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Sample records for probiotics prevent intestinal

  1. Probiotic Mixture Golden Bifido Prevents Neonatal Escherichia coli K1 Translocation via Enhancing Intestinal Defense

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    Qing Zeng; Xiaolong He; Santhosh Puthiyakunnon; Hansen Xiao; Zelong Gong; Swapna Boddu; Lecheng Chen; Huiwen Tian; Huiwen Tian; Sheng-He Huang; Sheng-He Huang; Hong Cao

    2017-01-01

    Escherichia coli (E. coli) K1 sepsis and meningitis is a severe infection characterized by high mortality in neonates. Successful colonization and translocation across the intestinal mucosa have been regarded as the critical steps for E. coli K1 sepsis and meningitis. We recently reported that the probiotic mixture, Golden Bifido (containing live Lactobacillus bulgaricus, Bifidobacterium, and Streptococcus thermophilus, LBS) has a preventive role against neonatal E. coli K1 bacteremia and men...

  2. Probiotic Mixture Golden Bifido Prevents Neonatal Escherichia coli K1 Translocation via Enhancing Intestinal Defense

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    Qing Zeng

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Escherichia coli (E. coli K1 sepsis and meningitis is a severe infection characterized by high mortality in neonates. Successful colonization and translocation across the intestinal mucosa have been regarded as the critical steps for E. coli K1 sepsis and meningitis. We recently reported that the probiotic mixture, Golden Bifido (containing live Lactobacillus bulgaricus, Bifidobacterium, and Streptococcus thermophilus, LBS has a preventive role against neonatal E. coli K1 bacteremia and meningitis. However, the interaction between the neonatal gut barrier, probiotics and E. coli K1 is still not elucidated. The present study aims to investigate how LBS exerts its protective effects on neonatal gut barrier during E. coli K1 infection. The beneficial effects of LBS were explored in vitro and in vivo using human colon carcinoma cell lines HT-29 and rat model of neonatal E. coli K1 infection, respectively. Our results showed that stimulation with E. coli K1 was able to cause intestinal barrier dysfunction, which were reflected by E. coli K1-induced intestinal damage and apoptosis of intestinal epithelial cells, reduction of mucin, immunoglobulin A (IgA and tight junction proteins expression, as well as increase in intestinal permeability, all these changes facilitate E. coli K1 intestinal translocation. However, these changes were alleviated when HT-29 cells were treated with LBS before E. coli K1 infection. Furthermore, we found that LBS-treated neonatal rats (without E. coli K1 infection have showed higher production of mucin, ZO-1, IgA, Ki67 in intestinal mucosa as well as lower intestinal permeability than that of non-treated rats, indicating that LBS could accelerate the development of neonatal intestinal defense. Taken together, our results suggest that enhancement of the neonatal intestinal defense to fight against E. coli K1 translocation could be the potential mechanism to elucidate how LBS confers a protective effect against neonatal E

  3. Clinical possibilities of complex probiotic Probiz for the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea and other intestinal inflammatory lesions (review

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    Marushko Iu.V.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Аntibiotic-associated diarrhea is the primary potential negative effect of antibiotic therapy. Use of complex comprising a probiotic composition in a Saccharomyces boulardii, lactobacilli and bifidobacteria is an effective method of preventing and treating antibiotic-associated diarrhea and other intestinal inflammatory diseases in children.

  4. The effect of probiotics on broiler growth and intestinal morphology when used to prevent Campylobacter jejuni colonization

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    Lavinia Ştef

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to establish the effect of probiotic microorganisms on growth performance and intestinal changes caused by Campylobacter jejuni colonization.In this respect, we used four probiotic microorganisms, namely: Lactobacillus paracasei JR, L. rhamnosus 15b, Y L. lactis and L. lactis FOA.The administration of probiotic microorganisms in different combinations and in different periods of growth does not significantly influence the bioproductive indices of broilers,that is,the total gain, feed intake and FCR (p>0.05. After studying the intestinal mucosa, it was concluded that the four microorganisms administered in broilers’s food determineschanges in the mucosa, inhibiting the development of Campylobacter jejuni,by the presence of smaller caliciform cells and the presence ofreduced leukocyte infiltration in the chorion of the mucosal.

  5. Oral Probiotic VSL#3 Prevents Autoimmune Diabetes by Modulating Microbiota and Promoting Indoleamine 2,3-Dioxygenase-Enriched Tolerogenic Intestinal Environment

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    Jayashree Dolpady

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The gut microbiota modulates the autoimmune pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes (T1D via mechanisms that remain largely unknown. The inflammasome components are innate immune sensors that are highly influenced by the gut environment and play pivotal roles in maintaining intestinal immune homeostasis. In this study we show that modifications of the gut microbiota induced by oral treatment with Lactobacillaceae-enriched probiotic VSL#3, alone or in combination with retinoic acid (RA, protect NOD mice from T1D by affecting inflammasome at the intestinal level. In particular, we show that VSL#3 treatment inhibits IL-1β expression while enhancing release of protolerogenic components of the inflammasome, such as indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO and IL-33. Those modifications of the intestinal microenvironment in VSL#3-treated NOD mice modulate gut immunity by promoting differentiation of tolerogenic CD103+ DCs and reducing differentiation/expansion of Th1 and Th17 cells in the intestinal mucosa and at the sites of autoimmunity, that is, within the pancreatic lymph nodes (PLN of VSL#3-treated NOD mice. Our data provide a link between dietary factors, microbiota composition, intestinal inflammation, and immune homeostasis in autoimmune diabetes and could pave the way for new therapeutic approaches aimed at changing the intestinal microenvironment with probiotics to counterregulate autoimmunity and prevent T1D.

  6. Probiotics for preventing gestational diabetes.

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    Barrett, Helen L; Dekker Nitert, Marloes; Conwell, Louise S; Callaway, Leonie K

    2014-02-27

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is associated with a range of adverse pregnancy outcomes for mother and infant. The prevention of GDM using lifestyle interventions has proven difficult. The gut microbiome (the composite of bacteria present in the intestines) influences host inflammatory pathways, glucose and lipid metabolism and, in other settings, alteration of the gut microbiome has been shown to impact on these host responses. Probiotics are one way of altering the gut microbiome but little is known about their use in influencing the metabolic environment of pregnancy. To assess the effects of probiotic supplementation when compared with other methods for the prevention of GDM. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and childbirth Group's Trials Register (31 August 2013) and reference lists of the articles of retrieved studies. Randomised and cluster-randomised trials comparing the use of probiotic supplementation with other methods for the prevention of the development of GDM. Cluster-randomised trials were eligible for inclusion but none were identified. Quasi-randomised and cross-over design studies are not eligible for inclusion in this review. Studies presented only as abstracts with no subsequent full report of study results would also have been excluded. Two review authors independently assessed study eligibility, extracted data and assessed risk of bias of included study. Data were checked for accuracy. Eleven reports (relating to five possible trials) were found. We included one study (six trial reports) involving 256 women. Four other studies are ongoing.The included trial consisted of three treatment arms: probiotic with dietary intervention, placebo and dietary intervention, and dietary intervention alone; it was at a low risk of bias. The study reported primary outcomes of a reduction in the rate of gestational diabetes mellitus (risk ratio (RR) 0.38, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.20 to 0.70), with no statistical difference in the rates of

  7. INTESTINAL MICROBIOTA AND USE OF PROBIOTICS IN PEDIATRIC PRACTICE: NEWS

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    S. G. Makarova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Condition of intestinal microbiota is a key factor of a child's health. According to the latest studies, distinctness and certain stability of every person's microbiota is to a large extent determined genetically; at the same time, microbiocenosis is sensitive to external exposure, i.e. it is labile. The article presents new data on the intestinal microflora's composition and function, as well as on the nature of interaction in the microbiocenosis-host system. Intestinal microflora directly affects formation of a child's immune system, ensures protection from pathogens and takes part in all types of metabolism. The article presents modern approaches to intestinal microflora modulation and use of probiotics to prevent and treat various pathologies in pediatric practice.

  8. Intestinal microbiota, probiotics and prebiotics in inflammatory bowel disease

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    Orel, Rok; Kamhi Trop, Tina

    2014-01-01

    It has been presumed that aberrant immune response to intestinal microorganisms in genetically predisposed individuals may play a major role in the pathogenesis of the inflammatory bowel disease, and there is a good deal of evidence supporting this hypothesis. Commensal enteric bacteria probably play a central role in pathogenesis, providing continuous antigenic stimulation that causes chronic intestinal injury. A strong biologic rationale supports the use of probiotics and prebiotics for inflammatory bowel disease therapy. Many probiotic strains exhibit anti-inflammatory properties through their effects on different immune cells, pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion depression, and the induction of anti-inflammatory cytokines. There is very strong evidence supporting the use of multispecies probiotic VSL#3 for the prevention or recurrence of postoperative pouchitis in patients. For treatment of active ulcerative colitis, as well as for maintenance therapy, the clinical evidence of efficacy is strongest for VSL#3 and Escherichia coli Nissle 1917. Moreover, some prebiotics, such as germinated barley foodstuff, Psyllium or oligofructose-enriched inulin, might provide some benefit in patients with active ulcerative colitis or ulcerative colitis in remission. The results of clinical trials in the treatment of active Crohn’s disease or the maintenance of its remission with probiotics and prebiotics are disappointing and do not support their use in this disease. The only exception is weak evidence of advantageous use of Saccharomyces boulardii concomitantly with medical therapy in maintenance treatment. PMID:25206258

  9. Probiotics in Asthma and Allergy Prevention

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    Maurizio Mennini

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Interest in probiotic research and its potential benefits in infant foods are relatively recent but significantly increasing. The evolution of the knowledge in the last 20 years demonstrated that alterations in the microbiome may be a consequence of events occurring during infancy or childhood, including prematurity, cesarean section, and nosocomial infections. Several pieces of evidence prove that a “healthy” intestinal microbiota facilitates the development of immune tolerance. Interventional studies suggest that probiotics could be protective against the development of many diseases. Nevertheless, many factors complicate the analysis of dysbiosis in subjects with food allergy. Comparison in-between studies are difficult, because of considerable heterogeneity in study design, sample size, age at fecal collection, methods of analysis of gut microbiome, and geographic location. Currently, there is no positive recommendation from scientific societies to use pre- or probiotics for treatment of food allergy or other allergic manifestations, while their use in prevention is being custom-cleared. However, the recommendation is still based on little evidence. Although there is valid scientific evidence in vitro, there is no sufficient information to suggest the use of specific probiotics in allergy and asthma prevention.

  10. Potential Role of Probiotics in Mechanism of Intestinal Immunity

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    Imran Rashid Rajput and Wei Fen Li*

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics are nonpathogenic bacteria exert a constructive influence on health or physiology of the host. Effect of probiotics in the intestinal defense against variety of diseases is well known. The probiotics are involved in the mechanism of intestinal defense, support as antagonist against pathogens, improve intestinal epithelial layer and boost the innate as well as adaptive immunity. However these responses are also exerted by intestinal components. The intestinal components as well as probiotics play a reciprocal role to enhance the immune response of the individual. The possibilities of mechanism of action include the stimulation of epithelial cells, activation of dendritic cells via toll-like receptors (TLRs, conversely produce cytokines. These observations reviewed together advocate that specific immunomodulatory properties of probiotic bacteria should be focusing on mechanism of action via antigen presenting cells (APC.

  11. Selection of probiotic bacteria for prevention of allergic diseases: immunomodulation of neonatal dendritic cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niers, L. E. M.; Hoekstra, M. O.; Timmerman, H. M.; van Uden, N. O.; de Graaf, P. M. A.; Smits, H. H.; Kimpen, J. L. L.; Rijkers, G. T.

    2007-01-01

    Modification of intestinal microbiota early in life by administration of probiotic bacteria may be a potential approach to prevent allergic disease. To select probiotic bacteria for in vivo purposes, we investigated the capacity of probiotic bacteria to interact with neonatal dendritic cells (DC)

  12. Effects of probiotics and antibiotics on the intestinal homeostasis in a computer controlled model of the large intestine

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    Rehman Ateequr

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antibiotic associated diarrhea and Clostridium difficile infection are frequent complications of broad spectrum antibiotic therapy. Probiotic bacteria are used as therapeutic and preventive agents in these disorders, but the exact functional mechanisms and the mode of action are poorly understood. The effects of clindamycin and the probiotic mixture VSL#3 (containing the 8 bacterial strains Streptococcus thermophilus, Bifidobacterium breve, Bifidobacterium longum, Bifidobacterium infantis, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus paracasei and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. Bulgaricus consecutively or in combination were investigated and compared to controls without therapy using a standardized human fecal microbiota in a computer-controlled in vitro model of large intestine. Microbial metabolites (short chain fatty acids, lactate, branched chain fatty acids, and ammonia and the intestinal microbiota were analyzed. Results Compared to controls and combination therapy, short chain fatty acids and lactate, but also ammonia and branched chain fatty acids, were increased under probiotic therapy. The metabolic pattern under combined therapy with antibiotics and probiotics had the most beneficial and consistent effect on intestinal metabolic profiles. The intestinal microbiota showed a decrease in several indigenous bacterial groups under antibiotic therapy, there was no significant recovery of these groups when the antibiotic therapy was followed by administration of probiotics. Simultaneous application of anti- and probiotics had a stabilizing effect on the intestinal microbiota with increased bifidobacteria and lactobacilli. Conclusions Administration of VSL#3 parallel with the clindamycin therapy had a beneficial and stabilizing effect on the intestinal metabolic homeostasis by decreasing toxic metabolites and protecting the endogenic microbiota from destruction. Probiotics could be a reasonable

  13. Probiotics, Prebiotics & Food allergy Prevention: Clinical Data in Children.

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    Fiocchi, Alessandro; Pecora, Valentina; Dahdah, Lamia

    2016-07-01

    there are accruing evidences on the role of the intestinal microbiota in the development of allergic diseases among infants. Elaborating on this theoretical basis, studies did assess the possibilities to prevent allergic diseases in infancy through manipulation of the intestinal microbiota. We review here such studies. interventional studies led to conflicting conclusions on the possible role of probiotics and prebiotics in allergy prevention. Two metanalyses published in 2015 did reconcile all data. Guidelines have been predicated on such studies using the GRADE methodology. the guidelines for allergy prevention suggest for the first time the use of probiotics and prebiotics. The existing evidences stand for a use of such supplementation in particular for the prevention of eczema. As there is no evidence so far of superiority of one probiotic strand over the others, they should be considered as class and not as individual products.

  14. Probiotics: their role in the treatment and prevention of disease.

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    Doron, Shira; Gorbach, Sherwood L

    2006-04-01

    A probiotic is a "live microbial food ingredients that, when ingested in sufficient quantities, exerts health benefits on the consumer". Probiotics exert their benefits through several mechanisms; they prevent colonization, cellular adhesion and invasion by pathogenic organisms, they have direct antimicrobial activity and they modulate the host immune response. The strongest evidence for the clinical effectiveness of probiotics has been in their use for the prevention of symptoms of lactose intolerance, treatment of acute diarrhea, attenuation of antibiotic-associated gastrointestinal side effects and the prevention and treatment of allergy manifestations. More research needs to be carried out to clarify conflicting findings on the use of probiotics for prevention of travelers' diarrhea, infections in children in daycare and dental caries, and elimination of nasal colonization with potentially pathogenic bacteria. Promising ongoing research is being conducted on the use of probiotics for the treatment of Clostridium difficile colitis, treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection, treatment of inflammatory bowel disease and prevention of relapse, treatment of irritable bowel syndrome, treatment of intestinal inflammation in cystic fibrosis patients, and prevention of necrotizing enterocolitis in premature infants. Finally, areas of future research include the use of probiotics for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, prevention of cancer and the treatment of graft-versus-host disease in bone marrow transplant recipients.

  15. Probiotics

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    Gupta V

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The term "probiotic" was first used in 1965, by Lilly and Stillwell, to describe substances secreted by one organism which stimulate the growth of another. The use of antibiotics, immunosuppressive therapy and irradiation, amongst other means of treatment, may cause alterations in the composition and have an effect on the GIT flora. Therefore, the introduction of beneficial bacterial species to GI tract may be a very attractive option to re-establish the microbial equilibrium and prevent disease. Prebiotic is a non-digestible food ingredient that confers benefits on the host by selectively stimulating one bacterium or a group of bacteria in the colon with probiotic properties. Both probiotics and prebiotics are together called as Synbiotics. Various bacterial genera most commonly used in probiotic preparations are Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, Escherichia, Enterococcus, Bacillus and Streptococcus . Some fungal strains belonging to Saccharomyces have also been used. Probiotics have been shown to be effective in varied clinical conditions- ranging from infantile diarrhoea, necrotizing enterocolitis, antibiotic-associated diarrhoea, relapsing Clostridium difficle colitis, Helicobacter pylori infections, inflammatory bowel disease to cancer, female uro-genital infection and surgical infections. Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG has proven beneficial affects on intestinal immunity. It increases the number of IgA and other immunoglobulins secreting cells in the intestinal mucosa. It also stimulates local release of interferons. It facilitates antigen transport to underlying lymphoid cells, which serves to increase antigen uptake in Peyer′s patches. Probiotics are live microorganisms, so it is possible that they may result in infection in the host. The risk and morbidity of sepsis due to probiotic bacteria should be weighed against the potential for sepsis due to more pathological bacteria and the morbidity of diseases for which probiotic bacteria

  16. Probiotics, prebiotics and colorectal cancer prevention.

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    Ambalam, Padma; Raman, Maya; Purama, Ravi Kiran; Doble, Mukesh

    2016-02-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC), the third major cause of mortality among various cancer types in United States, has been increasing in developing countries due to varying diet and dietary habits and occupational hazards. Recent evidences showed that composition of gut microbiota could be associated with the development of CRC and other gut dysbiosis. Modulation of gut microbiota by probiotics and prebiotics, either alone or in combination could positively influence the cross-talk between immune system and microbiota, would be beneficial in preventing inflammation and CRC. In this review, role of probiotics and prebiotics in the prevention of CRC has been discussed. Various epidemiological and experimental studies, specifically gut microbiome research has effectively improved the understanding about the role of probiotics and microbial treatment as anticarcinogenic agents. A few human studies support the beneficial effect of probiotics and prebiotics; hence, comprehensive understanding is urgent to realize the clinical applications of probiotics and prebiotics in CRC prevention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Preventative and Therapeutic Probiotic Use in Allergic Skin Conditions: Experimental and Clinical Findings

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    Özdemir, Öner; Göksu Erol, Azize Yasemin

    2013-01-01

    Probiotics are ingested live microbes that can modify intestinal microbial populations in a way that benefits the host. The interest in probiotic preventative/therapeutic potential in allergic diseases stemmed from the fact that probiotics have been shown to improve intestinal dysbiosis and permeability and to reduce inflammatory cytokines in human and murine experimental models. Enhanced presence of probiotic bacteria in the intestinal microbiota is found to correlate with protection against allergy. Therefore, many studies have been recently designed to examine the efficacy of probiotics, but the literature on the allergic skin disorders is still very scarce. Here, our objective is to summarize and evaluate the available knowledge from randomized or nonrandomized controlled trials of probiotic use in allergic skin conditions. Clinical improvement especially in IgE-sensitized eczema and experimental models such as atopic dermatitis-like lesions (trinitrochlorobenzene and picryl chloride sensitizations) and allergic contact dermatitis (dinitrofluorobenzene sensitization) has been reported. Although there is a very promising evidence to recommend the addition of probiotics into foods, probiotics do not have a proven role in the prevention or the therapy of allergic skin disorders. Thus, being aware of possible measures, such as probiotics use, to prevent/heal atopic diseases is essential for the practicing allergy specialist. PMID:24078929

  18. Probiotics, Prebiotics, and Synbiotics for the Prevention of Necrotizing Enterocolitis.

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    Johnson-Henry, Kathene C; Abrahamsson, Thomas R; Wu, Richard You; Sherman, Philip M

    2016-09-01

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a devastating intestinal disease in preterm infants characterized by barrier disruption, intestinal microbial dysbiosis, and persistent inflammation of the colon, which results in high mortality rates. Current strategies used to manage this disease are not sufficient, although the use of human breast milk reduces the risk of NEC. Mother's milk is regarded as a fundamental nutritional source for neonates, but pasteurization of donor breast milk affects the composition of bioactive compounds. Current research is evaluating the benefits and potential pitfalls of adding probiotics and prebiotics to pasteurized milk so as to improve the functionality of the milk and thereby reduce the burden of illness caused by NEC. Probiotics (live micro-organisms that confer health to the host) and prebiotics (nondigestible oligosaccharides that stimulate the growth of healthy bacteria) are functional foods known to mediate immune responses and modulate microbial populations in the gut. Clinical research shows strain- and compound-specific responses when probiotics or prebiotics are administered in conjunction with donor breast milk for the prevention of NEC. Despite ongoing controversy surrounding optimal treatment strategies, randomized controlled studies are now investigating the use of synbiotics to reduce the incidence and severity of NEC. Synbiotics, a combination of probiotics and prebiotics, have been proposed to enhance beneficial health effects in the intestinal tract more than either agent administered alone. This review considers the implications of using probiotic-, prebiotic-, and synbiotic-supplemented breast milk as a strategy to prevent NEC and issues that could be encountered with the preparations. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  19. Role of commercial probiotic strains against human pathogen adhesion to intestinal mucus.

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    Collado, M C; Meriluoto, J; Salminen, S

    2007-10-01

    The aims of this study present were to assess and to evaluate in vitro the abilities of commercial probiotic strains derived from fermented milk products and related sources currently marketed in European countries, to inhibit, compete and displace the adhesion of selected potential pathogens to immobilized human mucus. The adhesion was assessed by measuring the radioactivity of bacteria adhered to the human mucus. We tested 12 probiotic strains against eight selected pathogens. All strains tested were able to adhere to mucus. All probiotic strains tested were able to inhibit and displace (P<0.05) the adhesion of Bacteroides, Clostridium, Staphylococcus and Enterobacter. In addition, the abilities to inhibit and to displace adhered pathogens depended on both the probiotic and the pathogen strains tested suggesting that several complementary mechanisms are implied in the processes. Our results indicate the need for a case-by-case assessment in order to select strains with the ability to inhibit or displace a specific pathogen. Probiotics could be useful to correct deviations observed in intestinal microbiota associated with specific diseases and also, to prevent pathogen infections. The competitive exclusion properties of probiotics as well as their ability to displace and inhibit pathogens are the most importance for therapeutic manipulation of the enteric microbiota. The application of such strategies could contribute to expand the beneficial properties on human health against pathogen infection.

  20. Potential role of probiotics on colorectal cancer prevention

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    Uccello Mario

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Colorectal cancer represents the most common malignancy of the gastrointestinal tract. Owing to differences in dietary habits and lifestyle, this neoplasm is more common in industrialized countries than in developing ones. Evidence from a wide range of sources supports the assumption that the link between diet and colorectal cancer may be due to an imbalance of the intestinal microflora. Discussion Probiotic bacteria are live microorganisms that, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a healthy benefit on the host, and they have been investigated for their protective anti-tumor effects. In vivo and molecular studies have displayed encouraging findings that support a role of probiotics in colorectal cancer prevention. Summary Several mechanisms could explain the preventive action of probiotics against colorectal cancer onset. They include: alteration of the intestinal microflora; inactivation of cancerogenic compounds; competition with putrefactive and pathogenic microbiota; improvement of the host’s immune response; anti-proliferative effects via regulation of apoptosis and cell differentiation; fermentation of undigested food; inhibition of tyrosine kinase signaling pathways.

  1. Probiotics and prevention of Clostridium difficile infection.

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    Goldstein, E J C; Johnson, S J; Maziade, P-J; Evans, C T; Sniffen, J C; Millette, M; McFarland, L V

    2017-06-01

    The role of probiotics as adjunctive measures in the prevention of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) has been controversial. However, a growing body of evidence has suggested that they have a role in primary prevention of CDI. Elements of this controversy are reviewed and the proposed mechanisms of action, the value and cost effectiveness of probiotics are addressed with a focus on three agents, Saccharomyces boulardii, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and the combination of Lactobacillus acidophilus CL1285, Lactobacillus casei LBC80R, Lactobacillus rhamnosus CLR2 (Bio-K+). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of probiotics on gastrointestinal symptoms and small intestinal permeability in children with atopic dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenfeldt, Vibeke; Benfeldt, Eva; Valerius, Niels Henrik

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether probiotic lactobacilli may alleviate small intestinal inflammation and strengthen the intestinal barrier function in children with atopic dermatitis. STUDY DESIGN: In a double-blinded, placebo-controlled, cross-over study, probiotic lactobacilli (Lactobacillus...... placebo and r=0.53, P=.05 after active treatment). After probiotic treatment, the lactulose to mannitol ratio was lower (0.073) than after placebo (0.110, P=.001). CONCLUSIONS: Impairment of the intestinal mucosal barrier appears to be involved in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis. The study suggests...... that probiotic supplementation may stabilize the intestinal barrier function and decrease gastrointestinal symptoms in children with atopic dermatitis....

  3. Intestinal colonisation, microbiota and future probiotics

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    Salminen, S.; Benno, Y.; Vos, de W.M.

    2006-01-01

    The human intestine is colonized by a large number of microorganisms, collectively termed microbiota, which support a variety of physiological functions. As the major part of the microbiota has not yet been cultured, molecular methods are required to determine microbial composition and the impact of

  4. Probiotics for caries prevention and control

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    Twetman, S; Keller, M K

    2012-01-01

    Modulation of the microbiota for restoring and maintaining health is a growing issue in medical science. A search for relevant clinical trials on the use of probiotic bacteria as a potential and clinically applicable anti-caries measure was performed. According to predetermined criteria, papers...... of heterogeneity among the included investigations hampered the analysis. Significant reductions of mutans streptococci in saliva or plaque following daily intake of probiotic lactobacilli or bifidobacteria were reported in 12 out of 19 papers, whereas 3 reported an increase of lactobacilli. Three caries trials...... in preschool children and the elderly demonstrated prevented fractions of between 21% and 75% following regular intakes of milk supplemented with L. rhamnosus. No adverse effects or potential risks were reported. The currently available literature does not exclude the possibility that probiotic bacteria can...

  5. Bacterial Population in Intestines of Litopenaeus vannamei Fed Different Probiotics or Probiotic Supernatant.

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    Sha, Yujie; Liu, Mei; Wang, Baojie; Jiang, Keyong; Qi, Cancan; Wang, Lei

    2016-10-28

    The interactions of microbiota in the gut play an important role in promoting or maintaining the health of hosts. In this study, in order to investigate and compare the effects of dietary supplementation with Lactobacillus pentosus HC-2 (HC-2), Enterococcus faecium NRW-2, or the bacteria-free supernatant of a HC-2 culture on the bacterial composition of Litopenaeus vannamei , Illumina sequencing of the V1-V2 region of the 16S rRNA gene was used. The results showed that unique species exclusively existed in specific dietary groups, and the abundance of Actinobacteria was significantly increased in the intestinal bacterial community of shrimp fed with the bacteria-free supernatant of an HC-2 culture compared with the control. In addition, the histology of intestines of the shrimp from the four dietary groups was also described, but no obvious improvements in the intestinal histology were observed. The findings in this work will help to promote the understanding of the roles of intestinal bacteria in shrimps when fed with probiotics or probiotic supernatant.

  6. Probiotics and Probiotic Metabolic Product Improved Intestinal Function and Ameliorated LPS-Induced Injury in Rats.

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    Deng, Bo; Wu, Jie; Li, Xiaohui; Men, Xiaoming; Xu, Ziwei

    2017-11-01

    In the present study, we sought to determine the effects of Bacillus subtilis (BAS) and Bacillus licheniformis (BAL) in rats after lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute intestinal inflammation. We also determined whether the B. subtilis metabolic product (BASM) is as effective as the live-cell probiotic. 60 male SD rats were randomly assigned to five groups and administered a diet containing 0.05% B. licheniformis (BAL group), 0.05% B. subtilis (BAS group), 0.5% B. subtilis metabolic product (BASM group), or a basic diet (PC group and NC group) for 40 days. On day 40, BAL, BAS, BASM, and NC groups were injected with 4 mg/kg body weight LPS. 4 h later, all rats were anesthetized and sacrificed. The results showed that the administration of B. licheniformis and B. subtilis improved intestinal function as evidenced by histology, increased enzyme activity, and mucosal thickness. They also increased the number of intraepithelial lymphocytes and decreased mucosal myeloperoxidase activity and plasma TNF-α. In addition, the cecal content of B. subtilis-treated rats had significantly increased microbial diversity, decreased numbers of Firmicutes, and increased numbers of Bacteroidetes as compared to rats fed basic diets. Similar to BAS group, the cecal content of B. licheniformis-treated rats decreased the number of Firmicutes. Administration of B. subtilis metabolic product had similar effects on intestinal function, inflammation response, and microbial diversity as B. subtilis but these effects were attenuated. In conclusion, administration of probiotic strains B. licheniformis or B. subtilis improved intestinal function, ameliorated the inflammation response, and modulated microflora after LPS-induced acute inflammation in rats. Non-living cells also exerted probiotic properties but live cells tended to function better.

  7. The role of probiotics in the prevention and treatment of childhood infectious diarrhea

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    Maria Maragkoudaki

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics are beneficial bacteria that colonize and replicate in the human intestinal tract providing a positive benefit to the host. Several clinical trials support the efficacy of certain probiotics in the prevention and treatment of various diarrheal illnesses. This paper reviews published clinical trials assessing the efficacy of various probiotic species and strains in preventing and treating acute diarrhea in children. The available evidence shows that few probiotic species (mostly Lactobacillus GG and Saccharomyces boulardii are efficacious in decreasing the duration and the severity of acute gastroenteritis, with the most prominent of the reported benefits, the reduction of the duration of diarrhea by approximately 1 day. With regard to the prevention of acute diarrhea in the community and the hospital, there is modest evidence that some probiotic species may be efficacious in preventing community acquired diarrhea (Bifidobacterium lactis, Lactobacillus reuteri, Lactobacillus GG, nosocomial acquired diarrhea (Lactobacillus GG and Clostridium difficile diarrhea (Lactobacillus GG and Saccharomyces boulardii. In conclusion, the available evidence suggests that probiotics are safe when used in healthy children and effective in reducing the duration of acute infectious diarrhea. Further studies are required to assess the efficacy of selected probiotic species and strains at different dosages for different clinical indications and patient groups.

  8. Characterization and specificity of probiotics to prevent salmonella infection in mice

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    Ana Andino

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Probiotic strains of bacteria can prevent Salmonella from causing disease by preventing the pathogen from colonizing the intestines. Two strains of probiotics, Lactobacillus acidophilius and Pediococcus spp, that were obtained from poultry fecal samples have been shown to be efficacious in poultry. The objective of this study was to determine if these strains of probiotics could prevent salmonellosis in a mouse model. Methods: First, both strains of probiotics were evaluated for in vitro efficacy to inhibit the growth of and interfere with virulence gene regulation in Salmonella enterica. For in vivo efficacy, mice was used which models Typhoid illness. Mice were divided into 2 groups: Control and treatment, Lactobacillus and Pediococcus (LP; 108 Log CFU. Two experiments were conducted. In the first experiment, the mice were treated with LP in water for the first two days of the experiment and challenged with Salmonella at day three. In the second experiment, the LP treatment was given in the water for 10 days and challenge was performed on day 11. In both experiments, at day 20 post-challenge, all mice were sacrificed, intestinal tracts and organs removed and cultured for Salmonella. Results: The probiotic strains inhibited the growth of Salmonella and down-regulation of virulence genes was noted, but dependent on the strain of Salmonella being evaluated. For the in vivo experiment, the probiotics did not afford the mice protection from infection and increasing the length of time the probiotics were administered did not improve the efficacy of the probiotics. Conclusions: It appears that these strains of probiotic bacteria are effective against Salmonella in vitro. However, these isolates did not afford protection from Salmonella infection to mice which may be due to host specifity as these isolates were obtained from poultry

  9. Probiotics for preventing ventilator-associated pneumonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bo, Lulong; Li, Jinbao; Tao, Tianzhu; Bai, Yu; Ye, Xiaofei; Hotchkiss, Richard S; Kollef, Marin H; Crooks, Neil H; Deng, Xiaoming

    2014-01-01

    Background Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is common in intensive care units (ICUs). Some evidence indicates that probiotics may reduce the incidence of VAP. Several additional published studies have demonstrated that probiotics are safe and efficacious in preventing VAP in ICUs. We aimed to systematically summarise the results of all available data to generate the best evidence for the prevention of VAP. Objectives To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of probiotics for preventing VAP. Search methods We searched CENTRAL (2014, Issue 8), MEDLINE (1948 to September week 1, 2014) and EMBASE (2010 to September 2014). Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing probiotics with placebo or another control (excluding RCTs that use probiotics in both study groups) to prevent VAP. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently assessed eligibility and the quality of trials, and extracted data. Main results We included eight RCTs, with 1083 participants. All studies compared a form of probiotic (Lactobacillus casei rhamnosus; Lactobacillus plantarum; Synbiotic 2000FORTE; Ergyphilus; combination Bifidobacterium longum + Lactobacillus bulgaricus + Streptococcus thermophilus) versus a control group (placebo; glutamine; fermentable fibre; peptide; chlorhexidine). The analysis of all RCTs showed that the use of probiotics decreased the incidence of VAP (odds ratio (OR) 0.70, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.52 to 0.95, low quality evidence). However, the aggregated results were uncertain for ICU mortality (OR 0.84, 95% CI 0.58 to 1.22 very low quality evidence), in-hospital mortality (OR 0.78, 95% CI 0.54 to 1.14, very low quality evidence), incidence of diarrhoea (OR 0.72, 95% CI 0.47 to 1.09, very low quality evidence), length of ICU stay (mean difference (MD) −1.60, 95% CI −6.53 to 3.33, very low quality evidence), duration of mechanical ventilation (MD −6.15, 95% CI −18.77 to 6.47, very low quality evidence) and antibiotic

  10. The longitudinal effect of a multi-strain probiotic on the intestinal bacterial microbiota of neonatal foals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoster, Angelika; Guardabassi, Luca; Staempfli, H. R.

    2016-01-01

    REASONS FOR PERFORMING THE STUDY: The microbiota plays a key role in health and disease. Probiotics are a potential way to therapeutically modify the intestinal microbiota and prevent disease. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of probiotics on the bacterial microbiota...... of foals during and after administration. STUDY DESIGN: Randomised placebo controlled field trial. METHODS: Thirty-eight healthy neonatal foals enrolled in a prior study were selected. The foals had received a multi-strain probiotic (four Lactobacillus spp 3-4x10(3) cfu/g each, Bifidobacterium animalis spp...... or class level between treatment groups at any age (all p>0.08) but some significant changes in relative abundance of families. Probiotic administration did not result in an increased relative abundance of lactobacilli or bifidobacteria at any age (Lactobacillus: p = 0.95, p = 0.1 and p = 0...

  11. Probiotics and prebiotics in prevention and treatment of diseases in infants and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenplas, Yvan; Veereman-Wauters, Genevieve; De Greef, Elisabeth; Peeters, Stefaan; Casteels, Ann; Mahler, Tania; Devreker, Thierry; Hauser, Bruno

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of probiotics and prebiotics on the health of children. MEDLINE and LILACS were searched for relevant English and French-language articles. Human milk is rich in prebiotic oligosaccharides and may contain some probiotics. No data suggest that addition of probiotics to infant formula may be harmful, but evidence of its efficacy is insufficient for its recommendation. Since data suggest that addition of specific prebiotic oligosaccharides may reduce infections and atopy in healthy infants, their addition to infant formula seems reasonable. Long-term health benefits of pro- and prebiotics on the developing immune system remain to be proven. Selected probiotics reduce the duration of infectious diarrhea by 1 day, but evidence in prevention is lacking, except in antibiotic-associated diarrhea. Some specific probiotics prevent necrotizing enterocolitis, and other microorganisms may be beneficial in Helicobacter pylori gastritis and in infantile colic. Evidence is insufficient to recommend probiotics in prevention and treatment of atopic dermatitis. The use of probiotics in constipation, irritable bowel syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease, and extra-intestinal infections requires more studies. Duration of administration, microbial dosage, and species used need further validation for both pro- and prebiotics. Unjustified health claims are a major threat for the pro- and prebiotic concept.

  12. Oral Administration of Probiotics Increases Paneth Cells and Intestinal Antimicrobial Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia I. Cazorla

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The huge amount of intestinal bacteria represents a continuing threat to the intestinal barrier. To meet this challenge, gut epithelial cells produce antimicrobial peptides (AMP that act at the forefront of innate immunity. We explore whether this antimicrobial activity and Paneth cells, the main intestinal cell responsible of AMP production, are influenced by probiotics administration, to avoid the imbalance of intestinal microbiota and preserve intestinal barrier. Administration of Lactobacillus casei CRL 431 (Lc 431 and L. paracasei CNCM I-1518 (Lp 1518 to 42 days old mice, increases the number of Paneth cells on small intestine, and the antimicrobial activity against the pathogens Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella Typhimurium in the intestinal fluids. Specifically, strong damage of the bacterial cell with leakage of cytoplasmic content, and cellular fragmentation were observed in S. Typhimurium and S. aureus. Even more important, probiotics increase the antimicrobial activity of the intestinal fluids at the different ages, from weaning (21 days old to old age (180 days old. Intestinal antimicrobial activity stimulated by oral probiotics, do not influence significantly the composition of total anaerobic bacteria, lactobacilli and enterobacteria in the large intestine, at any age analyzed. This result, together with the antimicrobial activity observed against the same probiotic bacteria; endorse the regular consumption of probiotics without adverse effect on the intestinal homeostasis in healthy individuals. We demonstrate that oral probiotics increase intestinal antimicrobial activity and Paneth cells in order to strengthen epithelial barrier against pathogens. This effect would be another important mechanism by which probiotics protect the host mainly against infectious diseases.

  13. Intestinal cytochromes P450 regulating the intestinal microbiota and its probiotic profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia Elefterios Venizelos Bezirtzoglou

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Cytochromes P450 (CYPs enzymes metabolize a large variety of xenobiotic substances. In this vein, a plethora of studies were conducted to investigate their role, as cytochromes are located in both liver and intestinal tissues. The P450 profile of the human intestine has not been fully characterized. Human intestine serves primarily as an absorptive organ for nutrients, although it has also the ability to metabolize drugs. CYPs are responsible for the majority of phase I drug metabolism reactions. CYP3A represents the major intestinal CYP (80% followed by CYP2C9. CYP1A is expressed at high level in the duodenum, together with less abundant levels of CYP2C8-10 and CYP2D6. Cytochromes present a genetic polymorphism intra- or interindividual and intra- or interethnic. Changes in the pharmacokinetic profile of the drug are associated with increased toxicity due to reduced metabolism, altered efficacy of the drug, increased production of toxic metabolites, and adverse drug interaction. The high metabolic capacity of the intestinal flora is due to its enormous pool of enzymes, which catalyzes reactions in phase I and phase II drug metabolism. Compromised intestinal barrier conditions, when rupture of the intestinal integrity occurs, could increase passive paracellular absorption. It is clear that high microbial intestinal charge following intestinal disturbances, ageing, environment, or food-associated ailments leads to the microbial metabolism of a drug before absorption. The effect of certain bacteria having a benefic action on the intestinal ecosystem has been largely discussed during the past few years by many authors. The aim of the probiotic approach is to repair the deficiencies in the gut flora and establish a protective effect. There is a tentative multifactorial association of the CYP (P450 cytochrome role in the different diseases states, environmental toxic effects or chemical exposures and nutritional status.

  14. Probiotic yeast inhibits VEGFR signaling and angiogenesis in intestinal inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinhua Chen

    Full Text Available Saccharomyces boulardii (Sb can protect against intestinal injury and tumor formation, but how this probiotic yeast controls protective mucosal host responses is unclear. Angiogenesis is an integral process of inflammatory responses in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD and required for mucosal remodeling during restitution. The aim of this study was to determine whether Sb alters VEGFR (vascular endothelial growth factor receptor signaling, a central regulator of angiogenesis.HUVEC were used to examine the effects of Sb on signaling and on capillary tube formation (using the ECMatrix™ system. The effects of Sb on VEGF-mediated angiogenesis were examined in vivo using an adenovirus expressing VEGF-A(164 in the ears of adult nude mice (NuNu. The effects of Sb on blood vessel volume branching and density in DSS-induced colitis was quantified using VESsel GENeration (VESGEN software.1 Sb treatment attenuated weight-loss (p<0.01 and histological damage (p<0.01 in DSS colitis. VESGEN analysis of angiogenesis showed significantly increased blood vessel density and volume in DSS-treated mice compared to control. Sb treatment significantly reduced the neo-vascularization associated with acute DSS colitis and accelerated mucosal recovery restoration of the lamina propria capillary network to a normal morphology. 2 Sb inhibited VEGF-induced angiogenesis in vivo in the mouse ear model. 3 Sb also significantly inhibited angiogenesis in vitro in the capillary tube assay in a dose-dependent manner (p<0.01. 4 In HUVEC, Sb reduced basal VEGFR-2 phosphorylation, VEGFR-2 phosphorylation in response to VEGF as well as activation of the downstream kinases PLCγ and Erk1/2.Our findings indicate that the probiotic yeast S boulardii can modulate angiogenesis to limit intestinal inflammation and promote mucosal tissue repair by regulating VEGFR signaling.

  15. Message in a Bottle: Dialog between Intestine and Skin Modulated by Probiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Adrián D; Paz, Mariela L; Leoni, Juliana; González Maglio, Daniel H

    2017-06-09

    At the beginning, probiotics were used exclusively for gastrointestinal conditions. However, over the years, evidence has shown that probiotics exert systemic effects. In this review article, we will summarize recent reports that postulate probiotic treatment as an efficient one against skin pathologies, such as cancer, allergy, photoaging and skin infections. The focus will be restricted to oral probiotics that could potentially counteract the ultraviolet irradiation-induced skin alterations. Moreover, the possible underlying mechanisms by which probiotics can impact on the gut and exert their skin effects will be reviewed. Furthermore, how the local and systemic immune system is involved in the intestine-cutaneous crosstalk will be analyzed. In conclusion, this article will be divided into three core ideas: (a) probiotics regulate gut homeostasis; (b) gut and skin homeostasis are connected; (c) probiotics are a potentially effective treatment against skin conditions.

  16. Message in a Bottle: Dialog between Intestine and Skin Modulated by Probiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián D. Friedrich

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available At the beginning, probiotics were used exclusively for gastrointestinal conditions. However, over the years, evidence has shown that probiotics exert systemic effects. In this review article, we will summarize recent reports that postulate probiotic treatment as an efficient one against skin pathologies, such as cancer, allergy, photoaging and skin infections. The focus will be restricted to oral probiotics that could potentially counteract the ultraviolet irradiation-induced skin alterations. Moreover, the possible underlying mechanisms by which probiotics can impact on the gut and exert their skin effects will be reviewed. Furthermore, how the local and systemic immune system is involved in the intestine-cutaneous crosstalk will be analyzed. In conclusion, this article will be divided into three core ideas: (a probiotics regulate gut homeostasis; (b gut and skin homeostasis are connected; (c probiotics are a potentially effective treatment against skin conditions.

  17. Impact of probiotic drugs, based on Enterobacter faecium autostrains, on human intestinal microflora in confined habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viacheslav, Ilyin; Batov, Alexey; Usanova, Nonna

    The aim of research: Investigation of influence of probiotic drugs based on autostrains of Enter-obacter faecium, selected from the crew in long term isolation experiment in confined habitat. It is known that during long-term presence in confined habitat the risk of infectious diseases increases. One of the main infectious risk occurs during first 20 days of isolation as a result of exchange of strains and stress-mediated disbacterioses. Therefore it is necessary to evaluate activities of probiotics to avoid this risk. Furthermore, in case of super long term autonomous flight there should be possibilities of application of autochthonous microflora strains as pro-biotics to strengthen colonial resistance of crews. Materials and methods: In the experiment there were used probiotic drugs based on autostrains of E. faecium, selected from the crew before the experiment. Probiotic drugs were consumed during 30 days since the beginning of the experiment with the break of consumption between 10th to 19th day. Results: Comparing the state of intestinal microflora of the crew on the baseline and 14th day of experiment re-vealed remarkable changes of microflora: the increasing of concentration of bifidobacteria and E. faecium (approximately 10 times), elimination of hemolytic streptococcus, yeasts, reduction of the rate of S.aureus, hemolytic gramnegative non-fermenting rods, lactobacilli and normal E.coli. On the 45th day of isolation, 15 days after finishing of auto-strains administration, there fere signs of restoration of disbacteriosis: the quantitative decreasing lactobacilli, bifidobacteria and normal E.coli, increasing of the rate of S.aureus, hemolytic gramnegative nonfermentive rods. Conclusion: Thus we managed to avoid risk of pathogenicity potential growth in first 2 decades of isolation. Application of probiotic, based on the autostrains of E. faecium leads to insignificant changes of concentration of lactobacteries, bifidobacteries, normal E. coli and to

  18. Intestinal Barrier Dysfunction in a Randomized Trial of a Specific Probiotic Composition in Acute Pancreatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besselink, Marc G.; van Santvoort, Hjalmar C.; Renooij, Willem; de Smet, Martin B.; Boermeester, Marja A.; Fischer, Kathelijn; Timmerman, Harro M.; Ali, Usama Ahmed; Cirkel, Geert A.; Bollen, Thomas L.; van Ramshorst, Bert; Schaapherder, Alexander F.; Witteman, Ben J.; Ploeg, Rutger J.; van Goor, Harry; van Laarhoven, Cornelis J.; Tan, Adriaan C.; Brink, Menno A.; van der Harst, Erwin; Wahab, Peter J.; van Eijck, Casper H.; Dejong, Cornelis H.; van Erpecum, Karel J.; Akkermans, Louis M.; Gooszen, Hein G.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the relation between intestinal barrier dysfunction, bacterial translocation, and clinical outcome in patients with predicted severe acute pancreatitis and the influence of probiotics on these processes. Summary of Background data: Randomized, placebo-controlled,

  19. Saccharomyces boulardii probiotic-associated fungemia: questioning the safety of this preventive probiotic's use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Isabella W; Tonner, Rita; Trivedi, Julie; Miller, Heather; Lee, Richard; Liang, Xinglun; Rotello, Leo; Isenbergh, Elena; Anderson, Jennifer; Perl, Trish; Zhang, Sean X

    2017-03-01

    We report a case of fungemia in an immunocompetent patient after administration of probiotic containing Saccharomyces boulardii. We demonstrated the strain relatedness of the yeast from the probiotic capsule and the yeast causing fungal infection using genomic and proteomic typing methods. Our study questions the safety of this preventative biotherapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Colon-specific delivery of a probiotic-derived soluble protein ameliorates intestinal inflammation in mice through an EGFR-dependent mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Fang; Cao, Hanwei; Cover, Timothy L.; Washington, M. Kay; Shi, Yan; Liu, LinShu; Chaturvedi, Rupesh; Peek, Richard M.; Wilson, Keith T.; Polk, D. Brent

    2011-01-01

    Probiotic bacteria can potentially have beneficial effects on the clinical course of several intestinal disorders, but our understanding of probiotic action is limited. We have identified a probiotic bacteria–derived soluble protein, p40, from Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG), which prevents cytokine-induced apoptosis in intestinal epithelial cells. In the current study, we analyzed the mechanisms by which p40 regulates cellular responses in intestinal epithelial cells and p40’s effects on experimental colitis using mouse models. We show that the recombinant p40 protein activated EGFR, leading to Akt activation. Activation of EGFR by p40 was required for inhibition of cytokine-induced apoptosis in intestinal epithelial cells in vitro and ex vivo. Furthermore, we developed a pectin/zein hydrogel bead system to specifically deliver p40 to the mouse colon, which activated EGFR in colon epithelial cells. Administration of p40-containing beads reduced intestinal epithelial apoptosis and disruption of barrier function in the colon epithelium in an EGFR-dependent manner, thereby preventing and treating DSS-induced intestinal injury and acute colitis. Furthermore, p40 activation of EGFR was required for ameliorating colon epithelial cell apoptosis and chronic inflammation in oxazolone-induced colitis. These data define what we believe to be a previously unrecognized mechanism of probiotic-derived soluble proteins in protecting the intestine from injury and inflammation. PMID:21606592

  1. Effects of probiotic on the intestinal morphology with special reference to the growth of broilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutfullah, G.; Ahmad, I.

    2011-01-01

    The probiotic (Protexin) increases the growth rate in broilers. It must interfere with the intestinal cell morphology and absorption. The intestinal epithelium is one of the most rapidly renewed tissues in the body and is renewed by a process of continuous cell division. This study was carried out with an aim to establish a link between the use of probiotic doses, growth rate, and intestinal cell proliferation by measuring the length and weight of the intestine and intestinal crypt cell proliferation (CCP) of broiler chicks. The results revealed significant increase in intestinal CCP but no effect was observed on the intestinal weight and length. The increase in CCP has also no significant influence towards growth factor. The increased weight gain in this study is associated with more feed consumption which is observed with Protexin dose 1.0 g / 10 kg of feed. Furthermore, feed consumption reduced beyond this dose may lead to reduced weight gain. (author)

  2. Feed-additive probiotics accelerate yet antibiotics delay intestinal microbiota maturation in broiler chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Pengfei; Ma, Chen; Sun, Zheng; Wang, Lifeng; Huang, Shi; Su, Xiaoquan; Xu, Jian; Zhang, Heping

    2017-08-03

    Reducing antibiotics overuse in animal agriculture is one key in combat against the spread of antibiotic resistance. Probiotics are a potential replacement of antibiotics in animal feed; however, it is not clear whether and how probiotics and antibiotics differ in impact on physiology and microbial ecology of host animals. Host phenotype and fecal microbiota of broilers with either antibiotics or probiotics as feed additive were simultaneously sampled at four time points from birth to slaughter and then compared. Probiotic feeding resulted in a lower feed conversion ratio (FCR) and induced the highest level of immunity response, suggesting greater economic benefits in broiler farming. Probiotic use but not antibiotic use recapitulated the characteristics of age-dependent development of gut microbiota in the control group. The maturation of intestinal microbiota was greatly accelerated by probiotic feeding, yet significantly retarded and eventually delayed by antibiotic feeding. LP-8 stimulated the growth of many intestinal Lactobacillus spp. and led to an altered bacterial correlation network where Lactobacillus spp. are negatively correlated with 14 genera and positively linked with none, yet from the start antibiotic feeding featured a less-organized network where such inter-genera interactions were fewer and weaker. Consistently, microbiota-encoded functions as revealed by metagenome sequencing were highly distinct between the two groups. Thus, "intestinal microbiota maturation index" was proposed to quantitatively compare impact of feed additives on animal microecology. Our results reveal a tremendous potential of probiotics as antibiotics' substitute in poultry farming.

  3. The potential for Probiotic Bacteria from milkfish intestine in reducing mercury metals in skimmed milk media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyana, Zaraswati; Priosambodo, D.; Haedar, N.; Erviani, A. E.; Djabura, A. K.; Sukma, R.

    2018-03-01

    Mercury (Hg) is one of the heavy metals that is harmful to humans. The accumulation of mercury in the body is generally derived from food. Several types of bacteria from intestine of milkfish are known to reduce mercury concentration. People can take advantage of this bacterial ability by eating it through probiotic foods. This research conducted to figure out the potential for probiotic bacteria from milkfish intestine in reducing mercury. Isolation from probiotic bacteria from milkfish intestine conducted with grown the isolates in MRSA medium with addition of 1% CaCO3. Twelve isolate were obtained from milkfish intestine. Mercury resistance tested was performed by measuring cell density using a spectrophotometer at concentrations of 10, 15 and 20 ppm respectively in skim milk media. Probiotic tests (gastric acid, bile salts and antimicrobial activity) for MRSB media was also conducted. Results showed that seven isolate were resistant to mercury in all concentrations and potential as probiotics. All resistant isolate then tested for skim milk media with addition of 5, 10, 20 ppm mercury acetate respectively. Result showed that only one isolated was able to reduce the concentration of mercury (Hg) in all variations on concentration and potential as mercury reducer probiotic bacteria.

  4. Probiotic approach to prevent antibiotic resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouwehand, Arthur C; Forssten, Sofia; Hibberd, Ashley A; Lyra, Anna; Stahl, Buffy

    2016-01-01

    Probiotics are live microorganisms, mainly belonging to the genera Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium, although also strain of other species are commercialized, that have a beneficial effect on the host. From the perspective of antibiotic use, probiotics have been observed to reduce the risk of certain infectious disease such as certain types of diarrhea and respiratory tract infection. This may be accompanied with a reduced need of antibiotics for secondary infections. Antibiotics tend to be effective against most common diseases, but increasingly resistance is being observed among pathogens. Probiotics are specifically selected to not contribute to the spread of antibiotic resistance and not carry transferable antibiotic resistance. Concomitant use of probiotics with antibiotics has been observed to reduce the incidence, duration and/or severity of antibiotic-associated diarrhea. This contributes to better adherence to the antibiotic prescription and thereby reduces the evolution of resistance. To what extent probiotics directly reduce the spread of antibiotic resistance is still much under investigation; but maintaining a balanced microbiota during antibiotic use may certainly provide opportunities for reducing the spread of resistances. Key messages Probiotics may reduce the risk for certain infectious diseases and thereby reduce the need for antibiotics. Probiotics may reduce the risk for antibiotic-associated diarrhea Probiotics do not contribute to the spread of antibiotic resistance and may even reduce it.

  5. Regulation of intestinal homeostasis and immunity with probiotic lactobacilli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Baarlen, Peter; Wells, Jerry M; Kleerebezem, Michiel

    2013-05-01

    The gut microbiota provide important stimuli to the human innate and adaptive immune system and co-mediate metabolic and immune homeostasis. Probiotic bacteria can be regarded as part of the natural human microbiota, and have been associated with improving homeostasis, albeit with different levels of success. Composition of microbiota, probiotic strain identity, and host genetic differences may account for differential modulation of immune responses by probiotics. Here, we review the mechanisms of immunomodulating capacities of specific probiotic strains, the responses they can induce in the host, and how microbiota and genetic differences between individuals may co-influence host responses and immune homeostasis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Probiotics, Prebiotics, and Synbiotics for the Prevention of Necrotizing Enterocolitis12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Richard You

    2016-01-01

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a devastating intestinal disease in preterm infants characterized by barrier disruption, intestinal microbial dysbiosis, and persistent inflammation of the colon, which results in high mortality rates. Current strategies used to manage this disease are not sufficient, although the use of human breast milk reduces the risk of NEC. Mother’s milk is regarded as a fundamental nutritional source for neonates, but pasteurization of donor breast milk affects the composition of bioactive compounds. Current research is evaluating the benefits and potential pitfalls of adding probiotics and prebiotics to pasteurized milk so as to improve the functionality of the milk and thereby reduce the burden of illness caused by NEC. Probiotics (live micro-organisms that confer health to the host) and prebiotics (nondigestible oligosaccharides that stimulate the growth of healthy bacteria) are functional foods known to mediate immune responses and modulate microbial populations in the gut. Clinical research shows strain- and compound-specific responses when probiotics or prebiotics are administered in conjunction with donor breast milk for the prevention of NEC. Despite ongoing controversy surrounding optimal treatment strategies, randomized controlled studies are now investigating the use of synbiotics to reduce the incidence and severity of NEC. Synbiotics, a combination of probiotics and prebiotics, have been proposed to enhance beneficial health effects in the intestinal tract more than either agent administered alone. This review considers the implications of using probiotic-, prebiotic-, and synbiotic-supplemented breast milk as a strategy to prevent NEC and issues that could be encountered with the preparations. PMID:27633108

  7. Dietary supplementation of probiotics and synbiotics on intestinal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of dietary supplementation of probiotics and synbiotics on gut microbial population and histomorphological characteristics was examined in a 56-day experiment using 128 seven-day-old turkey poults fed with antibiotic, probiotic and synbiotic supplemented diets. The experimental design was a Randomised ...

  8. Probiotic yogurt in the elderly with intestinal bacterial overgrowth: endotoxaemia and innate immune functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiffrin, E.J.; Parlesak, Alexandr; Bode, C.

    2009-01-01

    and after a period of 4 weeks of probiotic yoghurt administration. Intestinal permeability, plasma endotoxin levels, phagocytic activity of leucocytes, cytokine production by monocytes and free radical response of neutrophils were determined. Intestinal permeability was similar for the two groups...... and was unaffected by probiotic treatment. Both plasma endotoxin levels and the basal phagocytic activity of leucocytes decreased after yoghurt intake in the two groups. Exposure of monocytes and neutrophils ex vivo led to an increased cytokine response and free radical response, respectively. The normalisation...

  9. Dietary probiotic supplementation improves growth and the intestinal morphology of Nile tilapia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, M A; Batista, S; Pires, M A; Silva, A P; Pereira, L F; Saavedra, M J; Ozório, R O A; Rema, P

    2017-08-01

    Probiotic administration can be a nutritional strategy to improve the immune response and growth performance of fish. The current study aimed to evaluate the effects of a probiotic blend (Bacillus sp., Pediococcus sp., Enterococcus sp., Lactobacillus sp.) as a dietary supplement on growth performance, feed utilization, innate immune and oxidative stress responses and intestinal morphology in juvenile Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). The probiotic was incorporated into a basal diet at three concentrations: 0 g/kg (A0: control), 3 g/kg (A1: 1.0×106 colony forming unit (CFU)/g) and 6 g/kg (A2: 2.3×106 CFU/g diet). After 8 weeks of probiotic feeding, weight and specific growth rate where significantly higher in fish-fed A1 diet than in fish-fed A0. Alternative complement in plasma was significantly enhanced in fish-fed A2 when compared with A0. The hepatic antioxidant indicators were not affected by probiotic supplementation. Villi height and goblet cell counts increased significantly in the intestine of fish-fed A1 and A2 diets compared with A0. The dietary probiotic supplementation was maintained until 20 weeks of feeding. Then the selected immune parameters, digestive enzymes and apparent digestibility of diets were studied. No effect of probiotic feeding was observed after that longer period supplementation. The dietary supplementation of mixed species probiotic may constitute a valuable nutritional approach towards a sustainable tilapia aquaculture. The improvement of the immune responses and intestinal morphology play an important role in increasing growth performance, nutrient absorption and disease resistance in fish, important outcomes in such a competitive and developing aquaculture sector.

  10. Targeted delivery of probiotics to enhance gastrointestinal stability and intestinal colonisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodoo, Cornelius C; Wang, Jie; Basit, Abdul W; Stapleton, Paul; Gaisford, Simon

    2017-09-15

    The aim of this work was to assess the viability of some commercial probiotics after exposure to gastric acid and the possibility of modifying these formulations for delivery into the distal parts of the intestines. Gastrointestinal tolerance testing was conducted for three commercial probiotics and an in-house freeze-dried Lactobacillus acidophilus strain. The contents of the commercial products and the in-house freeze-dried strain were then loaded into capsules for site-specific delivery into the colon using the Phloral ® coating technology; the viability upon release was then ascertained. An assessment of the potential of these products to adhere to intestinal cells was also conducted. The results showed that all the commercial products contained the minimum number of probiotic strains as indicated on their respective packages. When gastric acid tolerance tests were performed on these products, all the commercial probiotics and the prepared freeze-dried strain demonstrated over 10 6 CFU reductions within 5min. When these were encapsulated for site-specific delivery into the distal parts of the gut, viabilities of approximately 90% were obtained after these capsules had been initially deposited in gastric acid for 2h. An evaluation of the ability of the probiotic formulations to adhere to intestinal cells demonstrated adhesion in the range 64-76% for the products evaluated. The need to target the delivery of probiotics into the intestines has been demonstrated here as this offers a greater potential for colonisation of the intestines once the harshness of the stomach has been overcome. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of probiotics on the growth performance and intestinal micro flora of broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yin-bo; Xu, Qian-qian; Yang, Cun-jin; Yang, Xin; Lv, Le; Yin, Chun-hua; Liu, Xiao-lu; Yan, Hai

    2014-05-01

    Antibiotics have been used in poultry industry for decades to promote growth and protect animals from diseases, followed by various side effects. In efforts of searching for a better alternative, probiotic is of extensive attention. We investigated the effects of Bacillus subtitles, Rhodopseudomonas palustris, Candida utilis and Lactobacillus acidophilus as 0.1% (W/W) feed additives on broiler growth performance and intestinal microflora. The results showed the probiotics treatments significantly improved growth of broilers. Broilers supplemented with B. subtilis and L. acidophilus weighed 18.4% and 10.1% more than birds in control group at 42 days of age. Furthermore the feed conversion ratios of the birds in the two groups were also improved, decreasing 9.1% and 12.9%, respectively. Further study indicated a significant increase of cecal Lactobacilli concentration in briolers supplemented with probiotics, expecially in L. acidophilus treatment group. Meanwhile, the count of cecal Actinomyces in birds treated with probiotics was significantly lower compared with the control group. In conclusion, probiotics such as B. subtitles and L. acidophilus are good alternatives to antibiotics in promoting growth resulting from a beneficial modulation of the intestinal micro flora, which leads to increased efficiency of intestinal digestion in the host animal.

  12. Interactions between prebiotics, probiotics, polyunsaturated fatty acids and polyphenols: diet or supplementation for metabolic syndrome prevention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peluso, Ilaria; Romanelli, Luca; Palmery, Maura

    2014-05-01

    The metabolic syndrome can be prevented by the Mediterranean diet, characterized by fiber, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and polyphenols. However, the composition of the Mediterranean diet, which can be viewed as a natural multiple supplement, is poorly controlled, and its beneficial effects poorly predictable. The metabolic syndrome is associated with intestinal dysbiosis and the gut microbioma seems to be the main target and player in the interactions occurring between probiotics, prebiotics, omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, and polyphenols. From the reviewed evidence, it is reasonable to manage growth and metabolism of gut microflora with specific prebiotics and polyphenols. Even though the healthy properties of functional foods and nutraceuticals still need to be fully elucidated, available data suggest that well-designed supplements, containing the better ratio of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and antioxidants, specific probiotic strains, and selected polyphenols and prebiotics, could be useful in metabolic syndrome prevention and treatment.

  13. Delivery routes for probiotics: Effects on broiler performance, intestinal morphology and gut microflora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen G. Olnood

    2015-09-01

    of the probiotic through feed, water and litter increased (P < 0.01 the weight of the pancreas on d 21, but the probiotic did not affect other morphometric parameters of the gut. Furthermore, the probiotic did not affect the pH and the concentrations of short chain fatty acids and lactic acid in either the ileum or caeca. Keywords: Probiotics, Delivery routes, Broiler, Performance, Intestinal morphology

  14. Cochrane Commentary: Probiotics For Prevention of Acute Upper Respiratory Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quick, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    Probiotics may improve a person's health by regulating their immune function. Some trials have shown that probiotic strains can prevent respiratory infections. Even though the previous version of our review showed benefits of probiotics for acute upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs), several new studies have been published. To assess the effectiveness and safety of probiotics (any specified strain or dose), compared with placebo, in the prevention of acute URTIs in people of all ages, who are at risk of acute URTIs. We searched CENTRAL (2014, Issue 6), MEDLINE (1950 to July week 3, 2014), EMBASE (1974 to July 2014), Web of Science (1900 to July 2014), the Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, which includes the China Biological Medicine Database (from 1978 to July 2014), the Chinese Medicine Popular Science Literature Database (from 2000 to July 2014) and the Masters Degree Dissertation of Beijing Union Medical College Database (from 1981 to July 2014). We also searched the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) and ClinicalTrials.gov for completed and ongoing trials on 31 July 2014. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing probiotics with placebo to prevent acute URTIs. Two review authors independently assessed the eligibility and quality of trials, and extracted data using the standard methodological procedures expected by The Cochrane Collaboration. We included 13 RCTs, although we could only extract data to meta-analyze 12 trials, which involved 3720 participants including children, adults (aged around 40 years) and older people. We found that probiotics were better than placebo when measuring the number of participants experiencing episodes of acute URTI [at least one episode: odds ratio (OR): 0.53; 95% CI = 0.37-0.76, P school absence (OR: 0.10; 95% CI = 0.02-0.47, very low quality evidence). Probiotics and placebo were similar when measuring the rate ratio of episodes of acute URTI (rate ratio: 0

  15. Probiotic Escherichia coli strain Nissle 1917 outcompetes intestinal pathogens during biofilm formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hancock, Viktoria; Dahl, M.; Klemm, Per

    2010-01-01

    Nissle 1917 has been used for many decades as a probiotic against a variety of intestinal disorders and is probably the best field-tested E. coil strain in the world. Here we have investigated the biofilm-forming capacity of Nissle 1917. We found that the strain was a good biofilm former. Not only...

  16. Characterization of Intestinal Lactobacillus reuteri Strains as Potential Probiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Tejinder Pal; Kaur, Gurpreet; Malik, Ravinder Kumar; Schillinger, Ulrich; Guigas, Claudia; Kapila, Suman

    2012-03-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the probiotic properties of Lactobacillus reuteri isolated from human infant feces (less than 3 months). Out of thirty-two representative L. reuteri strains isolated from the infant human feces, nine isolates (i.e. LR5, LR6, LR9, LR11, LR19, LR20, LR25, LR26 and LR34) showed survival in acid, bile and simulated stomach-duodenum passage conditions, indicating their high tolerance to gastric juice, duodenal juice and bile environments. The nine isolates did not show strong hydrophobic properties because the percentages of adhesion to the apolar solvent, n-hexadecane, did not exceed 40%, showing that their surfaces were rather hydrophilic. Functionality of these nine probiotic isolates was supported by their antagonistic activity and their ability to deconjugate bile salts. The safety of the nine indigenous L. reuteri isolates was supported by the absence of transferable antibiotic resistance determinants, DNase activity, gelatinase activity and hemolysis. The results obtained so far suggest that the nine strains are resistant to low pH, bile salts and duodenum juice, so they could survive when passing through the upper part of the gastrointestinal tract and fulfill their potential probiotic action in the host organism. According to these results, the L. reuteri strains isolated from human infant feces possess interesting probiotic properties that make them potentially good candidates for probiotics.

  17. Antioxidant properties of caroot juices and their impact on intestinal and probiotic bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Duda-Chodak

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing interest in non-dairy probiotic products. The main aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of juice prepared from 15 various cultivars of carrot on the growth of representatives of human intestinal microbiota (Bifidobacterium catenulatum, Escherichia coli and probiotic strains (Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5, Lactobacillus casei 01. Carrot juice was added to liquid medium at a final concentration of 5.0% and their impact on the bacteria number was assessed by measurement of the turbidity after 24 h of culture. The number of cells was expressed as % of positive control (medium without juice addition. Juices prepared from all tested cultivars of carrot inhibited the growth of Bifidobacterium catenulatum, and the strongest inhibitory effect was observed for juices obtained from the 'Kongo F1' cultivar (3.40 ±2.85% of positive control, 'Rumba F1'(4.17 ±2.27% and 'Broker F1' (5.35 ±2.14%. The majority of tested juices also inhibited the growth of E. coli, but those prepared from the 'Niland F1', 'Napa F1', 'Afro F1'and 'Samba F1' cultivars stimulated the growth of this bacterium. The probiotic strains were less sensitive to carrot juice impact than intestinal species, however both stimulation and inhibition could be observed. Juices made from the cultivars 'Kongo F1' and 'Deep Purple F1' acted negatively on the growth of both probiotic strains, while juice from 'Bangor F1' cultivar inhibited L. casei 01 growth, but stimulated the growth of LA-5. The obtained results suggest that 'Kongo F1' and 'Deep Purple F1' cultivars are not suitable as an additive or raw material for the production of probiotic products, because of their inhibitory properties against probiotic strains. Concluding, carrots can be used as raw material for the production of probiotic beverages, however both the cultivar of carrot and the strains of probiotic bacteria used for the production should be selected carefully. The most suitable for production of

  18. Histamine H2 Receptor-Mediated Suppression of Intestinal Inflammation by Probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Chunxu; Major, Angela; Rendon, David; Lugo, Monica; Jackson, Vanessa; Shi, Zhongcheng; Mori-Akiyama, Yuko; Versalovic, James

    2015-12-15

    Probiotics and commensal intestinal microbes suppress mammalian cytokine production and intestinal inflammation in various experimental model systems. Limited information exists regarding potential mechanisms of probiotic-mediated immunomodulation in vivo. In this report, we demonstrate that specific probiotic strains of Lactobacillus reuteri suppress intestinal inflammation in a trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced mouse colitis model. Only strains that possess the hdc gene cluster, including the histidine decarboxylase and histidine-histamine antiporter genes, can suppress colitis and mucosal cytokine (interleukin-6 [IL-6] and IL-1β in the colon) gene expression. Suppression of acute colitis in mice was documented by diminished weight loss, colonic injury, serum amyloid A (SAA) protein concentrations, and reduced uptake of [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose ([(18)F]FDG) in the colon by positron emission tomography (PET). The ability of probiotic L. reuteri to suppress colitis depends on the presence of a bacterial histidine decarboxylase gene(s) in the intestinal microbiome, consumption of a histidine-containing diet, and signaling via the histamine H2 receptor (H2R). Collectively, luminal conversion of l-histidine to histamine by hdc(+) L. reuteri activates H2R, and H2R signaling results in suppression of acute inflammation within the mouse colon. Probiotics are microorganisms that when administered in adequate amounts confer beneficial effects on the host. Supplementation with probiotic strains was shown to suppress intestinal inflammation in patients with inflammatory bowel disease and in rodent colitis models. However, the mechanisms of probiosis are not clear. Our current studies suggest that supplementation with hdc(+) L. reuteri, which can convert l-histidine to histamine in the gut, resulted in suppression of colonic inflammation. These findings link luminal conversion of dietary components (amino acid metabolism) by gut microbes and probiotic

  19. Potencial bioterapêutico dos probióticos nas parasitoses intestinais Probiotics as potential biotherapeutic agents targeting intestinal parasites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Cristina Goulart de Oliveira-Sequeira

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Probióticos são microrganismos vivos que, se administrados em quantidades adequadas, promovem benefícios à saúde do homem e dos animais. O crescente interesse nos probióticos fundamenta-se em estudos clínicos nos quais a administração desses organismos foi avaliada na prevenção e no tratamento de desordens intestinais e sistêmicas. Os potenciais mecanismos de ação desses microrganismos incluem a exclusão competitiva, a produção de metabólitos com atividade antimicrobiana e a modulação da resposta imune. Em algumas circunstâncias clínicas específicas, os benefícios produzidos por esses microrganismos foram amplamente documentados, enquanto que em outras os resultados são contraditórios. No presente artigo de revisão, os probióticos foram abordados considerando-se o potencial bioterapêutico desses microrganismos nas parasitoses intestinais.Probiotics are live microorganisms which, when administered in adequate amounts, beneficially affect the general health status of man and animal. The great interest in probiotic microganisms is based on evidences from clinical studies indicating benefits in the prevention or treatment of a broad spectrum of gastrointestinal and systemic disorders. The potential mechanisms by which probiotics beneficially affect health include strengthening of the intestinal barrier, modulation of the immune response, and antagonism of pathogens either by the production of antimicrobial compounds or through competition for mucosal binding sites. In some specific clinical circumstances, there is clear evidence of benefit whereas in others, the results are dubious and important questions remaining unanswered. The aim of this review article is to focus probiotics on their potential as biotherapeutic agents against intestinal parasites.

