both regular and irregular shapes, and achieve a better result by selecting different type and hub height wind turbines.

  10. Investigating Rhône River plume (Gulf of Lions, France) dynamics using metrics analysis from the MERIS 300m Ocean Color archive (2002-2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangloff, Aurélien; Verney, Romaric; Doxaran, David; Ody, Anouck; Estournel, Claude

    2017-07-01

    In coastal environments, river plumes are major transport mechanisms for particulate matter, nutriments and pollutants. Ocean color satellite imagery is a valuable tool to explore river turbid plume characteristics, providing observations at high temporal and spatial resolutions of suspended particulate matter (SPM) concentration over a long time period, covering a wide range of hydro-meteorological conditions. We propose here to use the MERIS-FR (300m) Ocean Color archive (2002-2012) in order to investigate Rhône River turbid plume patterns generated by the two main forcings acting on the north-eastern part of the Gulf of Lions (France): wind and river freshwater discharge. Results are exposed considering plume metrics (area of extension, south-east-westernmost points, shape, centroid, SPM concentrations) extracted from satellite data using an automated image-processing tool. Rhône River turbid plume SPM concentrations and area of extension are shown to be mainly driven by the river outflow while wind direction acts on its shape and orientation. This paper also presents the region of influence of the Rhône River turbid plume over monthly and annual periods, and highlights its interannual variability.

  11. Standardization of natural phenomena risk assessment methodology at the Savannah River Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, J.C.; Hsu, Y.S.

    1985-01-01

    Safety analyses at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) normally require consideration of the risks of incidents caused by natural events such as high-velocity straight winds, tornadic winds, and earthquakes. The probabilities for these events to occur at SRP had been studied independently by several investigators, but the results of their studies were never systematically evaluated. As part of the endeavor to standardize our environmental risk assessment methodology, these independent studies have been thoroughly reviewed and critiqued, and appropriate probability models for these natural events have been selected. The selected probability models for natural phenomena, high-velocity straight winds and tornadic winds in particular, are in agreement with those being used at other DOE sites, and have been adopted as a guide for all safety studies conducted for SRP operations and facilities. 7 references, 3 figures

  12. The environmental and community impacts of wind energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rand, M.; Clarke, A.

    1991-01-01

    Wind energy has now reached the stage where it is being included in the long-term energy policies of many countries. Both the degree of environmental impact and public acceptability will be limiting factors to its development. This paper reviews, in detail, the physical and community impacts of the technology. It proposes certain guidelines and procedures to minimize the physical impacts, such as noise and visual impact, as well as illustrating mechanisms to reduce the level of opposition to future wind energy developments

  13. Upriver transport of dissolved substances in an estuary and sub-estuary system of the lower James River, Chesapeake Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Bo; Shen, Jian; Xu, Hongzhou

    2018-01-01

    The water exchange between the James River and the Elizabeth River, an estuary and sub-estuary system in the lower Chesapeake Bay, was investigated using a 3D numerical model. The conservative passive tracers were used to represent the dissolved substances (DS) discharged from the Elizabeth River. The approach enabled us to diagnose the underlying physical processes that control the expansion of the DS, which is representative of potential transport of harmful algae blooms, pollutants from the Elizabeth River to the James River without explicitly simulating biological processes. Model simulations with realistic forcings in 2005, together with a series of processoriented numerical experiments, were conducted to explore the correlations of the transport process and external forcing. Model results show that the upriver transport depends highly on the freshwater discharge on a seasonal scale and maximum upriver transport occurs in summer with a mean transport time ranging from 15-30 days. The southerly/easterly wind, low river discharge, and neap tidal condition all act to strengthen the upriver transport. On the other hand, the northerly/westerly wind, river pulse, water level pulse, and spring tidal condition act to inhibit the upriver transport. Tidal flushing plays an important role in transporting the DS during spring tide, which shortens the travel time in the lower James River. The multivariable regression analysis of volume mean subtidal DS concentration in the mesohaline portion of the James River indicates that DS concentration in the upriver area can be explained and well predicted by the physical forcings (r = 0.858, p = 0.00001).

  14. Western Wind and Solar Integration Study: Hydropower Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acker, T.; Pete, C.

    2012-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) study of 20% Wind Energy by 2030 was conducted to consider the benefits, challenges, and costs associated with sourcing 20% of U.S. energy consumption from wind power by 2030. This study found that with proactive measures, no insurmountable barriers were identified to meet the 20% goal. Following this study, DOE and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) conducted two more studies: the Eastern Wind Integration and Transmission Study (EWITS) covering the eastern portion of the U.S., and the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS) covering the western portion of the United States. The WWSIS was conducted by NREL and research partner General Electric (GE) in order to provide insight into the costs, technical or physical barriers, and operational impacts caused by the variability and uncertainty of wind, photovoltaic, and concentrated solar power when employed to serve up to 35% of the load energy in the WestConnect region (Arizona, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, and Wyoming). WestConnect is composed of several utility companies working collaboratively to assess stakeholder and market needs to and develop cost-effective improvements to the western wholesale electricity market. Participants include the Arizona Public Service, El Paso Electric Company, NV Energy, Public Service of New Mexico, Salt River Project, Tri-State Generation and Transmission Cooperative, Tucson Electric Power, Xcel Energy and the Western Area Power Administration.

  15. Effects of Icing on Wind Turbine Fatigue Loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frohboese, Peter; Anders, Andreas

    2007-01-01

    The external conditions occurring at cold climate sites will affect wind turbines in different ways. The effects of ice accretion on wind turbines and the influence on the turbine fatigue loads are examined. The amount of icing prior to turbine installation needs to be estimated by using standard measurement data and considering the geometry of the proposed turbine. A procedure to calculate the expected ice accretion on wind turbines out of standard measurement data is explained and the results are discussed. Different parameters to describe the accreted ice on the turbine are examined separately in a fatigue load calculation. The results of the fatigue load calculation are discussed and selected cases are presented

  16. Turbine Control of a Tidal and River Power Generator: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muljadi, Eduard; Gevorgian, Vahan; Wright, Alan; Donegan, James; Marnagh, Cian; McEntee, Jarlath

    2016-08-01

    As renewable generation has become less expensive during recent decades, and it becomes more accepted by the global population, the focus on renewable generation has expanded to include new types with promising future applications, such as river and tidal generation. The input variations to these types of resources are slower but also steadier than wind or solar generation. The level of water turbulent flow may vary from one place to another, however, the control algorithm can be adjusted to local environment. This paper describes the hydrokinetic aspects of river and tidal generation based on a river and tidal generator. Although the information given in this paper is not that of an exact generator deployed on site, the data used is representative of a typical river or tidal generator. In this paper, the hydrokinetic and associated electrical controller of the system were not included; however, the focus of this paper is on the hydrodynamic control.

  17. Power generation using kinetics energy of rivers; Prototipo de um cata-agua como gerador de eletricidade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harwood, John Harry [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia (INPA), Manaus, AM (Brazil)

    1997-12-31

    The work talks about the possibility of make use of kinetic energy of Amazonian rivers for power generation using an equipment similar to wind conversion systems. One of this equipment was constructed and tested in Solimoes river (Amazonas State, Brazil) and utilized for supply an isolated property. Besides the problems with waste in the river and problems to fix the equipment, the result was very interesting and the cost was competitive with others options. The work presents also a scheme of equipment 3 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Interaction of the sea breeze with a river breeze in an area of complex coastal heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Shiyuan; Takle, Eugene S.; Leone, John M., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    The interaction of the sea-breeze circulation with a river-breeze circulation in an area of complex coastal heating (east coast of Florida) was studied using a 3D finite-element mesoscale model. The model simulations are compared with temperature and wind fields observed on a typical fall day during the Kennedy Space Center Atmospheric Boundary Layer Experiment. The results from numerical experiments designed to isolate the effect of the river breeze indicate that the convergence in the sea-breeze front is suppressed when it passes over the cooler surface of the rivers.

  19. Changing Snow Cover and Stream Discharge in the Western United States - Wind River Range, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Dorothy K.; Foster, James L.; DiGirolamo, Nicolo E.; Barton, Jonathan S.; Riggs, George A.

    2011-01-01

    Earlier onset of springtime weather has been documented in the western United States over at least the last 50 years. Because the majority (>70%) of the water supply in the western U.S. comes from snowmelt, analysis of the declining spring snowpack has important implications for the management of water resources. We studied ten years of Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) snow-cover products, 40 years of stream discharge and meteorological station data and 30 years of snow-water equivalent (SWE) SNOw Telemetry (SNOTEL) data in the Wind River Range (WRR), Wyoming. Results show increasing air temperatures for.the 40-year study period. Discharge from streams in WRR drainage basins show lower annual discharge and earlier snowmelt in the decade of the 2000s than in the previous three decades. Changes in streamflow may be related to increasing air temperatures which are probably contributing to a reduction in snow cover, although no trend of either increasingly lower streamflow or earlier snowmelt was observed within the decade of the 2000s. And SWE on 1 April does not show an expected downward trend from 1980 to 2009. The extent of snow cover derived from the lowest-elevation zone of the WRR study area is strongly correlated (r=0.91) with stream discharge on 1 May during the decade of the 2000s. The strong relationship between snow cover and streamflow indicates that MODIS snow-cover maps can be used to improve management of water resources in the drought-prone western U.S.

  20. Bull Trout Population Assessment in the Columbia River Gorge : Annual Report 2000.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byrne, Jim; McPeak, Ron

    2001-02-01

    We summarized existing knowledge regarding the known distribution of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) across four sub-basins in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington. The Wind River, Little White Salmon River, White Salmon River, and the Klickitat River sub-basins were analyzed. Cold water is essential to the survival, spawning, and rearing of bull trout. We analyzed existing temperature data, installed Onset temperature loggers in the areas of the four sub-basins where data was not available, and determined that mean daily water temperatures were <15 C and appropriate for spawning and rearing of bull trout. We snorkel surveyed more than 74 km (46.25 mi.) of rivers and streams in the four sub-basins (13.8 km at night and 60.2 km during the day) and found that night snorkeling was superior to day snorkeling for locating bull trout. Surveys incorporated the Draft Interim Protocol for Determining Bull Trout Presence (Peterson et al. In Press). However, due to access and safety issues, we were unable to randomly select sample sites nor use block nets as recommended. Additionally, we also implemented the Bull Trout/Dolly Varden sampling methodology described in Bonar et al. (1997). No bull trout were found in the Wind River, Little White Salmon, or White Salmon River sub-basins. We found bull trout in the West Fork Klickitat drainage of the Klickitat River Sub-basin. Bull trout averaged 6.7 fish/100m{sup 2} in Trappers Creek, 2.6 fish/100m{sup 2} on Clearwater Creek, and 0.4 fish/100m{sup 2} in Little Muddy Creek. Bull trout was the only species of salmonid encountered in Trappers Creek and dominated in Clearwater Creek. Little Muddy Creek was the only creek where bull trout and introduced brook trout occurred together. We found bull trout only at night and typically in low flow regimes. A single fish, believed to be a bull trout x brook trout hybrid, was observed in the Little Muddy Creek. Additional surveys are needed in the West Fork Klickitat and mainstem

  1. The Columbia River plume as cross-shelf exporter and along-coast barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banas, N. S.; MacCready, P.; Hickey, B. M.

    2009-01-01

    An intensive Lagrangian particle-tracking analysis of the July 2004 upwelling period was conducted in a hindcast model of the US Pacific Northwest coast, in order to determine the effect of the Columbia River plume on the fate of upwelled water. The model, implemented using Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS), includes variable wind and atmospheric forcing, variable Columbia river flow, realistic boundary conditions from Navy Coastal Ocean Model (NCOM), and 10 tidal constituents. Model skill has been demonstrated in detail elsewhere [MacCready, P., Banas, N.S., Hickey, B.M., Dever, E.P., Liu, Y., 2008. A model study of tide- and wind-induced mixing in the Columbia River estuary and plume. Continental Shelf Research, this issue, doi:10.1016/j.csr.2008.03.015]. Particles were released in the Columbia estuary, along the Washington coastal wall, and along the model's northern boundary at 48°N. Particles were tracked in three dimensions, using both velocities from ROMS and a vertical random displacement representing turbulent mixing. When 25 h of upwelling flow is looped and particles tracked for 12 d, their trajectories highlight a field of transient eddies and recirculations on scales from 5 to 50 km both north and south of the Columbia. Not all of these features are caused by plume dynamics, but the presence of the plume increases the entrainment of inner-shelf water into them. The cumulative effect of the plume's interaction with these transient features is to increase cross-shelf dispersion: 25% more water is transported laterally past the 100 m isobath when river and estuarine effects are included than when they are omitted. This cross-shelf dispersion also disrupts the southward transport of water along the inner shelf that occurs in the model when the Columbia River is omitted. This second effect—increased retention of upwelled water on the Washington shelf—may be partly responsible for the regional-scale alongcoast gradient in chlorophyll biomass

  2. Final Report - Conservation & Renewable Energy Potential Study For Smith River Rancheria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greg Retzlaff

    2007-07-01

    In January 2006 the Smith River Rancheria (SRR), located in Smith River, California, contracted with the team of Strategic Energy Solutions (SES) and Evergreen NRG to conduct a study for the community. The objective of the study was to identify renewable generation opportunities that would facilitate Rancheria energy independence through SRR owned and operated power projects. These generation facilities were to be located either on or near the reservation. Specifically, the Rancheria was interested in the viability of generating electric power using biomass and wind fuel resources. Initial research identified that a very small portion of the community's energy could be offset by renewable energy generation due to the low solar resource in this area, and the lack of significant wind or biomass resources on or near reservation land. Some larger projects were identified which offered little or no benefit to the Rancheria. As a result, the scope of this study was changed in October 2006 to focus on energy efficiency opportunities for key reservation facilities, with a continued analysis of smaller renewable energy opportunities within reservation boundaries. The consulting team initially performed a resource analysis for biomass and solar generation opportunities in the region of the Rancheria. It was quickly concluded that none of these options would yield renewable power for the Rancheria at costs competitive with current utility sources, and that any larger installations would require substantial funding that may not be available. Having made these conclusions early on, the study effort was redirected and the team investigated each of the major Rancheria buildings to look for solar, wind and conservation opportunities. The buildings were audited for energy use and the roof areas were examined for exposure of solar radiation. Wind resources were also investigated to determine if smaller wind turbines would offer power generation at a reasonable cost.

  3. Resonant vibration control of wind turbine blades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Martin Nymann; Krenk, Steen; Høgsberg, Jan Becker

    2010-01-01

    . The efficiency of the resonant controller is demonstrated for a representative turbine blade exposed to turbulent wind loading. It is found that the present explicit tuning procedure yields close to optimal tuning, with very limited modal spill-over and effective reduction of the vibration amplitudes.......The paper deals with introduction of damping to specific vibration modes of wind turbine blades, using a resonant controller with acceleration feedback. The wind turbine blade is represented by three-dimensional, two-node finite elements in a local, rotating frame of reference. The element...... formulation accounts for arbitrary mass density distributions, general elastic crosssection properties and geometric stiffness effects due to internal stresses. A compact, linear formulation for aerodynamic forces with associated stiffness and damping terms is established and added to the structural model...

  4. Optimization of wind farm micro-siting for complex terrain using greedy algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, M.X.; Chen, K.; He, Z.Y.; Zhang, X.

    2014-01-01

    An optimization approach based on greedy algorithm for optimization of wind farm micro-siting is presented. The key of optimizing wind farm micro-siting is the fast and accurate evaluation of the wake flow interactions of wind turbines. The virtual particle model is employed for wake flow simulation of wind turbines, which makes the present method applicable for non-uniform flow fields on complex terrains. In previous bionic optimization method, within each step of the optimization process, only the power output of the turbine that is being located or relocated is considered. To aim at the overall power output of the wind farm comprehensively, a dependent region technique is introduced to improve the estimation of power output during the optimization procedure. With the technique, the wake flow influences can be reduced more efficiently during the optimization procedure. During the optimization process, the turbine that is being added will avoid being affected other turbines, and avoid affecting other turbine in the meantime. The results from the numerical calculations demonstrate that the present method is effective for wind farm micro-siting on complex terrain, and it produces better solutions in less time than the previous bionic method. - Highlights: • Greedy algorithm is applied to wind farm micro-siting problem. • The present method is effective for optimization on complex terrains. • Dependent region is suggested to improve the evaluation of wake influences. • The present method has better performance than the bionic method

  5. Equivalent models of wind farms by using aggregated wind turbines and equivalent winds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, L.M.; Garcia, C.A.; Saenz, J.R.; Jurado, F.

    2009-01-01

    As a result of the increasing wind farms penetration on power systems, the wind farms begin to influence power system, and therefore the modeling of wind farms has become an interesting research topic. In this paper, new equivalent models of wind farms equipped with wind turbines based on squirrel-cage induction generators and doubly-fed induction generators are proposed to represent the collective behavior on large power systems simulations, instead of using a complete model of wind farms where all the wind turbines are modeled. The models proposed here are based on aggregating wind turbines into an equivalent wind turbine which receives an equivalent wind of the ones incident on the aggregated wind turbines. The equivalent wind turbine presents re-scaled power capacity and the same complete model as the individual wind turbines, which supposes the main feature of the present equivalent models. Two equivalent winds are evaluated in this work: (1) the average wind from the ones incident on the aggregated wind turbines with similar winds, and (2) an equivalent incoming wind derived from the power curve and the wind incident on each wind turbine. The effectiveness of the equivalent models to represent the collective response of the wind farm at the point of common coupling to grid is demonstrated by comparison with the wind farm response obtained from the detailed model during power system dynamic simulations, such as wind fluctuations and a grid disturbance. The present models can be used for grid integration studies of large power system with an important reduction of the model order and the computation time

  6. 78 FR 29364 - Exelon Corporation, Exelon Wind 1, LLC, Exelon Wind 2, LLC, Exelon Wind 3, LLC, Exelon Wind 4...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-20

    ...-005, QF07-55-005, QF07-56-005, QF07-257-004] Exelon Corporation, Exelon Wind 1, LLC, Exelon Wind 2, LLC, Exelon Wind 3, LLC, Exelon Wind 4, LLC, Exelon Wind 5, LLC, Exelon Wind 6, LLC, Exelon Wind 7, LLC, Exelon Wind 8, LLC, Exelon Wind 9, LLC, Exelon Wind 10, LLC, Exelon Wind 11, LLC, High Plains...

  7. Aquatic carbon export from peatland catchments recently undergone wind farm development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ben; Waldron, Susan; Henderson, Andrew; Flowers, Hugh; Gilvear, David

    2013-04-01

    Scotland's peat landscapes are desirable locations for wind-based renewables due to high wind resources and low land use pressures in these areas. The environmental impact of sitting wind-based renewables on peats however, is unknown. Globally, peatlands are important terrestrial carbon stores. Given the topical nature of carbon-related issues, e.g. global warming and carbon footprints, it is imperative we help mitigate their degradation and maintain carbon sequestration. To do so, we need to better understand how peatland systems function with regards to their carbon balance (export versus sequestration) so we can assess their resilience and adaptation to hosting land-based renewable energy projects. Predicting carbon lost as a result of construction of wind farms built on peatland has not been fully characterised and this research will provide data that can supplement current 'carbon payback calculator' models for wind farms that aim to reinforce their 'green' credentials. Transfer of carbon from the terrestrial peatland systems to the aquatic freshwater and oceanic systems is most predominant during periods of high rainfall. It has been estimated that 50% of carbon is exported during only 10% of highest river flows, (Hinton et al., 1998). Furthermore, carbon export from peatlands is known to have a seasonal aspect with highest concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) found mostly in late summer months of August and September and lowest in December and January, (Dawson et al., 2004). Event sampling, where high intensity sample collection is carried out during high river flow periods, offers a better insight, understanding and estimation of carbon aquatic fluxes from peatland landscapes. The Gordonbush estate, near Brora, has an extensive peatland area where a wind farm development has recently been completed (April 2012). Investigations of aquatic carbon fluxes from this peatland system were started in July 2010, in conjunction with the start of

  8. The ichthyofauna of drifting macrophyte mats in the Ivinhema River, upper Paraná River basin, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulla, C. K.; Gomes, Luiz Carlos; Miranda, Leandro E.; Agostinho, A. A.

    2011-01-01

    We describe the fish assemblages associated with drifting macrophyte mats and consider their possible role as dispersal vectors in the Ivinhema River, a major tributary of the upper Paraná River, Brazil. Fish associated with drifting mats were sampled in the main river channel during January and March 2005, when the wind and/or the increased water level were sufficient to transport macrophyte stands. Fish in the drifting mats were sampled with a floating sieve (4 m long x 2 m wide x 0.6 m high, and 2 mm mesh size). In the laboratory, larvae, juvenile, and adult fish were counted and identified to the lowest possible taxonomic level. In four drifting macrophyte mats we captured 218 individuals belonging to at least 28 species, 17 families, and 6 orders. Aphyocharax dentatus, Serrasalmus spp., and Trachelyopterus galeatus were the most abundant taxa associated with the mats, but species richness ranged from 6 to 24 species per mat. In addition, 85% of the total number of individuals caught was larvae and juveniles. Although preliminary and based on limited samples, this study of drifting macrophyte mats was the first one in the last unregulated stretch of the Paraná River remaining inside Brazilian territory, and alerts us to the potential role of macrophytes mats as dispersers of fish species in the region.

  9. Design Procedure for High-Speed PM Motors Aided by Optimization Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Cupertino

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the electromagnetic and structural co-design of superficial permanent magnet synchronous machines for high-speed applications, with the aid of a Pareto optimization procedure. The aim of this work is to present a design procedure for the afore-mentioned machines that relies on the combined used of optimization algorithms and finite element analysis. The proposed approach allows easy analysis of the results and a lowering of the computational burden. The proposed design method is presented through a practical example starting from the specifications of an aeronautical actuator. The design procedure is based on static finite element simulations for electromagnetic analysis and on analytical formulas for structural design. The final results are validated through detailed transient finite element analysis to verify both electromagnetic and structural performance. The step-by-step presentation of the proposed design methodology allows the reader to easily adapt it to different specifications. Finally, a comparison between a distributed-winding (24 slots and a concentrated-winding (6 slots machine is presented demonstrating the advantages of the former winding arrangement for high-speed applications.

  10. Environmental control procedures at the Savannah River Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheldon, E.B.

    1975-01-01

    New environmental control activities in the past year at SRP have included improved control and reporting procedures for chemical spills, reclamation of high-value scrap from wastes, new disposal methods for solid wastes not suitable for the sanitary landfill, improved oil containment, and reduction of sediment discharges to on-plant streams. Interdepartmental committees provide the primary routes for planning and coordinating environmental protection throughout SRP. An improved site-use coordination procedure, developed and implemented by ERDA-SR, has provided more effective control and communication pertaining to activities of the several organizations actively using the 300-square-mile SRP site. (auth)

  11. SAT-WIND project. Final report[Winds from satellites for offshore and coastal wind energy mapping and wind-indexing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasager, C.B.; Astrup, P.; Nielsen, M. (and others)

    2007-04-15

    The SAT-WIND project 'Winds from satellites for offshore and coastal wind energy mapping and wind-indexing' was a research project funded by STVF/DSF in the years 2003 to 2006 (Sagsnr. 2058-03-0006). The goal of the project was to verify the applicability of satellite wind maps derived from passive microwave, altimeter, scatterometer and imaging Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) technologies for wind energy tools for wind resources and wind-indexing. The study area was the Danish Seas including the North Sea, interior seas and the Baltic Sea. The report describes technical details on the satellite data sources including: 1) passive microwave (SSM/I, AMSR-E), 2) passive microwave polarimetric (WindSat), 3) scatterometer (ERS, QuikSCAT, Midori-2 and NSCAT), 4) altimeter (ERS, Topex, Poseidon, GFO-1, Jason-1), 5) SAR (ERS, Envisat). The SAR wind maps were treated in S-WAsP developed by Risoe National Laboratory in cooperation with GRAS A/S in the innovative project SAT-WIND-SMV (Sagsnr. 2104-05-0084) in the years 2005 and 2006 in parallel with SAT-WIND. The results from the SAT-WIND project are presented. These include ocean wind statistics, offshore wind resource estimates and comparison results for wind-indexing. (au)

  12. SAT-WIND project. Final report[Winds from satellites for offshore and coastal wind energy mapping and wind-indexing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasager, C B; Astrup, P; Nielsen, M [and others

    2007-04-15

    The SAT-WIND project 'Winds from satellites for offshore and coastal wind energy mapping and wind-indexing' was a research project funded by STVF/DSF in the years 2003 to 2006 (Sagsnr. 2058-03-0006). The goal of the project was to verify the applicability of satellite wind maps derived from passive microwave, altimeter, scatterometer and imaging Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) technologies for wind energy tools for wind resources and wind-indexing. The study area was the Danish Seas including the North Sea, interior seas and the Baltic Sea. The report describes technical details on the satellite data sources including: 1) passive microwave (SSM/I, AMSR-E), 2) passive microwave polarimetric (WindSat), 3) scatterometer (ERS, QuikSCAT, Midori-2 and NSCAT), 4) altimeter (ERS, Topex, Poseidon, GFO-1, Jason-1), 5) SAR (ERS, Envisat). The SAR wind maps were treated in S-WAsP developed by Risoe National Laboratory in cooperation with GRAS A/S in the innovative project SAT-WIND-SMV (Sagsnr. 2104-05-0084) in the years 2005 and 2006 in parallel with SAT-WIND. The results from the SAT-WIND project are presented. These include ocean wind statistics, offshore wind resource estimates and comparison results for wind-indexing. (au)

  13. Simulation of river plume behaviors in a tropical region: Case study of the Upper Gulf of Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiaojie; Guo, Xinyu; Morimoto, Akihiko; Buranapratheprat, Anukul

    2018-02-01

    River plumes are a general phenomenon in coastal regions. Most previous studies focus on river plumes in middle and high latitudes with few studies examining those in low latitude regions. Here, we apply a numerical model to the Upper Gulf of Thailand (UGoT) to examine a river plume in low latitudes. Consistent with observational data, the modeled plume has seasonal variation dependent on monsoon conditions. During southwesterly monsoons, the plume extends northeastward to the head of the gulf; during northeasterly monsoons, it extends southwestward to the mouth of the gulf. To examine the effects of latitude, wind and river discharge on the river plume, we designed several numerical experiments. Using a middle latitude for the UGoT, the bulge close to the river mouth becomes smaller, the downstream current flows closer to the coast, and the salinity in the northern UGoT becomes lower. The reduction in the size of the bulge is consistent with the relationship between the offshore distance of a bulge and the Coriolis parameter. Momentum balance of the coastal current is maintained by advection, the Coriolis force, pressure gradient and internal stresses in both low and middle latitudes, with the Coriolis force and pressure gradient enlarged in the middle latitude. The larger pressure gradient in the middle latitude is induced by more offshore freshwater flowing with the coastal current, which induces lower salinity. The influence of wind on the river plume not only has the advection effects of changing the surface current direction and increasing the surface current speed, but also decreases the current speed due to enhanced vertical mixing. Changes in river discharge influence stratification in the UGoT but have little effect on the behavior of the river plume.

  14. An integrated audio-visual impact tool for wind turbine installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lymberopoulos, N.; Belessis, M.; Wood, M.; Voutsinas, S.

    1996-01-01

    An integrated software tool was developed for the design of wind parks that takes into account their visual and audio impact. The application is built on a powerful hardware platform and is fully operated through a graphic user interface. The topography, the wind turbines and the daylight conditions are realised digitally. The wind park can be animated in real time and the user can take virtual walks in it while the set-up of the park can be altered interactively. In parallel, the wind speed levels on the terrain, the emitted noise intensity, the annual energy output and the cash flow can be estimated at any stage of the session and prompt the user for rearrangements. The tool has been used to visually simulate existing wind parks in St. Breok, UK and Andros Island, Greece. The results lead to the conclusion that such a tool can assist to the public acceptance and licensing procedures of wind parks. (author)

  15. Modelling Wind for Wind Farm Layout Optimization Using Joint Distribution of Wind Speed and Wind Direction

    OpenAIRE

    Ju Feng; Wen Zhong Shen

    2015-01-01

    Reliable wind modelling is of crucial importance for wind farm development. The common practice of using sector-wise Weibull distributions has been found inappropriate for wind farm layout optimization. In this study, we propose a simple and easily implementable method to construct joint distributions of wind speed and wind direction, which is based on the parameters of sector-wise Weibull distributions and interpolations between direction sectors. It is applied to the wind measurement data a...

  16. Wind power agreement protocol; Protocole d'accord eolien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-10-01

    The aim of this protocol of agreement is to propose to wind turbine fitters some models of contracts allowing the setting up of wind turbines on agricultural lots. These documents, which make an indissociable ensemble, apply to both phases of development of a wind power project: the feasibility study phase, for a duration comprised between 2 and 5 years (studies, administrative procedures, precise definition of the project), and the construction, exploitation and dismantling phase. These documents will serve as common guidelines for both the farmers and the wind turbine designers. Both parties agree to meet together in the future to propose some modifications of these texts if necessary. The four models of contracts are attached to the document: contract for the feasibility study phase, first contract between the landlord and the farmer for the cancellation of the rural lease, second contract between the landlord and the wind power exploitation company for the common right lease, and the third contract between the farmer and the wind power company for the indemnification convention. (J.S.)

  17. Review of climatic input data for wind load design in accordance with SANS 10160-3

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Goliger, Adam MW

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available factor QWE that provides for the wind engineering procedures, such as the wind speed profile and pressure coefficients. The characteristic wind load is then given by Equation 4, where CoV is the coefficient of variation (σV/µV): QW,k = QWE (µV + 2....59 σV)2 = QWE µVk2(1+ 2.59 CoVV)2 (6) Design wind load The design wind load can be obtained by determining the wind speed according to Equation 4 for an exceedance probability (PF) that corresponds with the appropriate target reliability (β...

  18. Global sensitivity analysis in wind energy assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsvetkova, O.; Ouarda, T. B.

