WorldWideScience

Sample records for pro-x spacers circular

  1. Analysis of intergenic spacer transcripts suggests ‘read-around’ transcription of the extrachromosomal circular rDNA in Euglena gracilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, Spencer J.; Schnare, Murray N.; Cook, James R.; Gray, Michael W.

    2001-01-01

    We report here the sequence of the 1743 bp intergenic spacer (IGS) that separates the 3′-end of the large subunit ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene from the 5′-end of the small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene in the circular, extrachromosomal ribosomal DNA (rDNA) of Euglena gracilis. The IGS contains a 277 nt stretch of sequence that is related to a sequence found in ITS 1, an internal transcribed spacer between the SSU and 5.8S rRNA genes. Primer extension analysis of IGS transcripts identified three abundant reverse transcriptase stops that may be analogous to the transcription initiation site (TIS) and two processing sites (A′ and A0) that are found in this region in other eukaryotes. Features that could influence processing at these sites include an imperfect palindrome near site A0 and a sequence near site A′ that could potentially base pair with U3 small nucleolar RNA. Our identification of the TIS (verified by mung bean nuclease analysis) is considered tentative because we also detected low-abundance transcripts upstream of this site throughout the entire IGS. This result suggests the possibility of ‘read-around’ transcription, i.e. transcription that proceeds multiple times around the rDNA circle without termination. PMID:11353089

  2. PaintShop Pro x6 for photographers

    CERN Document Server

    McMahon, Ken

    2014-01-01

    Written for photographers of all levels, PaintShop Pro X6 for Photographers is packed with inspirational, full-color images and easy-to-follow step-by-step projects that will have you producing great images in PaintShop Pro in no time! Everything you need to enhance and improve your digital photography is right here in this Corel® endorsed guide.In this new edition, Ken McMahon looks at the pros and cons of the new, faster 64-bit version of the software and covers new features, including working with the Instant Effects palette, using the Smart selection brush, mapping photos, automatically ta

  3. Solving Research Tasks Using Desk top Scanning Electron Microscope Phenom ProX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vertsanova, O.V.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Phenom ProX — morden effective universal desktop Scanning Electron Microscope with integrated EDS system. Phenom-World helps customers to stay competitive in a world where critical dimensions are continuously getting smaller. All Phenom desktop systems give direct access to the high resolution and high-quality imaging and analysis required in a large variety of applications. They are affordable, flexible and a fast tool enabling engineers, technicians, researchers and educational professionals to investigate micron and submicron structures.

  4. Fouling resistant membrane spacers

    KAUST Repository

    Ghaffour, Noreddine

    2017-10-12

    Disclosed herein are spacers having baffle designs and perforations for efficiently and effectively separating one or more membrane layers a membrane filtration system. The spacer (504) includes a body (524) formed at least in part by baffles (520) that are interconnected, and the baffles define boundaries of openings or apertures (525) through a thickness direction of the body of the spacer. Alternatively or additionally, passages or perforations (526A, 526B) may be present in the spacer layer or baffles for fluid flow there through, with the passages and baffles having a numerous different shapes and sizes.

  5. Spacer use - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100203.htm Spacer use - Series—Spacer use - part one To use the sharing features on this page, please enable ... A.D.A.M., Inc. Duplication for commercial use must be authorized in writing by ADAM Health ...

  6. Structural Stator Spacers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Peter Omand; Andreasen, Jens H.; Pijanowski, J. M.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a powerful new design aspect to reduce acoustic noise and vibration of electro-magnetic origin for electrical machines, by introducing improved slot wedges referred to as "Structural Stator Spacers". These spacers, by using a very stiff dielectric and non magnetic material...

  7. Administrative Circulars

    CERN Document Server

    Département des Ressources humaines

    2004-01-01

    Administrative Circular N° 2 (Rev. 2) - May 2004 Guidelines and procedures concerning recruitment and probation period of staff members This circular has been revised. It cancels and replaces Administrative Circular N° 2 (Rev. 1) - March 2000. Administrative Circular N° 9 (Rev. 3) - May 2004 Staff members contracts This circular has been revised. It cancels and replaces Administrative Circular N° 9 (Rev. 2) - March 2000. Administrative Circular N° 26 (Rev. 4) - May 2004 Procedure governing the career evolution of staff members This circular has also been revised. It Administrative Circulars Administrative Circular N° 26 (Rev. 3) - December 2001 and brings up to date the French version (Rev. 4) published on the HR Department Web site in January 2004. Operational Circular N° 7 - May 2004 Work from home This circular has been drawn up. Operational Circular N° 8 - May 2004 Dealing with alcohol-related problems...

  8. Elastomer Spacers in Fire Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roszkowski Paweł

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, fire resistance of linear joints seal made of elastomer spacers under standard fire conditions, and thermal degradation range of EPDM elastomeric spacers are investigated. The geometry of elastomer spacer joints is important not only for their load capacity under normal conditions - thickness, width, and cavity depth can also influence fire resistance performance. Linear joints of different thicknesses and widths have been tested. The fire insulation and fire integrity were verified for various arrangements. Relatively low thermal degradation rates have been measured, given that EPDM is a combustible material.

  9. Elastomer Spacers in Fire Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roszkowski, Paweł; Sędłak, Bartłomiej; Sulik, Paweł

    2017-09-01

    In the paper, fire resistance of linear joints seal made of elastomer spacers under standard fire conditions, and thermal degradation range of EPDM elastomeric spacers are investigated. The geometry of elastomer spacer joints is important not only for their load capacity under normal conditions - thickness, width, and cavity depth can also influence fire resistance performance. Linear joints of different thicknesses and widths have been tested. The fire insulation and fire integrity were verified for various arrangements. Relatively low thermal degradation rates have been measured, given that EPDM is a combustible material.

  10. Effects of grid spacer with mixing vane on entrainments and depositions in two-phase annular flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akimaro Kawahara

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of mixing vanes (MVs attached to a grid spacer on the characteristics of air–water annular flows were experimentally investigated. To know the effects, a grid spacer with or without MV was inserted in a vertical circular pipe of 16-mm internal diameter. For three cases (i.e., no spacer, spacer without MV, and spacer with MV, the liquid film thickness, liquid entrainment fraction, and deposition rate were measured by the constant current method, single liquid film extraction method, and double liquid film extraction method, respectively. The MVs significantly promote the re-deposition of liquid droplets in the gas core flow into the liquid film on the channel walls. The deposition mass transfer coefficient is three times higher for the spacer with MV than for the spacer without MV, even for cases 0.3-m downstream from the spacer. The liquid film thickness becomes thicker upstream and downstream for the spacer with MV, compared with the thickness for the spacer without MV and for the case with no spacer.

  11. Circular Updates

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Circular Updates are periodic sequentially numbered instructions to debriefing staff and observers informing them of changes or additions to scientific and specimen...

  12. Operational Circulars

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Operational Circular N° 4 - April 2003 Conditions for use by members of the CERN personnel of vehicles belonging to or rented by CERN - This circular has been drawn up. Operational Circular N° 5 - October 2000 Use of CERN computing facilities - Further details on the personal use of CERN computing facilities Operational Circular N° 5 and its Subsidiary Rules http://cern.ch/ComputingRules defines the rules for the use of CERN computing facilities. One of the basic principles governing such use is that it must come within the professional duties of the user concerned, as defined by the user's divisional hierarchy. However, personal use of the computing facilities is tolerated or allowed provided : a) It is in compliance with Operational Circular N° 5 and not detrimental to official duties, including those of other users; b) the frequency and duration is limited and there is a negligible use of CERN resources; c) it does not constitute a political, commercial and/or profit-making activity; d) it is not...

  13. Characterization of feed channel spacer performance using geometries obtained by X-ray computed tomography

    KAUST Repository

    Haaksman, Viktor A.

    2016-09-09

    Spiral-wound membrane modules used in water treatment for water reuse and desalination make use of spacer meshes for keeping the membrane leaves apart and for enhancing the mass transfer. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has gained importance in the design of new spacers with optimized hydrodynamic characteristics, but this requires a precise description of the spacer geometry. This study developed a method to obtain accurate three-dimensional (3-D) geometry representations for any given spacer design from X-ray computed tomography (CT) scans. The method revealed that the filaments of industrial spacers have a highly variable cross-section size and shape, which impact the flow characteristics in the feed channel. The pressure drop and friction factors were calculated from numerical simulations on five commercially available feed spacers used in practice. Model solutions compared well to experimental data measured using a flow cell for average velocities up to 0.2 m/s, as used in industrial reverse osmosis and nanofiltration membrane operations. A newly-proposed spacer geometry with alternating strand thickness was tested, which was found to yield a lower pressure drop while being highly efficient in converting the pumping power into membrane shear. Numerical model solutions using CFD with geometries from CT scans were closer to measurements than those obtained using the traditional circular cross-section strand simplification, indicating that CT scans are very well suitable to approximate real feed spacer geometries. By providing detailed insight on the spacer filament shape, CT scans allow better quantification of local distribution of velocity and shear, possibly leading to more accurate estimations of fouling and concentration polarization. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.

  14. ADMINISTRATIVE CIRCULARS

    CERN Multimedia

    Division des ressources humaines

    2000-01-01

    N° 2 (Rev. 1) - March 2000Guidelines and procedures concerning recruitment and probation period of staff membersN° 9 (Rev. 2) - March 2000Staff members contractsN° 16 (Rev. 2) - January 2000TrainingN° 30 (Rev. 1) - January 2000Indemnities and reimbursements upon taking up appointment and termination of contractN° 32 - February 2000Principles and procedures governing complaints of harassmentThese circular have been amended (No 2, N° 9, N° 16 and N° 30) or drawn up (N° 32).Copies are available in the Divisional Secretariats.Note:\tAdministrative and operational circulars, as well as the lists of those in force, are available for consultation in the server SRV4_Home in the Appletalk zone NOVELL (as GUEST or using your Novell username and password), volume PE Division Data Disk.The Word files are available in the folder COM, folder Public, folder ADM.CIRC.docHuman Resources DivisionTel. 74128

  15. Development of a High Performance Spacer Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Kee Nam; Song, K. N.; Yoon, K. H. (and others)

    2007-03-15

    A spacer grid in a LWR fuel assembly is a key structural component to support fuel rods and to enhance the heat transfer from the fuel rod to the coolant. In this research, the main research items are the development of inherent and high performance spacer grid shapes, the establishment of mechanical/structural analysis and test technology, and the set-up of basic test facilities for the spacer grid. The main research areas and results are as follows. 1. 18 different spacer grid candidates have been invented and applied for domestic and US patents. Among the candidates 16 are chosen from the patent. 2. Two kinds of spacer grids are finally selected for the advanced LWR fuel after detailed performance tests on the candidates and commercial spacer grids from a mechanical/structural point of view. According to the test results the features of the selected spacer grids are better than those of the commercial spacer grids. 3. Four kinds of basic test facilities are set up and the relevant test technologies are established. 4. Mechanical/structural analysis models and technology for spacer grid performance are developed and the analysis results are compared with the test results to enhance the reliability of the models.

  16. LISA telescope spacer design investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanjuan, Josep; Mueller, Guido; Livas, Jeffrey; Preston, Alix; Arsenovic, Petar; Castellucci, Kevin; Generie, Joseph; Howard, Joseph; Stebbins, Robin

    ) and materials such as Silicon Carbide (SiC) and Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic (CFRP) are considered to be used in the telescope spacer structure. We will describe our experimental efforts to understand and quantify the behavior of different materials and also discuss a first investigation of a specific on-axis SiC telescope spacer for LISA. This work is supported by NASA contract 00069955.

  17. Comparative study of the contribution of various PWR spacer grid components to hydrodynamic and wall pressure characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharjee, Saptarshi, E-mail: saptarshi.bhattacharjee@outlook.com [Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) – Cadarache, DEN/DTN/STCP/LHC, 13108 Saint Paul lez Durance Cedex (France); Laboratoire de Mécanique, Modélisation et Procédés Propres (M2P2), UMR7340 CNRS, Aix-Marseille Université, Centrale Marseille, 13451 Marseille Cedex (France); Ricciardi, Guillaume [Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) – Cadarache, DEN/DTN/STCP/LHC, 13108 Saint Paul lez Durance Cedex (France); Viazzo, Stéphane [Laboratoire de Mécanique, Modélisation et Procédés Propres (M2P2), UMR7340 CNRS, Aix-Marseille Université, Centrale Marseille, 13451 Marseille Cedex (France)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • Complex geometry inside a PWR fuel assembly is simulated using simplified 3D models. • Structured meshes are generated as far as possible. • Fluctuating hydrodynamic and wall pressure field are analyzed using LES. • Comparative studies between square spacer grid, circular spacer grid and mixing vanes are presented. • Simulations are compared with experimental data. - Abstract: Flow-induced vibrations in a pressurized water reactor (PWR) core can cause fretting wear in fuel rods. These vibrations can compromise safety of a nuclear reactor. So, it is necessary to know the random fluctuating forces acting on the rods which cause these vibrations. In this paper, simplified 3D models like square spacer grid, circular spacer grid and symmetric mixing vanes have been used inside an annular pipe. Hydrodynamic and wall pressure characteristics are evaluated using large eddy simulations (LES). Structured meshes are generated as far as possible. Simulations are compared with an experiment. Results show that the grid and vanes have a combined effect: grid accelerates the flow whereas the vanes contribute to the swirl structures. Spectral analysis of the simulations illustrate vortex shedding phenomenon in the wake of spacer grids. This initial study opens up interesting perspectives towards improving the modeling strategy and understanding the complex phenomenon inside a PWR core.

  18. Dislocation of preformed antibiotic-loaded cement spacers (Spacer-G): etiological factors and clinical prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bori, Guillem; García-Oltra, Ester; Soriano, Alex; Rios, José; Gallart, Xavier; Garcia, Sebastian

    2014-05-01

    This study assesses the factors associated with the dislocation of the Spacer-G and its clinical prognosis. Seventy-four spacers were reviewed. Acetabular bone defects, proximal femoral cementation of the spacer and its relationship to the size of the head spacer were not associated with dislocation. The only variable that it was possible to associate with dislocation was when the previous stem, prior to the spacer placement, was a cemented stem. In patients who experienced a dislocation, infection was not cured during the interim period more frequently than patients who had not experienced a dislocation (P = 0.001) and the final clinical hip evaluation was also worse (P dislocation and its consequences. © 2014.

  19. Thermal Performance of Insulating Cryogenic Pin Spacers

    CERN Document Server

    Darve, C

    1998-01-01

    Following the proposal to introduce an actively cooled radiation screen (5-10 K) for the LHC machine, the design of the LHC cryostat foresees the need for spacers between the cold mass and the radiati on screen. The thermal impedance of the chosen material should be very high and the shape selected to withstrand the contact stress due to the displacements induced by the coll-down and warm-up transi ent. A cryogenic experiment dedicated to studying the thermal behaviour of several proposed spacers was performed at the cryogenics laboratory of CERN before choosing the one to be used for further i nvestigation on the LHC full-scale Cryostat Thermal Model [1] [2]. This paper describes a quantitative analysis leading to the choice of the spacer.

  20. Heterogeneous diversity of spacers within CRISPR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deem, Michael; He, Jiankui

    2011-03-01

    Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) in bacterial and archaeal DNA have recently been shown to be a new type of anti-viral immune system in these organisms. We here study the diversity of spacers in CRISPR under selective pressure. We propose a population dynamics model that explains the biological observation that the leader-proximal end of CRISPR is more diversified and the leader-distal end of CRISPR is more conserved. This result is shown to be in agreement with recent experiments. Our results show that the CRISPR spacer structure is influenced by and provides a record of the viral challenges that bacteria face. 1) J. He and M. W. Deem, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105 (2010) 128102

  1. Publication of administrative circular

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    ADMINISTRATIVE CIRCULAR NO. 23 (REV. 2) – SPECIAL WORKING HOURS Administrative Circular No. 23 (Rev. 2) entitled "Special working hours", approved following discussion in the Standing Concertation Committee on 9 December 2008, will be available on the intranet site of the Human Resources Department as from 19 December 2008: http://cern.ch/hr-docs/admincirc/admincirc.asp It cancels and replaces Administrative Circular No. 23 (Rev. 1) entitled "Stand-by duty" of April 1988. A "Frequently Asked Questions" information document on special working hours will also be available on this site. Paper copies of this circular will shortly be available in Departmental Secretariats. Human Resources Department Tel. 78003

  2. PUBLICATION OF ADMINISTRATIVE CIRCULAR

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    ADMINISTRATIVE CIRCULAR NO. 23 (REV. 2) – SPECIAL WORKING HOURS Administrative Circular No. 23 (Rev. 2) entitled "Special working hours", approved following discussion in the Standing Concertation Committee meeting of 9 December 2008, will be available on the intranet site of the Human Resources Department as from 19 December 2008: http://cern.ch/hr-docs/admincirc/admincirc.asp It cancels and replaces Administrative Circular No. 23 (Rev. 1) entitled "Stand-by duty" of April 1988. A "Frequently Asked Questions" information document on special working hours will also be available on this site. Paper copies of this circular will shortly be available in departmental secretariats. Human Resources Department Tel. 78003

  3. Toroidal circular dichroism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raybould, T. A.; Fedotov, V. A.; Papasimakis, N.; Kuprov, I.; Youngs, I. J.; Chen, W. T.; Tsai, D. P.; Zheludev, N. I.

    2016-07-01

    We demonstrate that the induced toroidal dipole, represented by currents flowing on the surface of a torus, makes a distinct and indispensable contribution to circular dichroism. We show that toroidal circular dichroism supplements the well-known mechanism involving electric dipole and magnetic dipole transitions. We illustrate this with rigorous analysis of the experimentally measured polarization-sensitive transmission spectra of an artificial metamaterial, constructed from elements of toroidal symmetry. We argue that toroidal circular dichroism will be found in large biomolecules with elements of toroidal symmetry and should be taken into account in the interpretation of circular dichroism spectra of organics.

  4. Generic assessment of tight-fitting annulus spacer mobility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, J. [Nuclear Safety Solutions Limited, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)]. E-mail: jaff.robertson@nuclearsafetysolutions.com; Micuda, L. [Bruce Power, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)]. E-mail: larry.micuda@brucepower.com; Van Den Brekel, N. [Ontario Power Generation, Pickering, Ontario (Canada)]. E-mail: nick.vandenbrekel@opg.com

    2006-07-01

    This paper provides a generic assessment of the mobility of tight-fitting fuel channel annulus spacers in OPG and Bruce Power nuclear units. This assessment is applicable to all tight-fitting annulus spacers, including those used in the original fuel channel installation (Darlington Units 1-4, retubed Pickering Units 1-4, and Bruce Unit 8) and as a result of single fuel channel replacements (SFCR) (Pickering Units 5-8, Bruce Units 3-7). Tight-fitting annulus spacers were designed not to move. Pressure tube to calandria tube contact analyses, and the associated blister susceptibility assessments, have assumed that these tight-fitting spacers remain at the pre-service installed locations. Given the importance of this assumption, the technical basis for the expectation that tight-fitting annulus spacers do not move significantly from their pre-service locations, relative to the pressure tube, was reviewed in detail. The review also assessed the inspection data, comparing spacer locations from in-service and pre-service inspections. The review has concluded that tight-fitting spacers do not move sufficiently to necessitate a postulated spacer movement in fuel channel contact analyses. The paper describes the background of this issue, briefly reviews the experimental programs used to qualify the positional stability of the tight-fitting spacer design, and evaluates the current database of in-service spacer location inspection information to demonstrate that no significant movement relative to the pressure tube has been observed. (author)

  5. Circularity and Lambda Abstraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Thiemann, Peter; Zerny, Ian

    2013-01-01

    circular unknowns as dead variables, and we apply the functions to them. The result is a lazy circular program a la Bird. We illustrate the two transformations by mapping an algebraic construct to an isomorphic one with new leaves, reading a binary number as sug- gested by Knuth, and backpatching...

  6. NEUTRONIC REACTOR SHIELD AND SPACER CONSTRUCTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigner, E.P.; Ohlinger, L.A.

    1958-11-18

    Reactors of the heterogeneous, graphite moderated, fluid cooled type and shielding and spacing plugs for the coolant channels thereof are reported. In this design, the coolant passages extend horizontally through the moderator structure, accommodating the fuel elements in abutting end-to-end relationship, and have access openings through the outer shield at one face of the reactor to facilitate loading of the fuel elements. In the outer ends of the channels which extend through the shields are provided spacers and shielding plugs designed to offer minimal reslstance to coolant fluid flow while preventing emanation of harmful radiation through the access openings when closed between loadings.

  7. A non-electrostatic spacer for aerosol delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, H; Anhøj, J; Klug, B

    1995-01-01

    pressurised metered dose inhaler (p-MDI) to minimise the electrostatic charge on the plastic. The procedure prolonged the half life (t1/2) of the aerosol in the Nebuhaler from nine to 32 seconds. A normal cleaning procedure reduced the aerosol t1/2 back to baseline. The t1/2 of the aerosol in the metal spacer...... younger than 4 years. The improved dose delivery from the small volume non-electrostatic spacer is probably related to the non-electrostatic spacer material and the valves which assured unidirectional airflow from the spacer without adding any dead space in the inspiratory channel. The non-electro-static...

  8. Circular statistics in R

    CERN Document Server

    Pewsey, Arthur; Ruxton, Graeme D

    2013-01-01

    Circular Statistics in R provides the most comprehensive guide to the analysis of circular data in over a decade. Circular data arise in many scientific contexts whether it be angular directions such as: observed compass directions of departure of radio-collared migratory birds from a release point; bond angles measured in different molecules; wind directions at different times of year at a wind farm; direction of stress-fractures in concretebridge supports; longitudes of earthquake epicentres or seasonal and daily activity patterns, for example: data on the times of day at which animals are c

  9. Administrative & Operational Circulars - Reminder

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2011-01-01

    All Administrative and Operational Circulars are available on the intranet site of the Human Resources Department at the following address: http://cern.ch/hr-docs/admincirc/admincirc.asp Department Head Office  

  10. Models for circular-linear and circular-circular data constructed from circular distributions based on nonnegative trigonometric sums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Durán, J J

    2007-06-01

    Johnson and Wehrly (1978, Journal of the American Statistical Association 73, 602-606) and Wehrly and Johnson (1980, Biometrika 67, 255-256) show one way to construct the joint distribution of a circular and a linear random variable, or the joint distribution of a pair of circular random variables from their marginal distributions and the density of a circular random variable, which in this article is referred to as joining circular density. To construct flexible models, it is necessary that the joining circular density be able to present multimodality and/or skewness in order to model different dependence patterns. Fernández-Durán (2004, Biometrics 60, 499-503) constructed circular distributions based on nonnegative trigonometric sums that can present multimodality and/or skewness. Furthermore, they can be conveniently used as a model for circular-linear or circular-circular joint distributions. In the current work, joint distributions for circular-linear and circular-circular data constructed from circular distributions based on nonnegative trigonometric sums are presented and applied to two data sets, one for circular-linear data related to the air pollution patterns in Mexico City and the other for circular-circular data related to the pair of dihedral angles between consecutive amino acids in a protein.

  11. Spacer effect on nanostructures and self-assembly in organogels via some bolaform cholesteryl imide derivatives with different spacers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Tifeng; Gao, Fengqing; Zhang, Qingrui; Zhou, Jingxin; Gao, Faming

    2013-10-01

    In this paper, new bolaform cholesteryl imide derivatives with different spacers were designed and synthesized. Their gelation behaviors in 23 solvents were investigated, and some of them were found to be low molecular mass organic gelators. The experimental results indicated that these as-formed organogels can be regulated by changing the flexible/rigid segments in spacers and organic solvents. Suitable combination of flexible/rigid segments in molecular spacers in the present cholesteryl gelators is favorable for the gelation of organic solvents. Scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy observations revealed that the gelator molecules self-assemble into different aggregates, from wrinkle and belt to fiber with the change of spacers and solvents. Spectral studies indicated that there existed different H-bond formations between imide groups and assembly modes, depending on the substituent spacers in molecular skeletons. The present work may give some insight into the design and character of new organogelators and soft materials with special molecular structures.

  12. Genome organization of the Chelonus inanitus polydnavirus: excision sites, spacers and abundance of proviral and excised segments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annaheim, Marc; Lanzrein, Beatrice

    2007-02-01

    Polydnaviruses are only found in symbiotic association with parasitic wasps within the families Ichneumonidae and Braconidae (ichnoviruses and bracoviruses). They have a segmented genome consisting of circular double-stranded DNA. In the proviral linear form they are integrated in the wasp's genome; in two bracoviruses, segments were found to be clustered. Proviral segments have direct terminal repeats. Segment excision has been proposed to occur through juxtaposition of these repeats by formation of a loop and recombination; one copy of the repeat then ends up in the circular segment and one in the rejoined DNA. Here we analysed the excision/circularization site of four segments of the Chelonus inanitus bracovirus (CiV) and found that they are similar to the two already known sites; on the basis of the combined data an extended excision site motif was found. Analyses of segment flanking sequences led to the first identification of one complete and several partial spacers between proviral segments in a polydnavirus. The spacer between the proviral segments CiV14 and CiV22.5 has a length of 2065 bp; the terminal repeats of CiV14 and CiV22.5 were seen to have an opposite orientation and from this a model on the spacial organization of the loops of the proviral cluster is proposed. Through various approaches it was shown that spacers are not excised or injected into the host. Measurement of relative abundances of various segments in proviral and excised form indicates for the first time that abundant segments are present in multiple copies in the proviral form.

  13. Building a Circular Future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merrild, Heidi; Guldager Jensen, Kasper; Sommer, John

    2016-01-01

    of the circular strategies is not only in the future. Increased flexibility, optimized operation and maintenance, as well as a healthier building, is low-hanging fruit that can be harvested today. The project’s principles can be implemented in industrialized construction in a large scale today. That is proven......Natural resources are scarce and construction accounts for 40 percent of the material and energy consumption in Europe. This means that a switch to a circular future is necessary. ’Building a Circular Future’ maps out where we are, where we are going, and what is needed for this conversion to take...... on the project’s strategies. The financial result is a profit of DKK 35 million on the structure alone in the demolition of a building built for the cost of DKK 860 million. The total potential for the whole building, calculated in projected material prices, is estimated to be up to 16% of the total construction...

  14. Representations of Circular Words

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    László Hegedüs

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article we give two different ways of representations of circular words. Representations with tuples are intended as a compact notation, while representations with trees give a way to easily process all conjugates of a word. The latter form can also be used as a graphical representation of periodic properties of finite (in some cases, infinite words. We also define iterative representations which can be seen as an encoding utilizing the flexible properties of circular words. Every word over the two letter alphabet can be constructed starting from ab by applying the fractional power and the cyclic shift operators one after the other, iteratively.

  15. Synthesis and Properties of Bis-Porphyrin Molecular Tweezers: Effects of Spacer Flexibility on Binding and Supramolecular Chirogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnus Blom

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Ditopic binding of various dinitrogen compounds to three bisporphyrin molecular tweezers with spacers of varying conformational rigidity, incorporating the planar enediyne (1, the helical stiff stilbene (2, or the semi-rigid glycoluril motif fused to the porphyrins (3, are compared. Binding constants Ka = 104–106 M−1 reveal subtle differences between these tweezers, that are discussed in terms of porphyrin dislocation modes. Exciton coupled circular dichroism (ECCD of complexes with chiral dinitrogen guests provides experimental evidence for the conformational properties of the tweezers. The results are further supported and rationalized by conformational analysis.

  16. Preclinical Evaluation of Bioabsorbable Polyglycolic Acid Spacer for Particle Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akasaka, Hiroaki [Division of Radiation Oncology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Hyogo Japan (Japan); Sasaki, Ryohei, E-mail: rsasaki@med.kobe-u.ac.jp [Division of Radiation Oncology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Hyogo Japan (Japan); Miyawaki, Daisuke; Mukumoto, Naritoshi; Sulaiman, Nor Shazrina Binti [Division of Radiation Oncology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Hyogo Japan (Japan); Nagata, Masaaki [Division of Gastroenterology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Hyogo Japan (Japan); Yamada, Shigeru [Research Center Hospital, Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Murakami, Masao [Radiation Oncology Center, Dokkyo Medical University, Tochigi (Japan); Demizu, Yusuke [Department of Radiology, Hyogo Ion Beam Medical Center, Hyogo (Japan); Fukumoto, Takumi [Division of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Hyogo Japan (Japan)

    2014-12-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of a polyglycolic acid (PGA) spacer through physical and animal experiments. Methods and Materials: The spacer was produced with surgical suture material made of PGA, forming a 3-dimensional nonwoven fabric. For evaluation or physical experiments, 150-MeV proton or 320-MeV carbon-ion beams were used to generate 60-mm width of spread-out Bragg peak. For animal experiments, the abdomens of C57BL/6 mice, with or without the inserted PGA spacers, were irradiated with 20 Gy of carbon-ion beam (290 MeV) using the spread-out Bragg peak. Body weight changes over time were scored, and radiation damage to the intestine was investigated using hematoxylin and eosin stain. Blood samples were also evaluated 24 days after the irradiation. Long-term thickness retention and safety were evaluated using crab-eating macaques. Results: No chemical or structural changes after 100 Gy of proton or carbon-ion irradiation were observed in the PGA spacer. Water equivalency of the PGA spacer was equal to the water thickness under wet condition. During 24 days' observation after 20 Gy of carbon-ion irradiation, the body weights of mice with the PGA spacer were relatively unchanged, whereas significant weight loss was observed in those mice without the PGA spacer (P<.05). In mice with the PGA spacer, villus and crypt structure were preserved after irradiation. No inflammatory reactions or liver or renal dysfunctions due to placement of the PGA spacer were observed. In the abdomen of crab-eating macaques, thickness of the PGA spacer was maintained 8 weeks after placement. Conclusions: The absorbable PGA spacer had water-equivalent, bio-compatible, and thickness-retaining properties. Although further evaluation is warranted in a clinical setting, the PGA spacer may be effective to stop proton or carbon-ion beams and to separate normal tissues from the radiation field.

  17. Shelf life of pie caps with biodegradable films as spacers

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela Verónica Escobar Gianni; Angelina Sala; Carlos Silvera; Rodrigo Harispe; Rosa Marquez Romero

    2013-01-01

    Commonly pie caps at market use polyethylene films as spacers between them. This paper studies the conventional spacers replacement with edible and biodegradable films made with whey protein isolate (WPI) and potassium sorbate as a preservative. Besides facilitating the separation of pie caps, with this application is intended to increase their shelf life. The films made by the compression molding method were used as spacers in pie caps without preservative in their formula (A) and with prese...

  18. Transposable elements and circular DNAs

    KAUST Repository

    Mourier, Tobias

    2016-09-26

    Circular DNAs are extra-chromosomal fragments that become circularized by genomic recombination events. We have recently shown that yeast LTR elements generate circular DNAs through recombination events between their flanking long terminal repeats (LTRs). Similarly, circular DNAs can be generated by recombination between LTRs residing at different genomic loci, in which case the circular DNA will contain the intervening sequence. In yeast, this can result in gene copy number variations when circles contain genes and origins of replication. Here, I speculate on the potential and implications of circular DNAs generated through recombination between human transposable elements.

  19. Radical Circular Economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, M.; Mohammadi, S.; Slob, N.

    2015-01-01

    Recently the Circular Economy (CE) concept has gained momentum in the Netherlands, propounding that environmental impact reduction can provide a significant positive economical impulse. The government, larger parts of the industry as a whole, as well as the construction industry, has warmly received

  20. Administrative circular No. 12

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2006-01-01

    On the recommendation of the Standing Concertation Committee, the Director-General has approved the amounts used for the reimbursements mentioned in Administrative Circular No. 12 as follows: The figures, effective from 1 September 2006, are: Paragraph 8a: 17 Swiss francs Paragraph 9a: 682 Swiss francs Paragraph 9b: 34 Swiss francs Human Resources Department Tel. 79257/72862

  1. Wiimote Experiments: Circular Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouh, Minjoon; Holz, Danielle; Kawam, Alae; Lamont, Mary

    2013-01-01

    The advent of new sensor technologies can provide new ways of exploring fundamental physics. In this paper, we show how a Wiimote, which is a handheld remote controller for the Nintendo Wii video game system with an accelerometer, can be used to study the dynamics of circular motion with a very simple setup such as an old record player or a…

  2. Flow dynamics and concentration polarisation in spacer-filled channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lipnizki, Jens; Jonsson, Gunnar Eigil

    2002-01-01

    been shown that the mass transport along the membrane is not fully described by the Sherwood correlation, which describes a decreasing mass transfer with an increasing distance from the inlet. It was observed that in open channel without spacers, the slope of the Sherwood correlation is decreasing......The key to developing highly efficient spiral-wound modules is the improvement of the mass transfer mechanisms. In this study a study of the mass transfer has been carried out using a flat test cell with six permeate outlets and a rectangular feed channel. Using this experimental set-up, it has....... This phenomenon was also observed in spacer-filled channels. In this case the stripes on the surface depended on the spacer geometry. Furthermore, the experiments were used to calculate the energy consumption vs. the mass transfer coefficient for different spacers. This research can be used as a foundation...

  3. Kappa Coefficients for Circular Classifications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warrens, Matthijs J.; Pratiwi, Bunga C.

    2016-01-01

    Circular classifications are classification scales with categories that exhibit a certain periodicity. Since linear scales have endpoints, the standard weighted kappas used for linear scales are not appropriate for analyzing agreement between two circular classifications. A family of kappa

  4. Bioinformatics analyses of Shigella CRISPR structure and spacer classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pengfei; Zhang, Bing; Duan, Guangcai; Wang, Yingfang; Hong, Lijuan; Wang, Linlin; Guo, Xiangjiao; Xi, Yuanlin; Yang, Haiyan

    2016-03-01

    Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) are inheritable genetic elements of a variety of archaea and bacteria and indicative of the bacterial ecological adaptation, conferring acquired immunity against invading foreign nucleic acids. Shigella is an important pathogen for anthroponosis. This study aimed to analyze the features of Shigella CRISPR structure and classify the spacers through bioinformatics approach. Among 107 Shigella, 434 CRISPR structure loci were identified with two to seven loci in different strains. CRISPR-Q1, CRISPR-Q4 and CRISPR-Q5 were widely distributed in Shigella strains. Comparison of the first and last repeats of CRISPR1, CRISPR2 and CRISPR3 revealed several base variants and different stem-loop structures. A total of 259 cas genes were found among these 107 Shigella strains. The cas gene deletions were discovered in 88 strains. However, there is one strain that does not contain cas gene. Intact clusters of cas genes were found in 19 strains. From comprehensive analysis of sequence signature and BLAST and CRISPRTarget score, the 708 spacers were classified into three subtypes: Type I, Type II and Type III. Of them, Type I spacer referred to those linked with one gene segment, Type II spacer linked with two or more different gene segments, and Type III spacer undefined. This study examined the diversity of CRISPR/cas system in Shigella strains, demonstrated the main features of CRISPR structure and spacer classification, which provided critical information for elucidation of the mechanisms of spacer formation and exploration of the role the spacers play in the function of the CRISPR/cas system.

  5. Nuclear reactor spacer grid and ductless core component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, David W.; Karnesky, Richard A.

    1989-01-01

    The invention relates to a nuclear reactor spacer grid member for use in a liquid cooled nuclear reactor and to a ductless core component employing a plurality of these spacer grid members. The spacer grid member is of the egg-shell type and is constructed so that the walls of the cell members of the grid member are formed of a single thickness of metal to avoid tolerance problems. Within each cell member is a hydraulic spring which laterally constrains the nuclear material bearing rod which passes through each cell member against a hardstop in response to coolant flow through the cell member. This hydraulic spring is also suitable for use in a water cooled nuclear reactor. A core component constructed of, among other components, a plurality of these spacer grid members, avoids the use of a full length duct by providing spacer sleeves about the sodium tubes passing through the spacer grid members at locations between the grid members, thereby maintaining a predetermined space between adjacent grid members.

  6. ADMINISTRATIVE CIRCULAR N° 12

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2002-01-01

    Following a recommendation by the Standing Concertation Committee, the Director-General has approved the amounts used for the reimbursements mentioned in Administrative Circular N° 12 as follows : The figures, effective from 1 September 2002, are : § 8a : 16 Swiss francs (unchanged) § 9a : 640 Swiss francs (previously 622.- Swiss francs) § 9b : 32 Swiss francs (unchanged) Human Resources Division Tel. 72862

  7. Administrative Circular N° 12

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    Following a recommendation by the Standing Concertation Committee, the Director-General has approved the amounts used for the reimbursements mentioned in Administrative Circular N° 12 as follows : The figures, effective from 1 September 2003, are : § 8a : 16.50 Swiss francs (previously 16.- Swiss francs) § 9a : 663 Swiss francs (previously 640.- Swiss francs) § 9b : 33 Swiss francs (previously 32.- Swiss francs) Human Resources Division Tel. 72862/74474

  8. ADMINISTRATIVE CIRCULAR N° 12

    CERN Document Server

    HR Division

    2001-01-01

    Following a recommendation by the Standing Concertation Committee, the Director-General has approved an adjustment of the amounts used for the reimbursements mentioned in Administrative Circular N° 12. The new figures, effective from 1 September 2001, are : § 8a : 16 Swiss francs (previously 15.50 Swiss francs) § 9a : 622 Swiss francs (previously 609.- Swiss francs) § 9b : 32 Swiss francs (previously 31.- Swiss francs)

  9. ADMINISTRATIVE CIRCULAR NR 12

    CERN Document Server

    Division HR; HR Division; Tel. 72862

    2000-01-01

    Following a recommendation by the Standing Concertation Committee, the Director-General has approved an adjustment of the amounts used for the reimbursements mentioned in Administrative Circular N° 12. The new figures, effective from 1 September 2000, are : § 8a : 15.50 Swiss francs (previously 15.- Swiss francs) § 9a : 609 Swiss francs (previously 591.- Swiss francs) § 9b : 31 Swiss francs (previously 30.- Swiss francs)

  10. Circular arc structures

    KAUST Repository

    Bo, Pengbo

    2011-07-01

    The most important guiding principle in computational methods for freeform architecture is the balance between cost efficiency on the one hand, and adherence to the design intent on the other. Key issues are the simplicity of supporting and connecting elements as well as repetition of costly parts. This paper proposes so-called circular arc structures as a means to faithfully realize freeform designs without giving up smooth appearance. In contrast to non-smooth meshes with straight edges where geometric complexity is concentrated in the nodes, we stay with smooth surfaces and rather distribute complexity in a uniform way by allowing edges in the shape of circular arcs. We are able to achieve the simplest possible shape of nodes without interfering with known panel optimization algorithms. We study remarkable special cases of circular arc structures which possess simple supporting elements or repetitive edges, we present the first global approximation method for principal patches, and we show an extension to volumetric structures for truly threedimensional designs. © 2011 ACM.

  11. The potential of standard and modified feed spacers for biofouling control

    KAUST Repository

    Araújo, Paula A.

    2012-06-01

    The impact of feed spacers on initial feed channel pressure (FCP) drop, FCP increase and biomass accumulation has been studied in membrane fouling simulators using feed spacers applied in commercially available nanofiltration and reverse osmosis spiral wound membrane modules. All spacers had a similar geometry.Our studies showed that biofouling was not prevented by (i) variation of spacer thickness, (ii) feed spacer orientation, (iii) feed spacer coating with silver, copper or gold and (iv) using a biostatic feed spacer. At constant feed flow, a lower FCP and FCP increase were observed for a thicker feed spacer. At constant linear flow velocity, roughly the same FCP development and biomass accumulation were found irrespective of the feed spacer thickness: hydrodynamics and substrate load were more important for development and impact of biofouling than the thickness of currently applied spacers. Use of biostatic and metal coated spacers were not effective for biofouling control. The same small reduction of biofouling rate was observed with copper and silver coated spacers as well as uncoated 45° rotated spacers.The studied modified spacers were not effective for biofouling prevention and control. The impact of biofouling on FCP increase was reduced significantly by a lower linear flow velocity, while spacer orientation and spacer thickness in membrane modules had a smaller but still significant effect. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  12. Under Pressure: The Utility of Spacers in Univalved Fiberglass Casts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleis, Kevin; Schlechter, John A; Doan, Joshua D; Farnsworth, Christine L; Edmonds, Eric W

    2017-02-24

    Univalving fiberglass casts after fracture manipulation or extremity surgery reduces the risk of developing compartment syndrome (CS). Previous experiments have demonstrated that univalving decreases intracompartmental pressures (ICPs), but increases the risk for loss of fracture reduction due to altering the mechanical properties of the cast. The purpose of this study was to correlate cast valve width within a univalved cast model to decreasing ICP. Saline bags (1 L) were covered with stockinette, Webril, and fiberglass tape then connected to an arterial pressure line monitor. Resting pressure was recorded. A water column was added to simulate 2 groups (n=5 each) of clinical CS: low pressure CS (LPCS range, 28 to 31 mm Hg) and high pressure CS (HPCS, range, 64 to 68 mm Hg). After the designated pressure was reached, the fiberglass was cut (stockinette and Webril remained intact). Cast spacers were inserted into each univalve and secured with varying widths: position #1 (3 mm wide), #2 (6 mm), #3 (9 mm), and #4 (12 mm). Pressure was recorded after cutting the fiberglass and following each spacer placement. In LPCS and HPCS groups, after univalve and placement of spacer position #1, pressure dropped by a mean of 52% and 58%, respectively. Spacer #2, decreased the pressure by a mean of 78% and 80%, respectively. Both spacer sizes significantly decreased the underlying pressure in both groups. Spacer #3 and #4 progressively reduced pressure within the cast, but not statistically significantly more than the previous spacer widths. This experimental model replicates the iatrogenic elevation in interstitial compartment pressure due to rigid cast application, not necessarily a self-sustained true CS. Increasing the univalved cast spread by ≥9 mm of the initial cast diameter will reduce pressure to a pre-CS level; however, a spread of only 6 mm can effectively reduce the pressure to fiberglass casts has been previously demonstrated, we present evidence highlighting the

  13. Impact of spacer thickness on biofouling in forward osmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valladares Linares, R; Bucs, Sz S; Li, Z; AbuGhdeeb, M; Amy, G; Vrouwenvelder, J S

    2014-06-15

    Forward osmosis (FO) indirect desalination systems integrate wastewater recovery with seawater desalination. Niche applications for FO systems have been reported recently, due to the demonstrated advantages compared to conventional high-pressure membrane processes such as nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO). Among them, wastewater recovery has been identified to be particularly suitable for practical applications. However, biofouling in FO membranes has rarely been studied in applications involving wastewater effluents. Feed spacers separating the membrane sheets in cross-flow systems play an important role in biofilm formation. The objective of this study was to determine the influence of feed spacer thickness (28, 31 and 46 mil) on biofouling development and membrane performance in a FO system, using identical cross-flow cells in parallel studies. Flux development, biomass accumulation, fouling localization and composition were determined and analyzed. For all spacer thicknesses, operated at the same feed flow and the same run time, the same amount of biomass was found, while the flux reduction decreased with thicker spacers. These observations are in good agreement with biofouling studies for RO systems, considering the key differences between FO and RO. Our findings contradict previous cross-flow studies on particulate/colloidal fouling, where higher cross-flow velocities improved system performance. Thicker spacers reduced the impact of biofouling on FO membrane flux. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Impact of spacer thickness on biofouling in forward osmosis

    KAUST Repository

    Valladares Linares, Rodrigo

    2014-06-01

    Forward osmosis (FO) indirect desalination systems integrate wastewater recovery with seawater desalination. Niche applications for FO systems have been reported recently, due to the demonstrated advantages compared to conventional high-pressure membrane processes such as nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO). Among them, wastewater recovery has been identified to be particularly suitable for practical applications. However, biofouling in FO membranes has rarely been studied in applications involving wastewater effluents. Feed spacers separating the membrane sheets in cross-flow systems play an important role in biofilm formation. The objective of this study was to determine the influence of feed spacer thickness (28, 31 and 46mil) on biofouling development and membrane performance in a FO system, using identical cross-flow cells in parallel studies. Flux development, biomass accumulation, fouling localization and composition were determined and analyzed. For all spacer thicknesses, operated at the same feed flow and the same run time, the same amount of biomass was found, while the flux reduction decreased with thicker spacers. These observations are in good agreement with biofouling studies for RO systems, considering the key differences between FO and RO. Our findings contradict previous cross-flow studies on particulate/colloidal fouling, where higher cross-flow velocities improved system performance. Thicker spacers reduced the impact of biofouling on FO membrane flux. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Final design of a spacer grid using axiomatic design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Gyung-Jin; Lee, Hyun-Ah; Kim, Chong-Ki [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Song, Gi-Nam [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-03-15

    The spacer grid set is a component in the nuclear fuel assembly. The set supports the fuel rod safely. The spacer grid set must have enough strength to sustain external loads such as earthquake. The fretting wear occurs between the spring of the fuel rod and the spacer grid due to the flow-induced vibration after the fuel rod is inserted to the spacer grid set. Design of the spring is carried out by using the independence axiom in axiomatic design to solve the two problems. The spacer grid is divided into two parts for sustaining the impact load and reducing fretting wear based on the function requirements. The design for the impact load is performed through non-linear analysis and the homology theory is adopted to reduce fretting wear achieved for shape optimization. The objective function to be minimized ids the maximum stress and constraints are defined to increase the contact area between the fuel rod and the spring using the homology theory. In the design results, the contact area becomes large and it is conformed by nonlinear static analysis. The final design shows that larger impact loads can be sustained compared to the current model.

  16. A non-electrostatic spacer for aerosol delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, H; Anhøj, J; Klug, B

    1995-01-01

    A pear shaped non-electrostatic spacer, composed of steel with a volume of 250 ml and equipped with a facemask containing integrated inlet and outlet valves for inspiration and expiration, was compared with three plastic spacers. The plastic spacers were primed with repeated puffs from a budesonide...... pressurised metered dose inhaler (p-MDI) to minimise the electrostatic charge on the plastic. The procedure prolonged the half life (t1/2) of the aerosol in the Nebuhaler from nine to 32 seconds. A normal cleaning procedure reduced the aerosol t1/2 back to baseline. The t1/2 of the aerosol in the metal spacer...... was 27 seconds and independent of the use of p-MDI. In vitro the maximum dose of budesonide from a p-MDI, expressed as a percentage of the nominal dose, was 56% from the non-electrostatic spacer, 61% from the Nebuhaler, 45% from the Babyhaler, and 30% from the AeroChamber. In 124 children, age 6 months...

  17. CRISPR interference and priming varies with individual spacer sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Chaoyou; Seetharam, Arun S; Musharova, Olga; Severinov, Konstantin; Brouns, Stan J J; Severin, Andrew J; Sashital, Dipali G

    2015-12-15

    CRISPR-Cas (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats-CRISPR associated) systems allow bacteria to adapt to infection by acquiring 'spacer' sequences from invader DNA into genomic CRISPR loci. Cas proteins use RNAs derived from these loci to target cognate sequences for destruction through CRISPR interference. Mutations in the protospacer adjacent motif (PAM) and seed regions block interference but promote rapid 'primed' adaptation. Here, we use multiple spacer sequences to reexamine the PAM and seed sequence requirements for interference and priming in the Escherichia coli Type I-E CRISPR-Cas system. Surprisingly, CRISPR interference is far more tolerant of mutations in the seed and the PAM than previously reported, and this mutational tolerance, as well as priming activity, is highly dependent on spacer sequence. We identify a large number of functional PAMs that can promote interference, priming or both activities, depending on the associated spacer sequence. Functional PAMs are preferentially acquired during unprimed 'naïve' adaptation, leading to a rapid priming response following infection. Our results provide numerous insights into the importance of both spacer and target sequences for interference and priming, and reveal that priming is a major pathway for adaptation during initial infection. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  18. Numerical analysis of the spacer grids' compression strength

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schettino, C.F.M.; Gouvea, J.P.; Medeiros, N., E-mail: carlosschettino@inb.gov.br, E-mail: jpg@metal.eeimvr.uff.br [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Volta Redonda, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Metalurgica

    2013-07-01

    Among the components of the fuel assembly, the spacer grids play an important structural role during the energy generation process, mainly for their requirement to have enough structural strength to withstand lateral impact loads, due to fuel assembly shipping/handling and due to forces outcome from postulated accidents (earthquake and LOCA). This requirement ensures a proper geometry for cooling and for guide thimble straightness in the fuel assembly. In this way, the understanding of the macroscopic mechanical behavior of this component becomes essential even to any subsequent geometrical modifications to optimize the flue assemblies' structural behavior. In the present work, three-dimensional finite element models destined to provide consistent predictions of 16X16-type spacer grids lateral strength were proposed. Firstly, buckling tests based on results available in the literature were performed to establish a methodology for spacer grid finite element-based modeling. The, by considering a spacer grid interesting geometry and some possible variations associated to its fabrication, tolerance, the proposed numerical models were submitted to compression conditions to calculate the buckling force. Also, these models were validated for comparison with experimental buckling load results. Comparison of buckling predictions combined to observations of actual and simulated deformed spacer grids geometries permitted to verify the consistency and applicability of the proposed models. Thus, these numerical results show a good agreement between the and the experimental results. (author)

  19. Circularly polarized antennas

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Steven; Zhu, Fuguo

    2013-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive insight into the design techniques for different types of CP antenna elements and arrays In this book, the authors address a broad range of topics on circularly polarized (CP) antennas. Firstly, it introduces to the reader basic principles, design techniques and characteristics of various types of CP antennas, such as CP patch antennas, CP helix antennas, quadrifilar helix antennas (QHA), printed quadrifilar helix antennas (PQHA), spiral antenna, CP slot antennas, CP dielectric resonator antennas, loop antennas, crossed dipoles, monopoles and CP horns. Adva

  20. Circular RNAs in cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, L S; Hansen, T B; Venø, M T

    2018-01-01

    Circular RNA (circRNA) is a novel member of the noncoding cancer genome with distinct properties and diverse cellular functions, which is being explored at a steadily increasing pace. The list of endogenous circRNAs involved in cancer continues to grow; however, the functional relevance of the vast...... for circRNA cancer research and current caveats, which must be addressed to facilitate the translation of basic circRNA research into clinical use.Oncogene advance online publication, 9 October 2017; doi:10.1038/onc.2017.361....

  1. Antennas on circular cylinders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, H. L.

    1959-01-01

    antenna in a circular cylinder. By a procedure similar to the one used by Silver and Saunders, expressions have been derived for the field radiated from an arbitrary surface current distribution on a cylinder surface coaxial with a perfectly conducting cylinder. The cases where the space between the two...... cylindrical surfaces have the sane characteristic constants and different constants are treated separately. Extensive numerical computations of the field radiated from the slot antennas described here are being carried out, but no numerical results are yet available...

  2. Spacer effect on nanostructures and self-assembly in organogels via some bolaform cholesteryl imide derivatives with different spacers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, new bolaform cholesteryl imide derivatives with different spacers were designed and synthesized. Their gelation behaviors in 23 solvents were investigated, and some of them were found to be low molecular mass organic gelators. The experimental results indicated that these as-formed organogels can be regulated by changing the flexible/rigid segments in spacers and organic solvents. Suitable combination of flexible/rigid segments in molecular spacers in the present cholesteryl gelators is favorable for the gelation of organic solvents. Scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy observations revealed that the gelator molecules self-assemble into different aggregates, from wrinkle and belt to fiber with the change of spacers and solvents. Spectral studies indicated that there existed different H-bond formations between imide groups and assembly modes, depending on the substituent spacers in molecular skeletons. The present work may give some insight into the design and character of new organogelators and soft materials with special molecular structures. PMID:24083361

  3. Circular Migration and Human Development

    OpenAIRE

    Newland, Kathleen

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the human development implications of circular migration — both where it occurs naturally and where governments work to create it. The paper discusses various conceptions and definitions of circular migration, and concludes that circular migration is not intrinsically positive or negative in relation to human development; its impact depends upon the circumstances in which it occurs, the constraints that surround it and—above all—the degree of choice that individuals can ex...

  4. Circular Economy in Mineral Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Pomykała Radosław; Tora Barbara

    2017-01-01

    The paper aims to implementation of Circular Economy in mineral processing in Poland. Circular economy represents a completely new approach to product life cycle, based on the departure from the linear model of “take – make – dispose” and turning to the circular or closed-circle model of economy. Challenges and opportunities of implementation of Circular Economy in Mining is presented. The VERAM project, financed by The European Union (by the EUR 1.4 million) to the project is described. The ...

  5. Operational circular No. 1 (Rev. 1) – Operational circulars

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2011-01-01

    Operational Circular No. 1 (Rev. 1) is applicable to members of the personnel and other persons concerned. Operational Circular No. 1 (Rev. 1) entitled "Operational circulars", approved following discussion at the Standing Concertation Committee meeting on 4 May 2011, is available on the intranet site of the Human Resources Department: https://hr-docs.web.cern.ch/hr-docs/opcirc/opcirc.asp It cancels and replaces Operational Circular No. 1 entitled "Operational Circulars” of December 1996. This new version clarifies, in particular, that operational circulars do not necessarily arise from the Staff Rules and Regulations, and the functional titles have been updated to bring them into line with the current CERN organigram. Department Head Office  

  6. The internal transcribed spacer rDNA specific markers for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2010-09-13

    Sep 13, 2010 ... Genus Zanthoxylum which has significant medical importance belongs to the family Rutaceae. This investigation was aimed to identify total internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions among the nuclear ribosomal DNA (nrDNA) to distinguish Zanthoxylum piperitum from Zanthoxylum sichinifolium. The.

  7. USE OF ANTIBIOTIC CEMENT SPACERS/BEADS IN TREATMENT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of the antibiotic cement spacers or beads. Vancomycin was added to the bone cement because it is a heat stable antibiotic. Most patients with chronic musculoskeletal infections in our set up would have received gentamycin at some point during their treatment and thus use of vancomycin as the alternative was considered.

  8. Ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer 1 and internal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-07-26

    Jul 26, 2010 ... in some East Asian countries such as China, Korea and. *Corresponding author. E-mail: soonkwan@kangwon.ac.kr. Tel: +82 33 250 6476. Fax: +82 33 250 6470. Abbreviations: nrDNA, Nuclear ribosomal DNA; ITS, internal transcribed spacer; PCR, polymerase chain reaction; BLAST, basic local alignment ...

  9. CRISPR interference and priming varies with individual spacer sequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xue, Chaoyou; Seetharam, Arun S.; Musharova, Olga; Severinov, Konstantin; Brouns, Stan J.J.; Severin, Andrew J.; Sashital, Dipali G.

    2015-01-01

    CRISPR-Cas (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats-CRISPR associated) systems allow bacteria to adapt to infection by acquiring 'spacer' sequences from invader DNA into genomic CRISPR loci. Cas proteins use RNAs derived from these loci to target cognate sequences for

  10. Multi-layer spacer geometries with improved mass transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balster, J.H.; Punt, Ineke G.M.; Stamatialis, Dimitrios; Wessling, Matthias

    2006-01-01

    In electrodialysis desalination processes, it is desirable to operate at the highest practicable current density in order to get the maximum ion flux per unit membrane area. The operating current density is limited by concentration polarisation. In this work the development of optimal spacer

  11. Novel spacers for mass transfer enhancement in membrane separations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, F.; Meindersma, G.W.; de Haan, A.B.; Reith, T.

    2005-01-01

    The optimal flow pattern for mass transfer enhancement in spacer-filled channels is characterized by the coexistence of transversal and longitudinal vortices in the flow close to the channel walls and minimal cross-flow power consumption in the middle of the channel. The mass transfer enhancement of

  12. Hypervariable spacer regions are good sites for developing specific ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 28; Issue 4. Hypervariable spacer regions are good sites for developing specific PCR-RFLP markers and PCR primers for screening actinorhizal symbionts. Rajani Varghese Vineeta S Chauhan Arvind K Misra. Articles Volume 28 Issue 4 June 2003 pp 437-442 ...

  13. Shelf life of pie caps with biodegradable films as spacers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Verónica Escobar Gianni

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Commonly pie caps at market use polyethylene films as spacers between them. This paper studies the conventional spacers replacement with edible and biodegradable films made with whey protein isolate (WPI and potassium sorbate as a preservative. Besides facilitating the separation of pie caps, with this application is intended to increase their shelf life. The films made by the compression molding method were used as spacers in pie caps without preservative in their formula (A and with preservative (B and they were compared with conventional polyethylene spacers (C. During four months, monthly sensory, microbiological and physicochemical (humidity evaluations were done on the pie caps, together with humidity and solubility evaluations of the films. None of the samples showed microbiological or sensory deterioration. The sensory attributes showed no or slight difference in study time. Between samples the differences were minor: the best scores were for sample A in color, sample C in flavor, and samples B and C in texture and overall liking. The edible films have an interesting potential for this application, although studies in disguise the flavor of serum should be done.

  14. Nine Universal Circular Post Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artiom Alhazov

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available We consider a new kind of computational device like Turing machine, so-called circular Post machines with a circular tape and moving in one direction only, introduced recently by the second and the third authors. Using 2-tag systems we construct new nine small universal machines of this kind.

  15. Circular Economy in Mineral Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pomykała Radosław

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to implementation of Circular Economy in mineral processing in Poland. Circular economy represents a completely new approach to product life cycle, based on the departure from the linear model of “take – make – dispose” and turning to the circular or closed-circle model of economy. Challenges and opportunities of implementation of Circular Economy in Mining is presented. The VERAM project, financed by The European Union (by the EUR 1.4 million to the project is described. The examples of good practice in the area of implementation of circular economy in Poland is presented (Tauron Wydobycie - wasteless mine and ZGH Bolesław - waste management

  16. Implementation of spacer therapy for acute asthma in children.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Vandeleur, M

    2009-09-01

    The aim was to develop and implement an evidence based guideline for the treatment of acute asthma using a metered dose inhaler and spacer combination. Children admitted to Cork University Hospital Paediatric Department with acute asthma were identified during two identical 2 month seasonal periods before (2005) and after (2006) implementation of the new guidelines in September 2006. Pre-intervention and post-intervention audits by case note review were performed to determine the impact of and compliance with this evidence-based guideline emphasising patient assessment, spacer delivered bronchodilator and specific discharge criteria. Patients had similar characteristics during the two study periods. There was a raised threshold for admission after guideline implementation with 11\\/52 patients having mild exacerbations in 2006, compared to 21\\/36 in 2005. Duration of admission was less in the post-implementation group for equivalent exacerbation severity e.g. for moderate severity; 28 hours in 2005, 23 hours in 2006. Duration of bronchodilator therapy was shorter in 2006 and more likely to be given by spacer device earlier for equivalent levels of severity e.g. for moderate exacerbations, in 2006 the average length of salbutamol therapy was 18 hours with 12 hours by spacer device, in 2005 the average length of therapy was 25 hours with 3 hours by spacer. There was earlier initiation of oral corticosteroids; the average time to administration was 56 minutes in 2006 and 227 minutes in 2005. There was an improved documentation of asthma education in 2006 e.g. inhaler technique was reviewed in 37\\/52 in 2006, 21\\/35 in 2005 and better use of written action plans.

