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Sample records for pro gram combines

  1. Antibacterial activity and interactions of plant essential oil combinations against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Anamaria Semeniuc

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the antibacterial effects of several essential oils (EOs alone and in combination against different Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria associated with food products. Parsley, lovage, basil, and thyme EOs, as well as their mixtures (1:1, v/v, were tested against Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella typhimurium. The inhibitory effects ranged from strong (thyme EO against E. coli to no inhibition (parsley EO against P. aeruginosa. Thyme EO exhibited strong (against E. coli, moderate (against S. typhimurium and B. cereus, or mild inhibitory effects (against P. aeruginosa and S. aureus, and basil EO showed mild (against E. coli and B. cereus or no inhibitory effects (against S. typhimurium, P. aeruginosa, and S. aureus. Parsley and lovage EOs revealed no inhibitory effects against all tested strains. Combinations of lovage/thyme and basil/thyme EOs displayed antagonistic effects against all bacteria, parsley/thyme EOs against B. cereus, S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, and E. coli, and lovage/basil EOs against B. cereus and E. coli. Combinations of parsley/lovage and parsley/basil EOs exhibited indifferent effects against all bacteria. The combination of lovage/basil EO showed indifferent effect against S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, and S. typhimurium, and the combination parsley/thyme EO against S. typhimurium. Thyme EO has the highest percentage yield and antibacterial potential from all tested formulations; its combination with parsley, lovage, and basil EOs determines a reduction of its antibacterial activity. Hence, it is recommended to be used alone as the antibacterial agent.

  2. Neither Single nor a Combination of Routine Laboratory Parameters can Discriminate between Gram-positive and Gram-negative Bacteremia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratzinger, Franz; Dedeyan, Michel; Rammerstorfer, Matthias; Perkmann, Thomas; Burgmann, Heinz; Makristathis, Athanasios; Dorffner, Georg; Loetsch, Felix; Blacky, Alexander; Ramharter, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Adequate early empiric antibiotic therapy is pivotal for the outcome of patients with bloodstream infections. In clinical practice the use of surrogate laboratory parameters is frequently proposed to predict underlying bacterial pathogens; however there is no clear evidence for this assumption. In this study, we investigated the discriminatory capacity of predictive models consisting of routinely available laboratory parameters to predict the presence of Gram-positive or Gram-negative bacteremia. Major machine learning algorithms were screened for their capacity to maximize the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC-AUC) for discriminating between Gram-positive and Gram-negative cases. Data from 23,765 patients with clinically suspected bacteremia were screened and 1,180 bacteremic patients were included in the study. A relative predominance of Gram-negative bacteremia (54.0%), which was more pronounced in females (59.1%), was observed. The final model achieved 0.675 ROC-AUC resulting in 44.57% sensitivity and 79.75% specificity. Various parameters presented a significant difference between both genders. In gender-specific models, the discriminatory potency was slightly improved. The results of this study do not support the use of surrogate laboratory parameters for predicting classes of causative pathogens. In this patient cohort, gender-specific differences in various laboratory parameters were observed, indicating differences in the host response between genders. PMID:26522966

  3. Biofilm detection in chronic rhinosinusitis by combined application of hematoxylin-eosin and gram staining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth, László; Csomor, Péter; Sziklai, István; Karosi, Tamás

    2011-10-01

    The pathomechanism of chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyposis (CRS/NP) seems to be unclear. Bacterial-, fungal- and combined biofilms might play a potential role in the pathogenesis of various inflammatory diseases and recently in CRS/NP. A prospective, blinded observational study was performed to confirm that the combination of conventional hematoxylin-eosin (HE) and Gram staining protocols could be used to detect bacterial and fungal biofilms in patients with CRS/NP. A total of 50 patients with CRS/NP undergoing endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) were analyzed. The negative control group consisted of 12 patients undergoing septoplasty for nasal obstruction without CRS/NP. The nasal polyps and inferior turbinate mucosa specimens applied as negative controls were processed to HE and Gram staining. Biofilm was detected in 44 of 50 patients with CRS/NP and in none of 12 negative controls. In our series, HE method showed an obvious correlation with the results of Gram staining and was allocated to be a good predictor of biofilm existence. It was found that the microscopic structure and thickness of biofilms were strongly associated with the integrity of nasal mucosa and with the characteristics of subepithelial cellular infiltration. This study confirmed the presence of bacterial and fungal biofilms on the surface of NPs obtained from patients with CRS. Since biofilms may affect the severity and recurrence rate of CRS treated by ESS they should be detected histologically. In conclusion, HE staining combined with Gram protocol is a robust and reliable method for the detection of bacterial and fungal biofilms in CRS/NP.

  4. Antimicrobial compounds targeting Gram-negative bacteria in food: Their mode of action and combinational effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldgaard, Morten

    2015-01-01

    compromising food shelf-life or safety. Natural antimicrobial compounds have therefore gained increased interest as a label-friendly alternative that can be added directly to food products. Although natural antimicrobials constitute an interesting source of compounds, it is often not understood how...... they interact with bacterial cells to exert their mechanism of inhibition or killing. Furthermore, natural antimicrobials are often not potent enough as single compounds, and may cause unwanted sensory side-effects, which limit the quantities that can be applied to food. These problems might be circumvented...... by combining antimicrobials to decrease the concentrations needed without compromising their antimicrobial activity. The work described in this dissertation presents two projects concerning the mechanism of action of selected natural antimicrobial compounds primarily against Gram-negative bacteria, and two...

  5. Combined physico-chemical treatments based on enterocin AS-48 for inactivation of Gram-negative bacteria in soybean sprouts.

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    Cobo Molinos, Antonio; Abriouel, Hikmate; López, Rosario Lucas; Valdivia, Eva; Omar, Nabil Ben; Gálvez, Antonio

    2008-08-01

    Enterocin AS-48 was tested for decontamination of soybean sprouts against Gram-negative bacteria. Although treatment with bacteriocin alone had no effect on Salmonella enterica, a synergistic antimicrobial effect was detected at pH 9.0 and in combination with moderate heat treatment. Greatest inactivation was achieved for sprouts heated for 5 min at 65 degrees C in an alkaline (pH 9.0) enterocin AS-48 solution of 25 microg/ml. Bactericidal activity against S. enterica increased greatly when enterocin AS-48 was used in washing solutions in combination with several chemical compounds: EDTA, lactic acid, peracetic acid, polyphosphoric acid, sodium hypochlorite, hexadecylpyridinium chloride, propyl-p-hydroxybenzoate, and hydrocinnamic acid. The combined treatment of enterocin AS-48 and polyphosphoric acid was tested against several other Gram-negative bacteria inoculated on sprouts. The bacteria tested showed great differences in sensitivity to polyphosphoric acid, but synergism with enterocin AS-48 was confirmed in all cases. Combinations of enterocin AS-48 (25 microg/ml) and polyphosphoric acid in a concentration range of 0.1 to 2.0% significantly reduced or inhibited growth of the populations of S. enterica, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Shigella spp., Enterobacter aerogenes, Yersinia enterocolitica, Aeromonas hydrophila and Pseudomonas fluorescens in sprout samples stored at 6 degrees C and 15 degrees C. The combined treatment could therefore be applied to reduce the risks of Gram-negative pathogenic as well as spoilage bacteria on sprouts.

  6. A resurgence of β-lactamase inhibitor combinations effective against multidrug-resistant Gram-negative pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Karen

    2015-11-01

    β-Lactamase inhibitors (BLIs) have played an important role in combatting β-lactam resistance in Gram-negative bacteria, but their effectiveness has diminished with the evolution of diverse and deleterious varieties of β-lactamases. In this review, a new generation of BLIs and inhibitor combinations is presented, describing epidemiological information, pharmacodynamic studies, resistance identification and current clinical status. Novel serine BLIs of major interest include the non-β-lactams of the diazabicyclo[3.2.1]octanone (DBO) series. The DBOs avibactam, relebactam and RG6080 inhibit most class A and class C β-lactamases, with selected inhibition of class D enzymes by avibactam. The novel boronic acid inhibitor RPX7009 has a similar inhibitory profile. All of these inhibitors are being developed in combinations that are targeting primarily carbapenemase-producing Gram-negative pathogens. Two BLI combinations (ceftolozane/tazobactam and ceftazidime/avibactam) were recently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) under the designation of a Qualified Infectious Disease Product (QIDP). Other inhibitor combinations that have at least completed phase 1 clinical trials are ceftaroline fosamil/avibactam, aztreonam/avibactam, imipenem/relebactam, meropenem/RPX7009 and cefepime/AAI101. Although effective inhibitor combinations are in development for the treatment of infections caused by Gram-negative bacteria with serine carbapenemases, better options are still necessary for pathogens that produce metallo-β-lactamases (MBLs). The aztreonam/avibactam combination demonstrates inhibitory activity against MBL-producing enteric bacteria owing to the stability of the monobactam to these enzymes, but resistance is still an issue for MBL-producing non-fermentative bacteria. Because all of the inhibitor combinations are being developed as parenteral drugs, an orally bioavailable combination would also be of interest. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and the

  7. Gram staining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coico, Richard

    2005-10-01

    Named after Hans Christian Gram who developed the method in 1884, the Gram stain allows one to distinguish between Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria on the basis of differential staining with a crystal violet-iodine complex and a safranin counterstain. The cell walls of Gram-positive organisms retain this complex after treatment with alcohol and appear purple, whereas gram-negative organisms decolorize following such treatment and appear pink. The method described here is useful for assessing bacterial contamination of tissue culture samples or for examining the Gram stain status and morphological features of bacteria isolated from mixed or isolated bacterial cultures.

  8. Activity of levofloxacin alone and in combination with a DnaK inhibitor against gram-negative rods, including levofloxacin-resistant strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Credito, Kim; Lin, Gengrong; Koeth, Laura; Sturgess, Michael A; Appelbaum, Peter C

    2009-02-01

    Synergy time-kill testing of levofloxacin alone and in combination with CHP-105, a representative DnaK inhibitor, against 50 gram-negative rods demonstrated that 34 of the 50 strains tested showed significant synergy between levofloxacin and CHP-105 after 12 h and 24 h. Fourteen of these 34 organisms were quinolone resistant (levofloxacin MICs of > or =4 microg/ml).

  9. Growth and adhesion to HT-29 cells inhibition of Gram-negatives by Bifidobacterium longum BB536 e Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 alone and in combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inturri, R; Stivala, A; Furneri, P M; Blandino, G

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to test the inhibitory effect of supernatants of broth cultures of Bifidobacterium longum BB536 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001, both individually and in combination, against Gram-negative strains (uropathogens, enteropathogens and a reference strain). Moreover, in vitro protection of B. longum BB536 and L. rhamnosus HN001, both individually and in combination, against pathogen adhesion to HT-29 cell line, was investigated. The inhibitory activity was performed by the agar diffusion test and in vitro antagonistic activity against pathogen adhesion to human epithelial intestinal HT-29 cells was performed using standardized culture techniques. The study showed that B. longum BB536 and L. rhamnosus HN001, individually and in combination have inhibitory activity against the majority of the Gram negative strains tested. Furthermore, the results showed that both probiotic strains have a good capacity to inhibit pathogenic adhesion to HT-29 cells. Moreover, the ability of B. longum BB536 and L. rhamnosus HN001 to inhibit pathogenic adhesion increased when they were used in combination. The combination of B. longum BB536 and L. rhamnosus HN001 showed inhibitory activity against Gram-negatives and an improved ability to reduce their adhesion properties and to compete with them. The simultaneous presence of the two-probiotic strains could promote competitive mechanisms able to reduce the adhesion properties of pathogen strains and have an important ecological role within the highly competitive environment of the human gut.

  10. Activity of Levofloxacin Alone and in Combination with a DnaK Inhibitor against Gram-Negative Rods, Including Levofloxacin-Resistant Strains▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Credito, Kim; Lin, Gengrong; Koeth, Laura; Sturgess, Michael A.; Appelbaum, Peter C.

    2009-01-01

    Synergy time-kill testing of levofloxacin alone and in combination with CHP-105, a representative DnaK inhibitor, against 50 gram-negative rods demonstrated that 34 of the 50 strains tested showed significant synergy between levofloxacin and CHP-105 after 12 h and 24 h. Fourteen of these 34 organisms were quinolone resistant (levofloxacin MICs of ≥4 μg/ml). PMID:19015359

  11. Genetic Parameters and Combining Ability Effects of Parents for Seed Yield and other Quantitative Traits in Black Gram [Vigna mungo (L. Hepper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supriyo CHAKRABORTY

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Line x tester analysis was carried out in black gram [Vigna mungo (L. Hepper], an edible legume, to estimate the gca (general combining ability effects of parents (3 lines and 3 testers and the SCA (specific combining ability effects of 9 crosses for seed yield and other eleven quantitative traits. Though additive and nonadditive gene actions governed the expression of quantitative traits, the magnitude of nonadditive gene action was higher than that of additive gene action for each quantitative trait. Two parents viz. �UG157� and �DPU915� were good general combiners. Two crosses namely �PDB 88-31�/�DPU 915� and �PLU 277�/�KAU7� had high per se performance along with positive significant SCA effect for seed yield/plant. The degree of dominance revealed overdominance for all the traits except clusters/plant with partial dominance. The predictability ratio also revealed the predominant role of nonadditive gene action in the genetic control of quantitative traits. Narrow sense heritability was also low for each trait. Recurrent selection or biparental mating followed by selection which can exploit both additive and nonadditive gene actions would be of interest for yield improvement in black gram. Due to presence of high magnitude of nonadditive gene action, heterosis breeding could also be attempted to develop low cost hybrid variety using genetic male sterility system in black gram.

  12. Genetic Parameters and Combining Ability Effects of Parents for Seed Yield and other Quantitative Traits in Black Gram [Vigna mungo (L. Hepper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supriyo CHAKRABORTY

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Line x tester analysis was carried out in black gram [Vigna mungo (L. Hepper], an edible legume, to estimate the gca (general combining ability effects of parents (3 lines and 3 testers and the SCA (specific combining ability effects of 9 crosses for seed yield and other eleven quantitative traits. Though additive and nonadditive gene actions governed the expression of quantitative traits, the magnitude of nonadditive gene action was higher than that of additive gene action for each quantitative trait. Two parents viz. UG157 and DPU915 were good general combiners. Two crosses namely PDB 88-31/DPU 915 and PLU 277/KAU7 had high per se performance along with positive significant SCA effect for seed yield/plant. The degree of dominance revealed overdominance for all the traits except clusters/plant with partial dominance. The predictability ratio also revealed the predominant role of nonadditive gene action in the genetic control of quantitative traits. Narrow sense heritability was also low for each trait. Recurrent selection or biparental mating followed by selection which can exploit both additive and nonadditive gene actions would be of interest for yield improvement in black gram. Due to presence of high magnitude of nonadditive gene action, heterosis breeding could also be attempted to develop low cost hybrid variety using genetic male sterility system in black gram.

  13. High-throughput hydrophilic interaction chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry for the optimized quantification of the anti-Gram-negatives antibiotic colistin A/B and its pro-drug colistimethate.

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    Mercier, Thomas; Tissot, Fréderic; Gardiol, Céline; Corti, Natascia; Wehrli, Stéphane; Guidi, Monia; Csajka, Chantal; Buclin, Thierry; Couet, William; Marchetti, Oscar; Decosterd, Laurent A

    2014-11-21

    Colistin is a last resort's antibacterial treatment in critically ill patients with multi-drug resistant Gram-negative infections. As appropriate colistin exposure is the key for maximizing efficacy while minimizing toxicity, individualized dosing optimization guided by therapeutic drug monitoring is a top clinical priority. Objective of the present work was to develop a rapid and robust HPLC-MS/MS assay for quantification of colistin plasma concentrations. This novel methodology validated according to international standards simultaneously quantifies the microbiologically active compounds colistin A and B, plus the pro-drug colistin methanesulfonate (colistimethate, CMS). 96-well micro-Elution SPE on Oasis Hydrophilic-Lipophilic-Balanced (HLB) followed by direct analysis by Hydrophilic Interaction Liquid Chromatography (HILIC) with Ethylene Bridged Hybrid--BEH--Amide phase column coupled to tandem mass spectrometry allows a high-throughput with no significant matrix effect. The technique is highly sensitive (limit of quantification 0.014 and 0.006 μg/mL for colistin A and B), precise (intra-/inter-assay CV 0.6-8.4%) and accurate (intra-/inter-assay deviation from nominal concentrations -4.4 to +6.3%) over the clinically relevant analytical range 0.05-20 μg/mL. Colistin A and B in plasma and whole blood samples are reliably quantified over 48 h at room temperature and at +4°C (<6% deviation from nominal values) and after three freeze-thaw cycles. Colistimethate acidic hydrolysis (1M H2SO4) to colistin A and B in plasma was completed in vitro after 15 min of sonication while the pro-drug hydrolyzed spontaneously in plasma ex vivo after 4 h at room temperature: this information is of utmost importance for interpretation of analytical results. Quantification is precise and accurate when using serum, citrated or EDTA plasma as biological matrix, while use of heparin plasma is not appropriate. This new analytical technique providing optimized quantification in real

  14. Prediction of severe pre-eclampsia by a combination of sFlt-1, CT-pro ET1 and blood pressure: exploratory study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malte, Anne Lind; Uldbjerg, Niels; Wright, David

    2018-01-01

    gestational age 35(+6) weeks) attending the obstetrical outpatient clinic, and 99 with normal pregnancies. RESULTS: In a group of patients presenting with mild to moderate symptoms of preeclampsia, a combination of C-terminal Pro Endothelin 1 (CT-Pro-ET1), sFlt-1 and systolic blood pressure reached an Area...

  15. In vitro activities of beta-lactam antibiotics alone and in combination with sulbactam against Gram-negative bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fu-Der; Lin, Mei-Lin; Lee, Wen-Sen; Liu, Cheng-Yi

    2004-06-01

    The resistance rates of ampicillin/sulbactam 2:1 against imipenem-susceptible and -resistant Acinetobacter baumannii were 23.5 and 30%, respectively. Ceftazidime/sulbactam combination showed significant reduction of resistant rates against Enterobacter cloacae, A. baumannii, ESBL Klebsiella pneumoniae. MIC90 of cefoperazone against E. cloacae, Serratia marcescens, A. baumannii and ESBL K. pneumoniae were > 128 mg/l. Addition of sulbactam enhanced the antimicrobial activities significantly. When imipenem was combined with sulbactam, the resistant rates against imipenem-resistant A. baumanni were significantly reduced. Cefepime/sulbactam combination was active against imipenem-resistant A. baumanni. The resistance rates of aztreonam/sulbactam combination against E. cloacae, imipenem-sensitive and resistant A. baumannii, ESBL K. pneumoniae were lowered significantly. The cefotaxime/sulbactam combination showed a significant improvement of activities against E. cloacae, S. marcescens, A. baumannii and ESBL K. pneumoniae. Copyright 2004 Elsevier B.V.

  16. Expanding the potential of NAI-107 for treating serious ESKAPE pathogens: synergistic combinations against Gram-negatives and bactericidal activity against non-dividing cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunati, Cristina; Thomsen, Thomas T; Gaspari, Eleonora; Maffioli, Sonia; Sosio, Margherita; Jabes, Daniela; Løbner-Olesen, Anders; Donadio, Stefano

    2018-02-01

    To characterize NAI-107 and related lantibiotics for their in vitro activity against Gram-negative pathogens, alone or in combination with polymyxin, and against non-dividing cells or biofilms of Staphylococcus aureus. NAI-107 was also evaluated for its propensity to select or induce self-resistance in Gram-positive bacteria. We used MIC determinations and chequerboard experiments to establish the antibacterial activity of the examined compounds against target microorganisms. Time-kill assays were used to evaluate killing of exponential and stationary-phase cells. The effects on biofilms (growth inhibition and biofilm eradication) were evaluated using biofilm-coated pegs. The frequency of spontaneous resistant mutants was evaluated by either direct plating or by continuous sub-culturing at 0.5 × MIC levels, followed by population analysis profiles. The results showed that NAI-107 and its brominated variant are highly active against Neisseria gonorrhoeae and some other fastidious Gram-negative pathogens. Furthermore, all compounds strongly synergized with polymyxin against Acinetobacter baumannii, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and showed bactericidal activity. Surprisingly, NAI-107 alone was bactericidal against non-dividing A. baumannii cells. Against S. aureus, NAI-107 and related lantibiotics showed strong bactericidal activity against dividing and non-dividing cells. Activity was also observed against S. aureus biofilms. As expected for a lipid II binder, no significant resistance to NAI-107 was observed by direct plating or serial passages. Overall, the results of the current work, along with previously published results on the efficacy of NAI-107 in experimental models of infection, indicate that this lantibiotic represents a promising option in addressing the serious threat of antibiotic resistance. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial

  17. Fecal Microbiota Transfer for Multidrug-Resistant Gram-Negatives: A Clinical Success Combined With Microbiological Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalenhoef, Janneke E; Terveer, Elisabeth M; Knetsch, Cornelis W; Van't Hof, Peter J; Vlasveld, Imro N; Keller, Josbert J; Visser, Leo G; Kuijper, Eduard J

    2017-01-01

    Combined fecal microbiota transfer and antibiotic treatment prevented recurrences of urinary tract infections with multidrug-resistant (MDR) Pseudomonas aeruginosa , but it failed to eradicate intestinal colonization with MDR Escherichia coli . Based on microbiota analysis, failure was not associated with distinct diminished microbiota diversity.

  18. In vitro activity and in vivo animal model efficacy of IB-367 alone and in combination with imipenem and colistin against Gram-negative bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonetti, Oriana; Cirioni, Oscar; Ghiselli, Roberto; Orlando, Fiorenza; Silvestri, Carmela; Mazzocato, Susanna; Kamysz, Wojciech; Kamysz, Elzbieta; Provinciali, Mauro; Giacometti, Andrea; Guerrieri, Mario; Offidani, Annamaria

    2014-05-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the in vitro activity of IB-367 and its bactericidal effect for Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli, associated to a synergic study to test the antibiotic combinations between the peptide and colistin or imipenem. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs), the minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs), the synergy test and killing study were carried out to evaluate the IB-367 activity. In the in vivo model, a wound was incised through the panniculus carnosus of BALB/c mice, and then inoculated with 5 × 107 colony-forming units of P. aeruginosa and E. coli. For each strain, the study included an infected or not infected group that did not receive any treatment, and five contaminated groups treated with local IB- 367, intraperitoneal imipenem, intraperitoneal colistin, topical IB-367 local plus intraperitoneal imipenem or intraperitoneal colistin. All isolates were inhibited by IB-367 at concentrations of 4-64 mg/l. Killing by IB-367 was shown to be very rapid: its activity on all Gram-negative bacteria was completed within a 40 min exposure period at a concentration of 2 × MIC/l. Synergy was demonstrated when IB-367 was combined with colistin or imipenem. In in vivo studies, the groups treated with topical IB-367 and intraperitoneal colistin showed the best results in terms of bacterial load inhibition either for Pseudomonas or for E. coli. The good in vitro activity and in vivo efficacy, as well as, the synergic interactions with antibiotics suggest that IB-367 is a promising candidate for potential application in the treatment of wound Gram-negative infections. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Combined use of flow cytometry and microscopy to study the interactions between the gram-negative betaproteobacterium Acidovorax facilis and uranium(VI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerber, U., E-mail: u.gerber@hzdr.de [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Institute of Resource Ecology, P.O. Box 510119, 01314 Dresden (Germany); Zirnstein, I. [Research Institute of Leather and Plastic Sheeting (FILK) gGmbH, Meissner Ring 1-5, 09599 Freiberg (Germany); Krawczyk-Bärsch, E. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Institute of Resource Ecology, P.O. Box 510119, 01314 Dresden (Germany); Lünsdorf, H. [Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, Central Facility for Microscopy, Inhoffenstr. 7, D-38124 Braunschweig (Germany); Arnold, T. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Institute of Resource Ecology, P.O. Box 510119, 01314 Dresden (Germany); Merroun, M.L. [University of Granada, Department of Microbiology, Campus Fuentenueva, E-18071 Granada (Spain)

    2016-11-05

    Highlights: • Acidovorax facilis is able to remove 130 mg U/g dry biomass from solution. • Kinetically temperature-dependent uranium removal was studied. • Cell viability and metabolic activity was tested by flow cytometry. • Uranium was removed by active biosorption and passive bioaccumulation. - Abstract: The former uranium mine Königstein (Saxony, Germany) is currently in the process of remediation by means of controlled underground flooding. Nevertheless, the flooding water has to be cleaned up by a conventional wastewater treatment plant. In this study, the uranium(VI) removal and tolerance mechanisms of the gram-negative betaproteobacterium Acidovorax facilis were investigated by a multidisciplinary approach combining wet chemistry, flow cytometry, and microscopy. The kinetics of uranium removal and the corresponding mechanisms were investigated. The results showed a biphasic process of uranium removal characterized by a first phase where 95% of uranium was removed within the first 8 h followed by a second phase that reached equilibrium after 24 h. The bacterial cells displayed a total uranium removal capacity of 130 mg U/g dry biomass. The removal of uranium was also temperature-dependent, indicating that metabolic activity heavily influenced bacterial interactions with uranium. TEM analyses showed biosorption on the cell surface and intracellular accumulation of uranium. Uranium tolerance tests showed that A. facilis was able to withstand concentrations up to 0.1 mM. This work demonstrates that A. facilis is a suitable candidate for in situ bioremediation of flooding water in Königstein as well as for other contaminated waste waters.

  20. Combined measurement of copeptin, high-sensitivity troponin T, and N-terminal proBNP improves the identification of patients at risk of cardiovascular death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alehagen, Urban; Dahlström, Ulf; Carstensen, John

    2012-01-01

    and all mortality was registered. Cardiovascular mortality was evaluated using Kaplan–Meier plots and multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression analyses. Results: Copeptin, HS-TnT, and NT-proBNP measurements provided independent prognostic information in a multivariate setting over 5 years (hazard......Objectives: A multimarker strategy for the handling of patients with heart failure has been suggested in the literature. Therefore, the potential prognostic relevance of combined copeptin, high-sensitivity troponin T (HS-TnT), and N-terminal proBNP (NT-proBNP) measurement in plasma from elderly...... patients with symptoms of heart failure was evaluated. Methods: This study included 470 elderly patients (mean age 73 years) from a rural municipality with symptoms of heart failure. Clinical examination, echocardiography, and biomarker measurements were performed. All patients were followed for 13 years...

  1. Comparative Evaluation of Smear Layer and Debris on the Canal Walls prepared with a Combination of Hand and Rotary ProTaper Technique using Scanning Electron Microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiran, S; Prakash, Sandeep; Siddharth, Pujari R; Saha, Supradip; Geojan, Naiza E; Ramachandran, Mookambika

    2016-07-01

    The effect of smear layer and debris on the success rate of endodontic treatment has not yet been definitely determined. So the present study was aimed to evaluate the amount of smear layer and debris on the canal walls prepared with a combination of hand and rotary ProTaper technique using NaOCl and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) alternately as root canal irrigants using scanning electron microscope (SEM). Eighty intact freshly extracted human permanent mandibular premolar teeth were collected and randomly divided equally into four groups. In group I canals were prepared with hand K-Flexofiles; group II with rotary ProTaper instruments; group III with rotary ProTaper instruments and final instrumentation was done with hand K-Flexofile; group IV with rotary ProTaper instruments and final instrumentation was done with RC-Prep and irrigated with 1 mL of normal saline. In all groups canals were irrigated using NaOCl and EDTA alternately. After instrumentation, the teeth were prepared for SEM examination using five-score indices for debris and smear layer at coronal, middle, and apical third levels. Statistical analysis was performed using chi-square test (p hand files after automated rotary preparation could result in cleaner canal walls. Alternate irrigation with NaOCl and EDTA is effective in the removal of debris and smear layer in the coronal and middle level, but the effectiveness in the apical third is less.

  2. Prediction of severe pre-eclampsia/HELLP syndrome by combination of sFlt-1, CT-pro-ET-1 and blood pressure: exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind Malte, A; Uldbjerg, N; Wright, D; Tørring, N

    2018-06-01

    To evaluate the performance of a combination of angiogenic and vasoactive biomarkers to predict the development of severe pre-eclampsia (PE)/HELLP syndrome in the third trimester. Included were 215 women referred in the third trimester to an obstetric outpatient clinic with suspected PE (mean gestational age, 35 + 4 weeks), and 94 with normal pregnancy attending a midwife clinic. Cases were categorized as having subclinical PE, essential hypertension, gestational hypertension, moderate PE, and severe PE/HELLP syndrome. Blood samples were analyzed by immunoassay and groups were compared with respect to potential clinical and biochemical biomarkers, with the primary outcome being development of severe PE/HELLP syndrome within 1 week and within 2 weeks of analysis. The most promising markers were also assessed in combination. In the patients presenting with mild to moderate symptoms of PE, the individual markers which performed best for the prediction of progression to severe PE/HELLP syndrome within 1 week and within 2 weeks of biomarker evaluation were C-terminal pro-endothelin-1 (CT-pro-ET-1) (area under the receiver-operating characteristics curve (AUC), 0.82 and 0.78, respectively), soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1) (AUC, 0.81 and 0.76), systolic blood pressure (AUC, 0.80 and 0.68) and midregional pro-atrial natriuretic peptide (AUC, 0.79 and 0.77). The combination of biomarkers with the best performance was CT-pro-ET-1, sFlt-1 and systolic blood pressure, achieving an AUC of 0.94 for prediction of development of severe PE/HELLP syndrome within 1 week and an AUC of 0.83 for prediction of their development within 2 weeks of biomarker evaluation. The performance of CT-pro-ET-1 for prediction of the development of PE/HELLP syndrome in the third trimester was promising, especially in combination with sFlt-1 and systolic blood pressure. This was an exploratory study and our findings should be confirmed in further studies. Copyright © 2017

  3. Combined effects of NQO1 Pro187Ser or SULT1A1 Arg213His polymorphism and smoking on bladder cancer risk: Two meta-analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Chun Wang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Objectives: Cigarette smoking is the major risk factor of bladder cancer via exposure to chemical carcinogens. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP+: quinine oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1 and sulfotransferase 1A1 (SULT1A1 have been reported to involve in the metabolism of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs and aromatic amines. Therefore, the risk of bladder cancer (BC may be influenced by polymorphisms in the genes that modulate metabolic detoxification in particular by interacting with cigarette smoking. Considering the limited power by the individual studies with a relatively small sample size, especially when analyzing the combined effect of polymorphisms in NQO1 and SULT1A1 genes and smoking, these 2 meta-analyses have aimed to clarify the combined effects of them on BC risk by integrating related studies. Material and Methods: Two meta-analyses included 1341 cases and 1346 controls concerning NQO1 Pro187Ser and smoking, and 1921 cases and 1882 controls on SULT1A1 Arg213His and smoking were performed. Odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI were used for assessing the strength of the association. Results: The result has demonstrated that smokers with NQO1 Pro/Ser or Ser/Ser genotypes have a prominent association with the risk of BC as compared with non-smokers with NQO1 Pro/Pro genotype, with OR equal to 3.71 (95% CI: 2.87–4.78, pheterogeneity = 0.376. Besides, smokers carrying SULT1A1 Arg/Arg genotypes were observed to confer 2.38 fold increased risk of BC (95% CI: 1.44–3.93, pheterogeneity = 0.001 when compared with non-smokers with SULT1A1 Arg/Arg or His/His genotypes. Conclusions: These findings have suggested that the NQO1 Pro187Ser or SULT1A1 Arg213His polymorphism combination with smoking significantly confer susceptibility to BC. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2017;30(5:791–802

  4. Combined effects of NQO1 Pro187Ser or SULT1A1 Arg213His polymorphism and smoking on bladder cancer risk: Two meta-analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Chun; Wang, Jian; Tao, Hui-Hui; Zhang, Chao; Xu, Li-Fa

    2017-07-14

    Objectives: Cigarette smoking is the major risk factor of bladder cancer via exposure to chemical carcinogens. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP+): quinine oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) and sulfotransferase 1A1 (SULT1A1) have been reported to involve in the metabolism of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and aromatic amines. Therefore, the risk of bladder cancer (BC) may be influenced by polymorphisms in the genes that modulate metabolic detoxification in particular by interacting with cigarette smoking. Considering the limited power by the individual studies with a relatively small sample size, especially when analyzing the combined effect of polymorphisms in NQO1 and SULT1A1 genes and smoking, these 2 meta-analyses have aimed to clarify the combined effects of them on BC risk by integrating related studies. Two meta-analyses included 1341 cases and 1346 controls concerning NQO1 Pro187Ser and smoking, and 1921 cases and 1882 controls on SULT1A1 Arg213His and smoking were performed. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were used for assessing the strength of the association. The result has demonstrated that smokers with NQO1 Pro/Ser or Ser/Ser genotypes have a prominent association with the risk of BC as compared with non-smokers with NQO1 Pro/Pro genotype, with OR equal to 3.71 (95% CI: 2.87-4.78, pheterogeneity = 0.376). Besides, smokers carrying SULT1A1 Arg/Arg genotypes were observed to confer 2.38 fold increased risk of BC (95% CI: 1.44-3.93, pheterogeneity = 0.001) when compared with non-smokers with SULT1A1 Arg/Arg or His/His genotypes. These findings have suggested that the NQO1 Pro187Ser or SULT1A1 Arg213His polymorphism combination with smoking significantly confer susceptibility to BC. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2017;30(5):791-802. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  5. 2-D Difference in gel electrophoresis combined with Pro-Q Diamond staining: a successful approach for the identification of kinase/phosphatase targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsatti, Laura; Forte, Eleonora; Tomei, Licia; Caterino, Marianna; Pessi, Antonello; Talamo, Fabio

    2009-07-01

    The protein tyrosine phosphatase PRL-3 is an appealing therapeutic cancer target for its well described involvement in the metastasis progression. Nevertheless, very little is known about PRL-3 role in tumorigenesis. In the attempt to identify the protein target of this phosphatase we have devised a model system based on the use of highly invasive HCT116 colon cancer cells over-expressing PRL-3. We used 2-D difference gel electrophoresis combined with the fluorescence staining Pro-Q Diamond selective for phosphorylated proteins to monitor changes in the phosphorylation status of possible substrates. Proteins whose phosphorylation level was negatively affected by PRL-3 over-expression were identified by MS. Two proteins were found to be significantly dephosphorylated in this condition, the cytoskeletal protein ezrin and elongation factor 2. Ezrin has already been described as having a proactive role in cancer metastasis through control of its phosphorylation status, and the PRL-3-induced modulation of ezrin phosphorylation in HCT116 and human umblical vascular endothelial cells is the subject of a separate paper by Forte et al. [Biochim. Biophys. Acta 2008, 1783, 334-344]. The combination of 2-D difference in gel electrophoresis and Pro-Q Diamond was hence confirmed successful in analyzing changes of protein phosphorylation which enable the identification of kinase/phosphatase targets.

