Sample records for problem commonly encountered

  1. Common problems encountered during certification of radioactive material packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonard, J.F.


    The certification of radioactive materials containers is often an expensive, time-consuming process fraught with pitfalls for the unsuspecting applicant. In addition, the United States regulations governing containers for radioactive materials are changing, and the level of knowledge concerning engineering safety of the containers has expanded substantially. Further, as knowledge concerning design safety has grown, the methods of applying the regulations have changed. These changes are affecting both new and older container designs. In many cases, previously certified designs are no longer acceptable. One of the many ways to keep a finger on the pulse of the certification process is to look at the type of problems identified and the questions commonly asked during the review and evaluation of the packaging designs prior to certification. Based upon a recent study, the U.S. Department of Energy Packaging Certification Staff (PCS) has compiled, categorized, and summarized common problems and questions on container designs undergoing certification reviews. The study shows that the most common types of problems/questions are Structural and lack of Specific Information

  2. Common Group Problems: A Field Study. (United States)

    Weinberg, Sanford B.; And Others


    A field study of a naturally functioning group (N=125) was conducted to identify common group problems. Trained observers attended group meetings and described the problems encountered. Difficulties of cohesion, leadership, sub-group formation, and personality conflict were identified. (RC)

  3. Common Factors Among Family Medicine Residents Who Encounter Difficulty. (United States)

    Binczyk, Natalia M; Babenko, Oksana; Schipper, Shirley; Ross, Shelley


    Residents in difficulty are costly to programs in both time and resources, and encountering difficulty can be emotionally harmful to residents. Approximately 10% of residents will encounter difficulty at some point in training. While there have been several studies looking at common factors among residents who encounter difficulty, some of the findings are inconsistent. The objective of this study was to determine whether there are common factors among the residents who encounter difficulty during training in a large Canadian family medicine residency program. Secondary data analysis was performed on archived resident files from a Canadian family medicine residency program. Residents who commenced an urban family medicine residency program between the years of 2006 and 2014 were included in the study. Five hundred nine family medicine residents were included in data analysis. Residents older than 30 years were 2.33 times (95% CI: 1.27-4.26) more likely to encounter difficulty than residents aged 30 years or younger. Nontransfer residents were 8.85 times (95% CI: 1.17-66.67) more likely to encounter difficulty than transfer residents. The effects of sex, training site, international medical graduate status, and rotation order on the likelihood of encountering difficulty were nonsignificant. Older and nontransfer residents may be facing unique circumstances and may benefit from additional support from the program.

  4. "What constitutes a 'problem'?" Producing 'alcohol problems' through online counselling encounters. (United States)

    Savic, Michael; Ferguson, Nyssa; Manning, Victoria; Bathish, Ramez; Lubman, Dan I


    Typically, health policy, practice and research views alcohol and other drug (AOD) 'problems' as objective things waiting to be detected, diagnosed and treated. However, this approach to policy development and treatment downplays the role of clinical practices, tools, discourses, and systems in shaping how AOD use is constituted as a 'problem'. For instance, people might present to AOD treatment with multiple psycho-social concerns, but usually only a singular AOD-associated 'problem' is considered serviceable. As the assumed nature of 'the serviceable problem' influences what treatment responses people receive, and how they may come to be enacted as 'addicted' or 'normal' subjects, it is important to subject clinical practices of problem formulation to critical analysis. Given that the reach of AOD treatment has expanded via the online medium, in this article we examine how 'problems' are produced in online alcohol counselling encounters involving people aged 55 and over. Drawing on poststructural approaches to problematisation, we not only trace how and what 'problems' are produced, but also what effects these give rise to. We discuss three approaches to problem formulation: (1) Addiction discourses at work; (2) Moving between concerns and alcohol 'problems'; (3) Making 'problems' complex and multiple. On the basis of this analysis, we argue that online AOD counselling does not just respond to pre-existing 'AOD problems'. Rather, through the social and clinical practices of formulation at work in clinical encounters, online counselling also produces them. Thus, given a different set of circumstances, practices and relations, 'problems' might be defined or emerge differently-perhaps not as 'problems' at all or perhaps as different kinds of concerns. We conclude by highlighting the need for a critical reflexivity in AOD treatment and policy in order to open up possibilities for different ways of engaging with, and responding to, people's needs in their complexity

  5. Sleep-related problems in common medical conditions. (United States)

    Parish, James M


    Common medical problems are often associated with abnormalities of sleep. Patients with chronic medical disorders often have fewer hours of sleep and less restorative sleep compared to healthy individuals, and this poor sleep may worsen the subjective symptoms of the disorder. Individuals with lung disease often have disturbed sleep related to oxygen desaturations, coughing, or dyspnea. Both obstructive lung disease and restrictive lung diseases are associated with poor quality sleep. Awakenings from sleep are common in untreated or undertreated asthma, and cause sleep disruption. Gastroesophageal reflux is a major cause of disrupted sleep due to awakenings from heartburn, dyspepsia, acid brash, coughing, or choking. Patients with chronic renal disease commonly have sleep complaints often due to insomnia, insufficient sleep, sleep apnea, or restless legs syndrome. Complaints related to sleep are very common in patients with fibromyalgia and other causes of chronic pain. Sleep disruption increases the sensation of pain and decreases quality of life. Patients with infectious diseases, including acute viral illnesses, HIV-related disease, and Lyme disease, may have significant problems with insomnia and hypersomnolence. Women with menopause have from insomnia, sleep-disordered breathing, restless legs syndrome, or fibromyalgia. Patients with cancer or receiving cancer therapy are often bothered by insomnia or other sleep disturbances that affect quality of life and daytime energy. The objective of this article is to review frequently encountered medical conditions and examine their impact on sleep, and to review frequent sleep-related problems associated with these common medical conditions.

  6. Safety management in multiemployer worksites in the manufacturing industry: opinions on co-operation and problems encountered. (United States)

    Nenonen, Sanna; Vasara, Juha


    Co-operation between different parties and effective safety management play an important role in ensuring safety in multiemployer worksites. This article reviews safety co-operation and factors complicating safety management in Finnish multiemployer manufacturing worksites. The paper focuses on the service providers' opinions; however, a comparison of the customers' views is also presented. The results show that safety-related co-operation between providers and customers is generally considered as successful but strongly dependent on the partner. Safety co-operation is provided through, e.g., training, orientation and risk analysis. Problems encountered include ensuring adequate communication, identifying hazards, co-ordinating work tasks and determining responsibilities. The providers and the customers encounter similar safety management problems. The results presented in this article can help companies to focus their efforts on the most problematic points of safety management and to avoid common pitfalls.

  7. Problems Encountered by Primary School Teachers in the Teaching of Music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilgım KILIÇ


    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to identify the problems encountered by primary school teachers and to makesuggestions to solve the problems. This is a descriptive study and also a case study. A questionnaire form wasused for data collection. The surveys were administered on the elementary education teachers working underAnkara Province Directorate of the Ministry of Education in 2006 – 2007 academic year. The data collectedwere analyzed using SPSS program and statistical analyses were carried out. It was concluded that theprimary school teachers’ music education was not sufficient and that they had encountered problems inimproving themselves with regard to music education. A number of suggestions were made in line with theresults obtained.

  8. Encounters for common illnesses in general practice increased in obese patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wayenburg, van C.A.M.; Lerniengre, M.B.T.; Reenen-Schimmel, van A.H.; Bor, J.H.J.; Bakx, J.C.; Staveren, van W.A.; Weel, van C.; Binsbergen, van J.J.


    Background. Obese patients are known to have more chronic medical conditions. Objective. To compare the frequency of encounter for episodes of the 10 most common illnesses in general practice between obese and non-overweight patients. Methods. Data were derived from the Continuous Morbidity

  9. Common skin problems in the community and primary care. (United States)

    Armstrong, Kirsty


    Skin problems can be hard to diagnose, leaving clinicians frustrated and patients incorrectly treated, but rashes and lesions can be markers of systemic disease and infections. However, by using simple history-taking and mnemonics, safety and correct diagnoses can be achieved. This article will consider some common problems encountered in primary and community care, issues that need to be excluded, resources that will help with diagnosis and some management guidelines. This is not an exhaustive guide, and advice should be sought from learned colleagues in specific cases. Pressure area care and the use of compression bandaging will not be discussed unless it is of relevance to the subject of rashes and lesions.

  10. Encounters with service professionals experienced by children from families with alcohol problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werner, Anne; Malterud, Kirsti


    Aim: The aim of this study was to explore encounters with service professionals experienced in childhood and adolescence by children who grew up with parental alcohol abuse. We focused on their accounts from situations indicating children’s struggles or parental drinking problems. Methods: Semi......-structured qualitative interview study was conducted with retrospective data from nine adults. Systematic text condensation was used to understand childhood experiences from encounters with professionals. Results: Participants believed that professionals rarely recognised their parents’ drinking problems. The children...... parental drinking. Even when problems were obvious, participants felt that professionals took no further action. Medical and social problems were managed within very confined perspectives. Conclusions: Specific commitment to confront cultural taboos is needed to attend to children’s unmet needs...

  11. Thermal fluctuation problems encountered in LMFRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelineau, O.; Sperandio, M.; Martin, P.; Ricard, J.B.; Martin, L.; Bougault, A.


    One of the most significant problems of LMFBRs deals with thermal fluctuations. The main reason is that LMFBRs operate with sodium coolant at very different temperatures which leads to the existence of several areas of transition between hot and cold sodium. These transitions areas which are the critical points, maybe found in the reactor block as well as in the secondary and auxiliary loops. The characteristics of these thermal fluctuations are not easy to quantify because of their complex (random) behaviour, and often demand the use of thermalhydraulic mock-up tests. A good knowledge of these phenomena is essential because of the potential high level of damage they can induce on structures. Two typical thermal fluctuation problems encountered on operation reactors are described. They were not originally anticipated at the design stage of the former Phenix and the latter Superphenix reactors. Description and the analyses performed to describe the damaging process are explained. A well known thermal fluctuation problem is presented. It is pointed out how the feedback from the damages observed on operating reactors is used to prevent the components from any high cycle fatigue

  12. Commons problems, common ground: Earth-surface dynamics and the social-physical interdisciplinary frontier (United States)

    Lazarus, E.


    In the archetypal "tragedy of the commons" narrative, local farmers pasture their cows on the town common. Soon the common becomes crowded with cows, who graze it bare, and the arrangement of open access to a shared resource ultimately fails. The "tragedy" involves social and physical processes, but the denouement depends on who is telling the story. An economist might argue that the system collapses because each farmer always has a rational incentive to graze one more cow. An ecologist might remark that the rate of grass growth is an inherent control on the common's carrying capacity. And a geomorphologist might point out that processes of soil degradation almost always outstrip processes of soil production. Interdisciplinary research into human-environmental systems still tends to favor disciplinary vantages. In the context of Anthropocene grand challenges - including fundamental insight into dynamics of landscape resilience, and what the dominance of human activities means for processes of change and evolution on the Earth's surface - two disciplines in particular have more to talk about than they might think. Here, I use three examples - (1) beach nourishment, (2) upstream/downstream fluvial asymmetry, and (3) current and historical "land grabbing" - to illustrate a range of interconnections between physical Earth-surface science and common-pool resource economics. In many systems, decision-making and social complexity exert stronger controls on landscape expression than do physical geomorphological processes. Conversely, human-environmental research keeps encountering multi-scale, emergent problems of resource use made 'common-pool' by water, nutrient and sediment transport dynamics. Just as Earth-surface research can benefit from decades of work on common-pool resource systems, quantitative Earth-surface science can make essential contributions to efforts addressing complex problems in environmental sustainability.

  13. Low Back Pain - Management Perspective Of A commonly Encountered Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parharaj S S


    Full Text Available Low Back pain is a very common symptom affecting the general population, incurring a huge annual societal cost. In spite of this, it remains very commonly misdiagnosed and maltreated. The majority of benign chronic low back pain patients suffer from a combination of myofascial frozen back syndrome with or without an overly of psychosocioeconomic factors. Neural compression causes are less frequent. A though evaluation of the patient to select the most rational therapeutic approach is necessary. In majority of the patients, a well planned out rehabilitation programme is useful. Surgery is indicated in a minority with neural compression or spinal instability, motivation is essential as rehabilitation and surgery have a high failure rate in inadequately motivated patients with psychosocioeconomic dysfunction.

  14. Proton therapy in ophthalmology: status report and problems encountered

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauvel, P.; Iborra-Brassart, N.; Courdi, A.; Herault, J.; Teissier, E.; Pignol, J.P.; Bondiau, P.Y.


    The proton therapy facility of the Centre Antoine-Lacassagne in Nice began of ocular tumors in June 1991. Up to October 1995, a total number of 600 patients were treated. An overview of the cases treated during the first 4 years of activity is given and the main problems encountered in the field, possibly interacting with the accuracy and reliability of the dose distribution, are listed. (author)

  15. Management of Commonly Encountered Secondary Cleft Deformities of Face-A Case Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob John


    Full Text Available Orofacial clefts are one of the commonest congenital deformities occurring due to disturbances during the embryological formation, development and growth of orofacial region. The treatment of cleft deformities in the early period of life is mandatory to address the aesthetic, functional and psychological problems affecting the child. A considerable number of surgical modalities for definitive correction of unilateral and bilateral cleft lip, nose, and eyelid deformities have been reported over the past half century. After the initial cleft repair, there is a long period of dramatic growth. This powerful variable of growth may ultimately distort the immediate surgical result. Hence, the correction of secondary deformities plays a very important part in the care of these patients. In this article we are enlisting some simple techniques to correct the commonly encountered secondary cleft deformities of face that gave acceptable results to the patients. These corrective surgeries not only improved the function and aesthetics but also increased the confidence level, satisfaction and overall quality of life of the patient.

  16. Problems Encountered by Religious Vocational Secondary School and Other Secondary School Students in Physical Education and Sports Activities (United States)

    Bar, Mustafa; Yaman, Menzure Sibel; Hergüner, Gülten


    The study aimed to determine problems encountered by Religious Vocational Secondary School and other Secondary School students in physical education and sports activities and to compare these problems according to school type and gender. A questionnaire named "Problems encountered in attending to physical education and sports activities"…

  17. Common Sleep Problems (For Teens) (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Common Sleep Problems KidsHealth / For Teens / Common Sleep Problems What's ... have emotional problems, like depression. What Happens During Sleep? You don't notice it, of course, but ...

  18. Analysing the problems of science teachers that they encounter while teaching physics education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cihat Demir


    Full Text Available Even though physical science is very important in our daily lives, it is insufficiently understood by students. In order for students to get a better physical education, the teachers who have given physics lesson should first eliminated the problems that they face during the teaching process. The aim of this survey is to specify the matters encountered by science teachers during the teaching of physics and to provide them with solutions. The study group consisted of 50 science teachers who worked in Diyarbakır and Batman over the period of 2014 - 2015. This research is a descriptive study carried out by content analysis. In this study, semi-structured interview have been used along with qualitative research methods. According to the research findings, the top problems that the physics teachers encountered in physics lesson while processing the topics were laboratory problems. Some solutions have been introduced for science teachers in order to help them provide a better physics education.

  19. Problems Encountered during the Scientific Research Process in Graduate Education: The Institute of Educational Sciences (United States)

    Akyürek, Erkan; Afacan, Özlem


    This study was conducted to determine the problems faced by graduate students when conducting scientific research and to make suggestions for solving these problems. The research model was a case study. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with participants in the study with questions about the problems encountered during scientific research…

  20. [Social problems encountered during prenatal care in a Paris maternity ward]. (United States)

    Ozguler, A; Alfaro, C; Bonniaus, G; Renders, P; Blot, P; Brodin, M; Lombrail, P


    In 1993, about 2,600 children are born in Robert Debré Hospital (RDH), a hospital specialized in pediatrics and obstetrics located in Paris. One hundred and seventy nine of the mothers contacted the hospital social service during pregnancy. The main goal of this study was to describe the social problems encountered by these women and the solutions proposed by the social service of RDH. The second aim was to describe the socio-demographic profile and medical problems of this population. At first contact, 45% of the women had no social coverage, and only 18% had a steady job. Most social problems were related to administrative procedures. Financial and housing problems were more difficult to solve in this context. These figures reflect the growing problem of precarity, with its consequences. A hospital social service is not the right place to solve these very complex problems. The most worrisome point is that the living conditions of newborn children are often unknown after delivery.

  1. Technical problems encountered during certification of a Type B (plutonium) package (U)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gromada, R.J.; Opperman, E.K.


    Westinghouse Savannah River Company is responsible for maintaining the 5320 Plutonium Shipping Cask. The 5320 Cask was originally designed over 15 years ago to transport plutonium and americium. Since then the 5320 Cask has been redesigned numerous times to meet changing packaging regulations. During the current certificate renewal process, four of the 5320 Casks were subjected to hypothetical accident condition drop, puncture and thermal tests. This paper will discuss the technical problems encountered as well as the experiences gained from performing the accident test sequence. The first two sequential tests, the drop and puncture tests, were performed satisfactorily and immediately met the intent of the regulations. The third sequential test, a 1475degF thermal test, was performed in an electric furnace and did not meet regulations. Problems were encountered with oxygen deficiency and radiation attenuation during the test. An evaluation of the problems associated with furnace testing and their solutions will be discussed. The thermal test was repeated in a pool fire at the Sandia National Laboratory Lurance Canyon Burn Site. Unexpected problems from extremely high (1900degF) flame temperatures resulted in secondary vessel containment failure. From the results of a failure study, a heat shield was added to the 5320 Cask and a subsequent fire test determined that the packaging finally met the intent of the regulations. The failure study as well as the subsequent design solution will be discussed. (author)

  2. Algorithms for solving common fixed point problems

    CERN Document Server

    Zaslavski, Alexander J


    This book details approximate solutions to common fixed point problems and convex feasibility problems in the presence of perturbations. Convex feasibility problems search for a common point of a finite collection of subsets in a Hilbert space; common fixed point problems pursue a common fixed point of a finite collection of self-mappings in a Hilbert space. A variety of algorithms are considered in this book for solving both types of problems, the study of which has fueled a rapidly growing area of research. This monograph is timely and highlights the numerous applications to engineering, computed tomography, and radiation therapy planning. Totaling eight chapters, this book begins with an introduction to foundational material and moves on to examine iterative methods in metric spaces. The dynamic string-averaging methods for common fixed point problems in normed space are analyzed in Chapter 3. Dynamic string methods, for common fixed point problems in a metric space are introduced and discussed in Chapter ...

  3. Organised Cultural Encounters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Lene Bull; Galal, Lise Paulsen; Hvenegård-Lassen, Kirsten


    The article introduces the special issue by presenting the concept of organised cultural encounters that are encounters organised to manage and/or transform problems perceived to originate in or include cultural differences. Inspired by Pratt’s conceptualisation of the contact zone, a critical...... perspective on the particular historical and spatial context of any encounter and how this context frames and mediates what takes place during an encounter is applied. While the articles of the issue present different varieties of organised cultural encounters, it is argued that they are not only of the same...

  4. Well, hydrology, and geochemistry problems encountered in ATES systems and their solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenne, E.A.; Andersson, O.; Willemsen, A.


    In aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) systems, wells provide the interface between the energy storage and use. Efficient operational wells are, therefore, essential for the system to run at maximum (design) efficiency. Adequate test drilling to accurately predict aquifer properties is essential in the design phase; proper construction and development are crucial; and proper monitoring of performance is necessary to identify the early stages of clogging and to evaluate the adequacy of well rehabilitation. Problems related to hydrology, well, and aquifer properties include: loss of permeability resulting from gas exsolution, chemical precipitation, and dispersion and movement of fine-grained particles; loss of recoverable heat caused by excessive regional ground-water gradient, hydrodynamic mixing of injected and native ground water, buoyancy flow and heat conduction through the cap and base of the storage zone; leakage up along the well casing; and ''fracturing'' of a shallow upper aquiclude as a result of an injection pressure greater than the hydrostatic pressure on the aquiclude. The predominant geochemical problems encountered are precipitation of carbonates in some areas and iron plus manganese oxides in others. These precipitation problems can be anticipated, and thus avoided, via geochemical calculations. The likelihood of iron carbonate precipitation is less certain because of the lack of adequate research. Corrosion is a frequent problem. Most of the hydrochemically related clogging and corrosion problems that have been encountered in ATES systems can be predicted and avoided by appropriate design, construction, and operation of new ATF-S systems, assuming that appropriate hydrologic and geochemical modeling is carried out in advance. It is prudent to carefully consider the need for water treatment and to anticipate that there will be some increase in injection pressure and decrease of specific capacity over time

  5. A General Solution Framework for Component-Commonality Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils Boysen


    Full Text Available Component commonality - the use of the same version of a component across multiple products - is being increasingly considered as a promising way to offer high external variety while retaining low internal variety in operations. However, increasing commonality has both positive and negative cost effects, so that optimization approaches are required to identify an optimal commonality level. As components influence to a greater or lesser extent nearly every process step along the supply chain, it is not surprising that a multitude of diverging commonality problems is being investigated in literature, each of which are developing a specific algorithm designed for the respective commonality problem being considered. The paper on hand aims at a general framework which is flexible and efficient enough to be applied to a wide range of commonality problems. Such a procedure based on a two-stage graph approach is presented and tested. Finally, flexibility of the procedure is shown by customizing the framework to account for different types of commonality problems.

  6. Projected role of nuclear power in Egypt and problems encountered in implementing the first nuclear plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effat, K.E.A.; Sirry, H.; El-Fouly, M.F.; El-Sharkawy, E.; El-Saiedi, A.F.


    This paper reviews the present and projected power demands in Egypt and the factors behind the decision to introduce a nuclear power generation program. Different problems encountered and anticipated in introducing the first nuclear power plant are also discussed

  7. Encounters between workers sick-listed with common mental disorders and return-to-work stakeholders. Does workers' gender matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nielsen, Maj Britt D.; Madsen, Ida E. H.; Bultmann, Ute; Christensen, Ulla; Diderichsen, Finn; Rugulies, Reiner

    Introduction: The aims of this paper were to examine how disabled workers assess encounters with return-to-work (RTW) stakeholders during sickness absence due to common mental disorders (CMD) and to investigate gender differences in these assessments. Method: Data on contact with and assessment of

  8. General Disinfection in Medical and Dental Hospitals, Selection of Disinfectant Type and Problems Encountered


    Akça, Gülin


    Hospitals are the places where, either the patients or other health workers can encounter with dangerous problem of several bacterial, fungal, viral, parasitic infectious agents, especially the emerging and life threatening ones such as, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin resistant Enterococcus faecalis (VRE), Stenotrophomonas sp., and multi drug resistant Acinetobacter sp., Pseudomonas sp.. The reasons of these resistant microorganisms that can threaten the life o...

  9. Approximate solutions of common fixed-point problems

    CERN Document Server

    Zaslavski, Alexander J


    This book presents results on the convergence behavior of algorithms which are known as vital tools for solving convex feasibility problems and common fixed point problems. The main goal for us in dealing with a known computational error is to find what approximate solution can be obtained and how many iterates one needs to find it. According to know results, these algorithms should converge to a solution. In this exposition, these algorithms are studied, taking into account computational errors which remain consistent in practice. In this case the convergence to a solution does not take place. We show that our algorithms generate a good approximate solution if computational errors are bounded from above by a small positive constant. Beginning with an introduction, this monograph moves on to study: · dynamic string-averaging methods for common fixed point problems in a Hilbert space · dynamic string methods for common fixed point problems in a metric space · dynamic string-averaging version of the proximal...

  10. Creating a pediatric digital library for pediatric health care providers and families: using literature and data to define common pediatric problems. (United States)

    D'Alessandro, Donna; Kingsley, Peggy


    The goal of this study was to complete a literature-based needs assessment with regard to common pediatric problems encountered by pediatric health care providers (PHCPs) and families, and to develop a problem-based pediatric digital library to meet those needs. The needs assessment yielded 65 information sources. Common problems were identified and categorized, and the Internet was manually searched for authoritative Web sites. The created pediatric digital library ( used a problem-based interface and was deployed in November 1999. From November 1999 to November 2000, the number of hyperlinks and authoritative Web sites increased 51.1 and 32.2 percent, respectively. Over the same time, visitors increased by 57.3 percent and overall usage increased by 255 percent. A pediatric digital library has been created that begins to bring order to general pediatric resources on the Internet. This pediatric digital library provides current, authoritative, easily accessed pediatric information whenever and wherever the PHCPs and families want assistance.

  11. The main security problems encountered in the definition of the PWR 1300 MWe stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guimbail, H.; Auvergnon, F.


    The main problems of security encountered in the definition of the PWR 1300 stage originated from the necessity to ensure the continuity of a stage with the preceding one, the overture to technical progress, the acceptance of responsibility for the gaines experience and the control of cost prices. A few examples show how desirable it is for a project to be managed with the design and construction rules stabilized as early as possible [fr

  12. Tactics Employed and Problems Encountered by University English Majors in Hong Kong in Using a Dictionary (United States)

    Chan, Alice Yin Wa


    Building on the results of a small-scale survey which investigated the general use of dictionaries by university English majors in Hong Kong using a questionnaire survey and their specific use of dictionaries using an error correction task, this article discusses the tactics these students employed and the problems they encountered when using a…

  13. Sublinear Space Algorithms for the Longest Common Substring Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kociumaka, Tomasz; Starikovskaya, Tatiana; Vildhøj, Hjalte Wedel


    Given m documents of total length n, we consider the problem of finding a longest string common to at least d ≥ 2 of the documents. This problem is known as the longest common substring (LCS) problem and has a classic O(n) space and O(n) time solution (Weiner [FOCS'73], Hui [CPM'92]). However...

  14. Audits reveal ten common environmental problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buys, M.W.


    The old saying that open-quotes an ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cureclose quotes rings particularly true in environmental matters in the 1990s. Environmental problems can potentially lead to expensive fines, costly cleanups, negative public relations, and even criminal sanctions against members of the corporation. A recurring pattern of problems has been noted during the performance of environmental disposition, acquisition, and compliance assessments of many different operators in most of the producing states. The ten most common problems found in oilfield audits are discussed here in an effort to enhance the awareness of operators

  15. A comparative assessment of commonly employed staining ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Following an increase in the number of reports of Cryptosporidium infections and the problems encountered in detecting these organisms in faecal smears, a comparative assessment of a modification of the Sheather's flotation technique and other commonly employed staining procedures proved the modified Sheather's ...

  16. The Common Forces: Conservative or Nonconservative? (United States)

    Keeports, David


    Of the forces commonly encountered when solving problems in Newtonian mechanics, introductory texts usually limit illustrations of the definitions of conservative and nonconservative forces to gravity, spring forces, kinetic friction and fluid resistance. However, at the expense of very little class time, the question of whether each of the common…

  17. Management of common behaviour and mental health problems. (United States)

    El-Radhi, A Sahib

    Behavioural problems are usually influenced by both biological and environmental factors. Disruptive behavioural problems such temper tantrums or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder are displayed during the first years of childhood. Breath-holding attacks are relatively common and are an important problem. Although the attacks are not serious and the prognosis is usually good, parents often fear that their child may die during an attack. Parents therefore require explanation and reassurance from health professionals. Conduct disorders (often referred to as antisocial behaviours), such as aggression to others or theft, are more serious as they tend to be repetitive and persistent behaviours where the basic rights of others are violated. Emotional problems, such as anxiety, depression and post-traumatic stress disorder tend to occur in later childhood, and are often unrecognised because young children often find it difficult to express their emotions, or it may go unnoticed by the child's parents. This article briefly discusses the most common behavioural problems, including autism, that affect children of all ages.

  18. Common problems in the elicitation and analysis of expert opinion affecting probabilistic safety assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, M.A.; Booker, J.M.


    Expert opinion is frequently used in probabilistic safety assessment (PSA), particularly in estimating low probability events. In this paper, we discuss some of the common problems encountered in eliciting and analyzing expert opinion data and offer solutions or recommendations. The problems are: that experts are not naturally Bayesian. People fail to update their existing information to account for new information as it becomes available, as would be predicted by the Bayesian philosophy; that experts cannot be fully calibrated. To calibrate experts, the feedback from the known quantities must be immediate, frequent, and specific to the task; that experts are limited in the number of things that they can mentally juggle at a time to 7 {plus minus} 2; that data gatherers and analysts can introduce bias by unintentionally causing an altering of the expert's thinking or answers; that the level of detail the data, or granularity, can affect the analyses; and the conditioning effect poses difficulties in gathering and analyzing of the expert data. The data that the expert gives can be conditioned on a variety of factors that can affect the analysis and the interpretation of the results. 31 refs.

  19. Humor During Clinical Practice: Analysis of Recorded Clinical Encounters. (United States)

    Phillips, Kari A; Singh Ospina, Naykky; Rodriguez-Gutierrez, Rene; Castaneda-Guarderas, Ana; Gionfriddo, Michael R; Branda, Megan; Montori, Victor


    Little is known about humor's use in clinical encounters, despite its many potential benefits. We aimed to describe humor during clinical encounters. We analyzed 112 recorded clinical encounters. Two reviewers working independently identified instances of humor, as well as information surrounding the logistics of its use. Of the 112 encounters, 66 (59%) contained 131 instances of humor. Humor was similarly frequent in primary care (36/61, 59%) and in specialty care (30/51, 59%), was more common in gender-concordant interactions (43/63, 68%), and was most common during counseling (81/112, 62%). Patients and clinicians introduced humor similarly (63 vs 66 instances). Typically, humor was about the patient's medical condition (40/131, 31%). Humor is used commonly during counseling to discuss the patient's medical condition and to relate to general life events bringing warmth to the medical encounter. The timing and topic of humor and its use by all parties suggests humor plays a role in the social connection between patients and physicians and allows easier discussion of difficult topics. Further research is necessary to establish its impact on clinicians, patients, and outcomes. © Copyright 2018 by the American Board of Family Medicine.

  20. Identification of technical problems encountered in the shallow land burial of low-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, D.G.; Epler, J.S.; Rose, R.R.


    A review of problems encountered in the shallow land burial of low-level radioactive wastes has been made in support of the technical aspects of the National Low-Level Waste (LLW) Management Research and Development Program being administered by the Low-Level Waste Management Program Office, Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The operating histories of burial sites at six major DOE and five commercial facilities in the US have been examined and several major problems identified. The problems experienced st the sites have been grouped into general categories dealing with site development, waste characterization, operation, and performance evaluation. Based on this grouping of the problem, a number of major technical issues have been identified which should be incorporated into program plans for further research and development. For each technical issue a discussion is presented relating the issue to a particular problem, identifying some recent or current related research, and suggesting further work necessary for resolving the issue. Major technical issues which have been identified include the need for improved water management, further understanding of the effect of chemical and physical parameters on radionuclide migration, more comprehensive waste records, improved programs for performance monitoring and evaluation, development of better predictive capabilities, evaluation of space utilization, and improved management control

  1. Identification of technical problems encountered in the shallow land burial of low-level radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobs, D.G.; Epler, J.S.; Rose, R.R.


    A review of problems encountered in the shallow land burial of low-level radioactive wastes has been made in support of the technical aspects of the National Low-Level Waste (LLW) Management Research and Development Program being administered by the Low-Level Waste Management Program Office, Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The operating histories of burial sites at six major DOE and five commercial facilities in the US have been examined and several major problems identified. The problems experienced st the sites have been grouped into general categories dealing with site development, waste characterization, operation, and performance evaluation. Based on this grouping of the problem, a number of major technical issues have been identified which should be incorporated into program plans for further research and development. For each technical issue a discussion is presented relating the issue to a particular problem, identifying some recent or current related research, and suggesting further work necessary for resolving the issue. Major technical issues which have been identified include the need for improved water management, further understanding of the effect of chemical and physical parameters on radionuclide migration, more comprehensive waste records, improved programs for performance monitoring and evaluation, development of better predictive capabilities, evaluation of space utilization, and improved management control.

  2. Common approach to common interests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    In referring to issues confronting the energy field in this region and options to be exercised in the future, I would like to mention the fundamental condition of the utmost importance. That can be summed up as follows: any subject in energy area can never be solved by one country alone, given the geographical and geopolitical characteristics intrinsically possessed by energy. So, a regional approach is needed and it is especially necessary for the main players in the region to jointly address problems common to them. Though it may be a matter to be pursued in the distant future, I am personally dreaming a 'Common Energy Market for Northeast Asia,' in which member countries' interests are adjusted so that the market can be integrated and the region can become a most economically efficient market, thus formulating an effective power to encounter the outside. It should be noted that Europe needed forty years to integrate its market as the unified common market. It is necessary for us to follow a number of steps over the period to eventually materialize our common market concept, too. Now is the time for us to take a first step to lay the foundation for our descendants to enjoy prosperity from such a common market.

  3. An analysis of the cultural problems encountered during caregiving by the nurses working in two different regions of Turkey. (United States)

    Kilic, Serap Parlar; Besen, Dilek Buyukkaya; Tokem, Yasemin; Fadiloglu, Cicek; Karadag, Gulendam


    The aim of this study was to identify the cultural problems encountered during caregiving by the nurses working in two university hospitals located in western and eastern Turkey. This descriptive, comparative study was conducted between July 2008 and October 2009 with 338 nurses who volunteered to take part in the study. The study data were collected using an individual description questionnaire consisting of 10 questions and another questionnaire consisting of 14 questions to identify the cultural problems encountered by nurses when giving care. The study showed with respect to training received on transcultural nursing that only 59 nurses had this training, but the percentage was higher in the nurses working at the hospital in the west (54.2%) (P > 0.05). It was found that a large number of nurses in the sample group (n = 286) gave care to at least one individual from another culture, but the percentage was significantly higher in the nurses working in the west (56.7%) than in the nurses working in the east (43.3%) (P cultural characteristics of patients were explored, it was found that they experienced problems mostly in 'communication', and the percentage of those having problems was higher in the nurses working in the west (60.8%) (P > 0.05). The problem experienced in this area was mostly because of the fact that patients 'did not speak Turkish' (63.8%). In conclusion, the nurses gave care to patients from different cultures, and most of them had trouble when giving care to patients from different cultures. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  4. Development and Characterization of a High Throughput Screen to investigate the delayed Effects of Radiations Commonly Encountered in Space (United States)

    Morgan, W. F.

    Astronauts based on the space station or on long-term space missions will be exposed to high Z radiations in the cosmic environment In order to evaluate the potentially deleterious effects of exposure to radiations commonly encountered in space we have developed and characterized a high throughput assay to detect mutation deletion events and or hyperrecombination in the progeny of exposed cells This assay is based on a plasmid vector containing a green fluorescence protein reporter construct We have shown that after stable transfection of the vector into human or hamster cells this construct can identify mutations specifically base changes and deletions as well as recombination events e g gene conversion or homologous recombination occurring as a result of exposure to ionizing radiation Our focus has been on those events occurring in the progeny of an irradiated cell that are potentially associated with radiation induced genomic instability rather than the more conventional assays that evaluate the direct immediate effects of radiation exposure Considerable time has been spent automating analysis of surviving colonies as a function of time after irradiation in order to determine when delayed instability is induced and the consequences of this delayed instability The assay is now automated permitting the evaluation of potentially rare events associated with low dose low dose rate radiations commonly encountered in space

  5. Ciguatera poisoning: a global issue with common management problems. (United States)

    Ting, J Y; Brown, A F


    Ciguatera poisoning, a toxinological syndrome comprising an enigmatic mixture of gastrointestinal, neurocutaneous and constitutional symptoms, is a common food-borne illness related to contaminated fish consumption. As many as 50000 cases worldwide are reported annually, and the condition is endemic in tropical and subtropical regions of the Pacific Basin, Indian Ocean and Caribbean. Isolated outbreaks occur sporadically but with increasing frequency in temperate areas such as Europe and North America. Increase in travel between temperate countries and endemic areas and importation of susceptible fish has led to its encroachment into regions of the world where ciguatera has previously been rarely encountered. In the developed world, ciguatera poses a public health threat due to delayed or missed diagnosis. Ciguatera is frequently encountered in Australia. Sporadic cases are often misdiagnosed or not medically attended to, leading to persistent or recurrent debilitating symptoms lasting months to years. Without treatment, distinctive neurologic symptoms persist, occasionally being mistaken for multiple sclerosis. Constitutional symptoms may be misdiagnosed as chronic fatigue syndrome. A common source outbreak is easier to recognize and therefore notify to public health organizations. We present a case series of four adult tourists who developed ciguatera poisoning after consuming contaminated fish in Vanuatu. All responded well to intravenous mannitol. This is in contrast to a fifth patient who developed symptoms suggestive of ciguatoxicity in the same week as the index cases but actually had staphylococcal endocarditis with bacteraemia. In addition to a lack of response to mannitol, clinical and laboratory indices of sepsis were present in this patient. Apart from ciguatera, acute gastroenteritis followed by neurological symptoms may be due to paralytic or neurotoxic shellfish poisoning, scombroid and pufferfish toxicity, botulism, enterovirus 71, toxidromes and


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, R. A. N.; Sfair, R.; Winter, O. C., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [UNESP - Univ. Estadual Paulista, Grupo de Dinâmica Orbital e Planetologia, CEP 12516-410, Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil)


    The Centaur population is composed of minor bodies wandering between the giant planets that frequently perform close gravitational encounters with these planets, leading to a chaotic orbital evolution. Recently, the discovery of two well-defined narrow rings was announced around the Centaur 10199 Chariklo. The rings are assumed to be in the equatorial plane of Chariklo and to have circular orbits. The existence of a well-defined system of rings around a body in such a perturbed orbital region poses an interesting new problem. Are the rings of Chariklo stable when perturbed by close gravitational encounters with the giant planets? Our approach to address this question consisted of forward and backward numerical simulations of 729 clones of Chariklo, with similar initial orbits, for a period of 100 Myr. We found, on average, that each clone experiences during its lifetime more than 150 close encounters with the giant planets within one Hill radius of the planet in question. We identified some extreme close encounters that were able to significantly disrupt or disturb the rings of Chariklo. About 3% of the clones lose their rings and about 4% of the clones have their rings significantly disturbed. Therefore, our results show that in most cases (more than 90%), the close encounters with the giant planets do not affect the stability of the rings in Chariklo-like systems. Thus, if there is an efficient mechanism that creates the rings, then these structures may be common among these kinds of Centaurs.

  7. Common Ground in Cross Cultural Communication: Sequential and Institutional Contexts in Front Desk Service Encounters. (United States)

    Kidwell, Mardi


    Looks at interactions between English-as-a-Second-Language students and English-speaking staff at the front desk of a language institute. Analysis focuses on the sequential organization of front desk encounters, revealing ways the participant's shared orientations to the organization and goals of these encounters facilitate native…

  8. Variation in diagnosis and management of common foot problems by GPs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorter, K; de Melker, R; Kuyvenhoven, M; de Poel, S.


    Background. There are indications that the diagnosis and management of common foot problems vary widely in general practice. Objectives. Our aim was to explore the variation of GPs' diagnosis and management of common foot problems and the possible correlation between GPs' characteristics and their

  9. [Problems encountered by hospital pharmacists with information systems: Analysis of exchanges within social networks]. (United States)

    Charpiat, B; Mille, F; Fombeur, P; Machon, J; Zawadzki, E; Bobay-Madic, A


    The development of information systems in French hospitals is mandatory. The aim of this work was to analyze the content of exchanges carried out within social networks, dealing with problems encountered with hospital pharmacies information systems. Messages exchanged via the mailing list of the Association pour le Digital et l'Information en Pharmacie and abstracts of communications presented at hospital pharmacists trade union congresses were analyzed. Those referring to information systems used in hospital pharmacies were selected. From March 2015 to June 2016, 122 e-mails sent by 80 pharmacists concerned information systems. From 2002 to 2016, 45 abstracts dealt with this topic. Problems most often addressed in these 167 documents were "parameterization and/or functionalities" (n=116), interfaces and complexity of the hospital information systems (n=52), relationship with health information technologies vendors and poor reactivity (n=32), additional workload (n=32), ergonomics (n=30), insufficient user training (n=22). These problems are interdependent, lead to errors and in order to mitigate their consequences, they compel pharmacy professionals to divert a significant amount of working hours to the detriment of pharmaceutical care and dispensing and preparing drugs. Hospital pharmacists are faced with many problems of insecurity and inefficiency generated by information systems. Researches are warranted to determine their cost, specify their deleterious effects on care and identify the safest information systems. Copyright © 2018 Académie Nationale de Pharmacie. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Appropriate Interventions on the Problems Encountered on Effective Teaching Practices in a State University External Campus in the Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilo L. Masbaño


    Full Text Available Descriptive studies on the perception of teachers regarding effective teaching practices, problems encountered and appropriate interventions have generally supported the beliefs that the problems of education did not lie only outside the school but inside the school itself. Yet such studies neglect the primary reason through which students learn, the effective teaching practices. The current study explores the link on the perception of teachers regarding effective teaching practices, problems encountered and appropriate interventions. Data were obtained using the questionnaire that were collected from 80 respondents whom faculty members of WVSU-JC. Mean and rank were used as statistical tools. A high level of agreement among teachers on the propositions regarding effective teaching was hypothesized. However, they preferred some teaching practices to the other. Teachers' perception on effective teaching practices were, showing of mastery on the subject matter, updating of knowledge about the subject matter, utilizing an appropriate strategies and methods and observing an ethical and moral principles in teaching. Generally, the top problems perceived by teachers that hinder their effective teaching includes inadequacy of laboratory facilities and equipment, insufficient library references and classrooms which are not conducive for teaching-learning process. However, it varies according to the classification as to different categories of variables. The appropriate interventions were the upgrading of laboratory facilities and equipment, the purchasing of additional books, the giving of trainings to the teachers on the recent development on the subject that they are teaching, providing more hands on activities for students, enhancing the teaching strategies and methods, and strengthening the commitment among teachers.

  11. Linked-Class Problem-Based Learning in Engineering: Method and Evaluation (United States)

    Hunt, Emily M.; Lockwood-Cooke, Pamela; Kelley, Judy


    Problem-Based Learning (PBL) is a problem-centered teaching method with exciting potential in engineering education for motivating and enhancing student learning. Implementation of PBL in engineering education has the potential to bridge the gap between theory and practice. Two common problems are encountered when attempting to integrate PBL into…

  12. What Are Common Treatments for Problems of Puberty? (United States)

    ... Print What are common treatments for problems of puberty? Precocious Puberty There are a number of reasons to treat ... hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). Delayed Puberty With delayed puberty or hypogonadism, treatment varies with ...

  13. Common Problems Encountered in the Microbiological Analysis of Biocidal Products


    Özdemir, Güven


    As many parameters that affect the success of a biocidal product, under laboratory conditions there are also factors affecting the reliability and accuracy of tests to determine the microbiological efficacy of these products. The assessment of the microbiological efficacy of the biocidal products and in order to ensure standardization between laboratories it is essential the use of internationally accepted methods.

  14. Documenting clinical performance problems among medical students: feedback for learner remediation and curriculum enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian E. Mavis


    Full Text Available Introduction: We operationalized the taxonomy developed by Hauer and colleagues describing common clinical performance problems. Faculty raters pilot tested the resulting worksheet by observing recordings of problematic simulated clinical encounters involving third-year medical students. This approach provided a framework for structured feedback to guide learner improvement and curricular enhancement. Methods: Eighty-two problematic clinical encounters from M3 students who failed their clinical competency examination were independently rated by paired clinical faculty members to identify common problems related to the medical interview, physical examination, and professionalism. Results: Eleven out of 26 target performance problems were present in 25% or more encounters. Overall, 37% had unsatisfactory medical interviews, with ‘inadequate history to rule out other diagnoses’ most prevalent (60%. Seventy percent failed because of physical examination deficiencies, with missing elements (69% and inadequate data gathering (69% most common. One-third of the students did not introduce themselves to their patients. Among students failing based on standardized patient (SP ratings, 93% also failed to demonstrate competency based on the faculty ratings. Conclusions: Our review form allowed clinical faculty to validate pass/fail decisions based on standardized patient ratings. Detailed information about performance problems contributes to learner feedback and curricular enhancement to guide remediation planning and faculty development.

  15. EAP and LLNP Students: Common Problems and Strategies (United States)

    Nguyen, Thi Minh Phuong


    As English learners originate from many cultural and language backgrounds, they come to class with different circumstances. This paper examines the backgrounds, common problems and solutions for English for Academic Purposes (EAP) students and Language, Literacy, and Numeracy Programme (LLNP) students. EAP students are from Meridian International…

  16. Projected role of nuclear power in Egypt and problems encountered in implementing the first nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effat, K.E.A.; Sirry, H.; El-Sharkawy, E.


    The increasing rise in fossil-fuel prices has favourably affected the economics of nuclear power generation bringing down the economically competitive size of nuclear units closer to small sizes compatible with grid capacities in developing countries. This encouraged Egypt to turn to nuclear power to fulfil its future power needs. In implementing its first nuclear power plant, Egypt is facing various problems. The capacity of the national electric power system and its inherent characteristics pose certain restrictions on the size and design of the nuclear plant required. The availability of sufficient local qualified management, engineering and technical personnel to participate in both precontractual and construction phases of the plant is quite a major problem. Lack of local developed industry to back up the construction phase implies the dependence to a large extent on imported equipment, materials and technology. The paper reviews the present and projected power demands in Egypt and the factors behind the decision to introduce a nuclear power generation programme. Various problems encountered and anticipated in introducing the first nuclear power plant are also discussed. (author)

  17. Detection of Common Problems in Real-Time and Multicore Systems Using Model-Based Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphaël Beamonte


    Full Text Available Multicore systems are complex in that multiple processes are running concurrently and can interfere with each other. Real-time systems add on top of that time constraints, making results invalid as soon as a deadline has been missed. Tracing is often the most reliable and accurate tool available to study and understand those systems. However, tracing requires that users understand the kernel events and their meaning. It is therefore not very accessible. Using modeling to generate source code or represent applications’ workflow is handy for developers and has emerged as part of the model-driven development methodology. In this paper, we propose a new approach to system analysis using model-based constraints, on top of userspace and kernel traces. We introduce the constraints representation and how traces can be used to follow the application’s workflow and check the constraints we set on the model. We then present a number of common problems that we encountered in real-time and multicore systems and describe how our model-based constraints could have helped to save time by automatically identifying the unwanted behavior.

  18. Common Menstrual Problems among Slum Adolescent Girls of Western Maharashtra, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganganahalli P


    Full Text Available Background: Menstruation, an important part of female reproductive cycle but menstrual dysfunction in adolescent girls may affect normal life of adolescent and young adult women.Objectives: To assess the percentage of common menstrual problems among adolescent girls from urban slums and to determine the correlation between common menstrual problems with nutritional status of these girls. Methodology: A cross sectional study was conducted among adolescent girls residing in urban slum area under the field practice area of Krishna Institute of Medical Sciences Karad of Western Maharashtra, India during the month of November - December 2011. 237 adolescent girls,age between 12-19 years were interviewed and examined using pretested semistructured questionnaire. Data was collected by researchers with the help of Medical Officer and Medical Social Worker of Urban Health Training Center by personal interview and clinical examination method. Data was compiled and presented into frequency percentage distribution. Chisquare test was applied to determine the association between common menstrual problem swith body mass index and anemia. Results: Out of total 237 adolescent girls, 230 (97.04% had attained menarche of which, 147 girls(63.91% had regular and 83(36.08% had irregular menstrual cycle with mean age at menarche by recall method was 12.8 yrs. The percentage of common menstrual problems such as oligomenorrhea, menorrhagia, metrorrhagia,hypomenorrhea, dysmenorrhea, and premenstrual syndrome were 16.08%, 17.82%, 27.39%,59.56%, 49.13% and 46.52% respectively,however amenorrhea ( primary was seen in 3(0.01% girls. Prevalence of under nutrition and anemia was 40.86% and 60.43%. Health seeking behavior for common menstrual problem was seen in only 25.75% girls. Oligomenorrhea, menorrhagia, hypomenorrhea, dysmenorrhea, and premenstrual syndrome were significantly associated with anemia; however BMI was significantly associated with dysmenorrhea

  19. An issue encountered in solving problems in electricity and magnetism: curvilinear coordinates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gülçiçek, Çağlar; Damlı, Volkan


    In physics lectures on electromagnetic theory and mathematical methods, physics teacher candidates have some difficulties with curvilinear coordinate systems. According to our experience, based on both in-class interactions and teacher candidates’ answers in test papers, they do not seem to have understood the variables in curvilinear coordinate systems very well. For this reason, the problems that physics teacher candidates have with variables in curvilinear coordinate systems have been selected as a study subject. The aim of this study is to find the physics teacher candidates’ problems with determining the variables of drawn shapes, and problems with drawing shapes based on given variables in curvilinear coordinate systems. Two different assessment tests were used in the study to achieve this aim. The curvilinear coordinates drawing test (CCDrT) was used to discover their problems related to drawing shapes, and the curvilinear coordinates detection test (CCDeT) was used to find out about problems related to determining variables. According to the findings obtained from both tests, most physics teacher candidates have problems with the ϕ variable, while they have limited problems with the r variable. Questions that are mostly answered wrongly have some common properties, such as value. According to inferential statistics, there is no significant difference between the means of the CCDeT and CCDrT scores. The mean of the CCDeT scores is only 4.63 and the mean of the CCDrT is only 4.66. Briefly, we can say that most physics teacher candidates have problems with drawing a shape using the variables of curvilinear coordinate systems or in determining the variables of drawn shapes. (paper)

  20. The most common nonconformities encountered during the assessments of medical laboratories in Hong Kong using ISO 15189 as accreditation criteria. (United States)

    Ho, Bella; Ho, Eric


    ISO 15189 was a new standard published in 2003 for accrediting medical laboratories. We believe that some requirements of the ISO 15189 standard are especially difficult to meet for majority of laboratories. The aim of this article was to present the frequency of nonconformities to requirements of the ISO 15189 accreditation standard, encountered during the assessments of medical laboratories in Hong Kong, during 2004 to 2009. Nonconformities reported in assessments based on ISO 15189 were analyzed in two periods - from 2004 to 2006 and in 2009. They are categorized according to the ISO 15189 clause numbers. The performance of 27 laboratories initially assessed between 2004 and 2006 was compared to their performance in the second reassessment in 2009. For management requirements, nonconformities were most frequently reported against quality management system, quality and technical records and document control; whereas for technical requirements, they were reported against examination procedures, equipment, and assuring quality of examination procedures. There was no major difference in types of common nonconformities reported in the two study periods. The total number of nonconformities reported in the second reassessment of 27 laboratories in 2009 was almost halved compared to their initial assessments. The number of significant nonconformities per laboratory significantly decreased (P = 0.023). Similar nonconformities were reported in the two study periods though the frequency encountered decreased. The significant decrease in number of significant nonconformities encountered in the same group of laboratories in the two periods substantiated that 15015189 contributed to quality improvement of accredited laboratories.

