WorldWideScience

Sample records for problems affecting women

  1. Positive and Negative Affect During Sexual Activity: Differences Between Homosexual and Heterosexual Men and Women, With and Without Sexual Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peixoto, Maria Manuela; Nobre, Pedro

    2016-01-02

    Empirical research suggests that emotional response during sexual activity discriminates between sexually functional and dysfunctional heterosexual men and women, with clinics presenting lower positive and higher negative affect. However, there is no evidence about the role of emotions in gay men and lesbian women with sexual problems. The present study analyzed affective states during sexual activity in homosexual and heterosexual men and women, with and without sexual problems. Participants in this study were 156 men and 168 women. A 2 (group) × 2 (sexual orientation) multivariate analysis of variance was performed. Participants completed a web-survey assessing sexual functioning and the Positive Affect-Negative Affect Scale. Findings indicated a main effect of group, with groups with sexual problems reporting significantly more negative and lower positive affect compared with men and women without sexual problems, regardless of sexual orientation. However, findings have also shown an interaction effect in the male sample with gay men, contrary to heterosexual men, reporting similar affective responses regardless of having a sexual dysfunction or not. Overall, findings emphasize the role of affective responses during sexual activity in men and women with sexual problems, suggesting the importance of addressing emotional responses in assessment and treatment of sexual problems in individuals with different sexual orientations.

  2. Bargaining for Equality. A Guide to Legal and Collective Bargaining Solutions for Workplace Problems that Particularly Affect Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popkin, Mary; Ross, Diane

    This is a guide to legal and collective bargaining solutions for workplace problems that particularly affect women. The first section of the guide presents a survey of legal remedies for discrimination including information on: (1) Title VII; (2) Equal Pay Act; (3) Executive Order 11246; (4) Age Discrimination in Employment Act; and (5) State Fair…

  3. Interpersonal dysfunction and affect-regulation difficulties in disordered eating among men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambwani, Suman; Slane, Jennifer D; Thomas, Katherine M; Hopwood, Christopher J; Grilo, Carlos M

    2014-12-01

    Although several studies suggest that negative affect and interpersonal problems serve as important contributors for eating-related problems, much of this research has been conducted among women and less is known about their roles in precipitating and maintaining eating problems among men. Previous studies with undergraduate men suggest that difficulties in emotion regulation are associated with disordered eating even after controlling for differences in body mass index (BMI) and negative affect. The present study sought to replicate these findings and extend them to assess any unique variance explained by problems in interpersonal functioning among both men and women. Participants were men (n=213) and women (n=521) undergraduates at a large Midwestern university who completed a demographic information form, the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire (EDE-Q), the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS), the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, and the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems-Short Circumplex Form (IIP-SC). A series of hierarchical regression analyses indicated that DERS and IIP-SC significantly predicted EDE-Q global scores after controlling for variability in BMI and negative affect and that the results were similar for men and women. Our findings offer preliminary support for models that highlight emotional vulnerability and interpersonal problems for disordered eating for young adult men. Future research extending these findings among treatment-seeking samples and employing multi-method assessment would serve to further clarify the tenability of these theoretical models for both men and women. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Contribution of Interpersonal Problems to Eating Disorder Psychopathology via Negative Affect in Treatment-seeking Men and Women: Testing the Validity of the Interpersonal Model in an Understudied Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Iryna V; Tasca, Giorgio A; Proulx, Geneviève; Bissasda, Hany

    2017-07-01

    Research on the psychosocial correlates and theoretical frameworks of men presenting with eating disorders (ED) psychopathology is limited. This study compared treatment-seeking men and women in terms of their levels of interpersonal functioning (affiliation and dominance), regulation of negative emotions (negative affect and instability) and ED psychopathology. The study also investigated the validity of the interpersonal model of ED in men. Results from the cross-sectional data of 388 participants (137 men and 251 women) demonstrated that the structural models fit and that paths were invariant across men and women. There were significant indirect effects of interpersonal functioning on ED psychopathology, mediated through negative affect and instability, for both men and women. Negative affect and instability partially explain the relationship between interpersonal problems and ED psychopathology in treatment-seeking men and women. Current findings highlight the need to evaluate the validity of the model using longitudinal designs to test whether men and women are likely to benefit equally from interpersonal therapies for ED. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Negative affect and instability mediated the relationship between interpersonal problems and eating disorder psychopathology for treatment-seeking men and women. There were no gender differences between levels of negative affect, emotional instability and interpersonal dysfunction, but women reported slightly higher eating concerns than men. Interpersonal model is a framework that is applicable to understanding and potentially treating men with eating disorders. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Women's Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Women have unique health issues. And some of the health issues that affect both men and women can affect women differently. Unique issues ... and men also have many of the same health problems. But these problems can affect women differently. ...

  6. Do job demands and job control affect problem-solving?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, Peter N; Ahlberg, Gunnel; Johansson, Gun; Stoetzer, Ulrich; Aborg, Carl; Hallsten, Lennart; Lundberg, Ingvar

    2012-01-01

    The Job Demand Control model presents combinations of working conditions that may facilitate learning, the active learning hypothesis, or have detrimental effects on health, the strain hypothesis. To test the active learning hypothesis, this study analysed the effects of job demands and job control on general problem-solving strategies. A population-based sample of 4,636 individuals (55% women, 45% men) with the same job characteristics measured at two times with a three year time lag was used. Main effects of demands, skill discretion, task authority and control, and the combined effects of demands and control were analysed in logistic regressions, on four outcomes representing general problem-solving strategies. Those reporting high on skill discretion, task authority and control, as well as those reporting high demand/high control and low demand/high control job characteristics were more likely to state using problem solving strategies. Results suggest that working conditions including high levels of control may affect how individuals cope with problems and that workplace characteristics may affect behaviour in the non-work domain.

  7. Type 1 diabetes risk in children born to women with fertility problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hargreave, Marie; Kjaer, Susanne K; Jørgensen, Marit E

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: While some studies have indicated that children born following fertility treatment are at an increased risk for insulin resistance and higher blood glucose levels, no study to date has investigated the risk of type 1 diabetes. In this large population-based cohort study we aim...... to assess the association between maternal fertility problems and the risk of type 1 diabetes in children. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Information on all children, born in Denmark from 1987 to 2010, was extracted from the Civil Registration System and linked with the Danish Infertility Cohort to identify maternal......%) were born to women with fertility problems. In all, 313 children born to women with fertility problems (0.36%) and 5176 children born to women without fertility problems (0.28%) were diagnosed with type 1 diabetes. The risk of type 1 diabetes was not affected by maternal fertility status (hazard ratio...

  8. Affective reactivity differences in pregnant and postpartum women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosebrock, Laina; Hoxha, Denada; Gollan, Jackie

    2015-06-30

    Reactions to emotional cues, termed affective reactivity, promote adaptation and survival. Shifts in affective reactivity during pregnancy and postpartum may invoke altered responses to environmental and biological changes. The development and testing of affective reactivity tasks, with published normative ratings for use in studies of affective reactivity, has been based on responses provided by healthy college students. A comparison of the healthy norms with ratings provided by peripartum women has yet to be conducted, despite its value in highlighting critical differences in affective reactivity during peripartum phases. This study compared arousal ratings of unpleasant, neutral, pleasant, and threat stimuli from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS; Lang, P.J., Bradley, M.M., Cuthbert, B.N. 2008. International Affective Picture System (IAPS): Affective Ratings of Pictures and Instruction Manual (Technical Report A-8). University of Florida, Gainseville, FL.) between three samples: (a) women measured during pregnancy and again at postpartum, (b) age-matched nonpregnant women, and (c) college-aged women from the normative sample used to test the stimuli. Using mixed-design GLMs, results showed that the pregnant and postpartum women and the age-matched women showed suppressed arousal relative to the college-age women. Additionally, postpartum women showed increased arousal to unpleasant/threat images compared to other types of images. The data suggest that future research on peripartum women should include affective reactivity tasks based on norms reflective of this specific population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Bangladesh women report postpartum health problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodburn, L

    1994-02-01

    The Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee conducted operational research in Bangladesh to examine postpartum health problems. Researchers conducted focus groups, indepth interviews, and observation. More than 40% of the postpartum women had a delivery-related health problem by 2 weeks after delivery. 52% had signs or symptoms of anemia. Body needs after pregnancy, lactation, and blood loss during delivery exacerbate the nutritional anemia common to Bangladeshi women. 17% of the postpartum women had signs of infections. More than 50% had severe malnutrition, worsened by food taboos during the postpartum period. 60% of infant deaths occur in the neonatal period. The mortality risk is elevated in low birth weight (LBW) infants. In this study, more than 50% of the newborns were LBW infants. Many Bangladeshi mothers discard the colostrum and begin breast feeding several days after delivery. 11% of the postpartum women had breast problem (e.g., cracked nipples). Women believed that susceptibility to evil spirits accounted for their being more vulnerable to health problems during the postpartum. They feared leaving the household. These findings show a need for home visits to provide valuable postpartum care.

  10. [Harmful practices affecting women's health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-07-01

    The harmful practices discussed in this article are based on case histories form the Central Maternity in Niamey, yet these practices universally affect women throughout Africa. Nutritional taboos are aimed at certain diseases such as measles, diarrhea, dysentery, malnutrition and anemia and consumption of foods rich in proteins and lipids are forbidden. Children are forbidden from eating eggs; pregnant women are forbidden from eating fruits and vegetables because of the fear of hemorrhaging from the sugar content in the fruit; camel meat is forbidden for fear of extending the pregnancy. Female circumcision, a dangerous practice, especially during childbirth, causes many medical problems that remain permanent. Adolescent pregnancy and marriages are practiced to avoid delinquency among children; yet such practices take place because of arranged marriages for a dowry to young men or to older rich men and these forced marriages to adolescents are the causes of increases in divorce, prostitution and desertion. These young marriages have serious consequences on the health status of the mother and the infant, often leading to maternal and infant death. The high level of fertility in Niger is a response to the social structure of the family. It is a patrilineal system that encourages women to have many children, especially sons. In Niger, pregnancy is surrounded by supernatural and mysterious forces, where a child is the intervention for ancestral spirits. In Islam a child is considered a "Gift of God". A woman is expected to work until the delivery of her baby otherwise she is jeered by her neighbors. During delivery women are not expected to cry or show any pain for fear of dishonoring her family irregardless of any medical compilations she faces. Women in Africa are exploited as free labor, deteriorate and age rapidly, are generally illiterate and are not protected under any laws.

  11. Reentry challenges facing women with mental health problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visher, Christy A; Bakken, Nicholas W

    2014-01-01

    Women entering the correctional system represent a population at high risk for mental health and the body of research on the mental health needs of women offenders is growing. These mental health problems pose challenges for women at every stage of the criminal justice process, from arrest to incarceration to community reentry and reintegration. In this article, we examined mental health status among a sample of 142 women leaving confinement and the role that mental health problems played in shaping their reentry outcomes using data collected between 2002 and 2005 in Houston, Texas. In the year after leaving prison, women with mental health problems reported poorer health, more hospitalizations, more suicidal thoughts, greater difficulties securing housing and employment, more involvement in criminal behavior, and less financial support from family than women with no indication of mental health problems. However, mental health status did not increase the likelihood of substance use relapse or reincarceration. The article concludes with a discussion of recommendations for improved policy and practice.

  12. Consultations for women's health problems: factors influencing women's choice of sex of general practitioner.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brink-Muinen, A. van den; Bakker, D.H. de; Bensing, J.M.

    1994-01-01

    AIM. This study set out to examine the degree to which women choose to visit a woman doctor for women's health problems and the determinants of this choice. The differences between women and men doctors with regard to treating women's health problems were also studied. METHOD. Data from the Dutch

  13. Heart Disease Affects Women of All Ages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Heart Disease Affects Women of All Ages Past Issues / Winter ... weeks of a heart attack. For Women with Heart Disease: About 6 million American women have coronary heart ...

  14. Problem gambling and drinking among Finnish women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Järvinen-Tassopoulos Johanna

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM - This qualitative study expands on female problem gambling by examining short online narratives written by Finnish women. Problem gambling is analysed within the familial context in order to discover gendered roles and practices, and in relation to substance use and abuse in women’s lives. DESIGN - Two sets of qualitative data were used in this study. The first set was collected from two online discussion forums, and the second set was extracted from an online counselling service data in 2008. Chosen messages formed short narratives of women’s problem gambling trajectory (51 cases. The data were analysed in accordance with the content analysis method. RESULTS - Women had started gambling either in adolescence or in adulthood. Most of the women played on slot machines or gambled online. The lack of coping skills, stressful events in life and troubled relationships made the women more vulnerable to gambling harms and other addictions. In some couples, partners were either drinking or gambling. This made the women’s lives even more complicated, because they could not count on their partners’ help and support. The women tried to hide the consequences of their problem gambling for fear of losing their significant others. CONCLUSIONS - Female gambling and female problem gambling are complex concepts influenced by social, cultural and political factors. This study has shown in its limited framework that female problem gambling is related to the gambling environment, the social acceptance of gambling and the regulation of gambling operations within the place of jurisdiction.

  15. Psychosocial factors affecting various types of intimate partner violence against women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güleç Öyekçin, Demet; Yetim, Dilek; Şahin, Erkan Melih

    2012-01-01

    Intimate partner violence against women is a growing global public health problem that is related to various psychosocial, cultural, mental, and economic factors. In this study, psychosocial factors affecting various types of intimate partner violence against women were investigated based upon affected individuals' statements. Demographic data, exposure to various types of partner violence, individual habits, partner habits, family functioning, and social support were inquired about during face to face interviews with 306 women chosen by stratified sampling to represent adult women living in Edirne, Turkey. Among the participants, 54.5% were exposed to psychological violence, 30.4% were exposed to physical violence, 19.3% were exposed to economic violence, and 6.3% were exposed to sexual violence. Partner's age and the duration of marriage had a protective effect on intimate partner violence while worsening of marital relations, marriage by family decision, marriage against family consent, and the presence of a violent history against women in a partner's family had incremental effects on intimate partner violence. The duration of marriage, the worsening of marital relations and a history of violent exposure during childhood increased physical violence. Additionally, a decreasing family income, increasing economic violence, worsening of marital relations, and a decreasing social support network increased sexual violence against women. Recognizing and defining the effecting factors of intimate partner violence will aid in the understanding of the sources that generate and feed the violent behavior. Risk factors of different types of intimate partner violence vary. Our results indicate that any kind of violent behavior increases intimate partner violence against women.

  16. Sexual Problems Among Older Women by Age and Race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Anne K; Rostant, Ola S; Pelon, Sally

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of our study was to examine the prevalence of sexual problems by age and race among older women in the United States and to examine quality of life correlates to sexual dysfunction among non-Hispanic white and African American older women. A cross-sectional study using self-report surveys was conducted among community-dwelling U.S. women, aged 60 years and over. A total of 807 women aged 61-89 years were included. Self-administered questionnaires assessed sexual dysfunction, satisfaction with life, depressive symptomatology, and self-rated health. Analyses included multivariate logistic regression. The mean age of the sample was 66 years. Two-thirds of the sample had at least one sexual dysfunction; the most common for both African American and non-Hispanic white women were lack of interest in sex and vaginal dryness. Prevalence varied by age for each of the sexual dysfunctions. The odds of experiencing sexual dysfunction varied with age and race. Compared with non-Hispanic white women, African American women had lower odds of reporting lack of interest in sex or vaginal dryness. Poor self-rated health, depressive symptomatology, and lower satisfaction with life were associated with higher odds of having some sexual dysfunction. Improved understanding of how sexual dysfunction affects women across multiple age ranges and racial/ethnic groups can assist providers in making recommendations for care that are patient centered. The associations that we identified with quality of life factors highlight the need to assess sexual health care in the aging female population.

  17. Dysfunctional sexual beliefs: a comparative study of heterosexual men and women, gay men, and lesbian women with and without sexual problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peixoto, Maria Manuela; Nobre, Pedro

    2014-11-01

    Conservative and dysfunctional sexual beliefs are commonly associated with sexual problems among heterosexual men and women. However, little is known about the role of sexual beliefs in sexual problems in gay men and lesbians. The present study aimed at analyzing the role of sexual beliefs in sexual dysfunction in a sample of heterosexual and homosexual men and women. Participants answered questions about self-perceived sexual problems and completed the Sexual Dysfunctional Beliefs Questionnaire. Two hundred twelve men (106 gay) and 192 women (96 lesbian) completed a Web survey. Findings indicated that men with sexual dysfunction (regardless of sexual orientation) reported significantly more conservative beliefs and more erroneous beliefs related to partner's sexual satisfaction compared with sexually healthy men. Also, gay men with sexual dysfunction (but not heterosexual men) scored higher on belief in sex as an abuse of men's power compared with healthy controls. In addition, heterosexual men scored higher on "macho" beliefs, beliefs regarding partner's sexual satisfaction, and partner's power, compared with gay men. For women, a main effect was found for sexual orientation, with lesbian women scoring higher on sexual desire as a sin, age-related beliefs, and affection primacy and lower on beliefs related to motherhood primacy. Overall, findings suggest that dysfunctional sexual beliefs may play a role as vulnerability factors for sexual dysfunction regardless of sexual orientation, particularly in men. © 2014 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  18. The Status and Problems of Women in Working Life in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hulya Gul

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The situation of woman in working life is a multidimensional public health issue and should be investigated related with many factors such as economic, social, biological, cultural factors. Women have been working in each step of production through history, but are still evaluated as a disadvantaged group. Nowadays, many new legal arrangements for regulating the working life have been made in Turkey. The participation of women to the labor force is accepted to be an important element of sustainable progress, social development and prosperity of the community, however, women participation ratios in the manpower in Turkey are not yet at desired level. Attentively, evaluation of the problems women encounter in working life indicates that occupational discrimination due to gender inequality is one of the leading problems. The working environment consists of many physical, chemical, biological and psychological factors known to be harmful to the general and reproductive health of women. Recognizing of these factors, which affect the health, is important for developing programs and policies intending to prevent them. Improvement of the working conditions of women and enhancing the employment opportunities are the most important steps for the economic and social prosperity of a country. A woman working happily in good conditions and earning her own money contributes the family budget, also spends most of her income and her spare time on her children, so that it will contribute to more healthy and educated generations. In order to improve of working conditions for women, all the rules and laws should be applied totally, and all concerned sides should carry out their responsibilities completely. Firstly, the working conditions should be offered to women with the least discomfort. Also, they should be supported with continuous occupational education, opportunities for their awareness and self-development should be created. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2014; 13

  19. Women education: problems and implications for family responsibility

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The writer examined education in the context of its availability for the women folk. The paper also elucidates the problems of women education, and the implications of poor women education for family responsibility. It was suggested in the paper that for optimal national development, women who are the first teachers in the ...

  20. Obesity affects spontaneous pregnancy chances in subfertile, ovulatory women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Steeg, Jan Willem; Steures, Pieternel; Eijkemans, Marinus J. C.; Habbema, J. Dik F.; Hompes, Peter G. A.; Burggraaff, Jan M.; Oosterhuis, G. Jur E.; Bossuyt, Patrick M. M.; van der Veen, Fulco; Mol, Ben W. J.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Obesity is increasing rapidly among women all over the world. Obesity is a known risk factor for subfertility due to anovulation, but it is unknown whether obesity also affects spontaneous pregnancy chances in subfertile, ovulatory women. METHODS: We evaluated whether obesity affected

  1. Factors affecting the use of prenatal care by non-western women in industrialized western countries: a systematic review.

    OpenAIRE

    Boerleider, A.W.; Wiegers, T.A.; Manniën, J.; Francke, A.L.; Devillé, W.L.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Despite the potential of prenatal care for addressing many pregnancy complications and concurrent health problems, non-western women in industrialized western countries more often make inadequate use of prenatal care than women from the majority population do. This study aimed to give a systematic review of factors affecting non-western women's use of prenatal care (both medical care and prenatal classes) in industrialized western countries.Methods: Eleven databases (PubMed, Embas...

  2. Health problems of street children and women in Awassa, Southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The number of street children and women in major towns of Ethiopia is rapidly increasing. Yet their problems have not been fully studied. Objective: To assess health and related problems in street children and women. Methods: A cross sectional survey was conducted in Awassa town, women southern ...

  3. Affect and mathematical problem solving a new perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Adams, Verna

    1989-01-01

    Research on cognitive aspects of mathematical problem solving has made great progress in recent years, but the relationship of affective factors to problem-solving performance has been a neglected research area. The purpose of Affect and Mathematical Problem Solving: A New Perspective is to show how the theories and methods of cognitive science can be extended to include the role of affect in mathematical problem solving. The book presents Mandler's theory of emotion and explores its implications for the learning and teaching of mathematical problem solving. Also, leading researchers from mathematics, education, and psychology report how they have integrated affect into their own cognitive research. The studies focus on metacognitive processes, aesthetic influences on expert problem solvers, teacher decision-making, technology and teaching problem solving, and beliefs about mathematics. The results suggest how emotional factors like anxiety, frustration, joy, and satisfaction can help or hinder performance in...

  4. [Violence against women in transnational communities in San Luis Potosí, Mexico: a public health problem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Yesica Yolanda Rangel

    2016-08-01

    Violence against women is a worldwide problem due to its impact on quality of life for those living under the complicity of a patriarchal culture and a state that makes such violence invisible. This article aims to give visibility to the contexts of violence affecting female "partners of migrants" in their places of origin, problematizing how such violence assaults their physical and mental health. This was a qualitative study with an interpretative anthropological focus, drawing on a sample of 21 women from rural and urban areas in San Luis Potosí, Mexico. Interviews were based on daily life history and discourse analysis. According to the results, women experience more violence when their spouses migrate, new forms of violence are committed against them, and the violence occurs in both the household and the community. Violence against women is a public health problem that should be treated through a framework that is sensitive to the social and cultural dynamics characterizing the contexts in which health programs are implemented.

  5. Suicide in Danish women evaluated for fertility problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, T. K.; Jensen, A.; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg

    2011-01-01

    Women with fertility problems often experience higher levels of stress, anxiety and depressive symptoms associated with both the infertility diagnosis and eventual fertility treatment. The authors investigated whether women who do not succeed in having a child after an infertility evaluation...... are at a higher risk of suicide than women who succeed in having a child after an infertility evaluation....

  6. Stress, social support and problem drinking among women in poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulia, Nina; Schmidt, Laura; Bond, Jason; Jacobs, Laurie; Korcha, Rachael

    2008-08-01

    Previous studies have found that stress contributes to problem drinking, while social support can buffer its effects. However, these studies are confined largely to middle-class and general populations. We extend what is known by examining how the unique stressors and forms of social support experienced by women in poverty impact alcohol problems over a 4-year time-period. This prospective study used generalized estimating equations (GEE) transition modeling and four annual waves of survey data from 392 American mothers receiving Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) in a large Northern California county. We examined the effects of neighborhood disorder, stressful life events and economic hardship on psychological distress and problem drinking over time, and whether social support moderated these relationships for women in poverty. Neighborhood disorder and stressful life events increased significantly the risk for problem drinking, largely through their effect on psychological distress. We found little evidence, however, that social support buffers poor women from the effects of these stressors. Women in poverty are exposed to severe, chronic stressors within their communities and immediate social networks which increase vulnerability to psychological distress and problem drinking. The finding that social support does not buffer stress among these women may reflect their high level of exposure to stressors, as well as the hardships and scarce resources within their networks. If the 'private safety net' of the social network fails to provide a strong buffer, more effective environmental interventions that reduce exposure to stressors may be needed to prevent alcohol problems in poor women's lives.

  7. Sexual Problems among Japanese Women: Data from an Online Helpline

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    Yumi Ozaki, MD, PhD

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: Sexual aversion was the most common sexual problem among Japanese women who sought help via the online helpline. Family structure was related to sexual problems. More detailed assessments of family structure may be important in better identifying the triggering causes of the reported sexual problems. Ozaki Y, Nagao K, Saigo R, Tai T, Tanaka N, Kobayashi H, Nakajima K, and Takahashi Y. Sexual problems among Japanese women: Data from an online helpline. Sex Med 2015;3:289–295.

  8. Problems experienced by women re-entering into the education profession / Melanie Beyers

    OpenAIRE

    Beyers, Melanie

    2001-01-01

    This study investigated problems experienced by women re-entering into the education profession by focusing on: • The nature and scope of re-entry by women into the education profession; • the features and problems experienced by women on re-entering the education profession; • the problems women educators experience on re-entering the education profession in the North West Province. To achieve these goals, both an empirical survey and a survey of literature was conducted. The study...

  9. Health Promotion Behaviors of Women and Affecting Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naile Bilgili

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Women should be healthy and have health promotion behaviors, so they can accomplish both their maternal and social tasks. This descriptive study was conducted to determine the healthy life-style behaviors of married women and the factors which could affect those behaviors. METHOD: The population comprised all married women older than 15 years and who live in Ankara Kale region. Three hundred-sixty five married women were included in the study. The questionnaire form and the healthy life-style behaviors scale was used for data collection. RESULTS: The mean score taken from scale was 112.2±19.4. The scores of the women who graduated from middle school / high school, who have sufficient income and good socio-economic status, who have a perception of physical health fairly good and who have any chronic disease in their families, have significantly higher mean scores from healthy life-style behaviors scale and subgroups (p<0.05 CONCLUSION: Health promotion behaviors of the women was low and some factors like education level, income, socioeconomic status, perception of health, having any chronic illness and using regular medicine affected healthy life-style behaviors. It is recommended that nurses, who have education and consultation roles, should inform the women about health promotion behaviors and encourage them to use that information in their lives. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2009; 8(6.000: 497-502

  10. A Methodological Problem Associated with Researching Women Entrepreneurs

    OpenAIRE

    Beatrice E. Avolio

    2011-01-01

    This article highlights one of the most significant methodological problems of researching women entrepreneurs and understanding the female entrepreneurial experience, which is related to the definition of what is a women entrepreneur. The article outlines the state of research on women entrepreneurs, presents the diverse definitions used in research, conceptualizes the different aspects related to the definition of a woman entrepreneur, and proposes future directions for developing research ...

  11. Prevalence of hospitalized live births affected by alcohol and drugs and parturient women diagnosed with substance abuse at liveborn delivery: United States, 1999-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, I-Jen; Yi, Hsiao-ye

    2013-05-01

    To describe prevalence trends in hospitalized live births affected by placental transmission of alcohol and drugs, as well as prevalence trends among parturient women hospitalized for liveborn delivery and diagnosed with substance abuse problems in the United States from 1999 to 2008. Comparison of the two sets of trends helps determine whether the observed changes in neonatal problems over time were caused by shifts in maternal substance abuse problems. This study independently identified hospitalized live births and maternal live born deliveries from discharge records in the Nationwide Inpatient Sample, one of the largest hospital administrative databases. Substance-related diagnosis codes on the records were used to identify live births affected by alcohol and drugs and parturient women with substance abuse problems. The analysis calculated prevalence differences and percentage changes over the 10 years, with Loess curves fitted to 10-year prevalence estimates to depict trend patterns. Linear and quadratic trends in prevalence were simultaneously tested using logistic regression analyses. The study also examined data on costs, primary expected payer, and length of hospital stays. From 1999 to 2008, prevalence increased for narcotic- and hallucinogen-affected live births and neonatal drug withdrawal syndrome but decreased for alcohol- and cocaine-affected live births. Maternal substance abuse at delivery showed similar trends, but prevalence of alcohol abuse remained relatively stable. Substance-affected live births required longer hospital stays and higher medical expenses, mostly billable to Medicaid. The findings highlight the urgent need for behavioral intervention and early treatment for substance-abusing pregnant women to reduce the number of substance-affected live births.

  12. The Interference of Stereotype Threat with Women's Generation of Mathematical Problem-Solving Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Diane M.; Spencer, Steven J.

    2001-01-01

    Investigated whether stereotype threat would depress college women's math performance. In one test, men outperformed women when solving word problems, though women performed equally when problems were converted into numerical equivalents. In another test, participants solved difficult problems in high or reduced stereotype threat conditions. Women…

  13. Evaluation of sleep problems in preeclamptic, healthy pregnant and non-pregnant women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habibolah Khazaie

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Sleep problems are common complaints among pregnant women. This study was designed to compare subjective sleep problems in non-pregnancy condition, healthy and preeclamptic pregnancy as a major complication of pregnancy. We hypothesized that some sleep problems are more prevalent in females with preeclampsia.In this cross-sectional study, 102 women with preeclampsia, 106 healthy pregnant women in the third trimester and 103 healthy non-pregnant women were selected through random sampling. Age and parity were matched in the three groups. We used Global sleep assessment questionnaire (GSAQ to check the subjective sleep problems, and then we performed statistical analysis using Analysis of variance (ANOVA and Pearson Chi-square tests.Our findings revealed significant differences in initial insomnia (p = 0.034, fragmented sleep (p = 0.022, snoring (p<0.001, non-idiopathic insomnia (p = 0.045 and sadness and anxiety (p = 0.001 between the three groups. Some sleep problems were more common in preeclampctic compared to healthy pregnant women including initial insomnia, fragmented sleep, snoring, sleep apnea and non-idiopathic insomnia. Moreover, the subjects with preeclampsia revealed more fragmented sleep, snoring, sadness and anxiety and lack of getting enough sleep due to other activities compared to non-pregnant women.Different kinds of sleep problems can occur in subjects with preeclampsia in comparison with the non-pregnant and healthy pregnant subjects. Sleep problems should be evaluated during pregnancy, particularly in pregnant women with preeclampsia, and suitable treatment should be provided for any specific sleep problem.

  14. Problems experienced by women re-entering the education ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erna Kinsey

    The re-entry of women educators into the teaching profession has been a topic of concern to .... The cut-off point for problems with a high priority was 3.0 and 2.0 for problems with a low ..... efficient and productive manner. Acknowledgement.

  15. Factors affecting oral health-related quality of life among pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, S; Bhat, P V; Acharya, S

    2009-05-01

    To assess oral health status and to describe the possible factors that could affect the oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) among a group of pregnant rural women in South India. A total of 259 pregnant women (mean age 26 +/- 5.5 years) who participated in the cross-sectional study were administered the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14) questionnaire and were clinically examined for caries and periodontal status. The highest oral impact on quality of life was reported for 'painful mouth' (mean: 1.7) and 'difficulty in eating' (mean: 1.1). On comparing the mean OHIP-14 scores against the various self-reported oral problems, it was seen that the mean OHIP-14 scores were significantly higher among those who reported various oral problems than those who did not. Those with previous history of pregnancies had more severe levels of gingivitis than those who were pregnant for the first time. Also gingival index scores, community periodontal index of treatment needs scores and previous pregnancies was associated with poorer OHRQoL scores. Increased health promotion interventions and simple educational preventive programmes on oral self-care and disease prevention during pregnancy can go a long way in improving oral health and lessening its impact on the quality of life in this important population.

  16. Problems experienced by women re-entering the education profession

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Problems experienced by women re-entering the education profession: a South ... in maternity benefits, as well as the introduction of paternity and childcare leave, should be introduced to assist women educators to combine work and family ...

  17. Women's experiences of recovery from childbirth: focus on pelvis problems that extend beyond the puerperium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Rebecca; Peters, Kath; Beale, Barbara; Jackson, Debra

    2009-07-01

    This study aimed to build understandings of women's recovery experiences in the presence of continued pelvic problems extending beyond the puerperium to provide nurses and other health care professionals with information to enhance current practice. Trauma to the pelvic floor during childbirth is a relatively common occurrence and can include damage to structures and nerves. A significant number of women will experience ongoing physical pelvic problems resulting from childbirth that extend past the puerperium; however, little is known about the experiential aspects of recovery for these women. A qualitative, phenomenological study. Narrative data were collected during conversational interviews with 10 mothers who had sustained pelvic injury during the birth process that persisted past the puerperium. Recruitment was via media releases and brochures distributed through childcare facilities. The data was analysed using Van Manen's thematic analysis. The themes that arose from the analysis were: 'fearing intimacy', 'managing an unpredictable body', 'being resigned' and 'feeling devalued and dismissed'. Pelvic injuries that extend beyond the postpartum period are distressing for women. They negatively affect women's views of themselves and have an impact on various aspects of life including intimate relationships and social activities. Currently, postpartum care may have a focus on baby rather than mother and this focus may impede women making full disclosures of ongoing health needs arising from their delivery. Findings of this study suggest that women may have specific needs that extend beyond the puerperium, indicating a need for continued holistic assessments and extending practice to identify and support women experiencing persistent pelvic postpartum complications.

  18. Do romantic partners' responses to entry dyspareunia affect women's experience of pain? The roles of catastrophizing and self-efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemieux, Ashley J; Bergeron, Sophie; Steben, Marc; Lambert, Bernard

    2013-09-01

    Entry dyspareunia is a sexual health concern which affects about 21% of women in the general population. Characterized by pain provoked during vaginal penetration, introital dyspareunia has been shown by controlled studies to have a negative impact on the psychological well-being, sexual function, sexual satisfaction, and quality of life of afflicted women. Many cognitive and affective variables may influence the experience of pain and associated psychosexual problems. However, the role of the partner's cognitive responses has been studied very little. The aim of the present study was to examine the associations between partners' catastrophizing and their perceptions of women's self-efficacy at managing pain on one side and women's pain intensity, sexual function, and sexual satisfaction on the other. One hundred seventy-nine heterosexual couples (mean age for women = 31, SD = 10.0; mean age for men = 33, SD = 10.6) in which the woman suffered from entry dyspareunia participated in the study. Both partners completed quantitative measures. Women completed the Pain Catastrophizing Scale and the Painful Intercourse Self-Efficacy Scale. Men completed the significant-other versions of these measures. Dependent measures were women's responses to (i) the Pain Numeric Visual Analog Scale; (ii) the Female Sexual Function Index; and (iii) the Global Measure of Sexual Satisfaction scale. Controlled for women's pain catastrophizing and self-efficacy, results indicate that higher levels of partner-perceived self-efficacy and lower levels of partner catastrophizing are associated with decreased pain intensity in women with entry dyspareunia, although only partner catastrophizing contributed unique variance. Partner-perceived self-efficacy and catastrophizing were not significantly associated with sexual function or satisfaction in women. The findings suggest that partners' cognitive responses may influence the experience of entry dyspareunia for women, pointing

  19. Poor Pre-Pregnancy and Antepartum Mental Health Predicts Postpartum Mental Health Problems among US Women: A Nationally Representative Population-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Whitney P.; Wisk, Lauren E.; Cheng, Erika R.; Hampton, John M.; Creswell, Paul; Hagen, Erika W.; Spear, Hilary A.; Maddox, Torsheika; DeLeire, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Mental health problems disproportionately affect women, particularly during childbearing years. However, there is a paucity of research on the determinants of postpartum mental health problems using representative US populations. Taking a life course perspective, we determined the potential risk factors for postpartum mental health problems, with a particular focus on the role of mental health before and during pregnancy. Methods We examined data on 1,863 mothers from eleven panels of the 1996-2006 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS). Poor postpartum mental health was defined using self-reports of mental health conditions, symptoms of mental health conditions, or global mental health ratings of “fair” or “poor.” Results 9.5% of women reported experiencing postpartum mental health problems, with over half of these women reporting a history of poor mental health. Poor pre-pregnancy mental health and poor antepartum mental health both independently increased the odds of having postpartum mental health problems. Staged multivariate analyses revealed that poor antepartum mental health attenuated the relationship between pre-pregnancy and postpartum mental health problems. Additionally, significant disparities exist in women's report of postpartum mental health status. Conclusions While poor antepartum mental health is the strongest predictor of postpartum mental health problems, pre-pregnancy mental health is also important. Accordingly, health care providers should identify, treat, and follow women with a history of poor mental health, as they are particularly susceptible to postpartum mental health problems. This will ensure that women and their children are in the best possible health and mental health during the postpartum period and beyond. PMID:21349740

  20. Obesity affects spontaneous pregnancy chances in subfertile, ovulatory women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.W. van der Steeg (Jan Willem); P. Steures (Pieternel); M.J.C. Eijkemans (René); J.D.F. Habbema (Dik); P.G. Hompes (Peter); J.M. Burggraaff (Jan); G.J.E. Oosterhuis (Jur); P.M.M. Bossuyt (Patrick); F. Veen (Fulco); B.W.J. Mol (Ben)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: Obesity is increasing rapidly among women all over the world. Obesity is a known risk factor for subfertility due to anovulation, but it is unknown whether obesity also affects spontaneous pregnancy chances in subfertile, ovulatory women. METHODS: We evaluated whether obesity

  1. Automatic and deliberate affective associations with sexual stimuli in women with lifelong vaginismus before and after therapist-aided exposure treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melles, Reinhilde J; ter Kuile, Moniek M; Dewitte, Marieke; van Lankveld, Jacques J D M; Brauer, Marieke; de Jong, Peter J

    2014-03-01

    The intense fear response to vaginal penetration in women with lifelong vaginismus, who have never been able to experience coitus, may reflect negative automatic and deliberate appraisals of vaginal penetration stimuli which might be modified by exposure treatment. The aim of this study is to examine whether (i) sexual stimuli elicit relatively strong automatic and deliberate threat associations in women with vaginismus, as well as relatively negative automatic and deliberate global affective associations, compared with symptom-free women; and (ii) these automatic and more deliberate attitudes can be modified by therapist-aided exposure treatment. A single target Implicit Association Test (st-IAT) was used to index automatic threat associations, and an Affective Simon Task (AST) to index global automatic affective associations. Participants were women with lifelong vaginismus (N = 68) and women without sexual problems (N = 70). The vaginismus group was randomly allocated to treatment (n = 34) and a waiting list control condition (n = 34). Indices of automatic threat were obtained by the st-IAT and automatic global affective associations by the AST, visual analogue scales (VAS) were used to assess deliberate appraisals of the sexual pictures (fear and global positive affect). More deliberate fear and less global positive affective associations with sexual stimuli were found in women with vaginismus. Following therapist-aided exposure treatment, the strength of fear was strongly reduced, whereas global positive affective associations were strengthened. Automatic associations did not differ between women with and without vaginismus and did not change following treatment. Relatively stronger negative (threat or global affect) associations with sexual stimuli in vaginismus appeared restricted to the deliberate level. Therapist-aided exposure treatment was effective in reducing subjective fear of sexual penetration stimuli and led to more global positive affective

  2. Medical and sociological explication of the problem of infectious diseases prophylaxis among pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.B. Merzlova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The research is focused on revealing the TORCH-infections prophylaxis problems during preconception period and culture of personal infection safety among pregnant women. The research involved 2060 women. Epidemiological monitoring was accompanied by a social survey of the Perinatal Center patients using the continuous sampling method. The problems of the population’s response adequacy regarding the dangers of TORCH-infection are presented on the basis of questionnaire survey of 55 pregnant women – patients of the Perinatal Center. Sociological explication of the problems of TORCH-infections prophylaxis revealed the positive and negative behavioral stereotypes of the Perm Region population from the point of view of assuring the personal infection safety. The positive stereotypes include cleanliness and vitamin prophylaxis practice. The regional hygienic culture can be developed by increased involvement in sport, immunological prophylaxis propaganda, safe sex, helminth prophylaxis in pets and regular tooth brushing. The survey has explicated the common negative behavour stereotypes leading to toxoplasmosis contamination during pregnancy. Only a half of the surveyed women avoid the intake of meat that did not undergo sufficient heat treatment, 72.7 % of respondents cannot be relieved from the duties of cleaning the cat’s toilet. The rating made on the basis of the survey concerning the popularity of measures assuring personal infection safety has shown a neglectful attitude of population towards the immunological prophylaxis and modern medical products affecting the immune system, that inevitably leads to problems with compliance of pregnant women to vaccination and immunological correction by immune modulators during treatment of the revealed infectious diseases. We found a mismatch between the behavioral stereotypes of the Perm Region population in ensuring personal infection safety and the academic principles of TORCH-infections prevention

  3. Factors affecting orientation and satisfaction of women entrepreneurs in rural India

    OpenAIRE

    Jyoti, Jeevan; Sharma, Jyoti; Kumari, Anita

    2011-01-01

    In the present era, the women-owned businesses in the form of women entrepreneurs are one of the fastest growing entrepreneurial populations in the India. The objective of the paper is to study the factors that affect women entrepreneurial orientation and their satisfaction. In this regard, the paper explores the affecting variables and their impact on orientation and satisfaction. The proposed model and hypotheses were tested by using the data collected from boutiques, beauty parlors, carpet...

  4. Mental disorders in childhood and young adulthood among children born to women with fertility problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svahn, M.F.; Hargreave, M.; Nielsen, T.S.S.

    2015-01-01

    of any mental disorder (HR 1.23; 95% CI 1.20-1.26) and for most of the 11 main discharge groups, including schizophrenia (HR 1.16; 95% CI 1.07-1.27), mood (affective) disorders (HR 1.21; 95% CI 1.15-1.28) and disorders of psychological development (HR 1.15; 95% CI 1.09-1.21) as well as the subgroup...... not previously studied (e.g. neurotic, stress-related and somatoform disorders and disorders of adult personality and behaviour). These important findings should be investigated further in large epidemiological studies designed to differentiate between factors related to fertility treatment and to the underlying......STUDY QUESTION: Is the risk of hospital admission or outpatient contact for mental disorders increased in children born to women with fertility problems compared with children born to women without fertility problems? SUMMARY ANSWER: We found an increased risk of hospital admission or outpatient...

  5. [Polycystic ovary syndrome: an example of obesity-related cardiovascular complication affecting young women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orio, Francesco; Cascella, Teresa; Giallauria, Francesco; Palomba, Stefano; De Lorenzo, Anna; Lucci, Rosa; Ambrosino, Elena; Lombardi, Gaetano; Colao, Annamaria; Vigorito, Carlo

    2006-03-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a good example of obesity-related cardiovascular complication affecting young women. PCOS is not only considered a reproductive problem but rather represents a complex endocrine, multifaceted syndrome with important health implications. Several evidences suggest an increased cardiovascular risk of cardiovascular disease associated with this syndrome, characterized by an impairment of heart structure and function, endothelial dysfunction and lipid abnormalities. All these features, probably linked to insulin-resistance, are often present in obese PCOS patients. Cardiovascular abnormalities represent important long-term sequelae of PCOS that need further investigations.

  6. Girls and Women with Physical Disabilities: Needs and Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Sharifian-Sani

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: By taking into account that understanding the primary needs of disabled girls and women is essential in finding a suitable solution to their problems, the main objective of the current research was based on the investigation of the needs and the problems of girls and women with physical disabilities in Tehran (capital of Iran.  Materials & Methods: This research has been carried out in a descriptive manner. The participants of this research were 216 girls and women with physical disability who were selected among 1395 clients of the welfare organization in Tehran through a systematic randomized method. Data collection was carried out using an 82-question questionnaire designed by the researchers. The questionnaire compiled by reviewing current resources on the subject and based on discussions carried out within focus groups. It was finalized after determining its validity and reliability. Results: Examining the needs and problems of girls and women with physical disability, in general, made clear their priorities in each area. Priorities for educational needs: promoting the awareness of society through education, providing vocational training employment needs: accessible transportation, allocation of special employment opportunities for them (quota system need for starting a family: the possibility of meeting their future husbands before marriage provided by their families, consultation before marriage their main needs regarding transportation: improving pedestrian pavements and public pathways, provision of a special transport service taking account of their particular disability need for rehabilitation services: rehabilitation aids and educational services leisure time: financial help for using sports-recreational facilities, provision of sports facilities for girls and women with physical disability their needs for establishing communication:, receiving a normal reaction from non-disabled people while dealing with their needs and

  7. Women's Education in India: Problems and Prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, M. C. Reddeppa

    1991-01-01

    Problems in educating women in India include social taboos, dependency, parents' discriminatory attitudes, low social status, early marriage, heavy work load, lack of motivation, and family poverty. Changes in attitudes, laws, and funding are needed to expand opportunities. (SK)

  8. Prevalence of Hospitalized Live Births Affected by Alcohol and Drugs and Parturient Women Diagnosed with Substance Abuse at Liveborn Delivery: United States, 1999–2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, I-Jen; Yi, Hsiao-ye

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe prevalence trends in hospitalized live births affected by placental transmission of alcohol and drugs, as well as prevalence trends among parturient women hospitalized for liveborn delivery and diagnosed with substance abuse problems in the United States from 1999 to 2008. Comparison of the two sets of trends helps determine whether the observed changes in neonatal problems over time were caused by shifts in maternal substance abuse problems. Methods This study independently identified hospitalized live births and maternal live born deliveries from discharge records in the Nationwide Inpatient Sample, one of the largest hospital administrative databases. Substance-related diagnosis codes on the records were used to identify live births affected by alcohol and drugs and parturient women with substance abuse problems. The analysis calculated prevalence differences and percentage changes over the 10 years, with Loess curves fitted to 10-year prevalence estimates to depict trend patterns. Linear and quadratic trends in prevalence were simultaneously tested using logistic regression analyses. The study also examined data on costs, primary expected payer, and length of hospital stays. Results From 1999 to 2008, prevalence increased for narcotic- and hallucinogen-affected live births and neonatal drug withdrawal syndrome but decreased for alcohol- and cocaine-affected live births. Maternal substance abuse at delivery showed similar trends, but prevalence of alcohol abuse remained relatively stable. Substance-affected live births required longer hospital stays and higher medical expenses, mostly billable to Medicaid. Conclusions The findings highlight the urgent need for behavioral intervention and early treatment for substance-abusing pregnant women to reduce the number of substance-affected live births. PMID:22688539

  9. Contraception in women with medical problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanjal, Mandish K

    2008-01-01

    Women with medical disease have a higher incidence of maternal mortality compared with healthy women, with cardiac disease now being the most common cause of maternal death in the UK. A handful of medical conditions exist where pregnancy is not recommended due to mortality rates approaching 50%. It is imperative that such women have the most reliable methods of contraception available. Contraceptive agents may themselves affect medical disease, or may interact with medications used by such women. There may be a range of contraceptive agents suitable for each medical condition. The contraceptive selected should be tailored to suit the individual. The following points should be considered when deciding on the most appropriate contraceptive agent: efficacy, thrombotic risk (oestrogen containing contraceptives), arterial risks (oestrogen containing contraceptives), infective risk (e.g. insertion of intrauterine device [IUD]), vagal stimulation (e.g. insertion of IUD, ESSURE®), bleeding risks with patients on anticoagulants, interaction with concomitant drugs, effects of anaesthesia and ease of use. This review aims to cover the different contraceptive agents available and the best ones to use for certain medical illnesses. PMID:27582790

  10. Dream-associated Behaviors Affecting Pregnant and Postpartum Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Tore; Paquette, Tyna

    2007-01-01

    Study objectives: Evaluate the prevalence and phenomenology of dream-associated behaviors affecting pregnant and postpartum mothers. Episodes consist of anxious dreams and nightmares about the new infant that are accompanied by complex behaviors (motor activity, speaking, expressing emotion). Design: Three-group design (postpartum, pregnant, null gravida), self-report, and repeated measures. Setting: Pregnancy and postpartum groups: completion of questionnaires in hospital room within 48 hours of giving birth and home telephone interviews; null gravida group: completion of questionnaires and interview in person or by telephone. Participants: Two hundred seventy-three women in 3 groups: postpartum: n = 202 (mean age = 29.7 ± 4.94 years; 95 primiparas, 107 multiparas); pregnant: n = 50 (mean age = 31.1 ± 5.44 years); null gravida: n = 21 (mean age = 28.5 ± 6.34 years). Interventions: Subjects completed questionnaires about pregnancy and birth factors, personality, and sleep and participated in interviews concerning the prevalence of recent infant dreams and nightmares, associated behaviors, anxiety, depression, and other psychopathologic factors. Measurements and Results: Most women in all groups recalled dreams (88%-91%). Postpartum and pregnant women recalled infant dreams and nightmares with equal prevalence, but more postpartum women reported they contained anxiety (75%) and the infant in peril (73%) than did pregnant women (59%, P dream-associated behaviors (P dream anxiety and, among postpartum women, post-awakening anxiety (41%), confusion (51%), and a need to check on the infant (60%). Primiparas and multiparas differed in dream and nightmare recall but not in prevalence of dream-associated behaviors. Conclusion: The prevalent occurrence of pregnancy and postpartum infant dreams and associated behaviors may reflect the pervasive emotional influence of maternal concerns or changes instigated by severe sleep disruption, rapid eye movement sleep deprivation

  11. Schema Knowledge for Solving Arithmetic Story Problems: Some Affective Components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Sandra P.

    This report discusses the role of affect in cognitive processing. The importance of affect in processing mathematical information is described in the context of solving arithmetic story problems. Some ideas are offered about the way affective responses to mathematical problem solving situations influence the development, maintenance, and retrieval…

  12. How Has Living with Intimate Partner Violence Affected the Work Situation? A Qualitative Study among Abused Women in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsaker, Kjersti; Moen, Bente E; Baste, Valborg; Morken, Tone

    A qualitative study was conducted among 18 abused women from different parts of Norway to explore what paid work means for women exposed to partner violence and how living with an abusive partner affected their working life. Based on systematic text condensation analyses of their experiences as described in individual and focus group interviews, the study's findings reveal two major themes. The first is about recovery and survival, and the other about the spillover of problems caused by a violent partner into paid work. Work was important to the women, as it represented time off from violence, contact with others who cared for them, and maintenance of self-esteem and self-confidence. Having their own money provided security and strengthened the belief that they could manage on their own. The spillover of intimate partner violence problems appeared through feelings of fear, shame and guilt at work.

  13. How Do Sleep-Related Health Problems Affect Functional Status According to Sex?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccabella, Allegra; Malouf, John

    2017-05-15

    To measure differences in functional status between men and women presenting with sleep-related health problems. A retrospective clinical audit of 744 Australian patients across 7 private general practices between April 2013 and January 2015 was conducted. Patients completed an electronic survey as part of their routine consultation, which included the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), the Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire 10 (FOSQ-10), and other questions relating to the effect of their sleep problem. The proportion of males and females with ESS and FOSQ-10 scores associated with disorders of daytime sleepiness and burden of symptoms due to sleepiness, respectively, were compared, as well as reported differences between the sexes in memory, concentration, issues with relationships, feeling depressed, and trouble sleeping. On presentation, females were more likely to have sleeping disorders associated with daytime sleepiness (median ESS score of 9 for females versus 8 for males, P = .038; proportion ESS > 9 was 49.0% for females versus 36.9% for males, P = .003). Women were also more likely to report an increased burden of symptoms due to sleepiness compared to men, as shown by lower FOSQ-10 scores ( P sleeping at night. Snoring kept partners awake in roughly the same proportion of males and females, and a larger proportion of the partners of males were forced out of the room. Sleep-related health issues both manifest in and affect the lives of males and females differently. Sleep health professionals should recognize these differences on all levels of disease prevention and health promotion from patient education, to diagnosis and management to improve quality of life for those with sleep-related health problems. © 2017 American Academy of Sleep Medicine

  14. [Impact of childhood sexual abuse on the sexual and affective relationships of adult women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Sílvia; Faro, Concepció; Lopetegui, Lourdes; Pujol-Ribera, Enriqueta; Monteagudo, Mònica; Cobo, Jesús; Fernández, María Isabel

    To analyse perceived sexual satisfaction, sexual dysfunction, satisfaction with affective relationships and confidence and communication in existing relationships, related to a past history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and type suffered, among women treated as part of the Catalonian Sexual and Reproductive Health Care Programme (PASSIR). Multicentric, descriptive, cross-sectional study. A total of 1,013 women over the age of 18 years, who underwent psychological therapy at any of the 24 PASSIR centres, were enrolled. A structured, anonymised, self-administered Sex History Questionnaire adapted from Wyatt (1985) & Dubé et al. (2005), and the Female Sexual Function Index (Rosen, 2000), were used. Statistical analysis was descriptive, bivariate and multivariate. Women who suffered childhood sexual abuse had a significantly higher prevalence of sexual dysfunction, with lower perceived sexual satisfaction. CSA with penetration or attempted penetration was associated with greater arousal difficulties and greater rejection. Women who experienced CSA were less confident and experienced greater communication difficulties with their partner. It is necessary to identify potential childhood sexual abuse among women who seek therapy due to relationship problems. It is also necessary to continue research into protective factors and therapeutic interventions to alleviate the consequences of CSA in adult life. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Affect regulation and psychopathology in women with borderline personality disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Erik; Andersen, Rune; Timmerby, Nina

    2012-01-01

    the psychometric properties of the translated Danish version of self-report measures sensitive to the different aspects and dimensions of dysfunction in affect regulation prevalent in BPD. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This study comprised a group of women diagnosed with BPD (n = 29) and a comparison group of healthy...... subjects (n = 29) who reported psychopathology and levels of affective instability, aggression, impulsivity and alexithymia by self-report measures. RESULTS: Our results demonstrated that women with BPD have significant psychopathology and report significantly higher levels of dysfunction in separate...

  16. Do the emotional states of pregnant women affect neonatal behaviour?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Martínez, Carmen; Arija, Victoria; Balaguer, Albert; Cavallé, Pere; Canals, Josefa

    2008-11-01

    The emotional states of pregnant women affect the course of their pregnancies, their deliveries and the behaviour and development of their infants. The aim of this study is to analyse the influence of positive and negative maternal emotional states on neonatal behaviour at 2-3 days after birth. A sample of 163 healthy full-term newborns was evaluated using the Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale. Maternal anxiety, perceived stress, and emotional stability during pregnancy were evaluated in the immediate postpartum period with the State Trait Anxiety Inventory and the Perceived Stress Scale. Moderate levels of anxiety during pregnancy alter infant orientation and self-regulation. These aspects of infant behaviour could lead to later attachment, behavioural and developmental problems. Maternal emotional stability during pregnancy improves infant self-regulation and several aspects of infant behaviour that may predispose them to better interactions with their parents.

  17. Postlearning stress differentially affects memory for emotional gist and detail in naturally cycling women and women on hormonal contraceptives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Shawn E; Ahmed, Imran; Cahill, Larry

    2014-08-01

    Sex differences in emotional memory have received increasing interest over the past decade. However, to date, no work has explored how a postlearning stressor might modulate the influence of sex hormone status on memory for gist and peripheral detail in an emotional versus neutral context. Here, we tested 3 predictions. First, compared with naturally cycling (NC) women in the luteal phase, women on hormonal contraception (HC) would have significantly blunted hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal reactivity to physical stress. Second, postlearning stress would enhance detail and gist memory from an emotional story in NC women, and finally, postlearning stress would not affect emotional memory for details or gist in HC women. Healthy NC and HC women viewed a brief, narrated story containing neutral or emotionally arousing elements. Immediately after, cold pressor stress (CPS) or a control procedure was administered. One week later, participants received a surprise free recall test for story elements. NC women exhibited significantly greater cortisol increases to CPS compared with HC women. NC women who viewed the emotional story and were administered CPS recalled the most peripheral details overall and more gist from the emotional compared with the neutral story. In HC women, however, the postlearning cortisol release did not affect memory for gist or peripheral details from the emotional or neutral story in any way. Additionally, NC and HC women performed similarly on measures of attention and arousal. These findings suggest that in women, postlearning stress differentially affects memory for emotional information depending on their hormonal contraceptive status.

  18. (Un)Disciplined futures: Women of color feminism as a disruptive to white affect studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Rojas, Claudia

    2017-07-03

    The aim of this article is to demonstrate how women of color feminism predates and disrupts dominant dialogues in the field of White affect studies. I introduce the concept of White affect studies as an arena of inquiry that draws from Western-European theories and literatures and architects a sociopolitical structure of affect that positions White affects as universal. Scholars contributing to the field of White affect studies posit theories of affect, embodiment, subjectivity, phenomenology, violence, war, and more, while disregarding the theoretical contributions made by women of color feminism in thinking through these notions and social issues. This is done by engaging in a citational practice that results in an epistemic erasure of women of color feminist thought. The voices of women of color feminists are thus disqualified, and their theoretical contributions are not acknowledged as significant or relevant in conceptualizing affect, affective economies, and the social. By turning to the writings of women of color feminists, I demonstrate how their theories on embodiment, subjectivity, and social structures predate the institutionalization of White affect studies. Feminists of color from the past and present have and continue to theorize through a language of self their experiences as subjects embedded within matrices of violence, power, and pleasure. Lorde, Martinez, and Chinchilla write about the ways in which lesbian and queer women of color institute different affects that counter dominant structures of emotion, systems of power, and heterosexual modes of being. In developing conceptual methodologies, Lorde, Martinez, and Chinchilla are able to weave into the dominant discursive logic a language of self that both introduces new queer subjectivities, while reinterpreting existing forms of thought, thereby contesting mainstream economies of White affects and White affect studies. It is through a language of self that Lorde, Martinez, and Chinchilla develop

  19. Associations between yoga practice and joint problems: a cross-sectional survey among 9151 Australian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauche, Romy; Schumann, Dania; Sibbritt, David; Adams, Jon; Cramer, Holger

    2017-07-01

    Yoga exercises have been associated with joint problems recently, indicating that yoga practice might be potentially dangerous for joint health. This study aimed to analyse whether regular yoga practice is associated with the frequency of joint problems in upper middle-aged Australian women. Women aged 62-67 years from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health (ALSWH) were questioned in 2013 whether they experienced regular joint pain or problems in the past 12 months and whether they regularly practiced yoga. Associations of joint problems with yoga practice were analysed using Chi-squared tests and multiple logistic regression modelling. Of 9151 women, 29.8% reported regular problems with stiff or painful joints, and 15.2, 11.9, 18.1 and 15.9% reported regular problems with shoulders, hips, knees and feet, respectively, in the past 12 months. Yoga was practiced sometimes by 10.1% and often by 8.4% of women. Practicing yoga was not associated with upper or lower limb joint problems. No association between yoga practice and joint problems has been identified. Further studies are warranted for conclusive judgement of benefits and safety of yoga in relation to joint problems.

  20. Drinking Water Sodium and Elevated Blood Pressure of Healthy Pregnant Women in Salinity-Affected Coastal Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheelbeek, Pauline F D; Khan, Aneire E; Mojumder, Sontosh; Elliott, Paul; Vineis, Paolo

    2016-08-01

    Coastal areas in Southeast Asia are experiencing high sodium concentrations in drinking water sources that are commonly consumed by local populations. Salinity problems caused by episodic cyclones and subsequent seawater inundations are likely (partly) related to climate change and further exacerbated by changes in upstream river flow and local land-use activities. Dietary (food) sodium plays an important role in the global burden of hypertensive disease. It remains unknown, however, if sodium in drinking water-rather than food-has similar effects on blood pressure and disease risk. In this study, we examined the effect of drinking water sodium on blood pressure of pregnant women: increases in blood pressure in this group could severely affect maternal and fetal health. Data on blood pressure, drinking water source, and personal, lifestyle, and environmental confounders was obtained from 701 normotensive pregnant women residing in coastal Bangladesh. Generalized linear mixed regression models were used to investigate association of systolic and diastolic blood pressure of these-otherwise healthy-women with their water source. After adjustment for confounders, drinkers of tube well and pond water (high saline sources) were found to have significantly higher average systolic (+4.85 and +3.62 mm Hg) and diastolic (+2.30 and +1.72 mm Hg) blood pressures than rainwater drinkers. Drinking water salinity problems are expected to exacerbate in the future, putting millions of coastal people-including pregnant women-at increased risk of hypertension and associated diseases. There is an urgent need to further explore the health risks associated to this understudied environmental health problem and feasibility of possible adaptation strategies. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  1. The Association between Motivation, Affect, and Self-regulated Learning When Solving Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martine Baars

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Self-regulated learning (SRL skills are essential for learning during school years, particularly in complex problem-solving domains, such as biology and math. Although a lot of studies have focused on the cognitive resources that are needed for learning to solve problems in a self-regulated way, affective and motivational resources have received much less research attention. The current study investigated the relation between affect (i.e., Positive Affect and Negative Affect Scale, motivation (i.e., autonomous and controlled motivation, mental effort, SRL skills, and problem-solving performance when learning to solve biology problems in a self-regulated online learning environment. In the learning phase, secondary education students studied video-modeling examples of how to solve hereditary problems, solved hereditary problems which they chose themselves from a set of problems with different complexity levels (i.e., five levels. In the posttest, students solved hereditary problems, self-assessed their performance, and chose a next problem from the set of problems but did not solve these problems. The results from this study showed that negative affect, inaccurate self-assessments during the posttest, and higher perceptions of mental effort during the posttest were negatively associated with problem-solving performance after learning in a self-regulated way.

  2. The Association between Motivation, Affect, and Self-regulated Learning When Solving Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baars, Martine; Wijnia, Lisette; Paas, Fred

    2017-01-01

    Self-regulated learning (SRL) skills are essential for learning during school years, particularly in complex problem-solving domains, such as biology and math. Although a lot of studies have focused on the cognitive resources that are needed for learning to solve problems in a self-regulated way, affective and motivational resources have received much less research attention. The current study investigated the relation between affect (i.e., Positive Affect and Negative Affect Scale), motivation (i.e., autonomous and controlled motivation), mental effort, SRL skills, and problem-solving performance when learning to solve biology problems in a self-regulated online learning environment. In the learning phase, secondary education students studied video-modeling examples of how to solve hereditary problems, solved hereditary problems which they chose themselves from a set of problems with different complexity levels (i.e., five levels). In the posttest, students solved hereditary problems, self-assessed their performance, and chose a next problem from the set of problems but did not solve these problems. The results from this study showed that negative affect, inaccurate self-assessments during the posttest, and higher perceptions of mental effort during the posttest were negatively associated with problem-solving performance after learning in a self-regulated way.