  6. Species-Level Discrimination of Psychrotrophic Pathogenic and Spoilage Gram-Negative Raw Milk Isolates Using a Combined MALDI-TOF MS Proteomics-Bioinformatics-based Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vithanage, Nuwan R; Bhongir, Jeevana; Jadhav, Snehal R; Ranadheera, Chaminda S; Palombo, Enzo A; Yeager, Thomas R; Datta, Nivedita

    2017-06-02

    Identification of psychrotrophic pathogenic and spoilage Gram-negative bacteria using rapid and reliable techniques is important in commercial milk processing, as these bacteria can produce heat-resistant proteases and act as postprocessing contaminants in pasteurized milk. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is a proven technology for identification of bacteria in food, however, may require optimization for identification of pathogenic and spoilage bacteria in milk and dairy products. The current study evaluated the effects of various culture conditions and sample preparation methods on assigning of raw milk isolates to the species level by MALDI-TOF MS. The results indicated that culture media, incubation conditions (temperature and time), and sample preparation significantly affected the identification rates of bacteria to the species level. Nevertheless, the development of spectral libraries of isolates grown on different media using a web tool for hierarchical clustering of peptide mass spectra (SPECLUST) followed by a ribosomal protein based bioinformatics approach significantly enhanced the assigning of bacteria, with at least one unique candidate biomarker peak identified for each species. Phyloproteomic relationships based on spectral profiles were compared to phylogenetic analysis using 16S rRNA gene sequences and demonstrated similar clustering patterns with significant discriminatory power. Thus, with appropriate optimization, MALDI-TOF MS is a valuable tool for species-level discrimination of pathogenic and milk spoilage bacteria.

  7. Stool Gram stain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... stool sample. The Gram stain method is sometimes used to quickly diagnose bacterial infections. How the Test is Performed You will need to collect a stool sample. There are many ways to collect the sample. You can catch the stool on plastic wrap that is loosely placed over the toilet bowl ...

  8. A Novel Topical Combination Ointment with Antimicrobial Activity against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Gram-Negative Superbugs, Yeasts, and Dermatophytic Fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth S. Thomson, B.Ag.Sc, MS, PhD

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that this combination ointment has a broad in vitro spectrum of antimicrobial activity against both more common bacterial and fungal pathogens and may be particularly useful for treatment of infections by multidrug-resistant organisms. Additional studies are warranted to investigate the full clinical utility as a therapeutic agent and also for possible infection control interventions.

  9. Pro Puppet

    CERN Document Server

    Krum, Spencer; Kero, Ben; Turnbull, James; McCune, Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    Pro Puppet, Second Edition, now updated for Puppet 3, is an in-depth guide to installing, using, and developing the popular configuration management tool Puppet. Puppet provides a way to automate everything from user management to server configuration. You'll learn how Puppet has changed in the latest version, how to use it on a variety of platforms, including Windows, how to work with Puppet modules, and how to use Hiera. Puppet is a must-have tool for system administrators, and Pro Puppet will teach you how to maximize its capabilities and customize it for your environment.

  10. Pro Puppet

    CERN Document Server

    Turnbull, James

    2011-01-01

    Pro Puppet is an in-depth guide to installing, using, and developing the popular configuration management tool Puppet. The book is a comprehensive follow-up to the previous title Pulling Strings with Puppet. Puppet provides a way to automate everything from user management to server configuration. You'll learn how to create Puppet recipes, extend Puppet, and use Facter to gather configuration data from your servers. Puppet is a must-have tool for system administrators, and Pro Puppet will teach you how to maximize its capabilities and customize it for your environment. * Install and configure

  11. Pro Python

    CERN Document Server

    Alchin, Marty

    2010-01-01

    You've learned the basics of Python, but how do you take your skills to the next stage? Even if you know enough to be productive, there are a number of features that can take you to the next level in Python. Pro Python explores concepts and features normally left to experimentation, allowing you to be even more productive and creative. In addition to pure code concerns, Pro Python will develop your programming techniques and approaches, which will help make you a better Python programmer. Not only will this book help your code, it will also help you understand and interact with the many establ

  12. CSSI-PRO: a method for secondary structure type editing, assignment and estimation in proteins using linear combination of backbone chemical shifts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swain, Monalisa; Atreya, Hanudatta S.

    2009-01-01

    Estimation of secondary structure in polypeptides is important for studying their structure, folding and dynamics. In NMR spectroscopy, such information is generally obtained after sequence specific resonance assignments are completed. We present here a new methodology for assignment of secondary structure type to spin systems in proteins directly from NMR spectra, without prior knowledge of resonance assignments. The methodology, named Combination of Shifts for Secondary Structure Identification in Proteins (CSSI-PRO), involves detection of specific linear combination of backbone 1 H α and 13 C' chemical shifts in a two-dimensional (2D) NMR experiment based on G-matrix Fourier transform (GFT) NMR spectroscopy. Such linear combinations of shifts facilitate editing of residues belonging to α-helical/β-strand regions into distinct spectral regions nearly independent of the amino acid type, thereby allowing the estimation of overall secondary structure content of the protein. Comparison of the predicted secondary structure content with those estimated based on their respective 3D structures and/or the method of Chemical Shift Index for 237 proteins gives a correlation of more than 90% and an overall rmsd of 7.0%, which is comparable to other biophysical techniques used for structural characterization of proteins. Taken together, this methodology has a wide range of applications in NMR spectroscopy such as rapid protein structure determination, monitoring conformational changes in protein-folding/ligand-binding studies and automated resonance assignment

  13. Is product diversification the Ultimate Quid Pro Quo for Gender sensitive Poverty Alleviation? Adverse Social Externalities from Combined Microfinance in Latin America and the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROSSEL-CAMBIER, Koen

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Documented deficiencies in traditional social transfer mechanisms have led to the emergence of alternative methods for reducing poverty. In many countries, microfinance institutions (MFIs have become popular instruments for redistributive propoor policies. However, they are also criticised for not being inclusive enough. This paper explores if product diversification has an effect on poverty outreach, in particular when combining micro- credit with savings and insurance. It applies cross-sectional analysis of 250 microfinance schemes in Latin America and the Caribbean. By focusing on elements of the depth of poverty outreach, the research highlights a number of possible effects of combined microfinance (CMF. Product diversification can significantly contribute to increased social outreach («breadth» of poverty outreach. However, the findings suggest that, in the case of combining credit with savings, this is leading to a relatively lower participation of poor and female clients («depth» of poverty outreach. Exclusionary and discriminatory vulnerabilities and dynamics, linked to specific financial products, may apply double or even reinforce each other. Cumulative financial, cultural, geographical or communication barriers can make participation in multiple financial products more challenging. These findings have not been adequately tackled by academic literature, but are most relevant for MFI stakeholders and policy makers. If gender-sensitive or pro-poor income generation is at the heart of the mission of MFIs, corrective measures to these forms of adverse externalities should be considered.

  14. The comparison of pyrosequencing molecular Gram stain, culture, and conventional Gram stain for diagnosing orthopaedic infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Naomi; Bauer, Thomas W; Tuohy, Marion J; Lieberman, Isador H; Krebs, Viktor; Togawa, Daisuke; Fujishiro, Takaaki; Procop, Gary W

    2006-08-01

    We have developed a combined real-time PCR and pyrosequencing assay that successfully differentiated the vast majority of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria when bacterial isolates were tested. The purpose of this study was to evaluate this assay on clinical specimens obtained from orthopedic surgeries, and to prospectively compare the results of "molecular Gram stain" with culture and conventional direct Gram stain. Forty-five surgical specimens were obtained from patients who underwent orthopedic surgery procedures. The DNA was extracted and a set of broad-range PCR primers that targeted a part of the 16S rDNA gene was used for pan-bacterial PCR. The amplicons were submitted for pyrosequencing and the resulting molecular Gram stain characteristics were recorded. Culture and direct Gram staining were performed using standard methods for all cases. Surgical specimens were reviewed histologically for all cases that had a discrepancy between culture and molecular results. There was an 86.7% (39/45) agreement between the traditional and molecular methods. In 12/14 (85.7%) culture-proven cases of bacterial infection, molecular Gram stain characteristics were in agreement with the culture results, while the conventional Gram stain result was in agreement only for five cases (35.7%). In the 31 culture negative cases, 27 cases were also PCR negative, whereas 4 were PCR positive. Three of these were characterized as gram negative and one as gram positive by this molecular method. Molecular determination of the Gram stain characteristics of bacteria that cause orthopedic infections may be achieved, in most instances, by this method. Further studies are necessary to understand the clinical importance of PCR-positive/culture-negative results.

  15. In Vitro Activity of MK-7655, a Novel β-Lactamase Inhibitor, in Combination with Imipenem against Carbapenem-Resistant Gram-Negative Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Elizabeth B.; Ledesma, Kimberly R.; Chang, Kai-Tai; Schwartz, Michael S.; Motyl, Mary R.

    2012-01-01

    Carbapenem-resistant bacteria represent a significant treatment challenge due to the lack of active antimicrobials available. MK-7655 is a novel β-lactamase inhibitor under clinical development. We investigated the combined killing activity of imipenem and MK-7655 against four imipenem-resistant bacterial strains, using a mathematical model previously evaluated in our laboratory. Time-kill studies (TKS) were conducted with imipenem and MK-7655 against a KPC-2-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae isolate (KP6339) as well as 3 Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates (PA24226, PA24227, and PA24228) with OprD porin deletions and overexpression of AmpC. TKS were performed using 25 clinically achievable concentration combinations in a 5-by-5 array. Bacterial burden at 24 h was determined in triplicate by quantitative culture and mathematically modeled using a three-dimensional response surface. Mathematical model assessments were evaluated experimentally using clinically relevant dosing regimens of imipenem, with or without MK-7655, in a hollow-fiber infection model (HFIM). The combination of imipenem and MK-7655 was synergistic for all strains. Interaction indices were as follows: for KP6339, 0.50 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.42 to 0.58); for PA24226, 0.60 (95% CI, 0.58 to 0.62); for PA24227, 0.70 (95% CI, 0.66 to 0.74); and for PA24228, 0.55 (95% CI, 0.49 to 0.61). In the HFIM, imipenem plus MK-7655 considerably reduced the bacterial burden at 24 h, while failure with imipenem alone was seen against all isolates. Sustained suppression of bacterial growth at 72 h was achieved with simulated doses of 500 mg imipenem plus 500 mg MK-7655 in 2 (KP6339 and PA24227) strains, and it was achieved in an additional strain (PA24228) when the imipenem dose was increased to 1,000 mg. Additional studies are being conducted to determine the optimal dose and combinations to be used in clinical investigations. PMID:22526311

  16. The Effect of Combined Treatment with the (ProRenin Receptor Blocker HRP and Quinapril in Type 1 Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gábor Kökény

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Diabetic nephropathy remains a major clinical problem. The effects of prorenin might be adverse, but the literature data are controversial. We compared the renal effects of the (prorenin receptor ((PRR blockade and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE inhibition on the progression of diabetic nephropathy in rats. Methods: Diabetes (DM was induced by ip. streptozotocin administration in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats, followed by eight weeks of treatment with the (PRR blocker „handle region” decoy peptide (HRP, 0,1 mg/kg/day or with the ACE inhibitor Quinapril (Q, 50 mg/kg/day and grouped as follows: 1. Control (n=10; 2. DM (n=8; 3. DM+HRP (n=6; 4. DM+Q (n=10; 5. DM+Q+HRP (n=10. Renal functional parameters, histology and gene expressions were evaluated. Results: HRP reduced glomerulosclerosis and podocyte desmin expression, but did not affect proteinuria and tubular ERK(1/2 phosphorylation. Both Q and Q+HRP treatment reduced proteinuria, glomerular and tubular damage, tubular TGF-ß1 expression and ERK(1/2 phosphorylation to the same extent. Conclusion: The effects of HRP were partially beneficial on diabetic kidney lesions as HRP reduced damage but did not improve tubular damage and failed to reduce ERK(1/2 phosphorylation in rats. The combination of HRP with Quinapril had no additive effects over Quinapril monotherapy on the progression of diabetic nephropathy.

  17. Pro Android 2

    CERN Document Server

    Hashimi, S; MacLean, Dave

    2010-01-01

    Pro Android 2 shows you how to build real-world and fun mobile applications using Google's latest Android SDK. This new edition is fully updated for Android 2, covering everything from the fundamentals of building applications for embedded devices to advanced concepts such as custom 3D components, OpenGL, and touchscreens including gestures. While other Android development guides simply discuss topics, Pro Android 2 offers the combination of expert insight and real sample applications that work. * Discover the design and architecture of the Android SDK through practical examples, and how to bu

  18. Pro Hadoop

    CERN Document Server

    Venner, J

    2009-01-01

    You've heard the hype about Hadoop: it runs petabyte--scale data mining tasks insanely fast, it runs gigantic tasks on clouds for absurdly cheap, it's been heavily committed to by tech giants like IBM, Yahoo!, and the Apache Project, and it's completely open source (thus free). But what exactly is it, and more importantly, how do you even get a Hadoop cluster up and running? From Apress, the name you've come to trust for hands--on technical knowledge, Pro Hadoop brings you up to speed on Hadoop. You learn the ins and outs of MapReduce; how to structure a cluster, design, and implement the Hado

  19. Fixed-dose combination PRO 160/120 of sabal and urtica extracts improves nocturia in men with LUTS suggestive of BPH: re-evaluation of four controlled clinical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oelke, Matthias; Berges, Richard; Schläfke, Sandra; Burkart, Martin

    2014-10-01

    To determine the effects of the herbal fixed-dose combination PRO 160/120 (extracts from saw palmetto fruits and stinging nettle roots) on nocturnal voiding frequency, as measured by question 7 of the IPSS questionnaire, in patients with moderate-to-severe LUTS/BPH after 24 weeks of treatment compared to placebo, to the α-blocker tamsulosin, or to the 5α-reductase inhibitor finasteride. The study is about post hoc evaluation of four published randomized, double-blind clinical trials on PRO 160/120, two compared with placebo, one with finasteride and one with tamsulosin. In addition, a pooled data analysis of the two placebo-controlled trials was conducted. We analyzed data from a total of 922 patients with a mean age of 66 years and a mean baseline nocturnal voiding frequency of 2.1. In the pooled analysis of placebo-controlled trials, nocturnal voids improved by 0.8 (29 %) with PRO 160/120 compared to 0.6 (18 %) with placebo (p = 0.015, Wilcoxon test, one-tailed). The 69 % responder rate to PRO 160/120 was significantly superior to the placebo response (52 %; p = 0.003, χ (2)-test, two-tailed). The majority of responders improved by 1 void/night. Absolute improvements and response rates were consistently higher with PRO 160/120 than with placebo over a range of baseline nocturnal voiding frequencies. There were no differences between PRO 160/120 and finasteride or tamsulosin regarding absolute improvement of nocturnal voids or responds rates. PRO 160/120 significantly improved nocturnal voiding frequency compared to placebo and similar to tamsulosin or finasteride.

  20. Numerical Gram-Schmidt orthonormalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werneth, Charles M; Dhar, Mallika; Maung, Khin Maung; Sirola, Christopher; Norbury, John W

    2010-01-01

    A numerical Gram-Schmidt orthonormalization procedure is presented for constructing an orthonormal basis function set from a non-orthonormal set, when the number of basis functions is large. This method will provide a pedagogical illustration of the Gram-Schmidt procedure and can be presented in classes on numerical methods or computational physics.

  1. Pro Android games

    CERN Document Server

    Nardone, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Combining actionable, real-world source code with graphics, Pro Android Games, Third Edition shows you how to build more sophisticated and addictive Android game apps with minimum effort. Harness the power of the latest Android 5.0 SDK to bring countless legendary, action-packed PC games to the Android platform. With actionable real-world source code, this one of a kind book shows you how to build more sophisticated and addictive Android game apps, by leveraging the power of the recent advancements found in the new Android 5.0 software development kit as well as those you've counted on in e

  2. Value of Combining Left Atrial Diameter and Amino-terminal Pro-brain Natriuretic Peptide to the CHA2DS2-VASc Score for Predicting Stroke and Death in Patients with Sick Sinus Syndrome after Pacemaker Implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Bin-Feng; Lu, Qiu-Fen; Lu, Shang-Biao; Xie, Yu-Quan; Feng, Xiang-Fei; Li, Yi-Gang

    2017-08-20

    The CHA2DS2-VASc score is used clinically for stroke risk stratification in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). We sought to investigate whether the CHA2DS2-VASc score predicts stroke and death in Chinese patients with sick sinus syndrome (SSS) after pacemaker implantation and to evaluate whether the predictive power of the CHA2DS2-VASc score could be improved by combining it with left atrial diameter (LAD) and amino-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP). A total of 481 consecutive patients with SSS who underwent pacemaker implantation from January 2004 to December 2014 in our department were included. The CHA2DS2-VASc scores were retrospectively calculated according to the hospital medical records before pacemaker implantation. The outcome data (stroke and death) were collected by pacemaker follow-up visits and telephonic follow-up until December 31, 2015. During 2151 person-years of follow-up, 46 patients (9.6%) suffered stroke and 52 (10.8%) died. The CHA2DS2-VASc score showed a significant association with the development of stroke (hazard ratio [HR] 1.45, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.20-1.75, Ppacemaker implantation. The addition of LAD and NT-proBNP to the CHA2DS2-VASc score improved its predictive power for stroke and death, respectively, in this patient cohort. Future prospective studies are warranted to validate the benefit of adding LAD and NT-proBNP to the CHA2DS2-VASc score for predicting stroke and death risk in non-AF populations.

  3. Combined circular external fixation and open reduction internal fixation with pro-syndesmotic screws for repair of a diabetic ankle fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zacharia Facaros

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The surgical management of ankle fractures among the diabetic population is associated with higher complication rates compared to the general population. Efforts toward development of better methods in prevention and treatment are continuously evolving for these injuries. The presence of peripheral neuropathy and the possible development of Charcot neuroarthropathy in this high risk patient population have stimulated much surgical interest to create more stable osseous constructs when open reduction of an ankle fracture/dislocation is required. The utilization of multiple syndesmotic screws (pro-syndesmotic screws to further stabilize the ankle mortise has been reported by many foot and ankle surgeons. In addition, transarticular Steinmann pins have been described as an adjunct to traditional open reduction with internal fixation (ORIF of the ankle to better stabilize the talus, thus minimizing risk of further displacement, malunion, and Charcot neuroarthropathy. The authors present a unique technique of ORIF with pro-syndesmotic screws and the application of a multi-plane circular external fixator for management of a neglected diabetic ankle fracture that prevented further deformity while allowing a weight-bearing status. This technique may be utilized for the management of complex diabetic ankle fractures that are prone to future complications and possible limb loss.

  4. Comparing Medline citations using modified N-grams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawab, Rao Muhammad Adeel; Stevenson, Mark; Clough, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Objective We aim to identify duplicate pairs of Medline citations, particularly when the documents are not identical but contain similar information. Materials and methods Duplicate pairs of citations are identified by comparing word n-grams in pairs of documents. N-grams are modified using two approaches which take account of the fact that the document may have been altered. These are: (1) deletion, an item in the n-gram is removed; and (2) substitution, an item in the n-gram is substituted with a similar term obtained from the Unified Medical Language System  Metathesaurus. N-grams are also weighted using a score derived from a language model. Evaluation is carried out using a set of 520 Medline citation pairs, including a set of 260 manually verified duplicate pairs obtained from the Deja Vu database. Results The approach accurately detects duplicate Medline document pairs with an F1 measure score of 0.99. Allowing for word deletions and substitution improves performance. The best results are obtained by combining scores for n-grams of length 1–5 words. Discussion Results show that the detection of duplicate Medline citations can be improved by modifying n-grams and that high performance can also be obtained using only unigrams (F1=0.959), particularly when allowing for substitutions of alternative phrases. PMID:23715801

  5. Differential staining of bacteria: gram stain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyes, Rita B; Reynolds, Jackie; Breakwell, Donald P

    2009-11-01

    In 1884, Hans Christian Gram, a Danish doctor, developed a differential staining technique that is still the cornerstone of bacterial identification and taxonomic division. This multistep, sequential staining protocol separates bacteria into four groups based on cell morphology and cell wall structure: Gram-positive cocci, Gram-negative cocci, Gram-positive rods, and Gram-negative rods. The Gram stain is useful for assessing bacterial contamination of tissue culture samples or for examining the Gram stain status and morphological features of bacteria isolated from mixed or isolated bacterial cultures. (c) 2009 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  6. Gram-negative diabetic foot osteomyelitis: risk factors and clinical presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragón-Sánchez, Javier; Lipsky, Benjamin A; Lázaro-Martínez, Jose L

    2013-03-01

    Osteomyelitis frequently complicates infections in the feet of patients with diabetes. Gram-positive cocci, especially Staphylococcus aureus, are the most commonly isolated pathogens, but gram-negative bacteria also cause some cases of diabetic foot osteomyelitis (DFO). These gram-negatives require different antibiotic regimens than those commonly directed at gram-positives. There are, however, few data on factors related to their presence and how they influence the clinical picture. We conducted a retrospective study to determine the variables associated with the isolation of gram-negative bacteria from bone samples in cases of DFO and the clinical presentation of these infections. Among 341 cases of DFO, 150 had a gram-negative isolate (alone or combined with a gram-positive isolate) comprising 44.0% of all patients and 50.8% of those with a positive bone culture. Compared with gram-positive infections, wounds with gram-negative organisms more often had a fetid odor, necrotic tissue, signs of soft tissue infection accompanying osteomyelitis, and clinically severe infection. By multivariate analysis, the predictive variables related to an increased likelihood of isolating gram-negatives from bone samples were glycated hemoglobin gram-negatives had a statistically significantly higher prevalence of leukocytosis and higher white blood cell counts than those without gram-negatives. In conclusion, gram-negative organisms were isolated in nearly half of our cases of DFO and were associated with more severe infections, higher white blood cell counts, lower glycated hemoglobin levels, and wounds of traumatic etiology.

  7. Pro Tools HD

    CERN Document Server

    Camou, Edouard

    2013-01-01

    An easy-to-follow guide for using Pro Tools HD 11 effectively.This book is ideal for anyone who already uses ProTools and wants to learn more, or is new to Pro Tools HD and wants to use it effectively in their own audio workstations.

  8. Gramática Hipertextual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francilaine Munhoz Moraes

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available No meio digital, a construção da notícia se dá pelo hipertexto. Uma linguagem própria ao suporte consolida-se nas duas últimas décadas. Este artigo se dedica a discutir regularidades linguísticas do discurso jornalístico na web. Se há uma linguagem peculiar ao meio, existe também uma gramática correspondente: a gramática hipertextual. Nesse viés, levantamos traços linguísticos da estrutura sintático-semântica, com base na organização da informação em páginas noticiosas eletrônicas. 

  9. Silver enhances antibiotic activity against gram-negative bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morones-Ramirez, J Ruben; Winkler, Jonathan A; Spina, Catherine S; Collins, James J

    2013-06-19

    A declining pipeline of clinically useful antibiotics has made it imperative to develop more effective antimicrobial therapies, particularly against difficult-to-treat Gram-negative pathogens. Silver has been used as an antimicrobial since antiquity, yet its mechanism of action remains unclear. We show that silver disrupts multiple bacterial cellular processes, including disulfide bond formation, metabolism, and iron homeostasis. These changes lead to increased production of reactive oxygen species and increased membrane permeability of Gram-negative bacteria that can potentiate the activity of a broad range of antibiotics against Gram-negative bacteria in different metabolic states, as well as restore antibiotic susceptibility to a resistant bacterial strain. We show both in vitro and in a mouse model of urinary tract infection that the ability of silver to induce oxidative stress can be harnessed to potentiate antibiotic activity. Additionally, we demonstrate in vitro and in two different mouse models of peritonitis that silver sensitizes Gram-negative bacteria to the Gram-positive-specific antibiotic vancomycin, thereby expanding the antibacterial spectrum of this drug. Finally, we used silver and antibiotic combinations in vitro to eradicate bacterial persister cells, and show both in vitro and in a mouse biofilm infection model that silver can enhance antibacterial action against bacteria that produce biofilms. This work shows that silver can be used to enhance the action of existing antibiotics against Gram-negative bacteria, thus strengthening the antibiotic arsenal for fighting bacterial infections.

  10. Improved early risk stratification of patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention using a combination of serum soluble ST2 and NT-proBNP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jongwook Yu

    Full Text Available Although soluble suppression of tumorigenicity 2 (sST2 in serum is known to be associated with ischemic heart disease and heart failure, data regarding its prognostic impact in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI is limited. We evaluated the prognostic impacts of serum sST2 and other serum biomarkers in STEMI patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI.Consecutive all 323 patients with STEMI that underwent primary PCI were enrolled. Blood tests and samples were obtained in an emergency room. The primary endpoint was 1-year major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events (MACCEs, defined as a composite of cardiovascular death, non-fatal MI, non-fatal stroke, and ischemia-driven revascularization.Mean age was 59.1±13.1 years (men 84%. MACCE (20 cardiovascular deaths, 7 non-fatal MI, 4 non-fatal stroke, 7 ischemia-driven revascularizations occurred in 38 patients (12%. After adjusting for confounding factors, Cox regression analysis revealed that high serum sST2 (>75.8 ng/mL mean value, adjusted hazard ratio 2.098, 95% CI 1.008-4.367, p = 0.048 and high serum NT-proBNP level (>400 pg/mL, adjusted hazard ratio 2.606, 95% CI 1.086-6.257, p = 0.032 at the time of presentation independently predicted MACCE within a year of primary PCI. Furthermore, when high serum sST2 level was combined with high serum NT-proBNP level, the hazard ratio of MACCE was highest (adjusted hazard ratio 7.93, 95% CI 2.97-20.38, p<0.001.Elevated serum levels of sST2 or NT-proBNP at the time of presentation were found to predict 1-year MACCE independently and elevated serum levels of sST2 plus NT-proBNP were associated with even poorer prognosis in patients with STEMI undergoing primary PCI.

  11. Combined exposure of diesel exhaust particles and respirable Soufrière Hills volcanic ash causes a (pro-)inflammatory response in an in vitro multicellular epithelial tissue barrier model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomašek, Ines; Horwell, Claire J.; Damby, David; Barošová, Hana; Geers, Christoph; Petri-Fink, Alke; Rothen-Rutishauser, Barbara; Clift, Martin J. D.

    2016-01-01

    BackgroundThere are justifiable health concerns regarding the potential adverse effects associated with human exposure to volcanic ash (VA) particles, especially when considering communities living in urban areas already exposed to heightened air pollution. The aim of this study was, therefore, to gain an imperative, first understanding of the biological impacts of respirable VA when exposed concomitantly with diesel particles.MethodsA sophisticated in vitro 3D triple cell co-culture model of the human alveolar epithelial tissue barrier was exposed to either a single or repeated dose of dry respirable VA (deposited dose of 0.26 ± 0.09 or 0.89 ± 0.29 μg/cm2, respectively) from Soufrière Hills volcano, Montserrat for a period of 24 h at the air-liquid interface (ALI). Subsequently, co-cultures were exposed to co-exposures of single or repeated VA and diesel exhaust particles (DEP; NIST SRM 2975; 0.02 mg/mL), a model urban pollutant, at the pseudo-ALI. The biological impact of each individual particle type was also analysed under these precise scenarios. The cytotoxic (LDH release), oxidative stress (depletion of intracellular GSH) and (pro-)inflammatory (TNF-α, IL-8 and IL-1β) responses were assessed after the particulate exposures. The impact of VA exposure upon cell morphology, as well as its interaction with the multicellular model, was visualised via confocal laser scanning microscopy (LSM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively.ResultsThe combination of respirable VA and DEP, in all scenarios, incited an heightened release of TNF-α and IL-8 as well as significant increases in IL-1β, when applied at sub-lethal doses to the co-culture compared to VA exposure alone. Notably, the augmented (pro-)inflammatory responses observed were not mediated by oxidative stress. LSM supported the quantitative assessment of cytotoxicity, with no changes in cell morphology within the barrier model evident. A direct interaction of the VA with all

  12. Combined therapy for critical limb ischemia: biomimetic PLGA microcarriers potentiates the pro-angiogenic effect of adipose tissue stromal vascular fraction cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoareau, Laurence; Fouchet, Florian; Planesse, Cynthia; Mirbeau, Sophie; Sindji, Laurence; Delay, Emmanuel; Roche, Régis; Montero-Menei, Claudia N; Festy, Franck

    2018-04-14

    We propose a regenerative solution in the treatment of critical limb ischemia. Poly-lactic/glycolic acid (PLGA) microcarriers were prepared and coated with laminin to be sterilized through γ-irradiation of 25 kGy at low temperature. Stromal vascular fraction (SVF) cells were extracted through enzymatic digestion of adipose tissue. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice underwent arteriotomy and received an administration of SVF cells combined or not with biomimetic microcarriers. Functional evaluation of the ischemic limb was then reported and tissue reperfusion was evaluated through fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT). Microcarriers were stable and functional after γ-irradiation until at least 12 months storage. Mice which received an injection of SVF cells in the ischemic limb have 22 % of supplementary blood supply within this limb 7 days after surgery compared to vehicle, whereas no difference was observed at day 14. With the combined therapy, the improvement of blood flow is significantly higher compared to vehicle, of about 31 % at day 7 and of about 11 % at day 14. Injection of SVF cells induces a significant 27 % decrease of necrosis compared to vehicle. This effect is more important when SVF cells were mixed with biomimetic microcarriers: - 37% compared to control. Although SVF cells injection leads to a non-significant 22 % proprioception recovery, the combined therapy induces a significant recovery of about 27 % compared to vehicle. We show that the combination of SVF cells from adipose tissue with laminin-coated PLGA microcarriers is efficient for CLI therapy in a diabetic mouse model. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  13. Space Efficient Data Structures for N-gram Retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fotios Kounelis

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A significant problem in computer science is the management of large data strings and a great number of works dealing with the specific problem has been published in the scientific literature. In this article, we use a technique to store efficiently biological sequences, making use of data structures like suffix trees and inverted files and also employing techniques like n-grams, in order to improve previous constructions. In our attempt, we drastically reduce the space needed to store the inverted indexes, by representing the substrings that appear more frequently in a more compact inverted index. Our technique is based on n-gram indexing, providing us the extra advantage of indexing sequences that cannot be separated in words. Moreover, our technique combines classical one level with two-level n-gram inverted file indexing. Our results suggest that the new proposed algorithm can compress the data more efficiently than previous attempts.

  14. Studies of the Association of Arg72Pro of Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 with Type 2 Diabetes in a Combined Analysis of 55,521 Europeans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burgdorf, Kristoffer Sølvsten; Grarup, Niels; Justesen, Johanne Marie

    2011-01-01

    2 diabetes in the Danish samples. However, for all nine variants the estimate of increase in type 2 diabetes risk was observed for the same allele as previously reported. In a meta-analysis of published and online data including 55,521 Europeans the G-allele of rs1042522 in TP53 showed significant...... replicated associations in meta-analyses. Furthermore, we evaluated the impact on diabetes-related intermediate traits in a population-based sample of middle-aged Danes. Methods: We genotyped nine lead variants in the seven genes in 4,973 glucose-tolerant and 3,612 type 2 diabetes Danish individuals. In meta...... association with type 2 diabetes (OR = 1.06 95% CI 1.02–1.11, p = 0.0032). No substantial associations with diabetes-related intermediary phenotypes were found. Conclusion: The G-allele of TP53 rs1042522 is associated with an increased prevalence of type 2 diabetes in a combined analysis of 55,521 Europeans....

  15. Gram staining apparatus for space station applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, T. C.; Brown, H. D.; Irbe, R. M.; Pierson, D. L.

    1990-01-01

    A self-contained, portable Gram staining apparatus (GSA) has been developed for use in the microgravity environment on board the Space Station Freedom. Accuracy and reproducibility of this apparatus compared with the conventional Gram staining method were evaluated by using gram-negative and gram-positive controls and different species of bacteria grown in pure cultures. A subsequent study was designed to assess the performance of the GSA with actual specimens. A set of 60 human and environmental specimens was evaluated with the GSA and the conventional Gram staining procedure. Data obtained from these studies indicated that the GSA will provide the Gram staining capability needed for the microgravity environment of space.

  16. Veillonella, Firmicutes: Microbes disguised as Gram negatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesth, Tammi Camilla; Ozen, Asli; Andersen, Sandra Christine

    2013-01-01

    Negativicutes, including the genus Veillonella, stain Gram negative. Veillonella are among the most abundant organisms of the oral and intestinal microflora of animals and humans, in spite of being strict anaerobes. In this work, the genomes of 24 Negativicutes, including eight Veillonella spp., are compared......, with the exception of a shared LPS biosynthesis pathway. The clade within the class Negativicutes to which the genus Veillonella belongs exhibits unique properties, most of which are in common with Gram-positives and some with Gram negatives. They are only distantly related to Clostridia, but are even less closely...... related to Gram-negative species. Though the Negativicutes stain Gram-negative and possess two membranes, the genome and proteome analysis presented here confirm their place within the (mainly) Gram positive phylum of the Firmicutes. Further studies are required to unveil the evolutionary history...

  17. A pro-angiogenic degradable Mg-poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) implant combined with rhbFGF in a rat limb ischemia model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Hanmei; Lv, Feng; Liu, Tianjun

    2017-12-01

    Site-specific controlled release of exogenous angiogenic growth factors, such as recombinant human basic fibroblast growth factor (rhbFGF), has become a promising approach to improve peripheral vascular disease. Here, we have developed an implant composed of spiral magnesium (Mg) and a coating made using poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) with encapsulated rhbFGF (Mg-PLGA-rhbFGF). The encapsulated protein could release continually for 4weeks with well preserved bioactivity. We compared the angiogenic effect produced by Mg-PLGA-rhbFGF with that of a PLGA implant loaded with rhbFGF (PLGA-rhbFGF). The incorporation of Mg in the implant raised the microclimate pH in the polymer, which preserved the stability of rhbFGF. Mg-PLGA-rhbFGF exhibited advantages over PLGA-rhbFGF implant in terms of a cytocompatibility evaluation. An in vivo angiogenesis test further confirmed the efficacy of released rhbFGF. HE, CD31 and α-SMA staining revealed that the controlled release of rhbFGF from the Mg-PLGA-rhbFGF implant was superior in promoting angiogenesis compared with that of the PLGA-rhbFGF implant. Four weeks post-implantation, the capillary density of the Mg-PLGA-rhbFGF group was significantly higher than that of the PLGA-rhbFGF, control and the normal group (pspiral magnesium and a coating made using poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) with encapsulated rhbFGF (Mg-PLGA-rhbFGF). The preparation method does not involve any complex processes and results in a high encapsulation efficiency (approximately 100%). The degradation of metal Mg raise the microclimate pH in the PLGA polymer, which could well preserve the bioactivity of rhbFGF incorporated in the implant. Mg-PLGA-based, sustained local delivery of rhbFGF promotes post-ischemic angiogenesis and blood flow recovery in rat limb ischemic model. This work marks the first report for controlled release of rhbFGF in combination with metal Mg, and suggests potential therapeutic usefulness of Mg-PLGA-rhbFGF for tissue ischemia

  18. Utility of gram staining for evaluation of the quality of cystic fibrosis sputum samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Bindu; Stapp, Jenny; Stapp, Lynn; Bugni, Linda; Van Dalfsen, Jill; Burns, Jane L

    2002-08-01

    The microscopic examination of Gram-stained sputum specimens is very helpful in the evaluation of patients with community-acquired pneumonia and has also been recommended for use in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. This study was undertaken to evaluate that recommendation. One hundred one sputum samples from CF patients were cultured for gram-negative bacilli and examined by Gram staining for both sputum adequacy (using the quality [Q] score) and bacterial morphology. Subjective evaluation of adequacy was also performed and categorized. Based on Q score evaluation, 41% of the samples would have been rejected despite a subjective appearance of purulence. Only three of these rejected samples were culture negative for gram-negative CF pathogens. Correlation between culture results and quantitative Gram stain examination was also poor. These data suggest that subjective evaluation combined with comprehensive bacteriology is superior to Gram staining in identifying pathogens in CF sputum.