  1. Time-Space Trade-Offs for the Longest Common Substring Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starikovskaya, Tatiana; Vildhøj, Hjalte Wedel


    The Longest Common Substring problem is to compute the longest substring which occurs in at least d ≥ 2 of m strings of total length n. In this paper we ask the question whether this problem allows a deterministic time-space trade-off using O(n1+ε) time and O(n1-ε) space for 0 ≤ ε ≤ 1. We give a ...... a positive answer in the case of two strings (d = m = 2) and 0 can be solved in O(n1-ε) space and O(n1+ε log2n (d log2n + d2)) time for any 0 ≤ ε ...The Longest Common Substring problem is to compute the longest substring which occurs in at least d ≥ 2 of m strings of total length n. In this paper we ask the question whether this problem allows a deterministic time-space trade-off using O(n1+ε) time and O(n1-ε) space for 0 ≤ ε ≤ 1. We give...

  2. Quantifying the Effects of Gas-Rich Flyby Encounters on Galaxy Evolution (United States)

    Dumas, Julie; Holley-Bockelmann, Kelly; Lang, Meagan


    Recent work has shown that flyby encounters may be a common event in a galaxy's lifetime. Galaxy flybys are a one-time encounter when two halos interpenetrate, but unlike a galaxy merger, the two halos later detach. Relatively little work has been done to assess how flybys affect galaxy evolution. We present preliminary results of a suite of high-resolution hydrodynamical + N-body simulations of gas-rich flyby encounters, concentrating on Milky Way-like primaries. We track the bulk changes in structure, star formation history, kinematics, and morphology over a broad span of flyby encounters.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Dalem


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to explore the speaking difficulties encountered by English language students at Al Margeb University, and to discover the causes of such difficulties. Speaking English has been a vital importance in international communication. Speaking fluent English is a common problem among the nonnative speakers. The second language learners have gone through a variety of cases to learn how to speak not only correct grammar and using the right vocabulary but with correct accent and pronunciation. Many obstacles, therefore, have been known as the predictors of such a problem among the language learners.  According to the review of literature, appropriate speaking instruction was found to be the learners' priority and a field in which they need more attention. In this paper the writer highlight the speaking difficulties encountered by English language students at Al Margeb University, which are considered to be the most urgent for every teacher, such as fear of mistakes, shyness, anxiety, lack of confidence and lack of motivation. This paper can be useful to teachers to consider their language learners' speaking needs in English language teaching and learning context.

  4. Common Occupational Health Problems In Disease Control In Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article reviews some common occupational health problems among health workers due to exposure to hazardous or pathogenic biological, chemical and physical agents in the line of duty. Highlighted biological agents are pathogenic viruses, bacteria etc; chemical agents are laboratory reagents, mercury and ...

  5. An Integer Programming Formulation of the Minimum Common String Partition Problem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S M Ferdous

    Full Text Available We consider the problem of finding a minimum common string partition (MCSP of two strings, which is an NP-hard problem. The MCSP problem is closely related to genome comparison and rearrangement, an important field in Computational Biology. In this paper, we map the MCSP problem into a graph applying a prior technique and using this graph, we develop an Integer Linear Programming (ILP formulation for the problem. We implement the ILP formulation and compare the results with the state-of-the-art algorithms from the literature. The experimental results are found to be promising.

  6. ENEL's experience in the management of irradiated fuel. Old and new problems encountered by nuclear station operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ariemma, A.; Cuzzaniti, M.; Zaffiro, B.; Bertini, A.


    The experience acquired in recent years in the management of spent fuel discharged from ENEL's reactors has revealed a substantial change in the attitude of nuclear station operators in connection with the end of the fuel cycle downstream from the reactor (back-end). While in the past, after President Carter's outline of US policy in April 1977, the utilities had to face great difficulty in reprocessing their fuel owing to inadequate capacity, today the same problem is regarded as a matter of cost-benefit analysis from an industrial standpoint and of appropriate planning for the utilization of the recovered fissile materials. Since the present technology allows spent fuel storage (dry or underwater) to be planned for rather long periods and plutonium utilization requires a very stringent schedule, the present trend is to ensure medium-term storage of spent fuel and to seek a greater flexibility in the final reprocessing stages so as to render plutonium availability consistent with the programmes for its utilization. As a consequence, the solution to the problems posed by high-activity waste disposal is being delayed, thus allowing an exhaustive and detailed analysis of all the possible solutions to be made. The paper describes a number of solutions to the problems ENEL has encountered in the fuel cycle back-end. (author)

  7. Problems encountered in searching for new strains of toxic planktonic cyanobacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorham, P.R.; McNicholas, S.; Allen, E.A.D. (Alberta Univ., Edmonton (Canada))


    In 1979 and 1980, four blooms from Lac La Nonne (80 km NW of Edmonton, Alberta) dominated 67 to 95 percent by Aphanizomenon flos-aquae L., were found to be type-c-toxic to mice and agglutinated red blood cells. A search for type-c-toxic strains of Aphanizomenon in this lake was undertaken in 1980 and 1981 by making 128 colony isolates and testing the unialgal cultures obtained from five blooms which varied in composition from 10 to 95 precent Aphanizomenon. The following problems were encountered in this search and in attempts to obtain axenic clones of different species: 1)a high precentage of isolation failures caused by the gradual but complete take-over of most of the Aphanizomenon cultures by a purple-brown species of Pseudanabaena, 2)stasis or lysis caused by pH and/or composition of the medium or the agar, 3)stasis or lysis caused by bacteria in liquid microculture, on agar streaks or in agar pour-plates, 4) autolysis triggered by tensile stress during transfer of trichomes with loop or needle, 5)inability of graded dosages of gamma rays of sodium sulphide selectively to eliminate or reduce numbers of bacteria to a satisfactory level for plating, 6)autolysis and growth inhibition caused by gentle washing to reduce numbers of bacteria for plating, and 7)discovery that haemagglutination is not perfectly correlated with type-c-toxicity. The search produced no type-c toxic strains of Aphanizomenon but two heterogeneous take-over cultures of Pseudanabaena sp. were found that produced violent convulsions when injected intraperitoneally into mice.

  8. Problems encountered in searching for new strains of toxic planktonic syanobacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorham, P.R.; McNicholas, S.; Allen, E.A.D.


    In 1979 and 1980, four blooms from Lac La Nonne (80 km NW of Edmonton, Alberta) dominated 67 to 95 percent by Aphanizomenon flos-aquae L., were found to be type-c-toxic to mice and agglutinated red blood cells. A search for type-c-toxic strains of Aphanizomenon in this lake was undertaken in 1980 and 1981 by making 128 colony isolates and testing the unialgal cultures obtained from five blooms which varied in composition from 10 to 95 precent Aphanizomenon. The following problems were encountered in this search and in attempts to obtain axenic clones of different species: 1)a high precentage of isolation failures caused by the gradual but complete take-over of most of the Aphanizomenon cultures by a purple-brown species of Pseudanabaena, 2)stasis or lysis caused by pH and/or composition of the medium or the agar, 3)stasis or lysis caused by bacteria in liquid microculture, on agar streaks or in agar pour-plates, 4) autolysis triggered by tensile stress during transfer of trichomes with loop or needle, 5)inability of graded dosages of gamma rays of sodium sulphide selectively to eliminate or reduce numbers of bacteria to a satisfactory level for plating, 6)autolysis and growth inhibition caused by gentle washing to reduce numbers of bacteria for plating, and 7)discovery that haemagglutination is not perfectly correlated with type-c-toxicity. The search produced no type-c toxic strains of Aphanizomenon but two heterogeneous take-over cultures of Pseudanabaena sp. were found that produced violent convulsions when injected intraperitoneally into mice

  9. Commonalities in the psychological factors associated with problem gambling and Internet dependence. (United States)

    Dowling, N A; Brown, M


    The most commonly applied conceptual approach for excessive Internet use has been as a behavioral addiction, similar to pathological or problem gambling. In order to contribute to the understanding of Internet dependence as a disorder resembling problem gambling, the current study aimed to examine the relationship between problem gambling and Internet dependence and the degree to which psychological factors associated with problem gambling are relevant to the study of Internet dependence. The factors of depression, anxiety, student stressors, loneliness, and social support were examined in a sample of university students from several Australian universities. The findings revealed that there is no overlap between the populations reporting problem gambling and Internet dependence, but that individuals with these disorders report similar psychological profiles. Although requiring replication with larger community samples and longitudinal designs, these preliminary findings suggest that problem gambling and Internet dependence may be separate disorders with common underlying etiologies or consequences. The implications of the findings in relation to the conceptualization and management of these disorders are briefly discussed.

  10. Cultural geography. Different encounters, encountering difference


    Longhurst, Robyn


    In the first half of this paper it is argued that cultural geography is a dynamic and diverse field that extends well beyond a single branch of human geography. The boundaries between it and other sub-disciplines are often blurred. People have «different» encounters with cultural geography depending on their sub-disciplinary convergences. People also have different encounters with cultural geography depending on where they live and work. «Place matters» in the construction, production and rep...

  11. Malting and Brewing Industries Encounter Fusarium spp. Related Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Mastanjević


    Full Text Available Versatile microbiota are inevitably naturally present on cereals. Fungi, yeasts and bacteria and their metabolites all contribute to the quality and safety of the final products derived from most common beer cereals—barley and wheat. The microorganisms that are most often associated with the safety and quality of cereals for beer production belong to the Fusarium spp. They greatly influence yields from the field, and can modify and diminish economic success for farmers. However, the real problem is their harmful metabolites—mycotoxins—that affect the health of humans and animals. In the era of emerging analytical methodologies, the spectrum of known toxins originating from microorganisms that can pose a threat to humans has grown tremendously. Therefore, it is necessary to monitor microflora throughout the productive “barley to beer” chain and to act suppressive on the proliferation of unwanted microorganisms, before and during malting, preventing the occurrence of mycotoxins in final products and by-products. Multi-mycotoxin analyses are very advanced and useful tools for the assessment of product safety, and legislation should follow up and make some important changes to regulate as yet unregulated, but highly occurring, microbial toxins in malt and beer.

  12. Mobile encounters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koefoed, Lasse Martin; Christensen, Mathilde Dissing; Simonsen, Kirsten


    The paper explores modes of encounters in the everyday practice of bus travel. Particularly, it addresses cross-cultural encounters located in the tension between familiarity and difference, between inclusion and exclusion. The paper is located in contemporary thoughts, approaching public transport...... not only as a moving device but also as a social arena. Furthermore, the bus is simultaneously perceived as a public space, at once composite, contradictory and heterogeneous, and as a meeting place involving ‘Throwntogetherness’. The encounters analysed are bodily, emotional charged and outspoken meetings...

  13. Single-machine common/slack due window assignment problems with linear decreasing processing times (United States)

    Zhang, Xingong; Lin, Win-Chin; Wu, Wen-Hsiang; Wu, Chin-Chia


    This paper studies linear non-increasing processing times and the common/slack due window assignment problems on a single machine, where the actual processing time of a job is a linear non-increasing function of its starting time. The aim is to minimize the sum of the earliness cost, tardiness cost, due window location and due window size. Some optimality results are discussed for the common/slack due window assignment problems and two O(n log n) time algorithms are presented to solve the two problems. Finally, two examples are provided to illustrate the correctness of the corresponding algorithms.

  14. The prevalence of two 'commonly' encountered synthetic target fibres within a large urban environment. (United States)

    Palmer, R; Burnett, E; Luff, N; Wagner, C; Stinga, G; Carney, C; Sheridan, K


    A target fibre study was carried out to assess the random prevalence of two ostensibly commonly encountered synthetic fibre types; black acrylic and blue polyester. The study was performed in an environment which maximised the number of random contacts between textile garments in the population and specific surfaces, namely; seating relating to buses, public houses and cinemas found within a large urban conurbation. Surface debris tapings were collected from samples of bus seats (30), pub seats (54) and cinema seats (53). Using low power stereomicroscopy, a total of 114 and 68 fibres, superficially similar to the respective black acrylic and blue polyester target fibres, were recovered from these tapings. The full range of comparative microscopical and instrumental analysis used in operational forensic laboratories was performed on the recovered fibres. No matches were found with either of the target fibres. These findings are in accordance with similar studies which show that the probability of an 'adventitious' match with a particular fibre type/colour combination is extremely low. In addition, the findings demonstrate that the current techniques and instrumentation employed by operational forensic laboratories are fit for purpose. Importantly, the findings demonstrate that databases and surveys (e.g. fibre population studies) which do not consider the analytical/comparison processes, must not be used in isolation when evaluating fibre evidence at source level. Copyright © 2015 Forensic Science Society. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Common pitfalls to avoid during workover operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byars, R.R.


    Remedial well work has been, and will continue to be, an integral part of oil company operations. More than 16,000 workover operations were performed during 1993 in the US. The economic impact from workover operations is usually immediate due to flowlines, tank batteries and other equipment being in place and ready for service prior to the workover. Similarly, problems encountered during workover operations contribute an immediate negative impact to project economics. Guidelines for common mistake avoidance are presented. They will be especially helpful for those individuals not well trained in workover preparation and supervision

  16. Connection between encounter volume and diffusivity in geophysical flows (United States)

    Rypina, Irina I.; Smith, Stefan G. Llewellyn; Pratt, Larry J.


    Trajectory encounter volume - the volume of fluid that passes close to a reference fluid parcel over some time interval - has been recently introduced as a measure of mixing potential of a flow. Diffusivity is the most commonly used characteristic of turbulent diffusion. We derive the analytical relationship between the encounter volume and diffusivity under the assumption of an isotropic random walk, i.e., diffusive motion, in one and two dimensions. We apply the derived formulas to produce maps of encounter volume and the corresponding diffusivity in the Gulf Stream region of the North Atlantic based on satellite altimetry, and discuss the mixing properties of Gulf Stream rings. Advantages offered by the derived formula for estimating diffusivity from oceanographic data are discussed, as well as applications to other disciplines.

  17. The male reproductive system - An overview of common problems. (United States)

    Wijesinha, Sanjiva; Piterman, Leon; Kirby, Catherine N


    Many male reproductive system problems could be perceived as being embarrassing, which may be one of the reasons that they are often not identified in general practice. This article provides an overview of some common problems affecting the male reproductive system, and outlines current treatment options. Erectile dysfunction, premature ejaculation, loss of libido, testicular cancer and prostate disease may cause embarrassment to the patient and, occasionally, the general practitioner. We describe how patients affected by these conditions may present to general practice, and discuss the reasons why they may not present. We also discuss how GPs can overcome difficulties in identifying and dealing with their male patients suffering from male reproductive system issues.

  18. Emotions in relation to healthcare encounters affecting self-esteem. (United States)

    Räty, Lena; Gustafsson, Barbro


    This study identifies emotions in patients with epilepsy as a result of confirming and disconfirming healthcare experiences. A discussion of emotions as a motive for patients' goal-directed actions was a further aim of this study. The critical incident method was used for data collection. Emotions occurring in confirming and disconfirming healthcare encounters were analyzed using the Belief-Desire Theory of Emotions and were categorized as basic, complex, or self-evaluating. Confirming encounters aroused emotions like hope, a feeling of security, joy, relief, and pride, while disconfirming encounters aroused emotions like despair, fear, unrest, resignation, shame, and guilt. The emotions identified in the healthcare encounters were recognized as motives for action. An emotion such as a feeling of security aroused a desire in the patients to strengthen their positive self and motivated them to have a constructive and sympathetic attitude toward the healthcare experience. An emotion such as anger caused patients to strive to maintain their self-respect either by avoiding difficult situations and ignoring the problem (patients with a low self-esteem) or by trying to re-create a positive self-image (patients with a high self-esteem). Healthcare encounters between patient and caregiver considerably affect the patient's emotional status and thereby his or her well-being. The importance of establishing healthcare encounters that evoke positive emotions that strengthen patients' resources must be addressed in future nursing care.

  19. An algorithm for finding a common solution for a system of mixed equilibrium problem, quasi-variational inclusion problem and fixed point problem of nonexpansive semigroup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Min


    Full Text Available In this paper, we introduce a hybrid iterative scheme for finding a common element of the set of solutions for a system of mixed equilibrium problems, the set of common fixed points for a nonexpansive semigroup and the set of solutions of the quasi-variational inclusion problem with multi-valued maximal monotone mappings and inverse-strongly monotone mappings in a Hilbert space. Under suitable conditions, some strong convergence theorems are proved. Our results extend some recent results in the literature.

  20. Thinking about the service encounter enhances encounter-related word-of-mouth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mattsson, Jan; Söderlund, Magnus

    ) the memorability of the service encounter and (b) the extent to which what had happened had been subject to rehearsal with the purpose of telling others about it. These findings should be seen in relation to the literature’s view that customer satisfaction, not thinking, is a dominant predictor of word-of-mouth......This study examines the impact of thinking about a service encounter, after it has been completed, on telling others about it (i.e., word-of-mouth). The main finding was that encounter-related thinking boosted word-of-mouth. We also found that the think-talk association was mediated by (a....... Our results, however, indicate that satisfaction’s contribution to the variation in talking about the encounter was modest (and customer satisfaction played only a minor role in explaining why an encounter is thought about)....

  1. Primary care for women. Management of common respiratory problems. (United States)

    Mays, M; Leiner, S


    This article reviews the clinical management of common respiratory illness that primary care providers encounter in an outpatient setting. The latest recommendations from the American Thoracic Society, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention are summarized. The article discusses the causative organisms and antibiotics of choice for community-acquired pneumonia, and how to determine which patients require hospitalization. The appropriate use of asthma medications is described in detail, along with strategies for reducing aeroallergen exposure and for educating patients. An extensive section covers the interpretation of tuberculin skin tests and use of prophylactic isoniazid for prevention therapy of latent tuberculous infection, as well as the treatment of active tuberculosis. Controversies regarding antibiotics for both acute and chronic bronchitis are discussed along with other treatment options including over-the-counter medications, bronchodilators, and non-pharmacologic interventions. Finally, a strategy for dealing with the complaint of chronic cough is outlined. Although many of these conditions require active comanagement by collaborating physicians, the nurse-midwife will be better able to communicate with an advocate for her clients if she possesses expanded and current knowledge of treatment strategies.

  2. Administrative encounters in general practice: low value or hidden value care? (United States)

    Trevena, Lyndal J; Harrison, Christopher; Britt, Helena C


    To determine the frequency of general practice administrative encounters, and to determine whether they represent low value care. Secondary analysis of data from the Bettering Evaluation and Care of Health (BEACH) dataset. 1 568 100 GP-patient encounters in Australia, 2000-01 to 2015-16. An annual nationally representative random sample of about 1000 GPs, who each recorded the details of 100 consecutive encounters with patients. Proportions of general practice encounters that were potentially low value care encounters (among the patient's reasons for the encounter was at least one administrative, medication, or referral request) and potentially low value care only encounters (such reasons were the sole reason for the encounter). For 2015-16, we also examined other health care provided by GPs at these encounters. During 2015-16, 18.5% (95% CI, 17.7-19.3%) of 97 398 GP-patient encounters were potentially low value care request encounters; 7.4% (95% CI, 7.0-7.9%) were potentially low value care only encounters. Administrative work was requested at 3.8% (95% CI, 3.5-4.0%) of GP visits, 35.4% of which were for care planning and coordination, 33.5% for certification, and 31.2% for other reasons. Medication requests were made at 13.1% (95% CI, 12.4-13.7%) of encounters; other health care was provided at 57.9% of medication request encounters, counselling, advice or education at 23.4%, and pathology testing was ordered at 16.7%. Referrals were requested at 2.8% (95% CI, 1.7-3.0%) of visits, at 69.4% of which additional health care was provided. The problems managed most frequently at potentially low value care only encounters were chronic diseases. Most patients requested certificates, medications and referrals in the context of seeking help for other health needs. Additional health care, particularly for chronic diseases, was provided at most GP administrative encounters. The MBS Review should consider the hidden value of these encounters.

  3. Business Problems Encountered when Developing an Own ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the macroeconomic environment of the poorest areas in Namibia, the Caprivi and Kavango regions, and to empirically investigate the problems experienced in developing an own business, specifically in the two largest towns Katima Mulilo and Rundu. First, a macroeconomic ...

  4. Important role of the nucleotide excision repair pathway in Mycobacterium smegmatis in conferring protection against commonly encountered DNA-damaging agents. (United States)

    Kurthkoti, Krishna; Kumar, Pradeep; Jain, Ruchi; Varshney, Umesh


    Mycobacteria are an important group of human pathogens. Although the DNA repair mechanisms in mycobacteria are not well understood, these are vital for the pathogen's persistence in the host macrophages. In this study, we generated a null mutation in the uvrB gene of Mycobacterium smegmatis to allow us to compare the significance of the nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway with two important base excision repair pathways, initiated by uracil DNA glycosylase (Ung) and formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase (Fpg or MutM), in an isogenic strain background. The strain deficient in NER was the most sensitive to commonly encountered DNA-damaging agents such as UV, low pH, reactive oxygen species, hypoxia, and was also sensitive to acidified nitrite. Taken together with previous observations on NER-deficient M. tuberculosis, these results suggest that NER is an important DNA repair pathway in mycobacteria.

  5. Low back pain as a common hypokinetic problem | Masipa | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Low back pain as a common hypokinetic problem. MDS Masipa. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians ...

  6. Personality and problem-solving in common mynas (Acridotheres tristis). (United States)

    Lermite, Françoise; Peneaux, Chloé; Griffin, Andrea S


    Animals show consistent individual differences in behaviour across time and/or contexts. Recently, it has been suggested that proactive personality types might also exhibit fast cognitive styles. The speed with which individuals sample environmental cues is one way in which correlations between personality and cognition might arise. Here, we measured a collection of behavioural traits (competitiveness, neophobia, neophilia, task-directed motivation and exploration) in common mynas (Acridotheres tristis) and measured their relationship with problem solving. We predicted that fast solving mynas would interact with (i.e. sample) the problem solving task at higher rates, but also be more competitive, less neophobic, more neophilic, and more exploratory. Mynas that were faster to solve a novel foraging problem were no more competitive around food and no more inclined to take risks. Unexpectedly, these fast-solving mynas had higher rates of interactions with the task, but also displayed lower levels of exploration. It is possible that a negative relation between problem solving and spatial exploration arose as a consequence of how inter-individual variation in exploration was quantified. We discuss the need for greater consensus on how to measure exploratory behaviour before we can advance our understanding of relationships between cognition and personality more effectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Encountering Materiality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svabo, Connie


    DHT researcher Connie Svabo and artist Charlotte Grum did a joint performance presentation titled Becoming Sheep, Becoming Animal at the international conference Encountering Materiality – Transdisciplinary Conversations, held in Geneve, Schwitzerland, June 23-25 2016.......DHT researcher Connie Svabo and artist Charlotte Grum did a joint performance presentation titled Becoming Sheep, Becoming Animal at the international conference Encountering Materiality – Transdisciplinary Conversations, held in Geneve, Schwitzerland, June 23-25 2016....

  8. Drug-related police encounters across the globe: How do they compare? (United States)

    Hughes, Caitlin E; Barratt, Monica J; Ferris, Jason A; Maier, Larissa J; Winstock, Adam R


    Drug law enforcement subsumes the majority of drug policy expenditure across the globe. Fuelled by knowledge that much of this investment is ineffective or counter-productive there have been increasing calls for cross-national comparisons to identify where policing approaches differ and what types of approaches may be more effective. Yet, to date cross-national comparison of drug law enforcement has proven a methodologically hazardous affair. Using a new drug policing module added to the 2017 Global Drug Survey, this study seeks to provide the first cross-national comparison of the incidence, nature and intensity of illicit drug-related police encounters amongst people who use drugs. The Global Drug Survey was administered in late 2016. Across 26 countries including Australia, Germany, Italy, Mexico, Switzerland, the UK and the USA a total of 45,942 people who had recently used drugs completed the drug policing module. Key variables assessed included the incidence and frequency of drug-related police encounters in the last 12 months that involved: a) being stopped and searched; b) encountering a drug detection dog; c) being given a caution or warning; d) being charged and arrested; and e) paying a bribe. Multi-level models were used to control for pre-existing national differences in drug use prevalence and non-drug specific policing (including the total number of police personnel in each country). Drug-related police encounters were most commonly reported in Italy and Scotland. Conversely, police encounters were most likely to lead to arrest in Norway, Finland and Sweden. The type and locations of encounters further differed across countries, with for example stop and search most reported in Greece and Colombia, and encounters with drug detection dogs most reported in Scotland, Italy, UK and Australia. Multi-level models showed that the incidence of reported policing encounters continued to differ significantly across countries after controlling for pre

  9. Tourism and its discontents : Suri-tourist encounters in southern Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbink, J.


    Encounters between foreign tourists and people of different cultural background become very common in a globalized world. The nature of this exchange in cultural terms relates questions of identity construction and the emergence or creation of difference. This article addresses tourist-'native'

  10. Unethical Behaviours Preservice Teachers Encounter on Social Networks (United States)

    Deveci Topal, Arzu; Kolburan Gecer, Aynur


    The development of web 2.0 technology has resulted in an increase in internet sharing. The scope of this study is social networking, which is one of the web 2.0 tools most heavily used by internet users. In this paper, the unethical behaviours that preservice teachers encounter on social networks and the ways to deal with these problems are…

  11. Engineering challenges encountered in the design of the ELMO BUMPY TORUS proof-of-principle fusion device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dillow, C.F.; Imster, H.F.


    This paper first provides a summary of the history and current status of the Elmo Bumpy Torus (EBT) fusion concept. A brief description of the EBT-P is then provided in which the many unique features of this fusion device are highlighted. This description will provide the technical background for the following discussions of some of the more challenging mechanical engineering problems encountered to date in the evolution of the EBT-P design. The problems discussed are: optimization of the device primary structure design, optimization of the superconducting magnet x-ray shield design, design of the liquid helium supply and distribution system, and selection of high vacuum seals and pumps and their protection from the high power microwave environment. The common challenge in each of these design issues was to assure adequate performance at minimum cost

  12. Ulysses at jupiter: an overview of the encounter. (United States)

    Smith, E J; Wenzel, K P; Page, D E


    In February 1992, the Ulysses spacecraft flew through the giant magnetosphere of Jupiter. The primary objective of the encounter was to use the gravity field of Jupiter to redirect the spacecraft to the sun's polar regions, which will now be traversed in 1994 and 1995. However, the Ulysses scientific investigations were well suited to observations of the Jovian magnetosphere, and the encounter has resulted in a major contribution to our understanding of this complex and dynamic plasma environment. Among the more exciting results are (i) possible entry into the polar cap, (ii) the identification of magnetospheric ions originating from Jupiter's ionosphere, lo, and the solar wind, (iii) observation of longitudinal asymmetries in density and discrete wave-emitting regions of the lo plasma torus, (iv) the presence of counter-streaming ions and electrons, field-aligned currents, and energetic electron and radio bursts in the dusk sector on high-latitude magnetic field lines, and (v) the identification of the direction of the magnetic field in the dusk sector, which is indicative of tailward convection. This overview serves as an introduction to the accompanying reports that present the preliminary scientific findings. Aspects of the encounter that are common to all of the investigations, such as spacecraft capabilities, the flight path past Jupiter, and unique aspects of the encounter, are presented herein.

  13. Universalist ethics in extraterrestrial encounter (United States)

    Baum, Seth D.


    If humanity encounters an extraterrestrial civilization, or if two extraterrestrial civilizations encounter each other, then the outcome may depend not only on the civilizations' relative strength to destroy each other but also on what ethics are held by one or both civilizations. This paper explores outcomes of encounter scenarios in which one or both civilizations hold a universalist ethical framework. Several outcomes are possible in such scenarios, ranging from one civilization destroying the other to both civilizations racing to be the first to commit suicide. Thus, attention to the ethics of both humanity and extraterrestrials is warranted in human planning for such an encounter. Additionally, the possibility of such an encounter raises profound questions for contemporary human ethics, even if such an encounter never occurs.

  14. Vertigo in neurological practice (common problems of diagnosis and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Vladimirovna Kosivtsova


    Full Text Available Most patients with vertigo seek neurological advice. In spite of the availability of current examination techniques, a differential diagnosis of vertigo is not frequently made. The paper discusses the terminology and classification of vertigo and clinical methods for diagnosing central and peripheral vestibulopathies. It considers the common problems of management of patients with diseases of the central and peripheral vestibular systems, the use of piracetam and other drugs to stimulate rehabilitation.

  15. Business problems encountered when developing an own business ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    business problems, owners versus managers, age of business, training ... 24), and its market size is ranked at 120 out of 144 countries on a global competitive ... however, in developing countries in Africa and elsewhere, SMEs face a myriad of.

  16. Travel Medicine Encounters of Australian General Practice Trainees-A Cross-Sectional Study. (United States)

    Morgan, Simon; Henderson, Kim M; Tapley, Amanda; Scott, John; van Driel, Mieke L; Spike, Neil A; McArthur, Lawrie A; Davey, Andrew R; Catzikiris, Nigel F; Magin, Parker J


    Travel medicine is a common and challenging area of clinical practice and practitioners need up-to-date knowledge and experience in a range of areas. Australian general practitioners (GPs) play a significant role in the delivery of travel medicine advice. We aimed to describe the rate and nature of travel medicine consultations, including both the clinical and educational aspects of the consultations. A cross-sectional analysis from an ongoing cohort study of GP trainees' clinical consultations was performed. Trainees contemporaneously recorded demographic, clinical, and educational details of consecutive patient consultations. Proportions of all problems/diagnoses managed in these consultations that were coded "travel-related" and "travel advice" were both calculated with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Associations of a problem/diagnosis being "travel-related" or "travel advice" were tested using simple logistic regression within the generalized estimating equations (GEE) framework. A total of 856 trainees contributed data on 169,307 problems from 108,759 consultations (2010-2014). Travel-related and travel advice problems were managed at a rate of 1.1 and 0.5 problems per 100 encounters, respectively. Significant positive associations of travel-related problems were younger trainee and patient age; new patient to the trainee and practice; privately billing, larger, urban, and higher socioeconomic status practices; and involvement of the practice nurse. Trainees sought in-consultation information and generated learning goals in 34.7 and 20.8% of travel advice problems, respectively, significantly more than in non-travel advice problems. Significant positive associations of travel advice problems were seeking in-consultation information, generation of learning goals, longer consultation duration, and more problems managed. Our findings reinforce the importance of focused training in travel medicine for GP trainees and adequate exposure to patients in the practice

  17. Problems Relating to Examinations in Three-Year Technical/Natural Science Courses of Study at the Federal Armed Forces University, Munich. (United States)

    Ulbricht, Kurt; Zimmermann, Peter


    Problems encountered in testing in aerospace engineering courses in an accelerated technical program of a German military university are outlined. Four common grading procedures are compared, and the optimum length of written tests is discussed. (MSE)

  18. Common Ground in Cross-Cultural Communication: Sequential and Institutional Contexts in Front Desk Service Encounters


    Kidwell, Mardi


    How do native and nonnative English-speaking participants understand one another in front desk service encounters? Specifically, what are the resources that enable them to transact their business at the desk? In this paper, I use the notion of "shared background" to show how participants at the front desk of a university-sponsored English language program rely on the sequential and institutional contexts in which their talk is produced to accomplish their service activities. In particular, I ...

  19. Response problems in a vacation panel study (United States)

    Christine A. Vogt; Susan I. Stewart


    This paper investigates response problems encountered in a panel study of travel behavior. Though the overall response rate to the three-wave panel study was acceptable (over 60%), three types of response problems were encountered: refusal, non-response, and attrition. In a follow-up phone survey, a sample of individuals from each problem response group was questioned...

  20. The Phonological Problems Encountered by Igbo Students in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chinese language is said to be the hardest language in the world. This may be because of the difference in the phonology of Chinese language and other alphabetic languages. Chinese language is a logographic and tonal language which makes it hard to speak and write. This paper examines the phonological problems ...

  1. Design of an operations manager selection system in service encounter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanawin Nunthaphanich


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to provide criteria for selecting operations managers at the ‘service encounter’ for mobile telecommunication companies, and develop a system for this multi-criteria decision-making scheme based on the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP. There are three main criteria for evaluating the capability of service-encounter operation managers: (1 the ability to design service process; (2 the ability to operate service process; (3 the ability to conduct improvement. The AHP operation manager selection tool was developed based on the complex problems at the service encounter. It was created as a decision support system which was used to recruit and evaluate operations managers’ capability for the purpose of career advancement.

  2. Understanding metropolitan patterns of daily encounters. (United States)

    Sun, Lijun; Axhausen, Kay W; Lee, Der-Horng; Huang, Xianfeng


    Understanding of the mechanisms driving our daily face-to-face encounters is still limited; the field lacks large-scale datasets describing both individual behaviors and their collective interactions. However, here, with the help of travel smart card data, we uncover such encounter mechanisms and structures by constructing a time-resolved in-vehicle social encounter network on public buses in a city (about 5 million residents). Using a population scale dataset, we find physical encounters display reproducible temporal patterns, indicating that repeated encounters are regular and identical. On an individual scale, we find that collective regularities dominate distinct encounters' bounded nature. An individual's encounter capability is rooted in his/her daily behavioral regularity, explaining the emergence of "familiar strangers" in daily life. Strikingly, we find individuals with repeated encounters are not grouped into small communities, but become strongly connected over time, resulting in a large, but imperceptible, small-world contact network or "structure of co-presence" across the whole metropolitan area. Revealing the encounter pattern and identifying this large-scale contact network are crucial to understanding the dynamics in patterns of social acquaintances, collective human behaviors, and--particularly--disclosing the impact of human behavior on various diffusion/spreading processes.

  3. Innovative generativity of digital service encounters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henten, Anders; Sørensen, Jannick Kirk


    The research question examined in this chapter is how service encounters, based on digital interfaces, differ from face-to-face (f2f) encounters in terms of potential innovative generativity. New computer technologies facilitating big data processing and the development of advanced recommender...... systems and the recent developments of artificial intelligence with respect to cognitive and affective computing will certainly enhance the potential for innovations to be created on the basis of digital service encounters. However, the empathetic understanding of the needs and wants of the service users...... that can be part of the f2f service encounters cannot automatically result from digital service encounters. Digital tools can be developed and used to supplement the impressions that f2f encounters initiate. However, human interpretations and even human f2f encounters will also be needed to maintain...

  4. The Retrieval of Information in an Elementary School Library Media Center: An Alternative Method of Classification in the Common School Library, Amherst, Massachusetts. (United States)

    Cooper, Linda


    Discusses the problems encountered by elementary school children in retrieving information from a library catalog, either the traditional card catalog or an OPAC (online public access catalog). An alternative system of classification using colors and symbols is described that was developed in the Common School (Amherst, Massachusetts). (Author/LRW)

  5. Making Worlds: the commons and the practice of the encounter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Draper


    Full Text Available The texts explains the work dynamics of Making Worlds, a collective devoted to develop the practice of the commons in New York. Besides giving an idea of the context of emergence of the group within the first year of Occupy Wall Street, it analyzes its form of organization and the activities it carries out.

  6. Common tasks and problems in paediatric trauma radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paertan, Gerald; Pamberger, Petra; Blab, Edmund; Hruby, Walter


    Scope of this article is to give practical hints for the most common, typical and important topics of trauma radiology in children to those radiologists who are not exclusively occupied with paediatric imaging. Due to the increased radiation sensitivity of children compared with adults balancing radiation protection and necessary image quality is of utmost importance. Outlines for this optimisation process are given. Especially in imaging of the extremities perhaps the greatest difficulties are posed by the dynamically changing face of the immature, growing, only partially ossified skeleton. Lack of experience must be compensated by meticulous comparison with the normal skeletal development as shown in standard textbooks, and by knowledge of the radiological image of the developmental variants. Besides general remarks about paediatric trauma radiology, some important topics are discussed into more detail. Especially the elbow joint poses a challenge for those less experienced with its radiological appearance in children. More than in adults, ultrasound should remain the primary imaging modality of choice especially in the assessment of abdominal trauma, and CT be tailored to radiological and clinical findings. Imaging and diagnosis of non-accidental injury (NAI) may be a less common task for the general radiologist, however, the severe social implications of physical child abuse mandate a basic knowledge about the radiological symptoms and the imaging management of this problem for all physicians occupied with paediatric radiology

  7. Common tasks and problems in paediatric trauma radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paertan, Gerald E-mail:; Pamberger, Petra; Blab, Edmund; Hruby, Walter


    Scope of this article is to give practical hints for the most common, typical and important topics of trauma radiology in children to those radiologists who are not exclusively occupied with paediatric imaging. Due to the increased radiation sensitivity of children compared with adults balancing radiation protection and necessary image quality is of utmost importance. Outlines for this optimisation process are given. Especially in imaging of the extremities perhaps the greatest difficulties are posed by the dynamically changing face of the immature, growing, only partially ossified skeleton. Lack of experience must be compensated by meticulous comparison with the normal skeletal development as shown in standard textbooks, and by knowledge of the radiological image of the developmental variants. Besides general remarks about paediatric trauma radiology, some important topics are discussed into more detail. Especially the elbow joint poses a challenge for those less experienced with its radiological appearance in children. More than in adults, ultrasound should remain the primary imaging modality of choice especially in the assessment of abdominal trauma, and CT be tailored to radiological and clinical findings. Imaging and diagnosis of non-accidental injury (NAI) may be a less common task for the general radiologist, however, the severe social implications of physical child abuse mandate a basic knowledge about the radiological symptoms and the imaging management of this problem for all physicians occupied with paediatric radiology.

  8. Encounters with immigrant customers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mygind, Anna; Espersen, Sacha; Nørgaard, Lotte Stig


    were not sufficiently assessed at the counter (n = 55, 65%), and that their latest encounter with an immigrant customer was less satisfactory than a similar encounter with an ethnic Danish customer (n = 48, 57%) (significantly more pharmacists than assistants: odds ratio, OR, 3.19; 95% confidence...

  9. Health physics problems encountered in the Saclay linear accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delsaut, R.


    The safety and health physics problems specific to the Saclay linear accelerator are presented: activation (of gases, dust, water, structural materials, targets); individual dosimetry; the safety engineering [fr

  10. Erectile dysfunction is a common problem in interstitial lung diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fløe, Andreas; Hilberg, Ole; Wijsenbeek, Marlies


    Introduction: Erectile dysfunction (ED) is related to chronic diseases, including COPD. The patho- genesis may involve chronic hypoxia, which is common in interstitial lung disease (ILD). We aimed to study the relationship between ILD and ED. Method: Male patients with ILD detected by high...... degree of ED, thirty (56.6%) had moderate to severe ED, and 23 (43.4%) had severe ED. Low diffusion capacity and high body mass index showed a trend of increasing risk of moderate to severe ED. The risk increased with age (OR per 5-year increase=2.63 (1.25; 5.53)) and decreased with 6MWT distance (OR per...... 50 m increase=0.60 (0.41; 0.89). Only two patients (6.7%) received specific treatment with phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors. Conclusion: Severe ED is a common problem in men with ILD, and is associated with poor walking distance and high age. Treatment coverage is low, and physicians should ad- dress...

  11. Common Running Overuse Injuries and Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žiga Kozinc


    Full Text Available Runners are particularly prone to developing overuse injuries. The most common running-related injuries include medial tibial stress syndrome, Achilles tendinopathy, plantar fasciitis, patellar tendinopathy, iliotibial band syndrome, tibial stress fractures, and patellofemoral pain syndrome. Two of the most significant risk factors appear to be injury history and weekly distance. Several trials have successfully identified biomechanical risk factors for specific injuries, with increased ground reaction forces, excessive foot pronation, hip internal rotation and hip adduction during stance phase being mentioned most often. However, evidence on interventions for lowering injury risk is limited, especially regarding exercise-based interventions. Biofeedback training for lowering ground reaction forces is one of the few methods proven to be effective. It seems that the best way to approach running injury prevention is through individualized treatment. Each athlete should be assessed separately and scanned for risk factors, which should be then addressed with specific exercises. This review provides an overview of most common running-related injuries, with a particular focus on risk factors, and emphasizes the problems encountered in preventing running-related injuries.

  12. Treatment countermeasures for common problems in dacryocystorhinostomy under nasal endoscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong-Ling Luo


    Full Text Available AIM: To discuss the common problems and treatment countermeasures in dacryocystorhinostomy under nasal endoscope.METHODS: The clinical data of 37 cases(43 eyesof postoperative dacryocystorhinostomy under nasal endoscope, by using high-frequency electric knife to open the nasal mucosa, hemostasis in surgery, burning fixed lacrimal sac mucosal flap and nasal mucosal flap, methylene blue staining of the lacrimal sac, lacrimal drainage tube implanted and expansion foam support fixed anastomotic methods were reviewed in our hospital from Mar. 2011 to June. 2013. The effects of surgery were observed, and the intraoperative common questions and the treatments were discussed.RESULTS: In the 37 cases(43 eyes, 42 eyes(97.7%were cured, and 1 eye was improved, and the total efficiency was 100%. All operations were successfully completed without any serious complications during surgery.CONCLUSION: The common complication in dacryocystorhinostomy under nasal endoscope are effectively treated and the success rates of surgery are improved, by using high-frequency electric knife to open the nasal mucosa, hemostasis in surgery, burning fixed lacrimal sac mucosal flap and nasal mucosal flap, methylene blue staining of the lacrimal sac, lacrimal drainage tube implanted and expansion foam support fixed anastomotic methods. These methods are worthy of application and promotion.

  13. [nursing Diagnoses And Most Common Collaboration Problems In High-risk Pregnancy].


    Gouveia, Helga Geremias; Lopes, Maria Helena Baena de Moraes


    This study identified the demographic profile, obstetric and clinical diagnoses, nursing diagnosis and most common collaboration problem among pregnant women subject to high-risk at a hospital in São Paulo, Brazil. Data were collected by means of a form based on Gordon's Functional Health Patterns. Nursing diagnoses were determined on the basis of the NANDA (North American Nursing Diagnosis Association) taxonomy. The nursing diagnoses found in 50% or more of the pregnant women were: risk for ...

  14. Stereotype threat and racial differences in citizens' experiences of police encounters. (United States)

    Najdowski, Cynthia J; Bottoms, Bette L; Goff, Phillip Atiba


    We conducted 2 studies to investigate how cultural stereotypes that depict Blacks as criminals affect the way Blacks experience encounters with police officers, expecting that such encounters induce Blacks to feel stereotype threat (i.e., concern about being judged and treated unfairly by police because of the stereotype). In Study 1, we asked Black and White participants to report how they feel when interacting with police officers in general. As predicted, Blacks, but not Whites, reported concern that police officers stereotype them as criminals simply because of their race. In addition, this effect was found for Black men but not Black women. In Study 2, we asked Black and White men to imagine a specific police encounter and assessed potential downstream consequences of stereotype threat. Consistent with Study 1, Black but not White men anticipated feeling stereotype threat in the hypothetical police encounter. Further, racial differences in anticipated threat translated into racial differences in anticipated anxiety, self-regulatory efforts, and behavior that is commonly perceived as suspicious by police officers. By demonstrating that Blacks might expect to be judged and treated unfairly by police because of the negative stereotype of Black criminality, this research extends stereotype threat theory to the new domain of criminal justice encounters. It also has practical implications for understanding how the stereotype could ironically contribute to bias-based policing and racial disparities in the justice system. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Stream Lifetimes Against Planetary Encounters (United States)

    Valsecchi, G. B.; Lega, E.; Froeschle, Cl.


    We study, both analytically and numerically, the perturbation induced by an encounter with a planet on a meteoroid stream. Our analytical tool is the extension of pik s theory of close encounters, that we apply to streams described by geocentric variables. The resulting formulae are used to compute the rate at which a stream is dispersed by planetary encounters into the sporadic background. We have verified the accuracy of the analytical model using a numerical test.

  16. Prevalence of common canine digestive problems compared with other health problems in teaching veterinary hospital, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamal M. H. Rakha


    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was conducted to ascertain the prevalence of common digestive problems compared to other health problems among dogs that were admitted to the teaching veterinary hospital, faculty of veterinary medicine, Cairo University, Egypt during 1 year period from January to December 2013. Also, study the effect of age, sex, breeds, and season on the distribution of digestive problems in dogs. Materials and Methods: A total of 3864 dogs included 1488 apparently healthy (included 816 males and 672 females and 2376 diseased dogs (included 1542 males and 834 females were registered for age, sex, breed, and the main complaint from their owners. A complete history and detailed clinical examination of each case were applied to the aids of radiographic, ultrasonographic, and endoscopic examination tools. Fecal examination was applied for each admitted case. Rapid tests for parvovirus and canine distemper virus detection were also performed. Results: A five digestive problems were commonly recorded including vomiting, diarrhea, concurrent vomiting with diarrhea, anorexia, and constipation with a prevalence (% of 13.6, 19.1, 10.1, 13.1, and 0.5 respectively while that of dermatological, respiratory, urinary, neurological, cardiovascular, auditory, and ocular problems was 27.9, 10.5, 3.3, 0.84, 0.4, 0.25, and 0.17 (% respectively. This prevalence was obtained on the basis of the diseased cases. Age and breed had a significant effect on the distribution of digestive problems in dogs (p0.05 on the distribution of such problems. Conclusion: Digestive problems were the highest recorded problems among dogs, and this was the first records for such problems among dogs in Egypt. Age, gender, and breeds had a significant effect on the distribution of the digestive problems in dogs while season had a non-significant effect on the distribution of such problems. The present data enable veterinarians in Egypt to ascertain their needs for diagnostic tools

  17. Common cause failure analysis methodology for complex systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, D.P.; Cate, C.L.; Fussell, J.B.


    Common cause failure analysis, also called common mode failure analysis, is an integral part of a complex system reliability analysis. This paper extends existing methods of computer aided common cause failure analysis by allowing analysis of the complex systems often encountered in practice. The methods presented here aid in identifying potential common cause failures and also address quantitative common cause failure analysis

  18. Scientific misconduct encountered by APAME journals: an online survey. (United States)

    Looi, Lai-Meng; Wong, Li Xuan; Koh, Cing Chai


    In June 2015, invitations were sent by email to 151 APAME journals to participate in an online survey with an objective of gaining insight into the common publication misconduct encountered by APAME editors. The survey, conducted through SurveyMonkey over a 20-day-period, comprised 10 questions with expansions to allow anecdotes limited to 400 characters, estimated to take less than 10 minutes to complete. Only one invitation was issued per journal, targeting (in order of priority) editors, editorial board members and editorial staff, and limited by email availability. 54 (36%) journals responded. 98% of respondents held Editor or Editorial Board positions. All respondent journals have editorial policies on publication ethics and 96% provide instructions related to ethics. 45% use anti-plagiarism software to screen manuscripts, the most popular being iThenticate, CrossCheck and Turnitin. Up to 50% of journals had encountered studies without IRB approval. Author misconduct encountered were (in rank order): plagiarism (75%), duplicate publication (58%), unjustified authorship (39%), authorship disputes (33%), data falsification (29%), data/image manipulation (27%), conflict of interest (25%), copyright violation (17%) and breach of confidentiality (10%). Reviewer misconduct encountered were: conflict of interest (19%), plagiarism (17%), obstructive behavior (17%), abusive language (13%) and breach of confidentiality (13%). Notwithstanding the limitations of the survey and the response rate, a few insights have been gained: (1) the need for strengthening the ethical culture of researchers/authors and reviewers, (2) anti-plagiarism software can improve plagiarism detection by about 15%, and (3) the need for technical support to detect plagiarism, duplicate publication and image manipulation.

  19. The context of ethical problems in medical volunteer work. (United States)

    Wall, Anji


    Ethical problems are common in clinical medicine, so medical volunteers who practice clinical medicine in developing countries should expect to encounter them just as they would in their practice in the developed world. However, as this article argues, medical volunteers in developing countries should not expect to encounter the same ethical problems as those that dominate Western biomedicine or to address ethical problems in the same way as they do in their practice in developed countries. For example, poor health and advanced disease increase the risks and decrease the potential benefits of some interventions. Consequently, when medical volunteers intervene too readily, without considering the nutritional and general health status of patients, the results can be devastating. Medical volunteers cannot assume that the outcomes of interventions in developing countries will be comparable to the outcomes of the same interventions in developed countries. Rather, they must realistically consider the complex medical conditions of patients when determining whether or not to intervene. Similarly, medical volunteers may face the question of whether to provide a pharmaceutical or perform an intervention that is below the acceptable standard of care versus the alternative of doing nothing. This article critically explores the contextual features of medical volunteer work in developing countries that differentiate it from medical practice in developed countries, arguing that this context contributes to the creation of unique ethical problems and affects the way in which these problems should be analyzed and resolved.

  20. The Art of the Encounter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éric Vautrin


    Full Text Available As the archives from the second half of Grotowski’s life were made available, this text focuses on the Polish master’s conceptions of theatre where he describes theatre as the art of the encounter. This paper simultaneously places this proposition in the context of questions of a specific time period, and reveals how this encounter is the anathema that will revert viewpoints both about the art of acting and the creation of theatrical relations. These researches on theatre as the art of the encounter continue today through the Open Program, one of the two groups of the Workcenter of Jerzy Grotowski and Thomas Richards, and, notably, their creations around American poet Allen Ginsberg, an author whose poetry intends, in a similar way, to encounter the other and the world.

  1. Common ground, complex problems and decision making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beers, P.J.; Boshuizen, H.P.A.; Kirschner, P.A.; Gijselaers, W.H.


    Organisations increasingly have to deal with complex problems. They often use multidisciplinary teams to cope with such problems where different team members have different perspectives on the problem, different individual knowledge and skills, and different approaches on how to solve the problem.