  3. The reproduction in women affected by cooley disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Pafumi (Carlo); V. Leanza (Vito); L. Coco (Luana); S. Vizzini (Stefania); L. Ciotta (Lilliana); A. Messina (Alessandra); G. Zarbo (Giuseppe); A. D'Agati (Alfio); M.A. Palumbo (Marco Antonio); A. Iemmola (Alessandra); F.A. Gulino (Ferdinando Antonio); M.C. Teodoro (Maria Cristina); M. Attard (Matthew); A.C. Plesca (Alina Cristina); C. Soares (Catarina); N. Kouloubis (Nina); M. Chammas (Mayada)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThe health background management and outcomes of 5 pregnancies in 4 women affected by Cooley Disease, from Paediatric Institute of Catania University, are described, considering the preconceptual guidances and cares for such patients. These patients were selected among a group of 100

  4. Post-learning stress differentially affects memory for emotional gist and detail in naturally cycling women and women on hormonal contraceptives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Shawn E.; Ahmed, Imran; Cahill, Larry

    2014-01-01

    Sex differences in emotional memory have received increasing interest over the past decade. However, to date, no work has explored how a post-learning stressor might modulate the influence of sex hormone status on memory for gist and peripheral detail in an emotional versus neutral context. Here, we tested three predictions. First, compared to naturally cycling women (NC women) in the luteal phase, women on hormonal contraception (HC women) would have significantly blunted HPA reactivity to physical stress. Second, post-learning stress would enhance detail and gist memory from an emotional story in NC women, and finally, post-learning stress would not affect emotional memory for details or gist in HC women. Healthy NC and HC women viewed a brief, narrated story containing neutral or emotionally arousing elements. Immediately after, Cold Pressor Stress (CPS) or a control procedure was administered. One week later, participants received a surprise free recall test for story elements. NC women exhibited significantly greater cortisol increases to CPS compared to HC women. NC women who viewed the emotional story and were administered CPS recalled the most peripheral details overall and more gist from the emotional compared to the neutral story. In HC women, however, the post-learning cortisol release did not affect memory for gist or peripheral details from the emotional or neutral story in any way. Additionally, NC and HC women performed similarly on measures of attention and arousal. These findings suggest that in women, post-learning stress differentially affects memory for emotional information depending on their hormonal contraceptive status. PMID:24841741

  5. Factors affecting the views and experiences of women living in the city centre of Manisa, Turkey, regarding domestic violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özpinar, Saliha; Dinç Horasan, Gönül; Baydur, Hakan; Canbay, Tülin

    2016-11-01

    Domestic violence against women is an important social and public health problem worldwide resulting from unequal power relationships between men and women. The purpose of the present cross-sectional descriptive study was to determine the factors affecting the views and experiences of women living in the city centre of Manisa, Turkey, regarding domestic violence. The data were collected from a representative sample of women (n=873) in 2012. The socio-demographic questionnaire and the World Health Organization's Multi-country Study on Women's Health and Domestic Violence Against Women were used for data collection. The study results revealed that of the women, 14.8% were exposed to physical violence, 7.9% to sexual violence, 20.2% to emotional violence/abuse and 11.2% to economic violence/abuse within the last 12 months. Lower income level, lower social status, lower educational level, unemployment, being exposed to parental violence during childhood and being married to husbands exposed to parental violence during childhood were associated risk factors with domestic violence. The study results indicate that domestic violence against women is a common phenomenon in Manisa.

  6. Women's greater ability to perceive happy facial emotion automatically: gender differences in affective priming.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uta-Susan Donges

    Full Text Available There is evidence that women are better in recognizing their own and others' emotions. The female advantage in emotion recognition becomes even more apparent under conditions of rapid stimulus presentation. Affective priming paradigms have been developed to examine empirically whether facial emotion stimuli presented outside of conscious awareness color our impressions. It was observed that masked emotional facial expression has an affect congruent influence on subsequent judgments of neutral stimuli. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of gender on affective priming based on negative and positive facial expression. In our priming experiment sad, happy, neutral, or no facial expression was briefly presented (for 33 ms and masked by neutral faces which had to be evaluated. 81 young healthy volunteers (53 women participated in the study. Subjects had no subjective awareness of emotional primes. Women did not differ from men with regard to age, education, intelligence, trait anxiety, or depressivity. In the whole sample, happy but not sad facial expression elicited valence congruent affective priming. Between-group analyses revealed that women manifested greater affective priming due to happy faces than men. Women seem to have a greater ability to perceive and respond to positive facial emotion at an automatic processing level compared to men. High perceptual sensitivity to minimal social-affective signals may contribute to women's advantage in understanding other persons' emotional states.

  7. Women's greater ability to perceive happy facial emotion automatically: gender differences in affective priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donges, Uta-Susan; Kersting, Anette; Suslow, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    There is evidence that women are better in recognizing their own and others' emotions. The female advantage in emotion recognition becomes even more apparent under conditions of rapid stimulus presentation. Affective priming paradigms have been developed to examine empirically whether facial emotion stimuli presented outside of conscious awareness color our impressions. It was observed that masked emotional facial expression has an affect congruent influence on subsequent judgments of neutral stimuli. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of gender on affective priming based on negative and positive facial expression. In our priming experiment sad, happy, neutral, or no facial expression was briefly presented (for 33 ms) and masked by neutral faces which had to be evaluated. 81 young healthy volunteers (53 women) participated in the study. Subjects had no subjective awareness of emotional primes. Women did not differ from men with regard to age, education, intelligence, trait anxiety, or depressivity. In the whole sample, happy but not sad facial expression elicited valence congruent affective priming. Between-group analyses revealed that women manifested greater affective priming due to happy faces than men. Women seem to have a greater ability to perceive and respond to positive facial emotion at an automatic processing level compared to men. High perceptual sensitivity to minimal social-affective signals may contribute to women's advantage in understanding other persons' emotional states.

  8. Noticing relevant problem features: activating prior knowledge affects problem solving by guiding encoding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crooks, Noelle M.; Alibali, Martha W.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated whether activating elements of prior knowledge can influence how problem solvers encode and solve simple mathematical equivalence problems (e.g., 3 + 4 + 5 = 3 + __). Past work has shown that such problems are difficult for elementary school students (McNeil and Alibali, 2000). One possible reason is that children's experiences in math classes may encourage them to think about equations in ways that are ultimately detrimental. Specifically, children learn a set of patterns that are potentially problematic (McNeil and Alibali, 2005a): the perceptual pattern that all equations follow an “operations = answer” format, the conceptual pattern that the equal sign means “calculate the total”, and the procedural pattern that the correct way to solve an equation is to perform all of the given operations on all of the given numbers. Upon viewing an equivalence problem, knowledge of these patterns may be reactivated, leading to incorrect problem solving. We hypothesized that these patterns may negatively affect problem solving by influencing what people encode about a problem. To test this hypothesis in children would require strengthening their misconceptions, and this could be detrimental to their mathematical development. Therefore, we tested this hypothesis in undergraduate participants. Participants completed either control tasks or tasks that activated their knowledge of the three patterns, and were then asked to reconstruct and solve a set of equivalence problems. Participants in the knowledge activation condition encoded the problems less well than control participants. They also made more errors in solving the problems, and their errors resembled the errors children make when solving equivalence problems. Moreover, encoding performance mediated the effect of knowledge activation on equivalence problem solving. Thus, one way in which experience may affect equivalence problem solving is by influencing what students encode about the

  9. Factors Affecting Blood Pressure in Women with Hypertension Who Were Referred to Beyrag Health House - Tabriz 1391

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirvan Majidi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: The prevalence of hypertension in general is estimated about 18.4%   and women are more affected than men. The overall aim of this study was to investigate factors that increase blood pressure in women with hypertension from the perspective of those who were referred to health house of Beyrag village. Material and Methods : This is a study qualitative. Statistical population of this study was  65 women with high blood pressure that were referred to health house in Beyrag village which were chosen by simple sampling method and interviewed individually and in groups. Results : The findings showed that the majority of people with high blood pressure believe that stress and anxiety of routine problems in life are the main causes of their disease. Many interviewees named income and socioeconomic status as the most affecting factors on their health status. Other affecting factors included lack of exercise, poor physical statues and poor diet. Conclusion :  The study indicated that the majority of people who participated in this survey used excessive amount of salt and fat due to lack of knowledge about their side effects.  Also, according to the results of this study, economy is recognized as a major factor which has a significant impact on human health. Consequently, strategies to improve the health status of women with high blood pressure are advised as follows: 1- modification of lifestyle 2 – healthy diet 3 - light exercise and walking 4 - Stress and anxiety control 5 - regular blood pressure measurement 6 - improving the rural economy. ​

  10. Mental disorders in childhood and young adulthood among children born to women with fertility problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svahn, M F; Hargreave, M; Nielsen, T S S; Plessen, K J; Jensen, S M; Kjaer, S K; Jensen, A

    2015-09-01

    , version 10. During a mean follow-up period of 21 years (range, 0-40 years), 168 686 (7%) children were admitted to hospital or had an outpatient contact for a mental disorder. Children born to women with fertility problems had a significantly higher risk of any mental disorder (HR 1.23; 95% CI 1.20-1.26) and for most of the 11 main discharge groups, including schizophrenia (HR 1.16; 95% CI 1.07-1.27), mood (affective) disorders (HR 1.21; 95% CI 1.15-1.28) and disorders of psychological development (HR 1.15; 95% CI 1.09-1.21) as well as the subgroup of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorders (HR 1.36; 95% CI 1.29-1.45) compared with children born to women without fertility problems. The risk estimates did not change markedly when analyses were performed separately for mental disorders diagnosed during childhood (0-19 years) and in young adulthood (20-40 years). The true risk of mental disorders may be somewhat underestimated, as only severe disorders requiring hospital admission or outpatient contact were considered as events. Furthermore, we could not determine whether the increased risks observed were due to factors related to the underlying infertility or to fertility treatment procedures. This is the first report on mental disorders in adulthood among children born to women with fertility problems. Furthermore, we have assessed the risk of several severe mental disorders not previously studied (e.g. neurotic, stress-related and somatoform disorders and disorders of adult personality and behaviour). These important findings should be investigated further in large epidemiological studies designed to differentiate between factors related to fertility treatment and to the underlying infertility. The study was supported by internal funding from the Unit of Virus, Lifestyle and Genes at the Danish Cancer Society Research Center. All authors report no conflicts of interest. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human

  11. The effect of exercise on affective and self-efficacy responses in older and younger women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Fiona

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the self-efficacy and affective responses to an acute exercise bout in sedentary older and younger women to determine whether aging has an effect on affective states. Twenty-five sedentary younger (mean age = 19.9 yrs) and 25 older (mean age = 55.7 yrs) women completed an acute bout of exercise. Affective responses were measured before, during, and immediately following exercise. Self-efficacy responses were measured before and immediately following exercise. Positive engagement, revitalization, tranquility, Felt Arousal and Feeling Scale responses, and self-efficacy were all higher immediately following compared with before or during exercise for both groups of women. In addition, older women experienced higher overall positive engagement and lower physical exhaustion compared with younger women as well as higher tranquility and Feeling Scale responses immediately following exercise. This investigation found that an acute bout of moderate-intensity exercise produced more positive and fewer negative affective states in both younger and older women.

  12. Employed women with alcohol problems who seek help from employee assistance programs. Description and comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, T C; Roman, P M; Harwood, E M

    1995-01-01

    After a brief description of employee assistance programs (EAP), we present data collected from 6,400 employees from 84 worksites who used the services of EAPs, a portion of whom were assessed by the EAP as having alcohol-related problems and/or received scores on the Alcohol Dependence Scale (ADS) indicative of a potential alcohol-related problem. In addition, data were collected at intake from the EAP administrators, and employment status of the employee clients was assessed 18 to 24 months later. These data indicate that EAPs are effective in sustaining the employment of most women with alcohol-related problems who seek services from EAPs and that EAPs' goal of early intervention is especially realized among women with alcohol problems. Other conclusions include: women with alcohol problems do not enter EAPs through routes that are strikingly different from those of men; many of the gender differences that are revealed are associated with job status differences; employed women with alcohol problems are detached from nuclear families, with markedly low rates of current marriage; even when married, spouses are less likely to play a role in the referral of women with alcohol problems than the spouses of the men; and, there is no clear indication that women are the target of any form of discrimination in the process of EAP utilization. However, women are considerably more likely to have less adequate insurance coverage, according to the EAP administrators' assessment reported at client intake, than their male counterparts, leading to treatment choices that may be less than appropriate.

  13. Prevalence of Suicidal Ideation and Its Association with Positive Affect in Working Women: A Day Reconstruction Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Lili; Yang, Ying; Yang, Huijing; Huebner, E Scott

    2017-01-01

    The suicide rate for females in China is the second highest worldwide, and China is the only country in the world in which the rate of suicides is higher for women than men. Affective instability has been shown to be a strong predictor of suicidal ideation, particularly among women. However, prior research has mainly focused on the impact of women's negative affect on suicidal ideation, ignoring the influence of positive affect on suicidal ideation. Studies have revealed that hopelessness, which is 1.3 times more important than depression for explaining suicidal ideation, is driven more by low levels of positive affect than by high levels of negative affect. Although positive affect has also been found to be related to suicidal ideation, and it demonstrates independent, beneficial effects on mental health, much remains to be learned about the association between positive affective instability and suicidal ideation. Therefore, we investigated the prevalence of suicidal ideation among Chinese working women and explored the differences between working women with and without suicidal ideation in the intensity and daily variability of positive affect. A total of 222 young working women of ages 22-36 years ( M = 27.64, SD = 3.73) were recruited from a free weekend psychology lecture. The women subsequently completed a daily diary Day Reconstruction Method (DRM) as well as a suicidal ideation questionnaire. We used hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) to analyze the data, and the results showed that: (1) 10.81% of participates reported suicidal ideation, the intensity of positive affect (happiness, warmth/friendliness, interest and relaxation/calmness) was significantly lower for women with suicidal ideation compared to women without suicidal ideation; (2) differing diurnal patterns of positive emotions were observed between women with and without suicidal ideation; women with suicidal ideation demonstrated a significantly lower trend of growth and a higher volatility in

  14. "Asia's missing women" as a problem in applied evolutionary psychology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Robert

    2012-12-20

    In many parts of Asia, the Middle East and North Africa, women and children are so undervalued, neglected, abused, and so often killed, that sex ratios are now strongly male biased. In recent decades, sex-biased abortion has exacerbated the problem. In this article I highlight several important insights from evolutionary biology into both the origin and the severe societal consequences of "Asia's missing women", paying particular attention to interactions between evolution, economics and culture. Son preferences and associated cultural practices like patrilineal inheritance, patrilocality and the Indian Hindu dowry system arise among the wealthy and powerful elites for reasons consistent with models of sex-biased parental investment. Those practices then spread via imitation as technology gets cheaper and economic development allows the middle class to grow rapidly. I will consider evidence from India, China and elsewhere that grossly male-biased sex ratios lead to increased crime, violence, local warfare, political instability, drug abuse, prostitution and trafficking of women. The problem of Asia's missing women presents a challenge for applied evolutionary psychology to help us understand and ameliorate sex ratio biases and their most severe consequences.

  15. Violence towards women is a public health problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetikcok, Ramazan; Ozer, Erdal; Cakir, Lutfullah; Enginyurt, Ozgur; İscanli, M Dogan; Cankaya, Soner; Ozer, Filiz

    2016-11-01

    Violence within the family is a significant health problem which threatens the health of the community. The global rates of domestic violence directed at women have been reported as 10%-69% and in Turkey as 25%-30%. The data of our study were obtained from the database of the official internet website of the Turkish Statistics Institute as the data related to violence between 2007 and 2012. In the evaluation of the data, SPSS 11.0 statistics software was used. Although it was determined that women from all groups experienced sexual, physical and emotional violence, higher rates were observed in those living in rural areas compared to those in urban areas, in the eastern region compared to all other regions, in the 45-59 years age group, those with low level of income and with a low level of education. When physicians encounter women who have experienced violence, by evaluating the violence in the context of a legal case, violence is identified and not allowed to become a cycle passed from generation to generation, and in addition to the medical intervention, without forgetting that violence is a public health problem, it is necessary to find a way to provide psychosocial and legal support for the victim. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  16. A trial of the use of psychodrama for women with alcohol problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loughlin, N

    1992-01-01

    Psychodrama is a method of group psychotherapy in which the subject can be helped to explore the psychological dimensions of his or her problems through the enactment of conflict situations. This study aimed to investigate the perceived effectiveness of psychodrama in the treatment of women with alcohol problems. A group of six women undertaking psychodrama in a centre in Northern Ireland were surveyed by questionnaire and participant observation. It was found that psychodrama was perceived as being useful by the four subjects who had a better education and were demonstrably more verbally expressive and extroverted. Alcohol problems need to be understood and treated in the social context in which they develop and thrive; psychodrama enpowers problem drinkers to explore their unique social context.

  17. Automatic affective appraisal of sexual penetration stimuli in women with vaginismus or dyspareunia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huijding, Jorg; Borg, Charmaine; Weijmar-Schultz, Willibrord; de Jong, Peter J

    2011-03-01

    Current psychological views are that negative appraisals of sexual stimuli lie at the core of sexual dysfunctions. It is important to differentiate between deliberate appraisals and more automatic appraisals, as research has shown that the former are most relevant to controllable behaviors, and the latter are most relevant to reflexive behaviors. Accordingly, it can be hypothesized that in women with vaginismus, the persistent difficulty to allow vaginal entry is due to global negative automatic affective appraisals that trigger reflexive pelvic floor muscle contraction at the prospect of penetration. To test whether sexual penetration pictures elicited global negative automatic affective appraisals in women with vaginismus or dyspareunia and to examine whether deliberate appraisals and automatic appraisals differed between the two patient groups. Women with persistent vaginismus (N = 24), dyspareunia (N = 23), or no sexual complaints (N = 30) completed a pictorial Extrinsic Affective Simon Task (EAST), and then made a global affective assessment of the EAST stimuli using visual analogue scales (VAS). The EAST assessed global automatic affective appraisals of sexual penetration stimuli, while the VAS assessed global deliberate affective appraisals of these stimuli. Automatic affective appraisals of sexual penetration stimuli tended to be positive, independent of the presence of sexual complaints. Deliberate appraisals of the same stimuli were significantly more negative in the women with vaginismus than in the dyspareunia group and control group, while the latter two groups did not differ in their appraisals. Unexpectedly, deliberate appraisals seemed to be most important in vaginismus, whereas dyspareunia did not seem to implicate negative deliberate or automatic affective appraisals. These findings dispute the view that global automatic affect lies at the core of vaginismus and indicate that a useful element in therapeutic interventions may be the modification of

  18. Child abuse, drug addiction and mental health problems of incarcerated women in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gila; Gueta, Keren

    2015-01-01

    The mental health problems and pathways to drug addiction and crime among female inmates have long been of interest to researchers and practitioners. The purpose of the current study was to examine the possible association between multiple types of childhood abuse, mental health problems, and drug addiction and the incarceration of 50 Israeli women in prison. The findings indicated that female inmates come from risky families with a high prevalence of family mental health problems, parental drug addiction and crime, and sibling drug addiction and crime. Furthermore, they revealed that incarcerated women from risky families were victims of multiple types of childhood abuse and neglect by their parents, as well as their siblings. Overall, the results suggest that the adverse consequences of a family's mental health problems are much more dramatic than we assumed to date, and that women are more likely than men to be the victims of multiple types of childhood abuse and neglect, as well as suffering more severe psychiatric problems, depression, and drug addiction. The implications of these findings are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Problem-solving and mental health outcomes of women and children in the wake of intimate partner violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddoux, John; Symes, Lene; McFarlane, Judith; Koci, Anne; Gilroy, Heidi; Fredland, Nina

    2014-01-01

    The environmental stress of intimate partner violence is common and often results in mental health problems of depression, anxiety, and PTSD for women and behavioral dysfunctions for their children. Problem-solving skills can serve to mitigate or accentuate the environmental stress of violence and associated impact on mental health. To better understand the relationship between problem-solving skills and mental health of abused women with children, a cross-sectional predictive analysis of 285 abused women who used justice or shelter services was completed. The women were asked about social problem-solving, and mental health symptoms of depression, anxiety, and PTSD as well as behavioral functioning of their children. Higher negative problem-solving scores were associated with significantly (P women's abilities to navigate the daily stressors of life following abuse.

  20. A Comparison of Postpartum Depression among Low-risk-pregnant Women with Emotion- and Problem-focused Coping Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habibeh Salehi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Postpartum depression is one of most important health problems in women. This study was performed with the purpose of comparing the frequency of postpartum depression in pregnant women with emotion and problem-focused coping strategies. Methods: This study was conducted as a prospective cohort study on 200 pregnant women with stress (low and high levels. The samples were pregnant women referred to all health-treatment, centers of Ardabil, which were selected using a multi-stage sampling method; and according to coping strategy, they were divided into two groups: emotion-focused and problem-focused. Low-risk pregnant women completed questionnaires about demographic characteristics, perceived stress, and Billings and Moos coping strategies in the 38th to 42th week of their pregnancy, and completed the Edinburgh depression scale in the 3th to 4th weeks after childbirth. Data were analyzed using chi 2 and t tests. p<0.05 considered significant.Results: In this study, 170 participant women (85% used emotion-focused strategy and 30 women (15% used problem-focused strategy. Frequency of postpartum depression was 6.7% in the problem-focused group and 8.2% in the emotion-focused group. There was no significant difference in the frequency of postpartum depression between women with the problem- and emotion-focused strategies. Relative risk for postpartum depression was 1.2 times more among the women used emotion-focused strategy than women used problem-focused strategy (p<0.05.Conclusion: According to the results of this study, there was no significant relationship between postpartum depression and the two emotion-focused and problem-focused coping strategies. This can be due to high influence of postpartum specific endocrine factors in the etiology of this type of depression compared to other depressions.

  1. Affect Consciousness in children with internalizing problems: Assessment of affect integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taarvig, Eva; Solbakken, Ole André; Grova, Bjørg; Monsen, Jon T

    2015-10-01

    Affect integration was operationalized through the Affect Consciousness (AC) construct as degrees of awareness, tolerance, nonverbal expression and conceptual expression of 11 affects. These aspects are assessed through a semi-structured Affect Consciousness Interview (ACI) and separate rating scales (Affect Consciousness Scales (ACSs)) developed for use in research and clinical work with adults with psychopathological disorders. Age-adjusted changes were made in the interview and rating system. This study explored the applicability of the adjusted ACI to a sample of 11-year-old children with internalizing problems through examining inter-rater reliability of the adjusted ACI, along with relationships between the AC aspects and aspects of mental health as symptoms of depression, symptoms of anxiety, social competence, besides general intelligence. Satisfactory inter-rater reliability was found, as well as consistent relationships between the AC aspects and the various aspects of mental health, a finding which coincides with previous research. The finding indicates that the attainment of the capacity to deal adaptively with affect is probably an important contributor to the development of adequate social competence and maybe in the prevention of psychopathology in children. The results indicate that the adjusted ACI and rating scales are useful tools in treatment planning with children at least from the age of 11 years. © The Author(s) 2014.

  2. Marshak Lectureship Talk: Women in Physics in the Baltic States Region: Problems and Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satkovskiene, Dalia

    2008-03-01

    In this contribution the gender equality problem in physics will be discussed on the basis of the results obtained implementing the project ``Baltic States Network: Women in Sciences and High Technology'' (BASNET) initiated by Lithuanian women physicists and financed by European Commission. The main goal of BASNET project was creation of the regional Strategy how to deal with women in sciences problem in the Baltic States. It has some stages and the contribution follows them. The first one was in depth sociological study aiming to find out disincentives and barriers women scientists face in their career and work at science and higher education institutions. Analysis of results revealed wide range of problems concerned with science organization, management and financing common for both counterparts. However it also proved the existence of women discrimination in sciences. As main factors influencing women under-representation in Physics was found: the stereotypes existing in the society where physics is assigned to the masculine area of activity; failings of the science management system, where highest positions are distributed not using the institutionalized objective criteria but by voting, where the correctness of majority solutions is anticipated implicitly. In physics where male scientists are the majority (they also usually compose executive boards, committees etc.) results of such a procedures often are unfavorable for women. The same reasons also influence women ``visibility'' in physicist's community and as the consequence possibility to receive needed recourses for their research as well as appropriate presentation of results obtained. The study revealed also the conservatism of scientific community- reluctance to face existing in the scientific society problems and to start solving them. On the basis of the results obtained as well practice of other countries the common strategy of solving women in physics (sciences) in the Baltic States region was

  3. Psychometric properties of the Fatigue Assessment Scale (FAS) in women with breast problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, J.; van der Steeg, A.F.; Roukema, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    To examine the usefulness of the Fatigue Assessment Scale (FAS) in women with benign breast problems (BBP) and women with early stage breast cancer (BC). Women with a palpable lump in the breast or an abnormality on a screening mammography (N = 560) completed the FAS (four time points) and measures

  4. Positive affect: phenotypic and etiologic associations with prosocial behaviors and internalizing problems in toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Manjie; Saudino, Kimberly J.

    2015-01-01

    Despite evidence for the associations of positive affect to prosocial behaviors and internalizing problems, relatively little is known about the underlying etiology. The sample comprised over 300 twin pairs at age 3. Positive affect, prosocial behaviors, and internalizing problems were assessed using the Toddler Behavior Assessment Questionnaire (Goldsmith, 1996), the Revised Rutter Parent Scale for Preschool Children (Hogg et al., 1997), and the Child Behavior Checklist for ages 1.5–5 (Achenbach, 1991), respectively. Positive affect correlated positively with prosocial behaviors, and negatively with internalizing problems. Prosocial behaviors were negatively associated with internalizing problems. The relations of positive affect to prosocial behaviors and internalizing problems were due to environmental effects (shared and non-shared). In contrast, the link between prosocial behaviors and internalizing problems was entirely explained by genetic effects. The current study has moved beyond prior emphasis on negative affect and elucidated the less understood etiology underlying the associations between positive affect, prosocial behaviors, and internalizing problems. This study could guide the development of programs for promoting prosocial behaviors and alleviating internalizing problems in children. PMID:25914668

  5. Positive Affect: Phenotypic and Etiologic Associations with Prosocial Behaviors and Internalizing Problems in Toddlers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjie eWang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite evidence for the associations of positive affect to prosocial behaviors and internalizing problems, relatively little is known about the underlying etiology. The sample comprised over 300 twin pairs at age 3. Positive affect, prosocial behaviors, and internalizing problems were assessed using the Toddler Behavior Assessment Questionnaire (Goldsmith, 1996, the Revised Rutter Parent Scale for Preschool Children (Hogg, Rutter, & Richman, 1997, and the Child Behavior Checklist for ages 1.5-5 (Achenbach, 1991, respectively. Positive affect correlated positively with prosocial behaviors, and negatively with internalizing problems. Prosocial behaviors were negatively associated with internalizing problems. The relations of positive affect to prosocial behaviors and internalizing problems were due to environmental effects (shared and nonshared. In contrast, the link between prosocial behaviors and internalizing problems was entirely explained by genetic effects. The current study has moved beyond prior emphasis on negative affect and elucidated the less understood etiology underlying the associations between positive affect, prosocial behaviors, and internalizing problems. This study could guide the development of programs for promoting prosocial behaviors and alleviating internalizing problems in children.

  6. Positive Affect as a Source of Resilience for Women in Chronic Pain

    OpenAIRE

    Zautra, Alez J.; Johnson, Lisa M.; Davis, Mary C.

    2005-01-01

    A sample of 124 women with osteoarthritis (OA) and/or fibromyalgia (FMS) completed initial assessments for demographic data, health status, and personality traits and 10 to 12 weekly interviews regarding pain, stress, negative affect, and positive affect. Multilevel modeling analyses indicated that weekly elevations of pain and stress predicted increases in negative affect. Both higher weekly positive affect as well as greater positive affect on average resulted in lower negative affect both ...

  7. Effect of Means of Problem-Oriented Physical Rehabilitation on Pain and Tactile Sensitivity and Pain Syndrome Intensity in Women with Post-Mastectomy Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Т. Є. Одинець

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the paper is to determine the effectiveness of problem-oriented physical rehabilitation of women with post-mastectomy syndrome in terms of normalization of their sensitivity and lessening of the pain syndrome. Materials and methods. The paper provides a review of the related literary sources and empirical data analyzed and summarized, offers definitions of pain by the Visual Analogue Scale, McGill Pain Questionnaire and the Verbal Rating Scale, evaluates tactile and pain sensitivity, and uses the methods of mathematical statistics. The participants in the study were 50 women with diagnosed with the post-mastectomy syndrome and at the stage of residential treatment. Results: The developed problem-oriented physical rehabilitation experimentally proved effective by showing improvements in tactile and pain sensitivity, and pain lessening by the sensory, affective and rating scales in women with post-mastectomy syndrome at the stage of residential treatment.

  8. Breast cancer among women over 75 years: an important public health problem?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Schoor, Guido; Otten, Johannes D. M.; den Heeten, Gerard J.; Holland, Roland; Broeders, Mireille J. M.; Verbeek, André L. M.

    2012-01-01

    Women aged >75 years are not invited for mammographic screening; if diagnosed with breast cancer, due to their anticipated short-life expectancy, they are expected to die of other causes. To describe the breast cancer health problem in women aged >75 years, we estimated breast cancer incidence in

  9. The Impact of Leprosy on Marital Relationships and Sexual Health among Married Women in Eastern Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    van 't Noordende, Anna T.; Banstola, Nandlal; Dhakal, Krishna P.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Leprosy is one of the most stigmatized diseases known today. The stigma surrounding leprosy can be a major burden and affects many dimensions of a person's life, including intimate relationships. We aimed to investigate the experiences of women affected by leprosy regarding marital life and sexuality, comparing these to the experiences of women with other physical disabilities and to those of able-bodied women in South-East Nepal. Methods. This study used a qualitative approach and a cross-sectional, nonrandom survey design. Thirty women underwent in-depth interviews about their marital and sexual relationship by means of a semi-structured interview guide. These thirty women included ten women affected by leprosy, ten women with other physical disabilities, and ten able-bodied women living in South-East Nepal. Results. We found that many women faced violence and abuse in their marriages. However, women affected by leprosy appeared to face more problems with regard to their marital and sexual relationships than women with physical disabilities and able-bodied women. Some of these related to the fear of leprosy. Conclusions. Further research is recommended to investigate the extent of this problem and ways to ameliorate the situation of the affected women. Education and counselling at diagnosis may help prevent many of the problems reported. PMID:27047548

  10. Problem-solving strategies of women undergoing chemotherapy for breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Kathleen D; Erickson, Kelly S; Hegel, Mark T

    2012-02-01

    Many women undergoing chemotherapy for breast cancer experience side effects that make it difficult to perform daily occupations. To summarize the types of challenges, goals, and adaptive strategies identified by women with stage 1-3 breast cancer participating in a pilot study of Problem-solving Treatment-Occupational Therapy (PST-OT). Content analysis of 80 PST-OT sessions. Women addressed 11 types of challenging activities, with exercise and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) being the most common. Most women set a goal to adapt a current activity, but also set goals to find a new activity, plan the steps of a current activity, or gather information about a possible activity change in the future. The adaptive strategies generated by the women were grouped into five types. Most often they found ways to add a new step to an activity, but they also brainstormed about when, how, where, and with whom they could do activities. The women were usually trying to adapt familiar activities but also were looking for ways to include new, healthy occupations into their routines.

  11. Factors preventing early case detection for women affected by leprosy: a review of the literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Victoria Grace

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Although leprosy can affect both sexes equally, it is globally reported that men are affected, or simply report, more often than females at the average ratio of 2:1. If cases are simply not being reported, women may be suffering in silence more often than men, and, therefore, understanding the social reasons for this in a number of countries could support the prevention of long-term disabilities caused as a result of leprosy. Objectives: The objective of this review is to recognise the current academic literature surrounding the potential factors for late diagnosis of women affected by leprosy, giving possible explanations for the 2:1 gender disparity observed in case detection globally. It is hoped that health practitioners will become more equipped to recognise these barriers and ensure they are doing whatever possible to encourage women to report the early symptoms of leprosy. Methods: The review used a systematic search process in order to identify gender-related publications using robust research, useful for gleaning a cross-cultural perception of issues women may confront on the prospect of a diagnosis of leprosy. Results: Identifying 12 publications from just five countries, the review found there to be four overarching areas which may be considered barriers more often faced by women: societal stigma; women’s dependence and low status; self-stigmatising attitudes; and the gender insensitivity of leprosy services. Conclusion: Stigma surrounding leprosy experienced from these four overarching areas can all be attributed to the later diagnosis of women affected by leprosy, in relation to their male counterparts. The need for future research surrounding the specific experience of women affected by leprosy is pressing. PMID:28853325

  12. Affective disorders among women during post partum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Juliana Orejarena Serrano

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Women, in general, present a high rate of prevalence of affective disorders, mainly depressive ones, during their lives. This is even more evident during their puerperal time, were depression is quite common. This is, probably, due to the fact of a highest physical and emotional needs during this difficult period, for both the mother and the family,as well. This clinical condition will increase both the mobility and mortality rates among puerperal women and will increase the risk for new episodes of depression on future pregnancies. Since we all know that during puerperium, both mother and child are usually attended by the Health System, this is a good time to detect these disorders. Therefore, we will try to review the pertinent medical literature regarding this probem, in order to provide the psychiatrist and another physicians with new, effective tools, that will allow them to recognize earlier, patients with this disorder, handle them properly to avoid all negative consequences.

  13. Gender differences in interpersonal problems of alcohol-dependent patients and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Sandra E; Degen, Bigna; Petitjean, Sylvie; Wiesbeck, Gerhard A; Walter, Marc

    2009-12-01

    Alcohol dependence is a heavy burden on patients, their families, and society. Epidemiological studies indicate that alcohol dependence will affect many individuals at some time in their lives, with men affected more frequently than women. Since alcohol-dependent patients often exhibit a lack of social skills and suffer from interpersonal problems, the aim of this study is to elucidate whether men and women experience the same interpersonal problems. Eighty-five alcohol-dependent patients (48 men; 37 women) after detoxification and 62 healthy controls (35 men; 27 women) were recruited. Interpersonal problems were measured with the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems (IIP-64). Additionally, alcohol-dependent patients were interviewed with the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and were subtyped according to Lesch's Alcohol Typology (LAT). There were no significant gender differences in the AUDIT and LAT between alcohol-dependent men and women. Interpersonal problems of alcohol-dependent men differed significantly in one out of eight dimensions from controls; alcohol-dependent men perceive themselves as colder than male controls. Alcohol-dependent women differed in four out of eight interpersonal dimensions from female controls. Alcohol-dependent women rated themselves as significantly more vindictive, more introverted, more overly accommodating and more intrusive than female controls. Results suggest that alcohol-dependent men and women suffer from different interpersonal problems and furthermore alcohol-dependent women perceive more interpersonal problems, whereas the severity of alcohol dependence did not differ between the groups. Our findings indicate that alcohol-dependent women may profit more from a gender-specific treatment approach aimed at improving treatment outcome than alcohol-dependent men.

  14. [Sexuality of aging couples--from women's point of view].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki, Chineko

    2005-09-01

    The Sexuality Study Group (chairperson: Chineko Araki) has researched the sexuality of middle-aged to elderly men and women who were having problems with their spouse, and suggestions for an improved sexual life. According to the result of the survey, the problem seemed to lie in the gap between men and women; men want sexual intercourse with women, while many women are satisfied with emotional affection. Discontinuance of intercourse is mainly caused by the loss of women's interest in sex. The responses to 'What kind of sexual relationship do you want to have with your spouse?' and other questions showed that whether women want to have sexual intercourse or not is not simply caused by a physical problem such as decrease of sexual desire or pain during intercourse, but is affected by various factors such as the affection to the spouse, physical and mental satisfaction by intercourse and a different way of thinking about sex. Also the survey showed even though both men and women wanted to have a 'casual conversation' or 'showing affection daily', in actual life they lacked having conversations and had little physical contact except for sex. For aging couples to keep matured sexual relations, it is more desirable to build the couples' relationship with casual conversation and physical contact, and also enjoy slow sex, such as pillow talk or caressing one another and not focusing on sex only.

  15. Women physicists in Russia: Problems and solutions at a time of fiscal crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didenko, Nelli; Ermolaeva, Elena; Kunitsyna, Ekaterina; Kratasyuk, Valentina; Vitman, Renata

    2013-03-01

    Recently Russia has been affected by the global financial crisis, which has had both positive and negative effects on women physicists. The feminization of science and the stratification that characterize the Russian scientific community in general also affect the field of physics. This paper discusses the proportion of women in leadership and managerial positions in different areas of science and education and highlights the differences between women and men in their careers in physics and defense of their theses. Lomonosov Moscow State University is used to demonstrate the dynamics of gender in different academic positions. The professional activity of young women physicists is illustrated by their participation in all-Russian scientific forums, demonstrating their commitment to remain active in their careers despite the challenges of the current economic conditions.

  16. Modern social life and never-married women's health problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrapan Tamdee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the health problems of never-married women as they relate to modern social life. In-depth interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of 45 never-married women aged 30–50 working or living in Bangkok and having health problems. It was found that never-married women in this modern era have experienced a variety of illnesses, such as “office syndrome” symptoms, chronic illnesses, and psychological and psychosomatic symptoms. Their social life resulted from the response to the context of modernity and was made through careful thought and deliberation. Whichever choice of social life they make, the consequences may lead them to a state of illness, distress, anxiety, and paranoia. These choices involve work, living conditions/environments, and intimacy aspects of their modern social life. This is the result of procuring by “husky modernity” which seems to be merely a “husk” or superficial modernization and changes so rapidly, but there is no core and it is full of double standards of traditional and new norms that have mixed together and fight against each other. Supporting health-related knowledge and information exchange within the network coupled with experience sharing essential for living in the modern society will enable them to sensibly decide on a path to good health.

  17. Factors Affecting Women's Autonomous Decision Making In Research Participation Amongst Yoruba Women Of Western Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Princewill, Chitu Womehoma; Jegede, Ayodele S; Nordström, Karin; Lanre-Abass, Bolatito; Elger, Bernice Simone

    2017-04-01

    Research is a global enterprise requiring participation of both genders for generalizable knowledge; advancement of science and evidence based medical treatment. Participation of women in research is necessary to reduce the current bias that most empirical evidence is obtained from studies with men to inform health care and related policy interventions. Various factors are assumed to limit autonomy amongst the Yoruba women of western Nigeria. This paper seeks to explore the experience and understanding of autonomy by the Yoruba women in relation to research participation. Focus is on factors that affect women's autonomous decision making in research participation. An exploratory qualitative approach comprising four focus group discussions, 42 in-depth interviews and 14 key informant interviews was used. The study permits a significant amount of triangulation, as opinions of husbands and religious leaders are also explored. Interviews and discussions were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. Content analysis was employed for data analysis. Findings show that concepts of autonomy varied amongst the Yoruba women. Patriarchy, religion and culture are conceived to have negative impact on the autonomy of women in respect to research participation. Among the important findings are: 1) male dominance is strongly emphasized by religious leaders who should teach equality, 2) while men feel that by making decisions for women, they are protecting them, the women on the other hand see this protection as a way of limiting their autonomy. We recommend further studies to develop culturally appropriate and workable recruitment methods to increase women's participation in research. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. The Factors Affecting Women's Success in Museum Careers: A Discussion of the Reasons More Women Do Not Reach the Top, and of Strategies to Promote their Future Success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Turner

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available This dissertation discusses the factors affecting women's success in museum careers. It draws on information gathered from interviews with successful women, to supplement existing information and statistics. Women are less successful than men, for they are underrepresented in the top jobs, and have lower average earnings. This is the result of a series of factors which hinder their career progression. Some emanate from the organizational culture of museums, which is often conservative and male-dominated. Others result from the clash between fulfilling family responsibilities and living up to current expectations in the workplace. A final set of factors concerns the typical attitudes and behaviour of individuals: the effects of women's own self-limitation, and men's, often unconsciously, pejorative viewpoint. The strategies for overcoming these barriers have also been assessed. Organizations are implementing equal opportunities programmes, including provisions for flexible working; for individuals, awareness is crucial, as well as profiting from networks, mentors, training and career planning. These strategies, however, are currently sufficient to help only the most exceptional women reach the top. The remaining problems are associated with deep-seated social stereotypes, and it will take a concerted effort by those in high status positions to help greater numbers of women overcome them.

  19. Factors Affecting Women's Decisions to Pursue an IS Degree: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serapiglia, Constance Patricia; Lenox, Terri L.

    2010-01-01

    The declining participation of women in the computer-related professions is a concern to academia and business. There appears to be a complex set of factors influencing the selection of a major and completing the degree. A case study of 25 undergraduate women explored, in detail, the events, conditions, and relationships that affected the decision…

  20. Sleeping with technology: cognitive, affective, and technology usage predictors of sleep problems among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Larry; Carrier, Louis M; Miller, Aimee; Rokkum, Jeffrey; Ruiz, Abraham

    2016-03-01

    Sleep problems related to technology affect college students through several potential mechanisms including displacement of sleep due to technology use, executive functioning abilities, and the impact of emotional states related to stress and anxiety about technology availability. In the present study, cognitive and affective factors that influence technology usage were examined for their impact upon sleep problems. More than 700 US college students completed an online questionnaire addressing technology usage, anxiety/dependence, executive functioning, nighttime phone usage, bedtime phone location, and sleep problems. A path model controlling for background variables was tested using the data. The results showed that executive dysfunction directly predicted sleep problems as well as affected sleep problems through nighttime awakenings. In addition, anxiety/dependence increased daily smartphone usage and also increased nighttime awakenings, which, in turn, affected sleep problems. Thus, both the affective and cognitive factors that influence technology usage affected sleep problems. Copyright © 2016 National Sleep Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Women's Healthcare, Censorship, and the Library: Problems, Issues, Questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhl, Nancy

    The goal of this paper is to explore a number of examples of the censorship of women's healthcare issues and to investigate issues and questions related to those examples. The paper looks primarily at censorship in the United States; however, the problems and issues discussed are international in scope, and some international examples are…

  2. The association between childhood maltreatment and gambling problems in a community sample of adult men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgins, David C; Schopflocher, Don P; el-Guebaly, Nady; Casey, David M; Smith, Garry J; Williams, Robert J; Wood, Robert T

    2010-09-01

    The association between childhood maltreatment and gambling problems was examined in a community sample of men and women (N = 1,372). As hypothesized, individuals with gambling problems reported greater childhood maltreatment than individuals without gambling problems. Childhood maltreatment predicted severity of gambling problems and frequency of gambling even when other individual and social factors were controlled including symptoms of alcohol and other drug use disorders, family environment, psychological distress, and symptoms of antisocial disorder. In contrast to findings in treatment-seeking samples, women with gambling problems did not report greater maltreatment than men with gambling problems. These results underscore the need for both increased prevention of childhood maltreatment and increased sensitivity towards trauma issues in gambling treatment programs for men and women.

  3. Tibiofemoral osteoarthritis affects quality of life and function in elderly Koreans, with women more adversely affected than men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Inje; Kim, Hyun Ah; Seo, Young-Il; Song, Yeong Wook; Hunter, David J; Jeong, Jin Young; Kim, Dong Hyun

    2010-06-22

    The prevalence of knee osteoarthritis(OA) in East Asia is as common for men and even higher for women than that reported in the Caucasian population. Since both population aging and economic growth have taken place at a much faster pace in Asian countries, such as South Korea, one would expect knee OA to become a major public health problem. However, few studies have examined the influence of knee OA on the quality of life (QoL) and physical function in Asia. The aim of this cross-sectional study is to investigate the influence of knee osteoarthritis (OA) on the quality of life (QoL), function and lower extremity physical performance and the gender difference in its influence in elderly community residents in Korea. Participants were from the population-based Hallym Aging Study (HAS). The mean age of the 504 study subjects was 70.2 years and 274 (54%) were women. Demographic information was obtained by questionnaire, and radiographic evaluations consisted of weight-bearing semi-flexed knee radiographs. Self-reported QoL and function were assessed using Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis (WOMAC) Index and Short Form 12-item (SF-12). Performance-based lower extremity function was assessed using the tests consisting of standing balance, usual walk and chair stands. The odds ratios(ORs) for belonging to the worst quartile of WOMAC and physical performance test were calculated by logistic regression analysis in radiographic knee OA compared to non-OA after adjustment of confounders. Scores for SF-12 items were analyzed using general linear models and means adjusted for age, BMI and OA severity were compared. Subjects with radiographic knee OA had significantly increased OR for belonging to the worst WOMAC quartile(for pain, 2.13,95% confidence interval[CI], 1.33-3.40, for stiffness, 2.94,95% CI,1.78-4.86, and for function, 2.97, 95% CI,1.83-4.81) and significantly worse SF-12 scores compared to non-OA after adjustment of age, BMI and sex. Women had

  4. Tibiofemoral osteoarthritis affects quality of life and function in elderly Koreans, with women more adversely affected than men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hunter David J

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of knee osteoarthritis(OA in East Asia is as common for men and even higher for women than that reported in the Caucasian population. Since both population aging and economic growth have taken place at a much faster pace in Asian countries, such as South Korea, one would expect knee OA to become a major public health problem. However, few studies have examined the influence of knee OA on the quality of life (QoL and physical function in Asia. The aim of this cross-sectional study is to investigate the influence of knee osteoarthritis (OA on the quality of life (QoL, function and lower extremity physical performance and the gender difference in its influence in elderly community residents in Korea. Methods Participants were from the population-based Hallym Aging Study (HAS. The mean age of the 504 study subjects was 70.2 years and 274 (54% were women. Demographic information was obtained by questionnaire, and radiographic evaluations consisted of weight-bearing semi-flexed knee radiographs. Self-reported QoL and function were assessed using Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis (WOMAC Index and Short Form 12-item (SF-12. Performance-based lower extremity function was assessed using the tests consisting of standing balance, usual walk and chair stands. The odds ratios(ORs for belonging to the worst quartile of WOMAC and physical performance test were calculated by logistic regression analysis in radiographic knee OA compared to non-OA after adjustment of confounders. Scores for SF-12 items were analyzed using general linear models and means adjusted for age, BMI and OA severity were compared. Results Subjects with radiographic knee OA had significantly increased OR for belonging to the worst WOMAC quartile(for pain, 2.13,95% confidence interval[CI], 1.33-3.40, for stiffness, 2.94,95% CI,1.78-4.86, and for function, 2.97, 95% CI,1.83-4.81 and significantly worse SF-12 scores compared to non

  5. Gender Differences in Interpersonal Problems of Alcohol-Dependent Patients and Healthy Controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Walter

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol dependence is a heavy burden on patients, their families, and society. Epidemiological studies indicate that alcohol dependence will affect many individuals at some time in their lives, with men affected more frequently than women. Since alcohol-dependent patients often exhibit a lack of social skills and suffer from interpersonal problems, the aim of this study is to elucidate whether men and women experience the same interpersonal problems. Eighty-five alcohol-dependent patients (48 men; 37 women after detoxification and 62 healthy controls (35 men; 27 women were recruited. Interpersonal problems were measured with the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems (IIP-64. Additionally, alcohol-dependent patients were interviewed with the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT and were subtyped according to Lesch’s Alcohol Typology (LAT. There were no significant gender differences in the AUDIT and LAT between alcohol-dependent men and women. Interpersonal problems of alcohol-dependent men differed significantly in one out of eight dimensions from controls; alcohol-dependent men perceive themselves as colder than male controls. Alcohol-dependent women differed in four out of eight interpersonal dimensions from female controls. Alcohol-dependent women rated themselves as significantly more vindictive, more introverted, more overly accommodating and more intrusive than female controls. Results suggest that alcohol-dependent men and women suffer from different interpersonal problems and furthermore alcohol-dependent women perceive more interpersonal problems, whereas the severity of alcohol dependence did not differ between the groups. Our findings indicate that alcohol-dependent women may profit more from a gender-specific treatment approach aimed at improving treatment outcome than alcohol-dependent men.

  6. Factors Affecting Women Enrolment In Technical Institutions In Tanzania A Case Study Of Arusha Technical College

    OpenAIRE

    Glory B. Kaaya; Dr. Esther Waiganjo

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors affecting women enrolment in Technical Institutions in Tanzania by focusing on the women. The study examined in detail the factors affecting women enrolment in Technical institutions and Arusha Technical College in particular as well as exploring sexual dynamics within Technical Institutions. Moreover a number of theoretical frameworks were concerned basing on the objectives a case study design was employed involving both qua...

  7. Patient-Centered Outcomes and Treatment Preferences Regarding Sexual Problems: A Qualitative Study Among Midlife Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Holly N; Hamm, Megan; Hess, Rachel; Borrero, Sonya; Thurston, Rebecca C

    2017-08-01

    Sexual dysfunction is common in midlife women and can have a significant negative impact on quality of life. Although treatments exist, there is little research on which sexual function outcomes and treatments midlife women prefer. To better understand the sexual function outcomes that were most important to sexually active women 45 to 60 years old and the types of treatments they would prefer from individual interviews and focus groups. Twenty individual interviews and three focus groups (N = 39) were led by a trained facilitator, audio recorded, and transcribed. Two investigators developed a codebook, and the primary investigator coded all data. A second investigator coded five randomly selected interviews to ensure intercoder reliability. Codes relating to outcomes and treatment preferences were examined to identify central themes. The mean age was 52.8 years (range = 45-59). When asked what they would want a sexual dysfunction treatment to do, women sought solutions to specific sexual problems: low desire, vaginal pain and dryness, and decreased arousal or ability to achieve orgasm. However, when asked about the most important aspect of their sex life, most women indicated emotional outcomes, such as enhanced intimacy with their partner, were most important to them. Most women preferred behavioral over pharmaceutical treatments, citing concerns about side effects. These women felt that behavioral treatments might be better equipped to address physical and psychological aspects of sexual problems. This study highlights the importance of considering not only physical but also emotional outcomes when evaluating and treating sexual dysfunction in midlife women. It also emphasizes the importance of developing behavioral treatments in addition to pharmaceutical treatments. By using a qualitative approach, this study allowed women the time and space to speak their own words about their experiences with sexuality at midlife. In addition, different racial and ethnic

  8. Women with urinary incontinence: self-perceived worries and general practitioners' knowledge of problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagro-Janssen, T L; Smits, A J; Van Weel, C

    1990-01-01

    In the context of a large scale survey of health problems in women aged 50 to 65 years, a study was undertaken on the effects of incontinence on daily life. For this purpose 1442 women randomly selected from the practice files of 75 general practitioners in the eastern part of the Netherlands were interviewed at home (response rate 60%). In cases of moderate or severe incontinence the general practitioner of the woman concerned was asked whether this problem had been diagnosed in general practice. Incontinence was reported in 22.5% of the women. Overall, 77.8% of the women did not feel worried about it and 75.4% did not feel restricted in their activities; even for women with severe incontinence (daily frequency and needing protective pads) only 15.6% experienced much worry and 15.7% much restriction. About a third of the women with incontinence (32.0%) had been identified by their general practitioner. The greater the worries and restrictions owing to incontinence, the greater the chance that the incontinence was known to the general practitioner concerned. Only a small minority of the women who felt severely restricted were not identified by their general practitioner. There was a positive relation between recognized incontinence and a history of hysterectomy. This study contradicts the image of the incontinent woman as isolated and helpless; most women in this study seemed able to cope. PMID:2121179

  9. The Turner Syndrome: Cognitive Deficits, Affective Discrimination, and Behavior Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCauley, Elizabeth; And Others

    1987-01-01

    The study attemped to link cognitive and social problems seen in girls with Turner syndrome by assessing the girls' ability to process affective cues. Seventeen 9- to 17-year-old girls diagnosed with Turner syndrome were compared to a matched control group on a task which required interpretation of affective intention from facial expression.…

  10. Managing Mental Health Problems Among Immigrant Women Attending Primary Health Care Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straiton, Melanie L; Powell, Kathryn; Reneflot, Anne; Diaz, Esperanza

    2016-01-01

    Researchers in Norway explore treatment options in primary care for immigrant women with mental health problems compared with nonimmigrant women. Three national registers were linked together for 2008. Immigrant women from Sweden, Poland, the Philippines, Thailand, Pakistan, and Russia were selected for analysis and compared with Norwegian women. Using logistic regression, we investigated whether treatment type varied by country of origin. Rates of sickness leave and psychiatric referrals were similar across all groups. Conversational therapy and use of antidepressants and anxiolytics were lower among Filipina, Thai, Pakistani, and Russian women than among Norwegians. Using the broad term "immigrants" masks important differences in treatment and health service use. By closely examining mental health treatment differences by country of origin, gaps in service provision and treatment uptake may be identified and addressed with more success.

  11. Problem-Solving and Mental Health Outcomes of Women and Children in the Wake of Intimate Partner Violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Maddoux

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The environmental stress of intimate partner violence is common and often results in mental health problems of depression, anxiety, and PTSD for women and behavioral dysfunctions for their children. Problem-solving skills can serve to mitigate or accentuate the environmental stress of violence and associated impact on mental health. To better understand the relationship between problem-solving skills and mental health of abused women with children, a cross-sectional predictive analysis of 285 abused women who used justice or shelter services was completed. The women were asked about social problem-solving, and mental health symptoms of depression, anxiety, and PTSD as well as behavioral functioning of their children. Higher negative problem-solving scores were associated with significantly P<0.001 greater odds of having clinically significant levels of PTSD, anxiety, depression, and somatization for the woman and significantly P<0.001 greater odds of her child having borderline or clinically significant levels of both internalizing and externalizing behaviors. A predominately negative problem-solving approach was strongly associated with poorer outcomes for both mothers and children in the aftermath of the environmental stress of abuse. Interventions addressing problem-solving ability may be beneficial in increasing abused women’s abilities to navigate the daily stressors of life following abuse.

  12. Efficacy of micro-financing women's activities in Côte d'Ivoire : evidence from rural areas and HIV/AIDS-affected women

    OpenAIRE

    Binaté Fofana, N.

    2010-01-01

    This thesis deals with the effectiveness and the capability of microfinance institutions in enhancing women’s livelihood and empowerment, and mitigating the effects of HIV and AIDS on affected women and their households in Côte d’Ivoire. This study was carried out within the framework of the AWLAE (African Women Leaders in Agriculture and Environment) Project. The AWLAE project addresses the theme of the role of women in food systems and effects of HIV and AIDS on rural livelihoods. Microfi...

  13. Factors Affecting Utilization of Skilled Birth Attendants by Women in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This underscores the need to investigate factors responsible for low use of skilled attendants at birth. The main purpose of the study was to identify factors affecting utilization of skilled attendants at birth by pregnant women in Kasama district in order to help contribute to the reduction of maternal and child complications.

  14. The Knowledge About Nutrition During Pregnancy, the Eating Habits and the Affecting Factors in the Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oktay Sari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Failure to daily supplementary feeding in according with the growing needs, economic impossibilities, nutritional imbalances caused by false beliefs, wrong practices in food preparartion and safekeeping are the basic causes of the feding problems during pregnancy in our country. In our study are investigated the factors affecting the behaviors and the level of knowledge about nutrition during pregnancy. Material and Method: Our study is a descriptive study whose universe is costituted of 409 pregnant women in 4 month period. The questionnare consist of 3 parts. The first part aimed to identify the demographic characteristics of the participants,the second part aimed to determine information about nutrition during pregnancy and the third part aimed to identify attitudes and behaviors. Scores of knowledge of the pregnant women about nutrition were calculated out of 100 and were compared to demographic data. Results: The average age was 27.39±4.57, the age of first birth was 23.80±3.43, the age at first marriage was 22.02±3.11. 75.8% of the pregnant women were housewives and 78.2% of the pregnant women were high school graduatesand over. The levels of knowledge of nutrition in pregnant women were calculated as 69.10±14.37. The levels of knowledge of nutrition in primery school graduates according to high school and higher graduates were found statistically significantly lower (p

  15. Women with deep infiltrating endometriosis: sexual satisfaction, desire, orgasm, and pelvic problem interference with sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montanari, Giulia; Di Donato, Nadine; Benfenati, Arianna; Giovanardi, Giulia; Zannoni, Letizia; Vicenzi, Claudia; Solfrini, Serena; Mignemi, Giuseppe; Villa, Gioia; Mabrouk, Mohamed; Schioppa, Claudio; Venturoli, Stefano; Seracchioli, Renato

    2013-06-01

    Endometriosis is a chronic and progressive condition of women of reproductive age. It is strongly associated with a significant reduction of quality of life (QOL) and sexual function. This study aims to objectively evaluate sexual function in women with deep infiltrating endometriosis (DIE) and to study the impact of endometriosis symptoms and type of lesion on patient's sexual function. This is a cross-sectional study in a tertiary care university hospital. It included 182 patients with preoperative clinical and ultrasound diagnosis of DIE who were referred to our center from 2008 to 2011. A sexual activity questionnaire, the Sexual Health Outcomes in Women Questionnaire (SHOW-Q) was used to collect data pertaining to satisfaction, orgasm, desire, and pelvic problem interference with sex. Short Form 36 (SF-36) was used to evaluate QOL. Demographic and clinical characteristics were assessed: age, body mass index, parity, ethnicity, postsecondary education, employment, smoking, history of surgical treatment, and hormonal contraception. Patients were asked about pain symptoms (dysmenorrhea, dyspareunia, dyschezia, chronic pelvic pain, and dysuria) using a visual analog scale. The mean values obtained on the different scales of the SHOW-Q showed poor sexual function (mean SHOW-Q total score 56.38 ± 22.74). Satisfaction was the dimension most affected (mean satisfaction score 55.66 ± 34.55), followed by orgasm (mean orgasm score 56.90 ± 33.77). We found a significant correlation between the SF-36 scores and the SHOW-Q scores (P < 0.0001). Sexual dysfunction and deterioration of QOL seem to be correlated. Analyzing the impact of symptoms and lesions on sexual function, we found that dyspareunia and vaginal DIE nodules significantly affect sexual activity (P < 0.05). The results of this study demonstrated that women with DIE have a sexual function impairment, correlated with the overall well-being decrease. Moreover, the presence of dyspareunia and vaginal

  16. Factors Affecting the Growth of Women-Operated Micro and Small Enterprises (MSEs in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fesseha Mulu Gebremariam

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The study employed secondary sources to identify factors that challenge the growth of the women-operated Micro and Small Enterprises (MSEs in Ethiopia. MSEs play an important role in creating employment opportunities mainly for the urban youth and women, serve as an engine to transform economies from agricultural-led to industrial-led, and are considered the best mechanisms by which citizens accumulate capital and empower women economically. However, in developing countries like Ethiopia, female entrepreneurs are facing various challenges in their day-to-day lives just because of their gender. Financial problems, lack of managerial and entrepreneurial skills, workplace and marketing problems, inadequacy of infrastructural facilities, unpredictable supply of raw materials are among the problems they face. In order to alleviate the situation, the Government of Ethiopia should provide female entrepreneurs with access to credit, supply them with a place to work, create a market link for MSEs with raw material suppliers, medium and large firms, make capacity-building training available to improve their business management skills, and provide information on market opportunities and appropriate/improved technologies.

  17. Perceived body weight, eating and exercise problems of different groups of women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coker, Elise; Telfer, James; Abraham, Suzanne

    2012-10-01

    To compare prevalence of problems with body weight, eating and exercise (past or present) of female psychiatric inpatients with routine care, gynaecological and obstetric female outpatients, and eating disorder inpatients. One thousand and thirty-eight females aged 18-55 years from routine care (n=99), gynaecological (n=263) and obstetric (n=271) outpatient clinics, and eating disorder (n=223) and general psychiatric units (n=182) participated. Participants self-reported past or current problems with weight, eating and exercise using a short survey. A sub-sample of women completed the Eating and Exercise Examination (EEE) which includes the Quality of Life for Eating Disorders (QOL ED). The prevalence of self-reported problems controlling weight (52%), disordered eating and eating disorders (43%) for the psychiatric patients was significantly greater than for the routine care and gynaecological and obstetrics outpatients. The psychiatric group had a significantly higher mean body mass index (BMI) of 27.3 kg/m(2) (standard deviation (SD)=6.7) and prevalence of self-reported obesity (28%) than the other groups. Treatment of women with psychiatric problems should include assessment and concurrent attention to body weight, eating disorder and exercise problems in association with appropriate medical, psychiatric, psychological and medication treatment of their presenting disorder.

  18. Reproductive factors affecting the bone mineral density in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, Ferda; Demirbag, Derya; Rodoplu, Meliha

    2005-03-01

    Osteoporosis has been defined as a metabolic bone disease characterized by a loss of bone mineral density (BMD) greater than 2.5 standard deviations below young adult peak bone mass or the presence of fracture. By considering that some factors related to female reproductive system might influence the ultimate risk of osteoporosis, we aimed to investigate if a relationship exists between the present BMD of postmenopausal women with their past and present reproductive characteristics. The present study focused on how BMD could be affected by the following factors in postmenopausal women, such as age at menarche, age at first pregnancy, the number of pregnancies and total breast-feeding time. We reviewed detailed demographic history of 303 postmenopausal women. According to the results of the present study, a negative correlation was found between the number of parities and BMD. The BMD values decreased as the number of pregnancies increased. When the BMD values for lumbar vertebrae 2 and Ward's triangle were investigated, it was observed that a significant difference exists between the women with no child birth and those with more than five parities. There was a significant relationship between age at first pregnancy and BMD values at the lumbar vertebrae 2 and Ward's triangle. Women who had five or more abortions were found to have significantly lower spine BMD values compared to women who had no abortions or women who had one or two abortions. These findings indicate that the increased risk of osteoporosis is associated with the increased number of pregnancies and abortions and higher age at first pregnancy.