  19. Transformation of gram positive bacteria by sonoporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yunfeng; Li, Yongchao

    2014-03-11

    The present invention provides a sonoporation-based method that can be universally applied for delivery of compounds into Gram positive bacteria. Gram positive bacteria which can be transformed by sonoporation include, for example, Bacillus, Streptococcus, Acetobacterium, and Clostridium. Compounds which can be delivered into Gram positive bacteria via sonoporation include nucleic acids (DNA or RNA), proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, viruses, small organic and inorganic molecules, and nano-particles.

  20. Nicaragua - ProNicaragua

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The focus of this performance evaluation was whether or not the ProNicaragua Activity’s program logic was sound and successful and had the intended benefits related...

  1. n-Gram-Based Text Compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Hieu N.; Snasel, Vaclav

    2016-01-01

    We propose an efficient method for compressing Vietnamese text using n-gram dictionaries. It has a significant compression ratio in comparison with those of state-of-the-art methods on the same dataset. Given a text, first, the proposed method splits it into n-grams and then encodes them based on n-gram dictionaries. In the encoding phase, we use a sliding window with a size that ranges from bigram to five grams to obtain the best encoding stream. Each n-gram is encoded by two to four bytes accordingly based on its corresponding n-gram dictionary. We collected 2.5 GB text corpus from some Vietnamese news agencies to build n-gram dictionaries from unigram to five grams and achieve dictionaries with a size of 12 GB in total. In order to evaluate our method, we collected a testing set of 10 different text files with different sizes. The experimental results indicate that our method achieves compression ratio around 90% and outperforms state-of-the-art methods. PMID:27965708

  2. n-Gram-Based Text Compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vu H. Nguyen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose an efficient method for compressing Vietnamese text using n-gram dictionaries. It has a significant compression ratio in comparison with those of state-of-the-art methods on the same dataset. Given a text, first, the proposed method splits it into n-grams and then encodes them based on n-gram dictionaries. In the encoding phase, we use a sliding window with a size that ranges from bigram to five grams to obtain the best encoding stream. Each n-gram is encoded by two to four bytes accordingly based on its corresponding n-gram dictionary. We collected 2.5 GB text corpus from some Vietnamese news agencies to build n-gram dictionaries from unigram to five grams and achieve dictionaries with a size of 12 GB in total. In order to evaluate our method, we collected a testing set of 10 different text files with different sizes. The experimental results indicate that our method achieves compression ratio around 90% and outperforms state-of-the-art methods.

  3. Pro Android Apps Performance Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Guihot, Hervé

    2012-01-01

    Today's Android apps developers are often running into the need to refine, improve and optimize their apps performances. As more complex apps can be created, it is even more important for developers to deal with this critical issue. Android allows developers to write apps using Java, C or a combination of both with the Android SDK and the Android NDK. Pro Android Apps Performance Optimization reveals how to fine-tune your Android apps, making them more stable and faster. In this book, you'll learn the following: * How to optimize your Java code with the SDK, but also how to write and optimize

  4. Protein classification using modified n-grams and skip-grams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, S M Ashiqul; Heil, Benjamin J; Kearney, Christopher Michel; Baker, Erich J

    2018-05-01

    Classification by supervised machine learning greatly facilitates the annotation of protein characteristics from their primary sequence. However, the feature generation step in this process requires detailed knowledge of attributes used to classify the proteins. Lack of this knowledge risks the selection of irrelevant features, resulting in a faulty model. In this study, we introduce a supervised protein classification method with a novel means of automating the work-intensive feature generation step via a Natural Language Processing (NLP)-dependent model, using a modified combination of n-grams and skip-grams (m-NGSG). A meta-comparison of cross-validation accuracy with twelve training datasets from nine different published studies demonstrates a consistent increase in accuracy of m-NGSG when compared to contemporary classification and feature generation models. We expect this model to accelerate the classification of proteins from primary sequence data and increase the accessibility of protein characteristic prediction to a broader range of scientists. m-NGSG is freely available at Bitbucket: https://bitbucket.org/sm_islam/mngsg/src. A web server is available at watson.ecs.baylor.edu/ngsg. erich_baker@baylor.edu. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  5. COLLIDE Pro Helvetia Award

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    The COLLIDE Pro Helvetia Award is run in partnership with Pro Helvetia, giving the opportunity to Swiss artists to do research at CERN for three months.   From left to right: Laura Perrenoud, Marc Dubois and Simon de Diesbach. The photo shows their VR Project, +2199. Fragment.In are the winning artists of COLLIDE Pro Helvetia. They came to CERN for two months in 2015, and will now continue their last month in the laboratory. Fragment.In is a Swiss based interaction design studio. They create innovative projects, interactive installations, video and game design. Read more about COLLIDE here.

  6. Hra pro Android OS

    OpenAIRE

    Salvet, Lukáš

    2017-01-01

    Tato práce se zabývá tvorbou 2D hry pro zařízení s operačním systémem Android. Popisuje možnost tvorby her v tomto prostředí. Hlavně pak využití knihovny OpenGL ES 2.0, kterou jsem pro implementaci použil. Dále je v práci popsáno renderování textu, použití Google play games services pro achievementy a leaderboard, testování hry, atd. Beta verze hry byla vydána na Google Play. This work deals with creating 2D games for devices running Android. It describes the ability to create games in thi...

  7. Methods for Confirming the Gram Reaction of Gram-variable Bacillus Species Isolated from Tobacco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morin A

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus is a predominant genus of bacteria isolated from tobacco. The Gram stain is the most commonly used and most important of all diagnostic staining techniques in microbiology. In order to help confirm the Gram positivity of Bacillus isolates from tobacco, three methods using the chemical differences of the cell wall and membrane of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria were investigated: the KOH (potassium hydroxide, the LANA (L-alanine-4-nitroanilide, and the vancomycin susceptibility tests. When colonies of Gram-negative bacteria are treated with 3% KOH solution, a slimy suspension is produced, probably due to destruction of the cell wall and liberation of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA. Gram-positive cell walls resist KOH treatment. The LANA test reveals the presence of a cell wall aminopeptidase that hydrolyzes the L-alanine-4-nitroanilide in Gram-negative bacteria. This enzyme is absent in Gram-positive bacteria. Vancomycin is a glycopeptide antibiotic inhibiting the cell wall peptido-glycan synthesis of Gram-positive microorganisms. Absence of lysis with KOH, absence of hydrolysis of LANA, and susceptibility to vancomycin were used with the Gram reaction to confirm the Gram positivity of various Bacillus species isolated from tobacco. B. laevolacticus excepted, all Bacillus species tested showed negative reactions to KOH and LANA tests, and all species were susceptible to vancomycin (5 and 30 µg.

  8. Multicenter Assessment of Gram Stain Error Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Linoj P; Balada-Llasat, Joan-Miquel; Harrington, Amanda; Cavagnolo, Robert

    2016-06-01

    Gram stains remain the cornerstone of diagnostic testing in the microbiology laboratory for the guidance of empirical treatment prior to availability of culture results. Incorrectly interpreted Gram stains may adversely impact patient care, and yet there are no comprehensive studies that have evaluated the reliability of the technique and there are no established standards for performance. In this study, clinical microbiology laboratories at four major tertiary medical care centers evaluated Gram stain error rates across all nonblood specimen types by using standardized criteria. The study focused on several factors that primarily contribute to errors in the process, including poor specimen quality, smear preparation, and interpretation of the smears. The number of specimens during the evaluation period ranged from 976 to 1,864 specimens per site, and there were a total of 6,115 specimens. Gram stain results were discrepant from culture for 5% of all specimens. Fifty-eight percent of discrepant results were specimens with no organisms reported on Gram stain but significant growth on culture, while 42% of discrepant results had reported organisms on Gram stain that were not recovered in culture. Upon review of available slides, 24% (63/263) of discrepant results were due to reader error, which varied significantly based on site (9% to 45%). The Gram stain error rate also varied between sites, ranging from 0.4% to 2.7%. The data demonstrate a significant variability between laboratories in Gram stain performance and affirm the need for ongoing quality assessment by laboratories. Standardized monitoring of Gram stains is an essential quality control tool for laboratories and is necessary for the establishment of a quality benchmark across laboratories. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  9. Pro Android UI

    CERN Document Server

    Jackson, Wallace

    2014-01-01

    If you're an Android application developer, chances areyou're using fixed, scrolling, swipe-able, and other cutting-edge custom UIDesigns in your Android development projects. These UI Design approaches aswell as other Android ViewGroup UI layout containers are the bread and butterof Pro Android User Interface (UI) design and Android User Experience (UX)design and development.Using a top down approach, Pro Android UI shows you how todesign and develop the best user interface for your app, while taking intoaccount the varying device form factors in the increasingly fragmented Androidenvironment

  10. ProCom middleware

    OpenAIRE

    Kunčar, Jiří

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this thesis is to develop and implement parts of a middleware that provides necessary support for the execution of ProCom components on top of the real-time operating system FreeRTOS. The ProCom is a component model for embedded systems developed at Mälardalen University. The primary problem is finding an appropriate balance between the level of abstraction and thoughtful utilization of system resources in embedded devices. The defined target platform has limitations in comparison...

  11. ProCom middleware

    OpenAIRE

    Kuncar, Jiri

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this thesis is to develop and implement parts of a middleware that provides necessary support for the execution of ProCom components on top of the real-time operating system FreeRTOS. ProCom is a component model for embedded systems developed at Mälardalen University. The primary problem is finding an appropriate balance between the level of abstraction and thoughtful utilization of system resources in embedded devices. The defined target platform has limitations in comparison to ...

  12. Pro Android 3

    CERN Document Server

    Hashimi, Sayed Ibrahim; MacLean, Dave

    2011-01-01

    Pro Android 3 starts with the basics, giving you a firm foundation in Android development. It then builds on this foundation to teach you how to build real-world and fun mobile applications using the new Android 3.0 SDK. This book covers advanced concepts in detail including maps, geocoding, services, live folders, drag and drop, touchscreens, and the new Android 3.0 features: fragments and ActionBar. Pro Android 3 is uniquely comprehensive: it covers sensors, text to speech, OpenGL, live widgets, search, and the audio and video APIs. Using the code-heavy tutorials and expert advice, you'll qu

  13. Pro NET Best Practices

    CERN Document Server

    Ritchie, Stephen D

    2011-01-01

    Pro .NET Best Practices is a practical reference to the best practices that you can apply to your .NET projects today. You will learn standards, techniques, and conventions that are sharply focused, realistic and helpful for achieving results, steering clear of unproven, idealistic, and impractical recommendations. Pro .NET Best Practices covers a broad range of practices and principles that development experts agree are the right ways to develop software, which includes continuous integration, automated testing, automated deployment, and code analysis. Whether the solution is from a free and

  14. Antimicrobial Photodynamic Therapy to Kill Gram-negative Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperandio, Felipe F; Huang, Ying-Ying; Hamblin, Michael R

    2013-01-01

    Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (PDT) or photodynamic inactivation (PDI) is a new promising strategy to eradicate pathogenic microorganisms such as Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, yeasts and fungi. The search for new approaches that can kill bacteria but do not induce the appearance of undesired drug-resistant strains suggests that PDT may have advantages over traditional antibiotic therapy. PDT is a non-thermal photochemical reaction that involves the simultaneous presence of visible light, oxygen and a dye or photosensitizer (PS). Several PS have been studied for their ability to bind to bacteria and efficiently generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) upon photostimulation. ROS are formed through type I or II mechanisms and may inactivate several classes of microbial cells including Gram-negative bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which are typically characterized by an impermeable outer cell membrane that contains endotoxins and blocks antibiotics, dyes, and detergents, protecting the sensitive inner membrane and cell wall. This review covers significant peer-reviewed articles together with US and World patents that were filed within the past few years and that relate to the eradication of Gram-negative bacteria via PDI or PDT. It is organized mainly according to the nature of the PS involved and includes natural or synthetic food dyes; cationic dyes such as methylene blue and toluidine blue; tetrapyrrole derivatives such as phthalocyanines, chlorins, porphyrins, chlorophyll and bacteriochlorophyll derivatives; functionalized fullerenes; nanoparticles combined with different PS; other formulations designed to target PS to bacteria; photoactive materials and surfaces; conjugates between PS and polycationic polymers or antibodies; and permeabilizing agents such as EDTA, PMNP and CaCl2. The present review also covers the different laboratory animal models normally used to treat Gram-negative bacterial infections with antimicrobial PDT. PMID

  15. Pro OpenSSH

    CERN Document Server

    Stahnke, Michael

    2006-01-01

    SSH, acronym for Secure Socket Shell, is for users and administrators wishing to establish secure communication between disparate networks. 'Pro OpenSSH', authored by two Fortune 100 system administrators, provides readers with a highly practical reference for configuring and deploying OpenSSH in their own environment.

  16. NT-proBNP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Charlotte; Mellemkjær, Søren; Hilberg, Ole

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a serious complication to interstitial lung disease (ILD) and has a poor prognosis. PH is often diagnosed by screening with echocardiography followed by right heart catheterisation. A previous study has shown that a value of NT-pro-brain natriuretic...

  17. Procalcitonin levels in gram-positive, gram-negative, and fungal bloodstream infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leli, Christian; Ferranti, Marta; Moretti, Amedeo; Al Dhahab, Zainab Salim; Cenci, Elio; Mencacci, Antonella

    2015-01-01

    Procalcitonin (PCT) can discriminate bacterial from viral systemic infections and true bacteremia from contaminated blood cultures. The aim of this study was to evaluate PCT diagnostic accuracy in discriminating Gram-positive, Gram-negative, and fungal bloodstream infections. A total of 1,949 samples from patients with suspected bloodstream infections were included in the study. Median PCT value in Gram-negative (13.8 ng/mL, interquartile range (IQR) 3.4-44.1) bacteremias was significantly higher than in Gram-positive (2.1 ng/mL, IQR 0.6-7.6) or fungal (0.5 ng/mL, IQR 0.4-1) infections (P Gram-negatives from Gram-positives at the best cut-off value of 10.8 ng/mL and an AUC of 0.944 (95% CI 0.919-0.969, P Gram-negatives from fungi at the best cut-off of 1.6 ng/mL. Additional results showed a significant difference in median PCT values between Enterobacteriaceae and nonfermentative Gram-negative bacteria (17.1 ng/mL, IQR 5.9-48.5 versus 3.5 ng/mL, IQR 0.8-21.5; P Gram-negative from Gram-positive and fungal bloodstream infections. Nevertheless, its utility to predict different microorganisms needs to be assessed in further studies.

  18. Embedded Lattice and Properties of Gram Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Futa Yuichi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we formalize in Mizar [14] the definition of embedding of lattice and its properties. We formally define an inner product on an embedded module. We also formalize properties of Gram matrix. We formally prove that an inverse of Gram matrix for a rational lattice exists. Lattice of Z-module is necessary for lattice problems, LLL (Lenstra, Lenstra and Lov´asz base reduction algorithm [16] and cryptographic systems with lattice [17].

  19. Veillonella, Firmicutes: Microbes disguised as Gram negatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesth, Tammi; Ozen, Aslı; Andersen, Sandra C; Kaas, Rolf Sommer; Lukjancenko, Oksana; Bohlin, Jon; Nookaew, Intawat; Wassenaar, Trudy M; Ussery, David W

    2013-12-20

    The Firmicutes represent a major component of the intestinal microflora. The intestinal Firmicutes are a large, diverse group of organisms, many of which are poorly characterized due to their anaerobic growth requirements. Although most Firmicutes are Gram positive, members of the class Negativicutes, including the genus Veillonella, stain Gram negative. Veillonella are among the most abundant organisms of the oral and intestinal microflora of animals and humans, in spite of being strict anaerobes. In this work, the genomes of 24 Negativicutes, including eight Veillonella spp., are compared to 20 other Firmicutes genomes; a further 101 prokaryotic genomes were included, covering 26 phyla. Thus a total of 145 prokaryotic genomes were analyzed by various methods to investigate the apparent conflict of the Veillonella Gram stain and their taxonomic position within the Firmicutes. Comparison of the genome sequences confirms that the Negativicutes are distantly related to Clostridium spp., based on 16S rRNA, complete genomic DNA sequences, and a consensus tree based on conserved proteins. The genus Veillonella is relatively homogeneous: inter-genus pair-wise comparison identifies at least 1,350 shared proteins, although less than half of these are found in any given Clostridium genome. Only 27 proteins are found conserved in all analyzed prokaryote genomes. Veillonella has distinct metabolic properties, and significant similarities to genomes of Proteobacteria are not detected, with the exception of a shared LPS biosynthesis pathway. The clade within the class Negativicutes to which the genus Veillonella belongs exhibits unique properties, most of which are in common with Gram-positives and some with Gram negatives. They are only distantly related to Clostridia, but are even less closely related to Gram-negative species. Though the Negativicutes stain Gram-negative and possess two membranes, the genome and proteome analysis presented here confirm their place within the

  20. An optimized staining technique for the detection of Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria within tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerra, Sandra C; Roy, Daniel C; Sanchez, Carlos J; Christy, Robert J; Burmeister, David M

    2016-04-12

    Bacterial infections are a common clinical problem in both acute and chronic wounds. With growing concerns over antibiotic resistance, treatment of bacterial infections should only occur after positive diagnosis. Currently, diagnosis is delayed due to lengthy culturing methods which may also fail to identify the presence of bacteria. While newer costly bacterial identification methods are being explored, a simple and inexpensive diagnostic tool would aid in immediate and accurate treatments for bacterial infections. Histologically, hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and Gram stains have been employed, but are far from optimal when analyzing tissue samples due to non-specific staining. The goal of the current study was to develop a modification of the Gram stain that enhances the contrast between bacteria and host tissue. A modified Gram stain was developed and tested as an alternative to Gram stain that improves the contrast between Gram positive bacteria, Gram negative bacteria and host tissue. Initially, clinically relevant strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus were visualized in vitro and in biopsies of infected, porcine burns using routine Gram stain, and immunohistochemistry techniques involving bacterial strain-specific fluorescent antibodies as validation tools. H&E and Gram stain of serial biopsy sections were then compared to a modification of the Gram stain incorporating a counterstain that highlights collagen found in tissue. The modified Gram stain clearly identified both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria, and when compared to H&E or Gram stain alone provided excellent contrast between bacteria and non-viable burn eschar. Moreover, when applied to surgical biopsies from patients that underwent burn debridement this technique was able to clearly detect bacterial morphology within host tissue. We describe a modification of the Gram stain that provides improved contrast of Gram positive and Gram negative microorganisms within host

  1. Incremental value of a combination of cardiac troponin T, N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide and C-reactive protein for prediction of mortality in end-stage renal disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallén, Jonas; Madsen, Lene Helleskov; Ladefoged, Søren

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective. To determine the relative prognostic merits of C-reactive protein (CRP), cardiac troponin T (cTnT) and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-pro-BNP) for prediction of all-cause death in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) receiving haemodialysis. Material...... and methods. This prospective, controlled cohort study included 109 patients. Biomarkers were sampled at inclusion and considered as categorical and continuous variables in Cox proportional hazard models. Results. Mean follow-up ± SD was 926 ± 385 days, during which 52 patients (48%) died. All three markers...

  2. Value of Combining Left Atrial Diameter and Amino-terminal Pro-brain Natriuretic Peptide to the CHA2DS2-VASc Score for Predicting Stroke and Death in Patients with Sick Sinus Syndrome after Pacemaker Implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin-Feng Mo

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: CHA2DS2-VASc score is valuable for predicting stroke and death risk in patients with SSS after pacemaker implantation. The addition of LAD and NT-proBNP to the CHA2DS2-VASc score improved its predictive power for stroke and death, respectively, in this patient cohort. Future prospective studies are warranted to validate the benefit of adding LAD and NT-proBNP to the CHA2DS2-VASc score for predicting stroke and death risk in non-AF populations.

  3. Gram-negative, but not Gram-positive, bacteria elicit strong PGE2 production in human monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessle, Christina C; Andersson, Bengt; Wold, Agnes E

    2003-12-01

    Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria induce different cytokine patterns in human mononuclear cells. We have seen that Gram-positives preferentially induce IL-12 and TNF-alpha, whereas Gram-negatives induce more IL-10, IL-6, and IL-8. In this study, we compared the capacity of these two groups of bacteria to induce PGE2. Monocytes stimulated with Gram-negative bacterial species induced much more PGE2 than did Gram-positive bacteria (5600 +/- 330 vs. 1700 +/- 670 pg/mL, p Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. We suggest that Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria may stimulate different innate effector functions; Gram-positive bacteria promoting cell-mediated effector functions whereas Gram-negative bacteria inducing mediators inhibiting the same.

  4. Gram staining for the treatment of peritonsillar abscess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takenaka, Yukinori; Takeda, Kazuya; Yoshii, Tadashi; Hashimoto, Michiko; Inohara, Hidenori

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To examine whether Gram staining can influence the choice of antibiotic for the treatment of peritonsillar abscess. Methods. Between 2005 and 2009, a total of 57 cases of peritonsillar abscess were analyzed with regard to cultured bacteria and Gram staining. Results. Only aerobes were cultured in 16% of cases, and only anaerobes were cultured in 51% of cases. Mixed growth of aerobes and anaerobes was observed in 21% of cases. The cultured bacteria were mainly aerobic Streptococcus, anaerobic Gram-positive cocci, and anaerobic Gram-negative rods. Phagocytosis of bacteria on Gram staining was observed in 9 cases. The bacteria cultured from these cases were aerobic Streptococcus, anaerobic Gram-positive cocci, and anaerobic Gram-negative rods. The sensitivity of Gram staining for the Gram-positive cocci and Gram-negative rods was 90% and 64%, respectively. The specificity of Gram staining for the Gram-positive cocci and Gram-negative rods was 62% and 76%, respectively. Most of the Gram-positive cocci were sensitive to penicillin, but some of anaerobic Gram-negative rods were resistant to penicillin. Conclusion. When Gram staining shows only Gram-positive cocci, penicillin is the treatment of choice. In other cases, antibiotics effective for the penicillin-resistant organisms should be used.

  5. Protamine-induced permeabilization of cell envelopes of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Charlotte; Verheul, A.; Gram, Lone

    1997-01-01

    carboxyfluorescein and ATP after 2 to 5 min. Maximum antibacterial activity was reached at alkaline pH and in the absence of divalent cations. The efficient permeabilization of cell envelopes of both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria suggests that protamine causes a general disruption of the cell envelope...

  6. Procalcitonin Levels in Gram-Positive, Gram-Negative, and Fungal Bloodstream Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Leli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Procalcitonin (PCT can discriminate bacterial from viral systemic infections and true bacteremia from contaminated blood cultures. The aim of this study was to evaluate PCT diagnostic accuracy in discriminating Gram-positive, Gram-negative, and fungal bloodstream infections. A total of 1,949 samples from patients with suspected bloodstream infections were included in the study. Median PCT value in Gram-negative (13.8 ng/mL, interquartile range (IQR 3.4–44.1 bacteremias was significantly higher than in Gram-positive (2.1 ng/mL, IQR 0.6–7.6 or fungal (0.5 ng/mL, IQR 0.4–1 infections (P<0.0001. Receiver operating characteristic analysis showed an area under the curve (AUC for PCT of 0.765 (95% CI 0.725–0.805, P<0.0001 in discriminating Gram-negatives from Gram-positives at the best cut-off value of 10.8 ng/mL and an AUC of 0.944 (95% CI 0.919–0.969, P<0.0001 in discriminating Gram-negatives from fungi at the best cut-off of 1.6 ng/mL. Additional results showed a significant difference in median PCT values between Enterobacteriaceae and nonfermentative Gram-negative bacteria (17.1 ng/mL, IQR 5.9–48.5 versus 3.5 ng/mL, IQR 0.8–21.5; P<0.0001. This study suggests that PCT may be of value to distinguish Gram-negative from Gram-positive and fungal bloodstream infections. Nevertheless, its utility to predict different microorganisms needs to be assessed in further studies.

  7. Pro Linux System Administration

    CERN Document Server

    Turnbull, James

    2009-01-01

    We can all be Linux experts, provided we invest the time in learning the craft of Linux administration. Pro Linux System Administration makes it easy for small to medium--sized businesses to enter the world of zero--cost software running on Linux and covers all the distros you might want to use, including Red Hat, Ubuntu, Debian, and CentOS. Authors, and systems infrastructure experts James Turnbull, Peter Lieverdink, and Dennis Matotek take a layered, component--based approach to open source business systems, while training system administrators as the builders of business infrastructure. If

  8. Pro Sql Azure

    CERN Document Server

    Klein, Scott

    2010-01-01

    SQL Azure represents Microsoft's cloud-based delivery of its enterprise-caliber, SQL Server database management system (formerly under the code name "Oslo"). Pro SQL Azure introduces you to this new platform, showing you how to program and administer it in a variety of cloud computing scenarios. You'll learn to program SQL Azure from Silverlight, ASP.NET, WinForms, and from SQL Reporting Services. You'll also understand how to manage the platform by planning for scalability, troubleshooting performance issues, and implementing strong security. * Shows how to use SQL Azure from Silver

  9. Pro Android Games

    CERN Document Server

    Silva, Vladimir

    2010-01-01

    Do you remember landmark games like Wolfenstein 3D, Doom, and Asteroids? Well, here's an exciting opportunity to build and/or port these games to one of the hottest mobile and netbooks platforms today: Google's Android. Pro Android Games teaches you how to build cool games like Space Blaster and the classic Asteroids from scratch on the latest Android platform. This book also shows you how to port other classic freeware/shareware games like Doom and Wolfenstein 3D from C using the Java Native Interface (JNI) for Android. This book is all about a unique perspective in Android game development:

  10. Pro Access 2010 Development

    CERN Document Server

    Collins, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Pro Access 2010 Development is a fundamental resource for developing business applications that take advantage of the features of Access 2010 and the many sources of data available to your business. In this book, you'll learn how to build database applications, create Web-based databases, develop macros and Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) tools for Access applications, integrate Access with SharePoint and other business systems, and much more. Using a practical, hands-on approach, this book will take you through all the facets of developing Access-based solutions, such as data modeling, co

  11. Pro Spring Integration

    CERN Document Server

    Lui, M; Chan, Andy; Long, Josh

    2011-01-01

    Pro Spring Integration is an authoritative book from the experts that guides you through the vast world of enterprise application integration (EAI) and application of the Spring Integration framework towards solving integration problems. The book is:. * An introduction to the concepts of enterprise application integration * A reference on building event-driven applications using Spring Integration * A guide to solving common integration problems using Spring Integration What makes this book unique is its coverage of contemporary technologies and real-world information, with a focus on common p

  12. Pro Android Flash

    CERN Document Server

    Chin, Stephen; Campesato, Oswald

    2011-01-01

    Did you know you can take your Flash skills beyond the browser, allowing you to make apps for Android, iOS and the BlackBerry Tablet OS? Build dynamic apps today starting with the easy-to-use Android smartphones and tablets. Then, take your app to other platforms without writing native code. Pro Android Flash is the definitive guide to building Flash and other rich Internet applications (RIAs) on the Android platform. It covers the most popular RIA frameworks for Android developers - Flash and Flex - and shows how to build rich, immersive user experiences on both Android smartphones and tablet

  13. Pro Spring security

    CERN Document Server

    Scarioni, Carlo

    2013-01-01

    Security is a key element in the development of any non-trivial application. The Spring Security Framework provides a comprehensive set of functionalities to implement industry-standard authentication and authorization mechanisms for Java applications. Pro Spring Security will be a reference and advanced tutorial that will do the following: Guides you through the implementation of the security features for a Java web application by presenting consistent examples built from the ground-up. Demonstrates the different authentication and authorization methods to secure enterprise-level applications

  14. Pro NuGet

    CERN Document Server

    Balliauw, Maarten

    2014-01-01

    Pro NuGet will give you a solid, practical, understanding of both how to keep your software dependencies under control and what best-practices have been developed within the NuGet community to ensure long-term reliability. Whether you're working entirely with .NET assemblies or also using CSS, HTML and JavaScript files within your applications this book will show you how to manage their requirements smoothly and reliably.As sponsors of the NuGet project Microsoft have led the way in showing how NuGet can be used to great effect; showing how it is now virtually indispensable to anyone working w

  15. Pro Spring Batch

    CERN Document Server

    Minella, Michael T

    2011-01-01

    Since its release, Spring Framework has transformed virtually every aspect of Java development including web applications, security, aspect-oriented programming, persistence, and messaging. Spring Batch, one of its newer additions, now brings the same familiar Spring idioms to batch processing. Spring Batch addresses the needs of any batch process, from the complex calculations performed in the biggest financial institutions to simple data migrations that occur with many software development projects. Pro Spring Batch is intended to answer three questions: *What? What is batch processing? What

  16. Pro Java ME Apps

    CERN Document Server

    Iliescu, Ovidiu

    2011-01-01

    Pro Java ME Apps gives you, the developer, the know-how required for writing sophisticated Java ME applications and for taking advantage of this huge potential market. Java ME is the largest mobile software platform in the world, supported by over 80% of all phones. You'll cover what Java ME is and how it compares to other mobile software platforms, how to properly design and structure Java ME applications, how to think like an experienced Java ME developer, what common problems and pitfalls you may run into, how to optimize your code, and many other key topics. Unlike other Java ME books out

  17. Pro WCF 4

    CERN Document Server

    Pathak, Nishith

    2011-01-01

    Pro WCF 4.0: Practical Microsoft SOA Implementation is a complete guide to Windows Communication Foundation from the service-oriented architecture (SOA) perspective, showing you why WCF is important to service-oriented architecture and development. This book provides deep insight into the functionality of WCF, which shipped with .NET 4.0-like service discovery, routing service, simplified configuration, and other advanced features. Included in this title are informative examples that will aid the reader in understanding and implementing these important additions. This book also covers the unif

  18. Revisiting the gram-negative lipoprotein paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    The processing of lipoproteins (lpps) in Gram-negative bacteria is generally considered to be an essential pathway. Mature lipoproteins in these bacteria are triacylated, with the final fatty acid addition performed by Lnt, an apolipoprotein n-acyltransferase. The mature lipoproteins are then sorted...

  19. Gram staining with an automatic machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felek, S; Arslan, A

    1999-01-01

    This study was undertaken to develop a new Gram-staining machine controlled by a micro-controller and to investigate the quality of slides that were stained in the machine. The machine was designed and produced by the authors. It uses standard 220 V AC. Staining, washing, and drying periods are controlled by a timer built in the micro-controller. A software was made that contains a certain algorithm and time intervals for the staining mode. One-hundred and forty smears were prepared from Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Neisseria sp., blood culture, trypticase soy broth, direct pus and sputum smears for comparison studies. Half of the slides in each group were stained with the machine, the other half by hand and then examined by four different microbiologists. Machine-stained slides had a higher clarity and less debris than the hand-stained slides (p stained slides, some Gram-positive organisms showed poor Gram-positive staining features (p Gram staining with the automatic machine increases the staining quality and helps to decrease the work load in a busy diagnostic laboratory.

  20. Superkapacitory pro akumulaci energie

    OpenAIRE

    Kovařík, Jakub

    2017-01-01

    Tato práce se zabývá návrhem DC/DC měniče určeného pro nabíjení superkapacitoru a pro následnou transformaci napětí na požadovanou hodnotu. V textu jsou uvedeny snižující a zvyšující spínaný měnič napětí včetně výpočtu jednotlivých součástek a také schéma měniče, který kombinuje oba dva typy. Pomocí simulačních programů byla ověřena funkce jednotlivých zapojení, které mohou posloužit jako záložní zdroj elektrické energie menšího výkonu. This paper describes the design of DC/DC converters d...

  1. Revisiting the Gram-negative lipoprotein paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LoVullo, Eric D; Wright, Lori F; Isabella, Vincent; Huntley, Jason F; Pavelka, Martin S

    2015-05-01

    The processing of lipoproteins (Lpps) in Gram-negative bacteria is generally considered an essential pathway. Mature lipoproteins in these bacteria are triacylated, with the final fatty acid addition performed by Lnt, an apolipoprotein N-acyltransferase. The mature lipoproteins are then sorted by the Lol system, with most Lpps inserted into the outer membrane (OM). We demonstrate here that the lnt gene is not essential to the Gram-negative pathogen Francisella tularensis subsp. tularensis strain Schu or to the live vaccine strain LVS. An LVS Δlnt mutant has a small-colony phenotype on sucrose medium and increased susceptibility to globomycin and rifampin. We provide data indicating that the OM lipoprotein Tul4A (LpnA) is diacylated but that it, and its paralog Tul4B (LpnB), still sort to the OM in the Δlnt mutant. We present a model in which the Lol sorting pathway of Francisella has a modified ABC transporter system that is capable of recognizing and sorting both triacylated and diacylated lipoproteins, and we show that this modified system is present in many other Gram-negative bacteria. We examined this model using Neisseria gonorrhoeae, which has the same Lol architecture as that of Francisella, and found that the lnt gene is not essential in this organism. This work suggests that Gram-negative bacteria fall into two groups, one in which full lipoprotein processing is essential and one in which the final acylation step is not essential, potentially due to the ability of the Lol sorting pathway in these bacteria to sort immature apolipoproteins to the OM. This paper describes the novel finding that the final stage in lipoprotein processing (normally considered an essential process) is not required by Francisella tularensis or Neisseria gonorrhoeae. The paper provides a potential reason for this and shows that it may be widespread in other Gram-negative bacteria. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  2. IPTV program recommendation based on combination strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Hao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available As a new interactive service technology, IPTV has been extensively studying in the field of TV pro-gram recommendation, but the sparse of the user-program rating matrix and the cold-start problem is a bottleneck that the program recommended accurately. In this paper, a flexible combination of two recommendation strategies proposed, which explored the sparse and cold-start problem as well as the issue of user interest change over time. This paper achieved content-based filtering section and collaborative filtering section according to the two combination strategies, which effectively solved the cold-start program and over the sparse problem and the problem of users interest change over time. The experimental results showed that this combinational recommendation system in optimal parameters compared by using any one of two combination strategies or not using any combination strategy at all, and the reducing range of MAE is [2.7%,3%].The increasing range of precision and recall is [13.8%95.5%] and [0,97.8%], respectively. The experiment showed better results when using combinational recommendation system in optimal parameters than using each combination strategies individually or not using any combination strategy.