  17. Future Circular Colliders

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2108454; Zimmermann, Frank

    2015-01-01

    In response to a request from the 2013 Update of the European Strategy for Particle Physics, the global Future Circular Collider (FCC) study is preparing the foundation for a next-generation large-scale accelerator infrastructure in the heart of Europe. The FCC study focuses on the design of a 100-TeV hadron collider (FCC-hh), to be accommodated in a new ∼100 km tunnel near Geneva. It also includes the design of a high-luminosity electron-positron collider (FCC-ee), which could be installed in the same tunnel as a potential intermediate step, and a lepton-hadron collider option (FCC-he). The scope of the FCC study comprises accelerators, technology, infrastructure, detector, physics, concepts for worldwide data services, international governance models, and implementation scenarios. Among the FCC core technologies figure 16-T dipole magnets, based on Nb3Sn superconductor, for the FCC-hh hadron collider, and a highly efficient superconducting radiofrequency system for the FCC-ee lepton collider. The internat...

  18. Future Circular Colliders

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2108454; Zimmermann, Frank

    2016-01-01

    In response to a request from the 2013 Update of the European Strategy for Particle Physics, the global Future Circular Collider (FCC) study is preparing the foundation for a next-generation large-scale accelerator infrastructure in the heart of Europe. The FCC study focuses on the design of a 100-TeV hadron collider (FCC-hh), to be accommodated in a new ∼100 km tunnel near Geneva. It also includes the design of a high-luminosity electron-positron collider (FCC-ee), which could be installed in the same tunnel as a potential intermediate step, and a lepton-hadron collider option (FCC-he). The scope of the FCC study comprises accelerators, technology, infrastructure, detectors, physics, concepts for worldwide data services, international governance models, and implementation scenarios. Among the FCC core technologies figure 16-T dipole magnets, based on Nb3Sn superconductor, for the FCC-hh hadron collider, and a highly efficient superconducting radiofrequency system for the FCC-ee lepton collider. The interna...

  19. Towards Future Circular Colliders

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2108454; Zimmermann, Frank

    2016-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN presently provides proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass (c.m.) energy of 13 TeV. The LHC design was started more than 30 years ago, and its physics programme will extend through the second half of the 2030’s. The global Future Circular Collider (FCC) study is now preparing for a post-LHC project. The FCC study focuses on the design of a 100-TeV hadron collider (FCC-hh) in a new ∼100 km tunnel. It also includes the design of a high-luminosity electron-positron collider (FCC-ee) as a potential intermediate step, and a lepton-hadron collider option (FCC-he). The scope of the FCC study comprises accelerators, technology, infrastructure, detectors, physics, concepts for worldwide data services, international governance models, and implementation scenarios. Among the FCC core technologies figure 16-T dipole magnets, based on $Nb_3Sn$ superconductor, for the FCC-hh hadron collider, and a highly efficient superconducting radiofrequency system for the FCC-ee lepton c...

  20. Searching circular DNA strands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eliazar, Iddo [Department of Technology Management, Holon Institute of Technology, Holon 58102 (Israel); Koren, Tal [School of Chemistry, Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Klafter, Joseph [School of Chemistry, Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel)

    2007-02-14

    We introduce and explore a model of an ensemble of enzymes searching, in parallel, a circular DNA strand for a target site. The enzymes performing the search combine local scanning-conducted by a 1D motion along the strand-and random relocations on the strand-conducted via a confined motion in the medium containing the strand. Both the local scan mechanism and the relocation mechanism are considered general. The search durations are analysed, and their limiting probability distributions-for long DNA strands-are obtained in closed form. The results obtained (i) encompass the cases of single, parallel and massively parallel searches, taking place in the presence of either finite-mean or heavy-tailed relocation times, (ii) are applicable to a wide spectrum of local scan mechanisms including linear, Brownian, selfsimilar, and sub-diffusive motions (iii) provide a quantitative theoretical justification for the necessity of the relocation mechanism, and (iv) facilitate the derivation of optimal relocation strategies.

  1. Biofouling Control in Spiral-Wound Membrane Systems: Impact of Feed Spacer Modification and Biocides

    KAUST Repository

    Siddiqui, Amber

    2016-12-01

    High-quality drinking water can be produced with membrane-based filtration processes like reverse osmosis and nanofiltration. One of the major problems in these membrane systems is biofouling that reduces the membrane performance, increasing operational costs. Current biofouling control strategies such as pre-treatment, membrane modification, and chemical cleaning are not sufficient in all cases. Feed spacers are thin (0.8 mm), complex geometry meshes that separate membranes in a module. The main objective of this research was to evaluate whether feed spacer modification is a suitable strategy to control biofouling. Membrane fouling simulator studies with six feed spacers showed differences in biofouled spacer performance, concluding that (i) spacer geometry influences biofouling impact and (ii) biofouling studies are essential for evaluation of spacer biofouling impact. Computed tomography (CT) was found as a suitable technique to obtain three-dimensional (3D) measurements of spacers, enabling more representative mathematical modeling of hydraulic behavior of spacers in membrane systems. A strategy for developing, characterizing, and testing of spacers by numerical modeling, 3D printing of spacers and experimental membrane fouling simulator studies was developed. The combination of modeling and experimental testing of 3D printed spacers is a promising strategy to develop advanced spacers aiming to reduce the impact of biofilm formation on membrane performance and to improve the cleanability of spiral-wound membrane systems.

  2. Optimization of non-woven spacers by CFD and validation by experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, F.; Meindersma, G.W.; de Haan, A.B.; Reith, T.

    2002-01-01

    CFD simulations were used to determine mass transfer coefficients and power consumptions in channels filled with non-woven net spacers. The geometric parameters of a non-woven spacer were found to have a great influence on the performance of a spacer in terms of mass transfer enhancement and power

  3. The treatment of gustilo grade IIIB tibia fractures with application of antibiotic spacer, flap, and sequential distraction osteogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutson, James J; Dayicioglu, Deniz; Oeltjen, John C; Panthaki, Zubin J; Armstrong, Milton B

    2010-05-01

    Gustilo grade III (GIII) B-C open tibia shaft fractures have a wide spectrum of injury to the bone and soft tissues. At the severe end of the spectrum are GIII B tibia fractures that combine segmental bone loss with soft tissue injuries which require flap reconstruction. These complex injuries can be treated combining circular tensioned wire fixation and distraction histiogenesis with flap reconstruction. GIII B tibia shaft fractures were retrospectively reviewed at an urban Level One Trauma Center from 1992 to 2008 which were treated with the Ilizarov method. Seventy-six patients with 78 fractures were treated. Thirty-eight fractures were treated with flaps. Out of this cohort, a subset of 19 fractures were treated using the protocol of initial multiple debridements, half pin resuscitation external fixation, soft tissue reconstruction over antibiotic spacers and delayed Ilizarov reconstruction after stabilization of the soft tissue envelope. The fractures had multiple aggressive debridements removing nonviable bone. Thirteen free flaps and 6 rotation flaps were applied. Flaps were applied a mean time of 34 days (12-77) after initial injury. Two free flaps failed and had a second successful application. Flap survival was 17 of 19 (89%). There was one partial necrosis and one flap hematoma. There was no flap complication from delayed elevation and spacer removal. Mean tibial bone defect was 9.4 cm (5-17). Reconstruction time was 26.5 months (12-73). Eighteen of 19 fractures were reconstructed with union and no deep infection or osteomyelitis. One fracture had a hypertrophic nonunion in a noncompliant patient. The use of antibiotic spacers and flaps to construct a soft tissue tunnel combined with distraction histiogenesis is an effective technique to salvage complex GIII B tibia fractures with segmental bone loss.

  4. Digitalizing the Circular Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, Markus A.

    2016-12-01

    Metallurgy is a key enabler of a circular economy (CE), its digitalization is the metallurgical Internet of Things (m-IoT). In short: Metallurgy is at the heart of a CE, as metals all have strong intrinsic recycling potentials. Process metallurgy, as a key enabler for a CE, will help much to deliver its goals. The first-principles models of process engineering help quantify the resource efficiency (RE) of the CE system, connecting all stakeholders via digitalization. This provides well-argued and first-principles environmental information to empower a tax paying consumer society, policy, legislators, and environmentalists. It provides the details of capital expenditure and operational expenditure estimates. Through this path, the opportunities and limits of a CE, recycling, and its technology can be estimated. The true boundaries of sustainability can be determined in addition to the techno-economic evaluation of RE. The integration of metallurgical reactor technology and systems digitally, not only on one site but linking different sites globally via hardware, is the basis for describing CE systems as dynamic feedback control loops, i.e., the m-IoT. It is the linkage of the global carrier metallurgical processing system infrastructure that maximizes the recovery of all minor and technology elements in its associated refining metallurgical infrastructure. This will be illustrated through the following: (1) System optimization models for multimetal metallurgical processing. These map large-scale m-IoT systems linked to computer-aided design tools of the original equipment manufacturers and then establish a recycling index through the quantification of RE. (2) Reactor optimization and industrial system solutions to realize the "CE (within a) Corporation—CEC," realizing the CE of society. (3) Real-time measurement of ore and scrap properties in intelligent plant structures, linked to the modeling, simulation, and optimization of industrial extractive process

  5. Towards future circular colliders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedikt, Michael; Zimmermann, Frank

    2016-09-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) presently provides proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass (c.m.) energy of 13 TeV. The LHC design was started more than 30 years ago, and its physics program will extend through the second half of the 2030's. The global Future Circular Collider (FCC) study is now preparing for a post-LHC project. The FCC study focuses on the design of a 100-TeV hadron collider (FCC-hh) in a new ˜100 km tunnel. It also includes the design of a high-luminosity electron-positron collider (FCCee) as a potential intermediate step, and a lepton-hadron collider option (FCC-he). The scope of the FCC study comprises accelerators, technology, infrastructure, detectors, physics, concepts for worldwide data services, international governance models, and implementation scenarios. Among the FCC core technologies figure 16-T dipole magnets, based on Nb3 S n superconductor, for the FCC-hh hadron collider, and a highly-efficient superconducting radiofrequency system for the FCC-ee lepton collider. Following the FCC concept, the Institute of High Energy Physics (IHEP) in Beijing has initiated a parallel design study for an e + e - Higgs factory in China (CEPC), which is to be succeeded by a high-energy hadron collider (SPPC). At present a tunnel circumference of 54 km and a hadron collider c.m. energy of about 70 TeV are being considered. After a brief look at the LHC, this article reports the motivation and the present status of the FCC study, some of the primary design challenges and R&D subjects, as well as the emerging global collaboration.

  6. Feasibility of spacers to facilitate postoperative radiotherapy for retroperitoneal sarcomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Jessica; Smith, Richard; Borg, Martin; Dobbins, Christopher; Gowda, Raghu; Chryssidis, Steve; Borg, Matthew; Neuhaus, Susan

    2017-12-01

    The role and timing of postoperative radiotherapy (PORT) in the management of retroperitoneal sarcoma (RPS) remains controversial. This is a retrospective cohort review of patients undergoing curative resection for RPS at a single institution between January 2011 and July 2016. Patient selection was through the South Australian Soft Tissue Tumour Multidisciplinary Group (MDT) based at Royal Adelaide Hospital. An individualised approach, including assessment of resectability, histopathological grade and subtype, and radiotherapy considerations, was taken for each patient. Patients offered preoperative radiotherapy or palliation were excluded. A saline-filled spacer was inserted following operative resection. Radiotherapy commenced postoperatively. Patients underwent laparotomy to remove the device approximately 6 weeks post completion of PORT. Primary endpoints were technical feasibility, perioperative morbidity and radiation toxicity. Secondary endpoints were local recurrence (LR), distant recurrence (DR) and death. During the study period, 40 patients with RPS were managed through the MDT. Twelve patients (ages 33-78) underwent PORT utilising spacers. Radiotherapy toxicity was reported in four patients and extensive adhesions observed in another four patients during spacer removal. Median follow-up was 35 months (range 4-60). Seven patients remain alive and disease free. Four patients developed LR, three developed DR. Three patients died; two with DR and one with LR. Two patients with recurrent/progressive disease are alive; one with DR and one with LR. Use of intraoperative spacers to facilitate PORT is feasible, with acceptable toxicity following resection of RPS. Patient selection for this approach remains to be determined. © 2017 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists.

  7. Impact of feed spacer and membrane modification by hydrophilic, bactericidal and biocidal coating on biofouling control

    KAUST Repository

    Araújo, Paula A.

    2012-06-01

    The influence of polydopamine- and polydopamine-. graft-poly(ethylene glycol)-coated feed spacers and membranes, copper-coated feed spacers, and commercially-available biostatic feed spacers on biofouling has been studied in membrane fouling simulators. Feed spacers and membranes applied in practical membrane filtration systems were used; biofouling development was monitored by feed channel pressure drop increase and biomass accumulation. Polydopamine and polydopamine-. g-PEG are hydrophilic surface modification agents expected to resist protein and bacterial adhesion, while copper feed spacer coatings and biocides infused in feed spacers are expected to restrict biological growth. Our studies showed that polydopamine and polydopamine-. g-PEG coatings on feed spacers and membranes, copper coatings on feed spacers, and a commercial biostatic feed spacer did not have a significant impact on feed channel pressure drop increase and biofilm accumulation as measured by ATP and TOC content. The studied spacer and membrane modifications were not effective for biofouling control; it is doubtful that feed spacer and membrane modification, in general, may be effective for biofouling control regardless of the type of applied coating. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  8. The influence of inhaled corticosteroids and spacer devices on the growth of respiratory pathogenic microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Tjalling W; Rottier, Bart L; Visserman, Hylke; Wilffert, Bob; Weel, Jan

    2009-04-01

    Guidelines advise weekly cleansing of spacers, with one of the reasons being to prevent the spacers from becoming colonized with respiratory pathogens. Earlier work in clinical settings showed conflicting results. Common respiratory pathogens and Candida albicans were applied on Petri dishes with and without inhaled corticosteroids and in 3 brands of spacer devices, with and without inhaled corticosteroids. Growth was measured. After 24 hours, Staphylococcus aureus grew in 7 of 18 spacers (39%); Pseudomonas aeruginosa grew in 12 out of 18 spacers (67%); and C albicans survived in 5 of 18 spacers (28%). Microorganisms survived on Petri dishes with fluticasone and beclomethasone but not when budesonide was applied. One out of 30 metal Nebuhalers (3%) was colonized after 24 hours, whereas of 30 Volumatics 8 (27%) and Aerochambers, 17 (57%) still had viable microorganisms. Application of inhaled steroids did not affect growth in the spacers. The colonization of metal spacers is lower than of spacers made of polycarbonate or polyethylene. C albicans can survive in spacers. The survival of microorganisms in spacers is not influenced by inhaled corticosteroids.

  9. Independent tuning of double plasmonic waves in a free-standing graphene-spacer-grating-spacer-graphene hybrid slab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying; Yao, Jin; Song, Zhengyong; Ye, Longfang; Cai, Guoxiong; Liu, Qing Huo

    2016-07-25

    The independent excitation and tuning of double plasmonic waves are realized in a free-standing graphene-spacer-grating-spacer-graphene (GSGSG) hybrid slab, which consists of two graphene field effect transistors placed back-to-back to each other. Resulted from the high transparency and the tight confinement of surface plasmonic mode for the graphene, double plasmonic waves can be independently excited by guided-mode resonances (GMRs). Theoretical and numerical investigations are performed in the mid-infrared band. Furthermore, the tuning of individual GMR resonant wavelengths with respect to the system parameters is studied. The results provide opportunities to engineer the proposed hybrid slab for wavelength selective and multiplexing applications.

  10. Development and characterization of 3D-printed feed spacers for spiral wound membrane systems

    KAUST Repository

    Siddiqui, Amber

    2016-01-02

    Feed spacers are important for the impact of biofouling on the performance of spiral-wound reverse osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration (NF) membrane systems. The objective of this study was to propose a strategy for developing, characterizing, and testing of feed spacers by numerical modeling, three-dimensional (3D) printing of feed spacers and experimental membrane fouling simulator (MFS) studies. The results of numerical modeling on the hydraulic behavior of various feed spacer geometries suggested that the impact of spacers on hydraulics and biofouling can be improved. A good agreement was found for the modeled and measured relationship between linear flow velocity and pressure drop for feed spacers with the same geometry, indicating that modeling can serve as first step in spacer characterization. An experimental comparison study of a feed spacer currently applied in practice and a 3D printed feed spacer with the same geometry showed (i) similar hydraulic behavior, (ii) similar pressure drop development with time and (iii) similar biomass accumulation during MFS biofouling studies, indicating that 3D printing technology is an alternative strategy for development of thin feed spacers with a complex geometry. Based on the numerical modeling results, a modified feed spacer with low pressure drop was selected for 3D printing. The comparison study of the feed spacer from practice and the modified geometry 3D printed feed spacer established that the 3D printed spacer had (i) a lower pressure drop during hydraulic testing, (ii) a lower pressure drop increase in time with the same accumulated biomass amount, indicating that modifying feed spacer geometries can reduce the impact of accumulated biomass on membrane performance. The combination of numerical modeling of feed spacers and experimental testing of 3D printed feed spacers is a promising strategy (rapid, low cost and representative) to develop advanced feed spacers aiming to reduce the impact of biofilm formation on

  11. Development and characterization of 3D-printed feed spacers for spiral wound membrane systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Amber; Farhat, Nadia; Bucs, Szilárd S; Linares, Rodrigo Valladares; Picioreanu, Cristian; Kruithof, Joop C; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M; Kidwell, James; Vrouwenvelder, Johannes S

    2016-03-15

    Feed spacers are important for the impact of biofouling on the performance of spiral-wound reverse osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration (NF) membrane systems. The objective of this study was to propose a strategy for developing, characterizing, and testing of feed spacers by numerical modeling, three-dimensional (3D) printing of feed spacers and experimental membrane fouling simulator (MFS) studies. The results of numerical modeling on the hydrodynamic behavior of various feed spacer geometries suggested that the impact of spacers on hydrodynamics and biofouling can be improved. A good agreement was found for the modeled and measured relationship between linear flow velocity and pressure drop for feed spacers with the same geometry, indicating that modeling can serve as the first step in spacer characterization. An experimental comparison study of a feed spacer currently applied in practice and a 3D printed feed spacer with the same geometry showed (i) similar hydrodynamic behavior, (ii) similar pressure drop development with time and (iii) similar biomass accumulation during MFS biofouling studies, indicating that 3D printing technology is an alternative strategy for development of thin feed spacers with a complex geometry. Based on the numerical modeling results, a modified feed spacer with low pressure drop was selected for 3D printing. The comparison study of the feed spacer from practice and the modified geometry 3D printed feed spacer established that the 3D printed spacer had (i) a lower pressure drop during hydrodynamic testing, (ii) a lower pressure drop increase in time with the same accumulated biomass amount, indicating that modifying feed spacer geometries can reduce the impact of accumulated biomass on membrane performance. The combination of numerical modeling of feed spacers and experimental testing of 3D printed feed spacers is a promising strategy (rapid, low cost and representative) to develop advanced feed spacers aiming to reduce the impact of

  12. Circular dichroism techniques: biomolecular and nanostructural analyses- a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjbar, Bijan; Gill, Pooria

    2009-08-01

    This paper reviews the best known techniques using circular dichroism spectroscopy such as conventional circular dichroism (i.e. electronic circular dichroism), magnetic circular dichroisms (magnetic vibrational circular dichroism, x-ray magnetic circular dichroism), fluorescence detected circular dichroism, near-infrared circular dichroism, vibrational circular dichroism, Fourier transform infrared circular dichroism, high pressure liquid chromatography circular dichroism, stopped-flow circular dichroism, and synchrotron radiation circular dichroism. Also, we have described here the most important applications of circular dichroism spectroscopy in structural biochemistry and nanoscience.

  13. Logistic regression for circular data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Daffaie, Kadhem; Khan, Shahjahan

    2017-05-01

    This paper considers the relationship between a binary response and a circular predictor. It develops the logistic regression model by employing the linear-circular regression approach. The maximum likelihood method is used to estimate the parameters. The Newton-Raphson numerical method is used to find the estimated values of the parameters. A data set from weather records of Toowoomba city is analysed by the proposed methods. Moreover, a simulation study is considered. The R software is used for all computations and simulations.

  14. Implementing circularity using partial evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawall, Julia Laetitia

    2001-01-01

    of an imperative C-like language, by extending the language with a new construct, persistent variables. We show that an extension of partial evaluation can eliminate persistent variables, producing a staged C program. This approach has been implemented in the Tempo specializer for C programs, and has proven useful......Complex data dependencies can often be expressed concisely by defining a variable in terms of part of its own value. Such a circular reference can be naturally expressed in a lazy functional language or in an attribute grammar. In this paper, we consider circular references in the context...

  15. Response of an electrostatic probe for a right cylindrical spacer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rerup, T; Crichton, George C; McAllister, Iain Wilson

    1994-01-01

    During the last decade many experimental studies of surface charge phenomena have been undertaken employing right cylindrical spacers. Measurement of the surface charge was performed using small electrostatic field probes to scan across the dielectric surface. Charges are electrostatically induced...... on the sensor plate by the ambient surface charge, and hence as the probe is moved parallel to the surface the potential of the sensor plate changes. The probe sensor-plate potential is thus the parameter of interest as this parameter can be related in a quantitative manner to the surface charge density...

  16. Transcriptional regulator-mediated activation of adaptation genes triggers CRISPR de novo spacer acquisition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Tao; Li, Yingjun; Wang, Xiaodi

    2015-01-01

    Acquisition of de novo spacer sequences confers CRISPR-Cas with a memory to defend against invading genetic elements. However, the mechanism of regulation of CRISPR spacer acquisition remains unknown. Here we examine the transcriptional regulation of the conserved spacer acquisition genes in Type I......, it was demonstrated that the transcription level of csa1, cas1, cas2 and cas4 was significantly enhanced in a csa3a-overexpression strain and, moreover, the Csa1 and Cas1 protein levels were increased in this strain. Furthermore, we demonstrated the hyperactive uptake of unique spacers within both CRISPR loci...... in the presence of the csa3a overexpression vector. The spacer acquisition process is dependent on the CCN PAM sequence and protospacer selection is random and non-directional. These results suggested a regulation mechanism of CRISPR spacer acquisition where a single transcriptional regulator senses the presence...

  17. In vitro microbiologic evaluation of PTFE and cotton as spacer materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paranjpe, Avina; Jain, Sumita; Alibhai, Karim J; Wadhwani, Chandur P; Darveau, Richard P; Johnson, James D

    2012-09-01

    To microbiologically evaluate the efficacy of cotton and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) tape used as spacer materials. Twenty-six extracted human molars were restored using either cotton or PTFE tape as spacers under a standardized provisional restorative material (Cavit). The teeth were incubated for 7 days in a culture of Streptococcus gordonii or in liquid media alone. The spacers were removed and tested for bacterial contamination. The access cavities were also evaluated for bacterial contamination. Nine of 10 teeth with cotton spacers and one of 10 teeth with PTFE spacers were positive for S gordonii growth. The nine teeth in the cotton group also showed contamination of the access cavities. Even under optimal conditions, cotton spacers may cause leakage into the access cavities. Cotton fibers may serve as a route for bacterial contamination of the access cavities and root canal space. In contrast, PTFE tape did not provide an avenue for bacterial contamination.

  18. Circular polarization observed in bioluminescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnberg, Hans; Meijer, E.W.; Hummelen, J.C.; Dekkers, H.P.J.M.; Schippers, P.H.; Carlson, A.D.

    1980-01-01

    While investigating circular polarization in luminescence, and having found it in chemiluminescence, we have studied bioluminescence because it is such a widespread and dramatic natural phenomenon. We report here that left and right lanterns of live larvae of the fireflies, Photuris lucicrescens and

  19. Ecodesign for a Circular Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard, Anja Marie

    as a consumption and production system based on closed loops that minimise resources, energy flows and environmental degradation. In this PhD thesis, I have examined how ecodesign can close the material loops in the circular economy for electrical and electronic equipment. The study examines how to improve...

  20. Single-electron transistors fabricated with sidewall spacer patterning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Byung-Gook; Kim, Dae Hwan; Kim, Kyung Rok; Song, Ki-Whan; Lee, Jong Duk

    2003-09-01

    We have implemented a sidewall spacer patterning method for novel dual-gate single-electron transistor (DGSET) and metal-oxide-semiconductor-based SET (MOSET) based on the uniform SOI wire, using conventional lithography and processing technology. A 30 nm wide silicon quantum wire is defined by a sidewall spacer patterning method, and depletion gates for two tunnel junctions of the DGSET are formed by the doped polycrystalline silicon sidewall. The fabricated DGSET and MOSET show clear single-electron tunneling phenomena at liquid nitrogen temperature and insensitivity of the Coulomb oscillation period to gate bias conditions. On the basis of the phase control capability of the sidewall depletion gates, we have proposed a complementary self-biasing method, which enables the SET/CMOS hybrid multi-valued logic (MVL) to operate perfectly well at high temperature, where the peak-to-valley current ratio of Coulomb oscillation severely decreases. The suggested scheme is evaluated by SPICE simulation with an analytical DGSET model, and it is confirmed that even DGSETs with a large Si island can be utilized efficiently in the multi-valued logic.

  1. Effect of plastic spacer handling on salbutamol lung deposition in asthmatic children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lipworth, Brian J; Lee, Daniel K C; Anhøj, Jacob

    2002-01-01

    AIMS: To study the effects of electrostatics in a plastic spacer on the lung deposition of salbutamol in asthmatic children. METHODS: Twenty-five children (5-12 years) with mild asthma were given salbutamol hydrofluoroalkane pressurized metered dose inhaler 400 micro g via a 750 ml plastic spacer...... on separate days. Blood samples were taken for plasma salbutamol at 5, 10, 15 and 20 min after inhalation to measure lung bioavailability as a surrogate for relative lung dose. With immediate inhalation following actuation, a new rinsed spacer (NewRinsed ) was compared with a used spacer after repeated daily...

  2. CRISPR-Cas Systems Optimize Their Immune Response by Specifying the Site of Spacer Integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinn, Jon; Marraffini, Luciano A

    2016-11-03

    CRISPR-Cas systems defend prokaryotes against viruses and plasmids. Short DNA segments of the invader, known as spacers, are stored in the CRISPR array as immunological memories. New spacers are added invariably to the 5' end of the array; therefore, the first spacer matches the latest foreign threat. Whether this highly polarized order of spacer insertion influences CRISPR-Cas immunity has not been explored. Here we show that a conserved sequence located immediately upstream of the CRISPR array specifies the site of new spacer integration. Mutation of this sequence results in erroneous incorporation of new spacers into the middle of the array. We show that spacers added through polarized acquisition give rise to more robust CRISPR-Cas immunity than spacers added to the middle of the array. This study demonstrates that the CRISPR-Cas system specifies the site of spacer integration to optimize the immune response against the most immediate threat to the host. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Nanoparticle-Based Brachytherapy Spacers for Delivery of Localized Combined Chemoradiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Rajiv, E-mail: r.kumar@neu.edu [Nanomedicine Science and Technology Center, Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Belz, Jodi [Nanomedicine Science and Technology Center, Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Markovic, Stacey [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Jadhav, Tej; Fowle, William [Nanomedicine Science and Technology Center, Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Niedre, Mark [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Cormack, Robert; Makrigiorgos, Mike G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Sridhar, Srinivas [Nanomedicine Science and Technology Center, Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Purpose: In radiation therapy (RT), brachytherapy-inert source spacers are commonly used in clinical practice to achieve high spatial accuracy. These implanted devices are critical technical components of precise radiation delivery but provide no direct therapeutic benefits. Methods and Materials: Here we have fabricated implantable nanoplatforms or chemoradiation therapy (INCeRT) spacers loaded with silica nanoparticles (SNPs) conjugated containing a drug, to act as a slow-release drug depot for simultaneous localized chemoradiation therapy. The spacers are made of poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) as matrix and are physically identical in size to the commercially available brachytherapy spacers (5 mm × 0.8 mm). The silica nanoparticles, 250 nm in diameter, were conjugated with near infrared fluorophore Cy7.5 as a model drug, and the INCeRT spacers were characterized in terms of size, morphology, and composition using different instrumentation techniques. The spacers were further doped with an anticancer drug, docetaxel. We evaluated the in vivo stability, biocompatibility, and biodegradation of these spacers in live mouse tissues. Results: The electron microscopy studies showed that nanoparticles were distributed throughout the spacers. These INCeRT spacers remained stable and can be tracked by the use of optical fluorescence. In vivo optical imaging studies showed a slow diffusion of nanoparticles from the spacer to the adjacent tissue in contrast to the control Cy7.5-PLGA spacer, which showed rapid disintegration in a few days with a burst release of Cy7.5. The docetaxel spacers showed suppression of tumor growth in contrast to control mice over 16 days. Conclusions: The imaging with the Cy7.5 spacer and therapeutic efficacy with docetaxel spacers supports the hypothesis that INCeRT spacers can be used for delivering the drugs in a slow, sustained manner in conjunction with brachytherapy, in contrast to the rapid clearance of the drugs when

  4. Diffraction of Electromagnetic Wave by Circular Disk and Circular Hole

    CERN Document Server

    Shahzad, Muhammad Adnan

    2010-01-01

    The problem of diffraction of an electromagnetic plane wave by a perfectly conducting circular disk and its complementary problem, diffraction by a circular hole in an infinite conducting plate, are rigorously solved using the method of the Kobayashi potential. The mathematical formulation involved dual integral equation derived from the potential integral and boundary condition on the plane where a disk or hole is located. The weighting function in the potential integral are determined by applying the properties of the Weber-Schafheitlin's discontinuous integral and the solution are obtained in the form of a matrix equation. The matrix elements of the equations for the expansion coefficients are given by three kinds of infinite integral and the series solution for these infinite integral are derived. For the verification of these series solution, the numerical integral are derived and the results are computed numerically using the method of Gaussian quadrature for conformation. The numerical results are give...

  5. 77 FR 42077 - Environmental Justice: Final Circular

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-17

    ... recipients of FTA funds on how to fully engage environmental justice populations in the public transportation... TRANSPORTATION Federal Transit Administration Environmental Justice: Final Circular AGENCY: Federal Transit... (hereinafter ``EJ Circular'') on incorporating environmental justice principles into plans, projects, and...

  6. Long-Term Outcomes of Permanent Cement Spacers in the Infected Foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmarsafi, Tammer; Oliver, Noah G; Steinberg, John S; Evans, Karen K; Attinger, Christopher E; Kim, Paul J

    When osteomyelitis occurs in the infected foot, cement spacers have been used as a limb salvage tool. The aim of the present study was to assess the longevity and outcomes in high-risk, low-demand patients who have undergone resection of bone and subsequent placement of permanent antibiotic-eluting cement spacers in the foot. A retrospective review case series of 30 patients who had undergone placement of a permanent antibiotic-eluting cement spacer in the foot were evaluated for retention, spacer exchange, removal, amputation, and functional status. The minimum follow-up time for inclusion was 12 months. Two thirds of all patients had successful spacers (n = 20) that were either retained (n = 14) or successfully exchanged (n = 6). One third of all patients experienced spacer failure (n = 10) and required removal. Of the 10 patients requiring spacer removal, 4 underwent removal with subsequent arthrodesis and 6 underwent removal with subsequent pseudoarthrosis. Also, 8 of these patients (26.7%) required partial foot amputation of the ipsilateral foot. These amputations were not directly related to the use or removal of the spacer. The average time to spacer removal or partial amputation was 20.9 (range 0.2 to 60.9) months. The longest retained spacer in the foot was 76 months at the last follow-up visit. The longest exchanged spacer at the last follow-up visit was 111 months. All surviving patients were ambulatory at the last follow-up visit. Copyright © 2016 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Dosimetric influence of seed spacers and end-weld thickness for permanent prostate brachytherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melhus, Christopher S; Mikell, Justin K; Frank, Steven J; Mourtada, Firas; Rivard, Mark J

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the dosimetric influence of conventional spacers and a cobalt chloride complex contrast (C4) agent, a novel marker for MRI that can also serve as a seed spacer, adjacent to (103)Pd, (125)I, and (131)Cs sources for permanent prostate brachytherapy. Monte Carlo methods for radiation transport were used to estimate the dosimetric influence of brachytherapy end-weld thicknesses and spacers near the three sources. Single-source assessments and volumetric conditions simulating prior patient treatments were computed. Volume-dose distributions were imported to a treatment planning system for dose-volume histogram analyses. Single-source assessment revealed that brachytherapy spacers primarily attenuated the dose distribution along the source long axis. The magnitude of the attenuation at 1 cm on the long axis ranged from -10% to -5% for conventional spacers and approximately -2% for C4 spacers, with the largest attenuation for (103)Pd. Spacer perturbation of dose distributions was less than manufacturing tolerances for brachytherapy sources as gleaned by an analysis of end-weld thicknesses. Volumetric Monte Carlo assessment demonstrated that TG-43 techniques overestimated calculated doses by approximately 2%. Specific dose-volume histogram metrics for prostate implants were not perturbed by inclusion of conventional or C4 spacers in clinical models. Dosimetric perturbations of single-seed dose distributions by brachytherapy spacers exceeded 10% along the source long axes adjacent to the spacers. However, no dosimetric impact on volumetric parameters was noted for brachytherapy spacers adjacent to (103)Pd, (125)I, or (131)Cs sources in the context of permanent prostate brachytherapy implants. Copyright © 2014 American Brachytherapy Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Circular Business: Collaborate and Circulate : a bookreview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmermans, Ratna W.; Witjes, S.

    2016-01-01

    With their book, “Circular Business: Collaborate and Circulate”, Circular Collaboration, Amersfoort, ISBN: 978-90-824902-0-6, €35, Kraaijenhagen et al. (2016) give companies practical guidance on their contribution to the development of a more circular economy by presenting a practical 10-step

  9. Siloxane head groups and spacers in calamitic liquid crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloess, Petra Sabine

    Organo-siloxanes are a compromise between a low molar mass liquid crystal and a liquid crystalline side chain polysiloxane polymer. Like polymers the compounds segregate in mesogen rich layers and siloxane rich layers, but like low molar mass compounds the viscosity is in the magnitude of classic LMM liquid crystals. The siloxane group can be used as a head group, a linear linking group and a cyclic linking group. Up to four mesogens can be connected. In the present work small siloxane groups were grafted onto a variety of mesogens in a variety of sizes and shapes. As a steroidal mesogen cholestanol derivatives, as aromatic cores laterally substituted biphenyl benzoates were synthesised and characterised. All liquid crystals investigated were synthesised via established procedures. Olefinic terminated precursor compounds were hydrosilylated with smaller siloxane groups. Structure and phase properties were determined via optical microscopy, differential scanning microscopy, X-ray diffraction and dilatometry. The helielectric compounds were also characterised electro-optically, i.e. tilt angle, spontaneous polarisation and optical response time. To investigate the role of the siloxane in steroidal liquid crystals three different series of cholestanol derivatives were synthesised and characterised. The mesophase behaviour depended strongly on the spacer length, the number of mesogens attached to the siloxane group and the siloxane length. Mono- and bimesogenic compounds exhibited an odd-even effect on the melting transition, whereas the clearing temperatures increased with an increase in spacer length. All LMM organo- siloxanes are liquid crystalline at ambient temperature. The analogous side chain polysiloxanes exhibited significantly higher transition temperatures and viscosity. A series of androstane derivatives revealed the importance of a short branched alkyl tail for the occurance of a broad mesophase. Biphenyl benzoates are known to exhibit ferroelectric

  10. Internal transcribed spacer dimorphism and diversity in Dientamoeba fragilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windsor, Jeffrey J; Macfarlane, Lorna; Clark, C Graham

    2006-01-01

    The internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the ribosomal RNA operon is frequently used for detecting sequence variation among closely related species as it is usually homogeneous within strains but evolves more rapidly than ribosomal RNA coding regions. We have studied this region in both genotypes of the human intestinal parasite Dientamoeba fragilis. In contrast to most organisms, we have identified extensive variation between copies of the sequence within the same strain. The ITS occurs in 2 major forms in each genotype but additional heterogeneity is also present within each form. The significance of this finding is unclear, but the only precedent for such variation is in the Apicomplexa, which have multiple dispersed ribosomal RNA operons in contrast to the tandem arrays found in most other eukaryotes.

  11. Magnetic decoupling of ferromagnetic metals through a graphene spacer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grimaldi, I.; Papagno, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universitá della Calabria, Arcavacata di Rende (CS), 87036 (Italy); Ferrari, L. [Istituto dei Sistemi Complessi, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Roma I-00133 (Italy); Istituto di Struttura della Materia, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Trieste (Italy); Sheverdyaeva, P.M.; Mahatha, S.K. [Istituto di Struttura della Materia, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Trieste (Italy); Pacilé, D., E-mail: daniela.pacile@fis.unical.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universitá della Calabria, Arcavacata di Rende (CS), 87036 (Italy); Istituto di Struttura della Materia, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Trieste (Italy); Carbone, C. [Istituto di Struttura della Materia, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Trieste (Italy)

    2017-03-15

    We study the magnetic coupling between different ferromagnetic metals (FMs) across a graphene (G) layer, and the role of graphene as a thin covalent spacer. Starting with G grown on a FM substrate (Ni or Co), we deposited on top at room temperature several FM metals (Fe, Ni, Co). By measuring the dichroic effect of 3p photoemission lines we detect the magnetization of the substrate and the sign of the exchange coupling in FM overlayer at room temperature. We show that the G layer magnetically decouples the FM metals. - Highlights: • The magnetic coupling between ferromagnets mediated by graphene is studied. • To this end, the linear dichroic effect in 3p photoemission lines is employed. • For selected junctions no magnetic coupling is attained through graphene. • Graphene inhibits the magnetic alignment that normally occurs between ferromagnets.

  12. Investigation of multiphase multicomponent aerosol flow dictating pMDI-spacer interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Saurabh; Peri, S Prasad; Chaudhuri, Bodhisattwa

    2017-08-30

    The use of Pressurized metered dose inhalers (pMDIs) for the treatment of asthma and other chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases is frequently associated with breath-actuation synchronization problems and poor pulmonary delivery, particularly amongst the pediatric and geriatric population groups. Spacers, or Valved Holding Chambers (VHCs), are frequently used to address these problems. However, the performance of spacers with different pMDIs is also highly variable and needs to be investigated. The purpose of the current study is to develop a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model which can characterize multiphase multicomponent aerosol flow issuing from a commercial suspension-based pMDI into a spacer. The CFD model was initially calibrated against published experimental measurements in order to appropriately model the spray characteristics. This model was subsequently used to examine several combinations of inhaler, spacer and USP Throat geometries under different discharge rates of coflow air. The CFD model predictions compared favorably with experimental measurements. In particular, the predictions show, in accordance with experimental determinations, a decrease of drug retained by the spacers with increasing coflow air. The recirculation observed near the obstructions in axial path of the spray within either spacer is considered to be central for increasing spray retention and drug deposition behavior. Fluid flow patterns within the spacers were correlated with drug deposition behavior through a dimensionless variable, the Recirculation index (RCI). Bigger particles were found to be selectively retained within the spacer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of plastic spacer handling on salbutamol lung deposition in asthmatic children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lipworth, Brian J; Lee, Daniel K C; Anhøj, Jacob

    2002-01-01

    AIMS: To study the effects of electrostatics in a plastic spacer on the lung deposition of salbutamol in asthmatic children. METHODS: Twenty-five children (5-12 years) with mild asthma were given salbutamol hydrofluoroalkane pressurized metered dose inhaler 400 micro g via a 750 ml plastic spacer...

  14. The influence of inhaled corticosteroids and spacer devices on the growth of respiratory pathogenic microorganisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Tjalling W.; Rottier, Bart L.; Visserman, Hylke; Wilffert, Bob; Weel, Jan

    Background: Guidelines advise weekly cleansing of spacers, with one of the reasons being to prevent the spacers from becoming colonized with respiratory pathogens. Earlier work in clinical settings showed conflicting results. Methods: Common respiratory pathogens and Candida albicans were applied on

  15. Variability of aerosol delivery via spacer devices in young asthmatic children in daily life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.M. Janssens (Hettie); S.G. Devadason; W.C.J. Hop (Wim); P.N. LeSouef; J.C. de Jongste (Johan); H.A.W.M. Tiddens (Harm)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractPressurized metered dose inhalers (pMDI) are widely used together with spacers for the treatment of asthma in children. However, the variability of daily medication dose for pMDI/spacer combinations is not known. Electrostatic charge is a potential source

  16. Sequence differences in the internal transcribed spacers of DNA among four species of hookworm (Ancylostomatoidea: Ancylostoma).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilton, N B; Gasser, R B

    1999-12-01

    The two ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacers (1 and 2) of the hookworms Ancylostoma caninum, A. tubaeforme, A. ceylanicum and A. duodenale were sequenced. The sequence lengths were similar among the four species, except that A. ceylanicum had slightly longer (by 5-7 bp) internal transcribed spacer 1 and 2 sequences. The predicted secondary structure of the internal transcribed spacer 2 precursor rRNA was similar for all species, despite interspecific differences in primary sequence ranging from 0.9% to 13.2%. Interspecific differences in internal transcribed spacer 1 sequence ranged from 0.9% to 7.5%. A cladistic analysis of the sequence data, using the human hookworm Necator americanus as the outgroup, provided little resolution of the phylogenetic relationships, except that A. ceylanicum occurred on a branch external to the other three species. Nonetheless, internal transcribed spacers 1 and 2 may provide useful phylogenetic information at higher taxonomic levels within the superfamily Ancylostomatoidea.

  17. An experimental investigation of supercritical heat transfer in a three-rod bundle equipped with wire-wrap and grid spacers and cooled by carbon dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eter, Ahmad, E-mail: eng.eter@yahoo.com; Groeneveld, Dé, E-mail: degroeneveld@gmail.com; Tavoularis, Stavros, E-mail: stavros.tavoularis@uottawa.ca

    2016-07-15

    tube at similar conditions and with predictions of a supercritical heat transfer correlation. Heat transfer was observed to deteriorate near the start of the heated section of the rod bundle equipped with either type of spacers as well as in a circular tube for mass fluxes between 200 and 700 kg m{sup −2} s{sup −1}. The onset of deterioration occurred at a higher heat flux for the wire-wrapped bundle than for the one with grid spacers, and at the lowest heat flux for the tube. Normal heat transfer in either of the rod bundles behaved similarly to the one in the tube and was also compatible with the predictions of the correlation of Jackson. The grid spacers introduced a strong local enhancement, but their effects disappeared only about 10 rod diameters downstream.

  18. Best Practice Examples of Circular Business Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guldmann, Eva

    the potential to provide significant economic benefits in addition to new ways of forming partnerships with suppliers and connecting with customers. Furthermore, circular business models generate essential environmental benefits as a result of the improved resource productivity they offer. These benefits are......Best practice examples of circular business models are presented in this report. The purpose is to inform and inspire interested readers, in particular companies that aspire to examine the potentials of the circular economy. Circular business models in two different sectors are examined, namely...... the textile and clothing sector as well as the durable goods sector. In order to appreciate the notion of circular business models, the basics of the circular economy are outlined along with three frameworks for categorizing the various types of circular business models. The frameworks take point of departure...

  19. Intraoperative molds to create an articulating spacer for the infected knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Thiel, Geoffrey S; Berend, Keith R; Klein, Gregg R; Gordon, Alexander C; Lombardi, Adolph V; Della Valle, Craig J

    2011-04-01

    Chronic infections in TKA have been traditionally treated with a two-stage protocol incorporating a temporary antibiotic-loaded cement spacer. The use of a static as opposed to an articulating spacer is controversial. Some surgeons believe a static spacer results in a higher rate of infection eradication, whereas others believe an articulating spacer provides equivalent rates of infection control with improved function between stages and the potential for better eventual range of motion. We determined the rates of infection control and postoperative function for an articulating all-cement antibiotic spacer fashioned intraoperatively from prefabricated silicone molds. We retrospectively reviewed 60 patients with an infected TKA using the same cement-on-cement articulating spacer. A minimum of 4 g antibiotic per package of cement was used when making the spacer. Complications and pre- and postoperative knee flexion, extension, and Knee Society scores were recorded. Bone loss associated with the spacer was determined radiographically and by intraoperative inspection of the bony surfaces at the second stage. Minimum followup was 24 months (mean, 35 months; range, 24-51 months). Seven patients (12%) became reinfected, four with an organism different from that identified at the index resection arthroplasty. One spacer femoral component broke between stages but did not require any specific treatment. We identified no bone loss between stages and no complications related to the cement-on-cement articulation. The mean pretreatment Knee Society scores of 53 improved to 79. The mean preoperative flexion of 90.6º improved to 101.3º at final followup. An articulating antibiotic spacer was associated with control of a deep periprosthetic infection in 88% of patients while allowing range of motion between stages. Level IV, therapeutic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  20. Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) Spacers for Anterior Cervical Fusion: A Retrospective Comparative Effectiveness Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemcke, Johannes; Al-Zain, Ferass; Meier, Ullrich; Suess, Olaf

    2011-01-01

    Anterior cervical decompression and fusion (ACDF) is the standard surgical treatment for radiculopathy and myelopathy. Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) has an elasticity similar to bone and thus appears well suited for use as the implant in ACDF procedures. The aim of this study is to examine the clinical and radiographic outcome of patients treated with standing alone PEEK spacers without bone morphogenic protein (BMP) or plating and to examine the influence of the different design of the two spacers on the rate of subsidence and dislocation. This retrospective comparative study reviewed 335 patients treated by ACDF in a specialized urban hospital for radiculopathy or myelopathy due to degenerative pathologies. The Intromed PEEK spacer was used in 181 patients from 3/2002 to 11/2004, and the AMT SHELL spacer was implanted in 154 patients from 4/2004 to 12/2007. The follow-up rate was 100% at three months post-op and 82.7% (277 patients) at one year. The patients were assessed with the Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA) questionnaire and radiographically. At the one-year follow-up there were 118/277 patients with an excellent clinical outcome on the JOA, 112/277 with a good outcome, 20/277 with a fair outcome, and 27/277 with a poor outcome. Subsidence was observed in 13.3% of patients with the Intromed spacer vs 8.4% of the patients with the AMT SHELL. Dislocation of the spacer was observed in 10 of the 181 patients with Intromed spacers but in none of the 154 patients with Shell spacers. The study demonstrates that ACDF with standing alone PEEK cages leads to excellent and good clinical outcomes. The differences we observed in the subsidence rate between the two spacers were not significant and cannot be related to a single design feature of the spacers.

  1. Encryption using circular harmonic key

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Enrique Rueda-Parada

    2015-01-01

    En este trabajo presento un estudio sobre la varianza a la rota ción de la llave del procesador de encriptación basado en la tr ansformada de Fourier. Determiné que la llave en coordenadas rectangulares pe rmite un nivel de tolerancia inferior a 0.2 grados de rotación de la llave en el proceso de decriptación. Entonces la solución es construir la llave en coordenadas polares, por medio de una expansión en armónicos circulares. De esta manera, el umbral de tolerancia a um...

  2. Improving electricity production in tubular microbial fuel cells through optimizing the anolyte flow with spiral spacers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fei; Ge, Zheng; Grimaud, Julien; Hurst, Jim; He, Zhen

    2013-04-01

    The use of spiral spacers to create a helical flow for improving electricity generation in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) was investigated in both laboratory and on-site tests. The lab tests found that the MFC with the spiral spacers produced more electricity than the one without the spiral spacers at different recirculation rates or organic loading rates, likely due to the improved transport/distribution of ions and electron mediators instead of the substrates because the organic removal efficiency was not obviously affected by the presence of the spiral spacers. The energy production in the MFC with the spiral spacers reached 0.071 or 0.073 kWh/kg COD in either vertical or horizontal installment. The examination of the MFCs installed in an aeration tank of a municipal wastewater treatment plant confirmed the advantage of using the spiral spacers. Those results demonstrate that spiral spacers could be an effective approach to improve energy production in MFCs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Detection and repositioning of tight fighting annulus spacers in CANDU® fuel channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hersak, G.; Kittmer, A. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada); Goszczynski, J. [Candu Energy Inc., Mississauga, Ontario (Canada); Kazimer, D. [Bruce Power, Tiverton, Ontario (Canada)

    2014-06-15

    The latest generation of CANDU® reactors has been constructed with tight-fitting annulus spacers to maintain the annular gap between the inner pressure tubes and the outer calandria tubes. These spacers cannot be detected and repositioned with the existing Spacer Location and Repositioning (SLAR) process, which is designed to work with loose-fitting annulus spacers. There is currently no established technology to detect and reposition tight-fitting annulus spacers. Atomic Energy of Canada Limited has been performing research and development to locate and move tight-fitting annulus spacers using Modal Detection and Repositioning (MODAR) technology since 2005 and is currently working in collaboration with Candu Energy and Bruce Power on a production system to be deployed for an In-reactor demonstration in the next year. The MODAR technology uses controlled vibrations on a short, isolated length of pressure tube to locate and reposition tight-fitting annulus spacers. MODAR technology will allow the utilities to demonstrate fuel channel integrity to the regulator and obtain approval for additional years of reactor operation. This paper briefly describes the technology and provides an overview of the tool testing and development. (author)

  4. [Bench-test evaluation of spacer devices for fluticasone delivery to infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourchez, J; Leclerc, L; Sarry, G; Vergnon, J-M; Dubus, J C

    2017-01-01

    Use of a spacer device to optimize the delivery of fluticasone to infants with asthma is an important issue and clinicians require guidance around the choice of device. This in vitro study characterizes the particle size and the fluticasone delivery via 9 spacers. We used an in vitro infant nasal cast with two different inspiratory flow rates (50 and 100mL/s). Fluticasone particle size in the aerosol was evaluated by laser diffractometry and tracheal deposition by spectrophotometric assay. Significant differences in particle size were observed between the 9 spacers (similar D50 but D90 from 5.65±0.65 to 8.80±1.35μm). A 75 % or higher respirable fraction was obtained for only 5 spacers. The 50mL/s flow rate lead to the best drug delivery. At this flow, OptiChamber(®) (62±3 %) and Vortex(®) (91±8.5 %) had a tracheal deposition over 50 % of the initial dose of fluticasone, although the 7 other spacers exhibited a fluticasone deposition less than 25 %. This study shows a wide variation of drug delivery between the 9 spacers studied. We demonstrate that a low inspiratory flow and a spacer showing antistatic properties facilitate drug delivery. Copyright © 2016 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Evaluation of spacer grid spring characteristics by means of physical tests and numerical simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schettino, Carlos Frederico Mattos, E-mail: carlosschettino@inb.gov.br [Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (INB), Resende, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-11-01

    Among all fuel assemblies' components, the spacer grids play an important structural role during the energy generation process, mainly due for its primary functional requirement, that is, to provide fuel rod support. The present work aims to evaluate the spring characteristics of a specific spacer grid design used in a PWR fuel assembly type 16 x 16. These spring characteristics comprises the load versus deflection capability and its spring rate, which are very important, and also mandatory, to be correctly established in order to preclude spacer grid spring and fuel rod cladding fretting during operation, as well as prevent an excessive fuel rod buckling. This study includes physical tests and numerical simulation. The tests were performed on an adapted load cell mechanical device, using as a specimen a single strap of the spacer grid. Three numerical models were prepared using the Finite Element Method, with the support of the commercial code ANSYS. One model was built to validate the simulation according to the performed physical test, the others were built inserting a gradient of temperature (Beginning Of Life hot condition) and to evaluate the spacer grid spring characteristics in End Of Life condition. The obtained results from physical test and numerical model have shown a good agreement between them, therefore validating the simulation. The obtained results from numerical models make available information regarding the spacer grid design purpose, such as the behavior of the fuel rod cladding support during operation. Therewith, these evaluations could be useful to improve the spacer grid design. (author)

  6. Efficient double-emitting layer inverted organic light-emitting devices with different spacer layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Qu-yang; Zhang, Fang-hui

    2017-09-01

    Double-emitting layer inverted organic light-emitting devices (IOLEDs) with different spacer layers were investigated, where 2,20,7,70-tetrakis(carbazol-9-yl)-9,9-spirobifluorene (CBP), 2,9-dimethyl-4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (BCP), 4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (Bphen) and 4,40,400-tris(N-carbazolyl)-triphenylamine (TCTA) were used as spacer layers, respectively, and GIr1 and R-4b were used as green and red guest phosphorescent materials, respectively. The results show that the device with BCP spacer layer has the best performance. The maximum current efficiency of the BCP spacer layer device reaches up to 24.15 cd·A-1 when the current density is 3.99 mA·cm-2, which is 1.23 times bigger than that of the CBP spacer layer device. The performance is better than that of corresponding conventional device observably. The color coordinate of the device with BCP spacer layer only changes from (0.625 1, 0.368 0) to (0.599 5, 0.392 8) when the driving voltage increases from 6 V to 10 V, so it shows good stability in color coordinate, which is due to the adoption of the co-doping evaporation method for cladding luminous layer and the effective restriction of spacer layer to carriers in emitting layer.

  7. Impact characteristic of the peculiar spacer grids for advanced fuel assembly by drop type impact test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Kyung Ho; Kim, Hyung Kyu; Kang, Heung Seok; Song, Kee Nam [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2002-02-01

    The spacer grid is one of the main structural components in the fuel assembly, which supports the fuel rods, guides cooling water, and protects the system from an external impact load, such as earthquakes. The former is related to the mechanical integrity of the grid spring and dimple, and the latter is related to the structural integrity of the spacer grid. In this report, the drop type impact test is established that the mechanical strength of the candidate partial spacer grids for advanced PWR fuel assembly. It is accomplished by the comparison with the commercial same cell size spacer grid, which is composed of 5 x 5 partial V5H grid shape by Westinghouse design. Because of there is no specified design criterion about the structural strength of the partial spacer grid. As the results of them, two influential spacer grids are similar with that the reference grid. And the 5 x 5 cell type partial spacer grid is extended the 1/4 size model (8 x 8 cell type ) for verifying the mechanical performance, and then the negative points will be improving for detail design. 9 refs., 33 figs., 4 tabs. (Author)

  8. Attenuation in Superconducting Circular Waveguides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. H. Yeap

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We present an analysis on wave propagation in superconducting circular waveguides. In order to account for the presence of quasiparticles in the intragap states of a superconductor, we employ the characteristic equation derived from the extended Mattis-Bardeen theory to compute the values of the complex conductivity. To calculate the attenuation in a circular waveguide, the tangential fields at the boundary of the wall are first matched with the electrical properties (which includes the complex conductivity of the wall material. The matching of fields with the electrical properties results in a set of transcendental equations which is able to accurately describe the propagation constant of the fields. Our results show that although the attenuation in the superconducting waveguide above cutoff (but below the gap frequency is finite, it is considerably lower than that in a normal waveguide. Above the gap frequency, however, the attenuation in the superconducting waveguide increases sharply. The attenuation eventually surpasses that in a normal waveguide. As frequency increases above the gap frequency, Cooper pairs break into quasiparticles. Hence, we attribute the sharp rise in attenuation to the increase in random collision of the quasiparticles with the lattice structure.

  9. Application of nanosilver surface modification to RO membrane and spacer for mitigating biofouling in seawater desalination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hui-Ling; Lin, Justin Chun-Te; Huang, Chihpin

    2009-08-01

    Biofouling is one the most critical problems in seawater desalination plants and science has not yet found effective ways to control it. Silver compounds and ions are historically recognized for their effective antimicrobial activity. Nanosilver particles have been applied as a biocide in many aspects of disinfection, including healthcare products and water treatment. This study proposes an innovative biofouling control approach by surface modification of the RO membrane and spacer with nanosilver coating. A chemical reduction method was used for directly coating nanosilver particles on the membrane sheet and spacer. The surface-modified membrane and spacer were tested for their antifouling performance in a cross-flow flat-sheet membrane cell, which is a part of a pilot plant in Wukan desalination plant. The silver-coating membranes and spacers, along with an unmodified membrane sheet, were tested in the membrane cell and compared on the basis of their antifouling performance. Permeate flux decline and salt rejection was continuously monitored through the testing period. Meanwhile regrowth of microbial populations on the membrane cell was quantified by a unique microbial counting every three to four days. The results showed that both silver-coated membrane (Ag-cM) with uncoated spacer and silver-coated spacer (Ag-cS) with uncoated membrane performed better than the unmodified membrane and spacer (Un-MS), in terms of much slower decrease in permeate flux and TDS rejection. However, the effect of silver-coated spacer on antimicrobial activity was more lasting. In the silver-coated spacer test, there was almost no multiplication of cells detected on the membrane during the whole testing period. Besides, the cells adhering to the membrane seemed to lose their activity quickly. According to the RO performance and microbial growth morphology, the nanosilver coating technology is valuable for use in biofouling control in seawater desalination.

  10. Costs and effectiveness of spacer versus nebulizer in young children with moderate and severe acute asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leversha, A M; Campanella, S G; Aickin, R P; Asher, M I

    2000-04-01

    To compare the costs and effectiveness of albuterol by metered dose inhaler (MDI) and spacer versus nebulizer in young children with moderate and severe acute asthma. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in an emergency department at a children's hospital. The participants were children 1 to 4 years of age with moderate to severe acute asthma. Patients assigned to the spacer group received albuterol (600 microg) by MDI by spacer (AeroChamber) followed by placebo by nebulizer (n = 30). The nebulizer group received placebo MDI by spacer followed by 2.5 mg albuterol by nebulizer (n = 30). Treatments were repeated at 20-minute intervals until the patient was judged to need no further doses of bronchodilator, or a total of 6 treatments. Clinical score, heart rate, respiratory rate, auscultatory findings, and oxygen saturation were recorded at baseline, after each treatment, and 60 minutes after the last treatment. Baseline characteristics and asthma severity were similar for the treatment groups. The spacer was as effective as the nebulizer for clinical score, respiratory rate, and oxygen saturation but produced a greater reduction in wheezing (P =.03). Heart rate increased to a greater degree in the nebulizer group (11.0/min vs 0.17/min for spacer, P vs 60% in the nebulizer group, P =.04, adjusted for sex). No differences were seen in rates of tremor or hyperactivity. The mean cost of each emergency department presentation was NZ$825 for the spacer group and NZ$1282 for the nebulizer group (P =.03); 86% of children and 85% of parents preferred the spacer. The MDI and spacer combination was a cost-effective alternative to a nebulizer in the delivery of albuterol to young children with moderate and severe acute asthma.