  2. Incorporating the Common Core's Problem Solving Standard for Mathematical Practice into an Early Elementary Inclusive Classroom (United States)

    Fletcher, Nicole


    Mathematics curriculum designers and policy decision makers are beginning to recognize the importance of problem solving, even at the earliest stages of mathematics learning. The Common Core includes sense making and perseverance in solving problems in its standards for mathematical practice for students at all grade levels. Incorporating problem…

  3. Common mental health problems in immigrants and refugees: general approach in primary care (United States)

    Kirmayer, Laurence J.; Narasiah, Lavanya; Munoz, Marie; Rashid, Meb; Ryder, Andrew G.; Guzder, Jaswant; Hassan, Ghayda; Rousseau, Cécile; Pottie, Kevin


    Background: Recognizing and appropriately treating mental health problems among new immigrants and refugees in primary care poses a challenge because of differences in language and culture and because of specific stressors associated with migration and resettlement. We aimed to identify risk factors and strategies in the approach to mental health assessment and to prevention and treatment of common mental health problems for immigrants in primary care. Methods: We searched and compiled literature on prevalence and risk factors for common mental health problems related to migration, the effect of cultural influences on health and illness, and clinical strategies to improve mental health care for immigrants and refugees. Publications were selected on the basis of relevance, use of recent data and quality in consultation with experts in immigrant and refugee mental health. Results: The migration trajectory can be divided into three components: premigration, migration and postmigration resettlement. Each phase is associated with specific risks and exposures. The prevalence of specific types of mental health problems is influenced by the nature of the migration experience, in terms of adversity experienced before, during and after resettlement. Specific challenges in migrant mental health include communication difficulties because of language and cultural differences; the effect of cultural shaping of symptoms and illness behaviour on diagnosis, coping and treatment; differences in family structure and process affecting adaptation, acculturation and intergenerational conflict; and aspects of acceptance by the receiving society that affect employment, social status and integration. These issues can be addressed through specific inquiry, the use of trained interpreters and culture brokers, meetings with families, and consultation with community organizations. Interpretation: Systematic inquiry into patients’ migration trajectory and subsequent follow-up on culturally

  4. Common mental health problems in immigrants and refugees: general approach in primary care. (United States)

    Kirmayer, Laurence J; Narasiah, Lavanya; Munoz, Marie; Rashid, Meb; Ryder, Andrew G; Guzder, Jaswant; Hassan, Ghayda; Rousseau, Cécile; Pottie, Kevin


    Recognizing and appropriately treating mental health problems among new immigrants and refugees in primary care poses a challenge because of differences in language and culture and because of specific stressors associated with migration and resettlement. We aimed to identify risk factors and strategies in the approach to mental health assessment and to prevention and treatment of common mental health problems for immigrants in primary care. We searched and compiled literature on prevalence and risk factors for common mental health problems related to migration, the effect of cultural influences on health and illness, and clinical strategies to improve mental health care for immigrants and refugees. Publications were selected on the basis of relevance, use of recent data and quality in consultation with experts in immigrant and refugee mental health. The migration trajectory can be divided into three components: premigration, migration and postmigration resettlement. Each phase is associated with specific risks and exposures. The prevalence of specific types of mental health problems is influenced by the nature of the migration experience, in terms of adversity experienced before, during and after resettlement. Specific challenges in migrant mental health include communication difficulties because of language and cultural differences; the effect of cultural shaping of symptoms and illness behaviour on diagnosis, coping and treatment; differences in family structure and process affecting adaptation, acculturation and intergenerational conflict; and aspects of acceptance by the receiving society that affect employment, social status and integration. These issues can be addressed through specific inquiry, the use of trained interpreters and culture brokers, meetings with families, and consultation with community organizations. Systematic inquiry into patients' migration trajectory and subsequent follow-up on culturally appropriate indicators of social, vocational and

  5. Encounter with comet Halley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagdeev, R.Z.


    This paper reports on an international armada of six spacecraft which encountered the comet Halley and performed in-situ measurements. These encounters led to the discovery of a number of cometary plasma physics phenomena. Another important result was that a value for the average density of the cometary nucleus could be estimated, which is found to be compatible with snow ball models for the nucleus

  6. The Idealized Cultural Encounter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Lene Bull

    Studies into cultural encounters have predominantly taken point of departure in ‘problematic encounters’, in which researchers and participants see cultural difference as an obstacle on the road to harmonious relationships (e.g. in ‘the clash of civilisations,’ or in migration/integration studies......). This paper proposes to study cultural encounters which are organised around ideals of cultural difference as a positive social and political force. The Danish People to People NGO Mellemfolkeligt Samvirke (MS) is build around ideals of equality, co-operation, mutuality and solidarity between people...... and cultures. A prominent feature of the organisation is organised cultural encounters between Northern (predominantly Danish) volunteers and Africans, which takes place at ‘training centres’ both in Denmark and in African countries, such as Kenya or Tanzania. In this paper I will outline the theoretical...

  7. Estimating migratory connectivity of birds when re-encounter probabilities are heterogeneous (United States)

    Cohen, Emily B.; Hostelter, Jeffrey A.; Royle, J. Andrew; Marra, Peter P.


    Understanding the biology and conducting effective conservation of migratory species requires an understanding of migratory connectivity – the geographic linkages of populations between stages of the annual cycle. Unfortunately, for most species, we are lacking such information. The North American Bird Banding Laboratory (BBL) houses an extensive database of marking, recaptures and recoveries, and such data could provide migratory connectivity information for many species. To date, however, few species have been analyzed for migratory connectivity largely because heterogeneous re-encounter probabilities make interpretation problematic. We accounted for regional variation in re-encounter probabilities by borrowing information across species and by using effort covariates on recapture and recovery probabilities in a multistate capture–recapture and recovery model. The effort covariates were derived from recaptures and recoveries of species within the same regions. We estimated the migratory connectivity for three tern species breeding in North America and over-wintering in the tropics, common (Sterna hirundo), roseate (Sterna dougallii), and Caspian terns (Hydroprogne caspia). For western breeding terns, model-derived estimates of migratory connectivity differed considerably from those derived directly from the proportions of re-encounters. Conversely, for eastern breeding terns, estimates were merely refined by the inclusion of re-encounter probabilities. In general, eastern breeding terns were strongly connected to eastern South America, and western breeding terns were strongly linked to the more western parts of the nonbreeding range under both models. Through simulation, we found this approach is likely useful for many species in the BBL database, although precision improved with higher re-encounter probabilities and stronger migratory connectivity. We describe an approach to deal with the inherent biases in BBL banding and re-encounter data to demonstrate

  8. Encounters between degenerate stars and extrasolar comet clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pineault, S.; Poisson, E.


    Under the assumption that the presence of comet clouds around otherwise normal stars is a common occurrence in the Galaxy, the observational consequences of random penetration encounters between the general Galactic population of degenerate stars and these comet clouds is considered. The only case considered is where the compact stars is a single star. For this scenario, encounters involving neutron stars (NSs) result in impact rates 1000-10,000 times slower than in the model of Tremaine and Zytkow (1986). The rate for white dwarfs (WDs) is larger than the one for NSs by a factor of about 30 times the ratio of the degenerate star number densities. The mean impact rate is significantly increased if the number of comets in a cloud is nearly independent of the mass of the central star. It is concluded that some of the observed gamma-ray bursts may be caused by accretion of comets onto NSs and that this scenario, but with a WD as the accretor, probably contributes to the optical flash background rate. 38 refs

  9. Strategies and Problems in the Promotion of Taal as a Culture and Religious Destination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmy Shayne A. Buena


    Full Text Available - Taal as a Culture heritage has been discovered as an important marketing tool to attract those travelers with special interest in heritage and arts. Taal reigns as one of the most culturally preserved sites of the country’s four-century Spanish and forty year American colonial eras. It conforms to the old town layout combining municipal, hall, school, church and market. Taal heritage town is a fine example of a sustainable development as well as responsible and ethical promotion of culture tourism in the Philippines. The study aimed to determine the strategies and problems in the promotion of Taal as a Culture and Religious Destination. More specifically, it identifies the current number of tourists visiting Taal, to determine the best promotional strategy in promoting taal and to identify the problems encountered by the tourists of Taal. The descriptive method was used in order to determine the needed information. A modified questionnaire was constructed to obtain the data for the study. The researchers conclude that the commonly visited tourist attraction in Taal were Escuela Pia, White House and Basilica of St. Martins of Tours. Based on the survey, the respondents agreed that historical sites were considered the most effective promotional strategies used in Taal. Lastly, the respondents for this research agreed that presence of beggars was the common problem encountered by the tourists.

  10. For Mole Problems, Call Avogadro: 602-1023 (United States)

    Uthe, R. E.


    General education students who have never encountered Avogadro’s number often have difficulty grasping its magnitude and the resulting implications for sizes and numbers of particles in common materials they see around them. I have surveyed the approaches used by several chemical educators. This article describes the techniques I find best help introductory students in General College at the University of Minnesota become familiar with Avogadro’s number and mole calculations. They involve estimating numbers of common objects and then calculating the length of time needed to count large numbers of them. For example, the immense amount of time required to count a mole of sand grains at one grain per second greatly exceeds the age of the universe. The calculations also reinforce procedures for manipulating exponents and applying problem-solving techniques.

  11. Problems Facing Disabled People in Malawi : A Critical Reflection on My Encounter with a Disabled Woman in a Rural Area in Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Memory J. Tembo


    Full Text Available This critical reflection is based on my encounter with a disabled woman in a district in Malawi, and how I have reflected and analyzed the encounter using social work theories. The essay reflects on the story of the disabled woman and my own perception at that time, in addition to my analysis of these perceptions using different perspectives in social work based on my current understanding of these perspectives. In line with Fook’s (2002; 68 critical reflection techniques, social work theories will be applied to deconstruct and reconstruct the critical incident. The essay highlights the challenges and dilemmas I encountered in attempting to make meaning out of this encounter, which left me helpless and powerless, as I could not offer her any sustainable help at the time.

  12. Privacy encounters in Teledialogue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Bo; Bøge, Ask Risom; Danholt, Peter


    Privacy is a major concern when new technologies are introduced between public authorities and private citizens. What is meant by privacy, however, is often unclear and contested. Accordingly, this article utilises grounded theory to study privacy empirically in the research and design project...... Teledialogue aimed at introducing new ways for public case managers and placed children to communicate through IT. The resulting argument is that privacy can be understood as an encounter, that is, as something that arises between implicated actors and entails some degree of friction and negotiation....... An argument which is further qualified through the philosophy of Gilles Deleuze. The article opens with a review of privacy literature before continuing to present privacy as an encounter with five different foci: what technologies bring into the encounter; who is related to privacy by implication; what...

  13. Problems pilots face involving wind shear (United States)

    Melvin, W. W.


    Educating pilots and the aviation industry about wind shears presents a major problem associated with this meteorological phenomenon. The pilot's second most pressing problem is the need for a language to discuss wind shear encounters with other pilots so that the reaction of the aircraft to the wind shear encounter can be accurately described. Another problem is the flight director which gives a centered pitch command for a given angular displacement from the glide slope. It was suggested that they should instead be called flight path command and should not center unless the aircraft is actually correcting to the flight path.

  14. Knowledge and reported practice of antibiotic prescription by dentists for common oral problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanwir, F.; Marrone, G.; Lundborg, C. S.


    Objective: To assess the knowledge and reported practice in relation to antibiotic prescribing regarding common oral problems by dentists in Karachi, Pakistan. Study Design: Cross-sectional survey. Place and Duration of Study: Three Dental Colleges of Karachi, from July to December 2010. Methodology: The cross-sectional study was conducted in Karachi, Pakistan in the Outpatient Departments (OPD) of three dental colleges. Inclusion criteria were full time employed dentists working in their respective OPDs (n = 100). The dentists were asked to fill a questionnaire. The questionnaire included (i) general information, (ii) perception and knowledge of antibiotic resistance, (iii) reported management of oral problems, (iv) perceptions about oral infections and (v) perceptions of how people perceive oral problems. To assess dentist's ability to relate knowledge to practice regarding the management of the most common oral problems, written simulated case scenarios with related questions were also included. Scores were given for each correct answer. Results: The response rate was 85%. Of the total respondents, 65 (76%) were under the age of 30 years, 53 (62%) were males and 32 (38%) females. Out of 85 respondents 53% (n = 45) reported prescribing of antibiotics 4 - 5 times a week, 87% (n = 74) prescribe antibiotics based upon symptoms and 64% (n = 54) prescribed antibiotics in abscess condition. The total score for all four scenarios showed that nearly two thirds (61%) of all respondents scored sub-optimally. Conclusion: A substantial number of dentists had suboptimal knowledge regarding antibiotic use. This might lead to the provision of suboptimal care of patients with dental infections. Therefore, continuing education, training and supervision are recommended to improve the quality of dental management. (author)

  15. Dismantling of Radium-226 Coal Level Gauges: Encountered Problems and How to Solve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Punnachaiya, M.; Nuanjan, P.; Moombansao, K.; Sawangsri, T.; Pruantonsai, P.; Srichom, K.


    previously a leakage on inner source housing. Thus, during manufacturing the filled-lead for shielding passed through this small hole and fixed the deformed spring together with the source. The circular surface of inner hole was measured and slowly drilled at a diameter 2.2 cm behind shielding, till the spring and the fixed lead sheet were cut, therefore the source could be finally hammered out. The surface dose rate of coal level gauges before weld cutting was 10-15 mR/hr and the highest dose rate at the position of the weld cutter was 2.5 mR/hr. The total time for each weld cutting and automatic sawing was 2-3 minutes and 1 minute, respectively. The source was individually and safely transferred to store in lead safe box using a 1-meter length tong and a light container with 1 meter length handle. The total time for Ra-226 (70 pieces) dismantling, including the encountered problems and their troubles shooting took 4 days operation in which the total dose obtained by 18 operators were ranged from 1-38 μSv. The dismantling team safely completed the activities within the effective dose limit for occupational exposure of 20 mSv/year (80 μSv/day). (authors)

  16. Spectrum of general surgical problems in the developmentally disabled adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalid, K.; Al-Salamah, Saleh M.


    This study highlights the spectrum of general surgical problems necessitating admission on intellectually disabled adult patients. Problems encountered in the management and the ways to overcome various difficulties are highlighted. Prospective collection of data on 63 consecutive developmentally disabled adult patients admitted to the Department of General Surgery, Riyadh Medical Complex (RMC), Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia for various indications from January 2000 through December 2004. Demographic details, clinical presentation, diagnostic modalities, associated physical and neurological disabilities, coexisting medical condition, treatment options, morbidity and mortality were analyzed. Various difficulties encountered during the management and mean to overcome these problems are addressed. Sixty-three patients accounted for 71 admissions. Mean age was 26.7 years with a male preponderance (4.25:1). Fifty-four patients were admitted for various emergency conditions. History of pica could be obtained in 33% of the cases. Twenty-seven patients were admitted for acute abdomen. Volvulus of the colon (22.2%) and pseudo-obstruction (18.5%) were the most common causes of acute abdomen. Twenty-one patients were admitted with upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Reflux esophagitis was the most common cause of bleeding (62%). Overall morbidity was 41% for emergency admissions and 22% for elective surgery. Hospital mortality was 21.4% for emergency surgery. There was no death in elective cases. Developmentally disabled patients comprise a special class of patients with peculiar management problems. The treating clinician should be aware of various unexpected conditions not found as frequently in the normal patient population. Apparent lack of pain does not exclude an acute emergency. Possible surgical condition should be suspected if there is vomiting, abdominal distension, fever, increased irritability of recent onset. Male gender and history of pica are added risk factors

  17. Metabolic syndrome: a common problem among office workers. (United States)

    Alavi, S S; Makarem, J; Mehrdad, R; Abbasi, M


    Metabolic syndrome (MSx) is associated with several health problems. Workers are an important part of any organization. To determine the prevalence of MSx and related variables among office workers. This cross-sectional study evaluated 1488 office workers in Qom province, Central Iran, by using a multi-stage cluster sampling. Diagnosis of MSx was based on blood HDL-cholesterol, triglyceride, and fasting blood sugar (FBS) levels and waist circumference, and blood pressure. The overall prevalence of MSx was 35.9% (95% CI 33.5% to 38.3%), higher in men (37.2%) than in women (20.6%), and increased with age. The most common laboratory findings of MSx were hypertriglyceridemia (45.9%) and low HDL-cholesterol level (45.5%). Office workers with MSx had a significantly (pMSx. Lack of regular leisure time physical activity (p=0.003), and low intake of fruits (p=0.02) were associated with MSx. The prevalence of MSx was very high among office workers. Workplace health improvement programs through identifying and preventing MSx are necessary for improvement of staff's health.

  18. An Investigation of the Problems Jordanian EFL Learners Encounter in Presupposition Triggered by Certain Factive Verbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamzah Saleh Ghammaz


    Full Text Available This study aimed at investigating the problems that Jordanian EFL learners encounter in presupposition triggered by certain factive verbs. Specifically, it sought to find out whether there is a relationship between the subjects’ proficiency level in English and their correct recognition of presupposition triggered by certain factive verbs. It also aims at identifying which factive verbs are much more difficult than others in terms of the presupposed meaning. The subjects of the study were 70 adult learners of English at the University of Jordan. They belong to two different proficiency levels: Intermediate and Advanced. A special test was prepared to elicit the data needed for investigation. The test required the subjects to circle the best choice that presupposes a given sentence. The results showed that the Advanced Group outperformed the Intermediate Group on all the target factive verbs, and the factive verb “ be aware of ” proved to be the most difficult one followed by “forget”. The importance of this study lies in that it invistigates the semantic behaviour of some verbs in English language what contributes to understanding the general semantic system of the language, and this is the main tast of linguists. The study recommended that further investigation should be made in the area of presupposition and factive verbs in order to pinpoint the sources of difficulty for learners. The results of those investigations can be used to improve EFL learning and teaching in Jordan.

  19. Insurance problems among inflammatory bowel disease patients: results of a Dutch population based study. (United States)

    Russel, M G V M; Ryan, B M; Dagnelie, P C; de Rooij, M; Sijbrandij, J; Feleus, A; Hesselink, M; Muris, J W; Stockbrugger, R


    The majority of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have a normal life expectancy and therefore should not be weighted when applying for life assurance. There is scant literature on this topic. In this study our aim was to document and compare the incidence of difficulties in application for life and medical insurance in a population based cohort of IBD patients and matched population controls. A population based case control study of 1126 IBD patients and 1723 controls. Based on a detailed questionnaire, the frequency and type of difficulties encountered when applying for life and medical insurance in matched IBD and control populations were appraised. In comparison with controls, IBD patients had an 87-fold increased risk of encountering difficulties when applying for life assurance (odds ratio (OR) 87 (95% confidence interval (CI) 31-246)), with a heavily weighted premium being the most common problem. Patients of high educational status, with continuous disease activity, and who smoked had the highest odds of encountering such problems. Medical insurance difficulties were fivefold more common in IBD patients compared with controls (OR 5.4 (95% CI 2.3-13)) although no specific disease or patient characteristics were identified as associated with such difficulties. This is the first detailed case control study that has investigated insurance difficulties among IBD patients. Acquiring life and medical insurance constituted a major problem for IBD patients in this study. These results are likely to be more widely representative given that most insurance companies use international guidelines for risk assessment. In view of the recent advances in therapy and promising survival data on IBD patients, evidence based guidelines for risk assessment of IBD patients by insurance companies should be drawn up to prevent possible discriminatory practices.

  20. [Nursing diagnoses and most common collaboration problems in high-risk pregnancy]. (United States)

    Gouveia, Helga Geremias; Lopes, Maria Helena Baena de Moraes


    This study identified the demographic profile, obstetric and clinical diagnoses, nursing diagnosis and most common collaboration problem among pregnant women subject to high-risk at a hospital in São Paulo, Brazil. Data were collected by means of a form based on Gordon's Functional Health Patterns. Nursing diagnoses were determined on the basis of the NANDA (North American Nursing Diagnosis Association) taxonomy. The nursing diagnoses found in 50% or more of the pregnant women were: risk for infection (90.1%), altered health maintenance (84.5%), altered comfort (80.3%), risk of ineffective breastfeeding (59.2%), altered sexuality patterns (52.1%), fear (52.1%) and pain (50.7%). The collaboration problem found in 50% or more of the cases was: potential complication: preterm labor (62.0%), potential complication: maternal tachycardia (54,9%) and potential complication: hypotension (54,9%). Thus, these results will allow us to guide the nursing care rendered to these pregnant women.

  1. Shoulder pain -- a common problem in world-class badminton players. (United States)

    Fahlström, Martin; Yeap, Joo Seng; Alfredson, Håkan; Söderman, Kerstin


    Badminton is a sport that requires a lot of over-shoulder motion, with the shoulder in abduction/external rotation. This questionnaire study on 188 international top-level badminton players during the World Mixed Team Championships showed that previous or present shoulder pain on the dominant side was reported by 52% of the players. Previous shoulder pain was reported by 37% of the players and on-going shoulder pain by 20% of the players. There were no significant differences in the prevalence of shoulder pain between men and women. The majority of the shoulder pain had started gradually. The pain was usually associated with shoulder activity, and stiffness was a common, associated symptom. Furthermore, the shoulder pain was associated with consequences such as sleeping disturbances, changes in training and competition habits, and it also affected activities of daily living. The majority of the players had sought medical advice and had been given different kinds of treatment. The study showed that shoulder pain is a common and significant problem in world-class badminton players, and the consequences are most likely of importance for their training and playing capacity.

  2. Problem Solving Instruction for Overcoming Students' Difficulties in Stoichiometric Problems (United States)

    Shadreck, Mandina; Enunuwe, Ochonogor Chukunoye


    The study sought to find out difficulties encountered by high school chemistry students when solving stoichiometric problems and how these could be overcome by using a problem-solving approach. The study adopted a quasi-experimental design. 485 participants drawn from 8 highs schools in a local education district in Zimbabwe participated in the…

  3. Some problems associated with radiolabeling surface antigens on helminth parasites: a brief review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayunga, E.G. (Division of Tropical Public Health, Department of Preventive Medicine and Biometrics, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD (USA)); Murrell, K.D. (Agricultural Research Service, Beltsville, MD (USA))


    Recent developments in technology have facilitated substantial advances in the characterization of surface antigens from a wide variety of both normal and neoplastic cells. However, the immunochemistry of parasites has lagged behind. Efforts to apply conventional radiolabeling methods to helminths have not always been successful. Experimental work with Schistosoma mansoni is reviewed to illustrate common problems encountered in surface labeling studies. These findings should provide insight for the future investigation of other helminth species.

  4. Some problems associated with radiolabeling surface antigens on helminth parasites: a brief review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayunga, E.G.; Murrell, K.D.


    Recent developments in technology have facilitated substantial advances in the characterization of surface antigens from a wide variety of both normal and neoplastic cells. However, the immunochemistry of parasites has lagged behind. Efforts to apply conventional radiolabeling methods to helminths have not always been successful. Experimental work with Schistosoma mansoni is reviewed to illustrate common problems encountered in surface labeling studies. These findings should provide insight for the future investigation of other helminth species. (Auth.)

  5. Sexual Harassment: A problem unresolved!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Vanishree


    Full Text Available Sexual harassment is a highly prevalent form of gender-based discrimination and sexual exploitation in the workplace and academic environment. In the dental field, there are a few studies regarding sexual harassment among the patients, professors and claims of their students. There is a silence of consent surrounding sexual harassment. It is clearly an issue about which the practicing dentists need to be informed in order to provide knowledgeable assessment and treatment for all patients. Dentists also have a role in advocacy, expert consultation or testimony, research and prevention through education and training. It is a fact that sexual harassment is very commonly encountered by almost everyone especially women. It is the most unresolved and under recognized problem of today especially when professionals are concerned. Preventing sexual harassment requires a considerable investment of time and personnel. This paper reviews the topic of sexual harassment as a problem from its legal aspects and recommendations for further steps to resolve this issue in dentistry.

  6. Resource-driven encounters among consumers and implications for the spread of infectious disease (United States)

    Flynn, Jason M.


    Animals share a variety of common resources, which can be a major driver of conspecific encounter rates. In this work, we implement a spatially explicit mathematical model for resource visitation behaviour in order to examine how changes in resource availability can influence the rate of encounters among consumers. Using simulations and asymptotic analysis, we demonstrate that, under a reasonable set of assumptions, the relationship between resource availability and consumer conspecific encounters is not monotonic. We characterize how the maximum encounter rate and associated critical resource density depend on system parameters like consumer density and the maximum distance from which consumers can detect and respond to resources. The assumptions underlying our theoretical model and analysis are motivated by observations of large aggregations of black-backed jackals at carcasses generated by seasonal outbreaks of anthrax among herbivores in Etosha National Park, Namibia. As non-obligate scavengers, black-backed jackals use carcasses as a supplemental food resource when they are available. While jackals do not appear to acquire disease from ingesting anthrax carcasses, changes in their movement patterns in response to changes in carcass abundance do alter jackals' conspecific encounter rate in ways that may affect the transmission dynamics of other diseases, such as rabies. Our theoretical results provide a method to quantify and analyse the hypothesis that the outbreak of a fatal disease among herbivores can potentially facilitate outbreaks of an entirely different disease among jackals. By analysing carcass visitation data, we find support for our model's prediction that the number of conspecific encounters at resource sites decreases with additional increases in resource availability. Whether or not this site-dependent effect translates to an overall decrease in encounters depends, unexpectedly, on the relationship between the maximum distance of detection and

  7. Encounters in cancer treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høybye, Mette Terp; Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Tine


    Based on extensive ethnographic material from in-depth interviews with Danish cancer patients after treatment, this study analyzes their stories to explore how interactions with the physician configures and situates a need for rehabilitation. We identify three themes in the illness stories: (1...... by this encounter. The significance of the social encounters in cancer treatment is elucidated through this analysis, and we demonstrate how the need for recognition of the complex effects of cancer on one's life is central to counter experiences of objectification and dehumanization....

  8. Patients' experiences of healthcare encounters in severe irritable bowel syndrome: an analysis based on narrative and feminist theory. (United States)

    Björkman, Ida; Simrén, Magnus; Ringström, Gisela; Jakobsson Ung, Eva


    This study aimed to explore patients' experiences of healthcare encounters in severe irritable bowel syndrome. Irritable bowel syndrome is a common functional disorder with symptoms such as abdominal pain and disturbed bowel habits, the cause of which is not completely known. Treatments options are limited, and healthcare encounters in irritable bowel syndrome have been described as unsatisfying and frustrating for both patients and professional healthcare providers. Furthermore, the influence of power on healthcare encounters has long been recognised, especially regarding the disadvantaged position of those suffering from functional illness which cannot be identified by commonly used tests or investigations. We interviewed 10 patients during 2014, all attending an outpatient clinic and suffering from severe irritable bowel syndrome. Relying on narrative and feminist theory, we explored how they actively negotiate professional discourse communicated to them in the clinical encounter. The patients' experiences of healthcare encounters in irritable bowel syndrome were mostly described as negative, and often induced feelings of confusion and self-doubt. Positive encounters were described as being listened to, believed and taken seriously. Narrators found it especially problematic when healthcare professionals described irritable bowel syndrome as a minor disorder with primarily stress or psychological aetiology and put the responsibility for recovery onto the patient. Patients' actively negotiated such professional discourse by presenting a counternarrative describing their own suffering and strengths, experienced healthcare shortcomings and possible organic aetiology of irritable bowel syndrome. Patients suffering from severe irritable bowel syndrome described how they often felt a need to protect their positive identities in the face of trivialisation and disbelief by healthcare professionals. A deepened understanding of patients' experiences of healthcare

  9. [A tale of two encounters]. (United States)

    Chanel, Marie-Paule

    The moving testimony of a patient shows the impact which a successful encounter can have. Beyond the positive clinical consequences, her rediscovered motivation and pleasure are the essential drivers which have guided her along the pathway of reconstruction. A tale of two encounters which have marked her life course. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Innovation from the ICT-based service encounter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henten, Anders


    The pupose of the paper is to develop a framework for analyzing the dynamics of innovations emanating from the ICT-based service encounters. Many innovations are based on the direct encounter between employees and customers, and the paper aims to extend the analysis of such encounters to ICT...

  11. ASRS Reports on Wake Vortex Encounters (United States)

    Connell, Linda J.; Taube, Elisa Ann; Drew, Charles Robert; Barclay, Tommy Earl


    ASRS is conducting a structured callback research project of wake vortex incidents reported to the ASRS at all US airports, as well as wake encounters in the enroute environment. This study has three objectives: (1) Utilize the established ASRS supplemental data collection methodology and provide ongoing analysis of wake vortex encounter reports; (2) Document event dynamics and contributing factors underlying wake vortex encounter events; and (3) Support ongoing FAA efforts to address pre-emptive wake vortex risk reduction by utilizing ASRS reporting contributions.

  12. Initial Encounters : The Lived Experiences of Buyers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Wright; J.J. Dekker


    The initial encounter between a buyer and a seller has received much attention among practitioners. The first time a buyer interacts with a seller is thought to be highly influential. The premise is that buyers form an opinion during this first encounter, or even the first minutes of this encounter.

  13. Frustration: A common user experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten


    % of their time redoing lost work. Thus, the frustrating experiences accounted for a total of 27% of the time, This main finding is exacerbated by several supplementary findings. For example, the users were unable to fix 26% of the experienced problems, and they rated that the problems recurred with a median....... In the present study, 21 users self-reported their frustrating experiences during an average of 1.72 hours of computer use. As in the previous studies the amount of time lost due to frustrating experiences was disturbing. The users spent 16% of their time trying to fix encountered problems and another 11...

  14. The space of togetherness--a caring encounter. (United States)

    Holopainen, Gunilla; Kasén, Anne; Nyström, Lisbet


    Encounters in relation to the nurse-patient relationship are often discussed within nursing and caring literature without a reflection on the actual meaning of the concept. Assuming that an encounter is essential for nursing care, this article seeks to create a deeper understanding of the concept through a hermeneutic approach to texts by the philosophers Buber and Marcel. Presence, recognition, availability and mutuality seem to be essential prerequisites for an encounter. As these prerequisites are fulfilled within and between human beings who encounter each other, it is possible to speak of a space of togetherness, a mutual existence, where life's mystery shines forth and caring is realized. The challenge lies in creating these encounters within nursing care. © 2012 The Authors Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences © 2012 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  15. General health workers' description of mental health problems and treatment approaches used in Papua New Guinea. (United States)

    Koka, Betty E; Deane, Frank P; Lyons, Geoffrey Cb; Lambert, Gordon


    Papua New Guinea is a developing country with limited resources for specialist mental health services. Little is known about the mental health and treatment services of Papua New Guinea. The aim of this study was to clarify the presenting mental health problems encountered by Papua New Guinean health workers and the common treatment approaches used. A total of 203 Papua New Guinean health workers completed a retrospective quantitative survey about their three most recent mental health patients. The survey asked about presenting symptomatology, diagnoses (including culture-bound diagnoses) and treatment approaches. The major presenting mental health problems for males included schizophrenia, substance use disorder, sorcery and spirit possession. Depression was the most common diagnoses for women, followed by sorcery and somatisation. Over 65% of patients were prescribed psychotropic medication, over 50% received some form of psychological intervention and 28% were receiving traditional treatments. Somatic symptoms are common among both male and female Papua New Guineans; however, males may be more likely to present with psychotic symptoms and females with mood-related problems. Schizophrenia and depression are commonly identified with substance use disorder more problematic among males. Culture-specific explanations and treatment are commonly used. © The Author(s) 2013.

  16. The difficulties encountered in conversion from classic pancreaticoduodenectomy to total laparoscopic pancreaticoduodenectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muharrem Battal


    Full Text Available Background: Recently, total laparoscopic pancreatectomy has been performed at many centres as an alternative to open surgery. In this study, we aimed to present the difficulties that we have encountered in converting from classic open pancreaticoduodenectomy to total laparoscopic pancreatectomy. Materials and Methods: Between December 2012 and January 2014, we had 100 open pancreaticoduodenectomies. Subsequently, we tried to perform total laparoscopic pancreaticoduodenectomy (TLPD in 22 patients. In 17 of these 22 patients, we carried out the total laparoscopic procedure. We analysed the difficulties that we encountered converting to TLPD in three parts: Preoperative, operative and postoperative. Preoperative difficulties involved patient selection, preparation of operative instruments, and planning the operation. Operative difficulties involved the position of the trocars, dissection, and reconstruction problems. The postoperative difficulty involved follow-up of the patient. Results: According to our experiences, the most important problem is the proper selection of patients. Contrary to our previous thoughts, older patients who were in better condition were comparatively more appropriate candidates than younger patients. This is because the younger patients have generally soft pancreatic texture, which complicates the reconstruction. The main operative problems are trocar positions and maintaining the appropriate position of the camera, which requires continuous changes in its angles during the operation. However, postoperative follow-up is not very different from the classic procedure. Conclusion: TLPD is a suitable procedure under appropriate conditions.

  17. Metabolic Syndrome: A Common Problem among Office Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SS Alavi


    Full Text Available Background: Metabolic syndrome (MSx is associated with several health problems. Workers are an important part of any organization. Objective: To determine the prevalence of MSx and related variables among office workers. Methods: This cross-sectional study evaluated 1488 office workers in Qom province, Central Iran, by using a multi-stage cluster sampling. Diagnosis of MSx was based on blood HDL-cholesterol, triglyceride, and fasting blood sugar (FBS levels and waist circumference, and blood pressure. Results: The overall prevalence of MSx was 35.9% (95% CI 33.5% to 38.3%, higher in men (37.2% than in women (20.6%, and increased with age. The most common laboratory findings of MSx were hypertriglyceridemia (45.9% and low HDL-cholesterol level (45.5%. Office workers with MSx had a significantly (p<0.001 higher body mass index than those without MSx. Lack of regular leisure time physical activity (p=0.003, and low intake of fruits (p=0.02 were associated with MSx. Conclusion: The prevalence of MSx was very high among office workers. Workplace health improvement programs through identifying and preventing MSx are necessary for improvement of staff's health.

  18. A waste of time: the problem of common morality in Principles of Biomedical Ethics. (United States)

    Karlsen, Jan Reinert; Solbakk, Jan Helge


    From the 5th edition of Beauchamp and Childress' Principles of Biomedical Ethics, the problem of common morality has been given a more prominent role and emphasis. With the publication of the 6th and latest edition, the authors not only attempt to ground their theory in common morality, but there is also an increased tendency to identify the former with the latter. While this stratagem may give the impression of a more robust, and hence stable, foundation for their theoretical construct, we fear that it comes with a cost, namely the need to keep any theory in medical ethics open to, and thereby aware of, the challenges arising from biomedical research and clinical practice, as well as healthcare systems. By too readily identifying the moral life of common morality with rule-following behaviour, Beauchamp and Childress may even be wrong about the nature of common morality as such, thereby founding their, by now, classic theory on quicksand instead of solid rock.

  19. Inclusion as heterotopia: Spaces of encounter between people with and without intellectual disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman Meininger


    Full Text Available The public space to which - in line with common definitions of inclusion - persons with intellectual disability are designated often turns out to be a space of discrimination. The aim of this study is to identify spaces of encounter. Michel Foucault's concept of heterotopia - 'other spaces' - and its subsequent interpretations are used as an analytical tool for evaluating efforts to include persons with intellectual disability in society. In Foucault's work 'space' refers to geographical places and to 'sites' that can be defined by sets of relations. Among these spaces are 'counter-sites' like large scale residential facilities for people with intellectual disability. Though policies of deinstitutionalisation aim at erasure of these places of exclusion, the results are often disappointing, largely because these policies ignore the analysis of power dynamics that install exclusionary processes and structures. Recent interpretations of the concept of heterotopia position the 'other places' in the middle of ordinary life as social spaces of encounter and dialogue between the 'normal' and the 'abnormal'. Characteristics and practical conditions of such spaces of encounter are explored. These interpretations open up a new conceptualisation of inclusion in terms of niches in which encounter and dialogue are cultivated and an alternative social ordering can be exercised.

  20. Solving the multiple-set split equality common fixed-point problem of firmly quasi-nonexpansive operators. (United States)

    Zhao, Jing; Zong, Haili


    In this paper, we propose parallel and cyclic iterative algorithms for solving the multiple-set split equality common fixed-point problem of firmly quasi-nonexpansive operators. We also combine the process of cyclic and parallel iterative methods and propose two mixed iterative algorithms. Our several algorithms do not need any prior information about the operator norms. Under mild assumptions, we prove weak convergence of the proposed iterative sequences in Hilbert spaces. As applications, we obtain several iterative algorithms to solve the multiple-set split equality problem.

  1. Beyond the Embodied Digital Service Encounter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jannick Kirk


    When a digital service encounter develops differently than anticipated, the client becomes a user. This transformation reveals the ambiguous nature of digital service encounter being neither well-functioning tools, nor having the same sensitivity to and tolerance for service failures as in human ...

  2. Influence of Child Factors on Health-Care Professionals' Recognition of Common Childhood Mental-Health Problems. (United States)

    Burke, Delia A; Koot, Hans M; de Wilde, Amber; Begeer, Sander

    Early recognition of childhood mental-health problems can help minimise long-term negative outcomes. Recognition of mental-health problems, needed for referral and diagnostic evaluation, is largely dependent on health-care professionals' (HCPs) judgement of symptoms presented by the child. This study aimed to establish whether HCPs recognition of mental-health problems varies as a function of three child-related factors (type of problem, number of symptoms, and demographic characteristics). In an online survey, HCPs ( n  = 431) evaluated a series of vignettes describing children with symptoms of mental-health problems. Vignettes varied by problem type (Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Generalised Anxiety Disorder (GAD), Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), Conduct Disorder (CD) and Major Depressive Disorder), number of symptoms presented (few and many), and child demographic characteristics (ethnicity, gender, age and socio-economic status (SES)). Results show that recognition of mental-health problems varies by problem type, with ADHD best recognised and GAD worst. Furthermore, recognition varies by the number of symptoms presented. Unexpectedly, a child's gender, ethnicity and family SES did not influence likelihood of problem recognition. These results are the first to reveal differences in HCPs' recognition of various common childhood mental-health problems. HCPs in practice should be advised about poor recognition of GAD, and superior recognition of ADHD, if recognition of all childhood mental-health problems is to be equal.

  3. Ethics in the bank internet encounter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rendtorff, Jacob Dahl; Mattsson, Jan


    /implications – The important implication for managerial research of this study would be for banks to focus on customer competency with an ethical concern instead of only being concerned with technical solutions for effective internet operations. Practical implications – Since more and more businesses are digitally based......Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to discuss some ethical issues in the internet encounter between customer and bank. Empirical data related to the difficulties that customers have when they deal with the bank through internet technology and electronic banking. The authors discuss...... the difficulties that customers expressed from an ethical standpoint. Design/methodology/approach – The key problem of the paper is “how does research handle the user's lack of competence in a web-based commercial environment?” The authors illustrate this ethical dilemma with data from a Danish Bank collected...

  4. Termite: Emulation Testbed for Encounter Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Bruno


    Full Text Available Cutting-edge mobile devices like smartphones and tablets are equipped with various infrastructureless wireless interfaces, such as WiFi Direct and Bluetooth. Such technologies allow for novel mobile applications that take advantage of casual encounters between co-located users. However, the need to mimic the behavior of real-world encounter networks makes testing and debugging of such applications hard tasks. We present Termite, an emulation testbed for encounter networks. Our system allows developers to run their applications on a virtual encounter network emulated by software. Developers can model arbitrary encounter networks and specify user interactions on the emulated virtual devices. To facilitate testing and debugging, developers can place breakpoints, inspect the runtime state of virtual nodes, and run experiments in a stepwise fashion. Termite defines its own Petri Net variant to model the dynamically changing topology and synthesize user interactions with virtual devices. The system is designed to efficiently multiplex an underlying emulation hosting infrastructure across multiple developers, and to support heterogeneous mobile platforms. Our current system implementation supports virtual Android devices communicating over WiFi Direct networks and runs on top of a local cloud infrastructure. We evaluated our system using emulator network traces, and found that Termite is expressive and performs well.

  5. Magnetic resonance imaging in children: common problems and possible solutions for lung and airways imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciet, Pierluigi; Tiddens, Harm A.W.M. [Erasmus Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Sophia Children' s Hospital, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Erasmus Medical Center, Department of Pediatric Pulmonology and Allergology, Sophia Children' s Hospital, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Wielopolski, Piotr A. [Erasmus Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Sophia Children' s Hospital, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Wild, Jim M. [University of Sheffield, Academic Radiology, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Lee, Edward Y. [Boston Children' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Departments of Radiology and Medicine, Pulmonary Divisions, Boston, MA (United States); Morana, Giovanni [Ca' Foncello Regional Hospital, Department of Radiology, Treviso (Italy); Lequin, Maarten H. [University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Wilhelmina Children' s Hospital, Utrecht (Netherlands)


    Pediatric chest MRI is challenging. High-resolution scans of the lungs and airways are compromised by long imaging times, low lung proton density and motion. Low signal is a problem of normal lung. Lung abnormalities commonly cause increased signal intensities. Among the most important factors for a successful MRI is patient cooperation, so the long acquisition times make patient preparation crucial. Children usually have problems with long breath-holds and with the concept of quiet breathing. Young children are even more challenging because of higher cardiac and respiratory rates giving motion blurring. For these reasons, CT has often been preferred over MRI for chest pediatric imaging. Despite its drawbacks, MRI also has advantages over CT, which justifies its further development and clinical use. The most important advantage is the absence of ionizing radiation, which allows frequent scanning for short- and long-term follow-up studies of chronic diseases. Moreover, MRI allows assessment of functional aspects of the chest, such as lung perfusion and ventilation, or airways and diaphragm mechanics. In this review, we describe the most common MRI acquisition techniques on the verge of clinical translation, their problems and the possible solutions to make chest MRI feasible in children. (orig.)

  6. common problems affecting supranational attempts in africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Politico-legal Framework for Integration in Africa: Exploring the Attainability of a ... laws, the common international trade policy, the common fisheries policy and the .... among the member states according to the annual imports, production and ...... Fredland R (eds) Integration and Disintegration in East Africa (University.

  7. Institutionalization of Organized Industrial Estates in Turkey, Problems Encountered and Proposed Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan DAĞLAR


    Full Text Available In the aim of the study is to determine the institutionalization degree of organized industrial estates and to identify the faced problems and to develop solutions for these problems. By using survey method, information about problems and institutionalization status of organized industrial estates were obtained from managers of the active organized industrial estates. The problems of organized industrial estates are related to the management structure, qualified staff, energy, transportation, regulation and public improvements. Formalization, professionalism, accountability, transparency and social responsibility have been identified as the factors about the institutionalization of organized industrial estates in Turkey according to factor analysis. It could be argued that organized industrial estates in Turkey have an institutional structure and they have institutionalized. However, it could be said that organized industrial estates which operate in 80 cities of Turkey and more than one are in some cities are not at the same level of institutionalization.

  8. Tragedy of the Commons, Business Growth and the Fundamental Sustainability Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward J. Garrity


    Full Text Available This paper reviews the major issues involved in Hardin’s [1] tragedy of the commons, written over 44 years ago, and examines whether these issues are still relevant today. We assert that this model still provides important insight to aid in the solution to our global problems. In particular, we maintain that the underlying issues of growth against limits and bounded rationality are still not adequately recognized and addressed; this underlies many of the reasons for our unsustainable world. Examples from fisheries management are used to examine potential solutions and reveal weaknesses in current approaches. We show how our current, restricted mental models promote social injustice and blind us to developing sustainable solutions. Both the neo-liberal economic view of business that directly seeks growth and the new sustainable development view that indirectly supports growth are leading our global economy in the wrong direction and away from prosperity and sustainability. Current thinking has not realized Hardin’s message that sustainability is of the class of no technology solution problems. We conclude with recommendations to radically advance a new world view and business paradigm.

  9. Global Diabetes Encounters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul Nielsen, Annegrete; Langstrup, Henriette


    As already recognized, though little theorized within International Relations, the capacity of technology to ensure the achievement of preset policy goals is often grossly overrated. Drawing on Science and Technology Studies, this chapter proposes a lens to investigate global encounters, which ta...

  10. Relationship between Teach-back and patient-centered communication in primary care pediatric encounters. (United States)

    Badaczewski, Adam; Bauman, Laurie J; Blank, Arthur E; Dreyer, Benard; Abrams, Mary Ann; Stein, Ruth E K; Roter, Debra L; Hossain, Jobayer; Byck, Hal; Sharif, Iman


    We proposed and tested a theoretical framework for how use of Teach-back could influence communication during the pediatric clinical encounter. Audio-taped pediatric primary care encounters with 44 children with asthma were coded using the Roter Interaction Analysis System to measure patient-centered communication and affective engagement of the parent. A newly created Teach-back Loop Score measured the extent to which Teach-back occurred during the clinical encounter; parental health literacy was measured by Newest Vital Sign. Logistic regression was used to test the relationship between Teach-back and features of communication. Focus groups held separately with clinicians and parents elicited perceptions of Teach-back usefulness. Teach-back was used in 39% of encounters. Visits with Teach-back had more patient centered communication (p=0.01). Adjusting for parent health literacy, parent age, and child age, Teach-back increased the odds of both patient centered communication [proportional AOR (95% CI)=4.97 (4.47-5.53)]and negative affect [AOR (95% CI)=5.39 (1.68-17.31)]. Focus group themes common to clinicians and parents included: Teach-back is effective, could cause discomfort, should be used with children, and nurses should use it. Teach-back was associated with more patient-centered communication and increased affective engagement of parents. Standardizing Teach-back use may strengthen patient-centered communication. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Frontcountry encounter norms among three cultures (United States)

    Jerry J. Vaske; Maureen P. Donnelly; Robert M. Doctor; James P. Petruzzi


    Existing normative studies have focused on backcountry encounter norms reported by North Americans. This study extends previous research by comparing encounter norms reported by three different cultures - North Americans, Europeans, and Japanese - in a frontcountry day use recreation area. Data were obtained from on-site surveys distributed at the Columbia Icefield in...

  12. Challenges encountered when expanding activated sludge models: a case study based on N2O production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Snip, Laura; Boiocchi, Riccardo; Flores Alsina, Xavier


    (WWTPs). As a consequence, these experiments might not be representative for full-scale performance, and unexpected behaviour may be observed when simulating WWTP models using the derived process equations. In this paper we want to highlight problems encountered using a simplified case study: a modified......: problems related to the overall mathematical model structure and problems related to the published set of parameter values. The paper describes the model implementation incompatibilities, the variability in parameter values and the difficulties of reaching similar conditions when simulating a full...

  13. Cosmopolitan encounters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plage, Stefanie; Willing, Indigo; Woodward, Ian


    This study contributes to the growing research on everyday cosmopolitanism in diverse societies. We employ a cosmopolitan encounters framework to explore the reflexive openness people perform and the ethical reasoning they draw on to get along with each other. In particular, we look beyond....... The ethical framework we propose is grounded in reflexive acts of sharing going beyond notions of giving and performing hospitality within a host/guest dyad....

  14. Due Regard Encounter Model Version 1.0 (United States)


    Note that no existing model covers encoun- ters between two IFR aircraft in oceanic airspace. The reason for this is that one cannot observe encounters...encounters between instrument flight rules ( IFR ) and non- IFR traffic beyond 12NM. 2 TABLE 1 Encounter model categories. Aircraft of Interest Intruder...Aircraft Location Flight Rule IFR VFR Noncooperative Noncooperative Conventional Unconventional CONUS IFR C C U X VFR C U U X Offshore IFR C C U X VFR C U

  15. The Integration of Two Healthcare Systems: A Common Healthcare Problem. (United States)

    Cassatly, Hannah; Cassatly, Michael


    The change in reimbursement mandated by the Affordable Care Act is causing a rapid consolidation of the marketplace as well as the delivery of clinical care in a team-based model. This case report examines the successful joining of two clinical teams concurrent with the merger of two healthcare organizations and discusses some of the difficulties encountered. A subsequent discussion focuses on the resolution: the need for physicians to embrace the team concept of healthcare delivery and for healthcare systems to facilitate this transition with team and leadership coaching.

  16. MMS Encounters with Reconnection Diffusion Regions in the Earth's Magnetotail (United States)

    Torbert, R. B.; Burch, J. L.; Argall, M. R.; Farrugia, C. J.; Alm, L.; Dors, I.; Payne, D.; Rogers, A. J.; Strangeway, R. J.; Phan, T.; Ergun, R.; Goodrich, K.; Lindqvist, P. A.; Khotyaintsev, Y. V.; Giles, B. L.; Rager, A. C.; Gershman, D. J.; Kletzing, C.


    The Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) fleet of four spacecraft traversed the Earth's magnetotail in May through August of 2017 with an apogee of 25 Re, and encountered diffusion regions characteristic of symmetric reconnection. This presentation will describe in-situ measurements of large electric fields, strong electron cross-tail and Hall currents, and electron velocity distributions (frequently crescent-shaped) that are commonly observed in these regions. Positive electromagnetic energy conversion is also typical. The characteristics of symmetric reconnection observations will be contrasted with those of asymmetric reconnection that MMS observed previously at the dayside magnetopause.

  17. High-velocity runaway stars from three-body encounters (United States)

    Gvaramadze, V. V.; Gualandris, A.; Portegies Zwart, S.


    We performed numerical simulations of dynamical encounters between hard, massive binaries and a very massive star (VMS; formed through runaway mergers of ordinary stars in the dense core of a young massive star cluster) to explore the hypothesis that this dynamical process could be responsible for the origin of high-velocity (≥ 200 - 400 km s-1) early or late B-type stars. We estimated the typical velocities produced in encounters between very tight massive binaries and VMSs (of mass of ≥ 200 M⊙) and found that about 3 - 4% of all encounters produce velocities ≥ 400 km s-1, while in about 2% of encounters the escapers attain velocities exceeding the Milky Ways's escape velocity. We therefore argue that the origin of high-velocity (≥ 200 - 400 km s-1) runaway stars and at least some so-called hypervelocity stars could be associated with dynamical encounters between the tightest massive binaries and VMSs formed in the cores of star clusters. We also simulated dynamical encounters between tight massive binaries and single ordinary 50 - 100 M⊙ stars. We found that from 1 to ≃ 4% of these encounters can produce runaway stars with velocities of ≥ 300 - 400 km s-1 (typical of the bound population of high-velocity halo B-type stars) and occasionally (in less than 1% of encounters) produce hypervelocity (≥ 700 km s-1) late B-type escapers.

  18. A mixed integer programming model for a continuous move transportation problem with service constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Fabian Lopez


    Full Text Available We consider a Pickup and Delivery Vehicle Routing Problem (PDP commonly encountered in real-world logistics operations. The problem involves a set of practical complications that have received little attention in the vehicle routing literature. In this problem, there are multiple vehicle types available to cover a set of pickup and delivery requests, each of which has pickup time windows and delivery time windows. Transportation orders and vehicle types must satisfy a set of compatibility constraints that specify which orders cannot be covered by which vehicle types. In addition we include some dock service capacity constraints as is required on common real world operations. This problem requires to be attended on large scale instances (orders ≥ 500, (vehicles ≥ 150. As a generalization of the traveling salesman problem, clearly this problem is NP-hard. The exact algorithms are too slow for large scale instances. The PDP-TWDS is both a packing problem (assign order to vehicles, and a routing problem (find the best route for each vehicle. We propose to solve the problem in three stages. The first stage constructs initials solutions at aggregate level relaxing some constraints on the original problem. The other two stages imposes time windows and dock service constraints. Our results are favorable finding good quality solutions in relatively short computational times.

  19. Processing changes across reading encounters. (United States)

    Levy, B A; Newell, S; Snyder, J; Timmins, K


    Five experiments examined changes in the processing of a text across reading encounters. Experiment 1 showed that reading speed increased systematically across encounters, with no loss in the extensiveness of analyses of the printed text, as indicated by the ability to detect nonword errors embedded within that passage. Experiment 2 replicated this improved reading fluency with experience and showed that it occurred even with typescript changes across trials, thus indicating that a primed visual operations explanation cannot account for the effect. The third and fourth experiments then extended the study of the familiarity effect to higher level processing, as indicated by the detection of word errors. Familiarity facilitated the detection of these violations at the syntactic-semantic levels. Finally, Experiment 5 showed that these higher level violations continued to be well detected over a series of reading encounters with the same text. The results indicate that prior experience improves reading speed, with no attenuation of analysis of the printed words or of the passage's message.