  3. Mid-infrared spectroscopic assessment of nanotoxicity in gram-negative vs. gram-positive bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heys, Kelly A; Riding, Matthew J; Strong, Rebecca J; Shore, Richard F; Pereira, M Glória; Jones, Kevin C; Semple, Kirk T; Martin, Francis L

    2014-03-07

    Nanoparticles appear to induce toxic effects through a variety of mechanisms including generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), physical contact with the cell membrane and indirect catalysis due to remnants from manufacture. The development and subsequent increasing usage of nanomaterials has highlighted a growing need to characterize and assess the toxicity of nanoparticles, particularly those that may have detrimental health effects such as carbon-based nanomaterials (CBNs). Due to interactions of nanoparticles with some reagents, many traditional toxicity tests are unsuitable for use with CBNs. Infrared (IR) spectroscopy is a non-destructive, high throughput technique, which is unhindered by such problems. We explored the application of IR spectroscopy to investigate the effects of CBNs on Gram-negative (Pseudomonas fluorescens) and Gram-positive (Mycobacterium vanbaalenii PYR-1) bacteria. Two types of IR spectroscopy were compared: attenuated total reflection Fourier-transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) and synchrotron radiation-based FTIR (SR-FTIR) spectroscopy. This showed that Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria exhibit differing alterations when exposed to CBNs. Gram-positive bacteria appear more resistant to these agents and this may be due to the protection afforded by their more sturdy cell wall. Markers of exposure also vary according to Gram status; Amide II was consistently altered in Gram-negative bacteria and carbohydrate altered in Gram-positive bacteria. ATR-FTIR and SR-FTIR spectroscopy could both be applied to extract biochemical alterations induced by each CBN that were consistent across the two bacterial species; these may represent potential biomarkers of nanoparticle-induced alterations. Vibrational spectroscopy approaches may provide a novel means of fingerprinting the effects of CBNs in target cells.

  4. proBAMconvert: A Conversion Tool for proBAM/proBed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olexiouk, Volodimir; Menschaert, Gerben

    2017-07-07

    The introduction of new standard formats, proBAM and proBed, improves the integration of genomics and proteomics information, thus aiding proteogenomics applications. These novel formats enable peptide spectrum matches (PSM) to be stored, inspected, and analyzed within the context of the genome. However, an easy-to-use and transparent tool to convert mass spectrometry identification files to these new formats is indispensable. proBAMconvert enables the conversion of common identification file formats (mzIdentML, mzTab, and pepXML) to proBAM/proBed using an intuitive interface. Furthermore, ProBAMconvert enables information to be output both at the PSM and peptide levels and has a command line interface next to the graphical user interface. Detailed documentation and a completely worked-out tutorial is available at http://probam.biobix.be .

  5. Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria differ in their sensitivity to cold plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai-Prochnow, Anne; Clauson, Maryse; Hong, Jungmi; Murphy, Anthony B.

    2016-12-01

    Cold atmospheric-pressure plasma (CAP) is a relatively new method being investigated for antimicrobial activity. However, the exact mode of action is still being explored. Here we report that CAP efficacy is directly correlated to bacterial cell wall thickness in several species. Biofilms of Gram positive Bacillus subtilis, possessing a 55.4 nm cell wall, showed the highest resistance to CAP, with less than one log10 reduction after 10 min treatment. In contrast, biofilms of Gram negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa, possessing only a 2.4 nm cell wall, were almost completely eradicated using the same treatment conditions. Planktonic cultures of Gram negative Pseudomonas libanensis also had a higher log10 reduction than Gram positive Staphylococcus epidermidis. Mixed species biofilms of P. aeruginosa and S. epidermidis showed a similar trend of Gram positive bacteria being more resistant to CAP treatment. However, when grown in co-culture, Gram negative P. aeruginosa was more resistant to CAP overall than as a mono-species biofilm. Emission spectra indicated OH and O, capable of structural cell wall bond breakage, were present in the plasma. This study indicates that cell wall thickness correlates with CAP inactivation times of bacteria, but cell membranes and biofilm matrix are also likely to play a role.

  6. Antiadhesion agents against Gram-positive pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cascioferro, Stella; Cusimano, Maria Grazia; Schillaci, Domenico

    2014-01-01

    A fundamental step of Gram-positive pathogenesis is the bacterial adhesion to the host tissue involving interaction between bacterial surface molecules and host ligands. This review is focused on antivirulence compounds that target Gram-positive adhesins and on their potential development as therapeutic agents alternative or complementary to conventional antibiotics in the contrast of pathogens. In particular, compounds that target the sortase A, wall theicoic acid inhibitors, carbohydrates able to bind bacterial proteins and proteins capable of influencing the bacterial adhesion, were described. We further discuss the advantages and disadvantages of this strategy in the development of novel antimicrobials and the future perspective of this research field still at its first steps.

  7. Cross-resistance patterns to acetolactate synthase (ALS)-inhibiting herbicides of flixweed (Descurainia sophia L.) conferred by different combinations of ALS isozymes with a Pro-197-Thr mutation or a novel Trp-574-Leu mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Wei; Yang, Qian; Zhang, Yongzhi; Jiao, Hongtao; Mei, Yu; Li, Xuefeng; Zheng, Mingqi

    2017-03-01

    Acetolactate synthase (ALS) is the common target of ALS-inhibiting herbicides, and target-site ALS mutations are the main mechanism of resistance to ALS-inhibiting herbicides. In this study, ALS1 and ALS2 genes with full lengths of 2004bp and 1998bp respectively were cloned in individual plants of susceptible (S) or resistant (R) flixweed (Descurainia sophia L.) populations. Two ALS mutations of Pro-197-Thr and/or Trp-574-Leu were identified in plants of three R biotypes (HB24, HB30 and HB42). In order to investigate the function of ALS isozymes in ALS-inhibiting herbicide resistance, pHB24 (a Pro-197-Thr mutation in ALS1 and a wild type ALS2), pHB42 (a Trp-574-Leu mutation in ALS1 and a wild type ALS2) and pHB30 (a Trp-574-Leu mutation in ALS1 and a Pro-197-Thr mutation in ALS2) subpopulations individually homozygous for different ALS mutations were generated. Individuals of pHB30 had mutations in each isozyme of ALS and had higher resistance than pHB24 and pHB42 populations containing mutations in only one ALS isozyme. Moreover, the pHB24 had resistance to SU, TP and SCT herbicides, whereas pHB24 and pHB42 had resistance to these classes of herbicides as well as IMI and PTB herbicides. The sensitivity of isolated ALS enzyme to inhibition by herbicides in these populations correlated with whole plant resistance levels. Therefore, reduced ALS sensitivity resulting from the mutations in ALS was responsible for resistance to ALS-inhibiting herbicides in flixweed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. [Diagnostic and therapeutic management of Gram-negative infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassetti, Matteo; Repetto, Ernestina

    2008-04-01

    Among Gram negative bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL)-producing strains, Acinetobacter spp, in particular the multiresistant Acinetobacter baumannii, and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia are the most implicated micrororganisms in the ever more increasing problem of bacterial resistance. Possible solutions have to be searched, on one hand, in the use of new drugs but, on the other hand, in the re-evaluation of those already available drugs, possibly considering a new role for old drugs such as colistine and fosfomycin. Concerning ESBL-producing strains, the most recent data provided by EARSS report, in Italy, an incidence rate of 10-25 percent. The insurgence of an infection sustained by an ESBL+ve strain is strictly related to some well known risk factors, like the hospital stay itself, the disease severity, the length of stay in ICU, intubation and mechanical ventilation, catheterization, urinary or artery, and the past exposure to antibiotics. The raise in ESBL producing strains is closely related to the increasing use of cephalosporins. In the setting of a Gram negative infection, the combination therapy guarantees a higher coverage by reducing insurgence of possible resistance mechanisms, possibly resulting synergistic, and allowing a de-escalation therapy, although to this latter other problems, such as tolerability, costs and compliance, can be related. Another basic aspect to take into account of, in order to achieve the maximal efficacy of the antibiotic treatment, is the right dosage. In the idea to look for the best approach for the antibiotic treatment of a severe infection in a hospital setting, when a Gram negative aetiology is implicated, it can be possibly presumed that the right way consists in avoiding inappropriate antibiotic therapies, making therapeutic choices based on guidelines resulted from local epidemiological data, initiating the therapy promptly, avoiding excessive use of antibiotics, possibly

  9. A flow-cytometric gram-staining technique for milk-associated bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Claus; Jespersen, Lene

    2003-05-01

    A Gram-staining technique combining staining with two fluorescent stains, Oregon Green-conjugated wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) and hexidium iodide (HI) followed by flow-cytometric detection is described. WGA stains gram-positive bacteria while HI binds to the DNA of all bacteria after permeabilization by EDTA and incubation at 50 degrees C for 15 min. For WGA to bind to gram-positive bacteria, a 3 M potassium chloride solution was found to give the highest fluorescence intensity. A total of 12 strains representing some of the predominant bacterial species in bulk tank milk and mixtures of these were stained and analyzed by flow cytometry. Overall, the staining method showed a clear differentiation between gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial populations. For stationary-stage cultures of seven gram-positive bacteria and five gram-negative bacteria, an average of 99% of the cells were correctly interpreted. The method was only slightly influenced by the growth phase of the bacteria or conditions such as freezing at -18 degrees C for 24 h. For any of these conditions, an average of at least 95% of the cells were correctly interpreted. When stationary-stage cultures were stored at 5 degrees C for 14 days, an average of 86% of the cells were correctly interpreted. The Gram-staining technique was applied to the flow cytometry analysis of bulk tank milk inoculated with Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. These results demonstrate that the technique is suitable for analyzing milk samples without precultivation.

  10. TGFbeta1 (Leu10Pro), p53 (Arg72Pro) can predict for increased risk for breast cancer in south Indian women and TGFbeta1 Pro (Leu10Pro) allele predicts response to neo-adjuvant chemo-radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkumar, Thangarajan; Samson, Mani; Rama, Ranganathan; Sridevi, Veluswami; Mahji, Urmila; Swaminathan, Rajaraman; Nancy, Nirmala K

    2008-11-01

    The breast cancer incidence has been increasing in the south Indian women. A case (n=250)-control (n=500) study was undertaken to investigate the role of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNP's) in GSTM1 (Present/Null); GSTP1 (Ile105Val), p53 (Arg72Pro), TGFbeta1 (Leu10Pro), c-erbB2 (Ile655Val), and GSTT1 (Null/Present) in breast cancer. In addition, the value of the SNP's in predicting primary tumor's pathologic response following neo-adjuvant chemo-radiotherapy was assessed. Genotyping was done using PCR (GSTM1, GSTT1), Taqman Allelic discrimination assay (GSTP1, c-erbB2) and PCR-CTPP (p53 and TGFbeta1). None of the gene SNP's studied were associated with a statistically significant increased risk for the breast cancer. However, combined analysis of the SNP's showed that p53 (Arg/Arg and Arg/Pro) with TGFbeta1 (Pro/Pro and Leu/Pro) were associated with greater than 2 fold increased risk for breast cancer in Univariate (P=0.01) and Multivariate (P=0.003) analysis. There was no statistically significant association for the GST family members with the breast cancer risk. TGFbeta1 (Pro/Pro) allele was found to predict complete pathologic response in the primary tumour following neo-adjuvant chemo-radiotherapy (OR=6.53 and 10.53 in Univariate and Multivariate analysis respectively) (P=0.004) and was independent of stage. This study suggests that SNP's can help predict breast cancer risk in south Indian women and that TGFbeta1 (Pro/Pro) allele is associated with a better pCR in the primary tumour.

  11. Prognostic factors and monomicrobial necrotizing fasciitis: gram-positive versus gram-negative pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsu Wei-Hsiu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Monomicrobial necrotizing fasciitis is rapidly progressive and life-threatening. This study was undertaken to ascertain whether the clinical presentation and outcome for patients with this disease differ for those infected with a gram-positive as compared to gram-negative pathogen. Methods Forty-six patients with monomicrobial necrotizing fasciitis were examined retrospectively from November 2002 to January 2008. All patients received adequate broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy, aggressive resuscitation, prompt radical debridement and adjuvant hyperbaric oxygen therapy. Eleven patients were infected with a gram-positive pathogen (Group 1 and 35 patients with a gram-negative pathogen (Group 2. Results Group 2 was characterized by a higher incidence of hemorrhagic bullae and septic shock, higher APACHE II scores at 24 h post-admission, a higher rate of thrombocytopenia, and a higher prevalence of chronic liver dysfunction. Gouty arthritis was more prevalent in Group 1. For non-survivors, the incidences of chronic liver dysfunction, chronic renal failure and thrombocytopenia were higher in comparison with those for survivors. Lower level of serum albumin was also demonstrated in the non-survivors as compared to those in survivors. Conclusions Pre-existing chronic liver dysfunction, chronic renal failure, thrombocytopenia and hypoalbuminemia, and post-operative dependence on mechanical ventilation represent poor prognostic factors in monomicrobial necrotizing fasciitis. Patients with gram-negative monobacterial necrotizing fasciitis present with more fulminant sepsis.

  12. Alternate gram staining technique using a fluorescent lectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sizemore, R K; Caldwell, J J; Kendrick, A S

    1990-01-01

    Fluorescence-labeled wheat germ agglutinin binds specifically to N-acetylglucosamine in the outer peptidoglycan layer of gram-positive bacteria. The peptidoglycan layer of gram-negative bacteria is covered by a membrane and is not labeled by the lectin. By exploiting this phenomenon, an alternative Gram staining technique has been developed. Images PMID:1697149

  13. Quorum sensing in gram-negative bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, H.; Song, Z.J.; Høiby, N.

    2004-01-01

    Bacteria can communicate with each other by means of signal molecules to coordinate the behavior of the entire community, and the mechanism is referred to as quorum sensing (QS). Signal systems enable bacteria to sense the size of their densities by monitoring the concentration of the signal...... molecules. Among Gram-negative bacteria N-acyl-L-homoserine lactone (acyl-HSL)-dependent quorum sensing systems are particularly widespread. These systems are used to coordinate expression of phenotypes that are fundamental to the interaction of bacteria with each other and with their environment...

  14. Pro Forma Registration of Companies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik

    2010-01-01

    The article analyses the view taken by Community law on companies' pro forma registration in another EU or EEA country. Community law recognises pro forma registration under company law, i.e. a brass plate is sufficient, whereas it does not recognise pro forma registration under tax law, i.......e. a brass plate is not sufficient. The article provides reasons for the differential treatment of the two contexts and clarifies the difference on the basis of the Hubbard criterion, in which it was ruled that the effectiveness of Community law cannot vary according to the various branches of national law....

  15. Textualidad y gramática argumentativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAÚL FIRACATIVE-RUIZ

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available La argumentación es un modo de organizar el discurso, cuya orientación se da para lograr el convencimiento del otro. El presente artículo acoge este precepto para abordar la propuesta argumentativa del autor italiano Vincenzo Lo Cascio desde la noción de textualidad . Gramática argumentativa es el nombre dado a esta apuesta teórica y surge de las ideas de la Nueva Retórica de Perelman. Lo Cascio propone la existencia de categorías sintácticas finitas, denominadas reglas categoriales e indicadores de fuerza , las cuales permiten orientar la información de los enunciados y analizar multiplicidad de discursos; por ello, es una teoría que sigue la línea de la sintaxis generativa de Noam Chomsky. El artículo plantea la necesidad de reconocer, desde la Gramática argumentativa, el potencial enunciativo de la palabra en situaciones comunicativas cotidianas, donde es preciso que los enunciadores sean conscientes del uso que hacen de la palabra.

  16. A new technique for Gram staining paraffin-embedded tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engbaek, K; Johansen, K S; Jensen, M E

    1979-01-01

    Five techniques for Gram staining bacteria in paraffin sections were compared on serial sections of pulmonary tissues from eight bacteriological necropsies. Brown and Hopp's method was the most satisfactory for distinguishing Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. However, this method cannot be recommended as the preparations were frequently overstained, and the Gram-negative bacteria were stained indistinctly. A modification of Brown and Hopps' method was developed which stains larger numbers of Gram-negative bacteria and differentiates well between different cell types and connective tissue, and there is no risk of overstaining. PMID:86548

  17. Techniques for controlling variability in gram staining of obligate anaerobes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, M J; Thatcher, E; Cox, M E

    1995-01-01

    Identification of anaerobes recovered from clinical samples is complicated by the fact that certain gram-positive anaerobes routinely stain gram negative; Peptostreptococcus asaccharolyticus, Eubacterium plautii, Clostridium ramosum, Clostridium symbiosum, and Clostridium clostridiiforme are among the nonconformists with regard to conventional Gram-staining procedures. Accurate Gram staining of American Type Culture Collection strains of these anaerobic bacteria is possible by implementing fixing and staining techniques within a gloveless anaerobic chamber. Under anaerobic conditions, gram-positive staining occurred in all test organisms with "quick" fixing techniques with both absolute methanol and formalin. The results support the hypothesis that, when anaerobic bacteria are exposed to oxygen, a breakdown of the physical integrity of the cell wall occurs, introducing Gram stain variability in gram-positive anaerobes. PMID:7538512

  18. Transient sensitivity to nisin in cold-shocked Gram negatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boziaris, I S; Adams, M R

    2000-09-01

    Rapid chilling in the presence of nisin caused a dose-dependent reduction in the populations of several Gram-negative bacteria, despite the fact that appreciable structural injury to the outer membrane was not detected. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was most affected, followed by Pseudomonas fragi, Salmonella enteritidis PT4, PT7 and Escherichia coli, respectively. Addition of nisin after the chilling treatment had no effect. The results are ascribed to a transient susceptibility caused by phase changes in the lipids associated with the outer membrane, which are rapidly reversed when the cells return to higher temperatures. Combinations of chilling shock, nisin and EDTA gave much lower reductions of Salmonella and Pseudomonas on chicken skin in comparison with broths. This is attributed to a buffering of the temperature shock experienced by adherent bacteria and binding of the nisin by food particles.

  19. Bioengineered nisin A derivatives with enhanced activity against both Gram positive and Gram negative pathogens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Des Field

    Full Text Available Nisin is a bacteriocin widely utilized in more than 50 countries as a safe and natural antibacterial food preservative. It is the most extensively studied bacteriocin, having undergone decades of bioengineering with a view to improving function and physicochemical properties. The discovery of novel nisin variants with enhanced activity against clinical and foodborne pathogens has recently been described. We screened a randomized bank of nisin A producers and identified a variant with a serine to glycine change at position 29 (S29G, with enhanced efficacy against S. aureus SA113. Using a site-saturation mutagenesis approach we generated three more derivatives (S29A, S29D and S29E with enhanced activity against a range of Gram positive drug resistant clinical, veterinary and food pathogens. In addition, a number of the nisin S29 derivatives displayed superior antimicrobial activity to nisin A when assessed against a range of Gram negative food-associated pathogens, including E. coli, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and Cronobacter sakazakii. This is the first report of derivatives of nisin, or indeed any lantibiotic, with enhanced antimicrobial activity against both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria.

  20. Mechanistic antimicrobial approach of extracellularly synthesized silver nanoparticles against gram positive and gram negative bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamboli, Dhawal P.; Lee, Dae Sung, E-mail: daesung@knu.ac.kr

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: • Bacterial extracelluar enzymes stabilized the silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). • AgNPs formation was characterized by analytical techniques such as UV–vis, TEM, and FTIR. • AgNPs showed obvious antimicrobial activity against both gram positive and gram negative microorganisms. • A mechanism of AgNPs’ antimicrobial activity was proposed. -- Abstract: The development of eco-friendly and reliable processes for the synthesis of nanoparticles has attracted considerable interest in nanotechnology. In this study, an extracellular enzyme system of a newly isolated microorganism, Exiguobacterium sp. KNU1, was used for the reduction of AgNO{sub 3} solutions to silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). The extracellularly biosynthesized AgNPs were characterized by UV–vis spectroscopy, Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The AgNPs were approximately 30 nm (range 5–50 nm) in size, well-dispersed and spherical. The AgNPs were evaluated for their antimicrobial effects on different gram negative and gram positive bacteria using the minimum inhibitory concentration method. Reasonable antimicrobial activity against Salmonella typhimurium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus was observed. The morphological changes occurred in all the microorganisms tested. In particular, E. coli exhibited DNA fragmentation after being treated with the AgNPs. Finally, the mechanism for their bactericidal activity was proposed according to the results of scanning electron microscopy and single cell gel electrophoresis.

  1. Mechanistic antimicrobial approach of extracellularly synthesized silver nanoparticles against gram positive and gram negative bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamboli, Dhawal P.; Lee, Dae Sung

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Bacterial extracelluar enzymes stabilized the silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). • AgNPs formation was characterized by analytical techniques such as UV–vis, TEM, and FTIR. • AgNPs showed obvious antimicrobial activity against both gram positive and gram negative microorganisms. • A mechanism of AgNPs’ antimicrobial activity was proposed. -- Abstract: The development of eco-friendly and reliable processes for the synthesis of nanoparticles has attracted considerable interest in nanotechnology. In this study, an extracellular enzyme system of a newly isolated microorganism, Exiguobacterium sp. KNU1, was used for the reduction of AgNO 3 solutions to silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). The extracellularly biosynthesized AgNPs were characterized by UV–vis spectroscopy, Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The AgNPs were approximately 30 nm (range 5–50 nm) in size, well-dispersed and spherical. The AgNPs were evaluated for their antimicrobial effects on different gram negative and gram positive bacteria using the minimum inhibitory concentration method. Reasonable antimicrobial activity against Salmonella typhimurium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus was observed. The morphological changes occurred in all the microorganisms tested. In particular, E. coli exhibited DNA fragmentation after being treated with the AgNPs. Finally, the mechanism for their bactericidal activity was proposed according to the results of scanning electron microscopy and single cell gel electrophoresis

  2. Bioengineered Nisin A Derivatives with Enhanced Activity against Both Gram Positive and Gram Negative Pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Des; Begley, Maire; O’Connor, Paula M.; Daly, Karen M.; Hugenholtz, Floor; Cotter, Paul D.; Hill, Colin; Ross, R. Paul

    2012-01-01

    Nisin is a bacteriocin widely utilized in more than 50 countries as a safe and natural antibacterial food preservative. It is the most extensively studied bacteriocin, having undergone decades of bioengineering with a view to improving function and physicochemical properties. The discovery of novel nisin variants with enhanced activity against clinical and foodborne pathogens has recently been described. We screened a randomized bank of nisin A producers and identified a variant with a serine to glycine change at position 29 (S29G), with enhanced efficacy against S. aureus SA113. Using a site-saturation mutagenesis approach we generated three more derivatives (S29A, S29D and S29E) with enhanced activity against a range of Gram positive drug resistant clinical, veterinary and food pathogens. In addition, a number of the nisin S29 derivatives displayed superior antimicrobial activity to nisin A when assessed against a range of Gram negative food-associated pathogens, including E. coli, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and Cronobacter sakazakii. This is the first report of derivatives of nisin, or indeed any lantibiotic, with enhanced antimicrobial activity against both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. PMID:23056510

  3. Pro JavaScript for web apps

    CERN Document Server

    Freeman, Adam

    2012-01-01

    JavaScript is the engine behind every web app, and a solid knowledge of it is essential for all modern web developers. Pro JavaScript for Web Apps gives you all of the information that you need to create professional, optimized, and efficient JavaScript applications that will run across all devices. It takes you through all aspects of modern JavaScript application creation, showing you how to combine JavaScript with the new features of HTML5 and CSS3 to make the most of the new web technologies. The focus of the book is on creating professional web applications, ensuring that your app provides

  4. The Causes of Post-Operative Meningitis: The Comparison Of Gram-Negative and Gram-Positive Pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtaran, Behice; Kuscu, Ferit; Ulu, Aslihan; Inal, Ayse Seza; Komur, Suheyla; Kibar, Filiz; Cetinalp, Nuri Eralp; Ozsoy, Kerem Mazhar; Arslan, Yusuf Kemal; Aksu, Hasan Salih; Tasova, Yesim

    2017-06-20

    In this study, we aim to determine the microbiological etiology in critically ill neurosurgical patients with nosocomial meningitis (NM) and show the impact of Gram-negative rods and differences of patient's characteristics, clinical and prognostic measures between Gram-negative and Gram-positive meningitis. In this prospective, one center study we reviewed all adult patients hospitalized during a 12-year period and identified pathogens isolated from post-neurosurgical cases of NM. Demographic, clinical, and treatment characteristics were noted from the medical records. Of the 134 bacterial NM patients, 78 were male and 56 were female, with a mean age of 46±15.9 and median age of 50 (18-80) years. 141 strains isolated; 82 (58.2%) were Gram negative, 59 (41.8%) were Gram positive. Most common isolated microorganism was Acinetobacter baumannii (%34.8). In comparison of mortality data shows that the patients who have meningitis with Gram-negative pathogens have higher mortality than with Gram positives (p=0.034). The duration between surgery and meningitis was shorter in Gram negative meningitis cases compared to others (p=0.045) but the duration between the diagnosis and death was shorter in Gram-positive meningitis cases compared to Gram negatives (p= 0.017). CSF protein and lactate level were higher and glucose level was lower in cases of NM with Gram negatives (p value were respectively, 0.022, 0.039 and 0.049). As conclusions; in NM, Gram-negative pathogens were seen more frequently; A.baumanni was the predominant pathogen; and NM caused by Gram negatives had worse clinical and laboratory characteristic and prognostic outcome than Gram positives.

  5. Dual beta-lactam therapy for serious Gram-negative infections: is it time to revisit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahme, Christine; Butterfield, Jill M; Nicasio, Anthony M; Lodise, Thomas P

    2014-12-01

    We are rapidly approaching a crisis in antibiotic resistance, particularly among Gram-negative pathogens. This, coupled with the slow development of novel antimicrobial agents, underscores the exigency of redeploying existing antimicrobial agents in innovative ways. One therapeutic approach that was heavily studied in the 1980s but abandoned over time is dual beta-lactam therapy. This article reviews the evidence for combination beta-lactam therapy. Overall, in vitro, animal and clinical data are positive and suggest that beta-lactam combinations produce a synergistic effect against Gram-negative pathogens that rivals that of beta-lactam-aminoglycoside or beta-lactam-fluoroquinolone combination therapy. Although the precise mechanism of improved activity is not completely understood, it is likely attributable to an enhanced affinity to the diverse penicillin-binding proteins found among Gram negatives. The collective data indicate that dual beta-lactam therapy should be revisited for serious Gram-negative infections, especially in light of the near availability of potent beta-lactamase inhibitors, which neutralize the effect of problematic beta-lactamases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Pro Kapital sihib ida suunas / Raigo Neudorf

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Neudorf, Raigo

    2007-01-01

    Peamiselt itaallastele kuuluv kinnisvaraarendaja Pro Kapital Group suunab edaspidi oma põhitegevuse Venemaale ja Ukrainasse, kuid jätkab kinnisvaraprojektide arendamisega Eestis ja Lätis. Vt. samas: Preatoni juhib Domina tegevust; Pro Kapital laiendab Kristiine keskust; Arco Vara juht kiidab Pro Kapitali ning nende projekte; Kümme aastat Pro Kapitali juhina

  7. Gram staining in the diagnosis of acute septic arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraj, A A; Omonbude, O D; Godwin, P

    2002-10-01

    This study aimed at determining the sensitivity and specificity of Gram staining of synovial fluid as a diagnostic tool in acute septic arthritis. A retrospective study was made of 22 patients who had arthroscopic lavage following a provisional diagnosis of acute septic arthritis of the knee joint. Gram stains and cultures of the knee aspirates were compared with the clinical and laboratory parameters, to evaluate their usefulness in diagnosing acute arthritis. All patients who had septic arthritis had pain, swelling and limitation of movement. CRP was elevated in 90% of patients. The incidence of elevated white blood cell count was higher in the group of patients with a positive Gram stain study (60%) as compared to patients with a negative Gram stain study (33%). Gram staining sensitivity was 45%. Its specificity was however 100%. Gram staining is an unreliable tool in early decision making in patients requiring urgent surgical drainage and washout.

  8. Subcellular localization for Gram positive and Gram negative bacterial proteins using linear interpolation smoothing model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Harsh; Raicar, Gaurav; Dehzangi, Abdollah; Lal, Sunil; Sharma, Alok

    2015-12-07

    Protein subcellular localization is an important topic in proteomics since it is related to a protein׳s overall function, helps in the understanding of metabolic pathways, and in drug design and discovery. In this paper, a basic approximation technique from natural language processing called the linear interpolation smoothing model is applied for predicting protein subcellular localizations. The proposed approach extracts features from syntactical information in protein sequences to build probabilistic profiles using dependency models, which are used in linear interpolation to determine how likely is a sequence to belong to a particular subcellular location. This technique builds a statistical model based on maximum likelihood. It is able to deal effectively with high dimensionality that hinders other traditional classifiers such as Support Vector Machines or k-Nearest Neighbours without sacrificing performance. This approach has been evaluated by predicting subcellular localizations of Gram positive and Gram negative bacterial proteins. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Diagnosing periprosthetic infection: false-positive intraoperative Gram stains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oethinger, Margret; Warner, Debra K; Schindler, Susan A; Kobayashi, Hideo; Bauer, Thomas W

    2011-04-01

    Intraoperative Gram stains have a reported low sensitivity but high specificity when used to help diagnose periprosthetic infections. In early 2008, we recognized an unexpectedly high frequency of apparent false-positive Gram stains from revision arthroplasties. The purpose of this report is to describe the cause of these false-positive test results. We calculated the sensitivity and specificity of all intraoperative Gram stains submitted from revision arthroplasty cases during a 3-month interval using microbiologic cultures of the same samples as the gold standard. Methods of specimen harvesting, handling, transport, distribution, specimen processing including tissue grinding/macerating, Gram staining, and interpretation were studied. After a test modification, results of specimens were prospectively collected for a second 3-month interval, and the sensitivity and specificity of intraoperative Gram stains were calculated. The retrospective review of 269 Gram stains submitted from revision arthroplasties indicated historic sensitivity and specificity values of 23% and 92%, respectively. Systematic analysis of all steps of the procedure identified Gram-stained but nonviable bacteria in commercial broth reagents used as diluents for maceration of periprosthetic membranes before Gram staining and culture. Polymerase chain reaction and sequencing showed mixed bacterial DNA. Evaluation of 390 specimens after initiating standardized Millipore filtering of diluent fluid revealed a reduced number of positive Gram stains, yielding 9% sensitivity and 99% specificity. Clusters of false-positive Gram stains have been reported in other clinical conditions. They are apparently rare related to diagnosing periprosthetic infections but have severe consequences if used to guide treatment. Even occasional false-positive Gram stains should prompt review of laboratory methods. Our observations implicate dead bacteria in microbiologic reagents as potential sources of false-positive Gram

  10. Defining a role for Hfq in Gram-positive bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Sejrup; Lei, Lisbeth Kristensen; Ebersbach, Tine

    2010-01-01

    Small trans-encoded RNAs (sRNAs) modulate the translation and decay of mRNAs in bacteria. In Gram-negative species, antisense regulation by trans-encoded sRNAs relies on the Sm-like protein Hfq. In contrast to this, Hfq is dispensable for sRNA-mediated riboregulation in the Gram-positive species......-dependent and -independent mechanisms, thus adding another layer of complexity to sRNA-mediated riboregulation in Gram-positive species....

  11. Orbit Classification of Qutrit via the Gram Matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tay, B. A.; Zainuddin, Hishamuddin

    2008-01-01

    We classify the orbits generated by unitary transformation on the density matrices of the three-state quantum systems (qutrits) via the Gram matrix. The Gram matrix is a real symmetric matrix formed from the Hilbert–Schmidt scalar products of the vectors lying in the tangent space to the orbits. The rank of the Gram matrix determines the dimensions of the orbits, which fall into three classes for qutrits. (general)

  12. Raman Spectroscopy of Xylitol Uptake and Metabolism in Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Bacteria▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palchaudhuri, Sunil; Rehse, Steven J.; Hamasha, Khozima; Syed, Talha; Kurtovic, Eldar; Kurtovic, Emir; Stenger, James

    2011-01-01

    Visible-wavelength Raman spectroscopy was used to investigate the uptake and metabolism of the five-carbon sugar alcohol xylitol by Gram-positive viridans group streptococcus and the two extensively used strains of Gram-negative Escherichia coli, E. coli C and E. coli K-12. E. coli C, but not E. coli K-12, contains a complete xylitol operon, and the viridans group streptococcus contains an incomplete xylitol operon used to metabolize the xylitol. Raman spectra from xylitol-exposed viridans group streptococcus exhibited significant changes that persisted even in progeny grown from the xylitol-exposed mother cells in a xylitol-free medium for 24 h. This behavior was not observed in the E. coli K-12. In both viridans group streptococcus and the E. coli C derivative HF4714, the metabolic intermediates are stably formed to create an anomaly in bacterial normal survival. The uptake of xylitol by Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens occurs even in the presence of other high-calorie sugars, and its stable integration within the bacterial cell wall may discontinue bacterial multiplication. This could be a contributing factor for the known efficacy of xylitol when taken as a prophylactic measure to prevent or reduce occurrences of persistent infection. Specifically, these bacteria are causative agents for several important diseases of children such as pneumonia, otitis media, meningitis, and dental caries. If properly explored, such an inexpensive and harmless sugar-alcohol, alone or used in conjunction with fluoride, would pave the way to an alternative preventive therapy for these childhood diseases when the causative pathogens have become resistant to modern medicines such as antibiotics and vaccine immunotherapy. PMID:21037297

  13. Impact of round-the-clock CSF Gram stain on empirical therapy for suspected central nervous system infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tissot, F; Prod'hom, G; Manuel, O; Greub, G

    2015-09-01

    The impact of round-the-clock cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Gram stain on overnight empirical therapy for suspected central nervous system (CNS) infections was investigated. All consecutive overnight CSF Gram stains between 2006 and 2011 were included. The impact of a positive or a negative test on empirical therapy was evaluated and compared to other clinical and biological indications based on institutional guidelines. Bacterial CNS infection was documented in 51/241 suspected cases. Overnight CSF Gram stain was positive in 24/51. Upon validation, there were two false-positive and one false-negative results. The sensitivity and specificity were 41 and 99 %, respectively. All patients but one had other indications for empirical therapy than Gram stain alone. Upon obtaining the Gram result, empirical therapy was modified in 7/24, including the addition of an appropriate agent (1), addition of unnecessary agents (3) and simplification of unnecessary combination therapy (3/11). Among 74 cases with a negative CSF Gram stain and without formal indication for empirical therapy, antibiotics were withheld in only 29. Round-the-clock CSF Gram stain had a low impact on overnight empirical therapy for suspected CNS infections and was associated with several misinterpretation errors. Clinicians showed little confidence in CSF direct examination for simplifying or withholding therapy before definite microbiological results.