  20. Probiotics in gut-bone signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schepper, Jonathan D; Irwin, Regina; Kang, Jun; Dagenais, Kevin; Lemon, Tristan; Shinouskis, Ally; Parameswaran, Narayanan; McCabe, Laura R

    2017-01-01

    The intestinal environment is linked to an array of conditions and diseases, including osteoporosis. Human and animal studies indicate that probiotics can benefit intestinal health and may provide a useful therapeutic to prevent and/or treat bone loss. Probiotics are defined as live microorganisms that when administered in adequate amounts will confer a health benefit on the host. In this review, we will focus on 1) probiotics (definition, history, nomenclature, types), 2) the effects of probiotics on bone health and 3) mechanisms of probiotic prevention of bone pathologies. PMID:29101658

  1. Regulation of intestinal homeostasis and immunity with probiotic lactobacilli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baarlen, van P.; Wells, J.; Kleerebezem, M.

    2013-01-01

    The gut microbiota provide important stimuli to the human innate and adaptive immune system and co-mediate metabolic and immune homeostasis. Probiotic bacteria can be regarded as part of the natural human microbiota, and have been associated with improving homeostasis, albeit with different levels

  2. Probiotics for the Prevention of Pediatric Antibiotic-Associated Diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Shelby R; Vargas, Ashley J

    Goldenberg JZ, Lytvyn L, Steurich J, Parkin P, Mahant S, Johnston BC. Probiotics for the prevention of pediatric antibiotic-associated diarrhea.Cochrane Database Syst Rev2015, Issue 12. Art. No.: CD004827. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD004827.pub4. Antibiotics are frequently prescribed in children. They alter the microbial balance within the gastrointestinal tract, commonly resulting in antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD). Probiotics may prevent AAD via restoration of the gut microflora. The primary objectives were to assess the efficacy and safety of probiotics (any specified strain or dose) used for the prevention of AAD in children. MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL, CINAHL, AMED, and the Web of Science (inception to November 2014) were searched along with specialized registers including the Cochrane IBD/FBD review group, CISCOM (Centralized Information Service for Complementary Medicine), NHS Evidence, the International Bibliographic Information on Dietary Supplements, as well as trial registries. Letters were sent to authors of included trials, nutraceutical and pharmaceutical companies, and experts in the field requesting additional information on ongoing or unpublished trials. Conference proceedings, dissertation abstracts, and reference lists from included and relevant articles were also searched. Randomized, parallel, controlled trials in children (0-18 years) receiving antibiotics, that compare probiotics to placebo, active alternative prophylaxis, or no treatment and measure the incidence of diarrhea secondary to antibiotic use were considered for inclusion. Study selection, data extraction, and methodological quality assessment using the risk of bias instrument were conducted independently and in duplicate by two authors. Dichotomous data (incidence of diarrhea and adverse events) were combined using a pooled risk ratio (RR) or risk difference (RD), and continuous data (mean duration of diarrhea and mean daily stool frequency) as mean difference (MD

  3. The role of intestinal microflora and probiotic bacteria in prophylactic and development of colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Wasilewska

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The gut microbiota comprises a large and diverse range of microorganisms whose activities have a significant impact on health. It interacts with its host at both the local and systemic level, resulting in a broad range of beneficial or detrimental outcomes for nutrition, infections, xenobiotic metabolism, and cancer. The current paper reviews research on the role of intestinal microflora in colorectal cancer development. Especially a protective effect of beneficial bacteria and probiotics on the risk of cancer development is highly discussed. There is substantial experimental evidence that the beneficial gut bacteria and their metabolism have the potential to inhibit the development and progression of neoplasia in the large intestine. Most of the data derive, however, from experimental and animal trials. Over a dozen well-documented animal studies have been published, wherein it has been clearly revealed that some lactic acid bacteria, especially lactobacilli and bifidobacteria, inhibit initiation and progression of colorectal cancer. Studies on cancer suppression in humans as a result of the consumption of probiotics are still sparse. Nevertheless, some epidemiological and interventional studies seem to confirm the bacterial anticancerogenic activity also in human gut. The mechanism by which probiotics may inhibit cancer development is unknown. Probiotics increase the amount of beneficial bacteria and decrease the pathogen level in the gut, consequently altering metabolic, enzymatic and carcinogenic activity in the intestine, decreasing inflammation and enhancing immune function, which may contribute to cancer defense.

  4. Cost-effectiveness analysis of oral probiotics for the prevention of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Na; Zheng, Bin; Cai, Hong-Fu; Chen, Yan-Hui; Qiu, Ming-Qi; Liu, Mao-Bai

    2018-04-17

    The incidence of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea (CDAD) in hospitalized children and adolescents has been increasing year-on-year. Paediatric CDAD represents a significant economic burden on healthcare systems. Probiotics are live organisms thought to improve the microbial balance of the host, counteract disturbances in intestinal flora, and reduce the risk of colonization by pathogenic bacteria. We conducted a cost-effectiveness analysis to assess the economy of probiotics for the prevention of CDAD in children and adolescents receiving antibiotics. A decision tree model combined clinical effectiveness, utility, and cost data was used. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to determine the robustness of the model outcomes. The Oral probiotics strategy and No probiotics strategy offered patients 0.05876 and 0.056 QALY at a cost of $16668.70 and $20355.28, respectively. The Oral probiotics strategy exhibited higher QALY and lower cost, so it is the cost-saving strategy. The results were robust for sensitivity analyses. From the perspective of the medical system, oral probiotics as a preventive strategy for CDAD in hospitalized children and adolescents who are receiving a therapeutic course of antibiotics reduced the risk of CDAD, and it is a cost-saving strategy. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. The probiotic mixture VSL#3 has differential effects on intestinal immune parameters in healthy female BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mariman, R.; Tielen, F.; Koning, F.; Nagelkerken, L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Probiotic bacteria may render mice resistant to the development of various inflammatory and infectious diseases. Objective: This study aimed to identify mechanisms by which probiotic bacteria may influence intestinal immune homeostasis in noninflammatory conditions. Methods: The effect

  6. Probiotics to prevent urinary tract infections: the rationale and evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Gregor; Bruce, Andrew W

    2006-02-01

    For over 30 years, urologists have recognized in females, that urinary pathogens almost always infect the host through ascension from the rectum, vagina to the urethra and bladder. Likewise, the Lactobacillus organisms that predominate in the vagina of healthy women, spread from the rectum and perineum and form a barrier in the vagina to bladder entry by uropathogens. The concept of artificially boosting the lactobacilli numbers through probiotic instillation has long been conceived, but only in recent years shown to be possible. Not all lactobacilli are effective, and to date clinical efficacy only exists for Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 and Lactobacillus reuteri B-54 and RC-14. These strains are only commercially available in Austria, and therefore for most urologists, while some probiotic organisms may reduce the recurrences of bladder cancer or oxaluria, no probiotics can be recommended widely to prevent UTI at present.

  7. THE PROBIOTIC Enterococcus faecium MODIFIES THE INTESTINAL MORPHOMETRIC PARAMETERS IN WEANING PIGLETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johana Andrea Ciro Galeano

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Global trends for animal production have seen a decrease in the use of antimicrobial compounds in feed, generating the need to implement new nutritional strategies that stimulate growth and promote intestinal health. This study aimed to determine whether the addition of E. faecium in drinking water improves intestinal morphometric parameters in post- weaning pigs compared with the probiotics strains L. acidophilus and L. casei on days 1 (21 days of age, 15 and 30 postweaning. The small intestine was completely removed to evaluate the morphometric parameters (length and width of villi and crypts in the different intestinal segments (duodenum, jejunum, and ileum. They were fed for 30 days with two diets: commercial diet with or without antibiotics. The different probiotics, L. acidophillus, L. casei and E. faecium, were administered in the drinking water of the animals that consumed the commercial diet without antibiotics. A randomized block design in split-plot arrangement was used. There was a significant increase (P<0.01 in the width and length of villi, and a decrease (P<0.01 in the values obtained for the width and depth of crypts in the animals that consumed E .faecium, as compared to those that consumed the diet with addition of antibiotics. The use of probiotics, especially E. faecium, is a nutritional treatment strategy when antimicrobial compound are used, improving the intestinal morphometric parameters and, at the same time, the digestive and productive parameters of the animals. Work is in progress to investigate the effects of probiotic supplementation on the mofication of gut microbiota of post-weaning piglets

  8. Human-derived probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri strains differentially reduce intestinal inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuying; Fatheree, Nicole Y; Mangalat, Nisha; Rhoads, Jon Marc

    2010-11-01

    Lactobacillus reuteri (L. reuteri) is a probiotic that inhibits the severity of enteric infections and modulates the immune system. Human-derived L. reuteri strains DSM17938, ATCC PTA4659, ATCC PTA 5289, and ATCC PTA 6475 have demonstrated strain-specific immunomodulation in cultured monocytoid cells, but information about how these strains affect inflammation in intestinal epithelium is limited. We determined the effects of the four different L. reuteri strains on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation in small intestinal epithelial cells and in the ileum of newborn rats. IPEC-J2 cells (derived from the jejunal epithelium of a neonatal piglet) and IEC-6 cells (derived from the rat crypt) were treated with L. reuteri. Newborn rat pups were gavaged cow milk formula supplemented with L. reuteri strains in the presence or absence of LPS. Protein and mRNA levels of cytokines and histological changes were measured. We demonstrate that even though one L. reuteri strain (DSM 17938) did not inhibit LPS-induced IL-8 production in cultured intestinal cells, all strains significantly reduced intestinal mucosal levels of KC/GRO (∼IL-8) and IFN-γ when newborn rat pups were fed formula containing LPS ± L. reuteri. Intestinal histological damage produced by LPS plus cow milk formula was also significantly reduced by all four strains. Cow milk formula feeding (without LPS) produced mild gut inflammation, evidenced by elevated mucosal IFN-γ and IL-13 levels, a process that could be suppressed by strain 17938. Other cytokines and chemokines were variably affected by the different strains, and there was no toxic effect of L. reuteri on intestinal cells or mucosa. In conclusion, L. reuteri strains differentially modulate LPS-induced inflammation. Probiotic interactions with both epithelial and nonepithelial cells in vivo must be instrumental in modulating intrinsic anti-inflammatory effects in the intestine. We suggest that the terms anti- and proinflammatory be used only

  9. In Vitro Evaluation of Swine-Derived Lactobacillus reuteri: Probiotic Properties and Effects on Intestinal Porcine Epithelial Cells Challenged with Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli K88.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhilin; Wang, Li; Chen, Zhuang; Ma, Xianyong; Yang, Xuefen; Zhang, Jian; Jiang, Zongyong

    2016-06-28

    Probiotics are considered as the best effective alternatives to antibiotics. The aim of this study was to characterize the probiotic potential of lactobacilli for use in swine farming by using in vitro evaluation methods. A total of 106 lactic acid bacterial isolates, originating from porcine feces, were first screened for the capacity to survive stresses considered important for putative probiotic strains. Sixteen isolates showed notable acid and bile resistance, antibacterial activity, and adherence to intestinal porcine epithelial cells (IPEC-1). One isolate, LR1, identified as Lactobacillus reuteri, was selected for extensive study of its probiotic and functional properties in IPEC-1 cell models. L. reuteri LR1 exhibited good adhesion to IPEC-1 cells and could inhibit the adhesion of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) to IPEC-1 cells. L. reuteri LR1 could also modulate transcript and protein expression of cytokines involved in inflammation in IPEC-1 cells; the Lactobacillus strain inhibited the ETEC-induced expression of proinflammatory transcripts (IL-6 and TNF-α) and protein (IL-6), and increased the level of anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-10). Measurement of the permeation of FD-4 showed that L. reuteri LR1 could maintain barrier integrity in monolayer IPEC-1 cells exposed to ETEC. Immunolocalization experiments showed L. reuteri LR1 could also prevent ETEC-induced tight junction ZO-1 disruption. Together, these results indicate that L. reuteri LR1 exhibits desirable probiotic properties and could be a potential probiotic for use in swine production.

  10. Visualization of probiotic-mediated Ca2+ signaling in intestinal epithelial cells in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Adachi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics, such as lactic acid bacteria (LAB and Bacillus subtilis var. natto, have been shown to modulate immune responses. It is important to understand how probiotic bacteria impact intestinal epithelial cells (IECs, because IECs are the first line of defense at the mucosal surface barrier and their activities substantially affect the gut microenvironment and immunity. However, to date, their precise mechanism remains unknown due to a lack of analytical systems available for live animal models. Recently, we generated a conditional Ca2+ biosensor Yellow Cameleon (YC3.60 transgenic mouse line and established 5D (x, y, z, time, and Ca2+ intravital imaging systems of lymphoid tissues including those in Peyer’s patches and bone marrow. In the present study, we further advance our intravital imaging system for intestinal tracts to visualize IEC responses against orally administrated food compounds in real time. Using this system, heat-killed Bacillus subtilis natto, a probiotic TTCC012 strain, is shown to directly induce Ca2+ signaling in IECs in mice housed under specific pathogen-free conditions. In contrast, this activation is not observed in the Lactococcus lactis strain C60; however, when we generate germ-free YC3.60 mice and observe the LAB stimulation of IECs in the absence of gut microbiota, C60 is capable of inducing Ca2+ signaling. This is the first study to successfully visualize the direct effect of probiotics on IECs in live animals. These data strongly suggest that probiotic strains stimulate IECs under physiological conditions, and that their activity is affected by the microenvironment of the small intestine, such as commensal bacteria.

  11. Alteration of the Canine Small-Intestinal Lactic Acid Bacterium Microbiota by Feeding of Potential Probiotics

    OpenAIRE

    Manninen, Titta J. K.; Rinkinen, Minna L.; Beasley, Shea S.; Saris, Per E. J.

    2006-01-01

    Five potentially probiotic canine fecal lactic acid bacterium (LAB) strains, Lactobacillus fermentum LAB8, Lactobacillus salivarius LAB9, Weissella confusa LAB10, Lactobacillus rhamnosus LAB11, and Lactobacillus mucosae LAB12, were fed to five permanently fistulated beagles for 7 days. The survival of the strains and their potential effects on the indigenous intestinal LAB microbiota were monitored for 17 days. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) demonstrated that the five fed LAB ...

  12. Characterization of microbiota in Arapaima gigas intestine and isolation of potential probiotic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Vale Pereira, G; da Cunha, D G; Pedreira Mourino, J L; Rodiles, A; Jaramillo-Torres, A; Merrifield, D L

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the intestinal microbiota of pirarucu (Arapaima gigas) in different growth stages (adult and fingerlings) and to isolate and identify potential probiotic bacteria. High-throughput sequencing analysis of the intestinal contents revealed that the majority of sequences belonged to the Proteobacteria, Fusobacteria and Firmicutes phyla. At the genus level, the greatest number of sequences belonged to Bradyrhizobium in adult fish, while Cetobacterium was the most abundant in juvenile fish. Twenty-three lactic-acid bacteria (LABs) were isolated on MRS agar from healthy juvenile fish. The isolates were tested in vitro for probiotic properties. Two isolates (identified as strains of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis and Enterococcus faecium) displayed antagonism against all 10 pathogens tested, were nonhaemolytic and maintained good viability for at least 3 weeks when supplemented to fish diets. The presence of a number of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), conferring resistance to erythromycin, tetracycline and chloramphenicol, was investigated by PCR. The absence of ARGs investigated the potential to antagonize pathogens, and favourable growth and survival characteristics indicate that these autochthonous isolates have the potential to be considered probiotics, which will be studied in future in vivo experiments. This study has demonstrated, for the first time, the normal microbiota in the A. gigas intestine during different life stages and the presence of LAB strains. It also demonstrated LAB antibiotic resistance and antagonistic behaviour against pathogens isolated from the same fish. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  13. Probiotics for preventing acute upper respiratory tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Qiukui; Dong, Bi Rong; Wu, Taixiang

    2015-02-03

    Probiotics may improve a person's health by regulating their immune function. Some trials have shown that probiotic strains can prevent respiratory infections. Even though the previous version of our review showed benefits of probiotics for acute upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs), several new studies have been published. To assess the effectiveness and safety of probiotics (any specified strain or dose), compared with placebo, in the prevention of acute URTIs in people of all ages, at risk of acute URTIs. We searched CENTRAL (2014, Issue 6), MEDLINE (1950 to July week 3, 2014), EMBASE (1974 to July 2014), Web of Science (1900 to July 2014), the Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, which includes the China Biological Medicine Database (from 1978 to July 2014), the Chinese Medicine Popular Science Literature Database (from 2000 to July 2014) and the Masters Degree Dissertation of Beijing Union Medical College Database (from 1981 to July 2014). We also searched the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) and ClinicalTrials.gov for completed and ongoing trials on 31 July 2014. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing probiotics with placebo to prevent acute URTIs. Two review authors independently assessed the eligibility and quality of trials, and extracted data using the standard methodological procedures expected by The Cochrane Collaboration. We included 13 RCTs, although we could only extract data to meta-analyse 12 trials, which involved 3720 participants including children, adults (aged around 40 years) and older people. We found that probiotics were better than placebo when measuring the number of participants experiencing episodes of acute URTI (at least one episode: odds ratio (OR) 0.53; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.37 to 0.76, P value school absence (OR 0.10; 95% CI 0.02 to 0.47, very low quality evidence). Probiotics and placebo were similar when measuring the rate ratio of episodes of acute

  14. Probiotics for preventing urinary tract infections in adults and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwenger, Erin M; Tejani, Aaron M; Loewen, Peter S

    2015-12-23

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a common bacterial infection that can lead to significant morbidity including stricture, abscess formation, fistula, bacteraemia, sepsis, pyelonephritis and kidney dysfunction. Mortality rates are reported to be as high as 1% in men and 3% in women due to development of pyelonephritis. Because probiotic therapy is readily available without a prescription, a review of their efficacy in the prevention of UTI may aid consumers in making informed decisions about potential prophylactic therapy. Institutions and caregivers also need evidence-based synopses of current evidence to make informed patient care decisions. Compared to placebo or no therapy, did probiotics (any formulation) provide a therapeutic advantage in terms of morbidity and mortality, when used to prevent UTI in susceptible patient populations?Compared to other prophylactic interventions, including drug and non-drug measures (e.g. continuous antibiotic prophylaxis, topical oestrogen, cranberry juice), did probiotics (any formulation) provide a therapeutic advantage in terms of morbidity and mortality when used to prevent UTIs in susceptible patient populations? We searched the Cochrane Kidney and Transplant Specialised Register to 21 September 2015 through contact with the Trials' Search Co-ordinator using search terms relevant to this review. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of susceptible patients (e.g. past history of UTI) or healthy people in which any strain, formulation, dose or frequency of probiotic was compared to placebo or active comparators were included. All RCTs and quasi-RCTs (RCTs in which allocation to treatment was obtained by alternation, use of alternate medical records, date of birth or other predictable methods) looking at comparing probiotics to no therapy, placebo, or other prophylactic interventions were included. Summary estimates of effect were obtained using a random-effects model, and results were expressed as risk ratios (RR) and their 95

  15. The intestinal microbiome, probiotics and prebiotics in neurogastroenterology

    Science.gov (United States)

    The brain-gut axis allows bidirectional communication between the central nervous system (CNS) and the enteric nervous system (ENS), linking emotional and cognitive centers of the brain with peripheral intestinal functions. Recent experimental work suggests that the gut microbiota have an impact on ...

  16. Probiotics in the Treatment and Prevention of Allergies in Children

    OpenAIRE

    SAVILAHTI, Erkki

    2011-01-01

    Several studies on the pathogenesis of allergy both in man and experimental animals continue to show the importance of commensal bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract in stimulating and directing the immune system. The interest in modulating commensal bacteria flora with pre- and probiotics to prevent and treat food allergy has multiplied in recent years. We recently studied 230 infants with atopic dermatitis and suspected cow’s milk allergy. The infants were randomly allocated to groups whi...

  17. Quantification of intestinal bacteria, operating cost and performance of fingerlings Nile tilapia subjected to probiotics

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    Nilton Garcia-Marengoni

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The use of microorganisms of the genus Bacillus in aquaculture is a nutritional management practice that is rapidly expanding in regions with intensive fish farming. This study aimed to quantify the total bacteria and total coliforms from the intestinal microbiota and estimate the partial operating costs and growth performance of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus of the GIFT strain. A total of 1,200 post-larvae (24.7 ± 0.50 mg were distributed into 24 aquaria (0.03-m³ capacity within a completely randomized design in 2 x 3 factorial (phase x bacteria, with four replications. Each aquarium, containing 50 post-larvae (sex reversal phase or 30 fish (fingerlings phase, it was considered to be an experimental unit, consisting of three treatments (diet+Bacillus subtilis C-3102, diet+Bacillus cereus var. toyoi and diet without probiotic addition. The quantification of the total bacteria and total coliforms of the intestinal microbiota of tilapia were influenced (P 0.05 by adding probiotics in the diets and no effect of the interaction between phase and bacteria was observed. The weight gain, average daily weight gain, specific growth rate and apparent feed conversion were not affected (P > 0.05 by inclusion of probiotics as part of the diets. The inclusion of B. subtilis and B. cereus as part of diets for Nile tilapia promotes intestinal colonization and improves the survival rate without negatively influencing the feed intake, total biomass, gross revenue and partial operating costs and net revenue. Therefore it recommends the use of these probiotics to growth of tilapia fingerlings Nile, GIFT strain.

  18. Evaluation of the intestinal colonization by microencapsulated probiotic bacteria in comparison with the same uncoated strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Piano, Mario; Carmagnola, Stefania; Andorno, Silvano; Pagliarulo, Michela; Tari, Roberto; Mogna, Luca; Strozzi, Gian Paolo; Sforza, Filomena; Capurso, Lucio

    2010-09-01

    Beneficial findings concerning probiotics are increasing day by day. However, one of the most important parameter which affects the probiotic activity of a microorganism is its survival during the gastroduodenal transit. Some microencapsulation techniques could be applied to bacterial cells to improve this parameter. A comparison between the intestinal colonization by microencapsulated bacteria and the same not microencapsulated strains has been conducted in a double blind, randomized, cross-over study. The study (April to July 2005) involved 44 healthy volunteers. In particular, participants were divided into 2 groups: group A (21 participants) received a mix of probiotic strains Lactobacillus plantarum LP01 (LMG P-21021) and Bifidobacterium breve BR03 (DSM 16604) in an uncoated form, group B (23 participants) was given the same strains microencapsulated with a gastroresistant material. The not microencapsulated strains were administered at 5 x 10(9) colony forming units/strain/d for 21 days, whereas the microencapsulated bacteria were given at 1 x 10(9) colony forming units/strain/d for 21 days. At the end of the first period of treatment with probiotics a 3 weeks washout phase has been included in the study protocol. At the end of the washout period the groups were crossed: in detail, group A had the microencapsulated and group B the uncoated bacteria. The administered amounts of each strain were the same as the first treatment. The quantitative evaluation of intestinal colonization by strains microencapsulated or not microencapsulated was made by fecal samples examination at the beginning of the clinical trial, after 10 and 21 days of each treatment period. In particular, fecal heterofermentative Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria have been counted. A statistically significant increase in the fecal amounts of Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria was recorded in both groups at the end of each treatment compared with d0 or d42 (Pstrains to colonize the human gut, either

  19. SURVIVAL OF MICROORGANISMS FROM MODERN PROBIOTICS IN MODEL CONDITIONS OF THE INTESTINE

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    Kabluchko TV

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The staye of intestinal microflora affects the work of the whole organism. When composition of normal ibtestine microflora changes, its restoration is required. In our days a wide variety of probiotic drugs are available on the market which can be used to solve this problem. Most bacteria having probiotic properties represent the families Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium, which have poor resistance to acidic content of the stomach and toxic effects of bile salts. Various studies have clearly shown that in a person with normal acidic and bile secretion, the lactobacilli and bifidobacteria are not detected after the passage through the duodenum, i.e., they perish before reaching the small intestines. In this study we compared the survival of different microorganisms which are contained in 9 probiotic drugs in a model of gastric and intestinal environments. Material and methods. In the laboratory of SI: “Mechnikov Institute Microbiology and Immunology, National Ukrainian Academy Medical Sciences" the in vitro experiments have been evaluated to test the ability of different probiotic bacteria which were contained in 9 probiotic drugs to survive the impact of the model environment of the stomach and duodenum. Bacillus coagulans persistence was evaluated under impact of simulated environment of the stomach and duodenum, it also was assessed by the quantity of CFU by incubation on culture medium. The following were studied: Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus reuteri, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus bulgaricus, Bifidobacterium bifidum, Bifidobacterium longum , Bifidobacterium breve, Bifidobacterium infantis, Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. Lactis BB-12, Saccharomyces boulardii, Bacillus coagulans, Bacillus clausii, Enterococcus faecium. Microorganisms were incubated for 3 hours in a model environment of the stomach (pepsin 3 g / l, hydrochloric acid of 160 mmol / l, pH 2

  20. The effects of a multispecies probiotic on migraine and markers of intestinal permeability-results of a randomized placebo-controlled study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roos, De N.M.; Hemert, Van S.; Rovers, J.M.P.; Smits, M.G.; Witteman, B.J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Background/Objectives:Migraine, associated with several gastrointestinal disorders, may result from increased intestinal permeability, allowing endotoxins to enter the bloodstream. We tested whether probiotics could reduce migraine through an effect on intestinal permeability and

  1. Assessment of adhesion properties of novel probiotic strains to human intestinal mucus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouwehand, A C; Tuomola, E M; Tölkkö, S; Salminen, S

    2001-02-28

    Potential new probiotic strains Lactobacillus brevis PELI, L. reuteri ING1, L. rhamnosus VTT E-800 and L. rhamnosus LC-705 were assessed for their adhesion properties using the human intestinal mucus model. The effect on the adhesion of exposure to acid and pepsin and to milk were tested to simulate gastric and food processing conditions, and the effect of different growth media on adhesion was tested. The properties of the four strains were compared to the well-investigated probiotic L. rhamnosus strain GG. Three of the tested strains showed significant adhesion properties in the mucus model, while L. brevis PELI had intermediate adhesion and L. rhamnosus LC-705 adhered poorly. Pretreatment with different milks decreased the adhesion and low pH and pepsin treatment reduced the adhesion of all tested strains except L. rhamnosus LC-705. No competitive exclusion of pathogenic Salmonella typhimurium or Escherichia coli SfaII was observed. The results indicate that major differences exist between tested proposed probiotic strains. The growth media and the food matrix significantly affect the adhesive ability of the tested strains. This has previously not been taken into account when selecting novel probiotic strains.

  2. Probiotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Gregor; Hammond, Jo-Anne

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To define the term probiotics, to indicate how to identify products that have been proven beneficial, and to assess the quality of evidence regarding probiotics. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE A few level I studies support the effectiveness of specific probiotics for certain diagnoses. For most so-called probiotics, however, weak or no evidence supports their effectiveness. MAIN MESSAGE Probiotics are live microorganisms that, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host. Level I evidence supports use of VSL#3 for maintaining remission of inflammatory colitis. Probiotics for treating vaginal infections, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 and Lactobacillus reuteri RC-14, have level I evidence of effectiveness, but are not available in Canada. Specific probiotics taken for certain indications improve health and have few side effects. CONCLUSION Limited but good evidence supports the role of certain probiotics in medical practice. Because consumer pressure will undoubtedly stimulate further interest in probiotics, family doctors need to be informed about them so they can advise their patients appropriately. PMID:16353831

  3. A five patient’s case study on the influence of two different probiotics on individual intestinal microbiota

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    Yoko Uchiyama-Tanaka

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTBackground: The composition and activities of indigenous intestinal microbiota are of paramount importance to human immunity, nutrition, and pathological processes, and hence, the health of the individual. It is well established that the intestine is an important site for local immunity. It is known that the effect of probiotics increases beneficial microbiota and improves chronic conditions such as atopic diseases, irritable bowel disease, and obesity. However, as there are so many probiotics, it is unknown which probiotics might have more of an impact upon intestinal microbiota.Objective: To understand how two different types of probiotics influence human intestinal microbiota, we analyzed human fecal microbiota after taking each of the probiotics.Methods: Five outpatients from Yoko Clinic (1 male and 4 females; aged between 34–46 years old were enrolled in this study. None of the subjects had cancer or any active inflammatory diseases. The five patients took Lactobacillus buchneri (SU for 4 weeks, no probiotics the following week, and mixed probiotics (NS which are Lactobacillus plantarum (NS-5, Lactobacillus rhamnosus (NS-11, Lactobacillus delbruekii (NS-12, Lactobacillus helveticus (NS-8, Lactobacillus fermentum (NS-9 for the following 4 weeks. Fecal samples were collected before and after the outpatients took each of the two probiotics, and were then analyzed using a kit from Techno Suruga Laboratory Co., Ltd. The analysis of the microbiota was performed by targeting bacterial 16S rRNA genes with a terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis program (Nagashima method.Results: Three patients of the five patients decreased the percentage of beneficial bacteria(Lactobacillales, Bifidobacteria after taking SU (13.7 ± 7.1% to 4.0 ± 3.5%, whereas the remaining two patients showed an increased percentage of beneficial bacteria (16.8 ± 3.4% to 30.4 ± 4.6%. After taking NS, the three patients who decreased the

  4. Prebiotics and probiotics: the prevention and reduction in severity of atopic dermatitis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foolad, N; Armstrong, A W

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this review was to identify whether supplementation with prebiotics and/or probiotics help prevent the development or reduce the severity of atopic dermatitis in children less than three years of age. Since 1997, immunostimulatory supplements, such as prebiotics and probiotics, have been investigated. Various supplementations include probiotics (single strain or mix), probiotics with formula, probiotics mix with prebiotics, and prebiotics. In this narrative review, we examined 13 key articles on prebiotics and/or probiotics, and their effects on infant atopic dermatitis. Among the selected studies, a total of 3,023 participants received supplements or placebo. Eight out of the 13 (61.5%) studies reported a significant effect on the prevention of atopic dermatitis after supplementation with probiotics and/or prebiotics. Five out of the 13 (38.5%) studies indicated significant reduction in the severity of atopic dermatitis after supplementation. Based on the available studies, supplementation with certain probiotics (Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG) appears to be an effective approach for the prevention and reduction in severity of atopic dermatitis. A mix of specific probiotic strains prevented atopic dermatitis among infants. Based on studies with prebiotics, there was a long-term reduction in the incidence of atopic dermatitis. Supplementation with prebiotics and probiotics appears useful for the reduction in the severity of atopic dermatitis. Additional interventional studies exploring prebiotics and probiotics are imperative before recommendations can be made.

  5. Prevention of urogenital infections by oral administration of probiotic lactobacilli

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    Vedran Slačanac

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In general, lactobacilli are nonpathogenic part of the normal urogenital microflora and have been recognized as a barrier against colonization of unwanted (pathogen microflora. The results of many in vitro studies suggest following mechanisms of probiotic lactobacilli action in urogenital tract: adhesion to urogenital cells, competition with pathogens for adhesive sites, production of biosurfactants, co-aggregation with pathogens, production of antimicrobial substances (organic acids, hydrogen peroxide and bacteriocins and stimulation of immune system. From 80 different lactobacilli species isolated from human or animal intestinal and urogenital tract, only few lactobacilli strains possess optimal properties to be effective as probiotic therapeutics against infections in the urogenital tract. Combination of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 and Lactobacillus fermentum RC-14 was proposed as the best one for epithelial vaginal cells colonization and inhibition of uropathogens adhesion. The results of a number of clinical studies confirmed beneficial role of oral lactobacilli. However, the most of commercially available Lactobacillus strains, which are ordinary used in fermented dairy products,are seriously limited in protection of urogenital tract when they are ingested orally.

  6. A Gastroenterologist’s Guide to Probiotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciorba, Matthew A

    2012-01-01

    The enteric microbiota contributes to gastrointestinal health and its disruption has been associated with many disease states. Some patients consume probiotic products in attempts to manipulate the intestinal microbiota for health benefit. It is important for gastroenterologists to improve their understanding of the mechanisms of probiotics and the evidence that support their use in practice. Clinical trials have assessed the therapeutic effects of probiotics for several disorders, including antibiotic-or Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea, irritable bowel syndrome, and the inflammatory bowel diseases. Although probiotic research is a rapidly evolving field, there are sufficient data to justify a trial of probiotics for treatment or prevention of some of these conditions. However, the capacity of probiotics to modify disease symptoms is likely to be modest and varies among probiotic strains—not all probiotics are right for all diseases. The current review provides condition-specific rationale for using probiotics as therapy and literature-based recommendations. PMID:22504002

  7. Probiotics: Myths or facts about their role in allergy prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzych-Fałta, Edyta; Furmańczyk, Konrad; Tomaszewska, Aneta; Olejniczak, Dominik; Samoliński, Bolesław; Samolińska-Zawisza, Urszula

    2018-01-01

    The hygiene hypothesis proposed by Strachan in the 1980s clearly emphasized the role of microorganisms in atopy prevention. The study objective was to assess the preventive role of probiotics in patients with allergic rhinitis, bronchial asthma, atopic dermatitis, and/or food allergy. The methods used in the study were the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) questionnaires for 6-7- and 13-14-year-olds and the European Community Respiratory Health Survey II (ECRHS II) questionnaire targeted for the 20-44 age group. The study was conducted as part of the cross-sectional Epidemiology of Allergic Diseases in Poland study conducted in 9 Polish regions (8 urban: Warszawa, Lublin, Białystok, Gdańsk, Poznań, Wrocław, Katowice, Kraków, and the rural regions of Zamojski and Krasnostawski counties). The study material was a group of patients diagnosed with food allergy (n = 407), atopic dermatitis (n = 311), allergic rhinitis (n = 1.353), bronchial asthma (n = 505), and healthy volunteers (n = 2,403). Genetic factors play an important role in the allergy development. A family history positive for chronic skin disorders increased the risk of atopic dermatitis and food allergies (OR = 1.456, CI = 1.14-1.85, p = 0.002; and OR = 1.378, CI = 1.05-1.81, p = 0.02, respectively). The consumption of products containing live bacterial cultures showed no preventive effects in any of the evaluated disorders in early childhood. Conversely, over the age of 14 years, probiotic formulations exhibit health-promoting effects and may lower the risk of allergic diseases. The use of probiotics in the Polish population showed no protective effect in the first years of life. The changes in dietary habits introduced during late adolescence demonstrated significantly greater preventive effects of live bacterial cultures against the development of allergic diseases.

  8. Immunology and probiotic impact of the newborn and young children intestinal microflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezirtzoglou, Eugenia; Stavropoulou, Elisabeth

    2011-12-01

    human gastrointestinal tract, LAB are referred to as "probiotics", and efforts are underway to employ them in modern nutrition habits with so-called functional foods. Members of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium genera are normal residents of the microbiota in the human gastrointestinal tract, in which they developed soon after birth. But, whether such probiotic strains derived from the human gut should be commercially employed in the so-called functional foods is a matter of debate between scientists and the industrial world. Within a few hours from birth the newborn develops its normal bacterial flora. Indeed human milk frequently contains low amounts of non-pathogenic bacteria like Streptococcus, Micrococcus, Lactobacillus, Staphylococcus, Corynebacterium and Bifidobacterium. In general, bacteria start to appear in feces within a few hours after birth. Colonization by Bifidobacterium occurs generally within 4 days of life. Claims have been made for positive effects of Bifidobacterium on infant growth and health. The effect of certain bacteria having a benefic action on the intestinal ecosystem is largely discussed during the last years by many authors. Bifidobacterium is reported to be a probiotic bacterium, exercising a beneficial effect on the intestinal flora. An antagonism has been reported between B. bifidum and C. perfringens in the intestine of newborns delivered by cesarean section. The aim of the probiotic approach is to repair the deficiencies in the gut flora and restore the protective effect. However, the possible ways in which the gut microbiota is being influenced by probiotics is yet unknown. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Lead biosorption of probiotic bacteria: effects of the intestinal content from laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Sicheng; Wang, Jie; Liang, Juan Boo; Jahromi, Mohammad Faseleh; Zhu, Cui; Shokryazdan, Parisa; Laudadio, Vito; Tufarelli, Vincenzo; Liao, Xindi

    2017-05-01

    This study investigated the effects and the possible mechanisms of intestinal content (IC) from laying hens on in vitro lead (Pb 2+ ) biosorption of four probiotic bacterial strains (Bifidobacterium longum BB79, Lactobacillus paracasei Kgl6, Lactobacillus pentosus ITA23, and Lactobacillus acidipiscis ITA44). The total Pb 2+ removal capacity of the four probiotic strains, with and without capsule polysaccharides (CPSs), increased in the presence of IC compared to the control (without IC). SEM imaging revealed certain unidentified particles from the IC adhered on the surface of bacterial cells sorted out using flow cytometry. Follow-up experiment showed an overall trend of increase in the Pb 2+ removal capacity of the sorted bacteria, but statistically significant for L. pentosus ITA23 and B. longum BB79 after incubation with IC, particularly with the suspended solid portion of the IC. In addition, the Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer data showed that functional groups such as C-H, O-H, C=O, and C-O-C which possibly associated with Pb 2+ binding were mainly presented in the suspended solid portion of IC. Putting the above together, we postulated that the enhanced Pb 2+ binding capacity the probiotic bacteria incubated in IC is due to the adherence of the yet to be identified particles which could much exist in suspended solid portion of IC containing negatively charged functional groups which bind with the positive Pb 2+ ions.

  10. Sodium salt medium-chain fatty acids and Bacillus-based probiotic strategies to improve growth and intestinal health of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata

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    Paula Simó-Mirabet

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background The increased demand for fish protein has led to the intensification of aquaculture practices which are hampered by nutritional and health factors affecting growth performance. To solve these problems, antibiotics have been used for many years in the prevention, control and treatment against disease as well as growth promoters to improve animal performance. Nowadays, the use of antibiotics in the European Union and other countries has been completely or partially banned as a result of the existence of antibiotic cross-resistance. Therefore, a number of alternatives, including enzymes, prebiotics, probiotics, phytonutrients and organic acids used alone or in combination have been proposed for the improvement of immunological state, growth performance and production in livestock animals. The aim of the present study was to evaluate two commercially available feed additives, one based on medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs from coconut oil and another with a Bacillus-based probiotic, in gilthead sea bream (GSB, Sparus aurata, a marine farmed fish of high value in the Mediterranean aquaculture. Methods The potential benefits of adding two commercial feed additives on fish growth performance and intestinal health were assessed in a 100-days feeding trial. The experimental diets (D2 and D3 were prepared by supplementing a basal diet (D1 with MCFAs in the form of a sodium salt of coconut fatty acid distillate (DICOSAN®; Norel, Madrid, Spain, rich on C-12, added at 0.3% (D2 or with the probiotic Bacillus amyloliquefaciens CECT 5940, added at 0.1% (D3. The study integrated data on growth performance, blood biochemistry, histology and intestinal gene expression patterns of selected markers of intestinal function and architecture. Results MCFAs in the form of a coconut oil increased feed intake, growth rates and the surface of nutrient absorption, promoting the anabolic action of the somatotropic axis. The probiotic (D3 induced anti

  11. Effect of dietary administration of probiotics on growth and intestine functionality of juvenile Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis, Kaup 1858)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saenz de Rodriganez, M.A.; Diaz-Rosales, P.; Chabrillon, M.; Smidt, H.; Arijo, S.; Leon-Rubio, J.M.; Alarcon, F.J.; Balebona, M.C.; Morinigo, M.A.; Cara, J.B.; Moyano, F.J.

    2009-01-01

    The effects of the dietary administration of two bacterial probiotic strains (Ppd11 and Pdp13) from the Alteromonadaceae family for 60 days, were assessed by measuring growth and feed efficiency, activities of leucine aminopeptidase and alkaline phosphatase and structural changes in the intestine of

  12. The effect of a multispecies probiotic on the intestinal microbiota and bowel movements in healthy volunteers taking the antibiotic amoxycillin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, C.J.M.; Jonkers, D.M.A.E.; Stobberingh, E.E.; Mulder, L.; Rombouts, F.M.; Stockbrügger, R.W.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: One of the side effects of antimicrobial therapy is a disturbance of the intestinal microbiota potentially resulting in antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD). In this placebo-controlled double-blind study, the effect of a multispecies probiotic on the composition and metabolic activity of

  13. What do Cochrane systematic reviews say about probiotics as preventive interventions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Vinícius Lopes; Rocha, Luana Pompeu Dos Santos; Bernardo, Daniel Damasceno; Cruz, Carolina de Oliveira; Riera, Rachel

    2017-01-01

    Probiotics have been used for a range of clinical situations and their use is strongly encouraged by the media worldwide. This study identified and summarized all Cochrane systematic reviews about the preventive effects of probiotics in clinical practice. Review of systematic reviews, conducted in the Discipline of Evidence-Based Medicine, Escola Paulista de Medicina (EPM), Universidade Federal de São Paulo (Unifesp). We included all Cochrane reviews on any probiotics when they were used as preventive interventions and compared with no intervention, placebo or any other pharmacological or non-pharmacological intervention. 17 Cochrane systematic reviews fulfilled our inclusion criteria and were summarized in this report. None of the reviews included in the present study provided high-quality evidence for any outcome. The benefits from use of probiotics included decreased incidence of antibiotic-associated diarrhea and Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea; decreased incidence of upper respiratory tract infections and duration of episodes; decreased need for antibiotics and absences from school due to colds; and decreased incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia. Probiotics seem to decrease the incidence of gestational diabetes mellitus, birthweight, risk of vaginal infection and incidence of eczema. Despite the marketing and the benefits associated with probiotics, there is little scientific evidence supporting the use of probiotics. None of the reviews provided any high-quality evidence for prevention of illnesses through use of probiotics. More trials are needed to gain better knowledge of probiotics and to confirm when their use is beneficial and cost-effective.

  14. Probiotic Strain Lactobacillus casei BL23 Prevents Colitis-Associated Colorectal Cancer

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    Elsa Jacouton

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The gut microbiota plays a major role in intestinal health, and an imbalance in its composition can lead to chronic gut inflammation and a predisposition to developing colorectal cancer (CRC. Currently, the use of probiotic bacteria represents an emerging alternative to treat and prevent cancer. Moreover, consumption of these beneficial bacteria may also favorably modulate the composition of the gut microbiota, which has been described in several studies to play an important role in CRC carcinogenesis. In this context, the aim of this study was to assess the protective effect of oral treatment with Lactobacillus casei BL23, a probiotic strain well known for its anti-inflammatory and anticancer properties. First, CRC was induced in C57BL6 mice by a single intraperitoneal injection with azoxymethane (8 mg/kg, followed by four courses of dextran sodium sulfate (2.5% in drinking water that were separated by an adjustable recovery period. At the time of sacrifice (day 46, tumor incidence, histological scores, and epithelial proliferation were determined in colon samples. Our results show that L. casei BL23 significantly protected mice against CRC development; specifically, L. casei BL23 treatment reduced histological scores and proliferative index values. In addition, our analysis revealed that L. casei BL23 had an immunomodulatory effect, mediated through the downregulation of the IL-22 cytokine, and an antiproliferative effect, mediated through the upregulation of caspase-7, caspase-9, and Bik. Finally, L. casei BL23 treatment tended to counterbalance CRC-induced dysbiosis in mice, as demonstrated by an analysis of fecal microbiota. Altogether our results demonstrate the high potential of L. casei BL23 for the development of new, probiotic-based strategies to fight CRC.

  15. JUSTIFICATION OF THE CHOICE OF OPTIMAL PROBIOTIC THERAPY OF ACUTE INTESTINAL INFECTIONS IN CHILDREN WITH FUNCTIONAL AND CHRONIC DISORDERS OF GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT

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    E. R. Meskina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Studied the comparative efficacy of probiotics with different composition of strains in the complex treatment of acute intestinal infection in 89 children with functional disorders and chronic gastrointestinal tract. Conducted a dynamic study of the intestinal microflora bacteriological method and gas-liquid chromatography with the definition of short-chain fatty acid content of the level of carbohydrates in the feces and stool data. Set different dates for stopping diarrhea and features state of the intestinal ecosystem indicators after treatment in patients receiving comprehensive probiotic containing bifidobacteria and enterococcus, or probiotic containing lactobacillus. 

  16. Use of probiotics to prevent ventilator-associated pneumonia: A survey of pharmacists' attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Kathleen E; Cook, Deborah J; Mehta, Sangeeta; Calce, Adriana; Guenette, Melanie; Perreault, Marc M; Thiboutot, Zoé; Duffett, Mark; Burry, Lisa

    2016-02-01

    The primary objective of this survey was to describe pharmacists' attitudes regarding probiotic use in the intensive care unit (ICU); secondary objectives were to evaluate pharmacists' knowledge and use of probiotics for critically ill patients. The survey instrument was rigorously designed and pretested, then distributed in both English and French to Canadian ICU pharmacists. The online survey was open for 5 weeks, and 3 follow-up emails were sent to maximize response rates. Of 303 eligible surveys, 191 were returned (63.0%). Probiotics were available in the hospitals of 69.8% (113/162) of respondents, and 62.0% (101/163) indicated that they had used probiotics for at least 1 ICU patient in the previous year. Most pharmacists (137/171, 80.1%) said that they would "never" consider recommending probiotics for prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia in ICU patients, and this response was more common (P = .0074) among pharmacists who were "unsure" about the safety of probiotics in this population when compared to those who felt that they knew how safe probiotics are. Most Canadian ICU pharmacists have used probiotics at least once in the ICU in the last year. However, based on uncertain efficacy and safety, most ICU pharmacists would not currently recommend probiotics for the prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Probiotics for the Prevention of Antibiotic-Associated Diarrhea in Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szajewska, Hania; Canani, Roberto Berni; Guarino, Alfredo; Hojsak, Iva; Indrio, Flavia; Kolacek, Sanja; Orel, Rok; Shamir, Raanan; Vandenplas, Yvan; van Goudoever, Johannes B.; Weizman, Zvi

    2016-01-01

    This article provides recommendations, developed by the Working Group (WG) on Probiotics of the European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition, for the use of probiotics for the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD) in children based on a systematic review of

  18. Nutrition economic evaluation of a probiotic in the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenoir-Wijnkoop, Irene; Nuijten, Mark J C; Craig, Joyce; Butler, Christopher C

    2014-01-01

    Antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD) is common and frequently more severe in hospitalized elderly adults. It can lead to increased use of healthcare resources. We estimated the cost-effectiveness of a fermented milk (FM) with probiotic in preventing AAD and in particular Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD). Clinical effectiveness data and cost information were incorporated in a model to estimate the cost impact of administering a FM containing the probiotic Lactobacillus paracasei ssp paracasei CNCM I-1518 in a hospital setting. Preventing AAD by the consumption of the probiotic was compared to no preventive strategy. The probiotic intervention to prevent AAD generated estimated mean cost savings of £339 per hospitalized patient over the age of 65 years and treated with antibiotics, compared to no preventive probiotic. Estimated cost savings were sensitive to variation in the incidence of AAD, and to the proportion of patients who develop non-severe/severe AAD. However, probiotics remained cost saving in all sensitivity analyses. Use of the fermented dairy drink containing the probiotic L. paracasei CNCM I-1518 to prevent AAD in older hospitalized patients treated with antibiotics could lead to substantial cost savings.

  19. Nutrition economic evaluation of a probiotic in the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea

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    Irene eLenoir-Wijnkoop

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Antibiotic associated diarrhea (AAD is common and frequently more severe in hospitalised elderly adults. It can lead to increased use of healthcare resources. We estimated the cost-effectiveness of a fermented milk with probiotic in preventing AAD and in particular Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea. Methods Clinical effectiveness data and cost information were incorporated in a model to estimate the cost impact of administering a fermented milk containing the probiotic Lactobacillus paracasei ssp paracasei CNCM I-1518 in a hospital setting. Preventing AAD by the consumption of the probiotic was compared to no preventive strategy. Results The probiotic intervention to prevent AAD generated estimated mean cost savings of £339 per hospitalised patient over the age of 65 years and treated with antibiotics, compared to no preventive probiotic. Estimated cost savings were sensitive to variation in the incidence of AAD, and to the proportion of patients who develop non-severe/severe AAD. However, probiotics remained cost saving in all sensitivity analyses. Conclusion Use of the fermented dairy drink containing the probiotic L.paracasei CNCM I-1518 to prevent AAD in older hospitalised patients treated with antibiotics could lead to substantial cost savings.

  20. Effect of a multispecies probiotic supplement on quantity of irritable bowel syndrome-related intestinal microbial phylotypes

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    Lyra Anna

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Probiotics can alleviate the symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS, possibly by stabilizing the intestinal microbiota. Our aim was to determine whether IBS-associated bacterial alterations were reduced during multispecies probiotic intervention consisting of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, L. rhamnosus Lc705, Propionibacterium freudenreichii ssp. shermanii JS and Bifidobacterium breve Bb99. The intervention has previously been shown to successfully alleviate gastrointestinal symptoms of IBS. Methods The faecal microbiotas of 42 IBS subjects participating in a placebo-controlled double-blind multispecies probiotic intervention were analysed using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR. Eight bacterial targets within the gastrointestinal microbiota with a putative IBS association were measured. Results A phylotype with 94% similarity to Ruminococcus torques remained abundant in the placebo group, but was decreased in the probiotic group during the intervention (P = 0.02 at 6 months. In addition, the clostridial phylotype, Clostridium thermosuccinogenes 85%, was stably elevated during the intervention (P = 0.00 and P = 0.02 at 3 and 6 months, respectively. The bacterial alterations detected were in accordance with previously discovered alleviation of symptoms. Conclusions The probiotic supplement was thus shown to exert specific alterations in the IBS-associated microbiota towards the bacterial 16S rDNA phylotype quantities described previously for subjects free of IBS. These changes may have value as non-invasive biomarkers in probiotic intervention studies.

  1. THE USE OF A DOMESTIC PROBIOTIC WITH LACTOBACILLUS ACIDOPHILUS FOR THE TREATMENT OF ACUTE INTESTINAL INFECTIONS AND OTHER PATHOLOGIES IN CHILDREN

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    A. A. Novokshonov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of studies showing the effectiveness of the use of the domestic probiotic Acipol containing Lactobacillus acidophilus and the kefiric fungal polysaccharide are summarized in a wide range of diseases in children, such as acute intestinal infections of bacterial, viral (rotavirus and mixed etiology, for the prevention of the development of antibiotic-associated diarrhea, for the normalization of the intestinal microflora in various conditions (acute respiratory diseases, atopic dermatitis, often ill children, etc.. The appointment of Acipol contributed to a reduction in the duration of clinical manifestations, restoration of normoflora, rapid elimination of pathogenic and conditionally pathogenic microorganisms, and reduced the risk of developing of antibiotic-associated diarrhea.

  2. Probiotic-derived polyphosphate enhances the epithelial barrier function and maintains intestinal homeostasis through integrin-p38 MAPK pathway.

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    Shuichi Segawa

    Full Text Available Probiotics exhibit beneficial effects on human health, particularly in the maintenance of intestinal homeostasis in a complex manner notwithstanding the diversity of an intestinal flora between individuals. Thus, it is highly probable that some common molecules secreted by probiotic and/or commensal bacteria contribute to the maintenance of intestinal homeostasis and protect the intestinal epithelium from injurious stimuli. To address this question, we aimed to isolate the cytoprotective compound from a lactobacillus strain, Lactobacillus brevis SBC8803 which possess the ability to induce cytoprotective heat shock proteins in mouse small intestine. L. brevis was incubated in MRS broth and the supernatant was passed through with a 0.2-µm filter. Caco2/bbe cells were treated with the culture supernatant, and HSP27 expression was evaluated by Western blotting. HSP27-inducible components were separated by ammonium sulfate precipitation, DEAE anion exchange chromatography, gel filtration, and HPLC. Finally, we identified that the HSP27-inducible fraction was polyphosphate (poly P, a simple repeated structure of phosphates, which is a common product of lactobacilli and other bacteria associated with intestinal microflora without any definitive physiological functions. Then, poly P was synthesized by poly P-synthesizing enzyme polyphosphate kinase. The synthesized poly P significantly induced HSP27 from Caco2/BBE cells. In addition, Poly P suppressed the oxidant-induced intestinal permeability in the mouse small intestine and pharmacological inhibitors of p38 MAPK and integrins counteract its protective effect. Daily intrarectal administration of poly P (10 µg improved the inflammation grade and survival rate in 4% sodium dextran sulfate-administered mice. This study, for the first time, demonstrated that poly P is the molecule responsible for maintaining intestinal barrier actions which are mediated through the intestinal integrin β1-p38 MAPK.

  3. Comparison between oral antibiotics and probiotics as bowel preparation for elective colon cancer surgery to prevent infection: prospective randomized trial.

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    Sadahiro, Sotaro; Suzuki, Toshiyuki; Tanaka, Akira; Okada, Kazutake; Kamata, Hiroko; Ozaki, Toru; Koga, Yasuhiro

    2014-03-01

    We have already reported that, for patients undergoing elective colon cancer operations, perioperative infection can be prevented by a single intravenous dose of an antibiotic given immediately beforehand if mechanical bowel preparation and the administration of oral antibiotics are implemented. Synbiotics has been reported to reduce the rate of infection in patients after pancreatic cancer operations. The effectiveness of oral antibiotics and probiotics in preventing postoperative infection in elective colon cancer procedures was examined in a randomized controlled trial. Three hundred ten patients with colon cancer randomly were assigned to one of three groups. All patients underwent mechanical bowel preparation and received a single intravenous dose of flomoxef immediately before operation. Probiotics were administered in Group A; oral antibiotics were administered in Group B; and neither probiotics nor oral antibiotics were administered in Group C. Stool samples were collected 9 and 2 days before and 7 and 14 days after the procedure. Clostridium difficile toxin and the number of bacteria in the intestine were determined. The rates of incisional surgical-site infection were 18.0%, 6.1%, and 17.9% in Groups A, B, and C, and the rates of leakage were 12.0%, 1.0%, and 7.4% in Groups A, B, and C, respectively, indicating that both rates were lesser in Group B than in Groups A and C (P = .014 and P = .004, respectively). The detection rates of C. difficile toxin were not changed among the three groups. We recommend oral antibiotics, rather than probiotics, as bowel preparation for elective colon cancer procedures to prevent surgical-site infections. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Probiotics in Preventing Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections in Women: A Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisholm, Annie H

    2015-01-01

    Increasing antibiotic resistance and increasing resistance to commonly used antibiotics makes treatment and prevention of urinary tract infections difficult. Although more research is needed, probiotics should be considered a useful and safe alternative to antibiotics.

  5. Probiotics to prevent necrotising enterocolitis in very preterm infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lambæk, Irina Dobychina; Fonnest, Gert; Gormsen, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Meta-analyses of randomised trials have shown that probiotics reduce the risk of necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) in preterm infants. However, the generalisability of these results, particularly for the most preterm infants, remains unresolved. Hence, we wanted to evaluate the benefit...... of implementing prophylactic use of probiotics as standard care in infants younger than 30 weeks of gestation. METHODS: Two three-year periods were compared. The first period was prior to a policy change. In this period no probiotics were used. The second period featured routine administration of probiotics...... period (median six versus 14 days, p = 0.004). No side effects and no blood cultures with lactobacillus or bifidobacterium were observed. CONCLUSIONS: This historically controlled study did not indicate that probiotics had a significant effect on NEC. We continue our practice, but larger cohort studies...

  6. Lipoteichoic Acid of Probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum Attenuates Poly I:C-Induced IL-8 Production in Porcine Intestinal Epithelial Cells

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    Kyoung Whun Kim

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics in livestock feed supplements are considered a replacement for antibiotics that enhance gastrointestinal immunity. Although bacterial cell wall components have been proposed to be associated with probiotic function, little evidence demonstrates that they are responsible for probiotic functions in livestock. The present study demonstrated that lipoteichoic acid (LTA of Lactobacillus plantarum (Lp.LTA confers anti-inflammatory responses in porcine intestinal epithelial cell line, IPEC-J2. A synthetic analog of viral double-stranded RNA, poly I:C, dose-dependently induced IL-8 production at the mRNA and protein levels in IPEC-J2 cells. Lp.LTA, but not lipoprotein or peptidoglycan from L. plantarum, exclusively suppressed poly I:C-induced IL-8 production. Compared with LTAs from other probiotic Lactobacillus strains including L. delbrueckii, L. sakei, and L. rhamnosus GG, Lp.LTA had higher potential to suppress poly I:C-induced IL-8 production. Dealanylated or deacylated Lp.LTA did not suppress poly I:C-induced IL-8 production, suggesting that D-alanine and lipid moieties in the Lp.LTA structure were responsible for the inhibition. Furthermore, Lp.LTA attenuated the phosphorylation of ERK and p38 kinase as well as the activation of NF-κB, resulting in decreased IL-8 production. Taken together, these results suggest that Lp.LTA acts as an effector molecule to inhibit viral pathogen-induced inflammatory responses in porcine intestinal epithelial cells.

  7. Spatial Localization and Binding of the Probiotic Lactobacillus farciminis to the Rat Intestinal Mucosa: Influence of Chronic Stress.

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    Stéphanie Da Silva

    Full Text Available The present study aimed at detecting the exogenously applied probiotic Lactobacillus farciminis in rats, after exposure to IBS-like chronic stress, based on 4-day Water Avoidance Stress (WAS. The presence of L. farciminis in both ileal and colonic mucosal tissues was demonstrated by FISH and qPCR, with ileum as the preferential niche, as for the SFB population. A different spatial distribution of the probiotic was observed: in the ileum, bacteria were organized in micro-colonies more or less close to the epithelium whereas, in the colon, they were mainly visualized far away from the epithelium. When rats were submitted to WAS, the L. farciminis population substantially decreased in both intestinal regions, due to a stress-induced increase in colonic motility and defecation, rather than a modification of bacterial binding to the intestinal mucin Muc2.

  8. Therapeutic Use of Prebiotics, Probiotics, and Postbiotics to Prevent Necrotizing Enterocolitis: What is the Current Evidence?

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    Patel, Ravi Mangal; Denning, Patricia Wei

    2013-01-01

    Synopsis Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a leading cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality and preventative therapies that are both effective and safe are urgently needed. Current evidence from therapeutic trials suggests that probiotics are effective in decreasing NEC in preterm infants and probiotics are currently the most promising therapy on the horizon for this devastating disease. However, concerns regarding safety and optimal dosing have limited the widespread adoption of routine clinical use of probiotics in preterm infants. In addition, prebiotics and postbiotics may be potential alternatives or adjunctive therapies to the administration of live microorganisms, although studies demonstrating their clinical efficacy in preventing NEC are lacking. This review summarizes the current evidence regarding the use of probiotics, prebiotics and postbiotics in the preterm infant, including its therapeutic role in preventing NEC. PMID:23415261

  9. Probiotics, Prebiotics, and Synbiotics for the Treatment and Prevention of Adult Dermatological Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notay, Manisha; Foolad, Negar; Vaughn, Alexandra R; Sivamani, Raja K

    2017-12-01

    Probiotic, prebiotic, and synbiotic supplementation is becoming more prevalent nowadays. Clinical studies have demonstrated some of the medical benefits of probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics within dermatology but an evidence-based review of their effects in adults is needed. The aim of this study was to identify evidence for the use of supplementation with probiotics, prebiotics, or synbiotics for the prevention and treatment of dermatological diseases in adults. We conducted a search of the Ovid MEDLINE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled trials and EMBASE electronic databases from 1 January 1946 to 11 January 2017. Trials examining supplementation in the treatment of dermatological diseases using oral or topical probiotics, synbiotics, and prebiotics in adults over the age of 18 years were selected. Of 315 articles, 12 met the inclusion criteria. Nutritional supplementation with probiotics and prebiotics was shown to improve atopic dermatitis (AD) symptomatology, quality of life, or clinical severity in six of nine studies. One study in psoriasis was shown to improve inflammatory markers, and one study suggested that probiotics could be used as adjunctive therapy in the treatment of acne. Preliminary studies are optimistic for the use of some strains of probiotics for symptomatic and clinical improvement in AD, and as adjunctive treatment with antibiotics for acne. Further research is necessary to better assess how probiotics and prebiotics may be used within dermatology.

  10. Polarized secretion of IL-18 by IEC-18 intestinal epithelial cells: effect of probiotic Lactobacillus casei/paracasei

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kolínská, Jiřina; Zákostelecká, Marie; Lisá, Věra; Kozáková, Hana; Dvorak, B.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 64, č. 4 (2008), s. 338-338 ISSN 1138-7548. [Meeting European Intestinal Transport Group /22./. 07.09.2008-10.09.2008, Pamplona] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1P05ME783 Grant - others:NIH(US) HD-47237 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : cpo1 * cytokine IL-18 * probiotic Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry

  11. Probiotics: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenplas, Yvan; Huys, Geert; Daube, Georges

    2015-01-01

    Triggered by the growing knowledge on the link between the intestinal microbiome and human health, the interest in probiotics is ever increasing. The authors aimed to review the recent literature on probiotics, from definitions to clinical benefits, with emphasis on children. Relevant literature from searches of PubMed, CINAHL, and recent consensus statements were reviewed. While a balanced microbiome is related to health, an imbalanced microbiome or dysbiosis is related to many health problems both within the gastro-intestinal tract, such as diarrhea and inflammatory bowel disease, and outside the gastro-intestinal tract such as obesity and allergy. In this context, a strict regulation of probiotics with health claims is urgent, because the vast majority of these products are commercialized as food (supplements), claiming health benefits that are often not substantiated with clinically relevant evidence. The major indications of probiotics are in the area of the prevention and treatment of gastro-intestinal related disorders, but more data has become available on extra-intestinal indications. At least two published randomized controlled trials with the commercialized probiotic product in the claimed indication are a minimal condition before a claim can be sustained. Today, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Saccharomyces boulardii are the best-studied strains. Although adverse effects have sporadically been reported, these probiotics can be considered as safe. Although regulation is improving, more stringent definitions are still required. Evidence of clinical benefit is accumulating, although still missing in many areas. Misuse and use of products that have not been validated constitute potential drawbacks. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  12. Probiotics: an update

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    Yvan Vandenplas

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Triggered by the growing knowledge on the link between the intestinal microbiome and human health, the interest in probiotics is ever increasing. The authors aimed to review the recent literature on probiotics, from definitions to clinical benefits, with emphasis on children. SOURCES: Relevant literature from searches of PubMed, CINAHL, and recent consensus statements were reviewed. SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS: While a balanced microbiome is related to health, an imbalanced microbiome or dysbiosis is related to many health problems both within the gastro-intestinal tract, such as diarrhea and inflammatory bowel disease, and outside the gastro-intestinal tract such as obesity and allergy. In this context, a strict regulation of probiotics with health claims is urgent, because the vast majority of these products are commercialized as food (supplements, claiming health benefits that are often not substantiated with clinically relevant evidence. The major indications of probiotics are in the area of the prevention and treatment of gastro-intestinal related disorders, but more data has become available on extra-intestinal indications. At least two published randomized controlled trials with the commercialized probiotic product in the claimed indication are a minimal condition before a claim can be sustained. Today, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Saccharomyces boulardii are the best-studied strains. Although adverse effects have sporadically been reported, these probiotics can be considered as safe. CONCLUSIONS: Although regulation is improving, more stringent definitions are still required. Evidence of clinical benefit is accumulating, although still missing in many areas. Misuse and use of products that have not been validated constitute potential drawbacks.

  13. Monitoring of antibiotic-induced alterations in the human intestinal microflora and detection of probiotic strains by use of terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jernberg, Cecilia; Sullivan, Asa; Edlund, Charlotta; Jansson, Janet K

    2005-01-01

    Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) was investigated as a tool for monitoring the human intestinal microflora during antibiotic treatment and during ingestion of a probiotic product. Fecal samples from eight healthy volunteers were taken before, during, and after administration of clindamycin. During treatment, four subjects were given a probiotic, and four subjects were given a placebo. Changes in the microbial intestinal community composition and relative abundance of specific microbial populations in each subject were monitored by using viable counts and T-RFLP fingerprints. T-RFLP was also used to monitor specific bacterial populations that were either positively or negatively affected by clindamycin. Some dominant bacterial groups, such as Eubacterium spp., were easily monitored by T-RFLP, while they were hard to recover by cultivation. Furthermore, the two probiotic Lactobacillus strains were easily tracked by T-RFLP and were shown to be the dominant Lactobacillus community members in the intestinal microflora of subjects who received the probiotic.

  14. What do Cochrane systematic reviews say about probiotics as preventive interventions?

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    Vinícius Lopes Braga

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Probiotics have been used for a range of clinical situations and their use is strongly encouraged by the media worldwide. This study identified and summarized all Cochrane systematic reviews about the preventive effects of probiotics in clinical practice. DESIGN AND SETTING: Review of systematic reviews, conducted in the Discipline of Evidence-Based Medicine, Escola Paulista de Medicina (EPM, Universidade Federal de São Paulo (Unifesp. METHODS: We included all Cochrane reviews on any probiotics when they were used as preventive interventions and compared with no intervention, placebo or any other pharmacological or non-pharmacological intervention. RESULTS: 17 Cochrane systematic reviews fulfilled our inclusion criteria and were summarized in this report. None of the reviews included in the present study provided high-quality evidence for any outcome. The benefits from use of probiotics included decreased incidence of antibiotic-associated diarrhea and Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea; decreased incidence of upper respiratory tract infections and duration of episodes; decreased need for antibiotics and absences from school due to colds; and decreased incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia. Probiotics seem to decrease the incidence of gestational diabetes mellitus, birthweight, risk of vaginal infection and incidence of eczema. CONCLUSION: Despite the marketing and the benefits associated with probiotics, there is little scientific evidence supporting the use of probiotics. None of the reviews provided any high-quality evidence for prevention of illnesses through use of probiotics. More trials are needed to gain better knowledge of probiotics and to confirm when their use is beneficial and cost-effective.

  15. Are probiotics a feasible intervention for prevention of diarrhoea in the developing world?

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    Hajela Neerja

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract With more than 1.4 million of the 9 million child deaths being attributed to diarrhoea in 2008 and 49% of them occurring in five countries namely, India, Nigeria, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Pakistan and China, there is an urgent need for intervention to prevent and control diarrhoeal diseases. Of the various interventions, probiotics offer immense potential. The past decade has witnessed the validation of their utility for the prevention, treatment and management of a variety of infective and non infective disorders. The most investigated field continues to remain infectious diarrhoea and compelling evidence comes from randomized placebo controlled trials. While results from these studies are encouraging most of them reflect the outcomes of the developed world. Developing countries like India continue to struggle with nutritional and health challenges and bear the greatest burden of diarrhoea. A paucity of data from the developing countries limits the definite recommendation of probiotics. In these countries curd, often confused for a probiotic, is practiced as an integral part of the culture. While the nutritional benefits of these products cannot be understated, it is still uncertain whether these products can be classified as a probiotic. The emergence of probiotic foods which are scientifically validated for their efficacy and impart defined health benefits offer an excellent opportunity to improve public health. A recent randomized controlled trial conducted by the National Institute of Cholera and Enteric Diseases in Kolkata, India demonstrated a protective efficacy of 14% in preventing diarrhoea among children who received a probiotic. For the developing world however the vision for probiotics would mean a fundamental change in perception and developing a well planned strategy to allow interventions like probiotics to permeate to impoverished settings, where the assault of micro organisms is on a daily basis. This would

  16. Molecules produced by probiotics prevent enteric colibacillosis in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordeste, Ricardo; Tessema, Akalate; Sharma, Sapana; Kovač, Zlatko; Wang, Chuan; Morales, Rocio; Griffiths, Mansel William

    2017-11-15

    With the advent of antimicrobial resistance in animal pathogens, novel methods to combat infectious diseases are being sought. Among these, probiotics have been proposed as a means of promoting animal health but problems with their use has been reported. Research has demonstrated that bioactive molecules produced during the growth of certain probiotics interfere with bacterial cell-to-cell communication, which consequently results in an attenuation of virulence in a number of pathogens, including E. coli. The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of the bioactive molecules, termed proteobiotics, produced by Lactobacillus acidophilus in preventing enterotoxigenic E, coli (ETEC) infection in pigs, which is the etiological agent for enteric colibacillosis, a common disease of nursing and young pigs. To achieve this, piglets were fed a preparation of the bioactive at four levels: 0, 0.5×, 1.0× and 2.0× for 7 days prior to challenge with E. coli K88. There were 36 pigs (18 gilts and 18 barrows) per treatment, resulting in 144 piglets in total for the study. Each pen had 6 piglets (3 gilts and 3 barrows). Only piglets with no physical abnormality or conditions were used in the trial and intact male piglets and ridglings were excluded. The bioactive continued to be fed to the pigs post-challenge. Based of fecal and demeanour scores, pigs fed the low and high dose of the proteobiotic were significanlty less likely to show symptoms of illness than pigs fed no bioactive. While not being significant, the weight gain of pigs given the proteobiotics was improved. At day 4 following challenge, almost 50% of piglets that did not receive the proteobiotic were shedding ETEC in their feces, compared with about 15% of animals receiving the supplement. There was also an indication that the proteobiotics reduced colonization of the ileum by E. coli K88 and improved gut health. This study indicates that the bioactive molecules produced by L. acidophilus reduces

  17. Aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis Miller) supplemented probiotic lassi prevents Shigella infiltration from epithelial barrier into systemic blood flow in mice model.