    2012-12-01

    Wind energy is one of the most promising renewable energy sources. Nevertheless, it is not yet a common source of energy, although there is enough wind potential to supply world's energy demand. One of the most prominent obstacles on the way of employing wind energy is the uncertainty associated with wind energy assessment. Global sensitivity analysis (SA) studies how the variation of input parameters in an abstract model effects the variation of the variable of interest or the output variable. It also provides ways to calculate explicit measures of importance of input variables (first order and total effect sensitivity indices) in regard to influence on the variation of the output variable. Two methods of determining the above mentioned indices were applied and compared: the brute force method and the best practice estimation procedure In this study a methodology for conducting global SA of wind energy assessment at a planning stage is proposed. Three sampling strategies which are a part of SA procedure were compared: sampling based on Sobol' sequences (SBSS), Latin hypercube sampling (LHS) and pseudo-random sampling (PRS). A case study of Masdar City, a showcase of sustainable living in the UAE, is used to exemplify application of the proposed methodology. Sources of uncertainty in wind energy assessment are very diverse. In the case study the following were identified as uncertain input parameters: the Weibull shape parameter, the Weibull scale parameter, availability of a wind turbine, lifetime of a turbine, air density, electrical losses, blade losses, ineffective time losses. Ineffective time losses are defined as losses during the time when the actual wind speed is lower than the cut-in speed or higher than the cut-out speed. The output variable in the case study is the lifetime energy production. Most influential factors for lifetime energy production are identified with the ranking of the total effect sensitivity indices. The results of the present

  19. Wind turbine certification - the committee draft by IEC-TC88-WG9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauge Madsen, P [Risoe National Lab., Wind Energy and Atmospheric Physics Dept., Roskilde (Denmark)

    1999-03-01

    In 1995 the Technical Committee TC88 of the International Electrotechnical Commission decided to start a new work item, namely to prepare a standard for the certification procedures for wind turbines with respect to safety, performance, interaction with the public grid, environmental requirements and the documentation requested by the certification bodies. The purpose was to provide a common basis for certification of wind turbines, including a basis for accreditation of certification bodies and mutual recognition of certificates. A working group (WG9) was created to prepare a committee draft. WG9 submitted the result late in 1998 to TC88. This paper presents the committee draft Standard, which defines a certification system for Wind Turbine Generator Systems. Key issues in the evaluation of conformity with these standards and identified needs for other technical criteria and procedures are presented. (au) 10 refs.

  20. Fluorescent antibody application in bioremediation procedures at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brigmon, R.L.; Richardson, B.S.; Franck, M.M.

    1997-01-01

    Direct Fluorescent Antibodies (DFA) and Most Probable Number (MPN) techniques are currently being employed at the Savannah River Site to monitor methanotrophic bacteria for the bioremediation of trichloroethylene (TCE) in field studies. Direct Fluorescent Antibodies were developed against various methanotrophic bacteria isolated from SRS as well as methanotrophic bacteria acquired from the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC). DFA's are anticipated to be more efficient for monitoring methanotroph activity than MPN's because of shorter processing time, lower cost, and the direct nature of the assay. The DFA method is a direct technique, in that samples are processed immediately and can be enumerated within an hour. The MPN method is indirect, since samples must be cultured for 6-8 weeks before measuring methane consumption and carbon dioxide production. Indirect methods are not highly selective and have limited application. The greatest advantage of a faster assay, is that bioremediation procedures utilizing methanotrophic bacteria could be amended. These amendments would be based on environmental monitoring with results in real time (1 hour). The elimination of the MPN technique and the use of DFA's will save significantly on both materials and labor. The data obtained from the DFA's and MPN's were statistically compared to each other and to total bacterial counts (AODC). The statistical analysis used was Analysis of Variants (ANOVA). Using this analysis, groundwater samples were found to be not significantly different; whereas soil were significantly different. These methods were employed on soil samples from the Southern Sector and ground water samples from the TCE-contaminated Sanitary Landfill at SRS. Acridine Orange Direct Counts were compared to show relative differences between total bacterial and methanotroph population

  1. Influence of monsoonal winds on chlorophyll-α distribution in the Beibu Gulf.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunyan Shen

    Full Text Available The influence of seasonal, monsoonal winds on the temporal and spatial variability of chlorophyll-a (chl-a in the Beibu Gulf is studied based on long-term satellite data of sea surface winds, chl-a concentration and sea surface temperature (SST and in-situ observations for the years from 2002 to 2014. The analysis results indicated that under northeasterly monsoonal winds, chl-a concentrations were substantially elevated in most area of the Beibu Gulf, with a high chl-a concentration (>2 mg m-3 patch extending southwestward from the coastal water of the northeastern Gulf, consistent with the winter wind pattern. Meanwhile, the spatial distribution of high chl-a concentration is correlated with low SST in the northeastern Gulf. In the southern Gulf, there was generally low chl-a, except in the coastal waters southwest of Hainan Island. Here, the upwelling cold water prevails outside the mouth of the Beibu Gulf, driven by the southwesterly monsoonal winds and the runoff from the Changhua River, as implied by low observed SST. Correlation analysis indicated the chl-a concentration was strongly modulated by wind speed (r = 0.63, p0.7, p<0.001. Integrated analysis also showed that stratification is weak and mixing is strong in winter as affected by the high wind speed, which suggests that the wind-induced mixing is a dominant mechanism for entrainment of nutrients and the spatial distribution of chl-a in winter.

  2. Wind Energy Solutions : to bring renewable energy everywhere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leeuw de, J.

    2008-01-01

    This presentation discussed smaller wind turbines designed by the Netherlands-based company Wind Energy Solutions (WES). Ranging between 2.5 kW and 250 kW, the smaller turbines are used in farming applications as well as for factories, in isolated communities, and by utilities with smaller electricity grids. The company also designs off-grid and stand-alone turbines; turbines with equal-sized generators; and turbines that do not require dumploads, batteries, or flywheels. WES turbines have been installed at farms, in parking lots, airports, gas stations, and on the grounds of large office buildings. The company advises that it is important to conduct initial surveys of the location for planned turbines before purchasing them. Legal and financial issues must also be explored, and wind speed data must be obtained in order to select an appropriate turbine. WES has also designed a range of control rooms, turbine cables, and remote monitoring devices for smaller wind turbines, as well as electronic microprocessors and inverters with PLC interfaces. Details of wind turbine installation procedures were included in this presentation. tabs., figs

  3. Geomorphological change and river rehabilitation : case studies on lowland fluvial ystems in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolfert, Hendrik Pieter

    2001-01-01

    Integrated spatial planning for river rehabilitation requires insight in the geomorphology of river systems. Procedures are elaborated to implement a functional-geographical approach in geomorphology, in which a view of rivers as four-dimensional systems and the use of a process-based hierarchy of

  4. Naturalness and Place in River Rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirstie Fryirs

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available An authentic approach to river rehabilitation emphasizes concerns for the natural values of a given place. As landscape considerations fashion the physical template upon which biotic associations take place, various geomorphic issues must be addressed in framing rehabilitation activities that strive to improve river health. An open-ended approach to river classification promotes applications that appreciate the values of a given river, rather than pigeonholing reality. As the geomorphic structure of some rivers is naturally simple, promoting heterogeneity as a basis for management may not always be appropriate. Efforts to protect unique attributes of river systems must be balanced with procedures that look after common features. Concerns for ecosystem functionality must relate to the behavioral regime of a given river, remembering that some rivers are inherently sensitive to disturbance. Responses to human disturbance must be viewed in relation to natural variability, recognizing how spatial relationships in a catchment, and responses to past disturbances, fashion the operation of contemporary fluxes. These fluxes, in turn, influence what is achievable in the rehabilitation of a given reach. Given the inherently adjusting and evolutionary nature of river systems, notional endpoints do not provide an appropriate basis upon which to promote concepts of naturalness and place in the rehabilitation process. These themes are drawn together to promote rehabilitation practices that relate to the natural values of each river system, in preference to applications of "cookbook" measures that build upon textbook geomorphology.

  5. Sele coastal plain flood risk due to wave storm and river flow interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benassai, Guido; Aucelli, Pietro; Di Paola, Gianluigi; Della Morte, Renata; Cozzolino, Luca; Rizzo, Angela

    2016-04-01

    Wind waves, elevated water levels and river discharge can cause flooding in low-lying coastal areas, where the water level is the interaction between wave storm elevated water levels and river flow interaction. The factors driving the potential flood risk include weather conditions, river water stage and storm surge. These data are required to obtain inputs to run the hydrological model used to evaluate the water surface level during ordinary and extreme events regarding both the fluvial overflow and storm surge at the river mouth. In this paper we studied the interaction between the sea level variation and the river hydraulics in order to assess the location of the river floods in the Sele coastal plain. The wave data were acquired from the wave buoy of Ponza, while the water level data needed to assess the sea level variation were recorded by the tide gauge of Salerno. The water stages, river discharges and rating curves for Sele river were provided by Italian Hydrographic Service (Servizio Idrografico e Mareografico Nazionale, SIMN).We used the dataset of Albanella station (40°29'34.30"N, 15°00'44.30"E), located around 7 km from the river mouth. The extreme river discharges were evaluated through the Weibull equation, which were associated with their return period (TR). The steady state river water levels were evaluated through HEC-RAS 4.0 model, developed by Hydrologic Engineering Center (HEC) of the United States Army Corps of Engineers Hydrologic Engineering Center (USACE,2006). It is a well-known 1D model that computes water surface elevation (WSE) and velocity at discrete cross-sections by solving continuity, energy and flow resistance (e.g., Manning) equation. Data requirements for HEC-RAS include topographic information in the form of a series of cross-sections, friction parameter in the form of Manning's n values across each cross-section, and flow data including flow rates, flow change locations, and boundary conditions. For a steady state sub

  6. Dynamics of wind setdown at Suez and the Eastern Nile Delta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Drews

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Wind setdown is the drop in water level caused by wind stress acting on the surface of a body of water for an extended period of time. As the wind blows, water recedes from the upwind shore and exposes terrain that was formerly underwater. Previous researchers have suggested wind setdown as a possible hydrodynamic explanation for Moses crossing the Red Sea, as described in Exodus 14. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This study analyzes the hydrodynamic mechanism proposed by earlier studies, focusing on the time needed to reach a steady-state solution. In addition, the authors investigate a site in the eastern Nile delta, where the ancient Pelusiac branch of the Nile once flowed into a coastal lagoon then known as the Lake of Tanis. We conduct a satellite and modeling survey to analyze this location, using geological evidence of the ancient bathymetry and a historical description of a strong wind event in 1882. A suite of model experiments are performed to demonstrate a new hydrodynamic mechanism that can cause an angular body of water to divide under wind stress, and to test the behavior of our study location and reconstructed topography. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Under a uniform 28 m/s easterly wind forcing in the reconstructed model basin, the ocean model produces an area of exposed mud flats where the river mouth opens into the lake. This land bridge is 3-4 km long and 5 km wide, and it remains open for 4 hours. Model results indicate that navigation in shallow-water harbors can be significantly curtailed by wind setdown when strong winds blow offshore.

  7. Vertical-axis wind turbine development in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templin, R. J.; Rangi, R. S.

    1983-12-01

    Recent Canadian progress in the development of the curved-blade Darrieus vertical-axis wind turbine (VAWT) is described. Cooperation between government, industry and power utilities in the conduct of field trials, over several years, has demonstrated improved performance and reliability of grid-coupled turbines of this type. The rated power of the VAWTs currently under test ranges from 30 kW, in a wind/diesel powerplant, to 230 kW, in an installation on an island in the Gulf of St. Lawrence. Progress has also been made in understanding the basic aerodynamic behavior of the VAWT and theoretical methods for performance and load prediction have correspondingly improved. A brief description is given of 'Project EOLE', a cooperative project between the federal government and the utility Hydro-Quebec to develop and test, during the next two to three years, a 4 MW VAWT prototype, which will be coupled to the power grid at a location on the south shore of the St. Lawrence River.

  8. Video-Based Electroshocking Platform to Identify Lamprey Ammocoete Habitats: Field Validation and New Discoveries in the Columbia River Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arntzen, Evan V.; Mueller, Robert P.

    2017-05-04

    A deep water electroshocking platform (DEP), developed to characterize larval lampreys (ammocoetes) and associated habitat in depths up to 15 m, was recently tested in the field. The DEP samples 0.55 m2∙min-1 without requiring ammocoete transport to the surface. Searches were conducted at a known rearing location (mouth of the Wind River, WA) and at locations on the Cowlitz River, WA, where ammocoetes had not previously been found. At the mouth of the Wind River, video imaged ammocoetes ranged from 50 to 150 mm in water depths between 1.5 m and 4.5 m and were more common in sediments containing organic silt. Ammocoetes (n=137) were detected at 61% of locations sampled (summer) and 50% of the locations sampled (winter). Following the field verification, the DEP was used on the lower 11.7 km of the Cowlitz River, WA. Ammocoetes (n=41) were found with a detection rate of 26% at specific search locations. Cowlitz River sediment containing ammocoetes was also dominated by silt with organic material, often downstream of alluvial bars in water depths from 0.8 to 1.7 m. Test results indicated a high sampling efficiency, favorable detection rates, and little or no impact to ammocoetes and their surrounding benthic environments.

  9. Methodology for wind turbine blade geometry optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perfiliev, D.

    2013-11-01

    Nowadays, the upwind three bladed horizontal axis wind turbine is the leading player on the market. It has been found to be the best industrial compromise in the range of different turbine constructions. The current wind industry innovation is conducted in the development of individual turbine components. The blade constitutes 20-25% of the overall turbine budget. Its optimal operation in particular local economic and wind conditions is worth investigating. The blade geometry, namely the chord, twist and airfoil type distributions along the span, responds to the output measures of the blade performance. Therefore, the optimal wind blade geometry can improve the overall turbine performance. The objectives of the dissertation are focused on the development of a methodology and specific tool for the investigation of possible existing wind blade geometry adjustments. The novelty of the methodology presented in the thesis is the multiobjective perspective on wind blade geometry optimization, particularly taking simultaneously into account the local wind conditions and the issue of aerodynamic noise emissions. The presented optimization objective approach has not been investigated previously for the implementation in wind blade design. The possibilities to use different theories for the analysis and search procedures are investigated and sufficient arguments derived for the usage of proposed theories. The tool is used for the test optimization of a particular wind turbine blade. The sensitivity analysis shows the dependence of the outputs on the provided inputs, as well as its relative and absolute divergences and instabilities. The pros and cons of the proposed technique are seen from the practical implementation, which is documented in the results, analysis and conclusion sections. (orig.)

  10. Wind turbines, is it just wind?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boiteux, M.

    2012-01-01

    The author first outlines that wind energy is not only random, but almost absent in extreme situations when it would be needed (for example and notably, very cold weather without wind). He suggests the association of a gas turbine to each wind turbine, so that the gas turbine will replace non operating wind turbines. He notices that wind turbines are not proximity energy as they were said to be, and that profitability in fact requires tens of grouped giant wind turbines. He also outlines the high cost of construction of grids for the connection of these wind turbines. Thus, he states that wind energy is far from being profitable in the present conditions of electricity tariffs in France

  11. Vibration-Based Damage Identification in Wind Turbine Blades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulriksen, Martin Dalgaard; Tcherniak, Dmitri; Damkilde, Lars

    Due to the existing trend of placing wind turbines in impassable terrain, for example, offshore, these structures constitute prime candidates for being subjected to structural health monitoring (SHM). The wind turbine blades have in particular been paid research attention [1] as these compose one...... of the most common and critical components to fail in the turbines [2]. The standard structural integrity assessment of blades is based on visual inspection, which requires the turbine in question to be stopped while inspections are conducted. This procedure is extremely costly and tedious, hence emphasizing...

  12. Physical biological coupling in the Pearl River Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Paul J.; Yin, Kedong; Lee, J. H. W.; Gan, Jianping; Liu, Hongbin

    2008-07-01

    The Pearl River Estuary is a subtropical estuary and the second largest in China based on discharge volume from the Pearl River. Processes in the estuary vary spatially and temporally (wet vs dry season). In the dry season at the head of the estuary, hypoxic and nearly anoxic conditions occur and NH 4 reaches >600 μM, NO 3 is ˜300 μM and nitrite is ˜60 μM indicating that nitrification and denitrification may be important dry season processes in the region extending 40 km upstream of the Humen outlet. There are very few biological studies conducted in this upper section of the estuary in either the dry or wet seasons and hence there is a need for further research in this region of the river. In the wet season, the salinity wedge extends to the Hongqimen outlet and oxygen is low (35-80% saturation). Nitrate is ˜100 μM, silicate ˜140 μM; and phosphate is relatively low at ˜0.5 μM, yielding an N:P ratio up to ˜200:1 in summer. Nutrients decrease in the lower estuary and primary productivity may become potentially P-limited. Eutrophication is not as severe as one would expect from the nutrient inputs from the Pearl River and from Hong Kong's sewage discharge. This estuary shows a remarkable capacity to cope with excessive nutrients. Physical processes such as river discharge, tidal flushing, turbulent dispersion, wind-induced mixing, and estuarine circulation play an important role in controlling the production and accumulation of algal blooms and the potential occurrence of hypoxia. Superimposed on the physical processes of the estuary are the chemical and biological processes involved in the production of the bloom. For example, the 100N:1P ratio indicates that P potentially limits the amount of algal biomass (and potential biological oxygen demand) in summer. While extended periods of hypoxia are rare in Hong Kong waters, episodic events have been reported to occur during late summer due to factors such as low wind, high rainfall and river discharge which

  13. Theoretical derivation of wind power probability distribution function and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altunkaynak, Abdüsselam; Erdik, Tarkan; Dabanlı, İsmail; Şen, Zekai

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Derivation of wind power stochastic characteristics are standard deviation and the dimensionless skewness. ► The perturbation is expressions for the wind power statistics from Weibull probability distribution function (PDF). ► Comparisons with the corresponding characteristics of wind speed PDF abides by the Weibull PDF. ► The wind power abides with the Weibull-PDF. -- Abstract: The instantaneous wind power contained in the air current is directly proportional with the cube of the wind speed. In practice, there is a record of wind speeds in the form of a time series. It is, therefore, necessary to develop a formulation that takes into consideration the statistical parameters of such a time series. The purpose of this paper is to derive the general wind power formulation in terms of the statistical parameters by using the perturbation theory, which leads to a general formulation of the wind power expectation and other statistical parameter expressions such as the standard deviation and the coefficient of variation. The formulation is very general and can be applied specifically for any wind speed probability distribution function. Its application to two-parameter Weibull probability distribution of wind speeds is presented in full detail. It is concluded that provided wind speed is distributed according to a Weibull distribution, the wind power could be derived based on wind speed data. It is possible to determine wind power at any desired risk level, however, in practical studies most often 5% or 10% risk levels are preferred and the necessary simple procedure is presented for this purpose in this paper.

  14. Wind: new wind markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, A.

    2005-01-01

    The June 2005 edition of 'Wind Force 12' suggests that wind could generate 12% of global electricity requirements by 2020. But what moves a potential market into an emerging one? Geographical factors include a good wind resource, plenty of open space and the ability to get the generated electricity to end-users. A country's political framework is equally important, with fixed price systems, renewable quota systems and political will all playing a part. Some potential wind markets around the world are thought to have the conditions necessary to become key players in the wind industry. The emerging markets in countries such as Australia, Brazil, Canada, France, Japan and the Philippines are highlighted as examples

  15. Greenhouse gases emission from the sewage draining rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Beibei; Wang, Dongqi; Zhou, Jun; Meng, Weiqing; Li, Chongwei; Sun, Zongbin; Guo, Xin; Wang, Zhongliang

    2018-01-15

    Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), methane (CH 4 ) and nitrous oxide (N 2 O) concentration, saturation and fluxes in rivers (Beitang drainage river, Dagu drainage rive, Duliujianhe river, Yongdingxinhe river and Nanyunhe river) of Tianjin city (Haihe watershed) were investigated during July and October in 2014, and January and April in 2015 by static headspace gas chromatography method and the two-layer model of diffusive gas exchange. The influence of environmental variables on greenhouse gases (GHGs) concentration under the disturbance of anthropogenic activities was discussed by Spearman correlative analysis and multiple stepwise regression analysis. The results showed that the concentration and fluxes of CO 2 , CH 4 and N 2 O were seasonally variable with >winter>fall>summer, spring>summer>winter>fall and summer>spring>winter>fall for concentrations and spring>summer>fall>winter, spring>summer>winter>fall and summer>spring>fall>winter for fluxes respectively. The GHGs concentration and saturation were higher in comprehensively polluted river sites and lower in lightly polluted river sites. The three GHGs emission fluxes in two sewage draining rivers of Tianjin were clearly higher than those of other rivers (natural rivers) and the spatial variation of CH 4 was more obvious than the others. CO 2 and N 2 O air-water interface emission fluxes of the sewage draining rivers in four seasons were about 1.20-2.41 times and 1.13-3.12 times of those in the natural rivers. The CH 4 emission fluxes of the sewage draining rivers were 3.09 times in fall to 10.87 times in spring of those in the natural rivers in different season. The wind speed, water temperature and air temperature were related to GHGs concentrations. Nitrate and nitrite (NO 3 - +NO 2 - -N) and ammonia (NH 4 + -N) were positively correlated with CO 2 concentration and CH 4 concentration; and dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration was negatively correlated with CH 4 concentration and N 2 O concentration. The effect of

  16. Development of a procedure to model high-resolution wind profiles from smoothed or low-frequency data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, D. W.

    1977-01-01

    The derivation of simulated Jimsphere wind profiles from low-frequency rawinsonde data and a generated set of white noise data are presented. A computer program is developed to model high-resolution wind profiles based on the statistical properties of data from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida. Comparison of the measured Jimsphere data, rawinsonde data, and the simulated profiles shows excellent agreement.

  17. Offshore wind generators: realization?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roche, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    The author discusses the French legal context for the different aspects of the development of offshore wind farms in France: procedures related to electricity production installations (authorization or tender like what has been done for six sites), other administrative authorizations, and connection to the grid. Then, she addresses the various constraints: environmental, social and technical constraints (protected marine areas, constraints related to the tendering process), coast planning documents, tax policy. She finally discusses the installation dismantling

  18. Conference on offshore wind energy development in France and Germany - Legal framework, research results and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, Joerg; Schlegelmilch, Kai; Schulze, Karsten; Abromeit, Carolin; Jensen, Lars Bie; Svendsen, Anne; Schwebel, Olivier; Huebner, Gundula; Heidmann, Roger; Piet, Olivier; Roudil, Jean-Philippe; Fuchs, Tina

    2010-01-01

    The French-German office for Renewable energies (OFAEnR) organised a conference on offshore wind energy development in France and Germany. In the framework of this French-German exchange of experience, about 170 participants exchanged views on the actual policies, on the offshore potentialities of both countries and on the recent logistics, services, training and software innovations. This document brings together the available presentations (slides) made during this event: 1 - Opening talk by Joerg Schulz, Bremerhaven's Major; 2 - The Future of the Offshore Wind energy in Germany - Key elements of the German energy Concept (Kai Schlegelmilch); 3 - Offshore wind farms: A commercial perspective - Offshore projects profitability (Karsten Schulze); 4 - Offshore Wind Farms in the German EEZ - experiences with the German Approval Procedure: criteria for a successful approval procedure (Carolin Abromeit); 5 - Offshore Wind Parks and fishery in Denmark - Involvement and compensation of commercial fishery in Denmark (Lars Bie Jensen); 6 - Tourism, property value, residents interest and offshore parks - Usage conflicts or regional development? (Anne Svendsen); 7 - Logistics for offshore wind projects - classic ports usable? An overview (Roger Heidmann); 8 - Offshore wind energy and French harbours (Olivier Piet); 9 - French offshore wind power market and component suppliers (Jean-Philippe Roudil); 10 - Trident software - the Offshore Wind Manager. Review and Forecast after one year of construction (Tina Fuchs)

  19. Grid Integration of Offshore Wind | Wind | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grid Integration of Offshore Wind Grid Integration of Offshore Wind Much can be learned from the existing land-based integration research for handling the variability and uncertainty of the wind resource Arklow Bank offshore wind park consists of seven GE Wind 3.6-MW wind turbines. Integration and

  20. 77 FR 70159 - Marble River, LLC v. Noble Clinton Windpark I, LLC, Noble Ellenburg Windpark, LLC, Noble...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. EL13-20-000] Marble River... Commission's (Commission) Rules of Practice and Procedure, Marble River, LLC (Marble River or Complainant.... (NYISO or Respondent), alleging that Noble failed to pay Marble River for headroom created by common...

  1. Characteristics for wind energy and wind turbines by considering vertical wind shear

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑玉巧; 赵荣珍

    2015-01-01

    The probability distributions of wind speeds and the availability of wind turbines were investigated by considering the vertical wind shear. Based on the wind speed data at the standard height observed at a wind farm, the power-law process was used to simulate the wind speeds at a hub height of 60 m. The Weibull and Rayleigh distributions were chosen to express the wind speeds at two different heights. The parameters in the model were estimated via the least square (LS) method and the maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) method, respectively. An adjusted MLE approach was also presented for parameter estimation. The main indices of wind energy characteristics were calculated based on observational wind speed data. A case study based on the data of Hexi area, Gansu Province of China was given. The results show that MLE method generally outperforms LS method for parameter estimation, and Weibull distribution is more appropriate to describe the wind speed at the hub height.

  2. Estimating wind frequency limits for natural ventilation at remote sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, B.; Aynsley, R.

    2006-01-01

    Detailed wind data are collected at a limited number of sites, usually at airports. When a building is sited remote from the nearest wind data collection site, estimating wind frequency is more complex. The techniques involved come from the discipline of wind engineering. Where there is a relatively flat terrain between the wind data-recording site and the building site, simple computations can be made to account for the wind velocities over intervening terrain roughness. Where significant topographic features such as hills or mountains are present between the wind data-recording site and the building site, then boundary layer wind tunnel studies will be necessary to determine the influence of such features on wind speed and direction. Rough estimates can be calculated using factors used in some wind loading codes. When buildings are to be designed to take advantage of the energy efficiency offered by natural ventilation, it is important to estimate the actual potential for such ventilation. The natural ventilation potential can be estimated in terms of the percentage of time when wind exceeds some minimum value. For buildings near airports this is a relatively simple procedure. Such estimates are important as they also indicate the likely percentage of time when fans or other energy consuming devices will be needed to maintain indoor thermal comfort. This paper identifies the wind engineering techniques that can be used for such estimates and gives examples of such calculations

  3. Savannah River Plant remote environmental monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schubert, J.F.

    1987-01-01

    The SRP remote environmental monitoring system consists of separations facilities stack monitors, production reactor stack monitors, twelve site perimeter monitors, river and stream monitors, a geostationary operational environmental satellite (GOES) data link, reactor cooling lake thermal monitors, meteorological tower system, Weather Information and Display (WIND) system computer, and the VANTAGE data base management system. The remote environmental monitoring system when fully implemented will provide automatic monitoring of key stack releases and automatic inclusion of these source terms in the emergency response codes

  4. Hybrid Vortex Method for the Aerodynamic Analysis of Wind Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Hu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The hybrid vortex method, in which vortex panel method is combined with the viscous-vortex particle method (HPVP, was established to model the wind turbine aerodynamic and relevant numerical procedure program was developed to solve flow equations. The panel method was used to calculate the blade surface vortex sheets and the vortex particle method was employed to simulate the blade wake vortices. As a result of numerical calculations on the flow over a wind turbine, the HPVP method shows significant advantages in accuracy and less computation resource consuming. The validation of the aerodynamic parameters against Phase VI wind turbine experimental data is performed, which shows reasonable agreement.

  5. Expert group study on recommended practices for wind turbine testing and evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ljunggren, S; Gustafsson, A; Trenka, A R

    1984-01-01

    The major goal of this documents is to facilitate comparisons of noise measurements made in different countries by different investigators. The secondary goal is to provide an engineering data base for the development and validation of analytical acoustic prediction techniques. The evaluation of wind turbines must encompass all aspects of a Wind Energy Conversion System (WECS) ranging from: energy production, quality of power, reliability, durability and safety, through to cost effectiveness or economics, noise characteristics, impact on the environment and electromagnetic interference. The development of internationally agreements on evaluation procedures for each of these areas is needed now to aid in the development of the industry, while strengthening confidence and preventing chaos in the market. It is the purpose of the proposed recommendatons for wind turbine testing to address the development of internationally agreed upon test procedures which deal with each of the above noted aspects for characteizing WECS. The IEA expert committee will pursue this procedures in each of the following areas, power performance, cost of energy from WECS, fatigue evaluation, acountics, electromagnetic interference, safety and reliability and quality of power. This paper addresses the forth item - Acoustics. The expert committee will seek to gain approval of the procedures in each member country through the IEA agreements. The recommendations shall be regularly reviewed and areas in need of further investigation shall be identified. (AB).

  6. Multi-objective Optimization of Large Wind Farm Parameters for Harmonic Instability and Resonance Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebrahimzadeh, Esmaeil; Blaabjerg, Frede; Wang, Xiongfei

    2016-01-01

    wind farms in order to reduce the resonance probability and guarantee harmonic stability. In fact, a general multiobjective optimization procedure based on the genetic algorithm is proposed to set the poles of the wind farm in a desired location in order to minimize the number of the resonance...

  7. Aerodynamic Optimization of Airfoil Profiles for Small Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Cemal Benim

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is the development of an automated two-dimensional airfoil shape optimization procedure for small horizontal axis wind turbines (HAWT, with an emphasis on high thrust and aerodynamically stable performance. The procedure combines the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD analysis with the Response Surface Methodology (RSM, the Biobjective Mesh Adaptive Direct Search (BiMADS optimization algorithm and an automatic geometry and mesh generation tool. In CFD analysis, a Reynolds Averaged Numerical Simulation (RANS is applied in combination with a two-equation turbulence model. For describing the system behaviour under alternating wind conditions, a number of CFD 2D-RANS-Simulations with varying Reynolds numbers and wind angles are performed. The number of cases is reduced by the use of RSM. In the analysis, an emphasis is placed upon the role of the blade-to-blade interaction. The average and the standard deviation of the thrust are optimized by a derivative-free optimization algorithm to define a Pareto optimal set, using the BiMADS algorithm. The results show that improvements in the performance can be achieved by modifications of the blade shape and the present procedure can be used as an effective tool for blade shape optimization.