  19. Factors influencing the type of health problems presented by women in general practice: differences between women's health care and regular health care.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brink-Muinen, A. van den; Bensing, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    Objective: Differences between health problems presented by women (aged 20-45) to female "women's health care" doctors and both female and male regular health care doctors were investigated. This article explores the relationship of patients' roles (worker, partner, or parent) and the type of health

  20. Comparative Study on the Vaginal Flora and Incidence of Asymptomatic Vaginosis among Healthy Women and in Women with Infertility Problems of Reproductive Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, Geethavani; Singaravelu, Balamuru Ganvelu; Srikumar, R; Reddy, Sreenivasalu V; Kokan, Afraa

    2017-08-01

    The normal vaginal flora is highly complex, dominated by lactobacilli of doderlein that plays a vital role in maintaining the women's health and inhibits other pathogenic microorganisms. Fluctuation in local environment or exposure to any exogenous and endogenous sources changes the vaginal flora over a period of time. Disruption of the vaginal ecosystem changes the microflora of the healthy vagina, altering the pH and predisposing to lower reproductive tract infections. The change in the microflora of the female genital tract by pathogenic organisms may ascend from vagina to upper genital tract and may cause infertility. Although several studies demonstrate a higher prevalence of bacterial vaginosis in infertile population. The role of vaginal microbiome in infertility is not clear and need to be explored further. To compare the vaginal flora and analyse the incidence of asymptomatic vaginosis among healthy women and in women with infertility problems. A cross-sectional study was conducted over a period of six months at Sri Lakshmi Narayana Medical College and Hospital Puducherry, India. A total of 200 high vaginal swabs were collected from Group 1 which included 84 healthy women with regular menstrual cycles without any gynaecological disorder and from Group 2, 116 women with infertility problems attending fertility clinic within the age group of 18 to 45 years. All swabs were subjected to routine aerobic, anaerobic and fungal culture. Saline wet mount was performed for the detection of clue cells and Trichomonas vaginalis , 10% KOH was performed for demonstration of budding yeast cells and pseudo hyphae, Gram's staining to determine the presence of yeast cells, leucocytes and bacterial morphotypes. The smear was also graded using Nugent scoring system. The vaginal flora of Group 1 was dominated by Lactobacillus (40, 27.8 %) followed by Micrococcus (22, 15.3 %), Enterococcus (16, 11.1%), Coagulase negative Staphylococcus spp. (12, 8.3%). Whereas in Group 2, the

  1. Automobile driving in older adults: factors affecting driving restriction in men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marie Dit Asse, Laetitia; Fabrigoule, Colette; Helmer, Catherine; Laumon, Bernard; Lafont, Sylviane

    2014-11-01

    To identify factors associated with driving restriction in elderly men and women. Prospective cohort study of French drivers from 2003 to 2009. The Three-City Cohort of Bordeaux, a prospective study of 2,104 people aged 65 and older. Five hundred twenty-three drivers with a mean age of 76 (273 male, 250 female). Sociodemographic characteristics, driving habits, health variables, cognitive evaluation and dementia diagnosis. Predementia was defined as no dementia at one follow-up and dementia at the next follow-up. Over the 6-year period, 54% of men and 63% of women stopped driving or reduced the distance they drove. Predementia, Parkinson's disease, older age, and a high number of kilometers previously driven were common restriction factors in both sexes. Prevalent dementia, depressive symptomatology, a decline in one or more instrumental activities of daily living, and poor visual working memory were specific factors in men. In women, low income, fear of falling, slow processing speed, and severe decline in global cognitive performance all affected driving restriction. Older women restricted their driving activity more than older men, regardless of the number of kilometers previously driven, physical health, and cognitive status. Factors affecting driving restriction differed according to sex, and women were more likely to stop driving than men in the period preceding a dementia diagnosis. © 2014, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2014, The American Geriatrics Society.

  2. Oral contraceptives positively affect mood in healthy PMS-free women: A longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamstra, Danielle A; de Kloet, E Ronald; de Rover, Mischa; Van der Does, Willem

    2017-12-01

    Menstrual cycle phase and oral contraceptives (OC) use influence mood and cognition and these effects may be moderated by the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) genotype. The effect of menstrual cycle phase on mood may be increased if participants know that this is the focus of study. We assessed aspects associated with reproductive depression such as mood, interpersonal sensitivity, affect lability and depressive cognitions in MR-genotyped OC-users and naturally cycling (NC) women in a carefully masked design. A homogenous sample of healthy, PMS-free, pre-menopausal MR-genotyped women (n=92) completed online questionnaires eight times during two consecutive cycles. The masking of the research question was successful. OC-users did not differ significantly from NC women in positive and negative affect at the time of assessment, personality characteristics (e.g. neuroticism) or mental and physical health. Both groups reported more shifts in anger in the first cycle week (pemotional blunting effect, which is in line with previous reports on affect-stabilizing effects of OC. Limitations were loss of cases due to irregularities in the menstrual cycle length and possible confounding by the 'survivor effect', since almost all OC-users took OC for more than a year. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Anxiety and posttraumatic stress symptom pathways to substance use problems among community women experiencing intimate partner violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaquier, Véronique; Flanagan, Julianne C; Sullivan, Tami P

    2015-01-01

    Although intimate partner violence (IPV) has demonstrated strong associations with anxiety and posttraumatic stress, these constructs have rarely been examined simultaneously in IPV research. Gaps in knowledge remain as to their differential associations to substance use problems among IPV-victimized women. A sample of 143 community women self-reported on their current IPV victimization, mental health and substance use problems. Hierarchical entry multiple regressions were used to test for the direct and indirect effects of psychological, physical, and sexual IPV to alcohol and drug problems through anxiety and posttraumatic stress. Higher anxiety symptom severity and higher physical IPV severity were associated with greater alcohol and drug problems. Higher posttraumatic stress symptom severity was associated with greater alcohol and drug problems. Mediation analyses indicated (i) significant indirect pathways of IPV types to alcohol problems through posttraumatic stress symptom severity controlling for anxiety symptom severity and (ii) significant indirect pathways of IPV types to drug problems through anxiety symptom severity controlling for posttraumatic stress symptom severity. In examining the indirect pathways of psychological, physical, and sexual IPV to substance use problems this study highlights that anxiety and posttraumatic stress symptom severity have unique effects on alcohol and drug problems among IPV-victimized women.

  4. Factors affecting the use of prenatal care by non-western women in industrialized western countries: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boerleider, Agatha W; Wiegers, Therese A; Manniën, Judith; Francke, Anneke L; Devillé, Walter L J M

    2013-03-27

    Despite the potential of prenatal care for addressing many pregnancy complications and concurrent health problems, non-western women in industrialized western countries more often make inadequate use of prenatal care than women from the majority population do. This study aimed to give a systematic review of factors affecting non-western women's use of prenatal care (both medical care and prenatal classes) in industrialized western countries. Eleven databases (PubMed, Embase, PsycINFO, Cochrane, Sociological Abstracts, Web of Science, Women's Studies International, MIDIRS, CINAHL, Scopus and the NIVEL catalogue) were searched for relevant peer-reviewed articles from between 1995 and July 2012. Qualitative as well as quantitative studies were included. Quality was assessed using the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool. Factors identified were classified as impeding or facilitating, and categorized according to a conceptual framework, an elaborated version of Andersen's healthcare utilization model. Sixteen articles provided relevant factors that were all categorized. A number of factors (migration, culture, position in host country, social network, expertise of the care provider and personal treatment and communication) were found to include both facilitating and impeding factors for non-western women's utilization of prenatal care. The category demographic, genetic and pregnancy characteristics and the category accessibility of care only included impeding factors.Lack of knowledge of the western healthcare system and poor language proficiency were the most frequently reported impeding factors. Provision of information and care in women's native languages was the most frequently reported facilitating factor. The factors found in this review provide specific indications for identifying non-western women who are at risk of not using prenatal care adequately and for developing interventions and appropriate policy aimed at improving their prenatal care utilization.

  5. Relationship of aggression, negative affect, substance use problems, and childhood delinquency to DWI recidivism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linn, Braden K; Nochajski, Thomas; Wieczorek, William

    2016-01-01

    Driving under the influence remains a pervasive problem. Approximately 30% of those arrested for impaired driving offenses each year are repeat offenders, suggesting that current rehabilitative efforts are not sufficiently effective for reducing driving while intoxicated (DWI) recidivism. Aggression, negative affect, substance use problems, and childhood delinquency have been noted in the population of impaired drivers, but study of these variables on recidivism has been limited. The aim of the current study was to examine the effects of aggression, negative affect, substance use problems, and childhood delinquency on DWI recidivism among first time offenders. In 1992, 6436 individuals in impaired driver programs in New York State were surveyed. A total of 3511 individuals provided names so that state driver abstracts could be reviewed in the future. A total of 2043 matches were found and 1770 remained after excluding those with previous DWI convictions. Driver records were reviewed in 2010 and 2012, providing between 18 and 20 years of follow-up. During the follow-up period, 16.5% of individuals were arrested for an impaired driving offense. Multivariate analysis suggested that recidivism was a function of several problems, including: alcohol problem severity, aggression, negative affect, drug problem severity, criminal history, and childhood delinquency. Impaired driving programs should assess for childhood delinquency, aggressive tendencies, and negative affect as these constructs, along with substance use, are evident among impaired drivers who recidivate. Interventions addressing aggression and negative affect may ultimately prove useful in reducing recidivism.

  6. Women's awareness of the human papilloma virus and related health problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyuz, Aygul; Yılmaz, Cevriye; Yenen, Müfit Cemal; Yavan, Tülay; Kılıç, Ayşe

    2011-12-01

    This paper is a report of a study of women's awareness of the human papilloma virus and related health problems. Cervical cancer is an important cause of mortality, making up approximately 12% of all cancers in women. Awareness on the part of carriers of human papilloma virus is crucial in preventing transmission of the infection and protecting against cervical cancer. The study was performed as a cross-sectional descriptive study. The study consists of 79 human papilloma virus-positive women who had not been diagnosed with cervical cancer and 150 women who had not been diagnosed with human papilloma virus. Data were collected via questionnaires between November 2007 and April 2008. Percentages and chi-square test were used. A significantly higher percentage of women with positive human papilloma virus knew the definition of human papilloma virus, the fact that it is transmitted via sexual contact and that it can lead to cervical cancer than did women with negative human papilloma virus. It was established that approximately half the women with positive human papilloma virus presented at the hospital with a genital wart. None of the women knew that a Pap smear test was a necessary tool in the prevention of cervical cancer. Women with positive human papilloma virus have insufficient knowledge of human papilloma virus, sexually transmitted diseases, the health risks associated with human papilloma virus and the means of preventing these risks. It is therefore necessary to evaluate the education of health workers, and especially of nurses, on human papilloma virus and its prevention. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Socio-Economic Affects of Floods on Female Teachers in Jampur (Pakistan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzdar, Muhammad Ayub; Ali, Akhtar

    2011-01-01

    Women are major affected segment of society in any disaster in under developed countries. Floods of 2010, in Pakistan, affected more than 17 million people. Ultimately, it created several social, psychological and financial problems for affected females. The current paper aimed to study the socio-economic affects of floods on female teachers of…

  8. Gender-based violence and HIV sexual risk behavior: alcohol use and mental health problems as mediators among women in drinking venues, Cape Town.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitpitan, Eileen V; Kalichman, Seth C; Eaton, Lisa A; Sikkema, Kathleen J; Watt, Melissa H; Skinner, Donald

    2012-10-01

    Gender-based violence is a key determinant of HIV infection among women in South Africa as elsewhere. However, research has not examined potential mediating processes to explain the link between experiencing abuse and engaging in HIV sexual risk behavior. Previous studies suggest that alcohol use and mental health problems may explain how gender-based violence predicts sexual risk. In a prospective study, we examined whether lifetime history of gender-based violence indirectly affects future sexual risk behavior through alcohol use, depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in a high-risk socio-environmental context. We recruited a cohort of 560 women from alcohol drinking venues in a Cape Town, South African township. Participants completed computerized interviews at baseline and 4 months later. We tested prospective mediating associations between gender-based violence, alcohol use, depression, PTSD, and sexual risk behavior. There was a significant indirect effect of gender-based violence on sexual risk behavior through alcohol use, but not mental health problems. Women who were physically and sexually abused drank more, which in turn predicted more unprotected sex. We did not find a mediated relationship between alcohol use and sexual risk behavior through the experience of recent abuse or mental health problems. Alcohol use explains the link between gender-based violence and sexual risk behavior among women attending drinking venues in Cape Town, South Africa. Efforts to reduce HIV risk in South Africa by addressing gender-based violence must also address alcohol use. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Women's health is a community issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvin, A

    1997-01-01

    When a member of the Community Life Project in Nigeria led a group of women in a discussion about HIV/AIDS, the women reported that they understood that condom use is the best means of protection but that they were unable to negotiate condom use with their husbands. Even if the women were economically independent, they would rather face the risk of HIV/AIDS than divorce. Thus, efforts to improve women's health have not generated much change on the local level. This can also be seen by the facts that current programs have failed to reduce the numbers of women dying from pregnancy-related causes each year, nearly 3000 women die from tuberculosis each day, women suffer occupational health risks, and domestic violence is an important determinant of health problems for women. Because women lack power in many societies, efforts to effect individual change may be blocked by a woman's particular circumstances. Thus, the involvement of entire communities is necessary to improve the conditions affecting women's health. Community-level discussions may open the door for couples to discuss sexuality and gender-based issues as well as safer sex behavior. Despite the important role they can play, women's community health groups face stiff challenges because of a lack of knowledge or training and because of the difficulty in overcoming gender-based discrimination. The Hesperian Foundation's publication, "Where Women Have No Doctor," is an excellent resource for understanding how poverty and gender issues affect women's health. The book contains practical information, promotes a model of community-based responses to problems with social origins, and shares experiences of grassroots groups world-wide.

  10. A reinforcement sensitivity model of affective and behavioral dysregulation in marijuana use and associated problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Noah N; Simons, Jeffrey S

    2017-08-01

    This study tested a model linking sensitivity to punishment (SP) and reward (SR) to marijuana use and problems via affect lability and poor control. A 6-month prospective design was used in a sample of 2,270 young-adults (64% female). The hypothesized SP × SR interaction did not predict affect lability or poor control, but did predict use likelihood at baseline. At low levels of SR, SP was associated with an increased likelihood of abstaining, which was attenuated as SR increased. SP and SR displayed positive main effects on both affect lability and poor control. Affect lability and poor control, in turn, mediated effects on the marijuana outcomes. Poor control predicted both increased marijuana use and, controlling for use level, greater intensity of problems. Affect lability predicted greater intensity of problems, but was not associated with use level. There were few prospective effects. SR consistently predicted greater marijuana use and problems. SP however, exhibited both risk and protective pathways. Results indicate that SP is associated with a decreased likelihood of marijuana use. However, once use is initiated SP is associated with increased risk of problems, in part, due to its effects on both affect and behavioral dysregulation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Care and self-reported outcomes of care experienced by women with mental health problems in pregnancy: Findings from a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Jane; Jomeen, Julie; Redshaw, Maggie

    2018-01-01

    mental health problems in pregnancy and the postnatal period are relatively common and, in pregnancy, are associated with an increase in adverse outcome. It is recommended that all women are asked about their emotional and mental health and offered treatment if appropriate. to describe the care received by women self-identifying with mental health problems in pregnancy, and to describe the effects of support, advice and treatment on outcomes in the postnatal period. this study used cross-sectional survey data collected in 2014 which described women's experience of maternity care. England PARTICIPANTS: a random sample of women who had a live birth in January 2014. the questionnaire asked about sociodemographic characteristics, whether women were asked about emotional and mental health in pregnancy, support and treatment offered, about postnatal wellbeing, and questions relating to attachment to their baby. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression were used to examine the associations between mental health and outcomes taking account of sociodemographic characteristics. the survey response rate was 47%. Women with antenatal mental health problems were significantly more worried at the prospect of labour and birth, had lower satisfaction with the experience of birth, worse postnatal mental health, and indications of poorer attachment to their baby. They received substantially more care than other women but they did not always view this positively. Support, advice and treatment for mental health problems had mixed effects. this study describes the significant additional care provided to women self-identifying with mental health problems in pregnancy, the mixed effects of support, advice and treatment, and the poor perception of staff interaction among women with mental health problems. health care professionals may need additional training to effectively support women with mental health problems during the perinatal period. Copyright © 2017 The Authors

  12. Female sexual dysfunction in women of reproductive age group in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian Journal of Family Practice ... real physical, psychological, social, spiritual and cultural problem in Nigeria, yet greatly understudied. ... dysfunction is a significant problem that affects a substantial number of women in this environment.

  13. Effective Factors on Urinary Incontinence in Natural Menopausal Women

    OpenAIRE

    Shohani; V Carson; Sayehmiri; Shohani

    2015-01-01

    Background Urinary tract infections and urinary incontinence are common urogenital problems affecting 7 - 10% of menopausal women. Objectives The primary objective of this study was to quantify effective factors on urinary incontinence in a cohort of menopausal women. Patients and Methods A sample of 150 menopausal women (natural menopause for at least 12 months) were recruited fro...

  14. Effects of yoga on balance and gait properties in women with musculoskeletal problems: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulger, Ozlem; Yağlı, Naciye Vardar

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of the present study is to investigate the effects of yoga on balance and gait properties in women with musculoskeletal problems. Twenty-seven women (30-45 years old) with musculoskeletal problems, such as osteoarthritis and low-back pain, were included in the present study. The patients participated in 8 sessions (twice weekly for 4 weeks) of a yoga program which included asanas, stretching exercises, and breathing techniques. Patients' static balance measurements and gait parameters were determined before and after the study using a stabilometer and a gait trainer, respectively. Post-study values of patients' gait parameters were found to be statistically higher than their pre-study values (p gait parameters of women with gait and balance disturbances that are caused by musculoskeletal problems. It is feasible to conclude that asanas and stretching exercises included in the yoga program brought about such a positive effect, and therefore it is possible to use yoga programs to solve problems caused by musculoskeletal disorders. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Experiences of Violence Among Transgender Women in Puerto Rico: An Underestimated Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Madera, Sheilla L; Padilla, Mark; Varas-Díaz, Nelson; Neilands, Torsten; Vasques Guzzi, Ana C; Florenciani, Ericka J; Ramos-Pibernus, Alíxida

    2017-01-01

    Violence is a public health concern faced on a daily basis by transgender women. Literature has documented how it adversely affects quality of life and health and in some instances leads to homicide. Considering the lack of research documenting the experiences of violence among transgender women, the objective of this article was to explore manifestations of violence among this population in Puerto Rico. The data presented in this article are part of a larger study on transgender/transsexual health in Puerto Rico. For the purpose of this article we focus on the quantitative data analysis. Participants (N = 59 transgender women) were recruited via respondent driven sampling. Implications and specific recommendations are discussed in light of these findings.

  16. Mental health problems among conflict-affected adults in Grozny, Chechnya: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Amanda J; Feo, Concetta; Idrisov, Kyuri; Pintaldi, Giovanni; Lenglet, Annick; Tsatsaeva, Zalina; Bolton, Paul; Bass, Judith

    2016-01-01

    A decade of conflict in Chechnya destroyed infrastructure and resulted in widespread exposure to violence. Amidst substantial reconstruction, periodic violence has contributed to an ongoing atmosphere of insecurity. We conducted a qualitative study to understand the mental health and psychosocial problems affecting adult Chechens in this context to inform development of assessment tools for an evaluation study related to individual counseling. Data were collected in July 2014. A convenience sample of 59 Chechen adults was asked to Free List all problems affecting people in the area. Four problems were explored further in 19 Key Interviewee (KI) interviews, with respondents identified using snowball sampling. Data analysis was conducted in Russian by the Chechen interviewers. Multiple mental health and psychosocial problems emerged, including 'bad psychological health', 'depression', 'stress and nervous people', and 'problems in the family'. Aggression, 'emotional blowing', and 'not adequate' behavior were frequently reported indicators of these problems, with negative effects on the whole family. Chechens reported seeking help through informal social networks, psychiatric and psychological services, and Islamic Centers. Chechens reported mental health and psychosocial problems similar to those experienced in other post-conflict settings. The description of 'emotional blowing' mirrored prior findings in Chechen asylum seekers and fits within a cluster of cultural concepts of distress featuring anger that has been identified in other conflict-affected populations. Further exploration of the nature and prevalence of this construct, as well as evaluations of interventions aimed at reducing these symptoms, is warranted.

  17. A Genetically Informed Cross-lagged Analysis of Autistic-Like Traits and Affective Problems in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micalizzi, Lauren; Ronald, Angelica; Saudino, Kimberly J.

    2015-01-01

    A genetically informed cross-lagged model was applied to twin data to explore etiological links between autistic-like traits and affective problems in early childhood. The sample comprised 310 same-sex twin pairs (143 monozygotic and 167 dizygotic; 53% male). Autistic-like traits and affective problems were assessed at ages 2 and 3 using parent ratings. Both constructs were related within and across age (r = .30−.53) and showed moderate stability (r = .45−.54). Autistic-like traits and affective problems showed genetic and environmental influences at both ages. Whereas at age 2, the covariance between autistic-like traits and affective problems was entirely due to environmental influences (shared and nonshared), at age 3, genetic factors also contributed to the covariance between constructs. The stability paths, but not the cross-lagged paths, were significant, indicating that there is stability in both autistic-like traits and affective problems but they do not mutually influence each other across age. Stability effects were due to genetic, shared, and nonshared environmental influences. Substantial novel genetic and nonshared environmental influences emerge at age 3 and suggest change in the etiology of these constructs over time. During early childhood, autistic-like traits tend to occur alongside affective problems and partly overlapping genetic and environmental influences explain this association. PMID:26456961

  18. Characteristics of activities that affect the development of women's same-sex relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis-Delano, Laurel R

    2014-01-01

    The author utilized semistructured interviews with 56 women to explore how a wide range of activities affected the development of the participants' same-sex attractions and relationships. The researcher was able to identify and describe some aspects of the process by which eight characteristics of activities that are more or less present in various social contexts have the potential to impact whether these contexts are more or less conducive or hindering to the development of women's same-sex attractions and relationships. Activities were more apt to nurture the development of the participants' same-sex attractions and relationships when the activity (a) included lesbians, (b) was composed primarily of women, (c) affirmed women, (d) facilitated bonding, (e) featured a climate of acceptance of lesbians/gays/bisexuals, (f) did not feature a climate that emphasized heteronormativity, (g) was perceived as gender neutral, and (h) generated or drew participants who were similar to each other.

  19. Effect of sildenafil citrate on women affected by sexual dysfunction referred to health clinics

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    Sanaz Zeinalzadeh

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. Female sexual dysfunction is a serious, multifactorial problem which affects women’s quality of life. Objectives. This study aimed at assessing the effect of sildenafil citrate on sexual dysfunction among women of reproductive age. Materials and methods. The present randomized clinical trial was conducted on 84 married women between 18 and 40 years old who suffered from sexual dysfunction. The inclusion criteria of the study were being married and between 18–40 years old, obtaining scores ≥ 22 in FSFI, not having a history of hypothyroidism or hyperprolactinemia, and not suffering from dyspareunia or vaginismus. The intervention group was required to consume 50 mg sildenafil citrate 1 hour before sexual intercourse for 5 weeks, and the control group received placebo. FSFI was completed by both study groups before and 5 weeks after the treatment. The data were analyzed through SPSS (v. 18 and paired t-test and independent t-test. Results . Most of the women (67.2% were between 30 and 40 years old. The study results revealed a significant difference between the two groups regarding the mean scores of sexual desire (p = 0.011, sexual arousal (p = 0.001, lubrication (p = 0.026, orgasm and sexual satisfaction (p < 0.001, and the whole dimension (p < 0.001. Besides, total mean sexual function before and after for the intervention and control groups was 21.1 ± 3.28 vs. 17.22 ± 5.9 (p < 0.001. Conclusion . In this study, sildenafil citrate was effective in enhancing sexual desire, arousal, orgasm, and sexual satisfaction. Of course, more studies need to be conducted on this issue.

  20. Factors affecting access to healthcare services by intermarried Filipino women in rural Tasmania: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannah, Chona T; Lê, Quynh

    2012-10-01

    Access to health care services is vital for every migrant's health and wellbeing. However, migrants' cultural health beliefs and views can hinder their ability to access available services. This study examined factors affecting access to healthcare services for intermarried Filipino women in rural Tasmania, Australia. A qualitative approach using semi-structured interviews was employed to investigate the factors affecting access to healthcare services for 30 intermarried Filipino women in rural Tasmania. The study used grounded theory and thematic analysis for its data analysis. Nvivo v8 (www.qsrinternational.com) was also used to assist the data coding process and analysis. Five influencing factors were identified: (1) language or communication barriers; (2) area of origin in the Philippines; (3) cultural barriers; (4) length of stay in Tasmania; and (5) expectations of healthcare services before and after migration. Factors affecting intermarried Filipino women in accessing healthcare services are shaped by their socio-demographic and cultural background. The insights gained from this study are useful to health policy-makers, healthcare professionals and to intermarried female migrants. The factors identified can serve as a guide to improve healthcare access for Filipino women and other migrants.

  1. Sexual functioning, beliefs about sexual functioning and quality of life of women with infertility problems

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    Prathibha Agustus

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The study was conducted in the background of paucity of studies examining the sexual and psychosocial functioning of women with infertility. Aims: The study explored sexual functioning in women with infertility problems, their beliefs about sexuality and their quality of life. Settings and Design: A single group exploratory design with non-probability purposive sampling was used. A total of 30 participants diagnosed with primary infertility were included in the study. Materials and Methods: The data were obtained by individual administration of the following tools: Semi-structured interview schedule, Female Sexual Functioning Inventory, Sexual Dysfunctional Beliefs Questionnaire, World Health Organization Quality of Life Scale − BREF Version and General Health Questionnaire-12. The data obtained were analyzed using descriptive statistics and non-parametric tests. Results: About half of the participants had sexual dysfunction. Pain-related problems were most commonly reported (50%. Factors contributing to dysfunction included inadequate knowledge about sex, sexual stimulation and sexual communication. Along with inadequate self-image, negative childhood experiences, financial difficulties and marital discord in parents influenced the perception of self. Majority of the women had dysfunctional beliefs about sexuality (56%, and greater beliefs were found to be in the domain of sexual conservatism. The overall quality of life was poor, and 56% of women experienced psychological distress. There was significant positive correlation between sexual conservatism and experience of pain and overall sexual functioning. Conclusion: Women with infertility bear dysfunctional beliefs and suffer from problems in sexual functioning, have low quality of life and high psychological distress.

  2. Stress does not affect ghrelin secretion in obese and normal weight women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiessl, Gundula R R; Laessle, Reinhold G

    2017-03-01

    Stress has been supposed to increase appetite. The biological basis of this phenomenon may be a stress-induced alteration of the secretion of GUT peptides such as ghrelin. Stress-induced changes in ghrelin secretion could be a biological basis of overeating and a factor contributing to the development of obesity. Aim of the study was to analyze the effect of acute psychosocial stress on ghrelin secretion in obese and normal weight women. We compared pre- and postprandial plasma ghrelin secretion of 42 obese and 43 normal weight women in a randomized crossover design. Ghrelin and cortisol concentrations were measured and ratings of stress were also recorded in response to a psychological stressor (Trier Social Stress Test, TSST). Ghrelin samples were collected in the fasting state one time before participating in the TSST and one time before a control session. After the TSST, respectively, control session participants had a standardized ad libitum meal. 30 and 60 min after the TSST, respectively, control session preprandial ghrelin was measured again. Obese women showed lower pre- and postprandial release of ghrelin than normal weight controls. Moreover, obese women showed inhibited postprandial decrease of ghrelin secretion. Stress did not affect postprandial ghrelin secretion, but inhibited food intake in all subjects. The present data provide further evidence of altered ghrelin release in obesity. Acute stress did not affect postprandial ghrelin secretion, but inhibited food intake in all subjects. Results are discussed with regard to biological and psychological regulation of hunger and satiety in obesity.

  3. The Support System in Distance Education:Factors Affecting Achievements Among Women Learners

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    Rozhan M IDRUS

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The Support System in Distance Education:Factors Affecting Achievements Among Women Learners Hanafi ATAN Zuraidah A. RAHMAN Omar MAJID Noraida A. GHANIRozhan M IDRUS School of Distance EducationUniversiti Sains Malaysia11800 Penang, MALAYSIA ABSTRACT Distance education has the potential to contribute to the enhancement of women’s development by overcoming not only temporal and spatial barriers but familial commitments as well. It brings education to their home and allows women to learn at their individual pace, seek skills for individual development and at the same time, enables them to fulfill family responsibilities. An important element of distance education is the provision of the learner support system that provides students the access to learning resources and means of communication that would facilitate the array of educational activities and exposure to various other guidance and advisories. This paper reports on the study undertaken to elucidate the dimensions of the support system provided by the School of Distance Education (SDE, Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM to its women learners that would have significant impact on their achievements. The factorial analysis conducted revealed that the role of the faculty is the main contributing factor affecting these achievements, followed by the provision of the intensive course, the electronic portal, video conferencing and to a much lesser extent, the existence of the regional centres. The implications of this study are discussed with the view of improving the support system provided by the institution and the need to put into action the necessary strategies to further improve the achievement of the women learners.

  4. Relationship self-efficacy protects against mental health problems among women in bidirectionally aggressive intimate relationships with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Tami P; McPartland, Tara; Price, Carolina; Cruza-Guet, Maria Cristina; Swan, Suzanne C

    2013-10-01

    Research examining predictors or correlates of mental health problems among women who experience or use aggression in intimate relationships typically assesses factors that confer risk. Such research has primarily examined intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization or aggression frequency or severity as central risk factors for mental health problems. In the general population, one factor demonstrating a protective effect on mental health problems is self-efficacy. Research on self-efficacy among women who experience or use aggression in intimate relationships is nearly absent. The purpose of this study was to determine if self-efficacy specific to a woman's ability to manage various relationship problems (i.e., relationship self-efficacy [RSE]) played a protective role against the severity of posttraumatic stress, depression, and anxiety symptoms among 354 community-residing women who were victimized and used aggression (bidirectional IPV). Regression analyses found that RSE uniquely predicted each mental health outcome above and beyond what was accounted for by the frequency of physical, sexual, and psychological victimization and aggression. Further, RSE fully mediated the relationships between psychological victimization and each mental health outcome. If replicated, and in circumstances where it is determined safe to do so, findings suggest RSE as a promising avenue for future research to improve the health and well-being of women in bidirectionally aggressive relationships.

  5. Gender Jihad: Muslim Women, Islamic Jurisprudence, and Women's Rights

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    Melanie P. Mejia

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Muslim women's rights have been a topic of discussion and debate over the past few decades, and with a good reason. Islamic Law (Shariah is considered by many as patriarchal and particularly oppressive to women, and yet there are also others-Muslim women-who have rigorously defended their religion by claiming that Islam is the guarantor par excellence of women's rights. A big question begs to be answered: is Islam particularly oppressive to women?The Qur'an has addressed women's issues fourteen hundred years ago by creating certain reforms to improve the status of women; however, these reforms do not seem to be practiced in Muslim societies today.1 How is this so? I contend that Islam, as revealed to Muhammad, is not oppressive to women; rather, its interpretation, in so far as it is enacted in the family laws and everyday living, is patriarchal and hence needs to be examined.2 The goal of this work is to discuss what the Qur'an says about certain problems which gravely affect Muslim women, specifically: 1. gender equality 2. polygamy 3. divorce and the concept of nushuz

  6. Acne in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-e-Silva, M; Ramos-e-Silva, S; Carneiro, S

    2015-07-01

    This review focuses on the subject of acne in women, a disease that is increasingly common and that can also affect men. Adult acne differs from the type of acne that occurs in teenagers, and it may persist beyond adolescence or have its onset at an older age (adult-onset acne or late acne). Acne can have a negative impact on the quality of life of patients at any age, leading to a negative body image and decrease in self-esteem, and in older patients it can result in discrimination in the workplace and in other social environments. Acne in women must be understood as a specific problem, and here we discuss the pathogenesis, clinical presentation, psychology and treatment of this very prevalent problem. © 2015 British Association of Dermatologists.

  7. Effectiveness of Self Instructional Module on Coping Strategies of Tri-Dimensional Problems of Premenopausal Women – A Community Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boro, Enu; Jamil, MD; Roy, Aakash

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Pre-menopause in women presents with diverse symptoms, encompassing the tri-dimensional spheres of physical, social and psychological domains, which requires development of appropriate coping strategies to overcome these problems. Aim To assess level of knowledge about tri-dimensional problems in pre-menopausal women and evaluate effectiveness of self instruction module on coping strategies of these problems by pre-test and post-test analysis. Materials and Methods In a cross-sectional, community based study, in pre-menopausal women aged 40-49years baseline knowledge of tridimensional problems was assessed in 300 pre-menopausal women, selected by convenient sampling after satisfying selection criteria, by a pre-formed questionnaire. This was followed by administration of a pre-tested, Self-Instructional Module (SIM). The SIM dealt with imparting knowledge about coping strategies regarding pre-menopausal problems and the participants were required to read and retain the SIM. Post-test was conducted using same questionnaire after seven days. Statistical Analysis Chi-square test/ Paired t-test was used for comparing ratios. A ‘p-value’ <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results Baseline knowledge of tridimensional problems was adequate in 10%, moderate in 73% and inadequate in 17% women with a pre-test mean knowledge score of 8.66±2.45. The post-test mean knowledge score was higher (19.11±3.38) compared to the pre-test score. The post-test mean knowledge difference from pre-test was -10.45 with a highly significant paired t-value of -47.45 indicating that the self-instructional module was effective in increasing the knowledge score of pre- menopausal women under study. Conclusion Administration of self instructional module was shown to significantly increase the knowledge scores in all areas of pre-menopausal tri-dimensional problems. Such self-instructional module can be used as an effective educational tool in increasing the knowledge

  8. Motivational factors affecting informal women entrepreneurs in North-West Province

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    Sanchen Henning

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Informal women entrepreneurs in the rural villages of North-West strive to progress from poverty to prosperity. There is a growing appreciation that the conditions that support women’s ability to start and grow ventures may be different from those that help men and therefore there is a need to examine the motivational factors affecting women’s enterprise development. Aim: The study aimed to identify the motivational factors of women in the Mahikeng area to start informal enterprises, the barriers they experience and their developmental business needs. Setting: The study focussed on informal women entrepreneurs in the rural villages of Mahikeng in the North-West province. Methods: In total, 80 face-to-face questionnaires were completed with women entrepreneurs. A principal component analysis of 15 items of the total questionnaire was performed on the data to determine which items could be reduced and transformed into new components. Results: ‘Destitute conditions’, ‘Entrepreneurial Spirit’ and ‘Passion for Product’ emerged as the three underlying motivational factors. The component ‘Destitute conditions’ was ranked as the most important reason for starting an informal business. The need to transcend impoverished conditions (a push factor and the need for self-determination (a pull factor were almost equally strong amongst the 80 participants. ‘Lack of financial and business skills’ was ranked as the biggest obstacle to keeping the business running. Ninety-one per cent of the women entrepreneurs reported that they had never received any training from the government or the private sector. Conclusions: Access to basic infrastructure, training, funding and business networks will enable self-efficacy behaviour of women entrepreneurs in the Mahikeng district to move beyond poverty. Recommendations included the establishment of a regional database of informal women entrepreneurs, the improvement of basic

  9. THE ECOLOGICAL CRISIS AND ITS IMPACT ON WOMEN

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    Onidia Aguilar-Benítez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As consequence of the depth that has reached the crisis of the capitalism under the current conditions they have been increased in a limitless way the contemporary global problems, those that are influencing in the world and that they affect from a sharper way to the underdeveloped countries. This work has as objective to demonstrate how the problems generated at the present time by the ecological crisis as part of the manifestations of the general crisis of the capitalism have affected to the humblest in the planet and especially to the women that are and they will be affected in a differentiated way and much more severe for the climatic change and the natural disasters due to its social paper, the allotment of lists, the discrimination and the poverty in that you/they live. Men and women don’t confront of equal it forms the difficulties that it implies the climatic change. The women constitute the population’s 70 %, for that that, in the face of the climatic change the women are more vulnerable than the men to their effects. In the work they are exposed as the effects of the climatic change in our country they don’t have the same consequences. 

  10. Pre-pregnancy maternal overweight and obesity increase the risk for affective disorders in offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, M; Zubrick, S R; Pennell, C E; Van Lieshout, R J; Jacoby, P; Beilin, L J; Mori, T A; Stanley, F J; Newnham, J P; Oddy, W H

    2013-02-01

    Maternal pre-pregnancy obesity has been linked with an increased risk for negative emotionality and inattentiveness in offspring in early childhood. The aim of this study was to examine the association between maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and the development of affective problems (dysthymic disorder, major depressive disorder) throughout childhood and adolescence. In the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study, 2900 women provided data on their pre-pregnancy weight, and height measurements were taken at 18 weeks of gestation. BMI was calculated and categorized using standardized methods. Live-born children (n = 2868) were followed up at ages 5, 8, 10, 14 and 17 years using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-oriented scales of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL/4-18). Longitudinal models were applied to assess the relationships between maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and affective problems from age 5 through 17. There was a higher risk of affective problems between the ages of 5 and 17 years among children of women who were overweight and obese compared with the offspring of women in the healthy pre-pregnancy weight range (BMI 18.5-24.99) after adjustment for confounders, including paternal BMI. Maternal pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity may be implicated in the development of affective problems, including depression, in their offspring later in life.

  11. A Systematic Review of the Physical, Mental, Social, and Economic Problems of Immigrant Women in the Perinatal Period in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kita, Sachiko; Minatani, Mariko; Hikita, Naoko; Matsuzaki, Masayo; Shiraishi, Mie; Haruna, Megumi

    2015-12-01

    The perinatal mortality of immigrants in Japan is higher than that of Japanese women. However, details of the problems of immigrant perinatal women that contribute to worsening of their health are still unknown. This review describes the physical, psychological, social, and economic problems of immigrant women during the perinatal period in Japan. Medline, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and Igaku-Chuo Zasshi were searched and 36 relevant articles were reviewed. The related descriptions were collected and analyzed by using content analysis. The results showed that immigrant perinatal women in Japan experienced the following problems: language barriers, a problematic relationship with a partner, illegal residency, emotional distress, physical distress, adjustment difficulties, lack of utilization of services, social isolation, lack of support, lack of information, low economic status, unsatisfactory health care, and discrimination. These results indicated that multilingual services, strengthening of social and support networks, and political action are necessary to resolve their problems.

  12. Factors associated with problem drinking among women employed in food and recreational facilities in northern Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mongi, Aika S; Baisley, Kathy; Ao, Trong Thanh-Hoang; Chilongani, Joseph; Aguirre-Andreasen, Aura; Francis, Suzanna C; Shao, John; Hayes, Richard; Kapiga, Saidi

    2013-01-01

    There is growing evidence that alcohol consumption is associated with increased risk of HIV infection. To determine factors associated with problem drinking, we analyzed data collected in two prospective cohorts of at-risk female food and recreational facility workers in northern Tanzania. We enrolled HIV seronegative women aged 18-44 years and employed in the towns of Geita, Kahama, Moshi, and Shinyanga. At enrolment, women were interviewed to obtain information about alcohol use, using CAGE and AUDIT screening scales, and risk factors for HIV infection. Blood and genital samples were collected for detection of HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). We characterized alcohol use, concordance, and agreement of the scales, and examined the associations between characteristics of participants and problem drinking as defined by both scales using logistic regression. Lastly, we assessed problem drinking as a risk factor for recent sexual behavior and prevalent STIs. Among enrollees, 68% women reported ever drinking alcohol; of these 76% reported drinking alcohol in the past 12 months. The prevalence of problem drinking was 20% using CAGE and 13% using AUDIT. Overall concordance between the scales was 75.0% with a Kappa statistic of 0.58. After adjusting for age, independent factors associated with problem drinking, on both scales, were marital status, occupation, facility type, increasing number of lifetime sexual partners, and transactional sex in the past 12 months. In addition, women who were problem drinkers on either scale were more likely to report having ≥ 1 sexual partner (CAGE: aOR = 1.56, 95% confidence interval, CI: 1.10-2.23; aOR = 2.00, 95% CI: 1.34-3.00) and transactional sex (CAGE: aOR = 1.79, 95% CI: 1.26-2.56; aOR = 1.51, 95% CI: 1.04-2.18), in the past 3 months. These findings suggest that interventions to reduce problem drinking in this population may reduce high-risk sexual behaviors and contribute in lowering the risk of HIV infection.

  13. Factors associated with problem drinking among women employed in food and recreational facilities in northern Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aika S Mongi

    Full Text Available There is growing evidence that alcohol consumption is associated with increased risk of HIV infection. To determine factors associated with problem drinking, we analyzed data collected in two prospective cohorts of at-risk female food and recreational facility workers in northern Tanzania.We enrolled HIV seronegative women aged 18-44 years and employed in the towns of Geita, Kahama, Moshi, and Shinyanga. At enrolment, women were interviewed to obtain information about alcohol use, using CAGE and AUDIT screening scales, and risk factors for HIV infection. Blood and genital samples were collected for detection of HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs. We characterized alcohol use, concordance, and agreement of the scales, and examined the associations between characteristics of participants and problem drinking as defined by both scales using logistic regression. Lastly, we assessed problem drinking as a risk factor for recent sexual behavior and prevalent STIs.Among enrollees, 68% women reported ever drinking alcohol; of these 76% reported drinking alcohol in the past 12 months. The prevalence of problem drinking was 20% using CAGE and 13% using AUDIT. Overall concordance between the scales was 75.0% with a Kappa statistic of 0.58. After adjusting for age, independent factors associated with problem drinking, on both scales, were marital status, occupation, facility type, increasing number of lifetime sexual partners, and transactional sex in the past 12 months. In addition, women who were problem drinkers on either scale were more likely to report having ≥ 1 sexual partner (CAGE: aOR = 1.56, 95% confidence interval, CI: 1.10-2.23;aOR = 2.00, 95% CI: 1.34-3.00 and transactional sex (CAGE: aOR = 1.79, 95% CI: 1.26-2.56;aOR = 1.51, 95% CI: 1.04-2.18, in the past 3 months.These findings suggest that interventions to reduce problem drinking in this population may reduce high-risk sexual behaviors and contribute in lowering the risk of HIV

  14. Controlling images: How awareness of group stereotypes affects Black women's well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerald, Morgan C; Cole, Elizabeth R; Ward, L Monique; Avery, Lanice R

    2017-10-01

    This paper presents research exploring how stereotypes that are simultaneously racialized and gendered affect Black women. We investigated the mental and physical health consequences of Black women's awareness that others hold these stereotypes and tested whether this association was moderated by the centrality of racial identity. A structural equation model tested among 609 young Black women revealed that metastereotype awareness (i.e., being aware that others hold negative stereotypes of one's group) predicted negative mental health outcomes (e.g., depression, anxiety, hostility), which, in turn, predicted diminished self-care behaviors and greater drug and alcohol use for coping. High racial centrality exacerbated the negative association between metastereotype awareness and self-care. We discuss implications of the findings for clinical practice and for approaches to research using intersectionality frameworks. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Mental health problems and acculturative issues among married immigrant women in Korea: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yun-Jung

    2016-01-01

    Through this research the author explored immigrant women's mental health problems with the goal of deepening understanding to develop a framework for preventing mental disorders and improving their mental health. A qualitative research design was used to examine the women's lived experiences. The data were collected from February 2014 to October 2014. Twenty women were recruited from multicultural community service centers. Inclusion criteria were the ability to communicate and the absence of acute physical or psychological problems; participants were excluded if they were under 18 years old or separated. Individual in-depth interviews were conducted with participants regarding their experiences of living in Korean society. The data were analyzed using the grounded theory approach. A conceptual framework-Embracing Cultural Conflict Model-was constructed based on the personal-family-community context as well as the paradigm of the immigrant woman using eleven concepts. The conceptual framework suggests that multicultural programs and services should take into account a historical understanding of Korean society and family, address problem-solving strategies including improving mental health literacy, build support from both the Korean family and family of origin, and offer multicultural activities to satisfy homeland-related cultural needs.

  16. The interplay of childhood behavior problems and IQ in the development of later schizophrenia and affective psychoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnew-Blais, Jessica; Seidman, Larry J; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M; Smoller, Jordan W; Goldstein, Jill M; Buka, Stephen L

    2017-06-01

    Schizophrenia and affective psychoses are both associated with impaired social functioning, but the extent to which childhood behavioral impairments are present prior to onset of illness is less well studied. Moreover, the concurrent relationship of childhood behavior problems and premorbid IQ with subsequent psychotic disorder has not been established. We investigated whether childhood behavior problems are associated with increased risk for adult schizophrenia or affective psychosis, independently and in combination with IQ. The study included individuals with schizophrenia (N=47), affective psychoses (N=45) and non-psychotic controls (N=1496) from the New England Family Study. Behavior problems were prospectively assessed from standardized clinician observations at ages 4 and 7. IQ was assessed with the Stanford-Binet at age 4 and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children at age 7. We found externalizing problems at age 4 and externalizing and internalizing problems at age 7 were associated with later schizophrenia, and both internalizing and externalizing problems at ages 4 and 7 were associated with later development of affective psychoses. Lower IQ at ages 4 and 7 was associated with schizophrenia, while lower IQ was associated with affective psychoses at age 7 only. Examined simultaneously, both lower IQ and behavior problems remained associated with risk of schizophrenia, while only behavior problems remained associated with affective psychoses. Behavior problems appear to be a general marker of risk of adult psychotic disorder, while lower childhood IQ is more specific to risk of schizophrenia. Future research should clarify the premorbid evolution of behavior and cognitive problems into adult psychosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Exposure to child abuse and risk for mental health problems in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Renee; Baumrind, Nikki; Kimerling, Rachel

    2007-01-01

    Risk for adult mental health problems associated with child sexual, physical, or emotional abuse and multiple types of child abuse was examined. Logistic regression analyses were used to test study hypotheses in a population-based sample of women (N = 3,936). As expected, child sexual, physical, and emotional abuse were independently associated with increased risk for mental health problems. History of multiple types of child abuse was also associated with elevated risk for mental health problems. In particular, exposure to all three types of child abuse was linked to a 23-fold increase in risk for probable posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Findings underscore relations between child emotional abuse and adult mental health problems and highlight the need for mental health services for survivors of multiple types of child abuse.

  18. Anaemia and its associated factors among pregnant women in Koko ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Anaemia in pregnancy remains a common problem affecting women in northern Nigeria. It is associated with several adverse consequences. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of anaemia and its associated factors among pregnant women in Koko/Besse local government area of ...

  19. Factors that affect the quality of life of community-dwelling elderly women with musculoskeletal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemasa, Seiichi; Nakagoshi, Ryoma; Uesugi, Masayuki; Inoue, Yuri; Gotou, Makoto; Koeda, Hideki; Naruse, Susumu

    2015-11-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to examine the quality of life (QOL) of community-dwelling elderly women with musculoskeletal disorders and factors that affect it. [Subjects] The subjects were 27 community-dwelling elderly women with musculoskeletal disorders (mean age: 76.3 ± 7.4 years). Their physical and psychological conditions, QOL, and other characteristics were researched. [Methods] The Japanese version of Life-Space Assessment was used to assess the subjects' daily life activities; the Japanese version of Fall Efficacy Scale (FES), to assess their fear of falling; the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS 15), to assess their depression status; and the Life Satisfaction Index K (LSIK), to assess their QOL. [Results] The results indicated that the number of family members living together, degree of pain, fear of falling, and depression affect the LSIK scores of the community-dwelling elderly women with musculoskeletal disorders. [Conclusion] The study results suggest that the LSIK scores of community-dwelling elderly women with musculoskeletal disorders can be improved by easing their pain, improving their physical abilities to prevent falls, and improving their mobility. The results also suggest that continuing rehabilitation treatment is required.

  20. [Anxiety and body image among women growing up in families with addiction problem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lelek, Agnieszka; Betkowska-Korpała, Barbara; Jabłoński, Marcin

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyse the correlation between body image and anxiety symptoms as well as psychological discomfort experienced by women growing up in alcoholic families. The group of 61 women (27 years old on average) was surveyed with Body Self Questionnaire and MMPI-2 personality test questionnaires and the results were measured on Scale 7 (Pt). All the participants also attended psychotherapy sessions focused on disorders resulting from growing up in families with alcohol problems. The analysis showed negative correlation (p emotional spheres, as well as functioning cognitive schemes.

  1. Families Affected by Huntington's Disease Report Difficulties in Communication, Emotional Involvement, and Problem Solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jona, Celine M H; Labuschagne, Izelle; Mercieca, Emily-Clare; Fisher, Fiona; Gluyas, Cathy; Stout, Julie C; Andrews, Sophie C

    2017-01-01

    Family functioning in Huntington's disease (HD) is known from previous studies to be adversely affected. However, which aspects of family functioning are disrupted is unknown, limiting the empirical basis around which to create supportive interventions. The aim of the current study was to assess family functioning in HD families. We assessed family functioning in 61 participants (38 HD gene-expanded participants and 23 family members) using the McMaster Family Assessment Device (FAD; Epstein, Baldwin and Bishop, 1983), which provides scores for seven domains of functioning: Problem Solving; Communication; Affective Involvement; Affective Responsiveness; Behavior Control; Roles; and General Family Functioning. The most commonly reported disrupted domain for HD participants was Affective Involvement, which was reported by 39.5% of HD participants, followed closely by General Family Functioning (36.8%). For family members, the most commonly reported dysfunctional domains were Affective Involvement and Communication (both 52.2%). Furthermore, symptomatic HD participants reported more disruption to Problem Solving than pre-symptomatic HD participants. In terms of agreement between pre-symptomatic and symptomatic HD participants and their family members, all domains showed moderate to very good agreement. However, on average, family members rated Communication as more disrupted than their HD affected family member. These findings highlight the need to target areas of emotional engagement, communication skills and problem solving in family interventions in HD.

  2. A discussion of key values to inform the design and delivery of services for HIV-affected women and couples attempting pregnancy in resource-constrained settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffron, Renee; Davies, Natasha; Cooke, Ian; Kaida, Angela; Mergler, Reid; van der Poel, Sheryl; Cohen, Craig R; Mmeje, Okeoma

    2015-01-01

    HIV-affected women and couples often desire children and many accept HIV risk in order to attempt pregnancy and satisfy goals for a family. Risk reduction strategies to mitigate sexual and perinatal HIV transmission include biomedical and behavioural approaches. Current efforts to integrate HIV and reproductive health services offer prime opportunities to incorporate strategies for HIV risk reduction during pregnancy attempts. Key client and provider values about services to optimize pregnancy in the context of HIV risk provide insights for the design and implementation of large-scale "safer conception" programmes. Through our collective experience and discussions at a multi-disciplinary international World Health Organization-convened workshop to initiate the development of guidelines and an algorithm of care to support the delivery of services for HIV-affected women and couples attempting pregnancy, we identified four values that are key to the implementation of these programmes: (1) understanding fertility care and an ability to identify potential fertility problems; (2) providing equity of access to resources enabling informed decision-making about reproductive choices; (3) creating enabling environments that reduce stigma associated with HIV and infertility; and (4) creating enabling environments that encourage disclosure of HIV status and fertility status to partners. Based on these values, recommendations for programmes serving HIV-affected women and couples attempting pregnancy include the following: incorporation of comprehensive reproductive health counselling; training to support the transfer and exchange of knowledge between providers and clients; care environments that reduce the stigma of childbearing among HIV-affected women and couples; support for safe and voluntary disclosure of HIV and fertility status; and increased efforts to engage men in reproductive decision-making at times that align with women's desires. Programmes, policies and guidelines

  3. Temperament, insecure attachment, impulsivity, and sexuality in women in jail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliceto, Paolo; Pompili, Maurizio; Candilera, Gabriella; Rosafio, Iole; Erbuto, Denise; Battuello, Michele; Lester, David; Girardi, Paolo

    2012-03-01

    Women constitute only a small proportion of inmates, but several studies have shown that they have higher rates of psychiatric disturbance than incarcerated men and community samples. Mental health treatment is necessary to prevent severe illness and suicide in these women. The convenience sample consisted of 40 female detainees and 40 controls who were administered self-report questionnaires to assess temperament (TEMPS-A), insecure attachment (ECR), impulsivity (BIS-11), and sexual behavior (SESAMO). The incarcerated women had higher levels of affective temperament (except for hyperthymia), avoidance, anxiety, impulsivity, and psychosexual issues than the female community sample. Many interrelated emotional and affective disturbances affect the physical and psychological well-being of women in jail, and it is possible that these problems may lead to suicide. Health professionals need to develop gender-specific therapeutic interventions for women in jail. © 2012 International Association of Forensic Nurses.

  4. Children's Adjustment Problems in Families Characterized by Men's Severe Violence toward Women: Does Other Family Violence Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Renee; Jouriles, Ernest N.; Tart, Candyce D.; Minze, Laura C.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This research examined whether additional forms of family violence (partner-child aggression, mother-child aggression, and women's intimate partner violence [IPV]) contribute to children's adjustment problems in families characterized by men's severe violence toward women. Methods: Participants were 258 children and their mothers…

  5. Does delivery mode affect women's postpartum quality of life in rural China?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kun; Tao, Fangbiao; Liu, Liu; Wu, Xiaoyan

    2012-06-01

    To explore the impact of delivery mode on women's postpartum quality of life in rural China and probe factors influencing postnatal quality of life. Childbirth significantly affects puerpera's physical, psychological and social domains of quality of life. Under the circumstance of increasing high caesarean section rate in rural China, the impact of delivery mode on postnatal quality of life remains unclear. Cross-sectional study design. Women residing in rural areas and in their 0-12 months after childbirth from 30 rural townships participated in a household survey. A structured questionnaire was used to evaluate women's socio-demographic characteristics, previous pregnant experiences, foetal characteristics and use of maternal health services. The scale for rural postnatal quality of life was adopted to assess postnatal quality of life from six dimensions: physical complaints and pain, sleep and energy, sex satisfaction, interpersonal communication, self-evaluated living stress and perceived life satisfaction. The overall caeserean section rate was 70·0% (962/1375), and most of them (59·7%) were selected by maternal request. None of six dimensions and total score of quality of life displayed significant difference between women with normal delivery and cesaerean section. It was found that postnatal home visit related to good postnatal quality of life and lower husband education level, male gender of infant were associated with poor quality of life. Delivery mode did not affect postpartum quality of life in rural China. Socio-cultural determinants may contribute more in influencing postnatal quality of life. Null findings in impact of delivery mode on postpartum quality of life may cause more difficulties in maternal decision-making for vaginal delivery in rural China. The importance of postnatal home visit could justify available and quality postnatal care in improving postpartum quality of life. Further research needs to explore the effective prevention

  6. Effects of Migration on Women Mental Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayla Tuzcu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available People leave their habitats and go to different regions of the world due to various reasons, which is defined as migration. One of the most important changes that have been experienced in migration in the last half century is the increase in women's migration. Women are among the risk groups that are affected by the process of migration at most. A particular attention is attracted to the special requirements of women among groups that are obliged to migrate due to the crisis in their countries. Different lifestyles in the migrated social environment, difficult economic and working conditions, language barrier and relevant adaptation problems all negatively affect the mental health of these women. In order to protect and develop the mental health of migrant women from different cultural groups, it is important to approach these groups as primary risk groups and start multi-directional interventions aimed at their areas required. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2015; 7(1: 56-67

  7. Verbal versus Numerical Probabilities: Does Format Presentation of Probabilistic Information regarding Breast Cancer Screening Affect Women's Comprehension?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahabi, Mandana

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To test whether the format in which women receive probabilistic information about breast cancer and mammography affects their comprehension. Methods: A convenience sample of 180 women received pre-assembled randomized packages containing a breast health information brochure, with probabilities presented in either verbal or numeric…

  8. A review of affecting factors on sexual satisfaction in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahhosseini, Zohreh; Gardeshi, Zeinab Hamzeh; Pourasghar, Mehdi; Salehi, Fariba

    2014-12-01

    Sex is a complex, important and sensitive issue in human being and interwoven with the whole of human existence. Given the serious changes in attitude, function and behavior in sex, the need to address sexual function, especially sexual satisfaction, is felt completely. Sexual satisfaction has a very important role in creating marital satisfaction and any defect in sexual satisfaction is significantly associated with risky sexual behaviors, serious mental illness, social crimes and ultimately divorce. The aim of this study was to explore affecting factors on sexual satisfaction in women based on an overview in scientific database. In this narrative review the researchers searched MEDLINE database, Google Scholar and Science Direct as well as Persian database like Scientific Information Database with search terms of sexual satisfaction and sexual function, restricted to English/ Persian language, during the 20 years ago. Then those articles written by renowned experts were selected. In this regard, 57 articles have been reviewed, which 30 articles related to this research have been extracted. The findings were divided in to four categories including: Demographic factors, Pathophysiological factors, Psychological factors and Sociocultural factors. Sexuality, especially sexual intimacy is sophisticated and yet elegant affair that the other persons has different definitions and different functions. Discrepancies in the results of the studies show that analysis of factors affecting sexual satisfaction regardless of the women's' sociocultural context, religious beliefs, and personal attitudes is undoubtedly inefficient, unscientific and irrational.

  9. Efficacy of micro-financing women's activities in Côte d'Ivoire : evidence from rural areas and HIV/AIDS-affected women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Binaté Fofana, N.

    2010-01-01

    This thesis deals with the effectiveness and the capability of microfinance institutions in enhancing women’s livelihood and empowerment, and mitigating the effects of HIV and AIDS on affected women and their households in Côte d’Ivoire. This study was carried out within the framework of the AWLAE

  10. A qualitative assessment of decisions affecting contraceptive utilization and fertility intentions among HIV-positive women in Soweto, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laher, Fatima; Todd, Catherine S; Stibich, Mark A; Phofa, Rebecca; Behane, Xoliswa; Mohapi, Lerato; Gray, Glenda

    2009-06-01

    The HIV epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa disproportionately affects women of reproductive age. The increasing provision of Highly Active Anti-Retroviral Therapy (HAART) with improved prognosis and maternal-fetal outcomes calls for an understanding of fertility planning for HIV-positive women. We describe the effect of HIV and HAART on pregnancy desires and contraceptive use among HIV-positive women in Soweto, South Africa. Focus group discussions and in-depth interviews were conducted with 42 HIV-positive women of reproductive age. Analysis was performed using ATLAS-ti (ATLAS-ti Center, Berlin). Emergent themes were impact of HIV diagnosis on pregnancy intentions; factors affecting contraceptive uptake including real and normative side effects, body image, and perceived vaginal wetness; and the mitigating influence of partnership on both pregnancy intentions and contraceptive use. Routine counseling about pregnancy desires and contraception should be offered to HIV-positive women.

  11. Psychiatric disorders in women with fertility problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baldur-Felskov, Birgitte; Kjaer, S K; Albieri, V

    2013-01-01

    Do women who don't succeed in giving birth after an infertility evaluation have a higher risk of psychiatric disorders compared with women who do?......Do women who don't succeed in giving birth after an infertility evaluation have a higher risk of psychiatric disorders compared with women who do?...

  12. Sexual Inhibition is a Vulnerability Factor for Orgasm Problems in Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Inês M; Laan, Ellen T M; Nobre, Pedro J

    2018-03-01

    development of clinical strategies to address and regulate them is recommended. Although this study investigated a large community sample, this sample was composed of heterosexual, relatively young women and thus generalization of the present results demands some caution. Social desirability was controlled for in the analyses and questionnaires were not collected face to face, which constitutes a strength of this study because social desirability is lower in self-administered online questionnaires compared with paper-and-pencil questionnaires, particularly for more sensitive sexual issues. SIS1 was found to be a vulnerability factor for female orgasmic difficulties. Future research should test these findings with different samples, particularly clinical samples of women with orgasmic problems, preferably with the use of longitudinal designs. Tavares IM, Laan ETM, Nobre PJ. Sexual Inhibition is a Vulnerability Factor for Orgasm Problems in Women. J Sex Med 2018;15:361-372. Copyright © 2018 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Implicit and Explicit Associations with Erotic Stimuli in Women with and Without Sexual Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lankveld, Jacques J D M; Bandell, Myrthe; Bastin-Hurek, Eva; van Beurden, Myra; Araz, Suzan

    2018-02-20

    Conceptual models of sexual functioning have suggested a major role for implicit cognitive processing in sexual functioning. The present study aimed to investigate implicit and explicit cognition in sexual functioning in women. Gynecological patients with (N = 38) and without self-reported sexual problems (N = 41) were compared. Participants performed two Single-Target Implicit Association Tests (ST-IAT), measuring the implicit association of visual erotic stimuli with attributes representing, respectively, valence and motivation. Participants also rated the erotic pictures that were shown in the ST-IATs on the dimensions of valence, attractiveness, and sexual excitement, to assess their explicit associations with these erotic stimuli. Participants completed the Female Sexual Functioning Index and the Female Sexual Distress Scale for continuous measures of sexual functioning, and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale to assess depressive symptoms. Compared to nonsymptomatic women, women with sexual problems were found to show more negative implicit associations of erotic stimuli with wanting (implicit sexual motivation). Across both groups, stronger implicit associations of erotic stimuli with wanting predicted higher level of sexual functioning. More positive explicit ratings of erotic stimuli predicted lower level of sexual distress across both groups.

  14. Factors affecting the use of prenatal care by non-western women in industrialized western countries: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerleider, A.W.; Wiegers, T.A.; Manniën, J.; Francke, A.L.; Devillé, W.L.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite the potential of prenatal care for addressing many pregnancy complications and concurrent health problems, non-western women in industrialized western countries more often make inadequate use of prenatal care than women from the majority population do. This study aimed to give a

  15. Factors affecting the use of prenatal care by non-western women in industrialized western countries: a systematic review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerleider, A.W.; Wiegers, T.A.; Manniën, J.; Francke, A.L.; Devillé, W.L.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Despite the potential of prenatal care for addressing many pregnancy complications and concurrent health problems, non-western women in industrialized western countries more often make inadequate use of prenatal care than women from the majority population do. This study aimed to give a

  16. Factors affecting the use of prenatal care by non-western women in industrialized western countries: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerleider, A.W.; Wiegers, T.A.; Manniën, J.; Francke, A.L.; Deville, W.L.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Despite the potential of prenatal care for addressing many pregnancy complications and concurrent health problems, non-western women in industrialized western countries more often make inadequate use of prenatal care than women from the majority population do. This study aimed to give a

  17. Predictors of prescribed medication use for depression, anxiety, stress, and sleep problems in mid-aged Australian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Margot J; Khan, Asaduzzaman

    2014-11-01

    The study examined prevalence of self-reported use of medication recommended or prescribed by a doctor for depression, anxiety, stress, and sleep problems; and modelled baseline factors that predicted use over 3 years for each condition. Analyses were undertaken on the 2001 and 2004 surveys of mid-aged women in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health. Dependent variables were self-reported use in past 4 weeks of medications recommended or prescribed by a doctor for depression, anxiety, stress, or sleep problems in 2001 and 2004. Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) were used to predict medication use for each condition over 3 years. Prevalence of prescribed medication use (2001, 2004) for each condition was depression (7.2, 8.9 %), anxiety (7.4, 9.0 %), stress (4.8, 5.7 %), and sleep problems (8.7, 9.5 %). Multivariable analyses revealed that odds of medication use across 3 years in all four conditions were higher for women with poorer mental and physical health, using hormone replacement therapy (HRT), or having seen a counsellor; and increased over time for depression, anxiety, and stress models. Medication use for depression was also higher for overweight/obese women, ex-smokers, and unmarried. Medication use for anxiety was higher for unmarried and non-working/low occupational women. Medication use for stress was higher for non-working women. Additional predictors of medication for sleep were surgical menopause, and area of residence. Self-reported use of prescribed medication for four mental health conditions is increased over time after controlling for mental and physical health and other variables. Research needs to explore decision-making processes influencing differential rates of psychoactive medication use and their relationship with health outcomes.