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    Hussain, Shaik Abdul; Patil, Girdhari Ramdas; Reddi, Srinu; Yadav, Vidhu; Pothuraju, Ramesh; Singh, Ram Ran Bijoy; Kapila, Suman

    2017-01-01

    The aim of present work was to investigate preventive role of orally administered Aloe vera supplemented probiotic lassi (APL) on Shigella dysenteriae infection in mice. At the end of experimental period (2, 5 and 7 days of challenging), different organs such as spleen, liver, small intestine, large intestine, and peritoneal fluid were collected and assessed for Shigella colonization. Secretary IgA was estimated in intestinal fluid. Blood was collected in heparinized tubes for various haematological studies. Oral administration of APL showed a significant (p Shigella counts (log cfu/mL) in all organs as compared to other treatment groups at different intervals after post feeding. Similarly, secretary IgA antibody levels (μg/mL) in intestinal fluid were significantly (p Shigella dysenteriae induced infection in mice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Administration of probiotics influences F4 (K88)-positive enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli attachment and intestinal cytokine expression in weaned pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daudelin, Jean-François; Lessard, Martin; Beaudoin, Frédéric; Nadeau, Eric; Bissonnette, Nathalie; Boutin, Yvan; Brousseau, Jean-Philippe; Lauzon, Karoline; Fairbrother, John Morris

    2011-05-23

    This study evaluated the effect of the probiotics Pediococcus acidilactici and Saccharomyces cerevisiae boulardii on the intestinal colonization of O149 enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli harbouring the F4 (K88) fimbriae (ETEC F4) and on the expression of ileal cytokines in weaned pigs. At birth, different litters of pigs were randomly assigned to one of the following treatments: 1) control without antibiotics or probiotics (CTRL); 2) reference group in which chlortetracycline and tiamulin were added to weanling feed (ATB); 3) P. acidilactici; 4) S. cerevisiae boulardii; or 5) P. acidilactici + S. cerevisiae boulardii. Probiotics were administered daily (1 × 10(9) CFU per pig) during the lactation period and after weaning (day 21). At 28 days of age, all pigs were orally challenged with an ETEC F4 strain, and a necropsy was performed 24 h later. Intestinal segments were collected to evaluate bacterial colonization in the small intestine and ileal cytokine expressions. Attachment of ETEC F4 to the intestinal mucosa was significantly reduced in pigs treated with P. acidilactici or S. cerevisiae boulardii in comparison with the ATB group (P = 0.01 and P = 0.03, respectively). In addition, proinflammatory cytokines, such as IL-6, were upregulated in ETEC F4 challenged pigs treated with P. acidilactici alone or in combination with S. cerevisiae boulardii compared with the CTRL group. In conclusion, the administration of P. acidilactici or S. cerevisiae boulardii was effective in reducing ETEC F4 attachment to the ileal mucosa, whereas the presence of P. acidilactici was required to modulate the expression of intestinal inflammatory cytokines in pigs challenged with ETEC F4.

  19. Administration of probiotics influences F4 (K88-positive enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli attachment and intestinal cytokine expression in weaned pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daudelin Jean-François

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study evaluated the effect of the probiotics Pediococcus acidilactici and Saccharomyces cerevisiae boulardii on the intestinal colonization of O149 enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli harbouring the F4 (K88 fimbriae (ETEC F4 and on the expression of ileal cytokines in weaned pigs. At birth, different litters of pigs were randomly assigned to one of the following treatments: 1 control without antibiotics or probiotics (CTRL; 2 reference group in which chlortetracycline and tiamulin were added to weanling feed (ATB; 3 P. acidilactici; 4 S. cerevisiae boulardii; or 5 P. acidilactici + S. cerevisiae boulardii. Probiotics were administered daily (1 × 109 CFU per pig during the lactation period and after weaning (day 21. At 28 days of age, all pigs were orally challenged with an ETEC F4 strain, and a necropsy was performed 24 h later. Intestinal segments were collected to evaluate bacterial colonization in the small intestine and ileal cytokine expressions. Attachment of ETEC F4 to the intestinal mucosa was significantly reduced in pigs treated with P. acidilactici or S. cerevisiae boulardii in comparison with the ATB group (P = 0.01 and P = 0.03, respectively. In addition, proinflammatory cytokines, such as IL-6, were upregulated in ETEC F4 challenged pigs treated with P. acidilactici alone or in combination with S. cerevisiae boulardii compared with the CTRL group. In conclusion, the administration of P. acidilactici or S. cerevisiae boulardii was effective in reducing ETEC F4 attachment to the ileal mucosa, whereas the presence of P. acidilactici was required to modulate the expression of intestinal inflammatory cytokines in pigs challenged with ETEC F4.

  20. [Promissing role of probiotics in prevention of smoking-related diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hozyasz, Kamil K

    2008-01-01

    Humans are highly adapted to consuming probiotics. Trehalose ("mushroom" sugar) is probably an important reserve compound and stress-responsible metabolite (increases bile and gastric acid resistance) of probiotic bacteria's and trehalase activity, in contrast to lactase activity, is preserved in all human populations, even those not consuming mushrooms. Among traditional Melanesian horticulturists, of whom 4/5 are daily smokers, the diet is rich in pre- and probiotics and there is absence of cancer and cardiovascular disease. Indoor air pollution is an important cancer risk factor. Over thousands of years, the controlled use of fire for preparing meals has resulted in exposure to smoke pollution (biomass fuels produce up to 100 times more respirable particles compared to gas ovens). Simultaneously, up until the 20th century, the only commonly available and inexpensive way of preserving food was fermentation and drying. Probiotics may protect the detoxification function of the kidney and liver. Furthermore, it can be speculated that probiotics may help in adaptation to smoke pollution generated during cooking, heating but also tobacco smoking. Smoking is the most important lifestyle risk factor for bladder cancer and the consumption of probiotic foods reduces the risk of this cancer in humans. Probiotics may restore natural killer cell activity which is lowered in smokers. In one study it was observed that a diet supplemented with Lactobacillus plantarum could be also useful in the prevention of cardiovascular disease in smokers. There is no sufficient data from clinical trials to recommend the routine use of probiotics in prevention of smoking-related diseases. More research is needed to investigate the role of probiotics in this area.

  1. Probiotics for Treatment and Prevention of Urogenital Infections in Women: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Lisa; VandeVusse, Leona; Jermé, Martha; Abad, Cybéle L; Safdar, Nasia

    2016-05-01

    Probiotics are a complementary and integrative therapy useful in the treatment and prevention of urogenital infections in women. This study extends the work of researchers who systematically investigated the scientific literature on probiotics to prevent or treat urogenital infections. A systematic review was conducted to determine the efficacy of probiotics for prevention and/or treatment of urogenital infections in adult women from January 1, 2008, through June 30, 2015. We searched in CINAHL, MEDLINE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Web of Science, Dissertations and Theses, and Alt-HealthWatch. After removing duplicates and studies that did not meet inclusion criteria, 20 studies were reviewed. All included at least one species of Lactobacillus probiotic as an intervention for treatment or prevention of urogenital infections. Data extracted included samples, settings, study designs, intervention types, reported outcomes, follow-up periods, and results. We evaluated all randomized controlled trials for risk of bias and made quality appraisals on all studies. Fourteen of the studies focused on bacterial vaginosis (BV), 3 on urinary tract infections (UTIs), 2 on vulvovaginal candidiasis, and one on human papillomavirus (HPV) as identified on Papanicolaou test. Studies were heterogeneous in terms of design, intervention, and outcomes. Four studies were of good quality, 9 of fair, and 7 poor. Probiotic interventions were effective for treatment and prevention of BV, prevention of recurrences of candidiasis and UTIs, and clearing HPV lesions. No study reported significant adverse events related to the probiotic intervention. The quality of the studies in this systematic review varied. Although clinical practice recommendations were limited by the strength of evidence, probiotic interventions were effective in treatment and prevention of urogenital infections as alternatives or co-treatments. More good quality research is needed to strengthen the body

  2. Beneficial Properties of Probiotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lye Huey; Balakrishnan, Kunasundari; Thiagarajah, Kokila; Mohd Ismail, Nor Ismaliza; Yin, Ooi Shao

    2016-01-01

    Probiotics are live microorganisms that can be found in fermented foods and cultured milk, and are widely used for the preparation of infant food. They are well-known as “health friendly bacteria”, which exhibit various health beneficial properties such as prevention of bowel diseases, improving the immune system, for lactose intolerance and intestinal microbial balance, exhibiting antihypercholesterolemic and antihypertensive effects, alleviation of postmenopausal disorders, and reducing traveller’s diarrhoea. Recent studies have also been focused on their uses in treating skin and oral diseases. In addition to that, modulation of the gut-brain by probiotics has been suggested as a novel therapeutic solution for anxiety and depression. Thus, this review discusses on the current probiotics-based products in Malaysia, criteria for selection of probiotics, and evidences obtained from past studies on how probiotics have been used in preventing intestinal disorders via improving the immune system, acting as an antihypercholesterolemic factor, improving oral and dermal health, and performing as anti-anxiety and anti-depressive agents. PMID:27688852

  3. Multiple-unit tablet of probiotic bacteria for improved storage stability, acid tolerability, and in vivo intestinal protective effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park HJ

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Hee Jun Park,1 Ga Hyeon Lee,1 Joonho Jun,1 Miwon Son,1 Myung Joo Kang2 1Dong-A Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd., Yongin, Gyeonggi, 2College of Pharmacy, Dankook University, Cheonan, Chungnam, Korea Abstract: The aim of this study was to formulate probiotics-loaded pellets in a tablet form to improve storage stability, acid tolerability, and in vivo intestinal protective effect. Bacteria-loaded pellets primarily prepared with hydroxypropyl methylcellulose acetate succinate were compressed into tablets with highly compressible excipients and optimized for flow properties, hardness, and disintegration time. The optimized probiotic tablet consisted of enteric-coated pellets (335 mg, microcrystalline cellulose (Avicel PH102, 37.5 mg, and porous calcium silicate (25 mg and allowed whole survival of living bacteria during the compaction process with sufficient tablet hardness (13 kp and disintegration time (14 minutes. The multiple-unit tablet showed remarkably higher storage stability under ambient conditions (25°C/60% relative humidity over 6 months and resistance to acidic medium compared to uncoated strains or pellets. Repeated intake of this multiple-unit tablet significantly lowered plasma level of endotoxin, a pathogenic material, compared to repeated intake of bare probiotics or marketed products in rats. These results, therefore, suggest that the multiple-unit tablet is advantageous to better bacterial viability and gain the beneficial effects on the gut flora, including the improvement of intestinal barrier function. Keywords: probiotics, multiple-unit tablet, bacterial viability, acid resistance, intestinal barrier function

  4. Probiotics for photoprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guéniche, Audrey; Philippe, David; Bastien, Philippe; Blum, Stephanie; Buyukpamukcu, Elif; Castiel-Higounenc, Isabelle

    2009-09-01

    Specific strains of probiotic, have been identified as beneficial to influence the composition and/or metabolic activity of the endogenous microbiota and some of these strains have been also shown to inhibit the growth of a wide range of enteropathogens. The first aim of using probiotics has been to improve the composition of the intestinal microbiota from a potentially harmful composition towards a composition that would be beneficial to the host.Beyond their capacity to influence positively the composition of the intestinal microbiota, several lines of evidence suggest that some probiotic bacteria can modulate the immune system both at the local and systemic levels thereby improving immune defense mechanisms and/or downregulate immune disorders such as allergies or intestinal inflammation.Skin reflects the general health status and aging. Different human trials widely suggest that probiotic supplementation might be useful in the management of atopic dermatitis. Based on these properties it appears that, beyond the gut, probiotics might exert their benefits at the skin level.In a randomized double blind placebo-controlled clinical trial, we investigated whether the probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus johnsonii NCC 533 (La1) could modulate the cutaneous immune homeostasis altered by solar-simulated UV exposure in humans. After, UV exposure to twice 1.5 MED, we demonstrated that La1 intake facilitated an earlier recovery of Epidermal cells allostimulatory function. Thus, this clinical data strengthen the assumption that certain probiotics can contribute to modulate skin immune system leading to the preservation of the skin homeostasis. Altogether the data affords the possibility of designing new strategies based on a nutritional approach for the prevention of UV-induced damaging effects.

  5. Reduced Th22 cell proportion and prevention of atopic dermatitis in infants following maternal probiotic supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rø, A D B; Simpson, M R; Rø, T B; Storrø, O; Johnsen, R; Videm, V; Øien, T

    2017-08-01

    In the randomized, controlled study Probiotics in the Prevention of Allergy among Children in Trondheim (ProPACT), maternal probiotic supplementation reduced the incidence of atopic dermatitis (AD) in the offspring. In the current study, we hypothesized that the effect was mediated by a shift in the T helper (Th) cells in the children. To examine whether Th cell proportions were affected by maternal probiotic supplementation and thus could mediate the preventive effect of probiotics on AD. A total of 415 pregnant women were randomized to ingest a combination of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG), Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Bb-12 (Bb-12) and Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5 (La-5) or placebo, and their offspring were assessed for AD during the first 2 years of life. Peripheral blood collected at 3 months of age was analysed for regulatory T cells (n=140) and Th subsets (n=77) including Th1, Th2, Th9, Th17 and Th22. The proportion of Th22 cells was reduced in children in the probiotic group compared to the placebo group (median 0.038% vs 0.064%, P=.009). The difference between the probiotic and placebo groups was also observed in the children who did not develop AD during the 2-year follow-up. The proportion of Th22 cells was increased in children who developed AD compared to the children who did not develop AD (0.090% vs 0.044%, Pprobiotics was partially mediated through the reduction in Th22 cells. Perinatal maternal probiotic supplementation with a combination of LGG, Bb-12 and La-5 reduced the proportion of Th22 cells in 3-month-old children. This may partially explain the preventive effect of probiotics on AD. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Multiple strains probiotics appear to be the most effective probiotics in the prevention of necrotizing enterocolitis and mortality: An updated meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-Yang Chang

    Full Text Available Some oral probiotics have been shown to prevent necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC and decrease mortality effectively in preterm very low birth weight (PVLBW infants. However, it is unclear whether a single probiotic or a mixture of probiotics is most effective for the prevention of NEC.A meta-analysis was conducted by reviewing the most up to date literature to investigate whether multiple strains probiotics are more effective than a single strain in reducing NEC and death in PVLBW infants.Relevant studies were identified by searches of the MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane CENTRAL databases, from 2001 to 2016.The inclusion criteria were randomized controlled trials of any enteral probiotic supplementation that was initiated within the first 7 days and continued for at least 14 days in preterm infants (≤ 34 weeks' gestation and/or those of a birth weight ≤1500 g.A total of 25 trials (n = 7345 infants were eligible for inclusion in the meta-analysis using a fixed-effects model. Multiple strains probiotics were associated with a marked reduction in the incidence of NEC, with a pooled OR of 0.36 (95% CI, 0.24-0.53; P < .00001. Single strain probiotic using Lactobacillus species had a borderline effect in reducing NEC (OR of 0.60; 95% CI 0.36-1.0; P = .05, but not mortality. Multiple strains probiotics had a greater effectiveness in reducing mortality and were associated with a pooled OR of 0.58 (95% CI, 0.43-0.79; P = .0006. Trials using single strain of Bifidobacterium species and Saccharomyces boulardii did not reveal any beneficial effects in terms of reducing NEC or mortality.This updated report found that multiple strains probiotics appear to be the most feasible and effective strategy for the prevention of NEC and reduction of mortality in PVLBW neonates. Further clinical trials should focus on which probiotic combinations are most effective.

  7. Multiple strains probiotics appear to be the most effective probiotics in the prevention of necrotizing enterocolitis and mortality: An updated meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hung-Yang; Chen, Jin-Hua; Chang, Jui-Hsing; Lin, Hung-Chih; Lin, Chien-Yu; Peng, Chun-Chih

    2017-01-01

    Some oral probiotics have been shown to prevent necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) and decrease mortality effectively in preterm very low birth weight (PVLBW) infants. However, it is unclear whether a single probiotic or a mixture of probiotics is most effective for the prevention of NEC. A meta-analysis was conducted by reviewing the most up to date literature to investigate whether multiple strains probiotics are more effective than a single strain in reducing NEC and death in PVLBW infants. Relevant studies were identified by searches of the MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane CENTRAL databases, from 2001 to 2016. The inclusion criteria were randomized controlled trials of any enteral probiotic supplementation that was initiated within the first 7 days and continued for at least 14 days in preterm infants (≤ 34 weeks' gestation) and/or those of a birth weight ≤1500 g. A total of 25 trials (n = 7345 infants) were eligible for inclusion in the meta-analysis using a fixed-effects model. Multiple strains probiotics were associated with a marked reduction in the incidence of NEC, with a pooled OR of 0.36 (95% CI, 0.24-0.53; P probiotic using Lactobacillus species had a borderline effect in reducing NEC (OR of 0.60; 95% CI 0.36-1.0; P = .05), but not mortality. Multiple strains probiotics had a greater effectiveness in reducing mortality and were associated with a pooled OR of 0.58 (95% CI, 0.43-0.79; P = .0006). Trials using single strain of Bifidobacterium species and Saccharomyces boulardii did not reveal any beneficial effects in terms of reducing NEC or mortality. This updated report found that multiple strains probiotics appear to be the most feasible and effective strategy for the prevention of NEC and reduction of mortality in PVLBW neonates. Further clinical trials should focus on which probiotic combinations are most effective.

  8. The effects of probiotic, prebiotic and synbiotic diets containing Bacillus coagulans and inulin on rat intestinal microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abhari, Kh; Shekarforoush, S S; Sajedianfard, J; Hosseinzadeh, S; Nazifi, S

    2015-01-01

    An in vivo experiment was conducted to study the effects of probiotic Bacillus coagulans spores, with and without prebiotic, inulin, on gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota of healthy rats and its potentiality to survive in the GI tract. Forty-eight male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups (n=12) and fed as follows: standard diet (control), standard diet supplied with 5% w/w long chain inulin (prebiotic), standard diet with 10(9)/day spores of B. coagulans by orogastric gavage (probiotic), and standard diet with 5% w/w long chain inulin and 10(9) spores/day of B. coagulans by orogastric gavage (synbiotic). Rats were fed the diets for 30 days. At day 10, 20 and 30 of experiment, 24 h post administration, four rats from each group were randomly selected and after faecal collection were sacrificed. Small intestine, cecum, and colon were excised from each rat and used for microbial analysis. Administration of synbiotic and probiotic diets led to a significant (Pcoagulans was efficient in beneficially modulating GI microbiota and considering transitional characteristics of B. coagulans, daily consumption of probiotic products is necessary for any long-term effect.

  9. Production of bioactive substances by intestinal bacteria as a basis for explaining probiotic mechanisms: bacteriocins and conjugated linoleic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea, Eileen F; Cotter, Paul D; Stanton, Catherine; Ross, R Paul; Hill, Colin

    2012-01-16

    The mechanisms by which intestinal bacteria achieve their associated health benefits can be complex and multifaceted. In this respect, the diverse microbial composition of the human gastrointestinal tract (GIT) provides an almost unlimited potential source of bioactive substances (pharmabiotics) which can directly or indirectly affect human health. Bacteriocins and fatty acids are just two examples of pharmabiotic substances which may contribute to probiotic functionality within the mammalian GIT. Bacteriocin production is believed to confer producing strains with a competitive advantage within complex microbial environments as a consequence of their associated antimicrobial activity. This has the potential to enable the establishment and prevalence of producing strains as well as directly inhibiting pathogens within the GIT. Consequently, these antimicrobial peptides and the associated intestinal producing strains may be exploited to beneficially influence microbial populations. Intestinal bacteria are also known to produce a diverse array of health-promoting fatty acids. Indeed, certain strains of intestinal bifidobacteria have been shown to produce conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), a fatty acid which has been associated with a variety of systemic health-promoting effects. Recently, the ability to modulate the fatty acid composition of the liver and adipose tissue of the host upon oral administration of CLA-producing bifidobacteria and lactobacilli was demonstrated in a murine model. Importantly, this implies a potential therapeutic role for probiotics in the treatment of certain metabolic and immunoinflammatory disorders. Such examples serve to highlight the potential contribution of pharmabiotic production to probiotic functionality in relation to human health maintenance. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Probiotics in the third millennium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorbach, S L

    2002-09-01

    Probiotics are "living microorganisms which upon ingestion in certain numbers exert health benefits beyond inherent general nutrition". Since 1987, when the first publication on the properties of the Lactobacillus GG was done, overall, there have been over 200 publications in peer-reviewed scientific journals. This paper will report the status and the prospectus of probiotics research at the beginning of the Third Millennium. Probiotics have proven benefits in treatment and prevention of rotavirus diarrhoea in children and reduction of antibiotic-associated intestinal side-effects. Interesting results have recently been published regarding food allergies and atopic eczema in children. Prevention of vaginitis and of travellers' diarrhoea have also been reported. Promising results are being reported in patients with inflammatory bowel disease, cystic fibrosis, dental caries and irritable bowel syndrome. It has also been suggested that probiotics could enhance oral vaccine administration, and that they may help treatment against Helicobacter pylori infection, but further studies are needed. Future areas of research regard probiotics' role in the process of carcinogenesis, given their influence on the gut microflora, and as immune modulators in autoimmune disorders. The possibility of introducing appropriate genes to the probiotics to make them produce various compounds is also under investigation. However, there is still confusion in the minds of the authorities over whether a probiotic is a drug, a food, or a dietary supplement. The challenge is to continue research to define the appropriate uses of probiotics and discover new applications which will bring benefit to humankind.

  11. [Perspective applications of multi-species probiotics in the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uspenskiĭ, Iu P; Zakharenko, S M; Fominykh, Iu A

    2013-01-01

    The problem of antibiotic-associated conditions is one of the most actual problems of clinical practice. The antibiotic-associated diarrhea is a multidisciplinary problem. Investigations of the small intestine microecological status and assessment of microflora at the patients receiving antibiotics testifies to dysbiosis existence. In article results of open-label investigation of a multispecies probiotic RioFlora Balance using for antibiotic-associated diarrhea prophylaxis in patients used antibacterial therapy are presented.

  12. Probiotics for the Primary and Secondary Prevention of C. difficile Infections: A Meta-analysis and Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynne V. McFarland

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Clostridium difficile infections are a global clinical concern and are one of the leading causes of nosocomial outbreaks. Preventing these infections has benefited from multidisciplinary infection control strategies and new antibiotics, but the problem persists. Probiotics are effective in preventing antibiotic-associated diarrhea and may also be a beneficial strategy for C. difficile infections, but randomized controlled trials are scarce. This meta-analysis pools 21 randomized, controlled trials for primary prevention of C. difficile infections (CDI and four trials for secondary prevention of C. difficile recurrences and assesses the efficacy of specific probiotic strains. Four probiotics significantly improved primary CDI prevention: (Saccharomyces boulardii, Lactobacillus casei DN114001, a mixture of L. acidophilus and Bifidobacterium bifidum, and a mixture of L. acidophilus, L. casei and L. rhamnosus. None of the tested probiotics significantly improved secondary prevention of CDI. More confirmatory randomized trials are needed to establish if probiotics are useful for preventing C. difficile infections. v

  13. Short communication: effect of exopolysaccharide isolated from "viili" on the adhesion of probiotics and pathogens to intestinal mucus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruas-Madiedo, P; Gueimonde, M; de los Reyes-Gavilán, C G; Salminen, S

    2006-07-01

    The strong ropy character of the Scandinavian fermented milk viili is conferred by the exopolysaccharides (EPS) produced by lactococcal strains. These biopolymers can be responsible for some health benefits. We have assessed the influence of the EPS fraction isolated from commercial viili on the adhesion of some probiotics and pathogens to human intestinal mucus. Concentrations of viili EPS greater than 0.1 mg/mL promoted a decrease in adherence of Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and this effect was dose-dependent. However, no modifications were detected on the adhesion levels of the pathogenic strains tested at a concentration of 1 mg/mL of EPS. Results obtained in the present work should be considered in the design of new probiotic products.

  14. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Probiotic Use to Prevent Clostridium difficile Infection in Hospitalized Adults Receiving Antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Nicole T; Leff, Jared A; Schneider, Yecheskel; Crawford, Carl V; Maw, Anna; Bosworth, Brian; Simon, Matthew S

    2017-01-01

    Systematic reviews with meta-analyses and meta-regression suggest that timely probiotic use can prevent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in hospitalized adults receiving antibiotics, but the cost effectiveness is unknown. We sought to evaluate the cost effectiveness of probiotic use for prevention of CDI versus no probiotic use in the United States. We programmed a decision analytic model using published literature and national databases with a 1-year time horizon. The base case was modeled as a hypothetical cohort of hospitalized adults (mean age 68) receiving antibiotics with and without concurrent probiotic administration. Projected outcomes included quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), costs (2013 US dollars), incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs; $/QALY), and cost per infection avoided. One-way, two-way, and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were conducted, and scenarios of different age cohorts were considered. The ICERs less than $100000 per QALY were considered cost effective. Probiotic use dominated (more effective and less costly) no probiotic use. Results were sensitive to probiotic efficacy (relative risk 1.6%), the risk of probiotic-associated bactermia/fungemia (cost (65). In probabilistic sensitivity analysis, at a willingness-to-pay threshold of $100000/QALY, probiotics were the optimal strategy in 69.4% of simulations. Our findings suggest that probiotic use may be a cost-effective strategy to prevent CDI in hospitalized adults receiving antibiotics age 65 or older or when the baseline risk of CDI exceeds 1.6%.

  15. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Probiotic Use to Prevent Clostridium difficile Infection in Hospitalized Adults Receiving Antibiotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leff, Jared A; Schneider, Yecheskel; Crawford, Carl V; Maw, Anna; Bosworth, Brian; Simon, Matthew S

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background Systematic reviews with meta-analyses and meta-regression suggest that timely probiotic use can prevent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in hospitalized adults receiving antibiotics, but the cost effectiveness is unknown. We sought to evaluate the cost effectiveness of probiotic use for prevention of CDI versus no probiotic use in the United States. Methods We programmed a decision analytic model using published literature and national databases with a 1-year time horizon. The base case was modeled as a hypothetical cohort of hospitalized adults (mean age 68) receiving antibiotics with and without concurrent probiotic administration. Projected outcomes included quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), costs (2013 US dollars), incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs; $/QALY), and cost per infection avoided. One-way, two-way, and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were conducted, and scenarios of different age cohorts were considered. The ICERs less than $100000 per QALY were considered cost effective. Results Probiotic use dominated (more effective and less costly) no probiotic use. Results were sensitive to probiotic efficacy (relative risk CDI (>1.6%), the risk of probiotic-associated bactermia/fungemia (cost (65). In probabilistic sensitivity analysis, at a willingness-to-pay threshold of $100000/QALY, probiotics were the optimal strategy in 69.4% of simulations. Conclusions Our findings suggest that probiotic use may be a cost-effective strategy to prevent CDI in hospitalized adults receiving antibiotics age 65 or older or when the baseline risk of CDI exceeds 1.6%. PMID:29230429

  16. Are probiotics effective in preventing urinary tract infection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canales, Juan; Rada, Gabriel

    2018-04-04

    Urinary tract infection is the most common bacterial infection and recurrences are common. Probiotics have been proposed as an alternative to decrease this risk. However, it is not clear if they are really effective. To answer this question we used Epistemonikos, the largest database of systematic reviews in health, which is maintained by screening multiple information sources, including MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane, among others. We extracted data from the systematic reviews, reanalyzed data of primary studies, conducted a meta-analysis and generated a summary of findings table using the GRADE approach. We identified six systematic reviews including nine studies overall, of which seven were randomized trials. We concluded it is not clear whether probiotics decrease the risk of symptomatic urinary tract infection, because the certainty of the evidence is very low.

  17. Pterostilbene Prevents Intestinal Ischemia Reperfusion Injury in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: Male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups as follows: Control group; intestinal .... excitation wavelength (485 nm) and emission wavelength (528 nm). The results ... Ethanolic phase of the tissue homogenate was extracted using ...

  18. The Role of Probiotic Lactic Acid Bacteria and Bifidobacteria in the Prevention and Treatment of Inflammatory Bowel Disease and Other Related Diseases: A Systematic Review of Randomized Human Clinical Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Jose Saez-Lara

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD, which includes Crohn’s disease (CD and ulcerative colitis (UC, is a chronic inflammation of the small intestine and colon caused by a dysregulated immune response to host intestinal microbiota in genetically susceptible subjects. A number of fermented dairy products contain lactic acid bacteria (LAB and bifidobacteria, some of which have been characterized as probiotics that can modify the gut microbiota and may be beneficial for the treatment and the prevention of IBD. The objective of this review was to carry out a systematic search of LAB and bifidobacteria probiotics and IBD, using the PubMed and Scopus databases, defined by a specific equation using MeSH terms and limited to human clinical trials. The use of probiotics and/or synbiotics has positive effects in the treatment and maintenance of UC, whereas in CD clear effectiveness has only been shown for synbiotics. Furthermore, in other associated IBD pathologies, such as pouchitis and cholangitis, LAB and bifidobacteria probiotics can provide a benefit through the improvement of clinical symptoms. However, more studies are needed to understand their mechanisms of action and in this way to understand the effect of probiotics prior to their use as coadjuvants in the therapy and prevention of IBD conditions.

  19. The effects of selected probiotic strains on the development of eczema (The PandA study)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niers, L.E.M.; Martin, R.; Rijkers, G.T.; Sengers, F.; Timmerman, H.M.; Uden, van N.O.; Smidt, H.; Kimpen, J.L.L.; Hoekstra, M.O.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Modification of the intestinal microbiota by administration of probiotic bacteria may be a potential approach to prevent allergic disease. We aimed to study primary prevention of allergic disease in high-risk children by pre- and postnatal supplementation of selected probiotic bacteria.

  20. The effects of selected probiotic strains on the development of eczema (the PandA study)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niers, L.; Martín, R.; Rijkers, G.; Sengers, F.; Timmerman, H.; van Uden, N.; Smidt, H.; Kimpen, J.; Hoekstra, M.

    2009-01-01

    Modification of the intestinal microbiota by administration of probiotic bacteria may be a potential approach to prevent allergic disease. We aimed to study primary prevention of allergic disease in high-risk children by pre- and postnatal supplementation of selected probiotic bacteria. In a

  1. A probiotic strain of L. acidophilus reduces DMH-induced large intestinal tumors in male Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, G H; Royle, P J; Playne, M J

    1999-01-01

    Probiotic bacteria strains were examined for their influence on 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-induced intestinal tumors in 100 male Sprague-Dawley rats. Lactobacillus acidophilus (Delvo Pro LA-1), Lactobacillus rhamnosus (GG), Bifidobacterium animalis (CSCC1941), and Streptococcus thermophilus (DD145) strains were examined for their influence when added as freeze-dried bacteria to an experimental diet based on a high-fat semipurified (AIN-93) rodent diet. Four bacterial treatments were compared: L. acidophilus, L. acidophilus + B. animalis, L. rhamnosus, and S. thermophilus, the bacteria being added daily at 1% freeze-dried weight (10(10) colony-forming units/g) to the diet. Trends were observed in the incidence of rats with large intestinal tumors for three treatments: 25% lower than control for L. acidophilus, 20% lower for L. acidophilus + B. animalis and L. rhamnosus treatments, and 10% lower for S. thermophilus. Large intestinal tumor burden was significantly lower for treated rats with L. acidophilus than for the control group (10 and 3 tumors/treatment group, respectively, p = 0.05). Large intestinal tumor mass index was also lower for the L. acidophilus treatment than for control (1.70 and 0.10, respectively, p L. acidophilus, no adenocarcinomas were present in the colons. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of bacterial chromosomal DNA fragments was used to differentiate introduced (exogenous) bacterial strains from indigenous bacteria of the same genera present in the feces. Survival during gut passage and displacement of indigenous lactobacilli occurred with introduced L. acidophilus and L. rhamnosus GG during the probiotic treatment period. However, introduced strains of B. animalis and S. thermophilus were not able to be isolated from feces. It is concluded that this strain of L. acidophilus supplied as freeze-dried bacteria in the diet was protective, as seen by a small but significant inhibition of tumors within the rat colon.

  2. USE OF PROBIOTIC BACTERIA IN THE PRODUCTION OF CHEESE : PROBIOTIC CHEESE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oğuz GÜRSOY

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The interactions of the gastrointestinal microflora with human health have been the subject of considerable debate in recent years. Disruption of the ecologic equilibrium of the normal intestinal flora may result in gastrointestinal diseases. Functional foods, which are used in prevention and treatment of some intestinal diseases, are defined as "foods that may provide health benefits beyond basic nutrition". Probiotics are constituted an important part of functional foods. Probiotics are live microbial food supplements that beneficially affect the host by improving its intestinal microbial balance. To date, the most popular food delivery systems for probiotic cultures have been fermented milks and yogurts, as well as unfermented milk with cultures added. In an effort to expand the probiotic product range, a small number of researchers and dairy companies have endeavoured to production cheeses, which sustain a high viable count of probiotic cultures. This paper will first outline some of the main aspects about probiotics, cheese microbilogy and probiotic cheese development, and give examples of studies where probiotic microorganisms have been incoorporated into cheese.

  3. Prevention of caries with probiotic bacteria during early childhood. Promising but inconsistent findings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Mette Rose; pqd956, pqd956; Twetman, Svante

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: This review summarized the available literature on the prevention of childhood caries through biofilm engineering with probiotic bacteria in early childhood. METHODS: Three databases (PubMed, Cochrane Library and Trip) were searched through January, 2016 for randomized controlled trials...

  4. Butyricicoccus pullicaecorum, a butyrate producer with probiotic potential, is intrinsically tolerant to stomach and small intestine conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geirnaert, Annelies; Steyaert, Alix; Eeckhaut, Venessa; Debruyne, Bo; Arends, Jan B A; Van Immerseel, Filip; Boon, Nico; Van de Wiele, Tom

    2014-12-01

    Butyrate has several beneficial properties that are essential to maintain gastrointestinal health. Therefore butyrate-producing bacteria are seen as the next generation of probiotics. The butyrate-producing bacterium Butyricicoccus pullicaecorum (a clostridial cluster IV strain) is such a promising probiotic candidate for people suffering from inflammatory bowel disease. To exert its beneficial properties, it is crucial that B. pullicaecorum survives the harsh conditions of the upper gastrointestinal tract to arrive in the colon in a viable and metabolically active state. Before developing a stable formulation of B. pullicaecorum for oral administration, it is important to know its intrinsic acid and bile tolerance. We monitored the survival during and short chain fatty acid production after incubation in conditions simulating the stomach and small intestine using in vitro batch experiments. In case of acid conditions (pH 2 and pH 3), B. pullicaecorum was viable and active but not cultivable. Cultivability was restored during subsequent small intestine conditions. Importantly, bile and pancreatic juice had no lethal effect. Milk, as a suspension medium, only had a protective effect on the cultivability during the first hour at pH 2. B. pullicaecorum was still metabolically active after upper gastrointestinal conditions and produced short chain fatty acids, but a shift from butyrate to acetate production was observed. Although the butyrate-producing anaerobe B. pullicaecorum showed good intrinsic acid and bile tolerance in terms of viability and metabolic activity, colonization efficiency and butyrate production under colon conditions is needed to further evaluate its probiotic potential. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Probiotic/prebiotic correction for adverse effects of iron fortification on intestinal resistance to Salmonella infection in weaning mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Feifei; Wu, Haohao; Zeng, Mingyong; Yu, Guangli; Dong, Shiyuan; Yang, Huicheng

    2018-02-21

    Iron fortification has been associated with a modest increase in diarrhea risk among children. Herein, we investigate the correction for this unwanted side effect with probiotic/prebiotic supplementation in weaning mice. Iron fortification with 250 ppm and 500 ppm ferrous sulfate for 30 days significantly increased the species richness of the mouse gut microbiota compared to controls. The 500 ppm-FeSO 4 diet caused a significantly decreased abundance of potentially beneficial Lactobacillus. During infection with the foodborne pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium), mice on the 500 ppm-FeSO 4 diet showed earlier appearance of poisoning symptoms, higher rates of weight and appetite loss, and lower survival rates, all of which were effectively reversed by supplementation with a probiotic (Lactobacillus acidophilus) or a prebiotic (inulin) for 7 days before infection. Iron fortification with 500 ppm ferrous sulfate also increased fecal shedding and spleen and liver load of viable S. Typhimurium, suggesting its promoting effect on pathogen colonization and translocation, and this negative effect was found to be well corrected by supplementation with Lactobacillus acidophilus or inulin. Light and transmission electron microscopic observation on the ileal villus structure revealed the histopathological impairment of the intestine by iron fortification with both 250 ppm and 500 ppm ferrous sulfate, and the intestinal lesions were markedly alleviated by supplementation with Lactobacillus acidophilus or inulin. These results provide experimental evidence for the increased diarrhea risk upon iron fortification with high pathogen load, and demonstrate that probiotic or prebiotic supplementation can be used to eliminate the potential harm of iron fortification on gut health.

  6. The Potential of Lactobacillus casei and Entercoccus faecium Combination as a Preventive Probiotic Against Entamoeba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarjapuram, Nitya; Mekala, Niharika; Singh, Meetali; Tatu, Utpal

    2017-06-01

    Travellers' diarrhoea caused by enteric protozoa like Entamoeba histolytica is among the most common protozoan diseases in developing countries. In developing countries, amoebiasis is the second most prevalent protozoan disease. This protozoan parasite is often known to coexist as a part of the normal gut microbiota. It is estimated that around 50-60 % of population in developing countries might be harbouring Entamoeba in an asymptomatic manner. Due to physiological perturbation or upon immuno-compromise, it can become virulent and then cause diarrhoea, bloody stools and may invade other organs if left untreated. Nitroimidazole drugs, namely metronidazole and tinidazole, are widely used to treat protozoan infections. These drugs often show dose-dependent side effects. With emerging antibiotic resistance, novel therapeutics to prevent parasitic infections is required. This study aims to study effect of probiotics on prevention of Amoebiasis. In this study, we have investigated the effect of selected probiotics on the growth of Entamoeba. From the list of probiotics being currently used, five bacterial strains were selected for testing. These probiotic strains were co-cultured with Entamoeba, and their effect on Entamoeba proliferation was checked. Of the five probiotics chosen, individual treatments of Lactobacillus casei and Enterococcus faecium showed a significant reduction of up to 71 % in parasite survival only at higher CFUs. When the two probiotics were used in combination, the percentage of survival reduced gradually further to 80 % at a total CFU of 10 9  cells/ml of bacteria. The study lays the foundation for providing cost-effective prophylactic treatment for amoebiasis without the overuse of antibiotics.

  7. Effectiveness of probiotics in the prevention of carious lesions during treatment with fixed orthodontic appliances.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Contreras

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The difficulty experienced by patients with fixed orthodontic appliances in maintaining adequate oral hygiene poses a risk for dental caries. The use of probiotics has been proposed as a means of prevention. The following systematic review aims to determine the effectiveness of probiotics in the prevention of dental caries during treatment with fixed orthodontic appliances. This review was carried out according to the PRISMA guidelines. A comprehensive electronic search was conducted in the Cochrane Library, EMBASE, PubMed and Google Scholar Beta databases. The inclusion criteria included randomized controlled clinical trials involving the use of probiotics, caries and patients under fixed orthodontic treatment. The methodological quality of the articles was evaluated according to risk of bias. Of the five included studies, three reported significant differences compared to the control group. Of the others, one article reported significant decrease in the final count of microorganisms compared to the beginning of treatment. Only one study reported no differences of any kind. It was estimated that the eligible studies were of moderate methodological quality and had an unclear risk of bias, without affecting key domains for the research. It is concluded that the daily consumption of probiotics can be effective in the prevention of carious lesions in patients under fixed orthodontic treatment. However, this should be interpreted with caution and corroborated by clinical trials of better methodological quality.

  8. Efficiency of early, single-dose probiotic administration methods on performance, small intestinal morphology, blood biochemistry, and immune response of Japanese quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifi, Kazem; Karimi Torshizi, Mohammad Amir; Rahimi, Shaban; Kazemifard, Mohammad

    2017-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the efficacy of early probiotics (single dose) administered in different ways, on quails' performance, small intestine morphology, blood biochemistry, and immune response. In total, 192 day-old chicks were used in one of the following experimental groups before being transferred to a raising room: 1) Control (no probiotic administered), 2) oral gavage, 3) spray, and 4) vent lip. Four replicates of 12 chicks per cage were considered for each treatment and birds were raised up to 35 d in the same conditions. Probiotic treated birds had higher d 1 to 35 feed intake than the control group (P birds had a higher body weight gain as compared to the control (P birds compared to control (P  0.01). None of the immune-related parameters were affected by the probiotic (P > 0.05). Single dose usage of probiotics exerts its beneficial effects on quails' body weight gain, feed intake and mortality in 1 to 35 d period, regardless of the route of administration. This work generally supports the efficacy of single-dose usage of probiotics and suggests the spray of probiotics as an early, single-dose administration method. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  9. Detection and Specific Enumeration of Multi-Strain Probiotics in the Lumen Contents and Mucus Layers of the Rat Intestine After Oral Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hee Ji; Orlovich, David A; Tagg, John R; Fawcett, J Paul

    2009-12-01

    Although the detection of viable probiotic bacteria following their ingestion and passage through the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) has been well documented, their mucosal attachment in vivo is more difficult to assess. In this study, we investigated the survival and mucosal attachment of multi-strain probiotics transiting the rat GIT. Rats were administered a commercial mixture of the intestinal probiotics Lactobacillus acidophilus LA742, Lactobacillus rhamnosus L2H and Bifidobacterium lactis HN019 and the oral probiotic Streptococcus salivarius K12 every 12 h for 3 days. Intestinal contents, mucus and faeces were tested 6 h, 3 days and 7 days after the last dose by strain-specific enumeration on selective media and by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. At 6 h, viable cells and DNA corresponding to all four probiotics were detected in the faeces and in both the lumen contents and mucus layers of the ileum and colon. Viable probiotic cells of B. lactis and L. rhamnosus were detected for 7 days and L. acidophilus for 3 days after the last dose. B. lactis and L. rhamnosus persisted in the ileal mucus and colon contents, whereas the retention of L. acidophilus appeared to be relatively higher in colonic mucus. No viable cells of S. salivarius K12 were detected in any of the samples at either day 3 or 7. The study demonstrates that probiotic strains of intestinal origin but not of oral origin exhibit temporary colonisation of the rat GIT and that these strains may have differing relative affinities for colonic and ileal mucosa.

  10. Probiotics for the prevention of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea in adults and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, Joshua Z; Yap, Christina; Lytvyn, Lyubov; Lo, Calvin Ka-Fung; Beardsley, Jennifer; Mertz, Dominik; Johnston, Bradley C

    2017-12-19

    Antibiotics can disturb gastrointestinal microbiota which may lead to reduced resistance to pathogens such as Clostridium difficile (C. difficile). Probiotics are live microbial preparations that, when administered in adequate amounts, may confer a health benefit to the host, and are a potential C. difficile prevention strategy. Recent clinical practice guidelines do not recommend probiotic prophylaxis, even though probiotics have the highest quality evidence among cited prophylactic therapies. To assess the efficacy and safety of probiotics for preventing C.difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD) in adults and children. We searched PubMed, EMBASE, CENTRAL, and the Cochrane IBD Group Specialized Register from inception to 21 March 2017. Additionally, we conducted an extensive grey literature search. Randomized controlled (placebo, alternative prophylaxis, or no treatment control) trials investigating probiotics (any strain, any dose) for prevention of CDAD, or C. difficile infection were considered for inclusion. Two authors (independently and in duplicate) extracted data and assessed risk of bias. The primary outcome was the incidence of CDAD. Secondary outcomes included detection of C. difficile infection in stool, adverse events, antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD) and length of hospital stay. Dichotomous outcomes (e.g. incidence of CDAD) were pooled using a random-effects model to calculate the risk ratio (RR) and corresponding 95% confidence interval (95% CI). We calculated the number needed to treat for an additional beneficial outcome (NNTB) where appropriate. Continuous outcomes (e.g. length of hospital stay) were pooled using a random-effects model to calculate the mean difference and corresponding 95% CI. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to explore the impact of missing data on efficacy and safety outcomes. For the sensitivity analyses, we assumed that the event rate for those participants in the control group who had missing data was the same as the

  11. Probiotics for the Prevention of Antibiotic-Associated Diarrhea in Outpatients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Sara; Maribo Artzi, Daniel; Aabenhus, Rune

    2017-01-01

    A common adverse effect of antibiotic use is diarrhea. Probiotics are living microorganisms, which, upon oral ingestion, may prevent antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD) by the normalization of an unbalanced gastrointestinal flora. The objective of this systematic review was to assess the benefits...... and harms of probiotics used for the prevention of AAD in an outpatient setting. A search of the PubMed database was conducted and yielded a total of 17 RCTs with 3631 participants to be included in the review. A meta-analysis was conducted for the primary outcome: the incidence of AAD. The pooled results...... found that AAD was present in 8.0% of the probiotic group compared to17.7% in the control group (RR 0.49, 95% CI 0.36 to 0.66; I2 = 58%), and the species-specific results were similar regarding the probiotic strains L. rhamnosus GG and S. boulardii. However, the overall quality of the included studies...

  12. Outer Membrane Vesicles From Probiotic and Commensal Escherichia coli Activate NOD1-Mediated Immune Responses in Intestinal Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María-Alexandra Cañas

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Gut microbiota plays a critical role in maintaining human intestinal homeostasis and host health. Bacterial extracellular vesicles are key players in bacteria–host communication, as they allow delivery of effector molecules into the host cells. Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs released by Gram-negative bacteria carry many ligands of pattern recognition receptors that are key components of innate immunity. NOD1 and NOD2 cytosolic receptors specifically recognize peptidoglycans present within the bacterial cell wall. These intracellular immune receptors are essential in host defense against bacterial infections and in the regulation of inflammatory responses. Recent contributions show that NODs are also fundamental to maintain intestinal homeostasis and microbiota balance. Peptidoglycan from non-invasive pathogens is delivered to cytosolic NODs through OMVs, which are internalized via endocytosis. Whether this pathway could be used by microbiota to activate NOD receptors remains unexplored. Here, we report that OMVs isolated from the probiotic Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 and the commensal ECOR12 activate NOD1 signaling pathways in intestinal epithelial cells. NOD1 silencing and RIP2 inhibition significantly abolished OMV-mediated activation of NF-κB and subsequent IL-6 and IL-8 expression. Confocal fluorescence microscopy analysis confirmed that endocytosed OMVs colocalize with NOD1, trigger the formation of NOD1 aggregates, and promote NOD1 association with early endosomes. This study shows for the first time the activation of NOD1-signaling pathways by extracellular vesicles released by gut microbiota.

  13. Effects of probiotic fermented milk on symptoms and intestinal flora in patients with irritable bowel syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, B.; Olsson, J.; Ohlson, K.

    2011-01-01

    Objective. The effect of probiotics on IBS symptoms has been mixed, but remains an intriguing treatment option with appeal to the patient. Material and methods. Patients fulfilling the Rome II criteria were randomized double-blind to a daily intake of 500 ml of fermented milk containing at least ...

  14. Probiotics in the Prevention and Treatment of Postmenopausal Vaginal Infections: Review Article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jun-Mo; Park, Yoo Jin

    2017-12-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) and complicated vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) are frequently occurring vaginal infections in postmenopausal women, caused by an imbalance in vaginal microflora. Postmenopausal women suffer from decreased ovarian hormones estrogen and progesterone. A normal, healthy vaginal microflora mainly comprises Lactobacillus species (spp.), which act beneficially as a bacterial barrier in the vagina, interfering with uropathogens. During premenopausal period, estrogen promotes vaginal colonization by lactobacilli that metabolizing glycogen and producing lactic acid, and maintains intravaginal health by lowering the intravaginal pH level. A lower vaginal pH inhibits uropathogen growth, preventing vaginal infections. Decreased estrogen secretion in postmenopausal women depletes lactobacilli and increases intravaginal pH, resulting in increased vaginal colonization by harmful microorganisms (e.g., Enterobacter , Escherichia coli , Candida , and Gardnerella ). Probiotics positively effects on vaginal microflora composition by promoting the proliferation of beneficial microorganisms, alters the intravaginal microbiota composition, prevents vaginal infections in postmenopausal. Probiotics also reduce the symptoms of vaginal infections (e.g., vaginal discharge, odor, etc.), and are thus helpful for the treatment and prevention of BV and VVC. In this review article, we provide information on the intravaginal mechanism of postmenopausal vaginal infections, and describes the effectiveness of probiotics in the treatment and prevention of BV and VVC.

  15. Probiotics in the Prevention and Treatment of Postmenopausal Vaginal Infections: Review Article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yoo Jin

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) and complicated vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) are frequently occurring vaginal infections in postmenopausal women, caused by an imbalance in vaginal microflora. Postmenopausal women suffer from decreased ovarian hormones estrogen and progesterone. A normal, healthy vaginal microflora mainly comprises Lactobacillus species (spp.), which act beneficially as a bacterial barrier in the vagina, interfering with uropathogens. During premenopausal period, estrogen promotes vaginal colonization by lactobacilli that metabolizing glycogen and producing lactic acid, and maintains intravaginal health by lowering the intravaginal pH level. A lower vaginal pH inhibits uropathogen growth, preventing vaginal infections. Decreased estrogen secretion in postmenopausal women depletes lactobacilli and increases intravaginal pH, resulting in increased vaginal colonization by harmful microorganisms (e.g., Enterobacter, Escherichia coli, Candida, and Gardnerella). Probiotics positively effects on vaginal microflora composition by promoting the proliferation of beneficial microorganisms, alters the intravaginal microbiota composition, prevents vaginal infections in postmenopausal. Probiotics also reduce the symptoms of vaginal infections (e.g., vaginal discharge, odor, etc.), and are thus helpful for the treatment and prevention of BV and VVC. In this review article, we provide information on the intravaginal mechanism of postmenopausal vaginal infections, and describes the effectiveness of probiotics in the treatment and prevention of BV and VVC. PMID:29354612

  16. Anti-Infective Activities of Lactobacillus Strains in the Human Intestinal Microbiota: from Probiotics to Gastrointestinal Anti-Infectious Biotherapeutic Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liévin-Le Moal, Vanessa

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY A vast and diverse array of microbial species displaying great phylogenic, genomic, and metabolic diversity have colonized the gastrointestinal tract. Resident microbes play a beneficial role by regulating the intestinal immune system, stimulating the maturation of host tissues, and playing a variety of roles in nutrition and in host resistance to gastric and enteric bacterial pathogens. The mechanisms by which the resident microbial species combat gastrointestinal pathogens are complex and include competitive metabolic interactions and the production of antimicrobial molecules. The human intestinal microbiota is a source from which Lactobacillus probiotic strains have often been isolated. Only six probiotic Lactobacillus strains isolated from human intestinal microbiota, i.e., L. rhamnosus GG, L. casei Shirota YIT9029, L. casei DN-114 001, L. johnsonii NCC 533, L. acidophilus LB, and L. reuteri DSM 17938, have been well characterized with regard to their potential antimicrobial effects against the major gastric and enteric bacterial pathogens and rotavirus. In this review, we describe the current knowledge concerning the experimental antibacterial activities, including antibiotic-like and cell-regulating activities, and therapeutic effects demonstrated in well-conducted, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trials of these probiotic Lactobacillus strains. What is known about the antimicrobial activities supported by the molecules secreted by such probiotic Lactobacillus strains suggests that they constitute a promising new source for the development of innovative anti-infectious agents that act luminally and intracellularly in the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:24696432

  17. Probiotics-mediated suppression of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Stephanie S Y; Wan, Murphy L Y; El-Nezami, Hani

    2017-01-01

    Probiotics can be used as an adjuvant for cancer prevention or/and treatment through their abilities to modulate intestinal microbiota and host immune response. Although most of the recent reviews have focused on the potential role of probiotics against colon cancer, only few of them include the probiotic effect on extraintestinal cancers. The present review covers the most important findings from the literature published during the past 20 months (from January 2015 to August 2016) regarding the probiotics-mediated suppression of both gastrointestinal and extraintestinal cancers and the underlying mechanisms. A comprehensive literature search in Pubmed, Science direct and Google scholar databases was conducted to locate all relevant articles that investigated the effect of probiotics on prevention/treatment of both gastrointestinal and extraintestinal cancers. Different mechanisms for the beneficial effects of probiotics against cancer were also discussed, mainly via modulation of gut microbiota which thereby influences host metabolism and immunity. Despite laboratory-based studies having demonstrated encouraging outcomes that probiotics possess antitumor effects, the benefits should not be exaggerated before we get more results from human clinical trials. These are very important before the medical community can accept the use of probiotics as an alternative therapy for cancer control.

  18. Probiotics for the prevention and treatment of allergies, with an emphasis on mode of delivery and mechanism of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Satya; Tomaro-Duchesneau, Catherine; Saha, Shyamali; Rodes, Laetitia; Kahouli, Imen; Malhotra, Meenakshi

    2014-01-01

    Allergy, also termed type I hypersensitivity, is defined as a "disease following a response by the immune system to an otherwise innocuous antigen". The prevalence of allergies is high and escalating, with almost half the populations of North America and Europe having allergies to one or more common environmental antigens. Although rarely life-threatening allergies cause much distress and pose an important economic burden. Recent studies demonstrate the importance of the commensal bacteria of the gastrointestinal tract, termed the microbiota, in stimulating and modulating the immune system. This goes hand-in-hand with the hygiene hypothesis, proposed by Strachan in 1989. With this in mind, the use of pre- and probiotics has gained interest to prevent and treat allergies through modulation of the gut microbiota and the immune system. Probiotics, namely Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria, are live microorganisms that can be incorporated in the diet in the form of functional foods or dietary supplements to beneficially influence the host. In recent studies, probiotic formulations demonstrated the capability to successfully modulate allergic rhinitis, atopic disorders and food-related allergies. A number of probiotic mechanisms of action are involved in controlling hypersensitivity responses, many of which are still not yet understood. Microencapsulation has gained importance as a device for the oral delivery of probiotic cells and may play an important role in the development of a successful probiotic formulation to treat and prevent allergies. Despite the promising research on probiotic biotherapeutics, further investigations are required to develop a successful therapeutic to treat and prevent allergies.

  19. A randomised controlled trial of the probiotic Bifidobacterium breve BBG-001 in preterm babies to prevent sepsis, necrotising enterocolitis and death: the Probiotics in Preterm infantS (PiPS) trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costeloe, Kate; Bowler, Ursula; Brocklehurst, Peter; Hardy, Pollyanna; Heal, Paul; Juszczak, Edmund; King, Andy; Panton, Nicola; Stacey, Fiona; Whiley, Angela; Wilks, Mark; Millar, Michael R

    2016-08-01

    Necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) and late-onset sepsis remain important causes of death and morbidity in preterm babies. Probiotic administration might strengthen intestinal barrier function and provide protection; this is supported by published meta-analyses, but there is a lack of large well-designed trials. To test the use of the probiotic Bifidobacterium breve strain BBG-001 to prevent NEC, late-onset sepsis and death in preterm babies while monitoring probiotic colonisation of participants. Double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial. Recruitment was carried out in 24 hospitals, and the randomisation programme used a minimisation algorithm. Parents, clinicians and outcome assessors were blinded to the allocation. Babies born between 23 and 30 weeks' gestation and randomised within 48 hours of birth. Exclusions included life-threatening or any gastrointestinal malformation detected within 48 hours of birth and no realistic chance of survival. Active intervention: 1 ml of B. breve BBG-001 in one-eighth-strength infant formula Neocate(®) (Nutricia Ltd, Trowbridge, UK), (6.7 × 10(7) to 6.7 × 10(9) colony-forming units) per dose administered enterally. Placebo: 1 ml of one-eighth-strength infant formula Neocate. Started as soon as practicable and continued daily until 36 weeks' postmenstrual age. Primary outcomes were an episode of bloodstream infection, with any organism other than a skin commensal, in any baby between 72 hours and 46 weeks' postmenstrual age; an episode of NEC Bell stage ≥ 2 in any baby; and death before discharge from hospital. Secondary outcomes included stool colonisation with B. breve. In total, 654 babies were allocated to receive probiotic and 661 to receive placebo over 37 months from July 2010. Five babies were withdrawn; 650 babies from the probiotic group and 660 from the placebo group were included in the primary analysis. Baseline characteristics were well balanced. There was no evidence of benefit for the primary

  20. Effects of prebiotics, probiotics, and their combination on growth performance, small intestine morphology, and resident Lactobacillus of male broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X; Farnell, Y Z; Peebles, E D; Kiess, A S; Wamsley, K G S; Zhai, W

    2016-06-01

    Effects of commercial antimicrobials and the individual and combinational use of commercial prebiotics and probiotics in feed from d zero to 41 on the growth performance, small intestine size, jejunal morphology, and ileal resident bacteria population of broiler chickens were determined. A total of 1,040 one-day-old male Ross × Ross 708 broilers were randomly distributed to 80 floor pens (5 treatments, 16 replications per treatment, 13 chicks per pen). Five dietary treatments were employed: 1) a corn soybean-meal basal diet (served as a negative control diet, NC); 2) a basal diet supplemented with a commercial prebiotic product (Pre); 3) a basal diet supplemented with a probiotic product containing Bacillus subtilis spores (Pro); 4) a basal diet supplemented with both prebiotic and probiotic products (Pre + Pro); and 5) a basal diet supplemented with commercial antimicrobials (served as a positive control diet, PC). At d 14, Pre diets improved the relative level of Lactobacillus in ileal mucosa as compared to NC, Pro, or PC diets (P = 0.045) without improving broiler BW. Broilers fed PC diets exhibited the highest BW gain from d 15 to 27, the lowest duodenum, jejunum, and ileum relative weights as percentage of BW at d 27, and the highest breast weight at d 42 (P = 0.026, 0.035, 0.002, 0.025, and 0.035, respectively). Broilers fed Pro or Pre + Pro diets exhibited higher BW gain from d 28 to 41 (P = 0.005) and higher overall BW gain from d zero to 41 (P = 0.039) than those fed other diets. Dietary treatments did not affect jejunal morphology or ileal resident Escherichia coli level at any age. From our results, including spores of Bacillus subtilis in feed may stimulate growth at a later age and may facilitate broilers in reaching their target weight sooner. Therefore, probiotics are recommended as potential alternatives to antimicrobials in chicken diets, especially in grower and finisher feed. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  1. Rice Bran and Probiotics Alter the Porcine Large Intestine and Serum Metabolomes for Protection against Human Rotavirus Diarrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth P. Ryan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Human rotavirus (HRV is a leading cause of severe childhood diarrhea, and there is limited vaccine efficacy in the developing world. Neonatal gnotobiotic pigs consuming a prophylactic synbiotic combination of probiotics and rice bran (Pro+RB did not exhibit HRV diarrhea after challenge. Multiple immune, gut barrier protective, and anti-diarrheal mechanisms contributed to the prophylactic efficacy of Pro+RB when compared to probiotics (Pro alone. In order to understand the molecular signature associated with diarrheal protection by Pro+RB, a global non-targeted metabolomics approach was applied to investigate the large intestinal contents and serum of neonatal gnotobiotic pigs. The ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry platform revealed significantly different metabolites (293 in LIC and 84 in serum in the pigs fed Pro+RB compared to Pro, and many of these metabolites were lipids and amino acid/peptides. Lipid metabolites included 2-oleoylglycerol (increased 293.40-fold in LIC of Pro+RB, p = 3.04E-10, which can modulate gastric emptying, andhyodeoxycholate (decreased 0.054-fold in the LIC of Pro+RB, p = 0.0040 that can increase colonic mucus production to improve intestinal barrier function. Amino acid metabolites included cysteine (decreased 0.40-fold in LIC, p = 0.033, and 0.62-fold in serum, p = 0.014 of Pro+RB, which has been found to reduce inflammation, lower oxidative stress and modulate mucosal immunity, and histamine (decreased 0.18-fold in LIC, p = 0.00030, of Pro+RB and 1.57-fold in serum, p = 0.043, which modulates local and systemic inflammatory responses as well as influences the enteric nervous system. Alterations to entire LIC and serum metabolic pathways further contributed to the anti-diarrheal and anti-viral activities of Pro+RB such as sphingolipid, mono/diacylglycerol, fatty acid, secondary bile acid, and polyamine metabolism. Sphingolipid and long chain fatty acid profiles influenced the

  2. Development of a strain-specific real-time PCR assay for enumeration of a probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri in chicken feed and intestine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verity Ann Sattler

    Full Text Available A strain-specific real-time PCR assay was developed for quantification of a probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri (DSM 16350 in poultry feed and intestine. The specific primers were designed based on a genomic sequence of the strain derived from suppression subtractive hybridization with the type strain L. reuteri DSM 20016. Specificity was tested using a set of non-target strains from several sources. Applicability of the real-time PCR assay was evaluated in a controlled broiler feeding trial by using standard curves specific for feed and intestinal matrices. The amount of the probiotic L. reuteri was determined in feed from three feeding phases and in intestinal samples of the jejunum, ileum, and caecum of three, 14, and 39 day old birds. L. reuteri DSM 16350 cells were enumerated in all feeds supplemented with the probiotic close to the inclusion rate of 7.0 × 10(3 cfu/g, however, were not detected in L. reuteri DSM 16350 free feed. In three day old birds L. reuteri DSM 16350 was only detected in intestinal samples from probiotic fed animals ranging from 8.2 ± 7.8 × 10(5 cfu/g in the jejunum, 1.0 ± 1.1×10(7 cfu/g in the ileum, and 2.5 ± 5.7 × 10(5 cfu/g in the caecum. Similar results were obtained for intestinal samples of older birds (14 and 39 days. With increasing age of the animals the amount of L. reuteri signals in the control animals, however, also increased, indicating the appearance of highly similar bacterial genomes in the gut microbiota. The L. reuteri DSM 16350 qPCR assay could be used in future for feeding trials to assure the accurate inclusion of the supplement to the feed and to monitor it's uptake into the GIT of young chicken.

  3. Development of a strain-specific real-time PCR assay for enumeration of a probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri in chicken feed and intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattler, Verity Ann; Mohnl, Michaela; Klose, Viviana

    2014-01-01

    A strain-specific real-time PCR assay was developed for quantification of a probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri (DSM 16350) in poultry feed and intestine. The specific primers were designed based on a genomic sequence of the strain derived from suppression subtractive hybridization with the type strain L. reuteri DSM 20016. Specificity was tested using a set of non-target strains from several sources. Applicability of the real-time PCR assay was evaluated in a controlled broiler feeding trial by using standard curves specific for feed and intestinal matrices. The amount of the probiotic L. reuteri was determined in feed from three feeding phases and in intestinal samples of the jejunum, ileum, and caecum of three, 14, and 39 day old birds. L. reuteri DSM 16350 cells were enumerated in all feeds supplemented with the probiotic close to the inclusion rate of 7.0 × 10(3) cfu/g, however, were not detected in L. reuteri DSM 16350 free feed. In three day old birds L. reuteri DSM 16350 was only detected in intestinal samples from probiotic fed animals ranging from 8.2 ± 7.8 × 10(5) cfu/g in the jejunum, 1.0 ± 1.1×10(7) cfu/g in the ileum, and 2.5 ± 5.7 × 10(5) cfu/g in the caecum. Similar results were obtained for intestinal samples of older birds (14 and 39 days). With increasing age of the animals the amount of L. reuteri signals in the control animals, however, also increased, indicating the appearance of highly similar bacterial genomes in the gut microbiota. The L. reuteri DSM 16350 qPCR assay could be used in future for feeding trials to assure the accurate inclusion of the supplement to the feed and to monitor it's uptake into the GIT of young chicken.

  4. Timely Use of Probiotics in Hospitalized Adults Prevents Clostridium difficile Infection: A Systematic Review With Meta-Regression Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Nicole T; Maw, Anna; Tmanova, Lyubov L; Pino, Alejandro; Ancy, Kayley; Crawford, Carl V; Simon, Matthew S; Evans, Arthur T

    2017-06-01

    Systematic reviews have provided evidence for the efficacy of probiotics in preventing Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), but guidelines do not recommend probiotic use for prevention of CDI. We performed an updated systematic review to help guide clinical practice. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, International Journal of Probiotics and Prebiotics, and The Cochrane Library databases for randomized controlled trials evaluating use of probiotics and CDI in hospitalized adults taking antibiotics. Two reviewers independently extracted data and assessed risk of bias and overall quality of the evidence. Primary and secondary outcomes were incidence of CDI and adverse events, respectively. Secondary analyses examined the effects of probiotic species, dose, timing, formulation, duration, and study quality. We analyzed data from 19 published studies, comprising 6261 subjects. The incidence of CDI in the probiotic cohort, 1.6% (54 of 3277), was lower than of controls, 3.9% (115 of 2984) (P probiotic users was 0.42 (95% confidence interval, 0.30-0.57; I 2  = 0.0%). Meta-regression analysis demonstrated that probiotics were significantly more effective if given closer to the first antibiotic dose, with a decrement in efficacy for every day of delay in starting probiotics (P = .04); probiotics given within 2 days of antibiotic initiation produced a greater reduction of risk for CDI (relative risk, 0.32; 95% confidence interval, 0.22-0.48; I 2  = 0%) than later administration (relative risk, 0.70; 95% confidence interval, 0.40-1.23; I 2  = 0%) (P = .02). There was no increased risk for adverse events among patients given probiotics. The overall quality of the evidence was high. In a systematic review with meta-regression analysis, we found evidence that administration of probiotics closer to the first dose of antibiotic reduces the risk of CDI by >50% in hospitalized adults. Future research should focus on optimal probiotic dose, species, and formulation. Systematic

  5. Efficacy and safety of the probiotic Saccharomyces boulardii for the prevention and therapy of gastrointestinal disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelesidis, Theodoros

    2012-01-01

    Several clinical trials and experimental studies strongly suggest a place for Saccharomyces boulardii as a biotherapeutic agent for the prevention and treatment of several gastrointestinal diseases. S. boulardii mediates responses resembling the protective effects of the normal healthy gut flora. The multiple mechanisms of action of S. boulardii and its properties may explain its efficacy and beneficial effects in acute and chronic gastrointestinal diseases that have been confirmed by clinical trials. Caution should be taken in patients with risk factors for adverse events. This review discusses the evidence for efficacy and safety of S. boulardii as a probiotic for the prevention and therapy of gastrointestinal disorders in humans. PMID:22423260

  6. Probiotic Bifidobacterium species stimulate human SLC26A3 gene function and expression in intestinal epithelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anoop; Hecht, Cameron; Priyamvada, Shubha; Anbazhagan, Arivarasu N.; Alakkam, Anas; Borthakur, Alip; Alrefai, Waddah A.; Gill, Ravinder K.

    2014-01-01

    SLC26A3, or downregulated in adenoma (DRA), plays a major role in mediating Cl− absorption in the mammalian intestine. Disturbances in DRA function and expression have been implicated in intestinal disorders such as congenital Cl− diarrhea and gut inflammation. We previously showed that an increase in DRA function and expression by Lactobacillus acidophilus and its culture supernatant (CS) might underlie antidiarrheal effects of this probiotic strain. However, the effects of Bifidobacterium species, important inhabitants of the human colon, on intestinal Cl−/HCO3− exchange activity are not known. Our current results demonstrate that CS derived from Bifidobacterium breve, Bifidobacterium infantis, and Bifidobacterium bifidum increased anion exchange activity in Caco-2 cells (∼1.8- to 2.4-fold). Consistent with the increase in DRA function, CS also increased the protein, as well as the mRNA, level of DRA (but not putative anion transporter 1). CS of all three Bifidobacterium sp. increased DRA promoter activity (−1,183/+114 bp) in Caco-2 cells (1.5- to 1.8-fold). Furthermore, the increase in DRA mRNA expression by CS of B. breve and B. infantis was blocked in the presence of the transcription inhibitor actinomycin D (5 μM) and the ERK1/2 MAPK pathway inhibitor U0126 (10 μM). Administration of live B. breve, B. infantis, and B. bifidum by oral gavage to mice for 24 h increased DRA mRNA and protein levels in the colon. These data demonstrate an upregulation of DRA via activation of the ERK1/2 pathway that may underlie potential antidiarrheal effects of Bifidobacterium sp. PMID:25143346

  7. Vitamin D receptor pathway is required for probiotic protection in colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shaoping; Yoon, Sonia; Zhang, Yong-Guo; Lu, Rong; Xia, Yinglin; Wan, Jiandi; Petrof, Elaine O; Claud, Erika C; Chen, Di; Sun, Jun

    2015-09-01

    Low expression of vitamin D receptor (VDR) and dysfunction of vitamin D/VDR signaling are reported in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD); therefore, restoration of VDR function to control inflammation in IBD is desirable. Probiotics have been used in the treatment of IBD. However, the role of probiotics in the modulation of VDR signaling to effectively reduce inflammation is unknown. We identified a novel role of probiotics in activating VDR activity, thus inhibiting inflammation, using cell models and VDR knockout mice. We found that the probiotics Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG (LGG) and Lactobacillus plantarum (LP) increased VDR protein expression in both mouse and human intestinal epithelial cells. Using the VDR luciferase reporter vector, we detected increased transcriptional activity of VDR after probiotic treatment. Probiotics increased the expression of the VDR target genes, such as antimicrobial peptide cathelicidin, at the transcriptional level. Furthermore, the role of probiotics in regulating VDR signaling was tested in vivo using a Salmonella-colitis model in VDR knockout mice. Probiotic treatment conferred physiological and histologic protection from Salmonella-induced colitis in VDR(+/+) mice, whereas probiotics had no effects in the VDR(-/-) mice. Probiotic treatment also enhanced numbers of Paneth cells, which secrete AMPs for host defense. These data indicate that the VDR pathway is required for probiotic protection in colitis. Understanding how probiotics enhance VDR signaling and inhibit inflammation will allow probiotics to be used effectively, resulting in innovative approaches to the prevention and treatment of chronic inflammation. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  8. Probiotics for the Prevention of Antibiotic-Associated Diarrhea in Outpatients—A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

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    Sara Blaabjerg

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A common adverse effect of antibiotic use is diarrhea. Probiotics are living microorganisms, which, upon oral ingestion, may prevent antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD by the normalization of an unbalanced gastrointestinal flora. The objective of this systematic review was to assess the benefits and harms of probiotics used for the prevention of AAD in an outpatient setting. A search of the PubMed database was conducted and yielded a total of 17 RCTs with 3631 participants to be included in the review. A meta-analysis was conducted for the primary outcome: the incidence of AAD. The pooled results found that AAD was present in 8.0% of the probiotic group compared to 17.7% in the control group (RR 0.49, 95% CI 0.36 to 0.66; I2 = 58%, and the species-specific results were similar regarding the probiotic strains L. rhamnosus GG and S. boulardii. However, the overall quality of the included studies was moderate. A meta-analysis of the ten trials reporting adverse events demonstrated no statistically significant differences in the incidence of adverse events between the intervention and control group (RD 0.00, 95% CI −0.02 to 0.02, 2.363 participants. The results suggests that probiotic use may be beneficial in the prevention of AAD among outpatients. Furthermore, the use of probiotics appears safe.