  8. Wind energy for the future. Scoping document for the wind turbine farm Favorius; Windenergie voor de toekomst. Startnotitie Windpark Favorius

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Molen-Balk, J.A.M.; Beerlage, B.F.M.; Van de Putte, B.H.M.

    2005-05-15

    ARCADIS pans to build a wind turbine farm (named Favorius) in the Exclusive Economic Zone of the Dutch Continental Shelf. In the licensing procedure also an environmental impact report must be drafted. [Dutch] ARCADIS wil, als initiatiefnemer, een vergunning aanvragen op grond van de Wet beheer rijkswaterstaatwerken (Wbr) voor de ontwikkeling van het windturbinepark Favorius in de Exclusieve Economische Zone (EEZ) op het Nederlands Continentaal Plat. Ten behoeve van de vergunningverlening wordt de procedure van de milieueffectrapportage (m.e.r.) doorlopen.

  9. Wind energy for the future. Scoping document for the wind turbine farm Okeanos; Windenergie voor de toekomst. Startnotitie Windpark Okeanos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Molen-Balk, J.A.M.; Beerlage, B.F.M.; Van de Putte, B.H.M.

    2005-05-15

    ARCADIS pans to build a wind turbine farm (named Thetys) in the Exclusive Economic Zone of the Dutch Continental Shelf. In the licensing procedure also an environmental impact report must be drafted. [Dutch] ARCADIS wil, als initiatiefnemer, een vergunning aanvragen op grond van de Wet beheer rijkswaterstaatwerken (Wbr) voor de ontwikkeling van het windturbinepark Okeanos in de Exclusieve Economische Zone (EEZ) op het Nederlands Continentaal Plat. Ten behoeve van de vergunningverlening wordt de procedure van de milieueffectrapportage (m.e.r.) doorlopen.

  10. Wind energy for the future. Scoping document for the wind turbine farm Thetys; Windenergie voor de toekomst. Startnotitie Windpark Thetys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Molen-Balk, J.A.M.; Beerlage, B.F.M.; Van de Putte, B.H.M.

    2005-05-15

    ARCADIS pans to build a wind turbine farm (named Thetys) in the Exclusive Economic Zone of the Dutch Continental Shelf. In the licensing procedure also an environmental impact report must be drafted. [Dutch] ARCADIS wil, als initiatiefnemer, een vergunning aanvragen op grond van de Wet beheer rijkswaterstaatwerken (Wbr) voor de ontwikkeling van het windturbinepark Thetys in de Exclusieve Economische Zone (EEZ) op het Nederlands Continentaal Plat. Ten behoeve van de vergunningverlening wordt de procedure van de milieueffectrapportage (m.e.r.) doorlopen.

  11. A new wind vane for the measurement of atmospheric turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, M.J.; Heverly, M.

    1997-02-01

    A Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between Met One Instruments, Incorporated (Met One) and Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) was created to develop a new wind vane that more accurately measures atmospheric turbulence. Through a process that had several phases, Met One created a prototype vane that was designed to attach to the existing Model 1585 Bi-Directional Wind Vane instrument structure. The prototype contained over 20% less mass to enhance responsiveness, which was also increased through the use of a teardrop-shaped fin structure. The prototype vane can be readily manufactured for commercial retail. Tests in wind tunnel of Building 735-7A, the Meteorological Engineering Facility, indicated that the new vane has a superior starting threshold of less than 0.14 meter per second, a delay distance of 0.72 meter, and a damping ratio of 0.4. The relative accuracy of less than one degree is unchanged from the previous design. The vane bias was acceptable at 0.8 degree for the horizontal wind angle, but was slightly high at 1.4 degree for the verticle wind angle. The high value of the verticle wind angle bias can most likely be reduced to the desired less than one degree value with standard manufacturing production techniques. The durability of the prototype vane was not tested in the field but is expected to be slightly less due to the use of hollow rather than foam-filled fins. However, the loss of some durability is more than compensated with increased sensitivity at low wind speeds. Field testing of the prototype is required to test for adequacy of durability.

  12. Siemens Wind Power 3.6 MW wind turbines for large offshore wind farms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhmatov, Vladislav; Nygaard Nielsen, Joergen; Thisted, Jan; Groendahl, Erik; Egedal, Per; Noertoft Frydensbjerg, Michael; Jensen, Kim Hoej [Siemens Wind Power A/S, Brande (Denmark)

    2008-07-01

    Siemens Wind power A/S is the key player on the offshore wind power market. The Siemens Wind Power 3.6 MW variable-speed wind turbine is among the word's largest, most advanced and competitive wind turbines with a solid portfolio of large offshore wind farms. Transmission system operators and developers require dynamic wind turbine models for evaluation of fault-ride-through capability and investigations of power system stability. The even larger size of the on- and offshore wind farms has entailed that the grid impact of the voltage and frequency control capability of the wind farm can be appropriated modelled and evaluated. Siemens Wind Power has developed a dynamic model of the 3.6 MW variable-speed wind turbine with the fault-ride-through sequences and models of the voltage and frequency controllers to be applied for large offshore wind farms. The dynamic models have been implemented in the commercially available simulation tools such as DIgSILENT PowerFactory and Siemens PTI PSS/E and successfully validated from measurements. (orig.)

  13. Studies on numerical site calibration over complex terrain for wind turbines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Daisuke; MATSUSHITA; Hikaru; MATSUMIYA; Yoshinori; HARA; Satoshi; WATANABE; Akinori; FURUKAWA

    2010-01-01

    The estimation of wind turbine performance over complex terrain is very difficult because of the document of standard IEC61400-12 is adapted for flat or slightly complex topography.And the cost of constructing a meteorological mast is higher with scaling wind turbine up.We have proposed a numerical site calibration(NSC) technique in order to estimate the inflow velocity at the position of wind turbine by using CFD tool to calculate the flow field around the site.The present paper shows the problems for the procedure of NSC in which a commercial nonlinear CFD tool and the improvement method are used to gain a more accurate result.It is clarified that the wind turbine performance which is estimated by using the wind speed on the meteorological mast has a good result for annual energy production.

  14. Guidelines on the environmental risk of wind turbines in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braam, H.; Rademakers, L.W.M.M.

    2004-02-01

    A structural failure of a wind turbine might lead to loss of blade (or parts of it) and thus cause a risk to nearby people and property. In the Netherlands, more densely populated areas are considered to achieve the target set by the Dutch government of implementing 1,500 MW wind power onshore. Because of the public opinion locations close to highways, railways, canals or existing industrial zones are preferred. This development brings about that the risk of wind turbines for the environment becomes more significant as more people might be present near a wind turbine for a longer period. To deal with risks of wind turbine in a rational manner, a handbook with procedures for the risk assessment of wind turbines has been drawn up by order of Novem (the Netherlands Agency for Energy and the Environment). This paper discusses the contents of the handbook and the status of the handbook in the legal framework

  15. Collaborative environmental planning in river management: an application of multicriteria decision analysis in the White River Watershed in Vermont.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermans, Caroline; Erickson, Jon; Noordewier, Tom; Sheldon, Amy; Kline, Mike

    2007-09-01

    Multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) provides a well-established family of decision tools to aid stakeholder groups in arriving at collective decisions. MCDA can also function as a framework for the social learning process, serving as an educational aid in decision problems characterized by a high level of public participation. In this paper, the framework and results of a structured decision process using the outranking MCDA methodology preference ranking organization method of enrichment evaluation (PROMETHEE) are presented. PROMETHEE is used to frame multi-stakeholder discussions of river management alternatives for the Upper White River of Central Vermont, in the northeastern United States. Stakeholders met over 10 months to create a shared vision of an ideal river and its services to communities, develop a list of criteria by which to evaluate river management alternatives, and elicit preferences to rank and compare individual and group preferences. The MCDA procedure helped to frame a group process that made stakeholder preferences explicit and substantive discussions about long-term river management possible.

  16. Wind conditions for wind turbine design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maribo Pedersen, B.

    1999-04-01

    Delegates from Europe and USA attended the meeting and discussed general aspects of wind conditions for wind turbine design. The subjects and the presented papers covered a very broad range of aspects of wind conditions and related influence on the wind turbine. (EHS)

  17. Inferring Groundwater Age in an Alluvial Aquifer from Tracer Concentrations in the Stream - Little Wind River, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goble, D.; Gardner, W. P.; Naftz, D. L.; Solder, J. E.

    2017-12-01

    We use environmental tracers: CFC's, SF6, and 222Rn measured in stream water to determine volume and mean age of groundwater discharging to the Little Wind River, near Riverton, Wyoming. Samples of 222Rn were collected every 200 m along a 2 km reach, surrounding a known groundwater discharge zone. Nearby groundwater wells, in-stream piezometers and seepage meters were sampled for 222Rn, CFC's and SF6. Tracer concentrations measured in groundwater and in-stream piezometers were used to estimate the mean age of the subsurface system. High resolution 222Rn samples were used to determine the location and volume of groundwater inflow using a model of instream transport that includes radioactive decay and gas exchange with the atmosphere. The age of groundwater entering the stream was then estimated from in-stream measured CFC and SF6 concentrations using a new coupled stream transport and lumped-parameter groundwater age model. Ages derived from in-stream measurements were then compared to the age of subsurface water measured in piezometers, seepage meters, and groundwater wells. We then asses the ability of groundwater age inferred from in-stream samples to provide constraint on the age of the subsurface discharge to the stream. The ability to asses groundwater age from in-stream samples can provide a convenient method to constrain the regional distribution of groundwater circulation rates when groundwater sampling is challenging or wells are not in place.

  18. Grid Faults Impact on the Mechanical Loads of Active Stall Wind Turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iov, Florin; Cutululis, Nicolaos A.; Hansen, Anca D.

    2008-01-01

    Emphasis in this paper is on the fault ride-through operation impact on the wind turbines structural loads. Grid faults are typically simulated in power system simulation tools using simplified drive train mechanical model, approach which doesn't allow a thorough investigation of structural loads...... as the electrical design of the wind turbine response during grid faults. The two-step simulation procedure is assessed by means of a simulation example. The effect of a grid fault on the structural part of a typical fixed speed wind turbine, equipped with an induction generator, is assessed....

  19. Bull trout population assessment in the Columbia River Gorge/annual report fy2000; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrne, Jim; McPeak, Ron

    2001-01-01

    We summarized existing knowledge regarding the known distribution of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) across four sub-basins in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington. The Wind River, Little White Salmon River, White Salmon River, and the Klickitat River sub-basins were analyzed. Cold water is essential to the survival, spawning, and rearing of bull trout. We analyzed existing temperature data, installed Onset temperature loggers in the areas of the four sub-basins where data was not available, and determined that mean daily water temperatures were and lt;15 C and appropriate for spawning and rearing of bull trout. We snorkel surveyed more than 74 km (46.25 mi.) of rivers and streams in the four sub-basins (13.8 km at night and 60.2 km during the day) and found that night snorkeling was superior to day snorkeling for locating bull trout. Surveys incorporated the Draft Interim Protocol for Determining Bull Trout Presence (Peterson et al. In Press). However, due to access and safety issues, we were unable to randomly select sample sites nor use block nets as recommended. Additionally, we also implemented the Bull Trout/Dolly Varden sampling methodology described in Bonar et al. (1997). No bull trout were found in the Wind River, Little White Salmon, or White Salmon River sub-basins. We found bull trout in the West Fork Klickitat drainage of the Klickitat River Sub-basin. Bull trout averaged 6.7 fish/100m(sup 2) in Trappers Creek, 2.6 fish/100m(sup 2) on Clearwater Creek, and 0.4 fish/100m(sup 2) in Little Muddy Creek. Bull trout was the only species of salmonid encountered in Trappers Creek and dominated in Clearwater Creek. Little Muddy Creek was the only creek where bull trout and introduced brook trout occurred together. We found bull trout only at night and typically in low flow regimes. A single fish, believed to be a bull trout x brook trout hybrid, was observed in the Little Muddy Creek. Additional surveys are needed in the West Fork Klickitat and mainstem

  20. Environmental criteria for wind farm development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinson, P.; Lloyd, A.

    1997-01-01

    The development of commercial wind farms in the U.K. started only in the early 1990s and the standards of environmental assessment applied to them through the planning consents procedure have changed considerably. For a realistic level of further expansion in line with the imperatives of global warming, landscape planning policy needs to be in accord with energy policy. (author)

  1. Environmental criteria for wind farm development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinson, P.; Lloyd, A. [National Wind Power Ltd., Buckinghamshire (United Kingdom)

    1997-06-01

    The development of commercial wind farms in the U.K. started only in the early 1990s and the standards of environmental assessment applied to them through the planning consents procedure have changed considerably. For a realistic level of further expansion in line with the imperatives of global warming, landscape planning policy needs to be in accord with energy policy. (author)

  2. Dependence between sea surge, river flow and precipitation in south and west Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Svensson

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Estuaries around Great Britain may be at heightened risk of flooding because of the simultaneous occurrence of extreme sea surge and river flow, both of which may be caused by mid-latitude cyclones. A measure especially suited for extremes was employed to estimate dependence between river flow and sea surge. To assist in the interpretation of why flow-surge dependence occurs in some areas and not in others, the dependence between precipitation and surge and between precipitation and river flow was also studied. Case studies of the meteorological situations leading to high surges and/or river flows were also carried out. The present study concerns catchments draining to the south and west coasts of Great Britain. Statistically significant dependence between river flow and daily maximum sea surge may be found at catchments spread along most of this coastline. However, higher dependence is generally found in catchments in hilly areas with a southerly to westerly aspect. Here, precipitation in south-westerly airflow, which is generally the quadrant of prevailing winds, will be enhanced orographically as the first higher ground is encountered. The sloping catchments may respond quickly to the abundant rainfall and the flow peak may arrive in the estuary on the same day as a large sea surge is produced by the winds and low atmospheric pressure associated with the cyclone. There are three regions where flow-surge dependence is strong: the western part of the English south coast, southern Wales and around the Solway Firth. To reduce the influence of tide-surge interaction on the dependence analysis, the dependence between river flow and daily maximum surge occurring at high tide was estimated. The general pattern of areas with higher dependence is similar to that using the daily maximum surge. The dependence between river flow and daily maximum sea surge is often strongest when surge and flow occur on the same day. The west coast from Wales and

  3. Free flow wind speed from a blade-mounted flow sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mads Mølgaard; Larsen, Torben Juul; Aagaard Madsen, Helge

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents a method for obtaining the free-inflow velocities from a 3-D flow sensor mounted on the blade of a wind turbine. From its position on the rotating blade, e.g. one-third from the tip, a blade-mounted flow sensor (BMFS) is able to provide valuable information about the turbulent...... sheared inflow in different regions of the rotor. At the rotor, however, the inflow is affected by the wind turbine, and in most cases the wind of interest is the inflow that the wind turbine is exposed to, i.e. the free-inflow velocities. The current method applies a combination of aerodynamic models...... and procedures to estimate the induced velocities, i.e. the disturbance of the flow field caused by the wind turbine. These velocities are subtracted from the flow velocities measured by the BMFS to obtain the free-inflow velocities. Aeroelastic codes, like HAWC2, typically use a similar approach to calculate...

  4. Sizing PV-wind hybrid energy system for lighting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Engin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Sizing of wind and photovoltaic generators ensures lower operational costs and therefore, is considered as an important issue. An approach for sizing along with a best management technique for a PV-wind hybrid system with batteries is proposed in this paper, in which the best size for every component of the system could be optimized according to the weather conditions and the load profile. The average hourly values for wind speed and solar radiation for Izmir, Turkey has been used in the design of the systems, along with expected load profile. A hybrid power model is also developed for battery operation according to the power balance between generators and loads used in the software, to anticipate performances for the different systems according to the different weather conditions. The output of the program will display the performance of the system during the year, the total cost of the system, and the best size for the PV-generator, wind generator, and battery capacity. Using proposed procedure, a 1.2 kWp PV-wind hybrid system was designed for Izmir, and simulated and measured results are presented.

  5. Prediction of the mixing length in effluent transport in rivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szpilowski, S.

    1983-01-01

    Studies have been performed on estimating the transverse mixing length of effluents discharged into rivers. The proposed method is based on measured values of the dispersion coefficient. Field investigations were carried out in the River Vistula in the Warsaw area using radiotracer methods. The procedure can be used for predicting the mixing length in designing sewage systems. (author)

  6. Numerical simulations of river discharges, nutrient flux and nutrient dispersal in Jakarta Bay, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Wulp, Simon A; Damar, Ario; Ladwig, Norbert; Hesse, Karl-J

    2016-09-30

    The present application of numerical modelling techniques provides an overview of river discharges, nutrient flux and nutrient dispersal in Jakarta Bay. A hydrological model simulated river discharges with a total of 90 to 377m(3)s(-1) entering Jakarta Bay. Daily total nitrogen and total phosphorus loads ranged from 40 to 174tons and 14 to 60tons, respectively. Flow model results indicate that nutrient gradients are subject to turbulent mixing by tides and advective transport through circulation driven by wind, barotropic and baroclinic pressure gradients. The bulk of nutrient loads originate from the Citarum and Cisadane rivers flowing through predominantly rural areas. Despite lower nutrient loads, river discharges from the urban area of Jakarta exhibit the highest impact of nutrient concentrations in the near shore area of Jakarta Bay and show that nutrient concentrations were not only regulated by nutrient loads but were strongly regulated by initial river concentrations and local flow characteristics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Verification test for three WindCube WLS7 LiDARs at the Høvsøre test site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gottschall, Julia; Courtney, Michael

    The report describes the procedure of testing ground-based WindCube lidars (manufactured by the French company Leosphere) at the Høvsøre test site in comparison to reference sensors mounted at a meteorological mast. Results are presented for three tested units – in detail for unit WLS7-0062, and ......-0062, and in a summary for units WLS7-0064 and WLS7-0066. The verification test covers the evaluation of measured mean wind speeds, wind directions and wind speed standard deviations. The data analysis is basically performed in terms of different kinds of regression analyses.......The report describes the procedure of testing ground-based WindCube lidars (manufactured by the French company Leosphere) at the Høvsøre test site in comparison to reference sensors mounted at a meteorological mast. Results are presented for three tested units – in detail for unit WLS7...

  8. Social barriers in wind power implementation in The Netherlands: Perceptions of wind power entrepreneurs and local civil servants of institutional and social conditions in realizing wind power projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agterbosch, Susanne; Glasbergen, Pieter; Vermeulen, Walter J.V.

    2007-01-01

    The primary social factors for the implementation of wind energy projects in a liberalized market are entrepreneurs willing to invest. Understanding conditions that trigger entrepreneurs to invest in these projects, and understanding conditions that determine the chance of success for entrepreneurs to implement and exploit their projects, is vital for setting up effective policies to stimulate wind electricity generation. This paper analyses the way in which wind power entrepreneurs and local civil servants experience social and institutional conditions in the operational process of realizing wind power projects, and their perceptions of policy implications. A groups support system in an electronic board room was used to analyze the perceptions. From the analysis it was concluded that wind power entrepreneurs and civil servants share the opinion that the institutionally embedded power position of local politicians, and the sensitiveness of the local political debate for the popular opinion are most critical for project realization. With regard to the proposed solutions, both groups differ in their approach. Entrepreneurs stress procedural solutions, such as limiting the possibilities to appeal, reducing the complexity of the formal authorization trajectory and using a top down planning approach. Civil servants stress more strategic solutions, such as providing more public information on the necessity of wind power for local politicians and citizens, and community involvement in planning processes. Finally, the analysis explains that steering strategies that have been developed at the national level to solve the planning problems at the operational level do not address the right problems. (author)

  9. Wind scatterometry with improved ambiguity selection and rain modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, David Willis

    wind/rain (SWR) estimation procedure can improve wind estimates during rain, while providing a scatterometer-based rain rate estimate. SWR also affords improved rain flagging for low to moderate rain rates. QuikSCAT-retrieved rain rates correlate well with TRMM PR instantaneous measurements and TMI monthly rain averages. SeaWinds rain measurements can be used to supplement data from other rain-measuring instruments, filling spatial and temporal gaps in coverage.

  10. Modern wind energy technology for Russian applications. Main report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauge Madsen, P.; Winther-Jensen, M., Bindner, H.W. [and others

    1999-05-01

    The general objective of the project is to establish a technical foundation for an intensified application of wind energy in Russia with medium to large wind turbines and transfer/adaptation of Danish and European wind turbine technology as a basis for future joint ventures and technology exports. More specifically, the objective is to develop and establish the basic knowledge and design criteria for adaptation and development of Danish wind turbine technology for application under Russian conditions. The research programme is envisaged to be carried out in three phases, the first phase being the project reported herein. The main purpose of phase 1 is to assess the needs for modifications and adaptations of established standard (in casu Danish) wind turbine designs for decentralised energy systems with a limited number of medium sized wind turbines and for grid connected wind turbines in cold climate and in-land sites of Russia. As part of this work it is necessary to clarify the types of operational conditions and requirements that are to be met by wind turbines operating in such conditions, and to outline suitable test procedures and test set-up is for verifications of such adapted and modified wind turbines. The reporting of this project is made in one main report and four topical reports, all of them issued as Risoe reports. This is the Main Report, (Risoe-R-1069), summing up the activities and findings of phase 1 and outlining a strategy for Russian-Danish cooperation in wind energy as agreed upon between the Russian and the Danish parties. (au)

  11. Hydropeaking in Nordic rivers - combined analysis from effects of changing climate conditions and energy demands to river regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf, Faisal Bin; Marttila, Hannu; Torabi Haghighi, Ali; Alfredsen, Knut; Riml, Joakim; Kløve, Bjørn

    2017-04-01

    Increasing national and international demands for more flexible management of the energy resources with more non-storable renewables being used in adapting to the ongoing climate change will influence hydropower operations. Damming and regulation practices of river systems causes homogenization of long term river dynamics but also higher temporal sub-daily flow variations i.e. hydropeaking. In Nordic countries, many major rivers and lakes are regulated for hydropower purposes, which have caused considerable changes in river biotic, hydrologic and morphologic structures. Due to rapidly changing energy markets in the Nordic countries (deregulation of the power market and adding of renewable but intermittent sources of energy like, wind, solar, etc.) sub-daily flow conditions are under change within regulated river systems due to the increased demand on hydropower for providing balancing power. However, holistic analysis from changes in energy markets and its effect on sub-daily river regimes is lacking. This study analyzes the effects of hydropeaking on river regime in Finland, Sweden and Norway using long term high resolution data (15 minutes to hourly time interval) from 72 pristine and 136 regulated rivers with large spatial coverage across Fennoscandia. Since the sub-daily discharge variation is masked through the monthly or daily analyzes, in order to quantify these changes high resolution data is needed. In our study we will document, characterize and classify the impacts of sub-daily flow variation due to regulation and climatic variation on various river systems in Fennoscandia. Further, with increasing social demands for ecosystem services in regulated rivers, it is important to evaluate the new demand and update hydropower operation plan accordingly. We will analyse ecological response relationships along gradients of hydrological alteration for the biological communities, processes of river ecosystems and climate boundaries together with considering the

  12. Final Project Report, Bristol Bay Native Corporation Wind and Hydroelectric Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaught, Douglas J.

    2007-03-31

    The Bristol Bay Native Corporation (BBNC) grant project focused on conducting nine wind resource studies in eight communities in the Bristol Bay region of southwest Alaska and was administered as a collaborative effort between BBNC, the Alaska Energy Authority, Alaska Village Electric Cooperative, Nushagak Electric Cooperative (NEC), Naknek Electric Association (NEA), and several individual village utilities in the region. BBNC’s technical contact and the project manager for this study was Douglas Vaught, P.E., of V3 Energy, LLC, in Eagle River, Alaska. The Bristol Bay region of Alaska is comprised of 29 communities ranging in size from the hub community of Dillingham with a population of approximately 3,000 people, to a few Native Alaska villages that have a few tens of residents. Communities chosen for inclusion in this project were Dillingham, Naknek, Togiak, New Stuyahok, Kokhanok, Perryville, Clark’s Point, and Koliganek. Selection criteria for conduction of wind resource assessments in these communities included population and commercial activity, utility interest, predicted Class 3 or better wind resource, absence of other sources of renewable energy, and geographical coverage of the region. Beginning with the first meteorological tower installation in October 2003, wind resource studies were completed at all sites with at least one year, and as much as two and a half years, of data. In general, the study results are very promising for wind power development in the region with Class 6 winds measured in Kokhanok; Class 4 winds in New Stuyahok, Clark’s Point, and Koliganek; Class 3 winds in Dillingham, Naknek, and Togiak; and Class 2 winds in Perryville. Measured annual average wind speeds and wind power densities at the 30 meter level varied from a high of 7.87 meters per second and 702 watts per square meter in Kokhanok (Class 6 winds), to a low of 4.60 meters per second and 185 watts per square meter in Perryville (Class 2 winds).

  13. Electromagnetic and mechanical design of RFX Magnetizing Winding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guarnieri, M.; Modena, C.; Schrefler, B.A.; Stella, A.

    1985-01-01

    This paper presents the RFX Magnetizing Winding design and describes its most significant features. Two numerical codes have been used for the magnetic design and a number of solutions, complying with the design specifications, have been obtained. The most attractive of them have been studied in detail from the electromagnetic point of view and a comparison is given here together with an analysis of the stress states. The finite element procedure used is discussed in the paper and the results of the comparison indicated above are presented together with the main electromagnetic parameters and winding features

  14. Spanish method of visual impact evaluation in wind farms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurtado, J.P.; Parrondo, J.L.; Blanco, E. [Universidad de Oviedo, Gijon (Spain). Dpto. de Energia; Fernandez, J. [Universidad de Extremadura, Badajoz (Spain). Dpto. de Electronica e Ingenieria Electromecanica

    2004-10-01

    The present Spanish laws on the procedure to evaluate the environmental impact of wind farms are ambiguous, especially those pertaining to visual impact. There is no specific national law but only regional laws. The main targets of these laws are the conservation of the environment (protected animals and plants), and the noise generated. The focus of this paper, the visual impact, is not taken into account in a direct way in these laws. This work develops a methodology to predict, before its construction, the visual impact that a wind farm can have. This could be used as a consulting tool to analyse and evaluate wind projects, both government-run and private. The developed methodology is quick, concise and clear. (author)

  15. Wind resource estimation and siting of wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundtang Petersen, Erik; Mortensen, N.G.; Landberg, L.

    1994-01-01

    Detailed knowledge of the characteristics of the natural wind is necessary for the design, planning and operational aspect of wind energy systems. Here, we shall only be concerned with those meteorological aspects of wind energy planning that are termed wind resource estimation. The estimation...... of the wind resource ranges from the overall estimation of the mean energy content of the wind over a large area - called regional assessment - to the prediction of the average yearly energy production of a specific wind turbine at a specific location - called siting. A regional assessment will most often...... lead to a so-called wind atlas. A precise prediction of the wind speed at a given site is essential because for aerodynamic reasons the power output of a wind turbine is proportional to the third power of the wind speed, hence even small errors in prediction of wind speed may result in large deviations...

  16. Wind power production: from the characterisation of the wind resource to wind turbine technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beslin, Guy; Multon, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    Illustrated by graphs and tables, this article first describes the various factors and means related to the assessment of wind resource in the World, in Europe, and the factors which characterize a local wind resource. In this last respect, the authors indicate how local topography is taken into account to calculate wind speed, how time variations are taken into account (at the yearly, seasonal or daily level), the different methods used to model a local wind resource, how to assess the power recoverable by a wind turbine with horizontal axis (notion of Betz limit). In the second part, the authors present the different wind turbines, their benefits and drawbacks: vertical axis, horizontal axis (examples of a Danish-type wind turbine, of wind turbines designed for extreme conditions). Then, they address the technology of big wind turbines: evolution of technology and of commercial offer, aerodynamic characteristics of wind turbine and benefit of a varying speed (technological solutions, importance of the electric generator). They describe how to choose a wind turbine, how product lines are organised, how the power curve and energy capacity are determined. The issue of integration of wind energy into the power system is then addressed. The next part addressed the economy of wind energy production (annualized production cost, order of magnitude of wind electric power production cost). Future trends are discussed and offshore wind energy production is briefly addressed

  17. Wind forcing controls on river plume spreading on a tropical continental shelf

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tarya, A.; Vegt, van der M.; Hoitink, A.J.F.

    2015-01-01

    The Berau Continental Shelf is located close to the Equator in the Indonesian Archipelago, hosting a complex of coral reefs along its oceanic edge. The Berau coral reefs have a very high biodiversity, but the area is under serious risk due to river-derived nutrients and sediments. The region is

  18. Wind farm project economics : value of wind

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bills-Everett, T. [Mainstream Renewable Power, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This PowerPoint presentation discussed methods of increasing the value of wind power projects. Appropriate turbine selection and layout is needed to ensure that wind resources are fully developed. Construction costs have a significant impact on project costs. The world turbine price index has not significantly fluctuated since 2006. Operating costs, and the value of wind power projects, are linked with OPEX fluctuations. Wind power projects can significantly reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. An increase in wind power capacity will reduce the overall cost of energy produced from wind power. Countries can use wind power as part of a renewable energy portfolio designed to reduce risks related to diminishing petroleum supplies. Wind power will help to ensure a global transition to renewable energy use. tabs., figs.