  20. Migrant differences in adolescents’ medicine use for common health problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cantarero Arevalo, Lourdes; Andersen, Anette; Holstein, Bjørn Evald


    the odds to 1.93 (1.32-2.81) for descendants and to 1.30 (0.81-2.07) for immigrants. When simultaneously controlling for the clustering effect of school, feeling safe at school and specific symptoms, the risk of using medicine for stomach-ache was still higher for descendant boys 1.90 (1...... differences in adolescents’ medicine use for common health problems, and if feeling safe at school, as a non-exposure to discrimination, explained these differences. Methods: Data derived from the 2006 Danish contribution to the World Health Organization collaborative study Health Behaviour in School......-aged Children (HBSC). Medicine use for headache, stomach-ache, difficulties getting to sleep and nervousness and feeling safe at school were self-reported. The population included boys and girls from ages 11 to 15 who were enrolled in the cross-sectional study. Included were 8480 ethnic Danes, 508 descendants...

  1. Prescription Writing Errors of Midwifery Students in Common Gynecological problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serveh Parang


    Full Text Available Background and aim: Giving improper prescriptions is common among medical practitioners, mostly graduates, in most communities even developed countries. So far, to our knowledge, no study has been conducted on prescription writing of graduate midwifery students. Therefore, this study aimed to detect prescription writing errors of midwifery students in common gynecological problems. Methods: In this descriptive cross-sectional study, 56 bachelor midwifery students, who had passed the theoretical and clinical courses of gynecology, were evaluated by Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE. A demographic questionnaire and a standard checklist for writing the prescriptions and medications were used for data collection. SPSS Version 16 was used to carry out descriptive statistics. Findings: Most of the students were single, with the mean age of 23.0±1.7 years. Most errors were related to not recording the patients’ age and sex, diagnosis, chief complaint, and the prescriber’s name (observed in less than 10% of the prescriptions. The complete dosage schedule and drug name were stated only in 1.8±4.8 and 14±18.6 of prescriptions, respectively. In more than 93% of the cases, route of use and treatment duration were not recorded. Conclusion: According to the results, the number of prescription errors of midwifery students was high. Therefore, it is recommended to run educational courses on prescription writing skills (e.g. writing prescriptions based on World Health Organization (WHO guidelines for the midwifery students.

  2. Dental Encounter System (DES) (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — Dental Encounter System (DES) is an automated health care application designed to capture critical data about the operations of VA Dental Services. Information on...

  3. Determinants of customer satisfaction with service encounter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariana Nefat


    Full Text Available Service encounters are the focal point of a customer’s perception of a service in terms of its quality, value and customer satisfaction. The paper researches the influence of the components of a service encounter on customer satisfaction. Among several factors that determine customer satisfaction the quality of service, which is related to the characteristics of service, plays an important role. However, a direct insight into the reasons that make a service encounter satisfactory or unsatisfactory is provided by the critical incident technique, where causes of dis/satisfaction differ primarily depending on whether they derive from interpersonal contact or from contact with technology. The evidence of service, which includes people, process and the physical evidence, plays a critical role in a customer’s dis/satisfaction. The influence of these elements cannot be observed separately; it must be observed in their interaction during the delivery of service and their strongest effect is achieved during face-to-face service encounters that have the characteristics of a theatre metaphor. Even though a high level of satisfaction may be achieved after the recovery of a service, enterprises should aim to conduct excellent service encounters right from the start.

  4. Optical system design with common aperture for mid-infrared and laser composite guidance (United States)

    Zhang, Xuanzhi; Yang, Zijian; Sun, Ting; Yang, Huamei; Han, Kunye; Hu, Bo


    When the field of operation of precision strike missiles is more and more complicated, autonomous seekers will soon encounter serious difficulties, especially with regard to low signature targets and complex scenarios. So the dual-mode sensors combining an imaging sensor with a semi-active laser seeker are conceived to overcome these specific problems. Here the sensors composed a dual field of view mid-infrared thermal imaging camera and a laser range finder have the common optical aperture which produced the minization of seeker construction. The common aperture optical systems for mid-infrared and laser dual-mode guildance have been developed, which could meet the passive middle infrared high-resolution imaging and the active laser high-precision indication and ranging. The optical system had good image quality, and fulfilled the performance requirement of seeker system. The design and expected performance of such a dual-mode optical system will be discussed.

  5. Dealing with Moms and Dads: Family Dilemmas Encountered by Youth Program Leaders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aisha Griffith


    Full Text Available The leaders of youth programs encounter a range of challenging situations that involve youth’s parents or families. This qualitative study obtained data on the variety and nature of these family-related “dilemmas of practice.” Longitudinal interviews with leaders of 10 high quality programs for high-school-aged youth yielded narrative information on a sample of 32 family dilemmas that they had encountered. Grounded theory analysis identified four categories of family dilemmas: 1 problems at home that become a concern to the leader, 2 parents’ expectations are incongruent with program norms or functioning, 3 parents do not support youth’s participation in the program or an aspect of the program, and 4 communicating with parents on sensitive matters. Each of these categories of dilemmas entailed distinct considerations and underlying issues that effective leaders need to be able to understand.

  6. Moving Encounters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Deslandes


    Full Text Available This essay explores my experience of losing an authoritative speaking position – that is, ‘falling on my face’ in a research encounter with the Brazilian Landless Worker’s Movement (O Movimento dos Trabalhadores Rurais sem Terra, or MST.  My specific movements through this locale invoke Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak’s concept of ‘unlearning one’s privilege as a loss’; and Sara Ahmed’s theory of ‘stranger fetishism’.  In writing my brief loss, I also; of course, recover my speaking position, meaning that I can always efface the loss by re-writing it as a source of ethnographic authority.  This essay is written in two voices in order to reflect this paradox: one which describes the encounter, and one that critically ruminates upon it.  I note, for example, that the MST as a variegated conglomerate of people takes the form of particular ‘Others’ when they are represented in the scholarship and polemic of ‘first world’ activists in the so called ‘global justice movement’.  ‘Falling on my face in the street’ of these Others locates particular processes of fetishization within the global justice movement and the relationships across power and difference that are contained herein; processes that impact on the idea of a ‘global’ solidarity against systemic ‘global’ oppressions.

  7. Customer-sales employee encounters: a dyadic perspective.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dolen, van W.; Lemmink, J.G.A.M.; Ruyter, de J.C.; Jong, de A.


    Although researchers have suggested that the performance of the salesperson during sales encounters is critical, many of the underlying mechanisms that govern the interaction between salespersons and customers are still unclear. In this research, we investigate sales encounters from a new approach

  8. Customer-to-customer roles and impacts in service encounters


    Lee, Linda


    This thesis investigates customer-to-customer roles and impacts in the context of service encounters. This topic is studied from two angles: customer interactions during group service encounters and customer perceptions post service encounters. The first angle is a focus on group service encounters that addresses the lack of research on customer-to-customer interactions that occur in customer-to-customer interaction-intensive contexts. These are contexts where the interactions between custome...

  9. A Lakatosian Encounter (United States)

    Chick, Helen


    There is much to be learned and pondered by reading "Proofs and Refutations," by Imre Lakatos. It highlights the importance of mathematical definitions, and how definitions evolve to capture the essence of the object they are defining. It also provides an exhilarating encounter with the ups and downs of the mathematical reasoning process, where…

  10. Strategy Keys as Tools for Problem Solving (United States)

    Herold-Blasius, Raja


    Problem solving is one of the main competences we seek to teach students at school for use in their future lives. However, when dealing with mathematical problems, teachers encounter a wide variety of difficulties. To foster students' problem-solving skills, the authors developed "strategy keys." Strategy keys can serve as material to…

  11. Festival as embodied encounters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Kirsten; Koefoed, Lasse Martin; Neergaard, Maja de


    This article is part of a project on Paradoxical Spaces: Encountering the Other in public space which explores how cultural difference is experienced, practiced and negotiated in public space. Specifically, it explores the ‘multicultural’ festival Kulturhavn taking place yearly along the harbour...... of Copenhagen. Multicultural festivals are seen as places for on-going identity negotiations, where individuals and groups define meaningful concepts of identity along with notions of exclusion. In the paper, we adopt a performative approach abandoning the distinction between bodies and space and embracing...... ideas of ‘embodiment’ and ‘rhythm’. We explore participant engagement emphasizing bodily practices as well as sensuous experiences, but also differential processes and orientalist images produced in, and through, encounters. Among the range of activities at the festival, we focus on three: food; dance...

  12. Co-creation of Innovations in ICT based service encounters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jannick Kirk; Henten, Anders


    Innovations in services often emanate from service encounters (i.e. the touch points between the service producers and the customers). Two different types of service encounters are dealt with: face-to-face and ICT-based service encounters. The aim of the chapter is to examine the specific...

  13. Adaptation of Social Problem Solving for Children Questionnaire in 6 Age Groups and its Relationships with Preschool Behavior Problems (United States)

    Dereli-Iman, Esra


    Social Problem Solving for Child Scale is frequently used to determine behavioral problems of children with their own word and to identify ways of conflict encountered in daily life, and interpersonal relationships in abroad. The primary purpose of this study was to adapt the Wally Child Social Problem-Solving Detective Game Test. In order to…

  14. Learning Problems among Male and Female First Year ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There has been the observation that fresh students in their first year in the university encounter some learning problems. Specific problems investigated in this work include those of concentration ability, memory ability, study time management ability, attention problems, ability to join other students in study group work and ...

  15. Common Sleep, Psychiatric, and Somatic Problems According to Work Schedule: an Internet Survey in an Eastern European Country. (United States)

    Voinescu, Bogdan I


    A wide range of health problems was investigated, aiming to identify the presence and severity of a set of self-reported and common sleep, psychiatric, and somatic health problems among working professionals in four different shift schedules (morning, evening, rotating, and day) in several cities in Romania. A heterogeneous sample of 488 workers of different professions completed online a battery of tests, namely the Basic Nordic Sleep Questionnaire, the Parasomnia Questionnaire, the Epworth Sleepiness Scale, and the Patient Health Questionnaire, designed to identity symptoms of insomnia, sleepiness, snoring, parasomnia, as well as of depression, anxiety, eating, somatoform, and alcohol use disorders, respectively. The timing and the duration of the sleep, along with the presence of high blood pressure and type 2 diabetes mellitus were also inquired. The prevalence of the different health problems in relation to the type of shift schedule was evaluated with the Pearson Chi-square test. ANOVA was used to calculate the significance of the difference between the means, while associations with different health problems were estimated by binary logistic regression. The most common mental health problems were depression (26%), insomnia (20%), alcohol misuse (18%), and anxiety (17%). No significant differences based on the type of shift in terms of health problems were found, except for high blood pressure and symptoms of panic disorder that were more frequently reported by the workers in early morning shifts. Together with the workers in rotating shifts, they also reported increased sleepiness, poorer sleep quality, and shorter sleep duration. In contrast, the workers in evening shifts reported less severe health problems and longer sleep duration. Working in early morning shifts was found to be associated with poorer health outcomes, while working in rotating and early morning shifts with more severe sleep-related problems.

  16. Value creation and knowledge development in tourism experience encounters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Flemming; Jensen, Jens Friis


    It has been argued that service encounters between front-line employees and users support the development of knowledge about users' needs. However, the potential for this often remains unused, not least in tourism. This article argues that if tourism service encounters are changed into ‘experience...... encounters’ by integrating them into the tourism experience to which they are related, this will create added experiential value for tourists and increase the creation of knowledge about users. This is illustrated in an innovation field experiment in a retro design boutique hotel in which service encounters...... were developed into experience encounters. The experiment illustrates the potential that experience encounters have to create knowledge and value, but also suggests some barriers that need to be overcome....

  17. Proceedings of the third international symposium on fire economics, planning, and policy: common problems and approaches (United States)

    Armando González-Cabán


    These proceedings summarize the results of a symposium designed to address current issues of agencies with wildland fire protection responsibility at the federal and state levels in the United States as well as agencies in the international community. The topics discussed at the symposium included regional, national, and global vision of forest fires: common problems...

  18. Obstacles Related to Structuring for Mathematization Encountered by Students when Solving Physics Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niss, Martin


    This paper studies the cognitive obstacles related to one aspect of mathematization in physics problem-solving, namely, what might be called structuring for mathematization, where the problem situation is structured in such a way that a translation to a mathematical universe can be done. We report...

  19. Awkward Encounters and Ethnography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koning, Juliette; Ooi, Can-Seng


    from these encounters. Un-paralyzing reflexivity means to include the awkward, the emotional, and admit the non-rational aspects of our ethnographic experiences; such inclusive reflexivity is incredibly insightful. Research limitations/implications – Inclusive reflexivity not only allows room...

  20. Common dental and periodontal diseases: evaluation and management. (United States)

    Laudenbach, Joel M; Simon, Ziv


    Physicians may encounter patients with dental and periodontal diseases in the context of outpatient medical practice. It is important for physicians to be aware of common dental and periodontal conditions and be able to assess for the presence and severity of these diseases. This article reviews common dental and periodontal conditions, their cardinal signs and symptoms, outpatient-setting assessment techniques, as well as common methods of treatment. Physicians detecting gross abnormalities on clinical examination should refer the patient to a dentist for further evaluation and management. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The most common nonconformities encountered during the assessments of medical laboratories in Hong Kong using ISO 15189 as accreditation criteria


    Ho, Bella; Ho, Eric


    Introduction: ISO 15189 was a new standard published in 2003 for accrediting medical laboratories. We believe that some requirements of the ISO 15189 standard are especially diffi cult to meet for majority of laboratories. The aim of this article was to present the frequency of nonconformities to requirements of the ISO 15189 accreditation standard, encountered during the assessments of medical laboratories in Hong Kong, during 2004 to 2009. Materials and methods: Nonconformities reported ...

  2. Radiological field survey problems and solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deming, E.J.; Boerner, A.J.


    Situations often arise during radiological field surveys which require the health physicist to improvise and/or make spot decisions. At times these situations can be humorous, but they can also present hazards more serious than normal radiological considerations. This presentation will depict various problematic situations encountered by Oak Ridge Associated Universities Radiological Site Assessment Program in the course of performing field environmental surveys. Detailing these potential hazards can alert other field survey groups to problems they may encounter

  3. Beyond the interface: Encountering artifacts in use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Susanne; Bannon, Liam


    did studies in Scandinavia, one primarily in North America. As both of us are concerned with making more useful and usable computer applications we decided to look further for frameworks to help us. In this paper we shall try to expose some of the problems that we encountered in our joint effort...... in their interactions with technology. He became uncomfortable with the gap between current cognitive theories and their utility in designing better interfaces to computer systems. The other person has a background in software engineering and computer systems design. In her search for a deeper understanding of  issues...... in HCi, she came across the cognitive science framework, but she felt that its methods did not provide much help for concrete design in real life situations. In many ways our personal histories reflect some of the developments within the HCI area - the search for more theoretical frameworks...

  4. Physical activity problem-solving inventory for adolescents: Development and initial validation (United States)

    Youth encounter physical activity barriers, often called problems. The purpose of problem-solving is to generate solutions to overcome the barriers. Enhancing problem-solving ability may enable youth to be more physically active. Therefore, a method for reliably assessing physical activity problem-s...

  5. Visual Complaints and Eye Problems in Orchestral Musicians. (United States)

    Beckers, Henny Jm; van Kooten-Noordzij, Marina Aw; de Crom, Ronald Mpc; Schouten, Jan Sag; Webers, Carroll Ab


    To study visual complaints and eye diseases among professional and amateur orchestral musicians in the Netherlands. In this observational study, members from professional and amateur symphony or wind orchestras were asked to complete a questionnaire collecting demographic data, musical, medical, and family history, and data on present visual complaints and/or eye diseases. Questions about playing in the orchestra were also asked. Data from 70 professionals and 48 amateurs showed that most musicians needed glasses or contact lenses for playing in the orchestra (61% of the professionals, 63% of the amateurs). A majority (66% of professionals, 71% of amateurs) had visited an ophthalmologist at least once during their lifetime, and 10% of the professionals and 23% of the amateurs were currently under treatment of an ophthalmologist. Visual complaints while playing in the orchestra were quite common and included poor lighting conditions, problems with reading small notes, blurred vision, tired eyes, and itching or burning eyes. Professional musicians especially reported adverse effects of eye complaints encountered in the orchestra for daily life; 35% got tired earlier and 33% felt that they could not adequately perform their tasks in the orchestra. The results show that visual complaints and eye problems probably are quite common among orchestral musicians and therefore warrant further interest and research.

  6. Computer aided approach to qualitative and quantitative common cause failure analysis for complex systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cate, C.L.; Wagner, D.P.; Fussell, J.B.


    Common cause failure analysis, also called common mode failure analysis, is an integral part of a complete system reliability analysis. Existing methods of computer aided common cause failure analysis are extended by allowing analysis of the complex systems often encountered in practice. The methods aid in identifying potential common cause failures and also address quantitative common cause failure analysis

  7. Close stellar encounters in globular clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailyn, C.D.


    Stellar encounters are expected to produce a variety of interesting objects in the cores of globular clusters, either through the formation of binaries by tidal capture, or direct collisions. Here, I describe several attempts to observe the products of stellar encounters. In particular, the use of color maps has demonstrated the existence of a color gradient in the core of M15, which seems to be caused by a population of faint blue objects concentrated towards the cluster center. (author)

  8. Innovation and problem solving: a review of common mechanisms. (United States)

    Griffin, Andrea S; Guez, David


    Behavioural innovations have become central to our thinking about how animals adjust to changing environments. It is now well established that animals vary in their ability to innovate, but understanding why remains a challenge. This is because innovations are rare, so studying innovation requires alternative experimental assays that create opportunities for animals to express their ability to invent new behaviours, or use pre-existing ones in new contexts. Problem solving of extractive foraging tasks has been put forward as a suitable experimental assay. We review the rapidly expanding literature on problem solving of extractive foraging tasks in order to better understand to what extent the processes underpinning problem solving, and the factors influencing problem solving, are in line with those predicted, and found, to underpin and influence innovation in the wild. Our aim is to determine whether problem solving can be used as an experimental proxy of innovation. We find that in most respects, problem solving is determined by the same underpinning mechanisms, and is influenced by the same factors, as those predicted to underpin, and to influence, innovation. We conclude that problem solving is a valid experimental assay for studying innovation, propose a conceptual model of problem solving in which motor diversity plays a more central role than has been considered to date, and provide recommendations for future research using problem solving to investigate innovation. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Cognition in the wild. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Shouting in a Desert: Dutch missionary encounters with Javanese Islam, 1850-1910 : Dutch missionary encounters with Javanese Islam, 1850-1910

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. Kruithof (Maryse)


    markdownabstract__Abstract__ ‘‘Shouting in a desert’ Dutch missionary encounters with Javanese Islam’ concentrates on the shifts and developments in the Dutch mission discourse within the period from 1850 to 1910. It explores the Dutch missionary encounter with local communities and is conducted

  10. Using CAS to Solve Classical Mathematics Problems (United States)

    Burke, Maurice J.; Burroughs, Elizabeth A.


    Historically, calculus has displaced many algebraic methods for solving classical problems. This article illustrates an algebraic method for finding the zeros of polynomial functions that is closely related to Newton's method (devised in 1669, published in 1711), which is encountered in calculus. By exploring this problem, precalculus students…

  11. Service encounters as bases for innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundbo, Jon; Sundbo, Donna; Henten, Anders


    customers with the innovating organization. Based on literature studies and pilot case studies, seven propositions are proposed and tested in a qualitative, hermeneutic way in field experiments in nine service organizations. Important new results are that encounter-based innovation requires mutual empathy...... between employees and customers, employees investing stubbornness and time can be a driver for innovation, and several layers of management can be a barrier. In the field experiments three new factors for encounter-based innovation were found: translation, multitasking, and hyper-professionalism. The two...

  12. Predator-prey encounters in turbulent waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mann, J.; Ott, Søren; Pécseli, H.L.


    With reference to studies of predator-prey encounters in turbulent waters, we demonstrate the feasibility of an experimental method for investigations of particle fluxes to an absorbing surface in turbulent flows. A laboratory experiment is carried out, where an approximately homogeneous and isot......With reference to studies of predator-prey encounters in turbulent waters, we demonstrate the feasibility of an experimental method for investigations of particle fluxes to an absorbing surface in turbulent flows. A laboratory experiment is carried out, where an approximately homogeneous...

  13. Plankton motility patterns and encounter rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Visser, Andre; Kiørboe, Thomas


    measure of run length to reaction distance determines whether the underlying encounter is ballistic or diffusive. Since ballistic interactions are intrinsically more efficient than diffusive, we predict that organisms will display motility with long correlation run lengths compared to their reaction...... distances to their prey, but short compared to the reaction distances of their predators. We show motility data for planktonic organisms ranging from bacteria to copepods that support this prediction. We also present simple ballistic and diffusive motility models for estimating encounter rates, which lead...

  14. LHC experiences close encounters with UFOs

    CERN Multimedia

    Mike Lamont for the LHC Team


    On 29 May, yet another record was set as 1092 bunches per beam were injected into the LHC, hitting a peak luminosity of 1.26x1033 cm-2 s-1. While running at 3.5 TeV each beam now packs a total energy of over 70 MJ – equivalent to a TGV travelling at a 70 kph.   Operators in the LHC Control Centre happily show off their display screens after succesfully injecting 1092 bunches injected into the machine for the first time.  As the total beam intensity has been pushed up, the LHC has encountered a number of related problems, such as the so-called UFOs (Unidentified Falling Objects). These are thought to be dust particles falling through the beam, causing localized beam loss. The losses can push nearby beam loss monitors over the threshold and dump the beam. This is more of an annoyance than a danger for the LHC, but UFOs do reduce the operational efficiency of the machine. Despite this, the luminosity delivered to the experiments has steadily increased. On three occasions there ha...

  15. Using problem-solving instruction to overcome high school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    identified difficulties in comparison to the conventional lecture method. ... important for chemistry educators to be aware of the difficulties students encounter as they learn .... these concepts before the can solve quantitative numerical problems. Secondly ... development of stepped supporting tools for stoichiometric problems, ...

  16. Encountering whales: How encounter rates became the basis for managing whaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim D Smith


    Full Text Available Declining rates of encountering whales, including both sighting and catching, were noted by whalers throughout the 19th century, and these declines became the first indication that whaling was adversely affecting whale abundance. The interpretation of declines in both sighting and catch rates proved to be a difficult scientific task. Satisfactory quantitative methods of interpreting changes in whale encounter rates were not developed until the second half of the 20th century. Rates of encountering whales played a key role in the International Whaling Commission (IWC Scientific Committee from its beginning in the early 1950s, as well as in the US in implementing its Marine Mammal Protection Act beginning in the early 1970s. The development of methods of collecting and interpreting sighting and catch data was intimately interwoven with the development of themanagement of whaling and cetacean by-catches in fisheries throughout the world, but especially within the context of the Scientific Committees of the IWC and the North Atlantic Marine Mammal Commission (NAMMCO. Although overfishing of whales was initially identified through the use of sighting rate data, catch rate data provided the IWC’s Committee its first firm footing for management advice. However, it was sighting rate data that ultimately became the basis for the scientific advice on whaling and for management advice in other settings. This led to the development of large scale cetacean sighting programmes, such as the IWC’s International Decade of Cetacean Researchsurveys in Antarctic aboard Japanese ships, the North Atlantic Sighting Surveys (NASS aboard Norwegian, Icelandic, Spanish, Greenlandic and Faroese vessels and aircraft (coordinated by NAMMCO through its Scientific Committee from 1995, and surveys under the US’s Marine Mammal Protection Act and the European Union’s Small Cetacean Abundance in the North Sea (SCANS programme. Fishery independent cetacean sighting surveys

  17. Analytical solutions of the electrostatically actuated curled beam problem

    KAUST Repository

    Younis, Mohammad I.


    This works presents analytical expressions of the electrostatically actuated initially deformed cantilever beam problem. The formulation is based on the continuous Euler-Bernoulli beam model combined with a single-mode Galerkin approximation. We derive simple analytical expressions for two commonly observed deformed beams configurations: the curled and tilted configurations. The derived analytical formulas are validated by comparing their results to experimental data and numerical results of a multi-mode reduced order model. The derived expressions do not involve any complicated integrals or complex terms and can be conveniently used by designers for quick, yet accurate, estimations. The formulas are found to yield accurate results for most commonly encountered microbeams of initial tip deflections of few microns. For largely deformed beams, we found that these formulas yield less accurate results due to the limitations of the single-mode approximation. In such cases, multi-mode reduced order models are shown to yield accurate results. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  18. Problems encountered during the development and implantation of the Baylor-Rice orthotopic cardiac prosthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, J.N. Jr.; Akers, W.W.; O'Bannon, W.; Spargo, W.J.; Serrato, M.A.; Fuqua, J.M. Jr.; Ruark, B.S.; Wieting, D.W.; Kennedy, J.H.; DeBakey, M.E.


    The problems associated with the development of an artificial heart are enumerated. In a series of 24 calf implantations, several of the animals stood unassisted and reacted normally, but all eventually died with deteriorating circulatory and pulmonary systems. The problems caused by pump size and geometry represented the most important deterrents to long-term survival. A new prosthesis, though not yet tested in animals, is believed to minimize these problems. (auth)

  19. Phylogenomic approaches to common problems encountered in the analysis of low copy repeats: The sulfotransferase 1A gene family example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benner Steven A


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Blocks of duplicated genomic DNA sequence longer than 1000 base pairs are known as low copy repeats (LCRs. Identified by their sequence similarity, LCRs are abundant in the human genome, and are interesting because they may represent recent adaptive events, or potential future adaptive opportunities within the human lineage. Sequence analysis tools are needed, however, to decide whether these interpretations are likely, whether a particular set of LCRs represents nearly neutral drift creating junk DNA, or whether the appearance of LCRs reflects assembly error. Here we investigate an LCR family containing the sulfotransferase (SULT 1A genes involved in drug metabolism, cancer, hormone regulation, and neurotransmitter biology as a first step for defining the problems that those tools must manage. Results Sequence analysis here identified a fourth sulfotransferase gene, which may be transcriptionally active, located on human chromosome 16. Four regions of genomic sequence containing the four human SULT1A paralogs defined a new LCR family. The stem hominoid SULT1A progenitor locus was identified by comparative genomics involving complete human and rodent genomes, and a draft chimpanzee genome. SULT1A expansion in hominoid genomes was followed by positive selection acting on specific protein sites. This episode of adaptive evolution appears to be responsible for the dopamine sulfonation function of some SULT enzymes. Each of the conclusions that this bioinformatic analysis generated using data that has uncertain reliability (such as that from the chimpanzee genome sequencing project has been confirmed experimentally or by a "finished" chromosome 16 assembly, both of which were published after the submission of this manuscript. Conclusion SULT1A genes expanded from one to four copies in hominoids during intra-chromosomal LCR duplications, including (apparently one after the divergence of chimpanzees and humans. Thus, LCRs may

  20. Problems in fluid flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brasch, D.J.


    Chemical and mineral engineering students require texts which give guidance to problem solving to complement their main theoretical texts. This book has a broad coverage of the fluid flow problems which these students may encounter. The fundamental concepts and the application of the behaviour of liquids and gases in unit operation are dealt with. The book is intended to give numerical practice; development of theory is undertaken only when elaboration of treatments available in theoretical texts is absolutely necessary

  1. Public Awareness regarding Common Eye Diseases among Saudi Adults in Riyadh City: A Quantitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waleed A. Al Rashed


    Full Text Available Aim. The current study aimed to evaluate the knowledge of eye disease and awareness of eye care among the Saudi adults and to explore existing eye-related misconceptions in the community. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Riyadh city during May and June 2016. A self-administered anonymous online questionnaire was used to explore the most common misconceptions related to eye diseases and eye care. Results. Out of 1000 individuals, only 711 (71.1% participant responses were received. The participants’ acceptable knowledge (score ≥50% was high about the eye problem in diabetes (88.6%, ocular trauma (81.2%, and other general eye diseases (91.3%, whereas low about refractive errors (63%, pediatric eye problems (51.5%, and glaucoma (14.8%. The variation in knowledge about specific ocular morbidities was significant (p<0.001. The majority of participants reported sources of information about the common eye diseases and eye care encountered from the community, internet-based resources, and social media. Conclusions. The majority of the participants had awareness about the common eye diseases, whereas low percentage of participant’s awareness about specific condition of eye diseases. Public eye health awareness should be more focused on social media and the internet to be able to cover the younger individuals of the community.

  2. Problems encountered by teenage mothers in the Southern Hho-Hho region of Swaziland


    Lovegirl S Dlamini; Martie M van der Merwe; Valerie J Ehlers


    A qualitative, explorative, descriptive and contextual research approach was followed to study the problems experiencedby teenage mothers in the southern Hho-Hho region of Swaziland. Opsomming ’n Kwalitatiewe, eksploratiewe, beskrywende en kontekstuele navorsingsbenadering is gevolg tydens die studie van probleme wat deur tienermoeders in die suidelike Hho-Hho gebied van Swaziland ondervind is. *Please note: This is a reduced version of the abstract. Please refer to PDF for full t...

  3. Brain systems underlying encounter expectancy bias in spider phobia. (United States)

    Aue, Tatjana; Hoeppli, Marie-Eve; Piguet, Camille; Hofstetter, Christoph; Rieger, Sebastian W; Vuilleumier, Patrik


    Spider-phobic individuals are characterized by exaggerated expectancies to be faced with spiders (so-called encounter expectancy bias). Whereas phobic responses have been linked to brain systems mediating fear, little is known about how the recruitment of these systems relates to exaggerated expectancies of threat. We used fMRI to examine spider-phobic and control participants while they imagined visiting different locations in a forest after having received background information about the likelihood of encountering different animals (spiders, snakes, and birds) at these locations. Critically, imagined encounter expectancies modulated brain responses differently in phobics as compared with controls. Phobics displayed stronger negative modulation of activity in the lateral prefrontal cortex, precuneus, and visual cortex by encounter expectancies for spiders, relative to snakes or birds (within-participants analysis); these effects were not seen in controls. Between-participants correlation analyses within the phobic group further corroborated the hypothesis that these phobia-specific modulations may underlie irrationality in encounter expectancies (deviations of encounter expectancies from objective background information) in spider phobia; the greater the negative modulation a phobic participant displayed in the lateral prefrontal cortex, precuneus, and visual cortex, the stronger was her bias in encounter expectancies for spiders. Interestingly, irrationality in expectancies reflected in frontal areas relied on right rather than left hemispheric deactivations. Our data accord with the idea that expectancy biases in spider phobia may reflect deficiencies in cognitive control and contextual integration that are mediated by right frontal and parietal areas.

  4. Development of common user data model for APOLLO3 and MARBLE and application to benchmark problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoyama, Kenji


    A Common User Data Model, CUDM, has been developed for the purpose of benchmark calculations between APOLLO3 and MARBLE code systems. The current version of CUDM was designed for core calculation benchmark problems with 3-dimensional Cartesian, 3-D XYZ, geometry. CUDM is able to manage all input/output data such as 3-D XYZ geometry, effective macroscopic cross section, effective multiplication factor and neutron flux. In addition, visualization tools for geometry and neutron flux were included. CUDM was designed by the object-oriented technique and implemented using Python programming language. Based on the CUDM, a prototype system for a benchmark calculation, CUDM-benchmark, was also developed. The CUDM-benchmark supports input/output data conversion for IDT solver in APOLLO3, and TRITAC and SNT solvers in MARBLE. In order to evaluate pertinence of CUDM, the CUDM-benchmark was applied to benchmark problems proposed by T. Takeda, G. Chiba and I. Zmijarevic. It was verified that the CUDM-benchmark successfully reproduced the results calculated with reference input data files, and provided consistent results among all the solvers by using one common input data defined by CUDM. In addition, a detailed benchmark calculation for Chiba benchmark was performed by using the CUDM-benchmark. Chiba benchmark is a neutron transport benchmark problem for fast criticality assembly without homogenization. This benchmark problem consists of 4 core configurations which have different sodium void regions, and each core configuration is defined by more than 5,000 fuel/material cells. In this application, it was found that the results by IDT and SNT solvers agreed well with the reference results by Monte-Carlo code. In addition, model effects such as quadrature set effect, S n order effect and mesh size effect were systematically evaluated and summarized in this report. (author)

  5. Correlation between patients' reasons for encounters/health problems and population density in Japan: a systematic review of observational studies coded by the International Classification of Health Problems in Primary Care (ICHPPC) and the International Classification of Primary care (ICPC). (United States)

    Kaneko, Makoto; Ohta, Ryuichi; Nago, Naoki; Fukushi, Motoharu; Matsushima, Masato


    The Japanese health care system has yet to establish structured training for primary care physicians; therefore, physicians who received an internal medicine based training program continue to play a principal role in the primary care setting. To promote the development of a more efficient primary health care system, the assessment of its current status in regard to the spectrum of patients' reasons for encounters (RFEs) and health problems is an important step. Recognizing the proportions of patients' RFEs and health problems, which are not generally covered by an internist, can provide valuable information to promote the development of a primary care physician-centered system. We conducted a systematic review in which we searched six databases (PubMed, the Cochrane Library, Google Scholar, Ichushi-Web, JDreamIII and CiNii) for observational studies in Japan coded by International Classification of Health Problems in Primary Care (ICHPPC) and International Classification of Primary Care (ICPC) up to March 2015. We employed population density as index of accessibility. We calculated Spearman's rank correlation coefficient to examine the correlation between the proportion of "non-internal medicine-related" RFEs and health problems in each study area in consideration of the population density. We found 17 studies with diverse designs and settings. Among these studies, "non-internal medicine-related" RFEs, which was not thought to be covered by internists, ranged from about 4% to 40%. In addition, "non-internal medicine-related" health problems ranged from about 10% to 40%. However, no significant correlation was found between population density and the proportion of "non-internal medicine-related" RFEs and health problems. This is the first systematic review on RFEs and health problems coded by ICHPPC and ICPC undertaken to reveal the diversity of health problems in Japanese primary care. These results suggest that primary care physicians in some rural areas of Japan

  6. Managed care in Germany and Switzerland. Two approaches to a common problem. (United States)

    Zweifel, P


    The point of departure for this contribution is a problem common to all Western healthcare systems, namely the deficiency of their basic building block, the physician-patient relationship. This deficiency opens up a market for complementary agents in healthcare, ranging from medical associations to the central government. While Germany has traditionally put the emphasis on medical associations as the dominant complementary agent (DCA), it is shifting towards the central government. Switzerland, on the other hand, traditionally has relied on the cantonal governments and is now moving towards competing (quasi-) private health insurers that would function as DCAs. Thus, managed care, which is a means through which to reshape the physician-patient relationship, is used quite differently in the 2 countries, with differing expected outcomes and different consequences for the pharmaceutical industry.

  7. Assessment of occupational hazards, health problems and safety ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Petrol station attendants encounter several hazards and health problems while working. This study was conducted to determine the ... Hazards reported included inhalation of petrol fumes 145 (67.4%), confrontation from customers 112 (52.1%) and noise 98 (45.6%). Health problems reported included ...

  8. Problems encountered by teenage mothers in the Southern Hho-Hho region of Swaziland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lovegirl S Dlamini


    Full Text Available A qualitative, explorative, descriptive and contextual research approach was followed to study the problems experiencedby teenage mothers in the southern Hho-Hho region of Swaziland. Opsomming ’n Kwalitatiewe, eksploratiewe, beskrywende en kontekstuele navorsingsbenadering is gevolg tydens die studie van probleme wat deur tienermoeders in die suidelike Hho-Hho gebied van Swaziland ondervind is. *Please note: This is a reduced version of the abstract. Please refer to PDF for full text.

  9. Can work make you mentally ill? A systematic meta-review of work-related risk factors for common mental health problems. (United States)

    Harvey, Samuel B; Modini, Matthew; Joyce, Sadhbh; Milligan-Saville, Josie S; Tan, Leona; Mykletun, Arnstein; Bryant, Richard A; Christensen, Helen; Mitchell, Philip B


    It has been suggested that certain types of work may increase the risk of common mental disorders, but the exact nature of the relationship has been contentious. The aim of this paper is to conduct the first comprehensive systematic meta-review of the evidence linking work to the development of common mental health problems, specifically depression, anxiety and/or work-related stress and to consider how the risk factors identified may relate to each other. MEDLINE, PsychInfo, Embase, the Cochrane Collaboration and grey literature databases were systematically searched for review articles that examined work-based risk factors for common mental health problems. All included reviews were subjected to a quality appraisal. 37 review studies were identified, of which 7 were at least moderate quality. 3 broad categories of work-related factors were identified to explain how work may contribute to the development of depression and/or anxiety: imbalanced job design, occupational uncertainty and lack of value and respect in the workplace. Within these broad categories, there was moderate level evidence from multiple prospective studies that high job demands, low job control, high effort-reward imbalance, low relational justice, low procedural justice, role stress, bullying and low social support in the workplace are associated with a greater risk of developing common mental health problems. While methodological limitations continue to preclude more definitive statements on causation between work and mental disorders, there is now a range of promising targets for individual and organisational-level interventions aimed at minimising mental health problems in the workplace. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to

  10. Strange culinary encounters:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leer, Jonatan; Kjær, Katrine Meldgaard


    In this article, we examine the ways in which the encountering of 'other' food cultures is played out in the two travelogue cooking shows Gordon's Great Escape and Jamie's Italian Escape. We investigate how the two protagonist chefs Jamie Oliver and Gordon Ramsay imagine, meet and evaluate the ‘o...... approach to meeting the other (culinary culture), ultimately, their respective culinary adventures work to re-affirm a social hierarchy in their favor....

  11. Difficulties that Students who Learn Turkish as a Foreign Language Encounter During Listening Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah KALDIRIM


    Full Text Available Listening skills play an important role in an individual’s communication with others and in their understanding of the environment. Since it provides a basis for the acquisition of language skills it is one of the most important learning tools, and because it is frequently used in everyday life and in the learning process, listening skill is the foreground of foreign language teaching. It is important for students to understand what they listen to in order that they do not encounter any difficulties in the language learning process. To ensure success in the environments where the Turkish language is taught as a foreign language, it is necessary to follow the listening processes of the students attentively and to identify the problems they face during this process. This study aims to identify the listening barriers encountered by university students learning Turkish as a foreign language at level B2, and was designed based on a qualitative research approach and a phenomenological design. Within the scope of the study, eight students studying at Dumlupınar University’s TÖMER (Turkish & Foreign Languages Research and Application Center were identified as participants. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews conducted with students included in the sample, and descriptive analysis technique was applied in the analysis of the research data. Participants expressed views that they often encountered problems such as accented speech, frequent use of idioms and proverbs during listening, lack of vocabulary development, and lack of emphasis and voice intonation during speech. Also, factors that make listening easy to understand are identified as the other languages they speak, good vocabulary knowledge, interesting topics, listening to audiovisual elements, and the speaker’s use of gestures and mimics.

  12. Guest-Host Encounters in Diaspora-Heritage Tourism: The Taglit-Birthright Israel Mifgash (Encounter) (United States)

    Sasson, Theodore; Mittelberg, David; Hecht, Shahar; Saxe, Leonard


    More than 300,000 diaspora Jewish young adults and tens of thousands of their Israeli peers have participated in structured, cross-cultural encounters--"mifgashim"--in the context of an experiential education program known as Taglit-Birthright Israel. Drawing on field observations, interviews, and surveys, the formal and informal…

  13. Hip Arthroscopy: Common Problems and Solutions. (United States)

    Casp, Aaron; Gwathmey, Frank Winston


    The use of hip arthroscopy continues to expand. Understanding potential pitfalls and complications associated with hip arthroscopy is paramount to optimizing clinical outcomes and minimizing unfavorable results. Potential pitfalls and complications are associated with preoperative factors such as patient selection, intraoperative factors such as iatrogenic damage, traction-related complications, inadequate correction of deformity, and nerve injury, or postoperative factors such as poor rehabilitation. This article outlines common factors that contribute to less-than-favorable outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The Impact of Value-Orientations on Cross-cultural Encounters and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    encounters and mediation in the Tanzanian educational system. The purpose of the article is to give an emic perspective on value-orientations in crosscultural encounters and mediation situations in the educational system, to improve understanding of the conflictive aspects of these encounters. To achieve this purpose, the ...

  15. Efficient Non-Linear Finite Element Implementation of Elasto-Plasticity for Geotechnical Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Johan

    -Coulomb yield criterion and the corresponding plastic potential possess corners and an apex, which causes numerical difficulties. A simple, elegant and efficient solution to these problems is presented in this thesis. The solution is based on a transformation into principal stress space and is valid for all...... linear isotropic plasticity models in which corners and apexes are encountered. The validity and merits of the proposed solution are examined in relation to the Mohr-Coulomb and the Modified Mohr-Coulomb material models. It is found that the proposed method compares well with existing methods......-Brown material. The efficiency and validity are demonstrated by comparing the finite-element results with well-known solutions for simple geometries. A common geotechnical problem is the assessment of slope stability. For slopes with simple geometries and consisting of a linear Mohr-Coulomb material, this can...

  16. Beyond Open Source Software: Solving Common Library Problems Using the Open Source Hardware Arduino Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Younker


    Full Text Available Using open source hardware platforms like the Arduino, libraries have the ability to quickly and inexpensively prototype custom hardware solutions to common library problems. The authors present the Arduino environment, what it is, what it does, and how it was used at the James A. Gibson Library at Brock University to create a production portable barcode-scanning utility for in-house use statistics collection as well as a prototype for a service desk statistics tabulation program’s hardware interface.

  17. common problems affecting supranational attempts in africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    1902), a common currency (1905), a Postal Union (1917) and a Customs ..... established in 1994 as a measure to address the attendant effects of the devaluation ..... According to the IMF, in spite of the establishment of a customs union within ...

  18. Encounters with Pinyon-Juniper influence riskier movements in Greater Sage-Grouse across the Great Basin (United States)

    Prochazka, Brian; Coates, Peter S.; Ricca, Mark; Casazza, Michael L.; Gustafson, K. Ben; Hull, Josh M.


    Fine-scale spatiotemporal studies can better identify relationships between individual survival and habitat fragmentation so that mechanistic interpretations can be made at the population level. Recent advances in Global Positioning System (GPS) technology and statistical models capable of deconstructing high-frequency location data have facilitated interpretation of animal movement within a behaviorally mechanistic framework. Habitat fragmentation due to singleleaf pinyon (Pinus monophylla; hereafter pinyon) and Utah juniper (Juniperus osteosperma; hereafter juniper) encroachment into sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) communities is a commonly implicated perturbation that can adversely influence greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus; hereafter sage-grouse) demographic rates. Using an extensive GPS data set (233 birds and 282,954 locations) across 12 study sites within the Great Basin, we conducted a behavioral change point analysis and subsequently constructed Brownian bridge movement models from each behaviorally homogenous section. We found a positive relationship between modeled movement rate and probability of encountering pinyon-juniper with significant variation among age classes. The probability of encountering pinyon-juniper among adults was two and three times greater than that of yearlings and juveniles, respectively. However, the movement rate in response to the probability of encountering pinyon-juniper trees was 1.5 times greater for juveniles. We then assessed the risk of mortality associated with an interaction between movement rate and the probability of encountering pinyon-juniper using shared frailty models. During pinyon-juniper encounters, on average, juvenile, yearling, and adult birds experienced a 10.4%, 0.2%, and 0.3% reduction in annual survival probabilities. Populations that used pinyon-juniper habitats with a frequency ≥ 3.8 times the overall mean experienced decreases in annual survival probabilities of 71.1%, 0.9%, and 0.9%. This

  19. Common mental health problems in historically disadvantaged urban and rural communities in South Africa: prevalence and risk factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havenaar, Juhan; Geerlings, Mirjan; Vivian, Lauraine; Collinson, Marh; Robertson, Brian


    This paper reports on an epidemiological study of common mental health and substance abuse problems in a historically disadvantaged urban and rural community in South Africa. In the rural Limpopo Province of South Africa, and in a peri-urban township near Cape Town, self-report instruments were

  20. Pharmacotherapeutic Problems and Pharmacist Interventions in a Medical Intensive Care Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Yun Park


    Full Text Available Background: Interest in pharmacist participation in the multidisciplinary intensive care team is increasing. However, studies examining pharmacist interventions in the medical intensive care unit (MICU are limited in Korea. The aim of this study was to describe the current status of pharmacist interventions and to identify common pharmacologic problems requiring pharmacist intervention in the MICU. Methods: Between September 2013 and August 2014, a retrospective, observational study was conducted in the 22-bed MICU at a university hospital. Data were obtained from two trained pharmacists who participated in MICU rounds three times a week. In addition to patient characteristics, data on the cause, type, related drug, and acceptance rate of interventions were collected. Results: In 340 patients, a total of 1211 pharmacologic interventions were performed. The majority of pharmacologic interventions were suggested by pharmacists at multidisciplinary rounds in the MICU. The most common pharmacologic interventions were adjustment of dosage and administration (n = 328, 26.0%, followed by parenteral/enteral nutritional support (n = 228, 18.1%, the provision of drug information (n = 228, 18.1%, and advice regarding pharmacokinetics (n = 118, 9.3%. Antimicrobial agents (n = 516, 42.6% were the most frequent type of drug associated with pharmacist interventions. The acceptance rate of interventions was 84.1% with most accepted by physicians within 24 hours (n = 602, 92.8%. Conclusions: Medication and nutritional problems are frequently encountered pharmacotherapeutic problems in the MICU. Pharmacist interventions play an important role in the management of these problems.

  1. MR imaging of the finger tendons: Normal anatomy and commonly encountered pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragheb, Dina; Stanley, Anthony; Gentili, Amilcare; Hughes, Tudor; Chung, Christine B.


    MR imaging has emerged as a powerful tool in the evaluation of soft tissue structures such as the tendons of the hand and finger due to its excellent soft tissue contrast and multiplanar imaging capabilities. In the finger and hand, perhaps more than in any other location in the body, a detailed and intimate understanding of anatomy is crucial for lesion localization, directing clinical management and predicting long-term prognosis. These issues are of paramount importance to both the clinician and imager, both faced with the challenge of the complex anatomy and pathology associated with these delicate structures. The anatomy of the finger including intrinsic and extrinsic muscles, retinacular structures, and tendons will be discussed. The MR imaging features of common lesions of the tendons of the hand and finger will be reviewed

  2. Common mental health problems in historically disadvantaged urban and rural communities in South Africa: prevalence and risk factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havenaar, J.M.; Geerlings, M.I.; Vivian, L.; Collinson, M.; Robertson, B.


    This paper reports on an epidemiological study of common mental health and substance abuse problems in a historically disadvantaged urban and rural community in South Africa. In the rural Limpopo Province of South Africa, and in a peri-urban township near Cape Town, self-report instruments were used

  3. Common mental health problems in historically disadvantaged urban and rural communities in South Africa : prevalence and risk factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havenaar, Juhan M.; Geerlings, Mirjan I.; Vivian, Lauraine; Collinson, Marh; Robertson, Brian

    This paper reports on an epidemiological study of common mental health and substance abuse problems in a historically disadvantaged urban and rural community in South Africa. In the rural Limpopo Province of South Africa, and in a peri-urban township near Cape Town, self-report instruments were used

  4. Creating illusions of past encounter through brief exposure. (United States)

    Brown, Alan S; Marsh, Elizabeth J


    Titchener (1928) suggested that briefly glancing at a scene could make it appear strangely familiar when it was fully processed moments later. The closest laboratory demonstration used words as stimuli, and showed that briefly glancing at a to-be-judged word increased the subject's belief that it had been presented in an earlier study list (Jacoby & Whitehouse, 1989). We evaluated whether a hasty glance could elicit a false belief in a prior encounter, from a time and place outside of the experiment. This goal precluded using word stimuli, so we had subjects evaluate unfamiliar symbols. Each symbol was preceded by a brief exposure to an identical symbol, a different symbol, or no symbol. A brief glance at an identical symbol increased attributions to preexperimental experience, relative to a glance at a different symbol or no symbol, providing a possible mechanism for common illusions of false recognition.

  5. Overspecialized and undertrained? Patient diversity encountered by medical students during their internal medicine clerkship at a university hospital. (United States)

    Melderis, Simon; Gutowski, Jan-Philipp; Harendza, Sigrid


    During the four-month internal medicine clerkship in their final year, undergraduate medical students are closely involved in patient care. Little is known about what constitutes their typical learning experiences with respect to patient diversity within the different subspecialties of internal medicine and during on call hours. 25 final year medical students (16 female, 9 male) on their internal medicine clerkship participated in this observational single-center study. To detail the patient diversity encountered by medical students at a university hospital during their 16-week internal medicine clerkship, all participants self-reported their patient contacts in the different subspecialties and during on call hours on patient encounter cards. Patients' chief complaint, suspected main diagnosis, planned diagnostic investigations, and therapy in seven different internal medicine subspecialties and the on call medicine service were documented. 496 PECs were analysed in total. The greatest diversity of chief complaints (CC) and suspected main diagnoses (SMD) was observed in patients encountered on call, with the combined frequencies of the three most common CCs or SMDs accounting for only 23% and 25%, respectively. Combined, the three most commonly encountered CC/SMD accounted for high percentages (82%/63%), i.e. less diversity, in oncology and low percentages (37%/32%), i.e. high diversity, in nephrology. The percentage of all diagnostic investigations and therapies that were classified as "basic" differed between the subspecialties from 82%/94% (on call) to 37%/50% (pulmonology/oncology). The only subspecialty with no significant difference compared with on call was nephrology for diagnostic investigations. With respect to therapy, nephrology and infectious diseases showed no significant differences compared with on call. Internal medicine clerkships at a university hospital provide students with a very limited patient diversity in most internal medicine

  6. Live Aircraft Encounter Visualization at FutureFlight Central (United States)

    Murphy, James R.; Chinn, Fay; Monheim, Spencer; Otto, Neil; Kato, Kenji; Archdeacon, John


    Researchers at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) have developed an aircraft data streaming capability that can be used to visualize live aircraft in near real-time. During a joint Federal Aviation Administration (FAA)/NASA Airborne Collision Avoidance System flight series, test sorties between unmanned aircraft and manned intruder aircraft were shown in real-time at NASA Ames' FutureFlight Central tower facility as a virtual representation of the encounter. This capability leveraged existing live surveillance, video, and audio data streams distributed through a Live, Virtual, Constructive test environment, then depicted the encounter from the point of view of any aircraft in the system showing the proximity of the other aircraft. For the demonstration, position report data were sent to the ground from on-board sensors on the unmanned aircraft. The point of view can be change dynamically, allowing encounters from all angles to be observed. Visualizing the encounters in real-time provides a safe and effective method for observation of live flight testing and a strong alternative to travel to the remote test range.

  7. Introspection in Problem Solving (United States)

    Jäkel, Frank; Schreiber, Cornell


    Problem solving research has encountered an impasse. Since the seminal work of Newell und Simon (1972) researchers do not seem to have made much theoretical progress (Batchelder and Alexander, 2012; Ohlsson, 2012). In this paper we argue that one factor that is holding back the field is the widespread rejection of introspection among cognitive…

  8. Binary encounter electron production in ion-atom collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grabbe, S.; Bhalla, C.P.; Shingal, R.