  9. Mixed culture models for predicting intestinal microbial interactions between Escherichia coli and Lactobacillus in the presence of probiotic Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J J; Niu, C C; Guo, X H

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus has been proposed as a probiotic due to its in vivo effectiveness in the gastrointestinal tract through antimicrobial activities. The present study investigates the effects of Lactobacillus alone or in the presence of Bacillus subtilis MA139 on the inhibition of pathogenic Escherichia coli K88. Mixed cultures were used to predict the possible interactions among these bacteria within the intestinal tract of animals. B. subtilis MA139 was first assayed for its inhibition against E. coli K88 both under shaking and static culture conditions. A co-culture assay was employed under static conditions to test the inhibitory effects of Lactobacillus reuteri on E. coli K88, with or without addition of B. subtilis MA139. The results showed that B. subtilis MA139 had marked inhibition against E. coli K88 under shaking conditions and weak inhibition under static conditions. Lactobacillus alone as well as in combination with B. subtilis MA139 spores exerted strong inhibition against E. coli K88 under static conditions. However, the inhibition by Lactobacillus in combination with B. subilis spores was much higher than that by Lactobacillus alone (Psubtilis MA139 significantly decreased the pH and oxidation-reduction potential values of the co-culture broth compared to that of Lactobacillus alone (Psubtilis MA139 because of significantly higher Lactobacillus counts and lower pH values in the broth (PBacillus in the mixed culture models suggests that Bacillus may produce beneficial effects by increasing the viability of lactobacilli and subsequently inhibiting the growth of pathogenic E. coli. Therefore, the combination of Bacillus and Lactobacillus species as a probiotic is recommended.

  10. Decrease in lactobacilli in the intestinal microbiota of celiac children with a gluten-free diet, and selection of potentially probiotic strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo Pisarello, María J; Vintiñi, Elisa O; González, Silvia N; Pagani, Florencia; Medina, Marcela S

    2015-01-01

    The intestinal microbiota would be implicated in pathology associated with celiac disease caused by an abnormal immune system reaction against gluten present in cereal grains. The objectives of this work were to detect through basic methods the changes in the composition of the most common genera of bacteria from the intestinal microbiota of symptom-free celiac disease children with a gluten-free diet compared with healthy children from Tucumán and to select lactobacilli (Lb) strains with probiotic potential from the feces of healthy children. Results demonstrated that the feces of celiac children with a gluten-free diet showed significantly lower counts of Lb (P LC4) showed the highest percentage of autoaggregation while Lactobacillus paracasei (LC9) showed high hydrophobicity. Based on these results, LC4 and LC9 were selected, and their use as potential probiotic strains to improve signs and symptoms associated with celiac disease is discussed. This is the first study performed in Argentina concerning the relationship between intestinal microbiota and celiac disease in celiac children with a gluten-free diet. In addition, the development of a probiotic food addressed towards celiac patients and designed with Lb isolated from the feces of healthy children from our province represents a promising alternative to improve the quality of life of celiac patients.

  11. Use of Attenuated but Metabolically Competent Salmonella as a Probiotic To Prevent or Treat Salmonella Infection

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    Sabag-Daigle, Anice; Blunk, Henry M.; Gonzalez, Juan F.; Steidley, Brandi L.; Boyaka, Prosper N.

    2016-01-01

    Salmonella enterica is among the most burdensome of foodborne disease agents. There are over 2,600 serovars that cause a range of disease manifestations ranging from enterocolitis to typhoid fever. While there are two vaccines in use in humans to protect against typhoid fever, there are none that prevent enterocolitis. If vaccines preventing enterocolitis were to be developed, they would likely protect against only one or a few serovars. In this report, we tested the hypothesis that probiotic organisms could compete for the preferred nutrient sources of Salmonella and thus prevent or treat infection. To this end, we added the fra locus, which encodes a utilization pathway for the Salmonella-specific nutrient source fructose-asparagine (F-Asn), to the probiotic bacterium Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 (Nissle) to increase its ability to compete with Salmonella in mouse models. We also tested a metabolically competent, but avirulent, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium mutant for its ability to compete with wild-type Salmonella. The modified Nissle strain became more virulent and less able to protect against Salmonella in some instances. On the other hand, the modified Salmonella strain was safe and effective in preventing infection with wild-type Salmonella. While we tested for efficacy only against Salmonella Typhimurium, the modified Salmonella strain may be able to compete metabolically with most, if not all, Salmonella serovars, representing a novel approach to control of this pathogen. PMID:27185789

  12. Probiotics in antibiotic associated diarrhea in children

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    Matjaž Homan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of antibiotics that disturb the gastrointestinal microbiota is associated with diarrhea, which occurs in up to half of treated children. Symptoms are usually mild and children do not need hospitalization. Probiotics are live microorganisms, which restore intestinal microbiota during antibiotic therapy through different mechanisms such as stimulation of immunity, secretion of anti-inflammatory factors, and production of antimicrobial substances. The use of different strains of probiotics in antibiotic-associated diarrhea was evaluated in several studies in adults but less frequently in pediatric population. They also confirmed the value of probiotics in the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea in children, particularly Lactobacillus strain GG and Saccharomyces boulardii. The use of probiotics in childhood is safe. A proper strain must be introduced at the beginning of antibiotic treatment in a sufficient concentration.

  13. Implementation of Global Strategies to Prevent Hospital-Onset Clostridium difficile Infection: Targeting Proton Pump Inhibitors and Probiotics.

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    Lewis, Paul O; Lundberg, Timothy S; Tharp, Jennifer L; Runnels, Clay W

    2017-10-01

    Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) have been identified as a significant risk factor for the development of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). Probiotics given concurrently with antibiotics have been shown to have a moderate impact on preventing CDI. To evaluate the effectiveness of hospital-wide interventions designed to reduce PPI use and increase probiotics and whether these interventions were associated with a change in the incidence of hospital onset (HO)-CDI. This retrospective cohort study compared 2 fiscal years: July 2013 to June 2014 (FY14) and July 2014 to June 2015 (FY15). In July of FY15, global educational initiatives were launched targeting PPIs. Additionally, a HO-CDI prevention bundle was added to antibiotic-containing order sets targeting probiotics. Overall PPI use, probiotic use, and incidence of HO-CDI were recorded and compared for each cohort. Charts were also reviewed for patients who developed HO-CDI for the presence and appropriateness of a PPI and presence of probiotics. The interventions resulted in a decrease in PPI use by 14% or 96 doses/1000 patient days (TPD; P = 0.0002) and a reduction in IV PPI use by 31% or 71 doses/TPD ( P = 0.0008). Probiotic use increased by 130% or 126 doses/TPD ( P = 0.0006). The incidence of HO-CDI decreased by 20% or 0.1 cases/TPD ( P = 0.04). A collaborative, multifaceted educational initiative directed at highlighting the risks associated with PPI use was effective in reducing PPI prescribing. The implementation of a probiotic bundle added to antibiotic order sets was effective in increasing probiotic use. These interventions were associated with a decrease in incidence of HO-CDI.

  14. Intestinal microbiota in human health and disease: the impact of probiotics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritsen, J.; Smidt, H.; Rijkers, G.T.; Vos, de W.M.

    2011-01-01

    The complex communities of microorganisms that colonise the human gastrointestinal tract play an important role in human health. The development of culture-independent molecular techniques has provided new insights in the composition and diversity of the intestinal microbiota. Here, we summarise the

  15. Epigenome targeting by probiotic metabolites

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    Licciardi Paul V

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The intestinal microbiota plays an important role in immune development and homeostasis. A disturbed microbiota during early infancy is associated with an increased risk of developing inflammatory and allergic diseases later in life. The mechanisms underlying these effects are poorly understood but are likely to involve alterations in microbial production of fermentation-derived metabolites, which have potent immune modulating properties and are required for maintenance of healthy mucosal immune responses. Probiotics are beneficial bacteria that have the capacity to alter the composition of bacterial species in the intestine that can in turn influence the production of fermentation-derived metabolites. Principal among these metabolites are the short-chain fatty acids butyrate and acetate that have potent anti-inflammatory activities important in regulating immune function at the intestinal mucosal surface. Therefore strategies aimed at restoring the microbiota profile may be effective in the prevention or treatment of allergic and inflammatory diseases. Presentation of the hypothesis Probiotic bacteria have diverse effects including altering microbiota composition, regulating epithelial cell barrier function and modulating of immune responses. The precise molecular mechanisms mediating these probiotic effects are not well understood. Short-chain fatty acids such as butyrate are a class of histone deacetylase inhibitors important in the epigenetic control of host cell responses. It is hypothesized that the biological function of probiotics may be a result of epigenetic modifications that may explain the wide range of effects observed. Studies delineating the effects of probiotics on short-chain fatty acid production and the epigenetic actions of short-chain fatty acids will assist in understanding the association between microbiota and allergic or autoimmune disorders. Testing the hypothesis We propose that treatment with

  16. In Vitro Evaluation of the Probiotic and Safety Properties of Bacteriocinogenic and Non-Bacteriocinogenic Lactic Acid Bacteria from the Intestines of Nile Tilapia and Common Carp for Their Use as Probiotics in Aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaktcham, Pierre Marie; Temgoua, Jules-Bocamdé; Zambou, François Ngoufack; Diaz-Ruiz, Gloria; Wacher, Carmen; Pérez-Chabela, María de Lourdes

    2018-03-01

    In this study, seven bacteriocinogenic and non-bacteriocinogenic LAB strains previously isolated from the intestines of Nile tilapia and common carp and that showed potent antibacterial activity against host-derived and non-host-derived fish pathogens were assayed for their probiotic and safety properties so as to select promising candidates for in vivo application as probiotic in aquaculture. All the strains were investigated for acid and bile tolerances, transit tolerance in simulated gastrointestinal conditions, for cell surface characteristics including hydrophobicity, co-aggregation and auto-aggregation, and for bile salt hydrolase activity. Moreover, haemolytic, gelatinase and biogenic amine-producing abilities were investigated for safety assessment. The strains were found to be tolerant at low pH (two strains at pH 2.0 and all the strains at pH 3.0). All of them could also survive in the presence of bile salts (0.3% oxgall) and in simulated gastric and intestinal juices conditions. Besides, three of them were found to harbour the gtf gene involved in pH and bile salt survival. The strains also showed remarkable cell surface characteristics, and 57.14% exhibited the ability to deconjugate bile salts. When assayed for their safety properties, the strains prove to be free from haemolytic activity, gelatinase activity and they could neither produce biogenic amines nor harbour the hdc gene. They did not also show antibiotic resistance, thus confirming to be safe for application as probiotics. Among them, Lactobacillus brevis 1BT and Lactobacillus plantarum 1KMT exhibited the best probiotic potentials, making them the most promising candidates.

  17. The effect of dietary prebiotics and probiotics on body weight, large intestine indices, and fecal bile acid profile in wild type and IL10-/- mice.

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    Shiu-Ming Kuo

    Full Text Available Previous studies have suggested roles of probiotics and prebiotics on body weight management and intestinal function. Here, the effects of a dietary prebiotic, inulin (50 mg/g diet, and probiotic, Bfidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis (Bb12 (final dose verified at 10(5 colony forming unit (cfu/g diet, comparable to human consumption, were determined separately and in combination in mice using cellulose-based AIN-93G diets under conditions allowed for the growth of commensal bacteria. Continuous consumption of Bb12 and/or inulin did not affect food intake or body, liver, and spleen weights of young and adult mice. Fecal bile acid profiles were determined by nanoESI-MS/MS tandem mass spectrometry. In the presence of inulin, more bacterial deconjugation of taurine from primary bile acids was observed along with an increased cecal weight. Consumption of inulin in the absence or presence of Bb12 also increased the villus cell height in the proximal colon along with a trend of higher bile acid sulfation by intestinal cells. Feeding Bb12 alone at the physiological dose did not affect bile acid deconjugation and had little effect on other intestinal indices. Although interleukin (IL10-null mice are susceptible to enterocolitis, they maintained the same body weight as the wild type mice under our specific pathogen-free housing condition and showed no signs of inflammation. Nevertheless, they had smaller cecum suggesting a mildly compromised intestinal development even before the disease manifestation. Our results are consistent with the notion that dietary factors such as prebiotics play important roles in the growth of intestinal microbiota and may impact on the intestinal health. In addition, fecal bile acid profiling could potentially be a non-invasive tool in monitoring the intestinal environment.

  18. Biological characteristics and probiotic effect of Leuconostoc lactis strain isolated from the intestine of black porgy fish

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    Wei Zhang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A strain of lactic acid bacteria, Leuconostoc lactis, was isolated from the intestinal tract of black porgy, Sparus macrocephalus, and identified by conventional biochemical characteristics and 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis. The isolated strain had the ability of bile tolerance and resistance to low pH, and survived well in the trypsinase and pepsin solution. But the highly concentrated dose of trypsinase and pepsin affect the viability of the isolated strain. The isolate was resistant to several antibiotics, including Cephalothin, Ceftriaxone, Imipenem and Tobramycin. The isolate could autoaggregate itself and coaggregate with other bacteria in vitro. The autoaggregation percentage increased to 23.29% after 20 h of incubation. The percentage of coaggregation were respectively 31.21%, 29.44%, 10.74%, 16.49%, 24.36%, 24.41% and 20.99% for Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157, Salmonella typhimurium, Shigella, Staphylococcus aureus and Proteusbacillus vulgaris after 20 h incubation of a mixed suspension. The supernatant of the strain inhibited the growth of several pathogens, such as V.parahaemolyticus, Vibrio harveyi, Vibrio alginolyticus, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli O157, Salmonella typhimurium, Bacillus subtilis, Proteusbacillus vulgaris and Shigella. These results indicated that the isolate, Leuconostoc lactis, might be an attractive candidate for perspectival strain for probiotics in marine aquaculture.

  19. High-intensity-exercise-induced intestinal damage is protected by fermented milk supplemented with whey protein, probiotic and pomegranate (Punica granatum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, Fernanda M; Baptista, Igor L; Simabuco, Fernando M; Quaresma, Paula G F; Pena, Fabiola L; Bezerra, Rosangela M N; Pauli, Jose R; da Cunha, Diogo T; Campos-Ferraz, Patricia L; Antunes, Adriane E C

    2018-04-01

    Here we evaluated the effect of fermented milk supplemented with whey protein (approximately 80 % protein), probiotic (Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB12) and pomegranate juice (Punica granatum L.) on the physical performance, intestinal motility and villi structure, inflammatory markers and intestinal microbiota of rats under high-intensity acute exercise. In all, twenty-four Wistar rats were separated into groups: control (Ctrl), supplemented (Supp), exercised (Exe) and exercised and supplemented (Exe+Supp). Rats in the Supp groups received fermented milk during 6 weeks by oral administration. At the end of the supplementation period, the Exe groups were submitted to high-intensity acute exercise on a treadmill. We found that intense acute exercise caused changes in the intestinal villi interspace, changes in the proportion of Lactobacillus species and an increase in Clostridium species, as well as a decrease in intestinal motility. Supplementation increased intestinal motility, and maintained the intestinal villi interspace and the natural microbiota proportions of the exercised rats. Physical performance was not improved by fermented milk supplementation. We conclude that the fermented milk containing whey protein, B. animalis (BB12) and pomegranate juice can re-establish intestinal microbiota and protect the animals from the undesirable effects of intense acute exercise.

  20. Probiotic treatment decreases the number of CD14 expressing cells in porcine milk which correlates with several intestinal immune parameters in the piglets.

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    Lydia eScharek-Tedin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Modulating the mucosal immune system of neonates by probiotic treatment of their mothers is a promising approach which can only be investigated through the use of animal models. Here, we used sows and their piglets to investigate the impact of a bacterial treatment on the sow´s milk and on the neonate piglet intestinal immune system.In previous experiments, feed supplementation of sows with the probiotic Enterococcus faecium NCIMB 10415 during pregnancy and lactation had been shown to affect intestinal microbiota and cytokine expression of the offspring during the suckling and weaning periods. We therefore investigated the composition of the milk from treated sows in comparison to samples from a control group. In treated sows, the amount of lactose increased, and the somatic cell numbers were reduced. In all milk samples, the percentage of cells expressing membranous CD14 (mCD14 was greater than the fractions of immune cells, indicating expression of mCD14 on mammary epithelial cells. However, in the milk of E. faecium-treated sows, mCD14+ cells were reduced. Furthermore, the number of CD14+ milk cells was positively correlated with the percentages of B cells and activated T cells in the ileal MLN of the piglets. This study provides evidence for the expression of mCD14 by the porcine mammary epithelium, and suggests an immunological effect of mCD14+ milk cells on the piglets’ intestinal immune system. Our study further suggests that mCD14+ mammary epithelial cell populations can be modulated by probiotic feed supplementation of the sow. Keywords: pig, Enterococcus faecium, milk, mCD14, intestinal, B cells, T cells.

  1. The efficacy of probiotics in prevention of urinary tract infection in children: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Mostafa; Yousefifard, Mahmoud; Ataei, Neamatollah; Oraii, Alireza; Mirzay Razaz, Jalaledin; Izadi, Anahita

    2017-12-01

    A consensus has not been reached yet about the efficacy of probiotics in reducing the incidence of urinary tract infections (UTIs) in children. This systematic review and meta-analysis was designed to assess the efficacy of probiotics in prevention UTI in children. The present study was designed based on guidelines for systematic reviews of clinical trials. Two independent reviewers performed an extensive search in the Medline, Embase, Web of Science and Scopus electronic databases up to the end of 2016. The summery of eligible studies was assessed independently by two reviewers and recorded in the data extraction form. Finally, a pooled relative risk (RR) was reported with a 95% confidence interval (95% CI). Data from 10 studies were entered in the present meta-analysis. Probiotic therapy did not have any beneficial effect on the incidence of UTI (RR = 0.94; 95% CI 0.85-1.03; p = 0.19) and its recurrence (RR = 0.93; 95% CI 0.85-1.02; p = 0.14). Subgroup analyses showed that probiotics as monotherapy do not have any beneficial effects on prevention of UTI (RR = 0.96; 95% CI 0.89-1.04; p = 0.31). However, the incidence of UTI is reduced if probiotics are used as adjuvant therapy to antibiotics (RR = 0.92; 95% CI 0.85-0.99; p = 0.02). The present meta-analysis showed that probiotics did not have a beneficial effect in reducing the incidence or recurrence of UTI. Only a moderate efficacy was seen when a probiotic was used as adjuvant therapy to antibiotics. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Pediatric Urology Company. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Recycling Metchnikoff. Probiotics, the Intestinal Microbiome and the Quest for Long Life

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    Philip Arthur Mackowiak

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Over a centry ago, Elie Metchnikoff theorized that health could be enhanced and senility delayed by manipulating the intestinal microbiome with host-friendly bacteria found in yogurt. His theory flourished for a time, then drifted to the fringe of medical practice before re-emerging in the mid-1990s as a concept worthy of mainstream medical attention. Metchnikoff also predicted the existence of bacterial translocation and anticipated theories linking chronic inflammation with the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and other disorders of the aged.

  3. Probiotics in management of hepatic encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Barjesh Chander; Singh, Jatinderpal

    2016-12-01

    Gut microflora leads to production of ammonia and endotoxins which play important role in the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy (HE). There is relationship between HE and absorption of nitrogenous substances from the intestines. Probiotics play a role in treatment of HE by causing alterations in gut flora by decreasing the counts of pathogen bacteria, intestinal mucosal acidification, decrease in production and absorption of ammonia, alterations in permeability of gut, decreased endotoxin levels and changes in production of short chain fatty acids. Role of gut microbiota using prebiotics, probiotics and synbiotics have been evaluated in the management of minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE), overt HE and prevention of HE. Many studies have shown efficacy of probiotics in reduction of blood ammonia levels, treatment of MHE and prevention of HE. However these trials have problems like inclusion of small number of patients, short treatment durations, variability in HE/MHE related outcomes utilized and high bias risk, errors of systematic and random types. Systematic reviews also have shown different results with one systematic review showing clinical benefits whereas another concluded that probiotics do not have any role in treatment of MHE or HE. Also practical questions on optimal dose, ideal combination of organisms, and duration of treatment and persistence of benefits on long term follow-up are still to be clarified. At present, there are no recommendations for use of probiotics in patients with HE.

  4. Combination of probiotics and antibiotics in the prevention of recurrent urinary tract infection in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohseni, Mohammad-Javad; Aryan, Zahra; Emamzadeh-Fard, Sahra; Paydary, Koosha; Mofid, Vahid; Joudaki, Hasan; Kajbafzadeh, Abdol-Mohammad

    2013-08-01

    We examined the preventive effect of probiotic and antibiotics versus antibiotics alone, in children with recurrent urinary tract infections (RUTI) in a preliminary randomized clinical trial. Between March 2007 and April 2011, children with the history of RUTI and unilateral vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) were randomly assigned to receive concomitant probiotic and antibiotics (Lactobacillus acidophilus and bifidobacterium lactis, 10(7)/ml, as 0.25 ml/kg three times a day regimen in addition to Nitrofurantoin, 1mg/kg daily (group I). In group II, all children received conventional prophylactic antibiotics alone (Nitrofurantoin, 1 mg/kg daily). Randomization was performed via using the random numerals table in a 1:1 manner with stratification by sex, age and grade of reflux. The urine examinations were done monthly and the incidence of UTI was evaluated in these two groups. Forty-one children (age: 8.3±3.1 years) in group I and 44 children (age: 8.0±3.0 years) in group II were compared. During the course of three years, 39% in group I and 50% of participants in group II experienced RUTIs (P=0.4). Incidences of UTI - febrile and afebrile - reduced in both groups without any significant differences after two years of prophylaxis. Also, incidence of afebrile UTIs did not significantly differ (0.51±1.30 and 0.81±1.41 respectively, P =0.3); however, the incidence of febrile UTIs in particular were lower in group I (0.00±0.00 versus 0.13±0.40, P =0.03) in the last year. The consumption of probiotic and antibiotics in children with RUTI is safe and more effective in reducing the incidence of febrile UTI in comparison to prophylactic antibiotics alone.

  5. Role of probiotics in the prevention and treatment of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikorska, Hanna; Smoragiewicz, Wanda

    2013-12-01

    Meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a multidrug-resistant micro-organism and is the principal nosocomial pathogen worldwide. Following initial in vitro experiments demonstrating that Lactobacillus acidophilus CL1285(®) and Lactobacillus casei LBC80R(®) commercial strains exhibit antibacterial activity against clinical MRSA isolates, we conducted a literature search to find any evidence of probiotic efficacy in decolonisation or treatment of S. aureus infection. As summarised below, many strains of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria isolated from a variety of sources inhibited the growth of S. aureus and clinical isolates of MRSA in vitro. The most active strains were Lactobacillus reuteri, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, Propionibacterium freudenreichii, Propionibacterium acnes, Lactobacillus paracasei, L. acidophilus, L. casei, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus bulgaricus, Lactobacillus fermentum and Lactococcus lactis. Their effects were mediated both by direct cell competitive exclusion as well as production of acids or bacteriocin-like inhibitors. L. acidophilus also inhibited S. aureus biofilm formation and lipase production. In vitro antimicrobial activity did not necessarily assure efficacy in vivo in animal infectious models, e.g. S. aureus 8325-4 was most sensitive in vitro to L. acidophilus, whilst in vivo Bifidobacterium bifidum best inhibited experimental intravaginal staphylococcosis in mice. On the other hand, L. plantarum, which showed the highest inhibition activity against S. aureus in vitro, was also very effective topically in preventing skin wound infection with S. aureus in mice. Very few clinical data were found on the interactions between probiotics and MRSA, but the few identified clinical cases pointed to the feasibility of elimination or reduction of MRSA colonisation with probiotic use. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparison of the kinetics of intestinal colonization by associating 5 probiotic bacteria assumed either in a microencapsulated or in a traditional, uncoated form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piano, Mario D; Carmagnola, Stefania; Ballarè, Marco; Balzarini, Marco; Montino, Franco; Pagliarulo, Michela; Anderloni, Andrea; Orsello, Marco; Tari, Roberto; Sforza, Filomena; Mogna, Luca; Mogna, Giovanni

    2012-10-01

    Beneficial findings concerning probiotics are increasing day by day. However, one of the most important parameters able to significantly affect the probiotic value of a microorganism is its survival during the transit through the stomach and the duodenum. Some techniques may be applied that aim to improve this parameter, but microencapsulation of bacterial cells remains one of the most important. A recent study assessed the kinetics of intestinal colonization by a mixture of 2 probiotic strains, given either in a microencapsulated or in a traditional, uncoated form. A comparison between the intestinal colonization by associating 5 microencapsulated bacteria and the same uncoated strains was performed by a double-blind, randomized, cross-over study. The study (December 2007 to January 2009) involved 53 healthy volunteers. In particular, subjects were divided into 2 groups: group A (27 subjects) was given a mix of probiotic strains Probiotical S.p.A. (Novara, Italy), Lactobacillus acidophilus LA02 (DSM 21717), Lactobacillus rhamnosus LR04 (DSM 16605), L. rhamnosus GG, or LGG (ATCC 53103), L. rhamnosus LR06 (DSM 21981), and Bifidobacterium lactis BS01 (LMG P-21384) in an uncoated form, whereas group B (26 subjects) received the same strains microencapsulated with a gastroprotected material. The uncoated strains were administered at 5×10⁹ cfu/strain/d (a total of 25×10⁹ cfu/d) for 21 days, whereas the microencapsulated bacteria were given at 1×10⁹ cfu/strain/d (a total of 5×10⁹ cfu/d) for 21 days. At the end of the first period of supplementation with probiotics, a 3-week wash-out phase was included in the study setting. At the end of the wash-out period, the groups crossed over their treatment regimen; that is, group A was administered the microencapsulated bacteria and group B the uncoated bacteria. The administered quantities of each strain were the same as the first treatment. A quantitative evaluation of intestinal colonization by probiotics, either

  7. Probiotics for the treatment of Clostridium difficile associated disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Leo R

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this review paper is to update the current and potential future role of probiotics for Clostridium difficile-associated disease (CDAD). Included in this review, is an update on the testing of newer probiotics (e.g., Bacillus coagulans GBI-30, 6086) in animal models of CDAD. There is a focus on the modulation of signal transduction pathways (i.e., transcription factors like cAMP response element-binding, activator protein 1, and nuclear factor kappa B), as well as the inhibition of certain kinases (e.g., p38 mitogen activated protein kinases) by probiotics. Inhibition of signal transduction by probiotics, such as Saccharomyces boulardii, result in multiple effects on intestinal fluid secretion, neutrophil influx into the colon, inflammation, and colonocyte apoptosis that may positively impact CDAD. Recent clinical approaches with probiotics, for the prevention of primary and recurrent CDAD, are also summarized in this review paper. Future directions for the treatment of CDAD by probiotics are also mentioned in this review. In particular, the use of multi-strain probiotic formulations such as Ecologic® AAD and VSL #3® may represent a rationale pharmacological approach, particularly as adjunctive therapies for CDAD. Understanding the mechanistic basis of CDAD, and how probiotics interfere at ceratin steps in the pathogenic process, may also present the opportunity to design other multi-strain probiotics that could have a future impact on CDAD. PMID:23946887

  8. Effects of the Dietary Probiotic Clostridium butyricum on Intestine Digestive and Metabolic Capacities, SCFA Content and Body Composition in Marsupenaeus japonicus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Yafei; Dong, Hongbiao; Wang, Yun; Zhang, Yue; Zhang, Jiasong

    2018-06-01

    A 56-day feeding trial was performed to evaluate the effects of dietary probiotic Clostridium butyricum (CB) on intestine digestive and metabolic capacities, intestine short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) content and body composition of kuruma shrimp Marsupenaeus japonicus. Shrimps were randomly allocated into 9 tanks, 30 each, and fed with diets containing different levels of C. butyricum (1 × 109 cfu g-1): 0 mg g-1 feed (Control), 100 mg g-1 feed (CB-100), 200 mg g-1 feed (CB-200), while each level was triplicated. The results indicated that compared with the control group, the intestine pepsin (Pep) activity and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) concentration of two C. butyricum groups were both increased. Amylase (AMY) and lipase (LPS) activities were only induced in CB-200 group. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities of two C. butyricum groups showed no significant change. The α-amylase (AMY) gene expression was induced in CB-200 group, and trypsin gene expression of two C. butyricum treated groups were both induced. Intestine SCFA content and body composition analysis showed that the contents of propionic acid, butyric acid and the crude protein of two C. butyricum groups were all higher than those of control. These results revealed that C. butyricum can modulate intestine digestive and metabolic capacities, improve intestine SCFA content and body crude protein content in M. japonicus.

  9. Effects of probiotics, probiotic DNA and the CpG oligodeoxynucleotides on ovalbumin-sensitized Brown-Norway rats via TLR9/NF-κB pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Yan; Huang, Juan; Tang, Wenjing; Chen, Bing; Cai, Wei

    2012-10-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of living probiotics, probiotic DNA and the synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides containing CpG motifs (CpG-ODN) on both immune response and intestinal barrier function in ovalbumin-sensitized rat and the underlying mechanisms. Brown-Norway rats were orally sensitized with ovalbumin, and living probiotics, probiotic DNA extraction, synthetic CpG-ODN or non-CpG ODN control was administered. In the living probiotics, probiotic DNA and CpG-ODN groups, the allergic response was significantly inhibited, the Th1/Th2 cytokine balance was shifted away from Th2 side, the percentage of CD4(+) CD25(+high) Treg cells was increased, and the intestinal barrier function was improved. The levels of toll-like receptor (TLR) 9 mRNA and nuclear factor (NF)-κB activity, as well as the IκB-α phosphorylation (p-IκB-α) was significantly increased in these three intervention groups compared with the OVA-positive group, whereas no such effects were found in the non-CpG ODN control group. These data show that the probiotic genomic DNA and the synthetic CpG-ODN was comparable with living probiotics in preventing food allergic response by immune modulation and intestinal barrier function enhancement, and the activation of TLR9/NF-κB signal pathway might be involved in this process. © 2012 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The impact of probiotics and n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids on intestinal permeability in pregnancy: a randomised clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokkala, K; Pussinen, P; Houttu, N; Koivuniemi, E; Vahlberg, T; Laitinen, K

    2018-02-27

    A disruption in intestinal barrier integrity may predispose individuals to metabolic aberrations, particularly during the vulnerable period of pregnancy. We investigated whether intestinal permeability, as measured by serum zonulin concentration, changes over the duration of pregnancy and whether this change is reflected in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) activity. Second, we tested in a randomised double-blind placebo controlled clinical trial the impact of consuming dietary probiotics and/or long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) supplements in lowering serum zonulin concentration and LPS activity. The probiotic supplement was a combination of two bacteria, Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis 420 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001. This study included 200 overweight pregnant women participating in an on-going study; participants were randomised to consume either (1) probiotics, (2) LC-PUFA, (3) probiotics and LC-PUFA, or (4) placebo for each supplement. Blood samples were obtained at early, the baseline, and late pregnancy (mean 14 and 35 weeks of gestation, respectively). Serum zonulin concentration increased from early (mean (standard deviation): 62.7 (12.9) ng/ml) to late pregnancy by 5.3 (95%CI 3.7-6.9) ng/ml, and LPS activity increased from (0.16 (0.04) EU/ml) by 0.04 (95%CI 0.03-0.05) EU/ml. No differences among the intervention groups were detected in the change from early to late pregnancy in serum zonulin concentration (P=0.8) or LPS activity (P=0.2). The change in serum zonulin concentration during the pregnancy was associated with the weeks of follow up (r=0.25, Pzonulin concentration or LPS activity.

  11. Genome-Wide Immune Modulation of TLR3-Mediated Inflammation in Intestinal Epithelial Cells Differs between Single and Multi-Strain Probiotic Combination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chad W MacPherson

    Full Text Available Genome-wide transcriptional analysis in intestinal epithelial cells (IEC can aid in elucidating the impact of single versus multi-strain probiotic combinations on immunological and cellular mechanisms of action. In this study we used human expression microarray chips in an in vitro intestinal epithelial cell model to investigate the impact of three probiotic bacteria, Lactobacillus helveticus R0052 (Lh-R0052, Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis R0033 (Bl-R0033 and Bifidobacterium bifidum R0071 (Bb-R0071 individually and in combination, and of a surface-layer protein (SLP purified from Lh-R0052, on HT-29 cells' transcriptional profile to poly(I:C-induced inflammation. Hierarchical heat map clustering, Set Distiller and String analyses revealed that the effects of Lh-R0052 and Bb-R0071 diverged from those of Bl-R0033 and Lh-R0052-SLP. It was evident from the global analyses with respect to the immune, cellular and homeostasis related pathways that the co-challenge with probiotic combination (PC vastly differed in its effect from the single strains and Lh-R0052-SLP treatments. The multi-strain PC resulted in a greater reduction of modulated genes, found through functional connections between immune and cellular pathways. Cytokine and chemokine analyses based on specific outcomes from the TNF-α and NF-κB signaling pathways revealed single, multi-strain and Lh-R0052-SLP specific attenuation of the majority of proteins measured (TNF-α, IL-8, CXCL1, CXCL2 and CXCL10, indicating potentially different mechanisms. These findings indicate a synergistic effect of the bacterial combinations relative to the single strain and Lh-R0052-SLP treatments in resolving toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3-induced inflammation in IEC and maintaining cellular homeostasis, reinforcing the rationale for using multi-strain formulations as a probiotic.

  12. Design of a multispecies probiotic mixture to prevent infectious complications in critically ill patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmerman, H.M.; Niers, L.E.M.; Ridwan, B.U.; Koning, C.J.M.; Mulder, L.; Akkermans, L.M.A.; Rombouts, F.M.; Rijkers, G.T.

    2007-01-01

    Background & aims Although the potential for probiotics is investigated in an increasing variety of diseases, there is little or no consensus regarding the desired probiotic properties for a particular disease in question, nor about the final design of the probiotic. Specific strain selection

  13. In vitro anti-inflammatory activity of selected oxalate-degrading probiotic bacteria: potential applications in the prevention and treatment of hyperoxaluria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giardina, Silvana; Scilironi, Cristina; Michelotti, Angela; Samuele, Alberta; Borella, Fabio; Daglia, Maria; Marzatico, Fulvio

    2014-03-01

    Oxalate (Ox) is a very common component of the human diet, capable to collect in the renal tissue and bind calcium to form calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystals. A supersaturation of CaOx crystal may cause nephrocalcinosis and nephrolithiasis. The inflammation derived from the CaOx crystal accumulation, together with innate or secondary renal alterations, could strongly affect the renal function. In this case a consumption of probiotics with either oxalate-degrading activity at intestinal level and systemic anti-inflammatory activity could be an alternative approach to treat the subjects with excess of urinary oxalate excretion. 11 strains of lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria), already included in the list of bacteria safe for the human use, were investigated for their capability to degrade oxalate by mean of RP-HPLC-UV method and modulate inflammation in an in vitro model system based on peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Four promising bacterial strains (Lactobacillus plantarum PBS067, Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-14, Bifidobacterium breve PBS077, Bifidobacterium longum PBS078) were identified as innovative biological tools for the prevention and the therapeutic treatment of hyperoxaluria and the inflammatory events associated to the Ox accumulation. The oxalate-degrading activity of some probiotics and their capability to modulate the release of inflammation mediators could be exploited as a new nutraceutical and therapeutic approach for the treatment of oxalate accumulation and the related inflammatory state. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  14. Safety Assessment of Probiotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahtinen, Sampo J.; Boyle, Robert J.; Margolles, Abelardo; Frias, Rafael; Gueimonde, Miguel

    Viable microbes have been a natural part of human diet throughout the history of mankind. Today, different fermented foods and other foods containing live microbes are consumed around the world, including industrialized countries, where the diet has become increasingly sterile during the last decades. By definition, probiotics are viable microbes with documented beneficial effects on host health. Probiotics have an excellent safety record, both in humans and in animals. Despite the wide and continuously increasing consumption of probiotics, adverse events related to probiotic use are extremely rare. Many popular probiotic strains such as lactobacilli and bifidobacteria can be considered as components of normal healthy intestinal microbiota, and thus are not thought to pose a risk for the host health - in contrast, beneficial effects on health are commonly reported. Nevertheless, the safety of probiotics is an important issue, in particular in the case of new potential probiotics which do not have a long history of safe use, and of probiotics belonging to species for which general assumption of safety cannot be made. Furthermore, safety of probiotics in high-risk populations such as critically ill patients and immunocompromized subjects deserves particular attention, as virtually all reported cases of bacteremia and fungemia associated with probiotic use, involve subjects with underlying diseases, compromised immune system or compromised intestinal integrity.

  15. Probiotics: Prevention of Severe Pneumonia and Endotracheal Colonization Trial-PROSPECT: a pilot trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Deborah J; Johnstone, Jennie; Marshall, John C; Lauzier, Francois; Thabane, Lehana; Mehta, Sangeeta; Dodek, Peter M; McIntyre, Lauralyn; Pagliarello, Joe; Henderson, William; Taylor, Robert W; Cartin-Ceba, Rodrigo; Golan, Eyal; Herridge, Margaret; Wood, Gordon; Ovakim, Daniel; Karachi, Tim; Surette, Michael G; Bowdish, Dawn M E; Lamarche, Daphnee; Verschoor, Chris P; Duan, Erick H; Heels-Ansdell, Diane; Arabi, Yaseen; Meade, Maureen

    2016-08-02

    Probiotics are live microorganisms that may confer health benefits when ingested. Randomized trials suggest that probiotics significantly decrease the incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) and the overall incidence of infection in critically ill patients. However, these studies are small, largely single-center, and at risk of bias. The aim of the PROSPECT pilot trial was to determine the feasibility of conducting a larger trial of probiotics to prevent VAP in mechanically ventilated patients in the intensive care unit (ICU). In a randomized blinded trial, patients expected to be mechanically ventilated for ≥72 hours were allocated to receive either 1 × 10(10) colony-forming units of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG or placebo, twice daily. Patients were excluded if they were at increased risk of L. rhamnosus GG infection or had contraindications to enteral medication. Feasibility objectives were: (1) timely recruitment; (2) maximal protocol adherence; (3) minimal contamination; and (4) estimated VAP rate ≥10 %. We also measured other infections, diarrhea, ICU and hospital length of stay, and mortality. Overall, in 14 centers in Canada and the USA, all feasibility goals were met: (1) 150 patients were randomized in 1 year; (2) protocol adherence was 97 %; (3) no patients received open-label probiotics; and (4) the VAP rate was 19 %. Other infections included: bloodstream infection (19.3 %), urinary tract infections (12.7 %), and skin and soft tissue infections (4.0 %). Diarrhea, defined as Bristol type 6 or 7 stools, occurred in 133 (88.7 %) of patients, the median length of stay in ICU was 12 days (quartile 1 to quartile 3, 7-18 days), and in hospital was 26 days (quartile 1 to quartile 3, 14-44 days); 23 patients (15.3 %) died in the ICU. The PROSPECT pilot trial supports the feasibility of a larger trial to investigate the effect of L. rhamnosus GG on VAP and other nosocomial infections in critically ill patients. Clinicaltrials

  16. Early administration of probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus and/or prebiotic inulin attenuates pathogen-mediated intestinal inflammation and Smad 7 cell signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foye, Ondulla T.; Huang, I-Fei; Chiou, Christine C.; Walker, W. Allan; Shi, Hai Ning

    2014-01-01

    Immaturity of gut-associated immunity may contribute to pediatric mortality associated with enteric infections. A murine model to parallel infantile enteric disease was used to determine the effects of probiotic, Lactobacillus acidophilus (La), prebiotic, inulin, or both (synbiotic, syn) on pathogen-induced inflammatory responses, NF-κB, and Smad 7 signaling. Newborn mice were inoculated bi-weekly for 4 weeks with La, inulin, or syn and challenged with Citrobacter rodentium (Cr) at 5 weeks. Mouse intestinal epithelial cells (CMT93) were exposed to Cr to determine temporal alterations in NF-Kappa B and Smad 7 levels. Mice with pretreatment of La, inulin, and syn show reduced intestinal inflammation following Cr infection compared with controls, which is associated with significantly reduced bacterial colonization in La, inulin, and syn animals. Our results further show that host defense against Cr infection correlated with enhanced colonic IL-10 and transforming growth factor-β expression and inhibition of NF-κB in syn-treated mice, whereas mice pretreated with syn, La, or inulin had attenuation of Cr-induced Smad 7 expression. There was a temporal Smad 7 and NF-κB intracellular accumulation post-Cr infection and post-tumor necrosis factor stimulation in CMT93 cells. These results, therefore, suggest that probiotic, La, prebiotic inulin, or synbiotic may promote host-protective immunity and attenuate Cr-induced intestinal inflammation through mechanisms affecting NF-κB and Smad 7 signaling. PMID:22524476

  17. Probiotics for the prevention of allergy: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuello-Garcia, Carlos A; Brożek, Jan L; Fiocchi, Alessandro; Pawankar, Ruby; Yepes-Nuñez, Juan José; Terracciano, Luigi; Gandhi, Shreyas; Agarwal, Arnav; Zhang, Yuan; Schünemann, Holger J

    2015-10-01

    Allergic diseases are considered a health burden because of their high and constantly increasing prevalence, high direct and indirect costs, and undesirable effects on quality of life. Probiotics have been suggested as an intervention to prevent allergic diseases. We sought to synthesize the evidence supporting use of probiotics for the prevention of allergies and inform World Allergy Organization guidelines on probiotic use. We performed a systematic review of randomized trials assessing the effects of any probiotic administered to pregnant women, breast-feeding mothers, and/or infants. Of 2403 articles published until December 2014 identified in Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, and Embase, 29 studies fulfilled a priori specified inclusion criteria for the analyses. Probiotics reduced the risk of eczema when used by women during the last trimester of pregnancy (relative risk [RR], 0.71; 95% CI, 0.60-0.84), when used by breast-feeding mothers (RR, 0.57; 95% CI, 0.47-0.69), or when given to infants (RR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.68-0.94). Evidence did not support an effect on other allergies, nutrition status, or incidence of adverse effects. The certainty in the evidence according to the Grading of Recommendation Assessment Development and Evaluation approach is low or very low because of the risk of bias, inconsistency and imprecision of results, and indirectness of available research. Probiotics used by pregnant women or breast-feeding mothers and/or given to infants reduced the risk of eczema in infants; however, the certainty in the evidence is low. No effect was observed for the prevention of other allergic conditions. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Probiotics for prevention of recurrent urinary tract infections in women: a review of the evidence from microbiological and clinical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falagas, Matthew E; Betsi, Gregoria I; Tokas, Theodoros; Athanasiou, Stavros

    2006-01-01

    Recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs) afflict a great number of women around the world. The use of probiotics, especially lactobacilli, has been considered for the prevention of UTIs. Since lactobacilli dominate the urogenital flora of healthy premenopausal women, it has been suggested that restoration of the urogenital flora, which is dominated by uropathogens, with lactobacilli may protect against UTIs. This review is based on a search of PubMed for relevant articles. Many in vitro studies, animal experiments, microbiological studies in healthy women, and clinical trials in women with UTIs have been carried out to assess the effectiveness and safety of probiotics for prophylaxis against uropathogens. Most of them had encouraging findings for some specific strains of lactobacilli. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 and L. reuteri RC-14 (previously called L. fermentum RC-14) seemed to be the most effective among the studied lactobacilli for the prevention of UTIs. L. casei shirota and L. crispatus CTV-05 have also shown efficacy in some studies. L. rhamnosus GG did not appear to be quite as effective in the prevention of UTIs. The evidence from the available studies suggests that probiotics can be beneficial for preventing recurrent UTIs in women; they also have a good safety profile. However, further research is needed to confirm these results before the widespread use of probiotics for this indication can be recommended.

  19. Aqualase, a yeast-based in-feed probiotic, modulates intestinal microbiota, immunity and growth of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adel, Milad; Lazado, Carlo Cabacang; Safari, Reza

    2017-01-01

    Yeast probiotics have great promise, yet they received little attention in fish. This study investigated the influence of Aqualase, a yeast-based commercial probiotic composed of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces elipsoedas, on health and performance of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss...

  20. The Cost-efficiency and Care Effectiveness of Probiotic Administration with Antibiotics to Prevent Hospital-Acquired Clostridium difficile Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starn, Emily S; Hampe, Holly; Cline, Thomas

    Health care facility-acquired Clostridium difficile infections (HCFA-CDI) have increased over the last several decades despite facilities developing protocols for prescribing probiotics with antibiotics to prevent HCFA-CDI. The literature does not consistently support this. A retrospective medical record review evaluated the care effectiveness of this practice. Care effectiveness was not found; patients receiving probiotics with antibiotics were twice as likely to develop HCFA-CDI (P = .004). Except with glycopeptides, patients were 1.88 times less likely to experience HCFA-CDI (P = .05).

  1. Probiotic supplementation affects markers of intestinal barrier, oxidation, and inflammation in trained men; a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamprecht Manfred

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Probiotics are an upcoming group of nutraceuticals claiming positive effects on athlete’s gut health, redox biology and immunity but there is lack of evidence to support these statements. Methods We conducted a randomized, double-blinded, placebo controlled trial to observe effects of probiotic supplementation on markers of intestinal barrier, oxidation and inflammation, at rest and after intense exercise. 23 trained men received multi-species probiotics (1010 CFU/day, Ecologic®Performance or OMNi-BiOTiC®POWER, n = 11 or placebo (n = 12 for 14 weeks and performed an intense cycle ergometry over 90 minutes at baseline and after 14 weeks. Zonulin and α1-antitrypsin were measured from feces to estimate gut leakage at baseline and at the end of treatment. Venous blood was collected at baseline and after 14 weeks, before and immediately post exercise, to determine carbonyl proteins (CP, malondialdehyde (MDA, total oxidation status of lipids (TOS, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α, and interleukin-6 (IL-6. Statistical analysis used multifactorial analysis of variance (ANOVA. Level of significance was set at p  Results Zonulin decreased with supplementation from values slightly above normal into normal ranges ( 0.1. CP increased significantly from pre to post exercise in both groups at baseline and in the placebo group after 14 weeks of treatment (p = 0.006. After 14 weeks, CP concentrations were tendentially lower with probiotics (p = 0.061. TOS was slightly increased above normal in both groups, at baseline and after 14 weeks of treatment. There was no effect of supplementation or exercise on TOS. At baseline, both groups showed considerably higher TNF-α concentrations than normal. After 14 weeks TNF-α was tendentially lower in the supplemented group (p = 0.054. IL-6 increased significantly from pre to post exercise in both groups (p = 0.001, but supplementation had no effect. MDA

  2. Probiotics for preventing urinary tract infection in people with neuropathic bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toh, Swee-Ling; Boswell-Ruys, Claire L; Lee, Bon San B; Simpson, Judy M; Clezy, Kate R

    2017-09-08

    Neuropathic or neurogenic bladder describes a process of dysfunctional voiding as the result of injury in the brain, spinal cord or nerves innervating the bladder. People with neuropathic bladder, such as from spinal cord injury (SCI), are at significant risk of morbidity from urinary tract infections (UTI). Effective methods to prevent UTI in people with SCI have been sought for many years. Probiotics (micro-organisms that exert beneficial health effects in the host) have been recommended for bacterial interference of the urological tract to reduce colonisation by uropathogen and to manage the dual problems of infection and antibiotic resistance. This review looked at the benefits and harms of probiotics in preventing symptomatic UTI in people with neuropathic bladder compared with placebo, no therapy, or non-antibiotic prophylaxis (cranberry juice, methenamine hippurate, topical oestrogen). We searched the Cochrane Kidney and Transplant Specialised Register up to 10 March 2017 through contact with the Information Specialist using search terms relevant to this review. Studies in the Specialised Register are identified through searches of CENTRAL, MEDLINE, and EMBASE, conference proceedings, the International Clinical Trials Register (ICTRP) Search Portal, and ClinicalTrials.gov. All randomised controlled trials (RCTs), quasi-RCTs and cross-over RCTs looking at the use of probiotics for the prophylaxis of UTI in people with neuropathic bladders was considered for inclusion. Men, women and children of all ages with neuropathic bladders from neurological injury such as suprapontine, supra sacral and sacral aetiologies was included. All bladder management types, including reflex voiding, time voiding, indwelling and intermittent catheterization were eligible for this review.Studies comparing probiotics to placebo, no treatment or other non-antibiotic prophylaxis was included. Studies comparing probiotics with antibiotics or in combination with antibiotics were

  3. Probiotics in colorectal cancer (CRC) with emphasis on mechanisms of action and current perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahouli, Imen; Tomaro-Duchesneau, Catherine; Prakash, Satya

    2013-08-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common form of cancer. Diverse therapies such as chemotherapy, immunotherapy and radiation have shown beneficial effects, but are limited because of their safety and toxicity. Probiotic formulations have shown great promise in CRC as preventive and early stage therapeutics. This review highlights the importance of a balanced intestinal microbiota and summarizes the recent developments in probiotics for treating CRC. Specifically, this report describes evidence of the role of probiotics in modulating the microbiota, in improving the physico-chemical conditions of the gut and in reducing oxidative stress. It also discusses the mechanisms of probiotics in inhibiting tumour progression, in producing anticancer compounds and in modulating the host immune response. Even though some of these effects were observed in several clinical trials, when probiotic formulations were used as a supplement to CRC therapies, the application of probiotics as biotherapeutics against CRC still needs further investigation.

  4. Preventing subclinical necrotic enteritis through Lactobacillus johnsonii BS15 by ameliorating lipid metabolism and intestinal microflora in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qing, Xiaodan; Zeng, Dong; Wang, Hesong; Ni, Xueqin; Liu, Lei; Lai, Jing; Khalique, Abdul; Pan, Kangcheng; Jing, Bo

    2017-12-01

    Increasing studies have focused on the beneficial effects of Lactobacillus johnsonii in certain diseases. Here, we studied the prevention ability of a probiotic strain, L. johnsonii BS15 on subclinical necrotic enteritis (SNE), and its underlying mechanism. 180 male Cobb 500 chicks were randomly allotted into three groups and administrated with BS15 (1 × 10 6 cfu/g) or Man Rogosa Sharpe liquid medium throughout a 28-day experimental period. With the exception of the normal group, SNE infection was treated for the remaining experimental period after the chicks were fed with normal diet 14 days. Results showed that BS15 notably suppressed the SNE-induced loss of average daily gain and liver functional abnormality. Additionally, BS15 facilitated lipid metabolism of SNE boilers when the contents of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ and adipose triglyceride lipase in adipose tissue and serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol decreased. BS15 also attenuated the hepatic lipid accumulation of stricken chicks by suppressing the genes expression of acetyl-CoA carboxylase, fatty acid synthase and sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c as well as stimulating the genes expression of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor α and carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1. Moreover, BS15 enhanced the development of SNE gut by improving the intestinal development and digestion as well as adjusting the gut microflora. Therefore, BS15 may provide a promising natural preventative strategy against SNE, which may be contributed to the amelioration of lipid metabolism and intestinal microflora.

  5. [The regulation of microecological disorders of the intestines in newborn infants with perinatal pathology using the new probiotic bifidumbacterin-forte].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iakushenko, M N; Tkhagapsoeva, Zh M; Bondarenko, V M

    1997-01-01

    The study was made on 93 newborn infants with perinatal pathology, among them infants with the perinatal lesion of the central nervous system (52), hemolytic disease of newborns (19) and conjugation jaundice (12). All newborn infants were examined for the presence of intestinal microflora in its dynamics and for the state microbiocenosis, evaluated by the rapid method based on the determination of the caseinolytic activity of fecal supernatants after the correction of normal flora with bifidumbacterin in 55 infants and with bifidumbacterin-forte in 38 infants. The comparative study of these two preparations revealed that the use of probiotics containing Bifidobacterium bifidum was mainly substitutional, promoting the colonization of the intestine by lactobacteria, which later determined the suppression opportunistic microflora. The effectiveness of bifidumbacterin-forte containing live B. bifidum, immobilized on sorbent, proved to be most pronounced.

  6. Effect of Probiotic Bacillus megaterium PTB 1.4 on the Population of Intestinal Microflora, Digestive Enzyme Activity and the Growth of Catfish (Clarias sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyu Afrilasari

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the effect of Bacillus megaterium PTB 1.4 on the population of intestinal microflora, digestive enzyme activity, and the growth of catfish. Gnotobiotic and normal fish were used. Treatment using gnotobiotic was divided into gnoto (with feed and 100 μg/mL rifampicin and gnotoplus (with feed, 100 μg/mL rifampicin, and 1% probiotic; whereas treatment using normal fish was divided into normalplus (with feed and 1% probiotic and normal (only feed. The amount of bacteria on gastrointestinal tract was measured 30 days after treatments using the total plate count method. The results indicated no significant difference in bacterial growth between gnotobiotic and normal fish. The total amount of probiotic bacteria with normalplus treatment was significantly different with gnotoplus. The activity of protease and amylase enzymes, and specific growth rate in normalplus treatment were significantly higher (p < 0.05 than other treatments. Bacillus megaterium PTB 1.4 increased the activity of digestive enzymes and the growth of catfish.

  7. Effects of probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Propionibacterium freudenreichii ssp. shermanii JS supplementation on intestinal and systemic markers of inflammation in ApoE*3Leiden mice consuming a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oksaharju, Anna; Kooistra, Teake; Kleemann, Robert; van Duyvenvoorde, Wim; Miettinen, Minja; Lappalainen, Jani; Lindstedt, Ken A; Kovanen, Petri T; Korpela, Riitta; Kekkonen, Riina A

    2013-07-14

    A high-fat diet disturbs the composition and function of the gut microbiota and generates local gut-associated and also systemic responses. Intestinal mast cells, for their part, secrete mediators which play a role in the orchestration of physiological and immunological functions of the intestine. Probiotic bacteria, again, help to maintain the homeostasis of the gut microbiota by protecting the gut epithelium and regulating the local immune system. In the present study, we explored the effects of two probiotic bacteria, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (GG) and Propionibacterium freudenreichii spp. shermanii JS (PJS), on high fat-fed ApoE*3Leiden mice by estimating the mast cell numbers and the immunoreactivity of TNF-α and IL-10 in the intestine, as well as plasma levels of several markers of inflammation and parameters of lipid metabolism. We found that mice that received GG and PJS exhibited significantly lower numbers of intestinal mast cells compared with control mice. PJS lowered intestinal immunoreactivity of TNF-α, while GG increased intestinal IL-10. PJS was also observed to lower the plasma levels of markers of inflammation including vascular cell adhesion molecule 1, and also the amount of gonadal adipose tissue. GG lowered alanine aminotransferase, a marker of hepatocellular activation. Collectively, these data demonstrate that probiotic GG and PJS tend to down-regulate both intestinal and systemic pro-inflammatory changes induced by a high-fat diet in this humanised mouse model.

  8. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Use of Probiotics for the Prevention of Clostridium difficile-Associated Diarrhea in a Provincial Healthcare System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Jenine R; Heitman, Steven J; Conly, John M; Henderson, Elizabeth A; Manns, Braden J

    2016-09-01

    OBJECTIVE To conduct a full economic evaluation assessing the costs and consequences related to probiotic use for the primary prevention of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD). DESIGN Cost-effectiveness analysis using decision analytic modeling. METHODS A cost-effectiveness analysis was used to evaluate the risk of CDAD and the costs of receiving oral probiotics versus not over a time horizon of 30 days. The target population modeled was all adult inpatients receiving any therapeutic course of antibiotics from a publicly funded healthcare system perspective. Effectiveness estimates were based on a recent systematic review of probiotics for the primary prevention of CDAD. Additional estimates came from local data and the literature. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to assess how plausible changes in variables impacted the results. RESULTS Treatment with oral probiotics led to direct costs of CDN $24 per course of treatment per patient. On average, patients treated with oral probiotics had a lower overall cost compared with usual care (CDN $327 vs $845). The risk of CDAD was reduced from 5.5% in those not receiving oral probiotics to 2% in those receiving oral probiotics. These results were robust to plausible variation in all estimates. CONCLUSIONS Oral probiotics as a preventive strategy for CDAD resulted in a lower risk of CDAD as well as cost-savings. The cost-savings may be greater in other healthcare systems that experience a higher incidence and cost associated with CDAD. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2016;37:1079-1086.

  9. Effect of probiotic-fermented milk administration on gastrointestinal survival of Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393 and modulation of intestinal microbial flora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidira, Marianthi; Galanis, Alex; Ypsilantis, Petros; Karapetsas, Athanasios; Progaki, Zoi; Simopoulos, Constantinos; Kourkoutas, Yiannis

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the survival of free and immobilized Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393 on apple pieces, contained in probiotic-fermented milk, after gastrointestinal (GI) transit and to investigate the potential regulation of intestinal microbial flora in a rat model. In in vitro GI stress tolerance tests, immobilized L. casei ATCC 393 exhibited significantly higher survival rates compared to free cells. At a second stage, probiotic-fermented milk produced by either free or immobilized cells was administered orally at a single dose or daily for 9 days in Wistar rats. By 12 h after single-dose administration, both free and immobilized cells were detected by microbiological and molecular analysis at levels ≥6 logCFU/g of feces. Moreover, daily administration led to significant reduction of staphylococci, enterobacteria, coliforms and streptococci counts. In conclusion, L. casei ATCC 393 contained in fermented milk survived GI transit and modulated intestinal microbiota. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Effects of a Potential Autochthonous Probiotic Bacillus subtilis 2-1 on the Growth and Intestinal Microbiota of Juvenile Sea Cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus Selenka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yancui; Yuan, Lei; Wan, Junli; Sun, Hushan; Wang, Yiyan; Zhang, Qin

    2018-04-01

    The effects of Bacillus subtilis 2-1 from the intestine of healthy sea cucumber on the growth, digestive enzyme activities and intestinal microbiota of juvenile sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus) were determined in the present study. Sea cucumber was fed with Sargassum thunbergii powder supplemented with B. subtilis 2-1 at different concentrations varying among 0 (control), 105, 107, and 109 CFU g-1 for 8 weeks. Results showed that the growth performance and intestinal amylase and trypsin activities were significantly increased by dietary B. subtilis 2-1 at 109 CFU g-1 ( P subtilis 2-1 had no significant influence on the lipase activity in sea cucumber ( P > 0.05). The polymerase chain reaction denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis indicated that dietary B. subtilis 2-1 at 105 and 107 CFU g-1 inhibited most of the Proteobacteria including those in genus Vibrio. Dietary B. subtilis 2-1 at 109 CFU g-1 not only decreased the abundance and species of genus Vibrio, but also increased the intensity of genera Psychrobacter and Bacillus. A specific dosage of dietary B. subtilis 2-1 could increase the growth and modulate the intestinal microbiota of sea cucumber; thus it might be a novel probiotic for keeping the health of sea cucumber.

  11. Prevention and treatment of urinary tract infection with probiotics: Review and research perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borchert, D; Sheridan, L; Papatsoris, A; Faruquz, Z; Barua, J M; Junaid, I; Pati, Y; Chinegwundoh, F; Buchholz, N

    2008-04-01

    The spiralling costs of antibiotic therapy, the appearance of multiresistant bacteria and more importantly for patients and clinicians, unsatisfactory therapeutic options in recurrent urinary tract infection (RUTI) calls for alternative and advanced medical solutions. So far no sufficient means to successfully prevent painful and disabling RUTI has been found. Even though long-term oral antibiotic treatment has been used with some success as a therapeutic option, this is no longer secure due to the development of bacterial resistance. One promising alternative is the use of live microorganisms (probiotics) to prevent and treat recurrent complicated and uncomplicated urinary tract infection (UTI).The human normal bacterial flora is increasingly recognised as an important defence to infection. Since the advent of antibiotic treatment five decades ago, a linear relation between antibiotic use and reduction in pathogenic bacteria has become established as medical conventional wisdom. But with the use of antibiotics the beneficial bacterial flora hosted by the human body is destroyed and pathogenic bacteria are selectively enabled to overgrow internal and external surfaces. The benign bacterial flora is crucial for body function and oervgrowth with pathogenic microorganisms leads to illness. Thus the concept of supporting the human body's normal flora with live microorganisms conferring a beneficial health effect is an important medical strategy.

  12. Can probiotics enhance vaccine-specific immunity in children and adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, J Y; Lamousé-Smith, E S N

    2017-10-13

    The growing use of probiotics by the general public has heightened the interest in understanding the role of probiotics in promoting health and preventing disease. General practitioners and specialists often receive inquiries from their patients regarding probiotic products and their use to ward off systemic infection or intestinal maladies. Enhanced immune function is among the touted health benefits conferred by probiotics but has not yet been fully established. Results from recent clinical trials in adults suggest a potential role for probiotics in enhancing vaccine-specific immunity. Although almost all vaccinations are given during infancy and childhood, the numbers of and results from studies using probiotics in pediatric subjects are limited. This review evaluates recent clinical trials of probiotics used to enhance vaccine-specific immune responses in adults and infants. We highlight meaningful results and the implications of these findings for designing translational and clinical studies that will evaluate the potential clinical role for probiotics. We conclude that the touted health claims of probiotics for use in children to augment immunity warrant further investigation. In order to achieve this goal, a consensus should be reached on common study designs that apply similar treatment timelines, compare well-characterised probiotic strains and monitor effective responses against different classes of vaccines.

  13. Antioxidant Properties of Probiotic Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Wu, Yanping; Wang, Yuanyuan; Xu, Han; Mei, Xiaoqiang; Yu, Dongyou; Wang, Yibing; Li, Weifen

    2017-05-19

    Oxidative stress defines a condition in which the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in the cell is disturbed, resulting in DNA hydroxylation, protein denaturation, lipid peroxidation, and apoptosis, ultimately compromising cells' viability. Probiotics have been known for many beneficial health effects, and the consumption of probiotics alone or in food shows that strain-specific probiotics can present antioxidant activity and reduce damages caused by oxidation. However, the oxidation-resistant ability of probiotics, especially the underling mechanisms, is not properly understood. In this view, there is interest to figure out the antioxidant property of probiotics and summarize the mode of action of probiotic bacteria in antioxidation. Therefore, in the present paper, the antioxidant mechanisms of probiotics have been reviewed in terms of their ability to improve the antioxidant system and their ability to decrease radical generation. Since in recent years, oxidative stress has been associated with an altered gut microbiota, the effects of probiotics on intestinal flora composition are also elaborated.

  14. Mechanisms of Action of Probiotics based on Bacillus subtilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Savustyanenko

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The bacterium B.subtilis is one of the most promi­sing probiotics studied in recent decades. Mechanisms of its probiotic action are associated with the synthesis of antimicrobial agents, increasing of non-specific and specific immunity, stimulation of growth of normal microflora of the intestine and the releasing of digestive enzymes. B.subtilis releases ribosomally synthesized peptides, non-ribosomally synthesized peptides and non-peptide substances with a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity covering Gram-positive, Gram-negative bacteria, viruses and fungi. Resistance to these antimicrobial agents is rare. Enhancement of non-specific immunity is associated with macrophage activation and the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines from them, increasing of barrier function of the intestinal mucosa, releasing of vitamins and amino acids (including essential ones. Enhancement of specific immunity manifests by activation of T- and B-lymphocytes and the release from the latter of immunoglobulins — IgG and IgA. B.subtilis stimulates the growth of normal intestinal flora, in particular, bacteria of the genus Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium. Furthermore, probiotic increases the diversity of intestinal microflora. Probiotic secretes all major digestive enzymes to the intestinal lumen: amylases, lipases, proteases, pectinases and cellulases. In addition to digestion, these enzymes destroy antinutritional factors and allergenic substances contained in the food. These mechanisms of action make reasonable the use of B.subtilis in the combination therapy to treat intestinal infections; prevention of respiratory infections during the cold season; prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea; for the correction of food digestion and movement impairments of various origin (errors in the diet, changes in the diet, diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, disorders of the autonomic nervous system, etc.. B.subtilis does not usually cause side effects. This

  15. An in vitro study on bacterial growth interactions and intestinal epithelial cell adhesion characteristics of probiotic combinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussavi, Mahta; Adams, Michelle Catherine

    2010-05-01

    The aims of this study were to examine long-term growth interactions of five probiotic strains (Lactobacillus casei 01, Lactobacillus plantarum HA8, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC 55730 and Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12) either alone or in combination with Propionibacterium jensenii 702 in a co-culture system and to determine their adhesion ability to human colon adenocarcinoma cell line Caco-2. Growth patterns of probiotic Lactobacillus strains were not considerably affected by the presence of P. jensenii 702, whereas lactobacilli exerted a strong antagonistic action against P. jensenii 702. In the co-culture of Bif. lactis Bb12 and P. jensenii 702, a significant synergistic influence on growth of both bacteria was observed (P < 0.05). The results of adhesion assay showed that when probiotic strains were tested in combination, there was evidence of an associated effect on percentage adherence. However, in most cases these differences were not statistically significant (P < 0.05). Adhesion percentage of Lb. casei 01 and Lb. rhamnosus GG both decreased significantly in the presence of P. jensenii 702 compared to their adhesion levels when alone (P < 0.05). These results show that the survival and percentage adhesion of some probiotic strains may be influenced by the presence of other strains and this should be considered when formulating in the probiotic products.

  16. Antivirulence Properties of Probiotics in Combating Microbial Pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surendran Nair, M; Amalaradjou, M A; Venkitanarayanan, K

    2017-01-01

    Probiotics are nonpathogenic microorganisms that confer a health benefit on the host when administered in adequate amounts. Ample evidence is documented to support the potential application of probiotics for the prevention and treatment of infections. Health benefits of probiotics include prevention of diarrhea, including antibiotic-associated diarrhea and traveler's diarrhea, atopic eczema, dental carries, colorectal cancers, and treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. The cumulative body of scientific evidence that demonstrates the beneficial effects of probiotics on health and disease prevention has made probiotics increasingly important as a part of human nutrition and led to a surge in the demand for probiotics in clinical applications and as functional foods. The ability of probiotics to promote health is attributed to the various beneficial effects exerted by these microorganisms on the host. These include lactose metabolism and food digestion, production of antimicrobial peptides and control of enteric infections, anticarcinogenic properties, immunologic enhancement, enhancement of short-chain fatty acid production, antiatherogenic and cholesterol-lowering attributes, regulatory role in allergy, protection against vaginal or urinary tract infections, increased nutritional value, maintenance of epithelial integrity and barrier, stimulation of repair mechanism in cells, and maintenance and reestablishment of well-balanced indigenous intestinal and respiratory microbial communities. Most of these attributes primarily focus on the effect of probiotic supplementation on the host. Hence, in most cases, it can be concluded that the ability of a probiotic to protect the host from infection is an indirect result of promoting overall health and well-being. However, probiotics also exert a direct effect on invading microorganisms. The direct modes of action resulting in the elimination of pathogens include inhibition of pathogen replication by producing

  17. Effects of Lactobacillus salivarius Ren on cancer prevention and intestinal microbiota in 1, 2-dimethylhydrazine-induced rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ming; Fan, Xing; Fang, Bing; Zhu, Chengzhen; Zhu, Jun; Ren, Fazheng

    2015-06-01

    Probiotics have been suggested as a prophylactic measure in colon cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of Lactobacillus salivarius Ren (Ren) in modulating colonic microbiota structure and colon cancer incidence in a rat model after injection with 1,2-dimethyl hydrazine (DMH). The results indicated that oral administration of Ren could effectively suppress DMH-induced colonic carcinogenesis. A significant decrease in cancer incidence (87.5% to 25%) was detected in rats fed with a dose of 5 × 10(10) CFU/kg bodyweight per day. Using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and Real-time PCR combined with multivariate statistical methods, we demonstrated that injection with DMH significantly altered the rat gut microbiota, while Ren counteracted these DMH-induced adverse effects and promoted reversion of the gut microbiota close to the healthy state. Tvalue biplots followed by band sequencing identified 21 bacterial strains as critical variables affected by DMH and Ren. Injection of DMH significantly increased the amount of Ruminococcus species (sp.) and Clostridiales bacteria, as well as decreasing the Prevotella sp. Administration of Ren reduced the amount of Ruminococcus sp., Clostridiales bacteria, and Bacteroides dorei, and increased the amount of Prevotella. Real-time PCR results were consistent with the results derived by t-value biplots. These findings suggested that Ren is a potential agent for colon cancer prevention. In conclusion, the results in the present study suggest a potential therapeutic approach based on the modulation of intestinal microflora by probiotics may be beneficial in the prevention of colorectal carcinogenesis.

  18. Probiotics Prevent Late-Onset Sepsis in Human Milk-Fed, Very Low Birth Weight Preterm Infants: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aceti, Arianna; Maggio, Luca; Beghetti, Isadora; Gori, Davide; Barone, Giovanni; Callegari, Maria Luisa; Fantini, Maria Pia; Indrio, Flavia; Meneghin, Fabio; Morelli, Lorenzo; Zuccotti, Gianvincenzo; Corvaglia, Luigi

    2017-08-22

    Growing evidence supports the role of probiotics in reducing the risk of necrotizing enterocolitis, time to achieve full enteral feeding, and late-onset sepsis (LOS) in preterm infants. As reported for several neonatal clinical outcomes, recent data have suggested that nutrition might affect probiotics' efficacy. Nevertheless, the currently available literature does not explore the relationship between LOS prevention and type of feeding in preterm infants receiving probiotics. Thus, the aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the effect of probiotics for LOS prevention in preterm infants according to type of feeding (exclusive human milk (HM) vs. exclusive formula or mixed feeding). Randomized-controlled trials involving preterm infants receiving probiotics and reporting on LOS were included in the systematic review. Only trials reporting on outcome according to feeding type were included in the meta-analysis. Fixed-effects models were used and random-effects models were used when significant heterogeneity was found. The results were expressed as risk ratio (RR) with 95% confidence interval (CI). Twenty-five studies were included in the meta-analysis. Overall, probiotic supplementation resulted in a significantly lower incidence of LOS (RR 0.79 (95% CI 0.71-0.88), p probiotics was confirmed only in exclusively HM-fed preterm infants (RR 0.75 (95% CI 0.65-0.86), p probiotic mixtures, and not single-strain products, were effective in reducing LOS incidence (RR 0.68 (95% CI 0.57-0.80) p probiotics reduce LOS incidence in exclusively HM-fed preterm infants. Further efforts are required to clarify the relationship between probiotics supplementation, HM, and feeding practices in preterm infants.