  11. Performance evaluation of plastic spacers: proposal and development of evaluation methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. F. Menna Barreto

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The durability of reinforced concrete structures is highly dependent on the characteristics of the concrete cover to reinforcement and its thickness. The failure to obtain cover thickness is the factor with the largest influence on the premature corrosion of the reinforcement, which in turn is the main deterioration form of reinforced concrete structures. Studies indicate that the designed cover is not reached in the current constructions that adopt this structural solution, configuring a chronic, and not a sporadic problem. One of the observed causes for the failure in obtaining the minimum standardized cover is the incorrect use of spacers and the use of inadequate spacers. This is made more serious by the absence of a Brazilian standard to regulate the product and its use and, consequently, the absence of a quality certification from the responsible regulating agency. Focusing on spacers, requirements and performance criteria were proposed, in addition to methods for their assessment, with most being taken and adapted from international standards. Subsequently, some spacers available on the market were effectively tested according to the proposed methodology. No spacer model proved to be satisfactory according to the established performance approach. However, for each criteria and assessment methods proposed, there was, at least, one spacer model at the market which satisfied them, so it can be said that the criteria and methods are suitable for spacers performance evaluation. Faced with the performance diversity of the spacer models on offer, the need for a regulatory Brazilian standard for this product was confirmed in order to delimit the quality of spacers available on the market and to eliminate this variable as one of the causes for not obtaining the correct covering.

  12. Change in sagittal balance with placement of an interspinous spacer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Leah M; O'Brien, Joseph R; Matteini, Lauren E; Yu, Warren D

    2011-09-15

    A prospective case series. To determine the effect of X-STOP implantation on sagittal spinal balance using 36-inch films. Interspinous process spacers have been shown as an effective treatment of neurogenic claudication. The devices block the last few degrees of extension at the stenotic level, thus preventing compression of the nerve roots. These devices have been criticized because they may push the patient's spine into a kyphotic position. However, opening the stenotic level may allow a patient to stand more upright, thereby improving sagittal balance. Institutional review board's approval was obtained. A prospective study of 20 patients who were undergoing an X-STOP insertion was utilized. Their spines were x-rayed preoperatively and postoperatively with 36-inch films. Preoperative and postoperative sagittal balance was measured with a C7 body plum line on both films and the difference was measured. Lumbar lordosis was also compared using Cobb angles. Measurements taken from lateral full-length spine radio-graphs showed an average improvement in sagittal balance of 2.0 cm (range -3.7 to 6.1 cm). The average change in lordosis was -1.1°. Although previous studies of interspinous process distraction have examined segmental lordosis, disc angles, and other parameters, this study is the first to examine overall spinal balance on full-length films. Interspinous distraction does not seem to be detrimental to sagittal balance, and may improve it.

  13. APPLICATIONS OF SPACERS MADE WITH DOUBLE BAR RASCHEL MACHINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DÍAZ-GARCÍA Pablo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, textile technologies develop to adapt their different techniques for creating new products for the different sectors of application every day. Particularly, warp knitted fabrics and warp-knitting technology have applications in all different groups of technical textiles. It could be the most applied technique, the most versatile technology to develop new textile products for the new textile market. Warp knitted fabrics play the most important role among the technical textile fabrics. This technology is used in different product groups such as mobile textiles (car seat covers, dashboard cover, industrial textiles (composites, medical textiles (anti-decubitus blankets, sports textiles and foundation garments (bra cups, pads for swimwear. This study presents some examples of the application of this technology in some markets Within the market of technical textile, medical textile has an increasing relevance and knitted fabrics and knitting technology, at the same time, play a very important role in the fields of technical and medical textiles. Studies have demonstrated that knitted structures possess excellent mechanical properties and can promote more effective regenerative medicine, tissue repair, ligament, tendon cartilage, reconstruction, etc. The aim of this paper is to present different possibilities of textiles developed with this kind of structures, to present different alternatives, different examples of products obtained with this kind of textile structure combined with the correct kind of textile fiber. In this kind of technology, double-bar Raschel machines used for producing three-dimensional textiles, spacers, play an important role.

  14. Augmented Fixation With Biodegradable Subacromial Spacer After Repair of Massive Rotator Cuff Tear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozkurt, Murat; Akkaya, Mustafa; Gursoy, Safa; Isik, Cetin

    2015-10-01

    Unsuccessful outcomes after repair of massive rotator cuff ruptures accompanied by muscle atrophy and fatty degeneration are frequently associated with inadequate management and secondary tears. We report the functional differences after rotator cuff rupture repair with a biodegradable spacer application. In these patients, rotator cuff rupture repair should provide coverage of the humeral head. Subsequently, acromioplasty should be performed to allow adequate space for the subacromial spacer. Thereafter measurement of the intra-articular space required for application of the biodegradable spacer is performed. Using this method can decrease the rate of tears by providing a safe subacromial space in cases of massive rotator cuff rupture.

  15. In vitro performance of spacers for aerosol delivery during adult mechanical ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukhettala, Nabile; Porée, Thierry; Diot, Patrice; Vecellio, Laurent

    2015-04-01

    During mechanical ventilation, different aerosol generators are employed with various interfaces. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of a range of spacers, including a new device called Combihaler® designed for connection with both nebulizers and pressurized Metered-Dose Inhalers (pMDIs). To assess the spacers, we used a ventilator and the Dual Adult Training and Test Lung (model 5600i, Michigan Instruments). Ventilation parameters were measured with and without spacers in volume-controlled and pressure-controlled mode. A filter was placed at the end of the endotracheal tube to measure aerosol delivery. Amikacin (1 g/8 mL) and salbutamol (5 mg/5 mL) were nebulized with an Aeroneb Solo® connected to its T-adapter or the Combihaler® spacer. Salbutamol (100 μg/actuation with 10 actuations) and beclomethasone (250 μg/actuation with 10 actuations) were delivered with a pMDI connected to a Minispacer®, an ACE® spacer, or a Combihaler® spacer. Drug delivery measurements were performed in volume-controlled mode in dry and humidified conditions. Drug deposits on the filter were assayed. The use of spacers and the T-adapter did not change the ventilation parameters (p>0.9). Aerosol delivery of salbutamol and Amikacin by nebulization increased up to three-fold with the Combihaler® compared with the T-adapter in humidified and nonhumidified conditions (p<0.05). Aerosol delivery of salbutamol and beclometasone by pMDI increased up to three-fold with the Combihaler® and the ACE® spacer compared with the Minispacer® in humidified and nonhumidified conditions (p<0.05). Aerosol delivery by pMDIs and vibrating mesh nebulizers using either a T-adapter or spacers was reduced by up to 62.5% in a humidified circuit compared with a nonhumidified circuit. Aerosol delivery via pMDIs and vibrating mesh nebulizers is greater with large spacers (Combihaler® and ACE®) than with smaller spacers (Minispacer®) or a T-adapter, in both humidified

  16. Circular motion of bodies of revolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Carl

    1936-01-01

    The circular motion for airship-like bodies has thus far been calculated only for a prolate ellipsoid of revolution (reference 1, p.133 and reference 2). In this paper, however, the circular motion of elongated bodies of revolution more nearly resembling airships will be investigated. The results will give the effect of rotation on the pressure distribution and thus yield some information as to the stresses set up in an airship in circular flight.

  17. Diletter circular codes over finite alphabets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fimmel, Elena; Michel, Christian J; Strüngmann, Lutz

    2017-10-09

    The graph approach of circular codes recently developed (Fimmel et al.,2016) allows here a detailed study of diletter circular codes over finite alphabets. A new class of circular codes is identified, strong comma-free codes. New theorems are proved with the diletter circular codes of maximal length in relation to (i) a characterisation of their graphs as acyclic tournaments; (ii) their explicit description; and (iii) the non-existence of other maximal diletter circular codes. The maximal lengths of paths in the graphs of the comma-free and strong comma-free codes are determined. Furthermore, for the first time, diletter circular codes are enumerated over finite alphabets. Biological consequences of dinucleotide circular codes are analysed with respect to their embedding in the trinucleotide circular code X identified in genes and to the periodicity modulo 2 observed in introns. An evolutionary hypothesis of circular codes is also proposed according to their combinatorial properties. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Circular permutant GFP insertion folding reporters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldo, Geoffrey S [Santa Fe, NM; Cabantous, Stephanie [Los Alamos, NM

    2008-06-24

    Provided are methods of assaying and improving protein folding using circular permutants of fluorescent proteins, including circular permutants of GFP variants and combinations thereof. The invention further provides various nucleic acid molecules and vectors incorporating such nucleic acid molecules, comprising polynucleotides encoding fluorescent protein circular permutants derived from superfolder GFP, which polynucleotides include an internal cloning site into which a heterologous polynucleotide may be inserted in-frame with the circular permutant coding sequence, and which when expressed are capable of reporting on the degree to which a polypeptide encoded by such an inserted heterologous polynucleotide is correctly folded by correlation with the degree of fluorescence exhibited.

  19. Lung delivery of non-CFC salbutamol via small volume metal spacer and large volume plastic spacer devices compared with an open vent jet nebulizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipworth, B J; Clark, D J

    1998-02-01

    To compare the lung delivery of salbutamol from a commonly used constant output open vent jet nebuliser (Sidestream) with use of both a conventional large volume plastic spacer (Volumatic) and a novel small volume metal spacer (NebuChamber). This was assessed using the early lung absorption profile of salbutamol over the first 20 min after inhalation. Twelve healthy volunteers were studied in a randomized single (investigator) blind crossover design. Single 1200 microg nominal doses salbutamol from a CFC-free metered-dose inhaler (12 sequential 100 microg puffs of Airomir) were delivered via the Volumatic and NebuChamber spacers. A single 1200 microg nominal dose of salbutamol was given as a 4 ml fill volume from a Sidestream nebuliser with mouthpiece. Mouth rinsing was performed after each drug sequence. Plasma salbutamol was measured at 5, 10, 15 and 20 min after the last dose of each inhalation sequence, with calculation of maximal concentration (Cmax) and average concentration over 20 min (C[av]). Systemic beta2-responses were measured as plasma potassium, tremor and heart rate. Both the Volumatic and the NebuChamber spacers produced significantly greater salbutamol concentration than the Sidestream nebuliser. For C(av) this amounted to a 7.34-fold difference (95%CI 5.31 to 9.38) between Volumatic vs Sidestream, and a 7.04-fold difference (95%CI 4.91 to 9.17) for NebuChamber vs Sidestream. Similar differences were found for the extrapulmonary beta2-responses. There were no significant differences in either salbutamol concentration or extrapulmonary beta2-responses between the Volumatic and NebuChamber spacers. We found that, in vivo, both the Volumatic and the NebuChamber spacers produced seven-fold greater lung delivery of salbutamol than the Sidestream nebuliser when comparing microgram equivalent nominal doses, in terms of the early lung absorption profile.

  20. [Interspinous spacers and disc herniation. Geomorphometric and clinical study of 71 cases treated by L4-L5 microdiscectomy associated to spacer placement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aso Escario, José; Aso Vizán, Alberto; Martínez Quiñones, José Vicente; Consolini, Fabian; Martín Gallego, Álvaro; Arregui Calvo, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    A controversial indication of interspinous spacers is their use as a complement to discectomy. At the present time, there is no solid clinical evidence of effectiveness of that association, which might result from variability in spacer positioning, restricting its correct biomechanical actions. In this study our goal was to identify and analyse the variability in the placement of an interspinous spacer, and to investigate its relationship with the clinical results. We performed a retrospective study on X-ray films from 71 patients suffering from disc herniation in L4-L5 who underwent surgery in our hospital, consisting of: microdiscectomy and biomed interspinous spacer implantation. The geomorphometric techniques used to analyse the data were procrustes superimposition and principal components analysis. We compared the clinical results (using the Herron and Turner scale), segmental lordosis and surgical distraction with the geomorphometric parameters. Significant morphological variability was found in the implant position showing cephalo-caudal translation and clockwise-counterclockwise rotations. This variability did not correlate with clinical results. A relationship with anatomical features (lordosis) and additional surgical distraction was identified. A different morphology of implant-segment configuration was identified in cases with recurrence of disc herniation. Geometric morphometrics allowed identifying high variability in the final placement of interspinous spacers. Nevertheless, it seems not to be related to the clinical outcome, depending rather on the degree of lordosis and distraction. Some differences in segment-implant morphology were identified in cases with recurrences. To assess the effectiveness of spacers, larger studies including morphological and clinical variables are required. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Neurocirugía. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  1. Annular flow in rod-bundle: Effect of spacer on disturbance waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pham, Son H.; Kunugi, Tomoaki

    2016-08-01

    A high-speed camera technique is used to study the effect of spacers on the disturbance waves present in annular two-phase flow within a rod-bundle geometry. Images obtained using a backlight configuration to visualize the spacer-wave interactions at the micro-scale resolution (in time and space) are discussed. This paper also presents additional images obtained using a reflected light configuration which provides new observations of the disturbance waves. These images show the separation effect caused by the spacer on the liquid film in which the size of generated liquid droplets can be controlled by the gas superficial velocity. Furthermore, the data confirm that the spacer breaks the circumferential coherent structures of the waves.

  2. A Facile Technique to Make Articulating Spacers for Infected Total Knee Arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ping Su

    2009-03-01

    Conclusion: Treating infected total knee arthroplasty with these self-made articulating spacers eradicates infection effectively, improves the life quality before reimplantation and provides good final results without significant complications.

  3. Spacer geometry and particle deposition in spiral wound membrane feed channels

    KAUST Repository

    Radu, A.I.

    2014-11-01

    Deposition of microspheres mimicking bacterial cells was studied experimentally and with a numerical model in feed spacer membrane channels, as used in spiral wound nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) membrane systems. In-situ microscopic observations in membrane fouling simulators revealed formation of specific particle deposition patterns for different diamond and ladder feed spacer orientations. A three-dimensional numerical model combining fluid flow with a Lagrangian approach for particle trajectory calculations could describe very well the in-situ observations on particle deposition in flow cells. Feed spacer geometry, positioning and cross-flow velocity sensitively influenced the particle transport and deposition patterns. The deposition patterns were not influenced by permeate production. This combined experimental-modeling approach could be used for feed spacer geometry optimization studies for reduced (bio)fouling. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Computer-Aided Design Method of Warp-Knitted Jacquard Spacer Fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xinxin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on a further study on knitting and jacquard principles, this paper presents a mathematical design model to make computer-aided design of warp-knitted jacquard spacer fabrics more efficient. The mathematical model with matrix method employs three essential elements of chain notation, threading and Jacquard designing. With this model, the processing to design warp-knitted jacquard spacer fabrics with CAD software is also introduced. In this study, the sports shoes which have separated functional areas according to the feet structure and characteristics of movement are analysed. The results show the different patterns on Jacquard spacer fabrics that are seamlessly stitched with jacquard technics. The computer-aided design method of warp-knitted jacquard spacer fabrics is efficient and simple.

  5. Teicoplanin-Containing Cement Spacers for Treatment of Experimental Staphylococcus aureus Joint Prosthesis Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismael, Farid; Bléton, Rémy; Saleh-Mghir, Azzam; Dautrey, Sophie; Massias, Laurent; Crémieux, Anne-Claude

    2003-01-01

    Using a rabbit model of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus knee-prosthesis infection, we studied the efficacy of teicoplanin cement alone or in combination with systemic intramuscular (i.m.) injections of teicoplanin. Seven days after infection, surgical debridement and removal of the infected prostheses were performed, and five rabbits were randomly assigned to one of five different treatment groups: untreated controls, prosthesis replacement by drug-free cement spacer, prosthesis replacement by teicoplanin-loaded cement spacer (1.2 g of teicoplanin/40 g of cement), i.m. injections of teicoplanin (20 mg/kg of body weight, twice a day for 7 days), or systemic antibiotic treatment combined with teicoplanin-loaded spacers. The most effective regimen combined systemic teicoplanin and antibiotic spacers. PMID:14506060

  6. Impact of a Protective Vest and Spacer Garment on Exercise-Heat Strain

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cheuvront, Samuel N; Goodman, Daniel A; Kenefick, Robert W; Montain, Scott J; Sawka, Michael N

    2008-01-01

    ...). Volunteers wore the US Army battle dress uniform (trial B), B + protective vest (trial P), and B + P + spacer garment (trial S). Biophysical clothing properties were determined and found similar to many law enforcement, industry, and sports ensembles...

  7. CRISPR Spacer Arrays for Detection of Viral Signatures from Acidic Hot Springs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, J. C.; Bateson, M. M.; Suciu, D.; Young, M. J.

    2010-04-01

    Viruses are the most abundant life-like entities on the planet Earth. Using CRISPR spacer sequences, we have developed a microarray-based approach to detecting viral signatures in the acidic hot springs of Yellowstone.

  8. Biofouling patterns in spacer filled channels: High resolution imaging for characterization of heterogeneous biofilms

    KAUST Repository

    Staal, Marc

    2017-08-15

    Biofilms develop in heterogeneous patterns at a µm scale up to a cm scale, and patterns become more pronounced when biofilms develop under complex hydrodynamic flow regimes. Spatially heterogeneous biofilms are especially known in spiral wound reverse osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration (NF) membrane filtration systems used for desalination and wastewater reuse to produce high quality (drinking) water. These spiral wound membrane modules contain mesh-like spacer structures used to create an intermembrane space and improve water mixing. Spacers create inhomogeneous water flow patterns resulting in zones favouring biofilm growth, possibly leading to biofouling thus hampering water production. Oxygen sensing planar optodes were used to visualize variations in oxygen decrease rates (ODR). ODR is an indication of biofilm activity. In this study, ODR images of multiple repetitive spacer areas in a membrane fouling simulator were averaged to produce high resolution, low noise ODR images. Averaging 40 individual spacer areas improved the ODR distribution image significantly and allowed comparison of biofilm patterning over a spacer structure at different positions in an RO filter. This method clearly showed that most active biofilm accumulated on and in direct vicinity of the spacer. The averaging method was also used to calculate the deviation of ODR patterning from individual spacer areas to the average ODR pattern, proposing a new approach to determine biofilm spatial heterogeneity. This study showed that the averaging method can be applied and that the improved, averaged ODR images can be used as an analytical, in-situ, non-destructive method to assess and quantify the effect of membrane installation operational parameters or different spacer geometries on biofilm development in spiral wound membrane systems characterized by complex hydrodynamic conditions.

  9. 5 X 5 rod bundle flow field measurements downstream a PWR spacer grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Higor F.P.; Silva, Vitor V A.; Santos, André A.C.; Veloso, Maria A.F., E-mail: higorfabiano@gmail.com, E-mail: mdora@nuclear.ufmg.br, E-mail: vitors@cdtn.br, E-mail: aacs@cdtn.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    The spacer grids are structures present in nuclear fuel assembly of Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR). They play an important structural role and also assist in heat removal through the assembly by promoting increased turbulence of the flow. Understanding the flow dynamics downstream the spacer grid is paramount for fuel element design and analysis. This paper presents water flow velocity profiles measurements downstream a spacer grid in a 5 x 5 rod bundle test rig with the objective of highlighting important fluid dynamic behavior near the grid and supplying data for CFD simulation validation. These velocity profiles were obtained at two different heights downstream the spacer grid using a LDV (Laser Doppler Velocimetry) through the top of test rig. The turbulence intensities and patterns of the swirl and cross flow were evaluated. The tests were conducted for Reynolds numbers ranging from 1.8 x 10{sup 4} to 5.4 x 10{sup 4}. This experimental research was carried out in thermo-hydraulics laboratory of Nuclear Technology Development Center – CDTN. Results show great repeatability and low uncertainties (< 1.24 %). Details of the flow field show how the mixture and turbulence induced by the spacer grid quickly decays downstream the spacer grid. It is shown that the developed methodology can supply high resolution low uncertainty results that can be used for validation of CFD simulations. (author)

  10. The resist-core spacer patterning process for fabrication of 2xnm node semiconductor devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sho, Koutarou; Oori, Tomoya; Iida, Kazunori; Kobayashi, Katsutoshi; Kikutani, Keisuke; Yamamoto, Katsumi; Aiso, Fumiki; Matsunaga, Kentaro; Shiobara, Eishi; Hashimoto, Koji

    2011-04-01

    The spacer patterning process is one of the strongest double patterning technology candidates for fabricating 2xnm node semiconductor devices by ultra-low-k1 lithography. However, a severe problem exists with this process, it has an excessive number of steps, including resist patterning, core film etching, spacer film deposition, spacer film etchback, core film removal, and hard mask patterning steps. We devised a simpler process in which a resist pattern is directly used as the core film pattern and the spacer film is a low-temperature-deposited oxide film that can be fabricated around the resist pattern without damaging the resist material. Thus, this new process, which we call "resist-core" spacer patterning, has significantly fewer patterning steps. When we used the new process to fabricate 2xnm node semiconductor devices with an ArF immersion scanner, two key issues arose. The first issue regarding the controllability of the resist pattern profile, which can directly affect the spacer film pattern profile, was addressed by applying various resist patterning conditions such as resist materials, illumination conditions, and bottom anti-reflecting materials. The second issue, regarding the resist slimming method was addressed by evaluating two alternative techniques, wet slimming and dry slimming.

  11. The Effect of Spacer Morphology on the Aerosolization Performance of Metered-Dose Inhalers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momeni, Sepideh; Nokhodchi, Ali; Ghanbarzadeh, Saeed; Hamishehkar, Hamed

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Respiratory drug delivery has been attracted great interest for the past decades, because of the high incidence of pulmonary diseases. However, despite its invaluable benefits, there are some major drawbacks in respiratory drug delivery, mainly due to the relatively high drug deposition in undesirable regions. One way to improve the efficiency of respiratory drug delivery through metered-dose inhalers (MDI) is placing a respiratory spacer between the inhaler exit and the mouth. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of type and shape of spacer on the aerosolization performance of MDIs. Methods: A commercial Beclomethasone Dipropionate (BDP) MDI alone or equipped with two different spacer devices (roller and pear type) widely distributed in the world pharmaceutical market was used. The effect of spacers was evaluated by calculating aerosolization indexes such as fine particle fraction (FPF), mass median aerodynamic diameters (MMAD) and geometric standard deviation (GSD) using the next generation impactor. Results: Although one of the spacers resulted in superior outcomes than the other one, but it was not statistically significant. Conclusion: The results confirmed that the type and shape of spacer did not substantially influence the aerosolization performance of MDIs. PMID:27478789

  12. 76 FR 60593 - Title VI; Proposed Circular

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-29

    ... for FTA staff to make oral presentations about the two proposed Circulars and allow attendees an... proposed Circular would incorporate lessons learned from triennial reviews, discretionary Title VI... Implementation Plan for Limited English Proficient (LEP) persons now contains a summary of the DOT LEP guidance...

  13. Culture as a Caveat Towards Circular Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerrieri, Valeria

    2015-01-01

    Circular economy represents an economic and political challenge, as well as a cultural one, requiring a massive transformation on all levels of society. But why is cultural change so important to understanding today’s economy and how can the circular model be considered a truly cross...

  14. O impulso e o movimento circular uniforme

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Maria Teresinha Xavier; Toniazzo, Nelson; Axt, Rolando

    1998-01-01

    São analisadas as variações do vetor velocidade de um corpo em movimento circular uniforme para evidenciar a natureza vetorial da quantidade de movimento linear. The vectorial nature of linear momentum is stressed by analysing changes in the velocity of a body in uniform circular motion.

  15. 76 FR 60590 - Environmental Justice; Proposed Circular

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-29

    ... recipients of FTA funds on how to fully engage environmental justice populations in the public transportation... Federal Transit Administration Environmental Justice; Proposed Circular AGENCY: Federal Transit... guidance in the form of a Circular on incorporating environmental justice principles into plans, projects...

  16. Some considerations on special spacers with damping device for suppressing wake galloping in tandem cables of cable-stayed bridges; Heiretsu cable yo gensui kino tsuki supesa no gensui fuka tokusei ni kansuru 2,3 no kosatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoneda, M. [Kinki Univ., Higashi-Osaka, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Science and Technology] Setouchi, H. [Kawada Industries Inc., Osaka (Japan)

    1998-03-20

    Cable vibration called wake galloping appears on cable-stayed bridges with parallel arranged cables and its suppression is an important problem. Various methods have been proposed for spacers with damping device for suppressing wake galloping in tandem cables of cable-stayed bridges. But, comparison of damping performances of various methods have not been discussed sufficiently. This paper deals with a type in which dampers are equipped on the midway of the tandem cables through the spacer jig and a type in which dampers are equipped on each surface of the tandem cables to generate shear deformation between them and circular spacer jig moiety and complex eigenvalue analyses are carried out on the two types with changing center spacing and diameters of the cables. The results clarify the relation between the structural damping characteristics and the cable spacing and the effect of torsional rigidity of the cables and also clarify of damping characteristics of the two types. 16 refs., 14 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. Gauge-Invariant Formulation of Circular Dichroism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raimbault, Nathaniel; de Boeij, Paul L; Romaniello, Pina; Berger, J A

    2016-07-12

    Standard formulations of magnetic response properties, such as circular dichroism spectra, are plagued by gauge dependencies, which can lead to unphysical results. In this work, we present a general gauge-invariant and numerically efficient approach for the calculation of circular dichroism spectra from the current density. First we show that in this formulation the optical rotation tensor, the response function from which circular dichroism spectra can be obtained, is independent of the origin of the coordinate system. We then demonstrate that its trace is independent of the gauge origin of the vector potential. We also show how gauge invariance can be retained in practical calculations with finite basis sets. As an example, we explain how our method can be applied to time-dependent current-density-functional theory. Finally, we report gauge-invariant circular dichroism spectra obtained using the adiabatic local-density approximation. The circular dichroism spectra we thus obtain are in good agreement with experiment.

  18. Predicting the impact of feed spacer modification on biofouling by hydraulic characterization and biofouling studies in membrane fouling simulators

    KAUST Repository

    Siddiqui, Amber

    2016-12-22

    Feed spacers are an essential part of spiral-wound reverse osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration (NF) membrane modules. Geometric modification of feed spacers is a potential option to reduce the impact of biofouling on the performance of membrane systems. The objective of this study was to evaluate the biofouling potential of two commercially available reference feed spacers and four modified feed spacers. The spacers were compared on hydraulic characterization and in biofouling studies with membrane fouling simulators (MFSs). The virgin feed spacer was characterized hydraulically by their resistance, measured in terms of feed channel pressure drop, performed by operating MFSs at varying feed water flow rates. Short-term (9 days) biofouling studies were carried out with nutrient dosage to the MFS feed water to accelerate the biofouling rate. Long-term (96 days) biofouling studies were done without nutrient dosage to the MFS feed water. Feed channel pressure drop was monitored and accumulation of active biomass was quantified by adenosine tri phosphate (ATP) determination. The six feed spacers were ranked on pressure drop (hydraulic characterization) and on biofouling impact (biofouling studies). Significantly different trends in hydraulic resistance and biofouling impact for the six feed spacers were observed. The same ranking for biofouling impact on the feed spacers was found for the (i) short-term biofouling study with nutrient dosage and the (ii) long-term biofouling study without nutrient dosage. The ranking for hydraulic resistance for six virgin feed spacers differed significantly from the ranking of the biofouling impact, indicating that hydraulic resistance of clean feed spacers does not predict the hydraulic resistance of biofouled feed spacers. Better geometric design of feed spacers can be a suitable approach to minimize impact of biofouling in spiral wound membrane systems.

  19. Encryption using circular harmonic key

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Enrique Rueda-Parada

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo presento un estudio sobre la varianza a la rota ción de la llave del procesador de encriptación basado en la tr ansformada de Fourier. Determiné que la llave en coordenadas rectangulares pe rmite un nivel de tolerancia inferior a 0.2 grados de rotación de la llave en el proceso de decriptación. Entonces la solución es construir la llave en coordenadas polares, por medio de una expansión en armónicos circulares. De esta manera, el umbral de tolerancia a umenta aproximadamente hasta 40 grados de rotación de la llave en el proceso de decriptación. Esta solución es un valor agregado par a el procesador de encriptación óptico. He desarrollado una her ramienta computacional para las simulaciones y resultados obtenidos en e ste estudio.

  20. Terahertz circular Airy vortex beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Changming; Liu, Jinsong; Niu, Liting; Wei, Xuli; Wang, Kejia; Yang, Zhengang

    2017-06-20

    Vortex beams have received considerable research interests both in optical and millimeter-wave domain since its potential to be utilized in the wireless communications and novel imaging systems. Many well-known optical beams have been demonstrated to carry orbital angular momentum (OAM), such as Laguerre-Gaussian beams and high-order Bessel beams. Recently, the radially symmetric Airy beams that exhibit an abruptly autofocusing feature are also demonstrated to be capable of carrying OAM in the optical domain. However, due to the lack of efficient devices to manipulate terahertz (THz) beams, it could be a challenge to demonstrate the radially symmetric Airy beams in the THz domain. Here we demonstrate the THz circular Airy vortex beams (CAVBs) with a 0.3-THz continuous wave through 3D printing technology. Assisted by the rapidly 3D-printed phase plates, individual OAM states with topological charge l ranging from l = 0 to l = 3 and a multiplexed OAM state are successfully imposed into the radially symmetric Airy beams. We both numerically and experimentally investigate the propagation dynamics of the generated THz CAVBs, and the simulations agree well with the observations.

  1. A functional analysis of the spacer of V(DJ recombination signal sequences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred Ian Lee

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available During lymphocyte development, V(DJ recombination assembles antigen receptor genes from component V, D, and J gene segments. These gene segments are flanked by a recombination signal sequence (RSS, which serves as the binding site for the recombination machinery. The murine Jbeta2.6 gene segment is a recombinationally inactive pseudogene, but examination of its RSS reveals no obvious reason for its failure to recombine. Mutagenesis of the Jbeta2.6 RSS demonstrates that the sequences of the heptamer, nonamer, and spacer are all important. Strikingly, changes solely in the spacer sequence can result in dramatic differences in the level of recombination. The subsequent analysis of a library of more than 4,000 spacer variants revealed that spacer residues of particular functional importance are correlated with their degree of conservation. Biochemical assays indicate distinct cooperation between the spacer and heptamer/nonamer along each step of the reaction pathway. The results suggest that the spacer serves not only to ensure the appropriate distance between the heptamer and nonamer but also regulates RSS activity by providing additional RAG:RSS interaction surfaces. We conclude that while RSSs are defined by a "digital" requirement for absolutely conserved nucleotides, the quality of RSS function is determined in an "analog" manner by numerous complex interactions between the RAG proteins and the less-well conserved nucleotides in the heptamer, the nonamer, and, importantly, the spacer. Those modulatory effects are accurately predicted by a new computational algorithm for "RSS information content." The interplay between such binary and multiplicative modes of interactions provides a general model for analyzing protein-DNA interactions in various biological systems.

  2. Naturally occurring circular permutations in proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uliel, S; Fliess, A; Unger, R

    2001-08-01

    A pair of proteins is defined to be related by a circular permutation if the N-terminal region of one protein has significant sequence similarity to the C-terminal of the other and vice versa. To detect pairs of proteins that might be related by circular permutation, we implemented a procedure based on a combination of a fast screening algorithm that we had designed and manual verification of candidate pairs. The screening algorithm is a variation of a dynamic programming string matching algorithm, in which one of the sequences is doubled. This algorithm, although not guaranteed to identify all cases of circular permutation, is a good first indicator of protein pairs related by permutation events. The candidate pairs were further validated first by application of an exhaustive string matching algorithm and then by manual inspection using the dotplot visual tool. Screening the whole Swissprot database, a total of 25 independent protein pairs were identified. These cases are presented here, divided into three categories depending on the level of functional similarity of the related proteins. To validate our approach and to confirm further the small number of circularly permuted protein pairs, a systematic search for cases of circular permutation was carried out in the Pfam database of protein domains. Even with this more inclusive definition of a circular permutation, only seven additional candidates were found. None of these fitted our original definition of circular permutations. The small number of cases of circular permutation suggests that there is no mechanism of local genetic manipulation that can induce circular permutations; most examples observed seem to result from fusion of functional units.

  3. Electrolyte-plasma hardening of circular saws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyulyapin, A. N.; Tyurin, Yu. N.; Traino, A. I.; Yusupov, V. S.

    1998-01-01

    Cold circular saws with an external diameter of 600-900 mm and a disk thickness of 5-8 mm are used for cutting measured pieces of bent shapes and pipes in lines of shaping mills. Strict requirements are imposed on the quality of the circular saws, namely, they should possess high wear resistance of the teeth and withstand the loads exerted by the cut bent shapes in the direction perpendicular to the plane of the disk. A method of electrolyte-plasma hardening of circular saws with the use of pulse heating has been developed in order to meet these requirements.

  4. University Students Alternative Conceptions On Circular Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Phil Canlas

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study attempted to find out university students alternative conceptions on circular motion. An 18-item researcher-compiled and content-validated questionnaire was administered to twenty-six 26 students taking up a program in Bachelor in Secondary Education-Physical Science in their second year enrolled in a course on mechanics. Results revealed that majority of the students possess alternative conceptions on circular motion specifically along velocity acceleration and force. Moreover results showed the inconsistencies in the students understanding of circular motion concepts.

  5. 16S-23S rDNA spacer of Pectinatus, Selenomonas and Zymophilus reveal new phylogenetic relationships between these genera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motoyama, Y; Ogata, T

    2000-03-01

    The 16S-23S rDNA spacer regions of two Pectinatus species, two Zymophilus species and one Selenomonas species were cloned after PCR amplification. The results of PCR amplification showed that these species had two types of spacer regions which differ in molecular size (long and short). Only the long spacer regions in these bacteria contained one or two tRNA genes (alanine and/or isoleucine). The spacer regions in these bacteria had a relatively high level of homology. Homology was particularly high for bacteria belonging to the same genus. Interestingly, the order of the two tRNA genes present in the long spacer regions of Pectinatus and Selenomonas was the reverse of that which had been previously reported for other bacteria. The results of spacer homology analysis and the order of the tRNA genes suggest that the taxonomic classification of anaerobic bacteria isolated from the brewing process should be re-examined.

  6. Knitting Technologies And Tensile Properties Of A Novel Curved Flat-Knitted Three-Dimensional Spacer Fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xiaoying

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a knitting technique for making innovative curved three-dimensional (3D spacer fabrics by the computer flat-knitting machine. During manufacturing, a number of reinforcement yarns made of aramid fibres are inserted into 3D spacer fabrics along the weft direction to enhance the fabric tensile properties. Curved, flat-knitted 3D spacer fabrics with different angles (in the warp direction were also developed. Tensile tests were carried out in the weft and warp directions for the two spacer fabrics (with and without reinforcement yarns, and their stress–strain curves were compared. The results showed that the reinforcement yarns can reduce the fabric deformation and improve tensile stress and dimensional stability of 3D spacer fabrics. This research can help the further study of 3D spacer fabric when applied to composites.

  7. Shape optimization of spacer grids / development of a FE model their buckling analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwak, B. M.; Im, S. Y.; Chang, J. H.; Jang, I. G.; Choi, K. H. [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea)

    2000-04-01

    An optimal design method is adopted for spacer grids. For contact analysis, a typical cell out of repeated pattern in the assembly is modeled. A commercial code, ABAQUS, is used for detailed analysis of frictional contact. For the optimization, design variables are taken from geometric parameters and several objectives are considered. The optimized shapes and resulting performances are discussed and shown satisfactory. This method is illustrated as a good design tool for structures that has complex behavior due to friction and wear. In this study considered is the buckling of spacer grids in the nuclear fuel assembly, which are required to have a sufficient strength against an accident like earthquake. Special attention is given to the modeling of the spot-welding and the constraints between the unit spacers assembled together : it is found that a proper treatment of the constraints is critical for accurate assessment of the buckling behavior including strain localization at the point of spot welding. The buckling strength of the 17 x 17 spacer grid, which is difficult to analyze due to a large number of degrees of freedom, is obtained from analysis for the smaller models 3 x 3, 5 x 5, 7 x 7 and 9 x 9 spacer grids. 9 refs., 36 figs., 8 tabs. (Author)

  8. In Silico Study of Spacer Arm Length Influence on Drug Vectorization by Fullerene C60

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haifa Khemir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This work studies theoretically the effect of spacer arm lengths on the characteristics of a fullerene C60-based nanovector. The spacer arm is constituted of a carbon chain including a variable number of methylene groups (n = 2–11. To improve the ability of the fullerene carriage, two arms are presented simultaneously through a malonyl bridge. Then the evolution of selected physicochemical parameters is monitored as a function of the spacer arm length and the angle between the two arms. We show here that while the studied characteristics are almost independent of the spacer arm length or vary monotonically with it, the dipole moment and its orientation vary periodically with the parity of the number of carbon atoms. This periodicity is related to both modules and orientations of dipole moments of the spacer arms. In the field of chemical synthesis, these results highlight the importance of theoretical calculations for the optimization of operating conditions. In the field of drug discovery, they show that theoretical calculations of the chemical properties of a drug candidate can help predict its in vivo behaviour, notably its bioavailability and biodistribution, which are known to be tightly dependent of its polarity.

  9. Numerical investigation on the characteristics of two-phase flow in fuel assemblies with spacer grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, D.; Yang, Z.; Zhong, Y.; Xiao, Y.; Hu, L. [Chongqing Univ. (China). Key Lab. of Low-grade Energy Utilization Technologies and Systems

    2016-07-15

    In pressurized water reactors (PWRs), the spacer grids of the fuel assembly has significant impact on the thermal-hydraulic performance of the fuel assembly. Particularly, the spacer grids with the mixing vanes can dramatically enhance the secondary flow and have significant effect on the void distribution in the fuel assembly. In this paper, the CFD study has been carried out to analyze the effects of the spacer grid with the steel contacts, dimples and mixing vanes on the boiling two-phase flow characteristics, such as the two-phase flow field, the void distribution, and so on. Considered the influence of the boiling phase change on two-phase flow, a boiling model was proposed and applied in the CFD simulation by using the UDF (User Defined Function) method. Furthermore, in order to analyze the effects of the spacer grid with mixing vanes, the adiabatic (without boiling) two-phase flow has also been investigated as comparison with the boiling two-phase flow in the fuel assembly with spacer grids. The CFD simulation on two-phase flow in the fuel assembly with the proposed boiling model can predict the characteristics of two-phase flow better.

  10. Effect of different commercial feed spacers on biofouling of reverse osmosis membrane systems: A numerical study

    KAUST Repository

    Bucs, Szilard

    2014-06-01

    Feed spacers and hydrodynamics have been found relevant for the impact of biofouling on performance in reverse osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration (NF) membrane systems.The objectives of this study on biofouling development were to determine the impact of (i) linear flow velocity and bacterial cell load, (ii) biomass location and (iii) various feed spacer geometries as applied in practice as well as a modified geometry spacer.A three-dimensional mathematical model for biofouling of feed spacer channels including hydrodynamics, solute mass transport and biofilm formation was developed in COMSOL Multiphysics and MATLAB software.Results of this study indicate that the feed channel pressure drop increase caused by biofilm formation can be reduced by using thicker and/or modified feed spacer geometry and/or a lower flow rate in the feed channel. The increase of feed channel pressure drop by biomass accumulation is shown to be strongly influenced by the location of biomass. Results of numerical simulations are in satisfactory agreement with experimental data, indicating that this micro-scale mechanistic model is representative for practice. The developed model can help to understand better the biofouling process of spiral-wound RO and NF membrane systems and to develop strategies to reduce and control biofouling. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  11. Using cathode spacers to minimize reactor size in air cathode microbial fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Qiao

    2012-04-01

    Scaling up microbial fuel cells (MFCs) will require more compact reactor designs. Spacers can be used to minimize the reactor size without adversely affecting performance. A single 1.5mm expanded plastic spacer (S1.5) produced a maximum power density (973±26mWm -2) that was similar to that of an MFC with the cathode exposed directly to air (no spacer). However, a very thin spacer (1.3mm) reduced power by 33%. Completely covering the air cathode with a solid plate did not eliminate power generation, indicating oxygen leakage into the reactor. The S1.5 spacer slightly increased columbic efficiencies (from 20% to 24%) as a result of reduced oxygen transfer into the system. Based on operating conditions (1000ς, CE=20%), it was estimated that 0.9Lh -1 of air would be needed for 1m 2 of cathode area suggesting active air flow may be needed for larger scale MFCs. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Cas1-Cas2 complex formation mediates spacer acquisition during CRISPR-Cas adaptive immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuñez, James K; Kranzusch, Philip J; Noeske, Jonas; Wright, Addison V; Davies, Christopher W; Doudna, Jennifer A

    2014-06-01

    The initial stage of CRISPR-Cas immunity involves the integration of foreign DNA spacer segments into the host genomic CRISPR locus. The nucleases Cas1 and Cas2 are the only proteins conserved among all CRISPR-Cas systems, yet the molecular functions of these proteins during immunity are unknown. Here we show that Cas1 and Cas2 from Escherichia coli form a stable complex that is essential for spacer acquisition and determine the 2.3-Å-resolution crystal structure of the Cas1-Cas2 complex. Mutations that perturb Cas1-Cas2 complex formation disrupt CRISPR DNA recognition and spacer acquisition in vivo. Active site mutants of Cas2, unlike those of Cas1, can still acquire new spacers, thus indicating a nonenzymatic role of Cas2 during immunity. These results reveal the universal roles of Cas1 and Cas2 and suggest a mechanism by which Cas1-Cas2 complexes specify sites of CRISPR spacer integration.

  13. Detection and characterization of spacer integration intermediates in type I-E CRISPR–Cas system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Zihni; Hermanns, Veronica; Wurm, Reinhild; Wagner, Rolf; Pul, Ümit

    2014-01-01

    The adaptation against foreign nucleic acids by the CRISPR–Cas system (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats and CRISPR-associated proteins) depends on the insertion of foreign nucleic acid-derived sequences into the CRISPR array as novel spacers by still unknown mechanism. We identified and characterized in Escherichia coli intermediate states of spacer integration and mapped the integration site at the chromosomal CRISPR array in vivo. The results show that the insertion of new spacers occurs by site-specific nicking at both strands of the leader proximal repeat in a staggered way and is accompanied by joining of the resulting 5′-ends of the repeat strands with the 3′-ends of the incoming spacer. This concerted cleavage-ligation reaction depends on the metal-binding center of Cas1 protein and requires the presence of Cas2. By acquisition assays using plasmid-located CRISPR array with mutated repeat sequences, we demonstrate that the primary sequence of the first repeat is crucial for cleavage of the CRISPR array and the ligation of new spacer DNA. PMID:24920831

  14. Circular Orbits Inside the Sphere of Death

    OpenAIRE

    McDonald, Kirk T.

    2000-01-01

    A wheel or sphere rolling without slipping on the inside of a sphere in a uniform gravitational field can have stable circular orbits that lie wholly above the "equator", while a particle sliding freely cannot.

  15. Nanofocusing in circular sector-like nanoantennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zenin, Volodymyr; Pors, Anders Lambertus; Han, Zhanghua

    2014-01-01

    a concentric circular line of phase contrast, demonstrating resonant excitation of a standing wave of counter-propagating surface plasmons, travelling between a tip and opposite circular edge of the antenna. Transmission spectra obtained in the range 900 - 2100 nm are in good agreement with numerical......Gold circular sector-like nanoantennas (with a radius of 500 nm and a taper angle of 60°, 90°, and 120°) on glass are investigated in a near-infrared wavelength range (900 - 2100 nm). Amplitude- and phase-resolved near-field images of circular sector-like antenna modes at telecom wavelength feature...... simulations, revealing the main feature of this antenna configuration, viz., the resonance wavelength, in contrast to triangular antennas, does not depend on the taper angle and is determined only by the sector radius. This feature together with a robust and easily predictable frequency response makes...

  16. Circular Phonon Dichroism in Weyl Semimetals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Donghao; Shi, Junren

    2017-08-01

    We derive the phonon dynamics of magnetic metals in the presence of strong spin-orbit coupling. We show that both a dissipationless viscosity and a dissipative viscosity arise in the dynamics. While the dissipationless viscosity splits the dispersion of left-handed and right-handed circularly polarized phonons, the dissipative viscosity damps them differently, inducing circular phonon dichroism. The effect offers a new degree of manipulation of phonons, i.e., the control of the phonon polarization. We investigate the effect in Weyl semimetals. We find that there exists strong circular phonon dichroism in Weyl semimetals breaking both the time-reversal and the inversion symmetry, making them potential materials for realizing the acoustic circular polarizer.

  17. Circular dichroism spectroscopy of fluorescent proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, N.V.; Hink, M.A.; Borst, J.W.; Krogt, van der G.N.M.; Visser, A.J.W.G.

    2002-01-01

    Circular dichroism (CD) spectra have been obtained from several variants of green fluorescent protein: blue fluorescent protein (BFP), enhanced cyan fluorescent protein (CFP), enhanced green fluorescent protein (GFP), enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (YFP), all from Aequorea victoria, and the red

  18. Unleashing the Power of the Circular Economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kok, L.; Wurpel, G.; Ten Wolde, A. [IMSA Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2013-04-15

    The concept of circular economy is an economic and industrial system that focuses on the reusability of products and raw materials, reduces value destruction in the overall system and aims at value creation within each tier of the system. This report for Circle Economy (CE) outlines the general direction and concrete steps that must be taken to accomplish a breakthrough to a circular economy. It also provides a knowledge base behind the concept, connecting it to sustainability.

  19. A Conceptual Framework for Circular Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariale Moreno

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Design has been recognised in the literature as a catalyst to move away from the traditional model of take-make-dispose to achieve a more restorative, regenerative and circular economy. As such, for a circular economy to thrive, products need to be designed for closed loops, as well as be adapted to generate revenues. This should not only be at the point of purchase, but also during use, and be supported by low-cost return chains and reprocessing structures, as well as effective policy and regulation. To date, most academic and grey literature on the circular economy has focused primarily on the development of new business models, with some of the latter studies addressing design strategies for a circular economy, specifically in the area of resource cycles and design for product life extension. However, these studies primarily consider a limited spectrum of the technical and biological cycles where materials are recovered and restored and nutrients (e.g., materials, energy, water are regenerated. This provides little guidance or clarity for designers wishing to design for new circular business models in practice. As such, this paper aims to address this gap by systematically analysing previous literature on Design for Sustainability (DfX (e.g., design for resource conservation, design for slowing resource loops and whole systems design and links these approaches to the current literature on circular business models. A conceptual framework is developed for circular economy design strategies. From this conceptual framework, recommendations are made to enable designers to fully consider the holistic implications for design within a circular economy.

  20. Invariant texture segmentation via circular gabor filter

    OpenAIRE

    ZHANG, Jianguo; Tan, Tieniu

    2002-01-01

    International audience; In this paper, we focus on invariant texture segmentation, and propose a new method using circular Gabor filters (CGF) for rotation invariant texture segmentation. The traditional Gabor function is modified into a circular symmetric version. The rotation invariant texture features are achieved via the channel output of the CGF. A new scheme of the selection of Gabor parameters is also proposed for texture segmentation. Experiments show the efficacy of this method

  1. Fast algorithms for approximate circular string matching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Carl; Iliopoulos, Costas S; Pissis, Solon P

    2014-03-22

    Circular string matching is a problem which naturally arises in many biological contexts. It consists in finding all occurrences of the rotations of a pattern of length m in a text of length n. There exist optimal average-case algorithms for exact circular string matching. Approximate circular string matching is a rather undeveloped area. In this article, we present a suboptimal average-case algorithm for exact circular string matching requiring time O(n). Based on our solution for the exact case, we present two fast average-case algorithms for approximate circular string matching with k-mismatches, under the Hamming distance model, requiring time O(n) for moderate values of k, that is k=O(m/logm). We show how the same results can be easily obtained under the edit distance model. The presented algorithms are also implemented as library functions. Experimental results demonstrate that the functions provided in this library accelerate the computations by more than three orders of magnitude compared to a naïve approach. We present two fast average-case algorithms for approximate circular string matching with k-mismatches; and show that they also perform very well in practice. The importance of our contribution is underlined by the fact that the provided functions may be seamlessly integrated into any biological pipeline. The source code of the library is freely available at http://www.inf.kcl.ac.uk/research/projects/asmf/.

  2. Exciton circular dichroism in channelrhodopsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pescitelli, Gennaro; Kato, Hideaki E; Oishi, Satomi; Ito, Jumpei; Maturana, Andrés Daniel; Nureki, Osamu; Woody, Robert W

    2014-10-16

    Channelrhodopsins (ChRs) are of great interest currently because of their important applications in optogenetics, the photostimulation of neurons. The absorption and circular dichroism (CD) spectra of C1C2, a chimera of ChR1 and ChR2 of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, have been studied experimentally and theoretically. The visible absorption spectrum of C1C2 shows vibronic fine structure in the 470 nm band, consistent with the relatively nonpolar binding site. The CD spectrum has a negative band at 492 nm (Δε(max) = -6.17 M(-1) cm(-1)) and a positive band at 434 nm (Δε(max) = +6.65 M(-1) cm(-1)), indicating exciton coupling within the C1C2 dimer. Time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) calculations are reported for three models of the C1C2 chromophore: (1) the isolated protonated retinal Schiff base (retPSB); (2) an ion pair, including the retPSB chromophore, two carboxylate side chains (Asp 292, Glu 162), modeled by acetate, and a water molecule; and (3) a hybrid quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) model depicting the binding pocket, in which the QM part consists of the same ion pair as that in (2) and the MM part consists of the protein residues surrounding the ion pair within 10 Å. For each of these models, the CD of both the monomer and the dimer was calculated with TDDFT. For the dimer, DeVoe polarizability theory and exciton calculations were also performed. The exciton calculations were supplemented by calculations of the coupling of the retinal transition with aromatic and peptide group transitions. For the dimer, all three methods and three models give a long-wavelength C2-axis-polarized band, negative in CD, and a short-wavelength band polarized perpendicular to the C2 axis with positive CD, differing in wavelength by 1-5 nm. Only the retPSB model gives an exciton couplet that agrees qualitatively with experiment. The other two models give a predominantly or solely positive band. We further analyze an N-terminal truncated mutant

  3. Staged Custom, Intramedullary Antibiotic Spacers for Severe Segmental Bone Loss in Infected Total Hip Arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atul F. Kamath

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Total hip arthroplasty (THA infections with severe bone loss pose significant reconstructive challenges. We present our experience with two-stage hip reimplantation using an intramedullary, antibiotic-impregnated nail. Methods. Three patients with infected THA with severe proximal femoral bone loss (Mallory type IIIB or greater were treated using a custom antibiotic spacer. Clinical outcomes and any complications were recorded. Average followup was 49 months from final reimplantation. Results. Mean age at spacer placement (stage 1 was 53 years. The mean Harris Hip Score at final followup was 80. Two patients had asymptomatic heterotopic ossification, and one patient had a 2 cm leg-length discrepancy. Conclusions. A custom intramedullary nail antibiotic spacer is a reliable option in the staged management of the infected THA with severe proximal femoral bone loss. Benefits of this technique include limb salvage with maintenance of leg length, soft tissue tension, and functional status.

  4. Effect of Weld Properties on the Crush Strength of the PWR Spacer Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kee-nam Song

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical properties in a weld zone are different from those in the base material because of different microstructures. A spacer grid in PWR fuel is a structural component with an interconnected and welded array of slotted grid straps. Previous research on the strength analyses of the spacer grid was performed using base material properties owing to a lack of mechanical properties in the weld zone. In this study, based on the mechanical properties in the weld zone of the spacer grid recently obtained by an instrumented indentation technique, the strength analyses considering the mechanical properties in the weld zone were performed, and the analysis results were compared with the previous research.

  5. Characterization of medicinal Epimedium species by 5S rRNA gene spacer sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ye; Fung, Kwok-Pui; Leung, Ping-Chung; Shi, Dawen; Shaw, Pang-Chui

    2004-03-01

    Sequences of 5S rRNA gene spacer were used to identify Epimedium brevicornu Maxim., E. sagittatum (Sieb. et Zucc.) Maxim., E. wushanense T. S. Ying, E. pubescens Maxim., and E. koreanum Nakai. These species are listed as source plants of Chinese medicine 'Ying Yang Huo' in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia. The neighbor-joining method was used in a sequence analysis of Epimedium species. A position-specific nucleotide was found in the 5S rRNA gene spacer for E. pubescens, E. wushanense, and E. brevicornu. A 19-bp deletion was found for E. koreanum in the 5S rRNA gene spacer. E. koreanum was most divergent from the other four endemic Chinese species of Epimedium.

  6. A high-performance channel engineered charge-plasma-based MOSFET with high-κ spacer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Chan; Wang, Ying; Luo, Xin; Bao, Meng-tian; Yu, Cheng-hao; Cao, Fei

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, the performance of graded channel double-gate MOSFET (GC-DGFET) that utilizes the charge-plasma concept and a high-κ spacer is investigated through 2-D device simulations. The results demonstrate that GC-DGFET with high-κ spacer can effectively improve the ON-state driving current (ION) and reduce the OFF-leakage current (IOFF). We find that reduction of the initial energy barrier between the source and channel is the origin of this ION enhancement. The reason for the IOFF reduction is identified to be the extension of the effective channel length owing to the fringing field via high-κ spacers. Consequently, these devices offer enhanced performance by reducing the total gate-to-gate capacitance (Cgg) and decreasing the intrinsic delay (τ).

  7. Optimization of base-to-emitter spacer thickness to maximize the frequency response of bipolar transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wai-Kit; Chan, Alain C. K.; Chan, Mansun

    2005-04-01

    The impacts of base-to-emitter spacer thickness on the unity gain frequency ( fT), base resistance ( rB), base collector capacitance ( CBC) and maximum oscillation frequency ( fmax) of a bipolar junction transistor (BJT) are studied. Using the extracted Y-parameters from a simulated device with structural parameters calibrated to an actual process, the resulting fT and fmax with different spacer thickness is reported. A tradeoff between peak fT and fmax is observed and the process window to obtain high fT and fmax is proposed.

  8. Microbial fuel cells with an integrated spacer and separate anode and cathode modules

    KAUST Repository

    He, Weihua

    2016-01-01

    A new type of scalable MFC was developed based on using alternating graphite fiber brush array anode modules and dual cathode modules in order to simplify construction, operation, and maintenance of the electrodes. The modular MFC design was tested with a single (two-sided) cathode module with a specific surface area of 29 m2 m−3 based on a total liquid volume (1.4 L; 20 m2 m−3 using the total reactor volume of 2 L), and two brush anode modules. Three different types of spacers were used in the cathode module to provide structural stability, and enhance air flow relative to previous cassette (combined anode–cathode) designs: a low-profile wire spacer; a rigid polycarbonate column spacer; and a flexible plastic mesh spacer. The best performance was obtained using the wire spacer that produced a maximum power density of 1100 ± 10 mW m−2 of cathode (32 ± 0.3 W m−3 based on liquid volume) with an acetate-amended wastewater (COD = 1010 ± 30 mg L−1), compared to 1010 ± 10 mW m−2 for the column and 650 ± 20 mW m−2 for the mesh spacers. Anode potentials were unaffected by the different types of spacers. Raw domestic wastewater produced a maximum of 400 ± 8 mW m−2 under fed batch conditions (wire-spacers), which is one of the highest power densities for this fuel. Over time the maximum power was reduced to 300 ± 10 mW m−2 and 275 ± 7 mW m−2 for the two anode compartments, with only slightly less power of 250 ± 20 mW m−2 obtained under continuous flow conditions. In fixed-resistance tests, the average COD removal was 57 ± 5% at a hydraulic retention time of 8 h. These results show that this modular MFC design can both simplify reactor construction and enable relatively high power generation from even relatively dilute wastewater.

  9. Spacer stitching’, an innovative material feeding technology for improved thermal resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, H.; Rödel, H.; Krzywinski, S.; Hes, L.

    2017-10-01

    This paper investigates the problems associated with heat loss occurring at the points of needle insertion. The insulation material at stitching points is compressed by sewing thread tensions and consequently the air entrapped is forced to leave its structure. It results in poor thermal insulation at the points of needle insertions. An innovative material feeding technology, ‘Spacer stitching’ is developed which addresses the state of the art of cold spots with a simpler and much efficient method. A comparison of sewing samples of conventional sewing technology with the spacer stitching is carried out in this research paper to study the improvement in thermal properties.

  10. Temporary antibiotic cement-covered gamma nail spacer for an infected nonunion of the proximal femur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Hugo; Ziran, Bruce H

    2007-01-01

    We report the case of an infected nonunion of the proximal femoral in an elderly patient. There was extensive involvement of the entire proximal femur precluding salvage. An impromptu use of a cephalomedullary nail coated with antibiotic-laden bone cement is described, followed by reimplantation with a revision-type proximal femoral prosthesis. The patient had resection of the proximal femur, placement of a temporary functional spacer, and reimplantation after a course of antibiotics, with good success. The method we describe is a reasonable alternative when standard off-the-shelf systems or other methods of temporary spacer creation are not available.

  11. Spacer structure and hydrophobicity influences transfection activity of novel polycationic gemini amphiphiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puchkov, Pavel A; Kartashova, Irina A; Shmendel, Elena V; Luneva, Anastasya S; Morozova, Nina G; Zenkova, Marina A; Maslov, Mikhail A

    2017-08-01

    Three novel polycationic gemini amphiphiles with different spacers were developed and evaluated in terms of their physiochemical properties and transfection efficiencies. Cationic liposomes formed by these amphiphiles and the helper lipid DOPE were able to successfully condense DNA, as shown by gel mobility shift and ethidium bromide intercalation assays. Transfection activity of the liposomes was superior to Lipofectamine(®) 2000 and was dependent on spacer structure, hydrophobicity, and nucleic acid type (pDNA or siRNA). We demonstrated that the cationic liposomes 2X6/DOPE and 2X7/DOPE are potential non-toxic vehicles for gene delivery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Heterogeneous Diversity of Spacers within CRISPR (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats)

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jiankui; Deem, Michael W.

    2010-09-01

    Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) in bacterial and archaeal DNA have recently been shown to be a new type of antiviral immune system in these organisms. We here study the diversity of spacers in CRISPR under selective pressure. We propose a population dynamics model that explains the biological observation that the leader-proximal end of CRISPR is more diversified and the leader-distal end of CRISPR is more conserved. This result is shown to be in agreement with recent experiments. Our results show that the CRISPR spacer structure is influenced by and provides a record of the viral challenges that bacteria face.

  13. A spacer grid hysteretic model for the structural analysis of spent fuel assemblies under impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrett, P.R.; Kurkchubasche, I. [ANATECH Research Corp., San Diego, CA (United States); Seager, K.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1991-12-31

    This paper presents a methodology for determining the response of spent fuel assembly spacer grids subjected to transport cask impact loading. The spacer grids and their interaction with rod-to-rod loading are the most critical components governing the structural response of spent fuel assemblies. The purpose of calculating the assembly response is to determine the resistance to failure of spent fuel during regulatory transport. The failure frequency computed from these analyses is used in calculating category B spent fuel cask containment source term leakage rates for licensing calculations. Without defensible fuel rod failure frequency prediction calculations, assumptions of 100% fuel failure must be made, leading to leak tight cask design requirements.