    The binary encounter electrons are produced by hard collisions between the target electrons and the energetic projectiles. Richard et al. found the measured double differential cross section for BEe production at zero degree laboratory scattering angle, in collisions of F q+ with H 2 and He targets, to increase as the charge state of the projectile was decreased. The binary encounter electron production has recently been a subject of detailed investigations. We have calculated the differential elastic scattering cross sections of electrons from several ions incorporating the exchange contribution of the continuum and the bound orbitals in addition to the static potential. The double differential binary encounter electron production cross sections are presented using the impulse approximation

  9. Encounters of The Solar System With Molecular Clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wickramasinghe, J. T.


    The solar system has penetrated about 5 -- 10 giant molecular clouds over its history, and passes within 5 parsecs of a star-forming nebula every 100 million years or so. Numerical simulations of the effect of such encounters in perturbing the Oort cloud of comets are carried out using standard n-body computational techniques. It is found that the ingress of comets into the inner planetary system during such encounters amounts to factors of ∼100 over the average. During an encounter the impact rate of comets onto Earth increases by a comparable factor. The of ages of impact craters on the Earth is shown to be consistent with predictions from the model

  10. First-Year Principal Encounters Homophobia (United States)

    Retelle, Ellen


    A 1st-year principal encounters homonegativity and an ethical dilemma when she attempts to terminate a teacher because of the teacher's inadequate and ineffective teaching. The teacher responds by threatening to "out" Ms. L. to the parents.

  11. Problems of scientific research in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vose, P.B.; Cervellini, A.


    The paper gives a general consideration of the problems encountered in the scientific research by the developing countries. Possible optimizations in the long term as well as short term strategies are pointed out

  12. A Novel Efficient Graph Model for the Multiple Longest Common Subsequences (MLCS Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhan Peng


    Full Text Available Searching for the Multiple Longest Common Subsequences (MLCS of multiple sequences is a classical NP-hard problem, which has been used in many applications. One of the most effective exact approaches for the MLCS problem is based on dominant point graph, which is a kind of directed acyclic graph (DAG. However, the time and space efficiency of the leading dominant point graph based approaches is still unsatisfactory: constructing the dominated point graph used by these approaches requires a huge amount of time and space, which hinders the applications of these approaches to large-scale and long sequences. To address this issue, in this paper, we propose a new time and space efficient graph model called the Leveled-DAG for the MLCS problem. The Leveled-DAG can timely eliminate all the nodes in the graph that cannot contribute to the construction of MLCS during constructing. At any moment, only the current level and some previously generated nodes in the graph need to be kept in memory, which can greatly reduce the memory consumption. Also, the final graph contains only one node in which all of the wanted MLCS are saved, thus, no additional operations for searching the MLCS are needed. The experiments are conducted on real biological sequences with different numbers and lengths respectively, and the proposed algorithm is compared with three state-of-the-art algorithms. The experimental results show that the time and space needed for the Leveled-DAG approach are smaller than those for the compared algorithms especially on large-scale and long sequences.

  13. A Two-Phase Heuristic Algorithm for the Common Frequency Routing Problem with Vehicle Type Choice in the Milk Run

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Lin


    Full Text Available High frequency and small lot size are characteristics of milk runs and are often used to implement the just-in-time (JIT strategy in logistical systems. The common frequency problem, which simultaneously involves planning of the route and frequency, has been extensively researched in milk run systems. In addition, vehicle type choice in the milk run system also has a significant influence on the operating cost. Therefore, in this paper, we simultaneously consider vehicle routing planning, frequency planning, and vehicle type choice in order to optimize the sum of the cost of transportation, inventory, and dispatch. To this end, we develop a mathematical model to describe the common frequency problem with vehicle type choice. Since the problem is NP hard, we develop a two-phase heuristic algorithm to solve the model. More specifically, an initial satisfactory solution is first generated through a greedy heuristic algorithm to maximize the ratio of the superior arc frequency to the inferior arc frequency. Following this, a tabu search (TS with limited search scope is used to improve the initial satisfactory solution. Numerical examples with different sizes establish the efficacy of our model and our proposed algorithm.

  14. Assessment of Occupational Hazards, Health Problems and Safety ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Background: Petrol station attendants encounter several hazards and health problems while working. This study was conducted to determine the occupational hazards, health ..... engineering conference on sustainable ... Industrial Health.

  15. Personal Albums and Cultural Encounters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marselis, Randi Lorenz


    as discussions of representational ethics in relation to anthropological and colonial photography, this article examines the exhibition The Photo Albums at the Dutch National Maritime Museum. Typically, the photo collections of maritime museums include many photographs that represent cultural encounters...

  16. Service Encounter Related Process Quality, Patient Satisfaction, and Behavioral Intention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandakumar Mekoth


    Full Text Available This study identifies some of the critical service encounters thatthe outpatients undergo in a health care facility and investigateswhether the service encounter related process quality as perceivedby the patients leads to patient satisfaction, repeat visit, and recommendationintentions. Personal visits, observations, and enquiriesat the outpatient center have been conducted to identifythe various service encounters that outpatients undergo in thehospital. Exit interviews of the outpatients have been conductedto identify service encounter related process quality variableswhich determine patient satisfaction and behavioral intentions.A preliminary scale to measure service encounter related processquality was developed and its factor structure and internal consistencyreliability were established. The study reveals that boththe physician quality and laboratory quality have been found tobe significantly related to patient satisfaction. However, quite interestingly,courtesy shown by the registration or outpatient staff,perceived length of waiting time, or even the salient aspects of theservicescape, did not influence patient satisfaction.

  17. Medical and psychological problems faced by young Australian gap year travellers. (United States)

    Furuya-Kanamori, Luis; Mills, Deborah; Sheridan, Sarah; Lau, Colleen


    Gap year travellers can potentially be exposed to many infectious diseases and other travel-related health problems including injuries and psychological problems. Currently, there is little information on health and wellbeing of this particular group of travellers. Participants were recruited from an organization that specialized in organising international gap year placements. Gap year travellers were asked to complete a pre-departure survey on demographics, placement destination and duration, previous travel experience, hobbies, risk taking behaviour, anticipated problems during the placement, and pre-travel preparations. After the placement, participants were asked to complete a post-trip survey on their experiences, problems, health issues, and medical treatment required. The 88 and 34 gap year travellers aged 17-23 years completed pre- and post-placement surveys respectively. The duration of placements ranged from 3 to 12 months. Psychological stressors were frequently reported [ n = 26 (76.5%) felt home sick; n = 18 (52.9%) experienced culture shock; n = 17 (50.0%) had difficulty communicating with the locals]. The majority of participants (91.2%) tried to work out a solution for the stressor on their own. Twenty-eight (82.4%) participants reported medical problems during their placement; the most common problems were sunburn ( n = 19; 55.9%), respiratory infections ( n = 15; 44.1%), weight change ( n = 14; 41.2%), and diarrhoea/food poisoning ( n = 13; 38.2%). Three participants (3.4%) were admitted to hospital; for a muscle injury, head injury and skin infection after getting a tribal tattoo. Psychological stressors were common, but most did not seek help. Some medical problems encountered during their placement may have been preventable with improved pre-departure preparation. Gap year, pre-departure, preparation. © International Society of Travel Medicine, 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e

  18. The benefits of paid employment among persons with common mental health problems: Evidence for the selection and causation mechanism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Schuring (Merel); S.J.W. Robroek (Suzan); A. Burdorf (Alex)


    textabstractObjectives The aims of this study were to (i) investigate the impact of paid employment on self-rated health, self-esteem, mastery, and happiness among previously unemployed persons with common mental health problems, and (ii) determine whether there are educational inequalities in these

  19. Solving black box computation problems using expert knowledge theory and methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booker, Jane M.; McNamara, Laura A.


    The challenge problems for the Epistemic Uncertainty Workshop at Sandia National Laboratories provide common ground for comparing different mathematical theories of uncertainty, referred to as General Information Theories (GITs). These problems also present the opportunity to discuss the use of expert knowledge as an important constituent of uncertainty quantification. More specifically, how do the principles and methods of eliciting and analyzing expert knowledge apply to these problems and similar ones encountered in complex technical problem solving and decision making? We will address this question, demonstrating how the elicitation issues and the knowledge that experts provide can be used to assess the uncertainty in outputs that emerge from a black box model or computational code represented by the challenge problems. In our experience, the rich collection of GITs provides an opportunity to capture the experts' knowledge and associated uncertainties consistent with their thinking, problem solving, and problem representation. The elicitation process is rightly treated as part of an overall analytical approach, and the information elicited is not simply a source of data. In this paper, we detail how the elicitation process itself impacts the analyst's ability to represent, aggregate, and propagate uncertainty, as well as how to interpret uncertainties in outputs. While this approach does not advocate a specific GIT, answers under uncertainty do result from the elicitation

  20. Pet ownership increases human risk of encountering ticks. (United States)

    Jones, E H; Hinckley, A F; Hook, S A; Meek, J I; Backenson, B; Kugeler, K J; Feldman, K A


    We examined whether pet ownership increased the risk for tick encounters and tickborne disease among residents of three Lyme disease-endemic states as a nested cohort within a randomized controlled trial. Information about pet ownership, use of tick control for pets, property characteristics, tick encounters and human tickborne disease were captured through surveys, and associations were assessed using univariate and multivariable analyses. Pet-owning households had 1.83 times the risk (95% CI = 1.53, 2.20) of finding ticks crawling on and 1.49 times the risk (95% CI = 1.20, 1.84) of finding ticks attached to household members compared to households without pets. This large evaluation of pet ownership, human tick encounters and tickborne diseases shows that pet owners, whether of cats or dogs, are at increased risk of encountering ticks and suggests that pet owners are at an increased risk of developing tickborne disease. Pet owners should be made aware of this risk and be reminded to conduct daily tick checks of all household members, including the pets, and to consult their veterinarian regarding effective tick control products. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. Why are common quality and development policies needed?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alandes, M; Abad, A; Dini, L; Guerrero, P


    The EMI project is based on the collaboration of four major middleware projects in Europe, all already developing middleware products and having their pre-existing strategies for developing, releasing and controlling their software artefacts. In total, the EMI project is made up of about thirty development individual teams, called “Product Teams” in EMI. A Product Team is responsible for the entire lifecycle of specific products or small groups of tightly coupled products, including the development of test-suites to be peer reviewed within the overall certification process. The Quality Assurance in EMI (European Middleware Initiative), as requested by the grid infrastructures and the EU funding agency, must support the teams in providing uniform releases and interoperable middleware distributions, with a common degree of verification and validation of the software and with metrics and objective criteria to compare product quality and evolution over time. In order to achieve these goals, the QA team in EMI has defined and now it monitors the development work and release with a set of comprehensive policies covering all aspects of a software project such as packaging, configuration, documentation, certification, release management and testing. This contribution will present with practical and useful examples the achievements, problems encountered and lessons learned in the definition, implementation and review of Quality Assurance and Development policies. It also describes how these policies have been implemented in the EMI project including the benefits and difficulties encountered by the developers in the project. The main value of this contribution is that all the policies explained are not depending on EMI or grid environments and can be used by any software project.

  2. [Some psychological problems in family planning work]. (United States)

    Chen, J


    Psychology has significance in family planning work, because it may promote the scientific nature of family planning work and thus increase its effectiveness. Since people have some common aspects in their psychological process, family planning workers should master some common rules of the people's psychological process in order to understand psychological trends and possible behavior. Through this method, family planning workers may find how to adjust to problems they may encounter in their daily work, such as the worries about a single child being too lonely, spoiled, and hard to handle for the parents, the traditional belief that more children represent good fortune, and more male children may provide security for one's old age. Traditionally, the Chinese people believed that only male children can carry on the family line and that more children will provide a larger labor force, which is beneficial to a family's financial situation. In family planning work, all such incorrect ways of thinking should be corrected and revised. Studies of children's psychology should also be developed so that children may develop a healthy mentality. All these are crucial to the success of family planning work and the promotion of population quality.

  3. Alternative solution algorithm for coupled thermal-hydraulic problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farnsworth, D.A.; Rice, J.G.


    A thermal-hydraulic system involves flow of a fluid for which a combined solution of the continuity, momentum, and energy equations is required. When the solutions of the energy and momentum fields are dependent on each other, the system is said to be thermally coupled. A common problem encountered in the numerical solution of strongly coupled thermal-hydraulic problems is a very slow rate of convergence or a complete lack of convergence. Many times this degradation in convergence is due to the lack of true coupling between the energy and momentum fields during the iteration process. In the most widely used solution algorithms - such as the SIMPLE algorithm and its many variants - a sequential solution technique is required. That is, the solution process alternates between the flow and energy fields until a converged solution is obtained. This approach allows only implicit energy-momentum coupling. To improve the convergence rate for strongly coupled problems, a practical solution algorithm that can accommodate true energy-momentum coupling terms was developed. A complete simultaneous (versus sequential) solution of the governing conservation equations utilizing a line-by-line solution was developed and direct coupling terms between the momentum and energy fields were added utilizing a modified Newton-Raphson technique

  4. Trace DNA Sampling Success from Evidence Items Commonly Encountered in Forensic Casework. (United States)

    Dziak, Renata; Peneder, Amy; Buetter, Alicia; Hageman, Cecilia


    Trace DNA analysis is a significant part of a forensic laboratory's workload. Knowing optimal sampling strategies and item success rates for particular item types can assist in evidence selection and examination processes and shorten turnaround times. In this study, forensic short tandem repeat (STR) casework results were reviewed to determine how often STR profiles suitable for comparison were obtained from "handler" and "wearer" areas of 764 items commonly submitted for examination. One hundred and fifty-five (155) items obtained from volunteers were also sampled. Items were analyzed for best sampling location and strategy. For casework items, headwear and gloves provided the highest success rates. Experimentally, eyeglasses and earphones, T-shirts, fabric gloves and watches provided the highest success rates. Eyeglasses and latex gloves provided optimal results if the entire surfaces were swabbed. In general, at least 10%, and up to 88% of all trace DNA analyses resulted in suitable STR profiles for comparison. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  5. Male Escorts' and Male Clients' Sexual Behavior During Their Last Commercial Sexual Encounter: Comparing and Contrasting Findings from Two Online Studies. (United States)

    Grov, Christian; Rodríguez-Díaz, Carlos E; Jovet-Toledo, Gerardo G


    Much of what is known about commercial sexual encounters between men is based on data gathered from escorts. With few exceptions, studies have not compared male clients' reports of behavior during commercial sexual encounters with male escorts'. The present study draws from two datasets, a 2012 survey of clients (n = 495) and a 2013 survey of escorts (n = 387)--both used virtually identical measures of sexual behavior during the most recent commercial sexual encounter. For clients and escorts, the majority eschewed having sex without a condom, and kissing and oral sex were among the most common behaviors reported. Using logistic regression, both samples were compared across 15 sexual behaviors, finding significant differences in six--the escort sample had greater odds of reporting their last commercial sexual encounter involved watching the client masturbate, viewing porn, role play (dad/son, dominant/submissive), and having prior sexual experience with their commercial partner. The escort sample had lower odds of reporting that the client watched the escort masturbate, and being told partner's HIV status. In multivariable modeling, both samples did not significantly differ in reports of condomless anal sex. Male-male commercial sexual encounters appear to be involved in a wide range of sexual behaviors, many of which convey low-to-no risk of HIV transmission.

  6. BES-HEP Connections: Common Problems in Condensed Matter and High Energy Physics, Round Table Discussion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fradkin, Eduardo [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States); Maldacena, Juan [Inst. for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ (United States); Chatterjee, Lali [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States). Office of Science. Office of High Energy Physics; Davenport, James W [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States). Office of Science. Office of Basic Energy Sciences


    On February 2, 2015 the Offices of High Energy Physics (HEP) and Basic Energy Sciences (BES) convened a Round Table discussion among a group of physicists on ‘Common Problems in Condensed Matter and High Energy Physics’. This was motivated by the realization that both fields deal with quantum many body problems, share many of the same challenges, use quantum field theoretical approaches and have productively interacted in the past. The meeting brought together physicists with intersecting interests to explore recent developments and identify possible areas of collaboration.... Several topics were identified as offering great opportunity for discovery and advancement in both condensed matter physics and particle physics research. These included topological phases of matter, the use of entanglement as a tool to study nontrivial quantum systems in condensed matter and gravity, the gauge-gravity duality, non-Fermi liquids, the interplay of transport and anomalies, and strongly interacting disordered systems. Many of the condensed matter problems are realizable in laboratory experiments, where new methods beyond the usual quasi-particle approximation are needed to explain the observed exotic and anomalous results. Tools and techniques such as lattice gauge theories, numerical simulations of many-body systems, and tensor networks are seen as valuable to both communities and will likely benefit from collaborative development.

  7. The prevalence of two ‘commonly’ encountered synthetic target fibres within a large urban environment


    Palmer, Ray; Burnett, Elisabeth; Luff, Natalie; Wagner, Craig; Stinga, Georgia; Carney, Clare; Sheridan, Kelly


    A target fibre study was carried out to assess the random prevalence of two ostensibly commonly encountered synthetic fibre types; black acrylic and blue polyester. The study was performed in an environment which maximised the number of random contacts between textile garments in the population and specific surfaces, namely; seating relating to buses, public houses and cinemas found within a large urban conurbation.\\ud \\ud Surface debris tapings were collected from samples of bus seats (30), ...

  8. Athletic Training Student Core Competency Implementation During Patient Encounters. (United States)

    Cavallario, Julie M; Van Lunen, Bonnie L; Hoch, Johanna M; Hoch, Matthew; Manspeaker, Sarah A; Pribesh, Shana L


      Health care research evidence suggests that early patient encounters (PEs), as well as the purposeful implementation of professional core competencies (CCs), for athletic training students (ATSs) may be beneficial to their ability to provide care. However, no investigators have related facets of the clinical education experience with CC implementation as a form of summative assessment of the clinical experience.   To determine the relationship between the frequency and length of PEs, as well as the student's role and clinical site during PEs, and the students' perceived CC implementation during these encounters.   Cross-sectional study.   Professional athletic training program, National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I institution.   We purposefully recruited 1 athletic training program that used E*Value software; 40 participants (31 females, 9 males) enrolled in the professional phase (12 first year, 14 second year, 14 third year) participated.   Participants viewed a 20-minute recorded CC educational module followed by educational handouts, which were also posted online for reference throughout the semester. The E*Value software was used to track PEs, including the type of encounter (ie, actual patient, practice encounter, didactic practice scenario), the type of site where the encounter occurred (university, high school), and the participant's role (observed, assisted, performed), as well as responses to an added block of questions indicating which, if any, of the CCs were implemented during the PE.   Variables per patient were PE length (minutes), participant role, site at which the encounter occurred, and whether any of the 6 CCs were implemented ( yes/ no). Variables per participant were average encounter length (minutes), encounter frequency, modal role, clinical site assignment, and the number of times each CC was implemented. Separate 1-way analyses of variance were used to examine the relationships between role or clinical site

  9. Low velocity encounters of minor bodies with the outer planets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carusi, A.; Perozzi, E.; Valsecchi, G.B.


    Previous studies of close encounters of minor bodies with Jupiter have shown that the perturbations are stronger either if the encounter is very deep or if the velocity of the minor body relative to the planet is low. In the present research the author investigates the effects of low velocity encounters between fictitious minor bodies and the four outer planets. Two possible outcomes of this type of encounter are the temporary satellite capture of the minor body by the planet, and the exchange of perihelion with aphelion of the minor body orbit. Different occurrence rates of these processes are found for different planets, and the implications for the orbital evolution of minor bodies in the outer Solar System are discussed. (Auth.)

  10. Pilot randomised controlled trial of the ENGAGER collaborative care intervention for prisoners with common mental health problems, near to and after release. (United States)

    Lennox, Charlotte; Kirkpatrick, Tim; Taylor, Rod S; Todd, Roxanne; Greenwood, Clare; Haddad, Mark; Stevenson, Caroline; Stewart, Amy; Shenton, Deborah; Carroll, Lauren; Brand, Sarah L; Quinn, Cath; Anderson, Rob; Maguire, Mike; Harris, Tirril; Shaw, Jennifer; Byng, Richard


    Rates of common mental health problems are much higher in prison populations, but access to primary care mental health support falls short of community equivalence. Discontinuity of care on release is the norm and is further complicated by substance use and a range of social problems, e.g. homelessness. To address these problems, we worked with criminal justice, third sector social inclusion services, health services and people with lived experiences (peer researchers), to develop a complex collaborative care intervention aimed at supporting men with common mental health problems near to and following release from prison. This paper describes an external pilot trial to test the feasibility of a full randomised controlled trial. Eligible individuals with 4 to 16 weeks left to serve were screened to assess for common mental health problems. Participants were then randomised at a ratio of 2:1 allocation to ENGAGER plus standard care (intervention) or standard care alone (treatment as usual). Participants were followed up at 1 and 3 months' post release. Success criteria for this pilot trial were to meet the recruitment target sample size of 60 participants, to follow up at least 50% of participants at 3 months' post release from prison, and to deliver the ENGAGER intervention. Estimates of recruitment and retention rates and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) are reported. Descriptive analyses included summaries (percentages or means) for participant demographics, and baseline characteristics are reported. Recruitment target was met with 60 participants randomised in 9 months. The average retention rates were 73% at 1 month [95% CI 61 to 83] and 47% at 3 months follow-up [95% CI 35 to 59]. Ninety percent of participants allocated to the intervention successfully engaged with a practitioner before release and 70% engaged following release. This pilot confirms the feasibility of conducting a randomised trial for prison leavers with common mental health problems. Based

  11. Heuristic Method for Decision-Making in Common Scheduling Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edyta Kucharska


    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to present a heuristic method for decision-making regarding an NP-hard scheduling problem with limitations related to tasks and the resources dependent on the current state of the process. The presented approach is based on the algebraic-logical meta-model (ALMM, which enables making collective decisions in successive process stages, not separately for individual objects or executors. Moreover, taking into account the limitations of the problem, it involves constructing only an acceptable solution and significantly reduces the amount of calculations. A general algorithm based on the presented method is composed of the following elements: preliminary analysis of the problem, techniques for the choice of decision at a given state, the pruning non-perspective trajectory, selection technique of the initial state for the trajectory final part, and the trajectory generation parameters modification. The paper includes applications of the presented approach to scheduling problems on unrelated parallel machines with a deadline and machine setup time dependent on the process state, where the relationship between tasks is defined by the graph. The article also presents the results of computational experiments.

  12. Initiating Service Encounter-based Innovation by Word-of-Business

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mattsson, Jan


    Purpose – This paper aims to set up a natural experiment as action research and to develop a framework of cognitive distance of informants to improve the initiation of service encounter-based innovation. Design/methodology/approach – Natural experiment as action research in one Scandinavian case...... transcriptions of interviews and transcriptions. Research limitations/implications – Only one Scandinavian company and a limited number of informants were activated. Also, the time period only included the initiation phase of service encounter-based innovation. Practical implications – Three different strategies...... in an emerging innovation field, open/user-driven innovation. Theory from business marketing, service encounter and innovation is also used....

  13. Parents' common pitfalls of discipline. (United States)

    Witoonchart, Chatree; Fangsa-ard, Thitiporn; Chaoaree, Supamit; Ketumarn, Panom; Kaewpornsawan, Titawee; Phatthrayuttawat, Sucheera


    Problems of discipline are common among parents. These may be the results of the parents' pitfalls in disciplining their children. To find out common pitfalls of parents in disciplining their children. Parents of students with ages ranged between 60-72 months old in Bangkok-Noi district, Bangkok, were selected by random sampling. Total number of 1947 children ages between 60-72 months were recruited. Parents of these children were interviewed with a questionnaire designed to probe into problems in child rearing. There hindered and fifty questionnaires were used for data analyses. Parents had high concerns about problems in discipline their children and needed support from professional personnel. They had limited knowledge and possessed lots of wrong attitude towards discipline. Common pitfalls on the topics were problems in, 1) limit setting 2) rewarding and punishment 3) supervision on children watching TV and bedtime routines. Parents of children with ages 60-72 months old in Bangkok-Noi district, Bangkok, had several common pitfalls in disciplining their children, including attitude, knowledge and practice.

  14. The Problem-Based Learning Process: Reflections of Pre-Service Elementary School Teachers (United States)

    Baysal, Zeliha Nurdan


    This study aims to identify the benefits acquired by third-year pre-service elementary school teachers participating in a problem-based learning process in social studies education, the issues they encountered in that process and those they are likely to encounter, and their feelings about the process. Semi-structured interviews were used as one…

  15. "It´s incredible how much I´ve had to fight." Negotiating medical uncertainty in clinical encounters. (United States)

    Lian, Olaug S; Robson, Catherine


    Clinical encounters related to medically unexplained physical symptoms (MUPS) are associated with high levels of conflict between patients and doctors. Collaborative difficulties are fused by the medical uncertainty that dominates these consultations. The main aim of this study is to explore the interactional dynamics of clinical encounters riddled by medical uncertainty, as experienced by people living with long-term medically unexplained fatigue in Norway. A qualitative thematic analysis of written texts from 256 study participants. We found that patients experience being met with disbelief, inappropriate psychological explanations, marginalisation of experiences, disrespectful treatment, lack of physical examination and damaging health advice. The main source of their discontent is not the lack of biomedical knowledge, but doctors who fail to communicate acknowledgement of patients' experiences, knowledge and autonomy. War metaphors are emblematic of how participants describe their medical encounters. The overarching storyline depicts experiences of being caught in a power struggle with doctors and health systems, fused by a lack of common conceptual ground. When physical symptoms cannot be detected, explained and managed by biomedical knowledge and technology, good doctor-patient partnerships are crucial. Without clearly acknowledging patients' perspectives and capabilities in clinical practice, such partnerships cannot be achieved.

  16. Problems Encountered during the Transition to Market Economy in Azerbaijan and Solution Attempts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available After re-gaining its independence on 18 October 1991, the Republic of Azerbaijan started the transformation to the market-based economy and the integration into the world economy. The country’s oil and natural gas reserves have been considered the main source for financing a range of government programs for reforms. On the one hand, these reserves had to be used effectively; on the other hand, there was a huge demand for foreign investment for extraction. To this end, Azerbaijan has signed “Contract of the Century” in 1994. Although Azerbaijan has wide oil and natural gas reserves, it has faced a number of difficulties in its transition path. This study analyzes these problems and reforms for solving them. One of the types of the problems related to the economic structure of the former Soviet Union: disruption of the economic ties between the republics resulted in a decline of production, high levels of unemployment and prices and consequently led to an economic recession in all of the republics. Another set of problems related to the lack of sufficient institutional bases to transform to the market economy. Moreover, internal conflicts between the political parties and groups for having authority as well as political chaos in the republic can be considered other serious problems during the transition period. Furthermore, Karabakh war and occupation of 20 percent of the Azerbaijani territory by the Armenian military forces had made the situation extremely complicated. Despite all of these extremes, Azerbaijan transformed to the market-based economy decidedly and even became one of the fast growing countries of the world. Even in 2013, with the GDP growth rate of 5.6 percent, Azerbaijan was a leader among growing economies. In parallel with this significant economic development, there is still a need for some socio-economic and institutional reforms in order to get a well-functioning market-based economy in Azerbaijan.

  17. Introducing problem-based learning (PBL) into a foundation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    student population has heightened the need for a broader range of teaching and .... The steps involve students encountering a problem, clarifying working definitions ..... of collaboration, poor time management and struggled to process large ...

  18. Common indoor and outdoor aero-allergens in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aero-allergens in South Africa that are also encountered around the world are listed in Table I. In addition to this wide range of common aero-allergens, South Africans are also exposed to a full range of food allergens, some of which, e.g. perlemoen (Haliotis midae) and other seafood allergens, are unique to this region.

  19. Ethical problems and moral sensitivity in physiotherapy: a descriptive study. (United States)

    Kulju, Kati; Suhonen, Riitta; Leino-Kilpi, Helena


    This study identified and described ethical problems encountered by physiotherapists in their practice and physiotherapists' moral sensitivity in ethical situations. A questionnaire-based survey was constructed to identify ethical problems, and the Moral Sensitivity Questionnaire Revised version was used to measure moral sensitivity. Physiotherapists (n = 116) working in public health services responded to the questionnaire. Based on the results, most of the physiotherapists encounter ethical problems weekly. They concern mainly financial considerations, equality and justice, professionalism, unethical conduct of physiotherapists or other professions and patients' self-determination. The dimension of moral strength was emphasised in physiotherapists' self-evaluations of their moral sensitivity. As a conclusion, ethical problems do occur not only at individual level but also at organisational and society level. Physiotherapists seem to have moral strength for speaking on behalf of the patient. Scarce resources make them feel insufficient but much could still be done to provide quality care in co-operation with other health-care professionals.

  20. Fast Computation of Categorical Richness on Raster Data Sets and Related Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Berg, Mark; Tsirogiannis, Constantinos; Wilkinson, Bryan


    that runs in O(n) time and one for circular windows that runs in O((1+K/r)n) time, where K is the number of different categories appearing in G. The algorithms are not only very efficient in theory, but also in practice: our experiments show that our algorithms can handle raster data sets of hundreds...... of millions of cells. The categorical richness problem is related to colored range counting, where the goal is to preprocess a colored point set such that we can efficiently count the number of colors appearing inside a query range. We present a data structure for colored range counting in R^2 for the case......In many scientific fields, it is common to encounter raster data sets consisting of categorical data, such as soil type or land usage of a terrain. A problem that arises in the presence of such data is the following: given a raster G of n cells storing categorical data, compute for every cell c...

  1. Simple and Accurate Analytical Solutions of the Electrostatically Actuated Curled Beam Problem

    KAUST Repository

    Younis, Mohammad I.


    We present analytical solutions of the electrostatically actuated initially deformed cantilever beam problem. We use a continuous Euler-Bernoulli beam model combined with a single-mode Galerkin approximation. We derive simple analytical expressions for two commonly observed deformed beams configurations: the curled and tilted configurations. The derived analytical formulas are validated by comparing their results to experimental data in the literature and numerical results of a multi-mode reduced order model. The derived expressions do not involve any complicated integrals or complex terms and can be conveniently used by designers for quick, yet accurate, estimations. The formulas are found to yield accurate results for most commonly encountered microbeams of initial tip deflections of few microns. For largely deformed beams, we found that these formulas yield less accurate results due to the limitations of the single-mode approximations they are based on. In such cases, multi-mode reduced order models need to be utilized.

  2. Return to work and occupational physicians' management of common mental health problems--process evaluation of a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rebergen, David S.; Bruinvels, David J.; Bos, Chris M.; van der Beek, Allard J.; van Mechelen, Willem


    The aim of this study was to examine the adherence of occupational physicians (OP) to the Dutch guideline on the management of common mental health problems and its effect on return to work as part of the process evaluation of a trial comparing adherence to the guideline to care as usual. The first

  3. Dealing with Coronary Artery Disease in Early Encountering: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mojalli


    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of cardiovascular diseases is rising in industrial and developing countries. Coronary Artery Disease (CAD is the most common cardiovascular disease. Thus, understanding the signs and risk factors of CAD from the patients’ perspective and their ways of dealing with this disease is of vital importance. Objectives: This qualitative study aimed to explore the Iranian patients’ viewpoints about CAD and how they dealt with it in their first encounter. Patients and Methods: This study was a qualitative content analysis conducted on 18 patients with CAD. The data were collected through semi-structured interviews. Initially, purposeful sampling was performed followed by maximum variety. Sampling continued until data saturation. Then, all the interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. After all, the data were analyzed by constant comparative analysis using MAXQUDA2010 software. Results: The themes manifested in this study included “invasion of disease” with subthemes of “warning signs” and “risk factors” and “confrontation strategies” with subthemes of “seeking for information”, “follow-up”, and “control measures”. Conclusions:: The results of this study described the patients’ perceptions of CAD and how they dealt with this disorder in early encountering. Based on the results, physicians and nurses should focus on empowerment of patients by facilitating this process as well as by educating them with regards to dealing with CAD.

  4. Determining the Performances of Pre-Service Primary School Teachers in Problem Posing Situations (United States)

    Kilic, Cigdem


    This study examined the problem posing strategies of pre-service primary school teachers in different problem posing situations (PPSs) and analysed the issues they encounter while posing problems. A problem posing task consisting of six PPSs (two free, two structured, and two semi-structured situations) was delivered to 40 participants.…

  5. The Static Ladder Problem with Two Sources of Friction (United States)

    Bennett, Jonathan; Mauney, Alex


    The problem of a ladder leaning against a wall in static equilibrium is a classic example encountered in introductory mechanics texts. Most discussions of this problem assume that the static frictional force between the ladder and wall can be ignored. A few authors consider the case where the static friction coefficients between ladder/wall…

  6. The Shona Corpus and the Problem of Tagging?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Chabata


    Full Text Available

    Abstract: In this paper the writer examines problems the African Languages Lexical (ALLEX Project (at present the African Languages Research Institute (ALRI? encountered while tagging the Shona corpus. The problems to be highlighted include general problems which apply to more than one language as well as problems peculiar to Shona. The paper was inspired by the challenges the writer encountered when he took part in building the Shona corpus. An analysis of the problems that most corpus builders face shows that more problems are likely to be encountered when dealing with spoken corpora than with written corpora. The paper demonstrates that tagging is an important component of corpus building as it makes it easier for a researcher to extract relevant data. To utilise the benefits of a tagged corpus, the tagging should be thorough and accurate. Wellinformed decisions form an integral part of the tagging process since the utility of a tagged corpus depends largely on the input of the tagging process. This paper shows the need to take the tagging process seriously.


    Opsomming: Die Shonakorpus en die probleem van etikettering, In hierdieartikel ondersoek die outeur probleme wat die African Languages Lexical (ALLEX Project (tansdie African Languages Research Institute (ALRI» teegekom het terwyl die Shonakorpus geetiketteeris. Die probleme wat bespreek word, sluit algemene probleme in wat van toepassing is opmeer as een taa, sowel as spesifieke probleme wat eie aan Shona is. Die artikel het sy ontstaan indie uitdagings wat die outeur teegekom het terwyl hy deel gehad het aan die opbou van die Shonakorpus.'n Ontieding van die probleme waarvoor die meeste korpusbouers te staan kom, toon datdaar waarskynlik meer probleme teegekom word wanneer daar met gesproke

  7. Tube problems: worldwide statistics reviewed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    EPRI's Steam Generator Strategic Management Project issues an annual report on the progress being made in tackling steam generator problems worldwide, containing a wealth of detailed statistics on the status of operating units and degradation mechanisms encountered. A few highlights are presented from the latest report, issued in October 1993, which covers the period to 31 December 1992. (Author)

  8. Problems with conductors and dielectrics for cryogenic cables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogner, G; Penczynski, P [Siemens A.G., Erlangen (F.R. Germany). Abt. Reaktortechnik


    The most important problems which need to be solved if superconducting power cables are to be used on a large scale are connected with the superconducting cable materials and the dielectrics used for insulation. Research work on superconducting materials for ac and dc cables is briefly reviewed together with stabilization problems for these materials. Three types of insulation are considered - vacuum, subcooled or supercritical helium, and foil wound insulation. The merits and problems encountered in each case are discussed.

  9. Modeling close encounters with massive asteroids: a Markovian approach. An application to the Vesta family (United States)

    Carruba, V.; Roig, F.; Michtchenko, T. A.; Ferraz-Mello, S.; Nesvorný, D.


    Context: Nearly all members of the Vesta family cross the orbits of (4) Vesta, one of the most massive asteroids in the main belt, and some of them approach it closely. When mutual velocities during such close encounters are low, the trajectory of the small body can be gravitationally deflected, consequently changing its heliocentric orbital elements. While the effect of a single close encounter may be small, repeated close encounters may significantly change the proper element distribution of members of asteroid families. Aims: We develop a model of the long-term effect of close encounters with massive asteroids, so as to be able to predict how far former members of the Vesta family could have drifted away from the family. Methods: We first developed a new symplectic integrator that simulates both the effects of close encounters and the Yarkovsky effect. We analyzed the results of a simulation involving a fictitious Vesta family, and propagated the asteroid proper element distribution using the probability density function (pdf hereafter), i.e. the function that describes the probability of having an encounter that modifies a proper element x by Δx, for all the possible values of Δx. Given any asteroids' proper element distribution at time t, the distribution at time t+T may be predicted if the pdf is known (Bachelier 1900, Théorie de la spéculation; Hughes 1995, Random Walks and Random Environments, Vol. I). Results: We applied our new method to the problem of V-type asteroids outside the Vesta family (i.e., the 31 currently known asteroids in the inner asteroid belt that have the same spectral type of members as the Vesta family, but that are outside the limits of the dynamical family) and determined that at least ten objects have a significant diffusion probability over the minimum estimated age of the Vesta family of 1.2 Gyr (Carruba et al. 2005, A&A, 441, 819). These objects can therefore be explained in the framework of diffusion via repeated close

  10. Exploring the effects of individual customer incivility encounters on employee incivility: the moderating roles of entity (in)civility and negative affectivity. (United States)

    Walker, David D; van Jaarsveld, Danielle D; Skarlicki, Daniel P


    Incivility between customers and employees is common in many service organizations. These encounters can have negative outcomes for employees, customers, and the organization. To date, researchers have tended to study incivility as an aggregated and accumulated phenomenon (entity perspective). In the present study, we examined incivility as it occurs during a specific service encounter (event perspective) alongside the entity perspective. Using a mixed-method multilevel field study of customer service interactions, we show that individual customer incivility encounters (i.e., events) trigger employee incivility as a function of the employee's overall accumulated impression of the (in)civility in his or her customer interactions, such that the effects are more pronounced among employees who generally perceive their customer interactions to be more versus less civil. We also find that these interactive effects occur only among employees who are lower (vs. higher) in negative affectivity. Our results show that, in order to expand the understanding of customer incivility, it is important to study the incivility encounter, the social context in which negative customer interactions occur, and individual differences. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved

  11. Problems Encountered in Teaching Logic in Faculties of Theology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hülya ALTUNYA


    Full Text Available From the past until today logic has always been affiliated with religious education in institutes of higher learning. In the history of Islamic thought, education in logic has at times held an important place in the curriculum, while at other times it has only been represented symbolically. Throughout the history of thought, religious sciences have not only possessed a hierarchical structure based on classification, but have also been institutionalized in order to protect the accumulation of the knowledge that has been attained. As a result, in order to function as a vehicle in the structuring of this knowledge, logic has become what is known as an introductory science. Over time, as a vehicle of religious sciences and an introductory science, logic has become a productive method by which different academic disciplines can attain information. Thus, until today in religious sciences education, logic has been used as a method both in the higher religious education provided in faculties of theology and in the madrasas which continue this education. In this paper, the education of logic that is given in faculties of theology, including how much of the curriculum is devoted to this subject, the quality of instruction, the integration of this subject with other lessons, the interest of students in this subject and whether or not the necessary productivity in logic instruction is being attained will be examined. In addition, to what extent logic can make new contributions to new thought and comprehension techniques for solving the theological problems of today will be investigated. An additional research question asked here is the extent to which students enrolled in theology faculties in formal and informal education, the very people who will later act as instructors in religious sciences, are aware of the importance of being familiar and skilled in “correct reasoning techniques”.

  12. A Lakatosian Encounter with Probability (United States)

    Chick, Helen


    There is much to be learned and pondered by reading "Proofs and Refutations" by Imre Lakatos (Lakatos, 1976). It highlights the importance of mathematical definitions, and how definitions evolve to capture the essence of the object they are defining. It also provides an exhilarating encounter with the ups and downs of the mathematical reasoning…

  13. Statistical and particle physics: Common problems and techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowler, K.C.; Mc Kane, A.J.


    These proceedings contain statistical mechanical studies in condensed matter physics; interfacial problems in statistical physics; string theory; general monte carlo methods and their application to Lattice gauge theories; topological excitations in field theory; phase transformation kinetics; and studies of chaotic systems

  14. Erratum: Erratum to: Realistic interpretation of quantum mechanics and encounter-delayed-choice experiment (United States)

    Long, GuiLu; Qin, Wei; Yang, Zhe; Li, Jun-Lin


    The article Realistic interpretation of quantum mechanics and encounter-delayed-choice experiment, written by GuiLu Long, Wei Qin, Zhe Yang, and Jun-Lin Li, was originally published online without open access. After publication in volume 61, issue 3: 030311 the author decided to opt for Open Choice and to make the article an open access publication. Therefore, the copyright of the article has been changed to The Author(s) 2017 and the article is forthwith distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits use, duplication, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The original article has been corrected.

  15. Prevalence of Unique Pediatric Pathologies Encountered by Paramedic Students Across Age Groups. (United States)

    Ernest, Eric V; Brazelton, Tom B; Carhart, Elliot D; Studnek, Jonathan R; Tritt, Patricia L; Philip, Genghis A; Burnett, Aaron M


    abdominal pain and behavioral/psych increased. Bimodal distributions for overdose were seen with one spike in the toddler and another in the adolescent population. Seizures were most common in the age group associated with febrile seizure. Sepsis was seen most often in the youngest patients and its prevalence decreased with age. There are statistically significant variations in the frequency of paramedic student primary impressions as a function of age in the pediatric population. Emphasizing paramedic student exposure to the most common pathologies encountered in each age group, in the context of the psychological and physiological milestones of each age, may improve paramedic student pediatric practice. Ernest EV , Brazelton TB , Carhart ED , Studnek JR , Tritt PL , Philip GA , Burnett AM . Prevalence of unique pediatric pathologies encountered by paramedic students across age groups. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2016; 31(4):386-391.

  16. Collisionless encounters and the origin of the lunar inclination. (United States)

    Pahlevan, Kaveh; Morbidelli, Alessandro


    The Moon is generally thought to have formed from the debris ejected by the impact of a planet-sized object with the proto-Earth towards the end of planetary accretion. Models of the impact process predict that the lunar material was disaggregated into a circumplanetary disk and that lunar accretion subsequently placed the Moon in a near-equatorial orbit. Forward integration of the lunar orbit from this initial state predicts a modern inclination at least an order of magnitude smaller than the lunar value--a long-standing discrepancy known as the lunar inclination problem. Here we show that the modern lunar orbit provides a sensitive record of gravitational interactions with Earth-crossing planetesimals that were not yet accreted at the time of the Moon-forming event. The currently observed lunar orbit can naturally be reproduced via interaction with a small quantity of mass (corresponding to 0.0075-0.015 Earth masses eventually accreted to the Earth) carried by a few bodies, consistent with the constraints and models of late accretion. Although the encounter process has a stochastic element, the observed value of the lunar inclination is among the most likely outcomes for a wide range of parameters. The excitation of the lunar orbit is most readily reproduced via collisionless encounters of planetesimals with the Earth-Moon system with strong dissipation of tidal energy on the early Earth. This mechanism obviates the need for previously proposed (but idealized) excitation mechanisms, places the Moon-forming event in the context of the formation of Earth, and constrains the pristineness of the dynamical state of the Earth-Moon system.

  17. Nurses' perceptions and problems in the usability of a medication safety app. (United States)

    Ankem, Kalyani; Cho, Sookyung; Simpson, Diana


    The majority of medication apps support medication adherence. Equally, if not more important, is medication safety. Few apps report on medication safety, and fewer studies have been conducted with these apps. The usability of a medication safety app was tested with nurses to reveal their perceptions of the graphical user interface and to discover problems they encountered in using the app. Usability testing of the app was conducted with RN-BSN students and informatics students (n = 18). Perceptions of the graphical components were gathered in pretest and posttest questionnaires, and video recordings of the usability testing were transcribed. The significance of the difference in mean performance time for 8 tasks was tested, and qualitative analysis was deployed to identify problems encountered and to rate the severity of each problem. While all participants perceived the graphical user interface as easy to understand, nurses took significantly more time to complete certain tasks. More nurses found the medication app to be lacking in intuitiveness of user interface design, in capability to match real-world data, and in providing optimal information architecture. To successfully integrate mobile devices in healthcare, developers must address the problems that nurses encountered in use of the app.

  18. Spacecraft environment during the GIOTTO-Halley encounter: a summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, D.T.


    A summary of the present volume is presented in which the separate disciplines are drawn together to give an overview of the spacecraft environment during the GIOTTO-Halley interaction. Specific recommendations are made as to how the work of the Plasma Environment Working Group might continue to contribute to the GIOTTO program during encounter and post-encounter data analysis. 28 references, 3 tables


    Problem Based Learning (PBL) is a process that emphasizes the need for developing problem solving skills through hands-on project formulation and management. A class adopting the PBL method provides students with an environment to acquire necessary knowledge to encounter, unders...

  20. Meta-heuristic algorithms for parallel identical machines scheduling problem with weighted late work criterion and common due date. (United States)

    Xu, Zhenzhen; Zou, Yongxing; Kong, Xiangjie


    To our knowledge, this paper investigates the first application of meta-heuristic algorithms to tackle the parallel machines scheduling problem with weighted late work criterion and common due date ([Formula: see text]). Late work criterion is one of the performance measures of scheduling problems which considers the length of late parts of particular jobs when evaluating the quality of scheduling. Since this problem is known to be NP-hard, three meta-heuristic algorithms, namely ant colony system, genetic algorithm, and simulated annealing are designed and implemented, respectively. We also propose a novel algorithm named LDF (largest density first) which is improved from LPT (longest processing time first). The computational experiments compared these meta-heuristic algorithms with LDF, LPT and LS (list scheduling), and the experimental results show that SA performs the best in most cases. However, LDF is better than SA in some conditions, moreover, the running time of LDF is much shorter than SA.

  1. Vulvovaginitis- presentation of more common problems in pediatric and adolescent gynecology. (United States)

    Loveless, Meredith; Myint, Ohmar


    Vulvovaginitis is one of the most common gynecological complaints presenting in the pediatric and adolescent female. The common causes of vulvovaginitis in the pediatric patient differ than that considered in adolescent females. When a child present with vulvar itching, burning and irritation the most common etiology is non-specific and hygiene measures are recommended. However these symptoms can mimic more serious etiologies including infection, labial adhesion, lichen sclerosis, pinworms and foreign body must be considered. Yeast infection is rare in the pediatric population but common in the adolescent. In the adolescent patient infections are more common. Yeast and bacterial vaginosis are commonly seen but due to the higher rate of sexual activity in this population sexually transmitted infections must also be considered. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Game-theoretical approach to solving problems encountered in energy policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lutz, B.


    The paper gives a short survey of the essential outlines of the Harsanyi/Selten solution concept for non-cooperative games, Nash's bargaining model, and the Shapley procedure. By combining elements of these theories it is tried to obtain a more realistic solution concept for cooperative behavior. In particular, the condition of implementing the announced threat strategies in case that negotiations break down can be dispensed. A computer code for the solution of any given two person game with complete evaluations of the cooperative case. As part of the general program a computer code for the solution of two-person non-cooperative games by means of the Harsanyi/Selten theory is offered for the first time. To demonstrate the applicability to decision making problems a strongly simplified example from the area of energy politics is chosen. For the participants of the conflict - administration and the group of individual energy users - the utility matrix with respect to the coal sector is to be found. The Analytic Hierarchy Process due to SAATY seems to be an appropriate means. The necessary computer codes are implemented. The evaluation takes account of cooperative behavior as well as of non-cooperative. Inspite of strong abstractions and separation from the overlying system surprisingly pleasant results can be achieved.

  3. The Power of Citizens and Professionals in Welfare Encounters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mik-Meyer, Nanna

    relationships with welfare workers. However, other factors impact these interactions; factors which often pull in different directions. Welfare encounters are thus influenced by bureaucratic principles and market values as well. Consequently, this book engages with both Weberian (bureaucracy) and Foucauldian...... (market values/NPM) studies when investigating the powerful welfare encounter. The book is targeted Academics, post-graduates, and undergraduates within sociology, anthropology and political science....

  4. The Shona Corpus and the Problem of Tagging | Chabata | Lexikos

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An analysis of the problems that most corpus builders face shows that more problems are likely to be encountered when dealing with spoken corpora than with written corpora. The paper demonstrates that tagging is an important component of corpus building as it makes it easier for a researcher to extract relevant data.

  5. Association of volume of patient encounters with residents' in-training examination performance. (United States)

    McCoy, Christopher P; Stenerson, Matthew B; Halvorsen, Andrew J; Homme, Jason H; McDonald, Furman S


    Patient care and medical knowledge are Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) core competencies. The correlation between amount of patient contact and knowledge acquisition is not known. To determine if a correlation exists between the number of patient encounters and in-training exam (ITE) scores in internal medicine (IM) and pediatric residents at a large academic medical center. Retrospective cohort study Resident physicians at Mayo Clinic from July 2006 to June 2010 in IM (318 resident-years) and pediatrics (66 resident-years). We tabulated patient encounters through review of clinical notes in an electronic medical record during post graduate year (PGY)-1 and PGY-2. Using linear regression models, we investigated associations between ITE score and number of notes during the previous PGY, adjusted for previous ITE score, gender, medical school origin, and conference attendance. For IM, PGY-2 admission and consult encounters in the hospital and specialty clinics had a positive linear association with ITE-3 % score (β = 0.02; p = 0.004). For IM, PGY-1 conference attendance is positively associated with PGY-2 ITE performance. We did not detect a correlation between PGY-1 patient encounters and subsequent ITE scores for IM or pediatric residents. No association was found between IM PGY-2 ITE score and inpatient, outpatient, or total encounters in the first year of training. Resident continuity clinic and total encounters were not associated with change in PGY-3 ITE score. We identified a positive association between hospital and subspecialty encounters during the second year of IM training and subsequent ITE score, such that each additional 50 encounters were associated with an increase of 1 % correct in PGY-3 ITE score after controlling for previous ITE performance and continuity clinic encounters. We did not find a correlation for volume of encounters and medical knowledge for IM PGY-1 residents or the pediatric cohort.

  6. Video Modeling of SBIRT for Alcohol Use Disorders Increases Student Empathy in Standardized Patient Encounters. (United States)

    Crisafio, Anthony; Anderson, Victoria; Frank, Julia


    The purpose of this study was to assess the usefulness of adding video models of brief alcohol assessment and counseling to a standardized patient (SP) curriculum that covers and tests acquisition of this skill. The authors conducted a single-center, retrospective cohort study of third- and fourth-year medical students between 2013 and 2015. All students completed a standardized patient (SP) encounter illustrating the diagnosis of alcohol use disorder, followed by an SP exam on the same topic. Beginning in August 2014, the authors supplemented the existing formative SP exercise on problem drinking with one of two 5-min videos demonstrating screening, brief intervention, and referral for treatment (SBIRT). P values and Z tests were performed to evaluate differences between students who did and did not see the video in knowledge and skills related to alcohol use disorders. One hundred ninety-four students were included in this analysis. Compared to controls, subjects did not differ in their ability to uncover and accurately characterize an alcohol problem during a standardized encounter (mean exam score 41.29 vs 40.93, subject vs control, p = 0.539). However, the SPs' rating of students' expressions of empathy were significantly higher for the group who saw the video (81.63 vs 69.79%, p videos would improve students' recognition and knowledge of alcohol-related conditions. However, feedback from the SPs produced the serendipitous finding that the communication skills demonstrated in the videos had a sustained effect in enhancing students' professional behavior.