  19. Design of a multispecies probiotic mixture to prevent infectious complications in critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmerman, Harro M; Niers, Laetitia E M; Ridwan, Ben U; Koning, Catherina J M; Mulder, Linda; Akkermans, Louis M A; Rombouts, Frans M; Rijkers, Ger T

    2007-08-01

    Although the potential for probiotics is investigated in an increasing variety of diseases, there is little or no consensus regarding the desired probiotic properties for a particular disease in question, nor about the final design of the probiotic. Specific strain selection procedures were undertaken to design a disease-specific multispecies probiotic. From a strain collection of 69 different lactic acid bacteria a primary selection was made of 14 strains belonging to different species showing superior survival in a simulated gastrointestinal environment. Functional tests like antimicrobial activity against a range of clinical isolates and cytokine inducing capacity in cultured human peripheral blood mononuclear cells were used to further identify potential strains. Specific strains inhibited growth of clinical isolates whereas others superiorly induced the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. Based on functional tests and general criteria regarding probiotic design and safety, a selection of the following six strains was made (Ecologic 641); Bifidobacterium bifidum, Bifidobacterium infantis, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus salivarius and Lactococcus lactis. Combination of these strains resulted in a wider antimicrobial spectrum, superior induction of IL-10 and silencing of pro-inflammatory cytokines as compared to the individual components. Application of strict criteria during the design of a disease-specific probiotic prior to implementation in clinical trials may provide a rational basis for use of probiotics.

  20. Possibility of breast cancer prevention: use of soy isoflavones and fermented soy beverage produced using probiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Akimitsu; Kano, Mitsuyoshi; Kaga, Chiaki

    2015-05-13

    The various beneficial effects of soybeans, which are rich in phytochemicals, have received much attention because of increasing health awareness. Soy milk that has been fermented using lactic acid bacteria has been used to prepare cheese-like products, tofu (bean-curd), and yogurt-type products. However, the distinct odor of soybeans has limited the acceptance of such foods, particularly in Western countries. In Japan, while tofu and soy milk have long been habitually consumed, the development of novel, palatable food products has not been easy. The unpleasant odor of soy milk and the absorption efficiency for isoflavones can be improved using a recently developed fermented soy milk beverage. Cancer has been the leading cause of death, and breast cancer is the most common malignancy among women. The most common type of breast cancer is estrogen-dependent, and the anti-estrogenic effects of isoflavones are known. The present review focuses on the characteristics of soy milk fermented using probiotics, an epidemiological study examining the incidence of breast cancer and soy isoflavone consumption, and a non-clinical study examining breast cancer prevention using fermented soy milk beverage.

  1. Possibility of Breast Cancer Prevention: Use of Soy Isoflavones and Fermented Soy Beverage Produced Using Probiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akimitsu Takagi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The various beneficial effects of soybeans, which are rich in phytochemicals, have received much attention because of increasing health awareness. Soy milk that has been fermented using lactic acid bacteria has been used to prepare cheese-like products, tofu (bean-curd, and yogurt-type products. However, the distinct odor of soybeans has limited the acceptance of such foods, particularly in Western countries. In Japan, while tofu and soy milk have long been habitually consumed, the development of novel, palatable food products has not been easy. The unpleasant odor of soy milk and the absorption efficiency for isoflavones can be improved using a recently developed fermented soy milk beverage. Cancer has been the leading cause of death, and breast cancer is the most common malignancy among women. The most common type of breast cancer is estrogen-dependent, and the anti-estrogenic effects of isoflavones are known. The present review focuses on the characteristics of soy milk fermented using probiotics, an epidemiological study examining the incidence of breast cancer and soy isoflavone consumption, and a non-clinical study examining breast cancer prevention using fermented soy milk beverage.

  2. Intestinal permeability - a new target for disease prevention and therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bischoff, S.C.; Barbara, G.; Buurman, W.; Ockhuizen, T.; Schulzke, J.D.; Serino, M.; Tilg, H.; Watson, A.; Wells, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Data are accumulating that emphasize the important role of the intestinal barrier and intestinal permeability for health and disease. However, these terms are poorly defined, their assessment is a matter of debate, and their clinical significance is not clearly established. In the present review,

  3. Complete genome sequence of bacteriocin-producing Lactobacillus plantarum KLDS1.0391, a probiotic strain with gastrointestinal tract resistance and adhesion to the intestinal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Fang-Fang; Zhang, Lu-Ji; Pang, Xue-Hui; Gu, Xin-Xi; Abdelazez, Amro; Liang, Yu; Sun, Si-Rui; Meng, Xiang-Chen

    2017-10-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum KLDS1.0391 is a probiotic strain isolated from the traditional fermented dairy products and identified to produce bacteriocin against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Previous studies showed that the strain has a high resistance to gastrointestinal stress and has a high adhesion ability to the intestinal epithelial cells (Caco-2). We reported the entire genome sequence of this strain, which contains a circular 2,886,607-bp chromosome and three circular plasmids. Genes, which are related to the biosynthesis of bacteriocins, the stress resistance to gastrointestinal tract environment and adhesive performance, were identified. Whole genome sequence of Lactobacillus plantarum KLDS1.0391 will be helpful for its applications in food industry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Probiotics and necrotizing enterocolitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Paul; Hall, Nigel J; Eaton, Simon

    2015-12-01

    Probiotics for the prevention of necrotizing enterocolitis have attracted a huge interest. Combined data from heterogeneous randomised controlled trials suggest that probiotics may decrease the incidence of NEC. However, the individual studies use a variety of probiotic products, and the group at greatest risk of NEC, i.e., those with a birth weight of less than 1000 g, is relatively under-represented in these trials so we do not have adequate evidence of either efficacy or safety to recommend universal prophylactic administration of probiotics to premature infants. These problems have polarized neonatologists, with some taking the view that it is unethical not to universally administer probiotics to premature infants, whereas others regard the meta-analyses as flawed and that there is insufficient evidence to recommend routine probiotic administration. Another problem is that the mechanism by which probiotics might act is not clear, although some experimental evidence is starting to accumulate. This may allow development of surrogate endpoints of effectiveness, refinement of probiotic regimes, or even development of pharmacological agents that may act through the same mechanism. Hence, although routine probiotic administration is controversial, studies of probiotic effects may ultimately lead us to effective means to prevent this devastating disease.

  5. Crohn's disease intestinal CD4+ T cells have impaired interleukin-10 productionwhich is not restored by probiotic bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvas, Christian L; Kelsen, Jens; Agnholt, Jørgen

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Crohn's disease (CD) has been associated with low mucosal interleukin (IL)-10 production, but the mechanism behind this deficiency remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate IL-10 and interferon (IFN)-gamma production in intestinal CD4+ T cells from CD patients and healthy...... volunteers (HV) and to examine how this was affected by bacterial products and the presence or absence of autologous dendritic cells. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We cultured intestinal CD4+ T cells from CD patients (n=9) and HV (n=6) and differentiated dendritic cells from their peripheral monocytes. Intestinal T...... this imbalance in CD, but tended to do so in HV. When there were no dendritic cells, CD intestinal T cells responded to autologous bacteria with an increased IFN-gamma production (2.3+/-1.3 ng/ml) compared with HV intestinal T cells (0.3+/-0.2 ng/ml). CONCLUSIONS: Crohn's disease intestinal CD4+ T cells display...

  6. MICROENCAPSULATION-THE FUTURE OF PROBIOTIC CULTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tawheed Amin

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In the recent past, there has been an explosion of probiotic cultures based health products in Indian markets. The survival of the probiotic bacteria in gastro-intestinal gut is questionable, because of the poor survival of probiotic bacteria in these products. Basically the viability of probiotic cultures is very weak in these food products. Probiotic based products are health potentiators and are associated with many health benefits. Microencapsulation of the probiotic cultures is one of the recent, demanded and highly efficient techniques. Among the different approaches proposed to improve the survival of probiotics during food manufacturing process and passage in the upper part of gastrointestinal tratct (GI tract, microencapsulation has received considerable attention. Encapsulated probiotic cultures have longer shelf life of the products. This microencapsulation technology is used to maintain the viability of probiotic bacteria during food product processing and storage. This article reviews the principles, techniques and need for microencapsulation of probiotic cultures.

  7. Prophylactic use of Saccharomyces boulardii probiotics in preventing antibiotic-associated diarrhea: a single center hospital-based case-control study in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikola Panic

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD develops through the loss of normal bacterial intestinal flora. We have conducted a case-control study in order to assess whether prophylactic administration of Saccharomyces boulardii (S. boulardii prevents occurrence of AAD among adult hospitalized patients. Methods. Single-center hospital based case-control study was conducted in University Clinic “Dr Dragisa Misovic-Dedinje”, Belgrade, Serbia. Hospital records were screened in order to identify all the patients developing AAD in period January 1. 2010 – August 31. 2015. For every case, one age and gender matched control was randomly selected among patients hospitalized at the same time at the same department who were administered with antibiotics and did not develop AAD. For both cases and controls data were extracted on demographics, medical history, indication for use of antibiotics, antibiotics used, and prophylactic use of S.boulardii probiotics. The relationship between occurrence of AAD and putative risk factors were measured using the odds ratios (ORs and their 95% confidence interval (CI derived from logistic regression analysis. Results. Number of 59 cases and 59 controls were included in the study. Most of AAD cases were associated with old age (mean age of 78.05, and almost half (49.15% were hospitalized on geriatrics department. Most prescribed class of antibiotics among cases was III generation cephalosporins (50.85%, followed by fluoroquinolones (28.81% and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (20.34%. Significantly more cases than controls were treated with carbapenems (16.95% vs. 5.08% respectively, p=0.04. Significantly less cases were administered with prophylactic S. boulardii probiotics (18.64% vs. 42.37% p=0.005. We identified prophylactic use of S. boulardii to act protectively against development of AAD from both univariate (OR: 0.31, 95% CI: 0.14-0.72 and multivariate analysis (OR:0.36, 95% CI: 0.14-0.80. Use of

  8. Probiotics: definition, sources, selection, and uses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Mary Ellen

    2008-02-01

    Interest in probiotics is at an all-time high in the United States, driven in part by new products emerging in the market, by US researchers eager to evaluate efficacy claims rigorously, and by consumers interested in potential therapeutic and preventive health benefits. The US marketplace is a mixed bag of products, some well-defined and properly evaluated in controlled clinical studies and others with unsubstantiated claims of efficacy. Validation of probiotic contents in commercial products is needed to ensure consumer confidence. The term "probiotic" should be used only for products that meet the scientific criteria for this term-namely, products that contain an adequate dose of live microbes that have been documented in target-host studies to confer a health benefit. Probiotics must be identified to the level of strain, must be characterized for the specific health target, and must be formulated into products using strains and doses shown to be efficacious. Several characteristics commonly presumed to be essential to probiotics, such as human origin and the ability to improve the balance of the intestinal microbiota, are discussed.

  9. Probiotics Prevent Late-Onset Sepsis in Human Milk-Fed, Very Low Birth Weight Preterm Infants: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arianna Aceti

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Growing evidence supports the role of probiotics in reducing the risk of necrotizing enterocolitis, time to achieve full enteral feeding, and late-onset sepsis (LOS in preterm infants. As reported for several neonatal clinical outcomes, recent data have suggested that nutrition might affect probiotics’ efficacy. Nevertheless, the currently available literature does not explore the relationship between LOS prevention and type of feeding in preterm infants receiving probiotics. Thus, the aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the effect of probiotics for LOS prevention in preterm infants according to type of feeding (exclusive human milk (HM vs. exclusive formula or mixed feeding. Randomized-controlled trials involving preterm infants receiving probiotics and reporting on LOS were included in the systematic review. Only trials reporting on outcome according to feeding type were included in the meta-analysis. Fixed-effects models were used and random-effects models were used when significant heterogeneity was found. The results were expressed as risk ratio (RR with 95% confidence interval (CI. Twenty-five studies were included in the meta-analysis. Overall, probiotic supplementation resulted in a significantly lower incidence of LOS (RR 0.79 (95% CI 0.71–0.88, p < 0.0001. According to feeding type, the beneficial effect of probiotics was confirmed only in exclusively HM-fed preterm infants (RR 0.75 (95% CI 0.65–0.86, p < 0.0001. Among HM-fed infants, only probiotic mixtures, and not single-strain products, were effective in reducing LOS incidence (RR 0.68 (95% CI 0.57–0.80 p < 0.00001. The results of the present meta-analysis show that probiotics reduce LOS incidence in exclusively HM-fed preterm infants. Further efforts are required to clarify the relationship between probiotics supplementation, HM, and feeding practices in preterm infants.

  10. Dietary administration of the probiotic SpPdp11: Effects on the intestinal microbiota and immune-related gene expression of farmed Solea senegalensis treated with oxytetracycline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia-Paniagua, S T; Vidal, S; Lobo, C; García de la Banda, I; Esteban, M A; Balebona, M C; Moriñigo, M A

    2015-10-01

    Few antimicrobials are currently authorised in the aquaculture industry to treat infectious diseases. Among them, oxytetracycline (OTC) is one of the first-choice drugs for nearly all bacterial diseases. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the dietary administration of OTC both alone and jointly with the probiotic Shewanella putrefaciens Pdp11 (SpPdp11) on the intestinal microbiota and hepatic expression of genes related to immunity in Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) juveniles. The results demonstrated that the richness and diversity of the intestinal microbiota of fish treated with OTC decreased compared with those of the control group but that these effects were lessened by the simultaneous administration of SpPdp11. In addition, specimens that received OTC and SpPdp11 jointly showed a decreased intensity of the Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) bands related to Vibrio genus and the presence of DGGE bands related to Lactobacillus and Shewanella genera. The relationship among the intestinal microbiota of fish fed with control and OTC diets and the expression of the NADPH oxidase and CASPASE-6 genes was demonstrated by a Principal Components Analysis (PCA) carried out in this study. In contrast, a close relationship between the transcription of genes, such as NKEF, IGF-β, HSP70 and GP96, and the DGGE bands of fish treated jointly with OTC and SpPdp11 was observed in the PCA study. In summary, the results obtained in this study demonstrate that the administration of OTC results in the up-regulation of genes related to apoptosis but that the joint administration of OTC and S. putrefaciens Pdp11 increases the transcription of genes related to antiapoptotic effects and oxidative stress regulation. Further, a clear relationship between these changes and those detected in the intestinal microbiota is established. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Probiotics in critically ill children [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunit C. Singhi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Gut microflora contribute greatly to immune and nutritive functions and act as a physical barrier against pathogenic organisms across the gut mucosa. Critical illness disrupts the balance between host and gut microflora, facilitating colonization, overgrowth, and translocation of pathogens and microbial products across intestinal mucosal barrier and causing systemic inflammatory response syndrome and sepsis. Commonly used probiotics, which have been developed from organisms that form gut microbiota, singly or in combination, can restore gut microflora and offer the benefits similar to those offered by normal gut flora, namely immune enhancement, improved barrier function of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT, and prevention of bacterial translocation. Enteral supplementation of probiotic strains containing either Lactobacillus alone or in combination with Bifidobacterium reduced the incidence and severity of necrotizing enterocolitis and all-cause mortality in preterm infants. Orally administered Lactobacillus casei subspecies rhamnosus, Lactobacillus reuteri, and Lactobacillus rhamnosus were effective in the prevention of late-onset sepsis and GIT colonization by Candida in preterm very low birth weight infants. In critically ill children, probiotics are effective in the prevention and treatment of antibiotic-associated diarrhea. Oral administration of a mix of probiotics for 1 week to children on broad-spectrum antibiotics in a pediatric intensive care unit decreased GIT colonization by Candida, led to a 50% reduction in candiduria, and showed a trend toward decreased incidence of candidemia. However, routine use of probiotics cannot be supported on the basis of current scientific evidence. Safety of probiotics is also a concern; rarely, probiotics may cause bacteremia, fungemia, and sepsis in immunocompromised critically ill children. More studies are needed to answer questions on the effectiveness of a mix versus single-strain probiotics

  12. Effects of antibiotic growth promoter, probiotic and basil essential oil supplementation on the intestinal microflora of broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SEYYED REZA RIYAZI

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Effects of the probiotic ‘Protexin', basil essential oil and the antibiotic growth promoter ‘Avilamycin' were studied on the ileum microbial flora of broilers when these substances are used as broiler feed additives. A total of six hundred Arian broilers were divided into 6 treatment groups, with 4 replicates of 25 birds. Treatments have been performed with a plant essential oil at 3 levels (200, 400 and 600 ppm, the probiotic ‘Protexin' (150 ppm, the antibiotic ‘Avilamycin' (150 ppm and a control group with no additives. Birds in different treatments received the same diets during the experimental period. The results showed that the probiotic treatment significantly decreased the total bacteria counts (P0.05. The lowest and highest lactic acid bacteria in ileum were obtained in the control group and in birds receiving 400 ppm basil essential oil, respectively. Moreover, addition of 600 ppm of basil essential oil into diet decreased the number of E. coli colonies as compared to other treatments (P< 0.05. It could be speculated that the basil essential oil and ‘Protexin' could replace the antibiotics, which have been banned to use as growth promoter in animal feeds.

  13. Protective Effects of Let-7b on the Expression of Occludin by Targeting P38 MAPK in Preventing Intestinal Barrier Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihua Liu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Let-7b was dramatically reduced after a dicer knockout of mice with intestinal barrier function injuries. This paper aims to investigate the molecular mechanism of let-7b by targeting p38 MAPK in preventing intestinal barrier dysfunction. Methods: A total of 186 patients were enrolled, with 93 in the control group and 93 in the PRO group. Only 158 patients completed the entire study, whereas the others either did not meet the inclusion criteria or refused to participate. To further verify the role of let-7b, intestinal epithelial conditional knockout (IKO mice of mmu-let-7b model were established. Serum let-7b, zonulin, IL-6, and TNF-α concentrations were measured by ELISA or quantitative RT-PCR. Permeability assay was done by ussing chamber. The apoptotic cells were identified using an In Situ Cell Death Detection Kit. Protein was detected by western blot. Results: Probiotics can lower infection-related complications, as well as increase the serum and tissue let-7b levels. P38 MAPK was identified as the target of let-7b, as verified by NCM460 cells. P38 MAPK expression was increased, whereas tight-junction (TJ proteins were significantly decreased in let-7b IKO mice (both P<0.05. Negative regulation of p38 MAPK molecular signaling pathways was involved in the protective effects of let-7b on intestinal barrier function. Conclusion: Let-7b was identified as a novel diagnosis biomarker or a potential treatment target for preventing intestinal barrier dysfunction.

  14. Protective Effects of Let-7b on the Expression of Occludin by Targeting P38 MAPK in Preventing Intestinal Barrier Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhihua; Tian, Yinghai; Jiang, Yanqiong; Chen, Shihua; Liu, Ting; Moyer, Mary Pat; Qin, Huanlong; Zhou, Xinke

    2018-01-01

    Let-7b was dramatically reduced after a dicer knockout of mice with intestinal barrier function injuries. This paper aims to investigate the molecular mechanism of let-7b by targeting p38 MAPK in preventing intestinal barrier dysfunction. A total of 186 patients were enrolled, with 93 in the control group and 93 in the PRO group. Only 158 patients completed the entire study, whereas the others either did not meet the inclusion criteria or refused to participate. To further verify the role of let-7b, intestinal epithelial conditional knockout (IKO) mice of mmu-let-7b model were established. Serum let-7b, zonulin, IL-6, and TNF-α concentrations were measured by ELISA or quantitative RT-PCR. Permeability assay was done by ussing chamber. The apoptotic cells were identified using an In Situ Cell Death Detection Kit. Protein was detected by western blot. Probiotics can lower infection-related complications, as well as increase the serum and tissue let-7b levels. P38 MAPK was identified as the target of let-7b, as verified by NCM460 cells. P38 MAPK expression was increased, whereas tight-junction (TJ) proteins were significantly decreased in let-7b IKO mice (both P<0.05). Negative regulation of p38 MAPK molecular signaling pathways was involved in the protective effects of let-7b on intestinal barrier function. Let-7b was identified as a novel diagnosis biomarker or a potential treatment target for preventing intestinal barrier dysfunction. © 2018 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Probiotics for experimental obesity prevention: focus on strain dependence and viability of composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobyliak, Nazarii; Falalyeyeva, Tetyana; Beregova, Tetyana; Spivak, Mykola

    2017-01-01

    a comparative animal study of the efficacy of intermittent short-course administration of lyophilised single-, three-, and live multistrain probiotic on obesity. We included 70 rats divided into seven groups (n = 10 in each). Rats of group I were intact. Newborn rats of groups II-VII were injected with monosodium glutamate (MSG) (4 mg/g). Rats of group II (MSG-obesity group) were untreated. The group III-V received lyophilised monoprobiotics B. animalis VKL, B. animalis VKB, and L. casei IMVB-7280, respectively. Group VI received the mix of these three probiotic strains. Group VII was treated with multiprobiotic "Symbiter", which contains 14 live probiotic strains (Lactobacillus, Bifi-dobacterium, Propionibacterium, Acetobacter genera). Neonatal treatment with MSG caused stunted growth, which is why, despite the lack of weight gain dynamics and absence of significant food consumption rate and body weight changes at day 120, we noted the development of obesity in all MSG-obesity rats and in up to 20-70% after probiotic administration. Supplementation of probiotic composition, with preference to live strains, led to a significantly lower prevalence of obesity, and reduction of VAT weight and serum lipid levels as compared to single-strain probiotic. In our comparative single-strain analysis a trend towards more pronounced hypolipidaemic effect and VAT weight reduction was observed for lyophilised L. casei IMVB-7280 as compared to B. animalis VKL and VKB strains. Multistrain formed mutualistic interactions in mixtures and therefore able to share with different metabolites, affect differ-ent receptors and produced various of biologically active compounds which synergistic overall effect greater than the sum of the single effects.

  16. Probiotic (VSL# 3) for Gulf War Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-10-1-0593 TITLE: Probiotic (VSL#3) for Gulf War Illness PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Ashok Tuteja, M.D. M.P.H. CONTRACTING...THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1 . REPORT DATE 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED October 2017 Annual 4 . TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Probiotic (VSL#3) for...determine whether probiotic VisbiomeTMwill improve 1) Intestinal symptoms of Irritable Bowel Syndrome and 2) Non-intestinal symptoms (fatigue, joint

  17. Using a mathematical model to analyze the role of probiotics and inflammation in necrotizing enterocolitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia C Arciero

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC is a severe disease of the gastrointestinal tract of pre-term babies and is thought to be related to the physiological immaturity of the intestine and altered levels of normal flora in the gut. Understanding the factors that contribute to the pathology of NEC may lead to the development of treatment strategies aimed at re-establishing the integrity of the epithelial wall and preventing the propagation of inflammation in NEC. Several studies have shown a reduced incidence and severity of NEC in neonates treated with probiotics (beneficial bacteria species.The objective of this study is to use a mathematical model to predict the conditions under which probiotics may be successful in promoting the health of infants suffering from NEC. An ordinary differential equation model is developed that tracks the populations of pathogenic and probiotic bacteria in the intestinal lumen and in the blood/tissue region. The permeability of the intestinal epithelial layer is treated as a variable, and the role of the inflammatory response is included. The model predicts that in the presence of probiotics health is restored in many cases that would have been otherwise pathogenic. The timing of probiotic administration is also shown to determine whether or not health is restored. Finally, the model predicts that probiotics may be harmful to the NEC patient under very specific conditions, perhaps explaining the detrimental effects of probiotics observed in some clinical studies.The reduced, experimentally motivated mathematical model that we have developed suggests how a certain general set of characteristics of probiotics can lead to beneficial or detrimental outcomes for infants suffering from NEC, depending on the influences of probiotics on defined features of the inflammatory response.

  18. Effects of Probiotics on Human Obesity Control: An Unproven Hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amparo Arias

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study is to review the different publications associated with probiotics and obesity, as well as to get some new insights regarding the role of the microbiome in diseases such as obesity. An extensive search for scientific publications (studies in animal models, cells, clinical trials and reviews was performed in the following specialist computer databases (PubMed central (PMC-NCBI, Elsevier Journal, Scielo Spain, Scirus, Science Direct to establish the current status of the potential effect of probiotics in the control of obesity in humans, as well as the relationship between intestinal microbiota and obesity. The intestinal microbiota and oral probiotics have a positive effect on human health, as they can regulate the immune functions and protect from infections and chronic inflammatory processes. Although divergent results have recently been reported, it has been shown but not confirmed that intestinal microbiota might play a role as a new factor associated with the regulation of body weight and obesity-related diseases. The international MetaHIT project has shown that human microbiome populations can be grouped into three different enterotypes. Two of these enterotypes (Bacteroides and Ruminococcus seem to encode functions related to obesity. Although the relationship between intestinal microbiota and obesity are not yet well established, the attempt to manipulate intestinal microbiota through diet is suggested as a new plausible approach to prevent, or modify the risk of, obesity and its related diseases.

  19. Naringin, a natural dietary compound, prevents intestinal tumorigenesis in Apc (Min/+) mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu-Sheng; Li, Ye; Wang, Yan; Sun, Shi-Yue; Jiang, Tao; Li, Cong; Cui, Shu-Xiang; Qu, Xian-Jun

    2016-05-01

    Naringin is a natural dietary flavonoid compound. We aimed to evaluate the effects of naringin on intestinal tumorigenesis in the adenomatous polyposis coli multiple intestinal neoplasia (Apc (Min/+)) mouse model. Apc (Min/+) mice were given either naringin (150 mg/kg) or vehicle by p.o. gavage daily for 12 consecutive weeks. Mice were killed with ether, and blood samples were collected to assess the concentrations of IL-6 and PGE2. Total intestines were removed, and the number of polyps was examined. Tissue samples of intestinal polyps were subjected to the assays of histopathology, immunohistochemical analysis and Western blotting analysis. Apc (Min/+) mice fed with naringin developed less and smaller polyps in total intestines. Naringin prevented intestinal tumorigenesis without adverse effects. Histopathologic analysis revealed the reduction of dysplastic cells and dysplasia in the adenomatous polyps. The treatments' effects might arise from its anti-proliferation, induction of apoptosis and modulation of GSK-3β and APC/β-catenin signaling pathways. Naringin also exerted its effects on tumorigenesis through anti-chronic inflammation. Naringin prevented intestinal tumorigenesis likely through a collection of activities including anti-proliferation, induction of apoptosis, modulation of GSK-3β and APC/β-catenin pathways and anti-inflammation. Naringin is a potential chemopreventive agent for reducing the risk of colonic cancers.

  20. Probiotics and Appetite Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg, Anne Toksvig

    resistance and blood lipid profile among others. Probiotics which are health promoting bacteria can potentially be used to affect the GM and thereby change metabolic outcomes of the host. Animal studies have shown associations between intake of probiotics and appetite regulation, but currently no human...... studies have investigated this effect. Supplementation with different probiotic strains have been shown to have an effect on blood lipid profiles in both animals and humans and the mechanisms behind have been studied in vitro and in rodents. The aim of the present thesis was to examine in an ex vivo...... intestine, in an animal study and in two human studies the effect of the probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei L. casei W8 (W8) on appetite regulation, blood lipids and blood fatty acids. In addition, it was investigated if W8 had an effect on the fecal microbiota of the human...

  1. The friendly bacteria within us Commensal bacteria of the intestine ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Balance of bacterial species in the gut · Immunosensory detection of intestinal bacteria · Pathogenic bacteria release interleukin-8 from HT-29 cells · Lactobacillus GG prevents the IL-8 release in response to pathogens · Effect of probiotic bacteria on chemokine response of epithelia to pathogens · PCR array studies in colon ...

  2. Probiotics in digestive diseases: focus on Lactobacillus GG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, F; Pace, M; Quartarone, G

    2015-12-01

    Probiotics are becoming increasingly important in basic and clinical research, but they are also a subject of considerable economic interest due to their expanding popularity. They are live micro-organisms which, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit to the host. From this very well-known definition, it is clear that, unlike drugs, probiotics might be useful in healthy subjects to reduce the risk of developing certain diseases or to optimise some physiological functions. They also may offer some advantages in already ill persons in relieving symptoms and signs, e.g. people with acute diarrhea. According to current definitions, probiotics should survive both gastric acid and bile to reach the small intestine and colon, where they exert their effects. Many of these are available in a lyophilized (freeze-dried) pill form, though some are available in yogurt or as packets (sachets), which can be mixed into non-carbonated drinks. The present review focuses on three main issues: 1) understanding why, at present, probiotics are so interesting for doctors and consumers; 2) reviewing the available data on probiotic use in digestive diseases, in particular irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), (prevention of) infectious diarrhea, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and colorectal cancer (CRC); 3) highlighting the individual profile of Lactobacillus GG (LGG) in the above contexts, providing an assessment as well as recommendations on its use in gastro-intestinal tract (GIT) disorders. Research studies conducted in animals and humans with the main probiotics strains for GIT diseases, and published from the early 1990s to 2014 have been considered. PubMed, Medline and Ovid were the main sources adopted for data retrieving. The increasing attention on probiotics is a direct consequence of the improvement in the techniques for studying microbiota. Until recently, its composition has been analysed by culture-based methods

  3. Probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG prevents alveolar bone loss in a mouse model of experimental periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatej, Simona M; Marino, Victor; Bright, Richard; Fitzsimmons, Tracy R; Gully, Neville; Zilm, Peter; Gibson, Rachel J; Edwards, Suzanne; Bartold, Peter M

    2018-02-01

    This study investigated the role of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) on bone loss and local and systemic inflammation in an in vivo mouse model of experimental periodontitis (PD). Experimental PD was induced in mice by oral inoculation with Porphyromonas gingivalis and Fusobacterium nucleatum over a period of 44 days. The probiotic LGG was administered via oral inoculation or oral gavage prior to, and during disease induction. The antimicrobial activity of LGG on the inoculum was also tested. Alveolar bone levels and gingival tissue changes were assessed using in vivo microcomputed tomography and histological analysis. Serum levels of mouse homologues for IL-8 were measured using multiplex assays. Pre-treatment with probiotics either via oral gavage or via oral inoculation significantly reduced bone loss (p loss in a mouse model of induced PD irrespective of the mode of administration. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Assessment of probiotics supplementation via feed or water on the growth performance, intestinal morphology and microflora of chickens after experimental infection with Eimeria acervulina, Eimeria maxima and Eimeria tenella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannenas, I; Tsalie, E; Triantafillou, E; Hessenberger, S; Teichmann, K; Mohnl, M; Tontis, D

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the effect of probiotic supplementation via drinking water or feed on the performance of broiler chickens experimentally infected with sporulated oocysts of Eimeria acervulina (5 × 10(4)), Eimeria maxima and Eimeria tenella (2 × 10(4) each one) at 14 days of age was evaluated. Two hundred and forty 1-day-old Ross 308 male chicks were separated into eight equal groups with three replicates. Two of the groups, one infected with mixed Eimeria oocysts and the other not, were given a basal diet and served as controls. The remaining groups were also challenged with mixed Eimeria species and received the basal diet and either water supplemented with probiotic (three groups) or probiotic via feed (two groups); the probiotic used consisted of Enterococcus faecium #589, Bifidobacterium animalis #503 and Lactobacillus salivarius #505 at a ratio of 6:3:1. Probiotic supplementation was applied either via drinking water in different inclusion rates (groups W1, W2 and W3) or via feed using uncoated (group FN) or coated strains (group FC). The last group was given the basal diet supplemented with the anticoccidial lasalocid at 75 mg/kg. Each experimental group was given the corresponding diet or drinking water from day 1 to day 42 of age. Throughout the experimental period of 42 days, body weight and feed intake were recorded weekly and feed conversion ratios were calculated. Seven days after infection, the infected control group presented the lowest weight gain values, while probiotics supplied via feed supported growth to a comparable level with that of the lasalocid group. Probiotic groups presented lesion score values and oocyst numbers that were lower than in control infected birds but higher than in the lasalocid group. In the duodenum, jejunum and ileum, the highest villous height values were presented by probiotic groups. In conclusion, a mixture of probiotic substances gave considerable improvement in both growth performance and intestinal health in

  5. Screening of Probiotic Candidates in Human Oral Bacteria for the Prevention of Dental Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomohiko Terai

    Full Text Available The oral cavity in healthy subjects has a well-balanced microbiota that consists of more than 700 species. However, a disturbance of this balance, with an increase of harmful microbes and a decrease of beneficial microbes, causes oral disorders such as periodontal disease or dental caries. Nowadays, probiotics are expected to confer oral health benefits by modulating the oral microbiota. This study screened new probiotic candidates with potential oral health benefits and no harmful effects on the oral cavity. We screened 14 lactobacillus strains and 36 streptococcus strains out of 896 oral isolates derived from healthy subjects. These bacteria did not produce volatile sulfur compounds or water-insoluble glucan, had higher antibacterial activity against periodontal bacteria, and had higher adherence activity to oral epithelial cells or salivary-coated hydroxyapatite in vitro. We then evaluated the risk of primary cariogenicity and infective endocarditis of the selected oral isolates. As a result, Lactobacillus crispatus YIT 12319, Lactobacillus fermentum YIT 12320, Lactobacillus gasseri YIT 12321, and Streptococcus mitis YIT 12322 were selected because they showed no cariogenic potential in an artificial mouth system and a lower risk of experimental infective endocarditis in a rat model. These candidates are expected as new probiotics with potential oral health benefits and no adverse effects on general health.

  6. Screening of Probiotic Candidates in Human Oral Bacteria for the Prevention of Dental Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terai, Tomohiko; Okumura, Takekazu; Imai, Susumu; Nakao, Masumi; Yamaji, Kazuaki; Ito, Masahiko; Nagata, Tsuyoshi; Kaneko, Kimiyuki; Miyazaki, Kouji; Okada, Ayako; Nomura, Yoshiaki; Hanada, Nobuhiro

    2015-01-01

    The oral cavity in healthy subjects has a well-balanced microbiota that consists of more than 700 species. However, a disturbance of this balance, with an increase of harmful microbes and a decrease of beneficial microbes, causes oral disorders such as periodontal disease or dental caries. Nowadays, probiotics are expected to confer oral health benefits by modulating the oral microbiota. This study screened new probiotic candidates with potential oral health benefits and no harmful effects on the oral cavity. We screened 14 lactobacillus strains and 36 streptococcus strains out of 896 oral isolates derived from healthy subjects. These bacteria did not produce volatile sulfur compounds or water-insoluble glucan, had higher antibacterial activity against periodontal bacteria, and had higher adherence activity to oral epithelial cells or salivary-coated hydroxyapatite in vitro. We then evaluated the risk of primary cariogenicity and infective endocarditis of the selected oral isolates. As a result, Lactobacillus crispatus YIT 12319, Lactobacillus fermentum YIT 12320, Lactobacillus gasseri YIT 12321, and Streptococcus mitis YIT 12322 were selected because they showed no cariogenic potential in an artificial mouth system and a lower risk of experimental infective endocarditis in a rat model. These candidates are expected as new probiotics with potential oral health benefits and no adverse effects on general health.

  7. Administration of Lactobacillus salivarius LI01 or Pediococcus pentosaceus LI05 prevents CCl4-induced liver cirrhosis by protecting the intestinal barrier in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ding; Lv, Longxian; Fang, Daiqiong; Wu, Wenrui; Hu, Chenxia; Xu, Lichen; Chen, Yanfei; Guo, Jing; Hu, Xinjun; Li, Ang; Guo, Feifei; Ye, Jianzhong; Li, Yating; Andayani, Dewi; Li, Lanjuan

    2017-07-31

    Alterations in the gut microbiome have been reported in liver cirrhosis, and probiotic interventions are considered a potential treatment strategy. This study aimed to evaluate the effects and mechanisms of Lactobacillus salivarius LI01, Pediococcus pentosaceus LI05, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, Clostridium butyricum MIYAIRI and Bacillus licheniformis Zhengchangsheng on CCl 4 -induced cirrhotic rats. Only administration of LI01 or LI05 prevented liver fibrosis and down-regulated the hepatic expression of profibrogenic genes. Serum endotoxins, bacterial translocations (BTs), and destruction of intestinal mucosal ultrastructure were reduced in rats treated with LI01 or LI05, indicating maintenance of the gut barrier as a mechanism; this was further confirmed by the reduction of not only hepatic inflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-17A, but also hepatic TLR2, TLR4, TLR5 and TLR9. Metagenomic sequencing of 16S rRNA gene showed an increase in potential beneficial bacteria, such as Elusimicrobium and Prevotella, and a decrease in pathogenic bacteria, such as Escherichia. These alterations in gut microbiome were correlated with profibrogenic genes, gut barrier markers and inflammatory cytokines. In conclusion, L. salivarius LI01 and P. pentosaceus LI05 attenuated liver fibrosis by protecting the intestinal barrier and promoting microbiome health. These results suggest novel strategies for the prevention of liver cirrhosis.

  8. Prebiotic and probiotic fortified milk in prevention of morbidities among children: community-based, randomized, double-blind, controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Sazawal

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent reviews suggest common infectious diseases continue to be a major cause of death among preschool children in developing countries. Identification of feasible strategies to combat this disease burden is an important public health need. We evaluated the efficacy of adding prebiotic oligosaccharide and probiotic Bifidobacterium lactis HN019 to milk, in preventing diarrhea, respiratory infections and severe illnesses, in children aged 1-4 years as part of a four group study design, running two studies simultaneously. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In a community based double-masked, randomized controlled trial, children 1-3 years of age, willing to participate, were randomly allocated to receive either control milk (Co; n = 312 or the same milk fortified with 2.4 g/day of prebiotic oligosaccharide and 1.9x10(7 colony forming unit (c.f.u/day of probiotic Bifidobacterium lactis HN019 (PP; n = 312. Children were followed up for 1 year providing data for 1-4 years. Biweekly household surveillance was conducted to gather information on compliance and morbidity. Both study groups were comparable at baseline; compliance to intervention was similar. Overall, there was no effect of prebiotic and probiotic on diarrhea (6% reduction, 95% Confidence Interval [CI]: -1 to 12%; p = 0.08. Incidence of dysentery episodes was reduced by 21% (95% CI: 0 to 38%; p = 0.05. Incidence of pneumonia was reduced by 24% (95% CI: 0 to 42%; p = 0.05 and severe acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI by 35% (95% CI: 0 to 58%; p = 0.05. Compared to children in Co group, children in PP group had 16% (95% CI: 5 to 26%, p = 0.004 and 5% (95% CI: 0 to 10%; p = 0.05 reduction in days with severe illness and high fever respectively. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Milk can be a good medium for delivery of prebiotic and probiotic and resulted in significant reduction of dysentery, respiratory morbidity and febrile illness. Overall, impact of diarrhea was not significant. These

  9. Probiotics: defenders of gastrointestinal habitats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desh D. Singh

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal microbiota play an important role in maintaining normal gastrointestinal (GI function and ensuring that changes in the composition of the intestinal microbiota can promote GI function. The digestive tract is full of bacteria and many of these, including probiotics, are necessary for optimal digestive function. During bacterial gastroenteritis, harmful bacteria invade the digestive tract causing unpleasant symptoms and upsetting the balance between good and bad bacteria. Supplemental probiotics can help restore this balance. Studies have demonstrated that probiotics can often help reduce the severity of symptoms such as diarrhea and may help accelerate recovery. Probiotics are therapeutic preparations of live microorganisms administered in sufficient dosage to be beneficial to health. The therapeutic effects of these microorganisms appear to be strain specific. Primal Defense®, a unique, probiotic, bacterial compound, contains probiotics that support gut flora balance, promote consistent bowel function, control stomach acid levels to quickly eliminate burning sensation in the stomach and maintain immune system response. The probiotics in Primal Defense® maximize the benefits of a healthy diet by supporting normal absorption and assimilation of nutrients in the gut. Nearly 75% of our immune defenses are located in the digestive tract, so maintaining a favorable bacterial balance in the intestines (ideally 80% good or neutral bacteria to 20% bad or harmful bacteria is crucial to achieving and maintaining optimum health.

  10. Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Phase 2 Trial of a Lactobacillus crispatus Probiotic Given Intravaginally for Prevention of Recurrent Urinary Tract Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Stapleton, Ann E.; Au-Yeung, Melissa; Hooton, Thomas M.; Fredricks, David N.; Roberts, Pacita L.; Czaja, Christopher A.; Yarova-Yarovaya, Yuliya; Fiedler, Tina; Cox, Marsha; Stamm, Walter E.

    2011-01-01

    In a double-blind placebo-controlled trial of a Lactobacillus crispatus intravaginal suppository probiotic (LACTIN-VÜ, Osel, Inc.) for prevention of recurrent UTI (rUTI) in pre-menopausal women, LACTIN-V was safe, well tolerated, and associated with a reduction in rUTI.

  11. Pyrosequencing Analysis Reveals Changes in Intestinal Microbiota of Healthy Adults Who Received a Daily Dose of Immunomodulatory Probiotic Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Plaza-Díaz

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The colon microbiota plays a crucial role in human gastrointestinal health. Current attempts to manipulate the colon microbiota composition are aimed at finding remedies for various diseases. We have recently described the immunomodulatory effects of three probiotic strains (Lactobacillus rhamnosus CNCM I-4036, Lactobacillus paracasei CNCM I-4034, and Bifidobacterium breve CNCM I-4035. The goal of the present study was to analyze the compositions of the fecal microbiota of healthy adults who received one of these strains using high-throughput 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing. Bacteroides was the most abundant genus in the groups that received L. rhamnosus CNCM I-4036 or L. paracasei CNCM I-4034. The Shannon indices were significantly increased in these two groups. Our results also revealed a significant increase in the Lactobacillus genus after the intervention with L. rhamnosus CNCM I-4036. The initially different colon microbiota became homogeneous in the subjects who received L. rhamnosus CNCM I-4036. While some orders that were initially present disappeared after the administration of L. rhamnosus CNCM I-4036, other orders, such as Sphingobacteriales, Nitrospirales, Desulfobacterales, Thiotrichales, and Synergistetes, were detected after the intervention. In summary, our results show that the intake of these three bacterial strains induced changes in the colon microbiota.

  12. Almond milk fermented with different potentially probiotic bacteria improves iron uptake by intestinal epithelial (Caco-2 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neus Bernat

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available New fermented almond milks were developed, using different potentially probiotic bacteria, in order to meet the current demand for healthy, versatile non-dairy products. An in vitro digestion/Caco-2 cell model was used to evaluate the effect of both non-fermented and fermented almond milks on the mitochondrial enzymatic activities of enterocytes. Moreover, macrophages were challenged with the in-vitro digested samples and the production of pro-inflammatory biomarkers TNF-a and IL-6 was quantified. Enzymatic activities of cell cultures seemed to be stimulated by the exposure to both fermented and non-fermented almond milks. Both biomarkers decreased (p< 0.05 in fermented almond milks with either B. bifidum or B. longum. Results showed that fermented almond products favored the energetic metabolism of enterocytes and had a lower inflammatory response than non-fermented almond milk, suggesting its benefits for the management of allergies/intolerances. Moreover, the fermentation process enhanced the uptake of iron by Caco-2 cells, especially when using L. rhamnosus and either B. bifidum or B. longum as starters, thus improving the product bioactivity. Therefore, new non-dairy fermented products with functional properties were developed, which might be positioned as alternatives to cow-milk products for sensitized groups of population (allergic and/or intolerant to cow milk or anemic population, among others.

  13. Probiotic-based strategies for therapeutic and prophylactic use against multiple gastrointestinal diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natallia V Varankovich

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Probiotic bacteria offer a number of potential health benefits when administered in sufficient amounts that in part include reducing the number of harmful organisms in the intestine, producing antimicrobial substances and stimulating the body's immune response. However, precisely elucidating the probiotic effect of a specific bacterium has been challenging due to the complexity of the gut’s microbial ecosystem and a lack of definitive means for its characterization. This review provides an overview of widely-used and recently-described probiotics, their impact on the human’s gut microflora as a preventative treatment of disease, human/animal models being used to help show efficacy, and discusses the potential use of probiotics in gastrointestinal diseases associated with antibiotic administration.

  14. Probiotic containing Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus bulgaricus, and Streptococcus thermophiles (ACTIMEL) for the prevention of Clostridium difficile associated diarrhoea in the elderly with proximal femur fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallina, Ravi; Craik, J; Briffa, N; Ahluwalia, Viren; Clarke, J; Cobb, A G

    The incidence of Clostridium difficile associated diarrhoea (CDAD) is greater in elderly patients. Probiotics may have a beneficial effect in the prevention of CDAD. However, their effect in elderly orthopaedic patients has not been previously reported. Between April 2013 and April 2014, 105 patients admitted with femoral neck fractures, and who required 3days of antibiotics for infection of any cause, were prescribed the probiotic ACTIMEL until 3days after the last antibiotic dose. The incidence of CDAD was compared with historical controls (April 2011¬タモApril 2012). There was no significant reduction in the incidence of CDAD in patients receiving probiotics (OR: 0.9; 95% CI 0.27¬タモ2.91; p=0.8) and therefore we cannot recommend the use of ACTIMEL containing Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus bulgaricus, and Streptococcus thermophiles for this purpose in this patient group. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of Probiotics and Synbiotics on Obesity, Insulin Resistance Syndrome, Type 2 Diabetes and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Review of Human Clinical Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Jose Sáez-Lara

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of probiotics and synbiotics in the prevention and treatment of different disorders has dramatically increased over the last decade. Both probiotics and synbiotics are well known ingredients of functional foods and nutraceuticals and may provide beneficial health effects because they can influence the intestinal microbial ecology and immunity. The present study reviews the effects of probiotics and synbiotics on obesity, insulin resistance syndrome (IRS, type 2 diabetes (T2D and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD in human randomized clinical trials. Select probiotics and synbiotics provided beneficial effects in patients with obesity, mainly affecting the body mass index and fat mass. Some probiotics had beneficial effects on IRS, decreasing the cell adhesion molecule-1 levels, and the synbiotics decreased the insulin resistance and plasma lipid levels. Moreover, select probiotics improved the carbohydrate metabolism, fasting blood glucose, insulin sensitivity and antioxidant status and also reduced metabolic stress in subjects with T2D. Some probiotics and synbiotics improved the liver and metabolic parameters in patients with NAFLD. The oral intake of probiotics and synbiotics as co-adjuvants for the prevention and treatment of obesity, IRS, T2D and NAFLD is partially supported by the data shown in the present review. However, further studies are required to understand the precise mechanism of how probiotics and synbiotics affect these metabolic disorders.

  16. Effects of Probiotics and Synbiotics on Obesity, Insulin Resistance Syndrome, Type 2 Diabetes and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Review of Human Clinical Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáez-Lara, Maria Jose; Robles-Sanchez, Candido; Ruiz-Ojeda, Francisco Javier; Plaza-Diaz, Julio; Gil, Angel

    2016-06-13

    The use of probiotics and synbiotics in the prevention and treatment of different disorders has dramatically increased over the last decade. Both probiotics and synbiotics are well known ingredients of functional foods and nutraceuticals and may provide beneficial health effects because they can influence the intestinal microbial ecology and immunity. The present study reviews the effects of probiotics and synbiotics on obesity, insulin resistance syndrome (IRS), type 2 diabetes (T2D) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in human randomized clinical trials. Select probiotics and synbiotics provided beneficial effects in patients with obesity, mainly affecting the body mass index and fat mass. Some probiotics had beneficial effects on IRS, decreasing the cell adhesion molecule-1 levels, and the synbiotics decreased the insulin resistance and plasma lipid levels. Moreover, select probiotics improved the carbohydrate metabolism, fasting blood glucose, insulin sensitivity and antioxidant status and also reduced metabolic stress in subjects with T2D. Some probiotics and synbiotics improved the liver and metabolic parameters in patients with NAFLD. The oral intake of probiotics and synbiotics as co-adjuvants for the prevention and treatment of obesity, IRS, T2D and NAFLD is partially supported by the data shown in the present review. However, further studies are required to understand the precise mechanism of how probiotics and synbiotics affect these metabolic disorders.

  17. Probiotics and vitamin C for the prevention of respiratory tract infections in children attending preschool: a randomised controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garaiova, I; Muchová, J; Nagyová, Z; Wang, D; Li, J V; Országhová, Z; Michael, D R; Plummer, S F; Ďuračková, Z

    2015-03-01

    This pilot study investigates the efficacy of a probiotic consortium (Lab4) in combination with vitamin C on the prevention of respiratory tract infections in children attending preschool facilities. In a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled pilot study with children aged 3-6 years, 57 received 1.25 × 10(10) colony-forming units of Lactobacillus acidophilus CUL21 (NCIMB 30156), Lactobacillus acidophilus CUL60 (NCIMB 30157), Bifidobacterium bifidum CUL20 (NCIMB 30153) and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis CUL34 (NCIMB 30172) plus 50 mg vitamin C or a placebo daily for 6 months. Significant reductions in the incidence rate of upper respiratory tract infection (URTI; 33%, P=0.002), the number of days with URTI symptoms (mean difference: -21.0, 95% confidence interval (CI):-35.9, -6.0, P=0.006) and the incidence rate of absence from preschool (30%, P=0.007) were observed in the active group compared with the placebo. The number of days of use of antibiotics, painkillers, cough medicine or nasal sprays was lower in the active group and reached significance for use of cough medicine (mean difference: -6.6, 95% CI: -12.9, -0.3, P=0.040). No significant differences were observed in the incidence rate ratio or duration of lower respiratory tract infection or in the levels of plasma cytokines, salivary immunoglobulin A or urinary metabolites. Supplementation with a probiotic/vitamin C combination may be beneficial in the prevention and management of URTIs.

  18. Evaluation of the probiotic properties of new Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium strains and their in vitro effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presti, I; D'Orazio, G; Labra, M; La Ferla, B; Mezzasalma, V; Bizzaro, G; Giardina, S; Michelotti, A; Tursi, F; Vassallo, M; Di Gennaro, P

    2015-07-01

    Probiotic ingestion is recommended as a preventive approach to maintain the balance of the intestinal microbiota and to enhance the human well-being. During the whole life of each individual, the gut microbiota composition could be altered by lifestyle, diet, antibiotic therapies and other stress conditions, which may lead to acute and chronic disorders. Hence, probiotics can be administered for the prevention or treatment of some disorders, including lactose malabsorption, acute diarrhoea, irritable bowel syndrome, necrotizing enterocolitis and mild forms of inflammatory bowel disease. The probiotic-mediated effect is an important issue that needs to be addressed in relation to strain-specific probiotic properties. In this work, the probiotic properties of new Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium strains were screened, and their effects in vitro were evaluated. They were screened for probiotic properties by determining their tolerance to low pH and to bile salts, antibiotic sensitivity, antimicrobial activity and vitamin B8, B9 and B12 production, and by considering their ability to increase the antioxidant potential and to modulate the inflammatory status of systemic-miming cell lines in vitro. Three out of the examined strains presenting the most performant probiotic properties, as Lactobacillus plantarum PBS067, Lactobacillus rhamnosus PBS070 and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis PBSO75, were evaluated for their effects also on human intestinal HT-29 cell line. The obtained results support the possibility to move to another level of study, that is, the oral administration of these probiotical strains to patients with acute and chronic gut disorders, by in vivo experiments.

  19. Role of probiotics and functional foods in health: gut immune stimulation by two probiotic strains and a potential probiotic yoghurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado Galdeano, Carolina; Novotny Nuñez, Ivanna; Carmuega, Esteban; de Moreno de LeBlanc, Alejandra; Perdigón, Gabriela

    2015-01-01

    There are numerous reports that show the benefits on the health attributed to the probiotic consumptions. Most of the studies were performed using animal models and only some of them were validated in controlled human trials. The present review is divided in two sections. In the first section we describe how the probiotic microorganisms can interact with the intestinal epithelial cells that are the first line of cell in the mucosal site, focusing in the studies of two probiotic strains: Lactobacillus casei DN-114001 (actually Lactobacillus paracasei CNCMI-1518) and Lactobacillus casei CRL 431. Then we describe same beneficial effects attributed to probiotic administration and the administration of fermented milks containing these microorganisms or potential probiotic yoghurt, principally on the immune system and on the intestinal barrier in different experimental mouse models like enteropathogenic infection, malnutrition, cancer and intestinal inflammation.

  20. Probiotics and irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Cong; Zheng, Chang-Qing; Jiang, Min; Ma, Xiao-Yu; Jiang, Li-Juan

    2013-09-28

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is common gastrointestinal problems. It is characterized by abdominal pain or discomfort, and is associated with changes in stool frequency and/or consistency. The etiopathogenesis of IBS may be multifactorial, as is the pathophysiology, which is attributed to alterations in gastrointestinal motility, visceral hypersensitivity, intestinal microbiota, gut epithelium and immune function, dysfunction of the brain-gut axis or certain psychosocial factors. Current therapeutic strategies are often unsatisfactory. There is now increasing evidence linking alterations in the gastrointestinal microbiota and IBS. Probiotics are living organisms which, when ingested in certain numbers, exert health benefits beyond inherent basic nutrition. Probiotics have numerous positive effects in the gastrointestinal tract. Recently, many studies have suggested that probiotics are effective in the treatment of IBS. The mechanisms of probiotics in IBS are very complex. The purpose of this review is to summarize the evidence and mechanisms for the use of probiotics in the treatment of IBS.

  1. Plant Polyphenols Stimulate Adhesion to Intestinal Mucosa and Induce Proteome Changes in the Probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Celebioglu, Hasan Ufuk; Delsoglio, Marta; Brix, Susanne

    2017-01-01

    pathways, such as glycolysis, nucleotide metabolism and stress response as well as being known moonlighting or surface-associated proteins. Conclusion: The five plant phenolics found in various foods stimulate the adhesive capacity of NCFM in diverse ways and elicited relative abundancy changes of specific...... of resveratrol and ferulic acid during bacterial growth stimulated adhesion of NCFM to mucin and human intestinal HT-29 cells, while tannic acid improved adhesion only to HT-29 cells and caffeic acid had very modest effect overall. Some dosage dependence was found for the four phenolics supplemented at 100, 250...... or 500 μg/mL to the cultures. Notably, 500 μg/mL ferulic acid only stimulated adhesion to mucin. Analyses of differential whole-cell as well as surface proteomes revealed relative abundancy changes for a total of 27 and 22 NCFM proteins, respectively. These changes include enzymes acting in metabolic...

  2. Probiotics in Dairy Fermented Products

    OpenAIRE

    Araújo, Emiliane Andrade; Pires, Ana Clarissa dos Santos; Pinto, Maximiliano Soares; Jan, Gwénaël; Carvalho, Antônio Fernandes de

    2012-01-01

    Interest in the role of probiotics for human health began as early as 1908 when Metchnikoff associated the intake of fermented milk with prolonged life (Lourens-Hattingh and Vilijoen, 2001b). However, the relationship between intestinal microbiota and good health and nutrition has only recently been investigated. Therefore, it was not until the 1960’s that health benefit claims began appearing on foods labels. In recent years,there has been an increasing interest in probiotic foods, which...

  3. Potential mechanisms linking probiotics to diabetes: a narrative review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Miraghajani

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Some studies have suggested a wide range of possible mechanisms through which probiotics may play a role in diabetes prevention and treatment. However, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. We conducted this study to review the potential mechanisms suggested for the effect of probiotics in diabetes. DESIGN AND SETTING: Narrative review conducted at the Food Security Research Center of Isfahan. METHODS: A search in the electronic databases MEDLINE (PubMed, Cochrane Library, Web of Science and Google scholar was performed up to October 2016. RESULTS: The initial search yielded 1214 reports. After removing duplicates, 704 titles and abstracts were screened. Finally, out of 83 full-text articles that were reviewed for eligibility, 30 articles were included in the final analysis. The anti-diabetic mechanisms for probiotics reported encompass intraluminal and direct effects on the intestinal mucosa and microbiota (n = 13, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects (n = 10, antioxidative effects (n = 5, effects on endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress and expression of genes involved in glucose homeostasis and insulin resistance (n = 6, with some studies pointing to more than one mechanism. CONCLUSION: The results may throw some light on the capacity of probiotics as a novel approach towards controlling diabetes. However, further human studies are warranted to elucidate and confirm the potential role of probiotics in diabetes prevention and treatment. Also, it needs to be ascertained whether the effectiveness of probiotics in diabetes prevention and treatment is dependent on the strain of the microorganisms.

  4. Probiotic Saccharomyces boulardii CNCM I-745 prevents outbreak-associated Clostridium difficile-associated cecal inflammation in hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koon, Hon Wai; Su, Bowei; Xu, Chunlan; Mussatto, Caroline C; Tran, Diana Hoang-Ngoc; Lee, Elaine C; Ortiz, Christina; Wang, Jiani; Lee, Jung Eun; Ho, Samantha; Chen, Xinhua; Kelly, Ciaran P; Pothoulakis, Charalabos

    2016-10-01

    C. difficile infection (CDI) is a common debilitating nosocomial infection associated with high mortality. Several CDI outbreaks have been attributed to ribotypes 027, 017, and 078. Clinical and experimental evidence indicates that the nonpathogenic yeast Saccharomyces boulardii CNCM I-745 (S.b) is effective for the prevention of CDI. However, there is no current evidence suggesting this probiotic can protect from CDI caused by outbreak-associated strains. We used established hamster models infected with outbreak-associated C. difficile strains to determine whether oral administration of live or heat-inactivated S.b can prevent cecal tissue damage and inflammation. Hamsters infected with C. difficile strain VPI10463 (ribotype 087) and outbreak-associated strains ribotype 017, 027, and 078 developed severe cecal inflammation with mucosal damage, neutrophil infiltration, edema, increased NF-κB phosphorylation, and increased proinflammatory cytokine TNFα protein expression. Oral gavage of live, but not heated, S.b starting 5 days before C. difficile infection significantly reduced cecal tissue damage, NF-κB phosphorylation, and TNFα protein expression caused by infection with all strains. Moreover, S.b-conditioned medium reduced cell rounding caused by filtered supernatants from all C. difficile strains. S.b-conditioned medium also inhibited toxin A- and B-mediated actin cytoskeleton disruption. S.b is effective in preventing C. difficile infection by outbreak-associated via inhibition of the cytotoxic effects of C. difficile toxins. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  5. Probiotic Saccharomyces boulardii CNCM I-745 prevents outbreak-associated Clostridium difficile-associated cecal inflammation in hamsters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koon, Hon Wai; Su, Bowei; Xu, Chunlan; Mussatto, Caroline C.; Tran, Diana Hoang-Ngoc; Lee, Elaine C.; Ortiz, Christina; Wang, Jiani; Lee, Jung Eun; Ho, Samantha; Chen, Xinhua; Kelly, Ciaran P.

    2016-01-01

    C. difficile infection (CDI) is a common debilitating nosocomial infection associated with high mortality. Several CDI outbreaks have been attributed to ribotypes 027, 017, and 078. Clinical and experimental evidence indicates that the nonpathogenic yeast Saccharomyces boulardii CNCM I-745 (S.b) is effective for the prevention of CDI. However, there is no current evidence suggesting this probiotic can protect from CDI caused by outbreak-associated strains. We used established hamster models infected with outbreak-associated C. difficile strains to determine whether oral administration of live or heat-inactivated S.b can prevent cecal tissue damage and inflammation. Hamsters infected with C. difficile strain VPI10463 (ribotype 087) and outbreak-associated strains ribotype 017, 027, and 078 developed severe cecal inflammation with mucosal damage, neutrophil infiltration, edema, increased NF-κB phosphorylation, and increased proinflammatory cytokine TNFα protein expression. Oral gavage of live, but not heated, S.b starting 5 days before C. difficile infection significantly reduced cecal tissue damage, NF-κB phosphorylation, and TNFα protein expression caused by infection with all strains. Moreover, S.b-conditioned medium reduced cell rounding caused by filtered supernatants from all C. difficile strains. S.b-conditioned medium also inhibited toxin A- and B-mediated actin cytoskeleton disruption. S.b is effective in preventing C. difficile infection by outbreak-associated via inhibition of the cytotoxic effects of C. difficile toxins. PMID:27514478

  6. Potential probiotic characteristics of Lactobacillus and Enterococcus strains isolated from traditional dadih fermented milk against pathogen intestinal colonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado, M Carmen; Surono, Ingrid S; Meriluoto, Jussi; Salminen, Seppo

    2007-03-01

    Traditional fermented buffalo milk in Indonesia (dadih) has been believed to have a beneficial impact on human health, which could be related to the properties of the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) involved in its fermentation process. In previous studies, it was discovered that strains of dadih lactic isolates possessed some beneficial properties in vitro. In the present study, the adhesion capacity of specific LAB isolates from dadih to intestinal mucus was analyzed. Further, the ability to inhibit model human pathogens and displace them from mucus was assessed. The adhesion of tested LAB strains was strain-dependent and varied from 1.4 to 9.8%. The most adhesive Lactobacillus plantarum strain was IS-10506, with 9.8% adhesion. The competition assay between dadih LAB isolates and pathogens showed that a 2-h preincubation with L. plantarum at 37 degrees C significantly reduced pathogen adhesion to mucus. All tested LAB strains displaced and inhibited pathogen adhesion, but the results were strain-specific and dependent on time and pathogen strains. In general, L. plantarum IS-10506 showed the best ability against pathogen adhesion.

  7. Effects of Probiotics, Prebiotics, and Synbiotics on Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowiak, Paulina; Śliżewska, Katarzyna

    2017-01-01

    The human gastrointestinal tract is colonised by a complex ecosystem of microorganisms. Intestinal bacteria are not only commensal, but they also undergo a synbiotic co-evolution along with their host. Beneficial intestinal bacteria have numerous and important functions, e.g., they produce various nutrients for their host, prevent infections caused by intestinal pathogens, and modulate a normal immunological response. Therefore, modification of the intestinal microbiota in order to achieve, restore, and maintain favourable balance in the ecosystem, and the activity of microorganisms present in the gastrointestinal tract is necessary for the improved health condition of the host. The introduction of probiotics, prebiotics, or synbiotics into human diet is favourable for the intestinal microbiota. They may be consumed in the form of raw vegetables and fruit, fermented pickles, or dairy products. Another source may be pharmaceutical formulas and functional food. This paper provides a review of available information and summarises the current knowledge on the effects of probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics on human health. The mechanism of beneficial action of those substances is discussed, and verified study results proving their efficacy in human nutrition are presented. PMID:28914794

  8. Effects of Probiotics, Prebiotics, and Synbiotics on Human Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowiak, Paulina; Śliżewska, Katarzyna

    2017-09-15

    The human gastrointestinal tract is colonised by a complex ecosystem of microorganisms. Intestinal bacteria are not only commensal, but they also undergo a synbiotic co-evolution along with their host. Beneficial intestinal bacteria have numerous and important functions, e.g., they produce various nutrients for their host, prevent infections caused by intestinal pathogens, and modulate a normal immunological response. Therefore, modification of the intestinal microbiota in order to achieve, restore, and maintain favourable balance in the ecosystem, and the activity of microorganisms present in the gastrointestinal tract is necessary for the improved health condition of the host. The introduction of probiotics, prebiotics, or synbiotics into human diet is favourable for the intestinal microbiota. They may be consumed in the form of raw vegetables and fruit, fermented pickles, or dairy products. Another source may be pharmaceutical formulas and functional food. This paper provides a review of available information and summarises the current knowledge on the effects of probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics on human health. The mechanism of beneficial action of those substances is discussed, and verified study results proving their efficacy in human nutrition are presented.

  9. Effects of probiotic Lactobacillus salivarius W24 on the compositional stability of oral microbial communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pham, L.C.; van Spanning, R.J.M.; Röling, W.F.M.; Prosperi, A.C.; Terefework, Z.; ten Cate, J.M.; Crielaard, W.; Zaura, E.

    2008-01-01

    Probiotics are microorganisms beneficial to gastrointestinal health. Although some strains are also known to possess positive effects on oral health, the effects of most intestinal probiotics on the oral microflora remain unknown. We assessed the ability of the intestinal probiotic Lactobacillus

  10. Effects of probiotic Lactobacillus salivarius on the compositional stability of oral microbial communities.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pham, C.I.; van Spanning, R.J.M.; Roling, W.F.M.; Prosperi, A.C.; Terefework, Z.; ten Cate, J.M.; Crielaard, W.; Zaura, E.

    2009-01-01

    Probiotics are microorganisms beneficial to gastrointestinal health. Although some strains are also known to possess positive effects on oral health, the effects of most intestinal probiotics on the oral microflora remain unknown. We assessed the ability of the intestinal probiotic Lactobacillus

  11. Antioxidant Properties of Probiotic Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Wang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress defines a condition in which the prooxidant–antioxidant balance in the cell is disturbed, resulting in DNA hydroxylation, protein denaturation, lipid peroxidation, and apoptosis, ultimately compromising cells’ viability. Probiotics have been known for many beneficial health effects, and the consumption of probiotics alone or in food shows that strain-specific probiotics can present antioxidant activity and reduce damages caused by oxidation. However, the oxidation-resistant ability of probiotics, especially the underling mechanisms, is not properly understood. In this view, there is interest to figure out the antioxidant property of probiotics and summarize the mode of action of probiotic bacteria in antioxidation. Therefore, in the present paper, the antioxidant mechanisms of probiotics have been reviewed in terms of their ability to improve the antioxidant system and their ability to decrease radical generation. Since in recent years, oxidative stress has been associated with an altered gut microbiota, the effects of probiotics on intestinal flora composition are also elaborated.

  12. Potential use of probiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekachai Chukeatirote

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics (Greek: for life are commonly defined as mono- or mixed cultures of live microbes that, when applied to animal or human, possess a beneficial effect on health of the host. These beneficial effects include disease treatment and prevention as well as improvement of nutrients’ digestion and absorption. Probiotic microorganisms are generally, albeit not exclusively, lactic acid bacteria (LAB including Lactobacillus acidophilus, L. bulgaricus, L. casei, L. plantarum, and L. rhamnosus. However, use of other bacterial species such as Bacillus and Bifidobacterium spp. as probiotic strains has also been described in several commercial products. This article intends to present an up-to-date version regarding probiotics, strains currently used and health benefit obtained from their consumption.

  13. Probiotic and lactulose: influence on gastrointestinal flora and pH value in minimal hepatic encephalopathy rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shu-Man; Jia, Lin; Zhang, Mei-Hua

    2015-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the influence on gastrointestinal flora, counts of bifidobacteria and Enterobacterceae in colon and pH value of gastrointestinal after lactulose and probiotic treatment on rat experimental minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) induced by thioactamide (TAA). MHE was induced by intraperitoneal injection of TAA. 48 male MHE models were then randomly divided into 4 groups: control group (n = 12); MHE group (n = 12) received tap water ad libitum only; lactulose group (n = 12) and probiotics group (n = 12) gavaged respectively with 8 ml/kg of lactulose and 1.5 g/kg of probiotic preparation Golden Bifid (highly concentrated combination probiotic) dissolved in 2 ml of normal saline, once a day for 8 days. The latency of Brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEP) I was used as objective index of MHE. Counts of gastrointestinal flora, counts of bifidobacteria and Enterobacterceae in colon and pH value of gastrointestinal were examined respectively. Compared to MHE group, counts of gastrointestinal flora has greatly decreased, ratio of bifidobacteria and Enterobacterceae has greatly increased, pH value of colon has greatly descended (P 0.05). Both lactulose and probiotics can effectively prevent bacteria translocation and overgrowth, intensify CR, improved value of B/E, and acidify intestinal, decreased pH value of colon. Probiotic compound Golden Bifid is as useful as lactulose for the prevention and treatment of MHE. Probiotic therapy may be a safe, natural, well-tolerated therapy appropriate for the long-term treatment of MHE.

  14. Fermented dairy productsin children’ diet: Preventive and therapeutic possibilities of their use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. Bekhtereva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the preventive and therapeutic possibilities of using probiotic fermented dairy products (baby curds, yoghurts, biolacts in children with various pathological conditions. It outlines their effect in preventing respiratory and intestinal infections in children of different ages. Incorporation of probiotic strains with proven efficacy (including those as probiotic fermented dairy products into the combination treatment of pathological conditions associated with Helicobacter pylori is shown to significantly increase the efficiency of eradication therapy and to prevent the development antibiotic-associated diarrhea.

  15. In vitro assessment of the ability of probiotics, blueberry and food carbohydrates to prevent S. pyogenes adhesion on pharyngeal epithelium and modulate immune responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taverniti, Valentina; Dalla Via, Alessandro; Minuzzo, Mario

    2017-01-01

    Group A streptococci (GAS) cause 20-30% of pediatric pharyngitis episodes, which are a major cause of ambulatory care visits. Therefore, a strategy to prevent GAS dissemination in children could significantly benefit public healthcare. Contextually, we assessed the possibility of employing...... alternative food-grade strategies to be used with the oral probiotic L. helveticus MIMLh5 for the prevention of pharyngeal infections. First, we demonstrated through an antagonism-by-exclusion assay that guaran may potentially prevent S. pyogenes adhesion on pharyngeal cells. Subsequently, we showed...