  19. River capture and sediment redistribution in northern Tunisia: The doom of Utica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth-Rea, Guillermo; Camafort, Miquel; Pérez-Peña, J. Vicente; Melki, Fetheddine; Ranero, César; Azañón, José Miguel; Gracia, Eulalia; Ouadday, Mohamed

    2016-04-01

    Utica was a flourishing port city in northern Tunisia since the Phoenician times, 12-9th century B.C., until the 4th century A.D.. However, at present it is located 10 km from the coastline after very fast late Holocene progradation of the Mejerda River delta into the bay of Utica. This fast delta progradation occurred after Mejerda River captured Tine River increasing 140 % the river catchment area. Charcoal fragments present in the youngest Tine river terrace at the wind gap give a conventional radiocarbon age of 3240 +/- 30yr BP, indicating that the capture occurred after this date. Quaternary fluvial terraces located in the Tine River paleovalley have been folded and uplifted above a fold related to the active El Alia Tebousouk reverse fault (ETF). Continued uplift of the Tine River valley above the ETF favoured headward erosion of the Medjerda river tributaries creating a transverse drainage that captured Tine River. This capture produced an important change in sediment discharge along the northern Tunisia coast driving sediments to the Gulf of Tunis instead of feeding the Tyrrhenian Sea through the Ichkeul and Bizerte lakes. Although anthropogenic derived degradation of northern Tunisia land for agricultural purposes probably influenced the increase in sediment into the Utica bay, the main cause of rapid progradation of the Medjerda River delta during the late Holocene is related to its increase in drainage area after capturing the Tine River. This process was mostly driven by local contractive tectonics linked to the seismogenic Alia Tebousouk reverse fault.

  20. Wind Power Today: Wind Energy Program Highlights 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2002-05-01

    Wind Power Today is an annual publication that provides an overview of the U.S. Department of Energy's Wind Energy Program accomplishments for the previous year. The purpose of Wind Power Today is to show how DOE's Wind Energy Program supports wind turbine research and deployment in hopes of furthering the advancement of wind technologies that produce clean, low-cost, reliable energy. Content objectives include: educate readers about the advantages and potential for widespread deployment of wind energy; explain the program's objectives and goals; describe the program's accomplishments in research and application; examine the barriers to widespread deployment; describe the benefits of continued research and development; facilitate technology transfer; and attract cooperative wind energy projects with industry. This 2001 edition of Wind Power Today also includes discussions about wind industry growth in 2001, how DOE is taking advantage of low wind speed regions through advancing technology, and distributed applications for small wind turbines.

  1. Controller Design of DFIG Based Wind Turbine by Using Evolutionary Soft Computational Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. P. Bharti

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This manuscript illustrates the controller design for a doubly fed induction generator based variable speed wind turbine by using a bioinspired scheme. This methodology is based on exploiting two proficient swarm intelligence based evolutionary soft computational procedures. The particle swarm optimization (PSO and bacterial foraging optimization (BFO techniques are employed to design the controller intended for small damping plant of the DFIG. Wind energy overview and DFIG operating principle along with the equivalent circuit model is adequately discussed in this paper. The controller design for DFIG based WECS using PSO and BFO are described comparatively in detail. The responses of the DFIG system regarding terminal voltage, current, active-reactive power, and DC-Link voltage have slightly improved with the evolutionary soft computational procedure. Lastly, the obtained output is equated with a standard technique for performance improvement of DFIG based wind energy conversion system.

  2. The design and analysis of salmonid tagging studies in the Columbia River. Volume 7: Monte-Carlo comparison of confidence internal procedures for estimating survival in a release-recapture study, with applications to Snake River salmonids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowther, A.B.; Skalski, J.

    1996-06-01

    Confidence intervals for survival probabilities between hydroelectric facilities of migrating juvenile salmonids can be computed from the output of the SURPH software developed at the Center for Quantitative Science at the University of Washington. These intervals have been constructed using the estimate of the survival probability, its associated standard error, and assuming the estimate is normally distributed. In order to test the validity and performance of this procedure, two additional confidence interval procedures for estimating survival probabilities were tested and compared using simulated mark-recapture data. Intervals were constructed using normal probability theory, using a percentile-based empirical bootstrap algorithm, and using the profile likelihood concept. Performance of each method was assessed for a variety of initial conditions (release sizes, survival probabilities, detection probabilities). These initial conditions were chosen to encompass the range of parameter values seen in the 1993 and 1994 Snake River juvenile salmonid survival studies. The comparisons among the three estimation methods included average interval width, interval symmetry, and interval coverage

  3. Proceedings of the Canadian Wind Energy Association's 2009 wind matters conference : wind and power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This conference provided a forum for wind energy and electric power industry experts to discuss issues related to wind and power systems. An overview of wind integration studies and activities in Canada and the United States was provided. New tools and technologies for facilitating the integration of wind and improve market conditions for wind energy developers were presented. Methods of increasing wind penetration were evaluated, and technical issues related to wind interconnections throughout North America were reviewed. The conference was divided into the following 5 sessions: (1) experiences with wind integration, and lessons learned, (2) update on ongoing wind integration initiatives in Canada and the United States, (3) initiatives and tools to facilitate wind integration and market access, (4) developments in wind interconnection and grid codes, (5) wind energy and cold weather considerations, and (6) challenges to achieving the 20 per cent WindVision goal in Canada. The conference featured 21 presentations, of which 13 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs

  4. Modern sedimentary processes along the Doce river adjacent continental shelf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria da Silva Quaresma

    Full Text Available In areas of the continental shelf where sediment supply is greater than the sediment dispersion capacity, an extensive terrigenous deposits and consequently submerged deltas can be formed. The Eastern Brazilian shelf is characterized by the occurrence of river feed deltas in between starving coasts. Herein, modern sedimentary processes acting along the Doce river adjacent continental shelf are investigated. The main objective was to understand the shelf sediment distribution, recognizing distinct sedimentary patterns and the major influence of river sediment discharge in the formation of shelf deposits. The study used 98 surficial samples that were analyzed for grain size, composition and bulk density. Results revealed 3 distinct sectors: south - dominated by mud fraction with a recent deposition from riverine input until 30 m deep and from this depth bioclastic sands dominate; central north - sand mud dominated, been recognized as a bypass zone of resuspended sediment during high energy events; and north - relict sands with high carbonate content. The modern sedimentation processes along the Doce river continental shelf is dominated by distinct sedimentary regimes, showing a strong fluvial influence associated with wave/wind induced sediment dispersion and a carbonate regime along the outer shelf. These regimes seem to be controlled by the distance from the river mouth and bathymetric gradients.

  5. Developments in the utilisation of wind energy in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papadopoulos, A.M.; Glinou, G.L.; Papachristos, D.

    2008-01-01

    The utilisation of renewable energy sources, and wind energy in particular, can be described in Greece as a story of high expectations, intense initial entrepreneurial interest, delays in the start-up phase of projects and, some times, disappointments during the implementation procedure. Still, the current situation gives reasons for some optimism. This paper provides a review of the present technological background in wind generators, as found in the Greek market, as well as a detailed analysis of the legislative framework. Moreover, it aims to analyse the development of the process of granting investment and production permissions and their implementation since 1999. Thus, it is possible to identify the main reasons for the problems that occurred since the liberalisation of the electricity market and to account for the interest in wind energy. Finally, comments and proposals are formulated concerning the hidden barriers, the pertinent problems and the promising perspectives of the use of wind energy in Greece. (author)

  6. Causes of haze in the Columbia River Gorge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark Green; Jin Xu [Desert Research Institute, Reno, NV (United States)

    2007-08-15

    Visibility impairment in the Columbia River Gorge National Scenic Area is an area of concern. A field study conducted from July 2003 to February 2005 was followed by data analysis and receptor modeling to better understand the temporal and spatial patterns of haze and the sources contributing to the haze in the Columbia River Gorge in the states of Washington and Oregon. The nephelometer light scattering and surface meteorological data at eight sites along the gorge showed five distinct wind patterns, each with its characteristic diurnal and spatial patterns in light scattering by particles (b{sub sp}). In summer, winds were nearly always from west to east (upgorge) and showed decreasing b{sub sp} with distance into the gorge and a pronounced effect of the Portland, OR, metropolitan area on haze, especially in the western portions of the gorge. Winter often had winds from the east with very high levels of b{sub sp}, especially at the eastern gorge sites, with sources east of the gorge responsible for much of the haze. The major chemical components responsible for haze were organic carbon, sulfate, and nitrate. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) using chemically speciated Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments data indicated seven source factors in the western gorge and five factors in the eastern gorge. Organic mass is a large contributor to haze in the gorge in all seasons, with a peak in fall. Approximately half of the organic mass is biomass smoke, with mobile sources as the second largest contributor. PMF analysis showed nitrates mainly attributed to a generic secondary nitrate factor. Sulfate is a significant contributor in all seasons, with peak sulfate concentrations in summer. Sources east of the gorge, likely a coal-fired power plant, nearby dairy farm, and upriver cities, appear to be major contributors to wintertime haze in the gorge. 22 refs., 11 figs., 6 tabs.

  7. Wind/seismic comparison for upgrading existing structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giller, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    This paper depicts the analysis procedures and methods used to evaluate three existing building structures for extreme wind loads. The three structures involved in this evaluation are located at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. This site is characterized by open flat grassland with few surrounding obstructions and has extreme winds in lieu of tornados as a design basis accident condition. This group of buildings represents a variety of construction types, including a concrete stack, a concrete load-bearing wall structure, and a rigid steel-frame building. The three structures included in this group have recently been evaluated for response to the design basis earthquake that included non-linear time history effects. The resulting loads and stresses from the wind analyses were compared to the loads and stresses resulting from seismic analyses. This approach eliminated the need to prepare additional capacity calculations that were already contained in the seismic evaluations

  8. Wind power today: 1999 Wind Energy program highlights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weis-Taylor, Pat

    2000-04-06

    Wind Power Today is an annual publication that provides an overview for the Department of Energy's Wind Energy Program. The purpose of Wind Power Today is to show how DOE's Wind Energy Program supports wind turbine research and deployment in hopes of furthering the advancement of wind technologies that produce clean, low-cost, reliable energy for the 21st century. Content objectives include: Educate readers about the advantages and potential for widespread deployment of wind energy; explain DOE wind energy program objectives and goals; describe program accomplishments in research and application; examine the barriers to widespread deployment; describe benefits of continued research and development; facilitate technology transfer; attract cooperative wind energy projects with industry.

  9. Objective and subjective rating of tonal noise radiated from UK wind farms: Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This final report provides data on the assessment of tonal noise radiation from wind turbines in the United Kingdom. Both objective and subjective assessments of the noise pollution from various wind farms are incorporated in the study. Previous subjective tests are verified here using a larger subject and sample size compared to the initial study. The study also aims to produce an objective automatic tonal assessment procedure which identifies tones and broad band masking noise in wind farm radiated noise spectra. (UK)

  10. 40 CFR 53.43 - Test procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... sampling zone (see § 53.42(d)). To meet the maximum blockage limit of § 53.42(a) or for convenience, part... PM10 § 53.43 Test procedures. (a) Sampling effectiveness—(1) Technical definition. The ratio (expressed... evenly spaced isokinetic samplers in the sampling zone (see § 53.42(d)) of the wind tunnel. Collect...

  11. A Virtual Tool for Minimum Cost Design of a Wind Turbine Tower with Ring Stiffeners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Karpat

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Currently, renewable energy resources are becoming more important to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and increase energy efficiency. Researchers have focused on all components of wind turbines to increase reliability and minimize cost. In this paper, a procedure including a cost analysis method and a particle swarm optimization algorithm has been presented to efficiently design low cost steel wind turbine towers. A virtual tool is developed in MATLAB for the cost optimization of wind turbine steel towers with ring stiffeners using a particle swarm optimization algorithm. A wind turbine tower optimization problem in the literature is solved using the developed computer program. In the optimization procedure the optimization results match very well with the optimization results obtained previously. The wall thickness of the shell segments and the dimensions of the ring stiffeners are selected as the design variables, and the limits of the local buckling for the flat ring stiffeners, the local shell buckling limit, the panel ring buckling limit and the limitation of the frequency are considered the design constraints. Numerical examples are presented to understand the impacts of the design variables on the total cost of the wind turbine tower.

  12. Main results from Risoe's wind-diesel programme 1984-1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundsager, P.; Christensen, C.J.

    1991-12-01

    The report presents the results of the wind-diesel work done in projects at Risoe National Laboratory during the years 1984-90, including important earlier publications as appendices. The partners in the original joint project were Risoe National Laboratory, Denmark, and Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden. Chalmers has constructed and laboratory tested an advanced wind-diesel-battery system with variable speed operation of the wind turbine, while Risoe has established a flexible and versatile wind-diesel test facility and field tested Chalmers system. As part of the subsequent EFP projects Risoe designed and constructed a simple wind-diesel system without storage, characterized by several innovative features. This concept was part of a ''simple wind-diesel systems strategy'', in which immediate cost-effectiveness is ensured by the simplicity and reliability of the design. Dynamic computer models were developed for system design and analysis purposes, and a general logistic computer model was developed for the determination of fuel savings and power supply capabilities for a number of system configurations. In addition to a considerable body of experience the main results of activities are: A versatile wind-diesel test facility and a proposed standard wind-diesel test procedure. Two wind-diesel systems at each end of the spectrum of configurations. Computer models for logistic and dynamic modelling. The two systems represent the very simple system concept, believed to be a presently economically optimal configuration, and the very sophisticated concept believed to be a future optimal configuration. (au) (6 tabs., 67 ills., 25 refs.)

  13. The statistical prediction of offshore winds from land-based data for wind-energy applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walmsley, J.L.; Barthelmie, R.J.; Burrows, W.R.

    2001-01-01

    Land-based meteorological measurements at two locations on the Danish coast are used to predict offshore wind speeds. Offshore wind-speed data are used only for developing the statistical prediction algorithms and for verification. As a first step, the two datasets were separated into nine...... percentile-based bins, with a minimum of 30 data records in each bin. Next, the records were randomly selected with approximately 70% of the data in each bin being used as a training set for development of the prediction algorithms, and the remaining 30% being reserved as a test set for evaluation purposes....... The binning procedure ensured that both training and test sets fairly represented the overall data distribution. To base the conclusions on firmer ground, five permutations of these training and test sets were created. Thus, all calculations were based on five cases, each one representing a different random...

  14. Temporal Variability of Upper-level Winds at the Eastern Range, Western Range and Wallops Flight Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Ryan; Barbre, Robert E.

    2014-01-01

    Space launch vehicles incorporate upper-level wind profiles to determine wind effects on the vehicle and for a commit to launch decision. These assessments incorporate wind profiles measured hours prior to launch and may not represent the actual wind the vehicle will fly through. Uncertainty in the upper-level winds over the time period between the assessment and launch can be mitigated by a statistical analysis of wind change over time periods of interest using historical data from the launch range. Five sets of temporal wind pairs at various times (.75, 1.5, 2, 3 and 4-hrs) at the Eastern Range, Western Range and Wallops Flight Facility were developed for use in upper-level wind assessments. Database development procedures as well as statistical analysis of temporal wind variability at each launch range will be presented.

  15. Mapping mean annual and monthly river discharges: geostatistical developments for incorporating river network dependencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauquet, Eric

    2004-01-01

    Regional hydrology is one topic that shows real improvement in partly due to new statistical development and computation facilities. Nevertheless theoretical difficulties for mapping river regime characteristics or recover these features at un gauged location remain because of the nature of the variable under study: river flows are related to a specific area that is defined by the drainage basin, are spatially organised by the river network with upstream-downstream dependencies. Estimations of hydrological descriptors are required for studying links with ecological processes at different spatial scale, from local site where biological or/and water quality data are available to large scale for sustainable development purposes. This presentation aims at describing a method for runoff pattern along the main river network. The approach dedicated to mean annual runoff is based on geostatistical interpolation procedures to which a constraint of water budget has been added. Expansion in Empirical Orthogonal Function has been considered in combination with kriging for interpolating mean monthly discharges. The methodologies are implemented within a Geographical Information System and illustrated by two study cases (two large basins in France). River flow regime descriptors are estimated for basins of more than 50km 2 . Opportunities of collaboration with a partition of France into hydro-eco regions derived from geology and climate considerations is discussed. (Author)

  16. A new wind speed forecasting strategy based on the chaotic time series modelling technique and the Apriori algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Zhenhai; Chi, Dezhong; Wu, Jie; Zhang, Wenyu

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Impact of meteorological factors on wind speed forecasting is taken into account. • Forecasted wind speed results are corrected by the associated rules. • Forecasting accuracy is improved by the new wind speed forecasting strategy. • Robust of the proposed model is validated by data sampled from different sites. - Abstract: Wind energy has been the fastest growing renewable energy resource in recent years. Because of the intermittent nature of wind, wind power is a fluctuating source of electrical energy. Therefore, to minimize the impact of wind power on the electrical grid, accurate and reliable wind power forecasting is mandatory. In this paper, a new wind speed forecasting approach based on based on the chaotic time series modelling technique and the Apriori algorithm has been developed. The new approach consists of four procedures: (I) Clustering by using the k-means clustering approach; (II) Employing the Apriori algorithm to discover the association rules; (III) Forecasting the wind speed according to the chaotic time series forecasting model; and (IV) Correcting the forecasted wind speed data using the associated rules discovered previously. This procedure has been verified by 31-day-ahead daily average wind speed forecasting case studies, which employed the wind speed and other meteorological data collected from four meteorological stations located in the Hexi Corridor area of China. The results of these case studies reveal that the chaotic forecasting model can efficiently improve the accuracy of the wind speed forecasting, and the Apriori algorithm can effectively discover the association rules between the wind speed and other meteorological factors. In addition, the correction results demonstrate that the association rules discovered by the Apriori algorithm have powerful capacities in handling the forecasted wind speed values correction when the forecasted values do not match the classification discovered by the association rules

  17. Wind power integration : From individual wind turbine to wind park as a power plant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Y.

    2009-01-01

    As power capacities of single wind turbine, single wind park and total wind power installation are continuously increasing, the wind power begins to challenge the safety operation of the power system. This thesis focuses on the grid integration aspects such as the dynamic behaviours of wind power

  18. An evaluation of the WindEye wind lidar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dellwik, Ebba; Sjöholm, Mikael; Mann, Jakob

    Prevision of the wind field by remote sensing wind lidars has the potential to improve the performance of wind turbines. The functionality of a WindEye lidar developed by Windar Photonics A/S (Denmark) for the wind energy market was tested in a two months long field experiment. The WindEye sensor...... with a high accuracy during the whole campaign....

  19. Wind Structure and Wind Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brorsen, Michael

    The purpose of this note is to provide a short description of wind, i.e. of the flow in the atmosphere of the Earth and the loading caused by wind on structures. The description comprises: causes to the generation of windhe interaction between wind and the surface of the Earthhe stochastic nature...

  20. An Appropriate Wind Model for Wind Integrated Power Systems Reliability Evaluation Considering Wind Speed Correlations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Karki

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Adverse environmental impacts of carbon emissions are causing increasing concerns to the general public throughout the world. Electric energy generation from conventional energy sources is considered to be a major contributor to these harmful emissions. High emphasis is therefore being given to green alternatives of energy, such as wind and solar. Wind energy is being perceived as a promising alternative. This source of energy technology and its applications have undergone significant research and development over the past decade. As a result, many modern power systems include a significant portion of power generation from wind energy sources. The impact of wind generation on the overall system performance increases substantially as wind penetration in power systems continues to increase to relatively high levels. It becomes increasingly important to accurately model the wind behavior, the interaction with other wind sources and conventional sources, and incorporate the characteristics of the energy demand in order to carry out a realistic evaluation of system reliability. Power systems with high wind penetrations are often connected to multiple wind farms at different geographic locations. Wind speed correlations between the different wind farms largely affect the total wind power generation characteristics of such systems, and therefore should be an important parameter in the wind modeling process. This paper evaluates the effect of the correlation between multiple wind farms on the adequacy indices of wind-integrated systems. The paper also proposes a simple and appropriate probabilistic analytical model that incorporates wind correlations, and can be used for adequacy evaluation of multiple wind-integrated systems.

  1. The aerodynamic performance of the water pumping wind turbine for Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, S.; Islam, M.Q.

    2004-01-01

    In order to examine the feasibility of wind energy for water pumping in Bangladesh, an experimental investigation of performance characteristics of horizontal axis wind turbines has been conducted. Wind characteristics of various regions of Bangladesh have been analysed and hence a compatible design of horizontal axis wind turbine applicable to the pump has been suggested. The wind data collected by the meteorological department of Bangladesh for a period 16 years of 20 stations at different heights between 5m and 10m have been converted to 20m hub-height using power law. From these data monthly average speeds have been calculated. It is observed that for few regions of Bangladesh, there is reasonable wind speed available throughout the year to extract useful power. Considering a particular prospective region of Bangladesh a wind turbine has been designed for water pumping. The design incorporates the generalized procedure for determination of rotor and pump sizes. Thus it can be also used for any other region as well. In this paper, a generalized design for Bangladesh, a nomogram and an empirical relation have been developed for the rotor and the pump size for a particular region of Bangladesh.(author)

  2. Wind energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This chapter discusses the role wind energy may have in the energy future of the US. The topics discussed in the chapter include historical aspects of wind energy use, the wind energy resource, wind energy technology including intermediate-size and small wind turbines and intermittency of wind power, public attitudes toward wind power, and environmental, siting and land use issues

  3. Operational constraints and hydrologic variability limit hydropower in supporting wind integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, Alisha R; Blumsack, Seth A; Reed, Patrick M

    2013-01-01

    Climate change mitigation will require rapid adoption of low-carbon energy resources. The integration of large-scale wind energy in the United States (US) will require controllable assets to balance the variability of wind energy production. Previous work has identified hydropower as an advantageous asset, due to its flexibility and low-carbon emissions production. While many dams currently provide energy and environmental services in the US and globally, we find that multi-use hydropower facilities would face significant policy conflicts if asked to store and release water to accommodate wind integration. Specifically, we develop a model simulating hydroelectric operational decisions when the electric facility is able to provide wind integration services through a mechanism that we term ‘flex reserves’. We use Kerr Dam in North Carolina as a case study, simulating operations under two alternative reservoir policies, one reflecting current policies and the other regulating flow levels to promote downstream ecosystem conservation. Even under perfect information and significant pricing incentives, Kerr Dam faces operational conflicts when providing any substantial levels of flex reserves while also maintaining releases consistent with other river management requirements. These operational conflicts are severely exacerbated during periods of drought. Increase of payments for flex reserves does not resolve these operational and policy conflicts. (letter)

  4. 10 CFR 451.9 - Procedures for processing applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Procedures for processing applications. 451.9 Section 451.9 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION RENEWABLE ENERGY PRODUCTION INCENTIVES § 451.9... or operators of qualified renewable energy facilities using solar, wind, ocean, geothermal, and...

  5. Strategic wind power trading considering rival wind power production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Exizidis, Lazaros; Kazempour, Jalal; Pinson, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    In an electricity market with high share of wind power, it is expected that wind power producers may exercise market power. However, wind producers have to cope with wind’s uncertain nature in order to optimally offer their generation, whereas in a market with more than one wind producers, uncert...... depending on the rival’s wind generation, given that its own expected generation is not high. Finally, as anticipated, expected system cost is higher when both wind power producers are expected to have low wind power generation......In an electricity market with high share of wind power, it is expected that wind power producers may exercise market power. However, wind producers have to cope with wind’s uncertain nature in order to optimally offer their generation, whereas in a market with more than one wind producers......, uncertainty of rival wind power generation should also be considered. Under this context, this paper addresses the impact of rival wind producers on the offering strategy and profits of a pricemaker wind producer. A stochastic day-ahead market setup is considered, which optimizes the day-ahead schedules...

  6. Parametric Variation for Detailed Model of External Grid in Offshore Wind Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Myagkov, Vladimir; Petersen, Lennart; Laza, Burutxaga

    2014-01-01

    The representation of the external grid impedance is a key element in harmonic studies for offshore wind farms. The external grid impedance is here represented by two different approaches: by a simplified impedance model, based on values for short-circuit power and XR-ratio and by locus diagrams...... for defining a procedure for conducting harmonic studies in wind farms that can be used in commercial project developments....

  7. Modelling Wind for Wind Farm Layout Optimization Using Joint Distribution of Wind Speed and Wind Direction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Ju; Shen, Wen Zhong

    2015-01-01

    Reliable wind modelling is of crucial importance for wind farm development. The common practice of using sector-wise Weibull distributions has been found inappropriate for wind farm layout optimization. In this study, we propose a simple and easily implementable method to construct joint distribu...

  8. Fault Detection and Isolation and Fault Tolerant Control of Wind Turbines Using Set-Valued Observers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casau, Pedro; Rosa, Paulo Andre Nobre; Tabatabaeipour, Seyed Mojtaba

    2012-01-01

    Research on wind turbine Operations & Maintenance (O&M) procedures is critical to the expansion of Wind Energy Conversion systems (WEC). In order to reduce O&M costs and increase the lifespan of the turbine, we study the application of Set-Valued Observers (SVO) to the problem of Fault Detection...... and Isolation (FDI) and Fault Tolerant Control (FTC) of wind turbines, by taking advantage of the recent advances in SVO theory for model invalidation. A simple wind turbine model is presented along with possible faulty scenarios. The FDI algorithm is built on top of the described model, taking into account...

  9. LIDAR Wind Speed Measurements of Evolving Wind Fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simley, E.; Pao, L. Y.

    2012-07-01

    Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) systems are able to measure the speed of incoming wind before it interacts with a wind turbine rotor. These preview wind measurements can be used in feedforward control systems designed to reduce turbine loads. However, the degree to which such preview-based control techniques can reduce loads by reacting to turbulence depends on how accurately the incoming wind field can be measured. Past studies have assumed Taylor's frozen turbulence hypothesis, which implies that turbulence remains unchanged as it advects downwind at the mean wind speed. With Taylor's hypothesis applied, the only source of wind speed measurement error is distortion caused by the LIDAR. This study introduces wind evolution, characterized by the longitudinal coherence of the wind, to LIDAR measurement simulations to create a more realistic measurement model. A simple model of wind evolution is applied to a frozen wind field used in previous studies to investigate the effects of varying the intensity of wind evolution. LIDAR measurements are also evaluated with a large eddy simulation of a stable boundary layer provided by the National Center for Atmospheric Research. Simulation results show the combined effects of LIDAR errors and wind evolution for realistic turbine-mounted LIDAR measurement scenarios.

  10. A geomorphological characterisation of river systems in South Africa: A case study of the Sabie River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eze, Peter N.; Knight, Jasper

    2018-06-01

    Fluvial geomorphology affects river character, behaviour, evolution, trajectory of change and recovery potential, and as such affects biophysical interactions within a catchment. Water bodies in South Africa, in common with many other water-stressed parts of the world, are generally under threat due to increasing natural and anthropogenic influences including aridity, siltation and pollution, as well as climate and environmental change. This study reports on a case study to characterise the geomorphology of different river systems in South Africa, with the aim of better understanding their properties, controls, and implications for biophysical interactions including water quality, biodiversity (aquatic and riparian), and human activity within the catchment. The approach adopted is based on the River Styles® framework (RSF), a geomorphology-based approach developed for rivers in New Zealand and Australia, but applied here for the first time to South Africa. Based on analysis of remote sensing imagery, SRTM-2 digital topographic data and field observations on sites through the entire river system, six geomorphic elements were identified along the Sabie River, northeast South Africa (gorge, bedrock-forced meander, low-moderate sinuosity planform controlled sand bed, meandering sand bed, low sinuosity fine grained sand bed, and floodouts), using the RSF classification scheme and based on the RSF procedural tree of Brierley and Fryirs (2005). Previous geomorphological studies along the Sabie River have shown that different reaches respond differently to episodic floods; we use these data to link river geomorphological character (as defined by the RSF) to the hydrodynamic conditions and processes giving rise to such character. This RSF approach can be used to develop a new management approach for river systems that considers their functional biophysical behaviour within individual reaches, rather than considering them as homogeneous and uniform systems.

  11. Optimizing Wind And Hydropower Generation Within Realistic Reservoir Operating Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magee, T. M.; Clement, M. A.; Zagona, E. A.

    2012-12-01

    Previous studies have evaluated the benefits of utilizing the flexibility of hydropower systems to balance the variability and uncertainty of wind generation. However, previous hydropower and wind coordination studies have simplified non-power constraints on reservoir systems. For example, some studies have only included hydropower constraints on minimum and maximum storage volumes and minimum and maximum plant discharges. The methodology presented here utilizes the pre-emptive linear goal programming optimization solver in RiverWare to model hydropower operations with a set of prioritized policy constraints and objectives based on realistic policies that govern the operation of actual hydropower systems, including licensing constraints, environmental constraints, water management and power objectives. This approach accounts for the fact that not all policy constraints are of equal importance. For example target environmental flow levels may not be satisfied if it would require violating license minimum or maximum storages (pool elevations), but environmental flow constraints will be satisfied before optimizing power generation. Additionally, this work not only models the economic value of energy from the combined hydropower and wind system, it also captures the economic value of ancillary services provided by the hydropower resources. It is recognized that the increased variability and uncertainty inherent with increased wind penetration levels requires an increase in ancillary services. In regions with liberalized markets for ancillary services, a significant portion of hydropower revenue can result from providing ancillary services. Thus, ancillary services should be accounted for when determining the total value of a hydropower system integrated with wind generation. This research shows that the end value of integrated hydropower and wind generation is dependent on a number of factors that can vary by location. Wind factors include wind penetration level

  12. Envisat/ASAR images for the calibration of wind drag action in the Doñana wetlands 2D hydrodynamic model

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos Fuertes, Anaïs; Martí Cardona, Belén; Bladé i Castellet, Ernest; Dolz Ripollès, Josep

    2014-01-01

    Doñana National Park wetlands are located in southwest Spain, on the right bank of the Guadalquivir River, near the Atlantic Ocean coast. The wetlands dry out completely every summer and progressively flood again throughout the fall and winter seasons. Given the flatness of Doñana’s topography, the wind drag action can induce the flooding or emergence of extensive areas, detectable in remote sensing images. Envisat/ASAR scenes acquired before and during strong and persistent wind episodes ena...