  7. Very massive runaway stars from three-body encounters (United States)

    Gvaramadze, Vasilii V.; Gualandris, Alessia


    Very massive stars preferentially reside in the cores of their parent clusters and form binary or multiple systems. We study the role of tight very massive binaries in the origin of the field population of very massive stars. We performed numerical simulations of dynamical encounters between single (massive) stars and a very massive binary with parameters similar to those of the most massive known Galactic binaries, WR 20a and NGC 3603-A1. We found that these three-body encounters could be responsible for the origin of high peculiar velocities (≥70 km s-1) observed for some very massive (≥60-70 M⊙) runaway stars in the Milky Way and the Large Magellanic Cloud (e.g. λ Cep, BD+43°3654, Sk -67°22, BI 237, 30 Dor 016), which can hardly be explained within the framework of the binary-supernova scenario. The production of high-velocity massive stars via three-body encounters is accompanied by the recoil of the binary in the opposite direction to the ejected star. We show that the relative position of the very massive binary R145 and the runaway early B-type star Sk-69°206 on the sky is consistent with the possibility that both objects were ejected from the central cluster, R136, of the star-forming region 30 Doradus via the same dynamical event - a three-body encounter.

  8. Survey of editors and reviewers of high-impact psychology journals: statistical and research design problems in submitted manuscripts. (United States)

    Harris, Alex; Reeder, Rachelle; Hyun, Jenny


    The authors surveyed 21 editors and reviewers from major psychology journals to identify and describe the statistical and design errors they encounter most often and to get their advice regarding prevention of these problems. Content analysis of the text responses revealed themes in 3 major areas: (a) problems with research design and reporting (e.g., lack of an a priori power analysis, lack of congruence between research questions and study design/analysis, failure to adequately describe statistical procedures); (b) inappropriate data analysis (e.g., improper use of analysis of variance, too many statistical tests without adjustments, inadequate strategy for addressing missing data); and (c) misinterpretation of results. If researchers attended to these common methodological and analytic issues, the scientific quality of manuscripts submitted to high-impact psychology journals might be significantly improved.

  9. Encountering Problems at Home and at School: Language and Cognition in Two Settings. (United States)

    Martini, Mary

    This paper discusses cognitive communicative training in preschool and reports on a study of 11 Hawaiian preschoolers that examined how these children interacted with others, used language, manipulated objects, and solved problems at home and at school. The study observed the children at school and at home over a 5-month period, collecting…

  10. Challenges in the professional care encounters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaldal, Maiken Holm; Kristiansen, Jette; Uhrenfeldt, Lisbeth

    in the review. Data were extracted and the findings were categorized and themed on the basis of similarity of meaning and aggregated to produce a comprehensive set of synthesized findings. The review process resulted in 55 findings and 14 categories. The categories generated six themes: Psychological reactions...... to keep the patients happy as they try to avoid conflicts. The imagination and thoughts of what might happen in the encounter are based on the nursing students’ personal life experiences. They uses their close relatives as keys to the express empathy in the establishment of the nurse-patient relation...... are challenged by their personal boundaries in the professional care encounter and they experience a great psychological impact Patient contact is an unavoidable and complex component in the nursing education. The students have not yet built up a professional filter and are exposed to a wealth of emotional...

  11. Adrenal lesions encountered in current medical practice − a review of their radiological imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanesha Naidu


    Full Text Available Modern radiological technology has transformed the way that adrenal lesions are currently investigated. The contemporary radiologist has been catapulted to the forefront in the management of adrenal disease. With the increasing use of cross-sectional imaging, adrenal lesions are being serendipitously discovered in radiological studies undertaken for non-adrenal-related conditions – the so-called adrenal ‘incidentaloma’. This review discusses the imaging modalities available for characterising these lesions, highlighting current concepts and controversies in differentiating benign from malignant pathology. The article also provides a brief overview of the spectrum of adrenal pathology commonly encountered in the adult population.

  12. Adapting Experiential Learning to Develop Problem-Solving Skills in Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Engineering Students. (United States)

    Marshall, Matthew M; Carrano, Andres L; Dannels, Wendy A


    Individuals who are deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) are underrepresented in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) professions, and this may be due in part to their level of preparation in the development and retention of mathematical and problem-solving skills. An approach was developed that incorporates experiential learning and best practices of STEM instruction to give first-year DHH students enrolled in a postsecondary STEM program the opportunity to develop problem-solving skills in real-world scenarios. Using an industrial engineering laboratory that provides manufacturing and warehousing environments, students were immersed in real-world scenarios in which they worked on teams to address prescribed problems encountered during the activities. The highly structured, Plan-Do-Check-Act approach commonly used in industry was adapted for the DHH student participants to document and communicate the problem-solving steps. Students who experienced the intervention realized a 14.6% improvement in problem-solving proficiency compared with a control group, and this gain was retained at 6 and 12 months, post-intervention. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  13. The Effects of Case Libraries in Supporting Collaborative Problem-Solving in an Online Learning Environment (United States)

    Tawfik, Andrew A.; Sánchez, Lenny; Saparova, Dinara


    Various domains require practitioners to encounter and resolve ill-structured problems using collaborative problem-solving. As such, problem-solving is an essential skill that educators must emphasize to prepare learners for practice. One potential way to support problem-solving is through further investigation of instructional design methods that…

  14. Attributions of Intentions and Fairness Judgments regarding Interracial Peer Encounters (United States)

    Killen, Melanie; Kelly, Megan Clark; Richardson, Cameron; Jampol, Noah Simon


    To investigate how adolescents interpret ambiguous actions in hypothetical interracial peer encounters, we conducted a study in which 8th- and 11th-grade students (N = 837) evaluated 4 interracial peer encounters in which the intentions of the protagonist were ambiguous. The sample was evenly divided by gender and included both African American…

  15. Why Do Disadvantaged Filipino Children Find Word Problems in English Difficult? (United States)

    Bautista, Debbie; Mulligan, Joanne


    Young Filipino students are expected to solve mathematical word problems in English, a language that many encounter only in schools. Using individual interviews of 17 Filipino children, we investigated why word problems in English are difficult and the extent to which the language interferes with performance. Results indicate that children could…

  16. Strengthening student communication through pediatric simulated patient encounters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Whitt


    Full Text Available As medical students enter the role of physician, clinical outcomes not only rely on their mastery of clinical knowledge, but also on the effectiveness in which they can communicate with patients and family members. While students typically have numerous opportunities to practice clinical communication with adult patients, such practice in pediatric settings is limited. This study examines if simulated patient (SP encounters strengthen third-year medical students’ communication skills during the pediatrics clerkship. During 2011-2013, three SP encounters (comprising 3 pediatric scenarios were incorporated into a pediatrics clerkship at one United States medical school to give students a safe venue to practice advanced communication with observation and direct feedback. Third-year medical students engaged in the scenarios and received both written and oral feedback from an evaluator observing the encounter. With IRB approval, students’ self-perceived confidence and abilities at performing the advanced communication skills were measured using an eightitem, Likert scale questionnaire administered pre and post the SP encounter. Pre- and post-questionnaires (n = 215; response rate, 96% analyzed using a Wilcoxon-matched pairs signed-rank test demonstrated statistically significant increases in students’ perception of their confidence and abilities regarding their performance (P < 0.05; Bonferroni correction, P < 0.006. There was an increases in student confidence and self-perceived ability in: first, communicating with children and family members of young patients; second, managing confrontational situations involving parents; third, performing a thorough psychosocial history with an adolescent; and fourth, using Evidence Based Medicine to motivate parents.

  17. Professionalizations of Danish Teachers Encountering the 'Immigrant of School Age'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Padovan-Özdemir, Marta

    of integration', and as such act on behalf of the imagined collective good (Larsen 2012). This educational optimism is understood in terms of the development of the universal welfare state (Sandin 2012) and its rational engineering of social life (Petersen 1997). Petersen (1997) argues that the government...... of the collective good in the modern welfare nation-state becomes highly dependent on "the acceptance of expert knowledge as the foundation of a good life" (p. 367, my translation). The paper argues that the act of and desire for professionalization of teachers encountering the immigrant of school age should...... for the perceived threat to the collective good and as signifiers of the appropriate solutions to this threat. The proposition of problem construction to be the inner logic of professionalization of teachers feeds into the analytical framework of the paper, where relations of power/knowledge make up the history...

  18. Speech Problems (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Speech Problems KidsHealth / For Teens / Speech Problems What's in ... a person's ability to speak clearly. Some Common Speech and Language Disorders Stuttering is a problem that ...

  19. The two-dimensional cutting stock problem within the roller blind production process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.R. de Gelder; A.P.M. Wagelmans (Albert)


    textabstractIn this paper we consider a two-dimensional cutting stock problem encountered at a large manufacturer of window covering products. The problem occurs in the production process of made-to-measure roller blinds. We develop a solution method that takes into account the characteristics of

  20. Computer integration in the curriculum: promises and problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plomp, T.; van den Akker, Jan


    This discussion of the integration of computers into the curriculum begins by reviewing the results of several surveys conducted in the Netherlands and the United States which provide insight into the problems encountered by schools and teachers when introducing computers in education. Case studies

  1. Encounter Group Effects of Soccer Team Performance. (United States)

    Magen, Zipora


    Suggests that a positive relationship exists between encounter group experience and the soccer team performance--a conclusion worthy of consideration in further research in the fields of psychology and sociology of sports. (Author)

  2. N-Body simulations of tidal encounters between stellar systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, P.D.; Ramamani, N.; Alladin, S.M.


    N-Body simulations have been performed to study the tidal effects of a primary stellar system on a secondary stellar system of density close to the Roche density. Two hyperbolic, one parabolic and one elliptic encounters have been simulated. The changes in energy, angular momentum, mass distribution, and shape of the secondary system have been determined in each case. The inner region containing about 40% of the mass was found to be practically unchanged and the mass exterior to the tidal radius was found to escape. The intermediate region showed tidal distension. The thickness of this region decreased as we went from hyperbolic encounters to the elliptic encounter keeping the distance of closest approach constant. The numerical results for the fractional change in energy have been compared with the predictions of the available analytic formulae and the usefulness and limitations of the formulae have been discussed. (author)

  3. Characterization of discontinuities in high-dimensional stochastic problems on adaptive sparse grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakeman, John D.; Archibald, Richard; Xiu Dongbin


    In this paper we present a set of efficient algorithms for detection and identification of discontinuities in high dimensional space. The method is based on extension of polynomial annihilation for discontinuity detection in low dimensions. Compared to the earlier work, the present method poses significant improvements for high dimensional problems. The core of the algorithms relies on adaptive refinement of sparse grids. It is demonstrated that in the commonly encountered cases where a discontinuity resides on a small subset of the dimensions, the present method becomes 'optimal', in the sense that the total number of points required for function evaluations depends linearly on the dimensionality of the space. The details of the algorithms will be presented and various numerical examples are utilized to demonstrate the efficacy of the method.

  4. Corrosion, inspection and other problems associated with Heat exchangers in the heavy water industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twigg, R.J.


    Corrosion, fabrication and inspection problems encountered in the heavy water industry Heat exchangers are discussed. Among the problems examined are erosion/corrosion of two pass exchangers, rolling of tubes, pitting, fretting and protection for long term storage. (auth)

  5. The most common problem facing by the maintenance department: A case Study between Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM) and Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM) (United States)

    Norazam Yasin, Mohd; Mohamad Zin, Rosli; Halid Abdullah, Abd; Shafiq Mahmad, Muhammad; Fikri Hasmori, Muhammad


    From time to time, the maintenance works become more challenging due to construction of new building and also aging of the existing buildings. University buildings without any exception require proper maintenance services to support their function requirements and this can be considered as major responsibilities to be fulfilled by the maintenance department in the universities. Maintenance department specifically will face various kinds of problems in their operation works and thus this might influence the maintenance work operations itself. This study purposely to identify the common problem facing by the maintenance department and also to examine the current status of the maintenance department. In addition, this study would also propose any suitable approach that could be implemented to overcome the problem facing by the maintenance department. To achieve the objectives of this study, a combination of deep literature study and carrying out a survey is necessary. Literature study aimed to obtain deeper information about this study, meanwhile a survey aimed at identifying the common problem facing by the maintenance department and also to provide the information of the maintenance department’s organization. Several methods will be used in analyzing the data obtained through the survey, including Microsoft Office Excel and also using mean index formula. This study has identified three categories of problem in the maintenance department, which are management problems, human resource problem, and technical problems. Following the findings, several solutions being proposed which can be implemented as the solution to the problem facing. These suggestions have the potential to improve the maintenance department work efficiency, thus could help to increase the department productivity.

  6. Rethinking social identity theory in international encounters:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauring, Jakob


    In a globalized business environment, interaction across linguistic boundaries is becoming a normal part of everyday life. In these encounters language differences may affect the formation of social identities among organization members. While studies based on Social Identity Theory perceive...... the link between identity and language to be linear, this article takes a different approach. By drawing on anthropological theories on ethnic identity it is argued that the relation between language and social identity is negotiated in interaction. In the empirical analysis the article focuses...... on the encounter between expatriates and local employees of a Danish subsidiary in England. The findings show that identity making may be actualized by competition for resources and recognition. This can be done by investing certain objects such as the symbolic application of language with certain identifications...

  7. Hotspots on Io During the Ganymede 2 Encounter (United States)


    The Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS) on the Galileo spacecraft imaged Io at high spectral resolution at a range of 439,000 km (275,000 miles) during the G2 encounter on 6 September 1996. This image shows, on the right, Io as seen by NIMS, centered on 150 W longitude. The image on the left shows the same view point from Voyager data (from the encounters in 1979 and 1980). The NIMS image can be compared to the NIMS hotspot image from the G1 orbit (June 1996) to monitor changes on Io. The most dramatic feature of the G2 image is the hotspot at Malik Patera. Preliminary analysis of the data yields a temperature of at least 1000 K (727 C) for this hotspot, an increase of more than 300 K from the G1 encounter. In the overlap area of the G1 and G2 images all the hotspots seen during the G1 encounter are also seen in the G2 image. Other hotspots were seen, including one at the Pele plume origin site. This image is at the 4 micron band to best view the Malik hotspot. Most of the other hotspots are best seen at longer wavelengths. NIMS is continuing to observe Io to monitor volcanic activity throughout the Galileo mission.The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL

  8. English Preservice Teaching: Problems and Suggested Solutions (United States)

    Naeem, Marwa Ahmed Refat


    The present study investigated the problems faced by Egyptian EFL prospective teachers during their first encounter with preservice teaching. The sample for the study included 135 prospective EFL teachers trained in five preparatory (middle) schools in Kafr El-Sheikh city, Egypt. At the end of their first year training course, the prospective…

  9. Resolving beam transport problems in electrostatic accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, J.D.


    This paper reviews problem areas in beam transmission which are frequently encountered during the design, operation and upgrading of electrostatic accelerators. Examples are provided of analytic procedures that clarify accelerator ion optics and lead to more effective beam transport. Suggestions are made for evaluating accelerator design with the goal of improved performance

  10. A multi-model evaluation of aerosols over South Asia: common problems and possible causes (United States)

    Pan, X.; Chin, M.; Gautam, R.; Bian, H.; Kim, D.; Colarco, P. R.; Diehl, T. L.; Takemura, T.; Pozzoli, L.; Tsigaridis, K.; Bauer, S.; Bellouin, N.


    Atmospheric pollution over South Asia attracts special attention due to its effects on regional climate, water cycle and human health. These effects are potentially growing owing to rising trends of anthropogenic aerosol emissions. In this study, the spatio-temporal aerosol distributions over South Asia from seven global aerosol models are evaluated against aerosol retrievals from NASA satellite sensors and ground-based measurements for the period of 2000-2007. Overall, substantial underestimations of aerosol loading over South Asia are found systematically in most model simulations. Averaged over the entire South Asia, the annual mean aerosol optical depth (AOD) is underestimated by a range 15 to 44% across models compared to MISR (Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer), which is the lowest bound among various satellite AOD retrievals (from MISR, SeaWiFS (Sea-Viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor), MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) Aqua and Terra). In particular during the post-monsoon and wintertime periods (i.e., October-January), when agricultural waste burning and anthropogenic emissions dominate, models fail to capture AOD and aerosol absorption optical depth (AAOD) over the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP) compared to ground-based Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) sunphotometer measurements. The underestimations of aerosol loading in models generally occur in the lower troposphere (below 2 km) based on the comparisons of aerosol extinction profiles calculated by the models with those from Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) data. Furthermore, surface concentrations of all aerosol components (sulfate, nitrate, organic aerosol (OA) and black carbon (BC)) from the models are found much lower than in situ measurements in winter. Several possible causes for these common problems of underestimating aerosols in models during the post-monsoon and wintertime periods are identified: the aerosol hygroscopic growth and formation of

  11. Pipeline negotiations as a challenging setting for organised cultural encounters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerrieri, Valeria

    has linked together countries, cultures, identities, ultimately challenging, reorganizing and renegotiating them. Starting from these premises, the following paper intends to show how Canadian Mackenzie Valley represents a unique contact zone for the development of cultural encounters, where different...... with often competing interests and positions - the practice of public hearings can be approached as a form of organized cultural encounter, whose “implied purposes” are to deal with more or less substantial cultural differences and to provide a wider cultural understanding of each different position. Through......Within the context of resource extraction, cultural encounters have been historically performed in the way of more or less antagonistic social interactions, ranging from outright domination to more empowerment-oriented relations. Throughout the last decades, the building of pipelines in particular...

  12. Young Filipino Students Making Sense of Arithmetic Word Problems in English (United States)

    Bautista, Debbie; Mulligan, Joanne; Mitchelmore, Michael


    Young Filipino children are expected to solve mathematical word problems in English, a task which they typically encounter only in schools. In this exploratory study, task-based interviews were conducted with seven Filipino children from a public school. The children were asked to read and solve addition and subtraction word problems in English or…

  13. Academic Performance in Primary School Children With Common Emotional and Behavioral Problems. (United States)

    Mundy, Lisa K; Canterford, Louise; Tucker, Dawn; Bayer, Jordana; Romaniuk, Helena; Sawyer, Susan; Lietz, Petra; Redmond, Gerry; Proimos, Jenny; Allen, Nicholas; Patton, George


    Many emotional and behavioral problems first emerge in primary school and are the forerunners of mental health problems occurring in adolescence. However, the extent that these problems may be associated with academic failure has been explored less. We aimed to quantify the association between emotional and behavioral problems with academic performance. A stratified random sample of 8- to 9-year-olds (N = 1239) were recruited from schools in Australia. Data linkage was performed with a national assessment of academic performance to assess reading and numeracy. Parent report assessed emotional and behavioral problems with students dichotomized into "borderline/abnormal" and "normal" categories. One in 5 grade 3 students fell in the "borderline/abnormal" category. Boys with total difficulties (β = -47.8, 95% CI: -62.8 to -32.8), conduct problems, and peer problems scored lower on reading. Numeracy scores were lower in boys with total difficulties (β = -37.7, 95% CI: -53.9 to -21.5) and emotional symptoms. Children with hyperactivity/inattention scored lower in numeracy. Girls with peer problems scored lower in numeracy. Boys with emotional and behavioral problems in mid-primary school were 12 months behind their peers. Children with emotional and behavioral problems are at high risk for academic failure, and this risk is evident in mid-primary school. © 2017, American School Health Association.

  14. The way we encounter reading material influences how frequently we mind wander


    Trish L Varao Sousa; Jonathan S A Carriere; Dan eSmilek


    We examined whether different encounters of reading material influence the likelihood of mind wandering, memory for the material, and the ratings of interest in the material. In a within-subjects design participants experienced three different reading encounters: (1) reading a passage aloud, (2) listening to a passage being read to them, and (3) reading a passage silently. Throughout each reading encounter probes were given in order to identify mind wandering. After finishing the passage part...

  15. Web-based versus face-to-face interprofessional team encounters with standardized patients. (United States)

    Lempicki, Kelly A; Holland, Christine S


    Challenges exist in developing interprofessional education (IPE) activities including coordinating schedules and obtaining appropriate space for teams to work. Virtual worlds have been explored as a means to overcome some of these challenges. We sought to develop a web-based interprofessional team interaction with a standardized patient (SP), as compared to a face-to-face SP interaction, focusing on the competency area of interprofessional communication. Interprofessional teams of students were randomized to complete a web-based or face-to-face SP encounter. The web-based encounter was conducted via video conference that students accessed using their own electronic device. Interprofessional communication was evaluated by faculty observers and the SPs. Participants of the web-based encounter also completed a perceptions questionnaire. Interprofessional communication was rated as average/above average by the authors and SPs. Perceptions of the web-based encounter were mixed with not all students willing to complete such an encounter again despite finding it enjoyable and a positive learning experience. The need for adequate preparation was identified, including the opportunity to review the patient case before the encounter. The web-based SP encounter afforded students the opportunity to utilize communication technology to provide patient-centered care while collaborating as an interprofessional team. Video conferencing presents an opportunity to bypass some logistical challenges in scheduling IPE experiences and can be implemented as a co-curricular activity, avoiding course revisions. Additional studies are needed to further explore student and patient perspectives and clarify when, and with what level of trainees, the experiences are most valuable. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Screening for distress, the 6th vital sign: common problems in cancer outpatients over one year in usual care: associations with marital status, sex, and age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giese-Davis Janine


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Very few studies examine the longitudinal prevalence of problems and the awareness or use of clinical programs by patients who report these problems. Of the studies that examine age, gender and marital status as predictors of a range of patient outcomes, none examines the interactions between these demographic variables. This study examined the typical trajectory of common practical and psychosocial problems endorsed over 12 months in a usual-care sample of cancer outpatients. Specifically, we examined whether marital status, sex, age, and their interactions predicted these trajectories. We did not actively triage or refer patients in this study in order to examine the natural course of problem reports. Methods Patients completed baseline screening (N = 1196 of 1707 approached and the sample included more men (N = 696 than women (N = 498, average age 61.1 years. The most common diagnoses were gastrointestinal (27.1%, prostate (19.2%, skin (11.1% and gynecological (9.2%. Among other measures, patients completed a Common Problem Checklist and Psychosocial Resources Use questions at baseline, 3, 6, and 12 months using paper and pencil surveys. Results Results indicated that patients reported psychosocial problems more often than practical and both decreased significantly over time. Younger single patients reported more practical problems than those in committed relationships. Younger patients and women of all ages reported more psychosocial problems. Among a number of interesting interactions, for practical problems, single older patients improved more; whereas among married people, younger patients improved more. For psychosocial problems we found that older female patients improved more than younger females, but among males, it was younger patients who improved more. Young single men and women reported the most past-and future-use of services. Conclusions Younger women are particularly vulnerable to experiencing

  17. Moral Relations in Encounters with Nature (United States)

    Andersson, Karin; Öhman, Johan


    The overall aim of this article is to develop in-depth knowledge about the connection between outdoor experiences and moral attitudes towards nature. The study focuses on processes in which moral relations are at stake in encounters between students and nature. The purpose is to identify such events, describe their specific circumstances and…

  18. Oil spill encounter rate: A means of estimating advancing skimmer performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulze, R.


    A high rate of oil spill recovery can only be achieved if the spilled oil can be collected fast enough for the skimming and pumping systems to operate at their rated capacity. For advancing skimmers, recovery capacity depends on the rate at which the skimming system encounters the oil slick. For these systems, encounter rate depends on skimming speed, sweep width, and the amount of oil available, in this case measured in terms of slick thickness. The computation of the spill encounter rate is described, and a chart is provided that permits the user to determine encounter rate for candidate skimming systems by inspection. Furthermore, a contingency planning worksheet for advancing skimmers is provided that allows the user to evaluate a particular response system. The resulting data can be used to determine the oil slick area that can be covered in a period of time, the volume of oil that can be expected to be recovered in that time based on oil spill planning scenarios, the pumping capacity required for skimming and transfer systems, and the storage requirements for recovered oil. Finally, suggestions are presented on how computations of oil spill encounter rate can be used to make important decisions in procuring advancing skimmers for specific applications. 1 fig., 1 tab

  19. Encountering spiritual tourism in Kathmandu


    Børø, Nora


    Spiritual tourism as a phenomenon is increasing worldwide. Many have conducted research looking at the intersection between religion and tourism, but few have focused on the host community within these encounters. Many Western tourists arrive in Kathmandu to go on retreats', and to participate in yoga and meditation classes. The majority of these are particularly interested in various forms of Buddhist practice and traditions. In this thesis I have studied how N...

  20. Radioactivity: ''small users, big problems''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonnell, C.


    In the United Kingdom there are at least one thousand small users of radioactivity in industry, in medicine, in higher education establishments and even schools. These users of small amounts of radioactivity, covering a wide variety of forms and applications, have difficulty in disposing of their wastes. Disposal provisions for users outside the nuclear industry, the practical problems they encounter and the future developments likely are discussed. (UK)

  1. School Nurses' Perceived Prevalence and Competence to Address Student Mental Health Problems (United States)

    Stephan, Sharon H.; Connors, Elizabeth H.


    Due to under-identification of student mental health problems and limited specialty mental health providers in schools, school nurses are often faced with identifying and addressing student mental health needs. This exploratory study assessed prevalence and types of student mental health problems encountered by school nurses, as well as their…

  2. Protoplanetary disc response to distant tidal encounters in stellar clusters (United States)

    Winter, A. J.; Clarke, C. J.; Rosotti, G.; Booth, R. A.


    The majority of stars form in a clustered environment. This has an impact on the evolution of surrounding protoplanetary discs (PPDs) due to either photoevaporation or tidal truncation. Consequently, the development of planets depends on formation environment. Here, we present the first thorough investigation of tidally induced angular momentum loss in PPDs in the distant regime, partly motivated by claims in the literature for the importance of distant encounters in disc evolution. We employ both theoretical predictions and dynamical/hydrodynamical simulations in 2D and 3D. Our theoretical analysis is based on that of Ostriker (1994) and leads us to conclude that in the limit that the closest approach distance xmin ≫ r, the radius of a particle ring, the fractional change in angular momentum scales as (xmin/r)-5. This asymptotic limit ensures that the cumulative effect of distant encounters is minor in terms of its influence on disc evolution. The angular momentum transfer is dominated by the m = 2 Lindblad resonance for closer encounters and by the m = 1, ω = 0 Lindblad resonance at large xmin/r. We contextualize these results by comparing expected angular momentum loss for the outer edge of a PPD due to distant and close encounters. Contrary to the suggestions of previous works, we do not find that distant encounters contribute significantly to angular momentum loss in PPDs. We define an upper limit for closest approach distance where interactions are significant as a function of arbitrary host to perturber mass ratio M2/M1.

  3. Language barrier, funding, communication and time management problems found in the Medical Journal of Indonesia, 1995 - 2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isnani A. Suryono


    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to assess the problems encountered in the management of Medical Journal of Indonesia and whether any progress has been achieved during the past 7 years. A retrospective descriptive study was done in the MJI. Available data used as parameters were: number of articles submitted and author's home institution, number of articles submitted and rejected, cause/criteria of rejection, qualification of reviewers and editors, duration of manuscript processing, and whether pre-scheduled time is met in the Med J Indones. For this purpose, all manuscripts from January 1995- January 2001 were evaluated. In addition, recent problems encountered were noted. Problems encountered were limited supply of manuscript that might be due to language barrier, decrease in circulation due to limited budget, communication problems due to seniority, and increase in average processing time that might be due to restriction in the time allocated for MJI Number of articles submitted by authors originating from national versus foreign institutions in 1995-1997 was 101 versus 16, and in 1998 - 2000 were 124 versus 84. Articles rejected were ±26.4 % (1999-2001 and the most frequent causes of rejection were insignificancy of substance and improper data analysis. As for the qualification of editors there was an increase in the number of PhDs and professors. Average processing time is approximately 1.5 times the scheduled time. It seems that the 4 main problems encountered were (1 Language barrier, (2 Funding, (3 Communication problems and (4 Time management; and though not impressive, there are definitely positive changes in the number of manuscipts submitted, qualification of editors and peer reviewers. Average processing time is about the same, and the prescheduled time of editing is yet to be met. (Med J  Indones 2001; 10: 252-8Keywords: language barrier, funding, communication problems, time management

  4. Transmission investment problems in Europe: Going beyond standard solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buijs, Patrik; Bekaert, David; Cole, Stijn; Van Hertem, Dirk; Belmans, Ronnie


    The European transmission grid is facing an investment challenge. There is a strong call for more transmission capacity. At the same time, the investment climate is fierce and troubled by public opposition, a complex regulatory framework, etc. Many transmission capacity expansion projects are delayed or canceled. In this paper different technology options suitable for increasing transmission capacity are discussed. The aim is to provide policy-makers with information on technologies without going too much into technical details. The focus is on opportunities and limitations to implement various technological alternatives in practice, including technical solutions that go beyond constructing new connection lines. The criteria used in this technology assessment are based on the obstacles reported in the European Priority Interconnection Plan. This ensures a realistic approach based on problems encountered in real projects. Although AC overhead lines (OHL) will remain the standard solution for grid expansion, it is argued that different technology options can overcome many obstacles that OHL face. Additionally, it is illustrated that the higher investment costs for some solutions can be offset with an increased benefit, e.g. by accomplishing investments with smaller delays due to fewer obstacles encountered. - Research highlights: → Assessment of real problems encountered in transmission investments. → Comparison of transmission technologies. → Techno-economic evaluation of transmission technologies.

  5. Domestic Violence Encountered among Kurdish Women (United States)

    Ali, Sirwan Kamil


    Background and objective; There is growing recognition that violence against women has a large public health impact, in addition to being a gross violation of women's human rights. The study's aims were: To show the types of domestic abuse encountered by Kurdish women, and study the relationship between them. Methods; The study conducted in the…

  6. Encounters on a Shape-changing Bench

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinch, Sofie; Grönvall, Erik; Petersen, Marianne Graves


    ; a concert hall, an airport and a shopping mall. We gathered insights from more than 120 people, as they unexpectedly encountered the shape changing capabilities of the bench. By taking the user tests out of the lab and into the wild, we explored the influence of context on the users experience of a shape...

  7. Resolving beam transport problems in electrostatic accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, J.D.


    A review is given of problem areas in beam transmission which are frequently encountered during the design, operation and upgrading of electrostatic accelerators. Examples are provided of analytic procedures that clarify accelerator ion optics and lead to more effective beam transport. Suggestions are made for evaluating accelerator design with the goal of improved performance

  8. Pharmacist intervention in drug-related problems for patients with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the role of the community pharmacist in identifying, preventing and resolving drug related problems (DRPs) encountered by patients, with particular emphasis on cardiovascular drugs in community pharmacies in Northern Cyprus, Turkey. Methods: A prospective observational study for the ...

  9. The stories they tell: How third year medical students portray patients, family members, physicians, and themselves in difficult encounters. (United States)

    Shapiro, Johanna; Rakhra, Pavandeep; Wong, Adrianne


    Physicians have long had patients whom they have labeled "difficult", but little is known about how medical students perceive difficult encounters with patients. In this study, we analyzed 134 third year medical students' reflective essays written over an 18-month period about difficult student-patient encounters. We used a qualitative computerized software program, Atlas.ti to analyze students' observations and reflections. Main findings include that students described patients who were angry and upset; noncompliant with treatment plans; discussed "nonmedical" problems; fearful, worried, withdrawn, or "disinterested" in their health. Students often described themselves as anxious, uncertain, confused, and frustrated. Nevertheless, they saw themselves behaving in empathic and patient-centered ways while also taking refuge in "standard" behaviors not necessarily appropriate to the circumstances. Students rarely mentioned receiving guidance from attendings regarding how to manage these challenging interactions. These third-year medical students recognized the importance of behaving empathically in difficult situations and often did so. However, they often felt overwhelmed and frustrated, resorting to more reductive behaviors that did not match the needs of the patient. Students need more guidance from attending physicians in order to approach difficult interactions with specific problem-solving skills while maintaining an empathic, patient-centered context.

  10. ALE-PSO: An Adaptive Swarm Algorithm to Solve Design Problems of Laminates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Vannucci


    Full Text Available This paper presents an adaptive PSO algorithm whose numerical parameters can be updated following a scheduled protocol respecting some known criteria of convergence in order to enhance the chances to reach the global optimum of a hard combinatorial optimization problem, such those encountered in global optimization problems of composite laminates. Some examples concerning hard design problems are provided, showing the effectiveness of the approach.

  11. Identifying and attributing common data quality problems: temperature and precipitation observations in Bolivia and Peru (United States)

    Hunziker, Stefan; Gubler, Stefanie; Calle, Juan; Moreno, Isabel; Andrade, Marcos; Velarde, Fernando; Ticona, Laura; Carrasco, Gualberto; Castellón, Yaruska; Oria Rojas, Clara; Brönnimann, Stefan; Croci-Maspoli, Mischa; Konzelmann, Thomas; Rohrer, Mario


    Assessing climatological trends and extreme events requires high-quality data. However, for many regions of the world, observational data of the desired quality is not available. In order to eliminate errors in the data, quality control (QC) should be applied before data analysis. If the data still contains undetected errors and quality problems after QC, a consequence may be misleading and erroneous results. A region which is seriously affected by observational data quality problems is the Central Andes. At the same time, climatological information on ongoing climate change and climate risks are of utmost importance in this area due to its vulnerability to meteorological extreme events and climatic changes. Beside data quality issues, the lack of metadata and the low station network density complicate quality control and assessment, and hence, appropriate application of the data. Errors and data problems may occur at any point of the data generation chain, e.g. due to unsuitable station configuration or siting, poor station maintenance, erroneous instrument reading, or inaccurate data digitalization and post processing. Different measurement conditions in the predominantly conventional station networks in Bolivia and Peru compared to the mostly automated networks e.g. in Europe or Northern America may cause different types of errors. Hence, applying QC methods used on state of the art networks to Bolivian and Peruvian climate observations may not be suitable or sufficient. A comprehensive amount of Bolivian and Peruvian maximum and minimum temperature and precipitation in-situ measurements were analyzed to detect and describe common data quality problems. Furthermore, station visits and reviews of the original documents were done. Some of the errors could be attributed to a specific source. Such information is of great importance for data users, since it allows them to decide for what applications the data still can be used. In ideal cases, it may even allow to

  12. Exploring Principals' Nonroutine Problems in Bilingual Immersion Schools: Lessons Learned for Multicultural Leadership (United States)

    Schwabsky, Nitza


    The present study examines the nonroutine problems that eight Anglo-American principals encountered in managing three elementary bilingual immersion schools in the Northwest United States. Using qualitative inquiry to collect data, I employed the multisited ethnographic research model. The principals reported nonroutine problems in the following…

  13. Self. Propagating | a strategy of encounter |

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabrielle Lorraine Fletcher


    Full Text Available This piece mobilises both creative non-fiction and ficto-criticism to expose the necessary terrains of narrativity as a Country of the Lived,  making visible the redactive cartography of the PhD in telling Indigenous selfhood, and mobilising an argument for authentic encounter under the comfortable maps of form.

  14. BodyHeat Encounter: Performing Technology in Pedagogical Spaces of Surveillance/Intimacy (United States)

    Fels, Lynn; Ricketts, Kathryn


    What occurs when videographer and performer encounter each other through the lens of a camera? This collaborative performative inquiry focuses on embodiment and emergent narrative as realized through an encounter between technology and the visceral body--a relational body that smells, touches, sees, hears and feels the emergent world through…

  15. PREFACE: The random search problem: trends and perspectives The random search problem: trends and perspectives (United States)

    da Luz, Marcos G. E.; Grosberg, Alexander; Raposo, Ernesto P.; Viswanathan, Gandhi M.


    `I can't find my keys!' Who hasn't gone through this experience when leaving, in a hurry, to attend to some urgent matter? The keys could be in many different places. Unless one remembers where he or she has left the keys, the only solution is to look around, more or less randomly. Random searches are common because in many cases the locations of the specific targets are not known a priori. Indeed, such problems have been discussed in diverse contexts, attracting the interest of scientists from many fields, for example: the dynamical or stochastic search for a stable minimum in a complex energy landscape, relevant to systems such as glasses, protein (folding), and others; oil recovery from mature reservoirs; proteins searching for their specific target sites on DNA; animal foraging; survival at the edge of extinction due to low availability of energetic resources; automated searches of registers in high-capacity databases, search engine (e.g., `crawlers') that explore the internet; and even pizza delivery in a jammed traffic system of a medium-size town. In this way, the subject is interesting, challenging and has recently become an important scientific area of investigation. Although the applications are diverse, the underlying physical mechanisms are the same which will become clear in this special issue. Moreover, the inherent complexity of the problem, the abundance of ideas and methods found in this growing interdisciplinary field of research is studied in many areas of physics. In particular, the concepts and methods of statistical mechanics are particularly useful to the study of random searches. On one hand, it centres on how to find the global or local maxima of search efficiency functions with incomplete information. This is, of course, related to the long tradition in physics of using different conceptual and mathematical tools, such as variational methods, to extremize relevant quantities, e.g., energy, entropy and action. Such ideas and approaches are

  16. Time and multiple objectives in scheduling and routing problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dabia, S.


    Many optimization problems encountered in practice are multi-objective by nature, i.e., different objectives are conflicting and equally important. Many times, it is not desirable to drop some of them or to optimize them in a composite single objective or hierarchical manner. Furthermore, cost

  17. Safety problems with abandoned explosive facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courtright, W.C.


    Procedures were developed for the safe removal of explosive and radioactive contaminated materials structures and drains from abandoned sites, including explosives processing and service buildings with a goal to return the entire area to its natural state and to permit public access. The safety problems encountered in the cleanup and their solutions are applicable to modification and maintenance work in operating explosive facilities. (U.S.)

  18. Acquisition of an Underway CTD System for the Flow Encountering Abrupt Topography DRI (United States)


    Acquisition of an Underway CTD System for the Flow Encountering Abrupt Topography DRI T. M. Shaun Johnston Scripps Institution of Oceanography...westward flow in the North Equatorial Current (NEC) encounters tall, steep, submarine topography and islands. During the Flow Encountering Abrupt... Topography (FLEAT) DRI, investigators will determine: • Whether appreciable energy/momentum is lost from the large-scale NEC flow to smaller scales and

  19. Preventing Diabetes Problems (United States)

    ... Problems Diabetes, Sexual, & Bladder Problems Clinical Trials Preventing Diabetes Problems View or Print All Sections Heart Disease & ... to help control symptoms and restore intimacy. Depression & Diabetes Depression is common among people with a chronic, ...

  20. Satisfaction with the outpatient encounter - A comparison of patients' and physicians' views

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zandbelt, Linda C.; Smets, Ellen M. A.; Oort, Frans J.; Godfried, Mieke H.; de Haes, Hanneke C. J. M.


    OBJECTIVE: To compare patients' and physicians' visit-specific satisfaction in an internal medicine outpatient setting, and to explain their respective views. DESIGN: Patients' and physicians' background characteristics were assessed prior to outpatient encounters. Immediately after the encounter,

  1. Financial Stress, Parental Depressive Symptoms, Parenting Practices, and Children's Externalizing Problem Behaviors: Underlying Processes (United States)

    Lee, Chih-Yuan Steven; Lee, Jaerim; August, Gerald J.


    This study examined the relationships among financial stress encountered by families, parents' social support, parental depressive symptoms, parenting practices, and children's externalizing problem behaviors to advance our understanding of the processes by which family financial stress is associated with children's problem behaviors. We also…

  2. Users’ encounter with normative discourses on Facebook

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathieu, David


    This study asks whether users’ encounter with normative discourses of lifestyle, consumption, and health on social media such as Facebook gives rise to agency. The theoretical framework draws on reception analysis, for its implied, but central interest in agency that lies at the intersection...... of texts and audiences. Based on a critique of the “participatory paradigm,” a paradigm that situates the locus of agency in the structural opposition between senders and users, in the norms of rational deliberation or in the figure of the activist, gaps are identified which can be filled by adopting...... an explicit focus on the socio-cultural practices of ordinary audiences in their encounters with media discourses. The study investigates user agency on seven Facebook groups and pages with the help of a three-pronged perspective based on the notion of the media–audience relationship as (1) power structure...

  3. Mobbing behaviors encountered by nurse teaching staff. (United States)

    Yildirim, Dilek; Yildirim, Aytolan; Timucin, Arzu


    The term 'mobbing' is defined as antagonistic behaviors with unethical communication directed systematically at one individual by one or more individuals in the workplace. This cross-sectional and descriptive study was conducted for the purpose of determining the mobbing behaviors encountered by nursing school teaching staff in Turkey, its effect on them, and their responses to them. A large percentage (91%) of the nursing school employees who participated in this study reported that they had encountered mobbing behaviors in the institution where they work and 17% that they had been directly exposed to mobbing in the workplace. The academic staff who had been exposed to mobbing behaviors experienced various physiological, emotional and social reactions. They frequently 'worked harder and [were] more organized and worked very carefully to avoid criticism' to escape from mobbing. In addition, 9% of the participants stated that they 'thought about suicide occasionally'.

  4. Some problems on nonlinear hyperbolic equations and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Peng, YueJun


    This volume is composed of two parts: Mathematical and Numerical Analysis for Strongly Nonlinear Plasma Models and Exact Controllability and Observability for Quasilinear Hyperbolic Systems and Applications. It presents recent progress and results obtained in the domains related to both subjects without attaching much importance to the details of proofs but rather to difficulties encountered, to open problems and possible ways to be exploited. It will be very useful for promoting further study on some important problems in the future.

  5. Effects of Soundscapes on Perceived Crowding and Encounter Norms (United States)

    Kim, Sang-Oh; Shelby, Bo


    Soundscapes in recreation settings are becoming an important issue, but there are few studies of the effects of sounds on recreation experiences, especially crowding perceptions and encounter norms. This study compared effects of six types of sounds (an airplane, a truck engine, children playing, birds, water, and a control) on perceived crowding (PC) and encounter norms for hikers. Data were collected from 47 college students through lab experiments using simulated images, with moving hikers inserted in the original photo taken in the Jungmeori area of Mudeungsan Provincial Park in Korea. Overall, the motor-made sounds of the airplane and truck engine increased PC and decreased acceptability ratings, and the natural sounds of birds and water decreased PC and increased acceptability ratings. Ratings of the sound of children playing were similar to those in the control (i.e., no sound). In addition, as numbers of hikers increased, the overall effects of sounds decreased, and there were few significant differences in PC or acceptability ratings at the highest encounter levels. Theoretical and methodological implications are discussed.

  6. Feminist Encounters with Evolutionary Psychology


    O'Neill, Rachel


    This Section of Australian Feminist Studies is the product of an event that took place at King’s College London in January 2015, hosted as part of the UK-based ‘Critical Sexology’ seminar series. Participants at this event – feminist scholars working across the fields of lin- guistics, cultural studies, sociology, and psychology – were invited to reflect on their encounters with evolutionary psychology (EP). As the event organiser, I was interested to prompt a discussion about how EP shapes t...

  7. Applications of elliptic Carleman inequalities to Cauchy and inverse problems

    CERN Document Server

    Choulli, Mourad


    This book presents a unified approach to studying the stability of both elliptic Cauchy problems and selected inverse problems. Based on elementary Carleman inequalities, it establishes three-ball inequalities, which are the key to deriving logarithmic stability estimates for elliptic Cauchy problems and are also useful in proving stability estimates for certain elliptic inverse problems. The book presents three inverse problems, the first of which consists in determining the surface impedance of an obstacle from the far field pattern. The second problem investigates the detection of corrosion by electric measurement, while the third concerns the determination of an attenuation coefficient from internal data, which is motivated by a problem encountered in biomedical imaging.

  8. AIDS: Problems encountered in anthropological research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Boulogne


    Full Text Available Medical science has up to now not discovered a means to fight HIV and it is obvious that the epidemic can only be controlled by prevention. Those disciplines from the humanities that could make the most meaningful contribution in this regard would be those that study, or ought to study sexuality, namely, psychology, sociology and anthropology. The communication sciences and nursing belong here as well and ought to play a crucial role.

  9. Citizenship as practice: Handling communication problems in encounters between persons with dementia and social workers. (United States)

    Jh, Österholm; L-C, Hydén


    The overall aim of the study was to investigate if and how persons with dementia were able to take part in negotiations for formal support, as cases of citizenship as practice The transcripts used for analysis were from 11 assessment meetings conducted in Sweden, in which the formal applicant was a person with dementia. The findings suggest that the actual participation of persons with dementia in assessment meetings varies. Communication problems were found in the meetings to different degrees and were dealt with differently and with various consequences. For those persons with dementia contributing at the same levels as the other participants, there was an attempt at mutual understanding. For those making fewer contributions, the other interlocutors took over the initiative and thus affected the practice of citizenship by persons with dementia in a negative way. The practice of citizenship is situation based and varies depending on all participants. When the person with dementia is able to participate in the conversation, social workers can facilitate for them to overcome communication problems by giving them more time and signaling acceptance. If the person with dementia has great problems in participating, the other participants can find different strategies to at least involve her or him in the conversation. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. Assessing the Psychosocial Problems In Parenting Sickle-Cell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: To assess the psycho social problems encountered in parenting sickle-cell children in Enugu. Method: The subjects include all parents, guardian, foster parents of sickle cell children who have the responsibility of caring for sickle-cell children and who have attended the sickle-cell clinic of the UNTH between June to ...

  11. Meanings Given to Algebraic Symbolism in Problem-Posing (United States)

    Cañadas, María C.; Molina, Marta; del Río, Aurora


    Some errors in the learning of algebra suggest that students might have difficulties giving meaning to algebraic symbolism. In this paper, we use problem posing to analyze the students' capacity to assign meaning to algebraic symbolism and the difficulties that students encounter in this process, depending on the characteristics of the algebraic…

  12. Improving mathematical problem solving skills through visual media (United States)

    Widodo, S. A.; Darhim; Ikhwanudin, T.


    The purpose of this article was to find out the enhancement of students’ mathematical problem solving by using visual learning media. The ability to solve mathematical problems is the ability possessed by students to solve problems encountered, one of the problem-solving model of Polya. This preliminary study was not to make a model, but it only took a conceptual approach by comparing the various literature of problem-solving skills by linking visual learning media. The results of the study indicated that the use of learning media had not been appropriated so that the ability to solve mathematical problems was not optimal. The inappropriateness of media use was due to the instructional media that was not adapted to the characteristics of the learners. Suggestions that can be given is the need to develop visual media to increase the ability to solve problems.

  13. Selective common and uncommon imaging manifestations of blunt nonaortic chest trauma: when time is of the essence. (United States)

    Altoos, Rola; Carr, Robert; Chung, Jonathan; Stern, Eric; Nevrekar, Dipti


    This is a pictorial essay in which we review and illustrate a variety of thoracic injuries related to blunt trauma. Non-aortic blunt thoracic trauma can be divided anatomically into injuries of the chest wall, lungs, pleura, mediastinum, and diaphragm. Some injuries involve more than one anatomic compartment, and multiple injuries commonly coexist. This article provides common imaging findings and discussion of both common and uncommon but critical thoracic injuries encountered. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Investigation on legal problems encountered by emergency medicine physicians in Turkey. (United States)

    Kayipmaz, Afsin Emre; Kavalci, Cemil; Gulalp, Betul; Kocalar, Ummu Gulsum; Giray, Tufan Akin; Yesilagac, Hasan; Ozel, Betul Akbuga; Celikel, Elif; Karagun, Ozlem


    Medicine is a profession that carries certain risks. One risky area of practice is the emergency department. Emergency physicians diagnose and treat a high volume of patients, and are also responsible for preparing reports for forensic cases. In this study, we aim to investigate emergency physicians' legal-administrative problems and reveal their level of understanding on forensic cases. An electronic questionnaire form was prepared after the approval of an ethical committee. This form was sent to the residents, specialists and academicians of emergency medicine by e-mail. The physicians were asked to fill out the form online. All the gathered data was analyzed. Descriptive statistics were presented as frequency percentages with mean and standard deviation. Chi-square tests were used to compare the groups. Correlation between number of complaint cases and age, sex, career, institution, and duration of service in emergency department were investigated. pmedicine and age. There was a significant difference between number of complaint reports and career (p<0.05). The physicians' level of awareness on forensic cases was found to be insufficient. Lack of legislation knowledge may be an important cause of complaint reports concerning emergency physicians, who have a high load of patients. Thus, we think that increasing the frequency of post-graduate education sessions and periodical reviews might be beneficial.

  15. Choosing a language in international office service encounters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hazel, Spencer

    Choosing a language in international office service encounters – from multilingual miscellany to medium-of-interaction in a matter of seconds Spencer Hazel Roskilde University, Denmark In higher education settings characterized by increasing transnational student and staff mobility, members...... to a multimodal interaction analysis following the ethnomethodological tradition of Conversation Analysis. Gafaranga, J. (2000). Medium repair vs. other-language repair: Telling the medium of a bilingual conversation. International Journal of Bilingualism, 4(3), 327-350. Hall, J. K., Hellermann, J., & Pekarek...... Preisler (eds.) Language alternation, language choice and language encounter in international education. Dordrecht: Springer Preisler, Bent, Ida Klitgård, and Anne H. Fabricius. (2011). Language and learning in the international university: from English uniformity to diversity and hybridity. Bristol...

  16. Problemas comuns na lactação e seu manejo Common problems during lactation and their management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa R. J. Giugliani


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Apresentar uma revisão atualizada sobre problemas comuns relacionados à lactação e seu manejo. FONTE DOS DADOS: Foi realizada extensa revisão bibliográfica sobre o tópico, sendo utilizadas publicações selecionadas a partir de pesquisa na base de dados MEDLINE e de organismos nacionais e internacionais. Foram utilizados também livros-texto e alguns artigos-chave selecionados a partir de citações em outros artigos. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: Vários dos problemas comuns enfrentados durante a lactação - ingurgitamento mamário, traumas mamilares, bloqueio de ducto lactífero, infecções mamárias e baixa produção de leite - têm a sua origem em condições que levam a um esvaziamento mamário inadequado. Assim, má técnica de amamentação, mamadas infreqüentes e em horários predeterminados, uso de chupetas e de complementos alimentares constituem importantes fatores que podem predispor ao aparecimento de complicações da lactação. Nessas condições, o manejo adequado é imprescindível, pois, se não tratadas adequadamente, com freqüência levam ao desmame precoce. Para a abordagem dos fatores que dificultam o esvaziamento adequado das mamas, há medidas específicas. Além disso, o suporte emocional e medidas que visem dar maior conforto à lactante não podem ser negligenciadas. CONCLUSÕES: A maioria dos problemas comuns relacionados à lactação pode ser prevenida com esvaziamento adequado das mamas. Uma vez presentes, os problemas devem ser manejados adequadamente, evitando-se, assim, o desmame precoce decorrente de situações dolorosas e, por vezes, debilitantes para a nutriz.OBJECTIVE: To present an update review on common problems associated with breastfeeding and their management. SOURCE OF THE FINDINGS: A comprehensive bibliographic review on the issue was performed by searching publications from the MEDLINE database and from national and international organizations. Books and some key articles cited in

  17. Groin Problems in Male Soccer Players Are More Common Than Previously Reported

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harøy, Joar; Clarsen, Ben; Thorborg, Kristian


    surveillance method developed to capture acute and overuse problems. STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive epidemiology study. METHODS: We registered groin problems during a 6-week period of match congestion using the Oslo Sports Trauma Research Center Overuse Injury Questionnaire. A total of 240 players from 15 teams......BACKGROUND: The majority of surveillance studies in soccer have used a time-loss injury definition, and many groin problems result from overuse, leading to gradually increasing pain and/or reduced performance without necessarily causing an absence from soccer training or match play. Thus......, the magnitude of groin problems in soccer has probably been underestimated in previous studies based on traditional injury surveillance methods. PURPOSE: To investigate the prevalence of groin problems among soccer players of both sexes and among male soccer players at different levels of play through a new...