  14. The efficacy of drug delivery by a pear-shaped spacer and metered dose inhaler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, J; Milledge, J S; Moszoro, H; Higgins, A

    1984-10-01

    The efficacy of terbutaline delivered via a 750 ml spacer device (Nebuhaler) compared with a metered dose inhaler alone was studied by means of an open cross-over trial in eight patients with stable asthma. The FEV1 and FVC response curves with cumulative doses up to 8 mg were shifted significantly to the left using the device, whilst side effects were not significantly increased. These results indicate that the spacer significantly improves aerosol drug delivery from a pressurized inhaler, even in patients whose inhalation technique was considered adequate.

  15. Self-structuring of lamellar bridged silsesquioxanes with long side spacers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Mariana; Nobre, Sónia S; Xu, Qinghong; Carcel, Carole; Cachia, Jean Nicolas; Cattoën, Xavier; Sousa, José M; Ferreira, Rute A S; Carlos, Luís D; Santilli, Celso V; Wong Chi Man, Michel; Bermudez, Verónica de Zea

    2011-09-22

    Diurea cross-linked bridged silsesquioxanes (BSs) C(10)C(n)C(10) derived from organosilane precursors, including decylene chains as side spacers and alkylene chains with variable length as central spacers (EtO)(3)Si-(CH(2))(10)-Y-(CH(2))(n)-Y-(CH(2))(10)-Si(OEt)(3) (n = 7, 9-12; Y = urea group and Et = ethyl), have been synthesized through the combination of self-directed assembly and an acid-catalyzed sol-gel route involving the addition of dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) and a large excess of water. This new family of hybrids has enabled us to conclude that the length of the side spacers plays a unique role in the structuring of alkylene-based BSs, although their morphology remains unaffected. All the samples adopt a lamellar structure. While the alkylene chains are totally disordered in the case of the C(10)C(7)C(10) sample, a variable proportion of all-trans and gauche conformers exists in the materials with longer central spacers. The highest degree of structuring occurs for n = 9. The inclusion of decylene instead of propylene chains as side spacers leads to the formation of a stronger hydrogen-bonded urea-urea array as evidenced by two dimensional correlation Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic analysis. The emission spectra and emission quantum yields of the C(10)C(n)C(10) materials are similar to those reported for diurea cross-linked alkylene-based BSs incorporating propylene chains as side spacers and prepared under different experimental conditions. The emission of the C(10)C(n)C(10) hybrids is ascribed to the overlap of two distinct components that occur within the urea cross-linkages and within the siliceous nanodomains. Time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy has provided evidence that the average distance between the siliceous domains and the urea cross-links is similar in the C(10)C(n)C(10) BSs and in oxyethylene-based hybrid analogues incorporating propylene chains as side spacers (diureasils), an indication that the longer side chains in the

  16. Efficacy and cost comparisons of bronchodilatator administration between metered dose inhalers with disposable spacers and nebulizers for acute asthma treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhuper, Sunil; Chandra, Alpana; Ahmed, Aziz; Bista, Sabin; Moghekar, Ajit; Verma, Rajesh; Chong, Cynthia; Shim, Chang; Cohen, Hillel; Choksi, Sonia

    2011-03-01

    Despite demonstration of equivalent efficacy of beta agonist delivery using a metered dose inhaler (MDI) with spacer vs. nebulizer in asthma patients, use of a nebulizer remains standard practice. We hypothesize that beta agonist delivery with a MDI/disposable spacer combination is an effective and low-cost alternative to nebulizer delivery for acute asthma in an inner-city population. This study was a prospective, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial with 60 acute asthma adult patients in two inner-city emergency departments. Subjects (n = 60) received albuterol with either a MDI/spacer combination or nebulizer. The spacer group (n = 29) received albuterol by MDI/spacer followed by placebo nebulization. The nebulizer group (n = 29) received placebo by MDI/spacer followed by albuterol nebulization. Peak flows, symptom scores, and need for rescue bronchodilatator were monitored. Median values were compared with the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. Patients in the two randomized groups had similar baseline characteristics. The severity of asthma exacerbation, median peak flows, and symptom scores were not significantly different between the two groups. The median (interquartile range) improvement in peak flow was 120 (75-180) L/min vs. 120 (80-155) L/min in the spacer and nebulizer groups, respectively (p = 0.56). The median improvement in the symptom score was 7 (5-9) vs. 7 (4-9) in the spacer and nebulizer groups, respectively (p = 0.78). The median cost of treatment per patient was $10.11 ($10.03-$10.28) vs. $18.26 ($9.88-$22.45) in the spacer and nebulizer groups, respectively (p nebulizer to MDI/spacer beta agonist delivery for emergency management of acute asthma in the inner-city adult population. MDI/spacer may be a more economical alternative to nebulizer delivery. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. 76 FR 62148 - Title VI; Proposed Circular, Environmental Justice; Proposed Circular

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-06

    ... Federal Transit Administration Title VI; Proposed Circular, Environmental Justice; Proposed Circular... information sessions, as published in the September 29, 2011, Federal Register Notices titled ``Title VI... sessions, as published in the September 29, 2011, Federal Register Notices titled ``Title VI; Proposed...

  18. Environmental issues elimination through circular economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Špirková, M., E-mail: marta.spirkova@stuba.sk; Pokorná, E.; Šujanová, J.; Samáková, J. [Paulínska 16, 917 24 Trnava, Slovakia, Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava, Faculty of Materials Science and Technology in Trnava (Slovakia)

    2016-04-21

    Environmental efforts of European Union are currently going towards circular economy. Tools like Extended Producer Responsibility and Eco-design were established. The circular economy deals with resources availability issue on one hand and waste management on the other hand. There are few pioneering companies all over the world with some kind of circular economy practice. Generally the concept is not very wide-spread. The paper aims to evaluate possibility of transition towards circular economy in Slovak industrial companies. They need to have an active approach to material treatment of their products after usage stage. Innovation is another important pre-condition for the transition. Main problem of current cradle to grave system is landfilling of valuable materials after one cycle of usage. Their potential value for next manufacturing cycles is lost. Companies may do not see connection between waste management and material resource prices and volatility of supplies. Municipalities are responsible for municipal waste collection and treatment in Slovakia. The circular economy operates by cradle to cradle principle. Company manages material flow until the material comes back to the beginning of manufacturing process by itself or by another partners. Stable material supplies with quite low costs are provided this way. It is necessary to deal with environmental problems in phase of product design. Questionnaire survey results show on one hand low involvement of industrial companies in waste management area, however on the other hand they are open to environmental innovations in future.

  19. Environmental issues elimination through circular economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Špirková, M.; Pokorná, E.; Šujanová, J.; Samáková, J.

    2016-04-01

    Environmental efforts of European Union are currently going towards circular economy. Tools like Extended Producer Responsibility and Eco-design were established. The circular economy deals with resources availability issue on one hand and waste management on the other hand. There are few pioneering companies all over the world with some kind of circular economy practice. Generally the concept is not very wide-spread. The paper aims to evaluate possibility of transition towards circular economy in Slovak industrial companies. They need to have an active approach to material treatment of their products after usage stage. Innovation is another important pre-condition for the transition. Main problem of current cradle to grave system is landfilling of valuable materials after one cycle of usage. Their potential value for next manufacturing cycles is lost. Companies may do not see connection between waste management and material resource prices and volatility of supplies. Municipalities are responsible for municipal waste collection and treatment in Slovakia. The circular economy operates by cradle to cradle principle. Company manages material flow until the material comes back to the beginning of manufacturing process by itself or by another partners. Stable material supplies with quite low costs are provided this way. It is necessary to deal with environmental problems in phase of product design. Questionnaire survey results show on one hand low involvement of industrial companies in waste management area, however on the other hand they are open to environmental innovations in future.

  20. A broadband, circular-polarization selective surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momeni Hasan Abadi, Seyed Mohamad Amin; Behdad, Nader

    2016-06-01

    We introduce a new technique for designing wideband circular-polarization selective surfaces (CPSSs) based on anisotropic miniaturized element frequency selective surfaces. The proposed structure is a combination of two linear-to-circular polarization converters sandwiching a linear polarizer. This CPSS consists of a number of metallic layers separated from each other by thin dielectric substrates. The metallic layers are in the form of two-dimensional arrays of subwavelength capacitive patches and inductive wire grids with asymmetric dimensions and a wire grid polarizer with sub-wavelength period. The proposed device is designed to offer a wideband circular-polarization selection capability allowing waves with left-hand circular polarization to pass through while rejecting those having right-hand circular polarization. A synthesis procedure is developed that can be used to design the proposed CPSS based on its desired band of operation. Using this procedure, a prototype of the proposed CPSS operating in the 12-18 GHz is designed. Full-wave electromagnetic simulations are used to predict the response of this structure. These simulation results confirm the validity of the proposed design concept and synthesis procedure and show that proposed CPSS operates within a fractional bandwidth of 40% with a co-polarization transmission discrimination of more than 15 dB. Furthermore, the proposed design is shown to be capable of providing an extremely wide field of view of ±60°.

  1. Circular motion geometry using minimal data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Guang; Quan, Long; Tsui, Hung-Tat

    2004-06-01

    Circular motion or single axis motion is widely used in computer vision and graphics for 3D model acquisition. This paper describes a new and simple method for recovering the geometry of uncalibrated circular motion from a minimal set of only two points in four images. This problem has been previously solved using nonminimal data either by computing the fundamental matrix and trifocal tensor in three images or by fitting conics to tracked points in five or more images. It is first established that two sets of tracked points in different images under circular motion for two distinct space points are related by a homography. Then, we compute a plane homography from a minimal two points in four images. After that, we show that the unique pair of complex conjugate eigenvectors of this homography are the image of the circular points of the parallel planes of the circular motion. Subsequently, all other motion and structure parameters are computed from this homography in a straighforward manner. The experiments on real image sequences demonstrate the simplicity, accuracy, and robustness of the new method.

  2. pH-dependent phase behavior of carbohydrate-based gemini surfactants. Effect of the length of the hydrophobic spacer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klijn, Jaap E.; Stuart, Marc C. A.; Scarzello, Marco; Wagenaar, Anno; Engberts, Jan B. F. N.

    2006-01-01

    The phase behavior of a series of carbohydrate-based gemini surfactants with varying spacer lengths was studied using static and dynamic light scattering between pH 2 and 12. Cryo-electron microscopy pictures provide evidence for the different morphologies present in solution. The spacer length of

  3. Development of an Efficient G-Quadruplex-Stabilised Thrombin-Binding Aptamer Containing a Three-Carbon Spacer Molecule

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaldering, Lukas J.; Poongavanam, Vasanthanathan; Langkjær, Niels

    2017-01-01

    The thrombin-binding aptamer (TBA), which shows anticoagulant properties, is one of the most studied G-quadruplex-forming aptamers. In this study, we investigated the impact of different chemical modifications such as a three-carbon spacer (spacer-C3), unlocked nucleic acid (UNA) and 3′-amino...

  4. Cladistic biogeography of Juglans (Juglandaceae) based on chloroplast DNA intergenic spacer sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    The phylogenetic utility of sequence variation from five chloroplast DNA intergenic spacer (IGS) regions: trnT-trnF, psbA-trnH, atpB-rbcL, trnV-16S rRNA, and trnS-trnfM was examined in the genus Juglans. A total of seventeen taxa representing the four sections within Juglans and an outgroup taxon, ...

  5. rDNA internal transcribed spacer sequence analysis of Lycoris Hert ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The interspecific relationships of Lycoris species were studied by internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences. ITS fragments of 14 species were amplified, sequenced and analysed. The results showed that ITS sequences of 14 species were different from each other and the ITS lengths of 14 species were about 652 bp.

  6. Exploring backbone-cation alkyl spacers for multi-cation side chain anion exchange membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Liang; Yu, Xuedi; Hickner, Michael A.

    2018-01-01

    In order to systematically study how the arrangement of cations on the side chain and length of alkyl spacers between cations impact the performance of multi-cation AEMs for alkaline fuel cells, a series of polyphenylene oxide (PPO)-based AEMs with different cationic side chains were synthesized. This work resulted in samples with two or three cations in a side chain pendant to the PPO backbone. More importantly, the length of the spacer between cations varied from 3 methylene (-CH2-) (C3) groups to 8 methylene (C8) groups. The highest conductivity, up to 99 mS/cm in liquid water at room temperature, was observed for the triple-cation side chain AEM with pentyl (C5) or hexyl (C6) spacers. The multi-cation AEMs were found to have decreased water uptake and ionic conductivity when the spacer chains between cations were lengthened from pentyl (C5) or hexyl (C6) to octyl (C8) linking groups. The triple-cation membranes with pentyl (C5) or hexyl (C6) groups between cations showed greatest stability after immersion in 1 M NaOH at 80 °C for 500 h.

  7. A comparison of nrDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) loci for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-04-01

    Apr 1, 2015 ... dendrobium species by the internal transcribed spacer of ribosomal. DNA. Planta Med. 67:456-460. Li J, Conran JG, Christophel DC, Li ZM, Li L, Li HW (2008). Phylogenetic relationships of the Litsea complex and core Laureae. (Laureae) using ITS and ETS sequences and morphology. Ann. Mol. Bot. Gard.

  8. Metallosis After Swanson Spacer as Indication for Volar Synovectomy 12 Years After Implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trieb, Klemens

    2017-01-01

    The treatment of metacarpophalangeal destruction by rheumatoid arthritis is an indication for arthroplasty, the swanson spacer is one of the options. The flexible silicone spacer may be implanted with or without titanium guide sleeves ("grommets"). However, the imaginary abrasion protection for the silicone grommets may in turn lead through micro-movements to wear. A 69 years old female patient suffering from rheumatoid arthritis for 30 years is presented. 12 years ago swansen spacers were implanted to metacarpo-phalangeal joints 2 -5 of the right hand. Due to pain, limited movement and swelling at the volar MCP joints she presented at our clinic. Volar synovectomy of the 3rd ray of the right hand was performed, the A2 ring band could be spared. There was massive metallosis induced by wear of the grommets in the third volar tendon sheath, the other flexors were free of metallosis. These results show that in synovitis after swanson spacer implantation using grommets the differential diagnosis of metallosis must be included and complete synovectomy is the treatment of choice. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  9. Genotyping of Histomonas meleagridis isolates based on Internal Transcribed Spacer-1 sequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, Harold M. J. F.; Landman, Wil J. M.; Greve, Sophie; Peek, Ron

    2006-01-01

    C-profiling is a novel genotyping method for protozoan pathogens, based on polymerase chain reaction and sequencing of AT-rich Internal Transcribed Spacer-1 sequences. It was applied to various Histomonas meleagridis isolates originating from outbreaks of histomoniasis in six Dutch turkey and

  10. Aerosol delivery from spacers in wheezy infants: a daily life study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.M. Janssens (Hettie); E.M. Heijnen; V.M. de Jong; W.C.J. Hop (Wim); W.P. Holland (Wim); J.C. de Jongste (Johan); H.A.W.M. Tiddens (Harm)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractThe aims of this study were to assess and compare dose delivery and dose variability of pressurized metered dose inhalers (pMDI)/spacers in wheezy infants in daily life and to investigate factors influencing aerosol delivery. In an open randomized

  11. Response of an annular electrostatic probe for a right cylindrical spacer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Torben; MacAllister, I. W.

    2002-01-01

    The response of an annular electrostatic probe mounted in an electrode is examined with reference to a right cylindrical spacer. The study involves using the probe λ function to derive characteristic parameters. These parameters enable the response of the probe to different charge distributions...

  12. Silver Nanoparticles Stabilised by Cationic Gemini Surfactants with Variable Spacer Length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Pisárčik

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study is focused on the synthesis and investigation of the physicochemical and biological properties of silver nanoparticles stabilized with a series of cationic gemini surfactants having a polymethylene spacer of variable length. UV-VIS spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering, scanning electron microscopy and zeta potential measurements were applied to provide physicochemical characterization of the silver nanoparticles. The mean size values of the nanoparticles were found to be in the 50 to 115 nm range. From the nanoparticle size distributions and scanning electron microscopy images it results that a population of small nanoparticles with the size of several nanometers was confirmed if the nanoparticles were stabilized with gemini molecules with either a short methylene spacer (two or four −CH2− groups or a long spacer (12 −CH2− groups. The average zeta potential value for silver nanoparticles stabilized with gemini molecules is roughly independent of gemini surfactant spacer length and is approx. +58 mV. An interaction model between silver nanoparticles and gemini molecules which reflects the gained experimental data, is suggested. Microbicidal activity determinations revealed that the silver nanoparticles stabilized with gemini surfactants are more efficient against Gram-negative bacteria and yeasts, which has a direct relation to the interaction mechanism of nanoparticles with the bacterial cell membrane and its structural composition.

  13. Response of an annular electrostatic probe for a planar dielectric spacer: II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Torben; McAllister, Iain Wilson

    2004-01-01

    The response of annular electrostatic probes mounted in an electrode is examined with reference to a planar dielectric spacer. On this occasion, the presence of a high-voltage point electrode is included in the system geometry. The study involves using the probe λ function to derive characteristic...

  14. Peri-Prosthetic Knee Infection Management: Spacers Loaded with Two or Three Antibiotic Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortola, David Joaquin; Fenga, Domenico; Marcellino, Sandra; Rosi, Massimiliano; Centofanti, Francesco; Rosa, Michele Attilio

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this work was to compare pre-made antibiotic-loaded spacers with two commercially available antibiotic agents and custom-made cements with three antibiotic agents added. We evaluated: (a) the validity of our procedures, (b) the control of the rate of infection in the long term, (c) complications, and (d) quality of life and patient satisfaction. A retrospective cohort study was performed on 112 consecutively treated patients between January 2010 and December 2013; 56 patients were treated with a pre-formed cement spacer (clindamycin + gentamicin), and 56 patients were treated with a spacer loaded with three antibiotic agents (clindamycin + gentamicin + vancomycin). Demographic data were collected: Classification of infection according to criteria of Cierny-Mader; microbiologic results; number of previous operations; and years of disease. Infection control or relapse after at least 18 months of follow-up was evaluated. Complications were recorded. Every patient completed the SF-36 test and Oxford Knee Score. With a follow-up of 32.87 months (standard deviation 12.04), at the end of treatment, amputation occurred in three of 112 patients because of recurrence of infection, and one patient died from other causes not related to the infection. The study population presented a rate of recurrence of infection of 2.70%. Our results suggest that a two stage re-implant with three antibiotic agents added to the spacer should be considered to avoid rescue procedures, especially in patients with multi-resistant micro-organism infections.

  15. Potential of a cyclone prototype spacer to improve in vitro dry powder delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisini, Irene; Cheng, Sean J; Symons, Digby D; Murnane, Darragh

    2014-05-01

    Low inspiratory force in patients with lung disease is associated with poor deagglomeration and high throat deposition when using dry powder inhalers (DPIs). The potential of two reverse flow cyclone prototypes as spacers for commercial carrier-based DPIs was investigated. Cyclohaler®, Accuhaler® and Easyhaler® were tested with and without the spacers between 30 and 60 Lmin−1. Deposition of particles in the next generation impactor and within the devices was determined by high performance liquid chromatography. Reduced induction port deposition of the emitted particles from the cyclones was observed due to the high retention of the drug within the spacers (e.g. salbutamol sulphate (SS): 67.89 ± 6.51% at 30 Lmin−1 in Cheng 1). Fine particle fractions of aerosol as emitted from the cyclones were substantially higher than the DPIs alone. Moreover, the aerodynamic diameters of particles emitted from the cyclones were halved compared to the DPIs alone (e.g. SS from the Cyclohaler® at 4 kPa: 1.08 ± 0.05 μm vs. 3.00 ± 0.12 μm, with and without Cheng 2, respectively) and unaltered with increased flow rates. This work has shown the potential of employing a cyclone spacer for commercial carrier-based DPIs to improve inhaled drug delivery.

  16. Plasmin-activated doxorubicin prodrugs containing a spacer reduce tumor growth and angiogenesis without systemic toxicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Devy, L.; Groot, F.M.H. de; Blacher, S.; Hajitou, A.; Beusker, P.H.; Scheeren, J.W.; Foidart, J.M.; Noel, A.

    2004-01-01

    To generate doxorubicin (Dox) specifically at the tumor site, the chemotherapeutic agent was incorporated into a prodrug by linkage to a peptide specifically recognized by plasmin, which is overproduced in many cancers. ST-9905, which contains an elongated self-elimination spacer, is activated more

  17. Effect of spacer dielectric engineering on Asymmetric Source Underlapped Double Gate MOSFET using Gate Stack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Ankush; Dasgupta, Arpan; Das, Rahul; Kundu, Atanu; Sarkar, Chandan K.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the use of high-k spacers in a source underlapped nMOSFET is explored. The effects have been reported by varying the dielectric constant of the spacer from 3.9 to 22.5 and the study includes a comparison of analog parameters such as transconductance, transconductance generation factor, intrinsic gain, and RF parameters such as parasitic capacitances, resistances, and cut-off frequency. The RF parameters are calculated using the Non-Quasi Static (NQS) Approach which is required for sub 20 nm technology node. The device with high-k spacers features an improvement of 33% in DIBL, significantly increases the on current and reducing the off current by 60%. However, there is a slight compromise in the RF performance of the device, owing to an increase in intrinsic capacitance by about 0.35 fF. The Voltage Transfer Characteristics (VTC) and AC gain analysis of the circuit is also done in this paper. The circuit performance using single stage amplifier with the proposed device as the driver MOS has been analysed. High-k spacers also account for 19% improvement in small signal gain when used in a single stage amplifier circuit.

  18. Thiourea-based spacers in potent divalent inhibitors of Pseudomonas aeruginosa virulence lectin LecA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pukin, Aliaksei V; Brouwer, Arwin J|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304839191; Koomen, Leonie; Quarles van Ufford, H C|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304839280; Kemmink, Johan|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073230383; de Mol, Nico J|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/069011389; Pieters, Roland J|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304827754

    2015-01-01

    A new divalent highly potent inhibitor of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa lectin and virulence factor LecA was prepared. It contains two thiourea linkages which were found to be in the Z,Z isomeric form. This brings the spacer into an elongated conformation required to bridge the two binding sites, which

  19. Experimental evidence for circular inference in schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardri, Renaud; Duverne, Sandrine; Litvinova, Alexandra S.; Denève, Sophie

    2017-01-01

    Schizophrenia (SCZ) is a complex mental disorder that may result in some combination of hallucinations, delusions and disorganized thinking. Here SCZ patients and healthy controls (CTLs) report their level of confidence on a forced-choice task that manipulated the strength of sensory evidence and prior information. Neither group's responses can be explained by simple Bayesian inference. Rather, individual responses are best captured by a model with different degrees of circular inference. Circular inference refers to a corruption of sensory data by prior information and vice versa, leading us to `see what we expect' (through descending loops), to `expect what we see' (through ascending loops) or both. Ascending loops are stronger for SCZ than CTLs and correlate with the severity of positive symptoms. Descending loops correlate with the severity of negative symptoms. Both loops correlate with disorganized symptoms. The findings suggest that circular inference might mediate the clinical manifestations of SCZ.

  20. Circular Proteins from Plants and Fungi*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göransson, Ulf; Burman, Robert; Gunasekera, Sunithi; Strömstedt, Adam A.; Rosengren, K. Johan

    2012-01-01

    Circular proteins, defined as head-to-tail cyclized polypeptides originating from ribosomal synthesis, represent a novel class of natural products attracting increasing interest. From a scientific point of view, these compounds raise questions of where and why they occur in nature and how they are formed. From a rational point of view, these proteins and their structural concept may be exploited for crop protection and novel pharmaceuticals. Here, we review the current knowledge of three protein families: cyclotides and circular sunflower trypsin inhibitors from the kingdom of plants and the Amanita toxins from fungi. A particular emphasis is placed on their biological origin, structure, and activity. In addition, the opportunity for discovery of novel circular proteins and recent insights into their mechanism of action are discussed. PMID:22700984

  1. Circular proteins from plants and fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göransson, Ulf; Burman, Robert; Gunasekera, Sunithi; Strömstedt, Adam A; Rosengren, K Johan

    2012-08-03

    Circular proteins, defined as head-to-tail cyclized polypeptides originating from ribosomal synthesis, represent a novel class of natural products attracting increasing interest. From a scientific point of view, these compounds raise questions of where and why they occur in nature and how they are formed. From a rational point of view, these proteins and their structural concept may be exploited for crop protection and novel pharmaceuticals. Here, we review the current knowledge of three protein families: cyclotides and circular sunflower trypsin inhibitors from the kingdom of plants and the Amanita toxins from fungi. A particular emphasis is placed on their biological origin, structure, and activity. In addition, the opportunity for discovery of novel circular proteins and recent insights into their mechanism of action are discussed.

  2. Charged Particle Optics in Circular Higgs Factory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Yunhai [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2015-02-26

    Similar to a super B-factory, a circular Higgs factory will require strong focusing systems near the interaction points and a low-emittance lattice in arcs to achieve a factory luminosity. At electron beam energy of 120 GeV, beamstrahlung effects during the collision pose an additional challenge to the collider design. In particular, a large momentum acceptance at 2 percent level is necessary to retain an adequate beam lifetime. This turns out to be the most challenging aspect in the design of circular Higgs factory. In this paper, an example will be provided to illustrate the beam dynamics in circular Higgs factory, emphasizing on the chromatic optics. Basic optical modules and advanced analysis will be presented. Most important, we will show that 2% momentum aperture is achievable

  3. Modeling the effect of spacers and biofouling on forward osmosis performance

    KAUST Repository

    Mosqueira Santillán, María José

    2014-11-01

    Currently, the most utilized desalination technology is reverse osmosis (RO), where a membrane is used as a physical barrier to separate the salts from the seawater, using high hydraulic pressure as driving force. A major problem in RO systems is biofouling, caused by severe growth of bacterial biofilms. Both, the need of an external energy input, as well as biofouling, impose a high cost on RO operation. Forward osmosis (FO) is an alternative membrane process that uses an osmotic pressure difference as driving force. FO uses a concentrated draw solution to generate high osmotic pressure, which extracts water across a semi permeable membrane from a feed solution. One of the main advantages of FO is the limited amount of external energy required to extract water from the feed solution. The objective of this research is the assessment of the impact of spacers, separating the membrane sheets, and biofouling on the FO system performance. This type of studies allow the optimization of membrane devices and operational conditions. For this, a two dimensional numerical model for FO systems was developed using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). This model allowed the evaluation of the impact of (i) spacers and (ii) biofilm, and (iii) the combined impact of spacers and biofilm on the performance of FO systems. The results obtained showed that the presence of spacers improved the performance of FO systems. Cavity configuration spacer gave the higher water flux across the membrane in clean systems; whereas for biofouled systems, the submerged configuration showed a better performance. In absence of spacers, the thickness or amount of biofilm is inversely proportional with the water flux. Furthermore, membrane surface coverage of the biofilm is more important than the amount of biofilm in terms of the impact on the performance. The numerical model can be adapted with other parameters (e.g. membrane and spacer thickness, feed and draw solution, solution concentration, etc.) to

  4. METHOD OF CONJUGATED CIRCULAR ARCS TRACING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ageyev Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The geometric properties of conjugated circular arcs connecting two points on the plane with set directions of tan- gent vectors are studied in the work. It is shown that pairs of conjugated circular arcs with the same conditions in frontier points create one-parameter set of smooth curves tightly filling all the plane. One of the basic properties of this set is the fact that all coupling points of circular arcs are on the circular curve going through the initially given points. The circle radius depends on the direction of tangent vectors. Any point of the circle curve, named auxiliary in this work, determines a pair of conjugated arcs with given boundary conditions. One more condition of the auxiliary circle curve is that it divides the plane into two parts. The arcs going from the initial point are out of the circle limited by this circle curve and the arcs coming to the final point are inside it. These properties are the basis for the method of conjugated circular arcs tracing pro- posed in this article. The algorithm is rather simple and allows to fulfill all the needed plottings using only the divider and ruler. Two concrete examples are considered. The first one is related to the problem of tracing of a pair of conjugated arcs with the minimal curve jump when going through the coupling point. The second one demonstrates the possibility of trac- ing of the smooth curve going through any three points on the plane under condition that in the initial and final points the directions of tangent vectors are given. The proposed methods of conjugated circular arcs tracing can be applied in solving of a wide variety of problems connected with the tracing of cam contours, for example pattern curves in textile industry or in computer-aided-design systems when programming of looms with numeric control.

  5. Barriers and supports to implementation of MDI/spacer use in nine Canadian pediatric emergency departments: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Ian D

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite recent research supporting the use of metered dose inhalers with spacer devices (MDI/spacers in pediatric emergency departments (PEDs for acute exacerbations of asthma, uptake of this practice has been slow. The objectives of this study were to determine the barriers and supports to implementing MDI/spacer research and to identify factors associated with early and late adoption of MDI/spacers in Canadian PEDs. Methods Using a comparative case study design, we classified nine tertiary care pediatric hospital PEDs based on their stage of implementation. Data were collected using focus group interviews with physicians, registered nurses (RNs, and respiratory therapists (RTs, and individual interviews with both patient care and medical directors at each site. Initial coding was based on the Ottawa Model of Research Use (OMRU categories of elements known to influence the uptake of innovations. Results One hundred and fifty healthcare professionals from nine different healthcare institutions participated in this study. Lack of leadership in the form of a research champion, a lack of consensus about the benefits of MDI/spacers among staff, perceived resistance from patients/parents, and perceived increased cost and workload associated with MDI/spacer use were the most prevalent barriers to the adoption of the MDI/spacer. Common strategies used by early-adopting sites included the active participation of all professional groups in the adoption process in addition to a well-planned and executed educational component for staff, patients, and families. Early adopter sites were also more likely to have the MDI/spacer included in a clinical protocol/pathway. Conclusion Potential barriers and supports to implementation have been identified that will help EDs adopt MDI/spacer use. Future interventions intended to increase MDI/spacer use in PEDs will need to be sensitive to the barriers identified in this study.

  6. Free vibrations of circular cylindrical shells

    CERN Document Server

    Armenàkas, Anthony E; Herrmann, George

    1969-01-01

    Free Vibrations of Circular Cylindrical Shells deals with thin-walled structures that undergo dynamic loads application, thereby resulting in some vibrations. Part I discusses the treatment of problems associated with the propagation of plane harmonic waves in a hollow circular cylinder. In such search for solutions, the text employs the framework of the three-dimensional theory of elasticity. The text explains the use of tables of natural frequencies and graphs of representative mode shapes of harmonic elastic waves bounding in an infinitely long isotropic hollow cylinder. The tables are

  7. Generation of bright circularly-polarized extreme ultraviolet high harmonics for magnetic circular dichroism spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Kfir, Ofer; Turgut, Emrah; Knut, Ronny; Zusin, Dmitriy; Popmintchev, Dimitar; Popmintchev, Tenio; Nembach, Hans; Shaw, Justin M; Fleicher, Avner; Kapteyn, Henry; Murnane, Margaret; Cohen, Oren

    2014-01-01

    Circularly-polarized extreme UV and X-ray radiation provides valuable access to the structural, electronic and magnetic properties of materials. To date, such experiments have been possible only using large-scale free-electron lasers or synchrotrons. Here we demonstrate the first bright extreme UV circularly-polarized high harmonics and use this new light source for magnetic circular dichroism measurements at the M-shell absorption edges of cobalt. This work paves the way towards element-specific imaging and spectroscopy of multiple elements simultaneously in magnetic and other chiral media with very high spatio-temporal resolution, all on a tabletop.

  8. A comparative biomechanical study of a novel integrated plate spacer for stabilization of cervical spine: an in vitro human cadaveric model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majid, Kamran; Chinthakunta, Suresh; Muzumdar, Aditya; Khalil, Saif

    2012-07-01

    Integrated plate-spacer may provide adequate construct stability while potentially lowering operative time, decreasing complications, and providing less mechanical obstruction. The purpose of the current study was to compare the biomechanical stability of an anatomically profiled 2-screw integrated plate-spacer to a traditional spacer only and to a spacer and anterior cervical plate construct. In addition, the biomechanical stability of 2-screw integrated plate-spacer was compared to a commercially available 4-screw integrated plate-spacer. Two groups, each of nine cervical cadaver spines (C2-C7), were tested under pure moments of 1.5Nm. Range of motion was recorded at C5-C6 in all loading conditions (flexion, extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation) for the following constructs: 1) Intact; 2) 2-screw or 4-screw integrated plate-spacer; 3) spacer and anterior cervical plate; and 4) spacer only. All fusion constructs significantly reduced motion compared to the intact condition. Within the instrumented constructs, spacer and anterior cervical plate, 2-screw and 4-screw integrated plate-spacer resulted in reduced motion compared to the spacer only construct. No significant differences were found in motion between any of the instrumented conditions in any of the loading conditions. The application of integrated plate-spacer for anterior cervical discectomy and fusion is based on several factors including surgical ease-of-use, biomechanical characteristics, and surgeon preference. The study suggests that integrated plate-spacer provide biomechanical stability comparable to traditional spacer and plate constructs in the cervical spine. Clinical studies on integrated plate spacer devices are necessary to understand the performance of these devices in vivo. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Non-Circular Wheels: Reuleaux and Squares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Allan

    2011-01-01

    Circular wheels are so familiar on vehicles of all types that it is seldom realized that alternatives do exist. This short non-mathematical article describes Reuleaux and square wheels that, rolling along appropriate tracks, can maintain a moving platform at a constant height. Easily made working models lend themselves to demonstrations at science…

  10. Numerical simulation of flow past circular duct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ze-gao Yin

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The Renormalization Group (RNG k—ɛ turbulence model and Volume of Fluid (VOF method were employed to simulate the flow past a circular duct in order to obtain and analyze hydraulic parameters. According to various upper and bottom gap ratios, the force on the duct was calculated. When the bottom gap ratio is 0, the drag force coefficient, lift force coefficient, and composite force reach their maximum values, and the azimuth reaches its minimum. With an increase of the bottom gap ratio from 0 to 1, the drag force coefficient and composite force decrease sharply, and the lift force coefficient does not decreases so much, but the azimuth increases dramatically. With a continuous increase of the bottom gap ratio from 1 upward, the drag force coefficient, lift force coefficient, composite force, and azimuth vary little. Thus, the bottom gap ratio is the key factor influencing the force on the circular duct. When the bottom gap ratio is less than 1, the upper gap ratio has a remarkable influence on the force of the circular duct. When the bottom gap ratio is greater than 1, the variation of the upper gap ratio has little influence on the force of the circular duct.

  11. Circular Thermodynamics of Organisms and Sustainable Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mae-Wan Ho

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A circular thermodynamics of organisms and sustainable systems is presented based on dynamic closures in nested space-time domains that enable the system to approach the ideal of zero entropy production simultaneously at equilibrium and far from equilibrium conditions.

  12. All-dielectric metasurface circular dichroism waveplate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jingpei; Zhao, Xiaonan; Lin, Yu; Zhu, Aijiao; Zhu, Xiaojun; Guo, Peiji; Cao, Bing; Wang, Chinhua

    2017-01-31

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a high efficient circularly polarizing dichroism waveplate (CPDW) using a Si-based all-dielectric 2Dchiral metasurface. We demonstrate that the CPDW exhibits a unique dichroism in that it functions as a transmissive quarter waveplate for one of either left-or right-handed circularly polarized incident lightand a reflective mirror for the opposite polarization. The circular polarization dichroism (CPD = IRCP - ILCP) in transmission at wavelength ~1.5 μm reaches 97% and the extinction ratio (ER = IRCP/ILCP) is as high as 345:1. Experimental fabrications and measurements of the proposed all-dielectric metasurface are implemented and found to be in excellent agreement with the simulations. The proposed all-dielectric chiral metasurface is of advantages of high-dichroism, easy-fabrication and standard semiconductor fabrication techniques compatible, which could lead to enhanced security in fiber and free-space communications, as well as imaging and sensing applications for circularly polarized light with a highly integrated photonic platform.

  13. A yarn interaction model for circular braiding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ravenhorst, J.H.; Akkerman, Remko

    2016-01-01

    Machine control data for the automation of the circular braiding process has been generated using previously published mathematical models that neglect yarn interaction. This resulted in a significant deviation from the required braid angle at mandrel cross-sectional changes, likely caused by an

  14. Symmetric Circular Matchings and RNA Folding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofacker, Ivo L.; Reidys, Christian; Stadler, Peter F.

    2012-01-01

    . Such intrinsic symmetries are typically excluded from algorithmic approaches, however, because the effects are small, they play a role only for RNAs with symmetries at sequence level, and they appear only in particular settings that are less frequently used in practical application, such as circular folding...

  15. Institutional incentives in circular economy transition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, Aglaia; Pascucci, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to gain insight into how requirements for transitioning to circular economy creates new organizational forms in inter-firm collaborations, and ultimately how they stimulate the emergence of new institutions enhancing sustainability. Two strands of literature, one on

  16. Breaking the Barriers to the Circular Economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirchherr, J.W.; Hekkert, M.P.; Bour, Ruben; Huijbrechtse-Truijens, Anne; Kostense-Smit, Erica; Muller, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    The Copernicus Institute of Sustainable Development, Utrecht University, the Netherlands and Deloitte have jointly carried out research on barriers to the Circular Economy (CE) in the European Union. For this research, a survey with 153 businesses, 55 government officials and expert interviews with

  17. Falling aprons at circular piers under currents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Sonneville, B.; Van Velzen, G.; Verheij, H.J.; Dorst, K.

    2012-01-01

    Traditional guidelines on rock protection at circular piers predominantly focus on preventing shear failure (by choosing a sufficiently large rock size), winnowing failure (by designing an appropriate filter) and edge failure (by selecting a sufficient extent). In particular areas (e.g. in an

  18. Circular Urban Systems : Moving Towards Systems Integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vernay, A.B.H.

    2013-01-01

    Today, most cities function linearly. One way to improve their environmental performance is to make a transition from linear to Circular Urban Systems (CUS) so that part of the waste streams becomes valorised locally. This does not only require technical but also organisational and institutional

  19. Numerical simulation of flow past circular duct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ze-gao YIN

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of Fluent software, Renormalization Group (RNGk-ε turbulent model and Volume of Fluid (VOF method are employed to simulate the flow past circular duct to obtain and analyze the hydraulic parameters. According to various upper and bottom gap-ratios, the force on duct is calculated. Firstly, when bottom gap-ratio is 0, drag force coefficient, lift force coefficient and composite force reach the maximum respectively and azimuth reaches the minimum. Secondly, with the increase of bottom gap-ratio from 0 to 1, drag force coefficient and composite force decrease sharply, lift force coefficient decreases a little, but azimuth increases dramatically. Thirdly, with the continuous increase of bottom gap-ratio from 1, drag force coefficient, lift force coefficient, composite force and azimuth vary little. So, bottom gap-ratio is the key factor influencing the force on circular duct. When bottom gap-ratio is less than 1, upper gap-ratio has the remarkable influence on the circular duct force. When bottom gap-ratio is greater than 1, the varation of upper gap-ratio has a little influence on the circular duct force.

  20. Time can't be circular

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    "Delivering the Albert Einstein lecture at the Centre for Philosophy and Foundations of Science on Tuesday, Nobel Laureate Professor Gerard Hooft said that any notion of time can not be circular or have loops or multi dimensionality" (1/2 page).

  1. Continuum percolation of isotropically oriented circular cylinders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangare, D.; Adler, P. M.

    2009-05-01

    The continuum percolation of circular cylinders has been studied for various values of the aspect ratio b' . The percolation threshold is shown to have a maximum for b'≈2 when the cylinder length is equal to its diameter. Other quantities such as the average intersection volume and the porosity also possess a maximum for this value.

  2. Beam Dynamics and Beam Losses - Circular Machines

    CERN Document Server

    Kain, V

    2016-01-01

    A basic introduction to transverse and longitudinal beam dynamics as well as the most relevant beam loss mechanisms in circular machines will be presented in this lecture. This lecture is intended for physicists and engineers with little or no knowledge of this subject.

  3. Articulated Multimedia Physics, Lesson 10, Circular Motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York Inst. of Tech., Old Westbury.

    As the tenth lesson of the Articulated Multimedia Physics Course, instructional materials relating to circular motion are presented in this study guide. The topics are concerned with instantaneous velocity, centripetal force, centrifugal force, and satellite paths. The content is arranged in scrambled form, and the use of matrix transparencies is…

  4. Periodic Solutions for Circular Restricted -Body Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxiao Zhao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available For circular restricted -body problems, we study the motion of a sufficiently small mass point (called the zero mass point in the plane of equal masses located at the vertices of a regular polygon. By using variational minimizing methods, for some , we prove the existence of the noncollision periodic solution for the zero mass point with some fixed wingding number.

  5. Small Circular DNAs in Human Pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    BARRETO, Stephany Carolina; UPPALAPATI, Madhuri; RAY, Amitabha

    2014-01-01

    In general, human pathogen-related small circular deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) molecules are bacterial plasmids and a group of viral genomes. Plasmids are extra-chromosomal small circular DNAs that are capable of replicating independently of the host, and are present throughout a variety of different microorganisms, most notably bacteria. While plasmids are not essential components of the host, they can impart an assortment of survival enhancing genes such as for fertility, drug resistance, and toxins. Furthermore, plasmids are of particular interest to molecular biology especially in relation to gene-cloning. Among viruses, genomes of anelloviruses, papillomaviruses, and polyomaviruses consist of small circular DNA. The latter two virus families are known for their potential roles in a number of pathogenic processes. Human papillomaviruses (HPV) are now widely recognised to be associated with a greatly increased risk of cervical cancer, especially oncogenic strains 16 and 18. On the other hand, human cells may contain several types of small circular DNA molecules including mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). The mitochondrial genome consists of 37 genes that encode for proteins of the oxidation phosphorylation system, transfer ribonucleic acids (tRNAs), and ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs). Though mitochondria can replicate independently of the host; nuclear DNA does encode for several mitochondrial proteins. Mutations in mtDNA contribute to some well characterised diseases; mtDNA is also implicated in several diseases and malignancies with poorly elucidated aetiologies. Furthermore, mtDNA can function as a diagnostic tool. Other extra-chromosomal circular DNAs are usually detected in cancer. This review article is intended to provide an overview of four broad categories of small circular DNAs that are present in non-eukaryotic (plasmids and relevant viral genomes) and eukaryotic (mtDNA and other extra-chromosomal DNAs) systems with reference to human diseases, particularly cancer

  6. Quality of life after intensity-modulated radiotherapy for prostate cancer with a hydrogel spacer. Matched-pair analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinkawa, M.; Piroth, M.D.; Holy, R.; Escobar-Corral, N.; Caffaro, M.; Djukic, V.; Klotz, J.; Eble, M.J. [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology

    2012-10-15

    Background: Hydrogel spacer is an innovative method to protect the rectal wall during prostate cancer radiotherapy. Clinical effects are not well known. Methods: Patients have been surveyed before, at the last day, and 2-3 months after radiotherapy using a validated questionnaire (Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite). Median dose to the prostate in the spacer subgroup (SP) was 78 Gy in 2 Gy fractions. The results were independently compared with two matched-pair subgroups (treated conventionally without spacer): 3D conformal 70.2 Gy in 1.8 Gy fractions (3DCRT) and intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) 76 Gy in 2 Gy fractions. There were 28 patients in each of the three groups. Results: Baseline mean bowel bother scores were 96 points in all subgroups. Similar mean changes (SP 16, 3DCRT 14, IMRT 17 points) were observed at the end of radiotherapy. The smallest difference resulted in the spacer subgroup 2-3 months after radiotherapy (SP 2, 3DCRT 8, IMRT 6 points). Bowel bother scores were only significantly different in comparison to baseline levels in the spacer subgroup. The percentage of patients reporting moderate/big bother with specific symptoms did not increase for any item (urgency, frequency, diarrhoea, incontinence, bloody stools, pain). Conclusion: Moderate bowel quality-of-life changes can be expected during radiotherapy irrespective of spacer application or total dose. Advantages with a spacer can be expected a few weeks after treatment. (orig.)

  7. Radical chemistry under diffusional constraints: Impact of spacer molecules on the thermolysis of surface-immobilized bibenzyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchanan, A.C. III; Britt, P.F.; Thomas, K.B. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, IN (United States). Chemical and Analytical Sciences Division

    1998-05-01

    Silica nanoparticle surfaces have been chemically modified to contain a molecular probe, 1,2-diphenylethane (bibenzyl), as well as a second spacer molecule of variable structure. Thermolysis kinetics and products at 400{degree}C have been determined for bibenzyl, and the impact of diffusional constraints and spacer molecular structure on the multipathway radical chemistry has been analyzed relative to fluid phases. Unimolecular homolysis rate constants, k = (7-9) x 10{sup -6}s{sup -1}, are found to be independent of spacer molecular structure (naphthalene, diphenylmethane, tetralin) and similar to values measured in fluid phases, indicating the lack of a cage effect on the silica surface. However, the total rate of bibenzyl thermolysis and the resulting product selectivities are profoundly affected by both surface immobilization and the structure of the spacer molecule. Naphthalene spacers behave as `molecular walls` serving as physical barriers to bimolecular hydrogen transfer steps on the surface and augmenting the effects of diffusional constraints. In contrast, diphenylmethane spacers are found to serve as hydrogen transfer, radical relay catalysts that translocate radical sites across the surface and diminish the impact of diffusional constraints. Tetralin spacers undergo significant reaction with free-radical intermediates, selectively producing the isomeric methylindan via a chain pathway that is promoted by the restrictions on diffusion. 29 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  8. Influence of spacer length on heparin coupling efficiency and fibrinogen adsorption of modified titanium surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gbureck Uwe

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chemical bonding of the drug onto surfaces by means of spacer molecules is accompanied with a reduction of the biological activity of the drug due to a constricted mobility since normally only short spacer molecule like aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (APMS are used for drug coupling. This work aimed to study covalent attachment of heparin to titanium(oxide surfaces by varying the length of the silane coupling agent, which should affect the biological potency of the drug due to a higher mobility with longer spacer chains. Methods Covalent attachment of heparin to titanium metal and TiO2 powder was carried out using the coupling agents 3-(Trimethoxysilyl-propylamine (APMS, N- [3-(Trimethoxysilylpropyl]ethylenediamine (Diamino-APMS and N1- [3-(Trimethoxy-silyl-propyl]diethylenetriamine (Triamino-APMS. The amount of bound coupling agent and heparin was quantified photometrically by the ninhydrin reaction and the tolidine-blue test. The biological potency of heparin was determined photometrically by the chromogenic substrate Chromozym TH and fibrinogen adsorption to the modified surfaces was researched using the QCM-D (Quartz Crystal Microbalance with Dissipation Monitoring technique. Results Zeta-potential measurements confirmed the successful coupling reaction; the potential of the unmodified anatase surface (approx. -26 mV shifted into the positive range (> + 40 mV after silanisation. Binding of heparin results in a strongly negatively charged surface with zeta-potentials of approx. -39 mV. The retaining biological activity of heparin was highest for the spacer molecule Triamino-APMS. QCM-D measurements showed a lower viscosity for adsorbed fibrinogen films on heparinised surfaces by means of Triamino-APMS. Conclusion The remaining activity of heparin was found to be highest for the covalent attachment with Triamino-APMS as coupling agent due to the long chain of this spacer molecule and therefore the highest mobility of the drug

  9. On the Origin of Reverse Transcriptase-Using CRISPR-Cas Systems and Their Hyperdiverse, Enigmatic Spacer Repertoires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukrit Silas

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Cas1 integrase is the key enzyme of the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR-Cas adaptation module that mediates acquisition of spacers derived from foreign DNA by CRISPR arrays. In diverse bacteria, the cas1 gene is fused (or adjacent to a gene encoding a reverse transcriptase (RT related to group II intron RTs. An RT-Cas1 fusion protein has been recently shown to enable acquisition of CRISPR spacers from RNA. Phylogenetic analysis of the CRISPR-associated RTs demonstrates monophyly of the RT-Cas1 fusion, and coevolution of the RT and Cas1 domains. Nearly all such RTs are present within type III CRISPR-Cas loci, but their phylogeny does not parallel the CRISPR-Cas type classification, indicating that RT-Cas1 is an autonomous functional module that is disseminated by horizontal gene transfer and can function with diverse type III systems. To compare the sequence pools sampled by RT-Cas1-associated and RT-lacking CRISPR-Cas systems, we obtained samples of a commercially grown cyanobacterium—Arthrospira platensis. Sequencing of the CRISPR arrays uncovered a highly diverse population of spacers. Spacer diversity was particularly striking for the RT-Cas1-containing type III-B system, where no saturation was evident even with millions of sequences analyzed. In contrast, analysis of the RT-lacking type III-D system yielded a highly diverse pool but reached a point where fewer novel spacers were recovered as sequencing depth was increased. Matches could be identified for a small fraction of the non-RT-Cas1-associated spacers, and for only a single RT-Cas1-associated spacer. Thus, the principal source(s of the spacers, particularly the hypervariable spacer repertoire of the RT-associated arrays, remains unknown.

  10. Thermal-Hydraulic Effect of Pattern of Wire-wrap Spacer in 19-pin Rod Bundle for SFR Fuel Assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Yeong Shin; Bang, In Cheol [UNIST, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Park, Seong Dae [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    As sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) has been considered the most promising reactor type for future and prototype gen-IV SFR has been developed actively in Korea, thermal-hydraulic aspects of the SFR fuel assembly have the important role for the reactor safety analysis. In PGSFR fuel assembly, 271 pins of fuel rods are tightly packed in triangular array inside hexagonal duct, and wire is wound helically per each fuel rod with regular pattern to assure the gap between rods and prevent the collision, which is called wire-wrapped spacer. Due to helical shape of the wire-wrapped spacer, flow inside duct can have stronger turbulent characteristics and thermal mixing effect. However, many studies showed the possible wake from swirl flow inside subchannel, which cause local hot spot. To prevent the wake flow and improve thermal mixing, new pattern of wire wrap spacer was suggested. To evaluate the effect of wire wrap spacer pattern, CFD analysis was performed for 19-pin rod bundle with comparison of conventional and U-pattern wire wrap spacer. To prevent the wake due to same direction of swirl flow, 7-rod unit pattern of wire spacer, which are arranged to have different rotational direction of wire with adjacent rods and center rod without wire wrap was proposed. From simulation results, swirl flow across gap conflicts its rotation direction causing wake flow from the regular pattern of the conventional one, which generates local hot spot near cladding. With U-pattern of wire wrap spacer, heat transfer in subchannel can be enhanced with evenly distributed cross flow without compensating pressure loss. From the results, the pattern of wire wrap spacer can influence the both heat transfer characteristics and pressure drop, with flow structures generated by wire wrap spacer.

  11. Mechanical evaluation of hip cement spacer reinforcement with stainless steel Kirschner wires, titanium and carbon rods, and stainless steel mesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaku, Nobuhiro; Tabata, Tomonori; Tsumura, Hiroshi

    2015-04-01

    In two-stage treatments for infections after total hip arthroplasty, antibiotic-loaded cement spacers help treat the infection by antibiotic elution and prevent contraction. However, such spacers are weak and may fracture while awaiting replacement, impairing functionality. We evaluated whether a Kirschner wire (K-wire) mounted into the spacer reinforced its strength along with the effects of the reinforcing material, position, and intensity. Spacers without reinforcing materials constituted the control group. As reinforcing materials, stainless steel K-wires (diameters 3 and 6 mm), titanium alloy and carbon fibers (diameter 3.175 mm), and stainless steel meshes (inner and outer diameters, 6 and 9 mm, respectively) were inserted into the spacer mold before filling with cement. The spacers complied with ISO 7206-4; a compressive load was applied using a testing machine with a velocity of 25.4 mm/min, and the maximum load was recorded. We used 1-3 K-wires positioned on the medial side, lateral side, neck only, and stem only and tested 3 specimens for each condition. The control group withstood the highest load. Stainless steel was the strongest material; 3-mm K-wires in the neck and lateral side withstood a higher load. The computed tomography (CT) imaging revealed a cavity between the K-wires and cement. When K-wires were inserted along the whole length, despite cement fractures, continuity was maintained because of the reinforcing materials. It is difficult to improve the reinforcing strength of spacers using K-wires; however, K-wires prevented dislocation of cement spacer fragments, which can help prevent contraction and facilitate spacer removal during replacement.

  12. PCDDB: the protein circular dichroism data bank, a repository for circular dichroism spectral and metadata

    OpenAIRE

    Whitmore, Lee; Woollett, Benjamin; Miles, Andrew J.; Klose, D.P.; Janes, R.W.; Wallace, Bonnie A.

    2011-01-01

    The Protein Circular Dichroism Data Bank (PCDDB) is a public repository that archives and freely distributes circular dichroism (CD) and synchrotron radiation CD (SRCD) spectral data and their associated experimental metadata. All entries undergo validation and curation procedures to ensure completeness, consistency and quality of the data included. A web-based interface enables users to browse and query sample types, sample conditions, experimental parameters and provides spectra in both gra...

  13. Solid Angle Computations for a Circular Radiator and a Circular Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konijn, J.; Tollander, B.

    1963-02-15

    The problem of particle detection, when using an isotropic neutron point source at different distances from a circular target or a radioactive source as seen by a circular detector, e. g. a solid state counter, is dealt with. Tables are given for different distances of the source when the reaction at the target has an isotropic or a cosine angular distribution in the laboratory system.

  14. CFD analysis of pressure drop across grid spacers in rod bundles compared to correlations and heavy liquid metal experimental data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batta, A., E-mail: batta@kit.edu; Class, A.G., E-mail: class@kit.edu

    2017-02-15

    Early studies of the flow in rod bundles with spacer grids suggest that the pressure drop can be decomposed in contributions due to flow area variations by spacer grids and frictional losses along the rods. For these shape and frictional losses simple correlations based on theoretical and experimental data have been proposed. In the OECD benchmark study LACANES it was observed that correlations could well describe the flow behavior of the heavy liquid metal loop including a rod bundle with the exception of the core region, where different experts chose different pressure-loss correlations for the losses due to spacer grids. Here, RANS–CFD simulations provided very good data compared to the experimental data. It was observed that the most commonly applied Rehme correlation underestimated the shape losses. The available correlations relate the pressure drop across a grid spacer to the relative plugging of the spacer i.e. solidity e{sub max}. More sophisticated correlations distinct between spacer grids with round or sharp leading edge shape. The purpose of this study is to (i) show that CFD is suitable to predict pressure drop across spacer grids and (ii) to access the generality of pressure drop correlations. By verification and validation of CFD results against experimental data obtained in KALLA we show (i). The generality (ii) is challenged by considering three cases which yield identical pressure drop in the correlations. First we test the effect of surface roughness, a parameter not present in the correlations. Here we compare a simulation assuming a typical surface roughness representing the experimental situation to a perfectly smooth spacer surface. Second we reverse the flow direction for the spacer grid employed in the experiments which is asymmetric. The flow direction reversal is chosen for convenience, since an asymmetric spacer grid with given blockage ratio, may result in different flow situations depending on flow direction. Obviously blockage

  15. Studies on coaxial circular array for underwater transducer applications

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chakraborty, B.

    This thesis presents analytical methods to study important aspects of a coaxial circular array for wideband underwater transducer application. It begins with detailed theoretical study of a coaxial circular array of three turns and an analysis...

  16. Transcriptome changes in STSV2-infected Sulfolobus islandicus REY15A undergoing continuous CRISPR spacer acquisition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    León-Sobrino, Carlos; Kot, Witold P; Garrett, Roger A

    2016-01-01

    A transcriptome study was performed on Sulfolobus islandicus REY15A actively undergoing CRISPR spacer acquisition from the crenarchaeal monocaudavirus STSV2 in rich and basal media over a 6 day period. Spacer acquisition preceded strong host growth retardation, altered transcriptional activity...... of four different CRISPR-Cas modules and changes in viral copy numbers, and with significant differences in the two media. Transcript levels of proteins involved in the cell cycle were reduced, while those of DNA replication, DNA repair, transcriptional regulation, and some antitoxin-toxin pairs...... and transposases were unchanged or enhanced. Antisense RNAs were implicated in the transcriptional regulation of adaptation and interference modules of the type I-A CRISPR-Cas system and evidence was found for the occurrence of functional coordination between the single CRISPR-Cas adaptation module...

  17. Sequence Analysis of the Ribosomal DNA Intergenic Spacer 1 Regions of Trichosporon Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugita, Takashi; Nakajima, Masamitsu; Ikeda, Reiko; Matsushima, Toshiharu; Shinoda, Takako

    2002-01-01

    We determined the sequence of the intergenic spacer (IGS) 1 region, which is located between the 26S and 5S rRNA genes, in 25 species of the genus Trichosporon. IGS 1 sequences varied in length from 195 to 719 bp. Comparative sequence analysis suggested that the divergence of IGS 1 sequences has been greater than that of the internal transcribed spacer regions. We also identified five genotypes of T. asahii, which is a major causative agent of deep-seated trichosporonosis, based on the IGS 1 sequences of 43 strains. Most of the isolates that originated in Japan were of genotype 1, whereas the American isolates were of genotype 3 or 5. Our results suggest that analysis of IGS regions provides a powerful method to distinguish between phylogenetically closely related species and that a geographic substructure may exist among T. asahii clinical isolates. PMID:11980969

  18. Synthesis, Characterization and Biological Studies of New Linear Thermally Stable Schiff Base Polymers with Flexible Spacers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Farah; Khuhawar, Muhammad Yar; Jahangir, Taj Muhammad; Channar, Abdul Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Five new linear Schiff base polymers having azomethine structures, ether linkages and extended aliphatic chain lengths with flexible spacers were synthesized by polycondensation of dialdehyde (monomer) with aliphatic and aromatic diamines. The formation yields of monomer and polymers were obtained within 75-92%. The polymers with flexible spacers of n-hexane were somewhat soluble in acetone, chloroform, THF, DMF and DMSO on heating. The monomer and polymers were characterized by melting point, elemental microanalysis, FT-IR, (1)HNMR, UV-Vis spectroscopy, thermogravimetry (TG), differential thermal analysis (DTA), fluorescence emission, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and viscosities and thermodynamic parameters measurements of their dilute solutions. The studies supported formation of the monomer and polymers and on the basis of these studies their structures have been assigned. The synthesized polymers were tested for their antibacterial and antifungal activities.

  19. Supply chain in a circular economy: a multidimensional research agenda

    OpenAIRE

    Dora, M; Manjot Singh Bhatia; Gallear, D

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on analysing and synthesising the extant research published on supply chains in the context of circular economy. Circular supply chain (CSC) broadly relates to remanufacturing, reusing and recycling processes in the circular economy in which at every stage of a product’s lifecycle consideration is given to the most efficient use of resources (Genovese et al., 2015). The Circular Economy promoted by the European Commission includes industrial systems that are restorative by ...

  20. Development pattern of circular economy in Jiangsu coastland

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Liang

    2009-01-01

    Circular economy is an effective development pattern to balance economic growth, social development and environmental protection. Based on apprehending the connotation of circular economy, this paper fully considers and studies on the future trends in this area according to the theory of circular economy and the empirical circumstances of Jiangsu Coastland. This paper also discusses the circular economy development pattern adopted by Jiangsu coastland during economic and social development fr...