  14. FileMaker Pro 9

    CERN Document Server

    Coffey, Geoff

    2007-01-01

    FileMaker Pro 9: The Missing Manual is the clear, thorough and accessible guide to the latest version of this popular desktop database program. FileMaker Pro lets you do almost anything with the information you give it. You can print corporate reports, plan your retirement, or run a small country -- if you know what you're doing. This book helps non-technical folks like you get in, get your database built, and get the results you need. Pronto.The new edition gives novices and experienced users the scoop on versions 8.5 and 9. It offers complete coverage of timesaving new features such as the Q

  15. Pro asynchronous programming with .NET

    CERN Document Server

    Blewett, Richard; Ltd, Rock Solid Knowledge

    2014-01-01

    Pro Asynchronous Programming with .NET teaches the essential skill of asynchronous programming in .NET. It answers critical questions in .NET application development, such as: how do I keep my program responding at all times to keep my users happy how do I make the most of the available hardware how can I improve performanceIn the modern world, users expect more and more from their applications and devices, and multi-core hardware has the potential to provide it. But it takes carefully crafted code to turn that potential into responsive, scalable applications.With Pro Asynchronous Programming

  16. Utility of Gram staining for diagnosis of Malassezia folliculitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Wei-Ting; Chin, Szu-Ying; Chou, Chia-Lun; Hsu, Che-Yuan; Chen, Yu-Tsung; Liu, Donald; Lee, Woan-Ruoh; Shih, Yi-Hsien

    2018-02-01

    Malassezia folliculitis (MalF) mimics acne vulgaris and bacterial folliculitis in clinical presentations. The role of Gram staining in rapid diagnosis of MalF has not been well studied. In our study, 32 patients were included to investigate the utility of Gram staining for MalF diagnosis. The final diagnoses of MalF were determined according to clinical presentation, pathological result and treatment response to antifungal agents. Our results show that the sensitivity and specificity of Gram staining are 84.6% and 100%, respectively. In conclusion, Gram staining is a rapid, non-invasive, sensitive and specific method for MalF diagnosis. © 2017 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  17. Antimicrobial Activity of Carbon Nanoparticles Isolated from Natural Sources against Pathogenic Gram-Negative and Gram-Positive Bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varghese, S.; Jose, S.; Varghese, S.; Kuriakose, S.; Jose, S.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the isolation of carbon nanoparticles (CNPs) from kitchen soot, characterization of the CNPs by UV/visible spectroscopy, SEM and XRD, and their antimicrobial action. The antibacterial activity of the isolated carbon nanoparticles was tested against various pathogenic bacterial strains such as Gram-negative Proteus refrigere and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus haemolyticus. The inhibition zones were measured, and it was found that the carbon nanoparticles isolated from natural sources are active against these Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacterial strains

  18. The emotional consequences of pro-social behavior in markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgaard, Toke Reinholt

    that emotional responses are important explanations of this finding. It is first argued that the emotional response to a pro-social decision combined with private good purchase is different from the response to a similar decision in a non-market situation. Through evidence from a laboratory experiment...

  19. Glass bead transformation method for gram-positive bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Rattanachaikunsopon, Pongsak; Phumkhachorn, Parichat

    2009-01-01

    A simple, inexpensive and reproducible transformation method was developed for Gram-positive bacteria. It was based on agitation of bacterial protoplasts with glass beads in the presence of DNA and polyethylene glycol. By using this method, introduction of pGK12 into protoplasts of several strains of Gram-positive bacteria was achieved.

  20. Methods for targetted mutagenesis in gram-positive bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yunfeng

    2014-05-27

    The present invention provides a method of targeted mutagenesis in Gram-positive bacteria. In particular, the present invention provides a method that effectively integrates a suicide integrative vector into a target gene in the chromosome of a Gram-positive bacterium, resulting in inactivation of the target gene.

  1. Genetic diversity in green gram accessions as revealed by STMS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Molecular characterization of green gram (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek) germplasm is essential for scientific assessment of variability and diversity for its better utilization in breeding programs. In this study, 120 accessions of green gram were analysed for 27 Sequence Tagged Microsatellites (STMS) loci. For data analysis ...

  2. Gram-positive bacteria persisting in the food production environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knøchel, Susanne; Harmsen, Morten; Knudsen, Bettina

    2008-01-01

    Many gram-positive bacteria are able to form aggregates or biofilms and resist external stress factors and some gram-positive pathogenic bacteria such as Listeria monocytogenes and Bacillus cereus may persist in the food production environment for extended periods. Most research has focussed...

  3. Decreased mortality associated with prompt Gram staining of blood cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barenfanger, Joan; Graham, Donald R; Kolluri, Lavanya; Sangwan, Gaurav; Lawhorn, Jerry; Drake, Cheryl A; Verhulst, Steven J; Peterson, Ryan; Moja, Lauren B; Ertmoed, Matthew M; Moja, Ashley B; Shevlin, Douglas W; Vautrain, Robert; Callahan, Charles D

    2008-12-01

    Gram stains of positive blood cultures are the most important factor influencing appropriate therapy. The sooner appropriate therapy is initiated, the better. Therefore, it is reasonable to expect that the sooner Gram stains are performed, the better. To determine the value of timely Gram stains and whether improvement in Gram stain turnaround time (TAT) is feasible, we compared data for matched pairs of patients with cultures processed promptly ( or =1 hour TAT) and then monitored TAT by control charting.In 99 matched pairs, average difference in time to detection of positive blood cultures within a pair of patients was less than 0.1 hour. For the less than 1 hour TAT group, the average TAT and crude mortality were 0.1 hour and 10.1%, respectively; for the 1 hour or longer TAT group, they were 3.3 hours and 19.2%, respectively (P Gram stains.

  4. Low-fat papadams from black gram-tapioca blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annapure, U S; Michael, M; Singhal, R S; Kulkarni, P R

    1997-07-01

    Papadams, made from black gram (Phaseolus mungo) and largely manufactured on cottage scale are popular in the Indian dietary. Escalating prices of black gram coupled with abundant availability of tapioca flour at almost 1/8th the price of black gram prompted the study of papadam characteristics using blends of black gram and tapioca flour. Tapioca flour up to 25% substitution did not alter the sensory attributes. However, the expansibility of the product decreased on addition of tapioca flour; a fact which could be overcome by using carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) at 3% level of black gram flour. This decreased the oil content to 19.7% and also increased the expansibility to 5.539%.

  5. The REFER (REFer for EchocaRdiogram protocol: a prospective validation of a clinical decision rule, NT-proBNP, or their combination, in the diagnosis of heart failure in primary care. Rationale and design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tait Lynda

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Heart failure is a major cause of mortality and morbidity. As mortality rates are high, it is important that patients seen by general practitioners with symptoms suggestive of heart failure are identified quickly and treated appropriately. Identifying patients with heart failure or deciding which patients need further tests is a challenge. All patients with suspected heart failure should be diagnosed using objective tests such as echocardiography, but it is expensive, often delayed, and limited by the significant skill shortage of trained echocardiographers. Alternative approaches for diagnosing heart failure are currently limited. Clinical decision tools that combine clinical signs, symptoms or patient characteristics are designed to be used to support clinical decision-making and validated according to strict methodological procedures. The REFER Study aims to determine the accuracy and cost-effectiveness of our previously derived novel, simple clinical decision rule, a natriuretic peptide assay, or their combination, in the triage for referral for echocardiography of symptomatic adult patients who present in general practice with symptoms suggestive of heart failure. Methods/design This is a prospective, Phase II observational, diagnostic validation study of a clinical decision rule, natriuretic peptides or their combination, for diagnosing heart failure in primary care. Consecutive adult primary care patients 55 years of age or over presenting to their general practitioner with a chief complaint of recent new onset shortness of breath, lethargy or peripheral ankle oedema of over 48 hours duration, with no obvious recurrent, acute or self-limiting cause will be enrolled. Our reference standard is based upon a three step expert specialist consensus using echocardiography and clinical variables and tests. Discussion Our clinical decision rule offers a potential solution to the diagnostic challenge of providing a timely and

  6. Antibacterial Activity of Silver-Graphene Quantum Dots Nanocomposites Against Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habiba, Khaled (Inventor); Makarov, Vladimir (Inventor); Weiner, Brad R (Inventor); Morell, Gerardo (Inventor)

    2018-01-01

    The invention provides a composite of silver nanoparticles decorated with graphene quantum dots (Ag-GQDs) using pulsed laser synthesis. The nanocomposites were functionalized with polyethylene glycol (PEG). A concentration of 150 .mu.g/mL of Ag-GQDs, a non-toxic level for human cells, exhibits strong antibacterial activity against both Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Bacteria.

  7. Distribution of multi-resistant Gram-negative versus Gram-positive bacteria in the hospital inanimate environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemmen, S W; Häfner, H; Zolldann, D; Stanzel, S; Lütticken, R

    2004-03-01

    We prospectively studied the difference in detection rates of multi-resistant Gram-positive and multi-resistant Gram-negative bacteria in the inanimate environment of patients harbouring these organisms. Up to 20 different locations around 190 patients were surveyed. Fifty-four patients were infected or colonized with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) or vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) and 136 with multi-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. The environmental detection rate for MRSA or VRE was 24.7% (174/705 samples) compared with 4.9% (89/1827 samples) for multi-resistant Gram-negative bacteria (PGram-positive bacteria were isolated more frequently than Gram-negatives from the hands of patients (PGram-positive and Gram-negative isolates. Our results suggest that the inanimate environment serves as a secondary source for MRSA and VRE, but less so for Gram-negative bacteria. Thus, strict contact isolation in a single room with complete barrier precautions is recommended for MRSA or VRE; however, for multi-resistant Gram-negative bacteria, contact isolation with barrier precautions for close contact but without a single room seems sufficient. This benefits not only the patients, but also the hospital by removing some of the strain placed on already over-stretched resources.

  8. Dustborne and airborne gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria in high versus low ERMI homes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The study aimed at investigating Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria in moldy and non-moldy homes, as defined by the home's Environmental Relative Moldiness Index (ERMI) value. The ERMI values were determined from floor dust samples in 2010 and 2011 and homes were classified...

  9. Human melioidosis reported by ProMED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherinn Melissa Nasner-Posso

    2015-06-01

    Conclusions: Internet-based reporting systems such as ProMED are useful to gather information and synthesize knowledge on emerging infections. Although certain areas need to be improved, ProMED provided good information about melioidosis.

  10. Protocol for ADDITION-PRO

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Nanna Borup; Hansen, Anne-Louise Smidt; Jensen, Troels M

    2012-01-01

    disease and microvascular diabetic complications. We also require a better understanding of the mechanisms that underlie and drive early changes in cardiometabolic physiology. The ADDITION-PRO study was designed to address these issues among individuals at different levels of diabetes risk recruited from...... Danish primary care. METHODS/DESIGN: ADDITION-PRO is a population-based, longitudinal cohort study of individuals at high risk for diabetes. 16,136 eligible individuals were identified at high risk following participation in a stepwise screening programme in Danish general practice between 2001 and 2006....... All individuals with impaired glucose regulation at screening, those who developed diabetes following screening, and a random sub-sample of those at lower levels of diabetes risk were invited to attend a follow-up health assessment in 2009-2011 (n=4,188), of whom 2,082 (50%) attended. The health...

  11. Bio sorption of some Rare Earth Elements and Yttrium by Gram Positive and Gram Negative Bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, H.A.

    2012-01-01

    The separate bio sorption of the REEs La, Sm, Eu and Dy together with yttrium upon the Gram positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis (B.subtilis) and Bacillus Licheniformis (B. Licheniformis),the Gram negative bacterium Escherichia coli (E. coli ) and Saccharomyces cervisiae (Yeast) was studied. The revelant factors of ph 1-6, contact time (30-180 min), the initial rare earth concentration (50-200 mg/l) have been studied. The amount of the accumulated element was strongly affected by its concentration.In addition, bio sorptive fractionation of Y and the studied REEs from a solution containing a mixture of these elements was also studied. From the obtained data, it was found that Langmuir isotherm model for both B.licheniformis and E.coli gives a best fit for the studied elements over the working range of concentration (50-200 mg/I). Transmission electron microscopy exhibited accumulation throughout the bacterial cell with some granular deposits in both the cell periphery and cytoplasm

  12. Cytokine profile in severe gram-positive and gram-negative abdominal sepsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surbatovic, Maja; Popovic, Nada; Vojvodic, Danilo; Milosevic, Ivan; Acimovic, Gordana; Stojicic, Milan; Veljovic, Milic; Jevdjic, Jasna; Djordjevic, Dragan; Radakovic, Sonja

    2015-01-01

    Sepsis is a principal cause of death in critical care units worldwide and consumes considerable healthcare resources. The aim of our study was to determine whether the early cytokine profile can discriminate between Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteraemia (GPB and GNB, respectively) and to assess the prognostic value regarding outcome in critically ill patients with severe abdominal sepsis. The outcome measure was hospital mortality. Blood samples were obtained from 165 adult patients with confirmed severe abdominal sepsis. Levels of the proinflammatory mediators TNF-α, IL-8, IL-12 and IFN-γ and the anti-inflammatory mediators IL-1ra, IL-4, IL-10 and TGF-β1 were determined and correlated with the nature of the bacteria isolated from the blood culture and outcome. The cytokine profile in our study indicated that the TNF-α levels were 2-fold, IL-8 were 3.3-fold, IFN-γ were 13-fold, IL-1ra were 1.05-fold, IL-4 were 1.4-fold and IL-10 were 1.83-fold higher in the GNB group compared with the GPB group. The TNF-α levels were 4.7-fold, IL-8 were 4.6-fold, IL-1ra were 1.5-fold and IL-10 were 3.3-fold higher in the non-survivors compared with the survivors. PMID:26079127

  13. Anti- versus Pro-Competitive Mergers

    OpenAIRE

    Fridolfsson, Sven-Olof

    2007-01-01

    In a framework where mergers are mutually excluding, I show that firms pursue anti- rather than (alternative) pro-competitive mergers. Potential outsiders to anti-competitive mergers refrain from pursuing pro-competitive mergers if the positive externalities from anti-competitive mergers are strong enough. Potential outsiders to pro-competitive mergers pursue anti-competitive mergers if the negative externalities from the pro-competitive mergers are strong enough. Potential participants in an...

  14. Gram-scale production of a basidiomycetous laccase in Aspergillus niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekmouche, Yasmina; Zhou, Simeng; Cusano, Angela M; Record, Eric; Lomascolo, Anne; Robert, Viviane; Simaan, A Jalila; Rousselot-Pailley, Pierre; Ullah, Sana; Chaspoul, Florence; Tron, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    We report on the expression in Aspergillus niger of a laccase gene we used to produce variants in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Grams of recombinant enzyme can be easily obtained. This highlights the potential of combining this generic laccase sequence to the yeast and fungal expression systems for large-scale productions of variants. Copyright © 2013 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Development of a Multiplexed Microsphere PCR for Culture-Free Detection and Gram-Typing of Bacteria in Human Blood Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Fang; Browne, Daniel J; Gray, Megan J; Gartlan, Kate H; Smith, David D; Barnard, Ross T; Hill, Geoffrey R; Corrie, Simon R; Markey, Kate A

    2018-05-11

    Bloodstream infection is a significant clinical problem, particularly in vulnerable patient groups such as those undergoing chemotherapy and bone marrow transplantation. Clinical diagnostics for suspected bloodstream infection remain centered around blood culture (highly variable timing, in the order of hours to days to become positive), and empiric use of broad-spectrum antibiotics is therefore employed for patients presenting with febrile neutropenia. Gram-typing provides the first opportunity to target therapy (e.g., combinations containing vancomycin or teicoplanin for Gram-positives; piperacillin-tazobactam or a carbapenem for Gram-negatives); however, current approaches require blood culture. In this study, we describe a multiplexed microsphere-PCR assay with flow cytometry readout, which can distinguish Gram-positive from Gram-negative bacterial DNA in a 3.5 h time period. The combination of a simple assay design (amplicon-dependent release of Gram-type specific Cy3-labeled oligonucleotides) and the Luminex-based readout (for quantifying each specific Cy3-labeled sequence) opens opportunities for further multiplexing. We demonstrate the feasibility of detecting common Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms after spiking whole bacteria into healthy human blood prior to DNA extraction. Further development of DNA extraction methods is required to reach detection limits comparable to blood culture.

  16. [Pro Familia statistics for 1974].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-09-01

    Statistics for 1974 for the West German family planning organization Pro Familia are reported. 56 offices are now operating, and 23,726 clients were seen. Men were seen more frequently than previously. 10,000 telephone calls were also handled. 16-25 year olds were increasingly represented in the clientele, as were unmarried persons of all ages. 1,242 patients were referred to physicians or clinics for clinical diagnosis.

  17. Tree Growth and Climate Relationship: Dynamics of Scots Pine (Pinus Sylvestris L.) Growing in the Near-Source Region of the Combined Heat and Power Plant During the Development of the Pro-Ecological Strategy in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sensuła, Barbara; Wilczyński, Sławomir; Opała, Magdalena

    Since the 1990s, the emission of pollutants was reduced in a majority of Polish and developing country factories whereas the level of energy production was similar to that prior to the 1990s. The conifer investigated in this study has grown for many years under the stress of industrial pollution. Despite this, the trees are preserved, to a large extent, sensitive to the natural climatic factors. We present a complex analysis of the climatic (sunshine, temperature, precipitation, humidity, and wind circulation) and anthropogenic factors influencing the radial increment dynamics of Scots pine ( Pinus sylvestris L.) growing in the vicinity of the combined heat and power station in Łaziska (Poland). We analyzed the spatiotemporal distribution of growth reductions, the depth of reduction with respect to the distance from the emitter, the relationship between tree growth and climate during the industry development period and during proecological strategy application . Samples of carbon isotopic composition in pine needles from 2012 to 2013 were additionally determined. Pines series of 3 positions indicate that they have a similar sensitivity to most climatic elements of the previous and given year, but there is also a different rhythm between the studied populations of incremental growth of pines. The causes of diversity are due to the different types of habitat (site types) and industrial pollution. The variation in carbon stable isotopic composition in pine needles was connected with an increase of CO 2 .

  18. Evaluation of the ProPublica Surgeon Scorecard "Adjusted Complication Rate" Measure Specifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, Kristen A; Cohen, Mark E; Ko, Clifford Y; Friedberg, Mark W; Stulberg, Jonah J; Zhou, Lynn; Hall, Bruce L; Hoyt, David B; Bilimoria, Karl Y

    2016-10-01

    The ProPublica Surgeon Scorecard is the first nationwide, multispecialty public reporting of individual surgeon outcomes. However, ProPublica's use of a previously undescribed outcome measure (composite of in-hospital mortality or 30-day related readmission) and inclusion of only inpatients have been questioned. Our objectives were to (1) determine the proportion of cases excluded by ProPublica's specifications, (2) assess the proportion of inpatient complications excluded from ProPublica's measure, and (3) examine the validity of ProPublica's outcome measure by comparing performance on the measure to well-established postoperative outcome measures. Using ACS-NSQIP data (2012-2014) for 8 ProPublica procedures and for All Operations, the proportion of cases meeting all ProPublica inclusion criteria was determined. We assessed the proportion of complications occurring inpatient, and thus not considered by ProPublica's measure. Finally, we compared risk-adjusted performance based on ProPublica's measure specifications to established ACS-NSQIP outcome measure performance (eg, death/serious morbidity, mortality). ProPublica's inclusion criteria resulted in elimination of 82% of all operations from assessment (range: 42% for total knee arthroplasty to 96% for laparoscopic cholecystectomy). For all ProPublica operations combined, 84% of complications occur during inpatient hospitalization (range: 61% for TURP to 88% for total hip arthroplasty), and are thus missed by the ProPublica measure. Hospital-level performance on the ProPublica measure correlated weakly with established complication measures, but correlated strongly with readmission (R = 0.834, P Scorecard is questionable.

  19. [Usefulness of sputum Gram staining in community-acquired pneumonia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Tadashi; Aoshima, Masahiro; Ohmagari, Norio; Tada, Hiroshi; Chohnabayashi, Naohiko

    2002-07-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of sputum gram staining in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), we reviewed 144 cases requiring hospitalization in the last 4 years. The sensitivity was 75.5%, specificity 68.2%, positive predictive value 74.1%, negative predictive value 69.8%, positive likelihood ratio 2.37, negative likelihood ratio 0.36 and accuracy 72.2% in 97 cases. Both sputum gram staining and culture were performed. Concerning bacterial pneumonia (65 cases), we compared the Gram staining group (n = 33), which received initial antibiotic treatment, based on sputum gram staining with the Empiric group (n = 32) that received antibiotics empirically. The success rates of the initial antibiotic treatment were 87.9% vs. 78.1% (P = 0.473); mean hospitalization periods were 9.67 vs. 11.75 days (P = 0.053); and periods of intravenous therapy were 6.73 vs. 7.91 days (P = 0.044), respectively. As for initial treatment, penicillins were used in the Gram staining group more frequently (P gram staining is useful for the shortening of the treatment period and the appropriate selection of initial antibiotics in bacterial pneumonia. We believe, therefore, that sputum gram staining is indispensable as a diagnostic tool CAP.

  20. Synergistic antibacterial effect of silver and ebselen against multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacterial infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Lili; Lu, Jun; Wang, Jun; Ren, Xiaoyuan; Zhang, Lanlan; Gao, Yu; Rottenberg, Martin E; Holmgren, Arne

    2017-08-01

    Multidrug-resistant (MDR) Gram-negative bacteria account for a majority of fatal infections, and development of new antibiotic principles and drugs is therefore of outstanding importance. Here, we report that five most clinically difficult-to-treat MDR Gram-negative bacteria are highly sensitive to a synergistic combination of silver and ebselen. In contrast, silver has no synergistic toxicity with ebselen on mammalian cells. The silver and ebselen combination causes a rapid depletion of glutathione and inhibition of the thioredoxin system in bacteria. Silver ions were identified as strong inhibitors of Escherichia coli thioredoxin and thioredoxin reductase, which are required for ribonucleotide reductase and DNA synthesis and defense against oxidative stress. The bactericidal efficacy of silver and ebselen was further verified in the treatment of mild and acute MDR E. coli peritonitis in mice. These results demonstrate that thiol-dependent redox systems in bacteria can be targeted in the design of new antibacterial drugs. The silver and ebselen combination offers a proof of concept in targeting essential bacterial systems and might be developed for novel efficient treatments against MDR Gram-negative bacterial infections. © 2017 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  1. Effects of Pro-Gly-Pro tripeptide on the dopamine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshavkin, V K; Batishcheva, E Yu; Kost, N V; Sokolov, O Yu; Trufanova, A V; Samonina, G E

    2011-08-01

    Tripeptide Pro-Gly-Pro interacted with dopamine receptors in vitro and reduced behavioral manifestations of apomorphine-induced hyperfunction of the dopamine system in verticalization, stereotypy, and yawning tests. Presumably, the behavioral effects of Pro-Gly-Pro tripeptide were mediated through post- and presynaptic D(2)and D(3)receptors.

  2. Similar pro-NT and pro-RLX2 levels after preeclampsia and after uncomplicated pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zoet, G. A.(Gerbrand); van Rijn, B. B.(Bas); Rehfeldt, M. (Miriam); Franx, A. (Arie); Maas, Angela H E M

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Women are at increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD) after preeclampsia. Proneurotensin 1-117 (pro-NT) and prorelaxin 2 connecting peptide (pro-RLX2) have recently emerged as potential biomarkers for CVD risk in women. We assessed pro-NT and pro-RLX2 levels in women with

  3. Similar pro-NT and pro-RLX2 levels after preeclampsia and after uncomplicated pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zoet, G. A.(Gerbrand); van Rijn, B. B.(Bas); Rehfeldt, M. (Miriam); Franx, A. (Arie); Maas, Angela H E M

    2017-01-01

    Objective Women are at increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD) after preeclampsia. Proneurotensin 1-117 (pro-NT) and prorelaxin 2 connecting peptide (pro-RLX2) have recently emerged as potential biomarkers for CVD risk in women. We assessed pro-NT and pro-RLX2 levels in women with

  4. Teasdale-CorTI Global HealTH researCH ParTnersHIP ProGram

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    effectiveness of existing policies designed to improve access to services for .... edge sharing on the social and cultural dimensions of mental health. ..... which includes working with various stakeholders and mass-media, to help ensure that the ...

  5. Genetic diversity in green gram [Vigna radiata (L.)] landraces ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GRACE

    2006-07-03

    Jul 3, 2006 ... nitrogen fixer for maintaining soil fertility. However ... use of radioactive elements makes it more costly and tedious. ... Figure 1. Geographic distribution of sampling localities of wild green gram in Southern Tamil Nadu, India.

  6. LexGram - a practical categorial grammar formalism -

    OpenAIRE

    Koenig, Esther

    1995-01-01

    We present the LexGram system, an amalgam of (Lambek) categorial grammar and Head Driven Phrase Structure Grammar (HPSG), and show that the grammar formalism it implements is a well-structured and useful tool for actual grammar development.

  7. Volatile metabolites from some gram-negative bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schöller, Charlotte; Molin, Søren; Wilkins, Ken

    1997-01-01

    A survey of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) excreted from various Gram-negative bacteria (Pseudomonas spp., Serratia spp. and Enterobacter spp.) was carried out. Compounds were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. VOCs identified included dimethyl disulphide, dimethyl trisulphide...

  8. leaves extracts as counter stain in gram staining reaction 56

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    is a stain with color contrasting to the principal stain, making the stained ... technology today, the Gram's staining method remains ... was aimed at employing the use of Henna leaves extract as ... fragrant, white or rose flowers in clusters. It is.

  9. Pulmonary infiltrates during community acquired Gram-negative bacteremia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjeldsøe-Nielsen, Hans; Gjeraa, Kirsten; Berthelsen, Birgitte G

    2013-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to describe the frequency of pulmonary infiltrates on chest X-ray (CXR) during community acquired Gram-negative bacteremia at a single centre in Denmark.......The primary aim of this study was to describe the frequency of pulmonary infiltrates on chest X-ray (CXR) during community acquired Gram-negative bacteremia at a single centre in Denmark....

  10. Selective bowel decontamination results in gram-positive translocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, R J; Smith, S D; Rowe, M I

    1990-05-01

    Colonization by enteric gram-negative bacteria with subsequent translocation is believed to be a major mechanism for infection in the critically ill patient. Selective bowel decontamination (SBD) has been used to control gram-negative infections by eliminating these potentially pathogenic bacteria while preserving anaerobic and other less pathogenic organisms. Infection with gram-positive organisms and anaerobes in two multivisceral transplant patients during SBD led us to investigate the effect of SBD on gut colonization and translocation. Twenty-four rats received enteral polymixin E, tobramycin, amphotericin B, and parenteral cefotaxime for 7 days (PTA + CEF); 23 received parenteral cefotaxime alone (CEF), 19 received the enteral antibiotics alone (PTA), 21 controls received no antibiotics. Cecal homogenates, mesenteric lymph node (MLN), liver, and spleen were cultured. Only 8% of the PTA + CEF group had gram-negative bacteria in cecal culture vs 52% CEF, 84% PTA, and 100% in controls. Log Enterococcal colony counts were higher in the PTA + CEF group (8.0 + 0.9) vs controls (5.4 + 0.4) P less than 0.01. Translocation of Enterococcus to the MLN was significantly increased in the PTA + CEF group (67%) vs controls (0%) P less than 0.01. SBD effectively eliminates gram-negative organisms from the gut in the rat model. Overgrowth and translocation of Enterococcus suggests that infection with gram-positive organisms may be a limitation of SBD.

  11. Prediction of lipoprotein signal peptides in Gram-negative bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juncker, Agnieszka S; Willenbrock, Hanni; Von Heijne, Gunnar; Brunak, Søren; Nielsen, Henrik; Krogh, Anders

    2003-08-01

    A method to predict lipoprotein signal peptides in Gram-negative Eubacteria, LipoP, has been developed. The hidden Markov model (HMM) was able to distinguish between lipoproteins (SPaseII-cleaved proteins), SPaseI-cleaved proteins, cytoplasmic proteins, and transmembrane proteins. This predictor was able to predict 96.8% of the lipoproteins correctly with only 0.3% false positives in a set of SPaseI-cleaved, cytoplasmic, and transmembrane proteins. The results obtained were significantly better than those of previously developed methods. Even though Gram-positive lipoprotein signal peptides differ from Gram-negatives, the HMM was able to identify 92.9% of the lipoproteins included in a Gram-positive test set. A genome search was carried out for 12 Gram-negative genomes and one Gram-positive genome. The results for Escherichia coli K12 were compared with new experimental data, and the predictions by the HMM agree well with the experimentally verified lipoproteins. A neural network-based predictor was developed for comparison, and it gave very similar results. LipoP is available as a Web server at www.cbs.dtu.dk/services/LipoP/.

  12. Novel Antimicrobial Peptides That Inhibit Gram Positive Bacterial Exotoxin Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merriman, Joseph A.; Nemeth, Kimberly A.; Schlievert, Patrick M.

    2014-01-01

    Gram-positive bacteria, such as Staphylococcus aureus, cause serious human illnesses through combinations of surface virulence factors and secretion of exotoxins. Our prior studies using the protein synthesis inhibitor clindamycin and signal transduction inhibitors glycerol monolaurate and α-globin and β-globin chains of hemoglobin indicate that their abilities to inhibit exotoxin production by S. aureus are separable from abilities to inhibit growth of the organism. Additionally, our previous studies suggest that inhibition of exotoxin production, in absence of ability to kill S. aureus and normal flora lactobacilli, will prevent colonization by pathogenic S. aureus, while not interfering with lactobacilli colonization. These disparate activities may be important in development of novel anti-infective agents that do not alter normal flora. We initiated studies to explore the exotoxin-synthesis-inhibition activity of hemoglobin peptides further to develop potential agents to prevent S. aureus infections. We tested synthesized α-globin chain peptides, synthetic variants of α-globin chain peptides, and two human defensins for ability to inhibit exotoxin production without significantly inhibiting S. aureus growth. All of these peptides were weakly or not inhibitory to bacterial growth. However, the peptides were inhibitory to exotoxin production with increasing activity dependent on increasing numbers of positively-charged amino acids. Additionally, the peptides could be immobilized on agarose beads or have amino acid sequences scrambled and still retain exotoxin-synthesis-inhibition. The peptides are not toxic to human vaginal epithelial cells and do not inhibit growth of normal flora L. crispatus. These peptides may interfere with plasma membrane signal transduction in S. aureus due to their positive charges. PMID:24748386

  13. Pro-poor growth and gender inequality

    OpenAIRE

    Klasen, Stephan

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines to what extent gender gaps in education, health, employment, productive assets and inputs can affect pro poor growth (in the sense of increasing monetary incomes of the poor). After discussing serious methodological problems with examining gender issues in the context of an income-based pro-poor growth framework, the paper considers theory and evidence on the impact of gender inequality on pro poor growth. While there is a considerable literature suggesting negative impact...

  14. Theoretical perspectives on pro-environmental behaviours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariela PAVALACHE-ILIE

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper outlines a synthesis of the models (The rationalist models, models based on Theory of Reasoned Action/ Theory of Planned Behavior, prosocial models and antecedents of pro-environmental behaviors. The values models applicable for the study of pro-environmental behaviours (Rokeach’s; Schwartz’s; Kollmus and Agyeman synthesis, are presented afterwards, as the results of the studies which confirm the predictive role of values when it comes to pro-environmental behaviour.

  15. Distinguishing dimensions of pro-environmental behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Lynn, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This study empirically identifies dimensions of behaviour that are distinct in terms of the extent to which people act pro-environmentally. Three dimensions are identified, relating to at-home, transport-related and purchasing behaviour. The correlation between behaviour in each dimension is explored and the characteristics and attitudes associated with the extent to which behaviour is pro-environmental in each dimension are compared. The correlates of pro-environmental behaviour are found to...

  16. Pro-Elderly Welfare States within Child-Oriented Societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gal, Robert Ivan; Vanhuysse, Pieter; Vargha, Lili

    societies, we employ National Transfer Accounts to include public and private transfers and National Time Transfer Accounts to value unpaid household labour. All three channels combined, children receive more per capita resources (73 percent of prime-age labour income) than older persons (31 percent......). Europe is a continent of pro-elderly welfare states and strongly child-oriented parents. Since children are public goods, why has investment in them not been socialized more?...

  17. Synergistic effect of Carum copticum and Mentha piperita essential oils with ciprofloxacin, vancomycin, and gentamicin on Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talei, Gholam-Reza; Mohammadi, Mohsen; Bahmani, Mahmoud; Kopaei, Mahmoud Rafieian

    2017-01-01

    Background: Infectious diseases have always been an important health issue in human communities. In the recent years, much research has been conducted on antimicrobial effects of nature-based compounds because of increased prevalence of antibiotic resistance. The present study was conducted to investigate synergistic effect of Carum copticum and Mentha piperita essential oils with ciprofloxacin, vancomycin, and gentamicin on Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, the synergistic effects of C. copticum and M. piperita essential oils with antibiotics on Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923), Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 29212), Escherichia coli (ATCC 8739), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 9027), Staphylococcus epidermidis (ATCC 14990), and Listeria monocytogenes (ATCC 7644) were studied according to broth microdilution and the MIC and fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) of these two essential oils determined. Results: C. copticum essential oil at 30 μg/ml could inhibit S. aureus, and in combination with vancomycin, decreased MIC from 0.5 to 0.12 μg/ml. Moreover, the FIC was derived 0.24 μg/ml which represents a potent synergistic effect with vancomycin against S. aureus growth. C. copticum essential oil alone or combined with other antibiotics is effective in treating bacterial infections. Conclusions: In addition, C. copticum essential oil can strengthen the activities of certain antibiotics, which makes it possible to use this essential oil, especially in drug resistance or to lower dosage or toxicity of the drugs. PMID:28929050

  18. Neuronal release of proBDNF

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Jianmin; Siao, Chia-Jen; Nagappan, Guhan; Marinic, Tina; Jing, Deqiang; McGrath, Kelly; Chen, Zhe-Yu; Mark, Willie; Tessarollo, Lino; Lee, Francis S; Lu, Bai; Hempstead, Barbara L

    2009-01-01

    Pro–brain-derived neurotrophic factor (proBDNF) and mature BDNF utilize distinct receptors to mediate divergent neuronal actions. Using new tools to quantitate endogenous BDNF isoforms, we found that mouse neurons secrete both proBDNF and mature BDNF. The highest levels of proBDNF and p75 were observed perinatally and declined, but were still detectable, in adulthood. Thus, BDNF actions are developmentally regulated by secretion of proBDNF or mature BDNF and by local expression of p75 and Trk...

  19. Drug-resistant gram-negative uropathogens: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoshnood, Saeed; Heidary, Mohsen; Mirnejad, Reza; Bahramian, Aghil; Sedighi, Mansour; Mirzaei, Habibollah

    2017-10-01

    Urinary tract infection(UTI) caused by Gram-negative bacteria is the second most common infectious presentation in community medical practice. Approximately 150 million people are diagnosed with UTI each year worldwide. Drug resistance in Gram-negative uropathogens is a major global concern which can lead to poor clinical outcomes including treatment failure, development of bacteremia, requirement for intravenous therapy, hospitalization, and extended length of hospital stay. The mechanisms of drug resistance in these bacteria are important due to they are often not identified by routine susceptibility tests and have an exceptional potential for outbreaks. Treatment of UTIs depends on the access to effective drugs, which is now threatened by antibiotic resistant Gram-negative uropathogens. Although several effective antibiotics with activity against highly resistant Gram-negatives are available, there is not a unique antibiotic with activity against the high variety of resistance. Therefore, antimicrobial susceptibility tests, correlation between clinicians and laboratories, development of more rapid diagnostic methods, and continuous monitoring of drug resistance are urgent priorities. In this review, we will discuss about the current global status of drug-resistant Gram-negative uropathogens and their mechanisms of drug resistance to provide new insights into their treatment options. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. PRO development: rigorous qualitative research as the crucial foundation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasch, Kathryn Eilene; Marquis, Patrick; Vigneux, Marc; Abetz, Linda; Arnould, Benoit; Bayliss, Martha; Crawford, Bruce; Rosa, Kathleen

    2010-10-01

    Recently published articles have described criteria to assess qualitative research in the health field in general, but very few articles have delineated qualitative methods to be used in the development of Patient-Reported Outcomes (PROs). In fact, how PROs are developed with subject input through focus groups and interviews has been given relatively short shrift in the PRO literature when compared to the plethora of quantitative articles on the psychometric properties of PROs. If documented at all, most PRO validation articles give little for the reader to evaluate the content validity of the measures and the credibility and trustworthiness of the methods used to develop them. Increasingly, however, scientists and authorities want to be assured that PRO items and scales have meaning and relevance to subjects. This article was developed by an international, interdisciplinary group of psychologists, psychometricians, regulatory experts, a physician, and a sociologist. It presents rigorous and appropriate qualitative research methods for developing PROs with content validity. The approach described combines an overarching phenomenological theoretical framework with grounded theory data collection and analysis methods to yield PRO items and scales that have content validity.