  16. CREATION PRINCIPLES, MECHANISM OF ACTION AND CLINICAL APPLICATION OF PROBIOTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kordon T.I

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the presented review the general data concerning probiotics is considered, i.e. definitions of the term, classification principles, and the core benefits of usage if compared to antibiotics. Are noted The criteria of choice and the characteristics of the main sorts of bacteria used as basic probiotics. Special attention in terms of usage for producing bacteriemic medicines is paid to Bacillus spore-former bacteria, as normal micro-flora exogenous components that do not produce biofilms. Bacillus sporeformer bacteria are also able to produce a wide spectrum of biologically active substances, including antibiotics, lysozyme, proteolytic enzymes, and able to influence the immunological reactivity of macro-organism, therefore stimulating the growth of secretory immunoglobulins`, macrophages`, natural killers` activity. The Subalinum biological features are considered. The basic for Subalinum is genetically modified strain of Bacillus subtillis 2335/105 with a plasmid, containing the gene for alpha-2 human interferon. The characteristics for genetically modified strains of E. coli is given, as being perspective for creating probiotics for effective treatment of diarrhea, caused by enterotoxigenic E.coli and Vibrio cholera. They are proposed for creating recombinant strains of bifidobacteria for atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases` treatment and prevention. They are also prospective for making Lactococcus lactis recombinative strain for ulcerative colitis and Crohn's diseases` treatment. The potential dangers of drugs based on living organisms are being discussed. Some of the mechanisms of probiotics influence on the immune system and aspects of clinical application of probiotics for preventing and treating dysbiosis, atopy, intestinal infections of bacterial and viral, cardiovascular, cancer and secondary immunodeficiencies, are highlighted. The research paper contains the possibility of co-using probiotics as vaccination adjuvant.

  17. Immunotropic aspect of the Bacillus coagulans probiotic action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomko, Tatiana V; Nosalskaya, Tatiana N; Kabluchko, Tatiana V; Lisnyak, Yury V; Martynov, Artur V

    2017-08-01

    Currently, probiotics are increasingly used as the alternative to antibiotics as well as the preventive measures in humans. In particular, probiotics occupy a key position in the treatment of antibiotics-associated intestinal dysbiosis. A spore-forming microorganism lactobacillus Bacillus coagulans is one of the most promising probiotics. However, some of its pharmacological effects remain poorly understood. This study was aimed at investigation of the effect of B. coagulans (Laktovit Forte) on the intestinal dysbiosis syndrome in mice caused by streptomycin against the background of cyclophosphamide-induced cellular immunodeficiency. Pharmacological method: mouse model in vivo with immunodeficiency caused by cyclophosphamide. In mice with colitis caused by streptomycin treatment, the administration of B. coagulans (Laktovit Forte medicinal product) resulted in an antidiarrhoeal effect, normalisation of gastrointestinal motility and prevention of the animals' weight loss. Given the cyclophosphamide-induced immunosuppression and streptomycin-associated diarrhoea, the immunity was completely restored only under the action of B. coagulans. According to all parameters, B. coagulans has been proved to be more effective as compared to the Linex Forte reference product containing lacto- and bifidobacteria. © 2017 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  18. TACTICS OF BIOCENOSIS-SAVING THERAPY BY USE ANTIBIOTICS IN CHILDREN WITH ACUTE INTESTINAL INFECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. N. Mazankova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available 50 children aged from 3 to 67 months with acute intestinal infections receiving antibiotic therapy, were clinically and microbiologically examined using gas-liquid chromatographic test with the measurement of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs in coprofiltrates. The influence on the biocenosis is assessed upon treatment with an-tidiarrhoeal medication Gelatin tannat (Adiarin, which acts by forming a protective film on the surface of intestinal mucosa preventing loss of body fluids and microbial toxins. 20 children in the control group received antibiotics, sorbents, probiotics. The study has proved the clinical effect of Gelatin tannat, resulting in reduction of time to normalization of diarrhea and intoxication for 2 days, and data on the probiotic effect of the drug, similar to that of probiotics in the control group which expands the indications for the use of Gelatin tannat for prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea.  

  19. Patients Receiving Prebiotics and Probiotics Before Liver Transplantation Develop Fewer Infections Than Controls: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawas, Tarek; Al Halabi, Shadi; Hernaez, Ruben; Carey, William D; Cho, Won Kyoo

    2015-09-01

    Among patients who have received liver transplants, infections increase morbidity and mortality and prolong hospital stays. Administration of antibiotics and surgical trauma create intestinal barrier dysfunction and microbial imbalances that allow enteric bacteria to translocate to the blood. Probiotics are believed to prevent bacterial translocation by stabilizing the intestinal barrier and stimulating proliferation of the intestinal epithelium, mucus secretion, and motility. We performed a meta-analysis to determine the effects of probiotics on infections in patients receiving liver transplants. We searched PubMed and EMBASE for controlled trials that evaluated the effects of prebiotics and probiotics on infections in patients who underwent liver transplantation. Heterogeneity was analyzed by the Cochran Q statistic. Pooled Mantel-Haenszel relative risks were calculated with a fixed-effects model. We identified 4 controlled studies, comprising 246 participants (123 received probiotics, 123 served as controls), for inclusion in the meta-analysis. In these studies, the intervention groups received enteric nutrition and fiber (prebiotics) with probiotics, and the control groups received only enteric nutrition and fiber without probiotics. The infection rate was 7% in groups that received probiotics vs 35% in control groups (relative risk [RR], 0.21; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.11-0.41; P = .001). The number needed to treat to prevent 1 infection was 3.6. In subgroup analyses, only 2% of subjects in the probiotic groups developed urinary tract infections, compared with 16% of controls (RR, 0.14; 95% CI, 0.04-0.47; P probiotic groups developed intra-abdominal infections, compared with 11% of controls (RR, 0.27; 95% CI, 0.09-0.78; P = .02). Subjects receiving probiotics also had shorter stays in the hospital than controls (mean difference, 1.41 d; P probiotics and prebiotics before, or on the day of, liver transplantation reduces the rate of infection after

  20. Does sucralfate prevent apoptosis occurring in the ischemia/reperfusion-induced intestinal injury?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sencan, A; Yilmaz, O; Ozer, E; Günşar, C; Genç, K; Ulukuş, C; Taneli, C; Mir, E

    2003-08-01

    We have shown in a previous study that sucralfate is beneficial in the prophylaxis and treatment of hypoxia/reoxygenation-induced intestinal injury. The aim of this study is to investigate whether sucralfate has any effect on the prevention of apoptosis in the ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)-induced intestinal injury. Rats were randomized into three groups. Group 1 and 2 were subjected to I/R. Group 1 (treatment group) received sucralfate while group 2 (treatment control group) did not. Group 3 served as a normal control group (sham group). The terminal ileum was harvested for histopathologic investigation by light microscopy. The presence of apoptotic enterocytes (DNA fragmentation in cell nuclei) was detected by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated dUTP nick-end-labeling (TUNEL) reaction. In treatment control group, 3 of 7 rats had severe inflammation. None of the sucralfate-treated rats showed severe inflammation, 6 of them only showed mild inflammatory changes (p < 0.05). The apoptotic percentage was found to be 37.1 +/- 9.4 in the sucralfate-treated group (group 1), whereas it was 45.4 +/- 3.9 in the untreated group (group 2) (p < 0.05). The sham group had a completely normal intestinal architecture. The present study shows that 1) the experimental model of I/R-induced intestinal injury induces enterocyte apoptosis; 2) sucralfate decreases enterocyte apoptosis in the experimental model of I/R-induced intestinal injury which may play a key role in the pathophysiological events leading to failure of the intrinsic gut barrier defense mechanisms.

  1. The Use of the Addition of Probiotics on the Production Growth and Health of Broilers

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    Dávid Štofan

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Probiotic ingestion can be recommended as a preventative approach to maintaining the balance of the intestinal microflora and thereby enhance ‘well-being’. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of probiotics on the health and growth of broiler chickens. Feed stuff enriched with 0.10 % probiotics was used for this purpose. The experiment was carried out on two groups – control (without addition of probiotics and experimental group (with addition of 0.10 % of probiotics. Samples of caecal chime were collected and the number of Enterococcus sp. from 5.79 to 5.85 log CFU.g-1, the number of Lactobacillus sp. from 5.48 to 6.88 log CFU.g-1, and the number of Enterobacteriaceae sp. from 6.92 to 7.06 log CFU.g-1was determined. After feeding of feed mixtures with probiotics addition a decrease of Lactobacillus sp. and an increase of Enterococcus sp. counts was detected. Also the increase of Enterobacteriaceae sp. counts in the experimental group comparing with the control group was detected.

  2. Effect of kefir on Fusobacterium nucleatum in potentially preventing intestinal cancer

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    Zeynep Banu Guzel-Seydim

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fusobacterium spp. are known to be part of mouth and intestinal microbiota. Fusobacterium nucleatum is an obligate anaerobe, Gram negative, non-spore forming pleomorphic bacillus that can cause diseases not only in the mouth and teeth but also in the brain, pleura, lungs and liver. It was noted that F. nucleatum induces fetal death (fetal demise in pregnant women. Recent studies indicate that F. nucleatum could lead to colon cancer by binding to the epithelial tissue. Kefir is produced from kefir grains that are a source of probiotics. Fermented dairy products and especially kefir and yogurt are significant for functional nutrition. In kefir grains, lactic acid bacteria, acetic acid bacteria and yeasts are embedded in a polysaccharide matrix, called kefiran. When kefir grains are added to milk and incubated for approximately 22 h at 25°C, microorganisms in the grains continue to proliferate in milk with the production of functional metabolic compounds. While yogurt has mainly two bacteria, authentic kefir has its characteristic Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens, Lactobacillus kefir and Lactobacillus kefirgranum, in addition to many other types of lactic acid bacteria (LAB. Previous studies have indicated that fermented dairy products can cause probiotic effects such as improvement in digestive system health, reduction in serum cholesterol, improvement in lactose tolerance, improvement in immune function, control of irritable bowel symptoms, and anticarcinogenic properties. Objective: The aim of this research was to report the effects of fermented dairy products in vitro on the growth of F. nucleatum. Milk, kefir made from natural kefir grains, commercial kefir produced from kefir starter culture, yogurt produced from natural yogurt starter culture and commercial yogurt produced from yogurt starter culture were used against F. nucleatum. Methods: F. nucleatum (ATCC 25586 was grown in Fluid Thioglycollate Medium at 37°C for 3 days under

  3. Beneficial Effects of Probiotic and Food Borne Yeasts on Human Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saloomeh Moslehi-Jenabian

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Besides being important in the fermentation of foods and beverages, yeasts have shown numerous beneficial effects on human health. Among these, probiotic effects are the most well known health effects including prevention and treatment of intestinal diseases and immunomodulatory effects. Other beneficial functions of yeasts are improvement of bioavailability of minerals through the hydrolysis of phytate, folate biofortification and detoxification of mycotoxins due to surface binding to the yeast cell wall.

  4. Effectiveness and safety of probiotic preparations in clinical treatment of inflammatory bowel disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Wasilewska

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD is characterized by an aggressive immune response to luminal antigens including those of commensal microbiota, which are essential for intestinal homeostasis and appear to play a role in tolerance and immunity. Its disturbances can result in intestinal dysbiosis and the development of disease. The precise role of luminal bacteria in the pathogenesis of IBD has yet to be elucidated; however, considerable evidence implicates changes to bacterial communities associated with the gut mucosa in the disease state. It is also well known that beneficial microbes can confer a functional health benefit to the host. We analysed the effectiveness of probiotics to relieve symptoms in patients suffering from IBD. Using the Medline database and manually searching articles, we reviewed clinical trials performed with probiotics and lactic acid bacteria as supportive or alternative IBD treatments. The article summarizes IBD microenvironment and the efficiency of probiotic preparations in attenuating the symptoms of Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis, and pouchitis. The safety of probiotic intake is also analyzed based on existing outcomes of clinical trials and case reports. Strong evidence exists that probiotics are effective as supportive therapy for IBD; however, only a few preparations have well documented efficiency and safety. Clinical studies demonstrated that probiotics were more effective in preventing recurrence of the disease symptoms than in the management of its active stage. Some products may increase the risk of complications in specific patient groups; therefore, the use of probiotics should be considered with caution in the case of severe active IBD, especially with disrupted mucosa.

  5. Assessing the Risk of Probiotic Dietary Supplements in the Context of Antibiotic Resistance

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    Min Zheng

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Probiotic bacteria are known to harbor intrinsic and mobile genetic elements that confer resistance to a wide variety of antibiotics. Their high amounts in dietary supplements can establish a reservoir of antibiotic resistant genes in the human gut. These resistant genes can be transferred to pathogens that share the same intestinal habitat thus resulting in serious clinical ramifications. While antibiotic resistance of probiotic bacteria from food, human and animal sources have been well-documented, the resistant profiles of probiotics from dietary supplements have only been recently studied. These products are consumed with increasing regularity due to their health claims that include the improvement of intestinal health and immune response as well as prevention of acute and antibiotic-associated diarrhea and cancer; but, a comprehensive risk assessment on the spread of resistant genes to human health is lacking. Here, we highlight recent reports of antibiotic resistance of probiotic bacteria isolated from dietary supplements, and propose complementary strategies that can shed light on the risks of consuming such products in the context of a global widespread of antibiotic resistance. In concomitant with a broader screening of antibiotic resistance in probiotic supplements is the use of computational simulations, live imaging and functional genomics to harvest knowledge on the evolutionary behavior, adaptations and dynamics of probiotics studied in conditions that best represent the human gut including in the presence of antibiotics. The underlying goal is to enable the health benefits of probiotics to be exploited in a responsible manner and with minimal risk to human health.

  6. Probiotics and the urologist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Andrew W; Reid, Gregor

    2003-04-01

    Emerging from the stigma of once being referred to as "snake oil", excellent scientific and clinical evidence now exists to indicate that probiotics do indeed have a role to play in medicine. The proper definition of probiotics is important "Live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host", for several reasons. It rules out so-called probiotics that have no clinically proven, peer-reviewed data, and it states the need to have viable bacteria present, unlike these pseudo products which are often wrongly labeled, poorly manufactured, with low or no viability at time of use. Guidelines, prepared by the United Nations and World Health Organization are now available to guide physicians and consumers as to the types of strains with documented benefits. In urology, the most studied strains are Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 and L. fermentum B-54 and RC-14. Their use daily in oral form, or once to three times weekly as a vaginal suppository, have been shown to reduce the urogenital pathogen load and the risk of urinary tract and vaginal infections. Organisms such as Oxalobacter formigenes, still in the R&D phase, offer great potential to reduce kidney stone formation via oxalate degradation in the intestine. Some studies using L. casei Shirota suggest a possible effect against bladder cancer, while studies using L. plantarum 299 show significantly reduced infection rates in patients undergoing major surgical procedures. In short, specific probiotic strains hold much promise for use in the urology setting.

  7. Gut perturbation and probiotics in neonatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Biasucci

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies suggest that foetal colonisation begins prior to birth. There are other major determinants for neonatal gut colonisation other than that of a possible prenatal transfer of maternal bacteria to the foetus, including the delivery and feeding mode, as well as perinatal antibiotic exposure. Generally, vaginally born infants are first colonised by bacteria from the maternal vagina, whereas the gut microbiota of infants born by caesarean section (CS more often resembles that of maternal skin and oral microbiota. Indeed, CS delivered babies seem to have a higher incidence of obesity, type 1 diabetes and asthma. The mode of feeding also plays an important role in influencing early intestinal microbiota. A more eubiotic microbiota composition is conferred to breastfed infants than to their formula-fed counterparts. Nowadays, we have evidence of antibiotic induced intestinal dysbiosis, which is, in turn, associated to an increased risk of developing overweight/obesity, as well as asthma, wheezing and/or inflammatory bowel disease, later in life. Overall, the early gut dysbiosis may have long-term negative effects on an infant’s healthy immunological, hormonal and metabolic development. There has been extensive evaluation of how probiotic supplementation early in life may re-establish gut eubiosis and reduce the negative long-term effects of early dysbiosis. The most commonly used and studied probiotic strains and species include Lactobacilli, Bifidobacteria and S. boulardii. Accumulated evidence in neonatology suggests that some probiotic strains may be effective in preventing antibiotic associated diarrhea, necrotizing enterocolitis in premature infants and/or eczema. L. reuteri may also be effective in treating infantile colic.

  8. Probiotics: current trends in the treatment of diarrhoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Sujatha S; Jalgaonkar, Sharmila; Shahani, S; Kulkarni, Vijaya N

    2010-06-01

    In recent years, research into and public interest in probiotics and probiotic foods have risen. Lactobacilli and bifidobacterium are the most commonly used probiotics while yoghurt and kefir are popular foods containing probiotics. Probiotics have been used to manage diarrhoea. Many things cause diarrhoea, including bacterial, viral and protozoal infections, radiation and antibiotic therapy. Different studies have found that probiotics may also enhance the immune response, reduce serum cholesterol, prevent colonic cancer, prevent dental caries, prevent ulcers due to Helicobacter pylori, maintain urogenital health, and ameliorate hepatic encephalopathy. Further studies are required to establish their role in these conditions.

  9. The use of probiotics in aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hai, N V

    2015-10-01

    This study aims to present comprehensive notes for the use of probiotics in aquaculture. Probiotics have been proven to be positive promoters of aquatic animal growth, survival and health. In aquaculture, intestines, gills, the skin mucus of aquatic animals, and habitats or even culture collections and commercial products, can be sources for acquiring appropriate probiotics, which have been identified as bacteria (Gram-positive and Gram-negative) and nonbacteria (bacteriophages, microalgae and yeasts). While a bacterium is a pathogen to one aquatic animal, it can bring benefits to another fish species; a screening process plays a significant role in making a probiotic species specific. The administration of probiotics varies from oral/water routine to feed additives, of which the latter is commonly used in aquaculture. Probiotic applications can be either mono or multiple strains, or even in combination with prebiotic, immunostimulants such as synbiotics and synbiotism, and in live or dead forms. Encapsulating probiotics with live feed is a suitable approach to convey probiotics to aquatic animals. Dosage and duration of time are significant factors in providing desired results. Several modes of actions of probiotics are presented, while some others are not fully understood. Suggestions for further studies on the effects of probiotics in aquaculture are proposed. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  10. Use of probiotics in pediatric infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffarelli, Carlo; Cardinale, Fabio; Povesi-Dascola, Carlotta; Dodi, Icilio; Mastrorilli, Violetta; Ricci, Giampaolo

    2015-01-01

    We summarize current evidence and recommendations for the use of probiotics in childhood infectious diseases. Probiotics may be of benefit in treating acute infectious diarrhea and reducing antibiotic-associated diarrhea. Potential benefits of probiotic on prevention of traveler's diarrhea,Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea, side effects of triple therapy in Helicobacter pylori eradication, necrotizing enterocolitis, acute diarrhea, acute respiratory infections and recurrent urinary tract infections remain unclear. More studies are needed to investigate optimal strain, dosage, bioavailability of drops and tablets, duration of treatment and safety. Probiotics and recombinant probiotic strain represent a promising source of molecules for the development of novel anti-infectious therapy.

  11. Delivery of Probiotics in the Space Food System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, S. L.; Ott, C. M.; Douglas, G. L.

    2014-01-01

    The addition of probiotic bacteria to the space food system is expected to confer immunostimulatory benefits on crewmembers during spaceflight, counteracting the immune dysregulation that has been documented in spaceflight. Specifically, the probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus has been shown to promote health benefits including antagonism towards and inhibition of virulence related gene expression in pathogens, mucosal stimulation of immune cells, and a reduction in the occurrence and duration of cold and flu-like symptoms. The optimum delivery system for probiotics has not been determined for spaceflight, where the food system is shelf stable and the lack of refrigeration prevents the use of traditional dairy delivery methods. This work proposes to determine whether L. acidophilus is more viable, and therefore more likely to confer immune benefit, when delivered in a capsule form or when delivered in nonfat dry milk powder with a resuscitation opportunity upon rehydration, following 0, 4, and 8 months of storage at -80degC, 4degC, and 22degC, and both prior to and after challenge with simulated gastric and intestinal juices. We hypothesize that the low moisture neutral dairy matrix provided by the nonfat dry milk, and the rehydration step prior to consumption, will extend probiotic viability and stress tolerance compared to a capsule during potential storage conditions in spaceflight and in simulated digestion conditions.

  12. Evaluation of Debaryomyces hansenii for Potential Probiotic Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ochangco, Honeylet Sabas

    epithelial invasion, producing antimicrobial substances, improving absorption of nutrients, and protecting the host against pathogens (Rolfe 2000). Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii (S. boulardii), a patented yeast preparation and the only probiotic yeast available on the market, has been widely...... studied as a probiotic. The clinical activity of S. boulardii is especially relevant to antibiotic-associated diarrhoea and recurrent Clostridium difficile intestinal infections (Czerucka, Piche, and Rampal 2007), and this yeast is used in many countries as both a preventive and therapeutic agent...... for diarrhoea and other gastrointestinal (GI) disorders because it is not affected by the administration of antimicrobial agents. Furthermore, S. boulardii possesses many properties of a probiotic organism. For example, it survives transit through the GI tract, it can grow at a temperature of 37 °C...

  13. The viability of Lactobacillus fermentum CECT5716 is not essential to exert intestinal anti-inflammatory properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Nogales, Alba; Algieri, Francesca; Vezza, Teresa; Garrido-Mesa, Natividad; Olivares, Mónica; Comalada, Mònica; Riccardi, Carlo; Utrilla, Ma Pilar; Rodríguez-Cabezas, Ma Elena; Galvez, Julio

    2015-04-01

    Probiotics have been used as alternative therapies in intestinal inflammatory disorders. Many studies have shown that different bacterial probiotic strains possess immuno-modulatory and anti-inflammatory properties. However, there is an increasing interest in the use of non-viable bacteria to reduce the risk of microbial translocation and infection. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the viability of L. fermentum CECT5716 is essential to exert its intestinal anti-inflammatory effect. We compared the preventative effects of viable and non-viable probiotic in the TNBS model of rat colitis. In vitro studies were also performed in Caco-2 and RAW 264.7 cells to evaluate the probiotic effects on IL-8, IL-1β and nitrite production, and p44/42 and p38 MAP kinase protein expressions. In vitro results revealed a decrease in the stimulated production of pro-inflammatory mediators regardless of the viability of the probiotic. Likewise, both forms of the probiotic administered to colitic rats produced a significant reduction of IL-1β and TNF-α levels and colonic iNOS expression. In conclusion, both live and dead L. fermentum CECT5716 have been demonstrated to attenuate the inflammatory process and diminish the production of some of the inflammatory mediators. In fact, the viability of this probiotic did not affect its immuno-modulatory and anti-inflammatory properties.

  14. Efficacy of Probiotics Versus Placebo in the Prevention of Necrotizing Enterocolitis in Preterm Very Low Birth Weight Infants: A Double-blind Randomized Controlled Trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chowdhury, T.; Ali, M.M.; Hossain, M. M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of orally administered probiotics in preventing necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in preterm very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. Study Design: Arandomized double blind controlled trial. Place and Duration of Study: The Paediatrics Department of Sylhet M.A.G. Osmani Medical College Hospital, Sylhet Bangladesh, from July 2012 to June 2015. Methodology: Preterm (28 - 33 weeks gestation) VLBW (birth weight 1000 - 1499 g) neonates were enrolled. The study group was fed with probiotics once daily with breast milk from first feeding, and the control group with only breast milk without the addition of probiotics. Both the groups received other standard care. The primary outcome was the development of NEC (stage II and III), categorized by modified Bell's classification. Result: In 108 neonates, development of NEC was significantly lower in the study group than that of control group [1 (1.9 percent) vs. 6 (11.5 percent); p=0.044]. Age of achievement of full oral feeding was significantly earlier in the study group than that in the control group (14.88 ±3.15 and 18.80 ±4.32 days; p < 0.001). Duration of hospital stay was significantly short in the study group compared to the control group (15.82 ±2.94 days vs. 19.57 ±4.26 days; p < 0.001). Conclusion: Probiotic supplementation reduces the frequency of necrotising enterocolitis in preterm neonates with very low birth weight. It is also associated with faster achievement of full oral feeding and short duration of hospital stay. (author)

  15. Probiotic Bifidobacterium breve induces IL-10-producing Tr1 cells in the colon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong Gyu Jeon

    Full Text Available Specific intestinal microbiota has been shown to induce Foxp3(+ regulatory T cell development. However, it remains unclear how development of another regulatory T cell subset, Tr1 cells, is regulated in the intestine. Here, we analyzed the role of two probiotic strains of intestinal bacteria, Lactobacillus casei and Bifidobacterium breve in T cell development in the intestine. B. breve, but not L. casei, induced development of IL-10-producing Tr1 cells that express cMaf, IL-21, and Ahr in the large intestine. Intestinal CD103(+ dendritic cells (DCs mediated B. breve-induced development of IL-10-producing T cells. CD103(+ DCs from Il10(-/-, Tlr2(-/-, and Myd88(-/- mice showed defective B. breve-induced Tr1 cell development. B. breve-treated CD103(+ DCs failed to induce IL-10 production from co-cultured Il27ra(-/- T cells. B. breve treatment of Tlr2(-/- mice did not increase IL-10-producing T cells in the colonic lamina propria. Thus, B. breve activates intestinal CD103(+ DCs to produce IL-10 and IL-27 via the TLR2/MyD88 pathway thereby inducing IL-10-producing Tr1 cells in the large intestine. Oral B. breve administration ameliorated colitis in immunocompromised mice given naïve CD4(+ T cells from wild-type mice, but not Il10(-/- mice. These findings demonstrate that B. breve prevents intestinal inflammation through the induction of intestinal IL-10-producing Tr1 cells.

  16. Probiotic Bifidobacterium breve induces IL-10-producing Tr1 cells in the colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Seong Gyu; Kayama, Hisako; Ueda, Yoshiyasu; Takahashi, Takuya; Asahara, Takashi; Tsuji, Hirokazu; Tsuji, Noriko M; Kiyono, Hiroshi; Ma, Ji Su; Kusu, Takashi; Okumura, Ryu; Hara, Hiromitsu; Yoshida, Hiroki; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Nomoto, Koji; Takeda, Kiyoshi

    2012-01-01

    Specific intestinal microbiota has been shown to induce Foxp3(+) regulatory T cell development. However, it remains unclear how development of another regulatory T cell subset, Tr1 cells, is regulated in the intestine. Here, we analyzed the role of two probiotic strains of intestinal bacteria, Lactobacillus casei and Bifidobacterium breve in T cell development in the intestine. B. breve, but not L. casei, induced development of IL-10-producing Tr1 cells that express cMaf, IL-21, and Ahr in the large intestine. Intestinal CD103(+) dendritic cells (DCs) mediated B. breve-induced development of IL-10-producing T cells. CD103(+) DCs from Il10(-/-), Tlr2(-/-), and Myd88(-/-) mice showed defective B. breve-induced Tr1 cell development. B. breve-treated CD103(+) DCs failed to induce IL-10 production from co-cultured Il27ra(-/-) T cells. B. breve treatment of Tlr2(-/-) mice did not increase IL-10-producing T cells in the colonic lamina propria. Thus, B. breve activates intestinal CD103(+) DCs to produce IL-10 and IL-27 via the TLR2/MyD88 pathway thereby inducing IL-10-producing Tr1 cells in the large intestine. Oral B. breve administration ameliorated colitis in immunocompromised mice given naïve CD4(+) T cells from wild-type mice, but not Il10(-/-) mice. These findings demonstrate that B. breve prevents intestinal inflammation through the induction of intestinal IL-10-producing Tr1 cells.

  17. The Effects of Probiotics and Symbiotics on Risk Factors for Hepatic Encephalopathy: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viramontes Hörner, Daniela; Avery, Amanda; Stow, Ruth

    2017-04-01

    Alterations in the levels of intestinal microbiota, endotoxemia, and inflammation are novel areas of interest in the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy (HE). Probiotics and symbiotics are a promising treatment option for HE due to possible beneficial effects in modulating gut microflora and might be better tolerated and more cost-effective than the traditional treatment with lactulose, rifaximin or L-ornithine-L-aspartate. A systematic search of the electronic databases PubMed, ISI Web of Science, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library was conducted for randomized controlled clinical trials in adult patients with cirrhosis, evaluating the effect of probiotics and symbiotics in changes on intestinal microflora, reduction of endotoxemia, inflammation, and ammonia, reversal of minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE), prevention of overt hepatic encephalopathy (OHE), and improvement of quality of life. Nineteen trials met the inclusion criteria. Probiotics and symbiotics increased beneficial microflora and decreased pathogenic bacteria and endotoxemia compared with placebo/no treatment, but no effect was observed on inflammation. Probiotics significantly reversed MHE [risk ratio, 1.53; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.14, 2.05; P=0.005] and reduced OHE development (risk ratio, 0.62; 95% CI: 0.48, 0.80; P=0.0002) compared with placebo/no treatment. Symbiotics significantly decreased ammonia levels compared with placebo (15.24; 95% CI: -26.01, -4.47; P=0.006). Probiotics did not show any additional benefit on reversal of MHE and prevention of OHE development when compared with lactulose, rifaximin, and L-ornithine-L-aspartate. Only 5 trials considered tolerance with minimal side effects reported. Although further research is warranted, probiotics and symbiotics should be considered as an alternative therapy for the treatment and management of HE given the results reported in this systematic review.

  18. New approaches for bacteriotherapy: prebiotics, new-generation probiotics, and synbiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Rachna; DuPont, Herbert L

    2015-05-15

    The gut microbiota has a significant role in human health and disease. Dysbiosis of the intestinal ecosystem contributes to the development of certain illnesses that can be reversed by favorable alterations by probiotics. The published literature was reviewed to identify scientific data showing a relationship between imbalance of gut bacteria and development of diseases that can be improved by biologic products. The medical conditions vary from infectious and antibiotic-associated diarrhea to obesity to chronic neurologic disorders. A number of controlled clinical trials have been performed to show important biologic effects in a number of these conditions through administration of prebiotics, probiotics, and synbiotics. Controlled clinical trials have identified a limited number of prebiotics, probiotic strains, and synbiotics that favorably prevent or improve the symptoms of various disorders including inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel syndrome, infectious and antibiotic-associated diarrhea, diabetes, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, necrotizing enterocolitis in very low birth weight infants, and hepatic encephalopathy. Studies have shown that probiotics alter gut flora and lead to elaboration of flora metabolites that influence health through 1 of 3 general mechanisms: direct antimicrobial effects, enhancement of mucosal barrier integrity, and immune modulation. Restoring the balance of intestinal flora by introducing probiotics for disease prevention and treatment could be beneficial to human health. It is also clear that significant differences exist between different probiotic species. Metagenomics and metatranscriptomics together with bioinformatics have allowed us to study the cross-talk between the gut microbiota and the host, furthering insight into the next generation of biologic products. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions

  19. New Approaches for Bacteriotherapy: Prebiotics, New-Generation Probiotics, and Synbiotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Rachna; DuPont, Herbert L.

    2015-01-01

    The gut microbiota has a significant role in human health and disease. Dysbiosis of the intestinal ecosystem contributes to the development of certain illnesses that can be reversed by favorable alterations by probiotics. The published literature was reviewed to identify scientific data showing a relationship between imbalance of gut bacteria and development of diseases that can be improved by biologic products. The medical conditions vary from infectious and antibiotic-associated diarrhea to obesity to chronic neurologic disorders. A number of controlled clinical trials have been performed to show important biologic effects in a number of these conditions through administration of prebiotics, probiotics, and synbiotics. Controlled clinical trials have identified a limited number of prebiotics, probiotic strains, and synbiotics that favorably prevent or improve the symptoms of various disorders including inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel syndrome, infectious and antibiotic-associated diarrhea, diabetes, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, necrotizing enterocolitis in very low birth weight infants, and hepatic encephalopathy. Studies have shown that probiotics alter gut flora and lead to elaboration of flora metabolites that influence health through 1 of 3 general mechanisms: direct antimicrobial effects, enhancement of mucosal barrier integrity, and immune modulation. Restoring the balance of intestinal flora by introducing probiotics for disease prevention and treatment could be beneficial to human health. It is also clear that significant differences exist between different probiotic species. Metagenomics and metatranscriptomics together with bioinformatics have allowed us to study the cross-talk between the gut microbiota and the host, furthering insight into the next generation of biologic products. PMID:25922396

  20. Application of Probiotics in Poultry Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Král

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In the last years probiotics have constantly increased in importance and aroused growing interest in animal nutrition. Probiotics are live microorganisms thought to be beneficial to the host organism. The bacteria of the probiotic attach to the intestinal mucosa, thereby forming a physical barrier that blocks the attachment of pathogenic bacteria. The mode of action of probiotics in poultry includes maintaining normal intestinal microflora by competitive exclusion and antagonism, altering metabolism by increasing digestive enzyme activity and decreasing bacterial enzyme activity and ammonia production, improving feed intake and digestion and neutralizing enterotoxins and stimulating the immune system. In experiment we research effect of probiotic on the performance of broiler chickens. A total number of 200 one day old broiler chickens were distributed to two dietary groups. Broiler chickens in control group were fed with standard feed mixture and experimental group with probiotics mixed with feed mixture. Body weight and GIT pH were recorded. Average body weight on the end of experiment in experimental group was 1493.6 g and 1689.6 g in control group. Average pH in experimental group was 2.79 in stomach, 6.28 in small intestine, 6.81 and 6.89 in caecum. In control group was average pH 3.54 in stomach, 6.41 in small intestine, 6.74 and 6.80 in caecum.

  1. Effect of competitive exclusion in rabbits using an autochthonous probiotic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Cunha

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Animal nutrition has been severely challenged by the ban on antimicrobials as growth promoters. This has fostered the study of alternative methods to avoid colonisation by pathogenic bacteria as well as to improve the growth of animals and feed conversion efficiency. These new options should not alter the normal intestinal microbiota, or affect it as little as possible. The use of probiotics, which are live microorganisms that beneficially affect the host by improving its intestinal microbial balance, can be seen as a promising way to achieve that goal. In this study, New Zealand White rabbits were fed diets containing an autochthonous probiotic of Enterococcus spp., with the strains EaI, EfaI and EfaD, and Escherichia coli, with the strains ECI 1, ECI 2 and ECD, during a 25-d trial, to evaluate the impact of the probiotic on the faecal microbiota, including population dynamics and antimicrobial resistance profiles. A control group of rabbits, which was fed a diet containing a commonly used mixture of antimicrobials (colistin, oxytetracycline, and valnemulin, was also studied. To assess the colonisation ability of the mentioned probiotic, the faecal microbiota of the rabbits was characterised up to 10 d after the administration had ended. Isolates of enterococci and E. coli were studied for phylogenetic relationships using enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC-PCR and pulse-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE, respectively. Although partially affected by an unexpected clinical impairment suffered by the rabbits in the experimental group, our results showed the following. The difference between the growth rate of the animals treated with antimicrobials and those fed the probiotic was not statistically significant (P> 0.05. The competitive exclusion product was present in the faecal samples in a large proportion, but stopped being recovered by culture as soon as the administration ended and the housing conditions were changed

  2. Glutamate prevents intestinal atrophy via luminal nutrient sensing in a mouse model of total parenteral nutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiao, Weidong; Feng, Yongjia; Holst, Jens Juul

    2014-01-01

    significantly changed the amount of T1Rs, GLM receptors, and transporters, and GLM prevented these changes. GLM significantly prevented TPN-associated intestinal atrophy (2.5-fold increase in IEC proliferation) and was dependent on up-regulation of the protein kinase pAkt, but independent of T1R3 and mGluR5...... signaling. GLM led to a loss of EBF with TPN (60% increase in FITC-dextran permeability, 40% decline in transepithelial resistance); via T1R3, it protected EBF, whereas mGluR5 was associated with EBF loss. GLM led to a decline in circulating glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2) during TPN. The decline...

  3. Study on Probiotic Icecream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Cota

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Use of probiotics in human diet benefits the consumers by regulating intestinal transit and immune system. Using various foods as a vehicle for probiotics has become increasingly popular practice. Based on these considerations, we wanted to study the possibility of obtaining icecream which contains viable microorganism cells with probiotic role. I chose ice cream because it is a product with a high nutrient content both for microorganisms and consumers. The main objective of this paper is to study the ability of different strains of probiotics to remain viable in the matured icecream compared to icecream stored at -5°C. Five samples of icecream were prepared, all after the same recipe. Molasses was used as a sweetener. The difference between the five types of ice cream consisted of the milk used, which was inoculated with different strains: Lactobacillus plantarum, Bifidobacterium infantis 4BN, Lactobacillus casei 4BN, Bifidobacterium breve 4BN and a mix prepared from the strains mentioned above. We determined the fat content of the icecream, using the butirometric method and its acidity by titration with NaOH. The results obtained were compared with the acidity and the fat content (determined using the Röse-Gottlieb extraction method of the homemade icecream. Viable cell counting was performed by Trypane-Blue method and then the Fourier-IR spectra of the samples were evaluated. The cells of Lactobacillus plantarum strain and the bacterial cells in the mix proliferated the best, both in matured icecream and in icecream stored at -5°C. Most of the cells belonging to other strains of bacteria remained viable, but not all. Given these results, we can consider the molasses sweetened icecream as a suitable food product to carry certain types of probiotics.

  4. Effect of a probiotic on prevention of diarrhea and Clostridium difficile and Clostridium perfringens shedding in foals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoster, Angelika; Staempfli, H R; Abrahams, M

    2015-01-01

    of incidence and duration of diarrhea and fecal shedding of Clostridium perfringens and Clostridium difficile between treatment and age groups. RESULTS: The overall incidence of diarrhea was 41 of 72 (59%) and did not differ (P = 0.37) between treatment groups. Foals treated with probiotics were more likely...... of C. perfringens shedding was 55% with no difference between treatment groups (P = 0.23). The prevalence of C. difficile shedding was 11%. CONCLUSION AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: There was no benefit of administering a 3-week course of probiotics, but potential adverse effects were noted. Whether...

  5. [Probiotic associations in the prevention of necrotising enterocolitis and the reduction of late-onset sepsis and neonatal mortality in preterm infants under 1,500g: A systematic review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baucells, Benjamin James; Mercadal Hally, Maria; Álvarez Sánchez, Airam Tenesor; Figueras Aloy, Josep

    2016-11-01

    Necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) is one of the most common and serious acquired bowel diseases a premature newborn can face. This meta-analysis was performed comparing different probiotic mixtures to ascertain their benefits as a routine tool for preventing necrotising enterocolitis and reducing late-onset sepsis and mortality in premature neonates of less than 1500g. A systematic review of randomised controlled trials, between January 1980 and March 2014, on MEDLINE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, together with EMBASE, was carried out. Studies with infants Probiotics were found to reduce the NEC incidence (RR 0.39; 95%CI: 0.26-0.57) and mortality (RR 0.70; 95%CI: 0.52-0.93), with no difference to placebo regarding late-onset sepsis (RR 0.91; 95%CI: 0.78-1.06). Finally, when analysing the different strands, the use of a 2-probiotic combination (Lactobacillus acidophilus with Bifidobacterium bifidum) proved to be statistically significant in reducing all-cause mortality when compared to other probiotic combinations (RR 0.32; 95%CI: 0.15-0.66, NNT 20; 95%CI: 12-50). Probiotics are a beneficial tool in the prevention of NEC and mortality in preterm neonates. Moreover, the combination of 2 probiotics (Lactobacillus acidophilus with Bifidobacterium bifidum) seems to produce the greatest benefits. However, due to the differences in probiotic components and administration, it would be wise to perform a randomised controlled trial comparing different probiotic mixtures. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Probiotics and Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riitta Korpela

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is a major cause of abdominal discomfort and gut dysfunction worldwide. It is a poorly understood functional gastrointestinal disorder for which no effective medication is available. It is a benign condition, but its social and economic burden is significant. The symptoms consist of abdominal pain, bloating, flatulence, and irregular bowel movements. Alterations in the intestinal microbiota and mucosal inflammation may contribute to the development of IBS and probiotics could thus relieve the symptoms. This review gives an overview on the existing data on the effects of probiotics on the gastrointestinal symptoms of IBS. Methods: A PUBMED search was made to review the relevant literature, and additional studies were obtained from the references of the selected articles. Results: Clinical trials suggest that certain probiotics or combinations of bacteria have beneficial effects on the IBS symptoms. However the heterogeneity of studies, e.g. suboptimal study design, inadequate number of subjects, different doses and vehicles, inadequate length, make it difficult to compare the differences between probiotics and the effect may be strain-specific. Conclusions: Though evidence is very promising, no general recommendations on the use of probiotics in IBS can be given yet. Further clinical trials and data on the mechanisms of action are needed. Probiotics are considered safe and if future scientific data is able to substantiate their efficacy in IBS, they certainly could be a treatment option in relieving the symptoms in IBS.

  7. Comparative study of the protective capacity against Salmonella infection between probiotic and nonprobiotic Lactobacilli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, N A; de Moreno de LeBlanc, A; M Galdeano, C; Perdigón, G

    2013-03-01

    To investigate the immunoprotective ability of three Lactobacilli strains against Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in a mouse model. To identify the probiotic properties involved in the protection against infection caused by this pathogen. The immunomodulatory effect of three different lactobacilli strains: Lactobacillus (Lact.) casei CRL 431 (probiotic bacterium), Lact. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus CRL 423 (Lact. bulgaricus) and Lact.acidophilus CRL 730 was compared using a mouse model of Salmonella infection. Lactobacillus casei continuous administration improved animal survival, diminished pathogen spreading outside the intestine, attenuated the intestinal inflammation, modulated cytokine profile previous and postinfection and increased the expression and secretion of IgA in the gut. Additionally, the administration of this lactobacilli increased peritoneal, Peyer's patches and spleen macrophages' phagocytic activity in healthy mice and monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP-1) released by intestinal epithelial cells in an in vitro assay. Although Lact. acidophilus increased the number of IgA-secreting cells previous and postinfection, and Lact. bulgaricus increased MCP-1 released by intestinal epithelial cells and the phagocytic activity of macrophages, these effects alone were not enough to confer protection against Salmonella Typhimurium infection in mouse. Probiotic strain Lact. casei CRL 431 was the one that induced protection against Salmonella, by increasing the intestinal barrier function and by decreasing the local inflammatory response. Salmonella spp. constitutes an important agent of foodborne diseases in the world. Not all lactobacilli, even with some immunostimulating properties at gut level, can protect against Salmonella infection. Lactobacillus casei CRL 431, a probiotic bacterium, could be useful as an oral mucosal adjuvant of the immune system to improve gut health, especially in the prevention or amelioration of Salmonella infections. We

  8. Prevention of pathogenic Escherichia coli infection in mice and stimulation of macrophage activation in rats by an oral administration of probiotic Lactobacillus casei I-5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida-Fujii, Keiko; Sato, Rieko; Goto, Shingo; Yang, Xiao-Ping; Kuboki, Hiroshi; Hirano, Shin-Ichi; Sato, Michikatsu

    2007-04-01

    Lactobacillus casei I-5 isolated from an alcohol fermentation broth enhanced immunity and prevented pathogenic infection as a probiotic. Mice fed with I-5 cells for 11 days prior to an intraperitoneal challenge with pathogenic Escherichia coli Juhl exhibited a high survival rate compared with the control group. Rats fed with I-5 cells for 10 days significantly increased the phagocytosis of peritoneal macrophages. In a cell culture system employing peritoneal macrophages from rats, the I-5 administration activated NF-kappaB stimulated by LPS. It also enhanced LPS-stimulated IL-12 and TNF-alpha production, but not IL-6 production. These results show that L. casei I-5 effectively prevented infection by pathogenic E. coli possibly through the activation of peritoneal macrophages. The strain would be useful to prevent pathogenic microbial infections in humans and farm animals.

  9. Assessment of probiotic properties of Lactobacillus plantarum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The probiotic potential of Lactobacillus plantarum ZLP001, isolated from the gastrointestinal tract of a healthy weaning piglet, was assessed as a probiotic in vitro and in vivo. The survival rate of L. plantarum ZLP001 when cultured in simulated gastric fluid with pH 2.0 and 3.0 and subsequent in intestinal fluid pH 8.0 was ...

  10. Effectiveness of probiotic therapy for gastrointestinal forms of food allergy in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.M. Okhotnikova

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. Intestinal microbiota is involved in the development of oral tolerance. Therefore, there is interest in using probiotics that will contribute to colonization of the intestine, as well as to the development of intestinal homeostasis. There is also a need for studies on the effectiveness of probiotics for the prevention and treatment of allergic diseases in children. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of using biopreparation created on the basis of the spore-forming microorganism Bacillus subtilis in the comprehensive therapy of children with gastrointestinal symptoms of food allergy. Materials and methods. We examined 34 children aged 3.5 to 12 years with food allergies with gastrointestinal complaints. The main group included 18 children, the comparison group consisted of 16 patients. Children of the main group in addition to basic therapy received probiotic on the basis of Bacillus subtilis (1 dose 2 times a day for 20 days. The effectiveness of therapy was assessed by the rate and completeness of reduction of gastrointestinal symptoms and manifestations of comorbid allergic pathology. Results. In patients of the main group, the reduction of gastrointestinal symptoms and symptoms of comorbid allergic pathology was faster. A gradual decrease in the level of specific IgE to food and inhalant allergens by 25–30 % was noted after 10 days of using comprehensive treatment, and by 35–40 % — in 21 days after taking the probiotic based on Bacillus subtilis. All children had changes in the bacteriological examination of the stool (the lack of bifido- and lactobacilli, an increase in the number and changes in the species ratio of the opportunistic flora. Normalization of the intestinal microbiocenosis was noted in 78 % of cases after repeated bacteriological study of stool in children of the main group. After taking the probiotic based on Bacillus subtilis, there were no complications or side effects in all

  11. The impact of probiotics and prebiotics on the immune system.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaenhammer, T.R.; Kleerebezem, M.; Kopp, M.V.; Rescigno, M.

    2012-01-01

    Probiotics and prebiotics are increasingly being added to foodstuffs with claims of health benefits. Probiotics are live microorganisms that are thought to have beneficial effects on the host, whereas prebiotics are ingredients that stimulate the growth and/or function of beneficial intestinal

  12. Potential of probiotics as biotherapeutic agents targeting the innate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Potential of probiotics as biotherapeutic agents targeting the innate immune system. ... Some of the positive effects of probiotics are: growth promotion of farm animals, protection of host from intestinal infections, alleviation of lactose intolerance, relief of constipation, anticarcinogenic effect, anticholesterolaemic effects, ...

  13. Intestinal Microbiota: Early Formation, Health Effects, and Correction Ways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey S. Yakushin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An increase in the prevalence of diseases resulting from disorders of metabolism and immune system functions is largely due to disturbances in the intestinal microbiota composition at an early age. The review  considers the stages and conditions of the natural development of the  intestinal microbiota, starting from the intrauterine period. We  conducted the analysis of possible risk factors for the intestinal  microbiota composition disorders in the pre- and postnatal periods. The  results of modern studies on the association between the intestinal  microbiota composition in infancy and the development of «civilization  diseases» at older ages are given. A separate section is devoted to a  discussion of the efficacy and appropriateness of taking probiotic drugs for disease prevention.

  14. Detection of antibiotic resistance in probiotics of dietary supplements

    KAUST Repository

    Wong, Aloysius Tze; Ngu, Davey Yueh Saint; Dan, Lydia Annabel; Ooi, Amanda Siok Lee; Lim, Renee Lay Hong

    2015-01-01

    in food and health products. Since probiotic bacteria act as reservoir for antibiotic resistant determinants, the transfer of these genes to pathogens sharing the same intestinal habitat is thus conceivable considering the fact that dietary supplements

  15. Combined bioavailable isoflavones and probiotics improve bone status and estrogen metabolism in postmenopausal osteopenic women: a randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lambert, Max Norman Tandrup; Thybo, Catrine Bundgaard; Lykkeboe, Simon

    2017-01-01

    estrogen receptor affinity show potential to prevent and treat osteoporosis while minimizing or eliminating carcinogenic side effects. Objective: In this study, we sought to determine the beneficial effects of a bioavailable isoflavone and probiotic treatment against postmenopausal osteopenia. Design: We...... used a novel red clover extract (RCE) rich in isoflavone aglycones and probiotics to concomitantly promote uptake and a favorable intestinal bacterial profile to enhance isoflavone bioavailability. This was a 12-mo, double-blind, parallel design, placebo-controlled, randomized controlled trial of 78...... postmenopausal osteopenic women supplemented with calcium (1200 mg/d), magnesium (550 mg/d), and calcitriol (25 mg/d) given either RCE (60 mg isoflavone aglycones/d and probiotics) or a masked placebo [control (CON)]. Results: RCE significantly attenuated bone mineral density (BMD) loss at the L2–L4 lumbar spine...

  16. Probiotics: Prevention of Severe Pneumonia and Endotracheal Colonization Trial-PROSPECT: protocol for a feasibility randomized pilot trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, Jennie; Meade, Maureen; Marshall, John; Heyland, Daren K; Surette, Michael G; Bowdish, Dawn Me; Lauzier, Francois; Thebane, Lehana; Cook, Deborah J

    2015-01-01

    Probiotics are defined as live microorganisms that may confer health benefits when ingested. Meta-analysis of probiotic trials suggests a 25 % lower ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) and 18 % lower infection rates overall when administered to patients in the intensive care unit (ICU). However, prior trials are small, largely single center, and at high risk of bias. Before a large rigorous trial is launched, testing whether probiotics confer benefit, harm, or have no impact, a pilot trial is needed. The aim of the PROSPECT Pilot Trial is to determine the feasibility of performing a larger trial in mechanically ventilated critically ill patients investigating Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG. A priori, we determined that the feasibility of the larger trial would be based on timely recruitment, high protocol adherence, minimal contamination, and an acceptable VAP rate. Patients ≥18 years old in the ICU who are anticipated to receive mechanical ventilation for ≥72 hours will be included. Patients are excluded if they are at increased risk of probiotic-associated infection, have strict enteral medication contraindications, are pregnant, previously enrolled in a related trial, or are receiving palliative care. Following informed consent, patients are randomized in variable unspecified block sizes in a fixed 1:1 ratio, stratified by ICU, and medical, surgical, or trauma admitting diagnosis. Patients receive 1 × 10 10 colony forming units of L. rhamnosus GG (Culturelle, Locin Industries Ltd) or an identical placebo suspended in tap water administered twice daily via nasogastric tube in the ICU. Clinical and research staff, patients, and families are blinded. The primary outcomes for this pilot trial are the following: (1) recruitment success, (2) ≥90 % protocol adherence, (3) ≤5 % contamination, and (4) ~10 % VAP rate. Additional clinical outcomes are VAP, other infections, diarrhea (total, antibiotic associated, and Clostridium difficile), ICU and

  17. Probiotics in the Space Food System: Delivery, Microgravity Effects, and the Potential Benefit to Crew Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, S. L.; Ott, C. M.; Douglas, G. L.

    2014-01-01

    As mission distance and duration increase, the need grows for non-invasive disease prevention and immunomodulation, especially given the limited medical response capability expected for these missions and the immune dysregulation documented in crew. Additionally, changes in diet, lifestyle, antibiotic usage, and the environmental stresses during spaceflight may alter crewmembers' intestinal microbiome. The addition of probiotic bacteria to the space food system is expected to confer immunostimulatory benefits on crewmembers, with the potential to counteract the immune dysregulation that has been documented in spaceflight. Based on previous studies that demonstrated unique microbiological responses to the low shear environment of spaceflight, probiotic organisms hold the potential to induce enhanced beneficial responses through mechanisms, such as beneficial interactions with human immune cells and repression of colonization of pathogens on the mucosa. The work presented here will begin to address two research gaps related to providing probiotics in spaceflight: 1) delivery, and 2) the effect of the low shear microgravity environment on probiotic attributes. The probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus was selected for investigation due to its wide commercial use and documented benefits that include inhibition of virulence related gene expression in pathogens and mucosal stimulation of immune cells. The delivery system for probiotics has not been determined for spaceflight, where the food system is shelf stable and the lack of refrigeration prevents the use of traditional dairy delivery methods. In order to demonstrate the potential of the space food system to deliver viable probiotic bacteria to crewmembers, the probiotic L. acidophilus was packaged in high barrier flight packaging in nonfat dry milk (NFDM) or retained in commercial capsule form. Viable cells were enumerated over 8 months of storage at 22, 4, and -80ºC. The survival of L. acidophilus rehydrated in NFDM

  18. Epidermal growth factor improves survival and prevents intestinal injury in a murine model of pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez, Jessica A; Vithayathil, Paul J; Khailova, Ludmila; Lawrance, Christopher P; Samocha, Alexandr J; Jung, Enjae; Leathersich, Ann M; Dunne, W Michael; Coopersmith, Craig M

    2011-10-01

    Mortality from pneumonia is mediated, in part, through extrapulmonary causes. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) has broad cytoprotective effects, including potent restorative properties in the injured intestine. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of EGF treatment following Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia. FVB/N mice underwent intratracheal injection of either P. aeruginosa or saline and were then randomized to receive either systemic EGF or vehicle beginning immediately or 24 h after the onset of pneumonia. Systemic EGF decreased 7-day mortality from 65% to 10% when initiated immediately after the onset of pneumonia and to 27% when initiated 24 h after the onset of pneumonia. Even though injury in pneumonia is initiated in the lungs, the survival advantage conferred by EGF was not associated with improvements in pulmonary pathology. In contrast, EGF prevented intestinal injury by reversing pneumonia-induced increases in intestinal epithelial apoptosis and decreases in intestinal proliferation and villus length. Systemic cytokines and kidney and liver function were unaffected by EGF therapy, although EGF decreased pneumonia-induced splenocyte apoptosis. To determine whether the intestine was sufficient to account for extrapulmonary effects induced by EGF, a separate set of experiments was done using transgenic mice with enterocyte-specific overexpression of EGF (IFABP-EGF [intestinal fatty acid-binding protein linked to mouse EGF] mice), which were compared with wild-type mice subjected to pneumonia. IFABP-EGF mice had improved survival compared with wild-type mice following pneumonia (50% vs. 28%, respectively, P < 0.05) and were protected from pneumonia-induced intestinal injury. Thus, EGF may be a potential adjunctive therapy for pneumonia, mediated in part by its effects on the intestine.

  19. Prophylactic Probiotics for Preterm Infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Rie; Greisen, Gorm; Schrøder, Morten

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a major morbidity and cause of mortality in preterm neonates. Probiotics seem to have a beneficial role in preventing NEC, which is confirmed in meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). We therefore aimed to review and confirm the efficacy...... of probiotics in preterm neonates obtained in observational studies. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of prophylactic probiotics in preterm infants. METHODS: A meta-analysis was performed searching PubMed, EMBASE, CENTRAL (the Cochrane Library) and www.clinicaltrials.gov. Reference lists of reviews of RCTs were...... also searched. Included studies were observational studies that enrolled preterm infants probiotics and measured at least one clinical outcome (e.g. NEC, all-cause mortality, sepsis or long-term development scores). Two authors...

  20. Endotoxin induced chorioamnionitis prevents intestinal development during gestation in fetal sheep.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim G A M Wolfs

    Full Text Available Chorioamnionitis is the most significant source of prenatal inflammation and preterm delivery. Prematurity and prenatal inflammation are associated with compromised postnatal developmental outcomes, of the intestinal immune defence, gut barrier function and the vascular system. We developed a sheep model to study how the antenatal development of the gut was affected by gestation and/or by endotoxin induced chorioamnionitis.Chorioamnionitis was induced at different gestational ages (GA. Animals were sacrificed at low GA after 2d or 14d exposure to chorioamnionitis. Long term effects of 30d exposure to chorioamnionitis were studied in near term animals after induction of chorioamnionitis. The cellular distribution of tight junction protein ZO-1 was shown to be underdeveloped at low GA whereas endotoxin induced chorioamnionitis prevented the maturation of tight junctions during later gestation. Endotoxin induced chorioamnionitis did not induce an early (2d inflammatory response in the gut in preterm animals. However, 14d after endotoxin administration preterm animals had increased numbers of T-lymphocytes, myeloperoxidase-positive cells and gammadelta T-cells which lasted till 30d after induction of chorioamnionitis in then near term animals. At early GA, low intestinal TLR-4 and MD-2 mRNA levels were detected which were further down regulated during endotoxin-induced chorioamnionitis. Predisposition to organ injury by ischemia was assessed by the vascular function of third-generation mesenteric arteries. Endotoxin-exposed animals of low GA had increased contractile response to the thromboxane A2 mimetic U46619 and reduced endothelium-dependent relaxation in responses to acetylcholine. The administration of a nitric oxide (NO donor completely restored endothelial dysfunction suggesting reduced NO bioavailability which was not due to low expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase.Our results indicate that the distribution of the tight

  1. Effects of synbiotics on intestinal mucosal barrier in rat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhigang Xue

    2017-06-01

    Conclusions: Probiotics can improve the concentration of colonic probiotics, while synbiotics can improve probiotics concentration and mucosa thickness in colon, decrease L/M ratio and bacterial translocation. Synbiotics shows more protective effects on intestinal mucosal barrier in rats after cecectomy and gastrostomy and the intervention of specific antibiotics.

  2. Exogenous glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) prevents chemotherapy-induced mucositis in rat small intestine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kissow, Hannelouise; Viby, Niels-Erik; Hartmann, Bolette

    2012-01-01

    was analysed for weight loss, morphometric estimates and proliferation. Study 2 Rats were treated with GLP-2 or control vehicle 2 days before a single injection of 5-FU or saline. The treatments continued until kill 2 days after. The intestine was investigated for influx of myeloperoxidase (MPO)-positive cells...... and morphometric estimates, such as villus height, as a marker of mucositis. RESULTS STUDY 1: Two days after chemotherapy, there was a rise in endogenous GLP-2, followed by a marked increase in proliferation. Study 2 Exogenous GLP-2 was able to protect the intestine from severe weight loss and completely prevented...

  3. Immunomodulatory properties of probiotic bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fink, Lisbeth Nielsen

    2007-01-01

    Certain lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are part of the commensal intestinal flora and considered beneficial for health, as they compete with pathogens for adhesion sites in the intestine and ferment otherwise indigestible compounds. Another important property of these so-called probiotic bacteria...... with bacteria, and the cytokine pattern induced by specific bacteria resembled the pattern induced in MoDC, except for TNF-alpha and IL-6, which were induced in response to different bacteria in blood DC/monocytes and monocyte-derived DC. Autologous NK cells produced IFN-gamma when cultured with blood DC......, monocytes and monocyte-derived DC and IL-12-inducing bacteria, whereas only DC induced IFN-gamma production in allogeneic T cells. In vitro-generated DC is a commonly used model of tissue DC, but they differ in certain aspects from intestinal DC, which are in direct contact with the intestinal microbiota...

  4. Probiotics as oral health biotherapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Shyamali; Tomaro-Duchesneau, Catherine; Tabrizian, Maryam; Prakash, Satya

    2012-09-01

    Oral health is affected by its resident microorganisms. Three prominent oral disorders are dental caries, gingivitis and periodontitis, with the oral microbiota playing a key role in the initiation/progression of all three. Understanding the microbiota and the diseases they may cause is critical to the development of new therapeutics. This review is focused on probiotics for the prevention and/or treatment of oral diseases. This review describes the oral ecosystem and its correlation with oral health/disease. The pathogenesis and current prevention/treatment strategies of periodontal diseases (PD) and dental caries (DC) are depicted. An introduction of probiotics is followed by an analysis of their role in PD and DC, and their potential role(s) in oral health. Finally, a discussion ensues on the future research directions and limitations of probiotics for oral health. An effective oral probiotic formulation should contribute to the prevention/treatment of microbial diseases of the oral cavity. Understanding the oral microbiota's role in oral disease is important for the development of a therapeutic to prevent/treat dental diseases. However, investigations into clinical efficacy, delivery/dose optimization, mechanism(s) of action and other related parameters are yet to be fully explored. Keeping this in mind, investigations into oral probiotic therapies are proving promising.

  5. 1,2-Fucosyllactose Does Not Improve Intestinal Function or Prevent Escherichia coli F18 Diarrhea in Newborn Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cilieborg, Malene Skovsted; Sangild, Per Torp; Jensen, Michael Ladegaard

    2017-01-01

    of mucosa and activities of some brush border enzymes in the proximal small intestine. In situ abundance of α-1,2-fucose and E coli was similar between groups, whereas sequencing showed higher abundance of Enterobacteriaceae in F18, Enterococcus in control and Lachnospiraceae in 2FL-F18 pigs. Conclusions: 2......′-FL inhibited in vitro adhesion of E coli F18 to epithelial cells, but had limited effects on diarrhea and mucosal health in newborn pigs challenged with E coli F18...... in the intestine and may in part explain the protective effects of human milk. We hypothesized that 2′-FL prevents diarrhea via competitive inhibition of pathogen adhesion in a pig model for sensitive newborn infants. Methods: Intestinal cell studies were coupled with studies on cesarean-delivered newborn pigs (n...

  6. In vitro inhibition of Eimeria tenella sporozoite invasion into host cells by probiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessenberger, S; Schatzmayr, G; Teichmann, K

    2016-10-15

    The aim was to study the effects of probiotics isolated from the intestinal tract of livestock animals on Eimeria tenella invasion into Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) cells in vitro. E. tenella sporozoites were purified and labeled with 5(6)-carboxyfluorescein diacetate N-succinimidyl ester before seeding on cell cultures, and invasion was evaluated by fluorescence microscopy. Two protocols (A and B) were used. In protocol A, Enterococcus faecium # 589 or Lactobacillus salivarius subsp. salivarius # 505 were added together with sporozoites to MDBK cell cultures and invasion was evaluated after incubation for approximately 20h. Viable, dead, or spent culture supernatants of probiotics were tested. In protocol B, viable probiotics were incubated with MDBK cells for one hour before sporozoites were added and invasion was evaluated after two more hours of incubation. Parasite invasion of viable, dead, or spent culture supernatant of E. faecium # 589 was assessed. Using protocol A, it was shown that parasite invasion was inhibited by viable (80%) or dead (75%) E. faecium # 589. While inhibition by viable L. salivarius subsp. salivarius # 505 was not valid at the highest concentration and not significant at the other test concentrations, dead cells inhibited parasite invasion up to 45%. Spent culture supernatants of both probiotics had no influence on parasite invasion. Using protocol B, it was shown that viable Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. animalis # 503, E. faecium # 497, E. faecium # 589, L. reuteri # 514, L. salivarius subsp. salivarius # 505, and Bacillus subtilis # 588 inhibited parasite invasion into MDBK cells up to 80%. Anticoccidial activity was strain-specific for E. faecium strains, and the strongest effect was shown by E. faecium # 589. Anticoccidial effects of some of the tested probiotics have already been shown in vivo, which makes them candidates to prevent coccidiosis. These findings have now been confirmed in vitro. The used parasite invasion

  7. INFANTS’ INTESTINAL COLICS. MODERN DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.I. Ursova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes modern data on infants’ intestinal colics. Peculiarities of nutrition, intestinal microbiocenose in healthy infants, methods of colcs’ correction are discussed. Author describes the principles of probiotics choice based on their clinical effectiveness in infants. Milk formula «Nan Comfort» can be useful in prophylaxis and treatment of functional disorders of gastrointestinal tract in children.Key words: infants, gastrointestinal tract, anatomy, physiology, intestinal colics, nutrition, probiotics.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2011; 10 (2: 125–131

  8. Administration of two probiotic strains during early childhood does not affect the endogenous gut microbiota composition despite probiotic proliferation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Martin Frederik; Laursen, Rikke Pilmann; Larnkjær, Anni

    2017-01-01

    Probiotics are increasingly applied to prevent and treat a range of infectious, immune related and gastrointestinal diseases. Despite this, the mechanisms behind the putative effects of probiotics are poorly understood. One of the suggested modes of probiotic action is modulation of the endogenou...... of the healthy infant gut microbiota is not likely to be a prominent mechanism by which these specific probiotics works to exert beneficial effects on host health. NCT02180581 . Registered 30 June 2014....

  9. Probiotics for gastrointestinal disorders: Proposed recommendations for children of the Asia-Pacific region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Donald; Hock, Quak Seng; Kadim, Musal; Mohan, Neelam; Ryoo, Eell; Sandhu, Bhupinder; Yamashiro, Yuichiro; Jie, Chen; Hoekstra, Hans; Guarino, Alfredo

    2017-01-01

    Recommendations for probiotics are available in several regions. This paper proposes recommendations for probiotics in pediatric gastrointestinal diseases in the Asia-Pacific region. Epidemiology and clinical patterns of intestinal diseases in Asia-Pacific countries were discussed. Evidence-based recommendations and randomized controlled trials in the region were revised. Cultural aspects, health management issues and economic factors were also considered. Final recommendations were approved by applying the Likert scale and rated using the GRADE system. Saccharomyces boulardii CNCM I-745 (Sb) and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) were strongly recommended as adjunct treatment to oral rehydration therapy for gastroenteritis. Lactobacillus reuteri could also be considered. Probiotics may be considered for prevention of (with the indicated strains): antibiotic-associated diarrhea (LGG or Sb); Clostridium difficile-induced diarrhea (Sb); nosocomial diarrhea (LGG); infantile colic (L reuteri) and as adjunct treatment of Helicobacter pylori (Sb and others). Specific probiotics with a history of safe use in preterm and term infants may be considered in infants for prevention of necrotizing enterocolitis. There is insufficient evidence for recommendations in other conditions. Despite a diversity of epidemiological, socioeconomical and health system conditions, similar recommendations apply well to Asia pacific countries. These need to be validated with local randomized-controlled trials. PMID:29259371

  10. Microencapsulation of Bacterial Cells by Emulsion Technique for Probiotic Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Surajit; Hati, Subrota

    2017-01-01

    Probiotics are dietary concepts to improve the dynamics of intestinal microbial balance favorably. Careful screening of probiotic strains for their technological suitability can also allow selection of strains with the best manufacturing and food technology characteristics. However, even the most robust probiotic bacteria are currently in the range of food applications to which they can be applied. Additionally, bacteria with exceptional functional heath properties are ruled out due to technological limitations. New process and formulation technologies will enable both expansion of the range of products in to which probiotics can be applied and the use of efficacious stains that currently cannot be manufactured or stored with existing technologies. Viability of probiotics has been both a marketing and technological concern for many industrial produces. Probiotics are difficult to work with, the bacteria often die during processing, and shelf life is unpredictable. Probiotics are extremely susceptible environmental conditions such as oxygen, processing and preservation treatments, acidity, and salt concentration, which collectively affect the overall viability of probiotics. Manufacturers have long been fortifying products with probiotics; they have faced significant processing challenges regarding the stability and survivability of probiotics during processing and preservation treatments, storage as well during their passage through GIT. Application of microencapsulation significantly improves the stability of probiotics during food processing and gastrointestinal transit.

  11. Probiotics and infantile atopic eczema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akelma AZ

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Ahmet Zülfikar Akelma,1 Aziz Alper Biten2 1Pediatric Allergy and Immunology Unit, Ankara Kecioren Teaching and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey; 2General Directorate of Management Services, Republic of Turkey Ministry of Health, Ankara, Turkey Abstract: Pediatric eczema is a common disease which causes economic and social burden. Its incidence differs among the societies, with an incidence reported to reach up to 20% in developed countries. Eczema is the first allergic disease seen in the childhood, and it is recognized as a precursor for the development of atopic diseases such as asthma, allergic rhinitis, and food allergy in the forthcoming years of children. Increased incidence of eczema in recent years has led to new research in epidemiology, prevention, and intervention of this disease. It is no doubt important to treat itching, rash, and excoriation of the skin; however, treatment of pediatric eczema should not be considered only as a treatment of skin lesions. Considering skin treatment as the tip of the iceberg, proper management of the allergic processes can be accepted as the rest of the iceberg. The role of probiotics in the prevention of atopic eczema is yet to be clarified. Evidence presented by existing studies suggesting that probiotics may prevent pediatric eczema is not strong enough. A positive effect, if any, may be related with onset time, dose, duration, and use of specific probiotics. To date, there is no strong evidence for use of probiotics in the treatment of eczema; however, administration of probiotics in breast-feeding mothers in the prenatal period and in infants in the postnatal period can be accepted as a safe and helpful option in the prevention of eczema. Nevertheless, there are still questions to be answered in the future about probiotic administration for eczema. Clinical use of probiotics will gradually become more widespread when these questions are answered. Based on current information, the administration

  12. Acute intestinal injury induced by acetic acid and casein: prevention by intraluminal misoprostol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, M.J.; Zhang, x.J.; Gu, x.A.; Clark, D.A.

    1991-01-01

    Acute injury was established in anesthetized rabbits by intraluminal administration of acetic acid with and without bovine casein, into loops of distal small intestine. Damage was quantified after 45 minutes by the blood-to-lumen movement of 51 Cr-labeled ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and fluorescein isothiocyanate-tagged bovine serum albumin as well as luminal fluid histamine levels. The amount of titratable acetic acid used to lower the pH of the treatment solutions to pH 4.0 was increased by the addition of calcium gluconate. Luminal acetic acid caused a 19-fold increase in 51 Cr-EDTA accumulation over saline controls; casein did not modify this effect. In saline controls, loop fluid histamine levels bordered on the limits of detection (1 ng/g) but were elevated 19-fold by acetic acid exposure and markedly increased (118-fold) by the combination of acid and casein. Intraluminal misoprostol (3 or 30 micrograms/mL), administered 30 minutes before acetic acid, significantly attenuated the increase in epithelial permeability (luminal 51 Cr-EDTA, fluorescein isothiocyanate-bovine serum albumin accumulation) and histamine release (P less than 0.05). Diphenhydramine, alone or in combination with cimetidine, and indomethacin (5 mg/kg IV) were not protective. It is concluded that exposure of the epithelium to acetic acid promotes the transepithelial movement of casein leading to enhanced mast cell activation and mucosal injury. Damage to the epithelial barrier can be prevented by misoprostol

  13. Acute intestinal injury induced by acetic acid and casein: prevention by intraluminal misoprostol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, M.J.; Zhang, x.J.; Gu, x.A.; Clark, D.A. (Department of Pediatrics, Louisiana State University School of Medicine, New Orleans (USA))

    1991-07-01

    Acute injury was established in anesthetized rabbits by intraluminal administration of acetic acid with and without bovine casein, into loops of distal small intestine. Damage was quantified after 45 minutes by the blood-to-lumen movement of {sup 51}Cr-labeled ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and fluorescein isothiocyanate-tagged bovine serum albumin as well as luminal fluid histamine levels. The amount of titratable acetic acid used to lower the pH of the treatment solutions to pH 4.0 was increased by the addition of calcium gluconate. Luminal acetic acid caused a 19-fold increase in {sup 51}Cr-EDTA accumulation over saline controls; casein did not modify this effect. In saline controls, loop fluid histamine levels bordered on the limits of detection (1 ng/g) but were elevated 19-fold by acetic acid exposure and markedly increased (118-fold) by the combination of acid and casein. Intraluminal misoprostol (3 or 30 micrograms/mL), administered 30 minutes before acetic acid, significantly attenuated the increase in epithelial permeability (luminal {sup 51}Cr-EDTA, fluorescein isothiocyanate-bovine serum albumin accumulation) and histamine release (P less than 0.05). Diphenhydramine, alone or in combination with cimetidine, and indomethacin (5 mg/kg IV) were not protective. It is concluded that exposure of the epithelium to acetic acid promotes the transepithelial movement of casein leading to enhanced mast cell activation and mucosal injury. Damage to the epithelial barrier can be prevented by misoprostol.