  1. Imidacloprid and Thiamethoxam Induced Mutations in Internal Transcribed Spacer 2 (ITS2) of Anopheles stephensi

    OpenAIRE

    Bhinder, Preety; Chaudhry, Asha; Barna, Bhupinder; Kaur, Satvinderjeet

    2012-01-01

    The present article deals with the polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based genotoxicity evaluation of neonicotinoid pesticides, imidacloprid and thiamethoxam, by using the genome of a mosquito Anopheles stephensi taken as an experimental model. After treatment of the second instar larvae with LC20 of the pesticides for 24 h, the induced nucleotide sequence variations in the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) of freshly hatched unfed control and treated individuals was studied from the sequenc...

  2. New specific primers for amplification of the Internal Transcribed Spacer region in Clitellata (Annelida)

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yingkui; Erséus, Christer

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Nuclear molecular evidence, for example, the rapidly evolving Internal Transcribed Spacer region (ITS), integrated with maternally inherited (mitochondrial) COI barcodes, has provided new insights into the diversity of clitellate annelids. PCR amplification and sequencing of ITS, however, are often hampered by poor specificity of primers used. Therefore, new clitellate‐specific primers for amplifying the whole ITS region (ITS: 29F/1084R) and a part of it (ITS2: 606F/1082R) were devel...

  3. Leishmania donovani complex: genotyping with the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer and the mini-exon

    OpenAIRE

    Mauricio, IL; Stothard, JR; Miles, MA

    2004-01-01

    Intergenic region typing by restriction analysis of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and mini-exon provide diagnostic markers for some Leishmania. Here, we evaluate restriction analysis of these targets for genotyping and phylogenetic analysis within the Leishmania donovani complex (agents of visceral leishmaniasis). Each method was useful for genotyping of both L. donovani complex strains and Old World Leishmania species. The targets produced less robust groups than gp63 inter...

  4. 3D fitting accuracy evaluation of CAD/CAM copings - comparison with spacer design settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boitelle, Philippe; Tapie, Laurent; Mawussi, Bernardin; Fromentin, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    The accuracy of computer-aided design/computer- aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) systems is linked to their technical characteristics and reliability for manufacturing the restoration designed. The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of fit of zirconia copings manufactured with different CAD/CAM systems and their capacity to conform to pre-established spacer design settings. Sixty zirconia copings were manufactured by three CAD/CAM systems, with their spacers set as recommended by their manufacturer on occlusal, axial, and marginal surfaces. The 3D triple-scan optical technique was used to obtain a fit mapping and to analyze the marginal and axial accuracy of fit. The reliability of the 3D measurement method was estimated using intraclass correlation and repeatability coefficients. The preparation coping interface width results were statistically analyzed using non-parametric analysis (Kruskal-Wallis, one-way ANOVA, and Wilcoxon signedrank tests) (P < 0.05). The repeatability coefficient was 6, 8, and 15 μm for axial, marginal, and occlusal interface width measurements, respectively. For the three systems tested, no differences were found in the marginal area of the copings studied, with a mean fitting accuracy ranging from 54.3 to 66.6 μm interface width. Statistically significant differences between groups were observed for the fitting accuracy measured in axial and occlusal areas. With the spacers set in the different areas, mean fit measurements of the zirconia copings were significantly larger, with an increased fit width ranging from 30 to 73 μm. The three CAD/CAM systems evaluated allowed similar marginal accuracy but failed to reproduce the pre-established spacer parameters, with larger spacing showing throughout.

  5. Teicoplanin-Containing Cement Spacers for Treatment of Experimental Staphylococcus aureus Joint Prosthesis Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Ismael, Farid; Bléton, Rémy; Saleh-Mghir, Azzam; Dautrey, Sophie; Massias, Laurent; Crémieux, Anne-Claude

    2003-01-01

    Using a rabbit model of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus knee-prosthesis infection, we studied the efficacy of teicoplanin cement alone or in combination with systemic intramuscular (i.m.) injections of teicoplanin. Seven days after infection, surgical debridement and removal of the infected prostheses were performed, and five rabbits were randomly assigned to one of five different treatment groups: untreated controls, prosthesis replacement by drug-free cement spacer, prosthesis r...

  6. Design, Synthesis and Hydrolytic Behavior of Mutual Prodrugs of NSAIDs with Gabapentin Using Glycol Spacers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiba Najeh Alsaad

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The free –COOH present in NSAIDs is thought to be responsible for the GI irritation associated with all traditional NSAIDs. Exploitation of mutual prodrugs is an approach wherein the NSAID is covalently bounded to a second pharmacologically active carrier/drug with the ultimate aim of reducing the gastric irritation. In this study some NSAIDs were conjugated with gabapentin via ester bonds using glycol spacers with the expectation of reducing gastric adverse effects and obtaining synergistic analgesic effects. The kinetics of ester hydrolysis were studied in two different non enzymatic buffer solutions at pH 1.2 and 7.4, as well as in 80% human plasma using HPLC with chloroform -methanol as mobile phase. Compounds 9a–c with ethylene glycol spacers showed significant stability at buffer solutions with half lives ranging from about 8–25 h, while the underwent a reasonable plasma hydrolysis (49%–88% in 2 h. Compound 9d with a propylene glycol spacer shows a higher rate of enzymatic hydrolysis than the corresponding ethylene glycol compound 9c. The result of compounds 9a-c indicate that these compounds may be stable during their passage through the GIT until reaching the blood circulation.

  7. Finite element analysis of the contact between fuel rod and spacer grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyung Kyu; Kim, Young Koon; Kang, Heung Seok; Yoon, Kyung Ho; Song, Kee Nam [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-01-01

    For the research on the fretting failure problem of nuclear fuel, the contact length and normal stress field are evaluated for the contact between fuel rod and spacer grid by using the Finite Element Method (FEM). An assumption of semi-infiniteness is necessary for applying the Contact Mechanics which is based on the classical theory of elasticity to the present problem. For the contact problem of fuel fretting, the contact mechanical solutions could be utilized well with sufficient accuracy if the contact bodies (i.e., the cladding tube and the spacer grid) can be assumed as semi-infinite bodies. To this end, the contact length evaluated by FEM is discussed together with the relevant research which concerned the effect of dimension for the validity of the assumption of semi-infiniteness. Normal stress profile on the contact is also studied through comparing the theoretical and the FE results. For the analysis of contact problem by FEM, ANSYS code (Version 5.3) is utilized and the geometry is chosen to be the Hertzian (cylinder-to-cylinder), the strip-to-cylinder and the fuel rod/spacer grid contact (strip-to-tube). Present research will be utilized for accessing the fuel fretting problem by FEM together with the theoretical (i.e., contact mechanical) analysis which has been published as KAERI/TR-1113/98. (author). 15 refs., 44 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. Secondary spacer modulated assembly of polyoxometalate based metal-organic frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sha, Jing-Quan; Sun, Jing-Wen; Li, Meng-Ting; Wang, Cheng; Li, Guang-Ming; Yan, Peng-Fei; Sun, Long-Jiang

    2013-02-07

    To investigate the influence of a secondary spacer on the resulting structures of POMOFs containing pytz, five new compounds with different dimensionalities, [Cu(5)(2-pytz)(6)(H(2)O)(4)][SiMo(12)O(40)]·3H(2)O (1), [Cu(3)(2-pytz)(4)bipy][H(2)SiMo(12)O(40)]·bipy (2), [Cu(3)(2-pytz)(2)(bipy)(4)(H(2)O)(6)][H(4)SiW(12)O(40)](2)·6H(2)O (3), [Cu(2)(2-pytz)(phen)(OH)](2)[SiW(12)O(40)]·H(2)O (4), [Cu(3)(4-pytz)(4)(H(2)O)(4)][H(2)SiW(12)O(40)]·2H(2)O (5), were synthesized. When only 2-pytz was employed, compound 1 with a 3D framework was obtained, whereas when the secondary spacers (4,4'-bipy, phen and 4-pytz) were introduced into the reaction system of 1, compounds 2-5 were obtained and exhibit a broad range of structures, including 0D, 1D, 2D and 3D frameworks. It can be observed from the architectures of compounds 1-5 that the secondary spacers have a great effect on the structures of the MOFs, which results in the formation of various dimensional POMOF compounds. Additionally, photocatalytic experiments of 1-5 for the photocatalytic degradation of RhB under UV irradiation were also investigated.

  9. [Identification of medicinal plant Dendrobium based on the chloroplast psbK-psbI intergenic spacer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Hui; Yang, Pei; Zhou, Hong; Ma, Shuang-jiao; Song, Jing-yuan; Chen, Shi-lin

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, the chloroplast psbK-psbI intergenic spacers of 18 species of Dendrobium and their adulterants were amplified and sequenced, and then the sequence characteristics were analyzed. The sequence lengths of chloroplast psbK-psbI regions of Dendrobium ranged from 474 to 513 bp and the GC contents were 25.4%-27.6%. The variable sites were 71 while the informative sites were 46. The inter-specific genetic distances calculated by Kimura 2-parameter (K2P) of Dendrobium were 0.006 1-0.058 1, with an average of 0.028 4. The K2P genetic distances between Dendrobium species and Bulbophyllum odoratissimum were 0.093 2-0.120 4. The NJ tree showed that the Dendrobium species can be easily differentiated from each other and 6 samples of the inspected Dendrobium species were identified successfully through sequencing the psbK-psbI intergenic spacer. Therefore, the chloroplast psbK-psbI intergenic spacer can be used as a candidate marker to identify Dendrobium species and its adulterants.

  10. MetaCRAST: reference-guided extraction of CRISPR spacers from unassembled metagenomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moller, Abraham G.

    2017-01-01

    Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) systems are the adaptive immune systems of bacteria and archaea against viral infection. While CRISPRs have been exploited as a tool for genetic engineering, their spacer sequences can also provide valuable insights into microbial ecology by linking environmental viruses to their microbial hosts. Despite this importance, metagenomic CRISPR detection remains a major challenge. Here we present a reference-guided CRISPR spacer detection tool (Metagenomic CRISPR Reference-Aided Search Tool—MetaCRAST) that constrains searches based on user-specified direct repeats (DRs). These DRs could be expected from assembly or taxonomic profiles of metagenomes. We compared the performance of MetaCRAST to those of two existing metagenomic CRISPR detection tools—Crass and MinCED—using both real and simulated acid mine drainage (AMD) and enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) metagenomes. Our evaluation shows MetaCRAST improves CRISPR spacer detection in real metagenomes compared to the de novo CRISPR detection methods Crass and MinCED. Evaluation on simulated metagenomes show it performs better than de novo tools for Illumina metagenomes and comparably for 454 metagenomes. It also has comparable performance dependence on read length and community composition, run time, and accuracy to these tools. MetaCRAST is implemented in Perl, parallelizable through the Many Core Engine (MCE), and takes metagenomic sequence reads and direct repeat queries (FASTA or FASTQ) as input. It is freely available for download at https://github.com/molleraj/MetaCRAST. PMID:28894651

  11. MetaCRAST: reference-guided extraction of CRISPR spacers from unassembled metagenomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham G. Moller

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR systems are the adaptive immune systems of bacteria and archaea against viral infection. While CRISPRs have been exploited as a tool for genetic engineering, their spacer sequences can also provide valuable insights into microbial ecology by linking environmental viruses to their microbial hosts. Despite this importance, metagenomic CRISPR detection remains a major challenge. Here we present a reference-guided CRISPR spacer detection tool (Metagenomic CRISPR Reference-Aided Search Tool—MetaCRAST that constrains searches based on user-specified direct repeats (DRs. These DRs could be expected from assembly or taxonomic profiles of metagenomes. We compared the performance of MetaCRAST to those of two existing metagenomic CRISPR detection tools—Crass and MinCED—using both real and simulated acid mine drainage (AMD and enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR metagenomes. Our evaluation shows MetaCRAST improves CRISPR spacer detection in real metagenomes compared to the de novo CRISPR detection methods Crass and MinCED. Evaluation on simulated metagenomes show it performs better than de novo tools for Illumina metagenomes and comparably for 454 metagenomes. It also has comparable performance dependence on read length and community composition, run time, and accuracy to these tools. MetaCRAST is implemented in Perl, parallelizable through the Many Core Engine (MCE, and takes metagenomic sequence reads and direct repeat queries (FASTA or FASTQ as input. It is freely available for download at https://github.com/molleraj/MetaCRAST.

  12. MetaCRAST: reference-guided extraction of CRISPR spacers from unassembled metagenomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moller, Abraham G; Liang, Chun

    2017-01-01

    Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) systems are the adaptive immune systems of bacteria and archaea against viral infection. While CRISPRs have been exploited as a tool for genetic engineering, their spacer sequences can also provide valuable insights into microbial ecology by linking environmental viruses to their microbial hosts. Despite this importance, metagenomic CRISPR detection remains a major challenge. Here we present a reference-guided CRISPR spacer detection tool (Metagenomic CRISPR Reference-Aided Search Tool-MetaCRAST) that constrains searches based on user-specified direct repeats (DRs). These DRs could be expected from assembly or taxonomic profiles of metagenomes. We compared the performance of MetaCRAST to those of two existing metagenomic CRISPR detection tools-Crass and MinCED-using both real and simulated acid mine drainage (AMD) and enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) metagenomes. Our evaluation shows MetaCRAST improves CRISPR spacer detection in real metagenomes compared to the de novo CRISPR detection methods Crass and MinCED. Evaluation on simulated metagenomes show it performs better than de novo tools for Illumina metagenomes and comparably for 454 metagenomes. It also has comparable performance dependence on read length and community composition, run time, and accuracy to these tools. MetaCRAST is implemented in Perl, parallelizable through the Many Core Engine (MCE), and takes metagenomic sequence reads and direct repeat queries (FASTA or FASTQ) as input. It is freely available for download at https://github.com/molleraj/MetaCRAST.

  13. Improving the quality of combined EEG-TMS neural recordings: Introducing the coil spacer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruddy, K L; Woolley, D G; Mantini, D; Balsters, J H; Enz, N; Wenderoth, N

    2017-11-06

    In the last decade, interest in combined transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and electroencephalography (EEG) approaches has grown substantially. Aside from the obvious artifacts induced by the magnetic pulses themselves, separate and more sinister signal disturbances arise as a result of contact between the TMS coil and EEG electrodes. Here we profile the characteristics of these artifacts and introduce a simple device - the coil spacer - to provide a platform allowing physical separation between the coil and electrodes during stimulation. EEG data revealed high amplitude signal disturbances when the TMS coil was in direct contact with the EEG electrodes, well within the physiological range of viable EEG signals. The largest artifacts were located in the Delta and Theta frequency range, and standard data cleanup using independent components analysis (ICA) was ineffective due to the artifact's similarity to real brain oscillations. While the current best practice is to use a large coil holding apparatus to fixate the coil 'hovering' over the head with an air gap, the spacer provides a simpler solution that ensures this distance is kept constant throughout testing. The results strongly suggest that data collected from combined TMS-EEG studies with the coil in direct contact with the EEG cap are polluted with low frequency artifacts that are indiscernible from physiological brain signals. The coil spacer provides a cheap and simple solution to this problem and is recommended for use in future simultaneous TMS-EEG recordings. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. FIVPET Flow-Induced Vibration Test Report (1) - Candidate Spacer Grid Type I (Optimized H Type)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kang Hee; Kang, Heung Seok; Yoon, Kyung Ho; Song, Kee Nam; Kim, Jae Yong

    2006-03-15

    The flow-induced vibration (FIV) test using a 5x5 partial fuel assembly was performed to evaluate mechanical/structural performance of the candidate spacer grid type I (Optimized H shape). From the measured vibration response of the test bundle and the flow parameters, design features of the spacer strap can be analyzed in the point of vibration and hydraulic aspect, and also compared with other spacer strap in simple comparative manner. Furthermore, the FIV test will contributes to understand behaviors of nuclear fuel in operating reactor. The FIV test results will be used to verify the theoretical model of fuel rod and assembly vibration. The aim of this report is to present the results of the FIV test of partial fuel assembly and to introduce the detailed test methodology and analysis procedure. In chapter 2, the overall configuration of test bundle and instrumented tube is remarked and chapter 3 will introduce the test facility (FIVPET) and test section. Chapter 4 deals with overall test condition and procedure, measurement and data acquisition devices, instrumentation equipment and calibration, and error analysis. Finally, test result of vibration and pressure fluctuation is presented and discussed in chapter 5.

  15. Synthesis and Characterization of Degradable Multivalent Cationic Lipids with Disulfide-Bond Spacers for Gene Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirazi, Rahau S.; Leal, Cecilia; Majzoub, Ramsey N.; Bouxsein, Nathan F.

    2011-01-01

    Gene therapy provides powerful new approaches to cure a large variety of diseases, which are being explored in ongoing worldwide clinical trials. To overcome the limitations of viral gene delivery systems, synthetic nonviral vectors such as cationic liposomes (CLs) are desirable. However, improvements of their efficiency at reduced toxicity and a better understanding of their mechanism of action are required. We present the efficient synthesis of a series of degradable multivalent cationic lipids (CMVLn, n=2 to 5) containing a disulfide bond spacer between headgroup and lipophilic tails. This spacer is designed to be cleaved in the reducing milieu of the cytoplasm and thus decrease lipid toxicity. Small angle X-ray scattering demonstrates that the initially formed lamellar phase of CMVLn–DNA complexes completely disappears when reducing agents such as DTT or the biologically relevant reducing peptide glutathione are added to mimic the intracellular milieu. The CMVLs (n=3 to 5) exhibit reduced cytotoxicity and transfect mammalian cells with efficiencies comparable to those of highly efficient non-degradable analogues and benchmark commercial reagents such as Lipofectamine 2000. Thus, our results demonstrate that degradable disulfide spacers may be used to reduce the cytotoxicity of synthetic nonviral gene delivery carriers without compromising their transfection efficiency. PMID:21640069

  16. A product design framework for a circular economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Berg, M.R.; Bakker, C.A.

    2015-01-01

    The paper provides a circular economy framework from a product design perspective with tools to aid product designers in applying circular product design in practice. Design research for circular economy has so far mainly been limited to referring to existing fields of research such as design for

  17. Design of circular differential microphone arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Benesty, Jacob; Cohen, Israel

    2015-01-01

    Recently, we proposed a completely novel and efficient way to design differential beamforming algorithms for linear microphone arrays. Thanks to this very flexible approach, any order of differential arrays can be designed. Moreover, they can be made robust against white noise amplification, which is the main inconvenience in these types of arrays. The other well-known problem with linear arrays is that electronic steering is not really feasible.  In this book, we extend all these fundamental ideas to circular microphone arrays and show that we can design small and compact differential arrays of any order that can be electronically steered in many different directions and offer a good degree of control of the white noise amplification problem, high directional gain, and frequency-independent response. We also present a number of practical examples, demonstrating that differential beamforming with circular microphone arrays is likely one of the best candidates for applications involving speech enhancement (i....

  18. Photoelectron circular dichroism in different ionization regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollenhaupt, Matthias

    2016-12-01

    Photoelectron circular dichroism (PECD) describes an asymmetry in the photoelectron angular distribution (PAD) from photoionization of randomly oriented enantiomers with circularly polarized light. Beaulieu et al present a comprehensive set of measured PADs from multiphoton ionization of limonene and fenchone in different ionization regimes (multiphoton and tunneling) and analyze the resulting PECD (Beaulieu et al 2016 New J. Phys. 18 102002). From their observations the authors conclude that the PECD is universal in the sense that the molecular chirality is encoded in the PAD independent of the ionization regime. The analysis is supplemented by a classical model based on electron scattering in a chiral potential. The paper presents beautiful data and is an important step towards a more complete physical picture of PECD. The results and their interpretation stimulate the ongoing vivid debate on the role of resonances in multiphoton PECD.

  19. The Biogenesis of Nascent Circular RNAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Zhang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Steady-state circular RNAs (circRNAs have been mapped to thousands of genomic loci in mammals. We studied circRNA processing using metabolic tagging of nascent RNAs with 4-thiouridine (4sU. Strikingly, the efficiency of circRNA processing from pre-mRNA is extremely low endogenously. Additional studies revealed that back-splicing outcomes correlate with fast RNA Polymerase II elongation rate and are tightly controlled by cis-elements in vivo. Additionally, prolonged 4sU labeling in cells shows that circRNAs are largely processed post-transcriptionally and that circRNAs are stable. Circular RNAs that are abundant at a steady-state level tend to accumulate. This is particularly true in cells, such as neurons, that have slow division rates. This study uncovers features of circRNA biogenesis by investigating the link between nascent circRNA processing and transcription.

  20. Entropic penalties in circular DNA assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zoli, Marco, E-mail: marco.zoli@unicam.it [School of Science and Technology - CNISM, University of Camerino, I-62032 Camerino (Italy)

    2014-11-07

    The thermodynamic properties of DNA circular molecules are investigated by a new path integral computational method which treats in the real space the fundamental forces stabilizing the molecule. The base pair and stacking contributions to the classical action are evaluated separately by simulating a broad ensemble of twisted conformations. We obtain, for two short sequences, a free energy landscape with multiple wells corresponding to the most convenient values of helical repeat. Our results point to a intrinsic flexibility of the circular structures in which the base pair fluctuations move the system from one well to the next thus causing the local unwinding of the helix. The latter is more pronounced in the shorter sequence whose cyclization causes a higher bending stress. The entropic reductions associated to the formation of the ordered helicoidal structure are estimated.

  1. Textile paper as a circular material

    OpenAIRE

    Ashok, Archana

    2017-01-01

    Increasing resource efficiency by utilising secondary raw material is one of the key characteristics of a circular economy. Textile dust fibre, a waste generated from textile mechanical recycling has the prospect to be utilised as secondary raw material for producing novel material: textile paper suitable for packaging and other applications. A comparative Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of carrier bags made from one ton of virgin paper, recycled paper and novel textile paper (~22584paper bags wi...

  2. Notas sobre una escuela circular prefabricada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neutra, Richard J.

    1961-09-01

    Full Text Available En 1930, la idea de una planta circular para escuela, abarcando un espacio exterior frente a un edificio de usos varios, era ya antigua por lo menos en diez años. El Museo de Arte Moderno de Nueva York, que por aquellos tiempos instaló y preparó en sus nuevas dependencias la primera exposición masiva de Arquitectura moderna, dispuso una magnífica maqueta de este proyecto de Richard J. Neutra.

  3. FROM CIRCULAR ECONOMY TO BLUE ECONOMY

    OpenAIRE

    Iustin-Emanuel, ALEXANDRU; Alexandru, TASNADI

    2014-01-01

    Addressing the subject of this essay is based on the background ideas generated by a new branch of science - Biomimicry. According to European Commissioner for the Environment, "Nature is the perfect model of circular economy". Therefore, by imitating nature, we are witnessing a process of cycle redesign: production-consumption-recycling. The authors present some reflections on the European Commission's decision to adopt after July 1, 2014 new measures concerning the development of more circu...

  4. Spin response formalism in circular accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ptitsyn, V.I. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States)], E-mail: vadimp@bnl.gov; Shatunov, Yu.M. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk, 630090 (Russian Federation); Mane, S.R. [Convergent Computing Inc., P. O. Box 561, Shoreham, NY 11786 (United States)], E-mail: srmane@optonline.net

    2009-09-11

    We present the principal features of the so-called 'spin response formalism', which is linear response theory applied to the spin dynamics in circular accelerators. The formalism is useful for calculating the resonance strengths of several classes of first-order spin resonances in rings, including those for spin flippers. We describe some of the successful applications of the formalism to various storage rings. We include a brief comparison with other formalisms and indicate topics for future work.

  5. Circular Intensity Differential Scattering of chiral molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bustamante, C.J.

    1980-12-01

    In this thesis a theory of the Circular Intensity Differential Scattering (CIDS) of chiral molecules as modelled by a helix oriented with respect to the direction of incidence of light is presented. It is shown that a necessary condition for the existence of CIDS is the presence of an asymmetric polarizability in the scatterer. The polarizability of the scatterer is assumed generally complex, so that both refractive and absorptive phenomena are taken into account.

  6. Circular zig-zag scan video format

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, C. Glen; Simmons, Charles M.

    1992-01-01

    A circular, ziz-zag scan for use with vidicon tubes. A sine wave is generated, rectified and its fourth root extracted. The fourth root, and its inverse, are used to generate horizontal ramp and sync signals. The fourth root is also used to generate a vertical sync signal, and the vertical sync signal, along with the horizontal sync signal, are used to generate the vertical ramp signal. Cathode blanking and preamplifier clamp signals are also obtained from the vertical sync signal.

  7. Nuclear collisions at the Future Circular Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armesto, N., E-mail: nestor.armesto@usc.es [Departamento de Física de Partículas and IGFAE, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, 15706 Santiago de Compostela, Galicia-Spain (Spain); Dainese, A. [INFN – Sezione di Padova, 35131 Padova (Italy); D' Enterria, D. [Physics Department, CERN, CH-1211 Genéve 23 (Switzerland); Masciocchi, S. [EMMI and GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Roland, C. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307 (United States); Salgado, C.A. [Departamento de Física de Partículas and IGFAE, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, 15706 Santiago de Compostela, Galicia-Spain (Spain); Leeuwen, M. van [Nikhef, National Institute for Subatomic Physics, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Institute for Subatomic Physics of Utrecht University, Utrecht (Netherlands); Wiedemann, U.A. [Physics Department, CERN, CH-1211 Genéve 23 (Switzerland)

    2016-12-15

    The Future Circular Collider is a new proposed collider at CERN with centre-of-mass energies around 100 TeV in the pp mode. Ongoing studies aim at assessing its physics potential and technical feasibility. Here we focus on updates in physics opportunities accessible in pA and AA collisions not covered in previous Quark Matter contributions, including Quark-Gluon Plasma and gluon saturation studies, novel hard probes of QCD matter, and photon-induced collisions.

  8. Nuclear collisions at the Future Circular Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Armesto, N.; d'Enterria, D.; Masciocchi, S.; Roland, C.; Salgado, C.A.; van Leeuwen, M.; Wiedemann, U.A.

    2016-01-01

    The Future Circular Collider is a new proposed collider at CERN with centre-of-mass energies around 100 TeV in the pp mode. Ongoing studies aim at assessing its physics potential and technical feasibility. Here we focus on updates in physics opportunities accessible in pA and AA collisions not covered in previous Quark Matter contributions, including Quark-Gluon Plasma and gluon saturation studies, novel hard probes of QCD matter, and photon-induced collisions.

  9. Low-velocity impact behavior of weft-knitted spacer fabrics reinforced composites based on energy absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanalizadeh, F.; Dabiryan, H.; Sadighi, M.

    2017-10-01

    Spacer fabrics are prefered to other types of textile fabrics in energy absorption applications due to existence of pile yarns. The particular geometry of spacer fabrics induce to increase resisting out of plane forces such as impact along their thickness. In order to investigate the low-velocity impact behaviour of composites reinforced with spacer fabric, weft-knitted spacer fabrics with different types of pile orientation and pile length were produced using E-glass yarns. Using produced fabrics and epoxy resin, composites samples were provided by hand lay-up method. Low-velocity impact test was carried out on the prepared samples based on a drop-weight method using spherical steel projectile. The indentation at maximum force was extracted as - comparative criteria used to calculate absorbed energy.The results show that the energy absorption of composites increases by increasing the pile density and pile length.

  10. INFLUENCE OF THE SIZE OF METHYLENE SPACERS ON THE THERMAL BEHAVIOR OF SEVERAL ALIPHATIC-AROMATIC POLYESTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NATALIA HURDUC

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Polyesters have a wide range of technical applications and therefore their processing is of the utmost importance. Since polyesters are usually processed by melting, their thermal stability is an extremely important characteristic for the exact determination of the operational parameters. The thermal analysis was carried out using a MOM-Budapest derivatograph at the 10 C/min heating speed, aluminum oxide the reference material, and the air conditions were static. The study lead to conclusions on the thermal stability and degradation mechanism depending on the number of methylene groups in the spacer. Thermal stability is supported by the increase in the number of methylene groups in the spacer. The degradation mechanism is complex through successive reactions. The spacer size influences the nature of the micromolecules formed by spacer fragmenting and by the number of carbon atoms, respectively.

  11. In vitro performance of three combinations of spacers and pressurized metered dose inhalers for treatment in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, E; Madsen, J; Bisgaard, H

    1998-01-01

    and spacers, with the NebuChamber giving the highest dose, both as delivered dose and in droplets space in the inspiratory line and entrainment of air during inhalation due to inefficient valve control could account for these differences.......The performance of pressurized metered dose inhalers (pMDIs) and spacers in correct dose recommendations is important, but limited information on dose delivery and fine-particle dose from different combinations of spacers and pMDIs is available. In this study, three combinations of spacers and p...... of aerosol, determined as half-life (t1/2) was around approximately 30 s for the NebuChamber, 9-15 s for the Babyhaler and approximately 10 s for the AeroChamber. The present study confirms that there are significant differences in dose output from different combinations of pressurized metered dose inhalers...

  12. Spacer Thickness-Dependent Electron Transport Performance of Titanium Dioxide Thick Film for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reda E. El-Shater

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A titanium dioxide (P25 film was deposited by cast coating as conductive photoelectrode and subsequently immersed in dye solution (N719 to fabricate the photoanode of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs. A plastic spacer was used as a separation and sealant layer between the photoanode and the counter electrode. The effect of the thickness of this spacer on the transfer of electrons in the liquid electrolyte of the DSSCs was studied by means of both IV curves and electrochemical impedance. Using a spacer thickness range of 20 μm to 50 μm, efficiency ranges from 3.73% to 7.22%. The highest efficiency of 7.22% was obtained with an optimal spacer thickness of 40 μm.

  13. Review and Comparison of simulation software for additive manufacturing process: the practical case of dipole End-Spacers

    CERN Document Server

    Vevers, Arturs

    2017-01-01

    Project was made to compare and benchmark simulation software for additive manufacturing. Simulations for End-spacers and HOM crab cavity were made to compare simulation results with 3D scanned data for these parts.

  14. FROM CIRCULAR ECONOMY TO BLUE ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iustin-Emanuel, ALEXANDRU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Addressing the subject of this essay is based on the background ideas generated by a new branch of science - Biomimicry. According to European Commissioner for the Environment, "Nature is the perfect model of circular economy". Therefore, by imitating nature, we are witnessing a process of cycle redesign: production-consumption-recycling. The authors present some reflections on the European Commission's decision to adopt after July 1, 2014 new measures concerning the development of more circular economies. Starting from the principles of Ecolonomy, which is based on the whole living paradigm, this paper argues for the development within each economy of entrepreneurial policies related to the Blue economy. In its turn, Blue economy is based on scientific analyses that identify the best solutions in a business. Thus, formation of social capital will lead to healthier and cheaper products, which will stimulate entrepreneurship. Blue economy is another way of thinking economic practice and is a new model of business design. It is a healthy, sustainable business, designed for people. In fact, it is the core of the whole living paradigm through which, towards 2020, circular economy will grow more and more.

  15. Online inspection of circular fluorescent lamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Beng-Hoe

    1998-10-01

    One step in the manufacture of circular fluorescent lamps is the mercury (Hg) injection process in which a small amount of mercury approximately 20 mg is injected into the fluorescent tube. An on-line detection of mercury is required to ensure that the amount of mercury residual inside the tube is within the acceptable tolerance. This critical operation is to reduce manufacturing overhead by controlling cost and reducing waste of materials. In view of this, an attempt has been made to design and develop an on- line mercury detection system with important benefits to the manufacturers, such as increased throughput, accuracy, reliability and consistency. This paper presents the configuration and development works of the on-line circular fluorescent lamp inspection system developed by Industrial Project Group--Machine Vision Center of Nanyang Polytechnic. The inspection system performs on-line detection of mercury particles (Hg) inside the circular fluorescent lamp. Taking the orientation and translation offsets of the lamp into consideration, it detects the presence/absence as well as the size of the injected mercury. The system has been successfully operating 15 hours per day and inspecting more than 22 thousands lamps in the production plant.

  16. Circular Polarization in Turbulent Blazar Jets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Roy MacDonald

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Circular polarization (CP provides an invaluable probe into the underlying plasma content of relativistic jets. CP can be generated within the jet through a physical process known as linear birefringence. This is a physical mechanism through which initially linearly polarized emission produced in one region of the jet is attenuated by Faraday rotation as it passes through other regions of the jet with distinct magnetic field orientations. Marscher developed the turbulent extreme multi-zone (TEMZ model of blazar emission which mimics these types of magnetic geometries with collections of thousands of plasma cells passing through a standing conical shock. I have recently developed a radiative transfer algorithm to generate synthetic images of the time-dependent circularly polarized intensity emanating from the TEMZ model at different radio frequencies. In this study, we produce synthetic multi-epoch observations that highlight the temporal variability in the circular polarization produced by the TEMZ model. We also explore the effect that different plasma compositions within the jet have on the resultant levels of CP.

  17. MO-AB-BRA-02: Modeling Nanoparticle-Eluting Spacer Degradation During Brachytherapy Application with in Situ Dose-Painting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boateng, F [University of Massachusetts Lowell, Lowell, Massachusetts (United States); Ngwa, W [University of Massachusetts Lowell, Lowell, Massachusetts (United States); Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Brachytherapy application with in situ dose-painting using gold nanoparticles (GNP) released from GNP-loaded brachytherapy spacers has been proposed as an innovative approach to increase therapeutic efficacy during brachytherapy. This work investigates the dosimetric impact of slow versus burst release of GNP from next generation biodegradable spacers. Methods: Mathematical models were developed based on experimental data to study the release of GNP from a spacer designed with FDA approved poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) polymer. The diffusion controlled released process and PLGA polymer degradation kinetics was incorporated in the calculations for the first time. An in vivo determined diffusion coefficient was used for determining the concentration profiles and corresponding dose enhancement based on initial GNP-loading concentrations of 7 mg/g. Results: The results showed that there is significant delay before the concentration profile of GNP diffusion in the tumor is similar to that when burst release is assumed as in previous studies. For example, in the case of burst release after spacer administration, it took up to 25 days for all the GNP to be released from the spacer using diffusion controlled release process only. However, it took up to 45 days when a combined model for both diffusion and polymer degradation processes was used. Based on the tumor concentration profiles, a significant dose enhancement factor (DEF >20%), could be attained at a tumor distances of 5 mm from a spacer loaded with 10 nm GNP sizes. Conclusion: The results highlight the need to take the slow release of GNP from spacers and factors such as biodegradation of polymers into account in research development of GNP-eluting spacers for brachytherapy applications with in-situ dose-painting using gold nanoparticles. The findings suggest that I-125 may be the more appropriate for such applications given the relatively longer half-live compared to other radioisotopes like Pd-103

  18. Effect of electrostatic charge in plastic spacers on the lung delivery of HFA-salbutamol in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anhøj, J; Bisgaard, H; Lipworth, B J

    1999-01-01

    AIMS: The effect of the electrostatic charge in plastic spacers in vivo on drug delivery to the lung of hydrofluoroalkane (HFA) salbutamol spray was studied in children. METHODS: Five children, aged 7-12 years, were included in a 3-way crossover randomised single-blind trial. Salbutamol HFA spray...... delivered a significantly (Pcharge in plastic spacers reduces lung dose in children by more than two-fold. This is clinically significant and the use of potentially electrostatically charged...

  19. Distribution of CRISPR spacer matches in viruses and plasmids of crenarchaeal acidothermophiles and implications for their inhibitory mechanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shah, Shiraz Ali; Hansen, Niels R; Garrett, Roger A

    2009-01-01

    Transcripts from spacer sequences within chromosomal repeat clusters [CRISPRs (clusters of regularly interspaced palindromic repeats)] from archaea have been implicated in inhibiting or regulating the propagation of archaeal viruses and plasmids. For the crenarchaeal thermoacidophiles, the chromo......Transcripts from spacer sequences within chromosomal repeat clusters [CRISPRs (clusters of regularly interspaced palindromic repeats)] from archaea have been implicated in inhibiting or regulating the propagation of archaeal viruses and plasmids. For the crenarchaeal thermoacidophiles...

  20. A Rationale for Going Back to the Future: Use of Disposable Spacers for Pressurised Metered Dose Inhalers

    OpenAIRE

    Mark Sanders; Ronald Bruin

    2015-01-01

    The introduction of pressurised metered dose inhalers (MDIs) in the mid-1950s completely transformed respiratory treatment. Despite decades of availability and healthcare support and development of teaching aids and devices to promote better use, poor pMDI user technique remains a persistent issue. The main pMDI user aid is the spacer/valved holding chamber (VHC) device. Spacer/chamber features (size, shape, configuration, construction material, and hygiene considerations) can vie with clinic...

  1. Effect of Budesonide by metered dose inhaler with or without spacer & dry powder inhaler on Lung Function

    OpenAIRE

    Dilshad Ali Rizvi; Mohammad Tariq Salman; Joydeep Sircar; Ali Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    Aims & objective-To compare the efficacy of Budesonide delivered by metered dose inhaler, metered dose inhaler with spacer and dry powder inhaler on the lung function test parameters. Materials and Methods: This prospective study was undertaken to assess the effect of budesonide administered from fifty patients of chronic stable bronchial asthma were budesonide(400mcg) by metered dose inhaler, metered dose inhaler with spacer and by dry powder inhaler at day 14, 21 and 28 after enrolment ...

  2. Architectural Surfaces and Structures from Circular Arcs

    KAUST Repository

    Shi, Ling

    2013-12-01

    In recent decades, the popularity of freeform shapes in contemporary architecture poses new challenges to digital design. One of them is the process of rationalization, i.e. to make freeform skins or structures affordable to manufacture, which draws the most attention from geometry researchers. In this thesis, we aim to realize this process with simple geometric primitives, circular arcs. We investigate architectural surfaces and structures consisting of circular arcs. Our focus is lying on how to employ them nicely and repetitively in architectural design, in order to decrease the cost in manufacturing. Firstly, we study Darboux cyclides, which are algebraic surfaces of order ≤ 4. We provide a computational tool to identify all families of circles on a given cyclide based on the spherical model of M ̈obius geometry. Practical ways to design cyclide patches that pass through certain inputs are presented. In particular, certain triples of circle families on Darboux cyclides may be suitably arranged as 3-webs. We provide a complete classification of all possible 3-webs of circles on Darboux cyclides. We then investigate the circular arc snakes, which are smooth sequences of circu- lar arcs. We evolve the snakes such that their curvature, as a function of arc length, remains unchanged. The evolution of snakes is utilized to approximate given surfaces by circular arcs or to generated freeform shapes, and it is realized by a 2-step pro- cess. More interestingly, certain 6-arc snake with boundary constraints can produce a smooth self motion, which can be employed to build flexible structures. Another challenging topic is approximating smooth freeform skins with simple panels. We contribute to this problem area by approximating a negatively-curved 5 surface with a smooth union of rational bilinear patches. We provide a proof for vertex consistency of hyperbolic nets using the CAGD approach of the rational B ́ezier form. Moreover, we use Darboux transformations for the

  3. A Comparison of Flow Field Characteristics from PIV Experiment Measurement to Numerical Simulation behind a Spacer in a Vertical Pipe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lávička D.

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the topic of measurement using a modern laser method (PIV in an annular channel of very small dimensions. The annular channel simulates the flow area around a model of a fuel rod in the VVER nuclear reactor. The annular channel holds spacers which create obstacles to fluid flow. The spacers serve a number of important purposes. In the real nuclear reactor, the spacer holds a fuel rod in the fuel rod bundle. Another important function of the spacer is to influence the flow field characteristics, especially turbulence size, by the shape of the spacer. The value of the turbulence regulates the intensity of heat transfer between the fuel rod and the fluid. Therefore, it is very important to provide a correct description and analysis of the flow field behind the obstacle the spacer generates. The paper further looks into the solution of the same task using numerical simulation. The solution of this task consisted of setting the suitable boundary conditions and of setting the turbulence model for the numerical simulation. The result is a comparison of the flow field characteristics from the experimental measurement and the findings of the numerical simulation. The numerical simulation was carried out using commercial CFD software package, FLUENT.

  4. A Rationale for Going Back to the Future: Use of Disposable Spacers for Pressurised Metered Dose Inhalers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Mark; Bruin, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    The introduction of pressurised metered dose inhalers (MDIs) in the mid-1950s completely transformed respiratory treatment. Despite decades of availability and healthcare support and development of teaching aids and devices to promote better use, poor pMDI user technique remains a persistent issue. The main pMDI user aid is the spacer/valved holding chamber (VHC) device. Spacer/chamber features (size, shape, configuration, construction material, and hygiene considerations) can vie with clinical effectiveness (to deliver the same dose as a correctly used pMDI), user convenience, cost, and accessibility. Unsurprisingly, improvised, low-cost alternatives (plastic drink bottles, paper cups, and paper towel rolls) have been pressed into seemingly effective service. A UK law change permitting schools to hold emergency inhalers and spacers has prompted a development project to design a low-cost, user-friendly, disposable, and recyclable spacer. This paper spacer requires neither preuse priming nor washing, and has demonstrated reproducible lung delivery of salbutamol sulphate pMDI, comparable to an industry-standard VHC, an alternative paperboard VHC, and pMDI alone. This new device appears to perform better than these other VHC devices at the low flow rates thought achievable by paediatric patients. The data suggest that this disposable spacer may have a place in the single-use emergency setting.

  5. A Rationale for Going Back to the Future: Use of Disposable Spacers for Pressurised Metered Dose Inhalers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Sanders

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of pressurised metered dose inhalers (MDIs in the mid-1950s completely transformed respiratory treatment. Despite decades of availability and healthcare support and development of teaching aids and devices to promote better use, poor pMDI user technique remains a persistent issue. The main pMDI user aid is the spacer/valved holding chamber (VHC device. Spacer/chamber features (size, shape, configuration, construction material, and hygiene considerations can vie with clinical effectiveness (to deliver the same dose as a correctly used pMDI, user convenience, cost, and accessibility. Unsurprisingly, improvised, low-cost alternatives (plastic drink bottles, paper cups, and paper towel rolls have been pressed into seemingly effective service. A UK law change permitting schools to hold emergency inhalers and spacers has prompted a development project to design a low-cost, user-friendly, disposable, and recyclable spacer. This paper spacer requires neither preuse priming nor washing, and has demonstrated reproducible lung delivery of salbutamol sulphate pMDI, comparable to an industry-standard VHC, an alternative paperboard VHC, and pMDI alone. This new device appears to perform better than these other VHC devices at the low flow rates thought achievable by paediatric patients. The data suggest that this disposable spacer may have a place in the single-use emergency setting.

  6. Nanoconfined circular and linear DNA - equilibrium conformations and unfolding kinetics

    CERN Document Server

    Alizadehheidari, M; Noble, C; Reiter-Schad, M; Nyberg, L K; Fritzsche, J; Mehlig, B; Tegenfeldt, J O; Ambjörnsson, T; Persson, F; Westerlund, F

    2016-01-01

    Studies of circular DNA confined to nanofluidic channels are relevant both from a fundamental polymer-physics perspective and due to the importance of circular DNA molecules in vivo. We here observe the unfolding of DNA from the circular to linear configuration as a light-induced double strand break occurs, characterize the dynamics, and compare the equilibrium conformational statistics of linear and circular configurations. This is important because it allows us to determine to which extent existing statistical theories describe the extension of confined circular DNA. We find that the ratio of the extensions of confined linear and circular DNA configurations increases as the buffer concentration decreases. The experimental results fall between theoretical predictions for the extended de Gennes regime at weaker confinement and the Odijk regime at stronger confinement. We show that it is possible to directly distinguish between circular and linear DNA molecules by measuring the emission intensity from the DNA....

  7. Circular Dichroism Microscopy Free from Commingling Linear Dichroism via Discretely Modulated Circular Polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narushima, Tetsuya; Okamoto, Hiromi

    2016-10-20

    In this work, we developed a circular dichroism (CD) imaging microscope with a device to suppress the commingling of linear birefringence (LB) and linear dichroism (LD) signals. CD signals are, in principle, free from the commingling influence of LD and LB if the sample is illuminated with pure circularly polarized light, with no linear polarization contribution. Based on this idea, we here propose a novel circular polarization modulation method to suppress the contribution of linear polarization, which enables high-sensitivity CD detection (10(-4) level in optical density unit or mdeg level in ellipticity) for microscopic imaging at a nearly diffraction limited spatial resolution (sub-μm level). The highly sensitive, diffraction-limited local CD detection will make direct analyses of chiral structures and spatial mappings of optical activity feasible for μm- to sub-μm-sized materials and may yield a number of applications as a unique optical imaging method.

  8. PaintShop Photo Pro X3 For Photographers

    CERN Document Server

    McMahon, Ken

    2010-01-01

    If you are a digital photographer who's new to PaintShop Photo Pro or digital imaging in general, or have recently upgraded to the all-new version X3, this is the book for you! Packed with full color images to provide inspiration and easy to follow, step-by-step projects, you'll learn the ins and outs of this fantastic program in no time so you can start correcting and editing your images to create stunning works of art. Whether you want to learn or refresh yourself on the basics, such as effective cropping or simple color correction, or move on to more sophisticated techniques like creating s

  9. PaintShop Pro X4 for photographers

    CERN Document Server

    McMahon, Ken

    2012-01-01

    Great for those new to PaintShop Pro or digital imaging in general, this book is packed with inspirational, full-color images and easy to follow, step-by-step projects that will have you producing great images in PaintShop Pro in no time! Everything you need to turn your photos into stunning works of art is right here in this Corel-reviewed guide. In this new edition, Ken covers new features including how to make the most of the newly organized workspaces, use the redesigned HDR tool, and instantly publish photos on Flickr and Facebook. Squeeze every ounce of detail out of RAW files using the

  10. Multipole Analysis of Circular Cylindircal Magnetic Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selvaggi, Jerry P. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States)

    2005-12-01

    This thesis deals with an alternate method for computing the external magnetic field from a circular cylindrical magnetic source. The primary objective is to characterize the magnetic source in terms of its equivalent multipole distribution. This multipole distribution must be valid at points close to the cylindrical source and a spherical multipole expansion is ill-equipped to handle this problem; therefore a new method must be introduced. This method, based upon the free-space Green's function in cylindrical coordinates, is developed as an alternative to the more familiar spherical harmonic expansion. A family of special functions, called the toroidal functions or Q-functions, are found to exhibit the necessary properties for analyzing circular cylindrical geometries. In particular, the toroidal function of zeroth order, which comes from the integral formulation of the free-space Green's function in cylindrical coordinates, is employed to handle magnetic sources which exhibit circular cylindrical symmetry. The toroidal functions, also called Q-functions, are the weighting coefficients in a ''Fourier series-like'' expansion which represents the free-space Green's function. It is also called a toroidal expansion. This expansion can be directly employed in electrostatic, magnetostatic, and electrodynamic problems which exhibit cylindrical symmetry. Also, it is shown that they can be used as an alternative to the Elliptic integral formulation. In fact, anywhere that an Elliptic integral appears, one can replace it with its corresponding Q-function representation. A number of problems, using the toroidal expansion formulation, are analyzed and compared to existing known methods in order to validate the results. Also, the equivalent multipole distribution is found for most of the solved problems along with its corresponding physical interpretation. The main application is to characterize the external magnetic field due to a six

  11. Application of a hydrogel spacer for postoperative salvage radiotherapy of prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinkawa, Michael; Schubert, Carolin; Escobar-Corral, Nuria; Holy, Richard; Eble, Michael J. [RWTH Aachen University, Department of Radiation Oncology, Aachen (Germany)

    2015-04-01

    In contrast to primary radiotherapy, no reports are available for a hydrogel spacer application in postoperative salvage radiotherapy for prostate cancer. A 77-year-old patient presented 20 years after radical prostatectomy with a digitally palpable local recurrence at the urethrovesical anastomosis (PSA 5.5 ng/ml). The hydrogel spacer (10 ml, SpaceOAR trademark) was injected between the local recurrence and rectal wall under transrectal ultrasound guidance. Treatment planning was performed with an intensity-modulated technique up to a total dose of 76 Gy in 2-Gy fractions. The same planning was performed based on computed tomography before spacer injection for comparison. The local recurrence, initially directly on the rectal wall, could be displaced more than 1 cm from the rectal wall after hydrogel injection. With a mean total dose of 76 Gy to the planning target volume, rectal wall volumes included in the 70 Gy, 60 Gy, 50 Gy isodoses were 0 cm{sup 3}, 0 cm{sup 3}, and 0.4 cm{sup 3} with a spacer and 2.9 cm{sup 3}, 4.5 cm{sup 3}, and 6.2 cm{sup 3} without a spacer, respectively. The patient reported rectal urgency during radiotherapy, completely resolving after the end of treatment. The PSA level was 5.4 ng/ml a week before the end of radiotherapy and dropped to 0.9 ng/ml 5 months after radiotherapy. A hydrogel spacer was successfully applied for dose-escalated radiotherapy in a patient with macroscopic local prostate cancer recurrence at the urethrovesical anastomosis to decrease the dose at the rectal wall. This option can be considered in specifically selected patients. (orig.) [German] Im Gegensatz zum Einsatz bei der primaeren Radiotherapie gibt es bisher keine Berichte zum Einsatz eines Hydrogel-Abstandhalters bei der postoperativen Salvage-Radiotherapie des Prostatakarzinoms. Ein 77-jaehriger Patient stellte sich 20 Jahre nach radikaler Prostatektomie mit einem digital palpablem Lokalrezidiv im Bereich der urethrovesikalen Anastomose vor (PSA 5,5 ng

  12. Chiral Surface Waves for Enhanced Circular Dichroism

    CERN Document Server

    Pellegrini, Giovanni; Celebrano, Michele; Duò, Lamberto; Biagioni, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel chiral sensing platform that combines a one-dimensional photonic crystal design with a birefringent surface defect. The platform sustains simultaneous transverse electric and transverse magnetic surface modes, which are exploited to generate chiral surface waves. The present design provides homogeneous and superchiral fields of both handednesses over arbitrarily large areas in a wide spectral range, resulting in the enhancement of the circular dichroism signal by two orders of magnitude, thus paving the road toward the successful combination of surface-enhanced spectroscopies and electromagnetic superchirality.

  13. Circular zig-zag scan video format

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, C.G.; Simmons, C.M.

    1992-06-09

    A circular, ziz-zag scan for use with vidicon tubes is disclosed. A sine wave is generated, rectified and its fourth root extracted. The fourth root, and its inverse, are used to generate horizontal ramp and sync signals. The fourth root is also used to generate a vertical sync signal, and the vertical sync signal, along with the horizontal sync signal, are used to generate the vertical ramp signal. Cathode blanking and preamplifier clamp signals are also obtained from the vertical sync signal. 10 figs.

  14. Circular zig-zag scan video format

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, C.G.; Simmons, C.M.

    1991-03-21

    This invention is comprised of a circular, zig-zag scan for use with vidicon tubes. A sine wave is generated, rectified and its fourth root extracted. The fourth root, and its inverse, are used to generate horizontal ramp and sync signals. The fourth root is also used to generate a vertical sync signal, and the vertical sync signal, along with the horizontal sync signal, are used to generate the vertical ramp signal. Cathode blanking and preamplifier clamp signals are also obtained from the vertical sync signal.

  15. Vortex motion behind a circular cylinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foeppl, L.

    1983-01-01

    Vortex motion behind a circular cylinder moving through water is discussed. It is shown that a pair of vortices form behind a moving cylinder and that their centers will move along a predictable curve. This curve represents an equilibrium condition which, however, is subject to perturbation. The stability of the vortex pair is investigated. Movement of the vortex pair away from the cylinder is calculated as an explanation of the resistance of the cylinder. Finally, the principles elaborated are applied to the flow around a flat plate.

  16. A Circularly Arranged Sextuple Triptycene Gear Molecule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ube, Hitoshi; Yamada, Ryo; Ishida, Jun-Ichi; Sato, Hiroyasu; Shiro, Motoo; Shionoya, Mitsuhiko

    2017-11-22

    Herein we report the synthesis of a circularly arranged sextuple triptycene gear molecule, hexakis(10-dodecyloxy-9-triptycyl)ethynylbenzene, via the trimerization of the corresponding triyne with a cobalt catalyst. The six triptycene gears are closely engaged with each other as confirmed by single crystal X-ray structure analysis, and their motion in solution was established by NMR spectroscopy. Notably, when one bulky RuCp* complex was attached to one triptycene gear, the whole movement of the six gears was highly restricted via their mechanical engagement. Development of such a multigear molecule would provide a structural basis for molecular motion transmission systems with a switching function.

  17. Metered-dose inhalers with spacers vs nebulizers for pediatric asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, K J; Cunningham, S J; Crain, E F

    1995-02-01

    To determine whether the administration of beta-agonists by metered-dose inhaler (MDI) with a spacer device is as effective as the administration of beta-agonists by nebulizer for the treatment of acute asthma exacerbations in children. Randomized trial with two arms. Urban pediatric emergency department (ED) in Bronx, NY. Convenience sample of 152 children 2 years and older with a history of at least two episodes of wheezing presenting to the ED with an acute asthma exacerbation. Patients were randomly assigned to receive standard doses of a beta-agonist (albuterol) by an MDI with spacer or by a nebulizer. Dosing intervals and the use of other medications were determined by the treating physician. Baseline characteristics and asthma history were recorded. Asthma severity score, peak expiratory flow rate in children 5 years or older, and oxygen saturation were determined at presentation and before admission or discharge. The groups did not differ in age, sex, ethnicity, age of onset of asthma, or asthma severity score at presentation. There were no significant differences between the groups in outcomes, including mean changes in respiratory rate, asthma severity score, and peak expiratory flow rate, oxygen saturation, number of treatments given, administration of steroids in the ED, and admission rate. Patients given MDIs with spacers required shorter treatment times in the ED (66 minutes vs 103 minutes, P vs 20%, P nebulizer group had a significantly greater mean percent increase in heart rate from baseline to final disposition (15% vs 5%, P nebulizers for the treatment of children with acute asthma exacerbations in the ED.

  18. Optimization of an organic photovoltaic device via modulation of thickness of photoactive and optical spacer layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qi; Yoon, Won Jung; Ju, Heongkyu

    2014-09-01

    We examine the modulation effects of thicknesses of both a photoactive layer (a bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) of poly(3-hexylthiophene) and [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (P3HT:PCBM)) and an optical spacer of a transparent metal oxide, for power conversion efficiency optimization of organic photovoltaic devices. The redistribution of the optical intensity at the photoactive layer via the thickness modulation of both layers is taken into account, to produce three-dimensional (3D) plots as a function of both layer thicknesses of 0 to 400 nm range (5 nm step), for the device efficiency optimization. The modulation pattern of absorption is produced in the 3D plot as scanning the thicknesses of both layers as a result of modulation of interference between incoming and reflected light, which can be secured by changing the effective optical path length between two electrodes of a photovoltaic device. It is also seen that the case of inserting the spacer of the higher refractive index demands finer adjustment of the spacer layer thickness to achieve the optimum device efficiency. In addition, the series resistance of the photoactive layer of the thickness range of 0 to 70 nm is taken into account to provide the 3D plots as a function of the scanned thicknesses of both layers. Inclusion of the series resistance of the photoactive layer, which is also the function of its thickness, in the simulation, indicates that the series resistance can influence qualitatively the dependence of power conversion efficiency (PCE) on the thicknesses of both layers. We also find that minimization of series resistance, e.g., by device annealing, allows not only the relevant voltage to increase but also the optimum thickness of the photoactive layer to increase, leading to more absorption of light.

  19. Articulating polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) spacers may have an immunomodulating effect on synovial tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, G; Deutloff, N; Maertens, N; Meyer, H; Awiszus, F; Feuerstein, B; Roessner, A; Lohmann, C H

    2016-08-01

    Tissue responses to debris formed by abrasion of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) spacers at two-stage revision arthroplasty for prosthetic joint infection are not well described. We hypothesised that PMMA debris induces immunomodulation in periprosthetic tissues. Samples of tissue were taken during 35 two-stage revision arthroplasties (nine total hip and 26 total knee arthroplasties) in patients whose mean age was 67 years (44 to 85). Fourier transform infrared microscopy was used to confirm the presence of PMMA particles. Histomorphometry was performed using Sudan Red and Haematoxylin-Eosin staining. CD-68, CD-20, CD-11(c), CD-3 and IL-17 antibodies were used to immunophenotype the inflammatory cells. All slides were scored semi-quantitatively using the modified Willert scoring system. The mean CD-68 scores did not show any significant change during the six weeks between the stages. Perivascular and diffuse scores showed significant difference in CD-3, CD-20, CD-11(c) and IL-17. At the time of re-implantation, a shift in the pattern of the expression of dendritic cells towards a perivascular arrangement and towards the periphery of PMMA particles was observed. Positive microbiological cultures were found at the time of re-implantation in three patients. Five further revisions were required for other reasons. Our results represent a biological reaction of the synovial tissues to spacers with a less diffuse expression of dendritic cells and an increased expression of perivascular lymphocytes. The use of spacers in two-stage revision for infection probably induces an immunomodulation of synovial tissues. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2016;98-B:1062-8. ©2016 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  20. PairWise Neighbours database: overlaps and spacers among prokaryote genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcia-Vallvé Santiago

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although prokaryotes live in a variety of habitats and possess different metabolic and genomic complexity, they have several genomic architectural features in common. The overlapping genes are a common feature of the prokaryote genomes. The overlapping lengths tend to be short because as the overlaps become longer they have more risk of deleterious mutations. The spacers between genes tend to be short too because of the tendency to reduce the non coding DNA among prokaryotes. However they must be long enough to maintain essential regulatory signals such as the Shine-Dalgarno (SD sequence, which is responsible of an efficient translation. Description PairWise Neighbours is an interactive and intuitive database used for retrieving information about the spacers and overlapping genes among bacterial and archaeal genomes. It contains 1,956,294 gene pairs from 678 fully sequenced prokaryote genomes and is freely available at the URL http://genomes.urv.cat/pwneigh. This database provides information about the overlaps and their conservation across species. Furthermore, it allows the wide analysis of the intergenic regions providing useful information such as the location and strength of the SD sequence. Conclusion There are experiments and bioinformatic analysis that rely on correct annotations of the initiation site. Therefore, a database that studies the overlaps and spacers among prokaryotes appears to be desirable. PairWise Neighbours database permits the reliability analysis of the overlapping structures and the study of the SD presence and location among the adjacent genes, which may help to check the annotation of the initiation sites.