  13. Electric industry restructuring, ancillary services, and the potential impact on wind

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirby, B.; Hirst, E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Parsons, B.; Porter, K. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)] [and others

    1997-12-31

    The new competitive electric power environment raises increased challenges for wind power. The DOE and EPRI wind programs have dealt extensively with the traditional vertically integrated utility planning and operating environment in which the host utility owns the generation (or purchases the power) and provides dispatch and transmission services. Under this traditional environment, 1794 MW of wind power, principally in California, have been successfully integrated into the U.S. electric power system. Another 4200 MW are installed elsewhere in the world. As issues have arisen, such as intermittency and voltage regulation, they have been successfully addressed with accepted power system procedures and practices. For an intermittent, non-dispatchable resource such as wind, new regulatory rules affecting power transmission services, raise questions about which ancillary services wind plants will be able to sell, which they will be required to purchase, and what the economic impacts will be on individual wind projects. This paper begins to look at issues of concern to wind in a restructured electric industry. The paper first briefly looks at the range of unbundled services and comments on their unique significance to wind. To illustrate the concerns that arise with restructuring, the paper then takes a more detailed look at a single service: regulation. Finally, the paper takes a brief look at technologies and strategies that could improve the competitive position of wind.

  14. Wind Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez D, J.M.

    1998-01-01

    The general theory of the wind energy conversion systems is presented. The availability of the wind resource in Colombia and the ranges of the speed of the wind in those which is possible economically to use the wind turbines are described. It is continued with a description of the principal technological characteristics of the wind turbines and are split into wind power and wind-powered pumps; and its use in large quantities grouped in wind farms or in autonomous systems. Finally, its costs and its environmental impact are presented

  15. Using artificial neural networks to determine the location of wind farms. Miedzna district case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pokonieczny Krzysztof

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article concerns issues pertaining to of selecting suitable areas for wind farms. The basic assumption of the study was to take into account both criteria related to the profitability of this type of power plant, as well as public interest, which means the harmonious and not burdensome functioning of these installations for local communities. The problem of wind farm localization may be solved by the application of artificial neural networks (ANN, which are a computational intelligence element. In the conducted analysis, the possibility of wind farm localization was considered for the primary grid field with dimensions of 100 by 100 m. To prepare the training set, topographic vector data from the VMap L2 and SRTM (Shuttle Radar Topography Mission digital terrain model were used. For each 100-meter × 100-meter grid, the input data was prepared, consisting of the factors which are important from the point of view of wind farm localization (forests, rivers, built-up areas etc.. Studies show that a properly trained neural network (using a representative number of samples and for the appropriate architecture, allows to process automation area classification in terms of placement on the wind turbines.

  16. Methodology for testing subcomponents; background and motivation for subcomponent testing of wind turbine rotor blades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antoniou, Alexandros; Branner, Kim; Lekou, D.J.

    2016-01-01

    This report aims to provide an overview of the design methodology followed by wind turbine blade structural designers, along with the testing procedure on full scale blades which are followed by testing laboratories for blade manufacturers as required by the relevant standards and certification...... bodies’ recommendations for design and manufacturing verification. The objective of the report is not to criticize the design methodology or testing procedure and the standards thereof followed in the wind energy community, but to identify those items offered by state of the art structural design tools...... investigations performed are based on the INNWIND.EU reference 10MW horizontal axis wind turbine [1]. The structural properties and material and layout definition used within IRPWIND are defined in the INNWIND.EU report [2]. The layout of the report includes a review of the structural analysis models used...

  17. Evaluation of wind farm efficiency and wind turbine wakes at the Nysted offshore wind farm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barthelmie, Rebecca Jane; Jensen, L.E.

    2010-01-01

    Here, we quantify relationships between wind farm efficiency and wind speed, direction, turbulence and atmospheric stability using power output from the large offshore wind farm at Nysted in Denmark. Wake losses are, as expected, most strongly related to wind speed variations through the turbine...... thrust coefficient; with direction, atmospheric stability and turbulence as important second order effects. While the wind farm efficiency is highly dependent on the distribution of wind speeds and wind direction, it is shown that the impact of turbine spacing on wake losses and turbine efficiency can...... be quantified, albeit with relatively large uncertainty due to stochastic effects in the data. There is evidence of the ‘deep array effect’ in that wake losses in the centre of the wind farm are under-estimated by the wind farm model WAsP, although overall efficiency of the wind farm is well predicted due...

  18. Wind Power Today: 2000 Wind Energy Program Highlights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weis-Taylor, W.

    2001-05-08

    Wind Power Today is an annual publication that provides an overview of the U.S. Department of Energy's Wind Energy Program. The purpose of Wind Power Today is to show how DOE's Wind Energy Program supports wind turbine research and deployment in hopes of furthering the advancement of wind technologies that produce clean, low-cost, reliable energy. Content objectives include: educate readers about the advantages and potential for widespread deployment of wind energy; explain the program's objectives and goals; describe the program's accomplishments in research and application; examine the barriers to widespread deployment; describe the benefits of continued research and development; facilitate technology transfer; and attract cooperative wind energy projects with industry.

  19. Dynamic aspects of large woody debris in river channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergaro, Alexandra; Caporali, Enrica; Becchi, Ignazio

    2015-04-01

    Large Woody Debris (LWD) are an integral component of the fluvial environment. They represent an environmental resource, but without doubt they represent also a risk factor for the amplification that could give to the destructive power of a flood event. While countless intervention in river channels have reintroduced wood in rivers with restoration and banks protection aims, during several flash flood events LWD have had a great part in catastrophic consequences, pointing out the urgency of an adequate risk assessment procedure. At present wood dynamics in rivers is not systematically considered within the procedures for the elaboration of hazard maps resulting in loss of prediction accuracy and underestimation of hazard impacts. The assessment inconsistency comes from the complexity of the question: several aspects in wood processes are not yet well known and the superposition of different physical phenomena results in great difficulty to predict critical scenarios. The presented research activity has been aimed to improve management skills for the assessment of the hydrologic risk associated to the presence of large woody debris in rivers, improving knowledge about LWD dynamic processes and proposing effective tools for monitoring and mapping river catchments vulnerability. Utilizing critical review of the published works, field surveys and experimental investigations LWD damaging potential has been analysed to support the identification of the exposed sites and the redaction of hazard maps, taking into account that a comprehensive procedure has to involve: a) Identification of the critical cross sections; b) Evaluation of wood availability in the river catchment; c) Prediction of hazard scenarios through the estimation of water discharge, wood recruitment and entrainment, wood transport and destination. Particularly, a survey sheets form for direct measurements has been implemented and tested in field to provide an investigation instruments for wood and river

  20. Salinity measurements collected by fishermen reveal a ``River in the Sea`` flowing along the eastern coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chaitanya, A.V.S.; Lengaigne, M.; Vialard, J.; Gopalakrishna, V.V.; Durand, F.; KranthiKumar, C.; Amritash, S.; Suneel, V.; Papa, F.; Ravichandran, M.

    Being the only tropical ocean bounded by a continent to the north, the Indian Ocean is home to the most powerful monsoon system on Earth. Monsoonal rains and winds induce huge river discharges and strong coastal currents in the northern Bay...

  1. Advancements in Wind Integration Study Data Modeling: The Wind Integration National Dataset (WIND) Toolkit; Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Draxl, C.; Hodge, B. M.; Orwig, K.; Jones, W.; Searight, K.; Getman, D.; Harrold, S.; McCaa, J.; Cline, J.; Clark, C.

    2013-10-01

    Regional wind integration studies in the United States require detailed wind power output data at many locations to perform simulations of how the power system will operate under high-penetration scenarios. The wind data sets that serve as inputs into the study must realistically reflect the ramping characteristics, spatial and temporal correlations, and capacity factors of the simulated wind plants, as well as be time synchronized with available load profiles. The Wind Integration National Dataset (WIND) Toolkit described in this paper fulfills these requirements. A wind resource dataset, wind power production time series, and simulated forecasts from a numerical weather prediction model run on a nationwide 2-km grid at 5-min resolution will be made publicly available for more than 110,000 onshore and offshore wind power production sites.

  2. Documentation, User Support, and Verification of Wind Turbine and Plant Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Zavadil; Vadim Zheglov; Yuriy Kazachkov; Bo Gong; Juan Sanchez; Jun Li

    2012-09-18

    As part of the Utility Wind Energy Integration Group (UWIG) and EnerNex's Wind Turbine Modeling Project, EnerNex has received ARRA (federal stimulus) funding through the Department of Energy (DOE) to further the progress of wind turbine and wind plant models. Despite the large existing and planned wind generation deployment, industry-standard models for wind generation have not been formally adopted. Models commonly provided for interconnection studies are not adequate for use in general transmission planning studies, where public, non-proprietary, documented and validated models are needed. NERC MOD (North American Electric Reliability Corporation) reliability standards require that power flow and dynamics models be provided, in accordance with regional requirements and procedures. The goal of this project is to accelerate the appropriate use of generic wind turbine models for transmission network analysis by: (1) Defining proposed enhancements to the generic wind turbine model structures that would allow representation of more advanced; (2) Comparative testing of the generic models against more detailed (and sometimes proprietary) versions developed by turbine vendors; (3) Developing recommended parameters for the generic models to best mimic the performance of specific commercial wind turbines; (4) Documenting results of the comparative simulations in an application guide for users; (5) Conducting technology transfer activities in regional workshops for dissemination of knowledge and information gained, and to engage electric power and wind industry personnel in the project while underway; (6) Designing of a "living" homepage to establish an online resource for transmission planners.

  3. Wind Climate Parameters for Wind Turbine Fatigue Load Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Henrik Stensgaard; Svenningsen, Lasse; Moser, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Site-specific assessment of wind turbine design requires verification that the individual wind turbine components can survive the site-specific wind climate. The wind turbine design standard, IEC 61400-1 (third edition), describes how this should be done using a simplified, equivalent wind climate...... climate required by the current design standard by comparing damage equivalent fatigue loads estimated based on wind climate parameters for each 10 min time-series with fatigue loads estimated based on the equivalent wind climate parameters. Wind measurements from Boulder, CO, in the United States...

  4. Manufacturing Development of the NCSX Modular Coil Windings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chrzanowski, JH; Fogarty, PJ; Heitzenroeder, PJ; Meighan, T.; Nelson, B.; Raftopoulos, S.; Williamson, D.

    2005-01-01

    The modular coils on the National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) present a number of significant engineering challenges due to their complex shapes, requirements for high dimensional accuracy and the high current density required in the modular coils due to space constraints. In order to address these challenges, an R and D program was established to develop the conductor, insulation scheme, manufacturing techniques, and procedures. A prototype winding named Twisted Racetrack Coil (TRC) was of particular importance in dealing with these challenges. The TRC included a complex shaped winding form, conductor, insulation scheme, leads and termination, cooling system and coil clamps typical of the modular coil design. Even though the TRC is smaller in size than a modular coil, its similar complex geometry provided invaluable information in developing the final design, metrology techniques and development of manufacturing procedures. In addition a discussion of the development of the copper rope conductor including ''Keystoning'' concerns; the epoxy impregnation system (VPI) plus the tooling and equipment required to manufacture the modular coils will be presented

  5. European Wind Atlas and Wind Resource Research in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Niels Gylling

    to estimate the actual wind climate at any specific site and height within this region. The Danish and European Wind Atlases are examples of how the wind atlas methodology can be employed to estimate the wind resource potential for a country or a sub-continent. Recently, the methodology has also been used...... - from wind measurements at prospective sites to wind tunnel simulations and advanced flow modelling. Among these approaches, the wind atlas methodology - developed at Ris0 National Laboratory over the last 25 years - has gained widespread recognition and is presently considered by many as the industry......-standard tool for wind resource assessment and siting of wind turbines. The PC-implementation of the methodology, the Wind Atlas Analysis and Application Program (WAsP), has been applied in more than 70 countries and territories world-wide. The wind atlas methodology is based on physical descriptions and models...

  6. When real life wind speed exceeds design wind assumptions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winther-Jensen, M; Joergensen, E R [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)

    1999-03-01

    Most modern wind turbines are designed according to a standard or a set of standards to withstand the design loads with a defined survival probability. Mainly the loads are given by the wind conditions on the site defining the `design wind speeds`, normally including extreme wind speeds given as an average and a peak value. The extreme wind speeds are normally (e.g. in the upcoming IEC standard for wind turbine safety) defined as having a 50-year recurrence period. But what happens when the 100 or 10,000 year wind situation hits a wind turbine? Results on wind turbines of wind speeds higher than the extreme design wind speeds are presented based on experiences especially from the State of Gujarat in India. A description of the normal approach of designing wind turbines in accordance with the standards in briefly given in this paper with special focus on limitations and built-in safety levels. Based on that, other possibilities than just accepting damages on wind turbines exposed for higher than design wind speeds are mentioned and discussed. The presentation does not intend to give the final answer to this problem but is meant as an input to further investigations and discussions. (au)

  7. Point-based POMDP Risk Based Inspection of Offshore Wind Substructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morato, Pablo G.; Mai, Quang A.; Rigo, Philippe

    2018-01-01

    This article presents a novel methodology to select the optimal maintenance strategy of an offshore wind structural component, providing a flexible and reliable support to decision-making and balancing inspection, repair and failure costs. The procedure to create a “Point-Based” Partially...

  8. Comparability of river quality assessment using macrophytes: a multi-step procedure to overcome biogeographical differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, F C; Segurado, P; Urbanič, G; Cambra, J; Chauvin, C; Ciadamidaro, S; Dörflinger, G; Ferreira, J; Germ, M; Manolaki, P; Minciardi, M R; Munné, A; Papastergiadou, E; Ferreira, M T

    2014-04-01

    This paper exposes a new methodological approach to solve the problem of intercalibrating river quality national methods when a common metric is lacking and most of the countries share the same Water Framework Directive (WFD) assessment method. We provide recommendations for similar works in future concerning the assessment of ecological accuracy and highlight the importance of a good common ground to make feasible the scientific work beyond the intercalibration. The approach herein presented was applied to highly seasonal rivers of the Mediterranean Geographical Intercalibration Group for the Biological Quality Element Macrophytes. The Mediterranean Group of river macrophytes involved seven countries and two assessment methods with similar acquisition data and assessment concept: the Macrophyte Biological Index for Rivers (IBMR) for Cyprus, France, Greece, Italy, Portugal and Spain, and the River Macrophyte Index (RMI) for Slovenia. Database included 318 sites of which 78 were considered as benchmarks. The boundary harmonization was performed for common WFD-assessment methods (all countries except Slovenia) using the median of the Good/Moderate and High/Good boundaries of all countries. Then, whenever possible, the Slovenian method, RMI was computed for the entire database. The IBMR was also computed for the Slovenian sites and was regressed against RMI in order to check the relatedness of methods (R(2)=0.45; p<0.00001) and to convert RMI boundaries into the IBMR scale. The boundary bias of RMI was computed using direct comparison of classification and the median boundary values following boundary harmonization. The average absolute class differences after harmonization is 26% and the percentage of classifications differing by half of a quality class is also small (16.4%). This multi-step approach to the intercalibration was endorsed by the WFD Regulatory Committee. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Numerical simulations of river discharges, nutrient flux and nutrient dispersal in Jakarta Bay, Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wulp, Simon A. van der; Damar, Ario; Ladwig, Norbert; Hesse, Karl-J.

    2016-01-01

    The present application of numerical modelling techniques provides an overview of river discharges, nutrient flux and nutrient dispersal in Jakarta Bay. A hydrological model simulated river discharges with a total of 90 to 377 m 3 s −1 entering Jakarta Bay. Daily total nitrogen and total phosphorus loads ranged from 40 to 174 tons and 14 to 60 tons, respectively. Flow model results indicate that nutrient gradients are subject to turbulent mixing by tides and advective transport through circulation driven by wind, barotropic and baroclinic pressure gradients. The bulk of nutrient loads originate from the Citarum and Cisadane rivers flowing through predominantly rural areas. Despite lower nutrient loads, river discharges from the urban area of Jakarta exhibit the highest impact of nutrient concentrations in the near shore area of Jakarta Bay and show that nutrient concentrations were not only regulated by nutrient loads but were strongly regulated by initial river concentrations and local flow characteristics. - Highlights: • Full overview of river discharges, nutrient flux and nutrient levels in Jakarta Bay • Important overview of nutrient flux from individual rivers • Simulations identify the principal drivers of water circulation and nutrient gradient. • Nutrient dispersion model includes the local effects of the Java Sea current system.

  10. Solar wind reconstruction from magnetosheath data using an adjoint approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabert, C.; Othmer, C.

    2015-01-01

    We present a new method to reconstruct solar wind conditions from spacecraft data taken during magnetosheath passages, which can be used to support, e.g., magnetospheric models. The unknown parameters of the solar wind are used as boundary conditions of an MHD (magnetohydrodynamics) magnetosheath model. The boundary conditions are varied until the spacecraft data matches the model predictions. The matching process is performed using a gradient-based minimization of the misfit between data and model. To achieve this time-consuming procedure, we introduce the adjoint of the magnetosheath model, which allows efficient calculation of the gradients. An automatic differentiation tool is used to generate the adjoint source code of the model. The reconstruction method is applied to THEMIS (Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms) data to calculate the solar wind conditions during spacecraft magnetosheath transitions. The results are compared to actual solar wind data. This allows validation of our reconstruction method and indicates the limitations of the MHD magnetosheath model used.

  11. Solar wind reconstruction from magnetosheath data using an adjoint approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nabert, C.; Othmer, C. [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Geophysik und extraterrestrische Physik; Glassmeier, K.H. [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Geophysik und extraterrestrische Physik; Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Goettingen (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    We present a new method to reconstruct solar wind conditions from spacecraft data taken during magnetosheath passages, which can be used to support, e.g., magnetospheric models. The unknown parameters of the solar wind are used as boundary conditions of an MHD (magnetohydrodynamics) magnetosheath model. The boundary conditions are varied until the spacecraft data matches the model predictions. The matching process is performed using a gradient-based minimization of the misfit between data and model. To achieve this time-consuming procedure, we introduce the adjoint of the magnetosheath model, which allows efficient calculation of the gradients. An automatic differentiation tool is used to generate the adjoint source code of the model. The reconstruction method is applied to THEMIS (Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms) data to calculate the solar wind conditions during spacecraft magnetosheath transitions. The results are compared to actual solar wind data. This allows validation of our reconstruction method and indicates the limitations of the MHD magnetosheath model used.

  12. 3D WindScanner lidar measurements of wind and turbulence around wind turbines, buildings and bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikkelsen, T.; Sjöholm, M.; Angelou, N.; Mann, J.

    2017-12-01

    WindScanner is a distributed research infrastructure developed at DTU with the participation of a number of European countries. The research infrastructure consists of a mobile technically advanced facility for remote measurement of wind and turbulence in 3D. The WindScanners provide coordinated measurements of the entire wind and turbulence fields, of all three wind components scanned in 3D space. Although primarily developed for research related to on- and offshore wind turbines and wind farms, the facility is also well suited for scanning turbulent wind fields around buildings, bridges, aviation structures and of flow in urban environments. The mobile WindScanner facility enables 3D scanning of wind and turbulence fields in full scale within the atmospheric boundary layer at ranges from 10 meters to 5 (10) kilometers. Measurements of turbulent coherent structures are applied for investigation of flow pattern and dynamical loads from turbines, building structures and bridges and in relation to optimization of the location of, for example, wind farms and suspension bridges. This paper presents our achievements to date and reviews briefly the state-of-the-art of the WindScanner measurement technology with examples of uses for wind engineering applications.

  13. Preliminary manual of the wind farms impacts study; Manuel preliminaire de l'etude d'impact des parcs eoliens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-11-01

    This document aims to present and propose tools and methods allowing the improve the environmental quality of the future wind farms projects. After a presentation of general notions on the wind farms and the economy of the wind energy, it presents the regulation and the procedures concerning the environmental impact. It proposes then the main possible effects and the impacts study themes. (A.L.B.)

  14. Wind Turbine Converter Control Interaction with Complex Wind Farm Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kocewiak, Lukasz Hubert; Hjerrild, Jesper; Bak, Claus Leth

    2013-01-01

    . The same wind turbine converter control strategy is evaluated in two different wind farms. It is emphasised that the grid-side converter controller should be characterised by sufficient harmonic/noise rejection and adjusted depending on wind farms to which it is connected. Various stability indices......This study presents wind turbine converter stability analysis of wind farms in frequency domain. The interaction between the wind turbine control system and the wind farm structure in wind farms is deeply investigated. Two wind farms (i.e. Horns Rev II and Karnice) are taken into consideration...... in this study. It is shown that wind farm components, such as long high-voltage alternating current cables and park transformers, can introduce significant low-frequency series resonances seen from the wind turbine terminals that can affect wind turbine control system operation and overall wind farm stability...

  15. Wind-Driven Ecological Flow Regimes Downstream from Hydropower Dams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, J.; Characklis, G. W.

    2012-12-01

    challenge, the following study was designed to investigate the potential for wind power integration to alter riparian flow regimes below hydroelectric dams. A hydrological model of a three-dam cascade in the Roanoke River basin (Virginia, USA) is interfaced with a simulated electricity market (i.e. a unit commitment problem) representing the Dominion Zone of PJM Interconnection. Incorporating forecasts of electricity demand, hydro capacity and wind availability, a mixed-integer optimization program minimizes the system cost of meeting hourly demand and reserve requirements by means of a diverse generation portfolio (e.g. nuclear, fossil, hydro, and biomass). A secondary 'balancing' energy market is executed if real-time wind generation is less than the day-ahead forecast, calling upon reserved generation resources to meet the supply shortfall. Hydropower release schedules are determined across a range of wind development scenarios (varying wind's fraction of total installed generating capacity, as well as its geographical source region). Flow regimes for each wind development scenario are compared against both historical and simulated flows under current operations (negligible wind power), as well as simulated natural flows (dam removal), in terms of ecologically relevant flow metrics. Results quantify the ability of wind power development to alter within-week stream flows downstream from hydropower dams.

  16. The Wind Integration National Dataset (WIND) toolkit (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caroline Draxl: NREL

    2014-01-01

    Regional wind integration studies require detailed wind power output data at many locations to perform simulations of how the power system will operate under high penetration scenarios. The wind datasets that serve as inputs into the study must realistically reflect the ramping characteristics, spatial and temporal correlations, and capacity factors of the simulated wind plants, as well as being time synchronized with available load profiles.As described in this presentation, the WIND Toolkit fulfills these requirements by providing a state-of-the-art national (US) wind resource, power production and forecast dataset.

  17. A critical note on the IAGA-endorsed Polar Cap index procedure. Effects of solar wind sector structure and reverse polar convection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stauning, P.

    2015-01-01

    The International Association of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy (IAGA) has recently endorsed a new Polar Cap (PC) index version to supersede the previous seven different versions of the PCN (North) index and the five different PCS (South) index versions. However, the new PC index has some adverse features which should be known and taken into account by users of the index. It uses in its derivation procedure an ''effective'' quiet day level (QDC) composed of a ''basic'' QDC and an added solar wind sector term related to the azimuthal component (B y ) of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). The added IMF B y -related terms may introduce unjustified contributions to the PC index of more than 2 index units (mV m -1 ). Furthermore, cases of reverse convection during strong northward IMF B z (NBZ) conditions included in the database for calculation of index coefficients can cause unjustified index enhancements of 0.5-1 mV m -1 during calm conditions, reduction of index values by more than 20% during disturbed conditions, and inconsistencies between index coefficients and index values for the northern and southern polar caps. The aim here is to specify these adverse features and quantify their effects, and to suggest alternative steps for future modifications of the index procedure.

  18. A critical note on the IAGA-endorsed Polar Cap index procedure. Effects of solar wind sector structure and reverse polar convection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stauning, P. [Danish Meteorological Institute, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2015-07-01

    The International Association of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy (IAGA) has recently endorsed a new Polar Cap (PC) index version to supersede the previous seven different versions of the PCN (North) index and the five different PCS (South) index versions. However, the new PC index has some adverse features which should be known and taken into account by users of the index. It uses in its derivation procedure an ''effective'' quiet day level (QDC) composed of a ''basic'' QDC and an added solar wind sector term related to the azimuthal component (B{sub y}) of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). The added IMF B{sub y}-related terms may introduce unjustified contributions to the PC index of more than 2 index units (mV m{sup -1}). Furthermore, cases of reverse convection during strong northward IMF B{sub z} (NBZ) conditions included in the database for calculation of index coefficients can cause unjustified index enhancements of 0.5-1 mV m{sup -1} during calm conditions, reduction of index values by more than 20% during disturbed conditions, and inconsistencies between index coefficients and index values for the northern and southern polar caps. The aim here is to specify these adverse features and quantify their effects, and to suggest alternative steps for future modifications of the index procedure.

  19. Wind power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gipe, P.

    2007-01-01

    This book is a translation of the edition published in the USA under the title of ''wind power: renewable energy for home, farm and business''. In the wake of mass blackouts and energy crises, wind power remains a largely untapped resource of renewable energy. It is a booming worldwide industry whose technology, under the collective wing of aficionados like author Paul Gipe, is coming of age. Wind Power guides us through the emergent, sometimes daunting discourse on wind technology, giving frank explanations of how to use wind technology wisely and sound advice on how to avoid common mistakes. Since the mid-1970's, Paul Gipe has played a part in nearly every aspect of wind energy development from installing small turbines to promoting wind energy worldwide. As an American proponent of renewable energy, Gipe has earned the acclaim and respect of European energy specialists for years, but his arguments have often fallen on deaf ears at home. Today, the topic of wind power is cropping up everywhere from the beaches of Cape Cod to the Oregon-Washington border, and one wind turbine is capable of producing enough electricity per year to run 200 average American households. Now, Paul Gipe is back to shed light on this increasingly important energy source with a revised edition of Wind Power. Over the course of his career, Paul Gipe has been a proponent, participant, observer, and critic of the wind industry. His experience with wind has given rise to two previous books on the subject, Wind Energy Basics and Wind Power for Home and Business, which have sold over 50,000 copies. Wind Power for Home and Business has become a staple for both homeowners and professionals interested in the subject, and now, with energy prices soaring, interest in wind power is hitting an all-time high. With chapters on output and economics, Wind Power discloses how much you can expect from each method of wind technology, both in terms of energy and financial savings. The book updated models

  20. Implementation of draft IEC Generic Model of Type 1 Wind Turbine Generator in PowerFactory and Simulink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Haoran; Wu, Qiuwei; Sørensen, Poul Ejnar

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the implementation work of IEC generic model of Type 1 wind turbine generator (WTG) in two commercial simulation tools: DIgSILENT PowerFactory (PF) and Matlab Simulink. The model topology, details of the composite blocks and implementation procedure in PF and Simulink environm......This paper presents the implementation work of IEC generic model of Type 1 wind turbine generator (WTG) in two commercial simulation tools: DIgSILENT PowerFactory (PF) and Matlab Simulink. The model topology, details of the composite blocks and implementation procedure in PF and Simulink...

  1. Wind energy research activities of the Dutch Electricity Generating Board

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halberg, N.

    1990-01-01

    The varying degrees of penetration of wind energy conversion systems (WECs) into the Dutch electricity generating system has been examined. A simulation has been carried out using wind data recorded at 6 sites spread across the area of interest in the Netherlands. The recorded wind data has been used in conjunction with a production costing model normally used by Sep (the Dutch Electricity Generating Board) for planning purposes. This model was modified to give a correct assessment of the quantity and value of fuel savings made by WECs. System studies were carried out for the year 2000 for zero wind penetration and for three distinctive penetration degrees of WECs, namely 5%, 10% and 15%. After incorporation of the WECS capacity, adjustments were made to the basic plant mix to allow the capacity credit WECs. Separate production cost simulations were executed for each distinct WECS capacity factor. Economic assessments were carried out using standard procedures. Except for the unpredictable development of fuel prices, the capital costs of the WECs proved to be the determinant for the economic viability of wind power. Significant improvements in costs and performance, as may be achieved through additional technological advances, are needed to made wind power competitive in widespread utility applications. (Author)

  2. Marine wind data presentation using wind transition matrix

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mascarenhas, A.J.; Gouveia, A.D.; Desai, R.G.P.

    One of the methods to simulate the random wind behaviour through time is to use historical wind data presented in the form of wind transition matrix. Here it is assumed that, the probability that the wind will shift from one direction to another...

  3. Detection and variability of the Congo River plume from satellite derived sea surface temperature, salinity, ocean colour and sea level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Jo; Lucas, Marc; Dufau, Claire; Sutton, Marion; Lauret, Olivier

    2013-04-01

    The Congo River in Africa has the world's second highest annual mean daily freshwater discharge and is the second largest exporter of terrestrial organic carbon into the oceans. It annually discharges an average of 1,250 × 109 m3 of freshwater into the southeast Atlantic producing a vast fresh water plume, whose signature can be traced hundreds of kilometres from the river mouth. Large river plumes such as this play important roles in the ocean carbon cycle, often functioning as carbon sinks. An understanding of their extent and seasonality is therefore essential if they are to be realistically accounted for in global assessments of the carbon cycle. Despite its size, the variability and dynamics of the Congo plume are minimally documented. In this paper we analyse satellite derived sea surface temperature, salinity, ocean colour and sea level anomaly to describe and quantify the extent, strength and variability of the far-field plume and to explain its behaviour in relation to winds, ocean currents and fresh water discharge. Empirical Orthogonal Function analysis reveals strong seasonal and coastal upwelling signals, potential bimodal seasonality of the Angola Current and responses to fresh water discharge peaks in all data sets. The strongest plume-like signatures however were found in the salinity and ocean colour where the dominant sources of variability come from the Congo River itself, rather than from the wider atmosphere and ocean. These two data sets are then analysed using a statistically based water mass detection technique to isolate the behaviour of the plume. The Congo's close proximity to the equator means that the influence of the earth's rotation on the fresh water inflow is relatively small and the plume tends not to form a distinct coastal current. Instead, its behaviour is determined by wind and surface circulation patterns. The main axis of the plume between November and February, following peak river discharge, is oriented northwest, driven

  4. Defining chemical status of a temporary Mediterranean River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoulikidis, Nikolaos Th

    2008-07-01

    Although the majority of rivers and streams in the Mediterranean area are temporary, no particular attention is being paid for such systems in the Water Framework Directive (WFD). A typical temporal Mediterranean river, draining an intensively cultivated basin, was assessed for its chemical status. Elevated concentrations of nitrates and salts in river water as well as nutrients and heavy metals in river sediments have been attributed to agricultural land uses and practices and point sources of organic pollution. A scheme for the classification of the river's chemical status (within the ecological quality classification procedure) was applied by combining pollution parameters in groups according to related pressures. In light of the temporal hydrological regime and anthropogenic impacts, sediment chemical quality elements were considered, in addition to hydrochemical ones. Despite the extensive agricultural activities in the basin, the majority of the sites examined showed a good quality and only three of them were classified as moderate. For the classification of the chemical quality of temporary water bodies, there is a need to develop ecologically relevant salinity and sediment quality standards.