  14. Overview of technology developments in probiotic field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Stanton

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics are ‘live microorganisms which, when administrated in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host’ (FAO/WHO, 2001. This requirement, i.e. that the probiotic bacteria must be in viable form at the time of consumption, poses a number of technical challenges from food processing perspectives. Environmental stresses encountered during food processing include acid exposure during food fermentations, extremes in temperatures encountered during drying processes, in addition to oxidative, osmotic, and food matrix stresses. Furthermore, the ingested bacteria must remain viable during gastric transit, to reach the site of action in viable form to exert the probiotic effects. This imposes further stresses, as the gastrointestinal tract is naturally designed to impede the passage of microorganisms with low pH encountered in the stomach and the detergent-like properties of bile encountered in the duodenum. A number of approaches have been investigated in order to minimise the damage caused by exposure to such stresses experienced by probiotics during food processing and gastric transit. Approaches for protection of probiotic viability during food processing and shelf life include manipulation of bacterial cell physiology, application of prelethal stress to the cultures during cell preparation, selection of appropriate drying conditions, and optimisation of reconstitution conditions after drying. Furthermore, probiotic viability losses can be minimised by selection of appropriate food carriers for their delivery to the intestine. In this respect, the composition and physical nature of the food matrix can have profound effects on the stability of live probiotics during gastric transit. Encapsulation of probiotics is another approach to positively affect viability of probiotics in some matrices. Furthermore, it is important to understand the mechanisms underlying bacterial survival in hostile environments in order to develop efficacious

  15. Intestinal microbiota: a potential diet-responsive prevention target in ApcMin mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Volker; Colbert, Lisa H; Perkins, Susan N; Schatzkin, Arthur; Hursting, Stephen D

    2007-01-01

    We previously reported that two dietary regimens, calorie restriction (CR) and a high olive oil-containing diet supplemented with a freeze-dried fruit and vegetable extract (OFV), reduced the development of intestinal adenomas in Apc(Min) mice by 57% and 33%, respectively, compared to control mice fed a defined diet ad libitum. The OFV diet was designed to have a strong effect on the composition of the intestinal microbiota through its high content of fiber, which represents a major source of fermentable substrate for the gut bacteria. We hypothesized that some of the observed effects of diet on intestinal carcinogenesis might be mediated by diet-related changes in the bacterial species that thrive in the gut. Therefore, we determined by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) how the dietary interventions affected the composition of the intestinal microbiota, and we characterized specific microbiota changes that were associated with diet and reduced intestinal carcinogenesis. The OFV diet changed the overall composition of the intestinal microbiota, smaller changes were observed for the CR diet. Furthermore, we detected a 16S rDNA fragment associated with mice that did not develop polyps. Sequence analysis suggested that hitherto unidentified bacteria belonging to the family Lachnospiraceae (order Clostridiales) were its source. Thus, these bacteria may be an indicator of intestinal conditions associated with reduced intestinal carcinogenesis in Apc(Min) mice. Copyright 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Probiotics modulate gut microbiota and improve insulin sensitivity in DIO mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagarolli, Renata A; Tobar, Natália; Oliveira, Alexandre G; Araújo, Tiago G; Carvalho, Bruno M; Rocha, Guilherme Z; Vecina, Juliana F; Calisto, Kelly; Guadagnini, Dioze; Prada, Patrícia O; Santos, Andrey; Saad, Sara T O; Saad, Mario J A

    2017-12-01

    Obesity and type 2 diabetes are characterized by subclinical inflammatory process. Changes in composition or modulation of the gut microbiota may play an important role in the obesity-associated inflammatory process. In the current study, we evaluated the effects of probiotics (Lactobacillus rhamnosus, L. acidophilus and Bifidobacterium bifidumi) on gut microbiota, changes in permeability, and insulin sensitivity and signaling in high-fat diet and control animals. More importantly, we investigated the effects of these gut modulations on hypothalamic control of food intake, and insulin and leptin signaling. Swiss mice were submitted to a high-fat diet (HFD) with probiotics or pair-feeding for 5 weeks. Metagenome analyses were performed on DNA samples from mouse feces. Blood was drawn to determine levels of glucose, insulin, LPS, cytokines and GLP-1. Liver, muscle, ileum and hypothalamus tissue proteins were analyzed by Western blotting and real-time polymerase chain reaction. In addition, liver and adipose tissues were analyzed using histology and immunohistochemistry. The HFD induced huge alterations in gut microbiota accompanied by increased intestinal permeability, LPS translocation and systemic low-grade inflammation, resulting in decreased glucose tolerance and hyperphagic behavior. All these obesity-related features were reversed by changes in the gut microbiota profile induced by probiotics. Probiotics also induced an improvement in hypothalamic insulin and leptin resistance. Our data demonstrate that the intestinal microbiome is a key modulator of inflammatory and metabolic pathways in both peripheral and central tissues. These findings shed light on probiotics as an important tool to prevent and treat patients with obesity and insulin resistance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Probiotics and prebiotics in ulcerative colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derikx, Lauranne A A P; Dieleman, Levinus A; Hoentjen, Frank

    2016-02-01

    The intestinal microbiota is one of the key players in the etiology of ulcerative colitis. Manipulation of this microflora with probiotics and prebiotics is an attractive strategy in the management of ulcerative colitis. Several intervention studies for both the induction and maintenance of remission in ulcerative colitis patients have been performed. Most of these studies evaluated VSL#3 or E. Coli Nissle 1917 and in general there is evidence for efficacy of these agents for induction and maintenance of remission. However, studies are frequently underpowered, lack a control group, and are very heterogeneous investigating different probiotic strains in different study populations. The absence of well-powered robust randomized placebo-controlled trials impedes the widespread use of probiotics and prebiotics in ulcerative colitis. However, given the promising results that are currently available, probiotics and prebiotics may find their way to the treatment algorithm for ulcerative colitis in the near future. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Probiotics and oral health effects in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Twetman, Svante; Stecksén-Blicks, Christina

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Probiotics are living micro-organisms added to food which beneficially affect the host by improving its intestinal microbial balance. OBJECTIVE: This paper aims to present a general background on probiotics and its health effects in children, and to examine the evidence for oral...... interest was conducted in children. Four papers dealt with oral installation of probiotic bacteria, and although detectable levels were found in saliva shortly after intake, the studies failed to demonstrate a long-term installation. Seven papers evaluated the effect of lactobacilli- or bifidobacteria......-derived probiotics on the salivary levels of caries-associated bacteria in placebo-controlled designs. All but one reported a hampering effect on mutans streptococci and/or yeast. The single study carried out in early childhood reported a significant caries reduction in 3- to 4-year-old children after 7 months...

  19. Probiotic Properties of Non-Saccharomyces Yeasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Ida Mosbech

    to harmless luminal substances is a key feature of the intestinal immune system. In this context, dendritic cells (DCs) present in the tissues lining the human gut are central players involved in microbial sensing and shaping of appropriate adaptive immune responses. Probiotics are live microorganisms which...... when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host. While the majority of probiotic microorganisms studied to date are lactic acid bacteria, research in yeasts with potentially beneficial influences on human health has mainly revolved around Saccharomyces boulardii. This yeast...... has shown a positive impact on disease outcome in clinical studies of inflammatory bowel disease, indicating an ability of S. boulardii to influence human immune responses underlying intestinal inflammation. Consequent to this focus on S. boulardii as the fundamental probiotic yeast, very little...

  20. The Use of Probiotics in Gastrointestinal Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen L Madsen

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics are living microorganisms that can affect the host in a beneficial manner. Prebiotics are nondigestible food ingredients that stimulate the growth and activity of probiotic bacteria already established in the colon. Efficacy of probiotic compounds has been shown in a wide range of gastrointestinal diseases. Lactobacillus GG alone, or the combination of Bifidobacterium bifidum and Streptococcus thermophilus, is effective in the treatment of Clostridium difficile, as well as in preventing the frequency and severity of infectious acute diarrhea in children. Prevention of antibiotic-induced diarrhea with the concomitant administration of either Lactobacillus GG or Saccharomyces boulardii has been demonstrated. The most successful studies involve the use of Lactobacillus GG at a dose of 1×1010 viable organisms per day and the yeast boulardii at a dose of 1 g/day. A probiotic preparation (VSL#3 - 6 g/day that uses a combination of three species of Bifidobacterium, four strains of Lactobacillus and one strain of Streptocccus has shown promise in maintaining remission in ulcerative colitis and pouchitis, as well as in preventing the postoperative recurrence of Crohn's disease. The mechanism of action of probiotics may include receptor competition, effects on mucin secretion or probiotic immunomodulation of gut-associated lymphoid tissue. Oral administration of probiotic compounds has been demonstrated to be well tolerated and safe. However, while probiotics have the potential to improve human health and to prevent and treat some diseases, major improvements are needed in labelling and quality assurance procedures for probiotic compounds. In addition, well planned and controlled clinical studies are necessary to delineate fully the potential for probiotic compounds.

  1. Open trial of cimetidine in the prevention of upper gastro-intestinal haemorrhage in patients with severe intracranial injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouawad, E; Deloof, T; Genette, F; Vandesteene, A

    1983-01-01

    The present study evaluates the efficacy of Cimetidine in the prevention of clinically important gastro-intestinal haemorrhage in patients suffering from severe head injury. Fifty patients (39 males and 11 females) were included in the study. We excluded from the trial patients on anticoagulant therapy or concomitant non-steroid anti-inflammatory agents, pregnant and lactating women, and patients with previous histories of peptic ulcer disease.

  2. Probiotics and prebiotics in ulcerative colitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derikx, L.A.A.P.; Dieleman, L.A.; Hoentjen, F.

    2016-01-01

    The intestinal microbiota is one of the key players in the etiology of ulcerative colitis. Manipulation of this microflora with probiotics and prebiotics is an attractive strategy in the management of ulcerative colitis. Several intervention studies for both the induction and maintenance of

  3. [Correlation of the microbiota and intestinal mucosa in the pathophysiology and treatment of irritable bowel, irritable eye, and irritable mind syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehér, János; Kovács, Illés; Pacella, Elena; Radák, Zsolt

    2014-09-14

    Accumulating clinical evidence supports co-morbidity of irritable bowel, irritable eye and irritable mind symptoms. Furthermore, perturbation of the microbiota-host symbiosis (dysbiosis) is considered a common pathogenic mechanism connecting gastrointestinal, ocular and neuropsychiatric symptoms. Consequently, maintaining or restoring microbiota-host symbiosis represents a new approach to treat these symptoms or to prevent their relapses. Current treatment approach assigned a primary role to live probiotics alone or in combination with prebiotics to enhance colonization of beneficial bacteria and to strengthen the symbiosis. However, several papers showed major benefits of heat-killed probiotics as compared to their live counterparts on both intestinal and systemic symptoms. Recently, in addition to killing probiotics, in a proof of concept study lysates (fragments) of probiotics in combination with vitamins A, B, D and omega 3 fatty acids were successfully tested. These findings suggested a conceptual change in the approach addressed to both the microbiota and host as targets for intervention.

  4. Prophylactic use of a probiotic in the prevention of colic, regurgitation, and functional constipation: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indrio, Flavia; Di Mauro, Antonio; Riezzo, Giuseppe; Civardi, Elisa; Intini, Cristina; Corvaglia, Luigi; Ballardini, Elisa; Bisceglia, Massimo; Cinquetti, Mauro; Brazzoduro, Emanuela; Del Vecchio, Antonio; Tafuri, Silvio; Francavilla, Ruggiero

    2014-03-01

    Infantile colic, gastroesophageal reflux, and constipation are the most common functional gastrointestinal disorders that lead to referral to a pediatrician during the first 6 months of life and are often responsible for hospitalization, feeding changes, use of drugs, parental anxiety, and loss of parental working days with relevant social consequences. To investigate whether oral supplementation with Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 during the first 3 months of life can reduce the onset of colic, gastroesophageal reflux, and constipation in term newborns and thereby reduce the socioeconomic impact of these conditions. A prospective, multicenter, double-masked, placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial was performed on term newborns (age hospitalizations, visits to a pediatric emergency department for a perceived health emergency, pharmacologic interventions, and loss of parental working days. In total, 589 infants were randomly allocated to receive L reuteri DSM 17938 or placebo daily for 90 days. Prophylactic use of probiotic. Reduction of daily crying time, regurgitation, and constipation during the first 3 months of life. Cost-benefit analysis of the probiotic supplementation. At 3 months of age, the mean duration of crying time (38 vs 71 minutes; P < .01), the mean number of regurgitations per day (2.9 vs 4.6; P < .01), and the mean number of evacuations per day (4.2 vs 3.6; P < .01) for the L reuteri DSM 17938 and placebo groups, respectively, were significantly different. The use of L reuteri DSM 17938 resulted in an estimated mean savings per patient of €88 (US $118.71) for the family and an additional €104 (US $140.30) for the community. Prophylactic use of L reuteri DSM 17938 during the first 3 months of life reduced the onset of functional gastrointestinal disorders and reduced private and public costs for the management of this condition. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01235884.

  5. The effects of probiotics in lactose intolerance: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oak, Sophia J; Jha, Rajesh

    2018-02-09

    Over 60 percent of the human population has a reduced ability to digest lactose due to low levels of lactase enzyme activity. Probiotics are live bacteria or yeast that supplements the gastrointestinal flora. Studies have shown that probiotics exhibit various health beneficial properties such as improvement of intestinal health, enhancement of the immune responses, and reduction of serum cholesterol. Accumulating evidence has shown that probiotic bacteria in fermented and unfermented milk products can be used to alleviate the clinical symptoms of lactose intolerance (LI). In this systematic review, the effectiveness of probiotics in the treatment of LI was evaluated using 15 randomized double-blind studies. Eight probiotic strains with the greatest number of proven benefits were studied. Results showed varying degrees of efficacy but an overall positive relationship between probiotics and lactose intolerance.

  6. Intestinal CREBH overexpression prevents high-cholesterol diet-induced hypercholesterolemia by reducing Npc1l1 expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takuya Kikuchi

    2016-11-01

    Conclusion: Intestinal CREBH regulates dietary cholesterol flow from the small intestine by controlling the expression of multiple intestinal transporters. We propose that intestinal CREBH could be a therapeutic target for hypercholesterolemia.

  7. Role of Probiotics and Prebiotics in Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Sabbaghian

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID are non-fatal, unknown etiology disorders with absence of a structural or biochemical explanation and accounting for up to 50% of gastroenterology referrals. Infant regurgitation, rumination and cyclic vomiting constitute the vomiting disorders. Abdominal pain disorders are classified as: functional dyspepsia, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS, functional abdominal pain, abdominal migraine and aerophagia. Disorders of defecation include: infant dyschezia, functional constipation, functional fecal retention and functional non-retentive fecal soiling. Current researches suggest a role of gut microbiota in pathogenesis of FGID and qualitative and quantitative alterations in the normal gut flora in some functional disorder such as IBS, chronic constipation and formula-fed infants which suffering colic or regurgitation  have been described. Probiotics are nonpathogenic microorganisms, when they are ingested, have positive effects on the host’s health. They influence intestinal physiology by different ways. Prebiotics are non-digestible carbohydrates which promote the growth and/or activity of probiotic bacteria. Evidences for the therapeutic or preventive effect of particular probiotic strains with or without prebiotics in FGID are available in many of articles. Results are encouraging in symptomatic alleviation and improvement in quality of life in IBS, functional constipation, functional abdominal pain,   infantile colic, aerophagia and infantile regurgitation.   Conclusion: Different probiotic strains have different effects, so selection of strains with specific health benefits is important. In general according to review of articles, although some of specific probiotic strains can provide a health benefit in these disorders, it seems, more high-quality and long-duration placebo-con-trolled trials are required.   Keywords: Functional gastrointestinal disorders, Probiotic.  

  8. The Mexican consensus on probiotics in gastroenterology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Valdovinos

    2017-04-01

    Results and conclusions: Eleven statements on the general concepts of probiotics and 27 statements on the use of probiotics in gastrointestinal diseases in both adults and children were formulated. The consensus group recommends the use of probiotics under the following clinical conditions: the prevention of diarrhea associated with antibiotics, the treatment of acute infectious diarrhea, the prevention of Clostridium difficile infection and necrotizing enterocolitis, the reduction of adverse events from Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy, relief from irritable bowel syndrome symptoms, the treatment of functional constipation in the adult, and the induction and maintenance of remission in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC and pouchitis, and the treatment of covert and overt hepatic encephalopathy.

  9. Probiotics: a proactive approach to health. A symposium report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Linda V; Suzuki, Kaori; Zhao, Jia

    2015-12-01

    This report summarises talks given at the 8th International Yakult Symposium, held on 23-24 April 2015 in Berlin. Two presentations explored different aspects of probiotic intervention: the small intestine as a probiotic target and inclusion of probiotics into integrative approaches to gastroenterology. Probiotic recommendations in gastroenterology guidelines and current data on probiotic efficacy in paediatric patients were reviewed. Updates were given on probiotic and gut microbiota research in obesity and obesity-related diseases, the gut-brain axis and development of psychobiotics, and the protective effects of equol-producing strains for prostate cancer. Recent studies were presented on probiotic benefit for antibiotic-associated diarrhoea and people with HIV, as well as protection against the adverse effects of a short-term high-fat diet. Aspects of probiotic mechanisms of activity were discussed, including immunomodulatory mechanisms and metabolite effects, the anti-inflammatory properties of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, the relationship between periodontitis, microbial production of butyrate in the oral cavity and ageing, and the pathogenic mechanisms of Campylobacter. Finally, an insight was given on a recent expert meeting, which re-examined the probiotic definition, advised on the appropriate use and scope of the term and outlined different probiotic categories and the prevalence of different mechanisms of activity.

  10. Dietary Feeding of Grape Seed Extract Prevents Intestinal Tumorigenesis in APCmin/+ Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balaiya Velmurugan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemopreventive effects and associated mechanisms of grape seed extract (GSE against intestinal/colon cancer development are largely unknown. Herein, we investigated GSE efficacy against intestinal tumorigenesis in APCmin/+ mice. Female APCmin/+ mice were fed control or 0.5% GSE (wt/wt mixed AIN-76A diet for 6 weeks. At the end of the experiment, GSE feeding decreased the total number of intestinal polyps by 40%. The decrease in polyp formation in the small intestine was 42%, which was mostly in its middle (51% and distal (49% portions compared with the proximal one. GSE also decreased polyp growth where the number of polyps of 1 to 2 mm in size decreased by 42% and greater than 2 mm in size by 71%, without any significant change in polyps less than 1 mm in size. Immunohistochemical analyses of small intestinal tissue samples revealed a decrease (80%–86% in cell proliferation and an increase (four- to eight-fold in apoptosis. GSE feeding also showed decreased protein levels of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 (56%–64%, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS (58%–60%, and β-catenin (43%–59% but an increased Cip1/p21-positive cells (1.9- to 2.6-fold. GSE also decreased cyclin D1 and c-Myc protein levels in small intestine. Together, these findings show the chemopreventive potential of GSE against intestinal polyp formation and growth in APCmin/+ mice, which was accompanied with reduced cell proliferation and increased apoptosis together with down-regulation in COX-2, iNOS, β-catenin, cyclin D1, and c-Myc expression, but increased Cip1/p21. In conclusion, the present study suggests potential usefulness of GSE for the chemoprevention of human intestinal/colorectal cancer.

  11. Effect of Probiotic Yogurt and Xylitol-Containing Chewing Gums on Salivary S Mutans Count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi, Elnaz; Mazaheri, Romina; Tahmourespour, Arezoo

    In addition to improving gastrointestinal health and intestinal microflora, probiotic bacteria have been recently suggested to decrease cariogenic agents in the oral cavity. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of probiotic yogurt and xylitol-containing chewing gums on reducing salivary Streptococcus mutans levels. This randomized clinical trial recruited 50 female students with over 10 5 colony forming units S. mutans per milliliter of their saliva. The participants were randomly allocated to two equal groups to receive either probiotic yogurt containing Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356 andBifidobacteriumbifidum ATCC 29521 (200 g daily) or xylitol-containing chewing gums (two gums three times daily after each meal; total xylitol content: 5.58 g daily) for three weeks. At baseline and one day, two weeks, and four weeks after the interventions, saliva samples were cultured on mitis-salivarius-bacitracin agar and salivary S. mutans counts were determined. Data were analyzed with independent t-tests, analysis of variance, and Fisher's least significant difference test. In both groups, S. mutans counts on the first day, second week, and fourth weeks after the intervention were significantly lower than baseline values (P yogurt consumers, the difference between the two groups was not statistically significant. Probiotic yogurt and xylitol-containing chewing gums seem to be as effective in reduction of salivary S. mutans levels. Their constant long-term consumption is thus recommended to prevent caries.

  12. Probiotics and novel digestion models for functional food ingredients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pal, Karoly; Kiss, Attila [Eszterhazy Karoly College, Eger (Hungary). EgerFood Regional Knowledge Center (EgerFood-RKC); Szarvas, Jozsef [Eszterhazy Karoly College, Eger (Hungary). Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology; Naar, Zoltan [Eszterhazy Karoly College, Eger (Hungary). Department of Botany

    2009-07-01

    Complete text of publication follows. A number of factors compromise the health of modern people: stressful lifestyle, unbalanced nourishment, excessive consumption of refined foods with a big measure, admission of different chemical agents into the human body. These factors harm directly or indirectly the intestinal activity, that forms a considerable part of the immune system, including the production of essential substances that have beneficial effects on the human body. The role of the so-called prebiotics (e.g. inulin, various oligosaccharides, raffinose, resistant starch etc.) is to prevent and reduce the damage of useful microbes, which are termed as probiotics. These substances selectively facilitate the propagation of probiotic bacteria (e.g. Bifidobacterium bifidum, Bifidobacterium longum, Enterococcus faecium, Lactobacillus acidophilus), therefore increase the rate of the synthesis of vitamin B and of beneficial short chain fatty acids, improve the absorption of minerals, decrease the level of cholesterol, triglycerides, insulin, glucose, ammonia and uric acid and improve the functioning of the immune system. The majority of the examination results about prebiotics are based on clinical dietary and animal experiments. In contrast to this we simulated the process of digestion and the effect of prebiotics on probiotic and non-probiotic bacteria selected by us in an artificial digestion model, the Atlas Potassium reactor system. The instrument enabled the control of pH, temperature, dosage of digestion enzymes and juices (saliva, gastric juice, bile and duodenal juice) and anaerobity in the course of the experiment. In our experiments we investigated different bakery products and biscuits containing various prebiotic ingredients, e.g. inulin and other fructo oligosaccharides. In the digestion model the different bakery products and biscuits got through the simulated oral cavity (pH=6.8), stomach (pH=2-3) and intestine (pH=6.5-7) and might be modified in the

  13. Randomized, placebo-controlled phase 2 trial of a Lactobacillus crispatus probiotic given intravaginally for prevention of recurrent urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleton, Ann E; Au-Yeung, Melissa; Hooton, Thomas M; Fredricks, David N; Roberts, Pacita L; Czaja, Christopher A; Yarova-Yarovaya, Yuliya; Fiedler, Tina; Cox, Marsha; Stamm, Walter E

    2011-05-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common among women and frequently recur. Depletion of vaginal lactobacilli is associated with UTI risk, which suggests that repletion may be beneficial. We conducted a double-blind placebo-controlled trial of a Lactobacillus crispatus intravaginal suppository probiotic (Lactin-V; Osel) for prevention of recurrent UTI in premenopausal women. One hundred young women with a history of recurrent UTI received antimicrobials for acute UTI and then were randomized to receive either Lactin-V or placebo daily for 5 d, then once weekly for 10 weeks. Participants were followed up at 1 week and 10 weeks after intervention and for UTIs; urine samples for culture and vaginal swabs for real-time quantitative 16S ribosomal RNA gene polymerase chain reaction for L. crispatus were collected. Recurrent UTI occurred in 7/48 15% of women receiving Lactin-V compared with 13/48 27% of women receiving placebo (relative risk [RR], .5; 95% confidence interval, .2-1.2). High-level vaginal colonization with L. crispatus (≥10(6) 16S RNA gene copies per swab) throughout follow-up was associated with a significant reduction in recurrent UTI only for Lactin-V (RR for Lactin-V, .07; RR for placebo, 1.1; P < .01). Lactin-V after treatment for cystitis is associated with a reduction in recurrent UTI. Larger efficacy trials of this novel preventive method for recurrent UTI are warranted. CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRATION. NCT00305227.

  14. Enhancing probiotic stability in industrial processes

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    Miguel Gueimonde

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Manufacture of probiotic products involves industrial processes that reduce the viability of the strains. This lost of viability constitutes an economic burden for manufacturers, compromising the efficacy of the product and preventing the inclusion of probiotics in many product categories. Different strategies have been used to improve probiotic stability during industrial processes. These include technological approaches, such as the modification of production parameters or the reformulation of products, as well as microbiological approaches focused on the strain intrinsic resistance. Among the later, both selection of natural strains with the desired properties and stress-adaptation of strains have been widely used. Conclusion: During recent years, the knowledge acquired on the molecular basis of stress-tolerance of probiotics has increased our understanding on their responses to industrial stresses. This knowledge on stress-response may nowadays be used for the selection of the best strains and industrial conditions in terms of probiotic stability in the final product.

  15. Utilização de bactérias ácido-lácticas isoladas do trato intestinal de tilápia-do-nilo como probiótico Lactic-acid bacteria isolated from the intestinal tract of Nile tilapia utilized as probiotic

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    Adolfo Jatobá

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi isolar bactérias ácido-lácticas do intestino de tilápias-do-nilo, e avaliar seu potencial probiótico. Foram isoladas cepas de bactérias ácido-lácticas, e foi avaliada a inibição aos patógenos in vitro. As cepas com os melhores resultados foram identificadas e utilizadas no experimento de colonização do trato intestinal de tilápias-do-nilo, via suplementação na dieta, em delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, com três tratamentos e quatro repetições. Foram avaliados: o total de bactérias, as bactérias ácido-lácticas, Vibrio ssp. e Pseudomonas ssp. A cepa com melhor resultado foi utilizada na infecção experimental, em delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, em esquema fatorial 2x3: dieta suplementada com a cepa e dieta-controle; e os peixes não submetidos à injeção, peixes submetidos à injeção de solução salina e à injeção de Enterococcus durans, com três repetições. Foram avaliados os parâmetros hematológicos. As duas cepas identificadas foram: Lactobacillus plantarum e Lactobacillus brevis, que colonizaram o trato intestinal de tilápias, contudo L. plantarum teve menor número total de bactérias e de Pseudomonas ssp. Foi observado maior número total de eritrócitos, trombócitos, leucócitos, linfócitos, neutrófilos e monócitos, em peixes alimentados com L. plantarum e submetidos à injeção de E. durans. O L. plantarum tem efeito probiótico e melhora o sistema imune das tilápias.The objective of this work was to isolate lactic-acid bacteria from the intestines of Nile tilapia, and to assess their potential as probiotic. Strains of lactic-acid bacteria were isolated, and inhibition against pathogens was evaluated in vitro. Strains with best results were identified and used in tilapia intestinal tract colonization experiment through supplementation in the diet, in a completely randomized design, with three treatments and four replicates. Total number bacteria, lactic

  16. Probiotics: A Promising Role in Dental Health

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    Sari A. Mahasneh

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics have a role in maintaining oral health through interaction with oral microbiome, thus contributing to healthy microbial equilibrium. The nature and composition of any individual microbiome impacts the general health, being a major contributor to oral health. The emergence of drug resistance and the side effects of available antimicrobials have restricted their use in an array of prophylactic options. Indeed, some new strategies to prevent oral diseases are based on manipulating oral microbiota, which is provided by probiotics. Currently, no sufficient substantial evidence exists to support the use of probiotics to prevent, treat or manage oral cavity diseases. At present, probiotic use did not cause adverse effects or increased risks of caries or periodontal diseases. This implicates no strong evidence against treatment using probiotics. In this review, we try to explore the use of probiotics in prevention, treatment and management of some oral cavity diseases and the possibilities of developing designer probiotics for the next generation of oral and throat complimentary healthcare.

  17. How Probiotic Reduce Symptoms of Irritable Bowel Syndrome?

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    M Khalesi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is a common gastrointestinal disorder in children that may lead to anxiety, frequent physician visits and school absenteeism. The aim of this study is to reviewe effects of probiotic for irritable bowel syndrome.   Materials and Methods: This study review articles about probiotic for irritable bowel syndrome in pubmed and google scholar.   Results: Multiple etiologic factors were suggested for IBS, including psychosocial factors, altered gastrointestinal motility,   malfermentation of food residues and changes in the intestinal micro flora. It is reported that patients with IBS have a great homogeneity in the fecal flora with a decrease in lactobacilli, coliforms and bifidobacteria in comparison to healthy individuals. The beneficial effects of probiotics in IBS could be explained by increasing the mass of beneficial bacteria such as lactobacilli strains in the digestive tract, decreasing bacterial overgrowth in the small bowel. Recently it was also demonstrated that some lactobacilli strains may modulate intestinal pain attacks by inducing the expression of μ-opioid and cannabinoid receptors in the intestinal epithelial cells. Probiotics can also reinforce the intestinal mucosal barrier and normalize the motility of the digestive tract and its visceral sensitivity and reversing the imbalance between the pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines so that suggested as a therapeutic option for IBS.   Conclusion: Probiotic has been suggested as a therapeutic option for IBS by modulation pathophysiologic events in these patients. Keyword: Probiotic, IBS, Children.

  18. INTESTINAL DYSBIOSIS IN CHILDREN WITH FOOD ALLERGY: PATHOGENETIC ASPECTS AND MODERN CORRECTION METHODS

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    S.G. Makarova

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background paper analyses the role of intestinal micro-flora at the stage of forming immunity, the importance of intestinal microflora abnormalities during the periods of allergic diseases development (primarily food allergies, as well as mechanisms of dysbiosis effect on the allergic processes in child's body. The study discusses the mechanisms of treatment and prevention effect of probiotics for cases of child allergic diseases. The work also specifies modern approaches to correcting dysbiotic abnormalities for children with food allergies, reviews the options of diet and medication treatment of food allergy, suggests a new algorithm of gradual treatment that targets correction of dysbiosis in this patient category.Key words: children, food allergy, dysbiosis, probiotics, prebiotics, diet therapy.

  19. ACUTE INTESTINAL INFECTIONS: THERAPEUTICAL TACTICS IN CHILDREN

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    A.N. Surkov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute intestinal infections are quite common among children. Their clinical presentations include intoxication syndrome (drowsiness, low appetite, fever etc, infectious toxic syndrome (toxicosis with exicosis, neurotoxicosi, hypovolemic or infectious-toxic shockand diarrhea syndrome. Sometimes intestinal infections can be quite severe and even lethal. However disease duration and outcome depend on timelines and adequacy of prescribed treatment. Main guidelines of intestinal infections treatment include probiotics. That is why the right choice of probiotics is important for a pediatrician. The article contains basic information upon etiopathogenesis, classification, diagnostic criteria and acute pediatric intestinal infections treatment guidelines.Key words: acute intestinal infections, etiopathogenesis, diagnostic criteria, treatment, probiotics, children. (Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. — 2011; 10 (6: 141–147

  20. Probiotic (VSL 3) for Gulf War Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-10-1-0593 TITLE: Probiotic (VSL#3) for Gulf War Illness. PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Ashok Tuteja, M.D. M.P.H. CONTRACTING...NUMBER Probiotic (VSL#3) for Gulf War Illness. 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-10-1-0593 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6 . AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER Ashok...intestinal symptoms (fatigue, joint pain, insomnia, general stiffness and headache) associated with IBS. All of these symptoms are part of the Gulf War

  1. Probiotics and Diverticular Disease: Evidence-based?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahner, Edith; Annibale, Bruno

    Diverticular disease (DD) is a common gastrointestinal condition. Clinical spectrum ranges from asymptomatic diverticulosis to symptomatic uncomplicated or complicated DD. Symptoms related to uncomplicated DD are not specific and may be indistinguishable from those of irritable bowel syndrome. Low-grade inflammation, altered intestinal microbiota, visceral hypersensitivity, and abnormal colonic motility have been identified as factors potentially contributing to symptoms. Probiotics may modify the gut microbial balance leading to health benefits. Probiotics, due to their anti-inflammatory effects and ability to maintain an adequate bacterial colonization in the colon, are promising treatment options for DD. This review focuses on the available evidence on the efficacy of prebiotics in uncomplicated DD.

  2. Possibility of applying probiotics in oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holec, V.; Holecova, A.; Holec, V.; Zajac, V.; Danihel, L.; Adamcikova, Z.; Mego, M.

    2011-01-01

    Probiotics are live microorganisms, which in the form of drugs or food supplements contribute to maintaining health-enhancing microbiological balance in the digestive tract of human or other host (1). Their effects closely related to natural function of the intestinal flora. Their application is associated with good tolerance and minimal risk. They could be well applied in therapy and especially in the prevention of many civilisation disorders,which include a significant proportion of the cancer diseases. We could think not only about their role in the actual prevention of these diseases, but also about their status as a complementary therapy for their potential use in the treatment of complications caused by aggressivity of the existing basic treatment and maybe also another essential use in the future. Obstacle for the possibility to their wider application in oncology is still a lack of experiences in these patients, mainly with regard to evoking the iatrogenic infection. The main assumption of their wider application is the availability of safe strains with proven clinical efficiency. (author)

  3. SELECTIVE INTESTINAL DECONTAMINATION FOR PREVENTION OF WOUND COLONIZATION IN SEVERELY BURNED PATIENTS - A RETROSPECTIVE ANALYSIS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MANSON, WL; KLASEN, HJ; SAUER, EW; OLIEMAN, A

    In this study the effect of selective intestinal decontamination of the digestive tract (SDD) on wound colonization was investigated. Ninety-one patients with at least 25 per cent total burned surface area (TBSA) were included in this study. All patients received oral polymyxin. In 63 patients oral

  4. A Review: The Probiotic Bacteria Viability under Different Conditions

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    Lavinia Florina CALINOIU

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This review summarized the current knowledge on probiotics and on the effects that different conditions have under this type of bacteria. The purpose of this review was to evaluate the survival rate/resistance or viability of different probiotic bacteria under several conditions, such as: processing, food composition, storage, freezing, thawing, refrigeration, temperature, oxygen, pH, gastrointestinal environment and package. Nowadays, the demand on probiotic functional foods is increasing rapidly, as the consumers became more aware about the potential health benefits, due to the fact that probiotics help in maintaining the balance and composition of intestinal flora and protect it from pathogens. A daily ingestion of 108–109 CFU ml−1 probiotic microorganisms is crucial in order to be able to demonstrate an effect in our organism, considering the dose and the effect of storage/gastrointestinal environments on the probiotic viability. Microencapsulation of probiotics in different polysaccharides was proven to be an ideal way to preserve and protect the cells from detrimental factors during processing, storage or resistance in the gastrointestinal transit, as many studies demonstrate it. There is a general interest in the improvement of the physical and mechanical stability of the polymers used in probiotics encapsulation, to ensure high population of probiotics not only in food during storage, but also after gastrointestinal digestion. Also, the carrier plays a very important role and should be carefully examined.

  5. Detection of antibiotic resistance in probiotics of dietary supplements

    KAUST Repository

    Wong, Aloysius Tze

    2015-09-14

    Background Probiotics are live microorganisms that confer nutrition- and health-promoting benefits if consumed in adequate amounts. Concomitant with the demand for natural approaches to maintaining health is an increase in inclusion of probiotics in food and health products. Since probiotic bacteria act as reservoir for antibiotic resistant determinants, the transfer of these genes to pathogens sharing the same intestinal habitat is thus conceivable considering the fact that dietary supplements contain high amounts of often heterogeneous populations of probiotics. Such events can confer pathogens protection against commonly-used drugs. Despite numerous reports of antibiotic resistant probiotics in food and biological sources, the antibiogram of probiotics from dietary supplements remained elusive. Findings Here, we screened five commercially available dietary supplements for resistance towards antibiotics of different classes. Probiotics of all batches of products were resistant towards vancomycin while batch-dependent resistance towards streptomycin, aztreonam, gentamycin and/or ciprofloxacin antibiotics was detected for probiotics of brands Bi and Bn, Bg, and L. Isolates of brand Cn was also resistant towards gentamycin, streptomycin and ciprofloxacin antibiotics. Additionally, we also report a discrepancy between the enumerated viable bacteria amounts and the claims of the manufacturers. Conclusions This short report has highlighted the present of antibiotic resistance in probiotic bacteria from dietary supplements and therefore serves as a platform for further screenings and for in-depth characterization of the resistant determinants and the molecular machinery that confers the resistance.

  6. Long Term Development of Gut Microbiota Composition in Atopic Children: Impact of Probiotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutten, N. B. M. M.; Gorissen, D. M. W.; Eck, A.; Niers, L. E. M.; Vlieger, A. M.; Besseling-van der Vaart, I.; Budding, A. E.; Savelkoul, P. H. M.; van der Ent, C. K.; Rijkers, G. T.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Imbalance of the human gut microbiota in early childhood is suggested as a risk factor for immune-mediated disorders such as allergies. With the objective to modulate the intestinal microbiota, probiotic supplementation during infancy has been used for prevention of allergic diseases in infants, with variable success. However, not much is known about the long-term consequences of neonatal use of probiotics on the microbiota composition. The aim of this study was to assess the composition and microbial diversity in stool samples of infants at high-risk for atopic disease, from birth onwards to six years of age, who were treated with probiotics or placebo during the first year of life. Methods In a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial, a probiotic mixture consisting of B. bifidum W23, B. lactis W52 and Lc. Lactis W58 (Ecologic® Panda) was administered to pregnant women during the last 6 weeks of pregnancy and to their offspring during the first year of life. During follow-up, faecal samples were collected from 99 children over a 6-year period with the following time points: first week, second week, first month, three months, first year, eighteen months, two years and six years. Bacterial profiling was performed by IS-pro. Differences in bacterial abundance and diversity were assessed by conventional statistics. Results The presence of the supplemented probiotic strains in faecal samples was confirmed, and the probiotic strains had a higher abundance and prevalence in the probiotic group during supplementation. Only minor and short term differences in composition of microbiota were found between the probiotic and placebo group and between children with or without atopy. The diversity of Bacteroidetes was significantly higher after two weeks in the placebo group, and at the age of two years atopic children had a significantly higher Proteobacteria diversity (p < 0.05). Gut microbiota development continued between two and six years, whereby

  7. Effect of Potential Probiotic Lactococcus lactis Subsp. lactis on Growth Performance, Intestinal Microbiota, Digestive Enzyme Activities, and Disease Resistance of Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adel, Milad; El-Sayed, Abdel-Fattah M; Yeganeh, Sakineh; Dadar, Maryam; Giri, Sib Sankar

    2017-06-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the effects of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis on the growth, intestinal microbiota, digestive enzyme activity, and disease resistance of Litopenaeus vannamei. Diets containing four different concentrations of L. lactis (0 [basal diet], 10 6 , 10 7 , and 10 8  CFU g -1 ) were fed to white shrimps L. vannamei (average weight 5.89 ± 0.36 g) for 8 weeks. At the end of the feeding trial, shrimps were immersed in Caspian Seawater (10.8 ppt) contaminated with 10 6  CFU ml -1 pathogenic V. anguillarum for 2 h. Results revealed that growth rate, survival, and body protein level were increased with dietary supplementation of L. lactis. The activities of digestive enzymes (cellulose, lipase, amylase, and protease) were significantly higher in the groups fed with diets containing 10 7 or 10 8  CFU g -1 L. lactis than those in the control. The Lactobacillus and Bacillus counts were higher (P lactis-supplemented diets. In addition, higher level of L. lactis supplementation decreased the Vibrio counts. Moreover, L. vannamei fed diet supplemented with 10 8  CFU g -1 of L. lactis exhibited significantly the highest hematocyte count and post-challenge survival rate (79.2 %). Collectively, these results suggest that dietary supplementation of L. lactis subsp. lactis at 10 8  CFU g -1 can promote growth performance, digestive enzyme activity, and disease resistance of L. vannamei.

  8. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG Intake Modifies Preschool Children's Intestinal Microbiota, Alleviates Penicillin-Associated Changes, and Reduces Antibiotic Use.

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    Katri Korpela

    Full Text Available Antibiotic use is considered among the most severe causes of disturbance to children's developing intestinal microbiota, and frequently causes adverse gastrointestinal effects ranging from mild and transient diarrhoea to life-threatening infections. Probiotics are commonly advocated to help in preventing antibiotic-associated gastrointestinal symptoms. However, it is currently unknown whether probiotics alleviate the antibiotic-associated changes in children's microbiota. Furthermore, it is not known how long-term probiotic consumption influences the developing microbiota of children. We analysed the influence of long-term Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG intake on preschool children's antibiotic use, and antibiotic-associated gastrointestinal complaints in a double blind, randomized placebo-controlled trial with 231 children aged 2-7. In addition, we analysed the effect of L. rhanmosus GG on the intestinal microbiota in a subset of 88 children. The results show that long-term L. rhamnosus GG supplementation has an influence on the composition of the intestinal microbiota in children, causing an increase in the abundance of Prevotella, Lactococcus, and Ruminococcus, and a decrease in Escherichia. The treatment appeared to prevent some of the changes in the microbiota associated with penicillin use, but not those associated with macrolide use. The treatment, however, did reduce the frequency of gastrointestinal complaints after a macrolide course. Finally, the treatment appeared to prevent certain bacterial infections for up to 3 years after the trial, as indicated by reduced antibiotic use.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01014676.

  9. High protective efficacy of probiotics and rice bran against human norovirus infection and diarrhea in gnotobiotic pigs

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    Shaohua Lei

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics have been recognized as vaccine adjuvants and therapeutic agents to treat acute gastroenteritis in children. We previously showed that rice bran reduced human rotavirus diarrhea in gnotobiotic pigs. Human noroviruses (HuNoVs are the major pathogens causing nonbacterial acute gastroenteritis worldwide. In this study, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG and Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 (EcN were first screened for their ability to bind HuNoV P particles and virions derived from clinical samples containing HuNoV genotype GII.3 and GII.4, then the effects of LGG+EcN and rice bran on HuNoV infection and diarrhea were investigated using the gnotobiotic pig model. While LGG+EcN colonization inhibited HuNoV shedding, probiotic cocktail regimens in which rice bran feeding started 7 days prior to or 1 day after viral inoculation in the LGG+EcN colonized gnotobiotic pigs exhibited high protection against HuNoV diarrhea and shedding, characterized by significantly reduced incidence (89% versus 20% and shorter mean duration of diarrhea (2.2 versus 0.2 days, as well as shorter mean duration of virus shedding (3.2 versus 1.0 days. In both probiotic cocktail groups, the diarrhea reduction rates were 78% compared with the control group, and diarrhea severity was reduced as demonstrated by the significantly lower cumulative fecal scores. The high protective efficacy of the probiotic cocktail regimens was attributed to stimulation of IFN-γ+ T cell responses, increased production of intestinal IgA and IgG, and maintenance of healthy intestinal morphology (manifested as longer villi compared with the control group. Therefore, probiotic cocktail regimens containing LGG+EcN and rice bran may represent highly efficacious strategies to prevent and treat HuNoV gastroenteritis, and potentially other human enteric pathogens.

  10. Lactobacillus acidophilus CL1285, Lactobacillus casei LBC80R, and Lactobacillus rhamnosus CLR2 (Bio-K+): Characterization, Manufacture, Mechanisms of Action, and Quality Control of a Specific Probiotic Combination for Primary Prevention of Clostridium difficile Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auclair, Julie; Frappier, Martin; Millette, Mathieu

    2015-05-15

    A specific probiotic formulation composed of Lactobacillus acidophilus CL1285, Lactobacillus casei LBC80R, and Lactobacillus rhamnosus CLR2 (Bio-K+) has been marketed in North America since 1996. The strains and the commercial products have been evaluated for safety, identity, gastrointestinal survival, and stability throughout shelf life. The capacity of both the fermented beverages and the capsules to reduce incidences of antibiotic-associated diarrhea and Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) has been demonstrated in human clinical trials. Individual strains and the finished products have shown antimicrobial activity against C. difficile and toxin A/B neutralization capacity in vitro. The use of this specific probiotic formulation as part of a bundle of preventive measures to control CDI in healthcare settings is discussed. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Probiotics for the Control of Parasites: An Overview

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    Marie-Agnès Travers

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics are defined as live organisms, which confer benefits to the host. Their efficiency was demonstrated for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders, respiratory infections, and allergic symptoms, but their use is mostly limited to bacterial and viral diseases. During the last decade, probiotics as means for the control of parasite infections were reported covering mainly intestinal diseases but also some nongut infections, that are all of human and veterinary importance. In most cases, evidence for a beneficial effect was obtained by studies using animal models. In a few cases, cellular interactions between probiotics and pathogens or relevant host cells were also investigated using in vitro culture systems. However, molecular mechanisms mediating the beneficial effects are as yet poorly understood. These studies indicate that probiotics might indeed provide a strain-specific protection against parasites, probably through multiple mechanisms. But more unravelling studies are needed to justify probiotic utilisation in therapeutics.

  12. Folate Production by Probiotic Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Raimondi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Probiotic bacteria, mostly belonging to the genera Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium, confer a number of health benefits to the host, including vitamin production. With the aim to produce folate-enriched fermented products and/or develop probiotic supplements that accomplish folate biosynthesis in vivo within the colon, bifidobacteria and lactobacilli have been extensively studied for their capability to produce this vitamin. On the basis of physiological studies and genome analysis, wild-type lactobacilli cannot synthesize folate, generally require it for growth, and provide a negative contribution to folate levels in fermented dairy products. Lactobacillus plantarum constitutes an exception among lactobacilli, since it is capable of folate production in presence of para-aminobenzoic acid (pABA and deserves to be used in animal trials to validate its ability to produce the vitamin in vivo. On the other hand, several folate-producing strains have been selected within the genus Bifidobacterium, with a great variability in the extent of vitamin released in the medium. Most of them belong to the species B. adolescentis and B. pseudocatenulatum, but few folate producing strains are found in the other species as well. Rats fed a probiotic formulation of folate-producing bifidobacteria exhibited increased plasma folate level, confirming that the vitamin is produced in vivo and absorbed. In a human trial, the same supplement raised folate concentration in feces. The use of folate-producing probiotic strains can be regarded as a new perspective in the specific use of probiotics. They could more efficiently confer protection against inflammation and cancer, both exerting the beneficial effects of probiotics and preventing the folate deficiency that is associated with premalignant changes in the colonic epithelia.

  13. Characterization of probiotic Lactobacillus spp. isolates from commercial fermented milks

    OpenAIRE

    Farahmand, Nasim

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this project was to study the identity of probiotic lactobacilli in fermented milk products from the United Kingdom/European markets during their survival during shelf-life. This in vitro study was also aimed at undertaking studies on some of the physiological probiotic criteria, such as resistance to stomach/intestine conditions and also possible functional properties of the isolates, such as antimicrobial activities, antibiotic resistance/susceptibility and antibiotic resistance ...

  14. Probiotic Activity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii Against Human Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Rajkowska

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Infectious diarrhoea is associated with a modification of the intestinal microflora and colonization of pathogenic bacteria. Tests were performed for seven probiotic yeast strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii, designated for the prevention and treatment of diarrhoea. To check their possible effectiveness against diarrhoea of different etiologies, the activity against a variety of human pathogenic or opportunistic bacteria was investigated in vitro. In mixed cultures with S. cerevisiae var. boulardii, a statistically significant reduction was observed in the number of cells of Listeria monocytogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus, by even 55.9 % in the case of L. monocytogenes compared with bacterial monocultures. The influence of yeasts was mostly associated with the shortening of the bacterial lag phase duration, more rapid achievement of the maximum growth rates, and a decrease by 4.4–57.1 % (L. monocytogenes, P. aeruginosa, or an increase by 1.4–70.6 % (Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Salmonella Typhimurium in the exponential growth rates. Another issue included in the research was the ability of S. cerevisiae var. boulardii to bind pathogenic bacteria to its cell surface. Yeasts have shown binding capacity of E. coli, S. Typhimurium and additionally of S. aureus, Campylobacter jejuni and E. faecalis. However, no adhesion of L. monocytogenes and P. aeruginosa to the yeast cell wall was noted. The probiotic activity of S. cerevisiae var. boulardii against human pathogens is related to a decrease in the number of viable and active cells of bacteria and the binding capacity of yeasts. These processes may limit bacterial invasiveness and prevent bacterial adherence and translocation in the human intestines.

  15. Probiotics: In Depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... G, et al. Probiotics and oral health . Current Pharmaceutical Design. 2012;18(34):5522–5531. Black LI, ... et al. Probiotics: finding the right regulatory balance . Science. 2013;342(6156):314–315. Hungin AP, Mulligan ...

  16. Surveillance of gastric intestinal metaplasia for the prevention of gastric cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connor, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Adenocarcinoma of the stomach is the second leading cause of cancer related death in the world. Gastric intestinal metaplasia (GIM) is a recognised premalignant condition of the stomach. It has been described as occurring in up to one in five patients in western countries. Although there is a definite risk of progression from GIM to cancer, published guidelines and statements differ as to the utility and structure of surveillance programs for this condition.

  17. Kampo medicine "Dai-kenchu-to" prevents CPT-11-induced small-intestinal injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikakiyo, Motoya; Shimada, Mitsuo; Nakao, Toshihiro; Higashijima, Jun; Yoshikawa, Kozo; Nishioka, Masanori; Iwata, Takashi; Kurita, Nobuhiro

    2012-01-01

    The key anticancer agent, CPT-11 (irinotecan hydrochloride), induces severe diarrhea clinically. We investigated the effect of a Kampo medicine, Dai-kenchu-to (DKT), on CPT-11-induced intestinal injuries in rats. Twenty-four male Wistar rats were divided into three groups: a control group; a CPT-11 group, given CPT-11 150 mg/kg intraperitoneally for 2 days; and a DKT group, given DKT 300 mg/kg orally for 5 days with CPT-11 150 mg/kg intraperitoneally on days 4 and 5. The rats were killed on day 6. Interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-12, interferon (IFN)-γ, and tumor necrosis factor-α expression in the small intestine of the CPT-11 group was significantly higher than that of the control group. Interleukin-1β and IFN-γ expression was improved significantly by DKT (P DKT (P DKT suppressed CPT-11 induced inflammatory cytokines and apoptosis in the intestinal mucosa and maintained the mucosal integrity.

  18. Probiotic properties of Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Lactobacillus paracasei isolated from human faeces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdenelli, Maria Cristina; Ghelfi, Francesca; Silvi, Stefania; Orpianesi, Carla; Cecchini, Cinzia; Cresci, Alberto

    2009-09-01

    The possibility of using microbes to maintain health, and to prevent or treat disease is a topic as old as microbiology. The research of novel probiotic strains is important in order to satisfy the increasing request of the market and to obtain functional products in which the probiotic cultures are more active and with better probiotic characteristics than those already present on the market. In this study, the probiotic potential of Lactobacillus strains isolated from Italian elderly human faeces was investigated. The Lactobacillus strains were identified and examined for resistance to gastric acidity and bile toxicity, adhesion to HT-29 cells, antimicrobial activities, antibiotic susceptibility and plasmid profile. Survival of the strains through human intestine was examined in a 3 months human feeding trial. Two strains, Lactobacillus rhamnosus IMC 501 and Lactobacillus paracasei IMC 502, tolerated well low pH and bile acids. In antimicrobial activity assays, both strains showed inhibitory properties towards selected potential harmful microorganisms, particularly against Candida albicans. The two selected strains expressed high in vitro adherence to HT-29 cells increasing this characteristic when they are used in combination and they were resistant to vamcomycin, colistin sulphate, gentamicin, oxolinic acid and kanamycin. Moreover, the two strains could be recovered from stools of volunteers after the feeding trials. Lactobacillus rhamnosus IMC 501 and L. paracasei IMC 502 present favourable strain-specific properties for their utilisation as probiotics in functional foods and the high adhesion ability of the L. rhamnosus IMC 501 and L. paracasei IMC 502 used in combination, confirmed by both in vitro and in vivo study, indicate that the two bacterial strains could be used as health-promoting bacteria.

  19. Scientific evidence for health effects attributed to the consumption of probiotics and prebiotics: an update for current perspectives and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Rafael Chacon Ruiz; Bedani, Raquel; Saad, Susana Marta Isay

    2015-12-28

    Probiotics and prebiotics, mainly commercialised as food ingredients and also as supplements, are considered highly profitable niche markets. However, in recent years, the food industry has suffered from a series of health claim restrictions on probiotics and prebiotics in many parts of the world, including those made by the European Food Safety Authority. Therefore, we reviewed the core benefits of probiotic and prebiotic consumption on health. A number of studies have examined the prevention and/or management of intestinal infections, respiratory tract infections, CVD, osteoporosis, urogenital infections, cavities, periodontal disease and halitosis, allergic reactions, inflammatory bowel disease and irritable bowel syndrome and Helicobacter pylori gastric infections. In fact, a deeper understanding of the mechanisms involved in human microbiota and immune system modulation by probiotics and prebiotics relies on continuous efforts to establish suitable biomarkers of health and diseases risk factors for the design of clinical trials required for health claim approval. In spite of the promising results, the performance of large, long-term, well-planned, well-aligned clinical studies is crucial to provide more reliability and a more solid basis for the outcomes achieved and to support the potential use of probiotics and prebiotics in clinical practice.

  20. Probiotics in inflammatory bowel disease--therapeutic rationale and role.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shanahan, Fergus

    2012-02-03

    The intestinal flora has a conditioning effect on intestinal homeostasis, delivering regulatory signals to the epithelium, the mucosal immune system and to the neuromuscular activity of the gut. Beneficial metabolic activities of the enteric flora include nutrient production, metabolism of dietary carcinogens, conversion of prodrugs to active drugs. However, increasing evidence suggests that some components of the enteric flora are essential ingredients in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD); this has prompted interest in therapeutic manipulation of the flora with probiotics. Probiotics are biologic control agents-described as live microbial food supplements which confer a health benefit beyond inherent basic nutrition. Multiple potential beneficial effects have been attributed to the probiotic use of lactic acid bacteria, bifidobacteria and other non-pathogenic commensals. At present, much of the promise of probiotics remains outside the realm of evidence-based medicine and awaits the results of prospective trials, now underway. No reliable in vitro predictors of in vivo efficacy of putative probiotics have been identified. Rigorous comparisons of probiotic performance have not been performed and the suitability of a given probiotic for different individuals is largely unexplored. Notwithstanding, an improved understanding of the normal commensal flora and host-flora interactions has the potential to open up new therapeutic strategies for inflammatory disorders of the gut.

  1. Osteopontin attenuates acute gastrointestinal graft-versus-host disease by preventing apoptosis of intestinal epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawakami, Kentaro; Minami, Naoki; Matsuura, Minoru; Iida, Tomoya; Toyonaga, Takahiko; Nagaishi, Kanna; Arimura, Yoshiaki; Fujimiya, Mineko; Uede, Toshimitsu; Nakase, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    Background and aims: Acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a major complication after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, which often targets gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Osteopontin (OPN) plays an important physiological role in the efficient development of Th1 immune responses and cell survival by inhibiting apoptosis. The role of OPN in acute GI-GVHD is poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated the role of OPN in donor T cells in the pathogenicity of acute GI-GVHD. Methods: OPN knockout (KO) mice and C57BL/6 (B6) mice were used as donors, and (C57BL/6 × DBA/2) F1 (BDF1) mice were used as allograft recipients. Mice with acute GI-GVHD were divided into three groups: the control group (BDF1→BDF1), B6 group (B6→BDF1), and OPN-KO group (OPN-KO→BDF1). Bone marrow cells and spleen cells from donors were transplanted to lethally irradiated recipients. Clinical GVHD scores were assessed daily. Recipients were euthanized on day 7 after transplantation, and colons and small intestines were collected for various analyses. Results: The clinical GVHD score in the OPN-KO group was significantly increased compared with the B6 and control groups. We observed a difference in the severity of colonic GVHD between the OPN-KO group and B6 group, but not small intestinal-GVHD between these groups. Interferon-γ, Tumor necrosis factor-α, Interleukin-17A, and Interleukin-18 gene expression in the OPN-KO group was differed between the colon and small intestine. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that the fluorescence intensity of splenic and colonic CD8 T cells expressing Fas Ligand was increased in the OPN-KO group compared with the B6 group. Conclusion: We demonstrated that the importance of OPN in T cells in the onset of acute GI-GVHD involves regulating apoptosis of the intestinal cell via the Fas-Fas Ligand pathway. - Highlights: • A lack of osteopontin in donor cells exacerbated clinical gastrointestinal GVHD. • Donor cells lacking

  2. Effects of Probiotic Lactobacillus Casei DN-114 001 in Prevention of Radiation-Induced Diarrhea: Results From Multicenter, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Nutritional Trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giralt, Jordi; Regadera, Jose Perez; Verges, Ramona; Romero, Jesus; Fuente, Isabel de la; Biete, Albert; Villoria, Jesus; Cobo, Jose Maria; Guarner, Francisco

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether a probiotic drink containing Lactobacillus casei DN-114 001 reduces the incidence of radiation-induced diarrhea in patients with gynecologic cancer. Methods and Materials: Patients who were undergoing pelvic radiotherapy (45-50 Gy, conventional fractionation) for either cervical carcinoma (radiotherapy and weekly cisplatin) or endometrial adenocarcinoma (postoperative radiotherapy) were randomly assigned to a probiotic drink or placebo, in a double-blind fashion. The probiotic drink consisted of liquid yogurt containing L. casei DN-114 001 at 10 8 CFU/g. The patients recorded the daily the number of bowel movements and scored the stool consistency using the Bristol scale. Diarrhea was graded weekly according the Common Toxicity Criteria system. The primary endpoint was to reduce the incidence of diarrhea, defined by a Common Toxicity Criteria Grade of 2 or greater or the need for loperamide. Results: A total of 85 patients were enrolled. Grade 2 or greater diarrhea and/or the use of loperamide was observed in 24 of 41 patients in the placebo group and 30 of 44 in the probiotic group (p = 0.568). No differences were found in the median time to the presentation of the primary endpoint. Probiotic intervention had a significant effect on stool consistency (p = 0.04). The median time for patients to present with Bristol scale stools of Type 6 or greater was 14 days for patients receiving the probiotic drink vs. 10 days for those receiving placebo. Conclusion: Nutritional intervention with the probiotic drink containing L. casei DN-114 001 does not reduce the incidence of radiation-induced diarrhea as defined by a Common Toxicity Criteria Grade 2 or greater. However, it had a significant effect on stool consistency as measured by the Bristol scale

  3. Technological and Probiotic Traits of the Lactobacilli Isolated From Vaginal Tract of the Healthy Women for Probiotic Use

    OpenAIRE

    Bouridane, Hamida; Sifour, Mohamed; Idoui, Tayeb; Annick, Lejeune; Thonard, Philip

    2016-01-01

    Background For biotechnological application, selected lactic acid bacteria strains belonging to the genera Lactobacillus (Lb) are proposed as an alternative to the antibiotics for the prevention and treatment of urogenital tract infections. Objectives Isolating and selecting vaginal lactobacilli strains for probiotic use based on their technological and probiotic aptitudes. Materials and Methods The vaginal isolates were examined for their essential characteristics as the potential probiotic ...

  4. Oral Delivery of Probiotics in Poultry Using pH-Sensitive Tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Tao; Li, Hui-Shan; Han, Geon Goo; Singh, Bijay; Kang, Sang-Kee; Bok, Jin-Duck; Kim, Dae-Duk; Hong, Zhong-Shan; Choi, Yun-Jaie; Cho, Chong-Su

    2017-04-28

    As alternatives to antibiotics in livestocks, probiotics have been used, although most of them in the form of liquid or semisolid formulations, which show low cell viability after oral administration. Therefore, suitable dry dosage forms should be developed for livestocks to protect probiotics against the low pH in the stomach such that the products have higher probiotics survivability. Here, in order to develop a dry dosage forms of probiotics for poultry, we used hydroxypropyl methylcellulose phthalate 55 (HPMCP 55) as a tablet-forming matrix to develop probiotics in a tablet form for poultry. Here, we made three different kinds of probiotics-loaded tablet under different compression forces and investigated their characteristics based on their survivability, morphology, disintegration time, and kinetics in simulated gastrointestinal fluid. The results indicated that the probiotics formulated in the tablets displayed higher survival rates in acidic gastric conditions than probiotics in solution. Rapid release of the probiotics from the tablets occurred in simulated intestinal fluid because of fast swelling of the tablets in neutral pH. As a matrix of tablet, HPMCP 55 provided good viability of probiotics after 6 months under refrigeration. Moreover, after oral administration of probiotics-loaded tablets to chicken, more viable probiotics were observed, than with solution type, through several digestive areas of chicken by the tablets.

  5. Probiotics and antibiotics change microbial diversity and decrease gut growth in neonatal pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Both probiotics and antibiotics are used as a therapy against infection and gut inflammatory disorders. The impact of these interventions on the gut microbiota, intestinal function and protein metabolism in preterm infants is unknown. We investigated the effect of antibiotics and probiotics on inte...

  6. INFLUENCE OF PROBIOTIC CULTURE LACTOBACILLUS RHAMNOSUS GG (LGG) ON IMMUNE RESPONSE OF ORGANISM

    OpenAIRE

    A.V. Surzhik

    2009-01-01

    This article presents review of data of influence of probiotic culture Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG on intestinal biocenosis. Main attention was given to influence of L. rhamnosus GG on functions of immune system.Key words: probiotics, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, immune response.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2009;8(2):54-58)

  7. Comparative genomic analysis of the multispecies probiotic-marketed product VSL#3.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François P Douillard

    Full Text Available Several probiotic-marketed formulations available for the consumers contain live lactic acid bacteria and/or bifidobacteria. The multispecies product commercialized as VSL#3 has been used for treating various gastro-intestinal disorders. However, like many other products, the bacterial strains present in VSL#3 have only been characterized to a limited extent and their efficacy as well as their predicted mode of action remain unclear, preventing further applications or comparative studies. In this work, the genomes of all eight bacterial strains present in VSL#3 were sequenced and characterized, to advance insights into the possible mode of action of this product and also to serve as a basis for future work and trials. Phylogenetic and genomic data analysis allowed us to identify the 7 species present in the VSL#3 product as specified by the manufacturer. The 8 strains present belong to the species Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus helveticus, Bifidobacterium breve and B. animalis subsp. lactis (two distinct strains. Comparative genomics revealed that the draft genomes of the S. thermophilus and L. helveticus strains were predicted to encode most of the defence systems such as restriction modification and CRISPR-Cas systems. Genes associated with a variety of potential probiotic functions were also identified. Thus, in the three Bifidobacterium spp., gene clusters were predicted to encode tight adherence pili, known to promote bacteria-host interaction and intestinal barrier integrity, and to impact host cell development. Various repertoires of putative signalling proteins were predicted to be encoded by the genomes of the Lactobacillus spp., i.e. surface layer proteins, LPXTG-containing proteins, or sortase-dependent pili that may interact with the intestinal mucosa and dendritic cells. Taken altogether, the individual genomic characterization of the strains

  8. Modulation of immunity and inflammatory gene expression in the gut, in inflammatory diseases of the gut and in the liver by probiotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaza-Diaz, Julio; Gomez-Llorente, Carolina; Fontana, Luis; Gil, Angel

    2014-01-01

    interleukins and lead mainly to an anti-inflammatory response in cultured enterocytes. In addition, the interaction of commensal bacteria and probiotics with the surface of antigen-presenting cells in vitro results in the downregulation of pro-inflammatory genes that are linked to inflammatory signaling pathways, whereas other anti-inflammatory genes are upregulated. The effects of probiotics have been extensively investigated in animal models ranging from fish to mice, rats and piglets. These bacteria induce a tolerogenic and hyporesponsive immune response in which many genes that are related to the immune system, in particular those genes expressing anti-inflammatory cytokines, are upregulated. By contrast, information related to gene expression in human intestinal cells mediated by the action of probiotics is scarce. There is a need for further clinical studies that evaluate the mechanism of action of probiotics both in healthy humans and in patients with chronic diseases. These types of clinical studies are necessary for addressing the influence of these microorganisms in gene expression for different pathways, particularly those that are associated with the immune response, and to better understand the role that probiotics might have in the prevention and treatment of disease. PMID:25400447

  9. Probiotics in carp fish nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubojević Dragana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Uncontrolled use of antibiotics in aquaculture caused the appearance and spreading of pathogens resistance to antibiotics, what consequently drove up to the necesity of finding new technologies for protecting aquatic organisms from pathogens. Probiotics are aimed to reduce antibiotics application, and furthermore they have an important role not only in disease prevention but also in efficiency of food utilization and improvement of production parameters. Carp fish species are economically most significant in Republic of Serbia, therefore this work summarizes the results of previous studies of antibiotics application in this kind in particular. There is also pointed out to numerous harmful side effects of antibiotics use in aquaculture, and described the previous results of investigations on mechanism of probiotics effects and specificity of their use in this field as well. Beside this, there are summarized the results that show positive influence of probiotics in cyprinides nutrition on production performance, haematological parameters, course of experimental infection, activity of digestive enzymes. Special attention is paid to criteria for proper selection of probiotics in cyprinides production. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TP 31011: Uticaj kvaliteta komponenata u ishrani ciprinida na kvalitet mesa, gubitke i ekonomičnost proizvodnje

  10. Probiotics and down-regulation of the allergic response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalliomäki, Marko A; Isolauri, Erika

    2004-11-01

    The first clinical trials with probiotics, especially in the treatment of atopic eczema, have yielded encouraging results. Experimental studies have found that probiotics exert strain-specific effects in the intestinal lumen and on epithelial cells and immune cells with anti-allergic potential. These effects include enhancement in antigen degradation and gut barrier function and induction of regulatory and proinflammatory immune responses, the latter of which occurs more likely beyond the intestinal epithelium. Future studies should address more accurately how these and other possible mechanisms operate in the complex gastrointestinal macroenvironment in vivo and how these mechanisms are related to the clinical effects in a dose-dependent manner.

  11. Beneficial properties of probiotic yeast Saccharomyces boulardii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomičić Zorica M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Saccharomyces boulardii is unique probiotic and biotherapeutic yeast, known to survive in gastric acidity and it is not adversely affected or inhibited by antibiotics or does not alter or adversely affect the normal microbiota. S. boulardii has been utilized worldwide as a probiotic supplement to support gastrointestinal health. The multiple mechanisms of action of S. boulardii and its properties may explain its efficacy and beneficial effects in acute and chronic gastrointestinal diseases that have been confirmed by clinical trials. Caution should be taken in patients with risk factors for adverse events. Its potential application in various dairy foods could offer an alternative probiotic product to people suffering from antibiotic-associated diarrhea. This review discusses the evidence for efficacy and safety of S. boulardii as a probiotic for the prevention and therapy of gastrointestinal disorders in humans.

  12. Isolation of lactic acid bacteria from swine milk and characterization of potential probiotic strains with antagonistic effects against swine-associated gastrointestinal pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quilodrán-Vega, Sandra Rayén; Villena, Julio; Valdebenito, José; Salas, María José; Parra, Cristian; Ruiz, Alvaro; Kitazawa, Haruki; García, Apolinaria

    2016-06-01

    Probiotics are usually isolated from the gastrointestinal tract of humans and animals. The search of probiotics in human milk is a recent field of research, as the existence of the human milk microbiome was discovered only about a decade ago. To our knowledge, no reports regarding the potential probiotic effect of bacteria from swine milk have been published. In this work, we isolated several lactic acid bacteria from swine milk and evaluated them for them potential as probiotics. Among the isolated strains, Lactobacillus curvatus TUCO-5E showed antagonistic effects against swine-associated gastrointestinal pathogens. TUCO-5E was able to reduce the growth of enterotoxigenic and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli strains as well as pathogenic salmonella. In vitro exclusion and displacement assays in intestinal epithelial cells showed a remarkable antagonistic effect for L. curvatus TUCO-5E against Salmonella sp. strain TUCO-I7 and Salmonella enterica ATCC 13096. Moreover, by using a mouse model of Salmonella infection, we were able to demonstrate that preventative administration of L. curvatus TUCO-5E for 5 consecutive days was capable of decreasing the number of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in the liver and spleen of treated mice, compared with the controls, and prevented dissemination of the pathogen to the blood stream. Therefore, we have demonstrated here that swine milk is an interesting source of beneficial bacteria. In addition, the results of this work suggest that L. curvatus TUCO-5E is a good candidate to study in vivo the protective effect of probiotics against intestinal infection and damage induced by Salmonella infection in the porcine host.

  13. Roles of amino acids in preventing and treating intestinal diseases: recent studies with pig models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yulan; Wang, Xiuying; Hou, Yongqing; Yin, Yulong; Qiu, Yinsheng; Wu, Guoyao; Hu, Chien-An Andy

    2017-08-01

    Animal models are needed to study and understand a human complex disease. Because of their similarities in anatomy, structure, physiology, and pathophysiology, the pig has proven its usefulness in studying human gastrointestinal diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease, ischemia/reperfusion injury, diarrhea, and cancer. To understand the pathogenesis of these diseases, a number of experimental models generated in pigs are available, for example, through surgical manipulation, chemical induction, microbial infection, and genetic engineering. Our interests have been using amino acids as therapeutics in pig and human disease models. Amino acids not only play an important role in protein biosynthesis, but also exert significant physiological effects in regulating immunity, anti-oxidation, redox regulation, energy metabolism, signal transduction, and animal behavior. Recent studies in pigs have shown that specific dietary amino acids can improve intestinal integrity and function under normal and pathological conditions that protect the host from different diseases. In this review, we summarize several pig models in intestinal diseases and how amino acids can be used as therapeutics in treating pig and human diseases.

  14. Manufacture of Probiotic Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, J. A.; Ross, R. P.; Fitzgerald, G. F.; Stanton, C.