  1. The CRISPRdb database and tools to display CRISPRs and to generate dictionaries of spacers and repeats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grissa, Ibtissem; Vergnaud, Gilles; Pourcel, Christine

    2007-05-23

    In Archeae and Bacteria, the repeated elements called CRISPRs for "clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats" are believed to participate in the defence against viruses. Short sequences called spacers are stored in-between repeated elements. In the current model, motifs comprising spacers and repeats may target an invading DNA and lead to its degradation through a proposed mechanism similar to RNA interference. Analysis of intra-species polymorphism shows that new motifs (one spacer and one repeated element) are added in a polarised fashion. Although their principal characteristics have been described, a lot remains to be discovered on the way CRISPRs are created and evolve. As new genome sequences become available it appears necessary to develop automated scanning tools to make available CRISPRs related information and to facilitate additional investigations. We have produced a program, CRISPRFinder, which identifies CRISPRs and extracts the repeated and unique sequences. Using this software, a database is constructed which is automatically updated monthly from newly released genome sequences. Additional tools were created to allow the alignment of flanking sequences in search for similarities between different loci and to build dictionaries of unique sequences. To date, almost six hundred CRISPRs have been identified in 475 published genomes. Two Archeae out of thirty-seven and about half of Bacteria do not possess a CRISPR. Fine analysis of repeated sequences strongly supports the current view that new motifs are added at one end of the CRISPR adjacent to the putative promoter. It is hoped that availability of a public database, regularly updated and which can be queried on the web will help in further dissecting and understanding CRISPR structure and flanking sequences evolution. Subsequent analyses of the intra-species CRISPR polymorphism will be facilitated by CRISPRFinder and the dictionary creator. CRISPRdb is accessible at http://crispr.u-psud.fr/crispr.

  2. Diversity in a Polymicrobial Community Revealed by Analysis of Viromes, Endolysins and CRISPR Spacers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Davison

    Full Text Available The polymicrobial biofilm communities in Mushroom and Octopus Spring in Yellowstone National Park (YNP are well characterized, yet little is known about the phage populations. Dominant species, Synechococcus sp. JA-2-3B'a(2-13, Synechococcus sp. JA-3-3Ab, Chloroflexus sp. Y-400-fl, and Roseiflexus sp. RS-1, contain multiple CRISPR-Cas arrays, suggesting complex interactions with phage predators. To analyze phage populations from Octopus Spring biofilms, we sequenced a viral enriched fraction. To assemble and analyze phage metagenomic data, we developed a custom module, VIRITAS, implemented within the MetAMOS framework. This module bins contigs into groups based on tetranucleotide frequencies and CRISPR spacer-protospacer matching and ORF calling. Using this pipeline we were able to assemble phage sequences into contigs and bin them into three clusters that corroborated with their potential host range. The virome contained 52,348 predicted ORFs; some were clearly phage-like; 9319 ORFs had a recognizable Pfam domain while the rest were hypothetical. Of the recognized domains with CRISPR spacer matches, was the phage endolysin used by lytic phage to disrupt cells. Analysis of the endolysins present in the thermophilic cyanophage contigs revealed a subset of characterized endolysins as well as a Glyco_hydro_108 (PF05838 domain not previously associated with sequenced cyanophages. A search for CRISPR spacer matches to all identified phage endolysins demonstrated that a majority of endolysin domains were targets. This strategy provides a general way to link host and phage as endolysins are known to be widely distributed in bacteriophage. Endolysins can also provide information about host cell wall composition and have the additional potential to be used as targets for novel therapeutics.

  3. The CRISPRdb database and tools to display CRISPRs and to generate dictionaries of spacers and repeats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vergnaud Gilles

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Archeae and Bacteria, the repeated elements called CRISPRs for "clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats" are believed to participate in the defence against viruses. Short sequences called spacers are stored in-between repeated elements. In the current model, motifs comprising spacers and repeats may target an invading DNA and lead to its degradation through a proposed mechanism similar to RNA interference. Analysis of intra-species polymorphism shows that new motifs (one spacer and one repeated element are added in a polarised fashion. Although their principal characteristics have been described, a lot remains to be discovered on the way CRISPRs are created and evolve. As new genome sequences become available it appears necessary to develop automated scanning tools to make available CRISPRs related information and to facilitate additional investigations. Description We have produced a program, CRISPRFinder, which identifies CRISPRs and extracts the repeated and unique sequences. Using this software, a database is constructed which is automatically updated monthly from newly released genome sequences. Additional tools were created to allow the alignment of flanking sequences in search for similarities between different loci and to build dictionaries of unique sequences. To date, almost six hundred CRISPRs have been identified in 475 published genomes. Two Archeae out of thirty-seven and about half of Bacteria do not possess a CRISPR. Fine analysis of repeated sequences strongly supports the current view that new motifs are added at one end of the CRISPR adjacent to the putative promoter. Conclusion It is hoped that availability of a public database, regularly updated and which can be queried on the web will help in further dissecting and understanding CRISPR structure and flanking sequences evolution. Subsequent analyses of the intra-species CRISPR polymorphism will be facilitated by CRISPRFinder and the

  4. Modal properties of the flexural vibrating package of rods linked by spacer grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeman V.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the modelling and modal analysis of the large package of identical parallel rods linked by transverse springs (spacer grids placed on several level spacings. The rod discretization by finite element method is based on Rayleigh beam theory. For the cyclic and central symmetric package of rods (such as fuel rods in nuclear fuel assembly the system decomposition on the identical revolved rod segments was applied. A modal synthesis method with condensation is used for modelling of the whole system. The presented method is the first step for modelling the nuclear fuel assembly vibration caused by excitation determined by the support plate motion of the reactor core.

  5. Experimental investigation of post-dryout heat transfer in an annulus with spacers

    OpenAIRE

    Persson, Per; Hedberg, Stellan; Anglart, Henryk

    2004-01-01

    Experimental investigation of the post-dryout heat transfer in annulus test section has been performed in the high-pressure two-phase loop at the Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Nuclear Reactor Technology division. The test section has an annular geometry with 10 mm rod outer diameter and 22.1 mm tube inner diameter. Seven spacers are located along the test section to keep the rod and the tube equidistant along the test section. Both the tube and the rod are manufactured of Inconel 600 t...

  6. Identification of Trichosporon asahii by PCR Based on Sequences of the Internal Transcribed Spacer Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugita, Takashi; Nishikawa, Akemi; Shinoda, Takako

    1998-01-01

    Trichosporon asahii is a major causative agent of deep-seated trichosporonosis, which has a high mortality rate. To detect T. asahii, we have developed specific oligonucleotide primers based on the internal transcribed spacer regions of this organism’s genome. Amplification products were selectively obtained from only T. asahii DNA; the DNAs of other Trichosporon species, as well as those of medically relevant yeasts such as Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans, and Malassezia furfur, were not amplified. This detection system will be useful as a microbiological tool for the diagnosis of trichosporonosis. PMID:9705427

  7. Conformational effects in photoelectron circular dichroism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turchini, S.

    2017-12-01

    Photoelectron circular dichroism (PECD) is a novel type of spectroscopy, which presents surprising sensitivity to conformational effects in chiral systems. While classical photoelectron spectroscopy mainly responds to conformational effects in terms of energy level shifts, PECD provides a rich and detailed response to tiny changes in electronic and structural properties by means of the intensity dispersion of the circular dichroism as a function of photoelectron kinetic energy. In this work, the basics of PECD will be outlined, emphasizing the role of interference from the l,l+/- 1 outgoing partial wave of the photoelectron in the PECD transition matrix element, which is responsible for the extreme sensitivity to conformational effects. Examples using molecular systems and interfaces will shed light on the powerful application of PECD to classical conformational effects such as group substitution, isomerism, conformer population and clustering. Moreover, the PECD results will be reported in challenging new fields where conformations play a key role, such as vibrational effects, transient chirality and time- resolved experiments. To date, PECD has mostly been based on synchrotron radiation facilities, but it also has a future as a table-top lab experiment by means of multiphoton ionization. An important application of PECD as an analytical tool will be reported. The aim of this review is to illustrate that in PECD, the presence of conformational effects is essential for understanding a wide range of effects from a new perspective, making it different from classical spectroscopy.

  8. Trapped Circular Rydberg Atoms for Quantum Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantat-Moltrecht, Tigrane; Nguyen, Thanh Long; Cortinas, Rodrigo; Sayrin, Clément; Haroche, Serge; Brune, Michel; Raimond, Jean-Michel

    2017-04-01

    Condensed-matter systems are interesting and important to understand but they are difficult to study, even numerically, given the significant sizes of their Hilbert space. Quantum simulation proposes to mimic those out-of-reach quantum systems with more controllable and accessible ones. The high polarizability of Rydberg atoms allows for strong and tunable short-range interactions, making them nice candidates for a quantum simulation platform. However, low angular momentum Rydberg atoms cannot be efficiently laser-trapped and their lifetimes would limit the scope of such a quantum simulator. We propose instead to use circular Rydberg atoms (of maximum angular momentum) which can be laser-trapped and whose lifetimes can be extended to the one minute range by placing them in a spontaneous emission-inhibiting capacitor. We aim at the deterministic preparation of a 1D-chain of 40 atoms, trapped in a Laguerre-Gauss hollow laser beam, with a collective lifetime of 2 seconds. With exchange rates in the 10 - 100 kHz range, this would provide a platform able to simulate quantum many-body physics for more than 104 exchange times. In this talk I will present this novel quantum simulation platform and our latest experimental results in the laser-trapping of circular Rydberg atoms.

  9. Circular Dichroism Studies on Plasmonic Nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoli; Tang, Zhiyong

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, optical chirality of plasmonic nanostructures has aroused great interest because of innovative fundamental understanding as well as promising potential applications in optics, catalysis and sensing. Herein, state-of-the-art studies on circular dichroism (CD) characteristics of plasmonic nanostructures are summarized. The hybrid of achiral plasmonic nanoparticles (NPs) and chiral molecules is explored to generate a new CD response at the plasmon resonance as well as the enhanced CD intensity of chiral molecules in the UV region, owing to the Coulomb static and dynamic dipole interactions between plasmonic NPs and chiral molecules. As for chiral assembly of plasmonic NPs, plasmon-plasmon interactions between the building blocks are found to induce generation of intense CD response at the plasmon resonance. Three-dimensional periodical arrangement of plasmonic NPs into macroscale chiral metamaterials is further introduced from the perspective of negative refraction and photonic bandgap. A strong CD signal is also discerned in achiral planar plasmonic nanostructures under illumination of circular polarized plane wave at oblique incidence or input vortex beam at normal incidence. Finally perspectives, especially on future investigation of time-resolved CD responses, are presented. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Polarimetric investigation of materials with both linear and circular anisotropy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naydenova, I.; Nikolova, L.; Todorov, T.

    1997-01-01

    We investigate light propagation through materials with both linear and circular anisotropy and find the relation of the amplitude and polarization transfer functions to the four anisotropic characteristics: linear circular birefringence, and linear and circular dichroism. We determine these four...... characteristics of anisotropic samples by measuring the output intensity and polarization corresponding to different input polarization azimuths and fitting the theoretical and experimental results. In our experiments we have used films of side-chain azobenzene polyesters in which optical anisotropy had been...

  11. Critical Raw Materials and the Circular Economy – Background report

    OpenAIRE

    MATHIEUX FABRICE; ARDENTE FULVIO; BOBBA SILVIA; NUSS PHILIP; BLENGINI GIOVANNI; ALVES DIAS PATRICIA; BLAGOEVA DARINA; TORRES DE MATOS CRISTINA; WITTMER DOMINIC; PAVEL CLAUDIU; HAMOR TAMAS; SAVEYN HANS; GAWLIK BERND; ORVEILLON GLENN; HUYGENS DRIES

    2017-01-01

    This report is a background document used by several European Commission services to prepare the EC report on critical raw materials and the circular economy, a commitment of the European Commission made in its Communication ‘EU action plan for the Circular Economy’. It represents a JRC contribution to the Raw Material Initiative and to the EU Circular Economy Action Plan. It combines the results of several research programmes and activities of the JRC on critical raw materials in a context o...

  12. CFD analysis on mixing effects of spacer grids with different dimples and sizes for advanced fuel assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, B.W.; Zhang, H.; Han, B.; Zha, Y.D.; Shan, J.Q. [Xi' an Jiaotong Univ. (China). School of Nuclear Science and Technology

    2016-07-15

    The thermal hydraulic characteristics of a mixing vane grid are largely dependent on the structure of key components, such as strip, spring, dimple, weld nugget, as well as the mixing vane configuration. In this paper, several types of spacer grids with different dimple shapes are modeled under subcooled boiling conditions. Prior to the application of CFD on the dimple shape analysis, the mixing effects of spacer grids were studied. After the dimple shape analysis, the side channel effect is discussed by comparing the simulation results of a 3 x 3 and a 5 x 5 spacer grid. The two phase flow CFD models in this study are validated through simple geometry showing that the calculated void fraction is in good agreement with the experimental data. The dimple comparison result shows that varying dimple structures can result in different temperatures, lateral velocities and void fraction distributions downstream of the spacer grids. Comparison of two sizes of spacer grids demonstrate that the side channel generates different flow distribution pattern in the center channel.

  13. The Construction of Chimeric T-Cell Receptor with Spacer Base of Modeling Study of VHH and MUC1 Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazanin Pirooznia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive cell immunotherapy with the use of chimeric receptors leads to the best and most specific response against tumors. Chimeric receptors consist of a signaling fragment, extracellular spacer, costimulating domain, and an antibody. Antibodies cause immunogenicity; therefore, VHH is a good replacement for ScFv in chimeric receptors. Since peptide sequences have an influence on chimeric receptors, the effect of peptide domains on each other's conformation were investigated. CD3Zeta, CD28, VHH and CD8α, and FcgIIα are used as signaling moieties, costimulating domain, antibody, and spacers, respectively. To investigate the influence of the ligation of spacers on the conformational structure of VHH, models of VHH were constructed. Molecular dynamics simulation was run to study the influence of the presence of spacers on the conformational changes in the binding sites of VHH. Root mean square deviation and root mean square fluctuation of critical segments in the binding site showed no noticeable differences with those in the native VHH. Results from molecular docking revealed that the presence of spacer FcgIIα causes an increasing effect on VHH with MUC1 interaction. Each of the constructs was transformed into the Jurkat E6.1. Expression analysis and evaluation of their functions were examined. The results showed good expression and function.

  14. Cas1–Cas2 complex formation mediates spacer acquisition during CRISPR–Cas adaptive immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuñez, James K.; Kranzusch, Philip J.; Noeske, Jonas; Wright, Addison V.; Davies, Christopher W.; Doudna, Jennifer A.

    2014-01-01

    The initial stage of CRISPR–Cas immunity involves the acquisition of foreign DNA spacer segments into the host genomic CRISPR locus. The nucleases Cas1 and Cas2 are the only proteins conserved amongst all CRISPR–Cas systems, yet the molecular functions of these proteins during immunity are unknown. Here we show that Cas1 and Cas2 from Escherichia coli form a stable complex that is essential for spacer acquisition and determine the 2.3-Å resolution crystal structure of the Cas1–Cas2 complex. Mutations that perturb Cas1–Cas2 complex formation disrupt CRISPR DNA recognition and spacer acquisition in vivo. Unlike Cas1, active site mutants of Cas2 can still acquire new spacers indicating a non-enzymatic role of Cas2 during immunity. These results reveal the universal roles of Cas1 and Cas2 and suggest a mechanism by which Cas1–Cas2 complexes specify sites of CRISPR spacer integration. PMID:24793649

  15. Unexpected Temperature Behavior of Polyethylene Glycol Spacers in Copolymer Dendrimers in Chloroform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markelov, Denis A; Matveev, Vladimir V; Ingman, Petri; Nikolaeva, Marianna N; Penkova, Anastasia V; Lahderanta, Erkki; Boiko, Natalia I; Chizhik, Vladimir I

    2016-04-07

    We have studied copolymer dendrimer structure: carbosilane dendrimers with terminal phenylbenzoate mesogenic groups attached by poly(ethylene) glycol (PEG) spacers. In this system PEG spacers are additional tuning to usual copolymer structure: dendrimer with terminal mesogenic groups. The dendrimer macromolecules were investigated in a dilute chloroform solution by (1)H NMR methods (spectra and relaxations). It was found that the PEG layer in G = 5 generations dendrimer is "frozen" at high temperatures (above 260 K), but it unexpectedly becomes "unfrozen" at temperatures below 250 K (i.e., melting when cooling). The transition between these two states occurs within a small temperature range (~10 K). Such a behavior is not observed for smaller dendrimer generations (G = 1 and 3). This effect is likely related to the low critical solution temperature (LCST) of PEG and is caused by dendrimer conformations, in which the PEG group concentration in the layer increases with growing G. We suppose that the unusual behavior of PEG fragments in dendrimers will be interesting for practical applications such as nanocontainers or nanoreactors.

  16. 45S rDNA external transcribed spacer organization reveals new phylogenetic relationships in Avena genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Joana; Viegas, Wanda; Silva, Manuela

    2017-01-01

    The genus Avena comprises four distinct genomes organized in diploid (AA or CC), tetraploid (AABB or AACC) and hexaploid species (AACCDD), constituting an interesting model for phylogenetic analysis. The aim of this work was to characterize 45S rDNA intergenic spacer (IGS) variability in distinct species representative of Avena genome diversity-A. strigosa (AA), A. ventricosa (CvCv), A. eriantha (CpCp), A. barbata (AABB), A. murphyi (AACC), A. sativa (AACCDD) and A. sterilis (AACCDD) through the assessment of the 5' external transcribed spacer (5'-ETS), a promising IGS region for phylogenetic studies poorly studied in Avena genus. In this work, IGS length polymorphisms were detected mainly due to distinct 5'-ETS sequence types resulting from major differences in the number and organization of repeated motifs. Although species with A genome revealed a 5'-ETS organization (A-organization) similar to the one previously described in A. sativa, a distinct organization was unraveled in C genome diploid species (C-organization). Interestingly, such new organization presents a higher similarity with other Poaceae species than A-genome sequences, supporting the hypothesis of C-genome being the ancestral Avena genome. Additionally, polyploid species with both genomes mainly retain the A-genome 5'-ETS organization, confirming the preferential elimination of C-genome sequences in Avena polyploid species. Moreover, 5'-ETS sequences phylogenetic analysis consistently clustered the species studied according to ploidy and genomic constitution supporting the use of ribosomal genes to highlight Avena species evolutive pathways.

  17. No objective benefit from steroids inhaled via a spacer in infants recovering from bronchiolitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, J Y; Moon, S; Beardsmore, C; O'Callaghan, C; Simpson, H

    2000-02-01

    A double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial was conducted to investigate the efficacy of 3 months' inhaled steroids delivered via a spacer device with face mask attachment to infants recovering from bronchiolitis. Forty-eight previously healthy infants recovering from their first documented episode of acute bronchiolitis were randomized to receive 150 microg fluticasone propionate (FP) b.i.d. or placebo delivered via the Babyhaler spacer. Longitudinal assessments were performed on seven occasions over 1 yr based on symptom diaries and health records, clinical examinations, overnight cough recordings and oxygen saturation readings. Lung function was measured 6 months after hospital discharge. Forty-three infants completed the trial (FP 21, placebo 22). There were no significant differences in the three objective end-points measured, recorded night cough, oxygen saturation and lung function test results. Symptom scores were low in both the FP and placebo groups with the absence of (0) or mild (1) symptoms > or =90% of the trial days. No statistical differences in symptom frequency, use of rescue respiratory medications or hospital admissions between treatment groups were found throughout the trial or follow-up periods. In conclusion, the use of inhaled fluticasone propionate in infants recovering from acute bronchiolitis cannot be recommended.

  18. Thermal Performance Testing of Cryogenic Multilayer Insulation with Silk Net Spacers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, W. L.; Frank, D. J.; Nast, T. C.; Fesmire, J. E.

    2015-12-01

    Early comprehensive testing of cryogenic multilayer insulation focused on the use of silk netting as a spacer material. Silk netting was used for multiple test campaigns that were designed to provide baseline thermal performance estimates for cryogenic insulation systems. As more focus was put on larger systems, the cost of silk netting became a deterrent and most aerospace insulation firms were using Dacron (or polyester) netting spacers by the early 1970s. In the midst of the switch away from silk netting there was no attempt to understand the difference between silk and polyester netting, though it was widely believed that the silk netting provided slightly better performance. Without any better reference for thermal performance data, the silk netting performance correlations continued to be used. In order to attempt to quantify the difference between the silk netting and polyester netting, a brief test program was developed. The silk netting material was obtained from Lockheed Martin and was tested on the Cryostat-100 instrument in three different configurations, 20 layers with both single and double netting and 10 layers with single netting only. The data show agreement within 15 - 30% with the historical silk netting based correlations and show a substantial performance improvement when compared to previous testing performed using polyester netting and aluminum foil/fiberglass paper multilayer insulation. Additionally, the data further reinforce a recently observed trend that the heat flux is not directly proportional to the number of layers installed on a system.

  19. Unexpected Temperature Behavior of Polyethylene Glycol Spacers in Copolymer Dendrimers in Chloroform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markelov, Denis A.; Matveev, Vladimir V.; Ingman, Petri; Nikolaeva, Marianna N.; Penkova, Anastasia V.; Lahderanta, Erkki; Boiko, Natalia I.; Chizhik, Vladimir I.

    2016-04-01

    We have studied copolymer dendrimer structure: carbosilane dendrimers with terminal phenylbenzoate mesogenic groups attached by poly(ethylene) glycol (PEG) spacers. In this system PEG spacers are additional tuning to usual copolymer structure: dendrimer with terminal mesogenic groups. The dendrimer macromolecules were investigated in a dilute chloroform solution by 1H NMR methods (spectra and relaxations). It was found that the PEG layer in G = 5 generations dendrimer is “frozen” at high temperatures (above 260 K), but it unexpectedly becomes “unfrozen” at temperatures below 250 K (i.e., melting when cooling). The transition between these two states occurs within a small temperature range (~10 K). Such a behavior is not observed for smaller dendrimer generations (G = 1 and 3). This effect is likely related to the low critical solution temperature (LCST) of PEG and is caused by dendrimer conformations, in which the PEG group concentration in the layer increases with growing G. We suppose that the unusual behavior of PEG fragments in dendrimers will be interesting for practical applications such as nanocontainers or nanoreactors.

  20. Synthesis of photoresponsive cholesterol-based azobenzene organogels: dependence on different spacer lengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yuchun; Zhang, Xiuqing

    2015-01-01

    Summary A series of azobenzene–cholesterol organogel compounds (M 0 –M 12) with different spacers were designed and synthesized. The molecular structures were confirmed by 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectroscopy. The rapid and reversible photoresponsive properties of the compounds were investigated by UV–vis spectroscopy. Their thermal phase behaviors were studied by DSC. The length of the spacer plays a crucial role in the gelation. Compound M 6 is the only one that can gelate in ethanol, isopropanol and 1-butanol and the reversible gel–sol transitions are also investigated. To obtain visual insight into the microstructure of the gels, the typical structures of the xerogels were studied by SEM. Morphologies of the aggregates change from flower-like, network and rod with different sizes. By using IR and XRD characterization, it is found that intermolecular H-bonding, the solvents and van der Waals interaction are the main contributions to the specific superstructure. PMID:26199664

  1. Impact of Alkyl Spacer Length on Aggregation Pathways in Kinetically Controlled Supramolecular Polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogi, Soichiro; Stepanenko, Vladimir; Thein, Johannes; Würthner, Frank

    2016-01-20

    We have investigated the kinetic and thermodynamic supramolecular polymerizations of a series of amide-functionalized perylene bisimide (PBI) organogelator molecules bearing alkyl spacers of varied lengths (ethylene to pentylene chains, PBI-1-C2 to PBI-1-C5) between the amide and PBI imide groups. These amide-functionalized PBIs form one-dimensional fibrous nanostructures as the thermodynamically favored states in solvents of low polarity. Our in-depth studies revealed, however, that the kinetic behavior of their supramolecular polymerization is dependent on the spacer length. Propylene- and pentylene-tethered PBIs follow a similar polymerization process as previously observed for the ethylene-tethered PBI. Thus, the monomers of these PBIs are kinetically trapped in conformationally restricted states through intramolecular hydrogen bonding between the amide and imide groups. In contrast, the intramolecularly hydrogen-bonded monomers of butylene-tethered PBI spontaneously self-assemble into nanoparticles, which constitute an off-pathway aggregate state with regard to the thermodynamically stable fibrous supramolecular polymers obtained. Thus, for this class of π-conjugated system, an unprecedented off-pathway aggregate with high kinetic stability could be realized for the first time by introducing an alkyl linker of optimum length (C4 chain) between the amide and imide groups. Our current system with an energy landscape of two competing nucleated aggregation pathways is applicable to the kinetic control over the supramolecular polymerization by the seeding approach.

  2. INTERSPINOUS SPACER IN PERSISTENT DISCOGENIC PAIN: PERCUTANEOUS APPROACH OR OPEN TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Cruz Ricardez

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To compare the postoperative clinical course of placement of interspinous spacer with open technique (ISO with percutaneous interspinous spacer (PIS. Methods: Quasi-experimental, longitudinal study of 42 patients with discogenic pain uncontrolled with analgesics, aged 35-55 years old, 21 women, and 21 men. Clinical history, location of pain, VAS scale before and after surgery, Oswestry Disability Index and Macnab modified scale at 6 months were used. Results: When performing quantitative analysis statistical significance (p = 0.0478, 0.0466, 0.0399 was demonstrated with Student's t test between the results according to VAS scale; in the qualitative analysis with the Oswestry index and Macnab modified scale it was demonstrated the hypothesis that the results is dependent of the surgical technique. Conclusions: According to the results, we can conclude that there is a statistically significant difference depending on the surgical technique used with respect to the rate of disability and functionality in daily life as well as in the improvement of pain symptoms.

  3. TEM characterization of in-reactor neutron irradiated CANDU spacer material Inconel X-750

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, He Ken [Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Queen’s University Kingston, Ontario K7L 3N6 (Canada); Yao, Zhongwen, E-mail: yaoz@me.queensu.ca [Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Queen’s University Kingston, Ontario K7L 3N6 (Canada); Morin, Gregory; Griffiths, Malcolm [Deformation Technology Branch, AECL – Chalk River Laboratories Chalk River, Ontario K0J 1J0 (Canada)

    2014-08-01

    The irradiation induced defects in CANDU Inconel X-750 spacers, which were removed from reactors after about 14 effective full power years, were examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The spacers in the form of garter springs were reported to operate at various temperatures depending on locations. Two samples from different locations with different estimated irradiation temperatures were tested: (1) ∼180 °C at 6 o’clock position and (2) ⩾300 °C at 12 o’clock position. Obvious temperature effects were observed. In the ∼180 °C irradiated sample, a high density of small lattice defects (1–3 nm) developed during irradiation, including stacking fault tetrahedra and both 1/3 〈1 1 1〉 and ½ 〈1 1 0〉 type dislocation loops. A uniform distribution of small cavities (∼1–3 nm) was observed. In >300 °C irradiated sample, apart from small point defect clusters, large Frank type interstitial loops presented. The sizes of the cavities were also greater than those in the ∼180 °C irradiated sample. The distribution of cavities was more heterogeneous and an obvious agglomeration of cavities to grain boundaries and phase boundaries were observed. In both samples, dissolution of the primary strengthening phase γ′ was noted.

  4. Cationic gemini surfactants with cleavable spacer: chemical hydrolysis, biodegradation, and toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tehrani-Bagha, A R; Holmberg, K; van Ginkel, C G; Kean, M

    2015-07-01

    The paper describes synthesis and characterization of a new type of cationic gemini surfactant, which has dodecyl tails and a spacer that contains an ester bond. The nomenclature used to describe the structure is 12Q2OCO1Q12, with Q being a quaternary ammonium group and the numbers indicating the number of methylene or methyl groups. Due to the close proximity to the two quaternary ammonium groups, the ester bond is very stable on the acid side and very labile already at slightly alkaline conditions. The hydrolysis products are two single chain surfactants (i.e. 12Q2OH and 12Q1COOH) which are less surface active than the intact gemini surfactant. 12Q2OCO1Q12 was found to be readily biodegradable, i.e. it gave more than 60% biodegradation after 28 days. This is interesting because similar gemini surfactants but with ester bonds in the tails instead of the spacer, have previously been found not to be readily biodegradable. The gemini surfactant was found to be toxic to aquatic organisms (ErC50 value of 0.27 mg/l), although less toxic than the two hydrolysis products. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Role of spacer length in interaction between novel gemini imidazolium surfactants and Rhizopus oryzae lipase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adak, Sunita; Datta, Sougata; Bhattacharya, Santanu; Banerjee, Rintu

    2015-11-01

    An insight into the effects of new ionic liquid-type gemini imidazolium cationic surfactants on the structure and function of the lipases is of prime importance for their potential application. Changes in the activity, stability and structure of Rhizopus oryzae lipase in the presence of novel gemini surfactants, [C16-3-C16im]Br2 and [C16-12-C16im]Br2 were probed in the present study. Surfactant with shorter spacer length, [C16-3-C16im]Br2 was found to be better in improving the hydrolytic activity and thermal stability of the lipase. For both the surfactants, activation was concentration dependent. CD spectroscopy results showed a decrease in α-helix and an increase in β-sheet content in the presence of these surfactants. A higher structural change observed in presence of [C16-12-C16im]Br2 correlated with lower enzyme activity. Isothermal titration calorimetric studies showed the binding to be spontaneous in nature based on sequential two site binding model. The forces involved in binding were found to differ for the two surfactants proving that the spacer length is an important factor which governs the interaction. These surfactants could be used as promising components both in enzyme modification and media engineering for attaining the desired goals in biocatalytic reactions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Internal transcribed spacer sequence database of plant fungal pathogens: PFP-ITSS database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aman Chandra Kaushik

    Full Text Available The nurseries and plantations of medicinally and economically important plants are facing challenge on health front as they are being rapidly exposed to fungal pathogens thereby affecting their health and productivity adversely. The plant pathogenic fungi significantly damage and reduce the flora of subcontinent. Lack of knowledge and trouble in identification of fungal pathogens, are imposing a peril to both the flora and human health all over the world. Albeit routine pathological techniques can be used for the identification of plant fungal pathogens but these methods are time consuming and often need sound knowledge in mycotaxonomy. Recently, molecular (DNA sequence data has emerged with the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS region (DNA barcoding as crucial biomarker to disclose the necessary information for the taxonomic identification of plant pathogenic fungi. However, development of nucleotide sequence database of plant pathogenic fungi will enable authentic pathogen identification easy and quickly even by a person not trained in fungal taxonomy. This study presents the development of a new plant fungal pathogen -Internal Transcribed Spacer Sequence database (PFP- ITSS Database holding 1215 ITS sequences collected from various sources. It represents 1215 plant fungal pathogens (PFP in relation to their respective economical and medicinal plants; and is available at http://shaktisahislab.com/include/ITSdb. PFP-ITSS Database will provide useful information for better understanding of plant pathogenic fungi, which cause disease in both economical and medicinal plants. Keywords: ITS, Wrapper, Integrity, Mining, BLAST, Primer

  7. Origin and relationships of Saintpaulia (Gesneriaceae) based on ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moller, M; Cronk, Q

    1997-07-01

    Phylogenetic relationships of eight species of Saintpaulia H. Wendl., 19 species of Streptocarpus Lindl. (representing all major growth forms within the genus), and two outgroups (Haberlea rhodopensis Friv., Chirita spadiciformis W. T. Wang) were examined using comparative nucleotide sequences from the two internal transcribed spacers (ITS) of nuclear ribosomal DNA. The length of the ITS 1 region ranged from 228 to 249 base pairs (bp) and the ITS 2 region from 196 to 245 bp. Pairwise sequence divergence across both spacers for ingroup and outgroup species ranged from 0 to 29%. Streptocarpus is not monophyletic, and Saintpaulia is nested within Streptocarpus subgenus Streptocarpella. Streptocarpus subgenus Streptocarpus is monophyletic. The ITS sequence data demonstrate that the unifoliate Streptocarpus species form a clade, and are also characterized by a unique 47-bp deletion in ITS 2. The results strongly support the monophyly of (1) Saintpaulia, and (2) Saintpaulia plus the African members of the subgenus Streptocarpella of Streptocarpus. The data suggest the evolution of Saintpaulia from Streptocarpus subgenus Streptocarpella. The differences in flower and vegetative characters are probably due to ecological adaptation leading to a relatively rapid radiation of Saintpaulia.

  8. Green Synthesis, Molecular Characterization and Associative Behavior of Some Gemini Surfactants without a Spacer Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenio Caponetti

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A series of new gemini surfactants without a spacer group, disodium 2,3-dialkyl-1,2,3,4-butanetetracarboxylates, were synthesized in a green chemistry context minimizing the use of organic solvents and applying microwaves (MW when activation energy was required. Once the desired architecture was confirmed by means of the nuclear magnetic resonance technique (1H-NMR, 1H-1H COSY for all the studied surfactants, the critical micellization concentration was determined by conductance measurements. The diffusion coefficient of micelles formed by the four compounds was characterized using pulsed field gradient (PFG-NMR. Diffusion coefficients were found to be dependent on the concentration and on the number of carbon atoms in the alkyl chain. The absence of the spacer group, peculiar to this new series of gemini surfactants, may confer relatively low flexibility to the molecules, with potential implications on the interfacial properties, namely on micellization. These gemini surfactants might have interesting applications in the preparation of composite materials, in nanotechnology, in gene transfection and mainly, due to the low CMCs, as new interesting ingredients of cosmetics and toiletries.

  9. Interpretation of the effect of dielectric spacer on the ZnO/Ag structure luminescence intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasov, A. P.; Rumyantsev, S. I.; Briskina, Ch. M.; Ryzhkov, M. V.; Markushev, V. M.; Lotin, A. A.

    2016-04-01

    For the analysis of ZnO luminescence and the influence of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) on it the simplified approach is proposed. This approach is based on the set of rate equations (SRE), which describes processes taking part in the luminescence. The SRE includes the set of parameters that describe processes determining luminescence of an investigated sample. The proposed approach gives an opportunity for modeling the dependence of radiation intensity on pumping level and to estimate the values of parameters in SRE. As a result it is possible to make conclusions about peculiarities of samples and investigated processes. A number of experimental facts can be explained using this SRE, in particular the proposed approach was applied to consideration of insulating spacer role in ZnO/Ag system. It was shown that it is possible to interpret experimental results using SRE where values of some parameters depend on the spacer thickness. The proposed approach can be applied not only to ZnO-based structures but also to other emitters.

  10. Distance-Dependent Plasmon-Enhanced Fluorescence of Upconversion Nanoparticles using Polyelectrolyte Multilayers as Tunable Spacers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Ai Ling; You, Min Li; Tian, Limei; Singamaneni, Srikanth; Liu, Ming; Duan, Zhenfeng; Lu, Tian Jian; Xu, Feng; Lin, Min

    2015-01-01

    Lanthanide-doped upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) have attracted widespread interests in bioapplications due to their unique optical properties by converting near infrared excitation to visible emission. However, relatively low quantum yield prompts a need for developing methods for fluorescence enhancement. Plasmon nanostructures are known to efficiently enhance fluorescence of the surrounding fluorophores by acting as nanoantennae to focus electric field into nano-volume. Here, we reported a novel plasmon-enhanced fluorescence system in which the distance between UCNPs and nanoantennae (gold nanorods, AuNRs) was precisely tuned by using layer-by-layer assembled polyelectrolyte multilayers as spacers. By modulating the aspect ratio of AuNRs, localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) wavelength at 980 nm was obtained, matching the native excitation of UCNPs resulting in maximum enhancement of 22.6-fold with 8 nm spacer thickness. These findings provide a unique platform for exploring hybrid nanostructures composed of UCNPs and plasmonic nanostructures in bioimaging applications. PMID:25586238

  11. Evaluation of Interspinous Spacer Outcomes in Degenerative Lumbar Canal Stenosis: Clinical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel Ghany, Walid; Amer, Aboubakr; Saeed, Khaled; Emara, Essam; Hamad, Ahmad; Nosseir, Mohamed; Dawood, Osama; Nada, Mohamed A

    2016-11-01

    Lumbar spinal stenosis is a common diagnosis in elderly individuals, and the rates of surgery have risen all over the world. The optimal approach to provide satisfactory decompression and minimize complications for lumbar spinal stenosis remains controversial. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the surgical outcome of interspinous spacers versus decompressive laminectomy in the management of degenerative lumbar canal stenosis. Our prospective, comparative study included 2 groups of patients who were operated on in Ain Shams University Hospitals between January 2010 and December 2014. In the first group, 28 patients underwent decompression and additional implantation of an interspinous spacer (ISP). In the second group, 25 patients underwent decompressive laminectomy (DL). Our statistical results revealed no significant difference in outcome between the 2 groups regarding visual analog scale score for leg pain and Oswestry Low Back Pain Disability Index. However, the improvement (visual analog scale score) for back pain was better in the DL group. Complication and reoperation rates were higher in the ISP group. Although decompression and additional implantation of an ISP are safe procedures, they do not show better improvement in clinical outcome as compared with decompressive laminectomy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Analysis of high-k spacer on symmetric underlap DG-MOSFET with Gate Stack architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Rahul; Chakraborty, Shramana; Dasgupta, Arpan; Dutta, Arka; Kundu, Atanu; Sarkar, Chandan K.

    2016-09-01

    This paper shows the systematic study of underlap double gate (U-DG) NMOSFETs with Gate Stack (GS) under the influence of high-k spacers. In highly scaled devices, underlap is used at the Source and Drain side so as to reduce the short channel effects (SCE's), however, it significantly reduces the on current due to the increased channel resistance. To overcome these drawbacks, the use of high-k spacers is projected as one of the remedies. In this paper, the analog performance of the devices is studied on the basis of parameters like transconductance (gm), transconductance generation factor (gm/Id) and intrinsic gain (gmro). The RF performance is analyzed on the merits of intrinsic capacitance (Cgd, Cgs), resistance (Rgd, Rgs), transport delay (τm), inductance (Lsd), cutoff frequency (fT), and the maximum frequency of oscillation (fmax). The circuit performance of the devices are studied by implementing the device as the driver MOSFET in a Single Stage Common Source Amplifier. The Gain Bandwidth Product (GBW) has been analyzed from the frequency response of the circuit.

  13. Calibration of circular aperture area using vision probe at inmetro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costa Pedro Bastos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Circular aperture areas are standards of high importance for the realization of photometric and radiometric measurements, where the accuracy of these measures is related to the accuracy of the circular aperture area calibrations. In order to attend the requirement for traceability was developed in Brazilian metrology institute, a methodology for circular aperture area measurement as requirements from the radiometric and photometric measurements. In the developed methodology apertures are measured by non-contact measurement through images of the aperture edges captured by a camera. These images are processed using computer vision techniques and then the values of the circular aperture area are determined.

  14. Circular Dichroism for the Analysis of Protein-DNA Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarlett, Garry; Siligardi, Giuliano; Kneale, Geoffrey G

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this chapter is to provide information on the practical aspects of circular dichroism (CD) and synchrotron radiation circular dichroism (SRCD) in protein-nucleic acids interaction solution studies. The chapter will describe the guidelines appropriate to designing experiments and conducting correct data interpretation, the use of both benchtop and synchrotron CD approaches is discussed and the advantages of SRCD outlined. Further information and a good general review of the field a can be found in Gray (Circular Dichroism of protein-nucleic acid interactions. In: Fasman GD (ed) Circular dichroism and the conformational analysis of biomolecules. Plenum Press, New York. pp 469-500, 1996).

  15. Radiation pattern synthesis for circular aperture horn antennas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, A. C.

    1966-01-01

    Radiation pattern synthesis for circular aperture horn antennas, assuming aperture distribution consisting of fields of cylindrical waveguide modes and by linear combination of radiation pattern functions

  16. Subclasses of Normal Helly Circular-Arc Graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Min Chih; Szwarcfiter, Jayme L

    2011-01-01

    A Helly circular-arc model M = (C,A) is a circle C together with a Helly family \\A of arcs of C. If no arc is contained in any other, then M is a proper Helly circular-arc model, if every arc has the same length, then M is a unit Helly circular-arc model, and if there are no two arcs covering the circle, then M is a normal Helly circular-arc model. A Helly (resp. proper Helly, unit Helly, normal Helly) circular-arc graph is the intersection graph of the arcs of a Helly (resp. proper Helly, unit Helly, normal Helly) circular-arc model. In this article we study these subclasses of Helly circular-arc graphs. We show natural generalizations of several properties of (proper) interval graphs that hold for some of these Helly circular-arc subclasses. Next, we describe characterizations for the subclasses of Helly circular-arc graphs, including forbidden induced subgraphs characterizations. These characterizations lead to efficient algorithms for recognizing graphs within these classes. Finally, we show how do these ...

  17. Adaptive circular queue image steganography with RSA cryptosystem

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jain, Mamta; Lenka, Saroj Kumar; Vasistha, Sunil Kumar

    2016-01-01

    ... circular queue least significant bits (LSBs) substitution. The data structure queue is employed dynamically in resource distribution between multiple communication recipients and once secret information transmitted asynchronously...

  18. NUMERICAL MODELING OF STRESSES NEAR THE SURFACE IN THE INGOT OF CIRCULAR SECTION, CRYSTALLIZABLE AT CIRCULAR TORCH SECONDARY COOLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Chichko

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of computer calculations of the stresses, generated in outside layer of ingot of steel 20 of circular section with diameter 300 mm, in application to one of the industrial technological schemas of RUP “BMZ”, are presented. The segments of compressive and tensile stresses formation along the length of ingot are determined and the principal possibility of production of continuously cast slug of circular section at circular-torch spray cooling is shown.

  19. Mutations in Cas9 Enhance the Rate of Acquisition of Viral Spacer Sequences during the CRISPR-Cas Immune Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heler, Robert; Wright, Addison V; Vucelja, Marija; Bikard, David; Doudna, Jennifer A; Marraffini, Luciano A

    2017-01-05

    CRISPR loci and their associated (Cas) proteins encode a prokaryotic immune system that protects against viruses and plasmids. Upon infection, a low fraction of cells acquire short DNA sequences from the invader. These sequences (spacers) are integrated in between the repeats of the CRISPR locus and immunize the host against the matching invader. Spacers specify the targets of the CRISPR immune response through transcription into short RNA guides that direct Cas nucleases to the invading DNA molecules. Here we performed random mutagenesis of the RNA-guided Cas9 nuclease to look for variants that provide enhanced immunity against viral infection. We identified a mutation, I473F, that increases the rate of spacer acquisition by more than two orders of magnitude. Our results highlight the role of Cas9 during CRISPR immunization and provide a useful tool to study this rare process and develop it as a biotechnological application. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Invariance of the magnetic behavior and AMI in ferromagnetic biphase films with distinct non-magnetic metallic spacers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, E.F. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, 59078-900 Natal, RN (Brazil); Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, 50670-901 Recife, PE (Brazil); Gamino, M. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, 50670-901 Recife, PE (Brazil); Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande de Sul, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Andrade, A.M.H. de [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande de Sul, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Vázquez, M. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, CSIC, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Correa, M.A. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, 59078-900 Natal, RN (Brazil); Bohn, F., E-mail: felipebohn@fisica.ufrn.br [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, 59078-900 Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2017-02-01

    We investigate the quasi-static magnetic, magnetotransport, and dynamic magnetic properties in ferromagnetic biphase films with distinct non-magnetic metallic spacer layers. We observe that the nature of the non-magnetic metallic spacer material does not have significant influence on the overall biphase magnetic behavior, and, consequently, on the magnetotransport and dynamic magnetic responses. We focus on the magnetoimpedance effect and verify that the films present asymmetric magnetoimpedance effect. Moreover, we explore the possibility of tuning the linear region of the magnetoimpedance curves around zero magnetic field by varying the probe current frequency in order to achieve higher sensitivity values. The invariance of the magnetic behavior and the asymmetric magnetoimpedance effect in ferromagnetic biphase films with distinct non-magnetic metallic spacers place them as promising candidates for probe element and open possibilities to the development of lower-cost high sensitivity linear magnetic field sensor devices.

  1. Simple introduction of carboxyl head group with alkyl spacer onto multiwalled carbon nanotubes by solution plasma process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemoto, Shimpei; Ueno, Tomonaga; Watthanaphanit, Anyarat; Hieda, Junko; Bratescu, Maria Antoaneta; Saito, Nagahiro

    2017-09-01

    A simple method of fabricating carboxyl-terminated multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) with alkyl spacers was developed to improve the dispersion quality of MWCNTs in aqueous solutions using solution plasma (SP) in a 6-aminocaproic acid solution. The formation of SP in the solution led to better dispersion of MWCNTs in aqueous solutions. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) results indicate that a carboxyl group with an alkyl spacer can be introduced by SP treatment in the 6-aminocaproic acid solution. Sedimentation tests show that the SP-treated MWCNTs in the 6-aminocaproic acid solution retained their good dispersion quality in aqueous solutions of pHs 5, 6, and 9. The alkyl spacer plays an important role in the preservation of dispersion states particularly at pH 6.

  2. Tangent hyperbolic circular frequency diverse array radars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Saeed

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Frequency diverse array (FDA with uniform frequency offset (UFO has been in spot light of research for past few years. Not much attention has been devoted to non-UFOs in FDA. This study investigates tangent hyperbolic (TH function for frequency offset selection scheme in circular FDAs (CFDAs. Investigation reveals a three-dimensional single-maximum beampattern, which promises to enhance system detection capability and signal-to-interference plus noise ratio. Furthermore, by utilising the versatility of TH function, a highly configurable type array system is achieved, where beampatterns of three different configurations of FDA can be generated, just by adjusting a single function parameter. This study further examines the utility of the proposed TH-CFDA in some practical radar scenarios.

  3. Circular arc snakes and kinematic surface generation

    KAUST Repository

    Barton, Michael

    2013-05-01

    We discuss the theory, discretization, and numerics of curves which are evolving such that part of their shape, or at least their curvature as a function of arc length, remains unchanged. The discretization of a curve as a smooth sequence of circular arcs is well suited for such purposes, and allows us to reduce evolution of curves to the evolution of a control point collection in a certain finite-dimensional shape space. We approach this evolution by a 2-step process: linearized evolution via optimized velocity fields, followed by optimization in order to exactly fulfill all geometric side conditions. We give applications to freeform architecture, including "rationalization" of a surface by congruent arcs, form finding and, most interestingly, non-static architecture. © 2013 The Author(s) Computer Graphics Forum © 2013 The Eurographics Association and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Rectenna composed of a circular microstrip antenna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itoh, K.; Ohgane, T.; Ogawa, Y.

    1986-01-01

    One of the big problems in the SPS system is reradiation of the harmonic waves generated by the rectifying diode. The authors proposed the use of a circular microstrip antenna (CMSA), since the CMSA has no higher resonance-harmonic of integer multiple of the dominant resonance frequency. However, characteristics of a large rectenna array of CMSA's have not been clarified. This paper is concerned with the absorption efficiency of the rectenna composed of the CMSA. The efficiency is estimated explicitly using an infinite array model. The results show that the absorption efficiency of the infinite rectenna array composed of the CMSA is 100%. Also, this paper considers the effect of the losses of the composed of the CMSA is 100%. Also, this paper considers the effect of the losses of the CMSA. 4 references, 4 figures.

  5. Circular strings, wormholes, and minimum size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garay, L.J.; Gonzalez-Diaz, P.F.; Mena Marugan, G.A.; Raya, J.M. [Centro de Fisica Miguel A. Catalan, Instituto de Matematicas y Fisica Fundamental, CSIC Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    1997-06-01

    The quantization of circular strings in an anti{endash}de Sitter background spacetime is performed, obtaining a discrete spectrum for the string mass. A comparison with a four-dimensional homogeneous and isotropic spacetime coupled to a conformal scalar field shows that the string radius and the scale factor have the same classical solutions and that the quantum theories of these two models are formally equivalent. However, the physically relevant observables of these two systems have different spectra, although they are related to each other by a specific one-to-one transformation. We finally obtain a discrete spectrum for the spacetime size of both systems, which presents a nonvanishing lower bound. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  6. A conceptual design of circular Higgs factory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Yunhai

    2016-11-30

    Similar to a super B-factory, a circular Higgs factory (CHF) will require strong focusing systems near the interaction points and a low-emittance lattice in the arcs to achieve a factory luminosity. At electron beam energy of 125 GeV, beamstrahlung effects during the collision pose an additional challenge to the collider design. In particular, a large momentum acceptance at the 2% level is necessary to retain an adequate beam lifetime. This turns out to be the most challenging aspect in the design of a CHF. In this paper, an example will be provided to illustrate the beam dynamics in a CHF, emphasizing the chromatic optics. Basic optical modules and advanced analysis will be presented. Most importantly, we will show that 2% momentum aperture is achievable.

  7. A computational protocol for the study of circularly polarized phosphorescence and circular dichroism in spin-forbidden absorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaminski, Maciej; Cukras, Janusz; Pecul, Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    We present a computational methodology to calculate the intensity of circular dichroism (CD) in spinforbidden absorption and of circularly polarized phosphorescence (CPP) signals, a manifestation of the optical activity of the triplet–singlet transitions in chiral compounds. The protocol is based...... on the response function formalism and is implemented at the level of time-dependent density functional theory. It has been employed to calculate the spin-forbidden circular dichroism and circularly polarized phosphorescence signals of valence n - p* and n ’ p* transitions, respectively, in several chiral enones...

  8. Borges, immortality and the circular ruins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronstein, Catalina

    2002-06-01

    The author explores ideas surrounding immortality and death focusing on the interplay between their development in two stories by Borges ('The circular ruins' and 'The immortal') and their manifestation in a patient. With the help of Borges's stories, the author addresses the desperate necessity experienced by some individuals to search for immortality. This is not just an expression of the universal wish to live forever but, at a deeper level, arises from the impossibility of bearing the mental pain of experiencing ordinary human vulnerability and loss - death being the ultimate expression of such vulnerability. It is suggested that the relentless pursuit of immortality in such individuals expresses an omnipotent phantasy of ridding the self of the emotional pain and fear that arises through being alive. It leads to a denial of the emotional significance of passage of time, of separation and sexual differences. In actuality, the individual's state of not feeling approximates to a complete loss of human identity and emotional death, with no place for any meaningful others. The individual him/herself becomes a 'mere image', living in a delusional world peopled by him/herself and his/ her projections, and ending up trapped inside the circular ruins he/she has generated. The horror experienced at the stark awareness of the individual's emotional death and the wish to re-establish contact with the good internal objects that have been attacked sets in motion the long process of searching for the recovery of a sense of temporality (that would still include the wish for immortality) and, with it, a sense of identity.

  9. The evolution of the atpbeta-rbcL intergenic spacer in the epacrids (Ericales) and its systematic and evolutionary implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crayn, D M; Quinn, C J

    2000-08-01

    Sequence data from the noncoding region separating the plastid genes atpbeta and rbcL were gathered for 27 epacrid taxa, representing all previously recognized infrafamilial groups, and four outgroup taxa (Ericaceae), to address several persistent phylogenetic questions in the group. Parsimony analyses were conducted on these data, as well as on a complementary rbcL sequence dataset assembled from the literature and the combined dataset. The atpbeta-rbcL spacer was notable for the high frequency of insertion-deletion mutations (indels); their distributions were coded as binary characters and included as a adjunct matrix in some of the analyses. The phylogenetic patterns derived from the spacer and rbcL data and the combined analyses, both including and excluding the indel data, concur in resolving seven major lineages corresponding to the tribes of Crayn et al. (1998, Aust. J. Bot. 46, 187-200), viz. Prionoteae, Archerieae, Oligarrheneae, Cosmelieae, Richeeae, Epacrideae, and Styphelieae. The relationships of the tribes and within Styphelieae, however, are not convincingly resolved. Minor conflicts in the positions of some taxa between the spacer and the rbcL trees are poorly supported. Among epacrids, the spacer region provided more cladistically informative characters than rbcL and resulted in trees with lower homoplasy. Further, the spacer data, when analyzed alone and when combined with rbcL, resolved several clades that could not be retrieved on rbcL data alone and provided increased support for many other relationships. The evolution of a putative three-base inversion associated with a hairpin secondary structure in the spacer region is discussed in the light of the inferred phylogeny. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  10. Choice and doses of antibacterial agents for cement spacers in treatment of prosthetic joint infections: review of published studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iarikov, D; Demian, H; Rubin, D; Alexander, J; Nambiar, S

    2012-12-01

    Addition of antibacterial drugs to interim antibacterial cement spacers (ACSs) is considered to be standard of care for surgical revision in prosthetic joint infections (PJIs). We reviewed published studies evaluating the choice and doses of antibacterials in spacers. We conducted a PubMed search of all clinical study reports evaluating the use of ACSS in a 2-stage hip or knee arthroplasty for treatment of PJI (1988 through August 2011). The trial design, antibacterials used, and end points studied were analyzed. No randomized trials were found comparing either ACSs with different concentrations of antibacterials or ACSs with or without antibacterials. Most of the studies were uncontrolled and used various time points to evaluate the outcome. Twenty publications that reported doses of antibacterials in spacers and had a follow-up of ≥ 24 months after the second stage were selected for review. Most ACSs included vancomycin and aminoglycosides. The doses of aminoglycosides and vancomycin ranged from 0.25 to 4.8 g and from 1 to 4 g, respectively, per 4 g of cement. No association between reported eradication of the infection and antibacterial load was found. Published data do not allow evaluation of whether antibacterials in temporary cement spacers provide additional benefits in the treatment of PJI, compared with systemic antibacterials, and are not sufficient to support recommendations on dosages. Complications of ACSs have not been consistently analyzed. Prospective randomized trials comparing spacers with and without antibacterials or spacers with different loads of antibacterials are needed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of ACSs.

  11. Profile design of loaded pins in composite single lap joints: From circular to non-circular

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yadong; Fei, Qingguo; Tao, Jiayue

    Mechanical joints are the weakest links of composite materials and structures. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of the pin profiles on the stress concentration and load-carry capacity of the pin-loaded single-lap joints subjected to tensile loading. Non-circular profiles of pins are numerically investigated to pursue a possible stress concentration reduction in both the net-tension and bearing stresses of composite single lap joints. Firstly, by varying the characteristic parameters, various round-corner squares are evaluated in terms of peak stresses. Secondly, the square-like profile is transferred to the racetrack-like one in order to gain optimal bearing stresses. Thirdly, the pin of the racetrack-like profile is investigated compared to the circular one, taking into account the through-thickness distributions of stresses. Lastly, the orthotropic effect and the load-carry capacity of the proposed profile are also discussed.

  12. Porosity of spacer-filled channels in spiral-wound membrane systems: Quantification methods and impact on hydraulic characterization

    KAUST Repository

    Siddiqui, Amber

    2017-04-13

    The porosity of spacer-filled feed channels influences the hydrodynamics of spiral-wound membrane systems and impacts the overall performance of the system. Therefore, an exact measurement and a detailed understanding of the impact of the feed channel porosity is required to understand and improve the hydrodynamics of spiral-wound membrane systems applied for desalination and wastewater reuse. The objectives of this study were to assess the accuracy of porosity measurement techniques for feed spacers differing in geometry and thickness and the consequences of using an inaccurate method on hydrodynamic predictions, which may affect permeate production. Six techniques were applied to measure the porosity namely, three volumetric calculations based on spacer strand count together with cuboidal (SC), cylindrical (VCC) and ellipsoidal volume calculation (VCE) and three independent techniques based on volume displacement (VD), weight and density (WD) and computed tomography scanning (CT). The CT method was introduced as an alternative for the other five already existing and applied methods in practice.Six feed spacers used for the porosity measurement differed in filament thickness, angle between the filaments and mesh-size. The results of the studies showed differences between the porosities, measured by the six methods. The results of the microscopic techniques SC, VCC and VCE deviated significantly from measurements by VD, WD and CT, which showed similar porosity values for all spacer types.Depending on the maximum deviation of the porosity measurement techniques from –6% to +6%, (i) the linear velocity deviations were −5.6% and +6.4% respectively and (ii) the pressure drop deviations were –31% and +43% respectively, illustrating the importance of an accurate porosity measurement. Because of the accuracy and standard deviation, the VD and WD method should be applied for the porosity determination of spacer-filled channels, while the CT method is recommended for

  13. Patella tendon injuries secondary to cement spacers used at first-stage revision of infected total knee replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wasim S Khan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We describe a series of three patients who sustained patella tendon injuries in infected TKAs following the use of a static cement spacer at first-stage knee revision. The patella tendon injuries resulted in significant compromise to wound healing and knee stability requiring multiple surgeries. The mid-term function was poor with an Oxford score at 24 months ranging from 12-20. Based on our experience, we advise caution in the use of static cement spacer blocks. If they are to be used, we recommend that they should be keyed in the bone to prevent patella tendon injuries.

  14. Minimally invasive treatment of lumbar spinal stenosis with a novel interspinous spacer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabat S

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Shay Shabat1, Larry E Miller2,3, Jon E Block3, Reuven Gepstein11Spinal Care Unit, Sapir Medical Center, Kfar Saba, Israel; 2Miller Scientific Consulting, Inc, Biltmore Lake, NC, USA; 3Jon E Block, PhD, Inc, San Francisco, CA, USAPurpose: To assess the safety and effectiveness of a novel, minimally invasive interspinous spacer in patients with moderate lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS.Methods: A total of 53 patients (mean age, 70 ± 11 years; 45% female with intermittent neurogenic claudication secondary to moderate LSS, confirmed on imaging studies, were treated with the Superion® Interspinous Spacer (VertiFlex, Inc, San Clemente, CA and returned for follow-up visits at 6 weeks, 1 year, and 2 years. Study endpoints included axial and extremity pain severity with an 11-point numeric scale, Zurich Claudication Questionnaire (ZCQ, back function with the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI, health-related quality of life with the Physical Component Summary (PCS and Mental Component Summary (MCS scores from the SF-12, and adverse events.Results: Axial and extremity pain each decreased 54% (both P < 0.001 over the 2-year follow-up period. ZCQ symptom severity scores improved 43% (P < 0.001 and ZCQ physical function improved 44% (P < 0.001 from pre-treatment to 2 years post-treatment. A statistically significant 50% improvement (P < 0.001 also was noted in back function. PCS and MCS each improved 40% (both P < 0.001 from pre-treatment to 2 years. Clinical success rates at 2 years were 83%–89% for ZCQ subscores, 75% for ODI, 78% for PCS, and 80% for MCS. No device infection, implant breakage, migration, or pull-out was observed, although two (3.8% patients underwent explant with subsequent laminectomy.Conclusion: Moderate LSS can be effectively treated with a minimally invasive interspinous spacer. This device is appropriate for select patients who have failed nonoperative treatment measures for LSS and meet strict anatomical criteria.Keywords: Superion, axial

  15. An analysis of near-circular lunar mapping orbits

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Numerical investigations have been carried out to analyse the evolution of lunar circular orbits and the influence of the higher order harmonics of the lunar gravity field. The aim is to select the appropriate near-circular orbit characteristics, which extend orbit life through passive orbit maintenance. The spherical harmonic ...