  1. Rationalizing the permeation of polar antibiotics into Gram-negative bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scorciapino, Mariano Andrea; Acosta-Gutierrez, Silvia; Benkerrou, Dehbia; D’Agostino, Tommaso; Malloci, Giuliano; Samanta, Susruta; Bodrenko, Igor; Ceccarelli, Matteo

    2017-01-01

    The increasing level of antibiotic resistance in Gram-negative bacteria, together with the lack of new potential drug scaffolds in the pipeline, make the problem of infectious diseases a global challenge for modern medicine. The main reason that Gram-negative bacteria are particularly challenging is the presence of an outer cell-protecting membrane, which is not present in Gram-positive species. Such an asymmetric bilayer is a highly effective barrier for polar molecules. Several protein systems are expressed in the outer membrane to control the internal concentration of both nutrients and noxious species, in particular: (i) water-filled channels that modulate the permeation of polar molecules and ions according to concentration gradients, and (ii) efflux pumps to actively expel toxic compounds. Thus, besides expressing specific enzymes for drugs degradation, Gram-negative bacteria can also resist by modulating the influx and efflux of antibiotics, keeping the internal concentration low. However, there are no direct and robust experimental methods capable of measuring the permeability of small molecules, thus severely limiting our knowledge of the molecular mechanisms that ultimately control the permeation of antibiotics through the outer membrane. This is the innovation gap to be filled for Gram-negative bacteria. This review is focused on the permeation of small molecules through porins, considered the main path for the entry of polar antibiotics into Gram-negative bacteria. A fundamental understanding of how these proteins are able to filter small molecules is a prerequisite to design/optimize antibacterials with improved permeation. The level of sophistication of modern molecular modeling algorithms and the advances in new computer hardware has made the simulation of such complex processes possible at the molecular level. In this work we aim to share our experience and perspectives in the context of a multidisciplinary extended collaboration within the IMI

  2. Rationalizing the permeation of polar antibiotics into Gram-negative bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scorciapino, Mariano Andrea; Acosta-Gutierrez, Silvia; Benkerrou, Dehbia; D'Agostino, Tommaso; Malloci, Giuliano; Samanta, Susruta; Bodrenko, Igor; Ceccarelli, Matteo

    2017-03-01

    The increasing level of antibiotic resistance in Gram-negative bacteria, together with the lack of new potential drug scaffolds in the pipeline, make the problem of infectious diseases a global challenge for modern medicine. The main reason that Gram-negative bacteria are particularly challenging is the presence of an outer cell-protecting membrane, which is not present in Gram-positive species. Such an asymmetric bilayer is a highly effective barrier for polar molecules. Several protein systems are expressed in the outer membrane to control the internal concentration of both nutrients and noxious species, in particular: (i) water-filled channels that modulate the permeation of polar molecules and ions according to concentration gradients, and (ii) efflux pumps to actively expel toxic compounds. Thus, besides expressing specific enzymes for drugs degradation, Gram-negative bacteria can also resist by modulating the influx and efflux of antibiotics, keeping the internal concentration low. However, there are no direct and robust experimental methods capable of measuring the permeability of small molecules, thus severely limiting our knowledge of the molecular mechanisms that ultimately control the permeation of antibiotics through the outer membrane. This is the innovation gap to be filled for Gram-negative bacteria. This review is focused on the permeation of small molecules through porins, considered the main path for the entry of polar antibiotics into Gram-negative bacteria. A fundamental understanding of how these proteins are able to filter small molecules is a prerequisite to design/optimize antibacterials with improved permeation. The level of sophistication of modern molecular modeling algorithms and the advances in new computer hardware has made the simulation of such complex processes possible at the molecular level. In this work we aim to share our experience and perspectives in the context of a multidisciplinary extended collaboration within the IMI

  3. Non-pro-vitamin A and pro-vitamin A carotenoids in atopy development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rühl, R

    2013-01-01

    Carotenoids are important derivatives of the human diet and occur in high concentrations in the human organism. Various carotenoids are also present in human breast milk and are transferred to breast-fed children. The alternative to breastfeeding is supplementation with an infant milk formula, but these formulas contain only a limited variety of carotenoids. Our question is: 'What is the function of various carotenoids in human nutrition with a special emphasis on child development and the development of atopy?' In this review, the mechanisms of action of the most important non-pro-vitamin A and pro-vitamin A carotenoids: α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lutein, zeaxanthin, lycopene and retinoids are discussed. In summary, the combination of carotenoids, especially lycopene, seems to be of great importance, and exclusive usage of β-carotene in infant formula may yield in an increased atopy prevalence mediated in various target organs like the skin, lungs and immune competent cells. We conclude that the determination of novel bioactive metabolites of various carotenoids, at various stages in different organs during atopy development, might be the key to understanding the potential importance of carotenoids on atopy development. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. GramHealth: a bottom-up approach to provide preventive healthcare services for unreached community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Ashir; Kabir, Lutfe; Kai, Eiko; Inoue, Sozo

    2013-01-01

    Insufficient healthcare facilities and unavailability of medical experts in rural areas are the two major reasons that kept the people unreached to healthcare services. Recent penetration of mobile phone and the demand to basic healthcare services, remote health consultancy over mobile phone became popular in developing countries. In this paper, we introduce two such representative initiatives from Bangladesh and discuss the technical challenges they face to serve a remote patient. To solve these issues, we have prototyped a box with necessary diagnostic tools, we call it a "portable clinic" and a software tool, "GramHealth" for managing the patient information. We carried out experiments in three villages in Bangladesh to observe the usability of the portable clinic and verify the functionality of "GramHealth". We display the qualitative analysis of the results obtained from the experiment. GramHealth DB has a unique combination of structured, semi-structured and un-structured data. We are currently looking at these data to see whether these can be treated as BigData and if yes, how to analyze the data and what to expect from these data to make a better clinical decision support.

  5. Blood culture gram stain, acridine orange stain and direct sensitivity-based antimicrobial therapy of bloodstream infection in patients with trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behera, B; Mathur, P; Gupta, B

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain if the simple practice of Gram stain, acridine orange stain and direct sensitivity determination of positive blood culture bottles could be used to guide early and appropriate treatment in trauma patients with clinical suspicion of sepsis. The study also aimed to evaluate the error in interpreting antimicrobial sensitivity by direct method when compared to standard method and find out if specific antibiotic-organism combination had more discrepancies. Findings from consecutive episodes of blood stream infection at an Apex Trauma centre over a 12-month period are summarized. A total of 509 consecutive positive blood cultures were subjected to Gram staining. AO staining was done in BacT/ALERT-positive Gram-stain negative blood cultures. Direct sensitivity was performed from 369 blood culture broths, showing single type of growth in Gram and acridine orange staining. Results of direct sensitivity were compared to conventional sensitivity for errors. No 'very major' discrepancy was found in this study. About 5.2 and 1.8% minor error rates were noted in gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, respectively, while comparing the two methods. Most of the discrepancies in gram-negative bacteria were noted in beta lactam - beta lactamase inhibitor combinations. Direct sensitivity testing was not reliable for reporting of methicillin and vancomycin resistance in Staphylococci. Gram stain result together with direct sensitivity testing is required for optimizing initial antimicrobial therapy in trauma patients with clinical suspicion of sepsis. Gram staining and AO staining proved particularly helpful in the early detection of candidaemia.

  6. Suetônio, dos gramáticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Martinho

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available O Dos gramáticos de Suetônio divide-se em duas partes: na primeira, o autor narra a introdução, desenvolvimento, florescimento e declínio da gramática em Roma (1-4; na segunda, expõe a biografia de vinte professores de gramática, que ensinaram na Cidade entre o início do séc.  I a.C. e meados do século seguinte (5-24. Quanto à primeira parte, procuro mostrar que Suetônio adota conceitos fisicistas ou naturalistas para narrar a história da gramática em Roma, de modo que aquela se possa comparar à vida de um ser vivo. Assim, a exposição de Suetônio revela-se, na verdade, antes biográfica que historicista. Quanto à segunda parte, procuro mostrar que o Biógrafo se interessa por gramáticos que não só escreveram sobre sua arte no ócio, mas a ensinaram por ofício, isto é, por professores de gramática. Daí, seleciono e comento os elementos narrativos relacionados à docência, a saber: os métodos de ensino, o lugar de ensino, o número e qualidade dos alunos, os preços e honorários dos professores. Por fim, apresento tradução anotada do texto de Suetônio.

  7. Glycosaminoglycans are involved in pathogen adherence to corneal epithelial cells differently for Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz García

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The epithelium of the cornea is continuously exposed to pathogens, and adhesion to epithelial cells is regarded as an essential first step in bacterial pathogenesis. In this article, the involvement of glycosaminoglycans in the adhesion of various pathogenic bacteria to corneal epithelial cells is analyzed. All microorganisms use glycosaminoglycans as receptors, but arranged in different patterns depending on the Gram-type of the bacterium. The heparan sulfate chains of syndecans are the main receptors, though other molecular species also seem to be involved, particularly in Gram-negative bacteria. Adherence is inhibited differentially by peptides, including heparin binding sequences, indicating the participation of various groups of Gram-positive and -negative adhesins. The length of the saccharides produces a major effect, and low molecular weight chains inhibit the binding of Gram-negative microorganisms but increase the adherence of Gram-positives. Pathogen adhesion appears to occur preferentially through sulfated domains, and is very dependent on N- and 6-O-sulfation of the glucosamine residue and, to a lesser extent, 2-O sulfation of uronic acid. These data show the differential use of corneal receptors, which could facilitate the development of new anti-infective strategies.

  8. Different Use of Cell Surface Glycosaminoglycans As Adherence Receptors to Corneal Cells by Gram Positive and Gram Negative Pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Beatriz; Merayo-Lloves, Jesús; Rodríguez, David; Alcalde, Ignacio; García-Suárez, Olivia; Alfonso, José F.; Baamonde, Begoña; Fernández-Vega, Andrés; Vazquez, Fernando; Quirós, Luis M.

    2016-01-01

    The epithelium of the cornea is continuously exposed to pathogens, and adhesion to epithelial cells is regarded as an essential first step in bacterial pathogenesis. In this article, the involvement of glycosaminoglycans in the adhesion of various pathogenic bacteria to corneal epithelial cells is analyzed. All microorganisms use glycosaminoglycans as receptors, but arranged in different patterns depending on the Gram-type of the bacterium. The heparan sulfate chains of syndecans are the main receptors, though other molecular species also seem to be involved, particularly in Gram-negative bacteria. Adherence is inhibited differentially by peptides, including heparin binding sequences, indicating the participation of various groups of Gram-positive, and -negative adhesins. The length of the saccharides produces a major effect, and low molecular weight chains inhibit the binding of Gram-negative microorganisms but increase the adherence of Gram-positives. Pathogen adhesion appears to occur preferentially through sulfated domains, and is very dependent on N- and 6-O-sulfation of the glucosamine residue and, to a lesser extent, 2-O sulfation of uronic acid. These data show the differential use of corneal receptors, which could facilitate the development of new anti-infective strategies. PMID:27965938

  9. Cellular reprogramming by gram-positive bacterial components: a review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Buckley, Julliette M

    2012-02-03

    LPS tolerance has been the focus of extensive scientific and clinical research over the last several decades in an attempt to elucidate the sequence of changes that occur at a molecular level in tolerized cells. Tolerance to components of gram-positive bacterial cell walls such as bacterial lipoprotein and lipoteichoic acid is a much lesser studied, although equally important, phenomenon. This review will focus on cellular reprogramming by gram-positive bacterial components and examines the alterations in cell surface receptor expression, changes in intracellular signaling, gene expression and cytokine production, and the phenomenon of cross-tolerance.

  10. Integrated Programs and Pro-Environmental Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Tiffany

    2008-01-01

    Research suggested that "nature experience as an education method played a role in developing environmental value and attitudes, and was influential in pro-environmental behaviour." Few of these studies however, assessed the long-term influences of outdoor education experiences on participants' pro-environmental behaviour. The Outward…

  11. Probing interaction of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial cells with ZnO nanorods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Aanchal; Bhargava, Richa; Poddar, Pankaj, E-mail: p.poddar@ncl.res.in

    2013-04-01

    In the present work, the physiological effects of the ZnO nanorods on the Gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Aerobacter aerogenes) bacterial cells have been studied. The analysis of bacterial growth curves for various concentrations of ZnO nanorods indicates that Gram positive and Gram negative bacterial cells show inhibition at concentrations of ∼ 64 and ∼ 256 μg/mL respectively. The marked difference in susceptibility towards nanorods was also validated by spread plate and disk diffusion methods. In addition, the scanning electron micrographs show a clear damage to the cells via changed morphology of the cells from rod to coccoid etc. The confocal optical microscopy images of these cells also demonstrate the reduction in live cell count in the presence of ZnO nanorods. These, results clearly indicate that the antibacterial activity of ZnO nanorods is higher towards Gram positive bacterium than Gram negative bacterium which indicates that the structure of the cell wall might play a major role in the interaction with nanostructured materials and shows high sensitivity to the particle concentration. Highlights: ► Effect of ZnO nanorods on the growth cycles of four bacterial strains. ► A relation has been established between growth rate of bacteria and concentration. ► Serious damage in the morphology of bacterial cells in the presence of ZnO nanorods. ► Microscopic studies to see the time dependent effect on bacterial cells.

  12. Comparative activity of ceftobiprole against Gram-positive and Gram-negative isolates from Europe and the Middle East: the CLASS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossolini, Gian M; Dryden, Matthew S; Kozlov, Roman S; Quintana, Alvaro; Flamm, Robert K; Läuffer, Jörg M; Lee, Emma; Morrissey, Ian; CLASS Study Group

    2011-01-01

    to assess the in vitro activity of ceftobiprole and comparators against a recent collection of Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens, in order to detect potential changes in susceptibility patterns, and to evaluate the Etest assay for ceftobiprole susceptibility testing. contemporary Gram-positive and Gram-negative isolates (excluding extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing isolates) from across Europe and the Middle East were collected, and their susceptibility to ceftobiprole, vancomycin, teicoplanin, linezolid, ceftazidime and cefepime was assessed using the Etest method. Quality testing [using Etest and broth microdilution (BMD)] was conducted at a central reference laboratory. some 5041 Gram-positive and 4026 Gram-negative isolates were included. Against Gram-positive isolates overall, ceftobiprole had the lowest MIC50 (0.5 mg/L), compared with 1 mg/L for its comparators (vancomycin, teicoplanin and linezolid). Against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, all four agents had a similar MIC90 (2 mg/L), but ceftobiprole had a 4-fold better MIC90 (0.5 mg/L) against methicillin-susceptible strains. Only 38 Gram-positive isolates were confirmed as ceftobiprole resistant. Among Gram-negative strains, 86.9%, 91.7% and 95.2% were susceptible to ceftobiprole, ceftazidime and cefepime, respectively. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was less susceptible to all three antimicrobials than any other Gram-negative pathogen. There was generally good agreement between local Etest results and those obtained at the reference laboratory (for ceftobiprole: 86.8% with Gram-negatives; and 94.7% with Gram-positives), as well as between results obtained by BMD and Etest methods (for ceftobiprole: 98.2% with Gram-negatives; and 98.4% with Gram-positives). ceftobiprole exhibits in vitro activity against a wide range of Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens, including multidrug-resistant strains. No changes in its known susceptibility profile were identified.

  13. Troubleshooting ProSeal LMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bimla Sharma

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Supraglottic devices have changed the face of the airway management. These devices have contributed in a big way in airway management especially, in the difficult airway scenario significantly decreasing the pharyngolaryngeal morbidity. There is a plethora of these devices, which has been well matched by their wider acceptance in clinical practice. ProSeal laryngeal mask airway (PLMA is one such frequently used device employed for spontaneous as well as controlled ventilation. However, the use of PLMAat tunes maybe associated with certain problems. Some of the problems related with its use are unique while others are akin to the classic laryngeal mask airway (eLMA. However, expertise is needed for its safe and judicious use, correct placement, recognition and management of its various malpositions and complications. The present article describes the tests employed for proper confirmation of placementto assess the ventilatooy and the drain tube functions of the mask, diagnosis of various malpositions and the management of these aspects. All these areas have been highlighted under the heading of troubleshooting PLMA. Many problems can be solved by proper patient and procedure selection, maintaining adequate depth of anaesthesia, diagnosis and management of malpositions. Proper fixation of the device and monitoring cuff pressure intraopera-tively may bring down the incidence of airway morbidity.

  14. Pro Poor Growth in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Fambon

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to analyze the relationship between economic growth, poverty and income distribution in Cameroon, using both the data derived from three Cameroonian household surveys and the Poverty Equivalent Growth Rate (PEGR methodology developed by Kakwani et al. (2004, The study found that economic growth in Cameroon was pro poor over the period 1996–2007, which suggests that instead of increasing the economic growth rate alone, the poverty equivalent growth rate should also be maximized to achieve the poverty reduction objective, meaning that on the one hand, the growth rate should be boosted, and on the other, the distribution of income should also be concurrently improved. A decomposition of changes in poverty using the Kakwani (1997 approach reveal that the growth component dominates the redistribution component in the reduction of poverty. This suggests that the fall in absolute poverty over the survey period may be attributed to an increase in average household income, and not to the redistributive policies of the government.

  15. Diesel degradation and biosurfactant production by Gram-positive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ability of Gram-positive bacteria to degrade diesel increased in a comparable trend as its biosurfactant production increased. The E24 index was highest at 87.6% for isolate D9. Isolates D2, D9 and D10, were identified as Paenibacillus sp. whilst isolate DJLB was found to belong to Stenotrophomonas sp. This study ...

  16. A sustainable process for gram-scale synthesis of stereoselective ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    RAJAN ABRAHAM

    2018-02-07

    Feb 7, 2018 ... for the additional structure modification.17–20. Acrylic acid derivatives ... mild conditions, and application in synthesizing bio- logically ... cal process for the gram-scale synthesis of streoselective ... ate yield of desired product 2 (58%, Table 1, entry. 2). .... Cross-Coupling and Atom-Economic Addition Reac-.

  17. Nicotinoprotein methanol dehydrogenase enzymes in Gram-positive methylotrophic bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hektor, Harm J.; Kloosterman, Harm; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert

    2000-01-01

    A novel type of alcohol dehydrogenase enzyme has been characterized from Gram-positive methylotrophic (Bacillus methanolicus, the actinomycetes Amycolatopsis methanolica and Mycobacterium gastri) and non-methylotrophic bacteria (Rhodococcus strains). Its in vivo role is in oxidation of methanol and

  18. Prevalence of Gram-negative Pathogens and their antimicrobial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was conducted to find out the prevalence and spectrum of Gram negative pathogens causing bacterial meningitis and their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern in a tertiary care hospital. The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) (3-5 ml) was collected from 638 admitted children clinically suspected of septic meningitis.

  19. Detection of Extended-Spectrum Β-Lactamases among Gram ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biochemical tests confirmed the identity of the Gram-negative isolates to be members of the enterobactericeae, which included Klebsiella pneumoniae (60), Escherichia coli (98), Providencia Spp. (32), Morganella moganii (32), Shigella Spp. (14), Citrobacter freundii (14), Serratia marcescens (10), Salmonella paratyphi A ...

  20. Endocarditis : Effects of routine echocardiography during Gram-positive bacteraemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, F J; Bleeker-Rovers, C P; Sturm, P D; Krabbe, P F M; van Dijk, A P J; Oyen, W J G; Kullberg, B J

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite firm recommendations to perform echocardiography in high-risk patients with Gram-positive bacteraemia, routine echocardiography is not embedded in daily practice in many settings. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether a regime including routine echocardiography results in

  1. NDM 1 Gene Carrying Gram negative Bacteria Isolated from Rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, we screened 56 Gram negative bacteria comprising: 3 isolates of Enterobacter ludwigii, 30 Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 22 Proteus mirabilis, and 1 Aeromonas caviae isolated from oral cavity and rectum of rats captured from commercial poultry houses in Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria that were resistant to at least ...

  2. Sinus surgery postpones chronic gram-negative lung infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alanin, M C; Aanaes, K; Høiby, N

    2016-01-01

    Background: In patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) the sinuses are a bacterial reservoir for Gram-negative bacteria (GNB). From the sinuses the GNB can repeatedly migrate to the lungs. In a one-year follow-up study, endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) with adjuvant therapy reduced the frequency...

  3. Will new antimicrobials overcome resistance among Gram-negatives?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassetti, Matteo; Ginocchio, Francesca; Mikulska, Małgorzata; Taramasso, Lucia; Giacobbe, Daniele Roberto

    2011-10-01

    The spread of resistance among Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria represents a growing challenge for the development of new antimicrobials. The pace of antibiotic drug development has slowed during the last decade and, especially for Gram-negatives, clinicians are facing a dramatic shortage in the availability of therapeutic options to face the emergency of the resistance problem throughout the world. In this alarming scenario, although there is a shortage of compounds reaching the market in the near future, antibiotic discovery remains one of the keys to successfully stem and maybe overcome the tide of resistance. Analogs of already known compounds and new agents belonging to completely new classes of antimicrobials are in early stages of development. Novel and promising anti-Gram-negative antimicrobials belong both to old (cephalosporins, carbapenems, β-lactamase inhibitors, monobactams, aminoglycosides, polymyxin analogues and tetracycline) and completely new antibacterial classes (boron-containing antibacterial protein synthesis inhibitors, bis-indoles, outer membrane synthesis inhibitors, antibiotics targeting novel sites of the 50S ribosomal subunit and antimicrobial peptides). However, all of these compounds are still far from being introduced into clinical practice. Therefore, infection control policies and optimization in the use of already existing molecules are still the most effective approaches to reduce the spread of resistance and preserve the activity of antimicrobials.

  4. Horse gram- an underutilized nutraceutical pulse crop: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Saroj Kumar; Singh, Manoj Kumar

    2015-05-01

    Horse gram is an underutilized pulse crop grown in wide range of adverse climatic conditions. It occupies an important place in human nutrition and has rich source of protein, minerals, and vitamins. Besides nutritional importance, it has been linked to reduced risk of various diseases due to presence of non-nutritive bioactive substances. These bioactive substances such as phytic acid, phenolic acid, fiber, enzymatic/proteinase inhibitors have significant metabolic and/or physiological effects. The importance of horse gram was well recognized by the folk/alternative/traditional medicine as a potential therapeutic agent to treat kidney stones, urinary diseases, piles, common cold, throat infection, fever etc. The inception of nutraceutical concept and increasing health consciousness the demand of nutraceutical and functional food is increased. In recent years, isolation and utilization of potential antioxidants from legumes including horse gram are increased as it decreases the risk of intestinal diseases, diabetes, coronary heart disease, prevention of dental caries etc. Keeping in view the increasing demand of food having nutraceutical values, the present review ascribed with recent scientific knowledge towards the possibilities of exploring the horse gram, as a source of food and nutraceuticals compounds.

  5. Biosorption of mercury by capsulated and slime layerforming Gram ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The biosorption of mercury by two locally isolated Gram-ve bacilli: Klebsiella pneumoniae ssp. pneumonia (capsulated) and slime layer forming Pseudomonas aeruginosa, was characterized. Mercury adsorption was found to be influenced by the pH value of the biosorption solution, initial metal concentration, amount of the ...

  6. Prediction of lipoprotein signal peptides in Gram-negative bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juncker, Agnieszka; Willenbrock, Hanni; Von Heijne, G.

    2003-01-01

    A method to predict lipoprotein signal peptides in Gram-negative Eubacteria, LipoP, has been developed. The hidden Markov model (HMM) was able to distinguish between lipoproteins (SPaseII-cleaved proteins), SPaseI-cleaved proteins, cytoplasmic proteins, and transmembrane proteins. This predictor ...

  7. N-terminal pro brain natriuretic peptide in arterial hypertension--a marker for left ventricular dimensions and prognosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hildebrandt, Per; Boesen, Mikael; Olsen, Michael

    2004-01-01

    In arterial hypertension risk factor evaluation, including LV mass measurements, and risk stratification using risk charts or programs, is generally recommended. In heart failure NT-proBNP has been shown to be a marker of LV dimensions and of prognosis. If the same diagnostic and prognostic value...... is present in arterial hypertension, risk factor evaluation would be easier. In 36 patients with arterial hypertension, electrocardiographic LV hypertrophy and preserved left ventricular function, NT-proBNP was eight-fold higher than in healthy subjects. The log NT-proBNP correlated with LV mass index (R=0...... and preserved LV function demonstrated that NT-proBNP was a very strong prognostic marker, especially combined with a history of cardiovascular disease. Patients with high NT-proBNP and known cardiovascular disease had a seven-fold increase in CV events compared to patients with low NT-proBNP and no CV disease...

  8. Pro-Anorexia and Pro-Recovery Photo Sharing: A Tale of Two Warring Tribes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yom-Tov, Elad; Weber, Ingmar; Crain, Steven P

    2012-01-01

    Background There is widespread use of the Internet to promote anorexia as a lifestyle choice. Pro-anorexia content can be harmful for people affected or at risk of having anorexia. That movement is actively engaged in sharing photos on social networks such as Flickr. Objective To study the characteristics of the online communities engaged in disseminating content that encourages eating disorders (known as “pro-anorexia”) and to investigate if the posting of such content is discouraged by the posting of recovery-oriented content. Methods The extraction of pro-anorexia and pro-recovery photographs from the photo sharing site Flickr pertaining to 242,710 photos from 491 users and analyzing four separate social networks therein. Results Pro-anorexia and pro-recovery communities interact to a much higher degree among themselves than what is expected from the distribution of contacts (only 59-72% of contacts but 74-83% of comments are made to members inside the community). Pro-recovery users employ similar words to those used by pro-anorexia users to describe their photographs, possibly in order to ensure that their content appears when pro-anorexia users search for images. Pro-anorexia users who are exposed to comments from the opposite camp are less likely to cease posting pro-anorexia photographs than those who do not receive such comments (46% versus 61%), and if they cease, they do so approximately three months later. Our observations show two highly active communities, where most interaction is within each community. However, the pro-recovery community takes steps to ensure that their content is visible to the pro-anorexia community, both by using textual descriptions of their photographs that are similar to those used by the pro-anorexia group and by commenting to pro-anorexia content. The latter activity is, however, counterproductive, as it entrenches pro-anorexia users in their stance. Conclusions Our results highlight the nature of pro-anorexia and pro

  9. Pro-anorexia and pro-recovery photo sharing: a tale of two warring tribes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yom-Tov, Elad; Fernandez-Luque, Luis; Weber, Ingmar; Crain, Steven P

    2012-11-07

    There is widespread use of the Internet to promote anorexia as a lifestyle choice. Pro-anorexia content can be harmful for people affected or at risk of having anorexia. That movement is actively engaged in sharing photos on social networks such as Flickr. To study the characteristics of the online communities engaged in disseminating content that encourages eating disorders (known as "pro-anorexia") and to investigate if the posting of such content is discouraged by the posting of recovery-oriented content. The extraction of pro-anorexia and pro-recovery photographs from the photo sharing site Flickr pertaining to 242,710 photos from 491 users and analyzing four separate social networks therein. Pro-anorexia and pro-recovery communities interact to a much higher degree among themselves than what is expected from the distribution of contacts (only 59-72% of contacts but 74-83% of comments are made to members inside the community). Pro-recovery users employ similar words to those used by pro-anorexia users to describe their photographs, possibly in order to ensure that their content appears when pro-anorexia users search for images. Pro-anorexia users who are exposed to comments from the opposite camp are less likely to cease posting pro-anorexia photographs than those who do not receive such comments (46% versus 61%), and if they cease, they do so approximately three months later. Our observations show two highly active communities, where most interaction is within each community. However, the pro-recovery community takes steps to ensure that their content is visible to the pro-anorexia community, both by using textual descriptions of their photographs that are similar to those used by the pro-anorexia group and by commenting to pro-anorexia content. The latter activity is, however, counterproductive, as it entrenches pro-anorexia users in their stance. Our results highlight the nature of pro-anorexia and pro-recovery photo sharing and accentuate the need for

  10. Study of bacterial meningitis in children below 5 years with comparative evaluation of gram staining, culture and bacterial antigen detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadhav Ml, Kala

    2014-04-01

    Bacterial meningitis is one of the most serious infections seen in infants and children, which is associated with acute complications and chronic morbidity. Infections of Central Nervous System (CNS) still dominate the scene of childhood neurological disorders in most of the developing tropical countries. To isolate, identify and determine the antibiotic susceptibility patterns of pathogens associated with bacterial meningitis. We also aimed to comparatively evaluate of Gram staining, culture and bacterial antigen detection in cerebrospinal fluid samples. Present comparative study included 100 CSF samples of children below the age of 5 years, who were clinically suspected meningitis cases. The samples were subjected to Gram staining, culture and Latex agglutination test (LAT). The organisms isolated in the study were characterized and antibiotic susceptibility test was done according to standard guidelines. It was done by using Gaussian test. Of the 100 cases, 24 were diagnosed as Acute bacterial meningitis (ABM) cases by. Gram staining, culture and latex agglutination test. 21 (87.5%) cases were culture positive, with 2 cases being positive for polymicrobial isolates. Gram staining was positive in 17 (70.53%) cases and LAT was positive in 18 (33.33%) cases. Streptococcus pneumoniae was the predominant organism which was isolated and it was sensitive to antibiotics. In the present study, male to female ratio was 1.27:1, which showed a male preponderance. With the combination of Gram staining, culture, and LAT, 100% sensitivity and specificity can be achieved (p Gram staining and LAT can detect 85% of cases of ABM. Bacterial meningitis is a medical emergency and making an early diagnosis and providing treatment early are life saving and they reduce chronic morbidity.

  11. Pengungkapan Pro Forma, Mendukung atau Menyesatkan Investor?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohanis Rura

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Pro forma is originated from Latin. It contains different meaning depends on which discipline it is used. In accounting, pro forma disclosure is used to show effect of important transaction which occurs after the end of periods, or which occurs during period but not fully reflected in historical cost financial statement of a firm. Pro forma disclosure has the objective to support (but might mislead investor in decision making focused on particular influence of important transaction. Company with low GAAP profit information; less profitable company and has higher level of debt but more liquid, whose P-E ratio and market to book is higher than other companies in the industry; has the tendency to do pro forma disclosure. Pro forma disclosure has been supported by several theories such as: efficient market theory, catering theory, agency theory, signaling theory, and stakeholder theory. However, there are problems in reporting pro forma figures. There is no standard to it. Therefore, information on pro forma disclosure might also mislead less sophisticated investor.

  12. Antimicrobial Activities of Leaf Extracts of Guava (Psidium guajava L.) on Two Gram-Negative and Gram-Positive Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Bipul; Rogers, Kimberly; McLaughlin, Fredrick; Yadav, Anand

    2013-01-01

    Aim. To determine the antimicrobial potential of guava (Psidium guajava) leaf extracts against two gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Salmonella enteritidis) and two gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus) which are some of foodborne and spoilage bacteria. The guava leaves were extracted in four different solvents of increasing polarities (hexane, methanol, ethanol, and water). The efficacy of these extracts was tested against those bacteria through a well-diffusion method employing 50 μL leaf-extract solution per well. According to the findings of the antibacterial assay, the methanol and ethanol extracts of the guava leaves showed inhibitory activity against gram-positive bacteria, whereas the gram-negative bacteria were resistant to all the solvent extracts. The methanol extract had an antibacterial activity with mean zones of inhibition of 8.27 and 12.3 mm, and the ethanol extract had a mean zone of inhibition of 6.11 and 11.0 mm against B. cereus and S. aureus, respectively. On the basis of the present finding, guava leaf-extract might be a good candidate in the search for a natural antimicrobial agent. This study provides scientific understanding to further determine the antimicrobial values and investigate other pharmacological properties. PMID:24223039

  13. Antimicrobial Activities of Leaf Extracts of Guava (Psidium guajava L. on Two Gram-Negative and Gram-Positive Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bipul Biswas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To determine the antimicrobial potential of guava (Psidium guajava leaf extracts against two gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Salmonella enteritidis and two gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus which are some of foodborne and spoilage bacteria. The guava leaves were extracted in four different solvents of increasing polarities (hexane, methanol, ethanol, and water. The efficacy of these extracts was tested against those bacteria through a well-diffusion method employing 50 μL leaf-extract solution per well. According to the findings of the antibacterial assay, the methanol and ethanol extracts of the guava leaves showed inhibitory activity against gram-positive bacteria, whereas the gram-negative bacteria were resistant to all the solvent extracts. The methanol extract had an antibacterial activity with mean zones of inhibition of 8.27 and 12.3 mm, and the ethanol extract had a mean zone of inhibition of 6.11 and 11.0 mm against B. cereus and S. aureus, respectively. On the basis of the present finding, guava leaf-extract might be a good candidate in the search for a natural antimicrobial agent. This study provides scientific understanding to further determine the antimicrobial values and investigate other pharmacological properties.