  18. Low levels of food involvement and negative affect reduce the quality of diet in women of lower educational attainment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarman, M; Lawrence, W; Ntani, G; Tinati, T; Pease, A; Black, C; Baird, J; Barker, M

    2012-10-01

    Women of lower educational attainment tend to have poorer quality diets and lower food involvement (an indicator of the priority given to food) than women of higher educational attainment. The present study reports a study of the role of food involvement in the relationship between educational attainment and quality of diet in young women. The first phase uses six focus group discussions (n = 28) to explore the function of food involvement in shaping the food choices of women of lower and higher educational attainment with young children. The second phase is a survey that examines the relationship between educational attainment and quality of diet in women, and explores the role of mediating factors identified by the focus group discussions. The focus groups suggested that lower food involvement in women of lower educational attainment might be associated with negative affect (i.e. an observable expression of negative emotion), and that this might mean that they did not place a high priority on eating a good quality diet. In support of this hypothesis, the survey of 1010 UK women found that 14% of the effect of educational attainment on food involvement was mediated through the woman's affect (P ≤ 0.001), and that 9% of the effect of educational attainment on quality of diet was mediated through food involvement (P ≤ 0.001). Women who leave school with fewer qualifications may have poorer quality diets than women with more qualifications because they tend to have a lower level of food involvement, partly attributed to a more negative affect. Interventions to improve women's mood may benefit their quality of diet. © 2012 The Authors Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2012 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  19. Factors affecting the outcome of "endometrial scratch" in women with recurrent implantation failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlan, Carol; Yuan, Xi; Demirol, Aygul; Ledger, William; Li, Tin Chiu

    2014-01-01

    To examine factors affecting the outcome of the endometrial scratch in women with recurrent implantation failure. A total of 57 eligible patients with a history of recurrent implantation failure underwent an endometrial biopsy in the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle in the month immediately preceding the embryo transfer cycle. The comparative group consisted of a retrospective cohort of 66 women with recurrent implantation failure but without endometrial biopsy. There were no significant differences between the intervention and control groups in terms of age, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), free androgen index, anti-Müllerian hormone, body mass index, the number of embryos transferred, and the number of embryo transfer cycles. The clinical pregnancy rate in the intervention group (53%) was significantly (p 10 IU/L. Women with a normal FSH are more likely to derive benefit from endometrial scratch.

  20. Sexual dysfunction and the underlying medical problems in post-menopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheila Nazarpour

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sexual dysfunction could be under the influence of some underlying medical problems. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between medical problems and sexual function in post-menopausal women. Methods: This is a community-based, descriptive-correlation study of 405 post-menopausal women residing in Chalus and Nowshahr cities, North of Iran, aged 40 to 65 years old from October 2013 to May 2014. A multistage, randomized sampling was conducted. The data was acquired through interviews using the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI questionnaire and a researcher-made questionnaire, and was analyzed using descriptive and analytical tests such as multiple linear regression and logistic regression models. Results: 51.4% of the subjects had medical conditions. Cardiovascular disorders were the most common diseases among the subjects. 61% of the women were suffering from female sexual dysfunction (FSD. Sexual dysfunction in patients with medical conditions was significantly higher (P= 0.037. Scores of arousal (P= 0.000, orgasm (P= 0.018, and satisfaction (P= 0.026, as well as the FSFI total score (P= 0.005, were significantly lower in subjects with cardiovascular disorders. Scores of desire (P= 0.001, arousal (P= 0.006, lubrication (P= 0.010, orgasm (P= 0.004, and satisfaction (P= 0.022, as well as the FSFI total score (P= 0.017, were significantly lower in subjects with diabetes. Scores of pain were significantly lower in subjects with musculoskeletal disorders (P= 0.041, they experienced more pain during intercourse. In domains of arousal (P= 0.030, satisfaction (P= 0.040, and pain (P= 0.044, the scores of those taking antihypertensive medications were significantly lower than the scores of the rest of the subjects. Scores of desire (P= 0.001, arousal (P= 0.006, orgasm (P= 0.006, and satisfaction (P= 0.048, as well as the FSFI total score (P= 0.006, were significantly lower in those taking antidiabetic drugs. And lastly

  1. Exploring infertile women's experiences about sexual life: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohan, Shahnaz; Ghasemi, Zahra; Beigi, Marjan

    2015-01-01

    Infertility is a serious problem in a couple's life that affects their marriage relationships. So, dissatisfaction with sexual function resulting from interpersonal problems is common among these couples. This qualitative study aimed to explore the experiences of infertile women in their sexual life. This is a qualitative study with a phenomenological approach. The participants were 20 infertile women referring to the health care centers and infertility clinics of Isfahan and were selected through purposive sampling. Data were collected by tape recording of deep interviews and analyzed by Colaizzi's method. Analysis of the participants' experiences led to five main concepts: "Disturbed in femininity-body image," "discouragement of sexual relations," "sacrifice of sexual pleasure for the sake of getting pregnant," "confusion in sexual relation during infertility treatment," and "striving to protect their marriage." Findings revealed that infertility affects women's different aspects of sexual life, especially disturbance in femininity-body image and sexual reluctance. With regard to women's willingness to protect their matrimonial life and prevent sexual trauma as a destroying factor for their family's mental health, it seems sexual counseling is necessary for infertile couples.

  2. Exploring factors affecting post-divorce adjustment in Iranian women: A qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faramarz Asanjarani

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available   Background: Divorce is a complex, multidimensional concept and its direct and indirect impacts affects thousands of people in Iran each year. However, the concept of post-divorce adjustment in Iranian women has not been studied in detail. The aim of the present qualitative study was to determine the factors contributing to post-divorce adjustment in divorced women.  Methods: A qualitative research was carried out using grounded theory approach, followed by three phases of open coding, axial coding, and selective coding. The participants consisted of 21 divorced women who were selected using purposive sampling method. Semi-structured interviews were conducted and then interviews were recorded and transcribed for further analysis.    Results: A total of 21 divorced women participated in the current study. The majority of the participants were between 20-30 years old; they were between 17 to 30 years when they married. Also, most of the participants had bachelor’s degree (11 and most of them had a job (16. In the primary data coding, 35 open concepts were extracted. These concepts were then reduced into 32 secondary concepts. At the final stage, 6 main categories contributing to post-divorce adjustment were extracted including: (a demographics, (b interpersonal, (c attitudinal, (d relational, (e supportive, and (f coping strategies.  Conclusion: The present study emphasizes the value of lived experiences of divorced women. Based on the findings of our study, it is important to develop a solid support network and provide interventions targeting the quality of life in divorced women.

  3. The Under-Representation of Women in Information Technology (IT) Leadership Positions--An Analysis of Why Women Opt out of the IT Pipeline at Mid-Career Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acholonu, Omogbemiboluwa I.

    2011-01-01

    The underrepresentation of women in Information Technology (IT) leadership positions is a problem that has affected the industry since its onset. It is posited that women face various barriers in advancing through the IT pipeline. This study reviews the findings of other qualitative and quantitative studies to identify any recurring patterns that…

  4. Condom use errors and problems among young women who put condoms on their male partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Stephanie A; Graham, Cynthia A; Yarber, William L; Crosby, Richard A

    2003-01-01

    To comprehensively assess condom use errors and problems reported by women who apply condoms, given the lack of data on this aspect of condom use. Data from a questionnaire survey, using a 3-month recall period, was analyzed for a convenience sample of 102 college women who put condoms on their male partner(s) for sex (vaginal, anal, or oral). The percentage of the sample reporting that an error or problem occurred at least once is presented. Fifty-one percent put the condom on after starting sex, and 15% took the condom off before ending sex. Forty-eight percent wanted a condom but didn't have one, 46% did not leave space at the tip, 30% put the condom on wrong side up and had to flip the condom over, 26% did not use a lubricant, and 15% wanted a water-based lubricant and did not have any available. Twenty-five percent reported that their partners lost erections in association with condom use. Twenty-eight percent reported breakage, slippage, or both. Higher error scores were found for those who reported: 1) breakage or slippage, 2) partner erection problems, 3) use of another form of contraception, and 4) not having received instruction in correct condom use. Educating women as well as men about correct condom use, in addition to promoting consistent condom use, may be an important public health strategy.

  5. Women's status in disasters: A gap between experts' desk and affected fields of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohrabizadeh, Sanaz

    Although international agreements have achieved significant milestones in the improvement of women's status, experiences from the fields show a discrepancy between words and actions. The aim of this brief communication was to identify the gap between experts' perceptions and the findings of a large qualitative field survey on women's status in the recent natural disasters of Iran. A total of 10 experts were asked to fill a checklist, which consisted of the concepts extracted from field data. The range of agreement between experts' perceptions and field data was between 40 and 100 percent. In conclusion, although literature review and international research papers can provide appropriate information for both experts and managers, meeting the various needs of women living in the affected regions requires field-based surveys.

  6. Attentional and Affective Processing of Sexual Stimuli in Women with Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brauer, Marieke; van Leeuwen, Matthijs; Janssen, Erick; Newhouse, Sarah K.; Heiman, Julia R.; Laan, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    Hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) is the most common sexual problem in women. From an incentive motivation perspective, HSDD may be the result of a weak association between sexual stimuli and rewarding experiences. As a consequence, these stimuli may either lose or fail to acquire a positive

  7. Effects of workplace bullying on how women work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacIntosh, Judith; Wuest, Judith; Gray, Marilyn Merritt; Aldous, Sarah

    2010-11-01

    Work is central to well-being but working is problematic when people experience workplace bullying, which includes psychological, physical, and sexual abuse or harassment. The purpose of the present grounded theory study was to extend current understanding, from the perspective of women, of how workplace bullying affects their work and how they engage in the workforce. The study was conducted in eastern Canada with 36 English-speaking women who had been bullied in the workplace. They reported mainly psychological bullying. The central problem for women is they cannot continue working as they had before the workplace bullying. The authors named a four-stage process of how women address this problem as "Doing Work Differently." The four stages are Being Conciliatory, Reconsidering, Reducing Interference, and Redeveloping Balance. The process is influenced by women's support systems, the effects on their health, and financial circumstances. There are implications for public education, workplace policies, and health care workers.

  8. PP043. Oxidative stress in the maternal body also affects the fetus in preeclamptic women with fetal growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Kazushi; Iwasaki, Ai; Mori, Toshitaka; Kimura, Chiharu; Matsushita, Hiroshi; Shinohara, Koichi; Wakatsuki, Akihiko

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine whether oxidative stress occurring in the maternal body also affects the fetus in preeclamptic women with FGR. We ∥@consecutively recruited 17 preeclamptic women with FGR, 16 preeclamptic women without FGR, and 16 healthy pregnant women with uncomplicated pregnancy. We measured concentrations of derivatives of reactive oxygen metabolites (d-ROMs) as a marker of oxygen free radicals in a maternal vein, umbilical artery, and umbilical vein. ∥@Maternal d-ROM levels were higher in preeclamptic groups compared to the control group. Umbilical artery and vein d-ROM levels were elevated in preeclamptic women with FGR compared to the control group. Umbilical artery d-ROM levels were significantly higher than in the vein in preeclamptic women with FGR, but not in those without FGR. Umbilical arterial blood pH was significantly lower in preeclamptic women with FGR. The partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2) in umbilical arterial blood tended to be lower in preeclamptic women with FGR (p=0.08). The partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2) in umbilical arterial blood was significantly higher in preeclamptic women with FGR. These results indicate that oxidative stress occurring in the maternal body also affects the fetus in preeclamptic women with FGR. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Families Affected by Huntington’s Disease Report Difficulties in Communication, Emotional Involvement, and Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jona, Celine M.H.; Labuschagne, Izelle; Mercieca, Emily-Clare; Fisher, Fiona; Gluyas, Cathy; Stout, Julie C.; Andrews, Sophie C.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Family functioning in Huntington’s disease (HD) is known from previous studies to be adversely affected. However, which aspects of family functioning are disrupted is unknown, limiting the empirical basis around which to create supportive interventions. Objective: The aim of the current study was to assess family functioning in HD families. Methods: We assessed family functioning in 61 participants (38 HD gene-expanded participants and 23 family members) using the McMaster Family Assessment Device (FAD; Epstein, Baldwin and Bishop, 1983), which provides scores for seven domains of functioning: Problem Solving; Communication; Affective Involvement; Affective Responsiveness; Behavior Control; Roles; and General Family Functioning. Results: The most commonly reported disrupted domain for HD participants was Affective Involvement, which was reported by 39.5% of HD participants, followed closely by General Family Functioning (36.8%). For family members, the most commonly reported dysfunctional domains were Affective Involvement and Communication (both 52.2%). Furthermore, symptomatic HD participants reported more disruption to Problem Solving than pre-symptomatic HD participants. In terms of agreement between pre-symptomatic and symptomatic HD participants and their family members, all domains showed moderate to very good agreement. However, on average, family members rated Communication as more disrupted than their HD affected family member. Conclusion: These findings highlight the need to target areas of emotional engagement, communication skills and problem solving in family interventions in HD. PMID:28968240

  10. Analysis of Factors Affecting Women of Childbearing Age to Screen Using Visual Inspection with Acetic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidabutar, Sondang; Martini, Santi; Wahyuni, Chatarina Umbul

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate patient factors such as knowledge, attitude, motivation, perception, socio-economic status and travel time to health facilities and assess how these factors affected patients' decision to pursue cervical cancer screening with visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA). A total of 80 women of childbearing age who visited Kenjeran and Balongsari Public Health Centers for health assessments were involved in this study. Patients who agreed to participate in the study underwent a verbal questionnaire to evaluate various factors. Bivariate analysis concluded that knowledge, attitude, motivation, perception, socioeconomic status, and travel time to health facilities were significantly different between women who received VIA screening and women who did not receive VIA screening ( p motivation, perception, socio-economic status, and the travel time to health facilities accounted for 2.920-fold, 2.043-fold, 3.704-fold, 2.965-fold, 3.198-fold and 2.386-fold possibility, respectively, of patients to pursue cervical cancer screening with VIA. Multivariate analysis showed that perception, socio-economic status, and travel time to health facilities were the most important factors influencing whether or not women pursued VIA screening. Knowledge, attitude, motivation, perception, socio-economic status, and travel time to health facilities appears to affect women's' decision to pursue cervical cancer screening with VIA, with the largest intake being the motivational factor.

  11. Factor structure of the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) in adult women with fibromyalgia from Southern Spain: the al-Ándalus project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estévez-López, Fernando; Pulido-Martos, Manuel; Armitage, Christopher J; Wearden, Alison; Álvarez-Gallardo, Inmaculada C; Arrayás-Grajera, Manuel Javier; Girela-Rejón, María J; Carbonell-Baeza, Ana; Aparicio, Virginia A; Geenen, Rinie; Delgado-Fernández, Manuel; Segura-Jiménez, Víctor

    2016-01-01

    Fibromyalgia is a syndrome characterized by the presence of widespread chronic pain. People with fibromyalgia report lower levels of Positive Affect and higher levels of Negative Affect than non-fibromyalgia peers. The Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS)-a widely used questionnaire to assess two core domains of affect; namely 'Positive Affect' and 'Negative Affect' -has a controversial factor structure varying across studies. The internal structure of a measurement instrument has an impact on the meaning and validity of its score. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess the structural construct validity of the PANAS in adult women with fibromyalgia. This population-based cross-sectional study included 442 adult women with fibromyalgia (age: 51.3 ± 7.4 years old) from Andalusia (Southern Spain). Confirmatory factor analyses were conducted to test the factor structure of the PANAS. A structure with two correlated factors (Positive Affect and Negative Affect) obtained the best fit; S-B χ(2) = 288.49, df = 155, p Positive Affect and Negative Affect are core dimensions of affect in adult women with fibromyalgia. A structure with two correlated factors of the PANAS emerged from our sample of women with fibromyalgia from Andalusia (Southern Spain). In this model, the amount of variance shared by Positive Affect and Negative Affect was small. Therefore, our findings support to use and interpret the Positive Affect and Negative Affect subscales of the PANAS as separate factors that are associated but distinctive as well.

  12. Healing a Vulnerable Self : Exploring Return to Work for Women With Mental Health Problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nielsen, Maj Britt D.; Rugulies, Reiner; Hjortkjaer, Charlotte; Bultmann, Ute; Christensen, Ulla

    Mental health problems (MHPs) such as stress and depression are among the leading causes of work disability. In this article we explore how women with MHPs experience sickness absence and subsequent return to work. We conducted 16 semistructured interviews and employed constructivist grounded theory

  13. Facial beauty affects implicit and explicit learning of men and women differently

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni eZiori

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The present work explores the unconscious and/or conscious nature of learning attractive faces of same and opposite sex, that is, of stimuli that experimental and neuroimaging research has shown to be rewarding and thus highly motivating. To this end, we examined performance of men and women while classifying strings of average and attractive faces for grammaticality in the experimental task of artificial grammar learning (AGL, which reflects both conscious and unconscious processes. Subjective measures were used to assess participants’ conscious and unconscious knowledge. It was found that female attractiveness impaired performance in male participants. In particular, male participants demonstrated the lowest accuracy while classifying beautiful faces of women. Conversely, female attractiveness facilitated performance in female participants. The pattern was similar for conscious and unconscious knowledge. Presumably, objects with high incentive salience, as are beautiful faces, captured resources, which were used in task relevant versus task irrelevant ways by women versus men. The present findings shed light on the relation of conscious and unconscious processing with affective and reward-related stimuli, as well as on gender differences underlying this relation.

  14. Factors Affecting Blood Pressure in Women with Hypertension Who Were Referred to Beyrag Health House - Tabriz 1391

    OpenAIRE

    Sirvan Majidi; Behzad Kazemi Haki; Hosein Matlabi

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective: The prevalence of hypertension in general is estimated about 18.4%   and women are more affected than men. The overall aim of this study was to investigate factors that increase blood pressure in women with hypertension from the perspective of those who were referred to health house of Beyrag village. Material and Methods : This is a study qualitative. Statistical population of this study was  65 women with high blood pressure that were referred to h...

  15. Effects of stress management training and problem solving on quality of life and life expectancy among infertile women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Zarbakhsh Bahri

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of stress management training and problem-solving training on quality of life and life expectancy of infertile women was conducted.Material and Methods: The method of this study was experimental with pretest – posttest design with a control group. population of 400 infertile women who referred to infertility center in Rasht were randomized to 250 of them were selected and the quality of life and life expectancy of the study were the 45 members of the quality of life and life expectancy lower were more randomly in three groups of 15 people, including two experimental groups and one control group were replaced. Each experimental groups were trained for 10 sessions of 90 minutes, respectively, stress management and problem-solving. Upon completion of the training program, participants were assessed again.Results: The result of present study showed that there was a significant difference between the experimental groups and control group in the scores of quality of life and life expectancy (p0.05.Conclusion: Stress management and problem solving training were effective on life expectancy and quality of life of infertile women but there was no significant difference between the effectiveness of these two methods on life expectancy and quality of life of infertile women.

  16. Support by trained mentor mothers for abused women: a promising intervention in primary care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prosman, G.J.; Lo Fo Wong, S.H.; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Intimate partner violence (IPV) against women is a major health problem and negatively affects the victim's mental and physical health. Evidence-based interventions in family practice are scarce. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate a low threshold home-visiting intervention for abused women

  17. Does Endometriosis Affect Sexual Activity and Satisfaction of the Man Partner? A Comparison of Partners From Women Diagnosed With Endometriosis and Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hämmerli, Silvan; Kohl Schwartz, Alexandra Sabrina; Geraedts, Kirsten; Imesch, Patrick; Rauchfuss, Martina; Wölfler, Monika Maria; Haeberlin, Felix; von Orelli, Stefanie; Eberhard, Markus; Imthurn, Bruno; Leeners, Brigitte

    2018-06-01

    Endometriosis-associated pain and dyspareunia influence female sexuality, but little is known about men's experiences in affected couples. To investigate how men partners experience sexuality in partnership with women with endometriosis. A multi-center case-control study was performed between 2010 and 2015 in Switzerland, Germany, and Austria. 236 Partners of endometriosis patients and 236 partners of age-matched control women without endometriosis with a similar ethnic background were asked to answer selected, relevant questions of the Brief Index of Sexual Functioning and the Global Sexual Functioning questionnaire, as well as some investigator-derived questions. We sought to evaluate sexual satisfaction of men partners of endometriosis patients, investigate differences in sexual activities between men partners of women with and without endometriosis, and identify options to improve partnership sexuality in couples affected by endometriosis. Many partners of endometriosis patients reported changes in sexuality (75%). A majority of both groups was (very) satisfied with their sexual relationship (73.8% vs 58.1%, P = .002). Nevertheless, more partners of women diagnosed with endometriosis were not satisfied (P = .002) and their sexual problems more strongly interfered with relationship happiness (P = .001) than in partners of control women. Frequencies of sexual intercourse (P < .001) and all other partnered sexual activities (oral sex, petting) were significantly higher in the control group. The wish for an increased frequency of sexual activity (P = .387) and sexual desire (P = .919) did not differ statistically between both groups. There is a need to evaluate qualitative factors that influence sexual satisfaction in endometriosis patients. This is one of the first studies to investigate male sexuality affected by endometriosis. The meticulous verification of diagnosis and disease stage according to operation reports and histology allows for a high

  18. Women in public life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    The UN Division for the Advancement of Women publication has devoted an issue to the role of women in public lie based on an analysis of women's status in industrialized countries presented in Vienna, Austria, in May 1991. Women already contribute to political life and make a difference in politics, but societal institutions and government processes have not yet adapted to this fact. Women's nongovernmental organizations promote women's interests at the governmental level, but often do not have the economic or political power as do other interests groups such as trade unions. Women often participation public life via their membership in women's organizations, community action groups, voluntary organizations, and other close to home groups. They prefer to participate in activities which are problem solving rather than institution building. These activities and groups operate outside established political institutions and are not considered as part of public and political life. Society's exclusion of women from leadership positions in public life keeps it from benefiting from the special contributions that women bring to decision making. Women show a tendency to have different leadership styles than men (e.g., ability to relate to people affected by their decisions), which are most needed for the modern world. They often do not campaign just for women's issues, but, once in office, they do tend to become more involved in women's issues. Women have affected positive changes in career and child care, often on a non-Socialist agenda, in various countries (e.g. Norway). This effect is referred to as the politics of motherhood. More access to politics and public life calls for removal of structural and situational barriers including the glass ceiling, discrimination, insufficient funds, and bearing most of the responsibility for child care. The UN women's groups has drafted a platform for interregional consultation on women's role in public life and scheduled the 4th

  19. Gender policies and advertising and marketing practices that affect women's health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambronero-Saiz, Belén

    2013-06-26

    The three papers of this doctoral thesis are based on the social construction of reality through the analysis of communication relating to health issues. We have analysed the contents of parliamentary, institutional, and mass media to uncover whether their communications create, transmit, and perpetuate gender biases and/or stereotypes, which may have an impact on peoples' health, with a particular focus on women. To analyse decision making and the creation of gender awareness policies and actions affecting women's health: (1) political debates about abortion, (2) gender awareness communication campaigns and educational actions, and (3) pharmaceutical advertising strategies. Quantitative and qualitative methods were employed, and the research included observational studies and systematic reviews. To apply a gender perspective, we used the level of gender observation proposed by S. Harding, which states that: (1) gender is the basis of social norms and (2) gender is one of the organisers of the social structure. Sixty percentage of the bills concerning abortion introduced in the Spanish Parliament were initiated and led by pro-choice women's groups. Seventy-nine percent of institutional initiatives aimed at promoting equality awareness and were in the form of educational actions, while unconventional advertising accounted for 6 percent. Both initiatives focused on occupational equality, and very few actions addressed issues such as shared responsibility or public policy. With regard to pharmaceutical advertising, similar traditional male-female gender roles were used between 1975 and 2005. Gender sensitivity continues to be essential in changing the established gender system in Spanish institutions, which has a direct and indirect impact on health. Greater participation of women in public policy and decision-making are critical for womens' health, such as the issue of abortion. The predominance of women as the target group of institutional gender awareness campaigns

  20. Epidemiology and consequences of women's revictimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimerling, Rachel; Alvarez, Jennifer; Pavao, Joanne; Kaminski, Amy; Baumrind, Nikki

    2007-01-01

    This study uses Kraemer's approach for nonrandom comorbidity to identify the parameters of revictimization among women, using a diverse, population-based sample. Participants (n = 11,056) are from the California Women's Health Survey. Women were asked about childhood and adult violence and current symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and anxiety. Logistic regressions adjusted for age, ethnicity, education, and poverty indicate that women who experienced childhood physical or sexual abuse were 5.8 (95% confidence interval, 5.2-6.4) times more likely to experience adult physical or sexual victimization. Revictimization affected 12% of women, and these women were substantially more likely to report current symptoms of anxiety, depression, and PTSD than women exposed to violence only in childhood or only as an adult. Revictimization is a methodologically distinct concept and is a potent risk factor for adult mental health problems. Prevention should target women exposed to both physical and sexual assault.

  1. Associations between bride price obligations and women's anger, symptoms of mental distress, poverty, spouse and family conflict and preoccupations with injustice in conflict-affected Timor-Leste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Susan; Mohsin, Mohammed; Tay, Alvin Kuowei; Thorpe, Rosamund; Murray, Samantha; Savio, Elisa; Fonseca, Mira; Tol, Wietse; Silove, Derrick

    2016-01-01

    Bride price is a widespread custom in many parts of the world, including in most countries in sub-Saharan Africa and parts of Asia. We hypothesised that problems relating to the obligatory ongoing remittances made by the husband and his family to the bride's family may be a source of mental disturbance (in the form of explosive anger and severe mental distress) among women. In addition, we postulated that problems arising with bride price would be associated with conflict with the spouse and family, poverty and women's preoccupations with injustice. A mixed-methods study comprising a total community household survey and semistructured qualitative interviews. Two villages, one urban, the other rural, in Timor-Leste. 1193 married women participated in the household survey and a structured subsample of 77 women participated in qualitative interviews. Problems with bride price showed a consistent dose-effect relationship with sudden episodes of explosive anger, excessive anger and severe psychological distress. Women with the most severe problems with bride price had twice the poverty scores as those with no problems with the custom. Women with the most severe problems with bride price also reported a threefold increase in conflict with their spouse and a fivefold increase in conflict with family. They also reported heightened preoccupations with injustice. Our study is the first to show consistent associations between problems with bride price obligations and mental distress, poverty, conflict with spouse and family and preoccupations with injustice among women in a low-income, postconflict country.

  2. [Mixed affective states in the juvenile age (historical aspects, current state of the problem, psychopathology)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopeĭko, G I

    2011-01-01

    The author analyzed the problem in historical, diagnostic and psychopathological aspects and presented the results of his own study. The aim was to study the structure and dynamics of endogenous juvenile mixed states in order to work out the psychopathological typology and to clarify the criteria of diagnosis, differential treatment and clinical-social prognosis. The study included 174 patients, 118 men and 56 women, aged from 17 to 25 years (mean age 20, 4 years). Depressive states were found in 65%, mania in 16% and mixed in 19% of patients. The clinical differentiation of mixed states was carried out basing on the dominating pole of affective disorders and the following types were singled out and described: mania type (dysphoria-like mania)--34%, depressive type (association-driven depression)--38%; alternating type of mixed states--28%. The preference of the formation of alternating and atypical variants of mixed states in the juvenile age demonstrated in the study may reflect the pathogenetic and pathoplastic effect of biological features characteristic of this age--lability and polymorphism of clinical presentations as well as immaturity of emotional and cognitive spheres.

  3. Abused women: dispelling myths and encouraging intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, M C; Ryan, J

    1989-05-01

    Our society abounds with myths and misperceptions in relation to the battering of women. These myths impede the identification of women who are experiencing violence and abuse, and inhibit appropriate intervention. Abuse is not too private a matter to assess for, nor does abuse affect only poor black or Hispanic women. No woman deserves to be beaten. Women do not like or seek out abuse. Abused women are courageous, competent women; what abused women have in common is that they are threatened and controlled by a male partner and live under the constant fear of violence and abuse. Raising one's consciousness about the victimization and oppression of women in our society, and uncovering the myths which leave practitioners powerless and ineffective agents of change for women are important tasks for health care providers. By focusing attention on this enormous health problem, clinicians can provide a leadership role in using health care responses that actually empower women to take control of their own lives.

  4. Contemporary paradigms for research related to women's mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doucet, Shelley Anne; Letourneau, Nicole Lyn; Stoppard, Janet M

    2010-04-01

    Mental health problems are serious health concerns that affect women across diverse settings internationally. Knowledge of this population historically has been informed by research using a positivist approach. This article is a critical examination of contemporary paradigms for research related to women's mental health. We begin the article with an introduction to women's mental health, followed by an overview of the postpositivist, critical theory, and constructivist paradigms. We then present a critical examination of the benefits and limitations of these paradigms in relation to the study of women's mental health. We conclude with implications for research and practice.

  5. Dyadic flexibility and positive affect in parent–child coregulation and the development of child behavior problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    LUNKENHEIMER, ERIKA S.; OLSON, SHERYL L.; HOLLENSTEIN, TOM; SAMEROFF, ARNOLD J.; WINTER, CHARLOTTE

    2018-01-01

    Parent–child dyadic rigidity and negative affect contribute to children’s higher levels of externalizing problems. The present longitudinal study examined whether the opposite constructs of dyadic flexibility and positive affect predicted lower levels of externalizing behavior problems across the early childhood period. Mother–child (N = 163) and father–child (n = 94) dyads engaged in a challenging block design task at home when children were 3 years old. Dynamic systems methods were used to derive dyadic positive affect and three indicators of dyadic flexibility (range, dispersion, and transitions) from observational coding. We hypothesized that the interaction between dyadic flexibility and positive affect would predict lower levels of externalizing problems at age 5.5 years as rated by mothers and teachers, controlling for stability in externalizing problems, task time, child gender, and the child’s effortful control. The hypothesis was supported in predicting teacher ratings of child externalizing from both mother–child and father–child interactions. There were also differential main effects for mothers and fathers: mother–child flexibility was detrimental and father–child flexibility was beneficial for child outcomes. Results support the inclusion of adaptive and dynamic parent–child coregulation processes in the study of children’s early disruptive behavior. PMID:23786697

  6. How Do Sociodemographics and Activity Participations Affect Activity-Travel? Comparative Study between Women and Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Activity-travel behaviors of women and men are different because they have different social and household responsibilities. However, studies concerning gender differences are mainly limited in developed countries. This paper concentrates on gender role-based differences in activity-travel behavior in a typical developing country, namely, China. Using data from 3656 cases collected through surveys conducted in Shangyu, data processing, method choice, and descriptive analysis were conducted. Binary and ordered logistic regression models segmented by gender were developed to evaluate the mechanism through which individual sociodemographics, household characteristics, and activity participations affect the number of trip chain types and activities for women and men. The results show that women aged 30 to 50 perform less subsistence activities. However, the difference between the different age groups of men is not as significant. In addition, men with bicycles and electric bicycles have more subsistence and maintenance activities, whereas women do not have these attributes. Moreover, women with children under schooling age make more maintenance trip chains but less leisure trip chains and activities, whereas men are free from this influence. Furthermore, both women and men perform more subsistence activities if the duration increases, and men have less influences than women do.

  7. Long-term follow-up of women and men after unsuccessful IVF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filetto, Juliana N; Makuch, Maria Y

    2005-10-01

    The experience of 92 couples, who had unsuccessfully undergone one or more IVF cycles at a university clinic, was evaluated 3-8 years following their last failed attempt. One member of each couple completed a telephone questionnaire regarding life events during their last IVF cycle performed at the clinic and at the time of the interview. Some couples had continued further treatment and some had not. Multivariate correspondence analysis was used to analyse the data. Regarding the long-term experience of couples who had undergone further treatment, for men the main experiences were psychological problems and having adopted a child. For women, the main experiences were related to problems of self-image, psychological problems, loss of hope, and having adopted a child. These women also presented a strong association with problems in their marital relationship and with adoption. For the group that did not undergo further treatment, the women showed a strong association with considering adoption, and a less intense association with psychological problems and loss of hope. The men presented psychological problems and having adopted a child as associated variables. Comparison between men and women showed that recognizing the impossibility of conceiving a child and giving up treatment were strongly associated. Men and women who had not continued with further treatment were more affected in the long term than those who had undergone further treatment after IVF failure.

  8. Domestic violence in Iranian infertile women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikhan, Zohre; Ozgoli, Giti; Azar, Mahyar; Alavimajd, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    Background: Millions of men and women suffer from infertility worldwide. In many cultures, infertile women are at risk of social and emotional problems. Infertility may affect the public health in many countries. Domestic violence is the intentional use of physical force, power or threat against oneself, another person or another group or community which leads to injury, death, mental harm, lack of development or deprivation. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of domestic violence against infertile women who referred to the infertility centres of Tehran, Iran in 2011. Methods: This was cross- sectional descriptive study conducted on 400 infertile women who were selected through convenient sampling method. The questionnaire used in this study included two sections: a demographic section with questions about demographic characteristics of the infertile women and their husbands; and the domestic violence questionnaire with questions about physical, emotional and sexual violence. Data were analysed by SPSS16; descriptive statistics, Spearman’s test, t- test, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and logistic regression were used for data analysis. Results: Four hundred women with the average age of 30.50 ± 6.16 years participated in the study; of whom, 34.7% experienced domestic violence physical violence (5.3%), emotional violence (74.3%) and sexual violence (47.3%). Domestic violence was significantly associated with unwanted marriage, number of IVFs, drug abuse, emotional status of the women, smoking and addiction or drug abuse of the spouse, mental and physical diseases of the husband (p< 0.05). Conclusion: Many of the current problems in this society, particularly in families are due to the transition of the society from a traditional model to a modern one. The majority of the infertile women experience violence in Iran. Domestic violence against infertile women is a problem that should not be ignored. Clinicians should identify abused women. Providing

  9. Reduced heart rate variability in pet dogs affected by anxiety-related behaviour problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wormald, Dennis; Lawrence, Andrew J; Carter, Gabrielle; Fisher, Andrew D

    2017-01-01

    We present here the first evidence of correlation between canine anxiety-related behavioural problems and heart rate variability (HRV). HRV is known to be related to a range of mental disorders in humans; however this has not been explored in dogs. Behavioural problems in dogs can result in suffering, property destruction and human injury. Dog behaviour problems were assessed by owner questionnaire and the extreme high and low scoring dogs were recruited into either affected (n=10) or unaffected (n=20) groups. HRV was assessed in dogs at their homes, while being held in lateral recumbency for 5min using manual restraint. Salivary cortisol samples were taken before and after HRV testing. Dogs were assessed as either being reactive to the procedure (barking, growling, struggling or shaking) or unreactive. There was no effect of reactivity or behaviour problems on salivary cortisol levels at baseline or in response to the treatment. There was a significant effect of reactivity on HR (F 1,26 =5.54; P=0.026), and no effect of behaviour problems (F 1,26 =1.07; P=0.311). There was no effect of reactivity on any of the HRV measures. The presence of behaviour problems had a significant effect on a range of measures of HRV, with unaffected dogs having higher standard deviation of RR intervals (F 1,26 =6.39; P=0.018), higher high frequency spectrum (F 1,26 =5.23; P=0.031) and higher low frequency spectrum (F 1,26 =9.25; P=0.005) power. There was no effect of behaviour problems on very low frequency spectrum power (F 1,26 =1.40; P=0.248). Together these results provide evidence for a fundamental physiological difference between dogs affected or unaffected with behaviour problems. This study provides evidence for further investigation into the role of HRV in the pathophysiology of canine anxiety-related behaviour problems. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Depression and Behavioral Problems Among Adolescent Girls and Young Women Employees of the Textile Industry in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnanaselvam, Nancy Angeline; Joseph, Bobby

    2018-01-01

    Stress and depression are common in textile industry employees due to inadequate working conditions and challenging socioeconomic conditions. The objective of the study was to assess depression and mental health among adolescent and young females currently employed in a textile factory located in Tamil Nadu compared with past employees and women who have never been employed. This cross-sectional study included a total of 107 participants in each study group who were interviewed. The Patient Health Questionnaire-9 and Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire were administered to screen participants for depression and mental health. More current employees (16.82%) and past employees (15.88%) suffered from depression severe enough to require treatment compared with never employed girls and young women (2.8%). Of the study participants, 59.8% of current employees, 63.6% of past employees, and 32.7% of never employed women had mental health or behavior problems. In the regression model, history of abuse was significantly associated with depression. Participants who were current employees and reported family debt and a history of abuse were significantly more likely to have mental health or behavior problems. Mental health issues such as depression and behavior problems were more likely among adolescent girls currently employed in textile industries. Further studies into the causes of this phenomenon are needed.

  11. Health risk factors and mental health among US women with and without chronic physical disabilities by whether women are currently pregnant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iezzoni, Lisa I; Yu, Jun; Wint, Amy J; Smeltzer, Suzanne C; Ecker, Jeffrey L

    2015-06-01

    Growing numbers of reproductive-age US women with chronic physical disabilities (CPD) raise questions about their pregnancy experiences. Little is known about the health risks of women with versus without CPD by current pregnancy status. We analyzed cross-sectional, nationally-representative National Health Interview Survey data from 2006 to 2011, which includes 47,629 civilian, noninstitutionalized women ages 18-49. NHIS asks about specified movement difficulties, current pregnancy, and various health and health risk indicators, including tobacco use and body mass index (BMI). We used responses from eight movement difficulty and other questions to identify women with mobility difficulties caused by chronic physical health conditions. Across all women regardless of CPD, women reporting current pregnancy are significantly less likely to currently smoke tobacco and report certain mental health problems. Among currently pregnant women only, women with CPD are more likely to smoke cigarettes every day (12.2 %) versus 6.3 % for pregnant women without CPD (p ≤ 0.001). Among currently pregnant women, 17.7 % of women with CPD have BMIs in the non-overweight range, compared with 40.1 % of women without CPD (p ≤ 0.0001). Currently pregnant women with CPD are significantly more likely to report having any mental health problems, 66.6 % compared with 29.7 % among women without CPD (p ≤ 0.0001). For all women, currently pregnant women appear to have fewer health risks and mental health concerns than nonpregnant women. Among pregnant women, women with CPD have higher rates than other women of health risk factors that could affect maternal and infant outcomes.

  12. Gender Disparities in Faculty Rank: Factors that Affect Advancement of Women Scientists at Academic Medical Centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina M. López

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available While a significant portion of women within academic science are employed within medical schools, women faculty in these academic medical centers are disproportionately represented in lower faculty ranks. The medical school setting is a critical case for both understanding and advancing women in basic sciences. This study highlights the findings from focus groups conducted with women faculty across Assistant, Associate, and Full Professor ranks (n = 35 in which they discussed barriers and facilitators for advancement of women basic scientists at an academic medical center. Qualitative analysis demonstrated several emergent themes that affect women’s advancement, including gendered expectation norms (e.g., good citizenship, volunteerism, work-life balance, mentorship/sponsorship, adoption of a team science approach, tenure process milestones, soft money research infrastructure, institution specific policies (or lack thereof, and operating within an MD-biased culture. These findings are compared with the extant literature of women scientists in STEM institutions. Factors that emerged from these focus groups highlight the need for evidence-based interventions in the often overlooked STEM arena of academic medical centers.

  13. "I just cope from day to day": unpredictability and anxiety in the lives of women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, V; Charles, N

    1997-12-01

    Data are presented from in-depth interviews with 35 women in an industrial town in South Wales, U.K., many of whom were from low income households. The research aimed to explore women's own concerns about their health and the ways in which health problems affected their lives. This paper focuses on one prominent theme in these interviews: unpredictability. In particular, women described how their lives had become less predictable and amenable to control as a result of health problems--epilepsy, asthma, ME, anxiety, nerves and panic attacks, for example. Women's accounts are used to show how they experienced these problems, how they influenced women's self-identity and the ways in which women struggled to cope with the dreadful uncertainty that characterized their days. They often hid these problems, and the privacy of this aspect of their lives is striking. The data are set within the context of class and gender relations which diminish women's control over their lives and erode their self-esteem and sense of autonomy. Class and gender combine with ill health to create the conditions for women's sense of unpredictability and powerlessness. They can aggravate and provoke the health problems women described: women spoke of the challenges they faced in their roles as wives and mothers, the problems associated with widowhood, the loss of their jobs, the impact of unemployment and their efforts to cope with severe financial problems. In part, these provided them with a framework for understanding the uncertainty, anxiety, nerves and panic they experienced.

  14. HSV Serologic Testing for Pregnant Women: Willingness to Be Tested and Factors Affecting Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Baker

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This prospective study was undertaken to evaluate pregnant women's willingness to undergo HSV type-specific serologic testing and factors affecting willingness in an obstetrics/gynecology ambulatory unit. Methods. At prenatal Visit 1, pregnant women (n=303 with no history of HSV-2 were tested for HSV-1/HSV-2 before and after they received counseling on genital and neonatal herpes. Results. In both the Unwilling Subgroup and the group that changed from being willing to being unwilling, the most common reasons for choosing not to be tested were not being at risk for genital herpes, being tested is too personal, and concern about what will be done with the results. Of the 134 participants in the Willing/Tested Subgroup, 27 (20% were HSV-2 seropositive and 81 (60% were HSV-1 seropositive. Conclusions. These results support the feasibility of HSV serologic testing and counseling in pregnant women.

  15. Comprehension of affective prosody in women with post-traumatic stress disorder related to childhood abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazarov, A; Frewen, P; Oremus, C; Schellenberg, E G; McKinnon, M C; Lanius, R

    2015-05-01

    Although deficits in memory and cognitive processing are evident in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), difficulties with social cognition and the impact of such difficulties on interpersonal functioning are poorly understood. Here, we examined the ability of women diagnosed with PTSD related to childhood abuse to discriminate affective prosody, a central component of social cognition. Women with PTSD and healthy controls (HCs) completed two computer-based tasks assessing affective prosody: (i) recognition (categorizing foreign-language excerpts as angry, fearful, sad, or happy) and (ii) discrimination (identifying whether two excerpts played consecutively had the 'same' or 'different' emotion). The association of performance with symptom presentation, trauma history, and interpersonal functioning was also explored. Women with PTSD were slower than HCs at identifying happiness, sadness, and fear, but not anger in the speech excerpts. The presence of dissociative symptoms was related to reduced accuracy on the discrimination task. An increased severity of childhood trauma was associated with reduced accuracy on the discrimination task and with slower identification of emotional prosody. Exposure to childhood trauma is associated with long-term, atypical development in the interpretation of prosodic cues in speech. The findings have implications for the intergenerational transmission of trauma. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Gender policies and advertising and marketing practices that affect women's health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambronero-Saiz, Belén

    2013-01-01

    Background The three papers of this doctoral thesis are based on the social construction of reality through the analysis of communication relating to health issues. We have analysed the contents of parliamentary, institutional, and mass media to uncover whether their communications create, transmit, and perpetuate gender biases and/or stereotypes, which may have an impact on people's health, with a particular focus on women. Objective To analyse decision making and the creation of gender awareness policies and actions affecting women's health: (1) political debates about abortion, (2) gender awareness communication campaigns and educational actions, and (3) pharmaceutical advertising strategies. Design Quantitative and qualitative methods were employed, and the research included observational studies and systematic reviews. To apply a gender perspective, we used the level of gender observation proposed by S. Harding, which states that: (1) gender is the basis of social norms and (2) gender is one of the organisers of the social structure. Results Sixty percentage of the bills concerning abortion introduced in the Spanish Parliament were initiated and led by pro-choice women's groups. Seventy-nine percent of institutional initiatives aimed at promoting equality awareness and were in the form of educational actions, while unconventional advertising accounted for 6 percent. Both initiatives focused on occupational equality, and very few actions addressed issues such as shared responsibility or public policy. With regard to pharmaceutical advertising, similar traditional male–female gender roles were used between 1975 and 2005. Conclusions Gender sensitivity continues to be essential in changing the established gender system in Spanish institutions, which has a direct and indirect impact on health. Greater participation of women in public policy and decision-making are critical for womens’ health, such as the issue of abortion. The predominance of women as the

  17. Gender policies and advertising and marketing practices that affect women's health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belén C. Saiz

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The three papers of this doctoral thesis are based on the social construction of reality through the analysis of communication relating to health issues. We have analysed the contents of parliamentary, institutional, and mass media to uncover whether their communications create, transmit, and perpetuate gender biases and/or stereotypes, which may have an impact on people's health, with a particular focus on women. Objective: To analyse decision making and the creation of gender awareness policies and actions affecting women's health: (1 political debates about abortion, (2 gender awareness communication campaigns and educational actions, and (3 pharmaceutical advertising strategies. Design: Quantitative and qualitative methods were employed, and the research included observational studies and systematic reviews. To apply a gender perspective, we used the level of gender observation proposed by S. Harding, which states that: (1 gender is the basis of social norms and (2 gender is one of the organisers of the social structure. Results: Sixty percentage of the bills concerning abortion introduced in the Spanish Parliament were initiated and led by pro-choice women's groups. Seventy-nine percent of institutional initiatives aimed at promoting equality awareness and were in the form of educational actions, while unconventional advertising accounted for 6 percent. Both initiatives focused on occupational equality, and very few actions addressed issues such as shared responsibility or public policy. With regard to pharmaceutical advertising, similar traditional male–female gender roles were used between 1975 and 2005. Conclusions: Gender sensitivity continues to be essential in changing the established gender system in Spanish institutions, which has a direct and indirect impact on health. Greater participation of women in public policy and decision-making are critical for womens’ health, such as the issue of abortion. The predominance

  18. Factors affecting sexual function in menopause: A review article

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    Soheila Nazarpour

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to systematically review the articles on factors affecting sexual function during menopause. Searching articles indexed in Pubmed, Science Direct, Iranmedex, EMBASE, Scopus, and Scientific Information Database databases, a total number of 42 studies published between 2003 and 2013 were selected. Age, estrogen deficiency, type of menopause, chronic medical problems, partner's sex problems, severity of menopause symptoms, dystocia history, and health status were the physical factors influencing sexual function of menopausal women. There were conflicting results regarding the amount of androgens, hormonal therapy, exercise/physical activity, and obstetric history. In the mental–emotional area, all studies confirmed the impact of depression and anxiety. Social factors, including smoking, alcohol consumption, the quality of relationship with husband, partner's loyalty, sexual knowledge, access to health care, a history of divorce or the death of a husband, living apart from a spouse, and a negative understanding of women's health were found to affect sexual function; however, there were conflicting results regarding the effects of education, occupation, socioeconomic status, marital duration, and frequency of sexual intercourse.

  19. Factors affecting sexual function in menopause: A review article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazarpour, Soheila; Simbar, Masoumeh; Tehrani, Fahimeh Ramezani

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to systematically review the articles on factors affecting sexual function during menopause. Searching articles indexed in Pubmed, Science Direct, Iranmedex, EMBASE, Scopus, and Scientific Information Database databases, a total number of 42 studies published between 2003 and 2013 were selected. Age, estrogen deficiency, type of menopause, chronic medical problems, partner's sex problems, severity of menopause symptoms, dystocia history, and health status were the physical factors influencing sexual function of menopausal women. There were conflicting results regarding the amount of androgens, hormonal therapy, exercise/physical activity, and obstetric history. In the mental-emotional area, all studies confirmed the impact of depression and anxiety. Social factors, including smoking, alcohol consumption, the quality of relationship with husband, partner's loyalty, sexual knowledge, access to health care, a history of divorce or the death of a husband, living apart from a spouse, and a negative understanding of women's health were found to affect sexual function; however, there were conflicting results regarding the effects of education, occupation, socioeconomic status, marital duration, and frequency of sexual intercourse. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. PSYCHOLOGICAL EVALUATION IN PREGNANT WOMEN AFFECTED BY THALASSEMIA MAJOR: TRAITS AND PERSONALITY

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    Giuseppina Messina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The reproductive and sexual health issues concerning persons affected by thalassemia major are complex. The study was planned to investigate the psychological attitudes and expectations in a group of thalassemic pregnant women attending hospital for regular blood transfusion. Methods. The study included 20 consecutive thalassemic patients and a control group of 42 healthy pregnant volunteers. We evaluated the personality structure by Rorschach's test and the presence of psychic symptoms by SCL-90-R and STAI. Results. Narcissism and sexual traumas are significantly higher in thalassemic women with respects to the control group. Also the percent of anxiety and depression observed with the SCL-90-R was significantly higher than in control group. The score observed with the STAI shows that the state of anxiety changed significantly between thalassemic pregnant women and the control group, even though the scores values aren’t pathologic in neither group. Conclusions. This study addresses the need for developing, implementing and evaluating proper psychological support for thalassemic pregnant patients. The limit of this study is to analyze just thalassemic women because it doesn’t consider other pathologies; so the results can’t be extended to other pathologies different from thalassemic. Moreover, psychological screening and support prior to, during and following pregnancy would be indicated. Since not there are psychological studies in literature on the pregnancy in the thalassemic patients, the evaluation of the effects of pregnancy on the thalassemic disease will be the aim of future psychological investigations.

  1. Interpersonal problems and negative affect in Borderline Personality and Depressive Disorders in daily life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepp, Johanna; Lane, Sean P.; Carpenter, Ryan W.; Niedtfeld, Inga; Brown, Whitney C.; Trull, Timothy J.

    2016-01-01

    Theories of Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) suggest that interpersonal problems in BPD act as triggers for negative affect and, at the same time, are a possible result of affective dysregulation. Therefore, we assessed the relations between momentary negative affect (hostility, sadness, fear) and interpersonal problems (rejection, disagreement) in a sample of 80 BPD and 51 depressed outpatients at 6 time-points over 28 days. Data were analyzed using multivariate multi-level modeling to separate momentary-, day-, and person-level effects. Results revealed a mutually reinforcing relationship between disagreement and hostility, rejection and hostility, and between rejection and sadness in both groups, at the momentary and day level. The mutual reinforcement between hostility and rejection/disagreement was significantly stronger in the BPD group. Moreover, the link between rejection and sadness was present at all three levels of analysis for the BPD group, while it was localized to the momentary level in the depressed group. PMID:28529826

  2. Treatment, alcoholics anonymous, and 16-year changes in impulsivity and legal problems among men and women with alcohol use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blonigen, Daniel M; Timko, Christine; Moos, Bernice S; Moos, Rudolf H

    2009-09-01

    The link between impulsive personality traits and alcohol use disorders (AUDs) is well established. No studies, however, have investigated whether receipt of help for AUDs predicts change in impulsivity or whether such change is associated with relevant outcomes such as legal problems. The present study examined predictive associations between the duration of help for AUDs (Alcoholics Anonymous [AA], professional treatment) and impulsivity and legal problems over 16 years in men and women with AUDs. Participants who were initially untreated for their AUDs (n(men) = 332, n(women) = 296) completed follow-up telephone interviews at 1 and 16 years after their baseline assessment. Impulsivity and legal problems declined between baseline and the 1-year and 16-year follow-ups among both women and men. A longer duration of participation in AA predicted a decline in impulsivity at both follow-up assessments, and, in turn, a decline in impulsivity predicted a decline in legal problems at Years 1 and 16. In addition, a longer duration of participation in AA predicted fewer legal problems at Year 1, and this association was moderated by gender (significant in men) and impulsivity (significant for individuals with higher baseline scores). The results highlight the potential for AA and professional treatment to reduce the expression of impulsivity and related disinhibitory traits and legal problems in individuals with AUDs.

  3. Older women's sexual desire problems: biopsychosocial factors impacting them and barriers to their clinical assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciel, Michelle; Laganà, Luciana

    2014-01-01

    Sexual desire is a major component of sexuality at any age, and inhibited desire is one of the main sexual dysfunctions reported by older women. Nonetheless, in medical settings, for a variety of reasons discussed herein, its assessment--as well as the assessment of older women's sexual health in general--is typically avoided or conducted by asking a single sex question. In this paper, we have reviewed the literature (most of which is preliminary in nature) regarding the main psychosocial and health factors that could impact older women's sexual desire, as well as potential obstacles to the assessment and treatment of this geriatric sexual issue. It is certainly advisable that medical care providers who are uncomfortable discussing older women's sexual concerns be prepared to make appropriate referrals to clinicians who possess the proper training to accurately assess and treat sexual challenges (and female sexual interest problems in particular) in this neglected patient population.

  4. Women and addiction: the importance of gender issues in substance abuse research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuchman, Ellen

    2010-04-01

    Substance use was considered to be primarily a male problem, and many substance abuse studies are conducted with a predominance of male participants. However, recent substance abuse research indicates significant gender differences in the substance-related epidemiology, social factors and characteristics, biological responses, progressions to dependence, medical consequences, co-occurring psychiatric disorders, and barriers to treatment entry, retention, and completion. The epidemiology of women's drug use presents challenges separate from those raised by men's drug use. A convergence of evidence suggests that women with substance use disorders are more likely than men to face multiple barriers affecting access and entry to substance abuse treatment. Gender-specific medical problems as a result of the interplay of gender-specific drug use patterns and sex-related risk behaviors create an environment in which women are more vulnerable than men to human immunodeficiency virus. Individual characteristics and treatment approaches can differentially affect outcomes by gender. All of these differences have important clinical, treatment, and research implications.

  5. Lifestyle factors affecting fruit and vegetable consumption in the UK Women's Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, J; Greenwood, D; Kirk, S; Cade, J

    2001-08-01

    The UK Women's Cohort Study (UKWCS) was originally set up to look at morbidity and mortality data on subjects with a wide range of dietary intakes including vegans, lacto-ovo vegetarians, non-red meat eaters and red meat eaters. The aim of the present study was to investigate factors that affect fruit and vegetable consumption within this particular cohort of women. Females of ages 35-69 years, taking part in the UK Women's Cohort Study (N=35 367), provided health and lifestyle information including a 217-item food frequency questionnaire. In multiple logistic regression, the strongest predictors of a higher reported level of fruit and vegetable consumption were being a vegetarian or vegan, taking vitamin or mineral supplements, being married, educated to A-level or degree level and belonging to a higher socio-economic group. Conversely, smokers were found to be only half as likely as non-smokers to be high fruit and vegetable consumers. These lifestyle distinctions among three levels of reported fruit and vegetable consumption are relevant to the future targeting of health promotion strategies. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  6. High Levels of Persistent Problem Drinking in Women at High Risk for HIV in Kampala, Uganda: A Prospective Cohort Study

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    Helen A. Weiss

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiology of problem drinking in a cohort of women at high-risk of HIV in Kampala, Uganda. Overall, 1027 women at high risk of HIV infection were followed from 2008 to 2013. The CAGE and AUDIT questionnaires were used to identify problem drinkers in the cohort. Interviewer-administered questionnaires were used to ascertain socio-demographic and behavioural factors. Blood and genital samples were tested for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. At enrollment, most women (71% reported using alcohol at least weekly and about a third reported having drunk alcohol daily for at least 2 weeks during the past 3 months. Over half (56% were problem drinkers by CAGE at enrollment, and this was independently associated with vulnerability (being divorced/separated/widowed, less education, recruiting clients at bars/clubs, and forced sex at first sexual experience. Factors associated with problem drinking during follow-up included younger age, meeting clients in bars/clubs, number of clients, using drugs and HSV-2 infection. HIV prevalence was associated with drinking at enrollment, but not during follow-up. This longitudinal study found high levels of persistent problem drinking. Further research is needed to adapt and implement alcohol-focused interventions in vulnerable key populations in sub-Saharan Africa.

  7. Communication, support and psychosocial work environment affecting psychological distress among working women aged 20 to 39 years in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    HONDA, Ayumi; DATE, Yutaka; ABE, Yasuyo; AOYAGI, Kiyoshi; HONDA, Sumihisa

    2015-01-01

    When compared with their older counterparts, younger women are more likely to have depressive symptoms because they more often experience interrupted work history and a heavy childrearing burden. The purposes of the present study were 1) to investigate the possible association of psychosocial work environment with psychological distress and 2) to examine the way by which communication and support in the workplace affect to psychological distress among young women. We studied 198 women aged 20...

  8. Comparison of menopause healthcare considerations between Japanese and Filipino women living in local communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Hiroya; Yamanaka, Rie; Senba, Naomi; Beltran, Ruth; Ladines-Llave, Cecilia; Blanco-Capito, Loudes

    2012-12-13

    To investigate the involvement of psychological/social factors in the condition of climacteric disturbance in Japan and the Philippines, we examined the menopausal symptoms and psychological/social factors in menopausal women living in local communities and compared among both countries whether differences in culture, lifestyle, etc. affected the condition of climacteric disturbance. High percentages of Japanese women reported mental symptoms, while relatively high percentages of Filipino women also experienced motor neurological symptoms in addition to psychoneurological symptoms. Japanese and Filipino women were found to have different stressors: a high percentage of the Japanese women had problems involving human relationships, such as providing nursing care, while a high percentage of the Filipino women had household problems, including husband's health and financial problems. Stress severity was associated with SMI scores in both countries. A poorer marital relationship in Japan than in the Philippines and an association between marital relationship and SMI scores were found. The present study suggests the association of differences in psychological/social factors between Japanese and Filipino women with differences in menopausal symptoms.

  9. Problem gambling: patients affected by their own or another's gambling may approve of help from general practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Sean; McCormick, Ross; Lamont, Michael; Penfold, Alison

    2007-06-29

    To identify the health effects, including depression, on problem gambling patients and family members, and their perception of their GP as a help provider for problem gambling. 1580 patients from practices in Auckland, Taranaki, and Rotorua completed an anonymous questionnaire containing brief screens for problem gambling, effects on family of gambling, and depression. Patients were asked to assess their GP as a help provider for problem gambling. 7.5% of patients were positive for problem gambling, ranging from 3% of NZ European patients to 24% of Pacific patients; 18% of patients were affected by another's gambling. Less than one in four problem gambling patients, and one in three family positives, did not perceive their GP as a suitable help provider for problem gambling issues. Problem gambling patients were more likely than other patients to approve their GP as a help-provider. Patients affected by problem gambling were more depressed than other patients. No other disease indicators were found. Patients over 54 years are less likely than others to be problem gamblers. Problem gambling is associated with depression in patients. GPs are an important complementary resource for brief interventions for gambling problems, and for some possibly a more acceptable alternative than attending specialist problem gambling treatment providers.

  10. Men's Objectifying Media Consumption, Objectification of Women, and Attitudes Supportive of Violence Against Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Paul J; Tokunaga, Robert S

    2016-05-01

    A recent White House Council Report on Women and Girls called attention to sexual assault on college campuses and encouraged continued research on this important public health problem. Media that sexually objectify women have been identified by feminist scholars as encouraging of sexual assault, but some researchers question why portrayals that do not feature sexual assault should affect men's attitudes supportive of violence against women. Guided by the concepts of specific and abstract sexual scripting in Wright's (Communication Yearbook 35:343-386, 2011) sexual script acquisition, activation, application model of sexual media socialization, this study proposed that the more men are exposed to objectifying depictions, the more they will think of women as entities that exist for men's sexual gratification (specific sexual scripting), and that this dehumanized perspective on women may then be used to inform attitudes regarding sexual violence against women (abstract sexual scripting). Data were gathered from collegiate men sexually attracted to women (N = 187). Consistent with expectations, associations between men's exposure to objectifying media and attitudes supportive of violence against women were mediated by their notions of women as sex objects. Specifically, frequency of exposure to men's lifestyle magazines that objectify women, reality TV programs that objectify women, and pornography predicted more objectified cognitions about women, which, in turn, predicted stronger attitudes supportive of violence against women.

  11. Factor structure of the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS in adult women with fibromyalgia from Southern Spain: the al-Ándalus project

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    Fernando Estévez-López

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fibromyalgia is a syndrome characterized by the presence of widespread chronic pain. People with fibromyalgia report lower levels of Positive Affect and higher levels of Negative Affect than non-fibromyalgia peers. The Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS–a widely used questionnaire to assess two core domains of affect; namely ‘Positive Affect’ and ‘Negative Affect’ –has a controversial factor structure varying across studies. The internal structure of a measurement instrument has an impact on the meaning and validity of its score. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess the structural construct validity of the PANAS in adult women with fibromyalgia. Methods: This population-based cross-sectional study included 442 adult women with fibromyalgia (age: 51.3 ± 7.4 years old from Andalusia (Southern Spain. Confirmatory factor analyses were conducted to test the factor structure of the PANAS. Results: A structure with two correlated factors (Positive Affect and Negative Affect obtained the best fit; S-B χ2 = 288.49, df = 155, p < .001; RMSEA = .04; 90% CI of RMSEA = (.036, .052; the best fit SRMR = .05; CFI = .96; CAIC = −810.66, respectively. Conclusions: The present study demonstrates that both Positive Affect and Negative Affect are core dimensions of affect in adult women with fibromyalgia. A structure with two correlated factors of the PANAS emerged from our sample of women with fibromyalgia from Andalusia (Southern Spain. In this model, the amount of variance shared by Positive Affect and Negative Affect was small. Therefore, our findings support to use and interpret the Positive Affect and Negative Affect subscales of the PANAS as separate factors that are associated but distinctive as well.

  12. DIMENSIONS AFFECTING THE PURCHASING BEHAVIOR OF NEPALI WOMEN

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    Karan Singh Thagunna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to identify the various dimensions of buying behavior of Nepalese women while making purchasing decisions. A total of 100 women of different background were surveyed through a questionnaire consisting of 22 questions related to the buying behavior. Various factors such as Value Identification, Customer Service and Lifestyle are most influential for Nepalese women’s purchasing decisions. So, by providing, at affordable price, high value product that match the personality of the targeted women and by providing superior customer care, Nepalese women can be attracted easily. Besides these, price, brand awareness and accurate information also influence their buying behavior to a certain extent. Age also plays a role in the purchasing decisions she makes, since women of different age group behave differently while purchasing items for their homes, for their offices or for personal use. Difference in the demographic factors such as personal status, religious belief, occupation and income level however do not bring difference in the buying behavior of Nepalese women, in general.