  5. Physics-based Tests to Identify the Accuracy of Solar Wind Ion Measurements: A Case Study with the Wind Faraday Cups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasper, J. C.; Lazarus, A. J.; Steinberg, J. T.; Ogilvie, K. W.; Szabo, A.

    2006-01-01

    We present techniques for comparing measurements of velocity, temperature, and density with constraints imposed by the plasma physics of magnetized bi-Maxwellian ions. Deviations from these physics-based constraints are interpreted as arising from measurement errors. Two million ion spectra from the Solar Wind Experiment Faraday Cup instruments on the Wind spacecraft are used as a case study. The accuracy of velocity measurements is determined by the fact that differential flow between hydrogen and helium should be aligned with the ambient magnetic field. Modeling the breakdown of field alignment suggests velocity uncertainties are less than 0.16% in magnitude and 3deg in direction. Temperature uncertainty is found by examining the distribution of observed temperature anisotropies in high-beta solar wind intervals where the firehose, mirror, and cyclotron microinstabilities should drive the distribution to isotropy. The presence of a finite anisotropy at high beta suggests overall temperature uncertainties of 8%. Hydrogen and helium number densities are compared with the electron density inferred from observations of the local electron plasma frequency as a function of solar wind speed and year. We find that after accounting for the contribution of minor ions, the results are consistent with a systematic offset between the two instruments of 34%. The temperature and density methods are sensitive to non-Maxwellian features such as heat flux and proton beams and as a result are more suited to slow solar wind where these features are rare. These procedures are of general use in identifying the accuracy of observations from any solar wind ion instrument.

  6. Sea wind parameters retrieval using Y-configured Doppler navigation system data. Performance and accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khachaturian, A. B.; Nekrasov, A. V.; Bogachev, M. I.

    2018-05-01

    The authors report the results of the computer simulations of the performance and accuracy of the sea wind speed and direction retrieval. The analyzed measurements over the sea surface are made by the airborne microwave Doppler navigation system (DNS) with three Y-configured beams operated as a scatterometer enhancing its functionality. Single- and double-stage wind measurement procedures are proposed and recommendations for their implementation are described.

  7. Development and validation of a method to estimate the potential wind erosion risk in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Roger; Deumlich, Detlef; Völker, Lidia

    2017-04-01

    The introduction of the Cross Compliance (CC) regulations for soil protection resulted in the demand for the classification of the the wind erosion risk on agricultural areas in Germany nationwide. A spatial highly resolved method was needed based on uniform data sets and validation principles, which provides a fair and equivalent procedure for all affected farmers. A GIS-procedure was developed, which derives the site specific wind erosion risk from the main influencing factors: soil texture, wind velocity, wind direction and landscape structure following the German standard DIN 19706. The procedure enables different approaches in the Federal States and comparable classification results. Here, we present the approach of the Federal State of Brandenburg. In the first step a complete soil data map was composed in a grid size of 10 x 10 m. Data were taken from 1.) the Soil quality Appraisal (scale 1:10.000), 2.) the Medium-scale Soil Mapping (MMK, 1:25.000), 3.) extrapolating the MMK, 4.) new Soil quality Appraisal (new areas after coal-mining). Based on the texture and carbon content the wind erosion susceptibility was divided in 6 classes. This map was combined with data of the annual average wind velocity resulting in an increase of the risk classes for wind velocities > 5 ms-1 and a decrease for structure is regarded by allocating a height to each landscape element, corresponding to the described features in the digital "Biotope and Land Use Map". The "hill shade" procedure of ArcGIS was used to set virtual shadows behind the landscape elements for eight directions. The relative frequency of wind from each direction was used as a weighting factor and multiplied with the numerical values of the shadowed cells. Depending on the distance to the landscape element the shadowing effect was combined with the risk classes. The results show that the wind erosion risk is obviously reduced by integrating landscape structures into the risk assessment. After the renewed

  8. Fiscal 1999 research report. Revision of introduction guidebook for wind power generation; 1999 nendo furyoku hatsuden donyu guide book no kaitei gyomu chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Expectations are rapidly growing higher in Japan, whose energy supply structure is but fragile, that new energies upon introduction and diffusion will help settle emerging environmental problems such as global warming. For the acceleration of new energy introduction, it is necessary to supply autonomous entities etc. planning to adopt new energies with various materials such as basic knowledge of new energies, cases of successful introduction, and procedures to follow for their adoption. Wind power generation has come to attract attention as a environmentally-friendly clean method of energy supply, and there is a strong tendency towards its adoption. Under such circumstances, a guidebook has been prepared, in which study results are systematically written as to the items to consider before local autonomies etc. install their wind power generation systems. The main items in the guidebook are the outlines of wind power generation, wind characteristics, wind power generation system, precedents of wind power generation, how to conduct studies about wind power generation, construction and maintenance of wind power generation systems, procedures, laws, and regulations relating to wind power generation, and government subsidies for wind power development. (NEDO)

  9. Wind power forecast error smoothing within a wind farm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleck, Nadja; Bremen, Lueder von

    2007-01-01

    Smoothing of wind power forecast errors is well-known for large areas. Comparable effects within a wind farm are investigated in this paper. A Neural Network was taken to predict the power output of a wind farm in north-western Germany comprising 17 turbines. A comparison was done between an algorithm that fits mean wind and mean power data of the wind farm and a second algorithm that fits wind and power data individually for each turbine. The evaluation of root mean square errors (RMSE) shows that relative small smoothing effects occur. However, it can be shown for this wind farm that individual calculations have the advantage that only a few turbines are needed to give better results than the use of mean data. Furthermore different results occurred if predicted wind speeds are directly fitted to observed wind power or if predicted wind speeds are first fitted to observed wind speeds and then applied to a power curve. The first approach gives slightly better RMSE values, the bias improves considerably

  10. Wind Power Today: 1998 Wind Energy Program Highlights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tromly, K.

    1999-06-17

    The US Department of Energy's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy manages the Federal Wind Energy Program. The mission of the program is to help the US wind industry to complete the research, testing, and field verification needed to fully develop advanced wind technologies that will lead the world in cost-effectiveness and reliability. This publication, printed annually, provides a summary of significant achievements in wind energy made during the previous calendar year. Articles include wind energy in the Midwest, an Alaskan wind energy project, the US certification program, structural testing, and the federal program in review.

  11. Wind energy: Overcoming inadequate wind and modeling uncertainties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kane, Vivek

    2010-09-15

    'Green Energy' is the call of the day, and significance of Wind Energy can never be overemphasized. But the key question here is - What if the wind resources are inadequate? Studies reveal that the probability of finding favorable wind at a given place on land is only 15%. Moreover, there are inherent uncertainties associated with wind business. Can we overcome inadequate wind resources? Can we scientifically quantify uncertainty and model it to make business sense? This paper proposes a solution, by way of break-through Wind Technologies, combined with advanced tools for Financial Modeling, enabling vital business decisions.

  12. National Renewable Energy Laboratory program on lightning risk and wind turbine generator protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muljadi, E. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); McNiff, B. [McNiff Light Industry, Blue Hill, ME (United States)

    1997-12-31

    In the early development of wind turbine generators (WTG) in the United States, wind farms were primarily located in California where lightning activity is the lowest in the United States. As such, lightning protection for wind turbines was not considered to be a major issue for designers or wind farm operators. However, wind turbine installations are expanding into the Midwest, Southwest and other regions of the United States where lightning activity is significantly more intense and lightning damage to wind turbines is more common. There is a growing need, therefore, to better understand lightning activity on wind farms and to improve wind turbine lightning protection systems. In support of the U.S. Department of Energy/Electric Power Research Institute (DOE/EPRI) Utility Wind Turbine Verification Program (TVP), the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has recently begun to take steps to determine the extent of damage due to lightning and the effectiveness of various lightning protection techniques for wind power plants. Working through the TVP program, NREL will also perform outreach and education to (1) help manufacturers to provide equipment that is adequately designed to survive lightning, (2) make sure that operators are aware of effective safety procedures, and (3) help site designers and wind farm developers take the risk of lightning into account as effectively as possible.

  13. Operation Design of Wind Turbines in Strong Wind Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, Wen Zhong; Montes, Melissa Barroso; Odgaard, Peter Fogh

    2012-01-01

    and variable speed pitch regulated wind turbines. The variable speed design is more suitable for wind turbines to run at very high wind speeds which can help the turbine braking system to stop the turbine at the new "cut-out" wind speed. Reference power, rotational speed and pitch angle have been designed...... optimally. In order to reduce the possible increased loading, fatigue due to the wind gusts, control strategies have been considered for both constant sped and variable speed pitch regulated wind turbines. The control study shows that the designed controllers can reduce the standard deviations efficiently......In order to reduce the impact on the electrical grid from the shutdown of MW wind turbines at wind speeds higher than the cut-out wind speed of 25 m/s, we propose in this paper to run the turbines at high wind speeds up to 40 m/s. Two different operation designs are made for both constant speed...

  14. Stabilization of Aley river water content by forest stands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. G. Paramonov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Aley river basin is one of the most developed territories in West Siberia. Initially, the development here was related to the development of ore mining in the Altai. Currently it is associated mainly with the agricultural orientation of economic development. The intensive involvement of basin lands into the economic turnover for the last 100 years contributed to the formation of a number of environmental problems, such as water and wind erosion, loss of soil fertility and salinization, and desertification of the territory. Besides, the decrease of Aley river water content due to natural and anthropogenic reasons was observed. A specific feature of water management in Aley river basin is a significant amount of water resources used for irrigation purposes and agricultural water supply. To ensure the economic and drinking water supply, two reservoirs and a number of ponds have been constructed and operate in the basin. Forest ecosystems of the basin are considered from the viewpoint of preservation and restoration of small rivers. The ability of forest to accumulate solid precipitation and intercept them during the snowmelt for a longer time reduces the surface drainage and promotes transfer into the subsurface flow, significantly influencing the water content of permanent watercourses, is shown. The state of protective forest plantations in Aley river basin is analyzed. Aley river tributaries are compared by area, the length of water flow, and forest coverage of the basin. It is proposed to regulate the runoff through drastic actions on the increase of forest cover in the plain and especially in the mountainous parts of the basin. Measures to increase the forest cover within water protection zones, afforestation of temporary and permanent river basins, and the protection of agricultural soil fertility are worked out.

  15. Endurance Wind Power : practical insights into small wind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hicks, D.

    2008-01-01

    This presentation discussed practical issues related to purchasing and installing small wind turbines in Canada. Wind power capacity can be estimated by looking at provincial wind maps as well as by seeking wind data at local airports. Wind resources are typically measured at heights of between 20 meters and 50 m. The height of a wind turbine tower can significantly increase the turbine's wind generating capacity. Turbine rotors should always be placed 30 feet higher than obstacles within 500 feet. Many provinces have now mandated utilities to accept renewable energy resources from grid-connected wind energy plants. Net billing systems are used to determine the billing relationship between power-producing consumers and the utilities who will buy the excess power and sell it to other consumers. Utilities are not yet mandated to purchase excess power, and it is likely that federal and provincial legislation will be needed to ensure that net billing systems continue to grow. Many Canadian municipalities have no ordinances related to wind turbine placements. Consumers interested in purchasing small wind turbines should ensure that the turbine has been certified by an accredited test facility and has an adequate safety system. The noise of the turbine as well as its power performance in relation to the purchaser's needs must also be considered. It was concluded that small wind turbines can provide a means for electricity consumers to reduce their carbon footprint and hedge against the inflationary costs of fossil-fuelled energy resources. tabs., figs

  16. Operation and control of large wind turbines and wind farms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soerensen, Poul; Hansen, Anca D.; Thomsen, Kenneth (and others)

    2005-09-01

    This report is the final report of a Danish research project 'Operation and control of large wind turbines and wind farms'. The objective of the project has been to analyse and assess operational strategies and possibilities for control of different types of wind turbines and different wind farm concepts. The potentials of optimising the lifetime/energy production ratio by means of using revised operational strategies for the individual wind turbines are investigated. Different strategies have been simulated, where the power production is decreased to an optimum when taking loads and actual price of produced electricity into account. Dynamic models and control strategies for the wind farms have also been developed, with the aim to optimise the operation of the wind farms considering participation in power system control of power (frequency) and reactive power (voltage), maximise power production, keep good power quality and limit mechanical loads and life time consumption. The project developed models for 3 different concepts for wind farms. Two of the concepts use active stall controlled wind turbines, one with AC connection and one with modern HVDC/VSC connection of the wind farm. The third concept is based on pitch controlled wind turbines using doubly fed induction generators. The models were applied to simulate the behaviour of the wind farm control when they were connected to a strong grid, and some initial simulations were performed to study the behaviour of the wind farms when it was isolated from the main grid on a local grid. Also the possibility to use the available information from the wind turbine controllers to predict the wind speed has been investigated. The main idea has been to predict the wind speed at a wind turbine using up-wind measurements of the wind speed in another wind turbine. (au)

  17. VisibleWind: wind profile measurements at low altitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkerson, Tom; Bradford, Bill; Marchant, Alan; Apedaile, Tom; Wright, Cordell

    2009-09-01

    VisibleWindTM is developing an inexpensive rapid response system, for accurately characterizing wind shear and small scale wind phenomena in the boundary layer and for prospecting suitable locations for wind power turbines. The ValidWind system can also collect reliable "ground truth" for other remote wind sensors. The system employs small (0.25 m dia.) lightweight balloons and a tracker consisting of an Impulse 200 XL laser rangefinder coupled to a PC for automated data recording. Experiments on balloon trajectories demonstrate that the laser detection of range (+/- 0.5 m), together with measured azimuth and altitude, is an inexpensive, convenient, and capable alternative to other wind tracking methods. The maximum detection range has been increased to 2200 meters using micro-corner-cube retroreflector tape on balloons. Low power LEDs enable nighttime tracking. To avoid large balloon gyrations about the mean trajectory, we use balloons having low ascent rates and subcritical Reynolds numbers. Trajectory points are typically recorded every 4 - 7 seconds. Atmospheric features observed under conditions of inversions or "light and variable winds" include abrupt onsets of shear at altitudes of 100-250 m, velocity changes of order 1-3 m/s within layers of 10-20 m thickness, and veering of the wind direction by 180 degrees or more as altitude increases from 300 to 500 m. We have previously reported comparisons of balloon-based wind profiles with the output of a co-located sodar. Even with the Impulse rangefinder, our system still requires a "man in the loop" to track the balloon. A future system enhancement will automate balloon tracking, so that laser returns are obtained automatically at 1 Hz. While balloon measurements of large-scale, high altitude wind profiles are well known, this novel measurement system provides high-resolution, real-time characterization of the fluctuating local wind fields at the bottom of the boundary layer where wind power turbines and other

  18. Current R and D needs in wind energy technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maribo Pedersen, B.

    1995-01-01

    The meeting, hosted by NOVEM, the Netherlands Agency for Energy and the Environment, was attended by 22 people. The purpose of the meeting was to get an impression of how far the efforts spent until now on worldwide research and development have brought the general understanding of, and possibly solutions to, the various problems within wind energy technology - thereby providing some guidance as to where to go from now. In 1994 it was estimated that more than 100 million U.S. dollars was spent on R, D and D by those OECD countries which have a wind energy program, and that since 1974 at least 1000 mil. U.S. dollars must have been spent. The necessity of continued basic research within certain areas was recognized, and it was emphasized that the size of the research teams should always be greater than 'the critical mass'. There seemed to be consensus among all participants that the areas for continued research were the following: aerodynamics, aeroelasticity and load calculations, aeroacoustics (verification of fatigue calculation procedures for 3D stress distribution, establishing a data base of material properties), lightning protection measures, offshore installations (combined wind/wave loading, dynamics of support structures, wind and turbulence over the open sea), power conversion and wind turbine - grid interaction. (EG)

  19. Wind tunnel evaluation of the RAAMP sampler. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanderpool, R.W.; Peters, T.M.

    1994-11-01

    Wind tunnel tests of the Department of Energy RAAMP (Radioactive Atmospheric Aerosol Monitoring Program) monitor have been conducted at wind speeds of 2 km/hr and 24 km/hr. The RAAMP sampler was developed based on three specific performance objectives: (1) meet EPA PM10 performance criteria, (2) representatively sample and retain particles larger than 10 microm for later isotopic analysis, (3) be capable of continuous, unattended operation for time periods up to 2 months. In this first phase of the evaluation, wind tunnel tests were performed to evaluate the sampler as a potential candidate for EPA PM10 reference or equivalency status. As an integral part of the project, the EPA wind tunnel facility was fully characterized at wind speeds of 2 km/hr and 24 km/hr in conjunction with liquid test aerosols of 10 microm aerodynamic diameter. Results showed that the facility and its operating protocols met or exceeded all 40 CFR Part 53 acceptance criteria regarding PM10 size-selective performance evaluation. Analytical procedures for quantitation of collected mass deposits also met 40 CFR Part 53 criteria. Modifications were made to the tunnel's test section to accommodate the large dimensions of the RAAMP sampler's instrument case

  20. Studies on battery storage requirement of PV fed wind-driven induction generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajan Singaravel, M.M.; Arul Daniel, S.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Sizing of battery storage for PV fed wind-driven IG system is taken up. ► Battery storage is also used to supply reactive power for wind-driven IG. ► Computation of LPSP by incorporating uncertainties of irradiation and wind speed. ► Sizing of hybrid power system components to ensure zero LPSP. ► Calculated storage size satisfied the constraints and improves battery life. - Abstract: Hybrid stand-alone renewable energy systems based on wind–solar resources are considered to be economically better and reliable than stand-alone systems with a single source. An isolated hybrid wind–solar system has been considered in this work, where the storage (battery bank) is necessary to supply the required reactive power for a wind-driven induction generator (IG) during the absence of power from a photovoltaic (PV) array. In such a scheme, to ensure zero Loss of Power Supply Probability (LPSP) and to improve battery bank life, a sizing procedure has been proposed with the incorporation of uncertainties in wind-speed and solar-irradiation level at the site of erection of the plant. Based on the proposed procedure, the size of hybrid power system components and storage capacity are determined. Storage capacity has been calculated for two different requirements. The first requirement of storage capacity is common to any hybrid scheme, which is; to supply both real and reactive power in the absence of wind and solar sources. The second requirement is to supply reactive power alone for the IG during the absence of photovoltaic power, which is unique to the hybrid scheme considered in this work. Storage capacity calculations for different conditions using the proposed approach, satisfies the constraints of maintaining zero LPSP and also improved cycle life of the battery bank

  1. Design of a fibrous composite preform for wind turbine rotor blades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jens Zangenberg; Brøndsted, Povl; Kofoed, M.

    2014-01-01

    The present work addresses the different factors and challenges one must cope with in the design process of a composite preform used for the load-carrying main laminate of a wind turbine rotor blade. The design process is split up into different key elements, each of which are presented...... and discussed separately. The key elements are all interconnected, which complicate the design process and involves an iterative procedure. The aim is to provide an overview of the process that governs the design of composite preforms for wind turbine blades. The survey can be used as an information source...... on composite preform manufacturing. Basic knowledge on wind turbine blade technology and composites is assumed. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  2. Performance of automatic generation control mechanisms with large-scale wind power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ummels, B.C.; Gibescu, M.; Paap, G.C. [Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands); Kling, W.L. [Transmission Operations Department of TenneT bv (Netherlands)

    2007-11-15

    The unpredictability and variability of wind power increasingly challenges real-time balancing of supply and demand in electric power systems. In liberalised markets, balancing is a responsibility jointly held by the TSO (real-time power balancing) and PRPs (energy programs). In this paper, a procedure is developed for the simulation of power system balancing and the assessment of AGC performance in the presence of large-scale wind power, using the Dutch control zone as a case study. The simulation results show that the performance of existing AGC-mechanisms is adequate for keeping ACE within acceptable bounds. At higher wind power penetrations, however, the capabilities of the generation mix are increasingly challenged and additional reserves are required at the same level. (au)

  3. X-band COSMO-SkyMed wind field retrieval, with application to coastal circulation modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Montuori

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, X-band COSMO-SkyMed© synthetic aperture radar (SAR wind field retrieval is investigated, and the obtained data are used to force a coastal ocean circulation model. The SAR data set consists of 60 X-band Level 1B Multi-Look Ground Detected ScanSAR Huge Region COSMO-SkyMed© SAR data, gathered in the southern Tyrrhenian Sea during the summer and winter seasons of 2010. The SAR-based wind vector field estimation is accomplished by resolving both the SAR-based wind speed and wind direction retrieval problems independently. The sea surface wind speed is retrieved by means of a SAR wind speed algorithm based on the azimuth cut-off procedure, while the sea surface wind direction is provided by means of a SAR wind direction algorithm based on the discrete wavelet transform multi-resolution analysis. The obtained wind fields are compared with ground truth data provided by both ASCAT scatterometer and ECMWF model wind fields. SAR-derived wind vector fields and ECMWF model wind data are used to construct a blended wind product regularly sampled in both space and time, which is then used to force a coastal circulation model of a southern Tyrrhenian coastal area to simulate wind-driven circulation processes. The modeling results show that X-band COSMO-SkyMed© SAR data can be valuable in providing effective wind fields for coastal circulation modeling.

  4. Exploring Evidence of Land Surface Dynamics of River Basin Development in East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eluwa, C.; Brown, C.

    2017-12-01

    Improving the productivity of agricultural lands in Africa in the face of climate variability and change is vital to achieving food security. A variety of possible approaches exist, many of which focus on the development and expansion of irrigation - at times associated with dam construction to provide co-benefits of hydropower and water supply. Optimal development of river basin infrastructure such as this has long been a topic of interest in water resources systems analysis. Recent advances have focused on addressing the uncertainty associated with climate change in the development of river basin plans. However, such studies rarely consider either the uncertainty from changing local surface-atmosphere interactions via basin development or the attendant effects on local ecosystems, precipitation, evapotranspiration and consequently the availability of water for the proposed projects. Some numerical experiments have described and reproduced the mechanisms via which river basin infrastructure influences local climatology in Sahelian Africa. However, no studies have explored available data for evidence of land-atmosphere interactions associated with actual development projects. This study explores the correlation of seasonal soil moisture and latent heat flux over currently dammed/irrigated areas on downwind precipitation in the East Africa region (bounded by 0N, -15N, 25E, 40E) at the mesoscale (30km - 100km) to unearth evidence of local climatological effects of river basin development (irrigation schemes). The adopted process is (1) use reanalysis data to derive mean wind directions at 800hPa for selected regions (2) use mean wind directions (and orthogonal directions) to locate high (and low) impact areas 30 -100km downwind (3) extract precipitation time series for downwind locations from three different gridded products (CRU, GCPC, PRINCETON) (4) compare precipitation time series across datasets in high/low impact areas and correlate with upwind latent heat flux

  5. Wind Power Meteorology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundtang Petersen, Erik; Mortensen, Niels Gylling; Landberg, Lars

    Wind power meteorology has evolved as an applied science, firmly founded on boundary-layer meteorology, but with strong links to climatology and geography. It concerns itself with three main areas: siting of wind turbines, regional wind resource assessment, and short-term prediction of the wind...... resource. The history, status and perspectives of wind power meteorology are presented, with emphasis on physical considerations and on its practical application. Following a global view of the wind resource, the elements of boundary layer meteorology which are most important for wind energy are reviewed......: wind profiles and shear, turbulence and gust, and extreme winds. The data used in wind power meteorology stem mainly from three sources: onsite wind measurements, the synoptic networks, and the re-analysis projects. Wind climate analysis, wind resource estimation and siting further require a detailed...

  6. Remote Sensing Wind and Wind Shear System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contents: Remote sensing of wind shear and the theory and development of acoustic doppler; Wind studies; A comparison of methods for the remote detection of winds in the airport environment; Acoustic doppler system development; System calibration; Airport operational tests.

  7. Wind for Schools: A Wind Powering America Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Department of Energy, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Wind Powering America program (based at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory) sponsors the Wind for Schools Project to raise awareness in rural America about the benefits of wind energy while simultaneously educating college seniors regarding wind energy applications. The three primary project goals of…

  8. Wind or water turbine power augmentation using the system of guiding surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashurin, V P; Ktitorov, L V; Lazareva, A S; Pletenev, F A; Budnikov, I N; Hatunkin, V Yu; Klevtsov, V A; Meshkov, E E; Novikova, I A; Yanbaev, G M

    2016-01-01

    As fluid flows through a conventional wind or hydro turbine, it slows from losing energy to extraction from a turbine and spreads out to a wider area. This results in a loss of turbine efficiency. In order to exploit wind or water flow power more effectively, it was suggested to place the turbine inside a system of specially designed airfoils (‘a flow booster’). One part of the booster (‘a nozzle’) improves the turbine performance by speeding up the flow acting on the turbine blades. The other part of the accelerating system (‘a diffuser’) creates a field of low pressure behind the turbine which helps to draw more mass flow to the turbine and avoid the loss of efficiency due to flow deceleration. The flow booster accumulates the kinetic energy of the flow (e.g. river flow or wind) in a small volume where the smaller turbine can be installed. Another possible application of the booster could be the improvement of wind turbine efficiency during low wind period. The present paper also discusses the possibility of kinetic energy accumulation by the use of several accelerating systems of different sizes—the smaller one can be installed inside the bigger one. It helps to accumulate even more kinetic energy on the turbine blades. We call this method the kinetic energy cumulation. Lab and field experiments and CFD simulations of shrouded turbine demonstrate significant increase in velocity in comparison of those for conventional (bare) turbines. (paper)

  9. Ship collisions against wind turbines, quays and bridge piers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2013-01-01

    Analytical procedures are presented for analysis of the external dynamics of ship collisions against bottom supported flexible as well as rigid offshore structures such as wind turbine structures, quays and bridge piers. Based on the principles of conservation of momentum and energy algebraic...... expressions are derived for the maximum values of collision forces and energy released for local crushing. The expressions are derived for arbitrary impact locations and they are well suited for application in risk analysis procedures. Numerical results show that for piled towers the structural flexibility...

  10. Wind-driven marine phytoplank blooms: Satellite observation and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, DanLing

    2016-07-01

    Algal bloom is defined as a rapid increase or accumulation in biomass in an aquatic system. It not only can increase the primary production but also could result in negative ecological consequence, e.g.,Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs). According to the classic theory for the formation of algal blooms "critical depth" and "eutrophication", oligotrophic sea area is usually difficult to form a large area of algal blooms, and actuallythe traditional observation is only sporadic capture to the existence of algal blooms.Taking full advantage of multiple data of satellite remote sensing , this study introduces "Wind-driven algal blooms in open oceans: observation and mechanisms" It explained except classic coastal Ekman transport, the wind through a variety of mechanisms affecting the formation of algal blooms. Proposed a conceptual model of "Strong wind -upwelling-nutrient-phytoplankton blooms" in Western South China Sea (SCS) to assess role of wind-induced advection transport in phytoplankton bloom formation. It illustrates the nutrient resources that support long-term offshore phytoplankton blooms in the western SCS; (2)Proposal of the theory that "typhoons cause vertical mixing, induce phytoplankton blooms", and quantify their important contribution to marine primary production; Proposal a new ecological index for typhoon. Proposed remote sensing inversion models. (3)Finding of the spatial and temporaldistributions pattern of harmful algal bloom (HAB)and species variations of HAB in the South Yellow Sea and East China Sea, and in the Pearl River estuary, and their oceanic dynamic mechanisms related with monsoon; The project developed new techniques and generated new knowledge, which significantly improved understanding of the formation mechanisms of algal blooms. The proposed "wind-pump" mechanism integrates theoretical system combined "ocean dynamics, development of algal blooms, and impact on primary production", which will benefit fisheries management. These

  11. Application of two quality indices as monitoring and management tools of rivers. Case study: the Imera Meridionale River, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonanno, Giuseppe; Lo Giudice, Rosa

    2010-04-01

    On the basis of the European Water Framework Directive (2000/60), the water resources of the member states of the European Community should reach good quality standards by 2015. Although such regulations illustrate the basic points for a comprehensive and effective policy of water monitoring and management, no practical tools are provided to face and solve the issues concerning freshwater ecosystems such as rivers. The Italian government has developed a set of regulations as adoption of the European Directive but failed to indicate feasible procedures for river monitoring and management. On a local scale, Sicilian authorities have implemented monitoring networks of watersheds, aiming at describing the general conditions of rivers. However, such monitoring programs have provided a relatively fragmentary picture of the ecological conditions of the rivers. In this study, the integrated use of environmental quality indices is proposed as a methodology able to provide a practical approach to river monitoring and management. As a case study, the Imera Meridionale River, Sicily's largest river, was chosen. The water quality index developed by the U.S. National Sanitation Foundation and the floristic quality index based on the Wilhelm method were applied. The former enabled us to describe the water quality according to a spatial-temporal gradient, whereas the latter focused on the ecological quality of riparian vegetation. This study proposes a holistic view of river ecosystems by considering biotic and abiotic factors in agreement with the current European regulations. How the combined use of such indices can guide sustainable management efforts is also discussed.