  18. Psychoeducation for hypochondriasis : A comparison of a cognitive-behavioural approach and a problem-solving approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buwalda, Femke M.; Bouman, Theo. K.; van Duijn, Marijtje A. J.; Van der Duin, M.

    In this study, two 6-week psychoeducational courses for hypochondriasis are compared, one based on the cognitive-behavioural approach, and the other on the problem-solving approach. Effects of both courses on hypochondriacal complaints, depression, trait anxiety, and number of problems encountered

  19. Groupwork as a Form of Assessment: Common Problems and Recommended Solutions (United States)

    Davies, W. Martin


    This paper reviews some of the literature on the use of groupwork as a form of assessment in tertiary institutions. It outlines the considerable advantages of groupwork but also its systemic associated problems. In discussing the problems, the paper considers issues such as "free riding" and the "sucker effect", issues associated with ethnic mix…

  20. Boundary Transgressions: An Issue In Psychotherapeutic Encounter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Boundary transgressions tend to be conceptualized on a continuum ranging from boundary crossings to boundary violations. Boundary crossings (e.g. accepting an inexpensive holiday gift from a client, unintentionally encountering a client in public, or attending a client's special event) are described in the literature as ...

  1. Practical problems and their solutions in studying the biology of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Jun 5, 2013 ... mealybugs and other scale insects without mentioning the problems they encountered and had to solve. In this paper ... and Murai (2002) developed a new rearing method using broad bean seeds .... maintenance. The mini ...

  2. Geodesy problems in nuclear power plant construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eory, K.


    The special geodetic problems encountered during the construction of the Paks nuclear power plants are treated. The main building with its hermetically connected components including the reactor, the steam generators, the circulation pumps etc. impose special requirements on the control net of datum points. The geodesy tasks solved during the construction of the main building are presented in details. (R.P.)

  3. Modelling Difficulties and Their Overcoming Strategies in the Solution of a Modelling Problem (United States)

    Dede, Ayse Tekin


    The purpose of the study is to reveal the elementary mathematics student teachers' difficulties encountered in the solution of a modelling problem, the strategies to overcome those difficulties and whether the strategies worked or not. Nineteen student teachers solved the modelling problem in their four or five-person groups, and the video records…

  4. Psychological and social problems in primary care patients - general practitioners' assessment and classification. (United States)

    Rosendal, Marianne; Vedsted, Peter; Christensen, Kaj Sparle; Moth, Grete


    To estimate the frequency of psychological and social classification codes employed by general practitioners (GPs) and to explore the extent to which GPs ascribed health problems to biomedical, psychological, or social factors. A cross-sectional survey based on questionnaire data from GPs. Setting. Danish primary care. 387 GPs and their face-to-face contacts with 5543 patients. GPs registered consecutive patients on registration forms including reason for encounter, diagnostic classification of main problem, and a GP assessment of biomedical, psychological, and social factors' influence on the contact. The GP-stated reasons for encounter largely overlapped with their classification of the managed problem. Using the International Classification of Primary Care (ICPC-2-R), GPs classified 600 (11%) patients with psychological problems and 30 (0.5%) with social problems. Both codes for problems/complaints and specific disorders were used as the GP's diagnostic classification of the main problem. Two problems (depression and acute stress reaction/adjustment disorder) accounted for 51% of all psychological classifications made. GPs generally emphasized biomedical aspects of the contacts. Psychological aspects were given greater importance in follow-up consultations than in first-episode consultations, whereas social factors were rarely seen as essential to the consultation. Psychological problems are frequently seen and managed in primary care and most are classified within a few diagnostic categories. Social matters are rarely considered or classified.

  5. Shoulder Acromioclavicular and Coracoclavicular Ligament Injuries: Common Problems and Solutions. (United States)

    Wylie, James D; Johnson, Jeremiah D; DiVenere, Jessica; Mazzocca, Augustus D


    Injuries to the acromioclavicular joint and coracoclavicular ligaments are common. Many of these injuries heal with nonoperative management. However, more severe injuries may lead to continued pain and shoulder dysfunction. In these patients, surgical techniques have been described to reconstruct the function of the coracoclavicular ligaments to provide stable relationship between the clavicle and scapula. These surgeries have been fraught with high complication rates including clavicle and coracoid fractures, infection, loss of reduction and fixation, hardware migration, and osteolysis. This article reviews common acromioclavicular and coracoclavicular repair and reconstruction techniques and associated complications, and provides recommendations for prevention and management. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. "Oh! Iben's Here Now, So We Better Behave Properly"—The Production of Class as Morality in Research Encounters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iben Charlotte Aamann


    Full Text Available This article is a study of how class is produced in research encounters as matters of morality. I engage various class perspectives, arguing that class today occurs in subtle ways, being lived as judgments and struggles around moral authorization. I draw on my experiences during six months of ethnographic fieldwork among ethnic Danish middle- and working-class parents when involved in their six-year-old children's start in the final preschool class. In light of my methodological problems with establishing trustful relations with the participants, I argue that I was being interpreted as a judge with a mandate to pass moral judgments on the parents. While this interpretation was common among the participants, they positioned themselves in three radically different ways towards the researcher and "judge": "eager to get a positive judgment," "in the same boat" and "refusing to get judged." This, I argue, reflects contours of class relations in contemporary, neoliberal societies. I also call for acknowledgment of how the power relations embedded in social, qualitative research are often matters of class. Further, I argue that in a broader methodological perspective, we also need to recognize and investigate the classed dimensions of social research to enhance our understanding of the processes involved in qualitative studies.

  7. Giant teratoma of anterior mediastinum in a 14-year-old girl as an example of potential diagnostic problems and errors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przemysław Wolak


    Full Text Available Teratomas are tumors originating from the three primary germ layers, most commonly located within gonads or in the sacral region. Chest locations are rare. Mediastinal teratoma showing no tumor-specific symptoms may be treated as exudative pneumonia. The goal of the article was to present a case encountered in our practice as a showcase of possible diagnostic problems and errors. Despite a thorough medical examination with additional exams (ultrasound scans of pleural cavities, chest X-ray and laboratory analyses, the diagnosis of a thoracic tumor was made only after chest computed tomography scan was performed following ineffective attempts at antibiotic therapy and pleural drainage. Following the diagnosis of mediastinal tumor, the patient was subjected to surgery. A giant teratoma (confirmed in histopathological examination was removed upon left-sided thoracotomy. Following the procedure, lung expansion and patient recovery were observed. Computed tomography of the chest should be performed routinely upon encountering difficulties in the treatment of exudative pneumonia in children. In every case of pneumonia with pleural effusion in children, inflammatory mask of mediastinal tumors should be ruled out.

  8. Interfaith dialogue as moral encounter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galal, Lise Paulsen

    The concept of interfaith dialogue has been introduced and developed by scholars of different religions. The aim has been to find solutions from within religion to handle and optimise encounters with religious ‘Others’. Furthermore, interfaith dialogue has increasingly become a tool to solve...... between Muslims and Christians and analyse the different moral orders involved and how – following these orders – the participants are expected to deal with differences. Main focus is on how the participants are expected to deal with a requirement of staying the same (as Christian or Muslim) while...

  9. Special relativity a first encounter

    CERN Document Server

    Giulini, Domenico


    Special relativity provides the foundations of our knowledge of space and time. Without it, our understanding of the world, and its place in the universe, would be unthinkable. This book gives a concise, elementary, yet exceptionally modern, introduction to special relativity. It is a gentle yet serious 'first encounter', in that it conveys a true understanding rather than purely reports the basic facts. Only very elementary mathematical knowledge is needed to master it (basichigh-school maths), yet it will leave the reader with a sound understanding of the subject. Special Relativity: A First

  10. A framework for a process-driven common foundation programme for graduates. (United States)

    Jasper, M; Rolfe, G


    This paper discusses some of the problems encountered in writing a shortened Common Foundation Programme in nursing for graduates, and outlines a course which takes as its starting point the particular educational needs and requirements of the student group. Thus, the first question to be addressed by the curriculum writers when designing the course was "How can we teach these students?", rather than "What can we teach them?". The resulting process-driven course is heavily influenced by the student-centred philosophy of Carl Rogers, and utilizes a variety of large- and small-group methods to facilitate the students in gradually taking responsibility for, and making decisions about, their learning needs. The paper continues with some strategies for ensuring a smooth transition from a tutor-led, syllabus-driven start to the course, to a student-led, process-driven finish for both the theoretical and clinical components, and for the assessment schedule. Finally, a student-centred approach to evaluation is briefly outlined, and the paper concludes by suggesting that the principles employed in designing and implementing this course could be successfully transferred to a wide variety of other educational settings.

  11. Value Encounters - Modeling and Analyzing Co-creation of Value (United States)

    Weigand, Hans

    Recent marketing and management literature has introduced the concept of co-creation of value. Current value modeling approaches such as e3-value focus on the exchange of value rather than co-creation. In this paper, an extension to e3-value is proposed in the form of a “value encounter”. Value encounters are defined as interaction spaces where a group of actors meet and derive value by each one bringing in some of its own resources. They can be analyzed from multiple strategic perspectives, including knowledge management, social network management and operational management. Value encounter modeling can be instrumental in the context of service analysis and design.

  12. Storyboard GALILEO CRUISE SCIENCE OPPORTUNITIES describes asteroid encounters (United States)


    Storyboard with mosaicked image of an asteroid and entitled GALILEO CRUISE SCIENCE OPPORTUNITIES describes asteroid objectives. These objectives include: first asteroid encounter; surface geology, composition size, shape, mass; and relation of primitive bodies to meteorites.

  13. Nature and frequency of exchanges on medications during primary care encounters. (United States)

    Richard, Claude; Lussier, Marie-Thérèse


    To describe the exchanges, related to discussion of all medications during primary care medical consultations. Descriptive study of audio recordings of 422 medical encounters. Coding was done with MEDICODE, a validated instrument developed to analyse verbal exchanges on medications. The unit of analysis is the medication. An average of 3.9 medications (S.D.=2.8; range 1-21) are discussed per interview and 4.2 themes are broached for each drug (S.D.=2.6; range 1-17). "Active Discussed", "Represcribed" and "Newly Prescribed" drugs account for 43.1, 16.3 and 10.6%, respectively of all medications discussed. Themes most often discussed are Name, Instructions, Observed Main Effect, Class, Reasons for Taking the Drug, General Use of the Medication, Expected Effect on Symptoms, Form of the Medication, Indications Another Consultation Needed, and Alternative Medication. The least often discussed themes include clinically significant ones such as Possible Adverse Effects, Observed Adverse Effects, Expression of Attitudes and Emotions with regard to the medication, Compliance and Warnings. The average number of themes discussed differed between medications that were prescribed during the encounter, either New prescriptions or Represcribed drugs, compared to medications that were only discussed during the encounter. Our results show that medication discussions are heterogeneous and vary with the status of the medication and the theme. Also, the nature and extent of the discussions about medications do not support the shared-decision making model. Though it is too soon to make specific recommendations about discussions on medications, it seems clear that information-sharing about medications during medical encounters is a process that extends beyond any single encounter. Although communication skills are now part of most medical curriculums, there is an obvious need to put forth the concept of patient medication knowledge-building over multiple physician-patient encounters and

  14. The university as an encounter for deliberative communication - creating cultural citizenship and professional responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Englund


    Full Text Available How can higher and professional education contribute to the development of responsible citizenship and professional responsibility? In recent discussions on the role of the educational system, the idea of “deliberative communication” has been brought into focus and stands for communication in which different opinions and values can be set against each other in educational settings. It implies an endeavour by each individual to develop his or her view by listening, deliberating, seeking arguments and valuing, coupled to a collective and cooperative endeavour to find values and norms which everyone can accept, at the same time as pluralism is acknowledged. Within higher education deliberative communication might explicitly be used to develop professional responsibility and analysing consequences of different ways of solving problems. To what extent are and can universities become public spaces for encounters dealing with controversial questions of how to solve different problems and analyse different ways of professional acting? Can universities recreate their selective traditions, “institutionalize dissensus”, and “make the university a site of public debate” through deliberative communication?

  15. The northern lakes of Egypt: Encounters with a wetland environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parmenter, B.M.


    Five lakes fringe the northern coast of Egypt. Together they represent 25% of the remaining wetland habitat in the Mediterranean basin. Residents of these lakes traditionally exploited a wide variety of resources. Today these lakes face a number of threats to their existence, including large-scale reclamation and water pollution. Agricultural authorities, engineers, fishery managers, and conservationists in Egypt and abroad debate about how best to manage and develop the lake region's resources, but few of these groups understand or communicate with one another, or with residents of lake communities. This study explores how these various groups encounter the coastal lakes of Egypt, focusing particularly on Lakes Manzala and Burullus. Its purpose is to explore the ways in which the lakes, their resources and their inhabitants have been evaluated, and to analyze how underlying preconceptions, goals and structures of professional discourse influence such evaluations. The thesis is that environmental management is in reality not a rational plan but a process. Egypt is currently attempting to develop a coherent strategy to remedy its environmental problems without adversely affecting economic growth

  16. [Problems caused by poisonous tropical marine animals]. (United States)

    Lääveri, Tinja; Räisänen-Sokolowski, Anne; Jama, Timo


    A Finnish physician encounters problems caused by tropical marine animals either during her/his own travelling or while treating travelers who have returned home. Certain species of medusae and cone shells as well as the stings by some fish species are life-threateningly poisonous. A person stung or bitten by any of the most dangerous species must immediately be admitted to the hospital. Foreign material remaining in tissues after stings by echinoderms and spiky fish may cause problems months after the actual injury. The injuries become easily infected, and antimicrobial drug therapy must thus cover gram-negative rod-shaped bacteria as well.

  17. Operational problems with radiation survey meters - The University and Accelerator perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCall, R.C.


    This article describes problems encountered with commercial survey meters. The desired qualities of such instruments for use around accelerators are listed. Attempts to meet the accelerator monitoring needs by modifying commercial instruments and by in-house research and development are described

  18. Evolution of general surgical problems in patients with left ventricular assist devices. (United States)

    McKellar, Stephen H; Morris, David S; Mauermann, William J; Park, Soon J; Zietlow, Scott P


    Left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) are increasingly used to treat patients with end-stage heart failure. These patients may develop acute noncardiac surgical problems around the time of LVAD implantation or, as survival continues to improve, chronic surgical problems as ambulatory patients remote from the LVAD implant. Previous reports of noncardiac surgical problems in LVAD patients included patients with older, first-generation devices and do not address newer, second-generation devices. We describe the frequency and management of noncardiac surgical problems encountered during LVAD support with these newer-generation devices to assist noncardiac surgeons involved in the care of patients with LVADs. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of consecutive patients receiving LVADs at our institution. We collected data for any consultation by noncardiac surgeons within the scope of general surgery during LVAD support and subsequent treatment. Ninety-nine patients received implantable LVADs between 2003 and 2009 (first-generation, n = 19; second-generation, n = 80). Excluding intestinal hemorrhage, general surgical opinions were rendered for 34 patients with 49 problems, mostly in the acute recovery phase after LVAD implantation. Of those, 27 patients underwent 28 operations. Respiratory failure and intra-abdominal pathologies were the most common problems addressed, and LVAD rarely precluded operation. Patients with second-generation LVADs were more likely to survive hospitalization (P = .04) and develop chronic, rather than emergent, surgical problems. Patients with LVADs frequently require consultation from noncardiac surgeons within the scope of general surgeons and often require operation. Patients with second-generation LVADs are more likely to become outpatients and develop more elective surgical problems. Noncardiac surgeons will be increasingly involved in caring for patients with LVADs and should anticipate the problems unique to this patient

  19. Multiple Codes, Multiple Impressions: An Analysis of Doctor-Client Encounters in Nigeria (United States)

    Odebunmi, Akin


    Existing studies on doctor-client interactions have largely focused on monolingual encounters and the interactional effects and functions of the languages used in the communication between doctors and their clients. They have neither, to a large extent, examined the several codes employed in single encounters and their pragmatic roles nor given…

  20. Avoidance: From threat encounter to action execution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnaudova, I.


    Every day we encounter many threats to survival: a car speeding on a small street or an angry neighbor carrying an axe. Mostly, people go through their days not worrying that their chance of survival might be small. They avoid many dangers without even thinking about them (e.g., looking at both

  1. Entering a Crack: An Encounter with Gossip (United States)

    Henderson, Linda


    In this paper, I enter a crack to think otherwise about the concept "gossip". Drawing on previous scholarship engaging with Deleuzian concepts to inform research methodologies, this paper builds on this body of work. Following Deleuze and Guattari, the paper undertakes a mapping of gossip, subsequent to an encounter with a crack.…

  2. Solved and unsolved problems in boiler systems. Learning from accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozawa, Mamoru


    This paper begins with a brief review on the similarity law of conventional fossil-fuel-fired boilers. The concept is based on the fact that the heat release due to combustion in the furnace is restricted by the furnace volume but the heat absorption is restricted by the heat transfer surface area. This means that a small-capacity boiler has relatively high specific furnace heat release rate, about 10 MW/m 3 , and on the contrary a large-capacity boiler has lower value. The surface-heat-flux limit is mainly dominated by the CHF inside the water-wall tubes of the boiler furnace, about 350 kW/m 2 . This heat-flux limit is almost the same order independently on the capacity of boilers. For the safety of water-walls, it is essential to retain suitable water circulation, i.e. circulation ratio and velocity of water. This principle is a common knowledge of boiler designer, but actual situation is not the case. Newly designed boilers often suffer from similar accidents, especially burnout due to circulation problems. This paper demonstrates recent accidents encountered in practical boilers, and raises problems of rather classical but important two-phase flow and heat transfer. (author)

  3. Pharmacy users' expectations of pharmacy encounters: a Q-methodological study. (United States)

    Renberg, Tobias; Wichman Törnqvist, Kristina; Kälvemark Sporrong, Sofia; Kettis Lindblad, Asa; Tully, Mary P


    Pharmacy practice is evolving according to general health-care trends such as increased patient involvement and public health initiatives. In addition, pharmacists strive to find new professional roles. Clients' expectations of service encounters at pharmacies is an under-explored topic but crucial to understanding how pharmacy practice can evolve efficiently. To identify and describe different normative expectations of the pharmacy encounter among pharmacy clients. Q methodology, an approach to systematically explore subjectivity that retains complete patterns of responses and organizes these into factors of operant subjectivity. Eighty-five regular prescription medication users recruited at Swedish community pharmacies and by snowballing. Seven factors of operant subjectivity were identified, and organized into two groups. Factors that emphasized the physical drug product as the central object of the pharmacy encounter were labelled as independent drug shopping; logistics of drug distribution; and supply of individual's own drugs. Factors that emphasized personal support as desirable were labelled competence as individual support; individualist professional relations, just take care of me; and practical health-care and lifestyle support. The systematic Q-methodological approach yielded valuable insights into how pharmacy clients construct their expectations for service encounters. They hold differentiating normative expectations for pharmacy services. Understanding these varying viewpoints may be important for developing and prioritizing among efficient pharmacy services. Clients' expectations do not correspond with trends that guide current pharmacy practice development. This might be a challenge for promoting or implementing services based on such trends. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. On the Equivalence of Quadratic Optimization Problems Commonly Used in Portfolio Theory


    Taras Bodnar; Nestor Parolya; Wolfgang Schmid


    In the paper, we consider three quadratic optimization problems which are frequently applied in portfolio theory, i.e, the Markowitz mean-variance problem as well as the problems based on the mean-variance utility function and the quadratic utility.Conditions are derived under which the solutions of these three optimization procedures coincide and are lying on the efficient frontier, the set of mean-variance optimal portfolios. It is shown that the solutions of the Markowitz optimization prob...

  5. Avoiding humiliations in the clinical encounter. (United States)

    Malterud, Kirsti; Hollnagel, Hanne


    To explore potentials for avoiding humiliations in clinical encounters, especially those that are unintended and unrecognized by the doctor. Furthermore, to examine theoretical foundations of degrading behaviour and identify some concepts that can be used to understand such behaviour in the cultural context of medicine. Finally, these concepts are used to build a model for the clinician in order to prevent humiliation of the patient. Empirical studies document experiences of humiliation among patients when they see their doctor. Philosophical and sociological analysis can be used to explain the dynamics of unintended degrading behaviour between human beings. Skjervheim, Vetlesen, and Bauman have identified the role of objectivism, distantiation, and indifference in the dynamics of evil acts, pointing to the rules of the cultural system, rather than accusing the individual of bad behaviour. Examining the professional role of the doctor, parallel traits embedded in the medical culture are demonstrated. According to Vetlesen, emotional awareness is necessary for moral perception, which again is necessary for moral performance. A better balance between emotions and rationality is needed to avoid humiliations in the clinical encounter. The Awareness Model is presented as a strategy for clinical practice and education, emphasizing the role of the doctor's own emotions. Potentials and pitfalls are discussed.

  6. Current problems in haematology. 2: Hereditary spherocytosis.


    Smedley, J C; Bellingham, A J


    Hereditary spherocytosis is a relatively common haematological disorder and will be encountered by all haematologists. The abundance of new information, dealing principally with molecular and genetic aspects of pathophysiology, is beginning to have implications for its investigation and management. While these advances have not yet exerted a large influence at therapeutic level, the promise of such advents as prenatal diagnosis make this an exciting field to watch.

  7. Estimating the encounter rate variance in distance sampling (United States)

    Fewster, R.M.; Buckland, S.T.; Burnham, K.P.; Borchers, D.L.; Jupp, P.E.; Laake, J.L.; Thomas, L.


    The dominant source of variance in line transect sampling is usually the encounter rate variance. Systematic survey designs are often used to reduce the true variability among different realizations of the design, but estimating the variance is difficult and estimators typically approximate the variance by treating the design as a simple random sample of lines. We explore the properties of different encounter rate variance estimators under random and systematic designs. We show that a design-based variance estimator improves upon the model-based estimator of Buckland et al. (2001, Introduction to Distance Sampling. Oxford: Oxford University Press, p. 79) when transects are positioned at random. However, if populations exhibit strong spatial trends, both estimators can have substantial positive bias under systematic designs. We show that poststratification is effective in reducing this bias. ?? 2008, The International Biometric Society.

  8. Some manufacture and installation problems in experimental assemblies for fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Partridge, J.E.; Rappe, G.; Hoare, F.; McDonald, J.


    Many of the manufacturing problems encountered when developing specialised items of fusion apparatus are only solved after much experimentation and a good deal of trial and error. After the experiment is built such problems may be forgotten and are often not recorded so that subsequent workers in the same field may start with no past experience on which to build. The paper therefore highlights some of the manufacturing problems which have been solved during the construction of some of the experimental apparatus at Culham

  9. A Rich Vehicle Routing Problem with Multiple Trips and Driver Shifts


    Arda, Yasemin; Crama, Yves; Kucukaydin, Hande; Talla Nobibon, Fabrice


    This study is concerned with a rich vehicle routing problem (RVRP) encountered at a Belgian transportation company in charge of servicing supermarkets and hypermarkets belonging to a franchise. The studied problem can be classified as a one-to-many-to-one pick-up and delivery problem, where there is a single depot from which all delivery customers are served and to which every pick-up demand must be carried back (Gutiérrez-Jarpa et al., 2010). The delivery and backhaul customers are considere...

  10. Islamic Canon law encounters South African financing and banking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Islamic Canon law encounters South African financing and banking institutions: Prospects and possibilities for Islamic economic empowerment and Black Economic Empowerment in a Democratic South Africa.

  11. Use, misuse and extensions of "ideal gas" models of animal encounter. (United States)

    Hutchinson, John M C; Waser, Peter M


    Biologists have repeatedly rediscovered classical models from physics predicting collision rates in an ideal gas. These models, and their two-dimensional analogues, have been used to predict rates and durations of encounters among animals or social groups that move randomly and independently, given population density, velocity, and distance at which an encounter occurs. They have helped to separate cases of mixed-species association based on behavioural attraction from those that simply reflect high population densities, and to detect cases of attraction or avoidance among conspecifics. They have been used to estimate the impact of population density, speeds of movement and size on rates of encounter between members of the opposite sex, between gametes, between predators and prey, and between observers and the individuals that they are counting. One limitation of published models has been that they predict rates of encounter, but give no means of determining whether observations differ significantly from predictions. Another uncertainty is the robustness of the predictions when animal movements deviate from the model's assumptions in specific, biologically relevant ways. Here, we review applications of the ideal gas model, derive extensions of the model to cover some more realistic movement patterns, correct several errors that have arisen in the literature, and show how to generate confidence limits for expected rates of encounter among independently moving individuals. We illustrate these results using data from mangabey monkeys originally used along with the ideal gas model to argue that groups avoid each other. Although agent-based simulations provide a more flexible alternative approach, the ideal gas model remains both a valuable null model and a useful, less onerous, approximation to biological reality.

  12. A Survey Instrument for Measuring the Experiential Value of Employee-Tourist Encounters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mattsson, Jan; Sørensen, Flemming; Jensen, Jens Friis

    In this paper, we develop and test a survey instrument that aims at estimating the experiential value of employee-tourist encounters in destination-based tourism companies, as well as the characteristics of encounters that affect such experiential value. We suggest that such an instrument can...... for their visitors, rather than simply delivering service quality....

  13. [Methods for teaching problem-solving in medical schools]. (United States)

    Shumway, J M; Vargas, M E; Heller, L E


    The need to include in the medical curriculum instructional activities to promote the development of problem-solving abilities has been asserted at the national and international levels. In research on the mental process involved in the solution of problems in medicine, problem-solving has been defined as a hypothetical-deductive activity engaged in by experienced physicians, in which the early generation of hypotheses influences the subsequent gathering of information. This article comments briefly on research on the mental process by which medical problems are solved. It describes the methods that research has shown to be most applicable in instruction to develop problem-solving abilities, and presents some educational principles that justify their application. The "trail-following" approach is the method that has been most commonly used to study the physician's problem-solving behavior. The salient conclusions from this research are that in the problem-solving process the diagnostic hypothesis is generated very early on and with limited data; the number of hypotheses is small; the problem-solving approach is specific to the type of medical problem and case in hand; and the accumulation of medical knowledge and experience forms the basis of clinical competence. Four methods for teaching the solution of problems are described: case presentation, the rain of ideas, the nominal groups technique and decision-making consensus, the census and analysis of forces in the field, and the analysis of clinical decisions. These methods are carried out in small groups. The advantages of the small groups are that the students are active participants in the learning process, they receive formative evaluation of their performance in a setting conductive to learning, and are able to interact with their instructor if he makes proper use of the right questioning techniques. While no single problem-solving method can be useful to all students or in all the problems they encounter

  14. Patient-provider interaction during medication encounters: A study in outpatient pharmacies in the Netherlands. (United States)

    Koster, Ellen S; van Meeteren, Marijke M; van Dijk, Marloes; van de Bemt, Bart J F; Ensing, Hendrikus T; Bouvy, Marcel L; Blom, Lyda; van Dijk, Liset


    To describe communication between pharmacy staff and patients at the counter in outpatient pharmacies. Both content and communication style were investigated. Pharmaceutical encounters in three outpatient pharmacies in the Netherlands were video-recorded. Videos were analyzed based on an observation protocol for the following information: content of encounter, initiator of a theme and pharmacy staff's communication style. In total, 119 encounters were recorded which concerned 42 first prescriptions, 16 first refill prescriptions and 61 follow-up refill prescriptions. During all encounters, discussion was mostly initiated by pharmacy staff (85%). In first prescription encounters topics most frequently discussed included instructions for use (83%) and dosage instructions (95%). In first refill encounters, patient experiences such as adverse effects (44%) and beneficial effects (38%) were regularly discussed in contrast to follow-up refills (7% and 5%). Patients' opinion on medication was hardly discussed. Pharmacy staff in outpatient pharmacies generally provide practical information, less frequently they discuss patients' experiences and seldom discuss patients' perceptions and preferences about prescribed medication. This study shows there is room for improvement, as communication is still not according to professional guidelines. To implement professional guidelines successfully, it is necessary to identify underlying reasons for not following the guidelines. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Common diagnoses and treatments in professional voice users. (United States)

    Franco, Ramon A; Andrus, Jennifer G


    Common problems among all patients seen by the laryngologist are also common among professional voice users. These include laryngopharyngeal reflux, muscle tension dysphonia, fibrovascular vocal fold lesions (eg, nodules and polyps), cysts, vocal fold scarring, changes in vocal fold mobility, and age-related changes. Microvascular lesions and their associated sequelae of vocal fold hemorrhage and laryngitis due to voice overuse are more common among professional voice users. Much more common among professional voice users is the negative impact that voice problems have on their ability to work, on their overall sense of well-being, and sometimes on their very sense of self. This article reviews the diagnosis and treatment options for these and other problems among professional voice users, describing the relevant roles of medical treatment, voice therapy, and surgery. The common scenario of multiple concomitant entities contributing to a symptom complex is underscored. Emphasis is placed on gaining insight into the "whole" patient so that individualized management plans can be developed. Videos of select diagnoses accompany this content online.

  16. The Reality of Encounters with Local Life in Other Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Young Kim


    Full Text Available Equipped with mobile technologies, travelers increasingly seek opportunities to encounter the real lives of the people residing in the focal destination. With this trend of pursuing local life experience, this study investigated how international visitors recognize the lives of people in the focal destination, and whether this recognition is related to satisfaction. Reviews for Teheran’s Grand Bazaar from an online review site,, showed that visitors’ local encounters were linked with favorable emotions (good, interesting, and worthwhile. To lend support to the contact hypothesis, which posits that intercultural experiences can lead to more favorable evaluations of the host community; the visitors who recognized direct and indirect encounters with local life indicated higher satisfaction. Even if brief, the experience of local life appeared to create more intimate feelings for the focal destination. Interestingly, the number of past travel experiences, which was captured by the number of reviews written by the reviewer, was found to have a negative association with satisfaction. We draw further implications for the travelers as well as the local community.

  17. Problems associated with accelerated thermal aging of electrical equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isgro, J.R.


    This paper discusses the potential problems that may be experienced when accounting for aging mechanisms in organic polymers when utilizing accelerated thermal aging techniques for electrical equipment qualification. Included are discussions of actual experiences and problems encountered in the qualification of electrical and electronic equipment for a complete nuclear power plant. The wide variety of approaches to thermal accelerated aging by various manufacturers of diverse equipment types provides depth to the discussion. A description of how to account for aging mechanisms is also presented

  18. Periodic Contact and Crack Problems in Plane Elasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krenk, Steen


    By use of singular integral equations it is demonstrated how some periodic contact and crack problems can be solved in closed form. The integral equation in question is the same which is encountered when dealing with mixed boundary conditions on a circle. As analytical evaluation of the solution ...... may be quite complicated attention is drawn to a numerical quadrature method...

  19. The importance of motivation, weapons, and foul odors in driving encounter competition in carnivores. (United States)

    Allen, Maximilian L; Wilmers, Christopher C; Elbroch, L Mark; Golla, Julie M; Wittmer, Heiko U


    Encounter competition is interference competition in which animals directly contend for resources. Ecological theory predicts the trait that determines the resource holding potential (RHP), and hence the winner of encounter competition, is most often body size or mass. The difficulties of observing encounter competition in complex organisms in natural environments, however, has limited opportunities to test this theory across diverse species. We studied the outcome of encounter competition contests among mesocarnivores at deer carcasses in California to determine the most important variables for winning these contests. We found some support for current theory in that body mass is important in determining the winner of encounter competition, but we found that other factors including hunger and species-specific traits were also important. In particular, our top models were "strength and hunger" and "size and hunger," with models emphasizing the complexity of variables influencing outcomes of encounter competition. In addition, our wins above predicted (WAP) statistic suggests that an important aspect that determines the winner of encounter competition is species-specific advantages that increase their RHP, as bobcats (Lynx rufus) and spotted skunks (Spilogale gracilis) won more often than predicted based on mass. In complex organisms, such as mesocarnivores, species-specific adaptations, including strategic behaviors, aggressiveness, and weapons, contribute to competitive advantages and may allow certain species to take control or defend resources better than others. Our results help explain how interspecific competition shapes the occurrence patterns of species in ecological communities. © 2016 by the Ecological Society of America.

  20. Recognizing the radiographic features of some common bovine foot problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebeid, M.; Steiner, A.


    Radiographs of an injured or infected bovine foot can be tricky to interpret - the anatomy is complex, and the signs may be subtle. This guide leads you through the classic radiographic features of several common foot conditions

  1. Cultural diversity, democracy and the prospects of cosmopolitanism: a theory of cultural encounters. (United States)

    Delanty, Gerard


    The most appropriate way of theorizing cultural diversity is to situate it in the context of a broader relational theory of culture in which the key dynamic is cultural encounters. The relational conception of culture places the emphasis on the relations between social actors and the processes by which some of these relations generate enduring cultural regularities and forms. This has important implications for political community and in particular for cosmopolitanism. It is in relationships that cultural phenomena are generated and become the basis of different kinds of political community. The paper outlines a typology of six kinds of cultural encounters and discusses four major cultural trends that variously emerge from these encounters. This approach with its emphasis on cultural encounters is the broad sociological context in which questions about cultural change and the prospects of cosmopolitanism should be discussed. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2011.

  2. Potentials and pitfalls of the encounter between leisure-time centers and primary schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringskou, Lea Thomsen; Gravesen, David Thore

    Our research offers a qualitative, in depth-perspective on the encounter between leisure-time centers and primary schools in Denmark. In our presentration we will, in a cross-cultural perspective, reappraise the roles of leisure-time pedagogues and discuss the potentials and pitfalls of the encou......Our research offers a qualitative, in depth-perspective on the encounter between leisure-time centers and primary schools in Denmark. In our presentration we will, in a cross-cultural perspective, reappraise the roles of leisure-time pedagogues and discuss the potentials and pitfalls...... of the encounter between leisure-time centers and primary schools. In 2014, the Danish Primary School was reformed. To a considerable extent, the reform can be understood in response to receding results in international tests (Knudsen 2010). The official aim of the reform is to challenge all pupils, regardless...... the encounter between leisure-time centers and primary schools?...

  3. Operation problems as viewed by EDF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheimanoff, Andre; Gaborit, Jean; Thom, Roger


    The installation of a plant such as Eurodif, whose power will reach, when fully operational, a maximum of 3,200 MW, and of a nuclear power plant of 4x900 MW, such as the one located in the Tricastin area, has considerable effects on the structure and operation of the EDF's network, both at the national and regional levels. The paper presents the situation regarding the Tricastin-Eurodif complex in the context of the EDF's network, the main operation problems that are encountered and the organization that had to be created to tackle these problems. Finally, it affords the opportunity to give an appreciation of the situation about the operation of the complex in 1982 [fr

  4. Inverse problem in radionuclide transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, C.


    The disposal of radioactive waste must comply with the performance objectives set forth in 10 CFR 61 for low-level waste (LLW) and 10 CFR 60 for high-level waste (HLW). To determine probable compliance, the proposed disposal system can be modeled to predict its performance. One of the difficulties encountered in such a study is modeling the migration of radionuclides through a complex geologic medium for the long term. Although many radionuclide transport models exist in the literature, the accuracy of the model prediction is highly dependent on the model parameters used. The problem of using known parameters in a radionuclide transport model to predict radionuclide concentrations is a direct problem (DP); whereas the reverse of DP, i.e., the parameter identification problem of determining model parameters from known radionuclide concentrations, is called the inverse problem (IP). In this study, a procedure to solve IP is tested, using the regression technique. Several nonlinear regression programs are examined, and the best one is recommended. 13 refs., 1 tab

  5. Development of a meta-algorithm for guiding primary care encounters for patients with multimorbidity using evidence-based and case-based guideline development methodology. (United States)

    Muche-Borowski, Cathleen; Lühmann, Dagmar; Schäfer, Ingmar; Mundt, Rebekka; Wagner, Hans-Otto; Scherer, Martin


    The study aimed to develop a comprehensive algorithm (meta-algorithm) for primary care encounters of patients with multimorbidity. We used a novel, case-based and evidence-based procedure to overcome methodological difficulties in guideline development for patients with complex care needs. Systematic guideline development methodology including systematic evidence retrieval (guideline synopses), expert opinions and informal and formal consensus procedures. Primary care. The meta-algorithm was developed in six steps:1. Designing 10 case vignettes of patients with multimorbidity (common, epidemiologically confirmed disease patterns and/or particularly challenging health care needs) in a multidisciplinary workshop.2. Based on the main diagnoses, a systematic guideline synopsis of evidence-based and consensus-based clinical practice guidelines was prepared. The recommendations were prioritised according to the clinical and psychosocial characteristics of the case vignettes.3. Case vignettes along with the respective guideline recommendations were validated and specifically commented on by an external panel of practicing general practitioners (GPs).4. Guideline recommendations and experts' opinions were summarised as case specific management recommendations (N-of-one guidelines).5. Healthcare preferences of patients with multimorbidity were elicited from a systematic literature review and supplemented with information from qualitative interviews.6. All N-of-one guidelines were analysed using pattern recognition to identify common decision nodes and care elements. These elements were put together to form a generic meta-algorithm. The resulting meta-algorithm reflects the logic of a GP's encounter of a patient with multimorbidity regarding decision-making situations, communication needs and priorities. It can be filled with the complex problems of individual patients and hereby offer guidance to the practitioner. Contrary to simple, symptom-oriented algorithms, the meta

  6. The English translation and testing of the Problems After Discharge Questionnaire.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holland, D.E.; Mistiaen, P.; Knafl, G.J.; Bowles, K.H.


    The quality of hospital discharge planning assessments determines whether patients receive the health and social services they need or are sent home with unmet needs and without services. There is a valid and reliable Dutch instrument that measures problems and unmet needs patients encounter after

  7. Common “transmission block” in understanding cardiovascular physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwee-Ming Cheng


    Full Text Available We obtained responses from 69 medical and 65 pharmacy students who had cardiovascular (CVS physiology taught in the previous academic year. A real-time response exercise using an online game-based learning platform (Kahoot! ( was conducted during a lecture class using true/false questions that cover certain core aspects of CVS physiology. Comments will be made on some of the common, incomplete understanding of CVS conceptual mechanisms. Some follow-up thoughts on our role as physiology educators in fine-tuning our teaching as we encounter persistent mistakes among our students' learning physiology.

  8. Investigation of the Perceived Causes of Pre-Service Physics Teachers' Problems Encountered in School Experience (United States)

    Körhasan, Nilüfer Didis; Didis, M. Gözde


    This study investigates a group of pre-service physics teachers' perceptions about the causes of problems in school experience through the attribution theory. The participants were thirteen pre-service physics teachers from a public university in Turkey. Data were collected through the interviews by requesting the participants to reflect their own…

  9. Procedures followed in the evaluation of a LWR plant in Spain and problems encountered

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brincones, M.; Gea, A.; Perez del Moral, C.


    The main problems arising in the safety assessment of nuclear power plants based on the experience of the authors (project managers) and to recomend possible improvements both for Spain and other developing countries are described. The first part will be devoted to the organizative aspects of the assessment and the second part will deal with different possible methods of technical assessment and its associated necesities. Finally, as a result of the previous considerations some recomendations in order to improve the technical assessment practice are proposed. (author)

  10. Dyadic Interactions in Service Encounter: Bayesian SEM Approach (United States)

    Sagan, Adam; Kowalska-Musiał, Magdalena

    Dyadic interactions are an important aspects in service encounters. They may be observed in B2B distribution channels, professional services, buying centers, family decision making or WOM communications. The networks consist of dyadic bonds that form dense but weak ties among the actors.

  11. How to solve materials and design problems in solar heating and cooling. Energy technology review No. 77

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, D.S.; Oberoi, H.S.; Weinstein, S.D.


    A broad range of difficulties encountered in active and passive solar space heating systems and active solar space cooling systems is covered. The problems include design errors, installation mistakes, inadequate durability of materials, unacceptable reliability of components, and wide variations in performance and operation of different solar systems. Feedback from designers and manufacturers involved in the solar market is summarized. The designers' experiences with and criticisms of solar components are presented, followed by the manufacturers' replies to the various problems encountered. Information is presented on the performance and operation of solar heating and cooling systems so as to enable future designs to maximize performance and eliminate costly errors. (LEW)

  12. Managing common marital stresses. (United States)

    Martin, A C; Starling, B P


    Marital conflict and divorce are problems of great magnitude in our society, and nurse practitioners are frequently asked by patients to address marital problems in clinical practice. "Family life cycle theory" provides a framework for understanding the common stresses of marital life and for developing nursing strategies to improve marital satisfaction. If unaddressed, marital difficulties have serious adverse consequences for a couple's health, leading to greater dysfunction and a decline in overall wellness. This article focuses on identifying couples in crisis, assisting them to achieve pre-crisis equilibrium or an even higher level of functioning, and providing appropriate referral if complex relationship problems exist.

  13. Assessment of some of the problems in the USA of superconducting magnets for fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornish, D.N.


    This paper discusses some of the general difficulties and problems encountered during the development of the technology of superconductors and superconducting magnets for fusion and expresses some personal concerns

  14. Fourth-Grade Primary School Students' Thought Processes and Challenges Encountered during the Butter Beans Problem (United States)

    Sahin, Neslihan; Eraslan, Ali


    In parallel with mathematical modeling studies that have gradually drawn interest in recent years, the aim of this study is to investigate the thought processes of fourth-grade students in the Butter Beans Problem and to identify possible challenges in this process. For this purpose, a qualitative study was conducted at a university-foundation…

  15. Undesirable Behaviors Elementary School Classroom Teachers Encounter in the Classroom and Their Reasons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.G. Balcik


    Full Text Available The present study aims to determine how often elementary school teachers encounter undesirable behaviors in the classroom and what their thoughts regarding possible reasons of these behaviors are. The teachers’ opininon about the prevalence of these behaviors and their possible reasons were evaluated according to gender, marital status, level of class being taught, size of class being taught and it was tried to be determined if there were significant differences between variables. The measurement tool was applied to a total of 54 teachers at 5 schools in Gölcük district of the Kocaeli province. The data collection tool is composed of three sections. The first section is for establishing teachers’ personal information. In this study, as a data collection tool, a questionnaire was used. When preparing questions for the questionnaire, following the examination of resources available, the questionnaire prepared by Aksoy (1999 and used in the thesis study entitled “Classroom Management and Student Discipline in Elementary Schools of Ankara” and also used in the thesis study by Boyraz (2007 entitled “Discipline Problems that Candidate Teachers Servicing at Elementary Schools Encounter in the Classroom” was employed. Although the validity and reliability of the questionnaire was tested by Aksoy (1999 and Boyraz (2007, the reliability study for the questionnaire was retested and found to be 0,9. The questionnaire include 42 items. 19 of them are related to the reasons of undesirable behaviors observed in the classroom and 23 of them are related to undesirable behaviors observed in the classroom.

  16. Border Encounters: American Cultural Politics and the U.S.-Mexico Border


    Reimer, Jennifer Andrea


    AbstractBorder Encounters: American Cultural Politics and the U.S.-Mexico BorderbyJennifer Andrea ReimerDoctor of Philosophy in Ethnic StudiesUniversity of California, BerkeleyProfessor José David Saldívar, Co-ChairProfessor Laura E. Pérez, Co-ChairBorder Encounters: American Cultural Politics and the U.S.-Mexico Border is a transnational, interdisciplinary cultural study of the contemporary U.S.-Mexico border that argues for the critical role of the international border in the racial past, p...

  17. The Saami drums and the religious encounter in the 17th and 18th centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Håkan Rydving


    Full Text Available From the end of the 17th to the middle of the 18th century much of the confrontation between indigenous Saami religion and Christianity was focused on the drums. The Saamis of both Denmark—Norway and Sweden—Finland had been christianized for decade. The main problem for the Church authorities turned out to be that of making the Saamis abandon their indigenous religious customs. From the end of the 17th century, an intense period of propaganda and coercion began to make the Saamis abandon these non Christian elements in their religion. For the Saamis, the drums represented their threatened culture, the resistance against the Christian claim to exclusiveness, and a striving to preserve traditional values. The drums had a twofold role to play in the religious encounter. They were both foci of the confrontation and sources documenting and structuring it. The fight between old and new beliefs is to some extent possible to follow in the records from the district and county courts. These records give us access to Saami arguments and views of the importance of the drums in Saami society. The function of the drums as instruments for a Saami description of the encounter is, however, difficult to make out. The drum figures are difficult to interpret and there are a number of alternative ways of understanding their meaning.

  18. Ways of understanding the encounter with head and neck cancer patients in the hospital dental team--a phenomenographic study. (United States)

    Röing, Marta; Hirsch, J-M; Holmström, Inger


    Head and neck cancer is the sixth most common malignancy in the world. Fifty percent of the patients can be cured by surgery, radiotherapy or a combination approach. Head and neck cancer is life-threatening, and treatment may leave the patient with visible facial disfigurements and impairment of functions such as speech and eating. This affects not only the patient, but may arouse difficult feelings in the treatment staff. Dental personnel are involved in all facets of treatment, yet they have no specific training in cancer care. The aim of this study was to describe the variation in ways dental personnel understand and experience the encounter with head and neck cancer patients, as the way of understanding a certain phenomenon is judged to be fundamental to the way we act and form our beliefs. Twenty members of hospital dental teams were interviewed. The interviews focused on experiences of the encounter with head and neck cancer patients. A qualitative research approach, phenomenography, was used in analysing the interviews. The encounter was perceived in three qualitatively different ways: as an act of caring, as a serious and responsible task and as an overwhelming emotional situation. The results indicate that hospital dental personnel are not able to lean on education and professional training in finding ways of dealing with situations with strong emotional impact. This has implications for the treatment of patients with head and neck cancer, as well as education of dental personnel.

  19. Efficient Numerical Solution of Coupled Radial Differential Equations in Multichannel Scattering Problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houfek, Karel


    Numerical solution of coupled radial differential equations which are encountered in multichannel scattering problems is presented. Numerical approach is based on the combination of the exterior complex scaling method and the finite-elements method with the discrete variable representation. This method can be used not only to solve multichannel scattering problem but also to find bound states and resonance positions and widths directly by diagonalization of the corresponding complex scaled Hamiltonian. Efficiency and accuracy of this method is demonstrated on an analytically solvable two-channel problem.

  20. Ethical dilemmas encountered by small animal veterinarians: characterisation, responses, consequences and beliefs regarding euthanasia. (United States)

    Kipperman, Barry; Morris, Patricia; Rollin, Bernard


    Small animal veterinarians' opinions were investigated regarding the frequency and nature of ethical dilemmas encountered, beliefs regarding euthanasia and balancing client and animal interests, prevalence and value of ethics training and proposals to mitigate the stressful effects of ethical dilemmas. The majority (52 per cent) of 484 respondents in the USA indicated via an online survey experiencing an ethical dilemma regarding the interests of clients and those of their patients at least weekly. Scenarios involving client financial concerns were commonly reported causes of ethical conflicts. While only 20 per cent of respondents indicated that other practitioners prioritise patient interests, 50 per cent of respondents characterised their own behaviour as prioritising patients. Most respondents (52 per cent) reported that ethical dilemmas are the leading cause, or are one of many equal causes, of work-related stress. Less experienced practitioners, general practitioners and associate veterinarians were more likely to encounter situations they defined as ethical dilemmas, and female respondents were more likely to find ethical dilemmas stressful. Most small animal veterinarians experience ethical dilemmas regularly, which contribute to moral stress. Results suggested that most small animal practitioners believe that greater awareness of moral stress and providing training in ethical theories and tools for coping with ethical dilemmas can ameliorate moral stress. © British Veterinary Association (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  1. Antiservice Within the Medical Service Encounter: Lessons for Radiologists Beyond Service Recovery. (United States)

    Hill, Paul Armstrong; Hill, Ronald Paul


    Recent modifications in the metrics for reimbursement have reinforced the importance of radiology service-delivery experiences of patients. Evaluating current radiology practices calls for reflection on the various touch points with patients, as well as their overall satisfaction. If problems occur during encounters, service failure, or lack of satisfactory medical experiences can be transformed through service recovery, whereby patients-as-customers are given chances to voice their concerns, and health care providers across the spectrum can work together to resolve problematic issues. This paper takes a systemic view of the patient experience as embedded in the care continuum, recognizing that different beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors of members of the health care team can negatively affect or sabotage patient satisfaction. Although radiologists are only one of many roles in the care continuum, recommendations are discussed for how they can integrate service satisfaction as a pervasive communal goal among all health care team members. Copyright © 2015 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Physician assistant program education on spirituality and religion in patient encounters. (United States)

    Berg, Gina M; Whitney, Melissa P; Wentling, Callie J; Hervey, Ashley M; Nyberg, Sue


    To describe educational practices of physician assistant (PA) programs regarding spirituality and religion discussions during patient encounters. Patients want their health care provider to be aware of their spiritual and religious beliefs. This topic is addressed in physician and nursing education but may not be included in PA programs. Data regarding curriculum were collected via electronic survey emailed to 143 PA programs across the United States. Thirty-eight programs responded for a response rate of 27%. Most (68.4%) program respondents reported students' desire to be trained to discuss spirituality and religion, yet 36.8% do not offer this training. Just over half (69.2%) would consider adding curriculum to teach students to discuss spirituality, but the majority (92.3%) would not add curriculum to discuss religion during patient encounters. PA programs offer training to discuss spirituality in patient encounters but not to discuss religiosity. Programs may want to consider adding some curriculum to increase PAs awareness of spirituality and religion needs of patients.

  3. Daily Encounter Cards-Evaluating the Quality of Documented Assessments. (United States)

    Cheung, Warren J; Dudek, Nancy; Wood, Timothy J; Frank, Jason R


    Concerns over the quality of work-based assessment (WBA) completion has resulted in faculty development and rater training initiatives. Daily encounter cards (DECs) are a common form of WBA used in ambulatory care and shift work settings. A tool is needed to evaluate initiatives aimed at improving the quality of completion of this widely used form of WBA. The completed clinical evaluation report rating (CCERR) was designed to provide a measure of the quality of documented assessments on in-training evaluation reports. The purpose of this study was to provide validity evidence to support using the CCERR to assess the quality of DEC completion. Six experts in resident assessment grouped 60 DECs into 3 quality categories (high, average, and poor) based on how informative each DEC was for reporting judgments of the resident's performance. Eight supervisors (blinded to the expert groupings) scored the 10 most representative DECs in each group using the CCERR. Mean scores were compared to determine if the CCERR could discriminate based on DEC quality. Statistically significant differences in CCERR scores were observed between all quality groups ( P  evaluate DEC quality. It can serve as an outcome measure for studying interventions targeted at improving the quality of assessments documented on DECs.