  13. Men with Sexual Problems and Their Partners: Findings from the International Survey of Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Raymond C; Heiman, Julia R; Long, J Scott; Fisher, William A; Sand, Michael S

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies of sexual function problems in men have focused on the individual male and related sociodemographic characteristics, individual risk factors and lifestyle concomitants, or medical comorbidities. Insufficient attention has been given to the role of sexual and relationship satisfaction and, more particularly, to the perspective of the couple as causes or correlates of sexual problems in men or women. Previously, we reported results of the first large, multi-national study of sexual satisfaction and relationship happiness in 1,009 midlife and older couples in five countries (Brazil, Germany, Japan, Spain, U.S.). For the present study, we examined, within each problem, the association of four major sexual problems in men (loss of sexual desire, erectile problems, premature ejaculation, delayed/absent orgasm) and multiple problems, with male and female partners' assessments of physical intimacy, sexual satisfaction, and relationship happiness, as well as associations with well-known health and psychosocial correlates of sexual problems in men. Sexual problem rates of men in our survey were generally similar to rates observed in past surveys in the general population, and similar risk factors (age, relationship duration, overall health) were associated with lack of desire, anorgasmia, or erection difficulties in our sample. As in previous surveys, there were few correlates of premature ejaculation. As predicted, men with one or more sexual problems reported decreased relationship happiness as well as decreased sexual satisfaction compared to men without sexual problems. Moreover, female partners of men with sexual problems had reduced relationship happiness and sexual satisfaction, although these latter outcomes were less affected in the women than the men. The association of men's sexual problems with men's and women's satisfaction and relationship happiness were modest, as these couples in long-term, committed relationships were notable for their

  14. Risk, treatment duration, and recurrence risk of postpartum affective disorder in women with no prior psychiatric history

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Marie-Louise H; Strøm, Marin; Wohlfahrt, Jan

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Some 5%-15% of all women experience postpartum depression (PPD), which for many is their first psychiatric disorder. The purpose of this study was to estimate the incidence of postpartum affective disorder (AD), duration of treatment, and rate of subsequent postpartum AD and other...... total of 789,068 births) and no prior psychiatric hospital contacts and/or use of antidepressants. These women were followed from 1 January 1996 to 31 December 2014. Postpartum AD was defined as use of antidepressants and/or hospital contact for PPD within 6 months after childbirth. The main outcome.......4%. The recurrence risk of postpartum AD for women with a PPD hospital contact after first birth was 55.4 per 100 person-years; for women with postpartum antidepressant medication after first birth, it was 35.0 per 100 person-years. The rate of postpartum AD after second birth for women with no history of postpartum...

  15. Understanding feminism: considerations for nurses working to end violence against women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontenot, Holly B; Fantasia, Heidi Collins

    2011-03-01

    Violence against women is a pervasive and serious human rights and public health problem worldwide. As interdisciplinary research teams try to address the effects of this health problem of which the effects transcend all women, nurses are at the forefront. Using a feminist philosophy and methodology to explore violence against women is one way to uncover new knowledge to address this health epidemic. In this paper, we will review the basic concepts of feminism and provide examples of viewing violence research and forensic nursing practice through this theoretical lens. These perspectives provide a foundation for understanding feminism and facilitating nurses' awareness as they consider careers in research and practice. Through this lens, nurses who are helping to ease the burden of violence in our global society may affect change in women's lives. © 2011 International Association of Forensic Nurses.

  16. How discrimination and stress affects self-esteem among Dominican immigrant women: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panchanadeswaran, Subadra; Dawson, Beverly Araujo

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the factors that contribute to the health disparities among racial and ethnic minorities in the United States is very important given the growing Latina population. Although researchers have investigated the health and mental health status among Latinas, the relationship between mental health and self-esteem has not been given a lot of attention. Given that self-esteem is a proxy for mental health status, investigations exploring the factors that can negatively affect self-esteem are needed. Therefore, the current study examined the influence of discrimination and stress on self-esteem among Dominican immigrant women. A cross-sectional study was undertaken among 235 immigrant Dominican women in New York City. Women (age 18-49 years) and in the United States for fewer than 20 years were more likely to report experiencing discrimination compared to women older than age 50 years and in the United States for more than 20 years. After controlling for age, time in the United States, educational level, and income, high levels of discrimination (-0.09, p < 0.01) and stress (-0.69, p < 0.001) were significantly associated with reduced self-esteem. Interventions with Latino/a populations, especially women, need to acknowledge their individual evaluations of the discriminatory and stressful experiences that negatively influence their self-esteem and subsequently their mental health status.

  17. The Lived Experience of Iranian Women Confronting Breast Cancer Diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Esmat Mehrabi; Sepideh Hajian; Masoomeh Simbar; Mohammad Hoshyari; Farid Zayeri

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The populations who survive from breast cancer are growing; nevertheless, they mostly encounter with many cancer related problems in their life, especially after early diagnosis and have to deal with these problems. Except for the disease entity, several socio-cultural factors may affect confronting this challenge among patients and the way they deal with. Present study was carried out to prepare clear understanding of Iranian women's...

  18. How poor are women in rural India?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajuladevi, A K

    1992-07-01

    The assessment of poor women in India as dependent and exploited regardless of poverty focused strategies is reflected in this review of relevant literature. The scholarly approaches to the problems of poor women involve redirection and expansion of resources to women (increase bank credit) through policy and institutional changes, and involve improving women's welfare through changes in class and gender hierarchies; both pertain to restructuring power groups. A little ascribed to belief is that the organization of women's numbers will empower women; the constraints are stated. There is also some argument over whether to design women-specific programs or integrate women into existing programs; some examples are given of successes and difficulties. The regionalization of poverty in eastern and central India is discussed. The growth of the poor has been among the landless, wage-dependent households. 9.6% of households (7.5 million) are headed by women. Women work fewer hours and at lower wage scales and have fewer employment opportunities. Lower earnings are coupled with differentials in demand for female and male labor in agriculture and a crowded labor market. There is a concentration of women in less visible, nonmonetary subsistence production and domestic work. Women are undercounted in employment studies. Women predominate in agricultural activity. Women's status is influenced by economic status, caste, and ethnic background. Domestic work increases status for women and households. The poorer households have greater labor force participation, particularly as wage laborers rather than unpaid family workers. Regional factors affecting rural household strategies are factors affecting the economy (topography, rainfall, climate) and the degree of development, plus sociocultural variables (kinship and religious beliefs which affect the social domain of women), and the degree of dependence on hired vs. family labor. There are sharp contrasts in the value and survival

  19. One Session of Autogenic Training Increases Acute Subjective Sexual Arousal in Premenopausal Women Reporting Sexual Arousal Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Amelia M; Hixon, J Gregory; Nichols, Lindsey M; Meston, Cindy M

    2018-01-01

    Below average heart rate variability (HRV) has been associated with sexual arousal dysfunction and overall sexual dysfunction in women. Autogenic training, a psychophysiologic relaxation technique, has been shown to increase HRV. In a recent study, sexually healthy women experienced acute increases in physiologic (ie, genital) and subjective sexual arousal after 1 brief session of autogenic training. To build on these findings by testing the effects of a single session of autogenic training on sexual arousal in a sample of women who reported decreased or absent sexual arousal for at least 6 months. Genital sexual arousal, subjective sexual arousal, and perceived genital sensations were assessed in 25 women 20 to 44 years old before and after listening to a 22-minute autogenic training recording. HRV was assessed with electrocardiography. Change in genital sexual arousal, subjective sexual arousal, and perceived genital sensations from the pre-manipulation erotic film to the post-manipulation erotic film. Marginally significant increases in discrete subjective sexual arousal (P = .051) and significant increases in perceived genital sensations (P = .018) were observed. In addition, degree of change in HRV significantly moderated increases in subjective arousal measured continuously over time (P autogenic training, and other interventions that aim to increase HRV, could be a useful addition to treatment protocols for women who are reporting a lack of subjective arousal or decreased genital sensations. There are few treatment options for women with arousal problems. We report on a new psychosocial intervention that could improve arousal. Limitations include a relatively small sample and the lack of a control group. Our findings indicate that autogenic training significantly improves acute subjective arousal and increases perceived genital sensations in premenopausal women with self-reported arousal concerns. Stanton AM, Hixon JG, Nichols LM, Meston CM. One Session of

  20. Alexithymia, emotion perception, and social assertiveness in adult women with Noonan and Turner syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelofs, Renée L; Wingbermühle, Ellen; Freriks, Kim; Verhaak, Chris M; Kessels, Roy P C; Egger, Jos I M

    2015-04-01

    Noonan syndrome (NS) and Turner syndrome (TS) are associated with cognitive problems and difficulties in affective information processing. While both phenotypes include short stature, facial dysmorphisms, and a webbed neck, genetic etiology and neuropsychological phenotype differ significantly. The present study examines putative differences in affective information processing and social assertiveness between adult women with NS and TS. Twenty-six women with NS, 40 women with TS, and 40 female controls were matched on age and intelligence, and subsequently compared on (1) alexithymia, measured by the Bermond-Vorst Alexithymia Questionnaire, (2) emotion perception, evaluated by the Emotion Recognition Task, and (3) social assertiveness and social discomfort, assessed by the Scale for Interpersonal Behavior. Women with TS showed higher levels of alexithymia than women with NS and controls (P-values assertiveness and the level of social discomfort. Women with NS and TS demonstrated different patterns of impairment in affective information processing, in terms of alexithymia and emotion perception. The present findings suggest neuropsychological phenotyping to be helpful for the diagnosis of specific cognitive-affective deficits in genetic syndromes, for the enhancement of genetic counseling, and for the development of personalized treatment plans. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Culture and postpartum mood problems: similarities and differences in the experiences of first- and second-generation Canadian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamisachvili, Lana; Ardiles, Paola; Mancewicz, Grazyna; Thompson, Sherry; Rabin, Kapri; Ross, Lori E

    2013-04-01

    Few studies have examined the role of culture in a woman's experience of postpartum mood problems (PPMP). This study explored differences and similarities in experiences of PPMP between first- and second-generation Canadian women. In this exploratory qualitative study, we interviewed nine first-generation and eight second-generation women who were clients of the Women's Health Centre at St. Joseph's Health Centre in Toronto, Canada. Using semistructured interviews, we explored how women perceived and experienced PPMP. Four themes reflected cultural issues: PPMP stigma, relationship with parents/in-laws, internalization of society's expectations of motherhood, and identity issues/relationship with self. The results of this study contribute to a limited literature on possible contributing factors to PPMP and can inform development of resources for delivering culturally appropriate mental health care for women dealing with PPMP.

  2. 'Every pregnant woman needs a midwife'--the experiences of HIV affected women in maternity care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Carmel; Alderdice, Fiona; Lohan, Maria; Spence, Dale

    2013-02-01

    'Every pregnant woman needs a midwife'-the experiences of HIV affected women in Northern Ireland. to explore HIV positive women's experiences of pregnancy and maternity care, with a focus on their interactions with midwives. a prospective qualitative study. regional HIV unit in Northern Ireland. 22 interviews were conducted with 10 women at different stages of their reproductive trajectories. the pervasive presence of HIV related stigma threatened the women's experience of pregnancy and care. The key staff attributes that facilitated a positive experience were knowledge and experience, empathy and understanding of their unique needs and continuity of care. pregnancy in the context of HIV, whilst offering a much needed sense of normality, also increases woman's sense of anxiety and vulnerability and therefore the need for supportive interventions that affirm normality is intensified. A maternity team approach, with a focus on providing 'balanced care' could meet all of the woman and child's medical needs, whilst also emphasising the normalcy of pregnancy. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Affective problems and decline in cognitive state in older adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, A; Patel, U; Rusted, J; Richards, M; Gaysina, D

    2018-05-24

    Evidence suggests that affective problems, such as depression and anxiety, increase risk for late-life dementia. However, the extent to which affective problems influence cognitive decline, even many years prior to clinical diagnosis of dementia, is not clear. The present study systematically reviews and synthesises the evidence for the association between affective problems and decline in cognitive state (i.e., decline in non-specific cognitive function) in older adults. An electronic search of PubMed, PsycInfo, Cochrane, and ScienceDirect was conducted to identify studies of the association between depression and anxiety separately and decline in cognitive state. Key inclusion criteria were prospective, longitudinal designs with a minimum follow-up period of 1 year. Data extraction and methodological quality assessment using the STROBE checklist were conducted independently by two raters. A total of 34 studies (n = 71 244) met eligibility criteria, with 32 studies measuring depression (n = 68 793), and five measuring anxiety (n = 4698). A multi-level meta-analysis revealed that depression assessed as a binary predictor (OR 1.36, 95% CI 1.05-1.76, p = 0.02) or a continuous predictor (B = -0.008, 95% CI -0.015 to -0.002, p = 0.012; OR 0.992, 95% CI 0.985-0.998) was significantly associated with decline in cognitive state. The number of anxiety studies was insufficient for meta-analysis, and they are described in a narrative review. Results of the present study improve current understanding of the temporal nature of the association between affective problems and decline in cognitive state. They also suggest that cognitive function may need to be monitored closely in individuals with affective disorders, as these individuals may be at particular risk of greater cognitive decline.

  4. Effect of periodontal therapy on pregnancy outcome in women affected by periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarannum, Fouzia; Faizuddin, Mohamed

    2007-11-01

    There is convincing evidence to suggest that infections affecting the mother during pregnancy may produce alterations in the normal cytokine- and hormone-regulated gestation, which could result in preterm labor, premature rupture of membranes, and preterm birth (PTB). Studies in the late 1990s associated periodontitis with preterm low birth weight (PLBW) deliveries, and this may have similar pathogenic mechanisms as other maternal infections. This study determined the effect of non-surgical periodontal therapy on pregnancy outcome. A total of 200 pregnant women with periodontitis were randomly assigned to treatment and control groups. Detailed data about previous and current pregnancies were obtained. All women received a full-mouth periodontal examination, including oral hygiene index-simplified, bleeding index, and clinical attachment level. The women in the treatment group received non-surgical periodontal therapy during the gestational period, and those in the control group received periodontal treatment after delivery. Periodontal therapy included plaque control instructions and scaling and root planing performed under local anesthesia. The outcome measures assessed were gestational age and birth weight of the infant. PTB was recorded when delivery occurred at PTBs in the treatment group and 68 PTBs in the control group. Twenty-six LBW infants were recorded in the treatment group, and 48 LBW infants were noted in the control group. The mean gestational ages were 33.8+/-2.8 weeks and 32.7+/-2.8 weeks in the treatment and control groups, respectively. The difference was statistically significant at P<0.006. The mean birth weight was 2,565.3+/-331.2 g in the treatment group and 2,459.6+/-380.7 g in the control group, with the difference being statistically significant at P<0.044. A multiple regression model showed a significant effect of periodontal treatment on birth outcomes. Non-surgical periodontal therapy can reduce the risk for preterm births in mothers who

  5. Women's labour and economic globalisation: a participatory workshop created by Alternative Women in Development (Alt-WID).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, C; Nazombei, E

    2000-03-01

    This article describes the aims, methods, materials and topics used in a participatory workshop created by Alternative Women in Development. The organization aims to bridge the gaps in analyzing human rights and economic justice in both North and South from a feminist perspective through a workshop. This workshop considers the varied roles that women play in the global economy and features a series of anecdotes to illustrate the diverse ways in which globalization affects women in all regions worldwide. The workshop runs for a minimum of 3 hours and is structured as follows: introduction; plenary: identifying the human rights of the women; small-group work, plenary: building a group analysis and discussion of alternatives to the existing policies; and individual and plenary evaluations. Furthermore, four anecdotes used at the workshop are presented. Among the outcomes of the workshop included the identification of the problem causes and development of strategies for action.

  6. PISA 2012 Analysis of School Variables Affecting Problem-Solving Competency: Turkey-Serbia Comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine YAVUZ

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available According to the OECD's PISA 2012 Turkey problem-solving report, Turkey and Serbia are at the same mathematical literacy level. However, Serbia's average of problem-solving competency is said to be higher than Turkey's. In this study, school variables that affect problem-solving competency of the two countries were examined and compared. The method of the study was causal comparison method, and HLM analysis was performed on data of 4494 students from 147 schools in Turkey sample and 4059 students from 132 schools in Serbia sample separately. As a result of HLM analysis, "obstacle and family donation" variable for Serbia and "abandon, teacher morale and mathematics competition" variable for Turkey were statistically significant. Although it was found that for each countries different variables influence the problem-solving competency, it was quite remarkable that these variables are in common in that they are components of the school climate concept.

  7. Quality of life in women with pelvic floor dysfunction

    OpenAIRE

    Mladenović-Segedi Ljiljana; Parezanović-Ilić Katarina; Ćurčić Aleksandar; Višnjevac Nemanja

    2011-01-01

    Background/Aim. Pelvic floor dysfunction is a frequent problem affecting more than 50% of women in peri- and postmenopause. Considering that ageing and menopause befall in the significant factors causing this issue, as well as the expected longevity of women in the world and in our country, pelvic floor dysfunction prevelence is foreseen to be even higher. The aim of the study was to evaluate impact of the symptoms of pelvic dysfunction on quality of life and examine body image satisfac...

  8. Factors Affecting Differential Equation Problem Solving Ability of Students at Pre-University Level: A Conceptual Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aisha, Bibi; Zamri, Sharifa NorulAkmar Syed; Abdallah, Nabeel; Abedalaziz, Mohammad; Ahmad, Mushtaq; Satti, Umbreen

    2017-01-01

    In this study, different factors affecting students' differential equations (DEs) solving abilities were explored at pre university level. To explore main factors affecting students' differential equations problem solving ability, articles for a 19-year period, from 1996 to 2015, were critically reviewed and analyzed. It was revealed that…

  9. Sexual violence against women: the scope of the problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dartnall, Elizabeth; Jewkes, Rachel

    2013-02-01

    Rape and sexual violence occur in all societies, and cut across all social classes. Prevalence estimates of rape victimisation range between 6 and 59% of women having experienced sexual abuse from their husbands or boyfriends in their lifetime. Two population-based studies from South Africa have found that 28% and 37% of men, respectively, have perpetrated rape. Estimates of rape perpetration from high-income countries seem to be lower than those from low- and middle-income countries; however, current data make it impossible to confirm this. Women and girls are much more likely to be the victims and men the perpetrators and, in most instances, the perpetrator is known to the victim. Children are particularly vulnerable to sexual abuse, with girls being at greater risk, especially while at school and at home. High rates of child sexual abuse are emerging from the research, with an increasing understanding of the effect of child sexual abuse on later perpetration and victimisation, highlighting the importance of primary prevention for sexual violence to address childhood exposures to violence. Much of our knowledge about sexual violence has historically been based on research undertaken in high-income countries. This, however, is changing with the emergence of good-quality studies from other settings, particularly in Africa, alongside an increasing number of multi-country studies looking at interpersonal and sexual violence. Most countries lack population data on perpetration of sexual violence, across all categories, including children, and a major gap exists in research on sexual violence among sub-groups and populations. Much of the existing research has limitations that affect cross-study comparability, owing to differences in definitions, research tools, methods and sampling used. Improved research is essential. Research priorities for understanding the magnitude of sexual violence prevalence include assessment of the prevalence and patterns of sexual violence

  10. Eating Patterns and Disorders in a College Population: Are College Women's Eating Problems a New Phenomenon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse-Biber, Sharlene

    1989-01-01

    Analysis of questionnaires returned by 395 sophomores reveals that the eating difficulties of college women may be a problem that only partially resembles clinical eating disorders. They displayed the behavioral symptoms but not the psychological traits associated with anorexia and bulimia. Diagnosis and treatment issues, and sociocultural…

  11. What Factors Contribute to Intimate Partner Violence Against Women in Urban, Conflict-Affected Settings? Qualitative Findings from Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, L F; Gupta, J; Shuman, S; Cole, H; Kpebo, D; Falb, K L

    2016-04-01

    Rapid urbanization is a key driver of the unique set of health risks facing urban populations. One of the most critical health hazards facing urban women is intimate partner violence (IPV). In post-conflict urban areas, women may face an even greater risk of IPV. Yet, few studies have examined the IPV experiences of urban-dwelling, conflict-affected women, including those who have been internally displaced. This study qualitatively examined the social and structural characteristics of the urban environment that contributed to the IPV experiences of women residing in post-conflict Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire. Ten focus groups were conducted with men and women, both internally displaced (IDPs) and non-displaced. Lack of support networks, changing gender roles, and tensions between traditional gender norms and those of the "modern" city were reported as key contributors to IPV. Urban poverty and with it unemployment, food insecurity, and housing instability also played a role. Finally, IDPs faced heightened vulnerability to IPV as a result of displacement and discrimination. The relationship between economic strains and IPV are similar to other conflict-affected settings, but Abidjan's urban environment presented other unique characteristics contributing to IPV. Understanding these factors is crucial to designing appropriate services for women and for implementing IPV reduction interventions in urban areas. Strengthening formal and informal mechanisms for help-seeking, utilizing multi-modal interventions that address economic stress and challenge inequitable gender norms, as well as tailoring programs specifically for IDPs, are some considerations for IPV program planning focused on conflict-affected women in urban areas.

  12. Women as Managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Linda L.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses theories that socialization or "the system" cause women's problems in management, contending that both contribute. Analyzes women manager's problems in using and misusing power and coping with stress. Discusses public/private sector differences. Suggests that networking and constructive self-analysis can alleviate some problems. (AYC)

  13. Sleep disturbances and memory impairment among pregnant women consuming khat: An under-recognized problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Dilshad Manzar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Khat (Catha edulis is a evergreen flowering shrub that is cultivated at high altitudes, especially in East Africa and the southwest of the Arabian Peninsula. The plant contains alkaloids, of which cathinone and cathine have structural similarity and pharmacological action similar to amphetamines. The leaves are, therefore, consumed in some regions as a psychoactive stimulant due to cultural beliefs and misperceptions on the health benefits of khat consumption. This resulted in a growing prevalence of khat consumption among pregnant women. The myriad of physiological changes associated with pregnancy impairs sleep and memory. Moreover, khat has also been shown to have adverse effects on memory and sleep. Therefore, its use during pregnancy may further aggravate those impairments. The purpose of this mini-review is to summarize the changes in sleep and memory during pregnancy and the evidence supporting a relationship between khat consumption and neurocognitive deficits and sleep dysfunctions. The misperceptions of beneficial effects of khat, the high prevalence of consumption among pregnant women, and the possibility of under-reporting of khat abuse do necessitate the development of alternative methodologies to identify cases of unreported khat abuse in pregnant women. It is proposed that screening for sleep problems and memory deficits may help identify under-reported cases of khat abuse in pregnant women.

  14. Experiences and consequences for women with hand-arm vibration injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bylund, Sonya Hörnqwist; Ahlgren, Christina

    2010-01-01

    Vibrating machines are used in a variety of occupations. Exposure to hand-arm vibration can cause vascular, neurological, and muscular symptoms in the hands and arms. This qualitative study provides a deeper understanding of the consequences of vibration injuries in women. In depth interviews were conducted with eight women with vibration injuries. The women were metal and wood product assemblers and dental personnel. The transcribed interviews were analyzed in accordance with the grounded theory method. The core category in the findings was "another life". This was constructed by the categories "consequences for everyday activities", "work performance", "household duties", "leisure", and "self perception" and shows that the injury had affected most parts of the women's lives and decreased their quality of life. The importance of well-functioning hands in all activities was highlighted. Reduced hand function due to numbness, muscle weakness, and pain caused restricted abilities to perform activities at work, at home, and during leisure time. The women described impact on their self-perception, as the injury had affected them in their roles as a worker, mother, and woman. The findings indicate that a vibration injury is a multidimensional problem that can affect every aspect of an individual's life. Health care providers should be aware of these complex consequences.

  15. Factors affecting the use of prenatal care by non-western women in industrialized western countries: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite the potential of prenatal care for addressing many pregnancy complications and concurrent health problems, non-western women in industrialized western countries more often make inadequate use of prenatal care than women from the majority population do. This study aimed to give a systematic review of factors affecting non-western women’s use of prenatal care (both medical care and prenatal classes) in industrialized western countries. Methods Eleven databases (PubMed, Embase, PsycINFO, Cochrane, Sociological Abstracts, Web of Science, Women’s Studies International, MIDIRS, CINAHL, Scopus and the NIVEL catalogue) were searched for relevant peer-reviewed articles from between 1995 and July 2012. Qualitative as well as quantitative studies were included. Quality was assessed using the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool. Factors identified were classified as impeding or facilitating, and categorized according to a conceptual framework, an elaborated version of Andersen’s healthcare utilization model. Results Sixteen articles provided relevant factors that were all categorized. A number of factors (migration, culture, position in host country, social network, expertise of the care provider and personal treatment and communication) were found to include both facilitating and impeding factors for non-western women’s utilization of prenatal care. The category demographic, genetic and pregnancy characteristics and the category accessibility of care only included impeding factors. Lack of knowledge of the western healthcare system and poor language proficiency were the most frequently reported impeding factors. Provision of information and care in women’s native languages was the most frequently reported facilitating factor. Conclusion The factors found in this review provide specific indications for identifying non-western women who are at risk of not using prenatal care adequately and for developing interventions and appropriate policy aimed at

  16. Health-related quality of life of pregnant women with heartburn and regurgitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall'alba, Valesca; Callegari-Jacques, Sidia Maria; Krahe, Cláudio; Bruch, Juliana Paula; Alves, Bruna Cherubini; Barros, Sérgio Gabriel Silva de

    2015-01-01

    Heartburn and regurgitation frequently occur in the third trimester of pregnancy, but their impact on quality of life has not been thoroughly investigated. To measure health-related quality of life of third-trimester pregnant women with heartburn and regurgitation. Methods Data on obstetric history, heartburn and regurgitation frequency and intensity, history of heartburn and regurgitation and health-related quality of life were collected of 82 third-trimester pregnant women. Sixty-two (76%) women had heartburn, and 58 (71%), regurgitation; 20 were asymptomatic. Mean gestational age was 33.8±3.7 weeks; 35 (43%) women had a family history of heartburn and/or regurgitation, and 57 (70%) were asymptomatic before pregnancy. The following quality of life concepts were significantly reduced: physical problems and social functioning for heartburn; physical problems and emotional functioning for regurgitation. There was agreement between heartburn in present and previous pregnancies. Heartburn and/or regurgitation affected health-related quality of life of third trimester pregnant women.

  17. HEALTH-RELATED QUALITY OF LIFE OF PREGNANT WOMEN WITH HEARTBURN AND REGURGITATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valesca DALL'ALBA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Heartburn and regurgitation frequently occur in the third trimester of pregnancy, but their impact on quality of life has not been thoroughly investigated. Objective To measure health-related quality of life of third-trimester pregnant women with heartburn and regurgitation. Methods Data on obstetric history, heartburn and regurgitation frequency and intensity, history of heartburn and regurgitation and health-related quality of life were collected of 82 third-trimester pregnant women. Results Sixty-two (76% women had heartburn, and 58 (71%, regurgitation; 20 were asymptomatic. Mean gestational age was 33.8±3.7 weeks; 35 (43% women had a family history of heartburn and/or regurgitation, and 57 (70% were asymptomatic before pregnancy. The following quality of life concepts were significantly reduced: physical problems and social functioning for heartburn; physical problems and emotional functioning for regurgitation. There was agreement between heartburn in present and previous pregnancies. Conclusion Heartburn and/or regurgitation affected health-related quality of life of third trimester pregnant women

  18. Evaluation of a comedy intervention to improve coping and help-seeking for mental health problems in a women's prison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Steve; Twardzicki, Maya; Gomez, Fabio; Henderson, Claire

    2014-08-01

    Rates of mental illness and self-harm are very high among women prisoners. Questionnaires assessed prisoners' knowledge of and attitudes towards mental health problems, and relevant behavioural intentions before and after the intervention, to evaluate the effectiveness of a comedy show in a women's prison to reduce mental health stigma and improve coping and help-seeking for mental health problems. The intervention appeared to have been successful in improving some aspects of prisoners' knowledge about the effectiveness of psychotherapy (Z = - 2.304, p = 0.021) and likelihood of recovery from mental health problems (Z = - 2.699, p = 0.007). There were significant post-intervention increases in the proportion who stated they would discuss or disclose mental health problems with all but one of the sources of help in the questionnaire, which was consistent with the increases in the number of prisoners who rated themselves as likely to start using different sources of help or prison activities. There was no improvement in intentions to associate with people with a mental health problem. The intervention appeared effective in improving factors that might increase help-seeking and improve coping, but not those that would change behaviour towards others with a mental health problem.

  19. Women, men and public health-how the choice of normative theory affects resource allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Månsdotter, Anna; Lindholm, Lars; Ohman, Ann

    2004-09-01

    Women live longer than men in almost all countries, but men are more privileged in terms of power, influence, resources and probably morbidity. This investigation aims at illustrating how the choice of normative framework affects judgements about the fairness in these sex differences, and about desired societal change. The selected theories are welfare economics, health sector extra-welfarism, justice as fairness and feminist justice. By means of five Swedish proposals aiming at improving the population's health or "sex equity", facts and values are applied to resource allocation. Although we do not claim a specific ethical foundation, it seems to us that the feminist criterion has great potential in public health policy. The overall conclusion is that the normative framework must be explicitly discussed and stated in issues of women's and men's health.

  20. Factors Affecting the Quality of Life and the Illness Acceptance of Pregnant Women with Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Bień

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains an analysis of the factors affecting the quality of life (QoL and the illness acceptance of diabetic pregnant women. The study was performed between January and April, 2013. It included 114 pregnant women with diabetes, hospitalized in the High Risk Pregnancy Wards of several hospitals in Lublin, Poland. The study used a diagnostic survey with questionnaires. The research instruments used were: The WHOQOL-Bref questionnaire and the Acceptance of Illness Scale (AIS. The women’s general quality of life was slightly higher than their perceived general health. A higher quality of life was reported by women with a very good financial standing, very good perceived health, moderate self-reported knowledge of diabetes, and also by those only treated with diet and stating that the illness did not interfere with their lives (p < 0.05. Women with a very good financial standing (p < 0.009, high self-reported health (p < 0.002, and those treated with by means of a diet (p < 0.04 had a higher acceptance of illness. A higher acceptance of illness contributes to a higher general quality of life and a better perception of one’s health.

  1. The effects of adolescent intimate partner violence on women's educational attainment and earnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Adrienne E; Greeson, Megan R; Kennedy, Angie C; Tolman, Richard M

    2013-11-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a serious, widespread problem that negatively affects women's lives, including their economic status. The current study explored whether the financial harm associated with IPV begins as early as adolescence. With longitudinal data from a sample of 498 women currently or formerly receiving welfare, we used latent growth curve modeling to examine the relationships between adolescent IPV, educational attainment, and women's earnings. We found that women who had been victimized by a partner during adolescence obtained less education compared with nonvictimized women, with victimization indirectly influencing women's earnings via educational attainment. The findings support the need for intervention strategies aimed at preventing IPV and promoting women's educational and career development over the life course.

  2. Female peers in small work groups enhance women's motivation, verbal participation, and career aspirations in engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Nilanjana; Scircle, Melissa McManus; Hunsinger, Matthew

    2015-04-21

    For years, public discourse in science education, technology, and policy-making has focused on the "leaky pipeline" problem: the observation that fewer women than men enter science, technology, engineering, and mathematics fields and more women than men leave. Less attention has focused on experimentally testing solutions to this problem. We report an experiment investigating one solution: we created "microenvironments" (small groups) in engineering with varying proportions of women to identify which environment increases motivation and participation, and whether outcomes depend on students' academic stage. Female engineering students were randomly assigned to one of three engineering groups of varying sex composition: 75% women, 50% women, or 25% women. For first-years, group composition had a large effect: women in female-majority and sex-parity groups felt less anxious than women in female-minority groups. However, among advanced students, sex composition had no effect on anxiety. Importantly, group composition significantly affected verbal participation, regardless of women's academic seniority: women participated more in female-majority groups than sex-parity or female-minority groups. Additionally, when assigned to female-minority groups, women who harbored implicit masculine stereotypes about engineering reported less confidence and engineering career aspirations. However, in sex-parity and female-majority groups, confidence and career aspirations remained high regardless of implicit stereotypes. These data suggest that creating small groups with high proportions of women in otherwise male-dominated fields is one way to keep women engaged and aspiring toward engineering careers. Although sex parity works sometimes, it is insufficient to boost women's verbal participation in group work, which often affects learning and mastery.

  3. Counterintuitive findings from a qualitative study of mental health in English women's prisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caulfield, Laura S

    2016-12-19

    Purpose Large numbers of women in prison report significant emotional and mental health problems, and there is evidence to suggest that the prison environment may exacerbate the incidence and severity of these issues (Armour, 2012). However, there has been limited exploration of the extent to which women's mental health problems exist prior to incarceration, whether symptoms first occur in incarceration, and how incarceration affects this. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach In-depth interviews were conducted with 43 women incarcerated in three English prisons and a thematic analysis of the data was conducted. Review of official prison records provided a form of data triangulation. Findings Analysis of the data revealed that while many women who experienced mental health issues in prison had experienced these issues in the past, a number of women reported first experiencing mental health and emotional problems only after entering prison. Although these problems often recede, this demonstrates the significant impact that entering prison can have upon the mental health of women. Unusually, the data highlighted many positive experiences of support within prison. However, there was some lack of consistency in the treatment and support offered to women. Originality/value The data presented here are in many ways more positive than previous research and - as opposed to much of the existing literature that simply states the prevalence women's issues in prison - provides insight into the lived experiences of women in prison. This paper documents how prison can present an opportunity for women to engage with treatment, but there is a need for a clearer understanding of women's needs and consistent and appropriate support.

  4. Review of laboratory programs for women Points-of-Contact Committee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duke, D.; Magrini, K. [comps.] [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); McLane, V. [comp.] [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Wieda, K. [comp.] [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-06-01

    The mission of the DOE Review of Laboratory Programs for Women is to: provide DOE and its Laboratories with effective strategies, targeting women, for establishing aggressive outreach programs which improve the access of women to careers in science, engineering, and mathematics. Ensure that the Department and its Laboratories are exemplary places of employment by providing programs which enhance opportunity, remove barriers, and assist women in achieving full professional development. A survey of the DOE facilities was undertaken by the Points-of-Contact for the DOE Review of Laboratory Programs for Women in order to gather data to be used as a baseline against which to measure future progress. We plan to look at current programs already in place and evaluate them with a view to deciding which programs are most effective, and selecting model programs suitable for implementation at other facilities. The survey focused on four areas: statistical data, laboratory policy, formal and informal programs which affect the quality of life in the work environment, and career development and advancement, and educational programs. Although this report focuses on women, the problems discussed affect all DOE facility employees.

  5. Gender-based political harassment and violence: effects on the political work and public roles of women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valverde, María Eugenia Rojas

    2010-01-01

    This article shows the significance of the problems of political harassment and violence against women in positions of political responsibility in Bolivia. This phenomenon is seen in both rural and urban areas and transcends borders. It has been shown that these attacks constitute a violation of women's civil and political rights and a threat to the physical and mental health of women leaders in Bolivia. Furthermore, there is no punishment of guilty parties, reparation, or moral or material compensation for the women who are affected. In Bolivia, gender-based harassment and violence is a fundamental barrier to women's political participation. However, this phenomenon is still not addressed by government programs and is not part of the public discourse and debate. In spite of the measures taken to promote women's political participation, several different administrations have been unable to guarantee women the capacity to occupy positions of responsibility without being threatened or harassed. The results of our research led to a bill addressing this problem. Subsequently, Ecuador took this bill as an example and replicated it in a legislative initiative. These results show the importance of research by organizations that represent women in preventing unjust situations and health problems.

  6. Sickness absence as an interactive process: gendered experiences of young, highly educated women with mental health problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdonk, Petra; de Rijk, Angelique; Klinge, Ineke; de Vries, Anneke

    2008-11-01

    Highly educated Dutch women experience more work related mental health disability than their male counterparts, and yet little is known regarding the process. Using the theory of symbolic interactionism, we examined how women interpret their roles at work, during sick leave, and upon their return to work. Semi-structured interviews focusing on role perceptions and interactions with other actors were conducted with 13 women (aged 29-41 years) on sick leave or off work for periods ranging from half a year to 8 years. The women worked overtime because of work aholism, or to meet supervisors' expectations. This led to mental health problems and social isolation. Taking sick leave aided recovery, but further isolated the women. Insufficient support from the workplace and social insurance professionals intensified negative feelings. Psychological counselling provided alternatives whereby work and private roles could become more balanced. However, their reintegration into the workplace failed because the women could not implement these strategies when the organizational culture failed to change. A long lead-up time preceded sickness absence and sick leave allowed for recovery and value adjustment. However, a variety of interpretations reinforced the women's individualized focus, thereby hampering their successful reintegration. Given the importance of implementing effective sick leave prevention measures in the workplace, psychological treatment should focus on women's interactions with their work environment.

  7. Has ADVANCE Affected Senior Compared to Junior Women Scientists Differently?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosser, Sue

    2015-01-01

    Substantial evidence exists to demonstrate that the NSF ADVANCE Inititiative has made a positive impact upon institutions. Since it began in 2001, ADVANCE has changed the conversation, policies, and practices in ways to remove obstacles and systemic barriers preventing success for academic women scientists and engineers. Results from ADVANCE projects on campuses have facilitated consensus nationally about policies and practices that institutions may implement to help to alleviate issues, particularly for junior women scientists.Although getting women into senior and leadership positions in STEM constituted an initial impetus for ADVANCE, less emphasis was placed upon the needs of senior women scientists. Surveys of academic women scientists indicate that the issues faced by junior and senior women scientists differ significantly. The focus of ADVANCE on junior women in many ways seemed appropriate--the senior cohort of women scinetists is fed by the junior cohort of scientists; senior women serve as mentors, role models, and leaders for the junior colleagues, while continuing to struggle to achieve full status in the profession. This presentation will center on the differences in issues faced by senior compared to junior women scientists to explore whether a next step for ADVANCE should be to address needs of senior academic women scientists.

  8. Factors affecting Purchase behavior of Women grocery consumer- An Insight

    OpenAIRE

    Chopra, Dr. Anu Nagpal

    2014-01-01

    Women are most powerful consumers in the world as they control almost 80 percent of the household spending. And no longer can the womens spending powers and influence be neglected. The role of women in the society and their effects has changed. Most of the marketers know that women are different, but we actually need a deep rooted understanding of how and why they are different. Studying women could be interesting as Family grocery shopping is the accepted domain of women; however, modern so...

  9. Working with women survivors of the Holocaust: affective experiences in transference and countertransference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pines, D

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes and discusses some late effects of massive traumatization on two women survivors of the Holocaust. Both had appeared to recover from their affective experience of psychic death and hopelessness in Auschwitz and to have moved towards a resumption of further stages of the life cycle. The normal transitional crises of adolescence, when children emotionally separate from their parents, led to severe breakdown in both these patients. Analysis showed that denial, repression and splitting had enabled them to distance themselves from the overwhelming horror of their past, but it had also led to concrete thinking as opposed to metaphorical, and to non-differentiation of psychic and somatic pain. Their inability to dream and the absence of fantasy life in the material could neither facilitate the analytic task of working through these patients' unbearable experience, nor enable them at first to face and recover unbearable affects during the course of the analysis. Hence the analyst's acceptance of an unbearable countertransference and careful monitoring of the affects evoked proved to be an invaluable tool.

  10. Perceived health and work-environment related problems and associated subjective production loss in an academic population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohela-Karlsson, Malin; Nybergh, Lotta; Jensen, Irene

    2018-02-14

    The aim was to investigate the prevalence of health problems and work environment problems and how these are associated with subjective production loss among women and men at an academic workplace. An additional aim was to investigate whether there were differences between women and men according to age group, years at current workplace, academic rank or managerial position. A questionnaire was sent in 2011 to all employees at a Swedish university (n = 5144). Only researchers and teachers were included in the study (n = 3207). Spearman correlations were performed to investigate differences in health and work environment problems. Employees who reported having experienced work environment or health problems in the previous seven days (n = 1475) were included in the analyses in order to investigate differences in subjective production loss. This was done using Student's t-test, One-way Anova and generalized linear models. The response rate was 63% (n = 2022). A total of 819 academic staff (40% of the population) reported experiencing either health problems, work environment problems or both during the previous seven days. The prevalence of health problems only or a combination of work environment and health problems was higher among women than men (p-value ˂0.05). This was especially the case for younger women, those in lower academic positions and those who had worked for fewer years at their current workplace. No difference was found for work environment problems. The majority of the employees who reported problems said that these problems affected their ability to perform at work (84-99%). The average production loss varied between 31 and 42% depending on the type of problem. Production loss due to health-related and work-environment related problems was highest among junior researchers and managers. No significant difference between men and women was found in the level of production loss. Subjective production loss in academia can be associated

  11. Micronutrient status and effects of supplementation in anemic pregnant women in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ma, A.

    2013-01-01

    Background

    Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is a major nutrition related problem in China, especially affecting pregnant women,like in most developing countries. Deficiencies of vitamins also play an important role, such that iron, retinol and riboflavin deficiencies tend

  12. Determinants of emotional problems and mood disorders in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Głowińska, Aleksandra; Zielona-Jenek, Monika; Pawelczyk, Adam; Banaszewska, Beata E

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence and severity of emotional problems among Polish women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and seek factors which increase the risk of their occurrence. The study group consisted of 82 women (aged 18-48), who were diagnosed with PCOS based on the Rotterdam criteria. During hospitalization, the patients completed a number of questionnaires, providing their sociodemographic data and information concerning the inconvenience of disease-associated symptoms. The question-naires included the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), and Multidimensional Self-Esteem Inventory (MSEI). Data obtained during medical examinations (blood tests, transvaginal ultrasound, height and body mass measurements) were analyzed. Out of 82 women, the results detected risk for depression in 42 (51.22%), mild depressive disorders in 32, moderate disorders in 8, and severe disorder in 2 patients. No statistically significant correlation between BDI or state anxiety and the level of the analyzed hormones, insulin resistance, or infertility treatment, was found. General self-esteem, trait anxi-ety, and marital status were associated with the occurrence of depression symptoms. BMI was associated with the level of state anxiety during hospitalization. Women with PCOS are at risk for mood and anxiety disorders. Disease-related somatic factors are not directly associated with the risk for disorder occurrence. However, severity of depression symptoms has been shown to be influenced by permanent psychological characteristics of the studied women, i.e. self-esteem, trait anxiety, and life situation (marital status). Therefore, it is recommended to include interviews about patient life situation and screening questionnaires for assessing depression into the diagnostic procedures in PCOS patients. Patients should be referred for a psychological or psychiatric consultation, if needed.

  13. Stress and distress in migration: problems and resources of Turkish women in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirdal, G M

    1984-01-01

    low status, these women seemed determined to solve their problems, and thus had strength and resources as well, arising out of, among other factors, the knowledge of Turkish girls that, because of their sex, they have to be prepared to make adjustments.

  14. Discrimination and alcohol-related problems among college students: a prospective examination of mediating effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzenbuehler, Mark L; Corbin, William R; Fromme, Kim

    2011-06-01

    Discrimination is a risk factor for health-risk behaviors, including alcohol abuse. Far less is known about the mechanisms through which discrimination leads to alcohol-related problems, particularly during high-risk developmental periods such as young adulthood. The present study tested a mediation model using prospective data from a large, diverse sample of 1539 college students. This model hypothesized that discrimination would be associated with established cognitive (positive alcohol expectancies) and affective (negative affect and coping motives) risk factors for alcohol-related problems, which would account for the prospective association between discrimination and alcohol problems. Structural equation modeling indicated that discrimination was associated cross-sectionally with negative affect and more coping motives for drinking, but not with greater alcohol expectancies. Coping motives mediated the prospective relationship between discrimination and alcohol-related problems. Additionally, results indicated significant indirect effects from discrimination to alcohol-related problems through negative affect and coping motives. These associations were evident for multiple groups confronting status-based discrimination, including women, racial/ethnic minorities, and lesbian/gay/bisexual individuals. This study identified potential affective mechanisms linking discrimination to alcohol-related problems. Results suggest several avenues for prevention and intervention efforts with individuals from socially disadvantaged groups. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Mother-Child Affect and Emotion Socialization Processes across the Late Preschool Period: Predictions of Emerging Behaviour Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newland, Rebecca P.; Crnic, Keith A.

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined concurrent and longitudinal relations between maternal negative affective behaviour and child negative emotional expression in preschool age children with (n=96) or without (n=126) an early developmental risk, as well as the predictions of later behaviour problems. Maternal negative affective behaviour, child…

  16. Associations between bride price stress and intimate partner violence amongst pregnant women in Timor-Leste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Susan; Mohsin, Mohammed; Tay, Alvin Kuowei; Soares, Elisa; Tam, Natalino; da Costa, Zelia; Tol, Wietse; Silove, Derrick

    2017-08-28

    Reducing violence against women is a global public health priority, particularly in low-income and conflict-affected societies. However, more needs to be known about the causes of intimate partner violence (IPV) in these settings, including the stress of bride price obligations. The representative study of women attending ante-natal clinics in Dili, Timor-Leste was conducted between June, 2013 and September, 2014 with 1672 pregnant women, a response rate of 96%. We applied contextually developed measures for the stress of bride price and poverty, and the World Health Organisation measure for intimate partner violence. Compared to those with no problems with bride price, women with moderate or serious problems with that custom reported higher rates of IPV (18.0% vs. 43.6%). Adjusting for socio-demographic factors, multivariate analysis revealed that ongoing poverty (OR = 1.75, 95% CI: 1.20-2.56) was significantly associated with IPV. Importantly, the strongest association with IPV was problems with bride price (OR = 2.73, 95% CI: 1.86-4.01). This is the first large consecutively sampled study to demonstrate a strong association between the stressors of bride price and poverty with IPV. Notably, bride price stress had the strongest association with IPV. Revealing this hitherto unrecognized factor of bride price stress may prove pivotal in guiding policy and interventions aimed at reducing IPV, and thereby improve the health and psychosocial status of women in low income and conflict-affected settings.

  17. Environmental exposure of pregnant women to tobacco smoke and selected socio-economic factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Kalinowski

    2017-08-01

    Conclusions. Study results indicate the problem of exposure of pregnant women to smoke. Studied socio-economic factors affect the degree of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke. There is a need to implement systematic activities in the field of social education about the influence of tobacco smoke on intrauterine development of the fetus. For this purpose it would be useful to develop a health program for women of child-bearing age with focus on the most vulnerable social groups of women. It is also necessary to provide people actively smoking from pregnant women, in particular of home environment, with health education.

  18. Affective (depressive) morbidity in puerperal Nigerian women: validation of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uwakwe, Richard; Okonkwo, John E N

    2003-04-01

    To determine the rate of depression in a group of postpartum Nigerian women and to validate the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) in this group. Between April and August 2000, all postpartum women who remained in the maternity ward for up to 7 days, and those who attended the postnatal clinics of Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital were recruited. Translated local language versions of the EPDS and the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale were used to screen the subjects. A structured interview schedule was adapted from the depression section of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview and affective module of the ICD-10 Symptom Check List to assess screened subjects. The total rejection rate was 23%, with 225 women participating in the study. Twenty-four subjects (10.7%) had depression. At the optimal cut-off score of 9, the EPDS had a sensitivity of 0.75, and specificity of 0.97. The EPDS clearly distinguished between depressed and non-depressed postpartum mothers (t = 7.63, P < 0.001, df = 222). Because of its brevity and acceptability, it is recommended that the EPDS be used in routine postnatal screening.

  19. Another face of violence against women: Infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Rusen; Taner, Aylin; Guneri, Sezer Er; Yilmaz, Bulent

    2017-01-01

    Background & Objective: Violence against women is a widespread problem and has serious implications on women’s health. Infertility, in many ways, is a very stressful condition that affect social and marital life of a couple; moreover, compared to fertile women, infertile women are twice as vulnerable against violence. Our objective was to determine the prevalence of violence and define the effect of infertility on violence on women receiving infertility treatment. Methods: Descriptive and cross-sectional study was carried out 301 infertile women between November 2015 and August 2016 in a state hospital, Izmir. Data were collected as “Sociodemographic Characteristics Form” and “Infertile Women’s Exposure to Violence Determination Scale”. Results: The mean age of women was 31.77±5.46 years; the average duration of marriage was 6.93±4.53 years. About 32.5% of women stated that they have suffered from violence throughout their lives and 4.7% of women were still suffering from violence, while 5.0% of women were subjected to violence after infertility was diagnosed. Conclusion: It is an encouraging finding that infertile women have a low exposure to violence. However, despite a low violence rate, there is an increase in violence toward women who have been diagnosed with infertility. PMID:29067064

  20. Childhood conduct problems and young adult outcomes among women with childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Elizabeth B; Hinshaw, Stephen P

    2016-02-01

    We tested whether conduct problems predicted young adult functioning and psychiatric symptoms among women diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) during childhood, in the context of 3 potential adolescent mediators: internalizing problems, peer rejection, and school failure and disciplinary problems. We controlled for childhood ADHD severity, IQ, and demographic factors, and in the mediational tests, for adolescent conduct problems. Data came from 140 participants in the Berkeley Girls With ADHD Longitudinal Study. We used bootstrapping methods to assess indirect effects (mediators). Both childhood, F(1, 118) change = 9.00, p = .003, R2 change = .069, and adolescent, F(1, 109) change = 10.41, p = .002, R2 change = .083, conduct problems were associated with worse overall functioning during young adulthood, controlling for initial ADHD severity, child IQ, and demographics. Results were similar when predicting psychiatric symptoms. Adolescent school failure and disciplinary problems mediated the relations between childhood conduct problems and both young adult functioning and externalizing problems; adolescent internalizing problems and peer conflict mediated the relation between childhood conduct problems and young adult internalizing problems. As is true for boys, childhood and adolescent conduct problems are associated with poor adult outcomes among girls with ADHD, with school failure and disciplinary problems, internalizing problems, and peer conflict functioning as mediators of these relations. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Efficacy of an Online Resource for Teaching Interpersonal Problem Solving Skills to Women Graduate Students in Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekki, Jennifer M.; Bernstein, Bianca; Fabert, Natalie; Gildar, Natalie; Way, Amy

    2014-01-01

    Interpersonal problem solving skills allow engineers to prevent interpersonal difficulties more effectively and to manage conflict, both of which are critical to successful participation on teams. This research provides evidence that the "Career"WISE online learning environment can improve those skills among women in engineering graduate…

  2. Problem Behaviours of Kindergartners: The Affects of Children's Cognitive Ability, Creativity, and Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Sung-Ae; Kim, Seong Hyun; Kim, HyunJin

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the affects of cognitive ability, creativity, and self-esteem on kindergartners' problem behaviour. Participants were 203 children (mean age = 65.8 months) attending kindergartens in Korea. Data collection used the Korean version of Child Behaviour Checklist, the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, the Torrance Test of…

  3. FACTORS AFFECTING WOMEN’S AUTONOMOUS DECISION MAKING IN RESEARCH PARTICIPATION AMONGST YORUBA WOMEN OF WESTERN NIGERIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    PRINCEWILL, CHITU WOMEHOMA; JEGEDE, AYODELE S.; NORDSTRöM, KARIN; LANRE-ABASS, BOLATITO; ELGER, BERNICE SIMONE

    2016-01-01

    Research is a global enterprise requiring participation of both genders for generalizable knowledge; advancement of science and evidence based medical treatment. Participation of women in research is necessary to reduce the current bias that most empirical evidence is obtained from studies with men to inform health care and related policy interventions. Various factors are assumed to limit autonomy amongst the Yoruba women of western Nigeria. This paper seeks to explore the experience and understanding of autonomy by the Yoruba women in relation to research participation. Focus is on factors that affect women’s autonomous decision making in research participation. An exploratory qualitative approach comprising four focus group discussions, 42 in-depth interviews and 14 key informant interviews was used. The study permits a significant amount of triangulation, as opinions of husbands and religious leaders are also explored. Interviews and discussions were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. Content analysis was employed for data analysis. Findings show that concepts of autonomy varied amongst the Yoruba women. Patriarchy, religion and culture are conceived to have negative impact on the autonomy of women in respect to research participation. Among the important findings are: 1) male dominance is strongly emphasized by religious leaders who should teach equality, 2) while men feel that by making decisions for women, they are protecting them, the women on the other hand see this protection as a way of limiting their autonomy. We recommend further studies to develop culturally appropriate and workable recruitment methods to increase women’s participation in research. PMID:26871880

  4. Athene in Academe: Women Mentoring Women in the Academy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalker, Joyce

    1994-01-01

    Traditionally conceived, mentoring has a male orientation that ignores women's experience as "same" and "other" in academia and the problems of men mentoring women and of women mentors socializing mentees into acceptance of the patriarchal system. An alternative view values women's unique position and critiques existing power structures. (SK)

  5. A STUDY ON PROBLEM AND CHALLENGES OF WORKING WOMEN

    OpenAIRE

    Neetu Anand

    2017-01-01

    As we all know role of working women has changed throughout he word due to sometimes economic conditions and social demands too. This has result in a scenario in which working women have terrible presser to develop a career as robust as there mode counterparts. As we all know that women are born multitaskers, they always increasing working presser in taking a tall on the working women leaving them with less time for themselves. In today’s the increasing responsibilities on the personal font ...

  6. Sleep disturbances in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: prevalence, pathophysiology, impact and management strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Vivienne M; Van Ryswyk, Emer M; Varcoe, Tamara J; Rodgers, Raymond J; March, Wendy A; Moran, Lisa J; Avery, Jodie C; McEvoy, R Doug; Davies, Michael J

    2018-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complex endocrine disorder affecting the reproductive, metabolic and psychological health of women. Clinic-based studies indicate that sleep disturbances and disorders including obstructive sleep apnea and excessive daytime sleepiness occur more frequently among women with PCOS compared to comparison groups without the syndrome. Evidence from the few available population-based studies is supportive. Women with PCOS tend to be overweight/obese, but this only partly accounts for their sleep problems as associations are generally upheld after adjustment for body mass index; sleep problems also occur in women with PCOS of normal weight. There are several, possibly bidirectional, pathways through which PCOS is associated with sleep disturbances. The pathophysiology of PCOS involves hyperandrogenemia, a form of insulin resistance unique to affected women, and possible changes in cortisol and melatonin secretion, arguably reflecting altered hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal function. Psychological and behavioral pathways are also likely to play a role, as anxiety and depression, smoking, alcohol use and lack of physical activity are also common among women with PCOS, partly in response to the distressing symptoms they experience. The specific impact of sleep disturbances on the health of women with PCOS is not yet clear; however, both PCOS and sleep disturbances are associated with deterioration in cardiometabolic health in the longer term and increased risk of type 2 diabetes. Both immediate quality of life and longer-term health of women with PCOS are likely to benefit from diagnosis and management of sleep disorders as part of interdisciplinary health care. PMID:29440941

  7. Divorced women's sexual and contraceptive issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, N J

    1988-01-01

    This work attempts to answer the question: could divorce create a feeling of alienation in women which causes one to feel vulnerable and detached and thus making sexual decision-making and planning difficult? When a women is married her sexuality is taken for granted because she is expected to have children; however, after a divorce, she must face many of the conflicts she felt as a young single woman. Guilt, planning contraceptive use, and coming to terms with her sexual behavior all present themselves again. 1 factor that must be considered is that contraceptive use is always assumed to be the function of the married women. Very little research has gone into the contraceptive use habits of unmarried women. This is primarily due to the societal assumption that unmarried woman don't have sex. This work contains the clinical observation of the author in which 28% of 459 prenatal patients were interviewed specifically because they were divorced. The conclusion is that divorced women are being neglected by the health care profession and are in great need of contraceptive counseling. This work primarily discusses a study done to expand and examine the conclusions of the clinical research. The study consisted of 101 sexually active, legally divorced, single women between the ages of 18-44 and physiologically capable of becoming pregnant. 53 of these women had experienced post-divorce pregnancies. Each woman was interviewed and given 3 standard tests: the Rosenberg Self-Acceptance Scale, the Snyder's Self-Monitoring Scale and Beckham's Coping Strategies Scale. The conclusion of the author is that divorce and its associated psychological problems may temporarily or permanently affect one's thoughts, feelings, and life course. Sexual and contraceptive use decision-making are both directly both directly affected by these changes. Some divorced women may be experiencing inadequate self-esteem, identity, and self-awareness.

  8. The career paths of women (and men) in French research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Cheveigné, Suzanne

    2009-02-01

    This paper presents results from a qualitative study of perceptions of science careers in the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), the main research institution in France. Its aim is to understand the 'glass ceiling' effect, which reduces the proportion of women at the higher levels of the career hierarchy. Long interviews were carried out with men, as well as women, support staff and researchers. Factors such as tension between individual and collective dimensions of research activity, and long-term time-management problems, were identified: these affect both men and women but in different ways. Organizations bear an important responsibility through the way they reinforce or alleviate difficulties that women and men face in contributing to scientific research at all levels.

  9. The Quality of Life in Pregnant Women Conceiving Through in Vitro Fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Globevnik Velikonja, Vislava; Lozej, Tina; Leban, Gaja; Verdenik, Ivan; Vrtačnik Bokal, Eda

    2016-03-01

    The aim was to determine whether pregnant women conceiving through in vitro fertilization (IVF) differ from those conceiving spontaneously in terms of psychological well-being and the quality of life. In a prospective study we included 75 women conceived after IVF and 78 who conceived spontaneously in the same time period (control group). All the women were sent a self-report questionnaire about demographic and reproductive history, health, pregnancy concerns, containing Subjective Quality of Life Scale (QLS), Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS), the Psychological Well-Being Scale (PWB), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and Zung Self-Assessment Anxiety Scale (SAS); obstetric and newborn's data were obtained from medical records. Response rate was 66.6% in the IVF and 83.3% in control group. The mean women's age was 33.8 years in the IVF, and 32.5 years in the control group (NS). There were no significant differences between groups on the most of the outcome measures assessing psychological status. IVF mothers were just less satisfied in "friend/acquaintances" (P=0.03), a higher percentage had sexual problems prior to conception (P=0.03); the length of hospitalization during pregnancy was longer (P=0.02), and the preterm delivery rate was higher (P=0.01). Withingroup changes over gestation time indicated that IVF women, not controls, showed an increase in positive affect (P=0.04) and purpose in life (P=0.05). IVF women are inclined to social isolation. Despite more medical problems during pregnancy, they reported improved positive emotions and purpose in life as the pregnancy progressed.

  10. "Disease" of the nation, family and individual: three moral discourses of alcohol problems in Finnish women's magazines from the 1960s to the 2000s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Törrönen, Jukka; Simonen, Jenni; Tigerstedt, Christoffer

    2015-03-01

    Women's magazines can be seen as a genre that form feminized public spaces where everyday life contradictions of women's life are negotiated. The study examines the ways in which Finnish women's magazines have dealt with alcohol problems. The data covers six primary sampling years: 1968, 1976, 1984, 1992, 2000 and 2008. The data is analyzed by drawing on the concept of 'moral regulation'. The analysis shows that a family-centered framing dominated the constructions of alcohol problem: fathers' and husbands' alcoholism appeared as a main object of regulation in all decades under study, while mothers' and wives' alcoholism was much less prevalent.

  11. Development of an economic skill building intervention to promote women's safety and child development in Karachi, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirani, Saima Shams; Karmaliani, Rozina; McFarlane, Judith; Asad, Nargis; Madhani, Farhana; Shehzad, Shireen; Ali, Nazbano Ahmed

    2010-02-01

    Violence against women is a global epidemic phenomenon that can result in major mental health problems. Not only are women affected but also the health and well-being of their children are in jeopardy. To prevent violence and promote women's safety, several strategies have been tested in various cultural contexts. This article describes the process of developing and validating an economic skill building intervention for women of an urban slum area of Karachi, Pakistan. The purpose of the intervention is to increase women's economic independence, promote women's safety, and improve the behavioral functioning of their children.

  12. Sexual Health and Positive Subjective Well-Being in Partnered Older Men and Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, David M; Vanhoutte, Bram; Nazroo, James; Pendleton, Neil

    2016-07-01

    We examine the associations between different patterns of sexual behavior and function and three indicators of subjective well-being (SWB) covering eudemonic, evaluative, and affective well-being in a representative sample of partnered older people. Using data from a Sexual Relationships and Activities Questionnaire (SRA-Q) in Wave 6 of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing, latent class analysis identified groups characterized by distinctive patterns of sexual behavior and function and then examined their link to SWB. Eudemonic SWB was measured using a revised 15-item version of the CASP-19, evaluative SWB using the Satisfaction With Life Scale, and affective SWB using the 8-item version of the Centre for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale. Sexual behavior and function was best described by six classes among men and five classes among women. These ranged from high sexual desire, frequent partnered sexual activities, and few sexual problems (Class 1) to low sexual desire, infrequent/no sexual activity, and problems with sexual function (Class 5([women])/6([men])). Men and women who reported either infrequent/no sexual activity, or were sexually active but reported sexual problems, generally had lower SWB than those individuals identified in Class 1. Poorer SWB in men was more strongly associated with sexual function difficulties, whereas in women desire and frequency of partnered activities appeared more important in relation to SWB. Within the context of a partnered relationship continuing sexual desire, activity and functioning are associated with higher SWB, with distinctive patterns for women and men. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. [PAHO focuses on the problem of violence against women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartigan, P

    1997-10-01

    In Latin American and the Caribbean, a woman who is abused by her partner tends to deny the fact that she is the object of violence out of embarrassment, fear of revenge on the part of the assailant, or tacit consent on the part of the family and society at large. If she finally appeals to the justice or health care system, no one alleviates her circumstances, since both sectors operate independently and less efficiently than if intersectoral coordination existed. In June 1994 PAHO initiated a project in 16 countries involving the creation within the community of branches of the justice and health care systems, police, churches, non-government organizations, and community groups. These meet on a regular basis with the aim of launching a coordinated response to domestic violence. At the national level, the project fosters policies and legal norms that strengthen the institutional capacity to respond to the problem. Links with the media are also being promoted in order to combat social beliefs and attitudes that lead to women being abused in their own homes.

  14. The Association Between Callous-Unemotional Traits, Externalizing Problems, and Gender in Predicting Cognitive and Affective Morality Judgments in Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragkaki, Iro; Cima, Maaike; Meesters, Cor

    2016-09-01

    Morality deficits have been linked to callous-unemotional traits and externalizing problems in response to moral dilemmas, but these associations are still obscure in response to antisocial acts in adolescence. Limited evidence on young boys suggested that callous-unemotional traits and externalizing problems were associated with affective but not cognitive morality judgments. The present study investigated these associations in a community sample of 277 adolescents (M age  = 15.35, 64 % females). Adolescents with high callous-unemotional traits showed deficits in affective but not cognitive morality, indicating that they can identify the appropriate moral emotions in others, but experience deviant moral emotions when imagining themselves committing antisocial acts. Externalizing problems and male gender were also strongly related to deficits in affective morality, but they had smaller associations with deficits in cognitive morality too. Implications for treatment and the justice system are discussed.