  12. Application of Two Quality Indices as Monitoring and Management Tools of Rivers. Case Study: The Imera Meridionale River, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonanno, Giuseppe; Giudice, Rosa Lo

    2010-04-01

    On the basis of the European Water Framework Directive (2000/60), the water resources of the member states of the European Community should reach good quality standards by 2015. Although such regulations illustrate the basic points for a comprehensive and effective policy of water monitoring and management, no practical tools are provided to face and solve the issues concerning freshwater ecosystems such as rivers. The Italian government has developed a set of regulations as adoption of the European Directive but failed to indicate feasible procedures for river monitoring and management. On a local scale, Sicilian authorities have implemented monitoring networks of watersheds, aiming at describing the general conditions of rivers. However, such monitoring programs have provided a relatively fragmentary picture of the ecological conditions of the rivers. In this study, the integrated use of environmental quality indices is proposed as a methodology able to provide a practical approach to river monitoring and management. As a case study, the Imera Meridionale River, Sicily’s largest river, was chosen. The water quality index developed by the U.S. National Sanitation Foundation and the floristic quality index based on the Wilhelm method were applied. The former enabled us to describe the water quality according to a spatial-temporal gradient, whereas the latter focused on the ecological quality of riparian vegetation. This study proposes a holistic view of river ecosystems by considering biotic and abiotic factors in agreement with the current European regulations. How the combined use of such indices can guide sustainable management efforts is also discussed.

  13. Columbia River system operation review. Final environmental impact statement. Appendix J, recreation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    This Appendix J of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Columbia River System discusses impacts on the recreational activities in the region. Major sections include the following: scope and processes; recreation in the Columbia River Basin today - by type, location, participation, user characteristics, factors which affect usage, and managing agencies; recreation analysis procedures and methodology; and alternatives and their impacts

  14. Columbia River System Operation Review : Final Environmental Impact Statement, Appendix J: Recreation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Columbia River System Operation Review (U.S.)

    1995-11-01

    This Appendix J of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Columbia River System discusses impacts on the recreational activities in the region. Major sections include the following: scope and processes; recreation in the Columbia River Basin today - by type, location, participation, user characteristics, factors which affect usage, and managing agencies; recreation analysis procedures and methodology; and alternatives and their impacts.

  15. Finite-element analysis and modal testing of a rotating wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carne, T. G.; Lobitz, D. W.; Nord, A. R.; Watson, R. A.

    1982-10-01

    A finite element procedure, which includes geometric stiffening, and centrifugal and Coriolis terms resulting from the use of a rotating coordinate system, was developed to compute the mode shapes and frequencies of rotating structures. Special applications of this capability was made to Darrieus, vertical axis wind turbines. In a parallel development effort, a technique for the modal testing of a rotating vertical axis wind turbine is established to measure modal parameters directly. Results from the predictive and experimental techniques for the modal frequencies and mode shapes are compared over a wide range of rotational speeds.

  16. FEATURES AND PROSPECTS FOR USE OF WIND-POWERED DRIVE ON AGRICULTURAL AIRPLANE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the wind-powered drive location and functioning pecularities of agricultural airplane special equipment. The data on the advantages and prospects of the use of the wind-powered drive on agricultural aircraft as well as the experimental and analytical data on discontinuity of the wind stream in the zone of the wind-powered drive installa- and parameters of its operation at aerial spraying on the example of specially equipped An-2 are presented. A mathe- matical model of a wind propeller in discontinuous wind stream is developed. Software package to comprehensively assess wind-powered drive conditions and performance indicators is generated and tested taking into account experimental data, as well as airplane performance and flight modes. The typical data on the wind propeller and the wind-powered drive in the spraying process are received; specific features of the dynamics at the wind-powered drive turning-on and the wind propel- ler rotation at zero load are determined and the data on the wind-propeller blades load imbalance at spraying and transient processes are defined. The author made a quantitative estimation of how the standard change of flight parameters and the operation of the aircraft power plant at spraying influence on the factors of wind-powered drive operation and working liq- uids suppey. The main tendencies, qualitative and quantitative aspects of a wind-powered drive use are defined when per- forming aerial works and the proposals and recommendations for improving and using it in the future are made. The find- ings of the work can be used in the wind-powered drive of agricultural airplane special equipment designing and moderni- zation and drilling of the operational and technological procedures of aerial works performance in agriculture and forestry.

  17. Scour depth estimation using an equation based on wind tunnel experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Tsutsui Takayuki

    2016-01-01

    Scour is the result of degradation and aggradation by wind or moving fluid in the front and back of a pole standing in sand, respectively, and is often observed at the bottom of bridge piers in rivers. In this study, we propose a method of estimating the scour depth around a cylindrical structure standing in sand. The relationships among the depth of the scour, the aspect ratio of the structure (= height/diameter), the fluid velocity, and the sand properties (particle size and density) were d...

  18. Design of DOE facilities for wind-generated missiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuilanoff, G.; Drake, R.M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents criteria and procedures for the design of structures and components for wind-generated missiles. Methods for determining missile-induced loading, calculated structural response, performance requirements, and design considerations are covered. The presented criteria is applicable to Safety-Related concrete buildings as a whole and to all their exposed external components including walls, roofs, and supporting structural systems and elements

  19. Snow Cover, Snowmelt Timing and Stream Power in the Wind River Range, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Dorothy K.; Foster, James L.; DiGirolamo, Nicolo E.; Riggs, George A.

    2011-01-01

    Earlier onset of springtime weather, including earlier snowmelt, has been documented in the western United States over at least the last 50 years. Because the majority (is greater than 70%) of the water supply in the western U.S. comes from snowmelt, analysis of the declining spring snowpack (and shrinking glaciers) has important implications for the management of streamflow. The amount of water in a snowpack influences stream discharge which can also influence erosion and sediment transport by changing stream power, or the rate at which a stream can do work, such as move sediment and erode the stream bed. The focus of this work is the Wind River Range (WRR) in west-central Wyoming. Ten years of Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) snow-cover, cloud-gap-filled (CGF) map products and 30 years of discharge and meteorological station data are studied. Streamflow data from streams in WRR drainage basins show lower annual discharge and earlier snowmelt in the decade of the 2000s than in the previous three decades, though no trend of either lower streamflow or earlier snowmelt was observed within the decade of the 2000s. Results show a statistically-significant trend at the 95% confidence level (or higher) of increasing weekly maximum air temperature (for three out of the five meteorological stations studied) in the decade of the 1970s, and also for the 40-year study period as a whole. The extent of snow-cover (percent of basin covered) derived from the lowest elevation zone (2500-3000 m) of the WRR, using MODIS CGF snow-cover maps, is strongly correlated with maximum monthly discharge on 30 April, where Spearman's Rank correlation, rs,=0.89 for the decade of the 2000s. We also investigated stream power for Bull Lake Creek above Bull Lake; and found a trend (significant at the 90% confidence level) toward reduced stream power from 1970 to 2009. Observed changes in streamflow and stream power may be related to increasing weekly maximum air temperature

  20. Offshore wind resource estimation for wind energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Badger, Merete; Mouche, A.

    2010-01-01

    Satellite remote sensing from active and passive microwave instruments is used to estimate the offshore wind resource in the Northern European Seas in the EU-Norsewind project. The satellite data include 8 years of Envisat ASAR, 10 years of QuikSCAT, and 23 years of SSM/I. The satellite observati......Satellite remote sensing from active and passive microwave instruments is used to estimate the offshore wind resource in the Northern European Seas in the EU-Norsewind project. The satellite data include 8 years of Envisat ASAR, 10 years of QuikSCAT, and 23 years of SSM/I. The satellite...... observations are compared to selected offshore meteorological masts in the Baltic Sea and North Sea. The overall aim of the Norsewind project is a state-of-the-art wind atlas at 100 m height. The satellite winds are all valid at 10 m above sea level. Extrapolation to higher heights is a challenge. Mesoscale...... modeling of the winds at hub height will be compared to data from wind lidars observing at 100 m above sea level. Plans are also to compare mesoscale model results and satellite-based estimates of the offshore wind resource....

  1. A Dynamic Programming based method for optimizing power system restoration with high wind power penetration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Rui; Hu, Weihao; Li, Pengfei

    2016-01-01

    and relatively low cost. Thus, many countries are increasing the wind power penetration in their power system step by step, such as Denmark, Spain and Germany. The incremental wind power penetration brings a lot of new issues in operation and programming. The power system sometimes will operate close to its...... stable limits. Once the blackout happens, a well-designed restoration strategy is significant. This paper focuses on how to ameliorate the power system restoration procedures to adapt the high wind power penetration and how to take full advantages of the wind power plants during the restoration....... In this paper, the possibility to exploit the stochastic wind power during restoration was discussed, and a Dynamic Programming (DP) method was proposed to make wind power contribute in the restoration rationally as far as possible. In this paper, the method is tested and verified by a modified IEEE 30 Buses...

  2. Numerical analysis of air pollution in a combined field of land/sea breeze and mountain/valley wind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitada, T.; Igarashi, K.; Owada, M.

    1986-01-01

    Air pollution in the presence of two types of local flows (i.e., land/sea breeze and mountain/valley wind) was studies by advection simulation of the cluster of hypothetical fluid particles, and transport/chemistry calculation employing a three-dimensional Eulerian model for 20 advected species and about 90 chemical reactions. Three-dimensional flow fields over the River Yahagi basin in Japan were estimated for 48 h using an objective method with routine wind observations. Those obtained showed characteristics of the combined local flows such that in the daytime sea breeze and valley wind tend to form one united flow with substantial wind velocity in the whole region and, in contrast, land breeze and mountain wind during the nighttime form two separated circulating flows with a clear weak-wind area between the two local flow regimes. The results of the advection simulation of fluid particles and the transport/chemistry calculation using those flows as inputs elucidated how the features found in the diurnally varying, complex local flows contribute to produce characteristic time-variations of the concentrations of both primary and secondary pollutants. Among others, dynamics of NO 2 , HNO 3 , PAN, O 3 , SO 2 , and SO 4 /sup =/ concentrations are discussed

  3. Wind Observatory 2017. Analysis of the wind power market, wind jobs and future of the wind industry in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-09-01

    Two years after the enactment of the Energy Transition for Green Growth Act, wind power capacity continues to grow in France, exceeding 12 GWatt the end of 2016 and soon to account for 5% of France's electric power consumption. This vitality, which is set to continue in 2017, will help France achieve its objectives of an installed capacity of 15,000 MW in onshore wind by 2018 and 21,800 to 26,000 MW by 2023. The current pace will nevertheless have to be accelerated in order to reach the realistic objective of 26 GW by 2023 mentioned in the multi-annual energy plan (PPE). With 1,400 jobs created in one year and more than 3,300 over the last two years, the relevance of wind power as a driving force of sustainable job creation throughout the country is unequivocally confirmed: the increase in wind power capacity continues to contribute to the growth in employment in the country. Prepared in collaboration with the consulting firm BearingPoint, the 2017 edition of the Observatory aims to give the reader an overview of employment in the wind industry and the wind power market over the period under consideration. Any changes from the three previous editions are highlighted. It is based on a comprehensive census of all market participants on three themes: employment, the market and the future of wind power. The Observatory gives an accurate picture of how the wind energy industry is structured, thereby presenting a precise overview of the wind energy industry and all its components

  4. Extreme wind estimate for Hornsea wind farm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsén, Xiaoli Guo

    The purpose of this study is to provide estimation of the 50-year winds of 10 min and 1-s gust value at hub height of 100 m, as well as the design parameter shear exponent for the Hornsea offshore wind farm. The turbulence intensity required for estimating the gust value is estimated using two...... approaches. One is through the measurements from the wind Doppler lidar, WindCube, which implies serious uncertainty, and the other one is through similarity theory for the atmospheric surface layer where the hub height is likely to belong to during strong storms. The turbulence intensity for storm wind...... strength is taken as 0.1. The shear exponents at several heights were calculated from the measurements. The values at 100 m are less than the limit given by IEC standard for all sectors. The 50-year winds have been calculated from various global reanalysis and analysis products as well as mesoscale models...

  5. Wind wave analysis in depth limited water using OCEANLYZ, A MATLAB toolbox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimpour, Arash; Chen, Qin

    2017-09-01

    There are a number of well established methods in the literature describing how to assess and analyze measured wind wave data. However, obtaining reliable results from these methods requires adequate knowledge on their behavior, strengths and weaknesses. A proper implementation of these methods requires a series of procedures including a pretreatment of the raw measurements, and adjustment and refinement of the processed data to provide quality assurance of the outcomes, otherwise it can lead to untrustworthy results. This paper discusses potential issues in these procedures, explains what parameters are influential for the outcomes and suggests practical solutions to avoid and minimize the errors in the wave results. The procedure of converting the water pressure data into the water surface elevation data, treating the high frequency data with a low signal-to-noise ratio, partitioning swell energy from wind sea, and estimating the peak wave frequency from the weighted integral of the wave power spectrum are described. Conversion and recovery of the data acquired by a pressure transducer, particularly in depth-limited water like estuaries and lakes, are explained in detail. To provide researchers with tools for a reliable estimation of wind wave parameters, the Ocean Wave Analyzing toolbox, OCEANLYZ, is introduced. The toolbox contains a number of MATLAB functions for estimation of the wave properties in time and frequency domains. The toolbox has been developed and examined during a number of the field study projects in Louisiana's estuaries.

  6. Modal analysis of wind turbine blades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, G.C.; Hansen, M.H.; Baumgart, A.; Carlen, I.

    2002-02-01

    The modal analysis technique has been used to identify essential dynamic properties of wind turbine blades like natural frequencies, damping characteristics and mode shapes. Different experimental procedures have been considered, and the most appropriate of these has been selected. Although the comparison is based on measurements on a LM 19 m blade, the recommendations given are believed to be valid for other wind turbine blades as well. The reliability of the selected experimental analysis has been quantified by estimating the unsystematic variations in the experimental findings. Satisfactory results have been obtained for natural frequencies, damping characteristics and for the dominating deflection direction of the investigated mode shapes. For the secondary deflection directions, the observed experimental uncertainty may be considerable - especially for the torsional deflection. The experimental analysis of the LM 19 m blade has been compared with results from a state-of-the-art FE-modeling of the same blade. For some of the higher modes substantial discrepancies between the natural frequencies originating from the FE-modeling and the modal analysis, respectively, are observed. In general the qualitative features of measured and computed modes shapes are in good agreement. However, for the secondary deflection directions, substantial deviations in the absolute values may occur (when normalizing with respect to the primary deflection direction). Finally, suggestions of potential future improvements of the experimental procedure are discussed. (au)

  7. Improvement in torque and power transmission system of Savonius wind turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, K.; Kumar, A.; Gupta, S. [Indian Inst. of Technology, Kanpur (India). Aerospace Engineering Dept.

    2006-07-01

    The Savonius vertical axis wind turbine has a simple geometry and is inexpensive to build due to its high power coefficient. However, because its torque coefficient varies widely with wind angles and even becomes negative twice in a revolution, it has not been widely commercialized. A Savonius rotor is conventionally built in 2 or 3 tiers, with 90-degree or 60-degree stagger between tiers for smoother torque. The torque coefficient versus wind angle data for multi-tier rotors can be generated by overlapping single-tier data with requisite stagger. This process ignores aerodynamic interference between tiers. The torque coefficient versus wind angle was measured in static mode and the power coefficient was measured in rotating mode of a 2-tier Savonius using a wind tunnel technique involving the brake-dynamometer principle and wind tunnel balance. A significant aerodynamic interference and lower power coefficient were observed. Static and dynamic testing procedures were described and smoke flow models and visualization were also presented. Subsequently, a discussion of the results of the testing were presented. It was concluded that there is significant aerodynamic interference between the tiers of a 2-tier model leading to reduced values of torque and power. Modification of the Savonius wind turbine by adding 20 per cent thick symmetrical airfoils results in improved torque, without significantly increasing average wake width. 3 refs., 1 tab., 13 refs.

  8. Climate Change and Its Impact on the Eco-Environment of the Three-Rivers Headwater Region on the Tibetan Plateau, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong Jiang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the impact of climate change on the eco-environment of the Three-Rivers Headwater Region (TRHR, Tibetan Plateau, China. Temperature and precipitation experienced sharp increases in this region during the past 57 years. A dramatic increase in winter temperatures contributed to a rise in average annual temperatures. Moreover, annual runoff in the Lancang (LRB and Yangtze (YARB river basins showed an increasing trend, compared to a slight decrease in the Yellow River Basin (YRB. Runoff is predominantly influenced by rainfall, which is controlled by several monsoon systems. The water temperature in the YRB and YARB increased significantly from 1958 to 2007 (p < 0.001, driven by air temperature changes. Additionally, owing to warming and wetting trends in the TRHR, the net primary productivity (NPP and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI showed significant increasing trends during the past half-century. Furthermore, although an increase in water erosion due to rainfall erosivity was observed, wind speeds declined significantly, causing a decline in wind erosion, as well as the frequency and duration of sandstorms. A clear regional warming trend caused an obvious increasing trend in glacier runoff, with a maximum value observed in the 2000s.

  9. Climate Change and Its Impact on the Eco-Environment of the Three-Rivers Headwater Region on the Tibetan Plateau, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chong; Zhang, Linbo

    2015-09-25

    This study analyzes the impact of climate change on the eco-environment of the Three-Rivers Headwater Region (TRHR), Tibetan Plateau, China. Temperature and precipitation experienced sharp increases in this region during the past 57 years. A dramatic increase in winter temperatures contributed to a rise in average annual temperatures. Moreover, annual runoff in the Lancang (LRB) and Yangtze (YARB) river basins showed an increasing trend, compared to a slight decrease in the Yellow River Basin (YRB). Runoff is predominantly influenced by rainfall, which is controlled by several monsoon systems. The water temperature in the YRB and YARB increased significantly from 1958 to 2007 (p changes. Additionally, owing to warming and wetting trends in the TRHR, the net primary productivity (NPP) and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) showed significant increasing trends during the past half-century. Furthermore, although an increase in water erosion due to rainfall erosivity was observed, wind speeds declined significantly, causing a decline in wind erosion, as well as the frequency and duration of sandstorms. A clear regional warming trend caused an obvious increasing trend in glacier runoff, with a maximum value observed in the 2000s.

  10. Health effects of wind turbines in working environments - a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freiberg, Alice; Schefter, Christiane; Girbig, Maria; Murta, Vanise Cleto; Seidler, Andreas

    2018-01-23

    Objectives The wind industry is a growing economic sector, yet there is no overview summarizing all exposures emanating from wind turbines throughout their life cycle that may pose a risk for workers` health. The aim of this scoping review was to survey and outline the body of evidence around the health effects of wind turbines in working environments in order to identify research gaps and to highlight the need for further research. Methods A scoping review with a transparent and systematic procedure was conducted using a comprehensive search strategy. Two independent reviewers conducted most of the review steps. Results Twenty articles of varying methodical quality were included. Our findings of the included studies indicate that substances used in rotor blade manufacture (epoxy resin and styrene) cause skin disorders, and respectively, respiratory ailments and eye complaints; exposure to onshore wind turbine noise leads to annoyance, sleep disorders, and lowered general health; finally working in the wind industry is associated with a considerable accident rate, resulting in injuries or fatalities. Conclusions Due to the different work activities during the life cycle of a wind turbine and the distinction between on- and offshore work, there are no specific overall health effects of working in the wind sector. Previous research has primarily focused on evaluating the effects of working in the wind industry on skin disorders, accidents, and noise consequences. There is a need for further research, particularly in studying the effect of wind turbine work on psychological and musculoskeletal disorders, work-related injury and accident rates, and health outcomes in later life cycle phases.

  11. Wind turbine extraction from high spatial resolution remote sensing images based on saliency detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jingbo; Yue, Anzhi; Wang, Chengyi; Huang, Qingqing; Chen, Jiansheng; Meng, Yu; He, Dongxu

    2018-01-01

    The wind turbine is a device that converts the wind's kinetic energy into electrical power. Accurate and automatic extraction of wind turbine is instructive for government departments to plan wind power plant projects. A hybrid and practical framework based on saliency detection for wind turbine extraction, using Google Earth image at spatial resolution of 1 m, is proposed. It can be viewed as a two-phase procedure: coarsely detection and fine extraction. In the first stage, we introduced a frequency-tuned saliency detection approach for initially detecting the area of interest of the wind turbines. This method exploited features of color and luminance, was simple to implement, and was computationally efficient. Taking into account the complexity of remote sensing images, in the second stage, we proposed a fast method for fine-tuning results in frequency domain and then extracted wind turbines from these salient objects by removing the irrelevant salient areas according to the special properties of the wind turbines. Experiments demonstrated that our approach consistently obtains higher precision and better recall rates. Our method was also compared with other techniques from the literature and proves that it is more applicable and robust.

  12. Application of a ray theory model to the prediction of noise emissions from isolated wind turbines and wind parks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prospathopoulos, John M.; Voutsinas, Spyros G.

    2006-01-01

    Various propagation models have been developed to estimate the level of noise near residential areas. Predictions and measurements have proven that proper modelling of the propagation medium is of particular importance. In the present work, calculations are performed using a ray theory methodology. The ray trajectory and transport equations are derived from the linear acoustics equations for a moving medium in three dimensions. Ground and atmospheric absorption, wave refraction and diffraction and atmospheric turbulence are taken into account by introducing appropriate coefficients in the equations. In the case of a wind turbine (W/T) it is assumed that noise is produced by a point source located at the rotor centre. Given the sound power spectrum, the noise spectrum at the receiver is obtained by solving the axisymmetric propagation problem. The procedure consists of (a) finding the eigenrays, (b) calculating the energy losses along the eigenrays and (c) synthesizing the sound pressure level (SPL) by superposing the contributions of the eigenrays. In the case of a wind park the total SPL is calculated by superposing the contributions of all W/Ts. Application is made to five cases of isolated W/Ts in terrains of varying complexity. In flat or even smooth terrain the predictions agree well with the measurements. In complex terrain the predictions can be considered satisfactory, taking into account the assumption of constant wind velocity profile. Application to a wind park shows clearly the influence of the terrain on the wind velocity and consequently on the SPL. (Author)

  13. Evaluation model of wind energy resources and utilization efficiency of wind farm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jie

    2018-04-01

    Due to the large amount of abandoned winds in wind farms, the establishment of a wind farm evaluation model is particularly important for the future development of wind farms In this essay, consider the wind farm's wind energy situation, Wind Energy Resource Model (WERM) and Wind Energy Utilization Efficiency Model(WEUEM) are established to conduct a comprehensive assessment of the wind farm. Wind Energy Resource Model (WERM) contains average wind speed, average wind power density and turbulence intensity, which assessed wind energy resources together. Based on our model, combined with the actual measurement data of a wind farm, calculate the indicators using the model, and the results are in line with the actual situation. We can plan the future development of the wind farm based on this result. Thus, the proposed establishment approach of wind farm assessment model has application value.

  14. Wind Turbines Adaptation to the Variability of the Wind Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulianov, Yuriy; Martynenko, Gennadii; Misaylov, Vitaliy; Soliannikova, Iuliia

    2010-05-01

    WIND TURBINES ADAPTATION TO THE VARIABILITY OF THE WIND FIELD The subject of our scientific research is wind power turbines (WPT) with the horizontal axis which were now common in the world. Efficient wind turbines work is largely determined by non-stationarity of the wind field, expressed in its gustiness, the presence of vertical and horizontal shifts of wind speed and direction. At critical values of the wind parameters WPT has aerodynamic and mechanical overload, leading to breakdowns, premature wear and reduce the life of the wind turbine. To prevent accidents at the peak values of wind speed it is used the regulatory system of windwheels. WPT control systems provide a process orientation of the wind turbine rotor axis in the line of the mean wind. Wind turbines are also equipped with braking device used to protect against breakdowns when a significant increase in the wind. In general, all these methods of regulation are not always effective. Thus, in practice there may be situations when the wind speed is many times greater than the stated limit. For example, if there are microbursts in the atmospheric boundary layer, low-level wind shears caused by its gust front, storms, etc. It is required for a wind power turbine adaptation to intensive short-term wind impulses and considerable vertical wind shifts that the data about them shall be obtained ahead of time. To do this it is necessary to have the information on the real structure of the wind field in the area of the blade sweep for the minimum range against the wind that is determined by the mean speed and the system action time. The implementation of acoustic and laser traditional wind sounding systems is limited by ambient acoustic noise, by heavy rain, snowfall and by fog. There are free of these disadvantages the inclined radioacoustic sounding (IRASS) technique which works for a system of remote detection and control of wind gusts. IRASS technique is realized as low-potential Doppler pulse radar

  15. Hydraulic Characteristics of the Lower Snake River during Periods of Juvenile Fall Chinook Salmon Migration, 2002-2006 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, C.; Dibrani, B.; Richmond, M.; Bleich, M.; Titzler, P..; Fu, T. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    2006-01-01

    This report documents a four-year study to assess hydraulic conditions in the lower Snake River. The work was conducted for the Bonneville Power Administration, U.S. Department of Energy, by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Cold water released from the Dworshak Reservoir hypolimnion during mid- to late-summer months cools the Clearwater River far below equilibrium temperature. The volume of released cold water augments the Clearwater River, and the combined total discharge is on the order of the Snake River discharge when the two rivers meet at their confluence near the upstream edge of Lower Granite Reservoir. With typical temperature differences between the Clearwater and Snake rivers of 10 C or more during July and August, the density difference between the two rivers during summer flow augmentation periods is sufficient to stratify Lower Granite Reservoir as well as the other three reservoirs downstream. Because cooling of the river is desirable for migrating juvenile fall Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) during this same time period, the amount of mixing and cold water entrained into Lower Granite Reservoir's epilimnion at the Clearwater/Snake River confluence is of key biological importance. Data collected during this project indicates the three reservoirs downstream of Lower Granite also stratify as direct result of flow augmentation from Dworshak Reservoir. These four reservoirs are also heavily influenced by wind forcing at the water's surface and during periods of low river discharge often behave like a two-layer lake. During these periods of stratification, lower river discharge, and wind forcing, the water in the upper layer of the reservoir is held in place or moves slightly upstream. This upper layer is also exposed to surface heating and may warm up to temperatures close to equilibrium temperature. The thickness (depth) of this upper warm layer and its direction of travel may be of key biological importance to juvenile

  16. Design of a high power, resonant converter for DC wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dincan, Catalin Gabriel; Kjær, Philip Carne; Chen, Yu-Hsing

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents a design procedure and loss estimation for a high power, medium voltage series resonant converter (entitled SRC#), intended for application in megawatt medium-voltage DC wind turbines. The converter is operated with a novel method of operation, entitled pulse removal technique...

  17. Planning and development of wind farms: Environmental impact and grid connection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Niels-Erik

    These course notes are intended for the three-week course 46200 Planning and Development of Wind Farms given by DTUWind Energy, Technical University of Denmark. The purpose of the course notes is to give an introduction to planning procedures, environmental impact assessments, and grid connection....

  18. Fractionation and ecological risk of metals in urban river sediments in Zhongshan City, Pearl River Delta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jiannan; Cao, Yingzi; Tan, Haijian; Wang, Yanman; Luo, Jiaqi

    2011-09-01

    Surface sediments collected from nine urban rivers located in Zhongshan City, Pearl River Delta, were analyzed for total concentration of metals with digestion and chemical fractionation adopting the modified European Community Bureau of Reference (BCR) sequential extraction procedure. The results showed that concentration and fractionation of metals varied significantly among the rivers. The total concentration of eight metals in most rivers did not exceed the China Environmental Quality Standard for Soil, Grade III. The potential ecological risk of metals to rivers were related to the land use patterns, in the order of manufacturing areas > residential areas > agriculture areas. The concentration of Pb in the reducible fraction was relatively high (60.0-84.3%). The dominant proportions of Cd, Zn and Cu were primary in the non-residual fraction (67.0%, 71.8% and 81.4% on average respectively), while the percentages of the residual fractions of Cr and Ni varied over a wide range (43-85% and 24-71% respectively). The approaches of the Håkanson ecological risk index and Secondary Phase Enrichment Factor were applied for ecological risk assessment and metal enrichment calculation. The results indicated Hg and Cd had posed high potential ecological risk to urban rivers in this region. Meanwhile, there was widespread pollution and high enrichment of Cu in river sediments in this region. Multiple regression analysis showed that five water quality parameters (pH, DO, COD(Mn), NH(4)(+)-N, TP) had little influence on the distribution of metal fractionation. This result revealed that the ecological risk of metals was not eliminated along with the improvement in water quality. Correlation studies showed that among the metals, Group A (Cd, As, Pb, Zn Hg, r = 0.730-0.924) and Group B (Cr, Cu, Ni, r = 0.815-0.948) were obtained, and the metal contaminations were from industrial activities rather than residential.

  19. Preliminary manual of the wind farms impacts study; Manuel preliminaire de l'etude d'impact des parcs eoliens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-11-01

    This document aims to present and propose tools and methods allowing the improve the environmental quality of the future wind farms projects. After a presentation of general notions on the wind farms and the economy of the wind energy, it presents the regulation and the procedures concerning the environmental impact. It proposes then the main possible effects and the impacts study themes. (A.L.B.)

  20. Verification of high resolution simulation of precipitation and wind in Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Isilda; Pereira, Mário; Moreira, Demerval; Carvalheiro, Luís; Bugalho, Lourdes; Corte-Real, João

    2017-04-01

    Demand of energy and freshwater continues to grow as the global population and demands increase. Precipitation feed the freshwater ecosystems which provides a wealth of goods and services for society and river flow to sustain native species and natural ecosystem functions. The adoption of the wind and hydro-electric power supplies will sustain energy demands/services without restricting the economic growth and accelerated policies scenarios. However, the international meteorological observation network is not sufficiently dense to directly support high resolution climatic research. In this sense, coupled global and regional atmospheric models constitute the most appropriate physical and numerical tool for weather forecasting and downscaling in high resolution grids with the capacity to solve problems resulting from the lack of observed data and measuring errors. Thus, this study aims to calibrate and validate of the WRF regional model from precipitation and wind fields simulation, in high spatial resolution grid cover in Portugal. The simulations were performed in two-way nesting with three grids of increasing resolution (60 km, 20 km and 5 km) and the model performance assessed for the summer and winter months (January and July), using input variables from two different reanalyses and forecasted databases (ERA-Interim and NCEP-FNL) and different forcing schemes. The verification procedure included: (i) the use of several statistics error estimators, correlation based measures and relative errors descriptors; and, (ii) an observed dataset composed by time series of hourly precipitation, wind speed and direction provided by the Portuguese meteorological institute for a comprehensive set of weather stations. Main results suggested the good ability of the WRF to: (i) reproduce the spatial patterns of the mean and total observed fields; (ii) with relatively small values of bias and other errors; and, (iii) and good temporal correlation. These findings are in good

  1. A statistical-dynamical downscaling procedure for global climate simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frey-Buness, A.; Heimann, D.; Sausen, R.; Schumann, U.