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been used for many years as natural biopreservatives in fermented foods. A small group of LAB are also believed to have beneficial health effects on the host, so called probiotic bacteria. Probiotics have emerged from the niche industry from Asia into European and American markets. Functional foods are one of the fastest growing markets today, with estimated growth to 20 billion dollars worldwide by 2010 (GIA, 2008). The increasing demand for probiotics and the new food markets where probiotics are introduced, challenges the industry to produce high quantities of probiotic cultures in a viable and stable form. Dried concentrated probiotic cultures are the most convenient form for incorporation into functional foods, given the ease of storage, handling and transport, especially for shelf-stable functional products. This chapter will discuss various aspects of the challenges associated with the manufacturing of probiotic cultures.

  15. Efficiency of probiotics (Ecoforce) in the growth and survival of Peneaus monodon

    OpenAIRE

    V. Elumalai; G. Ramesh; D. Mohan, et al.

    2013-01-01

    Probiotic supplementation of live microorganisms in aquaculture aids in preventing disease, thereby increasing production and decreasing economic loss. Application of probiotics bacteria in aquaculture systems plays significant role that determines the fate and success rate of culture. The present study was carried out to evaluate the performance of commercially available probiotics (The major active ingredients include Streptococcus faecalis, Streptococcus faecium, Bacillus mesentericus, Bac...

  16. Lack of efficacy of blueberry in nutritional prevention of azoxymethane-initiated cancers of rat small intestine and colon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Xianli

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Blueberries may lower relative risk for cancers of the gastrointestinal tract. Previous work indicated an inhibitory effect of consumed blueberry (BB on formation of aberrant crypt foci (ACF in colons of male Fisher F344 rats (inbred strain. However, effects of BB on colon tumors and in both genders are unknown. Methods We examined efficacy of BB in inhibition of azoxymethane (AOM-induced colon ACF and intestine tumors in male and female Sprague-Dawley rats (outbred strain. Pregnant rats were fed a diet with or without 10% BB powder; progeny were weaned to the same diet as their dam and received AOM as young adults. Results Male and female rats on control diet had similar numbers of ACF at 6 weeks after AOM administration. BB increased (P P P > 0.05 to reduce overall gastrointestinal tract tumor incidence in males, however, tumor incidence in females was unaffected (P > 0.1 by BB. There was a tendency (0.1 > P > 0.05 for fewer adenocarcinomas (relative to total of adenomatous polyps plus adenocarcinomas in colons of female than male tumor-bearing rats; in small intestine, this gender difference was significant (P P Conclusion Results did not indicate robust cancer-preventive effects of BB. Blueberry influenced ACF occurrence in distal colon and tumor progression in duodenum, in gender-specific fashion. Data indicate the potential for slowing tumor progression (adenomatous polyp to adenocarcinoma by BB.

  17. Development of a dual vaccine for prevention of Brucella abortus infection and Escherichia coli O157:H7 intestinal colonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannino, Florencia; Herrmann, Claudia K; Roset, Mara S; Briones, Gabriel

    2015-05-05

    Zoonoses that affect human and animal health have an important economic impact. In the study now presented, a bivalent vaccine has been developed that has the potential for preventing the transmission from cattle to humans of two bacterial pathogens: Brucella abortus and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC). A 66kDa chimeric antigen, composed by EspA, Intimin, Tir, and H7 flagellin (EITH7) from STEC, was constructed and expressed in B. abortus Δpgm vaccine strain (BabΔpgm). Mice orally immunized with BabΔpgm(EITH7) elicited an immune response with the induction of anti-EITH7 antibodies (IgA) that clears an intestinal infection of E. coli O157:H7 three times faster (t=4 days) than mice immunized with BabΔpgm carrier strain (t=12 days). As expected, mice immunized with BabΔpgm(EITH7) strain also elicited a protective immune response against B. abortus infection. A Brucella-based vaccine platform is described capable of eliciting a combined protective immune response against two bacterial pathogens with diverse lifestyles-the intracellular pathogen B. abortus and the intestinal extracellular pathogen STEC. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Tackling probiotic and gut microbiota functionality through proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Lorena; Hidalgo, Claudio; Blanco-Míguez, Aitor; Lourenço, Anália; Sánchez, Borja; Margolles, Abelardo

    2016-09-16

    Probiotics are live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host. Many strains exert their beneficial effects after transiently colonizing the human gut, where they interact with the rest of the intestinal microorganisms and with the host mucosa. Indeed the human gut harbours a huge number of microorganisms also known as gut microbiota. Imbalances in the relative abundances of the individual components of the gut microbiota may determine the health status of the host and alterations in specific groups have been related to different diseases and metabolic disorders. Proteomics provide a set of high-throughput methodologies for protein identification that are extremely useful for studying probiotic functionality and helping in the assessment of specific health-promoting activities, such as their immunomodulatory activity, the intestinal colonization processes, and the crosstalk mechanisms with the host. Furthermore, proteomics have been used to identify markers of technological performance and stress adaptation, which helps to predict traits such as behaviour into food matrices and ability to survive passage through the gastrointestinal tract. The aim of this review is to compile studies in which proteomics have been used to assess probiotic functionality and to identify molecular players supporting their mechanisms of action. Probiotics are live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host. Molecular basis underlying the functional properties of probiotic bacteria responsible for the health promoting effects have been in the background for many years. Breakthrough of omics technologies in the probiotic and microbiota fields has had a very relevant impact in the elucidation of probiotic mechanisms and in the procedures to select these microorganisms, based on solid scientific evidence. It is unquestionable that, in the near future, the evolution of proteomic techniques

  19. Pustular psoriasis responding to Probiotics – a new insight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metikurke Vijayashankar

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics exhibit widespread effects on homeostasis and immunomodulation of both mucosal and systemic immunity. Probiotics counter weight aggressive commensals in the body and reinforce the barrier function of the epithelium while also contributing to the regulation of innate and adaptive immune responses of the host under healthy or pathogenic conditions. Probiotics could be used for prevention or treatment of chronic allergic and inflammatory diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD and atopic dermatitis. We describe a case of pustular psoriasis where probiotics were used for the treatment successfully.

  20. Restoration of impaired intestinal barrier function by the hydrolysed casein diet contributes to the prevention of type 1 diabetes in the diabetes-prone BioBreeding rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, J T J; Lammers, K; Hoogendijk, A; Boer, M W; Brugman, S; Beijer-Liefers, S; Zandvoort, A; Harmsen, H; Welling, G; Stellaard, F; Bos, N A; Fasano, A; Rozing, J

    2010-12-01

    Impaired intestinal barrier function is observed in type 1 diabetes patients and animal models of the disease. Exposure to diabetogenic antigens from the intestinal milieu due to a compromised intestinal barrier is considered essential for induction of the autoimmune process leading to type 1 diabetes. Since a hydrolysed casein (HC) diet prevents autoimmune diabetes onset in diabetes-prone (DP)-BioBreeding (BB) rats, we studied the role of the HC diet on intestinal barrier function and, therefore, prevention of autoimmune diabetes onset in this animal model. DP-BB rats were fed the HC diet from weaning onwards and monitored for autoimmune diabetes development. Intestinal permeability was assessed in vivo by lactulose-mannitol test and ex vivo by measuring transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER). Levels of serum zonulin, a physiological tight junction modulator, were measured by ELISA. Ileal mRNA expression of Myo9b, Cldn1, Cldn2 and Ocln (which encode the tight junction-related proteins myosin IXb, claudin-1, claudin-2 and occludin) and Il-10, Tgf-ß (also known as Il10 and Tgfb, respectively, which encode regulatory cytokines) was analysed by quantitative PCR. The HC diet reduced autoimmune diabetes by 50% in DP-BB rats. In DP-BB rats, prediabetic gut permeability negatively correlated with the moment of autoimmune diabetes onset. The improved intestinal barrier function that was induced by HC diet in DP-BB rats was visualised by decreasing lactulose:mannitol ratio, decreasing serum zonulin levels and increasing ileal TEER. The HC diet modified ileal mRNA expression of Myo9b, and Cldn1 and Cldn2, but left Ocln expression unaltered. Improved intestinal barrier function might be an important intermediate in the prevention of autoimmune diabetes by the HC diet in DP-BB rats. Effects on tight junctions, ileal cytokines and zonulin production might be important mechanisms for this effect.

  1. [Antibacterial prevention of suppurative complications after operations on the large intestine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzin, M I; Pomelov, V S; Vandiaev, G K; Ialgashev, T Ia; Blatun, L A

    1983-05-01

    The data on comparative study of complications after operations on the large intestine are presented. During the preoperative period, 62 patients of the control group were treated with phthalylsulfathiazole, nevigramon and nystatin. Thirty-nine patients of the test group were treated with metronidazole and kanamycin monosulfate. Kanamycin monosulfate was used 3 days before the operation in a dose of 0.5 g orally 4 times a day whereas metronidazole in a dose of 0.5 g 3 times a day. The last doses of the drugs were administered 4-5 hours before the operation. After the operations the patients were treated with kanamycin sulfate for 3-5 days in a daily dose of 2 g intramuscularly. The number of the postoperative suppurative complications decreased from 22 to 5 per cent. No lethal outcomes were registered in the test group. The number of lethal outcomes in the control group amounted to 8 per cent.

  2. Administration of two probiotic strains during early childhood does not affect the endogenous gut microbiota composition despite probiotic proliferation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Martin Frederik; Laursen, Rikke Pilmann; Larnkjær, Anni

    2017-01-01

    Probiotics are increasingly applied to prevent and treat a range of infectious, immune related and gastrointestinal diseases. Despite this, the mechanisms behind the putative effects of probiotics are poorly understood. One of the suggested modes of probiotic action is modulation of the endogenous...... gut microbiota, however probiotic intervention studies in adults have failed to show significant effects on gut microbiota composition. The gut microbiota of young children is known to be unstable and more responsive to external factors than that of adults. Therefore, potential effects of probiotic...... intervention on gut microbiota may be easier detectable in early life. We thus investigated the effects of a 6 month placebo-controlled probiotic intervention with Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis (BB-12®) and Lactobacillus rhamnosus (LGG®) on gut microbiota composition and diversity in more than 200...

  3. Enterococcus faecium NCIMB 10415 Modulates Epithelial Integrity, Heat Shock Protein, and Proinflammatory Cytokine Response in Intestinal Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanti Klingspor

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics have shown positive effects on gastrointestinal diseases; they have barrier-modulating effects and change the inflammatory response towards pathogens in studies in vitro. The aim of this investigation has been to examine the response of intestinal epithelial cells to Enterococcus faecium NCIMB 10415 (E. faecium, a probiotic positively affecting diarrhea incidence in piglets, and two pathogenic Escherichia coli (E. coli strains, with specific focus on the probiotic modulation of the response to the pathogenic challenge. Porcine (IPEC-J2 and human (Caco-2 intestinal cells were incubated without bacteria (control, with E. faecium, with enteropathogenic (EPEC or enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC each alone or in combination with E. faecium. The ETEC strain decreased transepithelial resistance (TER and increased IL-8 mRNA and protein expression in both cell lines compared with control cells, an effect that could be prevented by pre- and coincubation with E. faecium. Similar effects were observed for the increased expression of heat shock protein 70 in Caco-2 cells. When the cells were challenged by the EPEC strain, no such pattern of changes could be observed. The reduced decrease in TER and the reduction of the proinflammatory and stress response of enterocytes following pathogenic challenge indicate the protective effect of the probiotic.

  4. Identification of novel anti-inflammatory probiotic strains isolated from pulque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Maravilla, Edgar; Lenoir, Marion; Mayorga-Reyes, Lino; Allain, Thibault; Sokol, Harry; Langella, Philippe; Sánchez-Pardo, María E; Bermúdez-Humarán, Luis G

    2016-01-01

    Probiotics are live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts, confer health benefits on the host. Their use is more and more widespread for both prevention and treatment of diseases, including traveler’s diarrhea and inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs). In this work, we isolated and characterized novel candidate probiotic strains from pulque (xaxtle), a traditional Mexican alcoholic fermented beverage. A total of 14 strains were obtained from xaxtle samples isolated from three different Mexican regions. Species identification was performed by biochemical methods and 16S rRNA gene targeted PCR. The isolates belonged to the Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus brevis, and Lactobacillus composti phylogenetic groups, with L. brevis being the most dominant group. Bacteria were tested for lysozyme, low pH, and bile acid resistance. Moreover, the strains were tested for adherence to human intestinal epithelial cells and screened for their immunomodulatory properties using a cellular model. Selected bacterial strains with anti-inflammatory properties were then tested in vivo in a dinitro-benzene sulfonic acid (DNBS)-induced chronic colitis mouse model, and weight loss, gut permeability, and cytokine profiles were measured as readouts of inflammation. One of the selected strains, Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis LBH1068, improved mice health as observed by a reduction of weight loss, significant decreases in gut permeability, and cytokine modulation. Altogether, our results highlighted the potential of lactobacilli isolated from pulque and in particular the strain L. sanfranciscensis LBH1068 as a novel probiotic to treat IBD.

  5. Intestine-Specific Mttp Deletion Decreases Mortality and Prevents Sepsis-Induced Intestinal Injury in a Murine Model of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Pneumonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez, Jessica A.; Xie, Yan; Dunne, W. Michael; Yoseph, Benyam P.; Burd, Eileen M.; Coopersmith, Craig M.; Davidson, Nicholas O.

    2012-01-01

    Background The small intestine plays a crucial role in the pathophysiology of sepsis and has been referred to as the “motor” of the systemic inflammatory response. One proposed mechanism is that toxic gut-derived lipid factors, transported in mesenteric lymph, induce systemic injury and distant organ failure. However, the pathways involved are yet to be defined and the role of intestinal chylomicron assembly and secretion in transporting these lipid factors is unknown. Here we studied the outcome of sepsis in mice with conditional, intestine-specific deletion of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (Mttp-IKO), which exhibit a block in chylomicron assembly together with lipid malabsorption. Methodology/Principal Findings Mttp-IKO mice and controls underwent intratracheal injection with either Pseudomonas aeruginosa or sterile saline. Mttp-IKO mice exhibited decreased seven-day mortality, with 0/20 (0%) dying compared to 5/17 (29%) control mice (p<0.05). This survival advantage in Mttp-IKO mice, however, was not associated with improvements in pulmonary bacterial clearance or neutrophil infiltration. Rather, Mttp-IKO mice exhibited protection against sepsis-associated decreases in villus length and intestinal proliferation and were also protected against increased intestinal apoptosis, both central features in control septic mice. Serum IL-6 levels, a major predictor of mortality in human and mouse models of sepsis, were elevated 8-fold in septic control mice but remained unaltered in septic Mttp-IKO mice. Serum high density lipoprotein (HDL) levels were reduced in septic control mice but were increased in septic Mttp-IKO mice. The decreased levels of HDL were associated with decreased hepatic expression of apolipoprotein A1 in septic control mice. Conclusions/Significance These studies suggest that strategies directed at blocking intestinal chylomicron secretion may attenuate the progression and improve the outcome of sepsis through effects mediated by

  6. Intestine-specific Mttp deletion decreases mortality and prevents sepsis-induced intestinal injury in a murine model of Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica A Dominguez

    Full Text Available The small intestine plays a crucial role in the pathophysiology of sepsis and has been referred to as the "motor" of the systemic inflammatory response. One proposed mechanism is that toxic gut-derived lipid factors, transported in mesenteric lymph, induce systemic injury and distant organ failure. However, the pathways involved are yet to be defined and the role of intestinal chylomicron assembly and secretion in transporting these lipid factors is unknown. Here we studied the outcome of sepsis in mice with conditional, intestine-specific deletion of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (Mttp-IKO, which exhibit a block in chylomicron assembly together with lipid malabsorption.Mttp-IKO mice and controls underwent intratracheal injection with either Pseudomonas aeruginosa or sterile saline. Mttp-IKO mice exhibited decreased seven-day mortality, with 0/20 (0% dying compared to 5/17 (29% control mice (p<0.05. This survival advantage in Mttp-IKO mice, however, was not associated with improvements in pulmonary bacterial clearance or neutrophil infiltration. Rather, Mttp-IKO mice exhibited protection against sepsis-associated decreases in villus length and intestinal proliferation and were also protected against increased intestinal apoptosis, both central features in control septic mice. Serum IL-6 levels, a major predictor of mortality in human and mouse models of sepsis, were elevated 8-fold in septic control mice but remained unaltered in septic Mttp-IKO mice. Serum high density lipoprotein (HDL levels were reduced in septic control mice but were increased in septic Mttp-IKO mice. The decreased levels of HDL were associated with decreased hepatic expression of apolipoprotein A1 in septic control mice.These studies suggest that strategies directed at blocking intestinal chylomicron secretion may attenuate the progression and improve the outcome of sepsis through effects mediated by metabolic and physiological adaptations in both intestinal and

  7. Clinical Uses of Probiotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Saif Ul

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Probiotics are live nonpathogenic microorganisms. Many of these microorganisms are part of the normal human gut flora, where they live in a symbiotic relationship. Probiotics have been used to treat gastrointestinal (GI) and non-GI medical conditions. However, the data supporting their use are often conflicting, especially for non-GI-associated illnesses. The strongest evidence supporting the use of probiotics is related to the treatment of acute diarrhea and pouchitis. Atopic eczema in children and genitourinary infections are the only non-GI-related medical conditions where probiotics may have some beneficial effects. Product selection and dosing are not the same in all conditions, and the beneficial effects of each probiotic strain cannot be generalized. The purpose of this article is to provide most recent information about probiotics and its uses. In contrast with previously published reviews on probiotics, we also discuss the composition of various products (Table 1), indications for their use (Table 2), product selection, and dosing of probiotics. Probiotics are safe and appear to exert some beneficial effects in GI-related illnesses. The use of probiotics in non-GI illnesses is not sufficiently supported by current data. PMID:26844491

  8. The immunomodulatory properties of probiotic microorganisms beyond their viability (ghost probiotics: proposal of paraprobiotic concept)

    OpenAIRE

    Taverniti, Valentina; Guglielmetti, Simone

    2011-01-01

    The probiotic approach represents a potentially effective and mild alternative strategy for the prevention and treatment of either inflammatory or allergic diseases. Several studies have shown that different bacterial strains can exert their probiotic abilities by influencing the host’s immune system, thereby modulating immune responses. However, the emerging concern regarding safety problems arising from the extensive use of live microbial cells is enhancing the interest in non-viable microo...

  9. Probiotics: Safety and Side Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Probiotics Safety and Side Effects Past Issues / Winter 2016 ... Says About the Safety and Side Effects of Probiotics Whether probiotics are likely to be safe for ...

  10. Contemporary meta-analysis of short-term probiotic consumption on gastrointestinal transit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Larry E; Zimmermann, Angela K; Ouwehand, Arthur C

    2016-06-07

    To determine the efficacy of probiotic supplementation on intestinal transit time (ITT) in adults and to identify factors that influence these outcomes. We conducted a systematic review of randomized controlled trials of probiotic supplementation that measured ITT in adults. Study quality was assessed using the Jadad scale. A random effects meta-analysis was performed with standardized mean difference (SMD) of ITT between probiotic and control groups as the primary outcome. Meta-regression and subgroup analyses examined the impact of moderator variables on SMD of ITT. A total of 15 clinical trials with 17 treatment effects representing 675 subjects were included in this analysis. Probiotic supplementation was moderately efficacious in decreasing ITT compared to control, with an SMD of 0.38 (95%CI: 0.23-0.53, P probiotics in subjects with vs without constipation (SMD: 0.57 vs 0.22, P probiotic strains (R (2) = 20%, P probiotics in meta-regression. Medium to large treatment effects were identified with B. lactis HN019 (SMD: 0.67, P probiotic strains yielded negligible reductions in ITT relative to control. Probiotic supplementation is moderately efficacious for reducing ITT in adults. Probiotics were most efficacious in constipated subjects, when evaluated in high-quality studies, and with certain probiotic strains.

  11. Probiotics feeding in prevention of urinary tract infection, bacterial sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm infants. A prospective double-blind study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dani, Carlo; Biadaioli, Roberto; Bertini, Giovanna; Martelli, Elena; Rubaltelli, Firmino F

    2002-08-01

    It has been suggested that probiotics can reduce the overgrowth of pathogens in the bowels of preterm infants and contribute to the reduction of the incidence of nosocomial infections in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Lactobacillus GG supplementation in reducing the incidence of urinary tract infections (UTIs), bacterial sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in preterm infants. A double-blind study was conducted in 12 Italian NICUs. Newborn infants with a gestational age probiotics group (n = 295) and the placebo group (n = 290) exhibited similar clinical characteristics. The duration of Lactobacillus GG and placebo supplementation was 47.3 +/- 26.0 and 48.2 +/- 24.3 days, respectively. Although UTIs (3.4 vs. 5.8%) and NEC (1.4 vs. 2.7%) were found less frequently in the probiotic group compared to the control group, these differences were not significant. Bacterial sepsis was more frequent in the probiotics group (4.4%, n = 11) than in the placebo group (3.8%, n = 9), but the difference was not significant. Seven days of Lactobacillus GG supplementation starting with the first feed is not effective in reducing the incidence of UTIs, NEC and sepsis in preterm infants. Further studies are required to confirm our results in lower birthweight populations. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

  12. The Incidence of Necrotizing Enterocolitis Is Increased Following Probiotic Administration to Preterm Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cilieborg, Malene Skovsted; Thymann, Thomas; Siggers, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Preterm birth and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is associated with inappropriate gut colonization and immunity, which may be improved by probiotic bacteria. Using a preterm pig model of NEC, we investigated the effects of probiotics on intestinal structure, function, microbiology, and immunology...... with controls (n = 14). All pigs received parenteral nutrition for 2 d followed by enteral formula feeding until tissue collection on d 5. Compared with control pigs, intestinal weight was lower and NEC incidence was higher in both groups given probiotics (64–67 vs. 14%; P...

  13. Probiotic potentials of cereal-based beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enujiugha, Victor N; Badejo, Adebanjo A

    2017-03-04

    Probiotics offer remarkable potential for the prevention and management of various infective and noninfective disorders. They are reported to play key roles in the suppression of gastrointestinal infections, antimicrobial activity, improvement in lactose metabolism, reduction in serum cholesterol, immune system stimulation, antimutagenic properties, anticarcinogenic properties, anti-diarrheal properties, and improvement in inflammatory bowel disease. Although probiotic foods are classically confined to beverages and cheese, containing live organisms of the lactic acid bacteria family, such health-promoting foods are traditionally dairy-based, comprising milk and its fermented products. However, recent research focuses on the probiotic potentials of fermented cereal-based beverages which are especially consumed in developing countries characterized by low nutritional security and high incidence of gut pathogen infections. Moreover, lactose intolerance and cholesterol content associated with dairy products, coupled with the vegetarian tendencies of diverse populations in the third world, tend to enforce the recent recourse to nondairy beverages. Probiotic microorganisms are mostly of human or animal origin; however, strains recognized as probiotics are also found in nondairy fermented substrates. This review examines the potentials of some traditional cereal-based beverages to serve as probiotic foods, their microbial and functional properties, as well as their process optimization and storage for enhanced utilization.

  14. Probiotics and prebiotics in periodontal therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rekha Rani Koduganti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There has been a paradigm shift toward ecological and microbial community-based approach in understanding oral diseases. A marked improvement in gastrointestinal health has been reported after using probiotic bacteria and/or prebiotic supplements,which has prompted much interest in the use of this approach for oral applications. Treatment of periodontal disease in recent years has moved toward an antibiotic/antimicrobial model of disease management. With increase in the incidence of resistance to antibiotics, probiotics may be a promising area of research in periodontal therapy. This paper reviews the evidences for the use of probiotics or prebiotics for the prevention of dental caries or periodontal diseases, and also adresses the risk associated with their prolonged use. Many questions have been raised pertaining to the benefits of probiotic administration, as the role of probiotics in periodontics is still in infancy, and a complete understanding of the broad ecological changes induced in the mouth by probiotics or prebiotics is essential to assess their long-term consequences for oral health and disease.

  15. Probiotics in allergy treatment: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Crovesy

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Allergy is a exacerbate response of immune system to a triggering element. A probable cause of allergies is gut microbiota composition. It has strong relationship with development of human immune system and this is formed in intrauterine life and early childhood, crucial periods for formation adequate microbiota. In this sense modulation gut microbiota by probiotics could prevent or help in the treatment of allergic diseases such as allergic rhinitis, asthma, atopic dermatitis and food allergy. Studies published to date are controversial. It is difficult to determine whether the probiotic can be used in the treatment and prevention of allergic diseases.

  16. Influence of organic diets and probiotics on an experimental Flavobacterium psychrophilum infection in rainbow trout fry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Lone; Ingerslev, Hans-Christian; Boye, Mette

    2012-01-01

    following exposure to pathogenic microorganisms. The aim of the Danish project OPTIFISH is to optimize growth and survival for organic cultured rainbow trout. OPTIFISH investigates how organic vs. non-organic diet types as well as diets with or without probiotics affect the intestine, the intestinal...... of fry to pathogens, e.g. F .psychrophilum. In the current experiment four diet types were tested on fry, a conventional type (Inicio®, BioMar A/S) with and without probiotics, as well as an organic type with and without probiotic. Bactocell® (Lallemand) was used as the probiotic. Studies were done...... been fed diets that were organic or conventional nor if the feed had been added probiotic. No significance in mortalities was seen between the diet groups. The bacteriological examinations showed that the bacterium had entered the fish, as it was found in inner organs in one fourth of the sampled fish...

  17. Probiotic research in Australia, New Zealand and the Asia-Pacific region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crittenden, R; Bird, A R; Gopal, P; Henriksson, A; Lee, Y K; Playne, M J

    2005-01-01

    Although the epicentres of probiotic research in the past decade have been Japan and Europe, researchers in the Asia-Pacific region have actively contributed to the growing understanding of the intestinal microbial ecosystem, and interactions between gut bacteria, diet and health of the human host. A number of new probiotic strains have been developed in the region that have been demonstrated to have beneficial impacts on health in animal and human trials, including improved protection against intestinal pathogens and modulation of the immune system. Probiotics targeted to animals, including aquaculture, feature heavily in many Asian countries. Developments in probiotic technologies have included microencapsulation techniques, antimicrobial production in fermented meats, and synbiotic combinations. In particular, the impact of resistant starch on the intestinal environment and fermentation by intestinal bacteria has been intensively studied and new probiotic strains selected specifically for synbiotic combinations with resistant starch. This paper provides an overview of probiotic research within Australia, New Zealand and a number of Asian countries, and lists scientists in the Asia-Pacific region involved in various aspects of probiotic research and development.

  18. Impact of probiotic supplements on microbiome diversity following antibiotic treatment of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grazul, Hannah; Kanda, L Leann; Gondek, David

    2016-01-01

    Shifts in microbial populations of the intestinal tract have been associated with a multitude of nutritional, autoimmune, and infectious diseases. The limited diversity following antibiotic treatments creates a window for opportunistic pathogens, diarrhea, and inflammation as the microbiome repopulates. Depending on the antibiotics used, microbial diversity can take weeks to months to recover. To alleviate this loss of diversity in the intestinal microbiota, supplementation with probiotics has become increasingly popular. However, our understanding of the purported health benefits of these probiotic bacteria and their ability to shape the microbiome is significantly lacking. This study examined the impact of probiotics concurrent with antibiotic treatment or during the recovery phase following antibiotic treatment of mice. We found that probiotics did not appear to colonize the intestine themselves or shift the overall diversity of the intestinal microbiota. However, the probiotic supplementation did significantly change the types of bacteria which were present. In particular, during the recovery phase the probiotic caused a suppression of Enterobacteriaceae outgrowth (Shigella and Escherichia) while promoting a blooming of Firmicutes, particularly from the Anaerotruncus genus. These results indicate that probiotics have a significant capacity to remodel the microbiome of an individual recovering from antibiotic therapy.

  19. Lactobacillus frumenti Facilitates Intestinal Epithelial Barrier Function Maintenance in Early-Weaned Piglets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jun; Chen, Lingli; Zheng, Wenyong; Shi, Min; Liu, Liu; Xie, Chunlin; Wang, Xinkai; Niu, Yaorong; Hou, Qiliang; Xu, Xiaofan; Xu, Baoyang; Tang, Yimei; Zhou, Shuyi; Yan, Yiqin; Yang, Tao; Ma, Libao; Yan, Xianghua

    2018-01-01

    Increased intestinal epithelial barrier function damages caused by early weaning stress have adverse effects on swine health and feed utilization efficiency. Probiotics have emerged as the promising antibiotic alternatives used for intestinal barrier function damage prevention. Our previous data showed that Lactobacillus frumenti was identified as a predominant Lactobacillus in the intestinal microbiota of weaned piglets. However, whether the intestinal epithelial barrier function in piglets was regulated by L. frumenti is still unclear. Here, piglets received a PBS vehicle or PBS suspension (2 ml, 108 CFU/ml) containing the L. frumenti by oral gavage once a day during the period of 6–20 days of age prior to early weaning. Our data demonstrated that oral administration of L. frumenti significantly improved the intestinal mucosal integrity and decreased the serum endotoxin and D-lactic acid levels in early-weaned piglets (26 days of age). The intestinal tight junction proteins (including ZO-1, Occludin, and Claudin-1) were significantly up-regulated by L. frumenti administration. The serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels, intestinal secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) levels, and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) levels were significantly increased by L. frumenti administration. Furthermore, our data revealed that oral administration of L. frumenti significantly increased the relative abundances of health-promoting microbes (including L. frumenti, Lactobacillus gasseri LA39, Parabacteroides distasonis, and Kazachstania telluris) and decreased the relative abundances of opportunistic pathogens (including Desulfovibrio desulfuricans and Candida humilis). Functional alteration of the intestinal bacterial community by L. frumenti administration was characterized by the significantly increased fatty acids and protein metabolism and decreased diseases-associated metabolic pathways. These findings suggest that L. frumenti facilitates intestinal epithelial barrier function maintenance

  20. Probiotic fermented dairy products

    OpenAIRE

    Adnan Tamime; Rajka Božanić; Irena Rogelj

    2003-01-01

    Fermented dairy products are the most popular vehicle used in theindustry for the implantation of the probiotic microflora in humans. Therefore this paper provides an overview of new knowledge on probiotic fermented dairy products. It involves historical developments, commercial probiotic microorganisms and products, and their therapeutic properties, possibilities of quality improvement of different types of newly developed fermented dairy products together with fermented goat’s milk products.

  1. Application of probiotics in the xenobiotic detoxification therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urban, P.L.; Kuthan, R.T.

    2004-01-01

    Many applications of probiotics have been described up to date. In this paper, it is hypothesized that probiotic microorganisms can also be used to decrease the xenobiotics intake in humans. The use of probiotic bacteria (e.g. strains of Lactobacillus sp. and Bifidobacterium Sp.) and Yeasts (Saccharomyces sp.) gives the opportunity for detoxification of various elements and compounds, considered as contaminants, directly in the lumen of human intestine. Some of these microorganisms ar known to accumulate cesium, strontium and heavy metals to a great extent and also bind mycotoxins. Certainly, during the up-coming years, their native or genetically modified strains will be a part of treatment protocols in detoxication therapy. The utilization of probiotics, in the both therapy and nutrition of people living in the countries suffering from high food contamination, could result in the reduction of annual xenobiotic dose to be incorporated in their organisms. (author)

  2. Application of probiotics in the xenobiotic detoxification therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urban, P L [Isotope Laboratory, Faculty of Biology, Warsaw University, Warsaw (Poland); Kuthan, R T [2 Plant Pathogenesis Group, Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Polish Academy of Science, Warsaw (Poland)

    2004-07-01

    Many applications of probiotics have been described up to date. In this paper, it is hypothesized that probiotic microorganisms can also be used to decrease the xenobiotics intake in humans. The use of probiotic bacteria (e.g. strains of Lactobacillus sp. and Bifidobacterium Sp.) and Yeasts (Saccharomyces sp.) gives the opportunity for detoxification of various elements and compounds, considered as contaminants, directly in the lumen of human intestine. Some of these microorganisms ar known to accumulate cesium, strontium and heavy metals to a great extent and also bind mycotoxins. Certainly, during the up-coming years, their native or genetically modified strains will be a part of treatment protocols in detoxication therapy. The utilization of probiotics, in the both therapy and nutrition of people living in the countries suffering from high food contamination, could result in the reduction of annual xenobiotic dose to be incorporated in their organisms. (author)

  3. Probiotics And Prebiotics As Feed Additive For Nonruminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuti Haryati

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The ban against using antibiotics has led to increase the use of alternative additive substances as antibiotic. The alternative additives that can be used as antibiotic are probiotic and prebiotic. Both components can be used separately or together as synbiotic. Probiotic and prebiotic can modulate the ecosytem of intestinal microflora that is potential to affect the health and performance of host. Probiotic and prebiotic have been widely used abroad because of their positive effects, but the research and the use of these components in Indonesia are limited, eventhough abundance of raw material that can be used are available. The research dealing with probiotic and prebiotic as additive is necessary to be improved to obtain the efficient and practical production method, which can be implemented to give an economic impact on livestock industry.

  4. Taxonomy of Probiotic Microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felis, Giovanna E.; Dellaglio, Franco; Torriani, Sandra

    When referring to probiotics, one refers to probiotic strains, i.e., the microbial individuals, sub-cultures of billion of almost identical cells ideally derived from the same mother cell. Therefore, beneficial effects attributed to probiotics are ascribed in fact to specific strains. However, these strains have to be, by law, clearly identified at the species level (Pineiro and Stanton, 2007). In fact, probiotics have to be safe for consumption, and the evaluation of QPS - qualified presumption of safety - status by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) (Opinion, 2007) is discussed for species, not for single strains.

  5. Intestinal microbiota in health and disease: Role of bifidobacteria in gut homeostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tojo, Rafael; Suárez, Adolfo; Clemente, Marta G; de los Reyes-Gavilán, Clara G; Margolles, Abelardo; Gueimonde, Miguel; Ruas-Madiedo, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    The pool of microbes inhabiting our body is known as “microbiota” and their collective genomes as “microbiome”. The colon is the most densely populated organ in the human body, although other parts, such as the skin, vaginal mucosa, or respiratory tract, also harbour specific microbiota. This microbial community regulates some important metabolic and physiological functions of the host, and drives the maturation of the immune system in early life, contributing to its homeostasis during life. Alterations of the intestinal microbiota can occur by changes in composition (dysbiosis), function, or microbiota-host interactions and they can be directly correlated with several diseases. The only disease in which a clear causal role of a dysbiotic microbiota has been demonstrated is the case of Clostridium difficile infections. Nonetheless, alterations in composition and function of the microbiota have been associated with several gastrointestinal diseases (inflammatory bowel disease, colorectal cancer, or irritable bowel syndrome), as well as extra-intestinal pathologies, such as those affecting the liver, or the respiratory tract (e.g., allergy, bronchial asthma, and cystic fibrosis), among others. Species of Bifidobacterium genus are the normal inhabitants of a healthy human gut and alterations in number and composition of their populations is one of the most frequent features present in these diseases. The use of probiotics, including bifidobacteria strains, in preventive medicine to maintain a healthy intestinal function is well documented. Probiotics are also proposed as therapeutic agents for gastrointestinal disorders and other pathologies. The World Gastroenterology Organization recently published potential clinical applications for several probiotic formulations, in which species of lactobacilli are predominant. This review is focused on probiotic preparations containing Bifidobacterium strains, alone or in combination with other bacteria, which have been

  6. Use of Probiotic Microorganisms for Bio-Protective Aims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filiz YANGILAR

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available It was known that some diseases can be treated as the result of the use of antibiotics in certain periods and at certain dosages while inactivating and deteriorating normal microorganisms performing useful activities in human metabolism (in especially intestinal flora. It was occured that after the use of antibiotics, some defects can be seen resulting from antibiotics (such as allergy, diarrhea, gas formation etc. With this aim, nutraceutics and functional food have gained importance over the last years and consumers began to be interested in probiotics, natural antioxidants, dietary fibres, products with low calorie and cholesterol contents, especially the products containing probioticbacteria. Bacteriocins produced by probiotic bacteria can play important roles as food protective and safeguarding since they can compete with unwanted or pathogen microorganisms survive in the media and colonize in intestines. In this review, is aimed to emphasis bioprotective compounds, advantages and disadvantages of biopreservation method and the importance of the mechanisms of probiotic microorganisms.

  7. Utilização de probiótico em rações com diferentes níveis de proteína sobre o comprimento e a morfometria do intestino delgado de codornas de corte = Use of probiotic on diets with different protein levels on the length and morphometry of the small intestine of meat quails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Kazue Otutumi

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho objetivou avaliar o efeito do probiótico associado a diferentes níveis de proteína bruta (PB sobre o comprimento e a morfometria da mucosa do intestino delgado de codornas de corte. Foram utilizadas 2.304 codornas de corte, distribuídas em umdelineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial 2 x 4 (com e sem probiótico; quatro níveis de PB – 15, 20, 25 e 30%, com duas repetições por tratamento, em dois períodos experimentais. Aos sete, 14, 21 e 35 dias de idade, foram abatidas duas aves de cada repetição para avaliação do comprimento do intestino delgado (CID e a morfometria da mucosa do duodeno e íleo. O probiótico não influenciou o CID e a morfometria da mucosa do intestino delgado. O comprimento do intestino aumentou de maneira linear com a elevação dos níveis de PB aos sete, 14 e 21 dias, e a morfometria da mucosa aumentou de forma linear somente para altura vilo do íleo. Pode-se concluir que, nas condições ambientais em que as codornas foram criadas, apenas o nível de proteína influenciou o comprimento do intestino delgado e a altura de vilo do íleo, não sendoobservado efeito do probiótico sobre estes parâmetros.The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of probiotic associated to different levels of crude protein (CP on thelength and mucous morphometry of the small intestine of meat quails. The study used 2,304 meat quails, distributed in a completely randomized experimental design in a 2 x 4 factorial scheme (with and without probiotic; four levels of CP – 15, 20, 25 and 30%, withtwo replications per treatment, in two experimental periods. At seven, 14, 21 and 35 days of age, two quails of each replication were slaughtered in order to evaluate the length of the small intestine (LSI, as well as duodenum and ileum mucous morphometry. LSI and smallintestine mucous morphometry were not influenced by probiotic. Intestine length increased in a linear fashion with the increase

  8. Effects of prebiotics and probiotics on the performance and bacterial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of Neoxyval (antimicrobial growth promoter (AGP)), TechnoMos (prebiotic), GalliPro (probiotic) and a mixture of TechnoMos and GalliPro (symbiotic) on growth performance, carcass yield, histomorphology and intestinal bacterial counts in broilers (0 d to 42 d). Two hundred ...

  9. The Mexican consensus on probiotics in gastroenterology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdovinos, M A; Montijo, E; Abreu, A T; Heller, S; González-Garay, A; Bacarreza, D; Bielsa-Fernández, M; Bojórquez-Ramos, M C; Bosques-Padilla, F; Burguete-García, A I; Carmona-Sánchez, R; Consuelo-Sánchez, A; Coss-Adame, E; Chávez-Barrera, J A; de Ariño, M; Flores-Calderón, J; Gómez-Escudero, O; González-Huezo, M S; Icaza-Chávez, M E; Larrosa-Haro, A; Morales-Arámbula, M; Murata, C; Ramírez-Mayans, J A; Remes-Troche, J M; Rizo-Robles, T; Peláez-Luna, M; Toro-Monjaraz, E M; Torre, A; Urquidi-Rivera, M E; Vázquez, R; Yamamoto-Furusho, J K; Guarner, F

    Probiotics are frequently prescribed in clinical practice. Their efficacy in treating gastrointestinal disorders is supported by a significant number of clinical trials. However, the correct prescription of these agents is hampered due to a lack of knowledge of the scientific evidence and to the different presentations and microbial compositions of the probiotics that are currently available. To provide the clinician with a consensus review of probiotics and recommendations for their use in gastroenterology. Controlled clinical trials, meta-analyses, and systematic reviews published up to 2015 were selected, using the MESH terms: probiotics, gastrointestinal diseases, humans, adults, AND children. The Delphi method was employed. Eighteen gastroenterologists treating adult patients and 14 pediatric gastroenterologists formulated statements that were voted on until agreement>70% was reached. The level of evidence based on the GRADE system was evaluated for each statement. Eleven statements on the general concepts of probiotics and 27 statements on the use of probiotics in gastrointestinal diseases in both adults and children were formulated. The consensus group recommends the use of probiotics under the following clinical conditions: the prevention of diarrhea associated with antibiotics, the treatment of acute infectious diarrhea, the prevention of Clostridium difficile infection and necrotizing enterocolitis, the reduction of adverse events from Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy, relief from irritable bowel syndrome symptoms, the treatment of functional constipation in the adult, and the induction and maintenance of remission in patients with ulcerative colitis and pouchitis, and the treatment of covert and overt hepatic encephalopathy. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Mexicana de Gastroenterología. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  10. Research findings from the use of probiotics in tilapia aquaculture: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hai, Ngo Van

    2015-08-01

    This study aims to present research findings from the use of probiotics in tilapia aquaculture. In omnivorous species of tilapia aquaculture, intestines and gonads, rearing water and sediments or even commercial products, can be sources for acquiring appropriate probiotics. Administration of probiotics varies from direct oral/water routine to feed additives, of which the latter is most commonly used. Probiotic applications can be either mono or multiple strains. Dosage and duration of time are significant factors in providing desired results. As probiotics have been proven to be either immune enhancers and/or growth promoters in aquatic animals, several modes of actions of probiotics in enhancement of immune responses, and an improvement of growth and survival rates of tilapia are presented, while the effects of others are not yet understood to the same degree as for other fish species. Some points extracted from the research findings are emphasised for further investigation and development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Targeted delivery of antigen to intestinal dendritic cells induces oral tolerance and prevents autoimmune diabetes in NOD mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yulin; Wu, Jie; Wang, Jiajia; Zhang, Wenjing; Xu, Bohui; Xu, Xiaojun; Zong, Li

    2018-03-15

    The intestinal immune system is an ideal target to induce immune tolerance physiologically. However, the efficiency of oral protein antigen delivery is limited by degradation of the antigen in the gastrointestinal tract and poor uptake by antigen-presenting cells. Gut dendritic cells (DCs) are professional antigen-presenting cells that are prone to inducing antigen-specific immune tolerance. In this study, we delivered the antigen heat shock protein 65-6×P277 (H6P) directly to the gut DCs of NOD mice through oral vaccination with H6P-loaded targeting nanoparticles (NPs), and investigated the ability of this antigen to induce immune tolerance to prevent autoimmune diabetes in NOD mice. A targeting NP delivery system was developed to encapsulate H6P, and the ability of this system to protect and facilitate H6P delivery to gut DCs was assessed. NOD mice were immunised with H6P-loaded targeting NPs orally once a week for 7 weeks and the onset of diabetes was assessed by monitoring blood glucose levels. H6P-loaded targeting NPs protected the encapsulated H6P from degradation in the gastrointestinal tract environment and significantly increased the uptake of H6P by DCs in the gut Peyer's patches (4.1 times higher uptake compared with the control H6P solution group). Oral vaccination with H6P-loaded targeting NPs induced antigen-specific T cell tolerance and prevented diabetes in 100% of NOD mice. Immune deviation (T helper [Th]1 to Th2) and CD4 + CD25 + FOXP3 + regulatory T cells were found to participate in the induction of immune tolerance. In this study, we successfully induced antigen-specific T cell tolerance and prevented the onset of diabetes in NOD mice. To our knowledge, this is the first attempt at delivering antigen to gut DCs using targeting NPs to induce T cell tolerance.

  12. Probiotics and Atopic Dermatitis: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irfan A. Rather

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Atopic dermatitis (AD is a common, recurrent, chronic inflammatory skin disease that is a cause of considerable economic and social burden. Its prevalence varies substantially among different countries with an incidence rate proclaimed to reach up to 20% of children in developed countries and continues to escalate in developing nations. This increased rate of incidence has changed the focus of research on AD toward epidemiology, prevention, and treatment. The effects of probiotics in the prevention and treatment of AD remain elusive. However, evidence from different research groups show that probiotics could have positive effect on AD treatment, if any, that depend on multiple factors, such as specific probiotic strains, time of administration (onset time, duration of exposure, and dosage. However, till date we still lack strong evidence to advocate the use of probiotics in the treatment of AD, and questions remain to be answered considering its clinical use in future. Based on updated information, the processes that facilitate the development of AD and the topic of the administration of probiotics are addressed in this review.

  13. Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders in Infants: Long-Tern Consequences and Modern Approaches for Prevention and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeniya G. Makarova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses modern ideas about the genesis of the most common variants of functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID in infants, and their ability to lead to long-term negative consequences for the health of the child. The article provides data on role of intestinal microbiota in development of FGID in infants and current approaches to prevention and correction using probiotics with proven effectiveness. 

  14. A Decade of Experience in Primary Prevention of Clostridium difficile Infection at a Community Hospital Using the Probiotic Combination Lactobacillus acidophilus CL1285, Lactobacillus casei LBC80R, and Lactobacillus rhamnosus CLR2 (Bio-K+).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maziade, Pierre-Jean; Pereira, Pascale; Goldstein, Ellie J C

    2015-05-15

    In August 2003, the 284-bed community hospital Pierre-Le Gardeur (PLGH) in Quebec experienced a major outbreak associated with the Clostridium difficile NAP1/027/BI strain. Augmented standard preventive measures (SPMs) were not able to control this outbreak. It was decided in February 2004 to give to every adult inpatient on antibiotics, without any exclusion, a probiotic (Bio-K+: Lactobacillus acidophilus CL1285, Lactobacillus casei LBC80R, and Lactobacillus rhamnosus CLR2) within 12 hours of the antibiotic prescription. Augmented SPMs were continued. The use of the probiotic in addition to SPMs was associated with a marked reduction of C. difficile infection (CDI). During the 10 years of observation, 44 835 inpatients received Bio-K+, and the CDI rate at PLGH declined from 18.0 cases per 10,000 patient-days and remained at low mean levels of 2.3 cases per 10,000 patient-days. Additionally, 10-year data collected by the Ministry of Health in Quebec comparing the CDI rate between Quebec hospitals showed that CDI rates at PLGH were consistently and continuously lower compared with those at similar hospitals. Blood cultures were monitored at PLGH for Lactobacillus bacteremia through the 10 years' experience, and no Lactobacillus bacteremias were detected. Despite the limitation of an observational study, we concluded that the probiotic Bio-K+ was safe and effective in decreasing our primary CDI rate. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Sauerkraut: A Probiotic Superfood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Orgeron II

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sauerkraut could potentially be a probiotic superfood. Sauerkraut does not require the use of a starter culture to cultivate these beneficial bacteria. All that is needed is a measure of salt and the cabbage. Naturally made, unprocessed sauerkraut contains probiotic microorganisms called Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB. LAB is one of the most significant organisms and has established benefits. For example, Lactic Acid Bacteria has established benefits with the treatment of diarrhea, constipation, irritable bowel syndrome, infections (urogenital, urinary and candida. LAB have also been shown to enhance immune system function to help prevent various illnesses and promote lactose digestion. Nevertheless, there is very little conclusive evidence on how much LAB is in sauerkraut and if there is enough present to confer benefits. Purpose: Determine if various serving sizes of homemade sauerkraut (2 Tbsp., ½ cup, & 1 cup meets the recommended CFU range in comparison to a control (supplement probiotic. Methods: Sauerkraut was prepared with no starter culture. Modified Lactobacillus Media was used to culture LAB. The capsule serving (0.8g was diluted with 99.2g PBS (1/100 and 10g of sauerkraut was diluted with 90g PBS (1/10. For serial dilutions, 1mL of each of the samples was diluted into 9 mL MRS broth for the dilutions (10 -1 -10 -10 . Then 1mL from each test tube is transferred into corresponding petri dishes. Melted Lactobacillus MRS agar is then mixed into each of the petri dishes. All petri dishes are then placed into a candle light jar and placed in an incubator at 37 degrees Celsius (98.6 o F for 5 days. After five days, the petri dishes with 25-250 visible cultures were counted. The number counted was multiplied by the dilution which gave the total number CFUs/g. The LAB concentration of the sauerkraut was calculated by multiplying the CFU/g times the serving size. Results: The results were calculated as the mean of CFUs recorded from

  16. Bioactive foods in promoting health: probiotics and prebiotics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Watson, Ronald R; Preedy, Victor R

    2010-01-01

    "Bioactive Foods in Health Promotion: Probiotics and Prebiotics brings together experts working on the different aspects of supplementation, foods, and bacterial preparations, in health promotion and disease prevention, to provide...

  17. Probiotics and antibiotics in IBD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokol, Harry

    2014-01-01

    The involvement of the gut microbiota in the pathogenesis of IBD is supported by many findings and is thus now commonly acknowledged. The imbalance in the composition of the microbiota (dysbiosis) observed in IBD patients is one of the strongest arguments and provides the rationale for a therapeutic manipulation of the gut microbiota. The tools available to achieve this goal include fecal microbiota transplantation, but antibiotics and probiotics have been the most used one until now. Although antibiotics have shown some efficacy in inducing remission in Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), as well as preventing postoperative relapse in CD, they are not currently recommended for the treatment of IBD except for septic complications, notably because of long-term tolerance and ecological issues. Some probiotics have been shown to be as good as 5-aminosalicylic acid to maintain remission in mild-to-moderate UC, but have been disappointing until now in CD in all tested indications. In pouchitis, antibiotics and probiotics have shown efficacy for inducing and maintaining remission, respectively. Targeting the gut microbiota in IBD is an attractive strategy. Current efforts to better understand the host-microbiota interactions in physiological as well as disease settings might lead to the development of rational-based treatments. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Position paper on probiotics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijsseling, I.A.; Pekelharing, P.R.; Rombouts, F.M.

    2005-01-01

    Probiotics are live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host. Probiotics, used to supplement normal daily nutrition, are therefore an important element in consumer health and should be made available as widely as possible. The regulatory status

  19. Guidance for Substantiating the Evidence for Beneficial Effects of Probiotics: Current Status and Recommendations for Future Research1–3,

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijkers, G.T.; Bengmark, S.; Enck, P.; Haller, D.; Herz, U.; Kalliomäki, M.; Kudo, S.; Lenoi-Winkoop, I.; Mercenier, A.M.E.; Myllyluoma, E.; Rabot, S.; Rafter, J.; Szajewska, H.; Watzl, B.; Wells, J.; Wolvers, D.; Antoine, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Probiotic bacteria are live microorganisms that, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host. There is a growing interest in probiotics within the scientific community, with consumers, and in the food industry. The interactions between the gut and intestinal microbiota

  20. Gene expression profiling identifies mechanisms of protection to recurrent trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid colitis mediated by probiotics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mariman, R.; Kremer, S.H.A.; Erk, M. van; Lagerweij, T.; Koning, F.; Nagelkerken, L.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Host-microbiota interactions in the intestinal mucosa play a major role in intestinal immune homeostasis and control the threshold of local inflammation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of probiotics in the recurrent trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis

  1. Is the role of probiotics friendly in the treatment of periodontal diseases !!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepa D

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics utilize naturally occurring bacteria to confer a health benefit when administered in adequate amounts. A few conventional foods containing probiotics are yogurt, fermented and unfermented milk, soy beverages etc. Most often, they come from two groups of bacteria, Lactobacillus or Bifidobacterium. Probiotics have been extensively studied for their health promoting effects. Scientific understanding of probiotics and their potential for preventing and treating periodontal conditions is at its infancy, but moving ahead. Extensive research to create a probiotic product intended to maintain dental and periodontal health is needed.

  2. Administration of two probiotic strains during early childhood does not affect the endogenous gut microbiota composition despite probiotic proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laursen, Martin Frederik; Laursen, Rikke Pilmann; Larnkjær, Anni; Michaelsen, Kim F; Bahl, Martin Iain; Licht, Tine Rask

    2017-08-17

    Probiotics are increasingly applied to prevent and treat a range of infectious, immune related and gastrointestinal diseases. Despite this, the mechanisms behind the putative effects of probiotics are poorly understood. One of the suggested modes of probiotic action is modulation of the endogenous gut microbiota, however probiotic intervention studies in adults have failed to show significant effects on gut microbiota composition. The gut microbiota of young children is known to be unstable and more responsive to external factors than that of adults. Therefore, potential effects of probiotic intervention on gut microbiota may be easier detectable in early life. We thus investigated the effects of a 6 month placebo-controlled probiotic intervention with Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis (BB-12®) and Lactobacillus rhamnosus (LGG®) on gut microbiota composition and diversity in more than 200 Danish infants (N = 290 enrolled; N = 201 all samples analyzed), as assessed by 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing. Further, we evaluated probiotic presence and proliferation by use of specific quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Probiotic administration did not significantly alter gut microbiota community structure or diversity as compared to placebo. The probiotic strains were detected in 91.3% of the fecal samples from children receiving probiotics and in 1% of the placebo treated children. Baseline gut microbiota was not found to predict the ability of probiotics to establish in the gut after the 6 month intervention. Within the probiotics group, proliferation of the strains LGG® and BB-12® in the gut was detected in 44.7% and 83.5% of the participants, respectively. A sub-analysis of the gut microbiota including only individuals with detected growth of the probiotics LGG® or BB-12® and comparing these to placebo revealed no differences in community structure or diversity. Six months of probiotic administration during early life did not change gut

  3. Dietary intervention with green dwarf banana flour (Musa sp AAA) prevents intestinal inflammation in a trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid model of rat colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarminio, Viviane; Fruet, Andrea C; Witaicenis, Aline; Rall, Vera L M; Di Stasi, Luiz C

    2012-03-01

    Dietary products are among the therapeutic approaches used to modify intestinal microflora and to promote protective effects during the intestinal inflammatory process. Because the banana plant is rich in resistant starch, which is used by colonic microbiota for the anaerobic production of the short-chain fatty acids that serve as a major fuel source for colonocytes: first, green dwarf banana flour produces protective effects on the intestinal inflammation acting as a prebiotic and, second, combination of this dietary supplementation with prednisolone presents synergistic effects. For this, we used the trinitrobenzenesulphonic acid (TNBS) model of rat colitis. Our results revealed that the protective effect produced by a combination of 10% green dwarf banana flour with prednisolone was more pronounced than those promoted by a single administration of prednisolone or a diet containing 10% or 20% banana flour. This beneficial effect was associated with an improvement in the colonic oxidative status because the banana flour diet prevented the glutathione depletion and inhibited myeloperoxidase activity and lipid peroxidation. In addition, the intestinal anti-inflammatory activity was associated with an inhibition of alkaline phosphatase activity, a reduction in macroscopic and microscopic scores, and an extension of the lesions. In conclusion, the dietary use of the green dwarf banana flour constitutes an important dietary supplement and complementary medicine product to prevention and treatment of human inflammatory bowel disease. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Orally administered Taenia solium Calreticulin prevents experimental intestinal inflammation and is associated with a type 2 immune response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fela Mendlovic

    Full Text Available Intestinal helminth antigens are inducers of type 2 responses and can elicit regulatory immune responses, resulting in dampened inflammation. Several platyhelminth proteins with anti-inflammatory activity have been reported. We have identified, cloned and expressed the Taenia solium calreticulin (rTsCRT and shown that it predominantly induces a type 2 response characterized by IgG1, IL-4 and IL-5 production in mice. Here, we report the rTsCRT anti-inflammatory activity in a well-known experimental colitis murine model. Mice were orally immunized with purified rTsCRT and colitis was induced with trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS. Clinical signs of disease, macroscopic and microscopic tissue inflammation, cytokine production and micronuclei formation, as a marker of genotoxicity, were measured in order to assess the effect of rTsCRT immunization on experimentally induced colitis. rTsCRT administration prior to TNBS instillation significantly reduced the inflammatory parameters, including the acute phase cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6. Dampened inflammation was associated with increased local expression of IL-13 and systemic IL-10 and TGF-β production. Genotoxic damage produced by the inflammatory response was also precluded. Our results show that oral treatment with rTsCRT prevents excessive TNBS-induced inflammation in mice and suggest that rTsCRT has immunomodulatory properties associated with the expression of type 2 and regulatory cytokines commonly observed in other helminths.

  5. Sporforming probiotics and their usage in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marushko RV

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The data of literature about spore-forming probiotics, as well as their usage in the pathology of the gastrointestinal tract in children were sumerised. Analysis of the data allows us to recommend the preparation «Biosporin-Biopharma» for preventive measures and treatment of gastrointestinal tract diseases at all levels of children health care, including infants.

  6. Sucralfate prevents the delay of wound repair in intestinal epithelial cells by hydrogen peroxide through NF-kappaB pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shindo, Kenichi; Iizuka, Masahiro; Sasaki, Kenji; Konno, Shiho; Itou, Hiroaki; Horie, Yasuo; Watanabe, Sumio

    2006-05-01

    Recent studies have shown that sucralfate (SF) has therapeutic effects on colonic inflammation in ulcerative colitis. The aim of this study was to clarify the function of SF for wound repair in intestinal epithelial cells (IEC). (1) Activation of signal proteins [ERK1/2 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), IkappaB-alpha] in IEC-6 cells after stimulation with 10(-4) M potassium sucrose octasulfate (SOS), which is the functional element of SF, was assessed by Western blot. (2) Induction of transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1, TGF-alpha, EGF, and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) mRNA after stimulation of IEC-6 cells with SOS was assessed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. (3) IEC-6 cells were wounded and cultured for 24 h with various concentrations of SOS in the absence or presence of 20 microM H(2)O(2). Epithelial migration or proliferation was assessed by counting migrating cells or bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU)-positive cells across the wound border. (1) SOS activated IkappaB-alpha, but it did not activate ERK1/2 MAPK. (2) SOS enhanced the expression of COX-2 mRNA, but it did not change the mRNA expression of other growth factors. (3) SOS did not enhance wound repair in IEC-6 cells, but it decreased the number of dead cells (maximum, 74%) (P < 0.01) in a dose-dependent manner and prevented the diminishment of epithelial migration (maximum, 61%) (P < 0.01) and proliferation (maximum, 37%) (P < 0.05) induced by H(2)O(2). These functions of SOS were suppressed by the NF-kappaB and COX-2 inhibitors. SOS prevented the delay of wound repair in IEC-6 cells induced by H(2)O(2), probably through induction of COX-2 and an anti-apoptotic mechanism. These effects of SOS might be given through the activation of the NF-kappaB pathway.

  7. Biofilm Forming Lactobacillus: New Challenges for the Development of Probiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José Salas-Jara

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics are live bacteria, generally administered in food, conferring beneficial effects to the host because they help to prevent or treat diseases, the majority of which are gastrointestinal. Numerous investigations have verified the beneficial effect of probiotic strains in biofilm form, including increased resistance to temperature, gastric pH and mechanical forces to that of their planktonic counterparts. In addition, the development of new encapsulation technologies, which have exploited the properties of biofilms in the creation of double coated capsules, has given origin to fourth generation probiotics. Up to now, reviews have focused on the detrimental effects of biofilms associated with pathogenic bacteria. Therefore, this work aims to amalgamate information describing the biofilms of Lactobacillus strains which are used as probiotics, particularly L. rhamnosus, L. plantarum, L. reuteri, and L. fermentum. Additionally, we have reviewed the development of probiotics using technology inspired by biofilms.

  8. Importance of prebiotic and probiotic: the role of galactooligosacharides as prebiotic additives: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Rosenberg

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 In today's well-resistant pathogens and excessive use of antibiotics which weake and undermine the immune system the importance of pre- and probiotics is more desired. Probiotics - lactic acid bacteria - our intestinal symbiotes, has significant affect on our intestinal tract and brings us to number of positive physiological effects – inhibit the development of pathogenic microflora and serious stimulate the immune system, which subsequently leads to secondary health benefits - efficient use of energy from food, better resorption of minerals and vitamins by intestinal epithelium, suppression of diseases and inflammatory processes in the human intestine and many others. This article discusses the impact of prebiotics (essential substrate for probiotic bacteria, but also natural occurrence and important of prebiotics. Galactooligosaccharides (GOS as prebiotic are the most suitable and therefore their commercial application is discussed.doi:10.5219/251

  9. Prebiotics and Probiotics and Oral Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meurman, J. H.

    The first part of this chapter describes the unique characteristics of the mouth with special emphasis on the oral microbiota. Next, the highly prevalent dental diseases are briefly described together with more rare but still important diseases and symptoms of the mouth. Prevention and treatment of oral and dental diseases are also discussed focusing on aspects considered important with respect to the potential application of prebiotics and probiotics. The second part of the chapter then concentrates on research data on prebiotics and probiotics in the oral health perspective, ending up with conclusions and visions for future research.

  10. Probiotics for respiratory tract infections in children attending day care centers − a systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Rikke Pilmann; Hojsak, Iva

    2018-01-01

    Probiotics have been suggested to have a preventive effect on respiratory tract infections (RTIs), but limited evidence exist on strain-specific effects. The main aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate strain-specific probiotic effects on RTIs in children attending day care...... RCTs investigating specific probiotic strains or their combinations in prevention of RTIs are needed. (Table presented)...

  11. Abrupt suspension of probiotics administration may increase host pathogen susceptibility by inducing gut dysbiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhi; Liu, Wenshu; Ran, Chao; Hu, Jun; Zhou, Zhigang

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the risk associated with suspension of probiotics administration in tilapia, an animal model that may mimic immune-compromised conditions in humans. Tilapias were fed for 14 days using a probiotics-supplemented diet, followed by a three-day suspension of probiotics treatment and a subsequent challenge by Aeromonas hydrophila. Unexpectedly, the suspension of a probiotic strain Lactobacillus plantarum JCM1149 significantly triggered susceptibility of the host to A. hydrophila. We further observed that suspension of JCM1149 resulted in host gut microbiota dysbiosis and the subsequent disorder in the intestinal metabolites (bile acids, amino acids, and glucose) and damage in the intestinal epithelium, giving rise to a condition similar to antibiotics-induced gut dysbiosis, which collectively impaired tilapia’s gut health and resistance to pathogenic challenges. Additionally, we determined that JCM1149 adhered relatively poorly to tilapia intestinal mucosa and was rapidly released from the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) after suspension, with the rapid loss of probiotic strain probably being the direct cause of gut dysbiosis. Finally, three other probiotic Lactobacillus strains with low intestinal mucosa binding activity showed similar rapid loss phenotype following administration suspension, and induced higher host susceptibility to infection, indicating that the risk is a generic phenomenon in Lactobacillus. PMID:26983596

  12. Alkaline Phosphatase for the Prevention of Intestinal and Renal Injury in a Rat Model of Cardiopulmonary Bypass with Deep Hypothermic Circulatory Arrest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    prevention of intestinal and kidney injury after pediatric cardiopulmonary bypass with deep hypothermic circulatory arrest. In this model, we place 5-10kg...first abstract submissions to either Pediatric Academic Society or American Thoracic Society meetings by November. Secondary analysis of serum...rats. Transition to the piglet model also had multiple benefits beyond greater consistency of surgical approach. We now have a true pediatric model and

  13. Triterpenoid herbal saponins enhance beneficial bacteria, decrease sulfate-reducing bacteria, modulate inflammatory intestinal microenvironment and exert cancer preventive effects in ApcMin/+ mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lei; Brar, Manreetpal S.; Leung, Frederick C. C.; Hsiao, W. L. Wendy

    2016-01-01

    Saponins derived from medicinal plants have raised considerable interest for their preventive roles in various diseases. Here, we investigated the impacts of triterpenoid saponins isolated from Gynostemma pentaphyllum (GpS) on gut microbiome, mucosal environment, and the preventive effect on tumor growth. Six-week old ApcMin/+ mice and their wild-type littermates were fed either with vehicle or GpS daily for the duration of 8 weeks. The fecal microbiome was analyzed by enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC)-PCR and 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. Study showed that GpS treatment significantly reduced the number of intestinal polyps in a preventive mode. More importantly, GpS feeding strikingly reduced the sulfate-reducing bacteria lineage, which are known to produce hydrogen sulfide and contribute to damage the intestinal epithelium or even promote cancer progression. Meanwhile, GpS also boosted the beneficial microbes. In the gut barrier of the ApcMin/+ mice, GpS treatment increased Paneth and goblet cells, up-regulated E-cadherin and down-regulated N-cadherin. In addition, GpS decreased the pro-oncogenic β-catenin, p-Src and the p-STAT3. Furthermore, GpS might also improve the inflamed gut epithelium of the ApcMin/+ mice by upregulating the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-4, while downregulating pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-β, IL-1β and IL-18. Intriguingly, GpS markedly stimulated M2 and suppressed M1 macrophage markers, indicating that GpS altered mucosal cytokine profile in favor of the M1 to M2 macrophages switching, facilitating intestinal tissue repair. In conclusion, GpS might reverse the host's inflammatory phenotype by increasing beneficial bacteria, decreasing sulfate-reducing bacteria, and alleviating intestinal inflammatory gut environment, which might contribute to its cancer preventive effects. PMID:27121311

  14. Probiotics in dermatologic practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs-Tarlovsky, Vanessa; Marquez-Barba, María Fernanda; Sriram, Krishnan

    2016-03-01

    Probiotics are live microorganisms that beneficially affect the host when administered in adequate amounts. They have an excellent safety profile. Probiotics have been used as immunomodulators in inflammatory skin conditions, such as atopic dermatitis. The aim of this study was to summarize the available evidence concerning the use of different strains of probiotics in dermatology practice. We conducted a literature review of English and Spanish publications listed in standard databases (PubMed, Ovid, Google Scholar, Medline, and EBSCO), between 1994 and 2015 using the words "probiotics" and "dermatology." We found ∼70 studies containing these criteria and selected 42 in which probiotics were used for dermatologic purposes. We found enough evidence to recommend the use of probiotics in specific conditions in dermatology practice, especially in children with atopic dermatitis. Further well-designed, large population based trials are needed to validate the use of probiotics in dermatology practice, including innovative therapies to rebuild skin barrier defects, protection against microbial colonization, and restoration of immunologic balance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Probiotics, Prebiotics, and Synbiotics: Gut and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usha Vyas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The human intestinal tract has been colonized by thousands of species of bacteria during the coevolution of man and microbes. Gut-borne microbes outnumber the total number of body tissue cells by a factor of ten. Recent metagenomic analysis of the human gut microbiota has revealed the presence of some 3.3 million genes, as compared to the mere 23 thousand genes present in the cells of the tissues in the entire human body. Evidence for various beneficial roles of the intestinal microbiota in human health and disease is expanding rapidly. Perturbation of the intestinal microbiota may lead to chronic diseases such as autoimmune diseases, colon cancers, gastric ulcers, cardiovascular disease, functional bowel diseases, and obesity. Restoration of the gut microbiota may be difficult to accomplish, but the use of probiotics has led to promising results in a large number of well-designed (clinical studies. Microbiomics has spurred a dramatic increase in scientific, industrial, and public interest in probiotics and prebiotics as possible agents for gut microbiota management and control. Genomics and bioinformatics tools may allow us to establish mechanistic relationships among gut microbiota, health status, and the effects of drugs in the individual. This will hopefully provide perspectives for personalized gut microbiota management.

  16. Oral administration of a select mixture of Bacillus probiotics generates Tr1 cells in weaned F4ab/acR pigs challenged with an F4+ ETEC/VTEC/EPEC strain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Dong; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Meng-Ling

    2015-01-01

    Although breeding of F4 receptor − negative (F4R−) pigs may prevent post-weaning diarrhea, the underlying immunity is poorly understood. Here, various doses of a Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus subtilis mixture (BLS-mix) were orally administered to F4ab/acR− pigs for 1 week before F4 (K88) − ...... of BLS-mix during episodes of intestinal inflammation that is caused by enteric pathogens might prohibit clearance of the pathogen. Select probiotic mixtures may allow for tailoring strategies to prevent infectious diseases....

  17. Probiotics in Case of Antibiotic-Associated Diarrhea in Children: an Informed Choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.Ju. Belousova

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Administration of probiotic strains for the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD in adults and children at the moment is the standard regimen of both Ukrainian and European treatment protocols. Saccharomyces boulardii are yeast probiotics. Their basic difference from bacterial probiotics (Lactobacіllus, etc. is a resistance to antibiotics. In this regard, Saccharomyces boulardii can be used in conjunction with antibiotics for the prevention of side effects from the digestive tract caused by antibiotic therapy (especially AAD. The choice in this situation of a bacterial probiotic is less successful, because antibiotics can inhibit the activity of introduced bacteria. Importantly, Saccharomyces boulardii are not able to transfer antibiotic resistance to pathogenic bacteria, while bacterial probiotics have such a potential. The results of the clinical studies show high efficacy and safety of Saccharomyces boulardii in the prevention and treatment of antibiotic-associated diarrhea in children. In Ukraine, this probiotic is presented by Enterol®.

  18. Effects of Ex-Vivo and In-Vivo Treatment with Probiotics on the Inflammasome in Dogs with Chronic Enteropathy

    OpenAIRE

    Schmitz, Silke; Werling, Dirk; Allenspach, Karin

    2015-01-01

    Inflammasomes coordinate the maturation of IL-1β and IL-18 in response to danger signals. They are vital for maintenance of intestinal homeostasis and have been linked to chronic intestinal inflammation in humans. Probiotics have been advocated as treatment in intestinal inflammation. So far, no study has investigated the role of the inflammasome in canine chronic enteropathy (CE). In this study the intestinal expression of inflammasome components was assessed in CE dogs compared to controls,...

  19. Congruent Strain Specific Intestinal Persistence of Lactobacillus plantarum in an Intestine-Mimicking In Vitro System and in Human Volunteers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokhorst-van de Veen, H. van; Swam, I. van; Wels, M.W.; Bron, P.A.; Kleerebezem, M

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: An important trait of probiotics is their capability to reach their intestinal target sites alive to optimally exert their beneficial effects. Assessment of this trait in intestine-mimicking in vitro model systems has revealed differential survival of individual strains of a species.

  20. Congruent Strain Specific Intestinal Persistence of Lactobacillus plantarum in an Intestine-Mimicking In Vitro System and in Human Volunteers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokhorst-van de Veen, van H.; Swam, van I.; Wels, M.; Bron, P.A.; Kleerebezem, M.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: An important trait of probiotics is their capability to reach their intestinal target sites alive to optimally exert their beneficial effects. Assessment of this trait in intestine-mimicking in vitro model systems has revealed differential survival of individual strains of a species.