  16. Circular braiding take-up speed generation using inverse kinematics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ravenhorst, J.H.; Akkerman, Remko

    2014-01-01

    Circular overbraiding of composite preforms on complex mandrels currently lacks automatic generation of machine control data. To solve this limitation, an inverse kinematics-based procedure was designed and implemented for circular braiding machines with optional guide rings, resulting in a take-up

  17. Role of Food Logistics Management in a circular economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloemhof-Ruwaard, J.M.; Groot, J.J.; Snels, J.C.M.A.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we will discuss the role of food logistics management in a circular economy. Specific pillars in Circular Economy such as Closed Loop supply Chain management and Industrial Ecology will be discussed. Apart from a research agenda, we will provide exemplary cases in practice showing the

  18. Product design and business model strategies for a circular economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bocken, N.M.P.; de Pauw, I.C.; Bakker, C.A.; van der Grinten, B.

    The transition within business from a linear to a circular economy brings with it a range of practical challenges for companies. The following question is addressed: What are the product design and business model strategies for
    companies that want to move to a circular economy model? This paper

  19. Analysis of radial vibrations of poroelastic circular cylindrical shells ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Waves propagating in radial direction of a poroelastic circular cylinder are termed as radial vibrations. Radial vibrations of poroelastic circular cylindrical shell of infinite extent immersed in an inviscid elastic fluid are examined employing Biot's theory. Biot's model consists of an elastic matrix permeated by a network of ...

  20. Investigation of accuracy characteristics of circular photodetector: Multiscan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Povarov, Kirill S.; Mitrofanov, Sergey S.

    2017-06-01

    This article is about the research of precision characteristics of a circular sensor "Multiscan". The research was conducted on installation which base was a goniometer GS-5. Such characteristics as nonlinearity, stability, error of reproducibility of results of measurements were investigated. A scheme for arranging the encoder on the basis of a circular photodetector "Multiscan" is proposed.

  1. Chemical detection of cysteine-rich circular petides in selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cysteine-rich circular peptides (CRCs) comprise a large family of gene encoded and low molecular weight polypeptides that has recently engaged the attention of scientists. This class of peptides exhibit a continuous circular configuration and a cystine knot backbone, which defines their resilient nature-directed structural ...

  2. Experimental circular keratotomy for correction of corneal astigmatism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijdh, RH; van Rij, G

    1998-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of circular keratotomy depth and diameter on corneal astigmatism. METHODS: High astigmatism was induced in 25 human donor eyes by an anterior radial 7-0 silk suture across the corneoscleral limbus. With a 6.0, 6.5, 7.0, or 7.5 mm trephine, a 0.3 mm deep circular

  3. Outlier detection in a new half-circular distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rambli, Adzhar; Mohamed, Ibrahim Bin; Shimizu, Kunio; Khalidin, Nurliza

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, we use a discordancy test based on spacing theory to detect outlier in a half-circular data. Up to now, numerous discordancy tests have been proposed to detect outlier in circular distributions which are defined in [0,2π). However, some circular data lie within just half of this range. Therefore, first we introduce a new half-circular distribution developed using the inverse stereographic projection technique on a gamma distributed variable. Then, we develop a new discordancy test to detect single or multiple outliers in the half-circular data based on the spacing theory. We show the practical value of the test by applying it to an eye data set obtained from a glaucoma clinic at the University of Malaya Medical Centre, Malaysia.

  4. Administrative Circular No. 26 (Rev.10) - Recognition of merit

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    Administrative Circular No. 26 (Rev. 10) entitled “Recognition of Merit”, approved by the Director-General following discussion at the Standing Concertation Committee meeting of 5 December 2013 and entering into force on 1 January 2014, is available on the intranet site of the Human Resources Department (see here).   This circular is applicable to staff members. It cancels and replaces Administrative Circular No. 26 (Rev. 9) entitled “Recognition of Merit” of December 2011. The circular was revised in order to take into account the work performed in the framework of an elective mandate during the exercise of merit recognition of staff members. In addition, the circular was revised to provide that, in the case of staff members on special leave for professional reasons for a period equal to or longer than half a year, it will no longer be possible to grant an exceptional advancement. Department Head Office HR Department

  5. Nearest Neighbor Estimates of Entropy for Multivariate Circular Distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeraj Misra

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In molecular sciences, the estimation of entropies of molecules is important for the understanding of many chemical and biological processes. Motivated by these applications, we consider the problem of estimating the entropies of circular random vectors and introduce non-parametric estimators based on circular distances between n sample points and their k th nearest neighbors (NN, where k (≤ n – 1 is a fixed positive integer. The proposed NN estimators are based on two different circular distances, and are proven to be asymptotically unbiased and consistent. The performance of one of the circular-distance estimators is investigated and compared with that of the already established Euclidean-distance NN estimator using Monte Carlo samples from an analytic distribution of six circular variables of an exactly known entropy and a large sample of seven internal-rotation angles in the molecule of tartaric acid, obtained by a realistic molecular-dynamics simulation.

  6. Nasal inhalation of budesonide from a spacer in children with perennial rhinitis and asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, W; Hjuler, Inga Merete; Bisgaard, H

    1998-01-01

    The standard treatment of allergic rhinitis and asthma consists of topical corticosteroids administered intranasally and inhaled through the mouth. Although this therapy is highly effective, and side-effects are few and mild, it may be possible further to improve the therapeutic index and patient...... compliance with the treatment. In the present study, we evaluated a nasal inhalation system used for the simultaneous treatment of rhinitis and asthma. In principle, it results in an airway deposition of the corticosteroid similar to that of inhaled allergens. Twenty-four children with perennial rhinitis.......05), and in an increase of nasal peak inspiratory flow (P oral peak expiratory flow (P=0.01). There were no differences between budesonide and placebo in local side-effects, such as dry nose, nosebleed, and hoarseness. We conclude that nasal inhalation of a corticosteroid from a spacer offers a simple...

  7. Optimisation of automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis for the estimation of microbial diversity in fynbos soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Jacobs

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA has become a commonly used molecular technique for the study of microbial populations in environmental samples. The reproducibility and accuracy of ARISA, with and without the polymerase chain reaction (PCR are important aspects that influence the results and effectiveness of these techniques. We used the primer set ITS4/ITS5 for ARISA to assess the fungal community composition of two sites situated in the Sand Fynbos. The primer set proved to deliver reproducible ARISA profiles of the fungal community composition with little variation observed between ARISA-PCRs. Variation that occurred in a sample due to repeated DNA extraction is expected for ecological studies. This reproducibility made ARISA a useful tool for the assessment and comparison of diversity in ecological samples. In this paper, we also offered particular suggestions concerning the binning strategy for the analysis of ARISA profiles.

  8. Fine-tuning the CAR spacer improves T-cell potency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Norihiro; Bajgain, Pradip; Sukumaran, Sujita; Ansari, Salma; Heslop, Helen E; Rooney, Cliona M; Brenner, Malcolm K; Leen, Ann M; Vera, Juan F

    2016-01-01

    The adoptive transfer of genetically engineered T cells expressing chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) has emerged as a transformative cancer therapy with curative potential, precipitating a wave of preclinical and clinical studies in academic centers and the private sector. Indeed, significant effort has been devoted to improving clinical benefit by incorporating accessory genes/CAR endodomains designed to enhance cellular migration, promote in vivo expansion/persistence or enhance safety by genetic programming to enable the recognition of a tumor signature. However, our efforts centered on exploring whether CAR T-cell potency could be enhanced by modifying pre-existing CAR components. We now demonstrate how molecular refinements to the CAR spacer can impact multiple biological processes including tonic signaling, cell aging, tumor localization, and antigen recognition, culminating in superior in vivo antitumor activity.

  9. Side-wall spacer passivated sub-μm Josephson junction fabrication process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grönberg, Leif; Kiviranta, Mikko; Vesterinen, Visa; Lehtinen, Janne; Simbierowicz, Slawomir; Luomahaara, Juho; Prunnila, Mika; Hassel, Juha

    2017-12-01

    We present a structure and a fabrication method for superconducting tunnel junctions down to the dimensions of 200 nm using i-line UV lithography. The key element is a sidewall-passivating spacer structure (SWAPS) which is shaped for smooth crossline contacting and low parasitic capacitance. The SWAPS structure enables formation of junctions with dimensions at or below the lithography-limited linewidth. An additional benefit is avoiding the excessive use of amorphous dielectric materials which is favorable in sub-Kelvin microwave applications often plagued by nonlinear and lossy dielectrics. We apply the structure to niobium trilayer junctions, and provide characterization results yielding evidence on wafer-scale scalability, and critical current density tuning in the range of 0.1–3.0 kA cm‑2. We discuss the applicability of the junction process in the context of different applications, such as SQUID magnetometers and Josephson parametric amplifiers.

  10. Nasal inhalation of budesonide from a spacer in children with perennial rhinitis and asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, W; Hjuler, Inga Merete; Bisgaard, H

    1998-01-01

    compliance with the treatment. In the present study, we evaluated a nasal inhalation system used for the simultaneous treatment of rhinitis and asthma. In principle, it results in an airway deposition of the corticosteroid similar to that of inhaled allergens. Twenty-four children with perennial rhinitis...... and asthma inhaled budesonide through the nose from a pressurized aerosol, attached to a spacer device, in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Compared with placebo, budesonide treatment resulted in a significant reduction of nasal symptoms (P... and effective treatment for both rhinitis and asthma in children, but it is an open question whether the nasal inhalation system can improve the ratio of antirhinitis/antiasthma effects to side-effects....

  11. Switchable wavelength-selective and diffuse metamaterial absorber/emitter with a phase transition spacer layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hao; Yang, Yue; Wang, Liping, E-mail: liping.wang@asu.edu [School for Engineering of Matter, Transport and Energy, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States)

    2014-08-18

    We numerically demonstrate a switchable metamaterial absorber/emitter by thermally turning on or off the excitation of magnetic resonance upon the phase transition of vanadium dioxide (VO{sub 2}). Perfect absorption peak exists around the wavelength of 5 μm when the excitation of magnetic resonance is supported with the insulating VO{sub 2} spacer layer. The wavelength-selective absorption is switched off when the magnetic resonance is disabled with metallic VO{sub 2} that shorts the top and bottom metallic structures. The resonance wavelength can be tuned with different geometry, and the switchable metamaterial exhibits diffuse behaviors at oblique angles. The results would facilitate the design of switchable metamaterials for active control in energy and sensing applications.

  12. Authentication of medicinal Dendrobium species by the internal transcribed spacer of ribosomal DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, D T; Shaw, P C; Wang, J; But, P P

    2001-07-01

    Herba Dendrobii (Shihu) is a commonly used Chinese medicine derived from the stem of several orchid species belonging to the genus Dendrobium. It is rather expensive and adulteration is frequent. Proper authentication of the medicinal species is necessary to protect consumers and support conservation measures. DNA sequences of the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS 2) of 16 Dendrobium species were shown to be significantly different from one another by an average of 12.4% and from non-orchids and Pholidota (an adulterant of Shihu) by 29.8% and 18.8%, respectively. The intra-specific variation among the Dendrobium species studied was only about 1%. Therefore, ITS 2 regions could be adopted as a molecular marker for differentiating medicinal Dendrobium species from one another and also from non-orchids and adulterants.

  13. 45S rDNA external transcribed spacer organization reveals new phylogenetic relationships in Avena genus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Joana; Viegas, Wanda

    2017-01-01

    The genus Avena comprises four distinct genomes organized in diploid (AA or CC), tetraploid (AABB or AACC) and hexaploid species (AACCDD), constituting an interesting model for phylogenetic analysis. The aim of this work was to characterize 45S rDNA intergenic spacer (IGS) variability in distinct species representative of Avena genome diversity–A. strigosa (AA), A. ventricosa (CvCv), A. eriantha (CpCp), A. barbata (AABB), A. murphyi (AACC), A. sativa (AACCDD) and A. sterilis (AACCDD) through the assessment of the 5’ external transcribed spacer (5’-ETS), a promising IGS region for phylogenetic studies poorly studied in Avena genus. In this work, IGS length polymorphisms were detected mainly due to distinct 5’-ETS sequence types resulting from major differences in the number and organization of repeated motifs. Although species with A genome revealed a 5’-ETS organization (A-organization) similar to the one previously described in A. sativa, a distinct organization was unraveled in C genome diploid species (C-organization). Interestingly, such new organization presents a higher similarity with other Poaceae species than A-genome sequences, supporting the hypothesis of C-genome being the ancestral Avena genome. Additionally, polyploid species with both genomes mainly retain the A-genome 5’-ETS organization, confirming the preferential elimination of C-genome sequences in Avena polyploid species. Moreover, 5’-ETS sequences phylogenetic analysis consistently clustered the species studied according to ploidy and genomic constitution supporting the use of ribosomal genes to highlight Avena species evolutive pathways. PMID:28448637

  14. Controlling the Biomimetic Implant Interface: Modulating Antimicrobial Activity by Spacer Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisdom, Cate; Vanoosten, Sarah Kay; Boone, Kyle W.; Khvostenko, Dmytro; Arnold, Paul M.; Snead, Malcolm L.; Tamerler, Candan

    2016-08-01

    Surgical site infection is a common cause of post-operative morbidity, often leading to implant loosening, ultimately requiring revision surgery, increased costs and worse surgical outcomes. Since implant failure starts at the implant surface, creating and controlling the bio-material interface will play a critical role in reducing infection while improving host cell-to-implant interaction. Here, we engineered a biomimetic interface based upon a chimeric peptide that incorporates a titanium binding peptide (TiBP) with an antimicrobial peptide (AMP) into a single molecule to direct binding to the implant surface and deliver an antimicrobial activity against S. mutans and S. epidermidis, two bacteria which are linked with clinical implant infections. To optimize antimicrobial activity, we investigated the design of the spacer domain separating the two functional domains of the chimeric peptide. Lengthening and changing the amino acid composition of the spacer resulted in an improvement of minimum inhibitory concentration by a three-fold against S. mutans. Surfaces coated with the chimeric peptide reduced dramatically the number of bacteria, with up to a nine-fold reduction for S. mutans and a 48-fold reduction for S. epidermidis. Ab initio predictions of antimicrobial activity based on structural features were confirmed. Host cell attachment and viability at the biomimetic interface were also improved compared to the untreated implant surface. Biomimetic interfaces formed with this chimeric peptide offer interminable potential by coupling antimicrobial and improved host cell responses to implantable titanium materials, and this peptide based approach can be extended to various biomaterials surfaces.

  15. No evidence for behavioral responses to circularly polarized light in four scarab beetle species with circularly polarizing exocuticle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blahó, Miklós; Egri, Adám; Hegedüs, Ramón; Jósvai, Júlia; Tóth, Miklós; Kertész, Krisztián; Biró, László Péter; Kriska, György; Horváth, Gábor

    2012-02-28

    The strongest known circular polarization of biotic origin is the left-circularly polarized (LCP) light reflected from the metallic shiny exocuticle of certain beetles of the family Scarabaeidae. This phenomenon has been discovered by Michelson in 1911. Although since 1955 it has been known that the human eye perceives a visual illusion when stimulated by circularly polarized (CP) light, it was discovered only recently that a stomatopod shrimp is able to perceive circular polarization. It is pertinent to suppose that scarab beetles reflecting LCP light in an optical environment (vegetation) being deficient in CP signals may also perceive circular polarization and use it to find each other (mate/conspecifics) as until now it has been believed. We tested this hypothesis in six choice experiments with several hundred individuals of four scarab species: Anomala dubia, Anomala vitis (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Rutelinae), and Cetonia aurata, Potosia cuprea (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Cetoniinae), all possessing left-circularly polarizing exocuticle. From the results of our experiments we conclude that the studied four scarab species are not attracted to CP light when feeding or looking for mate or conspecifics. We demonstrated that the light reflected by host plants of the investigated scarabs is circularly unpolarized. Our results finally solve a puzzle raised over one hundred years ago, when Michaelson discovered that scarab beetles reflect circularly polarized light. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Length heterogeneity of amplified circular rDNA molecules in oocytes of the house cricket Acheta domesticus (Orthoptera: Gryllidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cave, M D

    1979-02-13

    Amplification of the genes coding for rRNA occurs in the oocytes of a wide variety of organisms. The amplification process appears to be mediated through a rolling-circle mechanism. The approximate molecular weight of the smallest rDNA circles is equivalent to the estimated combined molecular weight of DNA which codes for a single ribosomal RNA precursor molecule and an associated non-transcribed spacer DNA sequence. RNA-DNA hybridization studies carried out on oocytes of the house cricket, Acheta domesticus, suggest that DNA coding for rRNA accounts for only a small fraction of the rDNA satellite, all of which is amplified in the oocyte. In order to test the possibility that the remainder of the amplified rDNA represents spacer and to determine whether a rolling-circle mechanism might also be involved in amplification in A. domesticus oocytes, rDNA was isolated from ovaries of A. domesticus and spread for electron microscopy. A large proportion of the rDNA isolated from ovaries is circular, while main-band DNA and rDNA prepared from other tissues demonstrates few if any circles. The mean size of the smallest rDNA circles is approximately 8 times longer than the length estimated for DNA which codes for 18S and 28 S rRNA. Denaturation mapping shows the rDNA circles to contain two major readily denaturing regions located about equidistant from one another on the circle. Each readily denaturing region accounts for 4--6% of the total DNA in the circle. The fact that only 12% of the average molecule is required to code for A. domesticus 18S and 28S rRNA is consistent with the hybridization data. Considerable size heterogeneity exists in the length of the smallest class of rDNA molecules. In the rDNA of other species such heterogeneity has been shown to reside in the non-transcribed spacer.

  17. Real-Life Outcomes for Patients with Asthma Prescribed Spacers for Use with Either Extrafine- or Fine-Particle Inhaled Corticosteroids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guilbert, Theresa W.; Colice, Gene; Grigg, Jonathan; van Aalderen, Wim; Martin, Richard J.; Israel, Elliot; Postma, Dirkje S.; Roche, Nicolas; Phipatanakul, Wanda; Hillyer, Elizabeth V.; Evans, Jennifer M.; Dolovich, Myrna B.; Price, David B.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Spacers are often used with pressurized metered-dose inhalers (pMDIs) to eliminate the need for coordinating inhalation with actuation. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the real-life effectiveness of spacers prescribed for use with either extrafine-or fine-particle inhaled corticosteroids

  18. Amino propynyl benzoic acid building block in rigid spacers of divalent ligands binding to the Syk SH2 domains with equally high affinity as the natural ligand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, Frank J; de Mol, Nico J; Fischer, Marcel J E; Liskamp, Rob M J; Dekker, Frank

    2003-01-01

    The construction of rigid spacers composed of amino propynyl benzoic acid building blocks is described. These spacers were used to link two phosphopeptide ligand sites towards obtaining divalent ligands with a high affinity for Syk tandem SH2 domains, which are important in signal transduction. The

  19. Superiority of Spacer/Mask Topical Anesthetic Compared with Conventional Spray and Gargle Method for Fibreoptic Bronchoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RC Balkissoon

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare the safety and efficacy of a new spacer-oral nasal mask device with those of the standard needle nozzle spray method for the delivery of aerosolized lidocaine to the upper airway for pre-bronchoscopic anaesthesia in a tertiary care hospital.

  20. Bronchodilation and bronchoprotection in asthmatic preschool children from formoterol administered by mechanically actuated dry-powder inhaler and spacer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, K G; Bisgaard, H

    2001-01-01

    We evaluated the bronchodilatory and the bronchoprotective effect of the long-acting beta(2)-agonist formoterol administered as dry powder from a mechanically actuated dry-powder inhaler (DPI) using spacer in 12 asthmatic children 2 to 5 yr of age. Lung function was measured as the specific airwa...

  1. IMMOBILIZATION OF HUMIC ACID ONTO CHITOSAN USING TOSYLATION METHOD WITH 1,4-BUTANEDIOL AS A SPACER ARM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uripto Trisno Santoso

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Immobilization of humic acid (HA onto chitosan using tosylation method with 1,4-butanediol as a spacer arm has been evaluated. Chitosan was phthaloylated selectively using phthalic anhydride in dimethylformamide as solvent with addition of 5% water (v/v as cosolvent prior to be tosylated. N-phthaloyl-chitosan and HA were tosylated using tosyl chloride in excess and triethylamine as catalyst at temperature < 10 °C for 12 h. The 6-O-tosyl-N-phthaloyl-chitosan was reacted with 1,4-butanediol in order to obtain a spacer arm attached chitosan. The 6-O-butanol-N-phthaloyl-chitosan was activated by reacting with tosyl chloride. For evaluation on immobilization of HA on chitosan with and without spacer arm, 6-O-tosylbutane-N-phthaloyl-chitosan was reacted with HA and the 6-O-tosyl-N-phthaloyl-chitosan was reacted with HA. The HA immobilized onto chitosan was characterized by XRD and FTIR spectrophotometric method. The result showed that HA can be immobilized covalently onto chitosan after attaching 1,4-butanediol as spacer arm onto 6-O-tosyl-N-phthaloyl-chitosan and activating the product with tosyl chloride, but HA cannot be reacted directly onto 6-O-tosyl-N-phthaloyl-chitosan.

  2. Investigation of optical spacer layers from solution based precursors for polymer solar cells using X-ray reflectometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Philip Hvidthøft Delff; Skårhøj, Jakob; Andreasen, Jens Wenzel

    2009-01-01

    can improve upon application of an optical spacer by shifting the maximum of the electrical field vector of the incident light into the active layer. This avoids the so called “dead zone” close to the reflective electrode. We demonstrate a simple linear model that can be used to predict the intensity...

  3. Employing 454 amplicon pyrosequencing to reveal intragenomic divergence in the internal transcribed spacer rDNA region in fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel L. Lindner; Tor Carlsen; Henrik Nilsson; Marie Davey; Trond Schumacher; Havard. Kauserud

    2013-01-01

    The rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region has been accepted as a DNA barcoding marker for fungi and is widely used in phylogenetic studies; however, intragenomic ITS variability has been observed in a broad range of taxa, including prokaryotes, plants, animals, and fungi, and this variability has the potential to inflate species richness estimates in molecular...

  4. Saprolegniaceae identified on amphibian eggs throughout the Pacific Northwest, USA, by internal transcribed spacer sequences and phylogenetic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jill E. Petrisko; Christopher A. Pearl; David S. Pilliod; Peter P. Sheridan; Charles F. Williams; Charles R. Peterson; R. Bruce Bury

    2008-01-01

    We assessed the diversity and phylogeny of Saprolegniaceae on amphibian eggs from the Pacific Northwest, with particular focus on Saprolegnia ferax, a species implicated in high egg mortality. We identified isolates from eggs of six amphibians with the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and 5.8S gene regions and BLAST of the GenBank database. We...

  5. Essential oil composition and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence variability of four South-Croatian Satureja species (Lamiaceae)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bezić, Nada; Samanić, Ivica; Dunkić, Valerija; Besendorfer, Visnja; Puizina, Jasna

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the essential oil profiles of four South-Croatian Satureja species, as determined by GC/FID and GC/MS, with their DNA sequences for an internal transcribed spacer (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2...

  6. GLOBAL PHYLOGEOGRAPHY IN THE COSMOPOLITAN SPECIES CLADOPHORA-VAGABUNDA (CHLOROPHYTA) BASED ON NUCLEAR RDNA INTERNAL TRANSCRIBED SPACER SEQUENCES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BAKKER, FT; OLSEN, JL; STAM, WT

    Phylogeographic relationships were inferred from nuclear rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences among ten biogeographic isolates of the cosmopolitan green alga Cladophora vagabunda from the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans as well as the Red Sea and SW Australia. Representatives of the closely

  7. SEAMLESS TECHNOLOGY ON CIRCULAR KNITTING MACHINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRETU Viorica

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available With industrial progress, the advancements in garment manufacturing have evolved from cut & sew to complete garment knitting, which produces one entire garment without sewing or linking process. Seamless knitting technology is similar to sock manufacture, the specialized circular knitting machines producing 3 dimensional garments with no side seams, with the waistband integrated with body of the garment and with knitted washing instructions and logos. The paper starts by presenting the main advantages of seamless garments but also some limitations because the technology. Because for a seamless garment, which is realized as a knitted tub, is very important to ensure the required final chest size, it was presented the main components involved: the knitting machine, the garment design and the yarns used. The knitting machines, beside the values of diameters and gauges with a great impact on the chest size, are characterized by a very innovative and complex construction. The design of a seamless garment is fundamental different compared to garments produced on a traditional way because the designer must to work backwards from a finished garment to create the knitting programme that will ultimately give the correct finished size. On the end of the paper it was presented some of the applications of the seamless products that cover intimate apparel and other bodywear, outwear, activewear and functional sportswear, upholstery, industrial, automotive and medical textiles.

  8. Circular SAR Optimization Imaging Method of Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Jian-feng

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Circular Synthetic Aperture Radar (CSAR can obtain the entire scattering properties of targets because of its great ability of 360° observation. In this study, an optimal orientation of the CSAR imaging algorithm of buildings is proposed by applying a combination of coherent and incoherent processing techniques. FEKO software is used to construct the electromagnetic scattering modes and simulate the radar echo. The FEKO imaging results are compared with the isotropic scattering results. On comparison, the optimal azimuth coherent accumulation angle of CSAR imaging of buildings is obtained. Practically, the scattering directions of buildings are unknown; therefore, we divide the 360° echo of CSAR into many overlapped and few angle echoes corresponding to the sub-aperture and then perform an imaging procedure on each sub-aperture. Sub-aperture imaging results are applied to obtain the all-around image using incoherent fusion techniques. The polarimetry decomposition method is used to decompose the all-around image and further retrieve the edge information of buildings successfully. The proposed method is validated with P-band airborne CSAR data from Sichuan, China.

  9. Administrative Circular No. 14 (Rev. 2)

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    The HR Department wishes to draw the attention of members of the personnel to a number of amendments to Administrative Circular No. 14 (Rev. 2) entitled "Protection of members of the personnel against the financial consequences of illness, accident and disability" which came into force on 1st July 2006 (cf. Weekly Bulletin of 14 and 21 August 2006). Occupational Accident Declaration Form (HS50) https://cern.ch/service-procedures/AdminMan/Forms/HS50E.doc •\tIt must be completed within 10 working days of the date on which the accident occurred (§ 29.2.1), unless the person concerned is materially unable to meet this deadline. • The completed formula must be accompanied by a medical certificate giving details of any bodily injuries resulting from the accident (Annex 1, § 5). The medical certificate must be obtained from the doctor who has been consulted for that purpose. Benefits resulting from illnesses and accidents Medical treatment will cease to be reimbursed under ...

  10. Circular dichroism of green bacterial chlorosomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brune, D.C.; Olson, J.M. (Odense Univ. (Denmark)); Gerola, P.D. (Univ. della Calabria, Cosenza (Italy))

    1990-01-01

    Positive and negative bands in previously measured circular dichroism (CD) spectra of Chlorobium limicola chlorosomes appeared to be sign-reversed relative to those of Chloroflexus aurantiacus chlorosomes in the 740-750 nm spectral region where bacteriochlorophyll (BChl) c absorbs maximally. It was not clear, however, whether this difference was intrinsic to the chlorosomes or was due to differences in the procedures used to prepare them. The authors therefore repeated the CD measurements using chlorosomes isolated from both Cb. limicola f. thiosulfatophilum and Cf. aurantiacus using the method of Gerola and Olson. Contrary to the earlier results, both types of chlorosomes had very similar CD spectra, suggesting that both have similar arrangements of BChl c molecules. The previously reported difference between the CD spectra of Chlorobium and Chloroflexus chlorosomes is due to the instability of Chlorobium chlorosomes, which can undergo a hypsochromic shift in the near infrared absorption maximum accompanied by an apparent inversion in their near infrared CD spectrum during isolation. Treating isolated chlorosomes with the strong ionic detergent sodium dodecylsulfate, which removes BChl a, does not alter the arrangement of BChl c molecules in either Chloroflexus or Chlorobium chlorosomes, as indicated by the lack of an effect on their CD spectra.

  11. On Introducing Asymmetry into Circular Distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dale Umbach

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";} We give a brief history of the results which led to the introduction of asymmetry into symmetric circular distributions. This is followed by the presentation of another method of introducing asymmetry. Some properties of the induced distributions are studied. Finally, this new distribution is shown to be a reasonable fit to the Jander ant data as presented in Fisher (1993.

  12. Challenges for highest energy circular colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Benedikt, M; Wenninger, J; Zimmermann, F

    2014-01-01

    A new tunnel of 80–100 km circumference could host a 100 TeV centre-of-mass energy-frontier proton collider (FCC-hh/VHE-LHC), with a circular lepton collider (FCCee/TLEP) as potential intermediate step, and a leptonhadron collider (FCC-he) as additional option. FCC-ee, operating at four different energies for precision physics of the Z, W, and Higgs boson and the top quark, represents a significant push in terms of technology and design parameters. Pertinent R&D efforts include the RF system, topup injection scheme, optics design for arcs and final focus, effects of beamstrahlung, beam polarization, energy calibration, and power consumption. FCC-hh faces other challenges, such as high-field magnet design, machine protection and effective handling of large synchrotron radiation power in a superconducting machine. All these issues are being addressed by a global FCC collaboration. A parallel design study in China prepares for a similar, but smaller collider, called CepC/SppC.

  13. On Stellar Flash Echoes from Circular Rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemiroff, Robert; Mukherjee, Oindabi

    2018-01-01

    A flash -- or any episode of variability -- that occurs in the vicinity of a circular ring might be seen several times later, simultaneously, as echoes on the ring. Effective images of the flash are created and annihilated in pairs, with as many as four flash images visible concurrently. Videos detailing sequences of image pair creation, tandem motion, and subsequent image annihilation are shown, given simple opacity and scattering assumptions. It is proven that, surprisingly, images from a second pair creation event always annihilate with images from the first. Caustic surfaces between flash locations yielding two and four images are computed. Although such ring echos surely occur, their practical detection might be difficult as it could require dedicated observing programs involving sensitive photometry of extended objects. Potential flash sources include planetary and interstellar gas and dust rings near and around variable stars, flare stars, novae, supernovae, and GRBs. Potentially recoverable information includes size, distance, temporal history, and angular isotropy of both the ring and flash.

  14. Status of the Future Circular Collider Study

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2108454; Zimmermann, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Following the 2013 update of the European Strategy for Particle Physics, the international Future Circular Collider (FCC) Study has been launched by CERN as host institute. Its main purpose and long-term goal is to design an energyfrontier hadron collider (FCC-hh) with a centre-of-mass energy of about 100 TeV in a new 80–100 km tunnel. The FCC study also includes the design of a 90–350 GeV highluminosity lepton collider (FCC-ee) installed in the same tunnel, serving as Higgs, top and Z factory, as a potential intermediate step, as well as an electron-proton collider option (FCC-he). The physics cases for such machines are being assessed and concepts for experiments will be developed by the end of 2018, in time for the next update of the European Strategy for Particle Physics. This overview summarizes the status of machine designs and parameters, and it discusses the essential technical components being developed in the frame of the FCC study. Key elements are superconducting accelerator-dipole magnets wit...

  15. Healing of small circular model wounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochet, Olivier; Marcq, Philippe; Ranft, Jonas; Reffay, Myriam; Buguin, Axel; Silberzan, Pascal

    2012-02-01

    We develop a new method to produce numerous circular wounds in an epithelial tissue of MDCK cells in a non-traumatic fashion. The reproducibility of the wounds allows for a quantitative study of the dynamics of healing and for a better understanding of the key processes involved in those collective morphogenetic movements. First, we show different mechanisms of closing depending on the initial size of the wound. We then focus on the healing of the smallest wounds from an experimental and theoretical point of view. At the onset of closure, an actomyosin ring is formed around the wound and small protrusions appear and invade the free surface. Using inhibition and laser ablation experiments, we show the relative contribution of both processes to the dynamics of closing. Finally, we develop a theoretical model of the tissue as a whole, combined with the observed forces, in order to better understand the underlying mechanics of this process. We hope that this qualitative and quantitative description will prove useful in the future for the study of epithelial architecture, collective mechanisms in migrating tissues and, on a broader context, cellular invasion in cancerous tissues.

  16. Preventing Complications from High-Dose Rate Brachytherapy when Treating Mobile Tongue Cancer via the Application of a Modular Lead-Lined Spacer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shumei Murakami

    Full Text Available To point out the advantages and drawbacks of high-dose rate brachytherapy in the treatment of mobile tongue cancer and indicate the clinical importance of modular lead-lined spacers when applying this technique to patients.First, all basic steps to construct the modular spacer are shown. Second, we simulate and evaluate the dose rate reduction for a wide range of spacer configurations.With increasing distance to the source absorbed doses dropped considerably. Significantly more shielding was obtained when lead was added to the spacer and this effect was most pronounced on shorter (i.e. more clinically relevant distances to the source.The modular spacer represents an important addition to the planning and treatment stages of mobile tongue cancer using HDR-ISBT.

  17. The Baltics on Their Way towards a Circular Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigoryan A. A.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Circular economy has been studied extensively both in Europe and worldwide. It is largely viewed as a potential strategy for societal development, aimed to increase prosperity while reducing dependence on raw materials and energy. Many businesses regard circular economy as a way to enhance economic growth and increase profits. Governments across the world actively engage in the discussion about the benefits of a transition to a circular economy and about its impact on employment, economic growth, and the environment. This paper aims to study the major issues of circular economy, to identify its advantages, and to offer an insight into the transition stage the Baltic States are undergoing today on their way to circular economy. It is stressed that the Baltic countries are not fully using the opportunities offered by a circular economy. For example, Latvia’s, Lithuania’s, and Estonia’s recycling rates are significantly below those of other European countries. The Baltics depend heavily on EU financial support. An increase in funding will contribute to the implementation of circular economy technologies.

  18. Experimental and numerical characterization of the water flow in spacer-filled channels of spiral-wound membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Bucs, Szilard

    2015-09-25

    Micro-scale flow distribution in spacer-filled flow channels of spiral-wound membrane modules was determined with a particle image velocimetry system (PIV), aiming to elucidate the flow behaviour in spacer-filled flow channels. Two-dimensional water velocity fields were measured in a flow cell (representing the feed spacer-filled flow channel of a spiral wound reverse osmosis membrane module without permeate production) at several planes throughout the channel height. At linear flow velocities (volumetric flow rate per cross-section of the flow channel considering the channel porosity, also described as crossflow velocities) used in practice (0.074 and 0.163 m∙s-1) the recorded flow was laminar with only slight unsteadiness in the upper velocity limit. At higher linear flow velocity (0.3 m∙s-1) the flow was observed to be unsteady and with recirculation zones. Measurements made at different locations in the flow cell exhibited very similar flow patterns within all feed spacer mesh elements, thus revealing the same hydrodynamic conditions along the length of the flow channel. Three-dimensional (3-D) computational fluid dynamics simulations were performed using the same geometries and flow parameters as the experiments, based on steady laminar flow assumption. The numerical results were in good agreement (0.85-0.95 Bray-Curtis similarity) with the measured flow fields at linear velocities of 0.074 and 0.163 m∙s-1, thus supporting the use of model-based studies in the optimization of feed spacer geometries and operational conditions of spiral wound membrane systems.

  19. The effect of polyethylene glycol spacer chain length on the tumor-targeting potential of folate-modified PPI dendrimers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thakur, Shrikant [Dr. Hari Singh Gour University, Pharmaceutics Research Laboratory, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences (India); Tekade, Rakesh K., E-mail: rakeshtekade@yahoo.com [University of Hawai' i at Hilo, College of Pharmacy (United States); Kesharwani, Prashant, E-mail: prashant_pharmacy04@rediffmail.com; Jain, Narendra K., E-mail: jnarendr@yahoo.co.in [Dr. Hari Singh Gour University, Pharmaceutics Research Laboratory, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences (India)

    2013-05-15

    The objective of the present investigation was to assess the tumor-targeting potential of ligand-spacer-engineered poly (propylene imine) (PPI) dendrimers as nanoscale drug delivery units for site-specific delivery of a model anticancer agent, docetaxel (DTX). PPI dendrimers were engineered by direct and indirect conjugation of folic acid (FA) via different types of polyethylene glycols (PEGs) [Mw (molecular weight): 1,000, 4,000, 6,000, 7,500] as spacers. The synthesized nanoconjugates (PPIFA, PPIP1FA, PPIP4FA, PPIP6FA, and PPIP7.5FA) were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance ({sup 1}H-NMR) and transmission electron microscopic (TEM) studies. Nanoconjugates were evaluated for entrapment, in vitro drug release (under various pH conditions) and hemolytic studies. Cell uptake and cytotoxicity studies were performed on human malignant cell lines (MCF-7) using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide [MTT] assay. This debut study explored the effect of PEG spacer length on the targeting potential of folate-conjugated 5.0 G PPI dendrimer. DTX entrapment and in vitro drug release from nanoconjugates augmented, and hemolytic toxicity of nanoconjugates slashed with the molecular weight of PEGs. Further, nanoconjugates with PEG 4000 displayed highest tumor-targeting potential as compared to other spacer conjugated nanoconjugates due to optimized steric hindrance and receptor mediated endocytosis among other PEGs. This work is expected to shed new light on the role of spacer chain length in targeting potential of folate-anchored dendrimer.Graphical Abstract.

  20. Anisotropic elliptical dichroism and influence of imperfection of circular polarization upon anisotropic circular dichroism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakabayashi, Masamitsu [Department of Biomolecular Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 226-8501 (Japan); RIKEN, Research Cluster for Innovation, Nakamura Lab, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Yokojima, Satoshi, E-mail: yokojima@toyaku.ac.jp [Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, 1432-1 Horinouchi, Hachiouji-shi, Tokyo 192-0392 (Japan); RIKEN, Research Cluster for Innovation, Nakamura Lab, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Fukaminato, Tuyoshi [Research Institute for Electronic Science, Hokkaido University, N20, W10, Kita-ku, Sapporo 001-0020 (Japan); PRESTO, Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), Sanbancho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-0075 (Japan); Ohtani, Hiroyuki [Department of Biomolecular Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 226-8501 (Japan); Nakamura, Shinichiro, E-mail: snakamura@riken.jp [RIKEN, Research Cluster for Innovation, Nakamura Lab, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)

    2015-04-21

    In spite of the importance of anisotropic circular dichroism, in practice, it is difficult to get rid of the artifacts that arise from the imperfection of the circular polarization. Undesirable linear dichroism, interference of two orthogonal polarization states, and linear birefringence prevent us from making accurate measurements. We propose a theoretical method for evaluating the contributions of the first two, which are thought to be the main artifacts when specimens are not thick enough. Using the time-dependent perturbation theory and taking into account the direction of light propagation toward an orientationally fixed molecule, we formulated the transition probability of systems perturbed by arbitrarily polarized light and the absorption difference associated with two kinds of polarized light. We also formulated, as an extension of the dissymmetry factor of circular dichroism, a newly defined dissymmetry factor associated with two arbitrary polarization states. Furthermore, we considered a mixed-state of photon ensemble in which polarization states distribute at a certain width around a certain average. Although the purity of polarization and ellipticity does not correspond immediately, by considering the mixed state it is possible to treat them consistently. We used quantum statistical mechanics to describe the absorption difference for two kinds of photon ensembles and applied the consequent formula to examine the reported experimental results of single-molecule chiroptical responses under discussion in the recent past. The artifacts are theoretically suggested to be sensitive to the incident direction of elliptically polarized light and to the oriented systems, the ellipticity, and the orientation of ellipse. The mixed state has little, if any, effect when the polarization state distribution is narrow.

  1. Anisotropic elliptical dichroism and influence of imperfection of circular polarization upon anisotropic circular dichroism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakabayashi, Masamitsu; Yokojima, Satoshi; Fukaminato, Tuyoshi; Ohtani, Hiroyuki; Nakamura, Shinichiro

    2015-04-21

    In spite of the importance of anisotropic circular dichroism, in practice, it is difficult to get rid of the artifacts that arise from the imperfection of the circular polarization. Undesirable linear dichroism, interference of two orthogonal polarization states, and linear birefringence prevent us from making accurate measurements. We propose a theoretical method for evaluating the contributions of the first two, which are thought to be the main artifacts when specimens are not thick enough. Using the time-dependent perturbation theory and taking into account the direction of light propagation toward an orientationally fixed molecule, we formulated the transition probability of systems perturbed by arbitrarily polarized light and the absorption difference associated with two kinds of polarized light. We also formulated, as an extension of the dissymmetry factor of circular dichroism, a newly defined dissymmetry factor associated with two arbitrary polarization states. Furthermore, we considered a mixed-state of photon ensemble in which polarization states distribute at a certain width around a certain average. Although the purity of polarization and ellipticity does not correspond immediately, by considering the mixed state it is possible to treat them consistently. We used quantum statistical mechanics to describe the absorption difference for two kinds of photon ensembles and applied the consequent formula to examine the reported experimental results of single-molecule chiroptical responses under discussion in the recent past. The artifacts are theoretically suggested to be sensitive to the incident direction of elliptically polarized light and to the oriented systems, the ellipticity, and the orientation of ellipse. The mixed state has little, if any, effect when the polarization state distribution is narrow.

  2. Anisotropic elliptical dichroism and influence of imperfection of circular polarization upon anisotropic circular dichroism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakabayashi, Masamitsu; Yokojima, Satoshi; Fukaminato, Tuyoshi; Ohtani, Hiroyuki; Nakamura, Shinichiro

    2015-04-01

    In spite of the importance of anisotropic circular dichroism, in practice, it is difficult to get rid of the artifacts that arise from the imperfection of the circular polarization. Undesirable linear dichroism, interference of two orthogonal polarization states, and linear birefringence prevent us from making accurate measurements. We propose a theoretical method for evaluating the contributions of the first two, which are thought to be the main artifacts when specimens are not thick enough. Using the time-dependent perturbation theory and taking into account the direction of light propagation toward an orientationally fixed molecule, we formulated the transition probability of systems perturbed by arbitrarily polarized light and the absorption difference associated with two kinds of polarized light. We also formulated, as an extension of the dissymmetry factor of circular dichroism, a newly defined dissymmetry factor associated with two arbitrary polarization states. Furthermore, we considered a mixed-state of photon ensemble in which polarization states distribute at a certain width around a certain average. Although the purity of polarization and ellipticity does not correspond immediately, by considering the mixed state it is possible to treat them consistently. We used quantum statistical mechanics to describe the absorption difference for two kinds of photon ensembles and applied the consequent formula to examine the reported experimental results of single-molecule chiroptical responses under discussion in the recent past. The artifacts are theoretically suggested to be sensitive to the incident direction of elliptically polarized light and to the oriented systems, the ellipticity, and the orientation of ellipse. The mixed state has little, if any, effect when the polarization state distribution is narrow.

  3. Administrative Circular No. 26 (Rev. 7) – May 2007

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    Recognition of Merit of Staff Members Administrative Circular No. 26 (Rev. 7) is now available on the intranet site of the Human Resources Department. This circular cancels and replaces Administrative Circular No. 26 (Rev. 6) - Procedures governing the career development of staff members. Copies will shortly be available in Departmental secretariats. If you require any additional information on the new staff-member merit assessment and recognition system, you may consult the FAQ, which has been available on the Human Resources Department intranet site since February 2007. Human Resources Department Tel. 78003

  4. Combinatorics of Tandem Duplication Random Loss Mutations on Circular Genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Tom; Chu, An-Chiang; Middendorf, Martin; Bernt, Matthias

    2016-09-26

    The tandem duplication random loss operation (TDRL) is an important genome rearrangement operation in metazoan mitochondrial genomes. A TDRL consists of a duplication of a contiguous set of genes in tandem followed by a random loss of one copy of each duplicated gene. This paper presents an analysis of the combinatorics of TDRLs on circular genomes, e.g., the mitochondrial genome. In particular, results on TDRLs for circular genomes and their linear representatives are established. Moreover, the distance between gene orders with respect to linear TDRLs and circular TDRLs is studied. An analysis of the available animal mitochondrial gene orders shows the practical relevance of the theoretical results.

  5. How can design science contribute to a circular economy?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pigosso, Daniela Cristina Antelmi; McAloone, Tim C.

    2017-01-01

    Circular Economy is increasingly seen as a key approach to operationalising goals and supporting the transition to a sustainable society by enhancing competitiveness and economic growth. Creating a Circular Economy requires fundamental changes throughout the value chain, from innovation, product...... design and production processes all the way to end of life, new business models and consumption patterns. This paper explores how design science can support the transition from the traditional linear 'take-make-consume-dispose' approach, to a Circular Economy. By means of a systematic literature review...

  6. Administrative Circular No. 26 (Rev. 9) – Recognition of Merit

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    Administrative Circular No. 26 (Rev. 9) entitled "Recognition of Merit”, approved by the Director-General following discussion in the Standing Concertation Committee meeting on 27 September 2011 is available on the intranet site of the Human Resources Department: https://cern.ch/hr-docs/admincirc/admincirc.asp The circular was above all revised in order to integrate the new CERN Competency Model into the annual procedure of performance appraisal. It cancels and replaces Administrative Circular No. 26 (Rev. 8) entitled "Recognition of merit” of September 2008. Department Head Office HR Department

  7. Unfolding Challenges of Business Model Innovation towards Circular Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvass, Kerli Kant

    2017-01-01

    extensive attention (EMF 2012; 2013), even though the concept is not a new and traces back several decades to Stahel & Reday’s (1976) work on the ecology behind product life extensions and their sketched vision for “an economy of loops” or “circular economy.“ Addressing circular economy is an emerging field...... of a product take-back system and closed loop recycling into an existing business model. The study shows that closed loop fashion is a complex matter with several uncertainties and difficulties that span across the entire value chain. Moving towards a circular textile system implies wider systemic change...

  8. Reverse logistics for postal services within a circular economy

    OpenAIRE

    Esposito, M; Tse, T.; Soufani, Khaled

    2017-01-01

    A circular economy will need a society-level recovery system that takes all parts into account. One of the most serious challenges of operating a circular economy is reverse logistics, a major component of how the circular economy functions. The question of how to manage the recovery of waste-which might include such disparate items as working mobile phones, package waste, and inkjet cartridges-from billions of homes and consumers and get them back into the global materials pool so that the r...

  9. Circular mucosal anopexy: Experience and technical considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo Grau, Luis Antonio; Ruiz Edo, Neus; Llorca Cardeñosa, Sara; Heredia Budó, Adolfo; Estrada Ferrer, Óscar; Del Bas Rubia, Marta; García Torralbo, Eva María; Suñol Sala, Xavier

    2016-05-01

    Circular mucosal anopexy (CMA) achieves a more comfortable postoperative period than resective techniques. But complications and recurrences are not infrequent. This study aims to evaluate of the efficacy of CMA in the treatment of hemorrhoids and rectal mucosal prolapse (RMP). From 1999 to 2011, 613 patients underwent surgery for either hemorrhoids or RMP in our hospital. CMA was performed in 327 patients. Gender distribution was 196 male and 131 female. Hemorrhoidal grades were distributed as follows: 28 patients had RMP, 46 2nd grade, 146 3rd grade and 107 4th grade. Major ambulatory surgery (MAS) was performed in 79.9%. Recurrence of hemorrhoids was studied and groups of recurrence and no-recurrence were compared. Postoperative pain was evaluated by Visual Analogical Scale (VAS) as well as early complications. A total of 31 patients needed reoperation (5 RMP, 2 with 2nd grade, 17 with 3rd grade,/with 4th grade). No statistically significant differences were found between the non-recurrent group and the recurrent group with regards to gender, surgical time or hemorrhoidal grade, but there were differences related to age. In the VAS, 81.3% of patients expressed a postoperative pain ≤ 2 at the first week. Five patients needed reoperation for early postoperative bleeding. Six patients needed admission for postoperative pain. Recurrence rate is higher in CMA than in resective techniques. CMA is a useful technique for the treatment of hemorrhoids in MAS. Pain and the rate of complications are both low. Copyright © 2016 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Status of the Future Circular Collider Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedikt, Michael

    2016-03-01

    Following the 2013 update of the European Strategy for Particle Physics, the international Future Circular Collider (FCC) Study has been launched by CERN as host institute, to design an energy frontier hadron collider (FCC-hh) in a new 80-100 km tunnel with a centre-of-mass energy of about 100 TeV, an order of magnitude beyond the LHC's, as a long-term goal. The FCC study also includes the design of a 90-350 GeV high-luminosity lepton collider (FCC-ee) installed in the same tunnel, serving as Higgs, top and Z factory, as a potential intermediate step, as well as an electron-proton collider option (FCC-he). The physics cases for such machines will be assessed and concepts for experiments will be developed in time for the next update of the European Strategy for Particle Physics by the end of 2018. The presentation will summarize the status of machine designs and parameters and discuss the essential technical components to be developed in the frame of the FCC study. Key elements are superconducting accelerator-dipole magnets with a field of 16 T for the hadron collider and high-power, high-efficiency RF systems for the lepton collider. In addition the unprecedented beam power presents special challenges for the hadron collider for all aspects of beam handling and machine protection. First conclusions of geological investigations and implementation studies will be presented. The status of the FCC collaboration and the further planning for the study will be outlined.

  11. Circular RNAs and systemic lupus erythematosus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Lian-Ju; Huang, Qing; Pan, Hai-Feng; Ye, Dong-Qing, E-mail: ydqahmu@gmail.com

    2016-08-15

    Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are a large class of noncoding RNAs that form covalently closed RNA circles. The discovery of circRNAs discloses a new layer of gene regulation occurred post-transcriptionally. Identification of endogenous circRNAs benefits from the advance in high-throughput RNA sequencing and remains challenging. Many studies probing into the mechanisms of circRNAs formation occurred cotranscriptionally or posttranscriptionally emerge and conclude that canonical splicing mechanism, sequence properties, and certain regulatory factors are at play in the process. Although our knowledge on functions of circRNAs is rather limited, a few circRNAs are shown to sponge miRNA and regulate gene transcription. The clearest case is one circRNA CDR1as that serves as sponge of miR-7. Researches on circRNAs in human diseases such as cancers highlight the function and physical relevance of circRNAs. Given the implication of miRNAs in the initiation and progression of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and the roles of circRNAs in sponging miRNA and gene regulation, it is appealing to speculate that circRNAs may associate with SLE and may be potential therapeutic targets for treatment of SLE. Future studies should attach more importance to the relationship between circRNAs and SLE. This review will concern identification, biogenesis, and function of circRNAs, introduce reports exploring the association of circRNAs with human diseases, and conjecture the potential roles of circRNAs in SLE. - Highlights: • Studies have discovered thousands of circRNAs and interpreted their biogenesis. • Cytoplasmic circRNAs sponge miRNA and nuclear circRNAs modulate gene transcription. • Aberrant expression of circRNAs has been observed in various cancers. • CircRNAs may partake in the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus.

  12. Intensity Modulated Proton and Photon Therapy for Early Prostate Cancer With or Without Transperineal Injection of a Polyethylen Glycol Spacer: A Treatment Planning Comparison Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Damien C., E-mail: damien.weber@unige.ch [Department of Radiation Oncology, Geneva University Hospital, Geneva (Switzerland); Zilli, Thomas [Department of Radiation Oncology, Geneva University Hospital, Geneva (Switzerland); Vallee, Jean Paul [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Geneva University Hospital, Geneva (Switzerland); Rouzaud, Michel; Miralbell, Raymond [Department of Radiation Oncology, Geneva University Hospital, Geneva (Switzerland); Cozzi, Luca [Oncology Institute of Southern Switzerland, Medical Physics Unit, Bellinzona (Switzerland)

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: Rectal toxicity is a serious adverse effect in early-stage prostate cancer patients treated with curative radiation therapy (RT). Injecting a spacer between Denonvilliers' fascia increases the distance between the prostate and the anterior rectal wall and may thus decrease the rectal radiation-induced toxicity. We assessed the dosimetric impact of this spacer with advanced delivery RT techniques, including intensity modulated RT (IMRT), volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT), and intensity modulated proton beam RT (IMPT). Methods and Materials: Eight prostate cancer patients were simulated for RT with or without spacer. Plans were computed for IMRT, VMAT, and IMPT using the Eclipse treatment planning system using both computed tomography spacer+ and spacer- data sets. Prostate {+-} seminal vesicle planning target volume [PTV] and organs at risk (OARs) dose-volume histograms were calculated. The results were analyzed using dose and volume metrics for comparative planning. Results: Regardless of the radiation technique, spacer injection decreased significantly the rectal dose in the 60- to 70-Gy range. Mean V{sub 70Gy} and V{sub 60Gy} with IMRT, VMAT, and IMPT planning were 5.3 {+-} 3.3%/13.9 {+-} 10.0%, 3.9 {+-} 3.2%/9.7 {+-} 5.7%, and 5.0 {+-} 3.5%/9.5 {+-} 4.7% after spacer injection. Before spacer administration, the corresponding values were 9.8 {+-} 5.4% (P=.012)/24.8 {+-} 7.8% (P=.012), 10.1 {+-} 3.0% (P=.002)/17.9 {+-} 3.9% (P=.003), and 9.7 {+-} 2.6% (P=.003)/14.7% {+-} 2.7% (P=.003). Importantly, spacer injection usually improved the PTV coverage for IMRT. With this technique, mean V{sub 70.2Gy} (P=.07) and V{sub 74.1Gy} (P=0.03) were 100 {+-} 0% to 99.8 {+-} 0.2% and 99.1 {+-} 1.2% to 95.8 {+-} 4.6% with and without Spacer, respectively. As a result of spacer injection, bladder doses were usually higher but not significantly so. Only IMPT managed to decrease the rectal dose after spacer injection for all dose levels, generally with no

  13. Ligand Induced Circular Dichroism and Circularly Polarized Luminescence in CdSe Quantum Dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohgha, Urice; Deol, Kirandeep K.; Porter, Ashlin G.; Bartko, Samuel G.; Choi, Jung Kyu; Leonard, Brian M.; Varga, Krisztina; Kubelka, Jan; Muller, Gilles; Balaz, Milan

    2014-01-01

    Chiral thiol capping ligands L- and D-cysteines induced modular chiroptical properties in achiral cadmium selenide quantum dots (CdSe QDs). Cys-CdSe prepared from achiral oleic acid capped CdSe by post-synthetic ligand exchange displayed size-dependent electronic circular dichroism (CD) and circularly polarized luminescence (CPL). Opposite CPL signals were measured for the CdSe QDs capped with D- and L-cysteine. The CD profile and CD anisotropy varied with size of CdSe nanocrystals with largest anisotropy observed for CdSe nanoparticles of 4.4 nm. Magic angle spinning solid state NMR (MAS ssNMR) experiments suggested bidentate interaction between cysteine and the surface of CdSe. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations verified that attachment of L- and D-cysteine to the surface of model (CdSe)13 nanoclusters induces measurable opposite CD signals for the exitonic band of the nanocluster. The chirality was induced by the hybridization of highest occupied CdSe molecular orbitals with those of the chiral ligand. PMID:24200288

  14. Vibration of circular plate with multiple eccentric circular perforations by the Rayleigh-Ritz method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saeedi, Khodabakhsh; Bhat, Rama B.; Stiharu, Ion [Concordia University, Montreal (Canada); Leo, Alfin [2Parker Filtration Canada, Laval (Canada)

    2012-05-15

    The free vibration of a circular plate with multiple perforations is analyzed by using the Rayleigh-Ritz method. Admissible functions are assumed to be separable functions of radial and tangential coordinates. Trigonometric functions are assumed in the circumferential direction. The radial shape functions are the boundary characteristic orthogonal polynomials generated following the Gram-Schmidt recurrence scheme. The assumed functions are used to estimate the kinetic and the potential energies of the plate depending on the number and the position of the perforations. The eigenvalues, representing the dimensionless natural frequencies, are compared with the results obtained using Bessel functions, where the exact solution is available. Moreover, the eigenvectors, which are the unknown coefficients of the Rayleigh-Ritz method, are used to present the mode shapes of the plate. To validate the analytical results of the plates with multiple perforations, experimental investigations are also performed. Two unique case studies that are not addressed in the existing literature are considered. The results of the Rayleigh-Ritz method are found to be in good agreement with those from the experiments. Although the method presented can be employed in the vibration analysis of plates with different boundary conditions and shapes of the perforations, circular perforations that are free on the edges are studied in this paper. The results are presented in terms of dimensionless frequencies and mode shapes.

  15. Light Emitting Diode (LED) circular traffic signal lifetime management system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    The objective of this research is to build lifetime curves for red, yellow, and green LED circular traffic signals through 20,000-hr. accelerated stress testing of samples operating under Louisianas environmental conditions.

  16. Index of Circular Agriculture Development in the Republic of Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trendov Nikola M.

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In the Republic of Macedonia, the circular economy would boost country’s agri-food sector competitiveness and help create new business and market opportunities for the farmers and processing industry. Public benefits that could accrue from the bio-economy perspective has become compelling. Nevertheless, the question arises: “At what level are we? Does the country go toward the development of the circular agriculture or not?” By using conceptual model of BPEIR (Behaviour - Pressure - Effect - Impact - Response and Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP method, the author introduces a comprehensive analysis and quantitative evaluation of the level of Macedonian circular agriculture development. This paper discusses the fact that the Republic of Macedonia shows positive trends regarding circular economy disciplines in agriculture, given by natural geographic conditions and traditional agricultural production.

  17. Office of Management and Budget Circular A-133 Reminder Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letters are sent to EPA recipients to remind them to obtain and submit an annual audit report in accordance with the Single Audit Act Amendments of 1996, Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Circular A-133.

  18. A Circular Statistical Method for Extracting Rotation Measures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    . IPA from data. This procedure is based on maximum likelihood for distributions defined to be invariant under angular coordinate changes. The von Mises (vM) dis- tribution serves as a prototype for the statistical fluctuations for circular data.

  19. Shear strength of reinforced concrete circular cross-section beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. W. G. N. Teixeira

    Full Text Available A proposed adequation of NBR 6118, Item 7.4, related to shear strength of reinforced concrete beams is presented with aims to application on circular cross-section. The actual expressions are most suitable to rectangular cross-section and some misleading occurs when applied to circular sections at determination of VRd2, Vc and Vsw, as consequence of bw (beam width and d (effective depth definitions as well as the real effectiveness of circular stirrups. The proposed adequation is based on extensive bibliographic review and practical experience with a great number of infrastructure elements, such as anchored retaining pile walls, where the use of circular reinforced concrete members is frequent.

  20. Monotonic Loading of Circular Surface Footings on Clay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Lars Bo; Barari, Amin

    2011-01-01

    Appropriate modeling of offshore foundations under monotonic loading is a significant challenge in geotechnical engineering. This paper reports experimental and numerical analyses, specifically investigating the response of circular surface footings during monotonic loading and elastoplastic beha...