    1994-01-01

    A statistical-dynamical downscaling procedure for global climate simulations is described. The procedure is based on the assumption that any regional climate is associated with a specific frequency distribution of classified large-scale weather situations. The frequency distributions are derived from multi-year episodes of low resolution global climate simulations. Highly resolved regional distributions of wind and temperature are calculated with a regional model for each class of large-scale weather situation. They are statistically evaluated by weighting them with the according climate-specific frequency. The procedure is exemplarily applied to the Alpine region for a global climate simulation of the present climate. (orig.)

  2. Savannah River Plant Californium-252 Shuffler software manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, S.S.; Crane, T.W.; Eccleston, G.W.

    1979-03-01

    A software manual for operating the Savannah River Plant Shuffler nondestructive assay instrument is presented. The procedures for starting up the instrument, making assays, calibrating, and checking the performance of the hardware units are described. A list of the error messages with an explanation of the circumstances prompting the message and possible corrective measures is given. A summary of the software package is included showing the names and contents of the files and subroutines. The procedure for modifying the software package is outlined

  3. Investigation of Wind Turbine Rotor Concepts for Offshore Wind Farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceyhan, Özlem; Grasso, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Current plans in offshore wind energy developments call for further reduction of cost of energy. In order to contribute to this goal, several wind turbine rotor concepts have been investigated. Assuming the future offshore wind turbines will operate only in the offshore wind farms, the rotor concepts are not only evaluated for their stand-alone performances and their potential in reducing the loads, but also for their performance in an offshore wind farm. In order to do that, the 10MW reference wind turbine designed in Innwind.EU project is chosen as baseline. Several rotor parameters have been modified and their influences are investigated for offshore wind turbine design purposes. This investigation is carried out as a conceptual parametrical study. All concepts are evaluated numerically with BOT (Blade optimisation tool) software in wind turbine level and with Farmflow software in wind farm level for two wind farm layouts. At the end, all these concepts are compared with each other in terms of their advantages and disadvantages

  4. An adaptive short-term prediction scheme for wind energy storage management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blonbou, Ruddy; Monjoly, Stephanie; Dorville, Jean-Francois

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → We develop a real time algorithm for grid-connected wind energy storage management. → The method aims to guarantee, with ±5% error margin, the power sent to the grid. → Dynamic scheduling of energy storage is based on short-term energy prediction. → Accurate predictions reduce the need in storage capacity. -- Abstract: Efficient forecasting scheme that includes some information on the likelihood of the forecast and based on a better knowledge of the wind variations characteristics along with their influence on power output variation is of key importance for the optimal integration of wind energy in island's power system. In the Guadeloupean archipelago (French West-Indies), with a total wind power capacity of 25 MW; wind energy can represent up to 5% of the instantaneous electricity production. At this level, wind energy contribution can be equivalent to the current network primary control reserve, which causes balancing difficult. The share of wind energy is due to grow even further since the objective is set to reach 118 MW by 2020. It is an absolute evidence for the network operator that due to security concerns of the electrical grid, the share of wind generation should not increase unless solutions are found to solve the prediction problem. The University of French West-Indies and Guyana has developed a short-term wind energy prediction scheme that uses artificial neural networks and adaptive learning procedures based on Bayesian approach and Gaussian approximation. This paper reports the results of the evaluation of the proposed approach; the improvement with respect to the simple persistent prediction model was globally good. A discussion on how such a tool combined with energy storage capacity could help to smooth the wind power variation and improve the wind energy penetration rate into island utility network is also proposed.

  5. Olivebranches and idiot's guides: Frameworks for community engagement in Australian wind farm development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, Tanya

    2015-01-01

    In Australia, renewable energy is under pressure in the context of a highly politicised debate about how to act on climate change. The recent repeal of an established carbon tax has seen the defunding of significant renewable energy initiatives and a controversial review of the national Renewable Energy Target is threatening key drivers for investment in renewable energy. The current regulatory focus on community ‘acceptance’ does not facilitate the active community support necessary to challenge this increasingly hostile policy context. This research considers current experiences of community engagement in wind farm governance in one Australian jurisdiction. Through documentary analysis and two qualitative case studies, it examines legal and non-legal requirements for community governance mechanisms and considers how these influence wind farm development in rural areas. Findings include a problematic reliance on procedural compliance in assessing wind farm consultation, domination by vested interests, and reduced expertise in community engagement at the time it is needed most. Recommendations include integration of best practice guidelines in current regulation; harmonisation of policy settings to ensure equity across energy sectors; and an evidence-based commitment to benefit sharing as a strategy for increasing community support of rural wind farm development. - Highlights: • Changes to renewable energy policy in Australia threaten wind farm development. • Active community support is required to ensure ongoing viability of the industry. • Benefit sharing models are shown to increase community support for wind farms. • Legal frameworks reinforce a minimum compliance paradigm and entrench vested interests. • Best practice guidelines improve implementation of community engagement procedures

  6. Wind power scenario generation through state-space specifications for uncertainty analysis of wind power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Díaz, Guzmán; Gómez-Aleixandre, Javier; Coto, José

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • State space representations for simulating wind power plant output are proposed. • The representation of wind speed in state space allows structural analysis. • The joint model incorporates the temporal and spatial dependence structure. • The models are easily integrable into a backward/forward sweep algorithm. • Results evidence the remarkable differences between joint and marginal models. - Abstract: This paper proposes the use of state space models to generate scenarios for the analysis of wind power plant (WPP) generation capabilities. The proposal is rooted on the advantages that state space models present for dealing with stochastic processes; mainly their structural definition and the use of Kalman filter to naturally tackle some involved operations. The specification proposed in this paper comprises a structured representation of individual Box–Jenkins models, with indications about further improvements that can be easily performed. These marginal models are combined to form a joint model in which the dependence structure is easily handled. Indications about the procedure to calibrate and check the model, as well as a validation of its statistical appropriateness, are provided. Application of the proposed state space models provides insight on the need to properly specify the structural dependence between wind speeds. In this paper the joint and marginal models are smoothly integrated into a backward–forward sweep algorithm to determine the performance indicators (voltages and powers) of a WPP through simulation. As a result, visibly heavy tails emerge in the generated power probability distribution through the use of the joint model—incorporating a detailed description of the dependence structure—in contrast with the normally distributed power yielded by the margin-based model.

  7. Wind of opportunity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamieson, Peter

    1999-01-01

    This article traces the move towards the offshore exploitation of wind energy in Europe, and presents information on existing offshore wind energy projects and proposed wind turbine prototypes for offshore operation. The building of the first major offshore wind project at Vindeby, the use of rock socketed monopile foundations for pile drilling and erection of the wind turbines from a mobile jack-up barge, the costs of wind turbines, the fatigue loads on the support structures due to the wind loading, and the offshore wind market in the UK and Europe are discussed. (UK)

  8. Wind Atlas of Bay of Bengal with Satellite Wind Measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nadi, Navila Rahman

    footstep towards offshore wind energy analysis for this region. Generally, it is difficult to find offshore wind data relative to the wind turbine hub heights, therefore a starting point is necessary to identify the possible wind power density of the region. In such scenario, Synthetic aperture radars (SAR......The objective of this study is to obtain appropriate offshore location in the Bay of Bengal, Bangladesh for further development of wind energy. Through analyzing the previous published works, no offshore wind energy estimation has been found here. That is why, this study can be claimed as the first......) have proven useful. In this study, SAR based dataset- ENVISAT ASAR has been used for Wind Atlas generation. Furthermore, a comparative study has been performed with Global Wind Atlas (GWA) to determine a potential offshore wind farm. Additionally, the annual energy production of that offshore windfarm...

  9. The winding number of three complexes in SU(3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lasher, G.

    1989-01-01

    The Phillip-Stone algorithm for the topological charge of a lattice gauge field requires the computation of the winding number of certain 3-complexes in the space of the group. The extension of the computational procedure for the SU(2) gauge group to SU(3) requires an understanding of the SU(3) geometry. An important issue is the behavior of a 3-cell in SU(3) as it approaches a critical configuration, i.e., one at which the cell is a discontinuous function of its vertices. A measure of the proximity of a cell to criticality is found and a method for computing its contribution to the winding number is recommended. (orig.)

  10. Doppler lidar mounted on a wind turbine nacelle – UPWIND deliverable D6.7.1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelou, Nikolas; Mann, Jakob; Courtney, Michael

    measurements, was estimated by means of spectral analysis. An attempt to increase the resolution of the wind speed measurements of a cw lidar was performed, through the deconvolution of the lidar signal. A theoretical model of such a procedure is presented in this report. A simulation has validated...... the capability of the algorithm to deconvolve and consequently increase the resolution of the lidar system. However the proposed method was not efficient when applied to real lidar wind speed measurements, probably due to the effect, that the wind direction fluctuations along the lidar’s line-of-sight have...

  11. A FGGE water vapor wind data set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Tod R.; Hayden, Christopher M.

    1985-01-01

    It has been recognized for some time that water vapor structure visible in infrared imagery offers a potential for obtaining motion vectors when several images are considered in sequence (Fischer et al., 1981). A study evaluating water vapor winds obtained from the VISSR atmospheric sounder (Stewart et al., 1985) has confirmed the viability of the approach. More recently, 20 data sets have been produced from METEOSAT water vapor imagery for the FGGE period of 10-25 November 1979. Where possible, two data sets were prepared for each day at 0000 and 1200 GMT and compared with rawinsondes over Europe, Africa, and aircraft observations over the oceans. Procedures for obtaining winds were, in general, similar to the earlier study. Motions were detected both by a single pixel tracking and a cross correlation method by using three images individually separated by one hour. A height assignment was determined by matching the measured brightness temperature to the temperature structure represented by the FGGE-IIIB analyses. Results show that the METEOSAT water vapor winds provide uniform horizontal coverage of mid-level flow over the globe with good accuracy.

  12. Active tuned mass damper for damping of offshore wind turbine vibrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, Mark Laier; Bjørke, Ann-Sofie; Høgsberg, Jan Becker

    2017-01-01

    An active tuned mass damper (ATMD) is employed for damping of tower vibrations of fixed offshore wind turbines, where the additional actuator force is controlled using feedback from the tower displacement and the relative velocity of the damper mass. An optimum tuning procedure equivalent to the ...

  13. PCB concentrations in Pere Marquette River and Muskegon River watersheds, 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogarty, Lisa R.

    2005-01-01

    the child. Rule 323.1057 (Toxic Substances) of the Part 4. Water Quality Standards gives procedure for calculating water-quality values to protect human, wildlife and aquatic life. For total PCB, the applicable Rule 57 water-quality value is the human cancer value (HCV=0.26 ng/L),In 2002, U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) and Michigan Department of Environmental Quality (MDEQ) cooperatively planned and executed a monitoring program for PCBs in water and sediment from the Pere Marquette River and Muskegon River watersheds. The Pere Marquette and Muskegon River are in the west central part of Michigan's Lower Peninsula (fig. 1). The Pere Marquette River watershed is about 750 square miles, and the Muskegon River is about 2700 square miles. Both rivers are popular recreational waters, and the Pere Marquette River is a Michigan designated Natural River (Part 305 of the Natural Rivers and Environmental Protection Act 451 of 1994).

  14. Limitations of wind extraction from 4D-Var assimilation of ozone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. R. Allen

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Time-dependent variational data assimilation allows the possibility of extracting wind information from observations of ozone or other trace gases. Since trace gas observations are not available at sufficient resolution for deriving feature-track winds, they must be combined with model background information to produce an analysis. If done with time-dependent variational assimilation, wind information may be extracted via the adjoint of the linearized tracer continuity equation. This paper presents idealized experiments that illustrate the mechanics of tracer–wind extraction and demonstrate some of the limitations of this procedure. We first examine tracer–wind extraction using a simple one-dimensional advection equation. The analytic solution for a single trace gas observation is discussed along with numerical solutions for multiple observations. The limitations of tracer–wind extraction are then explored using highly idealized ozone experiments performed with a development version of the Navy Global Environmental Model (NAVGEM in which globally distributed hourly stratospheric ozone profiles are assimilated in a single 6 h update cycle in January 2009. Starting with perfect background ozone conditions, but imperfect dynamical conditions, ozone errors develop over the 6 h background window. Wind increments are introduced in the analysis in order to reduce the differences between background ozone and ozone observations. For "perfect" observations (unbiased and no random error, this results in root-mean-square (RMS vector wind error reductions of up to ~4 m s−1 in the winter hemisphere and tropics. Wind extraction is more difficult in the summer hemisphere due to weak ozone gradients and smaller background wind errors. The limitations of wind extraction are also explored for observations with imposed random errors and for limited sampling patterns. As expected, the amount of wind information extracted degrades as observation errors or

  15. Wind Tunnel Tests for Wind Pressure Distribution on Gable Roof Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Gable roof buildings are widely used in industrial buildings. Based on wind tunnel tests with rigid models, wind pressure distributions on gable roof buildings with different aspect ratios were measured simultaneously. Some characteristics of the measured wind pressure field on the surfaces of the models were analyzed, including mean wind pressure, fluctuating wind pressure, peak negative wind pressure, and characteristics of proper orthogonal decomposition results of the measured wind pressure field. The results show that extremely high local suctions often occur in the leading edges of longitudinal wall and windward roof, roof corner, and roof ridge which are the severe damaged locations under strong wind. The aspect ratio of building has a certain effect on the mean wind pressure coefficients, and the effect relates to wind attack angle. Compared with experimental results, the region division of roof corner and roof ridge from AIJ2004 is more reasonable than those from CECS102:2002 and MBMA2006.The contributions of the first several eigenvectors to the overall wind pressure distributions become much bigger. The investigation can offer some basic understanding for estimating wind load distribution on gable roof buildings and facilitate wind-resistant design of cladding components and their connections considering wind load path. PMID:24082851

  16. Finite element analysis and modal testing of a rotating wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carne, T. G.; Lobitz, D. W.; Nord, A. R.; Watson, R. A.

    A finite element procedure, which includes geometric stiffening, and centrifugal and Coriolis terms resulting from the use of a rotating coordinate system, has been developed to compute the mode shapes and frequencies of rotating structures. Special application of this capability has been made to Darrieus, vertical axis wind turbines. In a parallel development effort, a technique for the modal testing of a rotating vertical axis wind turbine has been established to measure modal parameters directly. Results from the predictive and experimental techniques for the modal frequencies and mode shapes are compared over a wide range of rotational speeds.

  17. mizuRoute version 1: A river network routing tool for a continental domain water resources applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizukami, Naoki; Clark, Martyn P.; Sampson, Kevin; Nijssen, Bart; Mao, Yixin; McMillan, Hilary; Viger, Roland; Markstrom, Steven; Hay, Lauren E.; Woods, Ross; Arnold, Jeffrey R.; Brekke, Levi D.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the first version of a stand-alone runoff routing tool, mizuRoute. The mizuRoute tool post-processes runoff outputs from any distributed hydrologic model or land surface model to produce spatially distributed streamflow at various spatial scales from headwater basins to continental-wide river systems. The tool can utilize both traditional grid-based river network and vector-based river network data. Both types of river network include river segment lines and the associated drainage basin polygons, but the vector-based river network can represent finer-scale river lines than the grid-based network. Streamflow estimates at any desired location in the river network can be easily extracted from the output of mizuRoute. The routing process is simulated as two separate steps. First, hillslope routing is performed with a gamma-distribution-based unit-hydrograph to transport runoff from a hillslope to a catchment outlet. The second step is river channel routing, which is performed with one of two routing scheme options: (1) a kinematic wave tracking (KWT) routing procedure; and (2) an impulse response function – unit-hydrograph (IRF-UH) routing procedure. The mizuRoute tool also includes scripts (python, NetCDF operators) to pre-process spatial river network data. This paper demonstrates mizuRoute's capabilities to produce spatially distributed streamflow simulations based on river networks from the United States Geological Survey (USGS) Geospatial Fabric (GF) data set in which over 54 000 river segments and their contributing areas are mapped across the contiguous United States (CONUS). A brief analysis of model parameter sensitivity is also provided. The mizuRoute tool can assist model-based water resources assessments including studies of the impacts of climate change on streamflow.

  18. Sanitary impacts generated by wind turbines. situation of the wind sector. Proposition for the implementation of the setting-up procedure; Impacts sanitaires du bruit genere par les eoliennes. Etat des lieux de la filiere eolienne. Propositions pour la mise en oeuvre de la procedure d'implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    The National Academy of Medicine has evaluated the effects on health of wind turbines. This report recommends that the wind turbine construction is at a minimal distance of 1500 m for wind turbines having a power superior to 2.5 MW. The French agency of sanitary safety of environment and work (A.F.S.S.E.T.) is in charge by the Ministry of Health and Environment to evaluate the relevance of this distance recommendation. The work group recommends the implementation of a specifications text of the environmental impact study as well as a compulsory administrative check of the study. It is more particularly a question of: Defining a perimeter of study: indicate all the zones susceptible to be concerned by the noise of wind turbines, even those which are not inhabited; calculating the durations of impact of concerned zones, according to the predictable weather conditions over the year; indicating the measures taken by the developer of the wind farm in case of overtaking of the authorized emergence; the impact studies of the other projects have to take into account a possible incidence in the zones of impact of the wind farm; a cartography of the zones of impact of a wind site must be available in town hall. A particular attention must be attached to the duration and to the representativeness of the study of the existing situation. The method of appreciation of the sound level impact on the environment must be improved, what passes by a deepening of the knowledge in criterion of embarrassment due to the noise, of existence of threshold, spectral validity, validity according to the exposure time. The search for the simplicity in statutory subject should lead to engage efforts of clarification as regards the nuisances criteria. (N.C.)

  19. Winter Counter-Wind Transport in the Inner Southwestern Yellow Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hui; Gu, Jinghua; Zhu, Ping

    2018-01-01

    Coastal currents generally flow downshelf with land on the right side (Northern Hemisphere) under the geostrophic balance, and are often strengthened by downwelling-favorable winds. However, the recent mooring observation in the inner southwestern Yellow Sea showed that coastal transport direction can be substantially changed by tidal forcing. In the survey, the tidal-averaged transports at two out of three sites remained northward (i.e., in the upshelf direction) and opposite the downwelling-favorable northerly wind, except during a brief neap tide period. Numerical experiments showed that the incoming Poincaré wave tide from the East China Sea plays a key role in forming this counter-wind transport system. This tidal wave produces a shoreward tidal stress south of 33.5°N in the inner southwestern Yellow Sea, driving an upshelf transport under the Earth's rotation. Counterpropagating tidal waves from the East China Sea and the northern Yellow Sea collide in coastal water in 32.5-34°N, which produce a standing tidal wave and therefore a mean sea-surface setup with alongshore and cross-shelf scales of both >100 km. This sea-surface setup causes an alongshore sea surface gradient, which veers the upshelf transport to the offshore direction under geostrophic balance. The strong tidal current increases the tidal-mean bottom resistance in the SCW, thus reduces the wind-driven current to a magnitude smaller than the tide-induced residual transport velocity. Therefore, upshelf transport persists in the inner southwestern Yellow Sea, and the Changjiang River Estuary becomes a major source area for the inner southwestern Yellow Sea.

  20. Combining genetic, isotopic, and field data to better describe the influence of dams and diversions on Burbot Movement in the Wind River Drainage, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooley-Underwood, Zachary; Mandeville, Elizabeth G.; Gerrity, Paul C.; Deromedi, J. W.; Johnson, Kevin; Walters, Annika W.

    2018-01-01

    Dams and water diversions fragment habitat, entrain fish, and alter fish movement. Many Burbot Lota lota populations are declining, with dams and water diversions thought to be a major threat. We used multiple methods to identify Burbot movement patterns and assess entrainment into an irrigation system in the Wind River, Wyoming. We assessed seasonal movement of Burbot with a mark–recapture (PIT tagging) study, natal origins of entrained fish with otolith microchemistry, and historic movement with genotyping by sequencing. We found limited evidence of entrainment in irrigation waters across all approaches. The mark–recapture study indicated that out‐migration from potential source populations could be influenced by flow regime but was generally low. Otolith and genomic results suggested the presence of a self‐sustaining population within the irrigation network. We conclude that emigration from natural tributary populations is not the current source of the majority of Burbot found in irrigation waters. Instead, reservoir and irrigation canal construction has created novel habitat in which Burbot have established a population. Using a multi‐scale approach increased our inferential abilities and mechanistic understanding of movement patterns between natural and managed systems.

  1. Wind Loads on Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrbye, Claes; Hansen, Svend Ole

    Wind loads have to be taken into account when designing civil engineering structures. The wind load on structures can be systematised by means of the wind load chain: wind climate (global), terrain (wind at low height), aerodynamic response (wind load to pressure), mechanical response (wind...... pressure to structural response) and design criteria. Starting with an introduction of the wind load chain, the book moves on to meteorological considerations, atmospheric boundary layer, static wind load, dynamic wind load and scaling laws used in wind-tunnel tests. The dynamic wind load covers vibrations...... induced by wind turbulence, vortex shedding, flutter and galloping. The book gives a comprehensive treatment of wind effects on structures and it will be useful for consulting engineers designing wind-sensitive structures. It will also be valuable for students of civil engineering as textbook...

  2. The Status of Basic Technology in Cross River State Junior ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    info

    practical class. It was further ... saying technology refer to all tools and procedures used or required for manufacturing .... Self-reliance is very necessary for today's world especially in Cross River, when children .... safety in the workshops. 2.40.

  3. A simple method to downscale daily wind statistics to hourly wind data

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Zhongling

    2013-01-01

    Wind is the principal driver in the wind erosion models. The hourly wind speed data were generally required for precisely wind erosion modeling. In this study, a simple method to generate hourly wind speed data from daily wind statistics (daily average and maximum wind speeds together or daily average wind speed only) was established. A typical windy location with 3285 days (9 years) measured hourly wind speed data were used to validate the downscaling method. The results showed that the over...

  4. Klondike III/Biglow Canyon Wind Integration Project; Final Environmental Impact Statement, September 2006.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration

    2006-09-01

    BPA has been asked by PPM Energy, Inc. to interconnect 300 megawatts (MW) of electricity generated from the proposed Klondike III Wind Project to the Federal Columbia River Transmission System. Orion Energy LLC has also asked BPA to interconnect 400 MW of electricity from its proposed Biglow Canyon Wind Farm, located north and east of the proposed Klondike III Wind Project. (Portland General Electric recently bought the rights to develop the proposed Biglow Canyon Wind Farm from Orion Energy, LLC.) Both wind projects received Site Certificates from the Oregon Energy Facility Siting Council on June 30, 2006. To interconnect these projects, BPA would need to build and operate a 230-kV double-circuit transmission line about 12 miles long, expand one substation and build one new substation. The wind projects would require wind turbines, substation(s), access roads, and other facilities. Two routes for the transmission line are being considered. Both begin at PPM's Klondike Schoolhouse Substation then travel north (Proposed Action) or north and westerly (Middle Alternative) to a new BPA 230-kV substation next to BPA's existing John Day 500-kV Substation. BPA is also considering a No Action Alternative in which BPA would not build the transmission line and would not interconnect the wind projects. The proposed BPA and wind projects would be located on private land, mainly used for agriculture. If BPA decides to interconnect the wind projects, construction of the BPA transmission line and substation(s) could commence as early as the winter of 2006-07. Both wind projects would operate for much of each year for at least 20 years. The proposed projects would generally create no or low impacts. Wildlife resources and local visual resources are the only resources to receive an impact rating other than ''none'' or ''low''. The low to moderate impacts to wildlife are from the expected bird and bat mortality and the cumulative

  5. Environmental monitoring of a wind park during the construction phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castonguay, M.; Caron, F.

    2007-01-01

    Wind energy qualifies as green energy because of low gas emissions associated with energy production. However, in order to truly qualify as green, each phase of a wind energy project should be evaluated, including construction, the energy exploitation period, as well as the dismantling of the turbines. Environmental monitoring of wind turbine arrays during the construction and dismantling phases could reveal the environmental impact of a project. This article provided the example of a wind turbine array at l'Anse-a-Valleau, located in a forested territory on the north side of the Gaspe Peninsula along the St. Lawrence River in Quebec. The park was configured to have 67 wind turbines of 1.5 MW each, for a total of 100.5 MW. The project was evaluated at $164 million, with regional economic spending of $65.8 million. During the height of construction, the project employed 240 workers. Ten full-time jobs will be created for the operation phase, scheduled for the end of 2007. The environmental monitoring at the construction site is deemed both technical and social. Good working conditions and communication must be established between the environmental supervisor and the site manager. They must work jointly to ensure good conduct and progress of the work at the construction site. The environmental supervisor must have the necessary authority to stop work upon a breach of regulations in the deforesting phase, since 60 per cent of the territory is on public domain. Environmental monitoring also includes surveillance of the road construction, soil quality, transportation of equipment, air quality, noise pollution, and residual matter management. It was concluded that wind energy is a true form of green energy, and methods used by developers during construction demonstrate responsibility towards the environment. It was suggested that the key to success is to have good pre-planning and good communication between all parties concerned. 4 figs

  6. Distribution of radioactive constituents in river waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herranz, M.; Elejalde, C.; Legarda, F.; Romero, F.

    1994-01-01

    For a research project on the distribution and evaluation of natural and artificial radioactive constituents in ecological segments of Biscay (northeast spain), the amounts of nuclides present in the main river waters were measured. Radioactive procedures include i) total alpha and beta indexes with a gas flow detector, dry residues near to 2 and 10 mg/ cm sup 2, respectively and counting periods of 1000 mn, ii) gamma emitters with a low level gamma spectrometer (Ge-HP detector + 8000 channels analyser) using the dry residue from 8 litres and a counting period of 4 days and iii) statistical treatment of data at 95% confidence.In this paper, ten water samples from the nervion river basin are included. Physical and chemical parameters of samples were also determined by standard procedures, because there is a sharp change in the composition of this river in the first part of the course. Radioactive constituents were identified as follows: a sample has a detectable alpha index, all samples contains beta emitters with a high variability, natural nuclides from uranium and thorium families were detected in some cases. A parallel behaviour is found between samples where K-40 and Cs-137 were found. The paper tries at last to find relations among chemical and radioactive constituents by the application of multivariate statistical methods, specially for the case of Cs-137, the only artificial nuclide identified in this work. 1 tab., 2 figs., 5 refs. (author)

  7. Change In Course Pattern Of The Teesta River: After Effect Of An Engineering Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashrafi, Z. M.; Shuvo, S. D.; Mahmud, M. S.

    2016-12-01

    Bangladesh is blessed by rivers that contribute to country's agriculture, landscape development and water supply. Due to nature of the river's flow and morphology, several engineering project have been initiated to enhance its utility, Teesta barrage was one of them. After two decades of its construction in Northern Bangladesh, several study identified major impacts on local ecosystem due to hindrance in water flow. However, how Teesta River evolved in last 25 years after the barrage construction, has not been quantified yet. This study quantifies the downstream evolution of Teesta River in after-construction period (1990-2015). Time series earth observation satellite (Landsat) data and geo-spatial techniques have been utilized to understand the changes in course pattern. Besides, sinuosity index has been used to quantify it. Analysis shows that the river is becoming more braided with the rise of numerous `Char' areas (islands); as well as bifurcation of the main channel, creating newer channels increasingly. Statistically significant changes in Sinuosity Index (SI) of the Teesta river has found in post construction period. In some locations SI increased which indicate that the river is becoming more and more winding than straight it used to be around 1990. It is also found that the river is shifting towards the east where the number of human settlement is higher. The rate of shifting has accelerated during the 2000s. There are places where the course has moved about 3 kilometers from its earlier course. Therefore, higher number of human settlements are in threat of river bank erosion in recent years. River bank management should be developed considering the pattern of course change so that rural settlement can save from destructive river bank erosion.

  8. Cost optimization of wind turbines for large-scale offshore wind farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuglsang, P.; Thomsen, K.

    1998-02-01

    This report contains a preliminary investigation of site specific design of off-shore wind turbines for a large off-shore wind farm project at Roedsand that is currently being proposed by ELKRAFT/SEAS. The results were found using a design tool for wind turbines that involve numerical optimization and aeroelastic calculations of response. The wind climate was modeled in detail and a cost function was used to estimate costs from manufacture and installation. Cost of energy is higher for off-shore installations. A comparison of an off-shore wind farm site with a typical stand alone on-shore site showed an increase of the annual production of 28% due to the difference in wind climate. Extreme loads and blade fatigue loads were nearly identical, however,fatigue loads on other main components increased significantly. Optimizations were carried out to find the optimum overall off-shore wind turbine design. A wind turbine for the off-shore wind farm should be different compared with a stand-alone on-shore wind turbine. The overall design changed were increased swept area and rated power combined with reduced rotor speed and tower height. Cost was reduced by 12% for the final 5D/14D off-shore wind turbine from 0.306 DKr/kWh to 0.270 DKr/kWh. These figures include capital costs from manufacture and installation but not on-going costs from maintenance. These results make off-shore wind farms more competitive and comparable to the reference on-shore stand-alone wind turbine. A corresponding reduction of cost of energy could not be found for the stand alone on-shore wind turbine. Furthermore the fatigue loads on wind turbines in on-shore wind farms will increase and cost of energy will increase in favor of off-shore wind farms. (au) EFP-95; EU-JOULE-3; 21 tabs., 7 i