  15. Female peers in small work groups enhance women's motivation, verbal participation, and career aspirations in engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Nilanjana; Scircle, Melissa McManus; Hunsinger, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    For years, public discourse in science education, technology, and policy-making has focused on the “leaky pipeline” problem: the observation that fewer women than men enter science, technology, engineering, and mathematics fields and more women than men leave. Less attention has focused on experimentally testing solutions to this problem. We report an experiment investigating one solution: we created “microenvironments” (small groups) in engineering with varying proportions of women to identify which environment increases motivation and participation, and whether outcomes depend on students’ academic stage. Female engineering students were randomly assigned to one of three engineering groups of varying sex composition: 75% women, 50% women, or 25% women. For first-years, group composition had a large effect: women in female-majority and sex-parity groups felt less anxious than women in female-minority groups. However, among advanced students, sex composition had no effect on anxiety. Importantly, group composition significantly affected verbal participation, regardless of women’s academic seniority: women participated more in female-majority groups than sex-parity or female-minority groups. Additionally, when assigned to female-minority groups, women who harbored implicit masculine stereotypes about engineering reported less confidence and engineering career aspirations. However, in sex-parity and female-majority groups, confidence and career aspirations remained high regardless of implicit stereotypes. These data suggest that creating small groups with high proportions of women in otherwise male-dominated fields is one way to keep women engaged and aspiring toward engineering careers. Although sex parity works sometimes, it is insufficient to boost women’s verbal participation in group work, which often affects learning and mastery. PMID:25848061

  16. Safety, efficacy, and tolerability of differential treatment to prevent and treat vaginal dryness and vulvovaginitis in diabetic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carati, D; Zizza, A; Guido, M; De Donno, A; Stefanizzi, R; Serra, R; Romano, I; Ouedraogo, C; Megha, M; Tinelli, A

    2016-01-01

    Problems affecting the vaginal tract in diabetic women are very often neglected. The efficacy and safety of three gynecological treatments in diabetic women have been assessed. A single-blind randomized progressive trial on 48 diabetic women affected by vaginal dryness, dyspareunia, and recurrent Candida infections was carried out. The ICIQ Vaginal Symptoms (ICIQ-VS) questionnaire was administered. The analysis of the parameters of ICIQ-VS questionnaire among the three groups showed significant difference only for "dragging pain" (p = 0.0 19) and "soreness" (p = 0.028). In all groups and for all parameters of the questionnaire, improvement of symptoms was observed. In particular, in Group 1 for all symptoms a highly significant difference was observed, to support the already known benefits of the products and of the proposed combination. Significant improvement was also observed in Group 2. The proposed treatment with DermoXEN® Ultracalming Special for diabetics and DermoXEN® Vitexyl vaginal gel exert effective moisturizing and soothing action. Indeed, the aforementioned products have been proven effective for the main gynecological problems of diabetic women.

  17. Mental health problems among conflict-affected adults in Grozny, Chechnya: a qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Amanda J.; Feo, Concetta; Idrisov, Kyuri; Pintaldi, Giovanni; Lenglet, Annick; Tsatsaeva, Zalina; Bolton, Paul; Bass, Judith

    2016-01-01

    Background A decade of conflict in Chechnya destroyed infrastructure and resulted in widespread exposure to violence. Amidst substantial reconstruction, periodic violence has contributed to an ongoing atmosphere of insecurity. We conducted a qualitative study to understand the mental health and psychosocial problems affecting adult Chechens in this context to inform development of assessment tools for an evaluation study related to individual counseling. Methods Data were collected in July 20...

  18. Care Seeking Behaviour and Barriers to Accessing Services for Sexual Health Problems among Women in Rural Areas of Tamilnadu State in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puthuchira Ravi, Rejoice; Athimulam Kulasekaran, Ravishankar

    2014-01-01

    Background. Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) may be either asymptomatic or symptomatic. Regardless of the presence or absence of symptoms all STIs can lead to major complications if left untreated. Objective. To assess the care seeking behaviour and barriers to accessing services for sexual health problems among young married women in rural areas of Thiruvarur district of Tamil Nadu state in India. Methods. A community based cross-sectional study was conducted in 28 villages selected using multistage sampling technique for selecting 605 women in the age group of 15-24 years during July 2010-April 2011. Results. The prevalence rate of reproductive tract infections (RTIs) and STIs was observed to be 14.5% and 8.8%, respectively, among the study population. Itching/irritation over vulva, thick white discharge, discharge with unpleasant odor, and frequent and uncomfortable urination were most commonly experienced symptoms of sexual health problems. Around three-fourth of the women received treatment for sexual health problems. Perception of symptoms as normal, feeling shy, lack of female health workers, distance to health facility, and lack of availability of treatment were identified as major barriers for not seeking treatment for RTIs/STIs. Conclusion. Family tradition and poor socioeconomic conditions of the family appear to be the main reasons for not utilizing the health facility for sexual health problems. Integrated approach is strongly suggested for creating awareness to control the spread of sexual health problems among young people.

  19. Awareness of women regarding hepatitis B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haider, G.; Haider, A.

    2008-01-01

    Hepatitis B is the major health problem globally casting an enormous burden on health care system and major source of patient's misery. It is also an important cause of hepatocellular carcinoma and is likely to remain a serious health problem resulting in substantial morbidity and mortality for several decades to come. Objective of the study was to determine the level of awareness regarding hepatitis B among women attending obstetric and gynaecology clinic at Isra university Hospital. It was descriptive study and conducted in Obstetric and Gynaecology, Outpatient Department of Isra University Hospital, Hyderabad, Sindh from 2nd January to 3rd June 2008. Total 121 women of 20-50 years were gathered by sample of convenience. Information was collected on pre designed questionnaire containing questions regarding basic knowledge of disease, its causative organism, route of transmission and its prevention. Informed consent was taken. All the data was analyzed by computer software Programme of Social Sciences (SPSS version 11.0). Out of 121 women, 82 (67.76%) women correctly responded that virus is a cause of hepatitis. When they were asked about the organs affected by hepatitis B infection, 91 (75.20%) correctly mentioned liver, while 30 (24.79%) gave incorrect answer. Regarding mode of transmission of HBV 41 (33.88%) mentioned infected blood transfusion, 49 (40.49%) contaminated needles, 46(38.0%) un-sterilised instruments, 21 (17.35%) from mother to child and only 23 (19.0%) mentioned sexual intercourse. Only 51 (42.14%) women knew that vaccine is available for prevention. This study found that the knowledge about hepatitis B virus among women is inadequate and there are certain misconceptions regarding its mode of transmission through sharing room, touching etc which needs to be clarified. Majority of women don't know that HBV infection can be prevented by using condoms. (author)

  20. Impact of physical activity on ovarian reserve markers in normal, overweight and obese reproductive age women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surekha, T; Himabindu, Y; Sriharibabu, M; Pandey, Anil Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Physical inactivity is a leading risk factor for overweight and obesity in the society. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in the reproductive age group women not only affects maternal health but also the health of the off spring. Infertility is a common problem in India affecting 13-19 million people at any given time. Even though it is not life threatening, infertility causes intense mental agony and trauma that can only be best described by infertile couples themselves. Infertility is more common in overweight and obese individuals compared to normal weight individuals. Decreasing ovarian reserve is an important factor for infertility in women. This study examined the impact of physical activity on ovarian reserve markers in normal, overweight and obese reproductive age women. The observations made in this study reveal that physical activity improves ovarian reserve markers in all reproductive age women but this improvement is more distinct and statistically significant in overweight and obese women compared to normal weight women.

  1. Nutrition and reproduction in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Malnutrition is a major problem in developing countries, and obesity and eating disorders are increasingly common in developing as well as developed countries. The reproductive axis is closely linked to nutritional status, especially undernutrition in the female, and inhibitory pathways involving detectors in the hind brain suppress ovulation in subjects with weight loss. Recovery may occur after minimal reacquisition of weight because energy balance is more important than body fat mass. Anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa affect up to 5% of women of reproductive age causing amenorrhoea, infertility and, in those who do conceive, an increased likelihood of miscarriage. Obesity can affect reproduction through fat cell metabolism, steroids and secretion of proteins such as leptin and adiponectin and through changes induced at the level of important homeostatic factors such as pancreatic secretion of insulin, androgen synthesis by the ovary and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) production by the liver. WHO estimates that 9 to 25% of women in developed countries are severely obese, and obese mothers are much more likely to have obese children, especially if they have gestational diabetes. Obesity-associated anovulation may lead to infertility and to a higher risk of miscarriage. Management of anovulation with obesity involves diet and exercise as well as standard approaches to ovulation induction. Many obese women conceive without assistance, but pregnancies in obese women have increased rates of pregnancy-associated hypertension, gestational diabetes, large babies, Cesarean section and perinatal mortality and morbidity. Among contraceptors, the fear of weight gain affects uptake and continuation of hormonal contraceptives, although existing trials indicate that any such effects are small. For all methods of hormonal contraception, weight above 70 kg is associated with increased failure rates.

  2. Theory of Planned Behavior including self-stigma and perceived barriers explain help-seeking behavior for sexual problems in Iranian women suffering from epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chung-Ying; Oveisi, Sonia; Burri, Andrea; Pakpour, Amir H

    2017-03-01

    To apply the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) and the two additional concepts self-stigma and perceived barriers to the help-seeking behavior for sexual problems in women with epilepsy. In this 18-month follow-up study, TPB elements, including attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, and behavioral intention along with self-stigma and perceived barriers in seeking help for sexual problems were assessed in n=818 women with epilepsy (94.0% aged ≤40years). The basic TPB model (model 1) and the TPB model additionally including self-stigma and perceived barriers (Model 2) were analyzed using structural equation modeling (SEM). Both SEM models showed satisfactory model fits. According to model, attitude, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, and intention explained 63.1% of the variance in help-seeking behavior. Variance was slightly higher (64.5%) when including self-stigma and perceived barriers (model 2). In addition, the fit indices of the models were better highlighting the importance of self-stigma and perceived barriers in help-seeking behavior for sexual problems. Theory of Planned Behavior is useful in explaining help-seeking behavior for sexual problems in women with epilepsy. Self-stigma and perceived barriers are additional factors that should be considered in future interventions aiming to adopt TPB to improve help-seeking behavior for sexual problems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The prevalence of musculoskeletal problems and risk factors among women assembly workers in the semiconductor industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasakaran, A; Chee, H L; Rampal, K G; Tan, G L

    2003-12-01

    A cross-sectional study to determine work-related musculoskeletal problems and ergonomic risk factors was conducted among 529 women semiconductor workers. Overall, 83.4% had musculoskeletal symptoms in the last one year. Pain in the back (57.8%), lower leg (48.4%) and shoulder (44.8%) were the three most common musculoskeletal problems. Significant associations were found between prolonged standing and upper and lower leg pain, between prolonged sitting and neck and shoulder pain and between prolonged bending and shoulder arm, back and upper leg pain. The study therefore showed a clear association between work-related musculoskeletal pain and prolonged hours spent in particular postures and movements.

  4. A comparative study of the effects of problem-solving skills training and relaxation on the score of self-esteem in women with postpartum depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasiri, Saeideh; Kordi, Masoumeh; Gharavi, Morteza Modares

    2015-01-01

    Self-esteem is a determinant factor of mental health. Individuals with low self-esteem have depression, and low self-esteem is one of main symptoms of depression. Aim of this study is to compare the effects of problem-solving skills and relaxation on the score of self-esteem in women with postpartum depression. This clinical trial was performed on 80 women. Sampling was done in Mashhad healthy centers from December 2009 to June 2010. Women were randomly divided and assigned to problem-solving skills (n = 26), relaxation (n = 26), and control groups (n = 28). Interventions were implemented for 6 weeks and the subjects again completed Eysenck self-esteem scale 9 weeks after delivery. Data analysis was done by descriptive statistics, Kruskal-Wallis test, and analysis of variance (ANOVA) test by SPSS software. The findings showed that the mean of self-esteem scale scores was 117.9 ± 9.7 after intervention in the problem-solving group, 117.0 ± 11.8 in the relaxation group, and 113.5 ± 10.4 in the control group and there was significant difference between the groups of relaxation and problem solving, and also between intervention groups and control group. According to the results, problem-solving skills and relaxation can be used to prevent and recover from postpartum depression.

  5. Women Entrepreneurs: Their Success and Problems. Hearing before the Committee on Small Business, United States Senate, Ninety-Eighth Congress, Second Session (Eugene, Oregon).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Small Business.

    This is a congressional hearing to acquire testimony and information about women in business or about unusual problems that have been found. Testimony includes statements from individuals representing Big Bear Shopper, Inc.; United States Business and Professional Women (BPW/USA); Rural Small Business Programs, Lane Community College;…

  6. Women and Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Audience For Women Women's Health Topics Women and Diabetes Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... Diabetes How to Report Problems with Glucose Meters Diabetes Treatments Some people with diabetes need to take ...

  7. Cognitive and affective determinants of decisions to attend a group psychosocial support program for women with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Linda D; Booth, Roger J; Schlatter, Melanie; Ziginskas, Danute; Harman, John E; Benson, Stephen R C

    2005-01-01

    This prospective study assesses the roles of illness beliefs, emotion regulation factors, and sociodemographic characteristics in decisions to participate in a group support program for women recently diagnosed with breast cancer. Women recruited during clinic visits 2 to 4 weeks after diagnosis completed measures of affective and cognitive factors identified by Leventhal's Common-Sense Model of illness self-regulation: cancer-related distress, avoidance tendencies, beliefs that the breast cancer was caused by stress and altered immunity, and personal control beliefs. Measures of general anxiety and depression, social support, and demographic characteristics were also completed; prognostic status information was obtained from medical records. All women were encouraged to participate in a free, 12-week program offering coping skills training and group support. Participation was recorded by program staff. Of the 110 women, 54 (49%) participated in the group support program and 56 (51%) did not. Logistic regression analyses revealed that participation was predicted by stronger beliefs that the cancer was caused by altered immunity, higher cancer-related distress, lower avoidance tendencies, and younger age. Participation in the group psychosocial support program appeared to be guided by cognitive and affective factors identified by the Common-Sense Model. Psychosocial support programs and informational materials promoting their use may attract more participants if they are tailored to focus on resolving cancer-related distress rather than on general anxiety or depression, appeal to those with high avoidance tendencies, address the role of immune function in cancer progression, and meet the needs of older participants.

  8. Chinese primiparous women's experiences of early motherhood: factors affecting maternal role competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngai, Fei-Wan; Chan, Sally W C; Holroyd, Eleanor

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this study was to explore Chinese women's perceptions of maternal role competence and factors contributing to maternal role competence during early motherhood. Developing a sense of competence and satisfaction in the maternal role are considered critical components in maternal adaptation, which have a significant impact on parenting behaviours and the psychosocial development of the child. However, qualitative studies that address maternal role competence are limited in the Chinese population. This was an exploratory descriptive study. A purposive sample of 26 Chinese primiparous mothers participated in a childbirth psychoeducation programme and was interviewed at six weeks postpartum. Data were analysed using content analysis. Women perceived a competent mother as being able to make a commitment to caring for the physical and emotional well-being of child, while cultivating appropriate values for childhood. Personal knowledge and experience of infant care, success in breastfeeding, infant's well-being, availability of social support and contradictory information from various sources were major factors affecting maternal role competency. The findings highlight the importance of understanding Chinese cultural attitudes to childrearing and maternal role competence. New Chinese mothers need information on child care, positive experiences of infant care, social support and consistent information to enhance their maternal role competency. Recommendations are made for Chinese culturally specific guidelines and healthcare delivery interventions to enhance maternal role competence in early motherhood. Nursing and midwifery care should always take into account the cultural beliefs and enable adaptation of traditional postpartum practices. Providing consistent information and positive experience on parenting skills and infant behaviour as well as enhancing effective coping strategies could strengthen Chinese women's maternal role competency. © 2011 Blackwell

  9. Symptom and Problem Focused Coping Strategies of Business Women Expatriates and their Socio-Cultural Adjustment in Hong Kong

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selmer, Jan; Leung, Alicia S.M.

    2007-01-01

    strategies may make them less well adjusted to a host location. Originality/value - Women still represent a relatively untapped source for expatriation and the research on female business expatriates is still inadequate in many respects.  An important issue examined by this study is how women cope......Purpose - The purpose of this study is to explore coping strategies of female business expatriates and to examine how these strategies are associated with the women's international adjustment. Design/methodology/approach - Data were collected through mail surveys to Western female business...... in Hong Kong could have contributed to the unanticipated findings that there was no association between problem focused coping strategies and any type of adjustment studied. Through cross-cultural training, female business expatriates could benefit from being informed that applying symptom focused coping...

  10. Urinary incontinence and quality of life of women living in nursing homes in the Mediterranean region of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göral Türkcü, Sinem; Kukulu, Kamile

    2017-11-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of urinary incontinence (UI) on the quality of life of women living in nursing homes in the Mediterranean region of Turkey. The study was conducted on 95 women living in nursing homes in the Mediterranean region. Data were collected from a questionnaire on sociodemographic characteristics, the Urinary Incontinence Quality of Life Scale, the Index of Activities of Daily Living, and the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire Short Form. The quality of life of women who did not consider UI a health problem was significantly higher than that of those who considered otherwise. Mixed UI was the most common UI type among the women living in nursing homes, with a rate of 31.7%. According to the overall mean scores on the Urinary Incontinence Quality of Life Scale, quality of life was the most affected among women who had nocturnal incontinence. Quality of life was affected from most to least by the mixed type, stress type, and urge type of incontinence. Early diagnosis and treatment of UI could be improved if health professionals, who have a unique role in changing the perception of society, offered training to women experiencing incontinence. Identifying this problem and determining and preventing the risk factors are important for enhancing women's quality of life. © 2017 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.

  11. [Self-assessment of opinions, habits and oral health status by pregnant women in the south of Galicia, Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo-Pouso, A I; Pérez-Sayáns, M; Suárez-Quintanilla, J A; González-Palanca, S

    2018-03-01

    An association has been found between oral health problems and obstetric complications during pregnancy. The main aim of this study was to assess the perception by pregnant women on their oral health and related habits and beliefs. A questionnaire was designed in order to obtain information from 96 pregnant women attending the Valdeorras Local Hospital and the primary health dental practice in the Valle Inclan Health Center. It was found that many pregnant women perceived they were suffering from some kind of problem affecting their mouth. It was shown that pregnant women had adequate habits regarding oral health, but they believed that their pregnancy would implicitly cause them to have mouth problems. Pregnant women are able to understand the impact of their oral health on their general well-being and the health of their unborn child. It has been detected that a series of habits and beliefs would ideally need to be acted upon in order to reduce health problems. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Legal Issues Affecting Libraries and Librarians: Employment Law, Liability and Insurance, Contracts, and Problem Patrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mika, Joseph J.; Shuman, Bruce A.

    1988-01-01

    This fourth lesson in a continuing education course on legal issues affecting libraries and librarians discusses the library's rights and legal responsibilities in the areas of censorship and intellectual freedom, the Freedom of Information Act and patron privacy, problem patrons, and ethical considerations of library services. (14 references)…

  13. Women and AIDS caregiving: women's work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Songwathana, P

    2001-01-01

    In this ethnographic study, I examine personal, kinship, and social obligations and the role of women in the traditional Thai family. Under what circumstances do women take on the responsibility to care or not care, and how do they cope with the disease and care when they are also infected? Fifteen women who were afflicted or affected by HIV/AIDS participated in in-depth interviews and participant observations. Analysis employed mainly qualitative methods following Spradley. I show that women who are responsible for caring for both themselves and others, including members of their immediate families or extended family members, face a double jeopardy by virtue of their inferior role and status. When HIV-infected women experience illness, sometimes they feel split; they are incapable of functioning normally, yet they are obligated to do "What they've got to do." Women as carers feel that they have to care because they want to free someone else from suffering despite the fact that they are also suffering. Women roles as family carers seem to be both psychologically and socially constructed. AIDS care is not just a labour of love, but also is done in the spirit of work following Buddhist beliefs of karma and metta. In conclusion, traditional, persistent gender imbalances and inequalities influence women's sexuality, vulnerability, responsibility, and caregiving. When women become infected with HIV and sick with AIDS, their quality of life drops because of the physical, psychological, cultural value, and economic burdens of care they face. AIDS then necessitates rather than prevents women from fulfilling their multiple roles. Consequently, there is a need for greater support especially among Thai women who are afflicted and affected with AIDS.

  14. Women and Diabetes

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Audience For Women Women's Health Topics Women and Diabetes Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... Diabetes How to Report Problems with Glucose Meters Diabetes Treatments Some people with diabetes need to take ...

  15. Ongoing neural development of affective theory of mind in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, Nora C; Weigelt, Sarah; Döhnel, Katrin; Smolka, Michael N; Kliegel, Matthias

    2014-07-01

    Affective Theory of Mind (ToM), an important aspect of ToM, involves the understanding of affective mental states. This ability is critical in the developmental phase of adolescence, which is often related with socio-emotional problems. Using a developmentally sensitive behavioral task in combination with functional magnetic resonance imaging, the present study investigated the neural development of affective ToM throughout adolescence. Eighteen adolescent (ages 12-14 years) and 18 young adult women (aged 19-25 years) were scanned while evaluating complex affective mental states depicted by actors in video clips. The ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) showed significantly stronger activation in adolescents in comparison to adults in the affective ToM condition. Current results indicate that the vmPFC might be involved in the development of affective ToM processing in adolescence. © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Depression, women, and the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollersheim, J P

    1993-01-01

    Depression is a highly prevalent disorder that causes much personal distress and difficulties in functioning at home and in the workplace. In the workplace, as elsewhere, depression can manifest as a variation in normal mood, as a symptom, as a disorder, or as a disease. Occupational health professionals are more concerned with clinical depression, a term used to signify any type of depression that causes significant personal distress and/or problems in functioning. Clinical depression is manifest in the workplace and adversely affects the employee's work satisfaction and performance. For most types of depression, women are at a higher risk than men. A number of events and variables related to women and depression were reviewed. Although the effects of some of these events, such as menopause, can be manifest in the workplace, they are not associated with an increased incidence of clinical depression. Other events, such as victimization (e.g., childhood sexual abuse or battering by an intimate partner), are associated with higher risks of depression in women. Women derive substantial satisfaction from interpersonal relationships but also are at greater risk for depression when strains and conflicts in these relationships occur. In the workplace women who have no difficulty in arranging for child care and whose spouses share in the care of children show lower rates of depression. When marriages are unhappy, women are three times as likely as men to be depressed. These findings speak to the importance of relationships to women. In the workplace, when women are depressed, problems with relationships are likely to be involved. Clinically depressed women are not difficult to identify in work settings. Dejected mood and loss of interest in usual activities are noticeable, along with numerous other symptoms that accompany depression. The effective treatment of depression depends on careful diagnosis and assessment. Both drug therapy and the more structured psychotherapies

  17. Problem behaviours of kindergartners: The affects of children's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    children's problem behaviour (internalising and externalising problems) and cognitive ability. Second, there was a .... predict internalising problems such as depression and anxiety ..... creativity: Teachers' perception of student characteristics ...

  18. Fertility problems and risk of gestational diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Signe; Kjær, Susanne K; Jørgensen, M. E.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine whether women with a history of fertility problems have a higher risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) than women without a history of fertility problems after adjustment for maternal factors. Design Nationwide population-based cohort study. Setting Not applicable...... of diabetes, level of education, and smoking during pregnancy. Result(s) In total, 7,433 (2%) pregnant women received a diagnosis of GDM. Multivariate analysis showed that pregnant women with a history of fertility problems had a statistically significantly higher risk of GDM than pregnant women without...

  19. Narratives around concealment and agency for stigma-reduction: a study of women affected by leprosy in Cirebon District, Indonesia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, R.M.H.; Hofker, M.E.; Zweekhorst, M.B.M.; van Brakel, W.H.; Bunders-Aelen, J.G.F.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study analyses the experiences of women affected by leprosy, taking into consideration whether they concealed or disclosed their status, and looks specifically at their ‘agency’. The aim is to provide recommendations for stigma-reduction interventions. Methods: The study population

  20. Women's Experience of Orgasm During Intercourse: Question Semantics Affect Women's Reports and Men's Estimates of Orgasm Occurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirazi, Talia; Renfro, Kaytlin J; Lloyd, Elisabeth; Wallen, Kim

    2018-04-01

    Most women report reliably experiencing orgasm from masturbation, but a smaller proportion of women report regularly experiencing orgasm from intercourse. Research suggests that concurrent clitoral stimulation during intercourse increases the likelihood of orgasm, yet most surveys of orgasm during intercourse leave unspecified whether vaginal intercourse does or does not include concurrent clitoral stimulation (assisted intercourse or unassisted intercourse, respectively). Using an online sample of 1569 men and 1478 women, we tested whether phrasing of questions about the occurrence of orgasm in intercourse modulates women's reported frequency and men's estimates of women's frequency of orgasm in intercourse. Participants provided estimates of orgasm when asked explicitly about intercourse with stimulation unspecified, assisted intercourse, and unassisted intercourse. Women's reports of orgasm occurrence were highest in response to assisted intercourse (51-60%), second highest in response to intercourse with clitoral stimulation unspecified (31-40%), and lowest in response to unassisted intercourse (21-30%). Men's estimates of women's orgasms were highest in response to assisted intercourse (61-70%), and lowest in response to unassisted intercourse (41-50%); in both conditions, men's estimates were significantly higher than women's reports. When clitoral stimulation was unspecified, women interpreted "orgasm in intercourse" in three ways: as from intercourse alone, as including concurrent clitoral stimulation though it was unspecified, or as an average of assisted and unassisted intercourse. Taken together, these results demonstrate that the phrasing of questions about women's orgasm produces markedly different orgasm estimates, and suggest that concurrent clitoral stimulation increases the likelihood of women experiencing orgasm in intercourse.

  1. Common problems in the elicitation and analysis of expert opinion affecting probabilistic safety assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, M.A.; Booker, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    Expert opinion is frequently used in probabilistic safety assessment (PSA), particularly in estimating low probability events. In this paper, we discuss some of the common problems encountered in eliciting and analyzing expert opinion data and offer solutions or recommendations. The problems are: that experts are not naturally Bayesian. People fail to update their existing information to account for new information as it becomes available, as would be predicted by the Bayesian philosophy; that experts cannot be fully calibrated. To calibrate experts, the feedback from the known quantities must be immediate, frequent, and specific to the task; that experts are limited in the number of things that they can mentally juggle at a time to 7 {plus minus} 2; that data gatherers and analysts can introduce bias by unintentionally causing an altering of the expert's thinking or answers; that the level of detail the data, or granularity, can affect the analyses; and the conditioning effect poses difficulties in gathering and analyzing of the expert data. The data that the expert gives can be conditioned on a variety of factors that can affect the analysis and the interpretation of the results. 31 refs.

  2. Problems Experienced by Ovarian Cancer Survivors During Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keim-Malpass, Jessica; Mihalko, Shannon L; Russell, Greg; Case, Doug; Miller, Brigitte; Avis, Nancy E

    To identify problems at different treatment points (early treatment, mid-treatment, early posttreatment, and late posttreatment) among women with ovarian cancer. Longitudinal and cross-sectional study design. An academic and community clinical cancer center in the Southeastern United States. Sixty-eight women with Stage I to IV ovarian cancer. Variables assessed included reported problems (physical, psychosocial, pain, marital, medical interaction), social support, optimism, and responses to open-ended questions. Analysis involved mixed models for longitudinal repeated measures and unpaired t tests and content analysis to describe responses to open-ended questions. Physical and psychosocial problems were greatest during early treatment and decreased throughout the treatment trajectory. Women with greater levels of social support and optimism at baseline had fewer problems over time. Women who did not have trouble paying for basics had fewer problems related to pain and psychological problems. Problems across all domains must be addressed throughout the treatment trajectory, even after chemotherapy has ended. Nurses are well positioned to refer women appropriately to social workers and clinical navigators across all domains of care and should consider systematic assessment of patient-reported problems as a routine form of practice. Copyright © 2017 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The Lived Experience of Iranian Women Confronting Breast Cancer Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrabi, Esmat; Hajian, Sepideh; Simbar, Masoomeh; Hoshyari, Mohammad; Zayeri, Farid

    2016-03-01

    The populations who survive from breast cancer are growing; nevertheless, they mostly encounter with many cancer related problems in their life, especially after early diagnosis and have to deal with these problems. Except for the disease entity, several socio-cultural factors may affect confronting this challenge among patients and the way they deal with. Present study was carried out to prepare clear understanding of Iranian women's lived experiences confronting breast cancer diagnosis and coping ways they applied to deal with it. This study was carried out by using qualitative phenomenological design. Data gathering was done through purposive sampling using semi-structured, in-depth interviews with 18 women who survived from breast cancer. The transcribed interviews were analyzed using Van Manen's thematic analysis approach. Two main themes were emerged from the interviews including "emotional turbulence" and "threat control". The first, comprised three sub themes including uncertainty, perceived worries, and living with fears. The second included risk control, recurrence control, immediate seeking help, seeking support and resource to spirituality. Emotional response was the immediate reflection to cancer diagnosis. However, during post-treatment period a variety of emotions were not uncommon findings, patients' perceptions have been changing along the time and problem-focused coping strategies have replaced. Although women may experience a degree of improvement and adjustment with illness, the emotional problems are not necessarily resolved, they may continue and gradually engender positive outcomes.

  4. Social-Cultural Factors Affecting Maasai Women Participation In Decision Making In Tanzania. A Case Study Of Longido District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn Kandusi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Throughout history participation in decision making through processes like voting vying for leadership position and participation in decision making meetings has been blinded by discrimination to certain groups of community members including women. This study assessed the social cultural factors affecting Maasai womens participation in decision making a case of Longido district. Purposive sampling was used to select the districts under the study. Decision to select Longido was based on the inhabitance of pastoral community. A total of 115 respondents were obtained through simple random selection. Data were collected through a questionnaire and analyzed using SPSS. Simple descriptive statistics and cross tabulation were used in the analysis. The results show that majority would you vote for a woman to be an MP Councilor Village Chairman in your community. A considerable proportion of men refused to be led by a woman. Furthermore women were found not to effectively participate in politics through vying for leadership positions as many respondents voted for male contestant main reasons being no female contestant. Situations in which women are involved in decision making were found mainly to be on issues pertaining women development and family matters. Findings show that women are allowed to vote in the community but often the decision for a woman to vote was found to be determined by men. The study further found that women are not regarded elders and females ideas were not taken into account as male ideas in village meetings. The main barriers for women participation in leadership were found that men do not want women to compete in leadership and women ideas not accepted by most men. The study concluded that Maasai women participation in decision making is limited by social cultural factors like social identity social acceptance social roles and limiting cultural practices. It is recommended that civic education strategy and appropriate

  5. Experiences of Primiparous Mothers Regarding Natural Childbirth Problems (A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahereh Boryri

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Women experience several problems during the childbirth process which always remain with them throughout their lives. These problems affect the health of the mother and the child, the emotional relationship between them, the sexual activity and the desire to have her next child in the future. This qualitative study is designed to explore the experiences of primiparous women about natural childbirth problems. This qualitative study is conducted on primiparous women who referred to the health center of Imam Javad in Zahedan. The sample selection is based on objective; the data are collected using semi-structured interviews with 18 primiparous mothers who had healthy natural childbirth. The data are collected through an interview that is done in the first visit within 72 hours after the childbirth, and the data are analyzed through content analysis. After analysis of the data, four themes associated with the problem of the first natural childbirth are extracted. The first is the fear and stress of the labor pain that most participants expressed as the major problem of natural childbirth. The second theme is lack of awareness and lack of information about the process of labor and the delivery room environment; this means that participants of this study are mostly unfamiliar with the process of labor and the delivery room environment and this leads to their fear and pain. The other two themes are the need for protection and support of the mothers by the midwives, their family and their friends. Based on the results of this study, the problems of human resources are stated as being more serious than the problems regarding the environment and modern equipment. This leads to the increase of attention of the midwives and other medical staff on psychological and spiritual needs of mothers and supporting them during the labor in addition to the physical health of the mother and the fetus. In this regard, childbirth classes are recommended in outlining the

  6. Addressing the problem of obesity and associated cardiometabolic risk in black South African women - time for action!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goedecke, Julia H

    2017-01-01

    The PhD thesis of Gradidge, entitled 'Factors associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome in an ageing cohort of black women living in Soweto, Johannesburg (Study of Women in and Entering Endocrine Transition [SWEET])', attempts to understand the determinants of obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in a population of urban-dwelling black South African women. A conceptual framework is presented, which positions obesity as the central risk factor for MetS, and includes the possible influence of socioeconomic status, lifestyle behaviours and body size perceptions, as key determinants of obesity. This commentary focuses on the two main findings of Gradidge's thesis, namely, (i) physical activity and sedentary behaviour, and (ii) body composition and adiponectin, as risk factors for obesity and MetS in black South African women. Despite a high prevalence of obesity (48%), Gradidge showed that 75% of the women taking part in the study were meeting WHO guidelines on physical activity. This commentary suggests that the relationship between physical activity and cardiometabolic risk may be confounded by socioeconomic status. Alternatively, the intensity, and not necessarily the volume, of activity, as well as high rates of sedentary behaviour are posited as important determinants of obesity and MetS in black South African women. Accordingly, this commentary questions the veracity of the WHO guidelines on physical activity in developing countries, where most women meet the guidelines but have very poor cardiorespiratory fitness, are obese and are at high risk of MetS. Gradidge also showed that the most consistent and significant correlate of MetS in this cohort of middle-aged women was low serum levels of adiponectin. This commentary highlights various lifestyle interventions that have been shown to increase adiponectin levels. Finally, the importance of immediate action to address the problem of obesity and MetS is emphasised.

  7. Intermittent explosive disorder amongst women in conflict affected Timor-Leste: associations with human rights trauma, ongoing violence, poverty, and injustice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Susan; Silove, Derrick; Verdial, Teresa; Tam, Natalino; Savio, Elisa; Fonseca, Zulmira; Thorpe, Rosamund; Liddell, Belinda; Zwi, Anthony; Tay, Kuowei; Brooks, Robert; Steel, Zachary

    2013-01-01

    Women in conflict-affected countries are at risk of mental disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder and depression. No studies have investigated the association between experiences of abuse and injustice and explosive anger amongst women in these settings, and the impact of anger on women's health, family relationships and ability to participate in development. A mixed methods study including an epidemiological survey (n = 1513, 92.6% response) and qualitative interviews (n = 77) was conducted in Timor-Leste. The indices measured included Intermittent Explosive Disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder; severe distress; days out of role (the number of days that the person was unable to undertake normal activities); gender-specific trauma; conflict/violence; poverty; and preoccupations with injustice. Women with Intermittent Explosive Disorder (n = 184, 12.2%) were more disabled than those without the disorder (for >5 days out of role, 40.8% versus 31.5%, X(2) (2) = 12.93 p = 0.0016). Multivariable associations with Intermittent Explosive Disorder, controlling for the presence of PTSD, psychological distress and other predictors in the model, included the sense of being sick (OR 1.73; 95% CI 1.08-2.77); victimization as a result of helping the resistance movement (OR 2.33, 95% CI 1.48-3.68); war-related trauma specific to being a woman (OR 1.95, 95%, CI 1.09-3.50); ongoing family violence and community conflict (OR 1.88, 95% CI 1.27-2.77); extreme poverty (OR 1.23, 95%, CI 1.08-1.39); and distressing preoccupations with injustice (relating to 2/3 historical periods, OR 2.10, 95% CI 1.35-3.28). In the qualitative study, women elaborated on the determinants of anger and its impact on their health, family and community functioning, child-rearing, and capacity to engage in development. Women reflected on the strategies that might help them overcome their anger. Intermittent Explosive Disorder is prevalent and disabling amongst women in conflict-affected Timor

  8. Postpartum Depression in Women: A Risk Factor Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Farheen; Nigam, Aruna; Anjum, Ruby; Agarwalla, Rashmi

    2017-08-01

    Postpartum Depression (PPD) is a known entity affecting not only the women but the whole family. It affects women more harshly and chronically due to their increased stress sensitivity, maladaptive coping strategies and multiple social roles in the community. To estimate the commonly associated risk factors of PPD among the women coming to a tertiary hospital in New Delhi, India. It was a longitudinal study conducted at the antenatal clinic for a period of one year. Total 260 women were screened at > 36 weeks of gestation, of which 149 postnatal women completed the questionnaire for PPD at six weeks of their delivery. The inform consent, demographical data and obstetrical details from each participant was taken before commencing the screening. Various risk factors and their association were determined by odds-ratio and significant association was accepted at order to identify the most important confounding variables, logistic regression analysis was used. PPD is a common mental health problem seen among the postnatal women as it was found in 12.75% (19 out of 149) of subjects at six weeks of their delivery. Moreover, it has significant association with the young maternal age (p-value=0.040), birth of the female child (p-value=0.015), previous stressful life events (p-value= 0.003), low self-esteem and feeling of loneliness (p-value=0.007). This study provides important information regarding the risk factors associated with development of PPD in this region of India. Female sex of the new born and the younger age play an important role in the development of PPD.

  9. Does hormone therapy affect attention and memory in sleep-deprived women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhola, P; Kylmälä, M; Urrila, A Sofia; Karakorpi, M; Portin, R; Kalleinen, N; Polo-Kantola, P

    2008-06-01

    To evaluate whether hormone therapy (HT) modifies cognitive performance during sleep deprivation in postmenopausal women. Comparison was made with a group of young women. Participants included 26 postmenopausal women (age 58-72 years, 16 HT users, 10 non-users), 11 young women (age 20-26 years). They spent four consecutive nights in the sleep laboratory. Cognitive tests of attention, working memory, and verbal episodic memory were carried out after the baseline night, 25-h sleep deprivation, and recovery night. Sleep deprivation impaired performance in all groups. It was manifested either as delayed practice effect or deteriorated performance (p Attention and memory deteriorated similarly in postmenopausal and young women, despite the lower initial performance level of postmenopausal women. One night of sleep ensured recovery in most tasks.

  10. How social myths about childhood, motherhood and medicine affect the detection of subtle developmental problems in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jane

    Focus by child health professionals on the well-being of young Australian children and their families has intensified in the past decade, with particular attention drawn to the importance of the early detection and intervention of developmental problems. While many children with developmental difficulties are detected in the preschool years, those with more subtle forms of developmental problems are often only noticed by their mothers, passing unnoticed by professionals until the children begin school and fail socially or academically. This study aimed to ascertain ways in which child health professionals may utilise the experience of mothers to improve early recognition and diagnosis of subtle developmental and behavioural problems in children. French philosopher, Roland Barthes (1973) proposed that myths play an important social role in defining underlying social values that affect how people interpret what others say or do. This paper explores how the social myths of childhood, motherhood and medicine impact upon the early detection of children with subtle developmental problems. In particular, it examines how social myths affect when and how mothers become concerned about their children's development, from whom they seek advice, and the responses which mothers receive in regard to their concerns. Mythical notions of the 'blameless child', 'boys will be boys' and 'children who look OK are OK', and the constituted myth of motherhood, are all shown to affect when mothers become concerned about their children's development. What mothers do about their concerns and the responses they receive from child health professionals are also influenced by these myths. The myth of medicine is also examined to determine how it affects communication between mothers and doctors, the roles and responsibilities of doctors, and the value placed on a mother's concerns by doctors.

  11. Special problems of women in psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, H J

    1977-07-01

    Feminist critics have failed to acknowledge the usefulness of Freud's neutral observations about female sexual development. This paper is an attempt to refute the prejudiced, incorrect view of the modern psychoanalytically oriented psychotherapist as sexist in orientation. Several detailed case examples are utilized to illustrate the interpretive treatment of excessive passivity in women patients with a variety of neurotic difficulties.

  12. Postpartum intrauterine contraceptive device: Knowledge and factors affecting acceptance among pregnant/parturient women attending a large tertiary health center in Puducherry, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abinaya Valliappan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD has been recommended for insertion within 10 min of placental delivery or within 48 h of delivery (postpartum IUCD [PPIUCD] by the WHO. However, the acceptance across our country has been low. Aims: To determine the level of knowledge and the factors affecting it and the likely adoption of PPIUCD. Settings and Design: This cross-sectional study was carried out in the antenatal clinic and postnatal ward of a large tertiary care center in South India. Subjects and Methods: A total of 339 women were studied with the help of a validated structured pro forma. Proportions were expressed in percentage. Chi-square test was applied to compare proportions and univariate analysis for the factors affecting knowledge and likely acceptance. Results: Among the 339 women, 152 (44.8% were aware of the method. Of the 152 women, 56 had a negative attitude about the method. Multiparity of the women was a significant factor affecting knowledge (χ2 = 8.068, P = 0.045. Women who were not exposed to formal health counseling were significantly associated with a lack of knowledge (χ2 = 23.332, P = 0.0001. Primiparity (χ2 = 14.683, P = 0.0001, husbands with skilled jobs (χ2 = 8.272, P = 0.0407, having shared information with their husband regarding the method (χ2 = 38.1, P < 0.001, and family support (χ2 = 58.25, P < 0.001 were the major factors associated with willingness to adopt the method. Conclusion: The level of knowledge about PPIUCD of our study population is 44.8%. Exposure to formal health counseling classes and prior discussion with husbands and family members could improve the knowledge and likelihood of acceptance of PPIUCD.

  13. Knowledge of breast cancer in women in Sierra Leone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JHEE Shepherd

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer has been described as one of the life-threatening diseases affecting women and is a major problem in women’s health issues. The unrecorded number of cases of breast lumps and breast cancer observed in women in Sierra Leone prompted the researcher to organize a “Breast Week” during which 1 200 women were educated on breast cancer and the importance of breast health. This research is a follow up of the “Breast Week” which was organized in Freetown, Sierra Leone The specific objective of this study was to assess whether the knowledge and teachings given to the women who participated in this project was fully understood. A sample size of 120 women (10% who participated in the “Breast Week” was obtained through systematic sampling. A quantitative approach was adopted and a structured interview schedule guided the data collection process. The data were processed through use of SPSS and Microsoft Excel. Texts from open ended questions were categorized and frequency counts were applied to the data. It was found that the majority (96.6% of the women had some knowledge of breast cancer. They linked breast cancer to the signs and symptoms associated with it and were able to describe the disease as one that kills women if not promptly detected and/or treated appropriately. Findings indicate that the majority of the women are aware of the dangers of the disease and had knowledge of someone who had died of breast cancer (59.2%. An assessment of the effectiveness of knowledge on breast cancer showed that these women could identify breast cancer as a disease that affects women and may cause death if not detected on time.

  14. Equivocal Objects: The Problem of Women's Property in Daniel Deronda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Wynne

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Written between the passing of the first Married Women's Property Act in 1870 and the second Act of 1882, Eliot's final novel, 'Daniel Deronda' (1876, offers a powerful depiction of the social and legal disabilities faced by women. Her representations of objects and objectification centre on the concept of property, not only portable property such as jewellery and clothing, but also the idea of women themselves as property to be exchanged within the Victorian social system. This essay suggests that Eliot's awareness of the anomalies of the law and the equivocal positions held by women in terms of property ownership informs her depictions of the things women possess, and the sorts of meanings generated by objects. The essay argues that in 'Daniel Deronda' Eliot offers a powerful critique of women's exclusion from the patriarchal processes of primogeniture, and that her ironic use of terms such as 'own' and 'self-possession' in relation to her female characters helps to emphasise her need to move beyond the heroine who renounces the things of this world.

  15. Maternal morbidities affect tens of millions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finger, W R

    1994-02-01

    Various separate studies indicate maternal morbidity is more common than had been believed. A Safe Motherhood Survey was conducted in 1993 in the Philippines among 9000 women, as part of efforts to study women's language and perceptions about pregnancy and symptoms of morbidity. In El Salvador, interviews were conducted among 2000 women on morbidity issues. Preliminary results from a Family Health International (FHI) five-country survey of 16,000 women revealed that 7 out of every 10 women reported a health problem related to maternity or chronic conditions stemming from pregnancy or childbirth. Conditions ranged from obstructed labor, complications from unsafe abortions, and bacterial infections, to anemia, hemorrhage, and eclampsia. The quality of care determines whether the health problems are life threatening. Less serious morbidity cases involve fatigue or back pain, which is exacerbated by poor nutrition and hard physical labor. Other reproductive morbidities are sexually transmitted diseases, side effects from contraceptives, and general gynecological problems. The FHI results from Ghana, Indonesia, and Egypt showed 240-300 morbidities for every maternal death; maternal mortality worldwide is estimated at 500,000 annually. A study of fistula (an injury during labor to the vagina and bladder that results in urinary or fecal incontinence) found that Nigerian community norms and limited access to emergency health care were factors. The women reported costs, poor roads, and transportation problems. A study in Ethiopia found that, in an Addis Ababa hospital between 1983-88, 600 fistulas were repaired every year, of which almost 66% occurred at first delivery. A study in Cairo in 1988 found that nearly 6 out of every 10 women reported a prolapsed uterus. Women in the studies were able to talk openly and willingly about their problems, when concepts and language were appropriate and interviewers were trained. A small study in India confirmed the correlation between

  16. The influence of gender role stereotyping on women's experiences of female same-sex intimate partner violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassouneh, Dena; Glass, Nancy

    2008-03-01

    Female same-sex intimate partner violence (FSSIPV) is a serious problem that affects the health and safety of lesbian and bisexual women. To begin to address the paucity of research, a mixed methods study was conducted to identify shared and unique risk and protective factors for FSSIPV. This article reports on qualitative findings related to the influence of gender role stereotyping on women's experiences of FSSIPV. Findings indicate that gender role stereotyping shapes women's experiences of FSSIPV by influencing individual, familial, community, and societal perceptions and responses to this phenomenon.

  17. Trait anxiety affects decision-making differently in healthy men and women: towards gender-specific endophenotypes of anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Visser, L; van der Knaap, L J; van de Loo, A J A E; van der Weerd, C M M; Ohl, F; van den Bos, R

    2010-05-01

    Excessive levels of trait anxiety are a risk factor for psychiatric conditions, including anxiety disorders and substance abuse. High trait anxiety has been associated with altered cognitive functioning, in particular with an attentional bias towards aversive stimuli. Decision-making is a crucial aspect of cognitive functioning that relies on the correct processing and control of emotional stimuli. Interestingly, anxiety and decision-making share underlying neural substrates, involving cortico-limbic pathways, including the amygdala, striatum and medial and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices. In the present study, we investigated the relationship between trait anxiety, measured by the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and complex decision-making, measured by the Iowa Gambling Task, in healthy male and female volunteers. The main focus of this study was the inclusion of gender as a discriminative factor. Indeed, we found distinct gender-specific effects of trait anxiety: in men, both low and high anxiety groups showed impaired decision-making compared to medium anxiety individuals, whereas in women only high anxiety individuals performed poorly. Furthermore, anxiety affected decision-making in men early in the task, i.e. the exploration phase, as opposed to an effect on performance in women during the second part of the test, i.e. the exploitation phase. These findings were related to different profiles of trait anxiety in men and women, and were independent of performance in the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test and cortisol levels. Our data show gender-specific effects of trait anxiety on emotional decision-making. We suggest gender-specific endophenotypes of anxiety to exist, that differentially affect cognitive functioning. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Adverse trajectories of mental health problems predict subsequent burnout and work-family conflict - a longitudinal study of employed women with children followed over 18 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Wendy; Skipstein, Anni; Demerouti, Evangelia

    2016-11-08

    The long-term consequence of experiencing mental health problems may lead to several adverse outcomes. The current study aims to validate previous identified trajectories of mental health problems from 1993 to 2006 in women by examining their implications on subsequent work and family-related outcomes in 2011. Employed women (n = 439) with children were drawn from the Tracking Opportunities and Problems-Study (TOPP), a community-based longitudinal study following Norwegian families across 18 years. Previous identified latent profiles of mental health trajectories (i.e., High; Moderate; Low-rising and Low levels of mental health problems over time) measured at six time points between 1993 and 2006 were examined as predictors of burnout (e.g., exhaustion and disengagement from work) and work-family conflict in 2011 in univariate and multivariate analyses of variance adjusted for potential confounders (age, job demands, and negative emotionality). We found that having consistently High and Moderate symptoms as well as Low-Rising symptoms from 1993 to 2006 predicted higher levels of exhaustion, disengagement from work and work-family conflict in 2011. Findings remained unchanged when adjusting for several potential confounders, but when adjusting for current mental health problems only levels of exhaustion were predicted by the mental health trajectories. The study expands upon previous studies on the field by using a longer time span and by focusing on employed women with children who experience different patterns of mental health trajectories. The long-term effect of these trajectories highlight and validate the importance of early identification and prevention in women experiencing adverse patterns of mental health problems with regards to subsequent work and family-related outcomes.

  19. Help-seeking Following Termination of Pregnancy after Diagnosis of Fetal Anomaly: Women's Intentions and Experiences 1 to 7 Years after the Event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanschmidt, Franz; Hoffmann, Rahel; Klingner, Johanna; Kersting, Anette; Stepan, Holger

    2018-02-01

    Diagnosis of fetal anomaly and the difficult circumstances involved in the decision to terminate an affected pregnancy can go along with severe psychological distress. However, little is known about women's help-seeking for emotional problems following an abortion after diagnosis of fetal anomaly. 148 women who had been treated for abortion after diagnosis of fetal anomaly at the University Hospital Leipzig responded to self-report questionnaires 1 to 7 years after the event. Main outcomes were help-seeking intentions and actual help-seeking behavior. Logistic regression was used to explore the associations between participants' sociodemographic characteristics and help-seeking intentions. Most women reported that they would seek help from their partner (91.7%), friends/family (82.8%) or the internet (62.2%). With regard to health services, 50.0% of women would seek help from gynecologists and between 43.8 and 47.9% from counseling services and mental health professionals. Intentions to seek help from support groups were lowest (21.7%). Age, income, region, and religion were associated with help-seeking intentions. Among participants with elevated levels of current psychological distress, 23.8% indicated that they had not discussed their emotional problems with a health service ever. Gynecologists are among the most preferred health professionals for women to discuss psychological problems in the aftermath of an abortion after diagnosis of fetal anomaly. They should be actively involved in screening, diagnostic assessment, and referral of affected women.

  20. Cognitive emotion regulation strategies In women abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanesa Galego Carrillo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Emotional regulation through cognitions is directly linked to human life and help people to maintain control on their emotions, both during and after experimenting an stressful event.  Exposition to gender violence cause serious health problems related to stress that need the activation of cognitive and behavioral processes to cope with it. WHOWorld Health Organization states that women in maltreatment situation have limitations on self-autonomy (autonomy and independent behavior. For this reason, self-regulation, understood as a mechanic of self-management through cognitions, emotions, mood, impulsive control and executive task may be affected. The main objective of this research is, to know the impact that gender-based violence may result in the use of cognitive emotion regulation strategies. It was an observational cross-over design of two non-equivalent women's groups/samples. A total of 116 women completed adapted versions to Spanish of "Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (CERQ”. Of these, 51 were in a situation of abuse. Results show that the greatest differences between being affected or not by abuse reside in “Rumination”, “Acceptance”, “Catastrophizing and blaming others”. These findings contribute to the empirical evidence in the field of gender-based violence and provide key elements for intervention.

  1. Black women talk about workplace stress and how they cope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, J Camille; Everett, Joyce E; Hamilton-Mason, Johnnie

    2012-01-01

    Black women face the same struggles as White women; however, they have to face issues of diversity on top of inequality. The purpose of this study was to explore work-related stressors that affect the lives of Black women and how they cope with them. Using an exploratory design with grounded-theory methods, five basic themes emerged that identify when racism and sexism are experienced as stressors for African American women in the workplace. The themes are: (1) being hired or promoted in the workplace, (2) defending one’s race and lack of mentorship, (3) shifting or code switching to overcome barriers to employment, (4) coping with racism and discrimination, and (5) being isolated and/or excluded. The results from this study indicate African American women use emotion- and problem-focused coping responses to manage stress (e.g., racism and sexism) in the workplace. The article concludes with a discussion of practice implications of these findings.

  2. Women and Diabetes

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Devices Beware of Illegally Sold Diabetes Treatments Diabetes and Pregnancy Some women develop diabetes for the first time ... about how diabetes medicines affect women during pregnancy. Diabetes and Pregnancy (CDC) Diverse Women in Clinical Trials Campaign Clinical ...

  3. The Cell Surface Markers Expression in Postmenopausal Women and Relation to Obesity and Bone Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horváthová, Mira; Ilavská, Silvia; Štefíková, Kornélia; Szabová, Michaela; Krivošíková, Zora; Jahnová, Eva; Tulinská, Jana; Spustová, Viera; Gajdoš, Martin

    2017-07-11

    The age-related changes and hormonal deprivation in postmenopausal women are associated with the immune response alteration. The excessive fat accumulation, local and systemic inflammation may lead to dysregulation in immune function and relevant health problems, including obesity and osteoporosis. We analyzed the expression of cell surface markers in the venous blood specimens, stained with fluorophores-conjugated monoclonal antibodies and analysed by multicolour flow cytometry. The significant changes of cytotoxic, naive, and memory T-lymphocytes, plasmacytoid dendritic cells (DCs) were in postmenopausal women versus fertile women. Body mass index (BMI) affected markedly the cell surface expression of CD265/RANK. Osteoporosis is linked to reduced percentage of plasmacytoid DCs, and elevated natural Treg cells ( p < 0.05). The confounding factors such as women age, BMI, bone mineral density (BMD), waist size and tissue fat affect the expression of RANK on myeloid DCs and CD40L on T-lymphocytes that might be the immunophenotypic modulators after menopause.

  4. The Cell Surface Markers Expression in Postmenopausal Women and Relation to Obesity and Bone Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mira Horváthová

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The age-related changes and hormonal deprivation in postmenopausal women are associated with the immune response alteration. The excessive fat accumulation, local and systemic inflammation may lead to dysregulation in immune function and relevant health problems, including obesity and osteoporosis. We analyzed the expression of cell surface markers in the venous blood specimens, stained with fluorophores-conjugated monoclonal antibodies and analysed by multicolour flow cytometry. The significant changes of cytotoxic, naive, and memory T-lymphocytes, plasmacytoid dendritic cells (DCs were in postmenopausal women versus fertile women. Body mass index (BMI affected markedly the cell surface expression of CD265/RANK. Osteoporosis is linked to reduced percentage of plasmacytoid DCs, and elevated natural Treg cells (p < 0.05. The confounding factors such as women age, BMI, bone mineral density (BMD, waist size and tissue fat affect the expression of RANK on myeloid DCs and CD40L on T-lymphocytes that might be the immunophenotypic modulators after menopause.

  5. Domestic violence against pregnant women: A prospective study in a metropolitan city, İstanbul

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cengiz, Hüseyin; Kanawati, Ammar; Yıldız, Şükrü; Süzen, Sema; Tombul, Tuba

    2014-01-01

    Objective Violence against women, particularly against pregnant women, is increasingly being recognized as a significant problem around the world. Limited studies were found about domestic violence among pregnant women. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of domestic violence during pregnancy and the factors affecting it. Material and Methods This prospective study was conducted at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, between January 2012 and April 2013. A total of 1349 pregnant women, irrespective of age and socioeconomic status, were interviewed using a questionnaire in the local language. Results The incidence of domestic violence in this study was 2.37%. The mean age of women who reported violence was 29.06±5.53 years. Age, marriage duration, gravidity, parity, educational level, partner’s educational level, and monthly income exerted no significant influences on women who experienced domestic violence during their pregnancies (p>0.05). Women who resided in the same houses with large extended families were at significantly higher risk of domestic violence during pregnancy in comparison with the pregnant women who lived within a core family (p=0.018). Conclusion Domestic violence during pregnancy is a potential public health problem. Education, improvements in economic autonomy, and society’s attitudes may reduce domestic violence. Health-care providers should increase their awareness of risk factors to protect women from domestic violence. PMID:24976770

  6. Problem of administering radioactive substances to pregnant women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Husak, V.; Ryznar, V.; Klener, V.

    1987-01-01

    Based on a critical analysis of a large amount of data from the literature, a table was prepared of radiation loads of the fetus after administration of radiopharmaceuticals to pregnant women. Briefly mentioned are recent findings on the biological effects of ionizing radiation on the fetus and the radiation risk was evaluated of radiopharmaceuticals administered during the third trimester of pregnancy. The possibility is discussed to evaluate the benefit of radionuclide examinations of pregnant women in relation to the radiation risk. (author). 4 figs., 4 tabs., 31 refs

  7. Emerging health problems among women: Inactivity, obesity, and metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Ju Tsai

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The increase in obesity and metabolic syndrome has been documented worldwide. However, few studies have investigated the risk of inactivity, obesity, and metabolic syndrome specifically in women. Hormone balance plays a crucial role in regulating metabolism and helps to maintain optimal health. It is likely that the sex difference in obesity may be due to the variation in hormone concentration throughout a woman's life, which predisposes them to weight gain. This paper reviews previous literature and discusses factors that influence the risk of adiposity-related health consequences among women for three critical biological transitions throughout a woman's life: puberty, menopause, and pregnancy. To improve quality of life and metabolic health for women, interventions are needed to target women at different transition stages and provide tailored health education programs. Interventions should raise awareness of physical inactivity, obesity, and metabolic syndrome, and promote healthy behavioral change in women.

  8. Indian women, health, and productivity

    OpenAIRE

    Chatterjee, Meera

    1990-01-01

    The relationship between women's health and their (physical and economic) productivity is complex and multi-dimensional. It is characterized by"flows"in both directions and a host of intervening factors. Two simple statements summarize the major directional flows: (a) women's health affects their productivity; and (b) productivity affects women's health. In the latter case, women's own productivity, that of their households, and even that of larger units such as the local, regional or nationa...

  9. Factors that affect women's attitudes toward domestic violence in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Gul Aldikacti; Furr, L Allen

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the attitudes of Turkish women toward justification of intimate partner violence. The data were gathered from the 2003 Turkey Demographic and Health Survey. A random sample of 8,075, aged 15-49, participated in the survey. The findings underline the importance of patriarchal beliefs and the associated practice of brides-money in addition to rural residence, large household, illiteracy, lack of wealth, and younger age at marriage as the sources of acceptance of violence among women. The study provides a theoretical explanation for how patriarchal ideology is translated into an accepting attitude toward violence and also discusses the factors that serve as mechanisms that help women resist patriarchal hegemony and not justify domestic violence against women. The final section of the article addresses policy implications.

  10. Phenotypic and familial associations between childhood maltreatment and cannabis initiation and problems in young adult European-American and African-American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Julia D; Agrawal, Arpana; Werner, Kimberly B; McCutcheon, Vivia V; Nelson, Elliot C; Madden, Pamela A F; Bucholz, Kathleen K; Heath, Andrew C; Sartor, Carolyn E

    2017-10-01

    Childhood maltreatment is a known risk factor for cannabis initiation and problem use, but the extent to which this association is attributable to shared familial influences is unknown. We estimate the magnitude of associations between childhood maltreatment, timing of cannabis initiation, and cannabis-related problems, in European-American (EA) and African-American (AA) women, and parse the relative influence of additive genetic (A), shared environmental (C), and individual-specific environmental (E) factors on these constructs and their covariation. Data were from diagnostic telephone interviews conducted with 3786 participants (14.6% AA) in a population-based study of female twins. Logistic regression analyses and twin modeling were used to test for associations, and estimate the relative contributions of genetic and environmental influences to childhood maltreatment and cannabis outcomes and their covariation. Maltreatment was significantly associated with increased likelihood of cannabis initiation before age 15 among EAs (OR=6.33) and AAs (OR=3.93), but with increased likelihood of later initiation among EAs only (OR=1.68). Maltreatment was associated with cannabis problems among both groups (EA OR=2.32; AA OR=2.03). Among EA women, the covariation between maltreatment and cannabis outcomes was primarily attributable to familial environment (rC=0.67-0.70); among AAs, only individual-specific environment contributed (rE=0.37-0.40). Childhood maltreatment is a major contributor to early initiation of cannabis as well as progression to cannabis problems in both AA and EA women. Distinctions by race/ethnicity are not in the relative contribution of genetic factors, but rather in the type of environmental influences that contribute to stages of cannabis involvement. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Women living in a drug (and violence context: the maternal role

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sueli Aparecida Frari Galera

    Full Text Available Although the drug problem is more present among men, women are an increasing group and a vulnerable subgroup, since many of them are involved in motherhood. In this paper, the partial results of an ethnographic study on maternal role-related perceptions, beliefs and attitudes are presented, as well as the context in which women with small children and are undergoing or underwent treatment for alcohol or drug addiction live. Mothers undergoing treatment participated in interviews about their maternal role and how it developed in a family context marked by violence, affective experiences and drug use.

  12. Black Like Me: How Idealized Images of Caucasian Women Affect Body Esteem and Mood States of African-American Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisby, Cynthia M.

    Using the theory of social comparison, the present research explores how exposure to idealized images of physically attractive Caucasian women affects and changes the self-reported esteem levels of African-American undergraduate students. Though research reveals that the number of portrayals of African-Americans in ads is growing, little if any…

  13. Women in service uniforms

    OpenAIRE

    Hanna Karaszewska; Maciej Muskała

    2012-01-01

    The article discusses the problems of women who work in the uniformed services with the particular emphasis on the performing of the occupation of the prison service. It presents the legal issues relating to equal treatment of men and women in the workplace, formal factors influencing their employment, the status of women in prison, and the problems of their conducting in the professional role. The article also presents the results of research conducted in Poland and all over the world, on th...

  14. Post-partum hemorrhage in women with rare bleeding disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyvandi, Flora; Menegatti, Marzia; Siboni, Simona Maria

    2011-02-01

    Post-partum hemorrhage (PPH) accounts for a substantial fraction of maternal deaths in the general population. Among all women, however, those affected with rare bleeding disorders (RBDs) represent a particular group since to usual bleeding symptoms, they are likely to experience bleedings associated to obstetrical and gynaecological problems. Pregnancy and childbirth, two important stages in the life of a woman, pose a special clinical challenge in women with RBDs, since information about these issues are really scarce and limited to few case reports. These data show that all women with RBDs, except for FXI deficiency, have to be considered potentially at risk for developing PPH, therefore they should be monitored carefully during and immediately after pregnancy. The implication is that women with bleeding disorders may require prophylaxis and/or close observation for several weeks and should be followed by a multidisciplinary team including expertises such as laboratory haematologist, obstetrician-gynaecologist, anaesthesiologist, family physician, and laboratory technician. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Factors influencing women\\'s decisions to purchase specific children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors influencing women\\'s decisions to purchase specific children\\'s ... they had selected a children's multi-nutrient supplement with the intention of buying it. ... Price, performance and brand loyalty, affect and normative factors were most ...