  1. Broadband circularly polarizing dichroism with high efficient plasmonic helical surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jingpei; Zhao, Xiaonan; Li, Ruibin; Zhu, Aijiao; Chen, Linghua; Lin, Yu; Cao, Bing; Zhu, Xiaojun; Wang, Chinhua

    2016-05-16

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a broadband and high efficient circularly polarizing dichroism using a simple single-cycle and single-helical plasmonic surface array arranged in square lattice. Two types of helical surface structures (partially or completely covered with a gold film) are investigated. It is shown that the circular polarization dichroism in the mid-IR range (3µm - 5µm) can reach 80% (when the surface is partially covered with gold) or 65% (when the surface is completely covered with gold) with a single-cycle and single-helical surface. Experimental fabrications of the proposed helical plasmonic surface are implemented with direct 3D laser writing followed by electron beam evaporation deposition of gold. The experimental evaluations of the circular polarization dichroism are in excellent agreement with the simulation. The proposed helical surface structure is of advantages of easy-fabrication, high-dichroism and scalable to other frequencies as a high efficient broadband circular polarizer.

  2. Transmit TACAN Bearing Information with a Circular Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Mark Dorsey

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Using TACAN and array fundamentals, we derive an architecture for transmitting TACAN bearing information from a circular array with time-varying weights. We evaluate performance for a simulated example array of Vivaldi elements.

  3. Against wasted politics: A critique of the circular economy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Francisco Valenzuela; Steffen Böhm

    2017-01-01

      The discourse of zero-waste and the circular economy has been championed by key players, such as the European Commission, management consultancies, NGOs, academics and multinational companies, in recent years...

  4. The European Economy: From a Linear to a Circular Economy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Florin Bonciu

    2014-01-01

    .... Such concepts seem to address the effects and not the causes. In this paper we analyze a broader approach that places human activity into a long term historical perspective, namely the circular economy...

  5. Circular Economy and Decision Models among European SMEs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ana-Maria Zamfir; Cristina Mocanu; Adriana Grigorescu

    2017-01-01

    While targeting waste reduction and maintaining the value of products and resources in the system as much as possible, undertaking circular economy practices at the company level is a way of achieving...

  6. Primal-dual path-following algorithms for circular programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baha

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Circular programming problems are a new class of convex optimization problems that include second-order cone programming problems as a special case‎. ‎Alizadeh and Goldfarb [Math‎. ‎Program‎. ‎Ser‎. ‎A 95 (2003 3--51] introduced primal-dual path-following algorithms for solving second-order cone programming problems‎. ‎In this paper‎, ‎we generalize their work by using the machinery of Euclidean Jordan algebras associated with the circular cones to derive primal-dual path-following interior point algorithms for circular programming problems‎. ‎We prove polynomial convergence of the proposed algorithms by showing that the circular logarithmic barrier is a strongly self-concordant barrier‎. ‎The numerical examples show the path-following algorithms are simple and efficient‎.

  7. Optimum Element Distribution for Circular Adaptive Antenna Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ulrey, Jonathan A; Gupta, Inder J

    2005-01-01

    The performance of circular, planar adaptive antennas is studied. The individual antenna elements are biconical antennas and the weights are adapted using space-only processing or space-time adaptive processing...

  8. Administrative Circular No. 23 (Rev. 4) - Special working hours

    CERN Multimedia

    Department Head Office - HR Department

    2016-01-01

    Administrative Circular No. 23 (Rev. 4) entitled "Special working hours", approved by the Director-General following discussion in the Standing Concertation Committee meeting on 22 March 2016, will be available on 1st September 2016 via the following link: https://cds.cern.ch/record/2208539.   This revised circular cancels and replaces Administrative Circular No. 23 (Rev. 3) also entitled "Special working hours" of January 2013. This document contains modifications to reflect the new career structure and ensuring the provision consistent with practice that compensation or remuneration of special working hours performed remotely is possible only in case of emergency.   This circular will enter into force on 1st September 2016.

  9. Miniature magnetic bottle confined by circularly polarized laser light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolka, E.; Eliezer, S.; Paiss, Y. [Israel Atomic Energy Commission, Yavne (Israel). Soreq Nuclear Research Center

    1995-09-01

    A new concept of hot plasma confinement in a miniature magnetic bottle induced by circularly polarized laser light is suggested. Magnetic fields generated by circularly polarized laser light may be of the order of megagauss. In this configuration the circularly polarized laser light is used to obtain confinement of a plasma contained in a good conductor vessel. The poloidal magnetic field induced by the circularly polarized laser and the efficiency of laser absorption by the plasma are calculated. The confinement in this scheme is supported by the magnetic forces. The Lawson criterion for a DT plasma might be achieved for number density n = 5``centre dot`` 10{sup 21} cm{sup -3} and confinement time {tau} = 20 ns. The laser and plasma parameters required to obtain an energetic gain are calculated. (Author).

  10. Circular Economy and Decision Models among European SMEs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ana-Maria Zamfir; Cristina Mocanu; Adriana Grigorescu

    2017-01-01

    .... Decision tree models are applied on data from Flash Eurobarometer 441 in order to uncover business strategies in relation to the implementation of circular economy practices at the company level...

  11. SIMULTANEOUS MEASUREMENT OF CIRCULAR DICHROISM AND FLUORESCENCE POLARIZATION ANISOTROPY.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SUTHERLAND,J.C.

    2002-01-19

    Circular dichroism and fluorescence polarization anisotropy are important tools for characterizing biomolecular systems. Both are used extensively in kinetic experiments involving stopped- or continuous flow systems as well as titrations and steady-state spectroscopy. This paper presents the theory for determining circular dichroism and fluorescence polarization anisotropy simultaneously, thus insuring the two parameters are recorded under exactly the same conditions and at exactly the same time in kinetic experiments. The approach to measuring circular dichroism is that used in almost all conventional dichrographs. Two arrangements for measuring fluorescence polarization anisotropy are described. One uses a single fluorescence detector and signal processing with a lock-in amplifier that is similar to the measurement of circular dichroism. The second approach uses classic ''T'' format detection optics, and thus can be used with conventional photon-counting detection electronics. Simple extensions permit the simultaneous measurement of the absorption and excitation intensity corrected fluorescence intensity.

  12. Generation of OAM Radio Waves Using Circular Vivaldi Antenna Array

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Deng, Changjiang; Chen, Wenhua; Zhang, Zhijun; Li, Yue; Feng, Zhenghe

    2013-01-01

    .... Eight Vivaldi antenna elements connect sequentially and fold into a hollow cylinder. The circular Vivaldi antenna array is fed with unit amplitude but with a successive phase difference from element to element...

  13. Circular migration between Europe and its neighbourhood : choice or necessity

    OpenAIRE

    Triandafyllidou, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Concluding book chapter 10 available in Open Access. The term 'circular migration' has become a buzzword among European and international policy and academic circles in recent years. Many national and EU policy makers have heralded the idea of 'circular' migration with great enthusiasm as the solution to many of 'our' migration 'problems', supposedly addressing at once labour market shortages (by providing quickly and flexibly labour force on demand) and the migrant integration challenges ...

  14. A Review of the Circular Economy and its Implementation

    OpenAIRE

    Heshmati, Almas

    2015-01-01

    Circular economy (CE) is a sustainable development strategy that is being proposed to tackle urgent problems of environmental degradation and resource scarcity. CE's 3R principles are to reduce, reuse and recycle materials. The principles account for a circular system where all materials are recycled, all energy is derived from renewables; activities support and rebuild the ecosystem and support human health and a healthy society and resources are used to generate value. This study is a revie...

  15. Experimental circular quantum secret sharing over telecom fiber network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Ke-Jin; Ma, Hai-Qiang; Yang, Jian-Hui

    2013-07-15

    We present a robust single photon circular quantum secret sharing (QSS) scheme with phase encoding over 50 km single mode fiber network using a circular QSS protocol. Our scheme can automatically provide a perfect compensation of birefringence and remain stable for a long time. A high visibility of 99.3% is obtained. Furthermore, our scheme realizes a polarization insensitive phase modulators. The visibility of this system can be maintained perpetually without any adjustment to the system every time we test the system.

  16. Circular dichroism induced by Fano resonances in planar chiral oligomers

    CERN Document Server

    Hopkins, Ben; Miroshnichenko, Andrey E; Kivshar, Yuri S

    2016-01-01

    We present a general theory of circular dichroism induced in planar chiral nanostructures with rotational symmetry. It is demonstrated, analytically, that the handedness of the incident field's polarization can control whether a nanostructure induces either absorption or scattering losses, even when the total loss (extinction) is polarization-independent. We then show that this effect is a consequence of modal interference so that strong circular dichroism in absorption and scattering can be engineered by combining Fano resonances with chiral nanoparticle clusters.

  17. Transition towards Circular Economy in the Food System

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandra Jurgilevich; Traci Birge; Johanna Kentala-Lehtonen; Kaisa Korhonen-Kurki; Janna Pietikäinen; Laura Saikku; Hanna Schösler

    2016-01-01

    Growing population and increased demand for food, inefficient resource use and food distribution, environmental impacts, and high rates of food wasted at all stages of the food system are all calling for transition towards more sustainable practices. In this article we apply the concept of circular economy to the case of a sustainable food system. Furthermore, we explore the transition towards a circular food system through the lens of socio-technical transition theory towards sustainability....

  18. Circular Bioassay Platforms for Applications in Microwave-Accelerated Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Muzaffer; Clement, Travis C; Aslan, Kadir

    2014-12-02

    In this paper, we present the design of four different circular bioassay platforms, which are suitable for homogeneous microwave heating, using theoretical calculations (i.e., COMSOL™ multiphysics software). Circular bioassay platforms are constructed from poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) for optical transparency between 400-800 nm, has multiple sample capacity (12, 16, 19 and 21 wells) and modified with silver nanoparticle films (SNFs) to be used in microwave-accelerated bioassays (MABs). In addition, a small monomode microwave cavity, which can be operated with an external microwave generator (100 W), for use with the bioassay platforms in MABs is also developed. Our design parameters for the circular bioassay platforms and monomode microwave cavity during microwave heating were: (i) temperature profiles, (ii) electric field distributions, (iii) location of the circular bioassay platforms inside the microwave cavity, and (iv) design and number of wells on the circular bioassay platforms. We have also carried out additional simulations to assess the use of circular bioassay platforms in a conventional kitchen microwave oven (e.g., 900 W). Our results show that the location of the circular bioassay platforms in the microwave cavity was predicted to have a significant effect on the homogeneous heating of these platforms. The 21-well circular bioassay platform design in our monomode microwave cavity was predicted to offer a homogeneous heating pattern, where inter-well temperature was observed to be in between 23.72-24.13°C and intra-well temperature difference was less than 0.21°C for 60 seconds of microwave heating, which was also verified experimentally.

  19. Circularly-polarized plane waves in a deformed Hadamard material

    OpenAIRE

    Destrade, Michel; Hayes, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Small amplitude inhomogeneous plane waves propagating in any direction in a homogeneously deformed Hadamard material are considered. Conditions for circular polarization are established. The analysis relies on the use of complex vectors (or bivectors) to describe the slowness and the polarization of the waves. Generally, homogeneous circularly-polarized plane waves may propagate in only two directions, the directions of the acoustic axes, in a homogeneously deformed Hadamard material. For inh...

  20. Modeling Electronic Circular Dichroism within the Polarizable Embedding Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørby, Morten S; Olsen, Jógvan Magnus Haugaard; Steinmann, Casper

    2017-01-01

    We present a systematic investigation of the key components needed to model single chromophore electronic circular dichroism (ECD) within the polarizable embedding (PE) approach. By relying on accurate forms of the embedding potential, where especially the inclusion of local field effects...... sampling. We show that a significant number of snapshots are needed to avoid artifacts in the calculated electronic circular dichroism parameters due to insufficient configurational sampling, thus highlighting the efficiency of the PE model....

  1. Hypothesis Testing of Parameters for Ordinary Linear Circular Regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Ghapor Hussin

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the hypothesis testing of parameters for ordinary linear circular regression model assuming the circular random error distributed as von Misses distribution. The main interests are in testing of the intercept and slope parameter of the regression line. As an illustration, this hypothesis testing will be used in analyzing the wind and wave direction data recorded by two different techniques which are HF radar system and anchored wave buoy.

  2. Circular dichroism beamline B23 at the Diamond Light Source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Rohanah; Jávorfi, Tamás; Siligardi, Giuliano

    2012-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation circular dichroism (SRCD) is a well established technique in structural biology. The first UV-VIS beamline, dedicated to circular dichroism, at Diamond Light Source Ltd, a third-generation synchrotron facility in south Oxfordshire, UK, has recently become operational and it is now available for the user community. Herein the main characteristics of the B23 SRCD beamline, the ancillary facilities available for users, and some of the recent advances achieved are summarized.

  3. Nephila clavipes Flagelliform silk-like GGX motifs contribute to extensibility and spacer motifs contribute to strength in synthetic spider silk fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrianos, Sherry L; Teulé, Florence; Hinman, Michael B; Jones, Justin A; Weber, Warner S; Yarger, Jeffery L; Lewis, Randolph V

    2013-06-10

    Flagelliform spider silk is the most extensible silk fiber produced by orb weaver spiders, though not as strong as the dragline silk of the spider. The motifs found in the core of the Nephila clavipes flagelliform Flag protein are GGX, spacer, and GPGGX. Flag does not contain the polyalanine motif known to provide the strength of dragline silk. To investigate the source of flagelliform fiber strength, four recombinant proteins were produced containing variations of the three core motifs of the Nephila clavipes flagelliform Flag protein that produces this type of fiber. The as-spun fibers were processed in 80% aqueous isopropanol using a standardized process for all four fiber types, which produced improved mechanical properties. Mechanical testing of the recombinant proteins determined that the GGX motif contributes extensibility and the spacer motif contributes strength to the recombinant fibers. Recombinant protein fibers containing the spacer motif were stronger than the proteins constructed without the spacer that contained only the GGX motif or the combination of the GGX and GPGGX motifs. The mechanical and structural X-ray diffraction analysis of the recombinant fibers provide data that suggests a functional role of the spacer motif that produces tensile strength, though the spacer motif is not clearly defined structurally. These results indicate that the spacer is likely a primary contributor of strength, with the GGX motif supplying mobility to the protein network of native N. clavipes flagelliform silk fibers.

  4. Electron mobility enhancement in metalorganic-vapor-phase-epitaxy-grown InAlN high-electron-mobility transistors by control of surface morphology of spacer layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Atsushi; Ishiguro, Tetsuro; Kotani, Junji; Nakamura, Norikazu

    2018-01-01

    We demonstrated low-sheet-resistance metalorganic-vapor-phase-epitaxy-grown InAlN high-electron-mobility transistors using AlGaN spacers with excellent surface morphology. We systematically investigated the effects of AlGaN spacer growth conditions on surface morphology and electron mobility. We found that the surface morphology of InAlN barriers depends on that of AlGaN spacers. Ga desorption from AlGaN spacers was suppressed by increasing the trimethylaluminum (TMA) supply rate, resulting in the small surface roughnesses of InAlN barriers and AlGaN spacers. Moreover, we found that an increase in the NH3 supply rate also improved the surface morphologies of InAlN barriers and AlGaN spacers as long as the TMA supply rate was high enough to suppress the degradation of GaN channels. Finally, we realized a low sheet resistance of 185.5 Ω/sq with a high electron mobility of 1210 cm2 V‑1 s‑1 by improving the surface morphologies of AlGaN spacers and InAlN barriers.

  5. Investigation of Al2O3 and ZrO2 spacer layers for fully printable and hole-conductor-free mesoscopic perovskite solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Zheng; Guo, Daipeng; Yu, Jiaguo; Fan, Ke

    2018-02-01

    Fully printable and hole-conductor-free mesoscopic perovskite solar cells (PSCs) were prepared with Al2O3 or ZrO2 spacer layer. Mesoscopic TiO2 and the spacer layer were used as the scaffold in the PSC. The PSC based on mesoporous ZrO2 spacer layer obtains the short-circuit current density (Jsc) of 20.2 mA cm-2 and photoelectric conversion efficiency (PCE) of 8.72%, which are 23.17% and 59.12% higher than those of PSCs based on mesoporous Al2O3 spacer layer, respectively. Comparing with Al2O3, the larger pores of ZrO2 spacer layer are favorable for the infiltration and crystallization of perovskite, generating large grains to reduce the crystal boundaries. Hence, ZrO2 possesses superior performance than Al2O3 as the spacer layer for PSCs. This study can provide a guide for the rational design of efficient spacer layers for high-performance and hole-conductor-free PSCs.

  6. Artifacts in spine magnetic resonance imaging due to different intervertebral test spacers: an in vitro evaluation of magnesium versus titanium and carbon-fiber-reinforced polymers as biomaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernstberger, Thorsten [Klinikum Bad Bramstedt, Center for Spinal Surgery, Bad Bramstedt (Germany); Buchhorn, Gottfried [University of Gottingen, Biomaterial Laboratory, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Goettingen (Germany); Heidrich, Gabert [University of Gottingen, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Goettingen (Germany)

    2009-08-15

    Intervertebral spacers are made of different materials, which can affect the postfusion magnetic imaging (MRI) scans. Susceptibility artifacts especially for metallic implants can decrease the image quality. This study aimed to determine whether magnesium as a lightweight and biocompatible metal is suitable as a biomaterial for spinal implants based on its MRI artifacting behavior. To compare artifacting behaviors, we implanted into one porcine cadaveric spine different test spacers made of magnesium, titanium, and carbon-fiber-reinforced polymers (CFRP). All test spacers were scanned using two T1-TSE MRI sequences. The artifact dimensions were traced on all scans and statistically analyzed. The total artifact volume and median artifact area of the titanium spacers were statistically significantly larger than magnesium spacers (p < 0.001), while magnesium and CFRP spacers produced almost identical artifacting behaviors (p > 0.05). Our results suggest that spinal implants made with magnesium alloys will behave more like CFRP devices in MRI scans. Given its osseoconductive potential as a metal, implant alloys made with magnesium would combine the advantages to the two principal spacer materials currently used but without their limitations, at least in terms of MRI artifacting. (orig.)

  7. [Integrated evaluation of circular agriculture system: a life cycle perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Long; Chen, Yuan-Quan; Gao, Wang-Sheng

    2010-11-01

    For the point of view that recycling economy system is one of ways to achieve the low-carbon economy, we have made an evaluation on a typical circular agriculture duck industry in Hunan Province, China, through improving the framework of life cycle assessment (LCA). The analysis indicated that the consumption of non-renewable resources, land and water were 48.629 MJ, 2.36 m2 and 1 321.41 kg, while the potential greenhouse gas (GHGs), acidification, eutrophication, human toxicity, freshwater ecotoxicity and terrestrial ecotoxicity were 11 543.26 g (CO2 eq), 52.36g (SO2eq), 25.83g (PO4eq), 1.26, 60.74 and 24.65 g (1,4-DCBeq), respectively. The potential damage of aquatic eutrophication, freshwater ecotoxicity and terrestrial ecotoxicity was more serious than that of GHGs. Main results were following: i. the circular agricultural chain promoted the principle of "moderate circulation", which based on the traditional production methods; ii. circular agriculture could not blindly pursue low carbon development. Instead, soil and biological carbon sequestration should be considered, in addition to reducing carbon emissions; iii. circular economy and circular agriculture should take other potential environmental impacts into account such as acidification, eutrophication and ecotoxicity,with the exception to carbon emissions,to developed integrated system assessment; iv. LCA could provide a comprehensive assessment of circular agriculture, and it was worth of further study.

  8. Swarm Robotics with Circular Formation Motion Including Obstacles Avoidance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabil M. Hewahi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The robots science has been developed over the past few years, where robots have become used to accomplish difficult, repetitive or accurate tasks, which are very hard for humans to carry out. In this paper, we propose an algorithm to control the motion of a swarm of robots and make them able to avoid obstacles. The proposed solution is based on forming the robots in circular fashion. A group set of robots consists of multiple groups of robots, each group of robots consists of robots forming a circular shape and each group set is a circular form of robots. The proposed algorithm is concerned with first locating the randomly generated robots in groups and secondly with the swarm robot motion and finally with the swarm obstacle avoidance and swarm reorganization after crossing the obstacle. The proposed algorithm has been simulated with five different obstacles with various numbers of randomly generated robots. The results show that the swarm in the circular form can deal with the obstacles very effectively by passing the obstacles smoothly. The proposed algorithm has been compared with flocking algorithm and it is shown that the circular formation algorithm does not need extensive computation after obstacle avoidance whereas the flocking algorithm needs extensive computation. In addition, the circular formation algorithm maintains every robot in its group after avoiding the obstacles whereas with flocking algorithm does not.

  9. Nebulizers vs metered-dose inhalers with spacers for bronchodilator therapy to treat wheezing in children aged 2 to 24 months in a pediatric emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Annette; Chou, Katherine J; Silver, Ellen Johnson; Crain, Ellen F

    2003-01-01

    To determine if administration of albuterol by a metered-dose inhaler with a spacer device is as efficacious as administration of albuterol by nebulizer to treat wheezing in children aged 2 years and younger. Double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Pediatric emergency department. From a convenience sample of wheezing children aged 2 to 24 months, 85 patients were enrolled in the nebulizer group and 83 in the spacer group. The nebulizer group received a placebo metered-dose inhaler with a spacer followed by nebulized albuterol. The spacer group received albuterol by a metered-dose inhaler with a spacer followed by nebulized isotonic sodium chloride solution. Treatments were given every 20 minutes by a single investigator blinded to group assignment. The primary outcome was admission rate. Pulmonary Index score and oxygen saturation were measured initially and 10 minutes after each treatment. The nebulizer group had a significantly higher mean (SD) initial Pulmonary Index score compared with the spacer group (7.6 [2.5] vs 6.6 [2.0]; P =.002). With the initial Pulmonary Index score controlled, children in the spacer group were admitted less (5% vs 20%; P =.05). Analyses also revealed an interaction between group and initial Pulmonary Index score; lower admission rates in the spacer group were found primarily in children having a more severe asthma exacerbation. Our data suggest that metered-dose inhalers with spacers may be as efficacious as nebulizers for the emergency department treatment of wheezing in children aged 2 years or younger.

  10. Current perpendicular-to-plane giant magnetoresistance using an L 12 Ag3Mg spacer and Co2Fe0.4Mn0.6Si Heusler alloy electrodes: Spacer thickness and annealing temperature dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Takahide; Ina, Yusuke; Wen, Zhenchao; Narisawa, Hiroyuki; Takanashi, Koki

    2017-09-01

    Spacer thickness tN and annealing temperature Tanneal dependence of current perpendicular-to-plane giant magnetoresistance effects were investigated in junctions using L 12Ag3Mg spacer and half-metallic Co2Fe0.4Mn0.6Si (CFMS) Heusler alloy electrodes. tN was changed from 2-12 nm and Tanneal was changed from 450 -650°C to promote the chemical ordering of the CFMS electrodes. Concerning the tN dependence, the magnetoresistance (MR) ratio and the change of the areal resistance (Δ R A ) exhibited the maximum values at tN=5 nm . The reasons for the decrease of the MR ratio for tN5 nm were possibly due to an unstable antiparallel magnetization configuration and to the increased occurrence of spin scattering inside the Ag3Mg spacer, respectively. The spin-diffusion length of the Ag3Mg spacer was also estimated using the tN dependence of Δ R A and it was found to be of the order of 10-30 nm. Concerning the Tanneal dependence, Δ R A and the MR ratio exhibited the maximum values at 550°C, which was the optimum point in terms of the degrees of order in the CFMS layers and the Ag3Mg layer, and the (001) orientation of the layered structure. The maximum Δ R A and the intrinsic MR ratio in which parasitic resistance contribution was eliminated were 25 m Ω μ m2 and 63%, respectively, at room temperature.

  11. New specific primers for amplification of the Internal Transcribed Spacer region in Clitellata (Annelida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yingkui; Erséus, Christer

    2017-12-01

    Nuclear molecular evidence, for example, the rapidly evolving Internal Transcribed Spacer region (ITS), integrated with maternally inherited (mitochondrial) COI barcodes, has provided new insights into the diversity of clitellate annelids. PCR amplification and sequencing of ITS, however, are often hampered by poor specificity of primers used. Therefore, new clitellate-specific primers for amplifying the whole ITS region (ITS: 29F/1084R) and a part of it (ITS2: 606F/1082R) were developed on the basis of a collection of previously published ITS sequences with flanking rDNA coding regions. The specificity of these and other ITS primers used for clitellates were then tested in silico by evaluating their mismatches with all assembled and annotated sequences (STD, version r127) from EMBL, and the new primers were also tested in vitro for a taxonomically broad sample of clitellate species (71 specimens representing 11 families). The in silico analyses showed that the newly designed primers have a better performance than the universal ones when amplifying clitellate ITS sequences. In vitro PCR and sequencing using the new primers were successful, in particular, for the 606F/1082R pair, which worked well for 65 of the 71 specimens. Thus, using this pair for amplifying the ITS2 will facilitate further molecular systematic investigation of various clitellates. The other pair (29F/1084R), will be a useful complement to existing ITS primers, when amplifying ITS as a whole.

  12. An impact test system design and its applications to dynamic buckling of a spacer grid assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Sheng, E-mail: liusheng_05@126.com; Fan, Chenguang; Yang, Yiren

    2016-11-15

    This study is aimed at investigating the dynamic buckling load, dynamic stiffness, damping and buckling characteristics of the spacer grid assembly (SGA). A pendulum impact test system is designed to experiment the buckling of SGAs. Three criterions are discussed and compared to determine the buckling loads of SGAs: B-R criterion, energy criterion and extreme value criterion. Two approaches are applied to calculate the dynamic stiffness of SGAs: One method is natural period method based on the hypothesis of harmonic motion of the pendulum whose period is approximated because of the passivation and tailing of the impact force time history; and the other is energy method based on the conservation of mechanical energy. The equivalent viscous damping is defined as the resultant cause of dissipation and is obtained by the energy principle. The impact force time history loses its approximate symmetry after buckling occurs. The impact force and displacement reach their maxima almost at the same time at pre-buckling states but not post-buckling states. Vertical straps in SGA are found to be transversely shared by horizontal straps at the buckling position. The buckling of SGA results from the lack of strength of complete structure; and the strength of material has no effects on the buckling.

  13. Analysis of sequence diversity through internal transcribed spacers and simple sequence repeats to identify Dendrobium species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y T; Chen, R K; Lin, S J; Chen, Y C; Chin, S W; Chen, F C; Lee, C Y

    2014-04-08

    The Orchidaceae is one of the largest and most diverse families of flowering plants. The Dendrobium genus has high economic potential as ornamental plants and for medicinal purposes. In addition, the species of this genus are able to produce large crops. However, many Dendrobium varieties are very similar in outward appearance, making it difficult to distinguish one species from another. This study demonstrated that the 12 Dendrobium species used in this study may be divided into 2 groups by internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence analysis. Red and yellow flowers may also be used to separate these species into 2 main groups. In particular, the deciduous characteristic is associated with the ITS genetic diversity of the A group. Of 53 designed simple sequence repeat (SSR) primer pairs, 7 pairs were polymorphic for polymerase chain reaction products that were amplified from a specific band. The results of this study demonstrate that these 7 SSR primer pairs may potentially be used to identify Dendrobium species and their progeny in future studies.

  14. Purging of a multilayer insulation with dacron tuft spacer by gas diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumner, I. E.; Fisk, W. J.

    1976-01-01

    The time and purge gas usage required to purge a multilayer insulation (MLI) panel with gaseous helium by means of gas diffusion to obtain a condensable gas (nitrogen) concentration of less than 1 percent within the panel are stipulated. Two different, flat, rectangular MLI panels, one incorporating a butt joint, were constructed of of 11 double-aluminized Mylar (DAM) radiation shields separated by Dacron tuft spacers. The DAM/Dacron tuft concept is known commercially as Superfloc. The nitrogen gas concentration as a function of time within the MLI panel could be adequately predicted by using a simple, one dimensional gas diffusion model in which the boundary conditions at the edge of the MLI panel were time dependent. The time and purge gas usage required to achieve 1 percent nitrogen gas concentration within the MLI panel varied from 208 to 86 minutes and 34.1 to 56.5 MLI panel purge volumes, respectively, for gaseous helium purge rates from 10 to 40 MLI panel volumes per hour.

  15. Synthesis, Structure, Surface and Antimicrobial Properties of New Oligomeric Quaternary Ammonium Salts with Aromatic Spacers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogumił Brycki

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available New dimeric, trimeric and tetrameric quaternary ammonium salts were accomplished by reaction of tertiary alkyldimethyl amines with appropriate bromomethylbenzene derivatives. A series of new cationic surfactants contain different alkyl chain lengths (C4–C18, aromatic spacers and different numbers of quaternary nitrogen atoms. The structure of the products was confirmed by spectral analysis (FT-IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and 2D-NMR, mass spectroscopy (ESI-MS, elemental analysis, as well as PM5 semiempirical methods. Compound (21 was also analyzed using X-ray crystallography. Critical micelle concentration (CMC of 1,4-bis-[N-(1-alkyl-N,N-dimethylammoniummethyl]benzene dibromides (3–9 was determined to characterize the aggregation behavior. The antimicrobial properties of novel QACs (Quaternary Ammonium Salts were examined to set their minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC values against fungi Aspergillus niger, Candida albicans, Penicillium chrysogenum and bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

  16. Internal transcribed spacer 2 barcode: A good tool for identifying Acanthopanacis cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sha eZhao

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Acanthopanacis cortex has been used in clinical applications for a long time. Considering some historical and geographical factors, Acanthopanacis cortex is easily confused with other herbs in medicine markets, thereby causing potential safety issues. In this study, we used the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2 barcode to identify 69 samples belonging to six species, including Acanthopanacis cortex and its adulterants. The nearest distance, single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, and neighbor-joining (NJ tree methods were used to evaluate the identification ability of the ITS2 barcode. According to the kimura-2-parameter model, the intraspecific distance of Eleutherococcus nodiflorus ITS2 sequences ranged from 0 to 0.0132. The minimum interspecific distance between E. nodiflorus and E. giraldii was 0.0221, which was larger than the maximum intraspecific distance of E. nodiflorus. Three stable SNPs in ITS2 can be used to distinguish Acanthopanacis cortex and its closely related species. The NJ tree indicated that the Acanthopanacis cortex samples clustered into one clade, which can be distinguished clearly from the adulterants of this herb. A secondary structure of ITS2 provided another dimensionality to identify species. In conclusion, the ITS2 barcode effectively identifies Acanthopanacis cortex, and DNA barcoding is a convenient tool for medicine market supervision.

  17. 16S-23S rDNA internal transcribed spacer regions in four Proteus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Boyang; Wang, Min; Liu, Lei; Zhou, Zhemin; Wen, Shaoping; Rozalski, Antoni; Wang, Lei

    2009-04-01

    Proteus is a Gram-negative, facultative anaerobic bacterium. In this study, 813 Proteus 16S-23S rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences were determined from 46 Proteus strains, including 388 ITS from 22 P. mirabilis strains, 211 ITS from 12 P. vulgaris strains, 169 ITS from 10 P. penneri strains, and 45 ITS from 2 P. myxofaciens strains. The Proteus strains carry mainly two types of ITS, ITS(Glu) (containing tRNA(Glu (UUC)) gene) and ITS(Ile+Ala) (containing tRNA(Ile (GAU)) and tRNA(Ala (UGC)) gene), and are in the forms of 28 variants with 25 genomic origins. The ITS sequences are a mosaic-like structure consisting of three conservative regions and two variable regions. The nucleotide identity of ITS subtypes in strains of the same species ranges from 96.2% to 100%. The divergence of Proteus ITS divergence was most likely due to intraspecies recombinations or horizontal transfers of sequence blocks. The phylogenetic relationship deduced from the second variable region of ITS sequences of the three facultative human pathogenic species P. mirabilis, P. vulgaris and P. penneri is similar with that based on 16S rDNA sequences, but has higher resolution to differentiate closely related P. vulgaris and P. penneri. This study is the first comprehensive study of ITS in four Proteus species and laid solid foundation for the development of high-throughput technology for quick and accurate identification of the important foodborne and nosocomial pathogens.

  18. Internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequencing reveals considerable fungal diversity in dairy products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buehler, A J; Evanowski, R L; Martin, N H; Boor, K J; Wiedmann, M

    2017-11-01

    Fungi are important spoilage organisms in dairy products. However, little is known about the diversity of naturally occurring spoilage fungi in raw milk and processed dairy products, due at least in part to the fact that classical fungal identification methods require considerable expertise. To gain further insight into the fungal diversity in the dairy system, we isolated fungi from raw milk, raw and pasteurized milk cheese, and yogurt using the selective dichloran rose bengal chloramphenicol agar. In total, 361 fungal isolates were obtained and further characterized by DNA sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region and the nuclear ribosomal large subunit (LSU) rRNA gene if needed. We conducted BLAST (https://blast.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Blast.cgi) searches of the ITS region sequences against the UNITE Database (https://unite.ut.ee/analysis.php), and selected other databases if needed, which allowed identification to the species level of 183 isolates and to the genus level of 107 of the 346 isolates that were successfully ITS sequenced. The isolates characterized represented 3 phyla and 19 genera; the most common genera isolated were Penicillium (25% of isolates), Debaryomyces (18%), and Candida (9%). This study not only provides, by using modern molecular tools, a baseline understanding of the types of fungi in dairy products, but also confirms that ITS sequencing is a useful approach for identification of fungal organisms found in the dairy food chain. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Genotype analysis based on intergenic spacer 1 sequences of Trichosporon asahii collected in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yun-Liang; Liu, Yi-Wen; Chen, Hui-Ting; Tsai, Moan-Shane; Chu, Wen-Li; Lo, Hsiu-Jung

    2013-11-01

    Among 32 Trichosporon asahii isolates collected in four rounds of the Taiwan Surveillance of Antimicrobial Resistance of Yeasts (TSARY) studies, conducted in 1999, 2002, 2006, and 2010, five different intergenic spacer 1 (IGS1) genotypes were detected. Genotype 1 was the most common (43.8%), followed by genotypes 3 (28.1%), 7 (12.5%), 5 (9.4%), and 4 (6.3%). Interestingly, genotype 7 was more prevalent in Taiwan than in other areas (P = 0.01); while we did not find a significant association between IGS1 genotype and susceptibility to antifungal drugs, we did note that the majority of isolates of T. asahii were susceptible to both fluconazole and voriconazole, consistent with previous reports. A higher proportion of isolates (P = 0.05) collected in 2010 (4/12, 33.3%) had high amphotericin B MICs (≥ 2 mg/l) than those collected in the previous three TSARYs (1/21, 5%). Hence, the new data of genotypes and drug susceptibilities in the present study may contribute to the epidemiology of T. asahii.

  20. Molecular Phylogenetic Screening of Withania somnifera Relative From Indonesia Based on Internal Transcribed Spacer Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Topik Hidayat

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Withania somnifera (family Solanaceae, known commonly as Ashwaganda, is one of the important medicinal plants, and recent studies reported that Withanone, one of the chemical components in this plant, has ability to kill cancer cell. Because of endemic state of this plant to South Asia, exploring plant species under the same family which grow well in Indonesia has been of interest. The purpose of this study was to screen the Indonesian plant which has strong phylogenetic relationship with Ashwaganda. Thus, phylogenetic analysis using DNA sequences of internal transcribed spacer (ITS region was conducted. Thus, 19 species of Solanaceae and two species of Convolvulaceae as outgroup were examined. Five ITS regions of Ashwaganda retrieved from GenBank were included in the phylogenetic analysis. Parsimony analysis showed that Indonesia Solanaceae comprises seven groups which is consistent with the global Solanaceae relationship as previously reported. Furthermore, our study revealed that two species, Physalis angulata and Physalis peruviana, are relative to W. somnifera. Morphologically, they share characters of flower and fruit. This result indicated that these two species are potential to have similar chemical properties as Ashwaganda, thus we can have new variants of Withanone originated from Indonesia with similar effect.

  1. The internal transcribed spacer of nuclear ribosomal DNA in the gymnosperm Gnetum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Hyosig; Renner, Susanne S

    2005-09-01

    We analyze the structure of the internal transcribed spacers ITS1 and ITS2 of the nuclear ribosomal DNA in the gymnosperm Gnetum, using a phylogenetic framework derived mainly from an intron in the nuclear low-copy LEAFY gene. Gnetum comprises 25-35 species in South America, Africa, and Asia, of which we sampled 16, each with two to six clones. Criteria used to assess ITS functionality were highly divergent nucleotide substitution, GC content, secondary structure, and incongruent phylogenetic placement of presumed paralogs. The length of ITS1 ranged from 225 to 986 bp and that of ITS2 from 259 to 305 bp, the largest ranges so far reported from seed plants. Gnetum ITS1 contains two informative sequence motifs, but different from other gymnosperms, there are only few and short (7-13 bp) tandem repeats. Gnetum ITS2 contains two structural motifs, modified in different clades by shortening of stems and loops. Conspecific sequences grouped together except for two recombinant pseudogenes that had ITS1 of one clade and ITS2 of another. Most of the pseudogenic ITS copies, paralogs, and putative chimeras occurred in a clade that according to a fossil-calibrated chloroplast-DNA clock has an age of a few million years. Based on morphology and chromosome numbers, the most plausible causes of the observed high levels of ITS polymorphism are hybridization, allopolyploidy, and introgression.

  2. [Health care providers' knowledge and abilities to use inhalation devices and spacers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orfanos, S; Carsin, A; Baravalle, M; Dubus, J-C

    2017-05-01

    Inhaled therapy is the mainstay of asthma treatment due to its local and rapid action. However, its efficiency relies on the teaching of a good inhalation technique by health care providers. We assessed health care providers' knowledge and practical skills in the use of inhalation devices. An observational multicenter study was conducted in the pulmonology and paediatric wards in Marseille. The departments' common practices, theoretical knowledge and practical skills were assessed through a questionnaire and a demonstration using a spacer device. Forty health care providers were interviewed (9 attending physicians, 14 residents, 16 nurses and 1 physiotherapist), in 8 different pulmonology and paediatric wards. A total of 42.5% reported previous training in inhalation device technique. When evaluating theoretical knowledge, we found a mean of 54% correct answers. Attending physicians did significantly better than residents and nurses. With regard to practical skills, we found a mean of 1.12 failed steps out of 7. Here again attending physicians did significantly better than residents and nurses. Based on the results of our study, we recommend that attending physicians provide training of inhalation technique to nurses and residents, as they did significantly better theoretically and practically. Copyright © 2016 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Synthesis and photophysical properties of a bichromophoric system hosting a disaccharide spacer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papalia, T; Barattucci, A; Campagna, S; Puntoriero, F; Salerno, T; Bonaccorsi, P

    2017-10-04

    The synthesis of an efficient energy donor-acceptor system is reported, together with its photophysical properties. The bichromophoric species has been conceived to show potentialities for biological applications since a biocompatible disaccharide spacer, constituted of d-galactose and d-glucose derivatives, was used in compound 12 to connect two BODIPY units with different absorption/emission properties. The luminescence spectrum in acetonitrile of 12 shows an intense fluorescence band with a maximum at about 770 nm that is almost identical to that of the lowest-energy BODIPY, regardless of the excitation wavelength used. The quantum yield is 0.2 with an excited state lifetime of 2.5 ns. Excitation and ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy demonstrates that a very efficient energy transfer takes place in 12 from the highest-energy lying BODIPY subunit to the lowest-energy emissive BODIPY moiety, with a time constant of about 31 ps. Noteworthily, the emission of 12 falls in the near infrared window, suitable for potential biological applications.

  4. Synergistic effect of ionic liquid intercalation and multiwalled carbon nanotube spacers with improved supercapacitor performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiangyang; Guo, Jianhui; Chen, Jianping; Zhang, Jiwei; Zhang, Jingwei

    2017-09-01

    The restacking of reduced graphene oxide (RGO) with undesirable energy density and power density is still a thorny issue. In our work, we proposed a simple strategy from incorporating ionic liquid (IL) and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) in turn to impede the RGO sheets aggragation. With synergistic effect of IL ions intercalation and MWCNTs spacers, a uniformly dispersed hierarchical pore structure was obtained. For RGO-IL-MWCNTs, a very high specific surface area (588.7 m2 g-1) with enhanced fraction of mesopores and macropores can provide more accessible areas and pathways for charge accommodation and IL diffusion. This optimized hierarchical pore structure possesses a high specific capacity of 269.3 F g-1 (at 2 mV s-1) and a very high energy density of 131.8 Wh kg-1 (at a power density of 892.6 W kg-1) in pure IL electrolyte at room temperature. Interestingly, this simple method probably offers excellent potential for large-scale production of dispersed two-dimensional layered materials with superior performance.

  5. Effect of PEG biofunctional spacers and TAT peptide on dsRNA loading on gold nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanz, Vanesa; Conde, Joao; Hernandez, Yulan [Universidad de Zaragoza, Instituto de Nanociencia de Aragon (Spain); Baptista, Pedro V. [Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Departamento de Ciencias da Vida, Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia, Centro de Investigacao em Genetica Molecular Humana (Portugal); Ibarra, M. R.; Fuente, Jesus M. de la, E-mail: jmfuente@unizar.es [Universidad de Zaragoza, Instituto de Nanociencia de Aragon (Spain)

    2012-06-15

    The surface chemistry of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) plays a critical role in the self-assembly of thiolated molecules and in retaining the biological function of the conjugated biomolecules. According to the well-established gold-thiol interaction the undefined ionic species on citrate-reduced gold nanoparticle surface can be replaced with a self-assembled monolayer of certain thiolate derivatives and other biomolecules. Understanding the effect of such derivatives in the functionalization of several types of biomolecules, such as PEGs, peptides or nucleic acids, has become a significant challenge. Here, an approach to attach specific biomolecules to the AuNPs ({approx}14 nm) surface is presented together with a study of their effect in the functionalization with other specific derivatives. The effect of biofunctional spacers such as thiolated poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) chains and a positive peptide, TAT, in dsRNA loading on AuNPs is reported. Based on the obtained data, we hypothesize that loading of oligonucleotides onto the AuNP surface may be controlled by ionic and weak interactions positioning the entry of the oligo through the PEG layer. We demonstrate that there is a synergistic effect of the TAT peptide and PEG chains with specific functional groups on the enhancement of dsRNA loading onto AuNPs.

  6. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of Indonesia Solanaceae based on DNA sequences of internal transcribed spacer region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayat, Topik; Priyandoko, Didik; Islami, Dina Karina; Wardiny, Putri Yunitha

    2016-02-01

    Solanaceae is one of largest family in Angiosperm group with highly diverse in morphological character. In Indonesia, this group of plant is very popular due to its usefulness as food, ornamental and medicinal plants. However, investigation on phylogenetic relationship among the member of this family in Indonesia remains less attention. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the phylogenetics relationship of the family especially distributed in Indonesia. DNA sequences of Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) region of 19 species of Solanaceae and three species of outgroup, which belongs to family Convolvulaceae, Apocynaceae, and Plantaginaceae, were isolated, amplified, and sequenced. Phylogenetic tree analysis based on parsimony method was conducted with using data derived from the ITS-1, 5.8S, and ITS-2, separately, and the combination of all. Results indicated that the phylogenetic tree derived from the combined data established better pattern of relationship than separate data. Thus, three major groups were revealed. Group 1 consists of tribe Datureae, Cestreae, and Petunieae, whereas group 2 is member of tribe Physaleae. Group 3 belongs to tribe Solaneae. The use of the ITS region as a molecular markers, in general, support the global Solanaceae relationship that has been previously reported.

  7. Internal transcribed spacer primers and sequences for improved characterization of basidiomycetous orchid mycorrhizas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, D Lee; McCormick, Melissa K

    2008-01-01

    Despite advances owing to molecular approaches, several hurdles still obstruct the identification of fungi forming orchid mycorrhizas. The Tulasnellaceae exhibit accelerated evolution of the nuclear ribosomal operon, causing most standard primers to fail in polymerase chain reaction (PCR) trials. Insufficient sequences are available from well characterized isolates and fruitbodies. Lastly, taxon-specific PCR primers are needed in order to explore the ecology of the fungi outside of the orchid root. Here, progress in overcoming these hurdles is reported. Broad-spectrum basidiomycete internal transcribed spacer (ITS) primers that do not exclude most known Tulasnellaceae are presented. blast searches and empirical PCR tests support their wide utility within the Basidiomycota. Taxon-specific ITS primers are presented targeted to orchid-associated Tulasnella, and a core component of the Thelephora-Tomentella complex. The efficiency and selectivity of these primer sets are again supported by blast searches and empirical tests. Lastly, ITS DNA sequences are presented from several strains of Epulorhiza, Ceratorhiza, Ceratobasidium, Sistotrema, Thanatephorus and Tulasnella that were originally described in the landmark mycorrhizal studies of Currah and Warcup. Detailed phylogenetic analyses reveal some inconsistencies in species concepts in these taxonomically challenging resupinate basidiomycetes, but also help to place several sequences from environmental samples.

  8. n-Nucleotide circular codes in graph theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fimmel, Elena; Michel, Christian J; Strüngmann, Lutz

    2016-03-13

    The circular code theory proposes that genes are constituted of two trinucleotide codes: the classical genetic code with 61 trinucleotides for coding the 20 amino acids (except the three stop codons {TAA,TAG,TGA}) and a circular code based on 20 trinucleotides for retrieving, maintaining and synchronizing the reading frame. It relies on two main results: the identification of a maximal C(3) self-complementary trinucleotide circular code X in genes of bacteria, eukaryotes, plasmids and viruses (Michel 2015 J. Theor. Biol. 380, 156-177. (doi:10.1016/j.jtbi.2015.04.009); Arquès & Michel 1996 J. Theor. Biol. 182, 45-58. (doi:10.1006/jtbi.1996.0142)) and the finding of X circular code motifs in tRNAs and rRNAs, in particular in the ribosome decoding centre (Michel 2012 Comput. Biol. Chem. 37, 24-37. (doi:10.1016/j.compbiolchem.2011.10.002); El Soufi & Michel 2014 Comput. Biol. Chem. 52, 9-17. (doi:10.1016/j.compbiolchem.2014.08.001)). The univerally conserved nucleotides A1492 and A1493 and the conserved nucleotide G530 are included in X circular code motifs. Recently, dinucleotide circular codes were also investigated (Michel & Pirillo 2013 ISRN Biomath. 2013, 538631. (doi:10.1155/2013/538631); Fimmel et al. 2015 J. Theor. Biol. 386, 159-165. (doi:10.1016/j.jtbi.2015.08.034)). As the genetic motifs of different lengths are ubiquitous in genes and genomes, we introduce a new approach based on graph theory to study in full generality n-nucleotide circular codes X, i.e. of length 2 (dinucleotide), 3 (trinucleotide), 4 (tetranucleotide), etc. Indeed, we prove that an n-nucleotide code X is circular if and only if the corresponding graph [Formula: see text] is acyclic. Moreover, the maximal length of a path in [Formula: see text] corresponds to the window of nucleotides in a sequence for detecting the correct reading frame. Finally, the graph theory of tournaments is applied to the study of dinucleotide circular codes. It has full equivalence between the combinatorics

  9. Covalent immobilization of glucose oxidase onto Poly(St-GMA-NaSS) monodisperse microspheres via BSA as spacer arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Tanxin; Liu, Bailing; Hou, Xiaohui; Zhang, Baotan; Du, Cuiming

    2009-06-01

    In this study, the immobilization of glucose oxidase (GOD) onto micron-size monodisperse Poly(Styrene-Glycidyl Methacrylate-Sodium Sulfonate Styrene) microspheres was investigated. In order to improve their surface biocompatibility, bovine serum albumin (BSA) was introduced onto the microspheres' surface as a new type of spacer arm. Both the immobilization amount and enzymatic activity were determined in different experimental conditions (enzyme concentration, pH, temperature, etc.). It was found that BSA could serve as a good spacer because it increases both the immobilization amount and enzymatic activity of GOD. The tolerance of immobilized GOD against pH, temperatures was examined. Moreover, the kinetic parameters for native and immobilized GOD were obtained and compared.

  10. Localization of rRNA transcribed spacer domains in the nucleolinus and maternal procentrosomes of surf clam (Spisula) oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alliegro, Mark C; Alliegro, Mary Anne

    2013-03-01

    The nucleolinus is a nuclear subcompartment long ago posited to play a role in cell division. In a recent study using surf clam oocytes, cytoplasmic foci containing a nucleolinar protein were shown to later recruit γ-tubulin, identifying them as centrosomal precursors. (1) We now demonstrate the presence of structural RNAs from the nucleolinus in these procentrosomes. They include the well-known but poorly understood rRNA-transcribed spacer regions. In situ hybridization revealed a specific and dynamic association of these structural RNAs with the cell division apparatus that extends through the early stages of meiosis. In addition to their bearing on the debate over the nature of centrosome- and spindle-associated RNAs, the observations also suggest that rRNA spacer regions are not simply waste products to be discarded immediately, but may be functional byproducts that play a role in formation of the cell division apparatus.

  11. Molecular authentication of Radix Puerariae Lobatae and Radix Puerariae Thomsonii by ITS and 5S rRNA spacer sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ye; Shaw, Pang-Chui; Fung, Kwok-Pui

    2007-01-01

    In the present study, we examined nuclear DNA sequences in an attempt to reveal the relationships between Pueraria lobata (Willd). Ohwi, P. thomsonii Benth., and P. montana (Lour.) Merr. We found that internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA are highly divergent in P. lobata and P. thomsonii, and four types of ITS with different length are found in the two species. On the other hand, DNA sequences of 5S rRNA gene spacer are highly conserved across multiple copies in P. lobata and P. thomsonii, they could be used to identify P. lobata, P. thomsonii, and P. montana of this complex, and may serve as a useful tool in medical authentication of Radix Puerariae Lobatae and Radix Puerariae Thomsonii.

  12. Can Teicoplanin Be an Effective Choice for Antibiotic-Impregnated Cement Spacer in Two-Stage Revision Total Knee Arthroplasty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyuk, Abdul Fettah; Sofu, Hakan; Camurcu, Ismet Yalkin; Ucpunar, Hanifi; Kaygusuz, Mehmet Akif; Sahin, Vedat

    2017-03-01

    The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical results of two-stage revision total knee arthroplasty using a teicoplanin-impregnated cement spacer for infected primary total knee replacements. Twenty-five patients operated between 2005 and 2012 were included in this study. At the clinical status analysis, rate of infection eradication was assessed, physical examination was performed, Knee Society Score (KSS) was noted, isolated microorganisms were recorded, and the radiographic evaluation was performed. The mean KSS improved from 40 (range, 25-69) preoperatively to 77 (range, 32-96) at the latest follow-up (p Teicoplanin was found to be an effective choice for antibiotic-impregnated cement spacer applied for the eradication of the infection. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  13. Full-wave electromagentic analysis of a plasmonic nanoparticle separated from a plasmonic film by a thin spacer layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, Rahul; Thomas, Arun; Dhawan, Anuj

    2014-08-25

    This paper presents a theoretical analysis of the electromagnetic response of a plasmonic nanoparticle-spacer-plasmonic film system. The physical system consists of a spherical nanoparticle of a plasmonic material such as gold or silver over a plasmonic metal film and separated from the same by a dielectric spacer material. This paper presents a complete analytical solution of the Maxwell's equations, to determine the optical fields near the gold nanoparticle. It was found that the electromagnetic fields in between the plasmonic nanoparticle and the plasmonic film are extremely sensitive to the spacing between the nanoparticle and the film. This could enable the use of such a system for various sensing applications. The non-local nature of the plasmonic medium was also included in our analysis and it's effect on the resonances of the system was studied. The analytical solution was compared with an independent numerical method, the Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method, to demonstrate the accuracy of the solution.

  14. Differentiation of Acinetobacter baumannii biotypes by amplification of 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, A; Montoya, R; Bello, H; Gonzalez, G; Dominguez, M; Zemelman, R

    1996-01-01

    Isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii (32 strains) from blood samples obtained from patients in five Chilean hospitals were identified and biotyped according to their phenotypic properties. They were also submitted to random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) using eight randomly designed 10-mers and the core sequence of M13 phage (15-mers) as well as amplification of the spacer regions between 16S and 23S genes in the prokaryotic rRNA genetic loci. With some primers, RAPD discriminated between biotypes, whereas with others each isolate showed a particular profile. When amplification of spacer regions was performed, a clear correlation between patterns and biotypes was found. This last technique allowed correct biotyping of clinical isolates. Both genetic methods might be used for the identification of A. baumannii biotypes.

  15. Effect of a spacer on localization of topological states in a Bragg multihelicoidal fiber with a twist defect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexeyev, C. N.; Lapin, B. P.; Yavorsky, M. A.

    2018-01-01

    We have studied the influence of a spacer introduced into a Bragg multihelicoidal fiber with a twist defect on the existence of defect-localized states. We have shown that in the presence of a Gaussian pump the energy of the electromagnetic field stored in topologically charged defect-localized modes essentially depends on the length of the spacer. We have demonstrated that by changing this length on the wavelength scale it is possible to strongly modulate such energy. This property can be used for generation and controlled emission of topologically charged light. We have also shown that if the value of an isotropic spacer’s refractive index deviates from the optimal value defined by the parameters of the multihelicoidal fiber parts the effect of localization disappears.

  16. A Vibrational Circular Dichroism Microsampling Accessory: Mapping Enhanced Vibrational Circular Dichroism in Amyloid Fibril Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xuefang; Li, Honggang; Nafie, Jordan W; Pazderka, Tomáš; Pazderková, Markéta; Dukor, Rina K; Nafie, Laurence A

    2017-06-01

    We report the first vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) measurement of spatial heterogeneity in a sample using infrared (IR) microsampling. Vibrational circular dichroism spectra are typically measured using a standard IR cell with an IR beam diameter of 10 mm or greater making it impossible to investigate the spatial heterogeneity of a solid film sample. We have constructed a VCD sampling assembly with either 3 mm or 1 mm spatial resolution. An XY-translation stage was used to measure spectra at different spatial locations producing IR and VCD maps of the sample. In addition, a rotating sample stage was employed using a dual photoelastic modulator (PEM) setup to suppress artifacts due to linear birefringence in solid-phase or film samples. Infrared and VCD mapping of an insulin fibril film has been carried out at both 3 and 1 mm spatial resolution, and lysozyme films were mapped at 1 mm resolution. The IR spectra of different spots vary in intensity due primarily to sample thickness. The changes in the VCD intensity across the map largely correlate to corresponding changes in the IR map. Closer inspection of the insulin map revealed changes in the relative intensities of the VCD spectra not present in the parent IR spectra, which indicated differences in the degree of supramolecular chirality of the fibrils in the various spatial regions. For lysozyme films, in addition to different degrees of supramolecular chirality, reversal of the net fibril chirality was observed. The large signal-to-noise ratio observed at 1 mm resolution implies the feasibility of further increasing the spatial resolution by one or two orders of magnitude for protein fibril film samples.

  17. Internal transcribed spacer rRNA gene sequencing analysis of fungal diversity in Kansas City indoor environments

    OpenAIRE

    Rittenour, William R.; Ciaccio, Christina E.; Barnes, Charles S.; Kashon, Michael L.; Lemons, Angela R.; Beezhold, Donald H.; Green, Brett J.

    2014-01-01

    Compared to traditional methods of fungal exposure assessment, molecular methods have provided new insight into the richness of fungal communities present in both indoor and outdoor environments. In this study, we describe the diversity of fungi in the homes of asthmatic children located in Kansas City. Fungal diversity was determined by sequencing the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of ribosomal RNA derived from fungi collected in air and dust samples from 31 homes participating in...

  18. Propping the optical and electronic properties of potential photo-sensitizers with different π-spacers: TD-DFT insights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Basant A.; Allam, Nageh K.

    2018-01-01

    We report density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) calculations on the widely used N3 dye (cis-[Ru(2,2‧-bipyridine-4,4‧-dicarboxylic acid)2(NCS)2] and its trans isomer with different π-spacers. The study compared the sensitization properties of the two isomers in terms of their electronic properties such as light harvesting efficiency (LHE), absorbed wavelength (λMax) and molecular orbital distribution. Also, charge transfer descriptors, such as the charge transfer distance (DCT), dipole moment (μCT), and the amount of charge transferred (qCT) were investigated. Upon replacing the two ;2,2‧-bipyridine-4,4‧-dicarboxylic acid; ligands of the N3 dye with extended π-spacers of ;1,4-benzene and 2,5-thiophene; for both the cis and trans isomers, the LHE of the trans isomer was increased by 70% compared to the cis counterpart. The complexes with thiophene spacers showed the highest LHE. The trans isomers showed wider absorbance range of wavelengths and equal wide distribution of charge density in the excited state along the organic ligands. These findings highlight the importance of using π-spacers between the organic ligands and the carboxylate groups to boost the LHE of DSSCs. Also, our study showed that the trans isomer is superior in its optical and electronic properties than the cis counterpart. However, the trans isomer is yet to be tested experimentally in DSSCs.

  19. Perfluorinated aromatic spacers for sensitizing europium(III) centers in dinuclear oligomers: better than the best by chemical design?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemonnier, Jean-François; Babel, Lucille; Guénée, Laure; Mukherjee, Prasun; Waldeck, David H; Eliseeva, Svetlana V; Petoud, Stéphane; Piguet, Claude

    2012-11-05

    Transfer news: the use of a simple method allows the various sensitization steps in Eu(III) -containing complexes to be deciphered. Incorporation of an increasing number of electron-withdrawing fluorine atoms on the rigid and electronically tunable phenyl spacer between two tridentate binding units (see picture, red O, dark blue N) affects the quantum yield, intersystem crossing, and energy-transfer processes in a rational way. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Impact of biofilm accumulation on transmembrane and feed channel pressure drop: Effects of crossflow velocity, feed spacer and biodegradable nutrient

    KAUST Repository

    Dreszer, C.

    2014-03-01

    Biofilm formation causes performance loss in spiral-wound membrane systems. In this study a microfiltration membrane was used in experiments to simulate fouling in spiral-wound reverse osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration (NF) membrane modules without the influence of concentration polarization. The resistance of a microfiltration membrane is much lower than the intrinsic biofilm resistance, enabling the detection of biofilm accumulation in an early stage. The impact of biofilm accumulation on the transmembrane (biofilm) resistance and feed channel pressure drop as a function of the crossflow velocity (0.05 and 0.20ms-1) and feed spacer presence was studied in transparent membrane biofouling monitors operated at a permeate flux of 20Lm-2h-1. As biodegradable nutrient, acetate was dosed to the feed water (1.0 and 0.25mgL-1 carbon) to enhance biofilm accumulation in the monitors. The studies showed that biofilm formation caused an increased transmembrane resistance and feed channel pressure drop. The effect was strongest at the highest crossflow velocity (0.2ms-1) and in the presence of a feed spacer. Simulating conditions as currently applied in nanofiltration and reverse osmosis installations (crossflow velocity 0.2ms-1 and standard feed spacer) showed that the impact of biofilm formation on performance, in terms of transmembrane and feed channel pressure drop, was strong. This emphasized the importance of hydrodynamics and feed spacer design. Biomass accumulation was related to the nutrient load (nutrient concentration and linear flow velocity). Reducing the nutrient concentration of the feed water enabled the application of higher crossflow velocities. Pretreatment to remove biodegradable nutrient and removal of biomass from the membrane elements played an important part to prevent or restrict biofouling. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.