  14. GPU PRO 3 Advanced rendering techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Engel, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    GPU Pro3, the third volume in the GPU Pro book series, offers practical tips and techniques for creating real-time graphics that are useful to beginners and seasoned game and graphics programmers alike. Section editors Wolfgang Engel, Christopher Oat, Carsten Dachsbacher, Wessam Bahnassi, and Sebastien St-Laurent have once again brought together a high-quality collection of cutting-edge techniques for advanced GPU programming. With contributions by more than 50 experts, GPU Pro3: Advanced Rendering Techniques covers battle-tested tips and tricks for creating interesting geometry, realistic sha

  15. Outcomes of single organism peritonitis in peritoneal dialysis: gram negatives versus gram positives in the Network 9 Peritonitis Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunke, C M; Brier, M E; Golper, T A

    1997-08-01

    The use of the "peritonitis rate" in the management of patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis is assuming importance in comparing the prowess of facilities, care givers and new innovations. For this to be a meaningful outcome measure, the type of infection (causative pathogen) must have less clinical significance than the number of infections during a time interval. The natural history of Staphylococcus aureus, pseudomonas, and fungal peritonitis would not support that the outcome of an episode of peritonitis is independent of the causative pathogen. Could this concern be extended to other more frequently occurring pathogens? To address this, the Network 9 Peritonitis Study identified 530 episodes of single organism peritonitis caused by a gram positive organism and 136 episodes caused by a single non-pseudomonal gram negative (NPGN) pathogen. Coincidental soft tissue infections (exit site or tunnel) occurred equally in both groups. Outcomes of peritonitis were analyzed by organism classification and by presence or absence of a soft tissue infection. NPGN peritonitis was associated with significantly more frequent catheter loss, hospitalization, and technique failure and was less likely to resolve regardless of the presence or absence of a soft tissue infection. Hospitalization and death tended to occur more frequently with enterococcal peritonitis than with other gram positive peritonitis. The outcomes in the NPGN peritonitis group were significantly worse (resolution, catheter loss, hospitalization, technique failure) compared to coagulase negative staphylococcal or S. aureus peritonitis, regardless of the presence or absence of a coincidental soft tissue infection. Furthermore, for the first time, the poor outcomes of gram negative peritonitis are shown to be independent of pseudomonas or polymicrobial involvement or soft tissue infections. The gram negative organism appears to be the important factor. In addition, the outcome of peritonitis caused by S. aureus

  16. How bacterial cell division might cheat turgor pressure - a unified mechanism of septal division in Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Harold P

    2017-08-01

    An important question for bacterial cell division is how the invaginating septum can overcome the turgor force generated by the high osmolarity of the cytoplasm. I suggest that it may not need to. Several studies in Gram-negative bacteria have shown that the periplasm is isoosmolar with the cytoplasm. Indirect evidence suggests that this is also true for Gram-positive bacteria. In this case the invagination of the septum takes place within the uniformly high osmotic pressure environment, and does not have to fight turgor pressure. A related question is how the V-shaped constriction of Gram-negative bacteria relates to the plate-like septum of Gram-positive bacteria. I collected evidence that Gram-negative bacteria have a latent capability of forming plate-like septa, and present a model in which septal division is the basic mechanism in both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. © 2017 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  17. In dubio pro aegroti / Ants Nõmper

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nõmper, Ants, 1977-

    2007-01-01

    Kriminaalmenetluses kehtivast põhimõttest in dubio pro reo, mille kohaselt kõik kohtu arvates ebapiisavalt tõendatud asjaolud tuleb tõlgendada nii, nagu on kohtualusele kasulik. Patsiendikaitsest

  18. MacBook Pro Portable Genius

    CERN Document Server

    Miser, Brad

    2011-01-01

    Tips and techniques for forward-thinking MacBook Pro users Now that you have a MacBook Pro, you need just one more accessory, your very own copy of MacBook Pro Portable Genius, Third Edition. This handy, compact book lets you in on a wealth of tips and tricks, so you get the very most out of Apple's very popular notebook. Discover the latest on the most recent release of iLife, get the skinny on the new Intel Core i7 and i5 processors in the Pro, see how to go wireless in a smart way, and much more. The book is easy to navigate, doesn't skimp on the essentials, and helps you save time and avoi

  19. Pro-social Motivation beyond Firm Boundaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai; Milagres, Rosileia

    2014-01-01

    , contradicting the above argument. More constructively, the case of the Genolyptus network points to the importance of intensive communication, rewards that are tied to joint outcomes, knowledge-based authority and consensual decision-making as support arrangements that can build and sustain pro......An influential body of literature in macro-management research (notably, organization theory and strategic management) associates pro-social motivation solely with firm-like organizations, suggesting that such motivation cannot thrive under more market-like arrangements. We question this argument...... on theoretical, as well as empirical, grounds. As to the latter, we discuss the specific case of a network of firms in Brazil, the Genolyptus network. We argue that this particular network manifests strong pro-social motivations. This implies that pro-social motivations may thrive beyond corporate boundaries...

  20. Pro ASPNET MVC 2 Framework

    CERN Document Server

    Freeman, A

    2010-01-01

    The ASP.NET MVC 3 Framework is the latest evolution of Microsoft's ASP.NET web platform. It provides a radically new high-productivity programming model that promotes cleaner code architecture, test-driven development, and powerful extensibility, combined with all the benefits of ASP.NET 4. In this, third edition, the core model-view-controller (MVC) architectural concepts are not simply explained or discussed in isolation, but are demonstrated in action. You'll work through an extended tutorial to create a working e-commerce web application that combines ASP.NET MVC with the latest C# languag

  1. Pro ASPNET MVC 3 Framework

    CERN Document Server

    Freeman, A

    2011-01-01

    The ASP.NET MVC 3 Framework is the latest evolution of Microsoft's ASP.NET web platform. It provides a high-productivity programming model that promotes cleaner code architecture, test-driven development, and powerful extensibility, combined with all the benefits of ASP.NET 4. In this third edition, the core model-view-controller (MVC) architectural concepts are not simply explained or discussed in isolation, but are demonstrated in action. You'll work through an extended tutorial to create a working e-commerce web application that combines ASP.NET MVC with the latest C# language features and

  2. PRoMoTo 2013 proceedings

    OpenAIRE

    Bishop, Judith; Tillmann, Nikolai; Puder, Arno; Naik, Vinayak

    2013-01-01

    Programming for Mobile and Touch (PRoMoTo'13) was held at the 2013 ACM SIGPLAN conference on Systems, Programming, Languages and Applications (SPLASH 2013), October 2013 in Indianapolis, USA. Submissions for this event were invited in the general area of mobile and touch-oriented programming languages and programming environments, and teaching of programming for mobile devices. These are proceedings of the PRoMoTo'13.

  3. Bovine mastitis caused by gram negative bacteria in Mosul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Y. A. Al-Dabbagh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 90 milk samples were collected from cows with clinical and subclinical mastitis from different areas in Mosul city, in a period from October 2009 to June 2010, for the detection of gram negative bacteriological causative agents. The bacteria were identified using morphological, cultural and biochemical characteristics. thirty tow (35.3% gram negative bacterial isolates were obtained from the total count which included 14 isolates (15.5% for Escherichia coli, 7 isolates (7.7% for Klebsiella spp, 4 isolates (4.4% for Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 3 isolates (3.3% for Enterobacter aerogenes ,2 isolates for Serratia marcescens and one isolates (1.1% for each of Aeromonas hydrophila and Pasteurella multocida. Results of antibiotic sensitivity test indicated that most of these isolates were sensitive to Ciprofloxacin following by Gentamycin and Cotrimoxazole, while most of these organisms were resistant to Ampicillin, the isolates showed different percentages of sensitivity to Doxycycline, Tetracycline, Neomycin and Chloramphenicol.

  4. Multidrug resistance in enteric and other gram-negative bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, A M

    1996-05-15

    In Gram-negative bacteria, multidrug resistance is a term that is used to describe mechanisms of resistance by chromosomal genes that are activated by induction or mutation caused by the stress of exposure to antibiotics in natural and clinical environments. Unlike plasmid-borne resistance genes, there is no alteration or degradation of drugs or need for genetic transfer. Exposure to a single drug leads to cross-resistance to many other structurally and functionally unrelated drugs. The only mechanism identified for multidrug resistance in bacteria is drug efflux by membrane transporters, even though many of these transporters remain to be identified. The enteric bacteria exhibit mostly complex multidrug resistance systems which are often regulated by operons or regulons. The purpose of this review is to survey molecular mechanisms of multidrug resistance in enteric and other Gram-negative bacteria, and to speculate on the origins and natural physiological functions of the genes involved.

  5. Distinguishing Isomeric Peptides: The Unimolecular Reactivity and Structures of (LeuPro)M+ and (ProLeu)M+ (M = Alkali Metal).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jami-Alahmadi, Yasaman; Linford, Bryan D; Fridgen, Travis D

    2016-12-29

    The unimolecular chemistries and structures of gas-phase (ProLeu)M + and (LeuPro)M + complexes when M = Li, Na, Rb, and Cs have been explored using a combination of SORI-CID, IRMPD spectroscopy, and computational methods. CID of both (LeuPro)M + and (ProLeu)M + showed identical fragmentation pathways and could not be differentiated. Two of the fragmentation routes of both peptides produced ions at the same nominal mass as (Pro)M + and (Leu)M + , respectively. For the litiated peptides, experiments revealed identical IRMPD spectra for each of the m/z 122 and 138 ions coming from both peptides. Comparison with computed IR spectra identified them as the (Pro)Li + and (Leu)Li + , and it is concluded that both zwitterionic and canonical forms of (Pro)Li + exist in the ion population from CID of both (ProLeu)Li + and (LeuPro)Li + . The two isomeric peptide complexes could be distinguished using IRMPD spectroscopy in both the fingerprint and the CH/NH/OH regions. The computed IR spectra for the lowest energy structures of each charge solvated complexes are consistent with the IRMPD spectra in both regions for all metal cation complexes. Through comparison between the experimental spectra, it was determined that in lithiated and sodiated ProLeu, metal cation is bound to both carbonyl oxygens and the amine nitrogen. In contrast, the larger metal cations are bound to the two carbonyls, while the amine nitrogen is hydrogen bonded to the amide hydrogen. In the lithiated and sodiated LeuPro complexes, the metal cation is bound to the amide carbonyl and the amine nitrogen while the amine nitrogen is hydrogen bonded to the carboxylic acid carbonyl. However, there is no hydrogen bond in the rubidiated and cesiated complexes; the metal cation is bound to both carbonyl oxygens and the amine nitrogen. Details of the position of the carboxylic acid C═O stretch were especially informative in the spectroscopic confirmation of the lowest energy computed structures.

  6. Horse gram- an underutilized nutraceutical pulse crop: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Prasad, Saroj Kumar; Singh, Manoj Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Horse gram is an underutilized pulse crop grown in wide range of adverse climatic conditions. It occupies an important place in human nutrition and has rich source of protein, minerals, and vitamins. Besides nutritional importance, it has been linked to reduced risk of various diseases due to presence of non-nutritive bioactive substances. These bioactive substances such as phytic acid, phenolic acid, fiber, enzymatic/proteinase inhibitors have significant metabolic and/or physiological effec...

  7. La Gramática Discursivo-Funcional

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hengeveld, K.; Mackenzie, J.L.

    2011-01-01

    La Gramática Discursivo-Funcional (GDF) es una teoría funcional del lenguaje de inspiración tipológica que presenta una organización descendente (top-down) con el objeto de alcanzar la adecuación psicológica y que toma el Acto Discursivo como unidad básica de análisis para lograr la adecuación

  8. Antimicrobial activity of metal oxide nanoparticles against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria: a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azam A

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Ameer Azam,1,2 Arham S Ahmed,2 Mohammad Oves,3 Mohammad S Khan,3 Sami S Habib,1 Adnan Memic11Centre of Nanotechnology, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia; 2Centre of Excellence in Materials Science (Nanomaterials, 3Department of Agricultural Microbiology, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, IndiaBackground: Nanomaterials have unique properties compared to their bulk counterparts. For this reason, nanotechnology has attracted a great deal of attention from the scientific community. Metal oxide nanomaterials like ZnO and CuO have been used industrially for several purposes, including cosmetics, paints, plastics, and textiles. A common feature that these nanoparticles exhibit is their antimicrobial behavior against pathogenic bacteria. In this report, we demonstrate the antimicrobial activity of ZnO, CuO, and Fe2O3 nanoparticles against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.Methods and results: Nanosized particles of three metal oxides (ZnO, CuO, and Fe2O3 were synthesized by a sol–gel combustion route and characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy techniques. X-ray diffraction results confirmed the single-phase formation of all three nanomaterials. The particle sizes were observed to be 18, 22, and 28 nm for ZnO, CuO, and Fe2O3, respectively. We used these nanomaterials to evaluate their antibacterial activity against both Gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis bacteria.Conclusion: Among the three metal oxide nanomaterials, ZnO showed greatest antimicrobial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria used in this study. It was observed that ZnO nanoparticles have excellent bactericidal potential, while Fe2O3 nanoparticles exhibited the least bactericidal activity. The order of antibacterial activity was demonstrated to be the following: ZnO > CuO > Fe2O3

  9. Selenoproteins in Archaea and Gram-positive bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Tilmann; Rother, Michael

    2009-11-01

    Selenium is an essential trace element for many organisms by serving important catalytic roles in the form of the 21st co-translationally inserted amino acid selenocysteine. It is mostly found in redox-active proteins in members of all three domains of life and analysis of the ever-increasing number of genome sequences has facilitated identification of the encoded selenoproteins. Available data from biochemical, sequence, and structure analyses indicate that Gram-positive bacteria synthesize and incorporate selenocysteine via the same pathway as enterobacteria. However, recent in vivo studies indicate that selenocysteine-decoding is much less stringent in Gram-positive bacteria than in Escherichia coli. For years, knowledge about the pathway of selenocysteine synthesis in Archaea and Eukarya was only fragmentary, but genetic and biochemical studies guided by analysis of genome sequences of Sec-encoding archaea has not only led to the characterization of the pathways but has also shown that they are principally identical. This review summarizes current knowledge about the metabolic pathways of Archaea and Gram-positive bacteria where selenium is involved, about the known selenoproteins, and about the respective pathways employed in selenoprotein synthesis.

  10. RNases and Helicases in Gram-Positive Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Sylvain; Condon, Ciaran

    2018-04-01

    RNases are key enzymes involved in RNA maturation and degradation. Although they play a crucial role in all domains of life, bacteria, archaea, and eukaryotes have evolved with their own sets of RNases and proteins modulating their activities. In bacteria, these enzymes allow modulation of gene expression to adapt to rapidly changing environments. Today, >20 RNases have been identified in both Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis , the paradigms of the Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, respectively. However, only a handful of these enzymes are common to these two organisms and some of them are essential to only one. Moreover, although sets of RNases can be very similar in closely related bacteria such as the Firmicutes Staphylococcus aureus and B. subtilis , the relative importance of individual enzymes in posttranscriptional regulation in these organisms varies. In this review, we detail the role of the main RNases involved in RNA maturation and degradation in Gram-positive bacteria, with an emphasis on the roles of RNase J1, RNase III, and RNase Y. We also discuss how other proteins such as helicases can modulate the RNA-degradation activities of these enzymes.

  11. Combating multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacterial infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ze-Qi; Flavin, Michael T; Flavin, John

    2014-02-01

    Multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacterial infections, especially those caused by Gram-negative pathogens, have emerged as one of the world's greatest health threats. The development of novel antibiotics to treat MDR Gram-negative bacteria has, however, stagnated over the last half century. This review provides an overview of recent R&D activities in the search for novel antibiotics against MDR Gram-negatives. It provides emphasis in three key areas. First, the article looks at new analogs of existing antibiotic molecules such as β-lactams, tetracyclines, and aminoglycoside as well as agents against novel bacterial targets such as aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase and peptide deformylase. Second, it also examines alternative strategies to conventional approaches including cationic antimicrobial peptides, siderophores, efflux pump inhibitors, therapeutic antibodies, and renewed interest in abandoned treatments or those with limited indications. Third, the authors aim to provide an update on the current clinical development status for each drug candidate. The traditional analog approach is insufficient to meet the formidable challenge brought forth by MDR superbugs. With the disappointing results of the genomics approach for delivering novel targets and drug candidates, alternative strategies to permeate the bacterial cell membrane, enhance influx, disrupt efflux, and target specific pathogens via therapeutic antibodies are attractive and promising. Coupled with incentivized business models, governmental policies, and a clarified regulatory pathway, it is hoped that the antibiotic pipeline will be filled with an effective armamentarium to safeguard global health.

  12. Keywords in Context (Using n-grams with Python

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William J. Turkel

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Like in Output Data as HTML File, this lesson takes the frequency pairs collected in Counting Frequencies and outputs them in HTML. This time the focus is on keywords in context (KWIC which creates n-grams from the original document content – in this case a trial transcript from the Old Bailey Online. You can use your program to select a keyword and the computer will output all instances of that keyword, along with the words to the left and right of it, making it easy to see at a glance how the keyword is used. Once the KWICs have been created, they are then wrapped in HTML and sent to the browser where they can be viewed. This reinforces what was learned in Output Data as HTML File, opting for a slightly different output. At the end of this lesson, you will be able to extract all possible n-grams from the text. In the next lesson, you will be learn how to output all of the n-grams of a given keyword in a document downloaded from the Internet, and display them clearly in your browser window.

  13. Microbiology of liver abscesses and the predictive value of abscess gram stain and associated blood cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemaly, Roy F; Hall, Gerri S; Keys, Thomas F; Procop, Gary W

    2003-08-01

    Although rare, pyogenic liver abscesses are potentially fatal. We evaluated the predictive value of Gram stain of liver abscess aspirates and temporally associated blood cultures. Gram stains detected bacteria in 79% of the liver abscesses tested. The sensitivity and specificity of Gram stain of the liver abscesses were 90% and 100% for Gram-positive cocci (GPC) and 52% and 94% for Gram-negative bacilli (GNB). The sensitivities of the blood cultures for any GPC and GNB present in the liver abscess were 30% and 39%, respectively. Although, Gram stains and blood cultures offer incomplete detection of the microbial contents of pyogenic liver abscesses, both tests should always accompany liver abscess cultures.

  14. Amplifiable DNA from Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria by a low strength pulsed electric field method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitzthum, Frank; Geiger, Georg; Bisswanger, Hans; Elkine, Bentsian; Brunner, Herwig; Bernhagen, Jürgen

    2000-01-01

    An efficient electric field-based procedure for cell disruption and DNA isolation is described. Isoosmotic suspensions of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria were treated with pulsed electric fields of Pulses had an exponential decay waveform with a time constant of 3.4 µs. DNA yield was linearly dependent on time or pulse number, with several thousand pulses needed. Electrochemical side-effects and electrophoresis were minimal. The lysates contained non-fragmented DNA which was readily amplifiable by PCR. As the method was not limited to samples of high specific resistance, it should be applicable to physiological fluids and be useful for genomic and DNA diagnostic applications. PMID:10734214

  15. Organo-Selenium Coatings Inhibit Gram-Negative and Gram-Positive Bacterial Attachment to Ophthalmic Scleral Buckle Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Phat; Arnett, Avery; Jarvis, Courtney; Mosley, Thomas; Tran, Khien; Hanes, Rob; Webster, Dan; Mitchell, Kelly; Dominguez, Leo; Hamood, Abdul; Reid, Ted W

    2017-09-01

    Biofilm formation is a problem for solid and sponge-type scleral buckles. This can lead to complications that require removal of the buckle, and result in vision loss due to related ocular morbidity, primarily infection, or recurrent retinal detachment. We investigate the ability of a covalent organo-selenium coating to inhibit biofilm formation on a scleral buckle. Sponge and solid Labtican brand scleral buckles were coated with organo-selenium coupled to a silyation reagent. Staphylococcus aureus biofilm formation was monitored by a standard colony-forming unit assay and the confocal laser scanning microscopy, while Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm formation was examined by scanning electron microscopy. Stability studies were done, by soaking in phosphate buffer saline (PBS) at room temperature for 2 months. Toxicity against human corneal epithelial cell was examined by growing the cells in the presence of organo-selenium-coated scleral buckles. The organo-selenium coating inhibited biofilm formation by gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. The buckle coatings also were shown to be fully active after soaking in PBS for 2 months. The organo-selenium coatings had no effect on the viability of human corneal epithelial cells. Organo-selenium can be used to covalently coat a scleral buckle, which is stable and inhibits biofilm formation for gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. The organo-selenium buckle coating was stable and nontoxic to cell culture. This technology provides a means to inhibit bacterial attachment to devices attached to the eye, without damage to ocular cells.

  16. Multiparametric Profiling for Identification of Chemosensitizers against Gram-Negative Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Lôme

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotic resistance is now a worldwide therapeutic problem. Since the beginning of anti-infectious treatment bacteria have rapidly shown an incredible ability to develop and transfer resistance mechanisms. In the last decades, the design variation of pioneer bioactive molecules has strongly improved their activity and the pharmaceutical companies partly won the race against the clock. Since the 1980s, the new classes of antibiotics that emerged were mainly directed to Gram-positive bacteria. Thus, we are now facing to multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria, with no therapeutic options to deal with them. These bacteria are mainly resistant because of their double membrane that conjointly impairs antibiotic accumulation and extrudes these molecules when entered. The main challenge is to allow antibiotics to cross the impermeable envelope and reach their targets. One promising solution would be to associate, in a combination therapy, a usual antibiotic with a non-antibiotic chemosensitizer. Nevertheless, for effective drug discovery, there is a prominent lack of tools required to understand the rules of permeation and accumulation into Gram-negative bacteria. By the use of a multidrug-resistant enterobacteria, we introduce a high-content screening procedure for chemosensitizers discovery by quantitative assessment of drug accumulation, alteration of barriers, and deduction of their activity profile. We assembled and analyzed a control chemicals library to perform the proof of concept. The analysis was based on real-time monitoring of the efflux alteration and measure of the influx increase in the presence of studied compounds in an automatized bio-assay. Then, synergistic activity of compounds with an antibiotic was studied and kinetic data reduction was performed which led to the calculation of a score for each barrier to be altered.

  17. A Synthetic Dual Drug Sideromycin Induces Gram-Negative Bacteria To Commit Suicide with a Gram-Positive Antibiotic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rui; Miller, Patricia A; Vakulenko, Sergei B; Stewart, Nichole K; Boggess, William C; Miller, Marvin J

    2018-05-10

    Many antibiotics lack activity against Gram-negative bacteria because they cannot permeate the outer membrane or suffer from efflux and, in the case of β-lactams, are degraded by β-lactamases. Herein, we describe the synthesis and studies of a dual drug conjugate (1) of a siderophore linked to a cephalosporin with an attached oxazolidinone. The cephalosporin component of 1 is rapidly hydrolyzed by purified ADC-1 β-lactamase to release the oxazolidinone. Conjugate 1 is active against clinical isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii as well as strains producing large amounts of ADC-1 β-lactamase. Overall, the results are consistent with siderophore-mediated active uptake, inherent activity of the delivered dual drug, and in the presence of β-lactamases, intracellular release of the oxazolidinone upon cleavage of the cephalosporin to allow the freed oxazolidinone to inactivate its target. The ultimate result demonstrates that Gram-positive oxazolidinone antibiotics can be made to be effective against Gram-negative bacteria by β-lactamase triggered release.

  18. A Thermostable Salmonella Phage Endolysin, Lys68, with Broad Bactericidal Properties against Gram-Negative Pathogens in Presence of Weak Acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveira, Hugo; Thiagarajan, Viruthachalam; Walmagh, Maarten

    2014-01-01

    Resistance rates are increasing among several problematic Gram-negative pathogens, a fact that has encouraged the development of new antimicrobial agents. This paper characterizes a Salmonella phage endolysin (Lys68) and demonstrates its potential antimicrobial effectiveness when combined...... with organic acids towards Gram-negative pathogens. Biochemical characterization reveals that Lys68 is more active at pH 7.0, maintaining 76.7% of its activity when stored at 4°C for two months. Thermostability tests showed that Lys68 is only completely inactivated upon exposure to 100°C for 30 min......, and circular dichroism analysis demonstrated the ability to refold into its original conformation upon thermal denaturation. It was shown that Lys68 is able to lyse a wide panel of Gram-negative bacteria (13 different species) in combination with the outer membrane permeabilizers EDTA, citric and malic acid...

  19. Burdock (Arctium lappa Leaf Extracts Increase the In Vitro Antimicrobial Efficacy of Common Antibiotics on Gram-positive and Gram-negative Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pirvu Lucia

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to study the potential effects of four Arctii folium extracts, 5 mg gallic [GAE] acid equivalents per 1 mL sample, on six antibiotics (Ampicillin/AM, Tetracycline/TE, Ciprofloxacin/CIP, Sulfamethoxazole-Trimethoprim/SXT, Chloramphenicol/C and Gentamicin/CN tested on four Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212, and Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 12228 and five Gram-negative (Proteus mirabilis ATCC 29245, Escherichia coli ATCC 35218, E. coli ATCC 11229, E. coli ATCC 8739, and Bacillus cereus ATCC 11778 bacteria. Arctii folium extracts were the whole ethanol extract/W and subsequent ethyl acetate/EA, aqueous/AQ, and chloroform/CHL fractions. Chemical qualitative analysis (HPTLC method emphasized five main polyphenol compounds in Arctii folium polar extracts: chlorogenic acid (Rf≈0.52/0.55 and its isomer, 1,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid (Rf≈0.90/0.92, plus cynarin (Rf≈0.77, hyperoside (Rf≈0.68/0.64 and isoquercitrin (Rf≈0.69/0.71. Microbiological screening indicated Arctii folium polar extracts (AQ and W efficacy on S. epidermidis ATCC 12228; the MIC values were in the range of common antibiotics, being 32 and 128 μg GAE per mL sample respectively. The unpredictable effects (stimulatory or inhibitory of Arctii folium extracts in combination with typical antibiotics as well as a potential use of the whole ethanol extract/W for restoring the antimicrobial potency of susceptible antibiotics have also been evidenced.

  20. Human melioidosis reported by ProMED.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasner-Posso, Katherinn Melissa; Cruz-Calderón, Stefania; Montúfar-Andrade, Franco E; Dance, David A B; Rodriguez-Morales, Alfonso J

    2015-06-01

    There are limited sources describing the global burden of emerging diseases. A review of human melioidosis reported by ProMED was performed and the reliability of the data retrieved assessed in comparison to published reports. The effectiveness of ProMED was evaluated as a source of epidemiological data by focusing on melioidosis. Using the keyword 'melioidosis' in the ProMED search engine, all of the information from the reports and collected data was reviewed using a structured form, including the year, country, gender, occupation, number of infected individuals, and number of fatal cases. One hundred and twenty-four entries reported between January 1995 and October 2014 were identified. A total of 4630 cases were reported, with death reported in 505 cases, suggesting a misleadingly low overall case fatality rate (CFR) of 11%. Of 20 cases for which the gender was reported, 12 (60%) were male. Most of the cases were reported from Australia, Thailand, Singapore, Vietnam, and Malaysia, with sporadic reports from other countries. Internet-based reporting systems such as ProMED are useful to gather information and synthesize knowledge on emerging infections. Although certain areas need to be improved, ProMED provided good information about melioidosis. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Pro forma: impact on communication skills?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Marie; Donohoe, Gary; Hennessy, Martina; O Ciardha, Caoilte

    2013-10-01

    A doctor performs 160 000-300 000 interviews during a lifetime career, thus making the medical interview the most common procedure in clinical medicine. It is reported that 60-80 per cent of diagnosis is based on history taking, yet there is little published data advising on the best method for medical students to initially attain and further refine these core skills during their medical degree. Medical students interviewed two patients: using an open interview first, based on the Calgary-Cambridge approach, and then using a structured pro forma. The students' medical data were assessed by a senior lecturer, and their communication skills were assessed by a behavioural scientist and by the patients. An exact Wilcoxon paired signed rank test was conducted to determine whether there was a difference between the open interview and pro forma methods for history taking and communication skills. The test yielded p-values of 0.0017 and 0.069, respectively, with the pro forma method providing a statistically significantly higher history-taking score and communication score than the open interview method. Subjectively, patients reported the pro forma method as being preferable. Medical students in the early years of training benefit from a structured history-taking pro forma to assist them gather an accurate data set without compromising their interpersonal and communication skills. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. BDNF pro-peptide regulates dendritic spines via caspase-3

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, J; Ji, Y; Ding, Y; Jiang, W; Sun, Y; Lu, B; Nagappan, G

    2016-01-01

    The precursor of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) (proBDNF) is enzymatically cleaved, by either intracellular (furin/PC1) or extracellular proteases (tPA/plasmin/MMP), to generate mature BDNF (mBDNF) and its pro-peptide (BDNF pro-peptide). Little is known about the function of BDNF pro-peptide. We have developed an antibody that specifically detects cleaved BDNF pro-peptide, but not proBDNF or mBDNF. Neuronal depolarization elicited a marked increase in extracellular BDNF pro-peptide,...

  3. Effects of Tillage Systems on Changes of Soil Nutrients, Yield and Land Equivalent Ratio in Roselle – Green Gram Intercropping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Hodiani mehr

    2017-10-01

    amount of magnesium of soil after harvest. The comparison of means showed that the highest and the lowest magnesium content were observed in conventional tillage (17.9 ppm and zero tillage (16.7 ppm respectively, (Table 2. The calcium amount in a pure culture of green gram (17.9 ppm was higher than the net cultivation of Roselle (15.5 ppm. The Most of potassium soil of intercropping 25 % Roselle +75% green gram (480.1 ppm and the lowest amount of pure cultures of Roselle (401.8 ppm, were obtained (Table 2. Bohrani et al., (2 were reported that no tillage systems compared with conventional tillage with crop residue have increases soil organic carbon content. With the increase of Roselle in intercropping reduced soil potassium and with increase the proportion of green gram in intercropping, potassium was increased. Tillage systems, planting ratio and interactions (tillage system × planting ratio had a significant effect on soil water content and soil temperature. Comparison of means showed that maximum and minimum soil water content of the soil related to the zero tillage (18.6 % and conventional tillage (12.6 %. soil water content pure culture of green gram was the greater than intercropping and pure culture of Roselle. Soil temperature in pure culture of Roselle was greater than of pure culture of green gram. Effect of planting ratio was significant on LER in 1% probability level. The highest and lowest of LER was obtained in 75 %green gram + 25% (1.36 and 25 % green gram +75 % Roselle (1.15. Beheshti and Soltaniyan (2012 reported that LER in various combinations of sorghum and beans intercropping was higher than of unit. Conclusions Investigation showed that the zero tillage treatments and intercropping increased the efficiency of environmental resources and improved the soil nutrient, significantly. The highest LER was achieved 75% green gram + 25% Roselle, which is indicative of the excellence of intercropping compared to monoculture. The amount of organic carbon has

  4. Clinical Significance of Determination of the Serum Levels of NT-proBNP and hs-CRP in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Zhaojun; Zheng Jing; Sun Weili; Yuan Yuan; Tao Jian; Li Weipeng

    2010-01-01

    To explore the clinical significance the serum levels of N-Terminal proB-Type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) in patients with acute coronary syndrome,the serum levels of NT-proBNP and hs-CRP in patients and normal controls were determined by ECi Immunity Analyzer and radioimmunoassay respectively. The results showed that the serum levels of NT-proBNP and hs-CRP in patients with acute coronary syndrome were significantly higher than that of controls (P<0.05). The diagnostic specificity for acute coronary syndrome was 100% by combined detection of NT-proBNP and hs-CRP. The results suggest that the combined detection of serum NT-proBNP and hs-CRP levels are very important to evaluate heart function in patients with acute coronary syndrome. (authors)

  5. DMPD: Cellular reprogramming by gram-positive bacterial components: a review. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 16885502 Cellular reprogramming by gram-positive bacterial components: a review. Bu...(.csml) Show Cellular reprogramming by gram-positive bacterial components: a review. PubmedID 16885502 Title... Cellular reprogramming by gram-positive bacterial components: a review. Authors

  6. Use of magnetic beads for Gram staining of bacteria in aqueous suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdankhah, S P; Sørum, H; Larsen, H J; Gogstad, G

    2001-12-01

    A Gram staining technique was developed using monodisperse magnetic beads in concentrating bacteria in suspension for downstream application. The technique does not require heat fixation of organisms, electrical power, or a microscope. Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria were identified macroscopically based on the colour of the suspension. The bacteria concentrated on magnetic beads may also be identified microscopically.

  7. Is the gram stain useful in the microbiologic diagnosis of VAP? A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Horo, John C; Thompson, Deb; Safdar, Nasia

    2012-08-01

    In a meta-analysis examining respiratory specimen Gram stain for diagnosis of ventilator-associated pneumonia, absence of bacteria on Gram stain had a high negative predictive value, but a positive Gram stain correlated poorly with organisms recovered in culture. Rapid and accurate diagnosis of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a major challenge and no generally accepted gold standard exists for VAP diagnosis. We conducted a meta-analysis to examine the role of respiratory specimen Gram stain to diagnose VAP, and the correlation with final culture results. In 21 studies, pooled sensitivity of Gram stain for VAP was 0.79 (95% confidence interval [CI], .77-0.81; P Gram stain for a VAP prevalence of 20%-30% was 91%, suggesting that VAP is unlikely with a negative Gram stain but the positive predictive value of Gram stain was only 40%. Pooled kappa was 0.42 for gram-positive organisms and 0.34 for gram-negative organisms, suggesting fair concordance between organisms on Gram stain and recovery by culture. Therefore, a positive Gram stain should not be used to narrow anti-infective therapy until culture results become available.

  8. [Characteristic of clinical strains of gram-negative obligate anaerobes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadzielska, Joanna; Kierzkowska, Marta; Sawicka-Grzelak, Anna; Rokosz, Alicja; Łuczak, Mirosław

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility profiles ofGram-negative strictly anaerobic bacteria isolated from clinical specimens taken from hospitalized patients in 2005-2006. Biochemical identification and antibiotic susceptibility were done in an automated system ATB Expression (bioMerieux sa). From 12262 specimens examined 867 strains of obligate anaerobes were isolated. Gram-negative strictly anaerobic bacteria were cultured in number of 138 strains (15,9%). All cultures were performed on Columbia agar and Schaedler agar media (bioMerieux sa) supplemented with 5% sheep blood and incubated at 37 degrees C for 48-120 h in 85% N2, 10% H2, 5% CO2. Most frequently isolated was Bacteroides spp. (41,3%). For this group beta-lactamase activity was evaluated by using nitrocefin disc test (Cefinase BBL, Becton Dickinson and Co., Cockeysville, MD, USA). Production of ESBLs was detected with the use of two disc diffusion methods: the double-disc synergy test (DDST) according to Jarlier et al. and the diagnostic disc (DD) test according to Appleton. ESBLs were produced by 5,3% strains of Bacteroides spp. For all Bacteroides spp. strains MIC values were determined by gradient diffusion method Etest (AB BIODISK, Sweden). ESBLs and MIC were performed on Wilkins-Chalgren solid medium supplemented with 5% sheep blood (Difco Lab., USA) and all plates were incubated at 35 degrees C for 48 hours in 85% N2, 10% H2, 5% CO2. Most Gram-negative obligate anaerobes isolated from clinical specimens are still susceptible to imipenem (100%), metronidazole (99,3%) and beta-lactam antibiotics with beta-lactamase inhibitors: piperacillin/tazobactam (99,3%), ticarcillin/clavulanate (99.3%), amoxicillin/clavulanate (97.8%).