  16. [Stigma and discrimination: the experiences of HIV-positive women in poor neighborhoods of Maputo, Mozambique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Rosário Gregório; Iriart, Jorge Alberto Bernstein

    2015-03-01

    The HIV/AIDS epidemic is a serious public health problem in Mozambique. The country has high prevalence rates, and the epidemic's impact is aggravated by the stigma affecting HIV-positive persons. This study takes a socio-anthropological perspective to analyze the experience of HIV-positive women in poor neighborhoods of Maputo and the ways they cope with stigma and discrimination. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 10 HIV-positive women. The results show how gender inequalities increase women's vulnerability to HIV and contribute to their stigmatization and discrimination. In dealing with stigma, women try to keep their diagnosis confidential, seeking support in group meetings with others living with HIV. Public policies should focus on women's empowerment and the reduction of HIV/AIDS-related stigma.

  17. The Effect of Breast Cancer Fatalism on Breast Cancer Awareness Among Turkish Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altintas, Hulya Kulakci; Ayyildiz, Tulay Kuzlu; Veren, Funda; Topan, Aysel Kose

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of breast cancer fatalism and other factors on breast cancer awareness among Turkish women. This cross-sectional and comparative descriptive study was conducted with 894 women. Data were collected by Personal Information Form, Powe Fatalism Inventory and Champion's Health Belief Model Scale. Seriousness, health motivation, BSE benefits and BSE self-efficacy perceptions of the women were moderate, and susceptibility and BSE barriers perceptions were low. It was determined that awareness of breast cancer of the women was affected by breast cancer fatalism, age, education level, employment status, marital status, family type, economic status, social assurance, menopause status, family history of cancer, family history of breast cancer, knowledge on BSE, source of information on BSE, performing of BSE, frequency of BSE performing, having a problem with breast, having a breast examination in hospital, feeling during breast examination by healthcare professional, sex of healthcare professional for breast examination and their health beliefs (p breast cancer of the women was affected by breast cancer fatalism. In providing breast cancer early diagnosis behaviors, it is recommended to evaluate fatalism perceptions and health beliefs of the women and to arrange educational programs for this purpose.

  18. A comparative study of the effects of problem-solving skills training and relaxation on the score of self-esteem in women with postpartum depression

    OpenAIRE

    Nasiri, Saeideh; Kordi, Masoumeh; Gharavi, Morteza Modares

    2015-01-01

    Background: Self-esteem is a determinant factor of mental health. Individuals with low self-esteem have depression, and low self-esteem is one of main symptoms of depression. Aim of this study is to compare the effects of problem-solving skills and relaxation on the score of self-esteem in women with postpartum depression. Materials and Methods: This clinical trial was performed on 80 women. Sampling was done in Mashhad healthy centers from December 2009 to June 2010. Women were randomly divi...

  19. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Domestic Violence Against Women Attending a Primary Care Center in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnawi, Fatima Hamza

    2015-05-27

    Domestic violence (DV) against women can negatively affect the physical, mental, sexual, and reproductive health of the women as well as the well-being of their children. The objective was to estimate among Saudi women the prevalence of different types of DV, to identify its associated risk factors, and to determine the immediate victims' reactions to such violence. A cross-sectional study was carried between March and July, 2011. Self-administrated questionnaire was administered to ever-married Saudi women attending Al-Wazarat primary health care center, in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Out of the 720 women studied, 144 (20%) reported exposure to DV over the last year. The most common DV types were emotional (69%), social (34%), economic (26%), physical (20%), and sexual violence (10%). In multivariate logistic regression analysis, the following characteristics were independently associated with DV: younger women age, longer duration of marriage, higher women education, lower husband education, working husbands, military occupation, fewer children, husbands with multiple wives, smoking husbands, aggressive husbands, presence of chronic disease in women or husbands, and non-sufficient family income. The most common impacts of DV on women were medical or behavioral problems (72%) and psychiatric problems (58%). The most common reactions to DV were seeking separation (56%) and doing nothing (41%). More than 90% of children of abused women suffered psychological or behavioral problems. In conclusion, DV against Saudi women is considerable and the response is generally passive. Promoting a culture non-tolerant to DV and providing accessible, effective, and trustful social services to abused women are critically needed. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. Prevalence and risk factors of sexual dysfunction in postpartum Australian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khajehei, Marjan; Doherty, Maryanne; Tilley, P J Matt; Sauer, Kay

    2015-06-01

    Female sexual dysfunction is highly prevalent and reportedly has adverse impacts on quality of life. Although it is prevalent after childbirth, women rarely seek advice or treatment from health care professionals. The aim of this study was to assess the sexual functioning of Australian women during the first year after childbirth. Postpartum women who had given birth during the previous 12 months were invited to participate in this cross-sectional study. A multidimensional online questionnaire was designed for this study. This questionnaire included a background section, the Female Sexual Function Index, the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-8), and the Relationship Assessment Scale. Responses from 325 women were analyzed. Almost two-thirds of women (64.3%) reported that they had experienced sexual dysfunction during the first year after childbirth, and almost three-quarters reported they experienced sexual dissatisfaction (70.5 %). The most prevalent types of sexual dysfunction reported by the affected women were sexual desire disorder (81.2%), orgasmic problems (53.5%), and sexual arousal disorder (52.3%). The following were significant risk factors for sexual dysfunction: fortnightly or less frequent sexual activity, not being the initiator of sexual activity with a partner, late resumption of postnatal sexual activity (at 9 or more weeks), the first 5 months after childbirth, primiparity, depression, and relationship dissatisfaction. Sexual satisfaction is important for maintaining quality of life for postpartum women. Health care providers and postpartum women need to be encouraged to include sexual problems in their discussions. © 2015 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  1. The woman as problem and solution : Analysis of a gender equality initiative within the Swedish Rescue Services

    OpenAIRE

    Grip, Lena; Engström, Lars-Gunnar; Krekula, Clary; Karlsson, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article is to study how problem definitions of gender equality affect the possible outcomes of gender equality initiatives. The Swedish Municipal Rescue Services were chosen as the empirical example because they offer a workplace where women are greatly under-represented despite years of gender equality efforts. The article analyses how reasoning around gender equality shapes and constructs problem formulations around gender and equality. This article contributes to the debate...

  2. Women in service uniforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Karaszewska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the problems of women who work in the uniformed services with the particular emphasis on the performing of the occupation of the prison service. It presents the legal issues relating to equal treatment of men and women in the workplace, formal factors influencing their employment, the status of women in prison, and the problems of their conducting in the professional role. The article also presents the results of research conducted in Poland and all over the world, on the functioning of women in prison and their relations with officers of the Prison Service, as well as with inmates.

  3. Can motto-goals outperform learning and performance goals? Influence of goal setting on performance and affect in a complex problem solving task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam S. Rohe

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we bring together research on complex problem solving with that on motivational psychology about goal setting. Complex problems require motivational effort because of their inherent difficulties. Goal Setting Theory has shown with simple tasks that high, specific performance goals lead to better performance outcome than do-your-best goals. However, in complex tasks, learning goals have proven more effective than performance goals. Based on the Zurich Resource Model (Storch & Krause, 2014, so-called motto-goals (e.g., "I breathe happiness" should activate a person’s resources through positive affect. It was found that motto-goals are effective with unpleasant duties. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that motto-goals outperform learning and performance goals in the case of complex problems. A total of N = 123 subjects participated in the experiment. In dependence of their goal condition, subjects developed a personal motto, learning, or performance goal. This goal was adapted for the computer-simulated complex scenario Tailorshop, where subjects worked as managers in a small fictional company. Other than expected, there was no main effect of goal condition for the management performance. As hypothesized, motto goals led to higher positive and lower negative affect than the other two goal types. Even though positive affect decreased and negative affect increased in all three groups during Tailorshop completion, participants with motto goals reported the lowest rates of negative affect over time. Exploratory analyses investigated the role of affect in complex problem solving via mediational analyses and the influence of goal type on perceived goal attainment.

  4. Non-erotic thoughts, attentional focus, and sexual problems in a community sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Andrea L; Purdon, Christine

    2011-04-01

    According to Barlow's model of sexual dysfunction, anxiety in sexual situations leads to attentional focus on sexual performance at the expense of erotic cues, which compromises sexual arousal. This negative experience will enhance anxiety in future sexual situations, and non-erotic thoughts (NETs) relevant to performance will receive attentional priority. Previous research with student samples (Purdon & Holdaway, 2006; Purdon & Watson, 2010) has found that people experience many types of NETs in addition to performance-relevant thoughts, and that, consistent with Barlow's model, the frequency of and anxiety evoked by these thoughts is positively associated with sexual problems. Extending this previous work, the current study found that, in a community sample of women (N = 81) and men (N = 72) in long-term relationships, women were more likely to report body image concerns and external consequences of the sexual activity, while men were more likely to report performance-related concerns. Equally likely among men and women were thoughts about emotional consequences of the sexual activity. Regardless of thought content, experiencing more frequent NETs was associated with more sexual problems in both women and men. Moreover, as per Barlow's model, greater negative affect in anticipation of and during sexual activity predicted greater frequency of NETs and greater anxiety in response to NETs was associated with greater difficulty dismissing the thoughts. However, greater difficulty in refocusing on erotic thoughts during sexual activity uniquely predicted more sexual problems above the frequency and dismissability of NETs. Together, these data support the cognitive interference mechanism implicated by Barlow's causal model of sexual dysfunction and have implications for the treatment of sexual problems.

  5. The Lived Experience of Iranian Women Confronting Breast Cancer Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmat Mehrabi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The populations who survive from breast cancer are growing; nevertheless, they mostly encounter with many cancer related problems in their life, especially after early diagnosis and have to deal with these problems. Except for the disease entity, several socio-cultural factors may affect confronting this challenge among patients and the way they deal with. Present study was carried out to prepare clear understanding of Iranian women's lived experiences confronting breast cancer diagnosis and coping ways they applied to deal with it. Methods: This study was carried out by using qualitative phenomenological design. Data gathering was done through purposive sampling using semi-structured, in-depth interviews with 18 women who survived from breast cancer. The transcribed interviews were analyzed using Van Manen’s thematic analysis approach. Results: Two main themes were emerged from the interviews including "emotional turbulence" and "threat control". The first, comprised three sub themes including uncertainty, perceived worries, and living with fears. The second included risk control, recurrence control, immediate seeking help, seeking support and resource to spirituality. Conclusion: Emotional response was the immediate reflection to cancer diagnosis. However, during post-treatment period a variety of emotions were not uncommon findings, patients' perceptions have been changing along the time and problem-focused coping strategies have replaced. Although women may experience a degree of improvement and adjustment with illness, the emotional problems are not necessarily resolved, they may continue and gradually engender positive outcomes.

  6. Adverse trajectories of mental health problems predict subsequent burnout and work-family conflict: A longitudinal study of employed women with children followed over 18 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nilsen, W.; Skipstein, A.; Demerouti, E.

    2016-01-01

    Background The long-term consequence of experiencing mental health problems may lead to several adverse outcomes. The current study aims to validate previous identified trajectories of mental health problems from 1993 to 2006 in women by examining their implications on subsequent work and

  7. Education for women's empowerment or schooling for women's subordination?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longwe, S H

    1998-07-01

    This article distinguishes between "schooling for subordination," the notion that promotes conventional schooling for women within existing school systems as a possible basis for them to improve their position in society and "education for empowerment," a more radical perspective that links women's advancement with the transformation of the patriarchal social order. The article opens by defining gender training as provision of skills and methods for improved gender-orientation of development programs. The conservative interpretation of gender training holds that it seeks to increase women's access to resources. The radical definition holds that inequality in access to resources is a mere symptom of a deeper problem caused by structural gender inequality and calls for conscientization of this problem. The two definitions of women's empowerment that follow this distinction are 1) a watered-down view of empowerment as self-reliance reflecting the conservative definition and 2) a more robust and pure view of empowerment as enabling women to identify and end the discriminatory practices that block their access to resources. It follows that education may be mere schooling for subordination in systems where patriarchal gatekeepers limit chances for women and where women who do succeed become "honorary males" and "queen bees" intent on repelling the advancement of other women. Education for empowerment can be found in gender training, which holds objectives that are opposite to those found in formal schooling and may be more readily adopted by women with less exposure to formal, patriarchal schools.

  8. Prenatal and postnatal depression among low income Brazilian women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.A. Da-Silva

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Postnatal depression is a significant problem affecting 10-15% of mothers in many countries and has been the subject of an increasing number of publications. Prenatal depression has been studied less. The aims of the present investigation were: 1 to obtain information on the prevalence of prenatal and postnatal depression in low income Brazilian women by using an instrument already employed in several countries, i.e., the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS; 2 to evaluate the risk factors involved in prenatal and postnatal depression in Brazil. The study groups included 33 pregnant women interviewed at home during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy, and once a month during the first six months after delivery. Questions on life events and the mother's relationship with the baby were posed during each visit. Depressed pregnant women received less support from their partners than non-depressed pregnant women (36.4 vs 72.2%, P<0.05; Fisher exact test. Black women predominated among pre- and postnatally depressed subjects. Postnatal depression was associated with lower parity (0.4 ± 0.5 vs 1.1 ± 1.0, P<0.05; Student t-test. Thus, the period of pregnancy may be susceptible to socio-environmental factors that induce depression, such as the lack of affective support from the partner. The prevalence rate of 12% observed for depression in the third month postpartum is comparable to that of studies from other countries.

  9. Relative contributions of parent substance use and childhood maltreatment to chronic homelessness, depression, and substance abuse problems among homeless women: mediating roles of self-esteem and abuse in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Judith A; Leslie, Michelle Burden; Nyamathi, Adeline

    2002-10-01

    This study, using latent variable methodology, explores simultaneously the relative effects of childhood abuse and early parental substance abuse on later chronic homelessness, depression, and substance abuse problems in a sample of homeless women. We also examine whether self-esteem and recent violence can serve as mediators between the childhood predictors and the dysfunctional outcomes. The sample consists of 581 homeless women residing in shelters or sober living centers in Los Angeles (54% African-American, 23% Latina, 22% White, mean age=33.5 years). Multiple-indicator latent variables served as predictors and outcomes in structural models. Childhood abuse was indicated by sexual, physical, and verbal abuse. Childhood abuse directly predicted later physical abuse, chronic homelessness, depression, and less self-esteem. Parent substance use directly predicted later substance use problems among the women. Recent physical abuse predicted chronic homelessness, depression, and substance use problems. Greater self-esteem predicted less depression and fewer substance use problems. Childhood abuse also had significant indirect effects on depression, chronic homelessness, and drug and alcohol problems mediated through later physical abuse and self-esteem. Although there was a strong relationship between childhood abuse and parent drug use, childhood abuse was the more pervasive and devastating predictor of dysfunctional outcomes. Childhood abuse predicted a wider range of problems including lower self-esteem, more victimization, more depression, and chronic homelessness, and indirectly predicted drug and alcohol problems. The mediating roles of recent physical abuse and self-esteem suggest salient leverage points for change through empowerment training and self-esteem enhancement in homeless women.

  10. Alcohol and dietary fibre intakes affect circulating sex hormones among premenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maskarinec, Gertraud; Morimoto, Yukiko; Takata, Yumie; Murphy, Suzanne P; Stanczyk, Frank Z

    2006-10-01

    The association of alcohol and fibre intake with breast cancer may be mediated by circulating sex hormone levels, which are predictors of breast cancer risk. To evaluate the relationship of alcohol and dietary fibre intake with circulating sex hormone levels among premenopausal women. A total of 205 premenopausal women completed a validated food-frequency questionnaire at baseline and after 2 years; blood samples taken at the same time were analysed for circulating sex hormone concentrations, including oestrone (E1), oestradiol (E2), free E2, progesterone, androstenedione and sex hormone-binding globulin, by radioimmunoassay. We used mixed models to estimate least-square means of sex hormone concentrations for alcohol intake categories and quartiles of dietary intake. After adjustment for covariates, alcohol consumption was moderately associated with higher circulating oestrogen levels; those who consumed more than one drink per day had 20% higher E2 (Ptrend=0.07) levels than non-drinkers. In contrast, higher dietary fibre intake was associated with lower serum levels of androstenedione (-8% between the lowest and highest quartiles of intake, Ptrend=0.06), but not oestrogens. Similarly, consumption of fruits (-12%, Ptrend=0.03), vegetables (-9%, Ptrend=0.15) and whole grains (-7%, Ptrend=0.07) showed inverse associations with androstenedione levels. The consistency of the observed differences in sex hormone levels associated with alcohol and fibre-rich foods indicates that these nutritional factors may affect sex hormone concentrations and play a role in breast cancer aetiology and prevention.

  11. Women's health: beyond reproductive years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskar, Ananya Ray

    2011-01-01

    With changing demographic profile India has more older women than men as life expectancy for women is 67.57 as against 65.46 for men. Gender differences in the aging process reflect biological, economic, and social differences. Both social and health needs of the older women are unique and distinctive as they are vulnerable. The social problems revolve around widowhood, dependency, illiteracy and lack of awareness about the policies and programmes from which they can benefit. Among the medical problems, vision (cataract) and degenerative joint disease top the list, followed by neurological problems. Lifestyle diseases form another single-most important group of health problems in the elderly women. The risk of cardiovascular disease doubles with the outcome being poorer than men. The most common causes of death among women above the age of 60 years are stroke, ischemic heart disease and COPD. Hypertensive heart disease and lower respiratory tract infections contribute to mortality in these women. Common malignancies viz. Cervical, breast and uterus in women are specific to them and account for a sizeable morbidity and mortality. In a study done at Lady Hardinge medical college in Delhi, Hypertension (39.6%) and obesity (12-46.8%) were very common in postmenopausal women. Half or more women had high salt and fat intake, low fruit and vegetable intake and stress. There is a need to recognize the special health needs of the women beyond the reproductive age, to be met through strengthening and reorienting the public health services at all levels starting from primary health care to secondary till tertiary care level with adequate referral linkages. All policies and programs need to have a gender perspective. At present there is lack of sensitization and appropriate training of the health personnel in dealing with the needs of elderly. Women too need to be aware to adopt healthy lifestyle and seek timely care.

  12. Sociocultural Influences on Arab Women's Participation in Breast Cancer Screening in Qatar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jasmine J; Donnelly, Tam T; Ewashen, Carol; McKiel, Elaine; Raffin, Shelley; Kinch, Janice

    2017-04-01

    Breast cancer, the most common cancer among Arab women in Qatar, significantly affects the morbidity and mortality of Arab women largely because of low participation rates in breast cancer screening. We used a critical ethnographic approach to uncover and describe factors that influence Arab women's breast cancer screening practices. We conducted semistructured interviews with 15 health care practitioners in Qatar. Through thematic analysis of the data, we found three major factors influencing breast cancer screening practices: (a) beliefs, attitudes, and practices regarding women's bodies, health, and illness; (b) religious beliefs and a culturally sensitive health care structure; and (c) culturally specific gender relations and roles. Arab women's health practices cannot be understood in isolation from the sociocultural environment. The problem of low rates of breast cancer screening practices and supportive interventions must be addressed within the context and not be limited to the individual.

  13. Intermittent Explosive Disorder amongst Women in Conflict Affected Timor-Leste: Associations with Human Rights Trauma, Ongoing Violence, Poverty, and Injustice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Susan; Silove, Derrick; Verdial, Teresa; Tam, Natalino; Savio, Elisa; Fonseca, Zulmira; Thorpe, Rosamund; Liddell, Belinda; Zwi, Anthony; Tay, Kuowei; Brooks, Robert; Steel, Zachary

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Women in conflict-affected countries are at risk of mental disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder and depression. No studies have investigated the association between experiences of abuse and injustice and explosive anger amongst women in these settings, and the impact of anger on women's health, family relationships and ability to participate in development. Methods A mixed methods study including an epidemiological survey (n = 1513, 92.6% response) and qualitative interviews (n = 77) was conducted in Timor-Leste. The indices measured included Intermittent Explosive Disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder; severe distress; days out of role (the number of days that the person was unable to undertake normal activities); gender-specific trauma; conflict/violence; poverty; and preoccupations with injustice. Results Women with Intermittent Explosive Disorder (n = 184, 12.2%) were more disabled than those without the disorder (for >5 days out of role, 40.8% versus 31.5%, X2 (2)  = 12.93 p = 0.0016). Multivariable associations with Intermittent Explosive Disorder, controlling for the presence of PTSD, psychological distress and other predictors in the model, included the sense of being sick (OR 1.73; 95% CI 1.08–2.77); victimization as a result of helping the resistance movement (OR 2.33, 95% CI 1.48–3.68); war-related trauma specific to being a woman (OR 1.95, 95%, CI 1.09–3.50); ongoing family violence and community conflict (OR 1.88, 95% CI 1.27–2.77); extreme poverty (OR 1.23, 95%, CI 1.08–1.39); and distressing preoccupations with injustice (relating to 2/3 historical periods, OR 2.10, 95% CI 1.35–3.28). In the qualitative study, women elaborated on the determinants of anger and its impact on their health, family and community functioning, child-rearing, and capacity to engage in development. Women reflected on the strategies that might help them overcome their anger. Conclusions Intermittent Explosive Disorder

  14. Intermittent explosive disorder amongst women in conflict affected Timor-Leste: associations with human rights trauma, ongoing violence, poverty, and injustice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Rees

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Women in conflict-affected countries are at risk of mental disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder and depression. No studies have investigated the association between experiences of abuse and injustice and explosive anger amongst women in these settings, and the impact of anger on women's health, family relationships and ability to participate in development. METHODS: A mixed methods study including an epidemiological survey (n = 1513, 92.6% response and qualitative interviews (n = 77 was conducted in Timor-Leste. The indices measured included Intermittent Explosive Disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder; severe distress; days out of role (the number of days that the person was unable to undertake normal activities; gender-specific trauma; conflict/violence; poverty; and preoccupations with injustice. RESULTS: Women with Intermittent Explosive Disorder (n = 184, 12.2% were more disabled than those without the disorder (for >5 days out of role, 40.8% versus 31.5%, X(2 (2 = 12.93 p = 0.0016. Multivariable associations with Intermittent Explosive Disorder, controlling for the presence of PTSD, psychological distress and other predictors in the model, included the sense of being sick (OR 1.73; 95% CI 1.08-2.77; victimization as a result of helping the resistance movement (OR 2.33, 95% CI 1.48-3.68; war-related trauma specific to being a woman (OR 1.95, 95%, CI 1.09-3.50; ongoing family violence and community conflict (OR 1.88, 95% CI 1.27-2.77; extreme poverty (OR 1.23, 95%, CI 1.08-1.39; and distressing preoccupations with injustice (relating to 2/3 historical periods, OR 2.10, 95% CI 1.35-3.28. In the qualitative study, women elaborated on the determinants of anger and its impact on their health, family and community functioning, child-rearing, and capacity to engage in development. Women reflected on the strategies that might help them overcome their anger. CONCLUSIONS: Intermittent Explosive Disorder is prevalent and

  15. HIV infection and women's sexual functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Tracey E; Jean-Louis, Girardin; Schwartz, Rebecca; Golub, Elizabeth T; Cohen, Mardge H; Maki, Pauline; Greenblatt, Ruth; Massad, L Stewart; Robison, Esther; Goparaju, Lakshmi; Lindau, Stacy

    2010-08-01

    To compare sexual problems among HIV-positive and HIV-negative women and describe clinical and psychosocial factors associated with these problems. Data were collected during a study visit of the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS). The WIHS studies the natural and treated history of HIV among women in the United States. Between October 01, 2006, and March 30, 2007, 1805 women (1279 HIV positive and 526 HIV negative) completed a study visit that included administration of the Female Sexual Function Index. In addition, the visit included completion of standardized interviewer-administered surveys, physical and gynecological examinations, and blood sample collection. Women with HIV reported greater sexual problems than did those without HIV. Women also reported lower sexual function if they were classified as menopausal, had symptoms indicative of depression, or if they reported not being in a relationship. CD4 cell count was associated with Female Sexual Function Index scores, such that those with CD4 women's quality of life, greater attention to this issue as a potential component of women's overall HIV care is warranted.

  16. Side Effects: Sleep Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleep problems are a common side effect during cancer treatment. Learn how a polysomnogram can assess sleep problems. Learn about the benefits of managing sleep disorders in men and women with cancer.

  17. Globalisation and women in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnaraj, M

    1999-11-01

    Globalization arrived in India through an external and internal alignment of political and economic forces that led to the opening of the country to the outside world. The five processes under globalization are: 1) commercialism wherein more services become monetized and incomes are received in money rather than in kind; 2) more capitalization; 3) foreign trade becomes important for the production and distribution process; 4) greater financialization develops; and 5) international capital moves freely. These changes affect women more than men in different ways. Capitalization results in more self-employed marginal farmers becoming wage workers, making it less possible for women to manage domestic duties alongside their productive work. In general, macro-economic policies affect women through the household, market, and gender relations. In countries like India where women suffer from serious discrimination, whatever affects the household will worsen women's position. Thus, the process of liberalization, privatization, and globalization will put the clock back for women and for the poor in general.

  18. Family-based prevention of mental health problems in children affected by HIV and AIDS: an open trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancourt, Theresa S; Ng, Lauren C; Kirk, Catherine M; Munyanah, Morris; Mushashi, Christina; Ingabire, Charles; Teta, Sharon; Beardslee, William R; Brennan, Robert T; Zahn, Ista; Stulac, Sara; Cyamatare, Felix R; Sezibera, Vincent

    2014-07-01

    The objective of this study is to assess the feasibility and acceptability of an intervention to reduce mental health problems and bolster resilience among children living in households affected by caregiver HIV in Rwanda. Pre-post design, including 6-month follow-up. The Family Strengthening Intervention (FSI) aims to reduce mental health problems among HIV-affected children through improved child-caregiver relationships, family communication and parenting skills, HIV psychoeducation and connections to resources. Twenty families (N = 39 children) with at least one HIV-positive caregiver and one child 7-17 years old were enrolled in the FSI. Children and caregivers were administered locally adapted and validated measures of child mental health problems, as well as measures of protective processes and parenting. Assessments were administered at pre and postintervention, and 6-month follow-up. Multilevel models accounting for clustering by family tested changes in outcomes of interest. Qualitative interviews were completed to understand acceptability, feasibility and satisfaction with the FSI. Families reported high satisfaction with the FSI. Caregiver-reported improvements in family connectedness, good parenting, social support and children's pro-social behaviour (P self-esteem, depression, anxiety and irritability were seen at follow-up (P < .05). Significant decreases in child-reported harsh punishment were observed at postintervention and follow-up, and decreases in caregiver reported harsh punishment were also recorded on follow-up (P < 0.05). The FSI is a feasible and acceptable intervention that shows promise for improving mental health symptoms and strengthening protective factors among children and families affected by HIV in low-resource settings.

  19. Pelvic floor muscle problems mediate sexual problems in young adult rape victims

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, Riemke; Bicanic, Iva; van der Vaart, Huub; Laan, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    Prior studies have addressed sexual abuse and sexual function in adult women. No studies have focused on the effect of adolescence rape on sexual functioning. To investigate the effect of rape on sexual problems and on pelvic floor problems, as well as the mediating role of pelvic floor problems on

  20. An Investigation of Factors Affecting the Management of Risk for the Rice Cultivating Women in Sari Town with LISREL Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. charmchian Langerodi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Agriculture relies on nature and farmers face environmental, social, financial and legal issues that makes farming to be consistently and strongly associated with risk. Agriculture can be considered to be the most risky economic venture. Ahmadi (1 listed several main sources of risk that farmers face. Economic risk includes price fluctuations for raw materials such as seed and fertilizer and for machinery at the pre-market delivery stage, difficulty obtaining bank credit and loans, price volatility for products in the post market delivery stage, inconsistent government policies for products and global fluctuations in the price of products. Social risk includes theft of crops, production and agricultural machinery and war. Nature-related risk includes natural disasters, climate change, agricultural pests and diseases. Market risk includes changes in the price of raw materials and products and increasing interest rates. Given that the range of agricultural activities having critical risk are diverse and the climate can vary widely, more sophisticated services are needed to meet the demands, cope with hazards and decrease risk. Understanding how women rice farmers deal with risk is essential for educators, and agriculture-related industries such as insurance, and policymakers. If the attitudes of these women towards risk are accurately recognized, risk management strategies, risk-related educational programs and risk strategies can be designed to meet their needs. The overallaim of this research isto investigate factors affecting risk management, and proposing and designing a model among rice cultivating women in Sari. Materials and Methods: The population of the study comprised 1677rice cultivating women in Sari of whom 248 were selected through stratified random sampling. A combination of quantitative, and descriptive-inferential statistics served as the methodology for the study and SPSS 16 and LISREL were applied for data analysis

  1. Quality of life domains affected in women with breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Nunes Garcia

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the quality of life of women suffering from breast cancer undergoing chemotherapy in public and private health care systems. METHOD: It is an observational, prospective study with 64 women suffering from breast cancer. Data was collected with two instruments: Quality of Life Questionnaire C30 and Breast Cancer Module BR23. By applying Mann Whitney and Friedman's statistical tests, p values < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. RESULTS: The significant results in public health care systems were: physical functions, pain symptom, body image, systemic effects and outlook for the future. In private health care systems, the results were sexual, social functions and body image. Women's quality of life was harmed by chemotherapy in both institutions. CONCLUSION: The quality of life of women has been harmed as a result of the chemotherapy treatment in both institutions, but in different domains, indicating the type of nursing care that should be provided according to the characteristics of each group.

  2. Marginalisation of women in educational management

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    M.Ed. The problem in this research lies in the absence of women in management positions and women being poorly represented in decision-making in Soweto Schools. The purpose of this research is to argue for the increased number of women in educational management and to discuss the problems that women encounter in management positions in the Gauteng Department of Education. This is a qualitative research. The researcher interviewed, observed and recorded four school principals, five heads of...

  3. Factors affecting sexuality in older Australian women: sexual interest, sexual arousal, relationships and sexual distress in older Australian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, J R; O'Neill, S; Travers, C

    2006-10-01

    To investigate the sexual behavior, sexual relationships, sexual satisfaction, sexual dysfunction and sexual distress in a population of older urban Australian women. In 2004, 474 women participating in the Longitudinal Assessment of Ageing in Women (LAW) Study completed a series of questionnaires about sexuality. They included the Short Personal Experiences Questionnaire (SPEQ), Relationship Assessment Scale (RAS), Female Sexual Distress Scale (FSDS), questions concerning past sexual abuse based on the Sex in Australia Study, and questions comparing present and past sexual interest and activity. The percentage of women with partners ranged from 83.3% in the 40 - 49-year age group to 46.4% women in the 70 - 79-year age group. The sexual ability of partners diminished markedly with age, with only 4.8% of the partners using medication to enable erections. Only 2.5% of women reported low relationship satisfaction. The incidence of sexual distress was also low, being reported by only 5.7% of women. Younger women and women with partners had higher levels of distress than older women. Indifference to sexual frequency rose from 26.7% in women aged 40 - 49 years to 72.3% in the 70 - 79-year age group. Past sexual abuse was recalled by 22.7% of women and 11.6% recalled multiple episodes of abuse. Women who recalled abuse had lower scores for satisfaction with sexual frequency. It appears from this study that there is a wide range of sexual experience amongst aging women, from never having had a sexual partner, to having solitary sex, to having a relationship with or without sex into the seventh decade. As women age, they experience a decrease in sexual activity, interest in sex, and distress about sex. This may be associated with the loss of intimate relationships as part of separation, divorce or bereavement. Decreased sexual activity with aging may be interpreted as a biological phenomenon (part of the aging process) or as sexual dysfunction, or it may be the result of

  4. Parental Reflective Functioning Moderates the Relationship between Difficult Temperament in Infancy and Behavior Problems in Toddlerhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kristyn; Stacks, Ann M.; Rosenblum, Katherine L.; Muzik, Maria

    2017-01-01

    This study assessed the links between infant negative affect, parental reflective functioning (RF), and toddler behavior problems in a sample of 84 women and their infants. Mothers provided self-report demographic data and completed the Infant Behavior Questionnaire-Revised during a home visit when the infant was 7 months old. They also completed…

  5. Wartime stressors and health outcomes: women in the Persian Gulf War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, E A; Roth, M A; Weed, G

    1998-08-01

    This descriptive correlational study of war time stressors and stress responses of women from the Persian Gulf War examined numerous stressors both physical and psychological. The psychological stressors more directly impacted postwar physical and psychological symptoms than did physical stressors. These findings add to our understanding of women's reactions to wartime stress and the types of stressors affecting women. The study provides more data to support the contention that sexual harassment is widely prevalent in the military. The study did not find data to support concerns about maternal guilt on leaving children, nor any significant evidence of stress symptomology from this situation. The results of this study confirmed the call by Wolfe, Brown, Furey, and Levin (1993) for more precise evaluation of wartime stressors in view of the changing gender composition of military forces and the subsequent increase of women in combat roles. Clinicians should be alerted to recognize gender-specific experiences. Education of military women about stressors and coping mechanisms should be broadened to address the development issue of intimacy versus isolation. Nurses, both military and civilian, must understand the effect of isolation and discrimination on women both in combat and in other high stress situations. The need for continued study of the problem of sexual harassment is confirmed. Understanding the scope of the problem and the health care outcomes strengthens the role of prevention and intervention for nurses and their clients.

  6. Image Problems Deplete the Number of Women in Academic Applicant Pools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sears, Anna L. W.

    Despite near numeric parity in graduate schools, women and men in science and mathematics may not perceive the same opportunities for career success. Instead, female doctoral students' career ambitions may often be influenced by perceptions of irreconcilable conflicts between personal and academic goals. This article reports the results of a career goals survey of math and science doctoral students at the University of California, Davis. Fewer women than men began their doctoral programs seeking academic research careers. Of those who initially favored academic research, twice as many women as men downgraded these ambitions during graduate school. Women were more likely to feel geographically constrained by family ties and to express concern about balancing work and family, long work hours, and tenure clock inflexibility. These results partially explain why the percentage of women in academic applicant pools is often well below the number of Ph.D. recipients. The current barriers to gender equity thus cannot be completely ameliorated by increasing the number of women in the pipeline or by altered hiring practices, but changes must be undertaken to make academic research careers more flexible, family friendly, and attractive to women.

  7. Problems of Women Employees in Private Shops and Business Enterprises, Kerala

    OpenAIRE

    Dolly Kurian; Saleel Kumar

    2014-01-01

    India is the first among countries to give women equal franchise and has a highly credible record with regard to the enactment of laws to protect and promote the interests of women, but women continue to be denied economic, social and legal rights and privileges. Though they are considered to be equal partners in progress, yet they remain subjected to repression, marginalization and exploitation. This study is based on a research conducted on women's employment in private sector. The objectiv...

  8. Women Farmer’s Participation And Empowerment To Support Family Food Self- Sufficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya Safrina Suraningsih

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural development is currently prioritizing on the technical aspects and pays less attention to human factors which resulting in low empowerment of farmers. The patriarchal system which still prevails in rural areas causing the involvement of women in the decision-making process is still very low, so as the importance of empowering women in rural areas in order to make them more confident about themselves and are able to formulate and convey the problems efficiently. The research objectives are (1 to analyze the level of women farmers’ empowerment, and (2 to analyze factors affecting the level of participation and empowerment of women farmers. Data were processed using quantitative analysis supported by qualitative analysis. The results obtained the level of women farmer’s empowerment in medium category, the activities of Women Farmers Group (KWT categories of low in making decisions, increasing the additional income and distribute production, the medium category, namely access to information and regulate family food consumptions, and high category that aspect of utilizing their yards. Factors that mostly affect the empowerment of women farmers are a long time to cultivate the farm yard, the level of income, cosmopolitan level, motivation level, intensity of interaction within the groups, the development of technical capabilities, the intensity of the assistance, government policy support, social environment conduciveness, interpersonal, group, behavior in using media, planning, income utilization, and monitoring and evaluation activities.

  9. Risk, treatment duration, and recurrence risk of postpartum affective disorder in women with no prior psychiatric history: A population-based cohort study.

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    Marie-Louise H Rasmussen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Some 5%-15% of all women experience postpartum depression (PPD, which for many is their first psychiatric disorder. The purpose of this study was to estimate the incidence of postpartum affective disorder (AD, duration of treatment, and rate of subsequent postpartum AD and other affective episodes in a nationwide cohort of women with no prior psychiatric history.Linking information from several Danish national registers, we constructed a cohort of 457,317 primiparous mothers with first birth (and subsequent births from 1 January 1996 to 31 December 2013 (a total of 789,068 births and no prior psychiatric hospital contacts and/or use of antidepressants. These women were followed from 1 January 1996 to 31 December 2014. Postpartum AD was defined as use of antidepressants and/or hospital contact for PPD within 6 months after childbirth. The main outcome measures were risk of postpartum AD, duration of treatment, and recurrence risk. We observed 4,550 (0.6% postpartum episodes of AD. The analyses of treatment duration showed that 1 year after the initiation of treatment for their first episode, 27.9% of women were still in treatment; after 4 years, 5.4%. The recurrence risk of postpartum AD for women with a PPD hospital contact after first birth was 55.4 per 100 person-years; for women with postpartum antidepressant medication after first birth, it was 35.0 per 100 person-years. The rate of postpartum AD after second birth for women with no history of postpartum AD was 1.2 per 100 person-years. After adjusting for year of birth and mother's age, women with PPD hospital contact after first birth had a 46.4 times higher rate (95% CI 31.5-68.4 and women with postpartum antidepressant medication after their first birth had a 26.9 times higher rate (95% CI 21.9-33.2 of a recurrent postpartum episode after their second birth compared to women with no postpartum AD history. Limitations include the use of registry data to identify cases and limited

  10. The contemporary look at the problem of recognizing and diagnosing postmenopausal osteoporosis and eliminating the risk of a fall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariola Janiszewska

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis constitutes a relevant health, social and economic problem of the contemporary world. As a chronic disease, often nicknamed the “silent thief”, it is an object of the clinical research and a reason for many ambiguities. The most noticeable and basic symptom of osteoporosis is a low-energy fracture, which brings pain, physical disability, and a noticeable decrease in one’s quality of life. Osteoporosis affects the entire population; however, women in the postmenopausal period and the elderly are mostly exposed to its progress. The risk of falling ill concerning women simply grows with the age and doubles with every decade after the age of 65. It is estimated that osteoporosis affects 200 million women worldwide, and about 20-25% of them will sustain an injury in the form of a bone fracture. In Poland, the problem of osteoporosis concerns 2.4 million women. The article attempts to show current views on examining and diagnosing postmenopausal osteoporosis and prevention of the fall risk. The BMD (bone mineral density is considered the basis of osteoporosis diagnosis in postmenopausal women as well as an absolute 10-year risk of fractures and experienced osteoporotic fractures. All people at an increased fall risk should be provided with the multifactorial programme of fall prevention.

  11. Characteristics of Mexican women admitted to emergency care units: alcohol consumption and related problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romero Martha

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This article describes the demographic characteristics and psychological differences in a sample of female heavy and non-heavy drinkers who attended three emergency services of the Mexican city of Pachuca, Hidalgo. Material and Methods. A sample of patients seen at emergency services (ES patients over the age of 18 was selected using ES admission forms. Twenty-five-minute, face-to-face interviews were conducted by a group of trained interviewers. Patients answered various questionnaires and scales to measure alcohol consumption and to provide information on variables that have proved to be related to female drinking. Results. Thirty-six women (5.2% out of 717 of the total number of women were found to be heavy drinkers according to the TWEAK scale. This group of women had 2.3 times the risk of becoming depressed, 2.87 times the risk of taking other drugs, 1.95 times the likelihood of having been sexually abused and 1.57 times the risk of displaying suicidal ideation. Conclusions. Data from this small analysis confirm international findings that problem drinking among females throughout the life cycle is linked to depression. As regards the screening instruments employed, it is necessary to conduct more in-depth research to enrich their contents and increase their reliability and validity when used among female populations. In this study, the TWEAK proved to be extremely useful for studies in emergency services. The English version of this paper is available too at: http://www.insp.mx/salud/index.html

  12. Raising the "glass ceiling" for ethnic minority women in health care management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, R; Johnston, G

    1999-01-01

    Ethnic minority women are well represented in the work force and in the health care system in general, but do not have a similar level of representation in the management sector. This paper explores three strategies for schools of health administration to consider to lessen the effect of a "glass ceiling" that may be encountered by ethnic minority women aspiring to positions of leadership in health services agencies. These strategies are advancing affirmative action, valuing ethnic women in health administration education, and investigating diversity management. Inherent in each of the three strategies is the need for acknowledgment and more open discussion of the "glass ceiling." Problem-solving in relation to the potential for systemic discrimination adversely affecting ethnic minority women in senior health care management positions, and greater study of the three strategies using both qualitative and quantitative methodologies is also needed.

  13. The benefits of being self-determined in promoting physical activity and affective well-being among women recently treated for breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunet, Jennifer; Burke, Shaunna M; Sabiston, Catherine M

    2013-10-01

    In this study, changes in motivational regulations in women following treatment for breast cancer were described. Changes in motivational regulations as predictors of subsequent change in light and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (PA) and affect were also examined. Women [n = 150; M(age) = 54.41 (SD = 10.87) years] completed self-report questionnaires and wore an accelerometer for 7 days at Time 1 [M = 3.94 (SD = 3.08) months following primary treatment], as well as 3 (Time 2) and 6 (Time 3) months later. Data were analyzed using repeated-measures analysis of variance and path analysis using residual change scores. Identified regulation and self-determined motivation (i.e., combined intrinsic motivation and identified regulation) scores decreased over time (p positive affect (β = -0.16), ΔTime(1-2) in introjected (β = 0.25) and amotivation (β = 0.19) were related to ΔTime(2-3) in negative affect, and ΔTime(1-2) in self-determined motivation was related to ΔTime(2-3) in positive affect (β = 0.40) and moderate-to-vigorous PA (β = 0.21). Changes in motivational regulations were related to changes in PA and affect in the aftermath of breast cancer. Given the benefits of self-determined motivation, additional research is needed to develop and test interventions aimed at enhancing this type of motivation. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Exposure to thin-ideal media affect most, but not all, women: Results from the Perceived Effects of Media Exposure Scale and open-ended responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick, David A; Daniels, Elizabeth A; Bates, Morgan E; Tylka, Tracy L

    2017-12-01

    Findings conflict as to whether thin-ideal media affect women's body satisfaction. Meta-analyses of experimental studies reveal small or null effects, but many women endorse appearance-related media pressure in surveys. Using a novel approach, two samples of women (Ns=656, 770) were exposed to bikini models, fashion models, or control conditions and reported the effects of the images their body image. Many women reported the fashion/bikini models made them feel worse about their stomachs (57%, 64%), weight (50%, 56%), waist (50%, 56%), overall appearance (50%, 56%), muscle tone (46%, 52%), legs (45%, 48%), thighs (40%, 49%), buttocks (40%, 43%), and hips (40%, 46%). In contrast, few women (1-6%) reported negative effects of control images. In open-ended responses, approximately one-third of women explicitly described negative media effects on their body image. Findings revealed that many women perceive negative effects of thin-ideal media in the immediate aftermath of exposures in experimental settings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Women Farmers' Perceptions of the Economic Problems Influencing Their Productivity in Agricultural Systems: Meme Division of the Southwest Province, Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endeley, Joyce B.

    Women farmers produce about 60% of the food in Cameroon, but face more problems and constraints than men in performing their agricultural activities. Cash crop farmers (mostly men) are the targeted beneficiaries of government and international aids, and have better access to extension services, loans, subsidized production input (herbicides,…

  16. The role of vitamin A in nutritional anaemia : a study in pregnant women in West Java, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suharno, D.

    1994-01-01

    Nutritional anaemia affects 50-70% of pregnant women in the developing world where vitamin A deficiency is also a problem. Since previous studies have indicated that vitamin A deficiency can be involved in the aetiology of nutritional anaemia, the role of vitamin A deficiency in nutritional

  17. Transforming discriminatory sex roles and gender stereotyping : the implementation of Article 5(a) CEDAW for the realisation of women's right to be free from gender-based violence in Jamaica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biholar, R.G.

    2013-01-01

    Gender-based violence against women is a stubborn problem worldwide. It still affects the everyday lives of many women around the world. This scourge has deep social and cultural roots, which foster a vicious cycle of gender violence. Embedded constructions of femininity and masculinity based on

  18. Women's health issues with fibromyalgia syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaver, Joan L F; Wilbur, Joellen; Robinson, F Patrick; Wang, Edward; Buntin, Mary S

    2006-11-01

    Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) involves multiple sensory, somatic, and cognitive symptoms that are bound to affect or be affected by physical and mental health status and behavioral components of daily life. From a telephone survey of 442 women with and 205 women without FMS as volunteers, data were compared on (1) general health status, (2) reproductive and sleep-related diagnoses, and (3) lifestyle health behaviors. All multiple or logistics regression analyses for group differences were controlled for age, body mass index (BMI), race, employment status, marital status, having a college degree, low household income, and having ever been diagnosed with depression, with a Bonferroni p value correction for multiple indicators. Accordingly, FMS negatively impacted both perceived physical and mental health status, although relatively more so for physical (p < 0.017). Women with FMS were more likely to have had reproductive health or sleep-related diagnoses, including premenstrual syndrome, dysmenorrhea, breast cysts, bladder cystitis, sleep apnea, restless leg syndrome, and abnormal leg movements (p < 0.0125). They were calculated to use less than half as many calories per week as control women (689 +/- 1293 vs. 1499 +/- 1584 kcal/week, p < 0.05) and had more sleep pattern difficulties (p < 0.0125), more negative changes in sexual function (greater odds for 5 of 10 indicators at p < 0.005), and lower alcohol use (odds ratio = 0.39, p < 0.05). Patients with FMS deserve careful assessment for reproductive conditions and sleep-related functional disorders. Besides more research into mechanisms underlying symptoms, intervention testing specifically to alleviate sleep problems, low physical activity levels, and sexual dysfunction should be paramount.

  19. Drug-using and nonusing women: potential for child abuse, child-rearing attitudes, social support, and affection for expected baby.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams-Petersen, M G; Myers, B J; Degen, H M; Knisely, J S; Elswick, R K; Schnoll, S S

    1994-10-01

    Eighty pregnant women (25 substance using, 55 nonusing) from an American prenatal clinic serving lower-income to working-class women responded to questionnaire measures of child-rearing attitudes. The drug users' primary substance of misuse was cocaine (68%), alcohol (16%), amphetamines (12%), or sedatives (4%); polydrug use was documented for 80% of the women. The two (user and nonuser) groups were not different on demographic (age, race, marital status, education, SES, source of income) or obstetrical factors (number of pregnancies, number of children). Drug-using women scored significantly higher on a measure of child abuse potential; more than half scored in the range of clinical criterion for extreme risk. As their babies were not yet born, no actual physical abuse was documented, only a higher potential for abuse. The subgroup who were both drug users and had lower social support scored higher on child abuse potential than all other subgroups. The drug users also had lower self-esteem scores than the nonusers. The two groups did not differ on measures of overall social support, authoritarian/democratic child-rearing beliefs, or affection for the expected baby.

  20. Whose problem is it anyway? Crimes against women in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himabindu, B L; Arora, Radhika; Prashanth, N S

    2014-01-01

    The recent public outcry following a brutal gang rape of a young woman in India's national capital was a watershed moment in the world's largest democracy. It generated widespread public and political support for strengthening legal provisions to punish sex offenders. Although the legal response is a useful deterrent against such heinous crimes, women continue to suffer due to deeply rooted social prejudices that make them vulnerable to violence and discrimination in society. In this commentary, we aim to analyse the current developments with respect to gender violence in India within a background of the social position of women in Indian society. Using secondary data related to sex-selective abortions and crimes against women, and a critical review of the portrayal of women in Indian cinema, we reflect on the role of health workers, researchers and public health professionals in shaping a social response towards improving gender parity in our country.

  1. Two-day fasting evokes stress, but does not affect mood, brain activity, cognitive, psychomotor, and motor performance in overweight women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solianik, Rima; Sujeta, Artūras

    2018-02-15

    The physiological, cognitive state, and motor behavior changes that occur during acute fasting are not completely understood. Thus, the aim of this study was to estimate the effect of 2-day total fasting on evoked stress, mood, brain activity, and cognitive, psychomotor, and motor function in overweight women. Eleven overweight women (body mass index above 25kg/m 2 ) aged 20-30 years were tested under two conditions allocated randomly: 2-day zero-calorie diet with water provided ad libitum and 2-day usual diet. One week before the experiment, aerobic fitness was evaluated. Subjective stress ratings in relation to the diet, autonomic function, prefrontal cortex activity, cognitive performance, psychomotor coordination, and grip strength were evaluated before and after each diet. The study demonstrated that fasting decreased log-transformed high-frequency (HF) power, without affecting heart rate. The relative maximum oxygen uptake was negatively correlated with subjective stress rating and changes in log-transformed HF. Fasting did not affect mood, brain activity, and cognitive, motor, and psychomotor performance. Thus, 2-day total fasting evoked moderate stress with a shift of the autonomic nervous system balance toward sympathetic activity in overweight women. Better aerobic endurance is likely to facilitate the capacity for dealing with acute fasting. Regardless of the evoked stress, cognitive state and motor behavior remained intact. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of isostretching on the quality of life of incontinent older women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Weigert Kachorovski

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction : Urinary incontinence (UI can be defined as a brief involuntary loss of urine. It is a hygienic and social problem that affects mainly older women and contributes to reduced quality of life (QoL. There are currently several therapeutic strategies available for the treatment of UI, including the method of Isometric Stretching, which is based on balance exercises that lead to greater flexibility and stronger joints, tendons and muscles. Objective : To investigate the effect of Isometric Stretching on the QoL of 10 institutionalized older women with complaint of UI. Materials and methods : We used the ICIQ-SF to assess women's QoL pre- and post-treatment. The study duration was 12 weeks. Results : 80% of the women showed a significant improvement in UI (p = 0.007061 and QoL (p = 0.011. Conclusion : We concluded that Isometric Stretching contributed to a significant improvement in urinary incontinence symptoms and quality of life in incontinent older women.

  3. چکیدهPsychological and Social factors Influencing the Violence Against Women, Nourabad, Fars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Mohammadi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Violence against women is always of social problems which faced the individual and social health of community members. The aim of this study was to identify psychosocial factors affecting violence against women in the Nurabad. Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed on a year of their lives of married women in Nurabad city in 2014 with the level of primary education or more. The assessment tool was questionnaire and 400 students were selected by cluster sampling method. Variations of gender orientation, decision-making power of women and social class of respondents were assessed. Data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance with the aggregate variables and regression analyses were used to design a model. Results: The correlation of sexual orientation or violence against women and to the decision-making power or violence against women were 0.731and 0.657 respectively. Variable social base - economic variables on the variables of gender orientation 0.384 and on the decision-making power of women 0.295 were affected. It also showed that the variables of gender orientation at the rate of 0.423 will predict the changes in the decision-making power of women. Conclusion: Variable of gender orientation, decision-making and social class as factors determining violence against women and its incidence in the family.

  4. Does stereotype threat affect women in academic medicine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Diana Jill; Joseph, Anne; van Ryn, Michelle; Carnes, Molly

    2012-04-01

    Multiple complex factors contribute to the slow pace of women's advancement into leadership positions in academic medicine. In this article, the authors propose that stereotype threat--under which individuals who are members of a group characterized by negative stereotypes in a particular domain perform below their actual abilities in that domain when group membership is emphasized--may play an important role in the underrepresentation of women in leadership positions in academic medicine. Research to objectively assess the impact of stereotype threat for women in academic medicine is feasible and necessary to confirm this hypothesis. Still, a number of conditions present in the academic medicine community today have been shown to trigger stereotype threat in other settings, and stereotype threat fits with existing research on gender in academic medicine. In the meantime, academic health centers should implement relatively simple measures supported by experimental evidence from other settings to reduce the risk of stereotype threat, including (1) introducing the concept of stereotype threat to the academic medicine community, (2) engaging all stakeholders, male and female, to promote identity safety by enacting and making faculty aware of policies to monitor potential instances of discrimination, and training faculty to provide performance feedback that is free of gender bias, (3) counteracting the effects of sex segregation at academic health centers by increasing exposure to successful female leaders, (4) reducing gender stereotype priming by avoiding stereotypically male criteria for promotion, grants, and awards, and (5) building leadership efficacy among female physicians and scientists.

  5. Does fear of childbirth or family history affect whether pregnant Dutch women prefer a home- or hospital birth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sluijs, Anne-Marie; Cleiren, Marc P H D; Scherjon, Sicco A; Wijma, Klaas

    2015-12-01

    It is a generally accepted idea that women who give birth at home are less fearful of giving birth than women who give birth in a hospital. We explored fear of childbirth (FOC) in relation to preferred and actual place of birth. Since the Netherlands has a long history of home birthing, we also examined how the place where a pregnant woman׳s mother or sisters gave birth related to the preferred place of birth. A prospective cohort study. Five midwifery practises in the region Leiden/Haarlem, the Netherlands. 104 low risk nulliparous and parous women. Questionnaires were completed in gestation week 30 (T1) and six weeks post partum (T2). No significant differences were found in antepartum FOC between those who preferred a home or a hospital birth. Women with a strong preference for either home or hospital had lower FOC (mean W-DEQ=60.3) than those with a weak preference (mean W-DEQ=71.0), t (102)=-2.60, p=0.01. The place of birth of close family members predicted a higher chance (OR 3.8) of the same place being preferred by the pregnant woman. Pre- to postpartum FOC increased in women preferring home- but having hospital birth. The idea that FOC is related to the choice of place of birth was not true for this low risk cohort. Women in both preference groups (home and hospital) made their decisions based on negative and positive motivations. Mentally adjusting to a different environment than that preferred, apart from the medical complications, can cause more FOC post partum. The decreasing number of home births in the Netherlands will probably be a self-reinforcing effect, so in future, pregnant women will be less likely to feel supported by their family or society to give birth at home. Special attention should be given to the psychological condition of women who were referred to a place of birth and caregiver they did not prefer, by means of evaluation of the delivery and being alert to anxiety or other stress symptoms after childbirth. These women have higher

  6. Are Mathematics Problems a Problem for Women and Girls?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonberger, Ann K.

    The primary questions investigated are: Is it true that males excel in mathematical problem solving and, if so, when does this superiority develop? An examination of recent research showed that sex-related differences did exist, although small, even after controlling for mathematics background. Differences appeared in early adolescence and were…

  7. The mental health status and associated factors affecting underprivileged Iranian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maharlouei, Najmeh; Hoseinzadeh, Amin; Ghaedsharaf, Esmaeil; Zolfi, Hosein; Arab, Parisa; Farahmand, Zahra; Hallaj, Mahbanoo; Fazilat, Shiva; Heidari, Sayed Taghi; Joulaei, Hassan; Karbalaie, Fatemeh; Lankarani, Kamran B

    2014-12-01

    The prevalence of mental disorders in Iran approximates to that of other countries. This study evaluates mental health status and its related factors among underprivileged women in Shiraz, Iran. This research was conducted between June, 2010 and November, 2012, and comprised 2108 women who participated in the Shiraz Women's Health Cohort Study. The questionnaire used in the study was completed by trained general practitioner and included demographic information and the 28-item version of the General Health. The t-test, chi-square test and multivariate logistic regression model were used for statistical analysis. A P-value Health Questionnaire, the most prevalent mental disorder was social dysfunction observed in 1643 (77.9%) participants followed by somatic symptoms found in 1308 (62%) subjects. Mental disorders were most prevalent among married women (63.8%, P=0.004). Participants holding high school diploma or university degree (141; 52.4%) comprised the smallest proportion of subjects with mental disorders (P=0.01). Of a total 265 participants whose husband were in prison, 171 (64.5%) exhibited mental disorders, presenting the greatest proportion of women with mental disorders. Logistic regression analysis showed an association between mental health status and participants' level of education, number of children and marital status, based on the General Health Questionnaire total score. The results of this study showed a considerably higher prevalence of mental disorders among Iranian women in comparison with the general population. Therefore policymakers should pay greater attention to the mental health status of underprivileged Iranian women. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Women and schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Thara, R.; Kamath, Shantha

    2015-01-01

    Women's mental health is closely linked to their status in society. This paper outlines the clinical features of women with schizophrenia and highlights the interpersonal and social ramifications on their lives. There is no significant gender difference in the incidence and prevalence of schizophrenia. There is no clear trend in mortality, although suicides seem to be more in women with schizophrenia. In India, women face a lot of problems, especially in relation to marriage, pregnancy, child...

  9. Data linkage of Psychiatric and Maternity data to investigate the pregnancy outcomes of women with Non-affective Psychosis in Scotland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Mcskimming

    2017-04-01

    This work highlights that there remain hurdles to linking data across sites, despite availability of rich datasets within Scotland. Women with non-affective psychosis within NHSGG&C region had a lower fertility rate on average than the general population and some poorer outcomes, such as birthweight and rate of admission to neonatal units.

  10. Development and Demise of a Women's Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liss, Lora

    The formation, development, and demise of a women's center in suburban New York are described. The women's center resulted from a conference designed to assess problems confronting women and to mobilize resources to meet those problems. However, after the formation of the center, a struggle for leadership and conflicts over the values and beliefs…

  11. Negative affect mediates effects of psychological stress on disordered eating in young Chinese women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jue Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The bi-relationships between psychological stress, negative affect and disordered eating has been well studied in western culture, while tri-relationship among them, i.e. how some of those factors influence these bi-relationships, has rarely been studied. However, there has been little related study in the different Chinese culture. This study was conducted to investigate the bi-relationships and tri-relationship between psychological stress, negative affect, and disordered eating attitudes and behaviors in young Chinese women. METHODOLOGY: A total of 245 young Chinese policewomen employed to carry out health and safety checks at the 2010 Shanghai World Expo were recruited in this study. The Chinese version of the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10, Beck Depression Inventory Revised (BDI-II, Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI, and Eating Attitude Test (EAT-26 were administered to all participants. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The total scores of PSS-10, BDI-II and BAI were all highly correlated with that of EAT-26. The PSS-10 score significantly correlated with both BDI-II and BAI scores. There was no statistically significant direct effect from perceived stress to disordered eating (-0.012, 95%CI: -.038~0.006, p=0.357, however, the indirect effects from PSS-10 via affect factors were statistically significant, e.g. the estimated mediation effects from PSS to EAT-26 via depression and anxiety were 0.036 (95%CI: 0.022~0.044, p<0.001 and 0.015 (95%CI: 0.005~0.023, p<0.01, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Perceived stress and negative affects of depression and anxiety were demonstrated to be strongly associated with disordered eating. Negative affect mediated the relationship between perceived stress and disordered eating. The findings suggest that effective interventions and preventative programmes for disordered eating should pay more attention to depression and anxiety among the young Chinese female population.

  12. Counseling by epileptologists affects contraceptive choices of women with epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinera, Alyssa R; Gavvala, Jay; Bellinski, Irena; Kennedy, Jeffrey; Macken, Micheal P; Narechania, Aditi; Templer, Jessica; VanHaerents, Stephen; Schuele, Stephan U; Gerard, Elizabeth E

    2016-12-01

    There are several important interactions between antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) and hormonal contraception that need to be carefully considered by women with epilepsy (WWE) and their practitioners. Many AEDs induce hepatic enzymes and decrease the efficacy of hormonal contraception. In addition, estrogen-containing hormonal contraception can increase the metabolism of lamotrigine, the most commonly prescribed AED in women of childbearing age. The intrauterine device (IUD) is a highly effective form of reversible contraception without AED drug interactions that is considered by many to be the contraceptive of choice for WWE. Women with epilepsy not planning pregnancy require effective contraceptive counseling that should include discussion of an IUD. There are no guidelines, however, on who should deliver these recommendations. The objective of this study was to explore the hypothesis that contraceptive counseling by a neurologist can influence the contraceptive choices of WWE. In particular, we explored the relationship between contraceptive counseling in the epilepsy clinic and the likelihood that patients would obtain an IUD. We conducted a retrospective chart review of female patients age 18-45 seen at our institution for an initial visit between 2010 and 2014 to ascertain the type of contraceptive counseling each patient received as well as AED use and contraceptive methods. Patients who were pregnant or planning pregnancy at the first visit were excluded from further analyses as were patients with surgical sterilization. We also examined a subgroup of 95 patients with at least 4 follow-up visits to evaluate the efficacy of epileptologists' counseling. Specifically, we looked at the likelihood a patient obtained an IUD based on the type of counseling she had received. Fisher exact tests assessed associations between counseling type and whether patients had obtained an IUD. Three hundred and ninety-seven women met criteria for inclusion. Only 35% of female patients

  13. Temporal Trends and Changing Racial/ethnic Disparities in Alcohol Problems: Results from the 2000 to 2010 National Alcohol Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemore, Sarah E; Karriker-Jaffe, Katherine J; Mulia, Nina

    2013-09-28

    Economic conditions and drinking norms have been in considerable flux over the past 10 years. Accordingly, research is needed to evaluate both overall trends in alcohol problems during this period and whether changes within racial/ethnic groups have affected racial/ethnic disparities. We used 3 cross-sectional waves of National Alcohol Survey data (2000, 2005, and 2010) to examine a) temporal trends in alcohol dependence and consequences overall and by race/ethnicity, and b) the effects of temporal changes on racial/ethnic disparities. Analyses involved bivariate tests and multivariate negative binomial regressions testing the effects of race/ethnicity, survey year, and their interaction on problem measures. Both women and men overall showed significant increases in dependence symptoms in 2010 (vs. 2000); women also reported increases in alcohol-related consequences in 2010 (vs. 2000). (Problem rates were equivalent across 2005 and 2000.) However, increases in problems were most dramatic among Whites, and dependence symptoms actually decreased among Latinos of both genders in 2010. Consequently, the long-standing disparity in dependence between Latino and White men was substantially reduced in 2010. Post-hoc analyses suggested that changes in drinking norms at least partially drove increased problem rates among Whites. Results constitute an important contribution to the literature on racial/ethnic disparities in alcohol problems. Findings are not inconsistent with the macroeconomic literature suggesting increases in alcohol problems during economic recession, but the pattern of effects across race/ethnicity and findings regarding norms together suggest, at the least, a revised understanding of how recessions affect drinking patterns and problems.