  4. Interrelation between Neuroendocrine Disturbances and Medical Complications Encountered during Rehabilitation after TBI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline I. E. Renner


    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury is not a discrete event but an unfolding sequence of damage to the central nervous system. Not only the acute phase but also the subacute and chronic period after injury, i.e., during inpatient rehabilitation, is characterized by multiple neurotransmitter alterations, cellular dysfunction, and medical complications causing additional secondary injury. Neuroendocrine disturbances also influence neurological outcome and are easily overlooked as they often present with diffuse symptoms such as fatigue, depression, poor concentration, or a decline in overall cognitive function; these are also typical sequelae of traumatic brain injury. Furthermore, neurological complications such as hydrocephalus, epilepsy, fatigue, disorders of consciousness, paroxysmal sympathetic hyperactivity, or psychiatric-behavioural symptoms may mask and/or complicate the diagnosis of neuroendocrine disturbances, delay appropriate treatment and impede neurorehabilitation. The present review seeks to examine the interrelation between neuroendocrine disturbances with neurological complications frequently encountered after moderate to severe TBI during rehabilitation. Common neuroendocrine disturbances and medical complications and their clinical implications are discussed.

  5. Beyond cultural competency: Bourdieu, patients and clinical encounters. (United States)

    Lo, Ming-Cheng M; Stacey, Clare L


    In response to widely documented racial and ethnic disparities in health, clinicians and public health advocates have taken great strides to implement 'culturally competent' care. While laudable, this important policy and intellectual endeavour has suffered from a lack of conceptual clarity and rigour. This paper develops a more careful conceptual model for understanding the role of culture in the clinical encounter, paying particular attention to the relationship between culture, contexts and social structures. Linking Bourdieu's (1977) notion of 'habitus' and William Sewell's (1992) axioms of multiple and intersecting structures, we theorise patient culture in terms of 'hybrid habitus'. This conceptualisation of patient culture highlights three analytical dimensions: the multiplicity of schemas and resources available to patients, their specific patterns of integration and application in specific contexts, and the constitutive role of clinical encounters. The paper concludes with a discussion of directions for future research as well as reforms of cultural competency training courses.

  6. Physician as partner or salesman? Shared decision-making in real-time encounters. (United States)

    Karnieli-Miller, Orit; Eisikovits, Zvi


    The results of recent research have led to the increased advocacy of shared decision-making regarding medical treatment. Nonetheless, only a limited number of studies have focused on the process of decision-making in real-time encounters. The present paper aims to document and analyze this process. Specifically, we assess whether these decisions are the result of partnership or of persuasive tactics based on power and hierarchical relationships. We will describe and analyze different strategies used by pediatric gastroenterologists in breaking bad news encounters, as well as their consequences. The analysis is based on a multi-method, multi-participant phenomenological study on breaking bad news to adolescents and their families regarding a chronic illness. It included 17 units of analysis (actual encounters and 52 interviews with physicians, parents and adolescents). Data were collected from three hospitals in Northern Israel using observations and audiotapes of diagnosis disclosure encounters and audio-taped interviews with all participants. The analysis identified eight different presentation tactics used in actual encounters during which physicians made various use of language, syntax and different sources of power to persuade patients to agree with their preferred treatment choice. The tactics included various ways of presenting the illness, treatment and side effects; providing examples from other success or failure stories; sharing the decision only concerning technicalities; and using plurals and authority. The findings suggest that shared decision-making may be advocated as a philosophical tenet or a value, but it is not necessarily implemented in actual communication with patients. Rather, treatment decisions tend to be unilaterally made, and a variety of persuasive approaches are used to ensure agreement with the physician's recommendation. The discussion is focused on the complexity of sharing a decision, especially in the initial bad news encounter

  7. Investigation on legal problems encountered by emergency medicine physicians in Turkey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afsin Emre Kayipmaz

    Full Text Available Medicine is a profession that carries certain risks. One risky area of practice is the emergency department. Emergency physicians diagnose and treat a high volume of patients, and are also responsible for preparing reports for forensic cases. In this study, we aim to investigate emergency physicians' legal-administrative problems and reveal their level of understanding on forensic cases.An electronic questionnaire form was prepared after the approval of an ethical committee. This form was sent to the residents, specialists and academicians of emergency medicine by e-mail. The physicians were asked to fill out the form online. All the gathered data was analyzed. Descriptive statistics were presented as frequency percentages with mean and standard deviation. Chi-square tests were used to compare the groups. Correlation between number of complaint cases and age, sex, career, institution, and duration of service in emergency department were investigated. p<0.05 was considered statistically significant.294 physicians participated in the questionnaire. According to the questionnaire, 170 of the physicians were reported to the patient communication units due to medical malpractice. Mean number of compliant reports was 3.20±3.5. 29 of the physicians received administrative penalties. 42 of the physicians were judged in the court for medical malpractice. 1 physician was fined 5000 Turkish Liras as a result of these judgments.We found that the number of complaint reports is negatively correlated with duration of service in emergency medicine and age. There was a significant difference between number of complaint reports and career (p<0.05. The physicians' level of awareness on forensic cases was found to be insufficient. Lack of legislation knowledge may be an important cause of complaint reports concerning emergency physicians, who have a high load of patients. Thus, we think that increasing the frequency of post-graduate education sessions and

  8. ACES M and S: Unmitigated Factorial Encounter Study on DAA/TCAS Interoperability (United States)

    Thipphavong, David; Cone, Andrew; Park, Chunki; Lee, Seung Man; Santiago, Confesor


    Realization of the expected proliferation of Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) operations in the National Airspace System (NAS) depends on the development and validation of standards for UAS Detect and Avoid (DAA) Systems. The RTCA Special Committee 228 is charged with leading the development of draft Minimum Operational Performance Standards (MOPS) for UAS DAA Systems. NASA, as a participating member of RTCA SC-228 is committed to supporting the development and validation of draft requirements for DAA alerting and guidance systems. This presentation contains the results of two combinatorial encounter analysis studies using NASA's SAA Control fast-time simulation capability for this purpose. In these studies, encounters between two aircraft were simulated one at a time for the full factorial combination of encounter geometries (e.g., encounter angle, CPA offset) and aircraft performance (e.g., ownership and intruder ground speeds and vertical rates). The first study analyzes the relationships (e.g., timeline) between the different alerting-safety regions in the SC-228 MOPS (in order of increasing severity): 1) DAA warning alert, 2) well clear recovery (WCR) guidance, 3) DAA-Collision Avoidance (CA), and 4) TCAS RA. This study will focus primarily on encounter situations in which TCAS RA occurs prior to any of the other alerting-safety boundaries. In particular, this study will investigate whether using vertical distance or vertical distance at closest point of approach (i.e., vertical miss distance or VMD) is more appropriate for the definition of the DAA-CA region. In addition, cases where transitions between different regions skip an intermediate region will be analyzed. The second study in this presentation explores a proposal to use an altitude rate error threshold to determine if vertical maneuvers are acceptable for DAA WCR guidance against non-cooperative intruders. This study incorporates the radar from the Honeywell sensor model and examines a series of

  9. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Stellar encounters with long-period comets (Feng+, 2015) (United States)

    Feng, F.; Bailer-Jones, C. A. L.


    We have conducted simulations of the perturbation of the Oort cloud in order to estimate the significance of known encounters in generating long-period comets. We collected the data of stellar encounters from three sources: (Bailer-Jones, 2015, Cat. J/A+A/575/A35, hereafter BJ15), Dybczynski & Berski (2015MNRAS.449.2459D), and Mamajek et al. (2015ApJ...800L..17M). Following BJ15, we use the term 'object' to refer to each encountering star in our catalogue. A specific star may appear more than once but with different data, thus leading to a different object. (1 data file).

  10. Indoor air problems in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leslie, G.B.


    Respiratory disease and mortality due to indoor air pollution are amongst the greatest environmental threats to health in the developing countries of Asia. World-wide, acute respiratory infection is the cause of death of at least 5 million children under the age of 5 every year. The World Bank has claimed that smoke from biomass fuels resulted in an estimated 4 million deaths annually amongst infants and children. Most of these deaths occur in developing countries. Combustion in its various forms must head the list of pollution sources in Asia. Combustion of various fuels for domestic heating, lighting and cooking comprises the major source of internally generated pollutants and combustion in industrial plants, power generation and transportation is the major cause of externally generated pollutants. The products of pyrolysis and combustion include many compounds with well-known adverse health effects. These include gases such as CO, CO 2 , NO x and SO 2 , volatile organic compounds such as polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons and nitroamines as well as respirable particulates of variable composition. The nature and magnitude of the health risks posed by these materials vary with season, climate, location housing, method of ventilation, culture and socio-economic status. The most important cause of lung cancer in non-smokers in Northern Asia is the domestic combustion of smoky coal. Acute carbon monoxide poisoning is common in many Asian countries. Roads traffic exhaust pollution is worse in the major cities of South East Asia than almost anywhere else in the world and this externally generated air pollution forms the indoor air for the urban poor. Despite all these major problems there has been a tendency for international agencies to focus attention and resources on the more trivial problems of indoor air encountered in the affluent countries of the West. Regulatory agencies in Asia have been too frequently persuaded that their problems of indoor air pollution are

  11. Percutaneous Transhepatic Cutting Balloon Papillotomy for Removal of Common Bile Duct Stones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oguzkurt, Levent; Ozkan, Ugur; Gumus, Burcak


    We report the case of a 66-year-old female who presented with jaundice secondary to recurrent adenocarcinoma of the gallbladder and several common bile duct stones. Percutaneous papillary dilatation was planned to remove the common bile duct stones. Papilla was dilated through the percutaneous approach with an 8-mm peripheral cutting balloon instead of a standard balloon. All the stones were pushed successfully into the duodenum with a saline flush. No complications were encountered. Use of a peripheral cutting balloon for dilatation of the papilla seems to be safe and effective because it has the advantage of controlled incision and dilatation of the target at low pressures.

  12. Most common mental problems in the elderly as viewed by medical school students in Poland, Belarus and Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateusz Cybulski


    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the opinions of respondents on the most common mental and psychological problems of the elderly over 60 years of age. Material and methods: The study was conducted between January 2013 and November 2014 in three study groups: Polish, Belarusian and Greek students. A total of 600 (200 for each group respondents were tested with a questionnaire developed by the authors. Women dominated in study groups. Three quarters of the study population consisted of people between the ages of 21 and 25 years. An analysis of the education level of respondents showed that almost 60% of respondents studied nursing, 30% – physiotherapy and 10% – other courses of studies. Results: More than half of all respondents (50.8% were afraid of old age. The vast majority of students in each group (a total of 88.3% stated that it is better for the elderly not to be alone and to have a family. Loneliness (61.5%, the sense of helplessness (52.7% and depression (50.8% were mental problems of the elderly that were most often indicated by the respondents. Conclusions: There is a need to educate the younger generations on problems associated with aging and old age, including mental health problems. The study showed significant differences in the perception of mental health problems of elderly people, depending on respondents’ country. There is a need for a change in the functioning of the care systems for the elderly, which would involve perceiving a family as an institution able to provide care services for old people.

  13. Complex Problem Solving in Radiologic Technology: Understanding the Roles of Experience, Reflective Judgment, and Workplace Culture (United States)

    Yates, Jennifer L.


    The purpose of this research study was to explore the process of learning and development of problem solving skills in radiologic technologists. The researcher sought to understand the nature of difficult problems encountered in clinical practice, to identify specific learning practices leading to the development of professional expertise, and to…

  14. Reflexivity: The Creation of Liminal Spaces--Researchers, Participants, and Research Encounters. (United States)

    Enosh, Guy; Ben-Ari, Adital


    Reflexivity is defined as the constant movement between being in the phenomenon and stepping outside of it. In this article, we specify three foci of reflexivity--the researcher, the participant, and the encounter--for exploring the interview process as a dialogic liminal space of mutual reflection between researcher and participant. Whereas researchers' reflexivity has been discussed extensively in the professional discourse, participants' reflexivity has not received adequate scholarly attention, nor has the promise inherent in reflective processes occurring within the encounter. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. My encounters with bacteria—learning about communication, cooperation and choice (United States)

    Ben-Jacob, Eshel


    My journey into the physics of living systems began with the most fundamental organisms on Earth, bacteria, that three decades ago were perceived as solitary, primitive creatures of limited capabilities. A decade later this notion had faded away and bacteria came to be recognized as the smart beasts they are, engaging in intricate social life through a sophisticated chemical language. Acting jointly, these tiny organisms can sense the environment, process information, solve problems and make decisions so as to thrive in harsh environments. The bacterial power of cooperation manifests in their ability to develop large colonies of astonishing complexity. The number of bacteria in a colony can amount to many billions, yet they exchange ‘chemical tweets’ that reach each and every one of them so they all know what they’re all doing, each cell being both actor and spectator in the bacterial Game of Life. I share my encounters with bacteria, what I learned about the secrets of their social life and wisdom of the crowd, and why and how, starting as a theoretical physicist, I found myself studying social intelligence of bacteria. The story ends with a bacteria guide to cyber-war on cancer.

  16. Applications of decision analysis and related techniques to industrial engineering problems at KSC (United States)

    Evans, Gerald W.


    This report provides: (1) a discussion of the origination of decision analysis problems (well-structured problems) from ill-structured problems; (2) a review of the various methodologies and software packages for decision analysis and related problem areas; (3) a discussion of how the characteristics of a decision analysis problem affect the choice of modeling methodologies, thus providing a guide as to when to choose a particular methodology; and (4) examples of applications of decision analysis to particular problems encountered by the IE Group at KSC. With respect to the specific applications at KSC, particular emphasis is placed on the use of the Demos software package (Lumina Decision Systems, 1993).

  17. Coordinated Multi-layer Multi-domain Optical Network (COMMON) for Large-Scale Science Applications (COMMON)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vokkarane, Vinod [University of Massachusetts


    We intend to implement a Coordinated Multi-layer Multi-domain Optical Network (COMMON) Framework for Large-scale Science Applications. In the COMMON project, specific problems to be addressed include 1) anycast/multicast/manycast request provisioning, 2) deployable OSCARS enhancements, 3) multi-layer, multi-domain quality of service (QoS), and 4) multi-layer, multidomain path survivability. In what follows, we outline the progress in the above categories (Year 1, 2, and 3 deliverables).

  18. Problems of implementation of the first nuclear power plant in developing countries with particular reference to Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effat, K.E.; El-Fouly, M.F.; El-Saiedi, A.F.


    Implementation of nuclear power plants generally passes through three main phases; namely, the planning and decision to go to nuclear power, precontractual phase, and the construction phase. Each has its own particular problems that are usually encountered in developing countries, especially in implementation of the first nuclear plant. The decision to go nuclear is tied to the local and international energy market, both in the present and as projected. In the precontractual phase, which involves preparing plant specifications, invitation to tenderers, bids evaluation and negotiations with the selected vendor, problems of a different nature are encountered. Availability of qualified management, engineering, and technical personnel required to participate in design reviews, quality assurance, management, and scheduling in the construction phase is a major problem in developing countries. The paper discusses all these problems with special emphasis on the local conditions in Egypt. Our experience dealing with these issues could be of value to other developing countries

  19. Development problems were common five years after positive screening for language disorders and, or, autism at 2.5 years of age. (United States)

    Miniscalco, Carmela; Fernell, Elisabeth; Thompson, Lucy; Sandberg, Eva; Kadesjö, Björn; Gillberg, Christopher


    This study identified whether children who had screened positive for either developmental language disorder (DLD) or autism spectrum disorder (ASD) at the age of 2.5 years had neurodevelopmental assessments five years later. Our study cohort were 288 children born from 1 July 2008 to 20 June 2009 who screened positive for DLD and, or, ASD at 2.5 years. Of these, 237 children were referred to, and assessed, at the Paediatric Speech and Language Pathology clinic (n = 176) or the Child Neuropsychiatry Clinic (n = 61) at the Queen Silvia Children's Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden. Clinical registers covering all relevant outpatient clinics were reviewed five years later with regard to established diagnoses. When the 237 were followed up five years later, 96 (40%) had established neurodevelopmental disorders or problems, often beyond DLD and ASD. Co-existing problems were common in this cohort and multidisciplinary assessments were indicated. The other 60% did not appear in subsequent clinic records. It is likely that this 40% was a minimum rate and that more children will be referred for developmental problems later. Five years after they had been screened positive for DLD and, or autism at 2.5 years, 40% of our cohort had remaining or other developmental problems. ©2018 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Incidence of Norovirus-Associated Medical Encounters among Active Duty United States Military Personnel and Their Dependents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Rha

    Full Text Available Norovirus is a leading cause of gastroenteritis episodes and outbreaks in US military deployments, but estimates of endemic disease burden among military personnel in garrison are lacking.Diagnostic codes from gastroenteritis-associated medical encounters of active duty military personnel and their beneficiaries from July 1998-June 2011 were obtained from the Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center. Using time-series regression models, cause-unspecified encounters were modeled as a function of encounters for specific enteropathogens. Model residuals (representing unexplained encounters were used to estimate norovirus-attributable medical encounters. Incidence rates were calculated using population data for both active duty and beneficiary populations.The estimated annual mean rate of norovirus-associated medically-attended visits among active duty personnel and their beneficiaries was 292 (95% CI: 258 to 326 and 93 (95% CI: 80 to 105 encounters per 10,000 persons, respectively. Rates were highest among beneficiaries <5 years of age with a median annual rate of 435 (range: 318 to 646 encounters per 10,000 children. Norovirus was estimated to cause 31% and 27% of all-cause gastroenteritis encounters in the active duty and beneficiary populations, respectively, with over 60% occurring between November and April. There was no evidence of any lag effect where norovirus disease occurred in one population before the other, or in one beneficiary age group before the others.Norovirus is a major cause of medically-attended gastroenteritis among non-deployed US military active duty members as well as in their beneficiaries.

  1. Encounters of aircraft with volcanic ash clouds; A compilation of known incidents, 1953-2009 (United States)

    Guffanti, Marianne; Casadevall, Thomas J.; Budding, Karin


    Information about reported encounters of aircraft with volcanic ash clouds from 1953 through 2009 has been compiled to document the nature and scope of risks to aviation from volcanic activity. The information, gleaned from a variety of published and other sources, is presented in database and spreadsheet formats; the compilation will be updated as additional encounters occur and as new data and corrections come to light. The effects observed by flight crews and extent of aircraft damage vary greatly among incidents, and each incident in the compilation is rated according to a severity index. Of the 129 reported incidents, 94 incidents are confirmed ash encounters, with 79 of those having various degrees of airframe or engine damage; 20 are low-severity events that involve suspected ash or gas clouds; and 15 have data that are insufficient to assess severity. Twenty-six of the damaging encounters involved significant to very severe damage to engines and (or) airframes, including nine encounters with engine shutdown during flight. The average annual rate of damaging encounters since 1976, when reporting picked up, has been approximately 2 per year. Most of the damaging encounters occurred within 24 hours of the onset of ash production or at distances less than 1,000 kilometers from the source volcanoes. The compilation covers only events of relatively short duration for which aircraft were checked for damage soon thereafter; documenting instances of long-term repeated exposure to ash (or sulfate aerosols) will require further investigation. Of 38 source volcanoes, 8 have caused 5 or more encounters, of which the majority were damaging: Augustine (United States), Chaiten (Chile), Mount St. Helens (United States), Pacaya (Guatemala), Pinatubo (Philippines), Redoubt (United States), Sakura-jima (Japan), and Soufriere Hills (Montserrat, Lesser Antilles, United Kingdom). Aircraft have been damaged by eruptions ranging from small, recurring episodes to very large

  2. Dental case manager encounters: the association with retention in dental care and treatment plan completion. (United States)

    Lemay, Celeste A; Tobias, Carol; Umez-Eronini, Amarachi A; Brown, Carolyn; McCluskey, Amanda; Fox, Jane E; Bednarsh, Helene; Cabral, Howard J


    Little is known about dental case managers as few programs have been scientifically evaluated. The goal of this study was to explore the impact of dental case manager on retention in dental care and completion of treatment plans, while specifically exploring the number of dental case manager encounters. Fourteen programs enrolled people with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in dental care and a longitudinal study between 2007 and 2009. The 758 participants had a total of 2715 encounters with a dental case manager over twelve months: 29% had a single encounter; 21% had two; 27% had 3-4 and; 23% had 5-29 encounters. Adjusting for baseline characteristics, participants receiving more encounters were significantly more likely to complete their Phase 1 treatment plan, be retained in dental care, and experience improvements in overall oral health status. Organizations considering efforts to improve the oral health of vulnerable, hard-to-engage populations should consider these findings when planning interventions. ©2012 Special Care Dentistry Association and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Commonly used stimulants: Sleep problems, dependence and psychological distress. (United States)

    Ogeil, Rowan P; Phillips, James G


    Caffeine and nicotine are commonly used stimulants that enhance alertness and mood. Discontinuation of both stimulants is associated with withdrawal symptoms including sleep and mood disturbances, which may differ in males and females. The present study examines changes in sleep quality, daytime sleepiness and psychological distress associated with use and dependence on caffeine and nicotine. An online survey comprising validated tools to assess sleep quality, excessive daytime sleepiness and psychological distress was completed by 166 participants (74 males, 96 females) with a mean age of 28 years. Participants completed the study in their own time, and were not offered any inducements to participate. Sleep quality was poorer in those dependent upon caffeine or nicotine, and there were also significant interaction effects with gender whereby females reported poorer sleep despite males reporting higher use of both stimulants. Caffeine dependence was associated with poorer sleep quality, increased daytime dysfunction, and increased levels of night time disturbance, while nicotine dependence was associated with poorer sleep quality and increased use of sleep medication and sleep disturbances. There were strong links between poor sleep and diminished affect, with psychological distress found to co-occur in the context of disturbed sleep. Stimulants are widely used to promote vigilance and mood; however, dependence on commonly used drugs including caffeine and nicotine is associated with decrements in sleep quality and increased psychological distress, which may be compounded in female dependent users. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Urinary tract infection during pregnancy: current concepts on a common multifaceted problem. (United States)

    Kalinderi, Kallirhoe; Delkos, Dimitrios; Kalinderis, Michail; Athanasiadis, Apostolos; Kalogiannidis, Ioannis


    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are the most common bacterial infection in pregnancy, increasing the risk of maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. Urinary tract infections may present as asymptomatic bacteriuria, acute cystitis or pyelonephritis. Escherichia coli is the most common pathogen associated with both symptomatic and asymptomatic bacteriuria. If asymptomatic bacteriuria is untreated, up to 30% of mothers develop acute pyelonephritis, with an increased risk of multiple maternal and neonatal complications, such as preeclampsia, preterm birth, intrauterine growth restriction and low birth weight. Urinary tract infection is a common, but preventable cause of pregnancy complications, thus urinary tests, such as urine culture or new technologies such as high-throughput DNA sequence-based analyses, should be used in order to improve antenatal screening of pregnant women.

  5. Sustainability of common pool resources


    Timilsina, Raja Rajendra; Kotani, Koji; Kamijo, Yoshio


    Sustainability has become a key issue in managing natural resources together with growing concerns for capitalism, environmental and resource problems. We hypothesize that the ongoing modernization of competitive societies, which we refer to as "capitalism," affects human nature for utilizing common pool resources, thus compromising sustainability. To test this hypothesis, we design and implement a set of dynamic common pool resource games and experiments in the following two types of Nepales...

  6. Preliminary Uncorrelated Encounter Model of the National Airspace System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kochenderfer, M. J; Kuchar, J. K; Espindle, L. P; Gertz, J. L


    ...) and which may not be in contact with air traffic control. In response to the need to develop a model of these types of encounters, Lincoln Laboratory undertook an extensive radar data collection and modeling effort...

  7. Intelligent transportation systems problems and perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Pamuła, Wiesław


    This book presents a discussion of problems encountered in the deployment of Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS). It puts emphasis on the early tasks of designing and proofing the concept of integration of technologies in Intelligent Transport Systems. In its first part the book concentrates on the design problems of urban ITS. The second part of the book features case studies representative for the different modes of transport. These are freight transport, rail transport and aerospace transport encompassing also space stations. The book provides ideas for deployment which may be developed by scientists and engineers engaged in the design of Intelligent Transport Systems. It can also be used in the training of specialists, students and post-graduate students in universities and transport high schools.    .

  8. Grassroots Leadership: Encounters with Power Dynamics and Oppression (United States)

    Kezar, Adrianna


    This article focuses on the nature of power dynamics that faculty and staff grassroots leaders encounter as they attempt to create change. I identified five distinctive types of power dynamics--"oppression," "silencing," "controlling," "inertia," and "micro-aggressions" from the most overt to more subtle and covert forms. Staff experience multiple…

  9. Stress Coping Techniques For Female Doctors Encountering Sexual ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Muslim and Christian female doctors encounter with sexual harassment. It was also found that sexual harassment cut across all age groups. The findings of these study indicated that stress coping techniques is an effective method in the reduction of stress posed by sexual harassment on female doctors from their patients.

  10. Constraint-based scheduling applying constraint programming to scheduling problems

    CERN Document Server

    Baptiste, Philippe; Nuijten, Wim


    Constraint Programming is a problem-solving paradigm that establishes a clear distinction between two pivotal aspects of a problem: (1) a precise definition of the constraints that define the problem to be solved and (2) the algorithms and heuristics enabling the selection of decisions to solve the problem. It is because of these capabilities that Constraint Programming is increasingly being employed as a problem-solving tool to solve scheduling problems. Hence the development of Constraint-Based Scheduling as a field of study. The aim of this book is to provide an overview of the most widely used Constraint-Based Scheduling techniques. Following the principles of Constraint Programming, the book consists of three distinct parts: The first chapter introduces the basic principles of Constraint Programming and provides a model of the constraints that are the most often encountered in scheduling problems. Chapters 2, 3, 4, and 5 are focused on the propagation of resource constraints, which usually are responsibl...


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig, Jonathan; Krumholz, Mark R.


    Both simulations and observations indicate that stars form in filamentary, hierarchically clustered associations, most of which disperse into their galactic field once feedback destroys their parent clouds. However, during their early evolution in these substructured environments, stars can undergo close encounters with one another that might have significant impacts on their protoplanetary disks or young planetary systems. We perform N-body simulations of the early evolution of dissolving, substructured clusters with a wide range of properties, with the aim of quantifying the expected number and orbital element distributions of encounters as a function of cluster properties. We show that the presence of substructure both boosts the encounter rate and modifies the distribution of encounter velocities compared to what would be expected for a dynamically relaxed cluster. However, the boost only lasts for a dynamical time, and as a result the overall number of encounters expected remains low enough that gravitational stripping is unlikely to be a significant effect for the vast majority of star-forming environments in the Galaxy. We briefly discuss the implications of this result for models of the origin of the solar system, and of free-floating planets. We also provide tabulated encounter rates and orbital element distributions suitable for inclusion in population synthesis models of planet formation in a clustered environment.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craig, Jonathan; Krumholz, Mark R., E-mail: [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)


    Both simulations and observations indicate that stars form in filamentary, hierarchically clustered associations, most of which disperse into their galactic field once feedback destroys their parent clouds. However, during their early evolution in these substructured environments, stars can undergo close encounters with one another that might have significant impacts on their protoplanetary disks or young planetary systems. We perform N-body simulations of the early evolution of dissolving, substructured clusters with a wide range of properties, with the aim of quantifying the expected number and orbital element distributions of encounters as a function of cluster properties. We show that the presence of substructure both boosts the encounter rate and modifies the distribution of encounter velocities compared to what would be expected for a dynamically relaxed cluster. However, the boost only lasts for a dynamical time, and as a result the overall number of encounters expected remains low enough that gravitational stripping is unlikely to be a significant effect for the vast majority of star-forming environments in the Galaxy. We briefly discuss the implications of this result for models of the origin of the solar system, and of free-floating planets. We also provide tabulated encounter rates and orbital element distributions suitable for inclusion in population synthesis models of planet formation in a clustered environment.

  13. Close Stellar Encounters in Young, Substructured, Dissolving Star Clusters: Statistics and Effects on Planetary Systems (United States)

    Craig, Jonathan; Krumholz, Mark R.


    Both simulations and observations indicate that stars form in filamentary, hierarchically clustered associations, most of which disperse into their galactic field once feedback destroys their parent clouds. However, during their early evolution in these substructured environments, stars can undergo close encounters with one another that might have significant impacts on their protoplanetary disks or young planetary systems. We perform N-body simulations of the early evolution of dissolving, substructured clusters with a wide range of properties, with the aim of quantifying the expected number and orbital element distributions of encounters as a function of cluster properties. We show that the presence of substructure both boosts the encounter rate and modifies the distribution of encounter velocities compared to what would be expected for a dynamically relaxed cluster. However, the boost only lasts for a dynamical time, and as a result the overall number of encounters expected remains low enough that gravitational stripping is unlikely to be a significant effect for the vast majority of star-forming environments in the Galaxy. We briefly discuss the implications of this result for models of the origin of the solar system, and of free-floating planets. We also provide tabulated encounter rates and orbital element distributions suitable for inclusion in population synthesis models of planet formation in a clustered environment.

  14. "Students Get Bogged Down": How Religious Israeli Elementary Teachers View Problems and Solutions in Bible Teaching (United States)

    Walfish, Ruth A.; Brody, David L.


    Bible teachers in contemporary society confront serious problems related to the nature of the biblical text and the socio-cultural context of their teaching. This study, based on semi-structured interviews, examines the problems that five expert religious Israeli elementary school teachers encounter in their teaching and the solutions they employ.…

  15. Social Workers' Reflections on the Therapeutic Encounter With Elder Abuse and Neglect. (United States)

    Goldblatt, Hadass; Band-Winterstein, Tova; Alon, Sara


    The aim of this qualitative study was to explore social workers' reflections on their experience of the therapeutic encounter with victims and perpetrators of elder abuse and neglect. The research questions were as follows: How do social workers tune themselves toward the therapeutic encounter with elder abuse? How do they position themselves vis-à-vis the clients? How do social workers describe the meaning of the intervention both for the clients and for themselves? What is the added value of the therapeutic encounter in this field for the social workers? Participants were 17 experienced women social workers, who worked with abusers and with abused and neglected older adults in Israel. Data were collected via in-depth semi-structured interviews, which were later transcribed and content analyzed. Two main themes emerged from the findings, emphasizing two key aspects of the social workers' reflective process experienced during the therapeutic encounter: (a) focus on the client: "This is the journey of their lives"-reflection on the therapeutic "journey"; (b) focus on the social worker's inner and professional world: "'There is nothing to be done' is no longer in my vocabulary"-a personal and professional maturation process. The social workers expressed a positive attitude toward their elder clients. A unique dialogue developed in the therapeutic encounter, whereby the social workers considered any change as valuable if it allowed the elders a sense of control and self-worth, whereas the social workers were enriched by the elders' life experience, and matured both personally and professionally. Thus, both sides benefited from this reciprocal relationship. Implications for further research and practice are discussed. © The Author(s) 2016.

  16. 'Getting back to normal': the added value of an art-based programme in promoting 'recovery' for common but chronic mental health problems. (United States)

    Makin, Sally; Gask, Linda


    OBJECTIVES. The aim of this project was to explore the added value of participation in an Arts on Prescription (AoP) programme to aid the process of recovery in people with common but chronic mental health problems that have already undergone a psychological 'talking'-based therapy. METHODS. The study utilized qualitative in-depth interviews with 15 clients with persistent anxiety and depression who had attended an 'AoP' service and had previously received psychological therapy. RESULTS and discussion. Attending AoP aided the process of recovery, which was perceived by participants as 'returning to normality' through enjoying life again, returning to previous activities, setting goals and stopping dwelling on the past. Most were positive about the benefits they had previously gained from talking therapies. However, these alone were not perceived as having been sufficient to achieve recovery. The AoP offered some specific opportunities in this regard, mediated by the therapeutic and effect of absorption in an activity, the specific creative potential of art, and the social aspects of attending the programme. CONCLUSIONS. For some people who experience persistent or relapsing common mental health problems, participation in an arts-based programme provides 'added value' in aiding recovery in ways not facilitated by talking therapies alone.

  17. Improving Problem-Solving Skills with the Help of Plane-Space Analogies (United States)

    Budai, László


    We live our lives in three-dimensional space and encounter geometrical problems (equipment instructions, maps, etc.) every day. Yet there are not sufficient opportunities for high school students to learn geometry. New teaching methods can help remedy this. Specifically our experience indicates that there is great promise for use of geometry…

  18. Some problem areas in capture cross-section measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moxon, M.C.; Gayther, D.B.; Sowerby, M.G.


    This paper outlines some of the problems that have been encountered and are envisaged in the measurement and evaluation of capture cross-sections. Particular emphasis is placed on the cross-sections of the structural materials (Fe, Ni, Cr) used in fast reactors. The topics considered are the influence of scattered neutrons in capture detectors, the determination of background, sample thickness corrections, and the theoretical representation of resonance parameters. (author)

  19. Problem of franchising in Nepal and possible solutions


    K. C., C., Biswas


    The study focuses on exploring problems of franchising in Nepal. Its main objective is to discover obstacles franchisees encounter when bringing a franchise to Nepal and recommendations that are beneficial to their success. The thesis considers the topic both from the franchiser’s and the franchisee’s perspectives. In the literature review, the main concepts presented are franchising, franchiser, franchisee, international franchise, types of franchise systems and franchise agreements, pr...

  20. Harmonisation of European Insolvency Law and the need to tackle two common problems: common pool and anticommons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Weijs, R.J.


    Insolvency law has finally become a field of law for which harmonisation at a European level is considered both important and feasible. In deciding upon the content of such harmonised rules, there will need to be a common understanding about the goals of insolvency law and, therefore, a European

  1. Penguin head movement detected using small accelerometers: a proxy of prey encounter rate. (United States)

    Kokubun, Nobuo; Kim, Jeong-Hoon; Shin, Hyoung-Chul; Naito, Yasuhiko; Takahashi, Akinori


    Determining temporal and spatial variation in feeding rates is essential for understanding the relationship between habitat features and the foraging behavior of top predators. In this study we examined the utility of head movement as a proxy of prey encounter rates in medium-sized Antarctic penguins, under the presumption that the birds should move their heads actively when they encounter and peck prey. A field study of free-ranging chinstrap and gentoo penguins was conducted at King George Island, Antarctica. Head movement was recorded using small accelerometers attached to the head, with simultaneous monitoring for prey encounter or body angle. The main prey was Antarctic krill (>99% in wet mass) for both species. Penguin head movement coincided with a slow change in body angle during dives. Active head movements were extracted using a high-pass filter (5 Hz acceleration signals) and the remaining acceleration peaks (higher than a threshold acceleration of 1.0 g) were counted. The timing of head movements coincided well with images of prey taken from the back-mounted cameras: head movement was recorded within ±2.5 s of a prey image on 89.1±16.1% (N=7 trips) of images. The number of head movements varied largely among dive bouts, suggesting large temporal variations in prey encounter rates. Our results show that head movement is an effective proxy of prey encounter, and we suggest that the method will be widely applicable for a variety of predators.

  2. CATER: An onlne problem tracking facility for SLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sass, R.C.; Shoaee, H.


    An online facility has been developed for SLC to organize and simplify the management of all problems encountered in the operation of the accelerator. CATER (Computer Aided Trouble Entry and Reporting) may be used to make the initial entry of a problem, to enter one or more solutions to a problem, to modify or closeout a problem, to generate a variety of pre-defined reports giving status and statistical summaries, and to allow anyone to browse the database. All phases of CATER can take place on the operator console, workstations, or on any ANSI compatible terminal. The user interface is designed around a menu driven windowed environment with a large amount of context sensitive help information to alleviate the need for consulting user documentation. Currently, the CATER database contains information on more than 30,000 problems entered since it went online in January of 1988. The features of the software and some implementation details will be presented

  3. CATER: An online problem tracking facility for SLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sass, R.C.; Shoaee, H.


    An online facility has been developed for SLC to organize and simplify the management of all problems encountered in the operation of the accelerator. CATER (Computer Aided Trouble Entry and Reporting) may be used to make the initial entry of a problem, to enter one or more solutions to a problem, to modify or closeout a problem, to generate a variety of pre-defined reports giving status and statistical summaries, and to allow anyone to browse the database. All phases of CATER can take place on the operator console, workstations, or on any ANSI compatible terminal. The user interface is designed around a menu driven windowed environment with a large amount of context sensitive help information to alleviate the need for consulting user documentation. Currently, the CATER database contains information on more than 30,000 problems entered since it went online in January of 1988. The features of the software and some implementation details will be presented

  4. Side Effects: Sleep Problems (United States)

    Sleep problems are a common side effect during cancer treatment. Learn how a polysomnogram can assess sleep problems. Learn about the benefits of managing sleep disorders in men and women with cancer.

  5. Lithium-ion battery materials and engineering current topics and problems from the manufacturing perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Gulbinska, Malgorzata K


    Gaining public attention due, in part,  to their potential application as energy storage devices in cars, Lithium-ion batteries have encountered widespread demand, however, the understanding of lithium-ion technology has often lagged behind production. This book defines the most commonly encountered challenges from the perspective of a high-end lithium-ion manufacturer with two decades of experience with lithium-ion batteries and over six decades of experience with batteries of other chemistries. Authors with years of experience in the applied science and engineering of lithium-ion batterie

  6. Corrosion problems in light water nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, W.E.


    The corrosion problems encountered during the author's career are reviewed. Attention is given to the development of Zircaloys and attendant factors that affect corrosion; the caustic and chloride stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of austenitic stainless steel steam generator tubing; the qualification of Inconel Alloy 600 for steam generator tubing and the subsequent corrosion problem of secondary side wastage, caustic SCC, pitting, intergranular attack, denting, and primary side SCC; and SCC in weld and furnace sensitized stainless steel piping and internals in boiling water reactor primary coolants. Also mentioned are corrosion of metallic uranium alloy fuels; corrosion of aluminum and niobium candidate fuel element claddings; crevice corrosion and seizing of stainless steel journal-sleeve combinations; SCC of precipitation hardened and martensitic stainless steels; low temperature SCC of welded austenitic stainless steels by chloride, fluoride, and sulfur oxy-anions; and corrosion problems experienced by condensers

  7. Border Injuries: An Analysis of Prehospital Demographics, Mechanisms, and Patterns of Injuries Encountered by USBP EMS Agents in the El Paso (Texas USA) Sector. (United States)

    Baker, Russell A


    Study Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate Emergency Medical Services (EMS), use, injury mechanisms, prehospital assessments, and injuries among those receiving aid from the United States Border Patrol (USBP) in the El Paso (Texas USA) Sector. This is a time-series, retrospective analysis of all prehospital data for injuries among patients receiving care from USBP EMS on the US Mexico border in the El Paso sector from February 6, 2014 to February 6, 2016. A total of 473 documented EMS encounters occurred in this two-year period and demonstrated a male gender predominance (male 63%; female 37%) with the most prominent ages between 22-40 years old. The most prevalent EMS call types were medical (55%) and trauma (42%). The most common chief complaints were an injured or painful extremity (35%) and rash (13%). The most common USBP EMS provider primary impression was traumatic injury (34%), followed by fever/infection (17%) and extremity injury (7%); however, the most common secondary impression was also extremity injury (20%). The most common mechanism of injury was fall (26%) and motor vehicle accident (MVA; 22%). The USBP EMS was the first provider on scene in 96% of the MVAs. The author reports on injury patterns, mechanisms, chief complaints, EMS impressions, as well as demographics of patients reporting to USBP EMS. A knowledge of these injury patterns will be useful to EMS administrators and physicians along the US Mexico border. Baker RA . Border injuries: an analysis of prehospital demographics, mechanisms, and patterns of injuries encountered by USBP EMS agents in the El Paso (Texas USA) Sector. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2017;32(4):431-436.

  8. The promise of common pool resource theory and the reality of commons projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred P. Saunders


    Full Text Available Commons projects, such as community-based natural resource management, have widespread appeal, which has enabled them to shrug off a mixed performance in practice. This paper discusses how the theoretical assumptions of common pool resource (CPR theory may have inadvertently contributed to the unfulfilled expectations of commons projects. The paper argues that the individual ‘rational resource user’, encapsulated in the CPR design principles, struggles to provide clear direction for meaningful consideration of local norms, values and interests in commons projects. The focus of CPR theory on efficiency and functionality results in a tendency in commons projects to overlook how local conditions are forged through relations at multiple scales. Commonly politically complex and changing relations are reduced to institutional design problems based on deriving the incentives and disincentives of ‘rational resource users. The corollary is that CPR theory oversimplifies the project context that it is seeking to change because it offers little or no direction to deal with the social embeddedness of resource use or implications of different stratifications.

  9. Effect of Concentrated Language Encounter Method in Developing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper examined the effect of concentrated language encounter method in developing sight word recognition skill in primary school pupils in cross river state. The purpose of the study was to find out the effect of Primary One pupils' reading level, English sight word recognition skill. It also examine the extent to which the ...

  10. Exploring Festival Performance as a State of Encounter (United States)

    O’Grady, Alice; Kill, Rebekka


    This article outlines the activities of the research network "Festival Performance as a State of Encounter", which was funded by the Arts and Humanities Research Council as part of the Beyond Text strategic programme. The network was formulated in 2008, and a range of different events were organized over the course of two years to…

  11. Service quality, trust, and patient satisfaction in interpersonal-based medical service encounters. (United States)

    Chang, Ching-Sheng; Chen, Su-Yueh; Lan, Yi-Ting


    Interaction between service provider and customer is the primary core of service businesses of different natures, and the influence of trust on service quality and customer satisfaction could not be ignored in interpersonal-based service encounters. However, lack of existing literature on the correlation between service quality, patient trust, and satisfaction from the prospect of interpersonal-based medical service encounters has created a research gap in previous studies. Therefore, this study attempts to bridge such a gap with an evidence-based practice study. We adopted a cross-sectional design using a questionnaire survey of outpatients in seven medical centers of Taiwan. Three hundred and fifty copies of questionnaire were distributed, and 285 valid copies were retrieved, with a valid response rate of 81.43%. The SPSS 14.0 and AMOS 14.0 (structural equation modeling) statistical software packages were used for analysis. Structural equation modeling clarifies the extent of relationships between variables as well as the chain of cause and effect. Restated, SEM results do not merely show empirical relationships between variables when defining the practical situation. For this reason, SEM was used to test the hypotheses. Perception of interpersonal-based medical service encounters positively influences service quality and patient satisfaction. Perception of service quality among patients positively influences their trust. Perception of trust among patients positively influences their satisfaction. According to the findings, as interpersonal-based medical service encounters will positively influence service quality and patient satisfaction, and the differences for patients' perceptions of the professional skill and communication attitude of personnel in interpersonal-based medical service encounters will influence patients' overall satisfaction in two ways: (A) interpersonal-based medical service encounter directly affects patient satisfaction, which represents a

  12. Service quality, trust, and patient satisfaction in interpersonal-based medical service encounters (United States)


    Background Interaction between service provider and customer is the primary core of service businesses of different natures, and the influence of trust on service quality and customer satisfaction could not be ignored in interpersonal-based service encounters. However, lack of existing literature on the correlation between service quality, patient trust, and satisfaction from the prospect of interpersonal-based medical service encounters has created a research gap in previous studies. Therefore, this study attempts to bridge such a gap with an evidence-based practice study. Methods We adopted a cross-sectional design using a questionnaire survey of outpatients in seven medical centers of Taiwan. Three hundred and fifty copies of questionnaire were distributed, and 285 valid copies were retrieved, with a valid response rate of 81.43%. The SPSS 14.0 and AMOS 14.0 (structural equation modeling) statistical software packages were used for analysis. Structural equation modeling clarifies the extent of relationships between variables as well as the chain of cause and effect. Restated, SEM results do not merely show empirical relationships between variables when defining the practical situation. For this reason, SEM was used to test the hypotheses. Results Perception of interpersonal-based medical service encounters positively influences service quality and patient satisfaction. Perception of service quality among patients positively influences their trust. Perception of trust among patients positively influences their satisfaction. Conclusions According to the findings, as interpersonal-based medical service encounters will positively influence service quality and patient satisfaction, and the differences for patients’ perceptions of the professional skill and communication attitude of personnel in interpersonal-based medical service encounters will influence patients’ overall satisfaction in two ways: (A) interpersonal-based medical service encounter directly

  13. Service quality, trust, and patient satisfaction in interpersonal-based medical service encounters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Ching-Sheng


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interaction between service provider and customer is the primary core of service businesses of different natures, and the influence of trust on service quality and customer satisfaction could not be ignored in interpersonal-based service encounters. However, lack of existing literature on the correlation between service quality, patient trust, and satisfaction from the prospect of interpersonal-based medical service encounters has created a research gap in previous studies. Therefore, this study attempts to bridge such a gap with an evidence-based practice study. Methods We adopted a cross-sectional design using a questionnaire survey of outpatients in seven medical centers of Taiwan. Three hundred and fifty copies of questionnaire were distributed, and 285 valid copies were retrieved, with a valid response rate of 81.43%. The SPSS 14.0 and AMOS 14.0 (structural equation modeling statistical software packages were used for analysis. Structural equation modeling clarifies the extent of relationships between variables as well as the chain of cause and effect. Restated, SEM results do not merely show empirical relationships between variables when defining the practical situation. For this reason, SEM was used to test the hypotheses. Results Perception of interpersonal-based medical service encounters positively influences service quality and patient satisfaction. Perception of service quality among patients positively influences their trust. Perception of trust among patients positively influences their satisfaction. Conclusions According to the findings, as interpersonal-based medical service encounters will positively influence service quality and patient satisfaction, and the differences for patients’ perceptions of the professional skill and communication attitude of personnel in interpersonal-based medical service encounters will influence patients’ overall satisfaction in two ways: (A interpersonal-based medical

  14. Multi-party arbitration in international trade: problems and solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siig, Kristina


    Legal disputes regarding international trade frequently involve more than two parties. This leads to problems, as the preferred means of dispute resolution within international trade - arbitration - tends to be ill-equipped to handle such disputes. The topic of the paper is arbitration as a means...... of dispute resolution in a multy-party set-up. Both the possible legal bases and the problems encountered are considere. It is concluded that arbitration is still the only real option to the parties in international business disputes and that many of the shortcomings  may be contered by skilful drafting...

  15. Solving the η-problem in hybrid inflation with Heisenberg symmetry and stabilized modulus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antusch, Stefan; Dutta, Koushik; Kostka, Philipp M.; Bastero-Gil, Mar; King, Steve F.


    We propose a class of models in which the η-problem of supersymmetric hybrid inflation is resolved using a Heisenberg symmetry, where the associated modulus field is stabilized and made heavy with the help of the large vacuum energy during inflation without any fine-tuning. The proposed class of models is well motivated both from string theory considerations, since it includes the commonly encountered case of no-scale supergravity Kähler potential, and from the perspective of particle physics since a natural candidate for the inflaton in this class of models is the right-handed sneutrino which is massless during the inflationary epoch, and subsequently acquires a large mass at the end of inflation. We study a specific example motivated by sneutrino hybrid inflation with no-scale supergravity in some detail, and show that the spectral index may lie within the latest WMAP range, while the tensor-to-scalar ratio is very small

  16. Reflective Teaching via a Problem Exploration--Teaching Adaptations--Resolution Cycle: A Mixed Methods Study of Preservice Teachers' Reflective Notes (United States)

    Hayden, H. Emily; Chiu, Ming Ming


    We explore development of elementary preservice teachers' reflective practices as they solved problems encountered while teaching in a reading clinic. Written reflections (N = 175) were collected across 8 weeks from 23 preservice teachers and analyzed to investigate relationships among problem exploration, teaching adaptations, and problem…

  17. Data science in R a case studies approach to computational reasoning and problem solving

    CERN Document Server

    Nolan, Deborah


    Effectively Access, Transform, Manipulate, Visualize, and Reason about Data and ComputationData Science in R: A Case Studies Approach to Computational Reasoning and Problem Solving illustrates the details involved in solving real computational problems encountered in data analysis. It reveals the dynamic and iterative process by which data analysts approach a problem and reason about different ways of implementing solutions. The book's collection of projects, comprehensive sample solutions, and follow-up exercises encompass practical topics pertaining to data processing, including: Non-standar

  18. Revisiting Rossion and Pourtois with new ratings for automated complexity, familiarity, beauty, and encounter. (United States)

    Forsythe, Alex; Street, Nichola; Helmy, Mai


    Differences between norm ratings collected when participants are asked to consider more than one picture characteristic are contrasted with the traditional methodological approaches of collecting ratings separately for image constructs. We present data that suggest that reporting normative data, based on methodological procedures that ask participants to consider multiple image constructs simultaneously, could potentially confounded norm data. We provide data for two new image constructs, beauty and the extent to which participants encountered the stimuli in their everyday lives. Analysis of this data suggests that familiarity and encounter are tapping different image constructs. The extent to which an observer encounters an object predicts human judgments of visual complexity. Encountering an image was also found to be an important predictor of beauty, but familiarity with that image was not. Taken together, these results suggest that continuing to collect complexity measures from human judgments is a pointless exercise. Automated measures are more reliable and valid measures, which are demonstrated here as predicting human preferences.

  19. Temporal characteristics of decisions in hospital encounters: a threshold for shared decision making? A qualitative study. (United States)

    Ofstad, Eirik H; Frich, Jan C; Schei, Edvin; Frankel, Richard M; Gulbrandsen, Pål


    To identify and characterize physicians' statements that contained evidence of clinically relevant decisions in encounters with patients in different hospital settings. Qualitative analysis of 50 videotaped encounters from wards, the emergency room (ER) and outpatient clinics in a department of internal medicine at a Norwegian university hospital. Clinical decisions could be grouped in a temporal order: decisions which had already been made, and were brought into the encounter by the physician (preformed decisions), decisions made in the present (here-and-now decisions), and decisions prescribing future actions given a certain course of events (conditional decisions). Preformed decisions were a hallmark in the ward and conditional decisions a main feature of ER encounters. Clinical decisions related to a patient-physician encounter spanned a time frame exceeding the duration of the encounter. While a distribution of decisions over time and space fosters sharing and dilution of responsibility between providers, it makes the decision making process hard to access for patients. In order to plan when and how to involve patients in decisions, physicians need increased awareness of when clinical decisions are made, who usually makes them, and who should make them. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Engineering Encounters: Identifying an Engineering Design Problem (United States)

    Chizek, Lisa; VanMeeteren, Beth; McDermott, Mark; Uhlenberg, Jill


    Engineering is an intriguing way for students to connect the design process with their knowledge of science (NRC 2012). This article describes the "Engineering a Pancake Recipe" design process which was created to make the structure and properties of matter more meaningful for fifth grade students. The whole pancake recipe engineering…