  14. Whose problem is it anyway? Crimes against women in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. L. Himabindu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The recent public outcry following a brutal gang rape of a young woman in India's national capital was a watershed moment in the world's largest democracy. It generated widespread public and political support for strengthening legal provisions to punish sex offenders. Although the legal response is a useful deterrent against such heinous crimes, women continue to suffer due to deeply rooted social prejudices that make them vulnerable to violence and discrimination in society. In this commentary, we aim to analyse the current developments with respect to gender violence in India within a background of the social position of women in Indian society. Using secondary data related to sex-selective abortions and crimes against women, and a critical review of the portrayal of women in Indian cinema, we reflect on the role of health workers, researchers and public health professionals in shaping a social response towards improving gender parity in our country.

  15. Hostility and social support explain physical activity beyond negative affect among young men, but not women, in college.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Karl J; James, Ashley E

    2014-01-01

    We examined social support as a moderator of cynical hostility in relation to physical activity and body mass index among college students (n = 859; M = 18.71 years (SD = 1.22); 60% women, 84% White). After controlling for negative affect in hierarchical linear regression models, greater hostility was associated with lesser physical activity among those with low social support, as expected. Greater hostility was also associated with greater physical activity among those high in social support, ps men only. Hostility and social support were unrelated to body mass index, ps > .05. Young men with a hostile disposition and low social support may be at risk for a sedentary lifestyle for reasons other than negative affect.

  16. Travel: a long-range goal of retired women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staats, Sara; Pierfelice, Loretta

    2003-09-01

    The authors surveyed retired persons (predominately women) with regard to their immediate, intermediate, and long-range activities following retirement. As predicted, leisure travel emerged as a frequent long-range goal for persons retired more than 5 years. The travel activity preferences of long-retired older women present challenges and opportunities to both researchers and marketers. Length of trips and frequency of trips have been predicted from regression models, with trip length in particular being well predicted by the problem of daily life hassles. A theoretical model of continued post-retirement travel is presented as a variant of Solomon's opponent process theory of affect (R. L. Solomon, 1980). The authors suggest that to the degree that places traveled to are varied and different, older people may remain stimulated and continue to enjoy retirement.

  17. Violence against women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiva, M

    1999-01-01

    In India, violence against women is increasing and takes many forms while laws to protect women are ignored. Despite this fact, the new reproductive and child health program ignores sexual violence. Health personnel can respond by: 1) accepting the magnitude of the problem; 2) investigating the deaths of young women; 3) documenting findings; 4) ensuring that sexual abuse is recognized as a public health problem; 5) disseminating findings; 6) ensuring the protection of female field workers; 7) recognizing violence as an occupational health hazard; 8) facilitating the empowerment of women; 9) training women in self-defense; 10) ensuring that colleges and training institutes address violence as a women's health concern; 11) studying the psychological effects of violence; 12) collaborating with the National Commission for Women and the National Human Rights Commission; and 13) advocating for incorporation of sexual violence as a reproductive health issue in the national reproductive health program. In particular, domestic violence is a pervasive violation of women's human rights and has been resistant to social advances because of its "hidden" nature. Domestic violence exists because husbands believe they have an absolute right over the sexuality of their wives. Abusive husbands also abuse their daughters while sons learn violent behavior from their fathers. Crimes must be considered irrespective of whether they are committed outside or inside the home.

  18. Medical abortion: understanding perspectives of rural and marginalized women from rural South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sri, B Subha; Ravindran, T K Sundari

    2012-09-01

    To understand how rural and other groups of marginalized women define safe abortion; their perspectives and concerns regarding medical abortion (MA); and what factors affect their access to safe abortion. Focus group discussions were held with various groups of rural and marginalized women in Tamil Nadu to understand their perspectives and concerns on abortion, especially MA. Nearly a decade after mifepristone was approved for abortion in India, most study participants had never heard of MA. When they learned of the method, most preferred it over other methods of abortion. The women also had questions and concerns about the method and recommendations on how services should be provided. Their definition of a "safe abortion" included criteria beyond medical safety. They placed a high priority on "social safety," including confidentiality and privacy. In their view, factors affecting access to safe abortion and choice of provider included cost, assurance of secrecy, promptness of service provision, and absence of provider gatekeeping and provider-imposed conditions for receiving services. Women's preference for MA shows the potential of this technology to address the problem of unsafe abortion in India. Women need better access to information and services to realize this potential, however. Women's preferences regarding information dissemination and service provision need to be taken into account if policies and programs are to be truly responsive to the needs of marginalized women. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  19. Emergency Contraception: Knowledge and Experiences of Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naile Bilgili

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Unplanned pregnancy is a major medical, social, and public health problem. For the prevention of unintended pregnancies use of emergency contraception (EC methods is a second chance. This cross-sectional study was conducted to identify the knowledge and experiences related to emergency contraception of married women older than fifteen years. METHODS: The universe of the study consisted of women older than 15 years. 760 married women were included in the study. Data were collected by questionnaire. Chi-square was used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: 28.8% of the women had experienced unintended pregnancy, 26.8% of them have heard about EC methods and 9.1% of them had used an EC method. 93.2% of the women had not information about the time of use and 79.1% of them had not information about the efficiency of the methods. EC methods were used more frequently by women who were high school or higher educated, working, living in an urban area, not having a child and women having experienced abortion or an unintended pregnancy (p<0.05. CONCLUSION: Rate of using of EC methods were low and level of education, experiencing abortion or unintended pregnancy affected use of the EC methods. It was concluded that level of information about methods of EC was not at the wished level. As a result, giving more intensive and efficient information to women regarding to the risk groups about this subject within family planning programs can be suggested. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2009; 8(3.000: 251-258

  20. Pennsylvania Women's Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towns, Kathryn; And Others

    Women have undergone a revolution in their self-perception and their traditional relationships to work, money, marriage, and family. These social changes have implications for every aspect of women's lives, including their mental health. Because of the special problems and conflicts confronting women today, data need to be analyzed on policies,…

  1. Thyroid Dysfunction Does Not Affect the Bone Mineral Density in Postmenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice Deniz

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To investigate the relationship between bone mineral density (BMD and thyroid dysfunction in postmenopausal women. Material and Method: A total of 261 postmenopausal women, who were examined between 2006 and 2008, were included in this prospective cohort study. Levels of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH, free T3 (triiodothyronine, free T4 (tiroxin, and thyroid antibodies (anti-thyroglobulin antibody -antiTG Ab; anti-thyroid peroxidase antibody - antiTPO Ab were measured in all subjects. The subjects were classified into four groups: hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, autoimmune thyroiditis, and euthyroid(control. Bone mineral densities (BMDs from the lumbar 1–4 (L 1–4 vertebrae and the femoral neck regions of interest were measured using the dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA method and used to yield T-score values which were compared between groups. Results: The mean L1 – 4 T-score was 1.26 ± 1.25 in 56 cases (21.5% with hypothyroidism ; -1.46 ± 1.36 in 42 (16.1% cases with hyperthyroidism and -1.51 ± 1.22 in 37 cases (14.2% with autoimmune thyroiditis . The mean L1 – 4 T-score of the control group that consisted of 126 (48.3% cases was -1.28 ± 1.20. The mean femoral neck T-score was -0.31 ±1.15 in hypothyroid group; -0.80 ±1.41 in hyperthyroid group and -0.60 ±1.19 in cases with autoimmune thyroiditis . The mean femoral neck T-score of the control group was -0.55 ±1.08. When the T-scores of the entire L1 – 4 region and those of the femoral neck were compared, the values were not significantly different between the four patient groups (p = 0.680 and p = 0.258, respectively. Discussion: The present study indicated that thyroid dysfunction does not significantly affect BMD in postmenopausal women with hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, or autoimmune thyroiditis. This result suggests that thyroid dysfunctions do not have a significant role in the development of osteoporosis during the postmenopausal period, perhaps because

  2. Consequences and Possible Predictors of Health-damaging Behaviors and Mental Health Problems in Pregnancy - A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, F; Petermann, F

    2016-11-01

    In recent decades, the understanding of the short and longer term effects of health-damaging behaviors and mental health problems in pregnant women and the underlying mechanisms of these behaviors and illnesses has significantly increased. In contrast, little is known about the factors affecting individual pregnant women which contribute to health-damaging behaviors and mental illness. The aim of this paper was therefore to summarize the current state of research into the consequences of nicotine and alcohol consumption, malnutrition, excessive weight gain or obesity, and impaired mental health (depression and anxiety) during pregnancy. In addition, the characteristics of pregnant women which increase their risk of developing such behaviors or mental disorders are described. A better knowledge of these risks should make it easier for clinicians to identify cases at risk early on and put measures of support in place. A review of the literature has shown that certain characteristics of pregnant women (e.g. her relationship with her partner, a previous history of mental illness prior to pregnancy) are associated with various health-damaging behaviors as well as with impaired mental health. Affected women often show an accumulated psychosocial stress which was already present prior to the pregnancy and which may persist even after the birth of the child.

  3. Modeling the Severity of Drinking Consequences in First-Year College Women: An Item Response Theory Analysis of the Rutgers Alcohol Problem Index*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Amy M.; Hagman, Brett T.; Graff, Fiona S.; Noel, Nora E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The present study examined the latent continuum of alcohol-related negative consequences among first-year college women using methods from item response theory and classical test theory. Method: Participants (N = 315) were college women in their freshman year who reported consuming any alcohol in the past 90 days and who completed assessments of alcohol consumption and alcohol-related negative consequences using the Rutgers Alcohol Problem Index. Results: Item response theory analyses showed poor model fit for five items identified in the Rutgers Alcohol Problem Index. Two-parameter item response theory logistic models were applied to the remaining 18 items to examine estimates of item difficulty (i.e., severity) and discrimination parameters. The item difficulty parameters ranged from 0.591 to 2.031, and the discrimination parameters ranged from 0.321 to 2.371. Classical test theory analyses indicated that the omission of the five misfit items did not significantly alter the psychometric properties of the construct. Conclusions: Findings suggest that those consequences that had greater severity and discrimination parameters may be used as screening items to identify female problem drinkers at risk for an alcohol use disorder. PMID:22051212

  4. Disordered Eating Behaviors in Emerging Adults With Type 1 Diabetes: A Common Problem for Both Men and Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Elizabeth A; Quinn, Sheila M; Ambrosino, Jodie M; Weyman, Kate; Tamborlane, William V; Jastreboff, Ania M

    Emerging adults (EA) with disordered eating behaviors (DEBs) and Type 1 diabetes (T1D) are at increased risk for severe complications of T1D, and these behaviors have been reported in EA women with T1D. Few studies, though, have included men. This study assessed the prevalence of DEB in both EA men and women with T1D. DEB was measured with the diabetes-specific Diabetes Eating Problem Survey-Revised (DEPS-R); scores of 20 or greater indicate need for further evaluation for DEB. A total of 27 women and 33 men (age range = 21 ± 2.5 years) completed the DEPS-R; 27% of women and 18% of men had scores of 20 or greater (p = .23). Hemoglobin A1c level was significantly higher in subjects with elevated DEPS-R scores (10.4 ± 2.1% vs. 7.8 ± 1.3%; p < .001), and DEPS-R scores correlated with increased body mass index values (r = 0.27, p < .05). Clinicians should assess for DEB in both male and female emerging adults with T1D, especially overweight patients with poor glycemic control. Copyright © 2016 National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Sleep Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women Sleep Problems Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... 101 KB) En Español Medicines to Help You Sleep Tips for Better Sleep Basic Facts about Sleep ...

  6. Pelvic girdle pain affects the whole life--a qualitative interview study in Norway on women's experiences with pelvic girdle pain after delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engeset, Jorun; Stuge, Britt; Fegran, Liv

    2014-10-03

    The aim of this study was to explore how pelvic girdle pain after delivery influences women's daily life in Norway. Knowledge about living with post-partum pelvic girdle pain is lacking. A phenomenological-hermeneutical design with qualitative semi-structured interviews was used. A strategic selection procedure was chosen to recruit participants from physiotherapy clinics and a regional hospital in Norway. Five women with clinically verified pelvic girdle pain after delivery were included. Data were imported into NVivo9 and analysed in three steps: naïve reading, structural analysis and comprehensive understanding of the text. Three themes influencing the women's daily life were identified: 1) activity and pain, 2) lack of acknowledgment of pain and disability, and 3) changed roles. A daily life with pain and limited physical activity was difficult to accept and made some of the women feel discouraged, isolated and lonely. Despite this, the women had a positive attitude to their problems, which may have positively increased their ability to cope. The findings also revealed the importance of a reciprocal influence between the woman and her environment, and that social support was crucial. Pelvic girdle pain may influence women's lives for months and years after delivery. Health care professionals should appreciate and focus on the patient's knowledge and skills. Understanding the daily experiences of women with pelvic girdle pain might help improve rehabilitation strategies for these patients.

  7. The global survey of physicists: A collaborative effort illuminates the situation of women in physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivie, Rachel; Tesfaye, Casey Langer; Czujko, Roman; Chu, Raymond

    2013-03-01

    The results of the Global Survey of Physicists draw attention to the need to focus on factors other than representation when discussing the situation of women in physics. Previous studies of women in physics have mostly focused on the lack of women in the field. This study goes beyond the obvious shortage of women and shows that there are much deeper issues. For the first time, a multinational study was conducted with approximately 15,000 respondents from 130 countries, showing that problems for women in physics transcend national borders. Across all countries, women have fewer resources and opportunities and are more affected by cultural expectations concerning child care. We show that limited resources and opportunities hurt career progress, and because women have fewer opportunities and resources, their careers progress more slowly. We also show the disproportionate effects of children on women physicists' careers. Cultural expectations about home and family are difficult to change. However, for women to have successful outcomes and advance in physics, they must have equal access to resources and opportunities.

  8. Factors that affect the food choices made by girls and young women, from minority ethnic groups, living in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, J M; Devlin, E; Macaskill, S; Kelly, M; Chinouya, M; Raats, M M; Barton, K L; Wrieden, W L; Shepherd, R

    2007-08-01

    Lower birth weight, often found in infants from minority ethnic groups, may be partly because of the disproportionate representation of ethnic minority groups in low-income areas. To develop an intervention, to improve the nutritional intake of young women from populations at risk of low-birth-weight babies, which would be culturally sensitive and well received by the intended recipients, a community development approach was used to investigate factors that might influence food choice and the nutritional intake of girls and young women from ethnic minority groups. Focus group discussions were conducted across the UK, to explore factors that might affect the food choices of girls and young women of African and South Asian decent. The data was analysed using deductive content analysis (Qual. Soc. Res., 1, 2000, 1). Discussions were around the broad themes of buying and preparing food, eating food and dietary changes, and ideas for an intervention to improve diet. The focus group discussions indicated that all the communities took time, price, health and availability into consideration when making food purchases. The groups were also quite similar in their use of 'Western' foods which tended to be of the fast food variety. These foods were used when there was not enough time to prepare a 'traditional' meal. Many issues that affect the food choice of people who move to the UK are common within different ethnic groups. The idea of a practical intervention based on improving cooking skills was popular with all the groups.

  9. Personality Traits, Sexual Problems, and Sexual Orientation: An Empirical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peixoto, Maria Manuela; Nobre, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    Personality traits, namely neuroticism, have been suggested as vulnerability factors for the development and maintenance of sexual dysfunction in heterosexual samples. However, no evidence was found regarding homosexual samples. This study aimed to analyze the differences on personality traits between heterosexual and homosexual men and women with and without sexual problems. Participants were 285 individuals (142 men, 143 women) who completed a web-based survey. Participants answered the NEO Five-Factor Inventory, the Brief Symptomatology Inventory, and questions regarding sexual problems. The groups of men and women with and without sexual problems were matched for sociodemographic variables. A 2 (Group) × 2 (Sexual Orientation) multivariate analysis of covariance was conducted separately for each gender. Results indicated a significant main effect for group and for sexual orientation in male and female samples. Men with sexual problems scored higher on neuroticism, whereas women with sexual problems scored higher on neuroticism and lower on extraversion when compared with healthy controls, regardless of sexual orientation. In addition, gay men scored higher on neuroticism and lesbian women scored higher on conscientiousness compared with the heterosexual groups. The present findings emphasize the central role of neuroticism on sexual problems in both men and women regardless of sexual orientation.

  10. Can decision-making skills affect responses to psychological stress in healthy women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Ruiz, Ana; Garcia-Rios, M Carmen; Fernandez-Sanchez, José Carlos; Perez-Garcia, Miguel; Muñoz-García, Miguel Angel; Peralta-Ramirez, Maria Isabel

    2012-12-01

    In recent studies showing how stress can affect an individual's decision-making process, the cognitive component of decision-making could also be considered a coping resource available to individuals when faced with a stressful situation. The Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) constitutes the standard test for the assessment of decision-making skills under conditions of uncertainty. Responses of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis to psychosocial stress, in turn, have been estimated by means of cortisol measurements. Our main objective in this study was to test if good and bad IGT performers show distinct HPA axis responses, when challenged in a classic psychosocial stress test. Because women have been shown to outperform men on the IGT under the influence of psychosocial stress, we chose a sample of 40 women to take the IGT before they were exposed to a public speaking task in a virtual environment. The activation of the HPA axis, involved in the stress response, was assessed by examining the levels of cortisol in the subjects' saliva at the following four stages: before the challenge, after the challenge, and 10 and 20 min after the task. Participants were divided into two groups according to their level of performance, good or poor, on the IGT. Results showed statistically significant differences between the groups for pre-exposure cortisol levels and for cortisol levels 20 min after exposure. Overall cortisol levels were significantly higher in the group with poor performance on the IGT. It appears that good decision-making, which may be an important resource for coping with stress, is associated with a lower HPA axis response to a psychosocial stressor. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Epidemiology of concurrent headache and sleep problems in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Nunu; Westergaard, Maria Lurenda; Barloese, Mads

    2014-01-01

    with 2.6% being severely affected. Prevalence was higher among women and the middle-aged. Severe HSP was associated with low socioeconomic position, non-Western ethnicity, unhealthy lifestyle, high stress and anxiety/depression. Those with HSP had substantially reduced quality of life; more so than those......AIMS: There are no previous epidemiologic studies on concurrent headache and sleep problems (HSP). This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the prevalence of HSP in Denmark, broadly characterize those with HSP, and examine associations between HSP and socioeconomic/lifestyle factors. METHODS......: A total of 129,150 randomly selected individuals were invited to participate in the Danish National Health Survey 2010. Respondents were asked about headache, sleep problems, depression and anxiety in the last two weeks, health-related lifestyle and quality of life (SF-12). Socioeconomic data were...

  12. Iron Deficiency Anaemia and Its Predisposing Causes among Women Undergoing Antenatal Checkup at a Tertiary Care Hospital in Allahabad

    OpenAIRE

    Shweta Rajput1; Manish Kumar Singh2

    2016-01-01

    "Background: Anaemia is a major health problem affecting about 50% of pregnant women and associated with poor pregnancy outcome. Objective: To know the prevalence of iron deficiency anemia in pregnancy and its determinants Method: A hospital based cross sectional study was carried out among 400 pregnant women aged >16 years and and #8804; 45 years with sin-gleton pregnancy attending antenatal care clinic at a tertiary care hospital in Allahabad over a period of 1 year 8 months. ...

  13. Women and Diabetes

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... provider about how to manage diabetes during pregnancy. Medicine and Pregnancy Fact Sheet Pregnancy Registries - Sign-up for a ... to help doctors learn more about how diabetes medicines affect women during pregnancy. Diabetes and Pregnancy (CDC) Diverse Women in Clinical ...

  14. Sex differences in interpersonal problems: does sexual orientation moderate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Debbiesiu L; Harkless, Lynn E; Sheridan, Daniel J; Winakur, Emily; Fowers, Blaine J

    2013-01-01

    Sexual orientation was examined as a moderator in the relation between biological sex and interpersonal problems. Participants were 60 lesbians, 45 heterosexual women, 37 gay men, and 39 heterosexual men, who completed the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems-Circumplex. Sexual orientation was found to moderate one of the eight interpersonal problems under study. Heterosexual women scored significantly higher than lesbian women in Non-assertive. Although hypothesized, gay men did not differ from heterosexual men along the Dominant-Cold quadrant. Implications of these results are discussed.

  15. Decision-making on terminating pregnancy for Muslim Arab women pregnant with fetuses with congenital anomalies: maternal affect and doctor-patient communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesser-Edelsburg, Anat; Shahbari, Nour Abed Elhadi

    2017-04-04

    This study focused on decision-making on terminating pregnancy for Arab Muslim women in Israel who were pregnant with fetuses diagnosed with congenital anomalies. It examined the impact of the doctor-patient interaction on the women's decision, especially in light of social and religious pressures not to terminate under any circumstances. Our goal was to identify perceptions and attitudes of Muslim Arab women who choose to continue their pregnancy following the detection of congenital anomalies in prenatal tests. Specific objectives included (1) To examine the Muslim Arab women's perceptions on genetic testing, and ascertain the reasons for their decision to continue the pregnancy following the detection of a congenital anomaly in the fetus; and (2) To examine risk communication of gynecologists regarding genetic testing and abortions, and regarding the decision of continuing or terminating a pregnancy following detection of a congenital anomaly. The research framework used the constructivist classical qualitative method to understand the experience of women at high risk for congenital anomalies and their experience of how doctors communicate the risk. It showed that the emotional element is no less dominant than religious and social elements. The findings emphasized the disparities between doctors and women regarding emotional involvement (non-directive counselling). The women interviewees (N = 24) felt that this expressed insensitivity. As far as we know, the emotional component has not been raised in previous studies of Muslim women at high risk for congenital defects in their fetus, and therefore comprises a significant contribution of the present study. To mitigate gaps, doctors should take affect into consideration in their communication with patients. It is important for doctors to understand the emotional element in risk communication, both in how they respect women's emotions and in creating an emotional interaction between themselves and the women.

  16. Breast cancer treatment and sexual dysfunction: Moroccan women's perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismaili Nabil

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This exploratory prospective study evaluated women's responses to questions that asked them to describe how their body image and sexual functioning had changed since their breast cancer diagnosis to treatment. Methods A questionnaire concerning body image scale and various sexual problems experienced after diagnosis and treatment was anonymously completed by 120 women in the outpatient clinic of our hospital's Division of medical Oncology. To be eligible, subjects had to be sexually active and had histology proven breast cancer. They also had to have received treatment for breast cancer. Results 100% of participants have never spoken with their doctor about this subject. 84% of the participants continued sexual activity after treatment, but there was an increase in the incidence of sexual functioning problems which resulted in a slight reduction in the quality of their sex lives. 65% of the women experienced dyspareunia followed by lubrication difficulties (54% and the absence or reduction of sexual desire (48% and 64%, respectively while, 37% had lack of satisfaction (37%. Female orgasmic disorder and brief intercourse and arousal were reported respectively by 40% and 38% of the subjects. The sexual dysfunctions were absent before diagnosis and management of breast cancer in 91.5% subjects and of these 100% subjects complained of a deterioration of the symptomatology after the various treatments. 90% of the dysfunctions were observed after chemotherapy, 9% after surgery and 3% after radiotherapy; none of the subjects indicated the onset of dysfunctions to have been associated with hormonotherapy. 100% expressed not having received sufficient information about how the disease and treatment (including surgery might affect their sexual life. Conclusion Breast cancer and its treatment may result in significant difficulties with sexual functioning and sexual life. Addressing these problems is essential to improve the quality of

  17. Violence against women in Turkey and the role of women physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büken, Nüket Ornek; Sahinoglu, Serap

    2006-03-01

    Violence against women is a serious problem in Turkey. The Women and Ethics Commission of the Turkish Physicians' Association (Ankara Physicians' Chamber) has undertaken significant work to counteract this. This article gives some indications of the sources of violence and discusses its social and health care implications. The Commission is pivotal in the education of women physicians and in heightening awareness of the situation. An outline is given of this work and recommendations are made on how violence against women can be tackled and eliminated.

  18. Status of pandemic influenza vaccination and factors affecting it in pregnant women in Kahramanmaras, an eastern Mediterranean city of Turkey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ozer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pregnant women are a target group for receipt of influenza vaccine because there appears to be an elevated mortality and morbidity rate associated with influenza virus infection in pregnant women. The goal of this study is to determine the factors affecting the decisions of pregnant women in Turkey to be vaccinated or not for 2009 H1N1 influenza. METHODOLOGY: We enrolled 314 of 522 (60.2% pregnant women who attended to the antenatal clinics of the Medical Faculty of Kahramanmaras Sutcuimam University's Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics between December 23, 2009, and February 1, 2010. We developed a 48-question survey which was completed in a face-to-face interview at the clinic with each pregnant woman. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Of the 314 pregnant women, 27.4% were in the first trimester, 33.8% were in the second trimester, and 38.8% were in the third trimester. Twenty-eight pregnant women (8.9% got vaccinated. Of all the women interviewed, 68.5% stated that they were comfortable with their decisions about the vaccine, 7.3% stated they were not comfortable, and 24.2% stated that they were hesitant about their decisions. The probability of receiving the 2009 H1N1 vaccine was 3.46 times higher among working women than housewives, 1.85 times higher among women who have a child than those who do not, and 1.29 times higher among women with a high-school education or higher than those with only a secondary-school education and below. Correct knowledge about the minimal risks associated with receipt of influenza vaccine were associated with a significant increase in the probability of receiving the 2009 H1N1 vaccine. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The number of pregnant women in the study group who received the 2009 H1N1 vaccine was very low (8.9% and two-thirds of them stated that they were comfortable with their decisions concerning the vaccine. Our results may have implications for public health measures to increase the currently low

  19. An Analysis of Factors Affecting Job Satisfaction of Women in Paid

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Elizabeth Egbochuku

    Department Of Educational Psychology and Curriculum Studies. University Of Benin ... Women, Job Satisfaction, Employment, Stereotype,. Benin City. ... social roles. Women, however, have ... different ways to make ends meet may be an indication that they are not satisfied with ..... Occupation, gender, work satisfaction in a.

  20. Gender discrimination for women with diabetes mellitus in Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chentli, Farida; Azzoug, Said; Meskine, Djamila; El Gradechi, Aldjia

    2014-11-01

    Nowadays diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the greatest global challenges. Its expansion varies from an area to another according to genetic, traditions, socio-economic conditions, and stress. In Algeria, as in other emerging countries undergoing an epidemiological transition, noncommunicable diseases are sharply increasing. After high blood pressure, DM is now the second metabolic disease. But are women more concerned by DM since obesity frequency is higher in females? Can we assert that there is a sort of sex discrimination for DM complications? To answer these questions we took into account published documents carried in Algerian population. But, as those were very scarce, we also considered newspapers articles, some documents published by health minister department, posters and oral communications of the Algerian Society of Endocrinology and Diabetology, and our clinical experience. We also have done a small survey to get our patients' opinions. At the first sight, it seems gender discrimination between men and women cannot exist since most epidemiological studies showed that both sexes are broadly and equally affected by DM, except for old aged females who are the most affected. When we reconsidered the problem, and when we compared past results to those obtained after the terrorism period, many studies showed a sort of gender difference. Apart from gestational DM, which is increasing sharply, some complications and death related to DM are prevailing in women. Coronary diseases and cerebral vascular accidents are more frequent in women too, especially the young ones and those suffering from DM. These complications are probably due to the recent and rapid modification in women's lifestyle with a strong reduction in physical activity, eating disorders, hormonal contraception, and high sensitivity to perceived stress secondary to the near past stressing life and/or to numerous responsibilities taken by women in the modern society.

  1. Does burnout among doctors affect their involvement in patients' mental health problems? A study of videotaped consultations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Bakker Dinny H

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background General practitioners' (GPs' feelings of burnout or dissatisfaction may affect their patient care negatively, but it is unknown if these negative feelings also affect their mental health care. GPs' available time, together with specific communication tools, are important conditions for providing mental health care. We investigated if GPs who feel burnt out or dissatisfied with the time available for their patients, are less inclined to encourage their patients to disclose their distress, and have shorter consultations, in order to gain time and energy. This may result in less psychological evaluations of patients' complaints. Methods We used 1890 videotaped consultations from a nationally representative sample of 126 Dutch GPs to analyse GPs' communication and the duration of their consultations. Burnout was subdivided into emotional exhaustion, depersonalisation and reduced accomplishment. Multilevel regression analyses were used to investigate which subgroups of GPs differed significantly. Results GPs with feelings of exhaustion or dissatisfaction with the available time have longer consultations compared to GPs without these feelings. Exhausted GPs, and GPs with feelings of depersonalisation, talk more about psychological or social topics in their consultations. GPs with feelings of reduced accomplishment are an exception: they communicate less affectively, are less patient-centred and have less eye contact with their patients compared to GPs without reduced accomplishment. We found no relationship between GPs' feelings of burnout or dissatisfaction with the available time and their psychological evaluations of patients' problems. Conclusion GPs' feelings of burnout or dissatisfaction with the time available for their patients do not obstruct their diagnosis and awareness of patients' psychological problems. On the contrary, GPs with high levels of exhaustion or depersonalisation, and GPs who are dissatisfied with the

  2. Sexual behavior of infertile women: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokaie, Mahshid; Simbar, Masoumeh; Yassini Ardekani, Seyed Mojtaba

    2015-10-01

    Infertility makes an essential challenge to the sexual life of couples, especially infertile women. When pregnancy does not happen, infertile women think that sexual intercourse is not fruitful and sexual desire became reduce gradually. Infertile women progressively forget that their sexual relationship is also a response to their natural need. This qualitative study was conducted to explore the infertility consequences in the sexual behavior of infertile women. This was a qualitative content analysis study; and it was part of a widespread study, used a sequential mixed-method and conducted from August 2014 until February 2015. A purposeful sampling was used to recruit infertile women who had referred to Yazd Research and Clinical Center for Infertility. Data gathering techniques employed in this research included in-depth semi structured open face-to-face interviews and field notes. Credibility, transferability, confirm ability, and dependability were assessed for the rigor of the data collection. Totally, 15 infertile women and 8 key informants were interviewed. Data analysis showed four themes about impact of infertility on female sexual behavior: 1/ Impact of infertility drugs on couple sexual behavior, 2/ Impact of assisted reproductive technologies on female sexual behavior, 3/ Timed intercourse during infertility and 4/ The psychological impact of infertility on sexual behavior. Some of Iranian infertile women could cope with their problems, but some of them were very affected by infertility drugs and assisted reproductive technologies procedures. Psychosexual counseling before medical treatment could help them to have a better sexual life.

  3. Sexual Distress and Sexual Problems During Pregnancy: Associations With Sexual and Relationship Satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannier, Sarah A; Rosen, Natalie O

    2017-03-01

    Sexual problems are common during pregnancy, but the proportion of pregnant women who experience sexual distress is unknown. In non-pregnant samples, sexual distress is associated with lower sexual and relationship satisfaction. To identify the proportion of women experiencing sexual distress during pregnancy and to compare the sexual and relationship satisfaction of women who report sexual distress during pregnancy with that of women without distress. Two-hundred sixty-one pregnant women completed a cross-sectional online survey. Women completed validated measurements of sexual functioning (Female Sexual Function Index; score sexual problem), sexual distress (Female Sexual Distress Scale; score ≥ 15 indicates clinically significant distress), sexual satisfaction (Global Measure of Sexual Satisfaction), and relationship satisfaction (Couples Satisfaction Index). Overall, 42% of women met the clinical cutoff for sexual distress. Of sexually active women (n = 230), 26% reported concurrent sexual problems and distress and 14% reported sexual distress in the absence of sexual problems. Sexual distress and/or problems in sexual functioning were linked to lower sexual and relationship satisfaction compared with pregnant women with lower sexual distress and fewer sexual problems. Sexual distress is common during pregnancy and associated with lower sexual and relationship satisfaction. Health care providers should ask pregnant women about feelings of sexual distress. Identifying pregnant women who experience sexual distress and referring them to appropriate resources could help minimize sexual and relationship problems during pregnancy. Vannier SA, Rosen NO. Sexual Distress and Sexual Problems During Pregnancy: Associations With Sexual and Relationship Satisfaction. J Sex Med 2017;14:387-395. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A global need for women's biotech leadership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith-Doerr, L.; Kemekliene, G.; Teutonico, R.

    2011-01-01

    Increasing women's participation in leadership of biotech policy making, funding, research and implementation will strengthen the race to solve global problems......Increasing women's participation in leadership of biotech policy making, funding, research and implementation will strengthen the race to solve global problems...

  5. Pregnancy complications, mental health-related problems and type 2 diabetes mellitus in Malaysian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Syed Shahzad; Thiruchelvam, Kaeshaelya; Ahmed, Syed Imran; Clavarino, Alexandra M; Mamun, Abdullah A; Kairuz, Therese

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between pregnancy complications, mental health-related problems, and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in Malaysian women. A case-control study of women with T2DM (n=160) matched by age range to controls without T2DM (n=160). Data were collected in the Negeri Sembilan and PutraJaya regions in Malaysia, from two hospital outpatient clinics, PutraJaya Hospital and Tuanku Jaa'far Hospital Seremban, and one health clinic at Seremban. Validated, interviewer-administered questionnaires were used to obtain the data. The unadjusted and adjusted estimates were calculated using the Mantel-Haenszel method. Neither depression (RR 0.74, 95% CI: 0.39-1.41) nor anxiety (RR 1.00, 95% CI: 0.53-1.88) symptoms increased the risk of T2DM significantly. However, gestational diabetes (RR 1.35, 95% CI: 1.02-1.79), and ≥3 pregnancies (RR 1.39, 95% CI: 1.08-1.79) were significant risk factors for the development of T2DM. T2DM was not a significant risk factor for either depression (RR 1.26, 95% CI: 0.91-1.74) or anxiety symptoms (RR 1.13, 95% CI: 0.59-2.19). In this study, T2DM is not a significant risk factor for depression and anxiety; similarly, neither are depression and anxiety significant risk factors for T2DM. Although prevalence of depression and anxiety is not alarming, the findings reported here should alert clinicians to screen and treat anxiety and depression in people with diabetes and also note the importance of monitoring women with complications in pregnancy for risk of later T2DM. Copyright © 2013 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Department of Energy Review of Laboratory Programs for Women Points-of-Contact Committee: Comparative Report, June 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLane, V.; Layne, A.

    1995-06-01

    A survey of the DOE facilities was undertaken by the Points-of-Contact for the DOE Review of Laboratory Programs for Women in order to gather data to be used as a baseline against which to measure future progress. We plan to look at current programs already in place and evaluate them with a view to deciding which programs are most effective, and selecting model programs suitable for implementation at other facilities. The survey focused on four areas: 1) statistical data, 2) laboratory policy, 3) formal and informal programs which affect the quality of life in the work environment, and career development and advancement, and 4) educational programs. Although this report focuses on women, the problems discussed affect all DOE facility employees.

  7. Fear of childbirth in pregnant women: External and internal factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kashshapova, E. V.

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Fear of childbirth (FOC is an important psychological problem that is studied worldwide because it affects the well-being of pregnant women. However, in Russia, this problem does not receive adequate attention among researchers. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the conditionality of fear of childbirth (FOC in pregnant women by external and internal factors, which we assumed were the reasons for this fear. As external factors, we considered socio-demographic indicators (e.g., age, marital status, level of education, housing, and the attitude of relatives towards pregnancy as well as indicators of gynecological history (e.g., the term of pregnancy, the outcome of previous pregnancies, and pregnancy complications. As internal (psychological factors of the fear of childbirth, we considered personal anxiety as well as general inclination towards and negative consequences of different fears (20 types of fears and phobias were examined. The study was conducted with a Russian sample of 76 women at different stages of pregnancy and with different socio-demographic indicators and gynecological histories. The analysis of the results showed the absence of significant differences between women who were pregnant with FOC and those without this fear in terms of the external factors considered in this study. According to the study’s data, a general inclination of women to fear is associated with fear of childbirth. However, the findings for the women with FOC did not indicate significant positive correlations between the level of this fear and exposure to any of the 20 types of fear and phobias measured in the study. Furthermore, the results did not detect relationships between the FOC level and women’s personal anxiety. The results allow us to conclude that FOC is a separate phenomenon that is not dependent on other phobias and fears. Fear of childbirth has a subjective and highly individual genesis. It is not a direct consequence of

  8. Women and Diabetes

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Email Print Diabetes is a serious illness that affects over 29 million people in the United States. ... help doctors learn more about how diabetes medicines affect women during pregnancy. Diabetes and Pregnancy (CDC) Diverse ...

  9. Experiences and concerns about 'returning to work' for women breast cancer survivors: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiedtke, Corine; de Rijk, Angelique; Dierckx de Casterlé, Bernadette; Christiaens, Marie-Rose; Donceel, Peter

    2010-07-01

    To explore how female breast cancer patients experience work incapacity during the treatment and return-to-work phases and how interactions between patients and stakeholders affect this experience. Database search for full text articles published between January 1995 and January 2008 that focused on employed female breast cancer patients, factors related to work incapacity, and returning to work. Only results based on self-report data were included. Studies focusing on treatment, financial factors, rate of return, or absence were excluded. Six articles met the inclusion criteria. Women with breast cancer receive varied reactions but little advice about returning to work. Women were primarily concerned with disclosing the diagnosis to their employer and to relatives. Uncertainties about physical appearance, ability to work, and possible job loss affected the women's decisions about working during the treatment phase. After treatment, most women wanted to regain their 'normal life', but concentration and arm or fatigue problems potentially interfered. Although supportive work environments were helpful, the individual needs of women differed. Employers and employees need to find a balance in defining accommodating work. Many women received favourable support, but some reported feeling discriminated against. Many women re-evaluated the role of work in their lives after being confronted with breast cancer. Work adjustments could help women to keep their jobs during illness and recovery. To resolve women's concerns about returning to work, employers, physicians, and insurance institutions should consider increasing and improving communication with breast cancer patients and playing a more active and supportive role. Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Is Women's Empowerment Associated With Help-Seeking for Spousal Violence in India?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowan, Kathleen; Mumford, Elizabeth; Clark, Cari Jo

    2018-05-01

    Violence against women by their husbands is a problem for women worldwide. However, the majority of women do not seek help. This article presents findings from a national survey in India on empowerment-related correlates of help-seeking behaviors for currently married women who experienced spousal violence. We examined individual-, relationship-, and state-level measures of empowerment on help-seeking from informal and formal sources. Findings indicate that help-seeking is largely not associated with typical measures of empowerment or socio-economic development, whereas state-level indicators of empowerment may influence help-seeking. Although not a target of this study, we also note that injury from violence and the severity of the violence were among the strongest factors related to seeking help. Taken together, the low prevalence of help-seeking and lack of strong individual-level correlates, apart from severe harm, suggests widespread barriers to seeking help. Interventions that affect social norms and reach women and men across social classes in society are needed in addition to any individual-level efforts to promote seeking help for spousal violence.

  11. Women and development: future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    In 1995 the UN celebrated its 50th anniversary, and the Fourth World Conference on Women in Beijing was held. INSTRAW's acting director, Martha Duenas-Loza, gives her overview of INSTRAW's future role and identifies some major issues regarding the advancement of women. INSTRAW is mandated as a UN group to accomplish research on and training of women. Some initial findings are now becoming available. The delay was due to the attention given to pressing problems of health care, nutrition, and education. In the future the international community will not have the option of neglecting women's status issues, which currently are secondary concerns. Some urgent issues are identified as the impact of rapid population growth on the elderly in the world, particularly the majority of elderly women. Migration will have an increasing impact on economic and social infrastructures of all countries. Problems of the elderly must be addressed as individual components within development plans and programs. Other articles in this issue of "INSTRAW News" discuss the situation of elderly women and women migrants. New efforts focus on a new phase of research on women's access to credit. The research aim is to analyze the experiences of current credit mechanisms, to assess the impact on individuals and families, and to consider gender effects. A progress report is available in this issue on gender statistics and a valuation of unpaid work by women. A new module is available for training women in environmental management; a description of this module is available in this issue. The new model is based on prior modules on energy and water, but includes improvements. The future agenda reflects the complexity of problems and solutions today and in the future.

  12. Comparison of Sexual Problems in Fertile and Infertile Couples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Zare

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Infertility is known to have a negative effect on couple's life and in most cases it has a profound impact on sexual relations. Sexual problems may be the cause of infertility or may arise as a result of infertility. The aim of this study was to compare the sexual problems in fertile and infertile couples. Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed on 110 infertile and 110 fertile couples referring to Montaserieh infertility center and five health centers in Mashhad which were selected as class clustering method and easy method. Data collection tools included demographic questionnaires and Golombok-Rust Inventory. The collected information was analyzed by SPSS software and descriptive and inferential statistics. Results: No significant difference was found between fertile 26 (17, 37 and infertile 26(18, 37 women in terms of total score of sexual problems and other aspects of sexual problems (except infrequency. The women in the fertile group had higher infrequency than infertile women. Total score of sexual problems in fertile men was 18.5 (13, 27 and in infertile men 25 (19, 31 and the difference was statistically significant. Infertile men reported more problems in no relation, impotency and premature ejaculation compared to fertile men. Men in both fertile and infertile group reported more sexual problems than women. Conclusion: In view of the more frequent sexual problems in infertile men than infertile women, it seems that it is necessary to pay more attention to sexual aspects of infertility in men and design the training programs for sexual and marital skills in infertility centers.

  13. Awareness, perception and factors affecting utilization of cervical cancer screening services among women in Ibadan, Nigeria: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ndikom Chizoma

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the years awareness and uptake of cervical cancer screening services has remained poor in developing countries. Problems associated with cervical cancer incidence include late reporting, ignorance and cultural issues relating to cervical cancer screening. This study sought to explore the awareness, perception and utilization of cervical cancer screening among women in Ibadan as well as factors that influence utilization. Method This is a qualitative study that utilized Eight Focus Group Discussions to collect information from women in selected health facilities in Ibadan, South West, Nigeria. The 82 participants were purposely recruited from women attending Antenatal clinics in 4 secondary and 4 primary health care facilities after approval was received from the Institutional Review Board in charge of the facilities. The focus group discussions were tape recorded and transcribed verbatim. The transcripts were analyzed into themes. Findings The study provided qualitative information on the awareness, perception of the utilization of cervical cancer screening services among women in Ibadan. Participants were mainly married women (92.7%, mean age =27.6, SD =4.5, mainly traders (39% and from Yoruba ethnic backgrounds (87.8% and had secondary education (39%. The respondents reported not being aware of cervical cancer and were not utilizing the services. Though they did not know what cervical cancer screening entailed or the screening methods, they still believed that it is important since like for other diseases will help in early detection and treatment. The participants were eager to get more information from nurses on cervical cancer about cervical cancer screening. The major factors identified by the women that influence screening utilization were ignorance, Illiteracy, belief in not being at risk, having many contending issues, nonchalant attitude to their health, financial constraint and fear of having a positive result

  14. Awareness, perception and factors affecting utilization of cervical cancer screening services among women in Ibadan, Nigeria: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndikom, Chizoma Millicent; Ofi, Bola Abosede

    2012-08-06

    Over the years awareness and uptake of cervical cancer screening services has remained poor in developing countries. Problems associated with cervical cancer incidence include late reporting, ignorance and cultural issues relating to cervical cancer screening. This study sought to explore the awareness, perception and utilization of cervical cancer screening among women in Ibadan as well as factors that influence utilization. This is a qualitative study that utilized Eight Focus Group Discussions to collect information from women in selected health facilities in Ibadan, South West, Nigeria. The 82 participants were purposely recruited from women attending Antenatal clinics in 4 secondary and 4 primary health care facilities after approval was received from the Institutional Review Board in charge of the facilities. The focus group discussions were tape recorded and transcribed verbatim. The transcripts were analyzed into themes. The study provided qualitative information on the awareness, perception of the utilization of cervical cancer screening services among women in Ibadan. Participants were mainly married women (92.7%), mean age =27.6, SD =4.5, mainly traders (39%) and from Yoruba ethnic backgrounds (87.8%) and had secondary education (39%). The respondents reported not being aware of cervical cancer and were not utilizing the services. Though they did not know what cervical cancer screening entailed or the screening methods, they still believed that it is important since like for other diseases will help in early detection and treatment. The participants were eager to get more information from nurses on cervical cancer about cervical cancer screening. The major factors identified by the women that influence screening utilization were ignorance, Illiteracy, belief in not being at risk, having many contending issues, nonchalant attitude to their health, financial constraint and fear of having a positive result. There is an urgent need for more enlightenment

  15. An analysis of factors affecting job satisfaction of women in paid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the job satisfaction of women in paid employment in Benin City. The purpose of this study was to find out whether women in paid employment are satisfied with their jobs or not and to establish the effects of marital status, experience, academic qualification and relationship with superior officers of the ...

  16. Cognitive and affective empathy in children with conduct problems: additive and interactive effects of callous-unemotional traits and autism spectrum disorders symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasalich, Dave S; Dadds, Mark R; Hawes, David J

    2014-11-30

    Callous-unemotional (CU) traits and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) symptoms are characterized by problems in empathy; however, these behavioral features are rarely examined together in children with conduct problems. This study investigated additive and interactive effects of CU traits and ASD symptoms in relation to cognitive and affective empathy in a non-ASD clinic-referred sample. Participants were 134 children aged 3 to 9 years (M=5.60; 79% boys) with oppositional defiant/conduct disorder, and their parents. Clinicians, teachers, and parents reported on dimensions of child behavior, and parental reports of family dysfunction and direct observations of parental warmth/responsiveness assessed quality of family relationships. Results from multiple regression analysis showed that, over and above the effects of child conduct problem severity and quality of family relationships, both ASD symptoms and CU traits were uniquely associated with deficits in cognitive empathy. Moreover, CU traits demonstrated an independent association with affective empathy, and this relationship was moderated by ASD symptoms. That is, there was a stronger negative association between CU traits and affective empathy at higher versus lower levels of ASD symptoms. These findings suggest including both CU traits and ASD-related social impairments in models delineating the atypical development of empathy in children with conduct problems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Estrogen and hearing from a clinical point of view; characteristics of auditory function in women with Turner syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hederstierna, Christina; Hultcrantz, Malou; Rosenhall, Ulf

    2009-06-01

    Turner syndrome is a chromosomal aberration affecting 1:2000 newborn girls, in which all or part of one X chromosome is absent. This leads to ovarial dysgenesis and little or no endogenous estrogen production. These women have, among many other syndromal features, a high occurrence of ear and hearing problems, and neurocognitive dysfunctions, including reduced visual-spatial abilities; it is assumed that estrogen deficiency is at least partially responsible for these problems. In this, study 30 Turner women aged 40-67, with mild to moderate hearing loss, performed a battery of hearing tests aimed at localizing the lesion causing the sensorineural hearing impairment and assessing central auditory function, primarily sound localization. The results of TEOAE, ABR and speech recognition scores in noise were all indicative of cochlear dysfunction as the cause of the sensorineural impairment. Phase audiometry, a test for sound localization, showed mild disturbances in the Turner women compared to the reference group, suggesting that auditory-spatial dysfunction is another facet of the recognized neurocognitive phenotype in Turner women.

  18. Population density, distance to public transportation, and health of women in low-income neighborhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGuzman, Pamela B; Merwin, Elizabeth I; Bourguignon, Cheryl

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to determine the impact of two neighborhood walkability (the extent to which the built environment is pedestrian friendly) metrics on health outcomes of women living in low-income urban neighborhoods, both before and after accounting for individual and neighborhood factors. A cross-sectional, retrospective design was used. The sample of 1800 low-income women was drawn from Welfare, Children and Families: A Three-City Study (a study of low-income women from three U.S. cities). Using multilevel modeling and geographic information systems, the study sought to determine the effect of distance to public transportation and residential density on health status, mental health symptoms, and health-related limitations. No significant relationship was found between the two walkability metrics and health outcomes. Instead, neighborhood problems that affect crime and safety impacted health status and mental health symptoms. As cities make changes to the built environment with the hope of affecting residents' health outcomes, public health nurses need to be aware that changing walkability characteristics in a neighborhood may not affect the health of residents of high crime, low-income neighborhoods. Without first addressing neighborhood crime, efforts to improve walkability in low-income neighborhoods may fail. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Solitary Alcohol Use in Teens Is Associated With Drinking in Response to Negative Affect and Predicts Alcohol Problems in Young Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creswell, Kasey G; Chung, Tammy; Clark, Duncan B; Martin, Christopher S

    2014-09-01

    Adolescent solitary drinking may represent an informative divergence from normative behavior, with important implications for understanding risk for alcohol-use disorders later in life. Within a self-medication framework, we hypothesized that solitary alcohol use would be associated with drinking in response to negative affect and that such a pattern of drinking would predict alcohol problems in young adulthood. We tested these predictions in a longitudinal study in which we examined whether solitary drinking in adolescence (ages 12-18) predicted alcohol-use disorders in young adulthood (age 25) in 466 alcohol-using teens recruited from clinical programs and 243 alcohol-using teens recruited from the community. Findings showed that solitary drinking was associated with drinking in response to negative affect during adolescence and predicted alcohol problems in young adulthood. Results indicate that drinking alone is an important type of alcohol-use behavior that increases risk for the escalation of alcohol use and the development of alcohol problems.

  20. Men and women--still far apart on HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frasca, Tim

    2003-11-01

    What could be more logical than a gay-feminist alliance to respond to the AIDS epidemic in Latin America? However, drawing on published articles and the author's experience in HIV/AIDS work in Chile, this paper argues that such an alliance is more rhetorical than real. Instead, both groups tend to stick to their respective niches and view the epidemic through the prism of the particular needs and concerns of their target constituencies, rather than learn from and support each other. Feminist rhetoric sometimes suggests that AIDS is a problem only because it affects women. The African paradigm of vulnerable women is inexactly applied, given the predominantly male and homosexual nature of the epidemic in most Latin American countries. Both women and homosexually active men are highly vulnerable to HIV infection, and little is gained by competing for the top slot on the "tragedy honour roll". Latin American gay men's groups, torn between AIDS and gay rights activism, often resist both protagonism by women and women's issues. Although the fight for access to antiretroviral treatment has obscured this conflict, it resurfaces in associations of HIV-positive people and may increase along with heterosexual transmission in the region. Discussion and exchanges should be encouraged to overcome these largely hidden divisions.

  1. Increases in physical activity may affect quality of life differently in men and women: the PACE project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cash, Stephanie Whisnant; Duncan, Glen E; Beresford, Shirley A A; McTiernan, Anne; Patrick, Donald L

    2013-11-01

    Obesity is associated with impaired quality of life (QoL), but less is known about physical activity. We investigated how decreases in body mass index (BMI) and increases in activity affect obesity-specific QoL and potential gender differences in associations. In a large worksite randomized trial of a multilevel intervention on diet and physical activity behaviors, we conducted a cohort analysis at two years of follow-up. Self-reported activity and Obesity and Weight Loss Quality of Life (OWLQOL) were analyzed for individual-level associations using linear mixed models accounting for random worksite effects. Gender modified the BMI-OWLQOL relationship, so analyses were conducted for males and females separately. Adjusting for demographic confounders, baseline OWLQOL, and several worksite-level variables including intervention arm, a 1.9 unit decrease in BMI (the interquartile range) was associated with an OWLQOL increase of 1.7 (95 % CI: 1.2, 2.2) in males and 3.6 (95 % CI: 3.2, 4.0) in females. Similarly, a 23 unit increase in physical activity score was associated with an OWLQOL increase of 0.9 (95 % CI: 0.5, 1.4) in males and 1.6 (95 % CI: 1.0, 2.3) in females. Physical activity associations were attenuated when adjusting for change in BMI, but remained significant for women (mean BMI 27.8 kg/m(2)). This is the first study to demonstrate that increasing physical activity may improve obesity-specific QoL to a greater extent in women, particularly among overweight women, independent of BMI. Results may inform the design of interventions tailored to women targeting well-being through messages of increasing physical activity.

  2. Negative affect mediates effects of psychological stress on disordered eating in young Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jue; Wang, Zhen; Guo, Boliang; Arcelus, Jon; Zhang, Haiyin; Jia, Xiuzhen; Xu, Yong; Qiu, Jianyin; Xiao, Zeping; Yang, Min

    2012-01-01

    The bi-relationships between psychological stress, negative affect and disordered eating has been well studied in western culture, while tri-relationship among them, i.e. how some of those factors influence these bi-relationships, has rarely been studied. However, there has been little related study in the different Chinese culture. This study was conducted to investigate the bi-relationships and tri-relationship between psychological stress, negative affect, and disordered eating attitudes and behaviors in young Chinese women. A total of 245 young Chinese policewomen employed to carry out health and safety checks at the 2010 Shanghai World Expo were recruited in this study. The Chinese version of the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10), Beck Depression Inventory Revised (BDI-II), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), and Eating Attitude Test (EAT-26) were administered to all participants. The total scores of PSS-10, BDI-II and BAI were all highly correlated with that of EAT-26. The PSS-10 score significantly correlated with both BDI-II and BAI scores. There was no statistically significant direct effect from perceived stress to disordered eating (-0.012, 95%CI: -.038~0.006, p=0.357), however, the indirect effects from PSS-10 via affect factors were statistically significant, e.g. the estimated mediation effects from PSS to EAT-26 via depression and anxiety were 0.036 (95%CI: 0.022~0.044, peffective interventions and preventative programmes for disordered eating should pay more attention to depression and anxiety among the young Chinese female population.

  3. Experience of care for mental health problems in the antenatal or postnatal period for women in the UK: a systematic review and meta-synthesis of qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megnin-Viggars, Odette; Symington, Iona; Howard, Louise M; Pilling, Stephen

    2015-12-01

    Pregnancy and the first postnatal year can be a difficult and distressing period for women with mental health problems, particularly if they are not able to access appropriate and timely assessment and treatment. The aim of this systematic review was to synthesise qualitative evidence on experiences of care for women with (or at risk of developing) antenatal or postnatal mental health problems across a range of disorders (including non-psychotic mental disorders). Six electronic databases were searched for papers published from 2000 to April 2014. Thirty-nine studies were identified that met the inclusion criteria. Findings were synthesised using secondary framework and thematic analysis approaches. Seven key themes were identified across mental disorder groups: an unmet need for collaborative and integrated care; stigma and fears about loss of custody; healthcare professionals unable or unwilling to address psychological needs; focus on babies over mothers; importance of non-judgmental and compassionate support; an unmet need for information; importance of service user involvement in treatment decisions. Women's experience of accessing and engaging with care for mental health problems could be improved if given the opportunity to develop trusting relationships with healthcare professionals who acknowledge and reinforce the woman's role in caring for her baby in a non-judgmental and compassionate manner, and foster hope and optimism about treatment. Information for women, their families and healthcare professionals, and the provision of individualised care and treatment, are also crucial to enable full implementation of a person-centred programme of care.

  4. Prevention of: self harm in British South Asian women: study protocol of an exploratory RCT of culturally adapted manual assisted Problem Solving Training (C- MAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagaraj Diwaker

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Suicide is a major public health problem worldwide. In the UK suicide is the second most common cause of death in people aged 15-24 years. Self harm is one of the commonest reasons for medical admission in the UK. In the year following a suicide attempt the risk of a repeat attempt or death by suicide may be up to 100 times greater than in people who have never attempted suicide. Research evidence shows increased risk of suicide and attempted suicide among British South Asian women. There are concerns about the current service provision and its appropriateness for this community due to the low numbers that get involved with the services. Both problem solving and interpersonal forms of psychotherapy are beneficial in the treatment of patients who self harm and could potentially be helpful in this ethnic group. The paper describes the trial protocol of adapting and evaluating a culturally appropriate psychological treatment for the adult British South Asian women who self harm. Methods We plan to test a culturally adapted Problem Solving Therapy (C- MAP in British South Asian women who self harm. Eight sessions of problem solving each lasting approximately 50 minutes will be delivered over 3 months. The intervention will be assessed using a prospective rater blind randomized controlled design comparing with treatment as usual (TAU. Outcome assessments will be carried out at 3 and 6 months. A sub group of the participants will be invited for qualitative interviews. Discussion This study will test the feasibility and acceptability of the C- MAP in British South Asian women. We will be informed on whether a culturally adapted brief psychological intervention compared with treatment as usual for self-harm results in decreased hopelessness and suicidal ideation. This will also enable us to collect necessary information on recruitment, effect size, the optimal delivery method and acceptability of the intervention in preparation for a

  5. Prevention of: self harm in British South Asian women: study protocol of an exploratory RCT of culturally adapted manual assisted Problem Solving Training (C- MAP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husain, Nusrat; Chaudhry, Nasim; Durairaj, Steevart V; Chaudhry, Imran; Khan, Sarah; Husain, Meher; Nagaraj, Diwaker; Naeem, Farooq; Waheed, Waquas

    2011-06-21

    Suicide is a major public health problem worldwide. In the UK suicide is the second most common cause of death in people aged 15-24 years. Self harm is one of the commonest reasons for medical admission in the UK. In the year following a suicide attempt the risk of a repeat attempt or death by suicide may be up to 100 times greater than in people who have never attempted suicide. Research evidence shows increased risk of suicide and attempted suicide among British South Asian women. There are concerns about the current service provision and its appropriateness for this community due to the low numbers that get involved with the services. Both problem solving and interpersonal forms of psychotherapy are beneficial in the treatment of patients who self harm and could potentially be helpful in this ethnic group.The paper describes the trial protocol of adapting and evaluating a culturally appropriate psychological treatment for the adult British South Asian women who self harm. We plan to test a culturally adapted Problem Solving Therapy (C- MAP) in British South Asian women who self harm. Eight sessions of problem solving each lasting approximately 50 minutes will be delivered over 3 months. The intervention will be assessed using a prospective rater blind randomized controlled design comparing with treatment as usual (TAU). Outcome assessments will be carried out at 3 and 6 months. A sub group of the participants will be invited for qualitative interviews. This study will test the feasibility and acceptability of the C- MAP in British South Asian women. We will be informed on whether a culturally adapted brief psychological intervention compared with treatment as usual for self-harm results in decreased hopelessness and suicidal ideation. This will also enable us to collect necessary information on recruitment, effect size, the optimal delivery method and acceptability of the intervention in preparation for a definitive RCT using repetition of self harm and cost

  6. Post-learning stress differentially affects memory for emotional gist and detail in naturally cycling women and women on hormonal contraceptives

    OpenAIRE

    Nielsen, Shawn E.; Ahmed, Imran; Cahill, Larry

    2014-01-01

    Sex differences in emotional memory have received increasing interest over the past decade. However, to date, no work has explored how a post-learning stressor might modulate the influence of sex hormone status on memory for gist and peripheral detail in an emotional versus neutral context. Here, we tested three predictions. First, compared to naturally cycling women (NC women) in the luteal phase, women on hormonal contraception (HC women) would have significantly blunted HPA reactivity to p...

  7. Interactions among poverty, gender, and health systems affect women's participation in services to prevent HIV transmission from mother to child: A causal loop analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yourkavitch, Jennifer; Hassmiller Lich, Kristen; Flax, Valerie L; Okello, Elialilia S; Kadzandira, John; Katahoire, Anne Ruhweza; Munthali, Alister C; Thomas, James C

    2018-01-01

    Retention in care remains an important issue for prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) programs according to WHO guidelines, formerly called the "Option B+" approach. The objective of this study was to examine how poverty, gender, and health system factors interact to influence women's participation in PMTCT services. We used qualitative research, literature, and hypothesized variable connections to diagram causes and effects in causal loop models. We found that many factors, including antiretroviral therapy (ART) use, service design and quality, stigma, disclosure, spouse/partner influence, decision-making autonomy, and knowledge about PMTCT, influence psychosocial health, which in turn affects women's participation in PMTCT services. Thus, interventions to improve psychosocial health need to address many factors to be successful. We also found that the design of PMTCT services, a modifiable factor, is important because it affects several other factors. We identified 66 feedback loops that may contribute to policy resistance-that is, a policy's failure to have its intended effect. Our findings point to the need for a multipronged intervention to encourage women's continued participation in PMTCT services and for longitudinal research to quantify and test our causal loop model.

  8. [Occupational factors influencing lung cancer in women in epidemiological studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swiatkowska, Beata

    2011-01-01

    Lung cancer is the most common cancer in men, although the alarming statistics of recent years indicate that this pathology affects also more likely a group of women and in recent years has become the leading cause of cancer deaths among Polish women. This article presents the main issues relating to occupational determinants of lung cancer in women. The results of the analysis show that the number of neoplastic diseases, including the lung cancer, recognized as an occupational disease in Poland is low, particularly among women. A major factor hampering the certification of occupational etiology of lung cancer is a long latency period, no differences in terms of the clinical and morphological characteristics from lung cancer occurring in the general population, and relatively small number of identified occupational carcinogens. Analysis of the available literature on the adverse workplace conditions shows that only a few epidemiological studies focus on the problem of job-related risk among women, and only some of them provide detailed results for lung cancer. Moreover, the abundant literature on the subject concerning the male workers might not be fully relevant because of possible differences in hormonal, genetic and other gender-related biological differences that may significantly modify the risk of cancer in women. These aspects cause that the true contribution of occupational factors to the risk of lung cancer, particularly in women, is underestimated.

  9. Meal composition affects insulin secretion in women with type 2 diabetes: a comparison with healthy controls. The Hoorn prandial study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alssema, M; Schindhelm, R K; Rijkelijkhuizen, J M; Kostense, P J; Teerlink, T; Nijpels, G; Heine, R J; Dekker, J M

    2009-03-01

    Early insulin secretion following a meal is representative for normal physiology and may depend on meal composition. To compare the effects of a fat-rich and a carbohydrate-rich mixed meal on insulinogenic index as a measure of early insulin secretion in normoglycemic women (NGM) and in women with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2), and to assess the relationship of anthropometric and metabolic factors with insulinogenic index. Postmenopausal women, 76 with NGM and 64 with DM2, received a fat-rich meal and a carbohydrate-rich meal on separate occasions. Early insulin response was estimated as insulinogenic index ( big up tri, Deltainsulin(0-30 min)/ big up tri, Deltaglucose(0-30 min)) for each meal. Associations of fasting and postprandial triglycerides, body mass index, waist and hip circumference and alanine aminotransferase with insulinogenic indices were determined. Women with NGM present with higher insulinogenic index than women with DM2. The insulinogenic index following the fat-rich meal ( big up tri,