  9. Daptomycin treatment in Gram-positive vascular graft infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Arnaiz de las Revillas

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Daptomycin is a bactericidal antibiotic approved for the treatment of skin and soft tissue infections and right-side endocarditis. However, there is a lack of published data outlining its usefulness in vascular graft infections (VGI. The aim of this study was to describe the clinical experience of daptomycin use in the treatment of VGI caused by Gram-positive bacteria. Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study of patients diagnosed with VGI receiving daptomycin at a tertiary care hospital during the period January 2010 to December 2012. Results: Of a total 1066 consecutive patients who had undergone vascular grafts (VG, 25 were diagnosed with VGI. Fifteen of these patients (11 prosthetic VG, three autologous VG, one both types received daptomycin (median dose 6.7 mg/kg/day, range 4.1–7.1 mg/kg/day; median age 69 years, range 45–83 years; 80% male. The infected bypass was removed in 13 cases. The most common reason for selecting daptomycin was kidney failure (53%. The Gram-positive organisms isolated were coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (n = 10, Staphylococcus aureus (n = 3 (two methicillin-resistant S. aureus, Enterococcus faecium (n = 2, and Enterococcus faecalis (n = 1. The mean follow-up was 69 months (interquartile range 48–72 months. Ten patients (66.7% achieved complete healing of the VGI. A recurrence of the infection was observed in 100% of patients in whom the bypass was not removed. Among patients who did not achieve complete healing, one needed a supracondylar amputation and one died as a consequence of infection. Five patients received treatment with rifampicin in addition to daptomycin and they were all cured. Conclusions: The use of daptomycin and surgery for Gram-positive VGI was effective and well tolerated, and this may be a good alternative for the treatment of VGI in patients with peripheral arterial disease in whom renal insufficiency is common. Keywords: Daptomycin, Gram-positive, Vascular

  10. Pro-static Agents in Jet Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-08-16

    recent survey of jet fuels at 10 airports and 3 military bases in the United States [6]. Consequently , the results of the present study can be directly...as quickly as it is generated. Consequently , compounds that increase conductivity above 50 pS/m are not pro-static agents in the sense implied here...Additive Con, 1000 pPm CORROSION INHIBITORS UNiCOrn J COPIOCO T- 60 LU$RIZOL 541 TOLAD 245 OCI 4A] PRO ig ., NALCO 5400 TOLAD 244 , MALCO 5402 GULF 170 "Y2

  11. Mastering Adobe Premiere Pro CS6

    CERN Document Server

    Ekert, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Designed to be practical and engaging, Mastering Adobe Premiere Pro CS6 is a project-based book to help you truly augment your skills and become a film editing hotshot.If you're just starting out or even migrating from existing video editing software, then this book is for you. With rapid progression through practical examples constructed to be both engaging and useful, Mastering Adobe Premiere Pro CS6 is ideal for learning the sometimes complex workflows of this powerful application.

  12. MacBook Pro Portable Genius

    CERN Document Server

    Miser, Brad

    2012-01-01

    Discover loads of tips and techniques for the newest MacBook Pro You're already ahead of the game with a MacBook Pro. Now you can get even more out the popular Apple notebook with the new edition of this handy, compact book. Crammed with savvy insights and tips on key tools and shortcuts, this book will help you increase your productivity and keep your Apple digital lifestyle on track. From desktop sharing and wireless networking to running Windows applications, this book avoids fluff, doesn't skimp on the essentials, saves you time and hassle, and shows you what you most want to know. Include

  13. HDR Efex Pro After the Shoot

    CERN Document Server

    Sholik, Stan

    2011-01-01

    A concise, on-the-go guide to the new HDR Efex Pro imaging toolkit for photographers Now that you've gone mobile and HDR, you want to be able to download and enhance your favorite photos on the run, without having to return to the mother ship (i.e., your desktop computer). This book shows you just how to do that using the amazing HDR Efex Pro, the image editing toolset from Nik Software. In brilliant color and using plenty of show-stopping examples, this practical guide explains all tools and features. Follow numbered steps and you'll soon be handling things like alignment, ghosting control, h

  14. Pro Agile NET Development with Scrum

    CERN Document Server

    Blankenship, Jerrel; Millett, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Pro Agile .NET Development with SCRUM guides you through a real-world ASP.NET project and shows how agile methodology is put into practice. There is plenty of literature on the theory behind agile methodologies, but no book on the market takes the concepts of agile practices and applies these in a practical manner to an end-to-end ASP.NET project, especially the estimating, requirements and management aspects of a project. Pro Agile .NET Development with SCRUM takes you through the initial stages of a project - gathering requirements and setting up an environment - through to the development a

  15. Teaching with ArcGIS Pro

    OpenAIRE

    Theller, Larry

    2016-01-01

    For Fall semester 2016 the ABE department moved the course ASM 540 Basic GIS from ArcGIS Desktop 10.2 to ArcGIS Pro 1.3. This software from ESRI has a completely new look and feel, (ribbon-based rather than cascading menus) and is a true 64 bit application, capable of multi-threading, and built on Python 3. After ArcGIS Desktop 10.5 is released, desktop ends and the future release will be ArcGIS Pro; so it makes sense to switch sooner rather than later. This talk will discuss some issues and...

  16. Add-On Therapy with Ertapenem in Infections with Multidrug Resistant Gram-Negative Bacteria: Pediatric Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevgen Tanır Basaranoglu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Optimal therapy for infections with carbapenem resistant GNB is not well established due to the weakness of data. Patients presenting with bloodstream infections caused by multidrug resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae were treated with a combination treatment. Optimal therapy for infections with carbapenem resistant Gram-negative bacteria is a serious problem in pediatric patients. We presented three cases who were successfully treated with addition of ertapenem to the combination treatment for bacteremia with multidrug resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae. Dual carbapenem treatment approach is a new approach for these infections and requires more data in children.

  17. Inhaled Antibiotics for Gram-Negative Respiratory Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraidenburg, Dustin R.; Scardina, Tonya

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Gram-negative organisms comprise a large portion of the pathogens responsible for lower respiratory tract infections, especially those that are nosocomially acquired, and the rate of antibiotic resistance among these organisms continues to rise. Systemically administered antibiotics used to treat these infections often have poor penetration into the lung parenchyma and narrow therapeutic windows between efficacy and toxicity. The use of inhaled antibiotics allows for maximization of target site concentrations and optimization of pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic indices while minimizing systemic exposure and toxicity. This review is a comprehensive discussion of formulation and drug delivery aspects, in vitro and microbiological considerations, pharmacokinetics, and clinical outcomes with inhaled antibiotics as they apply to disease states other than cystic fibrosis. In reviewing the literature surrounding the use of inhaled antibiotics, we also highlight the complexities related to this route of administration and the shortcomings in the available evidence. The lack of novel anti-Gram-negative antibiotics in the developmental pipeline will encourage the innovative use of our existing agents, and the inhaled route is one that deserves to be further studied and adopted in the clinical arena. PMID:27226088

  18. Daptomycin: a novel lipopeptide antibiotic against Gram-positive pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andres Beiras-Fernandez

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Andres Beiras-Fernandez1,*, Ferdinand Vogt1,*, Ralf Sodian1, Florian Weis21Department of Cardiac Surgery, University Hospital Großhadern, Ludwig-Maximilian-University, Munich, Germany; 2Department of Anesthesiology, University Hospital Großhadern, Ludwig-Maximilian-University, Munich, Germany *Andres Beiras-Fernandez and Ferdinand Vogt contributed equally to this paperAbstract: The aim of this review is to summarize the historical background of drug resistance of Gram-positive pathogens as well as to describe in detail the novel lipopeptide antibiotic daptomycin. Pharmacological and pharmacokinetic aspects are reviewed and the current clinical use of daptomycin is presented. Daptomycin seems to be a reliable drug in the treatment of complicated skin and skin structure infections, infective right-sided endocarditis, and bacteremia caused by Gram-positive agents. Its unique mechanism of action and its low resistance profile, together with its rapid bactericidal action make it a favorable alternative to vancomycin in multi-drug resistant cocci. The role of daptomycin in the treatment of prosthetic material infections, osteomyelitis, and urogenital infections needs to be evaluated in randomized clinical trials.Keywords: daptomycin, multi-drug resistance, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, pneumonia, urinary tract infection, left-sided endocarditis

  19. VIP as a potential therapeutic agent in gram negative sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Hiba; Barrow, Paul; Foster, Neil

    2012-12-01

    Gram negative sepsis remains a high cause of mortality and places a great burden on public health finance in both the developed and developing world. Treatment of sepsis, using antibiotics, is often ineffective since pathology associated with the disease occurs due to dysregulation of the immune system (failure to return to steady state conditions) which continues after the bacteria, which induced the immune response, have been cleared. Immune modulation is therefore a rational approach to the treatment of sepsis but to date no drug has been developed which is highly effective, cheap and completely safe to use. One potential therapeutic agent is VIP, which is a natural peptide and is highly homologous in all vertebrates. In this review we will discuss the effect of VIP on components of the immune system, relevant to gram negative sepsis, and present data from animal models. Furthermore we will hypothesise on how these studies could be improved in future and speculate on the possible different ways in which VIP could be used in clinical medicine.

  20. Black-pigmented gram-negative anaerobes in endodontic infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haapasalo, M

    1993-03-01

    Necrotic dental root canal infections are polymicrobial infections dominated by anaerobic bacteria. The number of different species in one canal is usually low, approx. 4-7 species. The species isolated most frequently belong to the genera Prevotella, Porphyromonas, Fusobacterium, Peptostreptococcus, Eubacterium and Streptococcus. The frequency of isolation of black-pigmented Gram-negative anaerobes in endodontic infections varies from 25% to > 50%. Pr. intermedia is the most commonly found pigmented species, followed by Pr. denticola and two Porphyromonas species, P. gingivalis and P. endodontalis. Several studies have shown that P. gingivalis and P. endodontalis are closely related to the presence of acute symptoms in endodontic infections, whereas other black-pigmented Gram-negative anaerobes are not. However, several other species may also be involved in acute infections. Moreover, Porphyromonas species have occasionally been isolated from cases with no symptoms. Although Porphyromonas spp. are clearly related to symptoms at the beginning of therapy, they are not important for the prognosis of the treatment.

  1. Role of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in activation of inflammation at community-acquired pneumonia of children with different level of physical development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetyana Frolova

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: With the aim of better predicting the course of the community-acquired uncomplicated pneumonia (CAUP the study presents the results of research of the cytokine profile based on the obtained rates of pro- (interleukin 1-beta [IL-1β], tumor necrosis factor-alpha [TNF-α] and anti-inflammatory (interleukin 4 [IL-4] cytokines in blood serum as well as results of the combined bacteriological and serological research of children with different level of physical development (PD, sick on CAUP.Methods: In order to reach the purpose of the research the work was carried out by controlled computer-generated randomization schedule in 2 stages. At the 1st stage the examination of 151 children with CAUP aged from 3 to 14 years from the onset of the disease and of 20 apparently healthy children (control group was held. All children passed a study of sputum using staining of swabs according to Gram, culture test and determination of causative agents of pneumonia by the method of enzyme multiplied immunoassay (ELISA; in addition, the cytokine profile (IL-1β, IL-4 and TNF-α was determined by the method of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. At the 2nd stage, according to the inclusion/exclusion criteria, 151 children in the dynamics of the disease were examined: on 7.2 ± 0.9 day from the onset of the disease, the cytokine profile rates were evaluated, and on 12.6 ± 0.9 day the level of IgM, IgG to atypical causative agents of pneumonia were recorded.Results: The results obtained during the research of the indices of the pro-inflammatory (IL-1β and TNF-α and anti-inflammatory (IL-4 cytokines in blood serum of the children with CAUP and having different level of PD can be considered as factors for individually predicting the course of the CAUP of children with different PD.Conclusion: Data suggest that the ratio of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines during in­flammatory process in children with CAUP with different PD can be one of the additional

  2. Simultaneous fluorescent gram staining and activity assessment of activated sludge bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Scott; Snape, Jason R; Lappin-Scott, Hilary M; Porter, Jonathan

    2002-10-01

    Wastewater treatment is one of the most important commercial biotechnological processes, and yet the component bacterial populations and their associated metabolic activities are poorly understood. The novel fluorescent dye hexidium iodide allows assessment of Gram status by differential absorption through bacterial cell walls. Differentiation between gram-positive and gram-negative wastewater bacteria was achieved after flow cytometric analysis. This study shows that the relative proportions of gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial cells identified by traditional microscopy and hexidium iodide staining were not significantly different. Dual staining of cells for Gram status and activity proved effective in analyzing mixtures of cultured bacteria and wastewater populations. Levels of highly active organisms at two wastewater treatment plants, both gram positive and gram negative, ranged from 1.5% in activated sludge flocs to 16% in the activated sludge fluid. Gram-positive organisms comprised Gram status and activity within activated sludge samples over a 4-day period showed significant differences over time. This method provides a rapid, quantitative measure of Gram status linked with in situ activity within wastewater systems.

  3. Gram-positive rods prevailing in teeth with apical periodontitis undergoing root canal treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez de Paz, L E; Molander, A; Dahlén, G

    2004-09-01

    To identify Gram-positive rods from root canals of teeth with apical periodontitis and to examine their associations with other species. Consecutive root canal samples (RCSs) from 139 teeth undergoing root canal treatment were analyzed prospectively for cultivable microbes. Gram-positive rods in the first RCS submitted after chemo-mechanical preparation were categorised to genus level by selective media and gas-liquid chromatography (GLC), and identified to species level by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Associations between organisms were measured by odds ratios (OR). In the first samples submitted a total of 158 Gram-positive rods, 115 Gram-positive cocci, 26 Gram-negative rods and 9 Gram-negative cocci, were identified. At genus levels Gram-positive rods were classified into: Lactobacillus spp. (38%), Olsenella spp. (18%), Propionibacterium spp. (13%), Actinomyces spp. (12%), Bifidobacterium spp. (13%) and Eubacterium spp. (6%). The most frequent species were Olsenella uli, Lactobacillus paracasei and Propionibacterium propionicum. In subsequent samples taken during treatment, Gram-positive rods were also identified, although the number of strains was considerably reduced. Positive associations were observed between members of the genus lactobacilli and Gram-positive cocci (OR>2). Olsenella uli and Lactobacillus spp. predominated over other Gram-positive rods. A possible association exists between Lactobacillus spp. and Gram-positive cocci in root canals of teeth with apical periodontitis receiving treatment.

  4. The TFPI-2 derived peptide EDC34 improves outcome of gram-negative sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papareddy, Praveen; Kalle, Martina; Sørensen, Ole E; Malmsten, Martin; Mörgelin, Matthias; Schmidtchen, Artur

    2013-01-01

    Sepsis is characterized by a dysregulated host-pathogen response, leading to high cytokine levels, excessive coagulation and failure to eradicate invasive bacteria. Novel therapeutic strategies that address crucial pathogenetic steps during infection are urgently needed. Here, we describe novel bioactive roles and therapeutic anti-infective potential of the peptide EDC34, derived from the C-terminus of tissue factor pathway inhibitor-2 (TFPI-2). This peptide exerted direct bactericidal effects and boosted activation of the classical complement pathway including formation of antimicrobial C3a, but inhibited bacteria-induced activation of the contact system. Correspondingly, in mouse models of severe Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection, treatment with EDC34 reduced bacterial levels and lung damage. In combination with the antibiotic ceftazidime, the peptide significantly prolonged survival and reduced mortality in mice. The peptide's boosting effect on bacterial clearance paired with its inhibiting effect on excessive coagulation makes it a promising therapeutic candidate for invasive Gram-negative infections.

  5. Prospects and challenges of developing new agents for tough Gram-negatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Annette L

    2005-10-01

    Historically, the medical profession has been successful in treating most bacterial infections in humans with synthetic second- and third-generation antibiotics. Recently, the prospects for continued success have dimmed with the increase in multidrug-resistant stains of bacteria. Infections caused by the Gram-negative bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp. in particular have increased in frequency and severity, and become progressively more difficult to treat. Contributors to disease severity include chronic infections due to mutator strains, persister cells and biofilms. The worst-case scenario of infections susceptible only to toxic polymixins is now a reality. The need to address the treatment of multidrug-resistant pathogens with innovative combination approaches and/or novel antibacterial agents is occurring in the context of reduced investment in antimicrobial drug discovery by the pharmaceutical industry.

  6. A pathway closely related to the (D)-tagatose pathway of gram-negative enterobacteria identified in the gram-positive bacterium Bacillus licheniformis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Heiden, Edwige; Delmarcelle, Michaël; Lebrun, Sarah; Freichels, Régine; Brans, Alain; Vastenavond, Christian M; Galleni, Moreno; Joris, Bernard

    2013-06-01

    We report the first identification of a gene cluster involved in d-tagatose catabolism in Bacillus licheniformis. The pathway is closely related to the d-tagatose pathway of the Gram-negative bacterium Klebsiella oxytoca, in contrast to the d-tagatose 6-phosphate pathway described in the Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus.

  7. A Pathway Closely Related to the d-Tagatose Pathway of Gram-Negative Enterobacteria Identified in the Gram-Positive Bacterium Bacillus licheniformis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Heiden, Edwige; Lebrun, Sarah; Freichels, Régine; Brans, Alain; Vastenavond, Christian M.; Galleni, Moreno; Joris, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    We report the first identification of a gene cluster involved in d-tagatose catabolism in Bacillus licheniformis. The pathway is closely related to the d-tagatose pathway of the Gram-negative bacterium Klebsiella oxytoca, in contrast to the d-tagatose 6-phosphate pathway described in the Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus. PMID:23524682

  8. A Pathway Closely Related to the d-Tagatose Pathway of Gram-Negative Enterobacteria Identified in the Gram-Positive Bacterium Bacillus licheniformis

    OpenAIRE

    Van der Heiden, Edwige; Delmarcelle, Michaël; Lebrun, Sarah; Freichels, Régine; Brans, Alain; Vastenavond, Christian M.; Galleni, Moreno; Joris, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    We report the first identification of a gene cluster involved in d-tagatose catabolism in Bacillus licheniformis. The pathway is closely related to the d-tagatose pathway of the Gram-negative bacterium Klebsiella oxytoca, in contrast to the d-tagatose 6-phosphate pathway described in the Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus.

  9. Gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria induce different patterns of cytokine production in human mononuclear cells irrespective of taxonomic relatedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skovbjerg, Susann; Martner, Anna; Hynsjö, Lars; Hessle, Christina; Olsen, Ingar; Dewhirst, Floyd E; Tham, Wilhelm; Wold, Agnes E

    2010-01-01

    Upon bacterial stimulation, tissue macrophages produce a variety of cytokines that orchestrate the immune response that clears the infection. We have shown that Gram-positives induce higher levels of interleukin-12 (IL-12), interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) than do Gram-negatives, which instead induce more of IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10. Here, we study whether these patterns follows or crosses taxonomic borders. PBMCs from blood donors were incubated with UV-inactivated bacteria representing 37 species from five phyla. IL-12, TNF, IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10 were measured in the supernatants after 24 h and IFN-gamma after 5 days. Irrespective of phylogenetic position, Gram-positive bacteria induced much more IL-12 (nine times more on average) and IFN-gamma (seven times), more TNF (three times), and slightly more IL-1beta (1.5 times) than did Gram-negatives, which instead induced more IL-6 (1.5 times), IL-8 (1.9 times), and IL-10 (3.3 times) than did Gram-positives. A notable exception was the Gram-positive Listeria monocytogenes, which induced very little IL-12, IFN-gamma, and TNF. The results confirm the fundamental difference in innate immune responses to Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, which crosses taxonomic borders and probably reflects differences in cell wall structure.

  10. Comparative activity of tigecycline and tetracycline on Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria revealed by a multicentre study in four North European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Lennart E; Frimodt-Møller, Niels; Vaara, Martti

    2011-01-01

    This study involves a multicentre surveillance of tigecycline and tetracycline activity against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria from primary care centres (PCCs), general hospital wards (GHWs) and intensive care units (ICUs) in Denmark (n = 9), Finland (n = 10), Norway (n = 7) and Sweden (n...

  11. Higher order structure in the 3'-minor domain of small subunit ribosomal RNAs from a gram negative bacterium, a gram positive bacterium and a eukaryote

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Douthwaite, S; Christensen, A; Garrett, R A

    1983-01-01

    of additional higher order structure in the renatured free RNA. It can be concluded that a high level of conservation of higher order structure has occurred during the evolution of the gram negative and gram positive eubacteria and the eukaryote in both the double helical regions and the "unstructured" regions...

  12. Analgesic Effect and Immunomodulation Response on Pro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to determine qualitatively the chemical components of the extract, thin layer chromatography (TLC) was used. The analgesic activity of the extract at various doses (25, 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg, i.p) was assessed using formalin test while pro-inflammatory cytokines were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent ...

  13. Pro-poor toerisme moet kleur bekennen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mosselaer, van de F.F.H.; Duim, van der V.R.

    2010-01-01

    Pro-por toerisme is een benadering in wetenschap en ontwikkelingssamenwerking die zich expliciet richt op de vraag 'hoe kan toerisme bijdragen aan armoedebestrijding?'. De benadering bestaat nu tien jaar, een mooi moment voor bezinning, ook nu in Nederland, en andere Westerse landen, wederom de zin

  14. MR-proANP improves prediction of mortality and cardiovascular events in patients with STEMI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Søren; Jensen, Jan Skov; Pedersen, Sune H

    2015-01-01

    drawn immediately before PCI. Plasma MR-proANP was measured using an automated processing assay. Endpoints were all-cause mortality (n = 137) and the combined endpoint (n = 170) of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) defined as cardiovascular mortality and admission due to recurrent MI, ischaemic...

  15. Dose-Dependent Antimicrobial Activity of Silver Nanoparticles on Polycaprolactone Fibers against Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erick Pazos-Ortiz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The adhesion ability and adaptability of bacteria, coupled with constant use of the same bactericides, have made the increase in the diversity of treatments against infections necessary. Nanotechnology has played an important role in the search for new ways to prevent and treat infections, including the use of metallic nanoparticles with antibacterial properties. In this study, we worked on the design of a composite of silver nanoparticles (AgNPS embedded in poly-epsilon-caprolactone nanofibers and evaluated its antimicrobial properties against various Gram-positive and Gram-negative microorganisms associated with drug-resistant infections. Polycaprolactone-silver composites (PCL-AgNPs were prepared in two steps. The first step consisted in the reduction in situ of Ag+ ions using N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF in tetrahydrofuran (THF solution, and the second step involved the simple addition of polycaprolactone before electrospinning process. Antibacterial activity of PCL-AgNPs nanofibers against E. coli, S. mutans, K. pneumoniae, S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, and B. subtilis was evaluated. Results showed sensibility of E. coli, K. pneumoniae, S. aureus, and P. aeruginosa, but not for B. subtilis and S. mutans. This antimicrobial activity of PCL-AgNPs showed significant positive correlations associated with the dose-dependent effect. The antibacterial property of the PCL/Ag nanofibers might have high potential medical applications in drug-resistant infections.

  16. Silver-doped manganese dioxide and trioxide nanoparticles inhibit both gram positive and gram negative pathogenic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunkalekar, R K; Prabhu, M S; Naik, M M; Salker, A V

    2014-01-01

    Palladium, ruthenium and silver-doped MnO2 and silver doped Mn2O3 nanoparticles were synthesized by simple co-precipitation technique. SEM-TEM analysis revealed the nano-size of these synthesized samples. XPS data illustrates that Mn is present in 4+ and 3+ oxidation states in MnO2 and Mn2O3 respectively. Thermal analysis gave significant evidence for the phase changes with increasing temperature. Antibacterial activity of these synthesized nanoparticles on three Gram positive bacterial cultures (Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538, Streptococcus epidermis ATCC 12228, Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633) and three Gram negative cultures (Escherichia coli ATCC 8739, Salmonella abony NCTC 6017 and Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 1003) was investigated using a disc diffusion method and live/dead assay. Only Ag-doped MnO2 and Ag-doped Mn2O3 nanoparticles showed antibacterial property against all six-test bacteria but Ag-doped MnO2 was found to be more effective than Ag-doped Mn2O3. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Nanoparticle targeting of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria for magnetic-based separations of bacterial pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hoang D.; Yang, Shirley S.; Wilson, Brian K.; McManus, Simon A.; Chen, Christopher V. H.-H.; Prud'homme, Robert K.

    2017-04-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is a healthcare problem of increasing significance, and there is increasing interest in developing new tools to address bacterial infections. Bacteria-targeting nanoparticles hold promise to improve drug efficacy, compliance, and safety. In addition, nanoparticles can also be used for novel applications, such as bacterial imaging or bioseperations. We here present the use of a scalable block-copolymer-directed self-assembly process, Flash NanoPrecipitation, to form zinc(II)-bis(dipicolylamine) modified nanoparticles that bind to both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria with specificity. Particles have tunable surface ligand densities that change particle avidity and binding efficacy. A variety of materials can be encapsulated into the core of the particles, such as optical dyes or iron oxide colloids, to produce imageable and magnetically active bacterial targeting constructs. As a proof-of-concept, these particles are used to bind and separate bacteria from solution in a magnetic column. Magnetic manipulation and separation would translate to a platform for pathogen identification or removal. These magnetic and targeted nanoparticles enable new methods to address bacterial infections.

  18. Inhibition of various gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria growth on selenium nanoparticle coated paper towels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi; Larese-Casanova, Philip; Webster, Thomas J

    2015-01-01

    There are wide spread bacterial contamination issues on various paper products, such as paper towels hanging in sink splash zones or those used to clean surfaces, filter papers used in water and air purifying systems, and wrappings used in the food industry; such contamination may lead to the potential spread of bacteria and consequent severe health concerns. In this study, selenium nanoparticles were coated on normal paper towel surfaces through a quick precipitation method, introducing antibacterial properties to the paper towels in a healthy way. Their effectiveness at preventing biofilm formation was tested in bacterial assays involving Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus epidermidis. The results showed significant and continuous bacteria inhibition with about a 90% reduction from 24 to 72 hours for gram-positive bacteria including S. aureus and S. epidermidis. The selenium coated paper towels also showed significant inhibition of gram-negative bacteria like P. aeruginosa and E. coli growth at about 57% and 84%, respectively, after 72 hours of treatment. Therefore, this study established a promising selenium-based antibacterial strategy to prevent bacterial growth on paper products, which may lead to the avoidance of bacteria spreading and consequent severe health concerns.

  19. Antibacterial activity of sphingoid bases and fatty acids against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Carol L; Drake, David R; Dawson, Deborah V; Blanchette, Derek R; Brogden, Kim A; Wertz, Philip W

    2012-03-01

    There is growing evidence that the role of lipids in innate immunity is more important than previously realized. How lipids interact with bacteria to achieve a level of protection, however, is still poorly understood. To begin to address the mechanisms of antibacterial activity, we determined MICs and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) of lipids common to the skin and oral cavity--the sphingoid bases D-sphingosine, phytosphingosine, and dihydrosphingosine and the fatty acids sapienic acid and lauric acid--against four Gram-negative bacteria and seven Gram-positive bacteria. Exact Kruskal-Wallis tests of these values showed differences among lipid treatments (P 500 μg/ml). Sapienic acid (MBC range, 31.3 to 375.0 μg/ml) was active against Streptococcus sanguinis, Streptococcus mitis, and Fusobacterium nucleatum but not active against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, S. marcescens, P. aeruginosa, Corynebacterium bovis, Corynebacterium striatum, and Corynebacterium jeikeium (MBC > 500 μg/ml). Lauric acid (MBC range, 6.8 to 375.0 μg/ml) was active against all bacteria except E. coli, S. marcescens, and P. aeruginosa (MBC > 500 μg/ml). Complete killing was achieved as early as 0.5 h for some lipids but took as long as 24 h for others. Hence, sphingoid bases and fatty acids have different antibacterial activities and may have potential for prophylactic or therapeutic intervention in infection.

  20. The Importance of Pro-Environmental Behavior in Adolescent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palupi, Tyas; Sawitri, Dian R.

    2018-02-01

    Studies regarding pro-environmental behavior in adolescents are lacking. This study aimed to examine the importance of pro-environmental behavior in adolescents (high school and university students) by conducting literature review from previous studies on pro environmental behavior. Pro-environmental behavior is the behavior of individuals that contributes towards environmental preservation. Based on previous studies, measurement of pro-environmental behavior were investigated on several theories, namely theory of planned behavior (TPB) and value, belief, norms (VBN) by using aspects of pro environmental behavior. Young people with critical thinking, and good environmental education, are expected to behave more environmentally friendly for creating a sustainable future.

  1. Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin (NGAL), Pro-Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 (pro-MMP-9) and Their Complex Pro-MMP-9/NGAL in Leukaemias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouchet, Sandrine; Bauvois, Brigitte, E-mail: brigitte.bauvois@crc.jussieu.fr [INSERM U1138, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Université Paris-Descartes, Centre de Recherche des Cordeliers, Paris 75006 (France)

    2014-04-04

    Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) have gained attention as cancer biomarkers. The inactive zymogen form of MMP-9 (pro-MMP-9) also exists as a disulphide-linked heterodimer bound to NGAL in humans. Leukaemias represent a heterogeneous group of neoplasms, which vary in their clinical behavior and pathophysiology. In this review, we summarize the current literature on the expression profiles of pro-MMP-9 and NGAL as prognostic factors in leukaemias. We also report the expression of the pro-MMP-9/NGAL complex in these diseases. We discuss the roles of (pro)-MMP-9 (active and latent forms) and NGAL in tumour development, and evaluate the mechanisms by which pro-MMP-9/NGAL may influence the actions of (pro)-MMP-9 and NGAL in cancer. Emerging knowledge about the coexpression and the biology of (pro)-MMP-9, NGAL and their complex in cancer including leukaemia may improve treatment outcomes.

  2. Comparison of the Cathra Repliscan II, the AutoMicrobic system Gram-Negative General Susceptibility-Plus Card, and the Micro-Media System Fox Panel for dilution susceptibility testing of gram-negative bacilli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiber, N E; Kelly, M T; Latimer, J M; Tison, D L; Hysmith, R M

    1985-06-01

    A comparative evaluation was done to test the accuracy of the Cathra Repliscan II agar dilution system (Diagnostic Equipment, Inc., St. Paul, Minn.), the AutoMicrobic system with Gram-Negative General Susceptibility-Plus Card (Vitek Systems, Inc., Hazelwood, Mo.), and the Micro-Media Fox Panel micro broth dilution system (Micro-Media Systems, Inc., San Jose, Calif.) in determining MICs of 12 antibiotics for 200 gram-negative bacilli. Of the 200 strains tested, 12 isolates did not grow in one of the three systems. The 188 remaining organisms included 158 members of the family Enterobacteriaceae, 20 Pseudomonas spp., 5 Acinetobacter sp., 3 Aeromonas spp., and 2 Vibrio spp. A total of 2,256 organism-antibiotic combinations were analyzed for each system. An MIC was considered correct if two of the three systems were in agreement. When disagreements occurred, correct MICs were determined by the standard agar dilution method. With this criterion, overall agreements of the Cathra Repliscan II system, AutoMicrobic system, and Micro-Media Fox Panel system were 94.7, 94.9, and 95.5%, respectively. Tetracycline (20%), nitrofurantoin (20%), and ampicillin (16%) accounted for 56% of the discrepancies observed. These results indicate that all three systems perform with a high degree of accuracy for susceptibility testing of gram-negative bacilli.

  3. Pro-C5, a marker of true type V collagen formation and fibrillation, correlates with portal hypertension in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leeming, Diana J; Veidal, Sanne S; Karsdal, Morten A

    2015-01-01

    Pro-C5 reflects liver hemodynamics, liver function, disease stage and clinically significant portal hypertension (PH). A multimarker model in combination with clinical scores predicted HVPG and separated clinical relevant HVPG thresholds. Plasma Pro-C5 may be suitable for the noninvasive evaluation...

  4. The gram-negative bacterial periplasm: Size matters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel I Miller

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Gram-negative bacteria are surrounded by two membrane bilayers separated by a space termed the periplasm. The periplasm is a multipurpose compartment separate from the cytoplasm whose distinct reducing environment allows more efficient and diverse mechanisms of protein oxidation, folding, and quality control. The periplasm also contains structural elements and important environmental sensing modules, and it allows complex nanomachines to span the cell envelope. Recent work indicates that the size or intermembrane distance of the periplasm is controlled by periplasmic lipoproteins that anchor the outer membrane to the periplasmic peptidoglycan polymer. This periplasm intermembrane distance is critical for sensing outer membrane damage and dictates length of the flagellar periplasmic rotor, which controls motility. These exciting results resolve longstanding debates about whether the periplasmic distance has a biological function and raise the possibility that the mechanisms for maintenance of periplasmic size could be exploited for antibiotic development.

  5. Sinus surgery postpones chronic Gram-negative lung infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alanin, M C; Aanaes, K; Høiby, N

    2016-01-01

    of pulmonary samples positive for GNB. We investigated whether the effect is sustained. METHODOLOGY: We report the effect of ESS and adjuvant therapy three years postoperatively in a CF cohort participating in this prospective clinical follow-up study. The primary endpoint was the lung infection status defined......BACKGROUND: In patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) the sinuses are a bacterial reservoir for Gram-negative bacteria (GNB). From the sinuses the GNB can repeatedly migrate to the lungs. In a one-year follow-up study, endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) with adjuvant therapy reduced the frequency....... The total cohort had decreasing lung function during follow-up; however, in 27 patients with improved lung infection status lung function was stable. Revision surgery was performed in 31 patients (28%). CONCLUSION: ESS with adjuvant therapy significantly improves the lung infection status for at least three...

  6. TSTA loop operation with 100 grams-level of tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Hiroshi; Fukui, Hiroshi; Hirata, Shingo

    1988-12-01

    A fully integrated loop operation test of Tritium systems Test Assembly (TSTA) with 107 grams of tritium was completed at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in June, 1988. In this test, a compound cryopump with a charcoal panel was incorporated into the main process loop for the first time. The objectives were (i) to demonstrate the compound cryopump system with different flow rates and impurities, (ii) to demonstrate the regeneration of the compound cryopump system, (iii) to accumulate operating experience with other process systems such as the fuel cleanup system, the isotope separation system, the tritium supply and recovery system, etc. and (iv) to improve the data-base on TSTA safety systems such as the secondary containment system, tritium waste treatment system and tritium monitoring system. This report briefly describes characteristics of the main subsystems observed during the milestone run. (author)

  7. Marine Compounds with Therapeutic Potential in Gram-Negative Sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Yermak

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper concerns the potential use of compounds, including lipid A, chitosan, and carrageenan, from marine sources as agents for treating endotoxemic complications from Gram-negative infections, such as sepsis and endotoxic shock. Lipid A, which can be isolated from various species of marine bacteria, is a potential antagonist of bacterial endotoxins (lipopolysaccharide (LPSs. Chitosan is a widespread marine polysaccharide that is derived from chitin, the major component of crustacean shells. The potential of chitosan as an LPS-binding and endotoxin-neutralizing agent is also examined in this paper, including a discussion on the generation of hydrophobic chitosan derivatives to increase the binding affinity of chitosan to LPS. In addition, the ability of carrageenan, which is the polysaccharide of red alga, to decrease the toxicity of LPS is discussed. We also review data obtained using animal models that demonstrate the potency of carrageenan and chitosan as antiendotoxin agents.

  8. A study of gram-negative bacterial resistance to Aminoglycosides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maleknejad P

    1993-05-01

    Full Text Available From hygienic and economical point of view, drug therapy and prophylaxy in infectious diseases are of great importance. After the world war II, a reduction in the efficacy of sulfonamide in the treatment of shigellosis was observed and later on it led to a survey on drug resistance and the way of its transmission. The aim of this survey, during which 100 cases of gram-negative bacteria were identified, is to study the drug resistance of this bacteria against five types of aminoglycosides by antibiotic sensitivity test (disc-diffusion. Out of 100 strains, 47% were resistant to gentamycin, 70% to kanamycin, 82% to streptomycin, 53% to tobramycin, and 8% to amikacin

  9. Energy recovery by pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) in SWRO–PRO integrated processes

    KAUST Repository

    Wan, Chun Feng

    2015-11-11

    Pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) is a promising technology to reduce the specific energy consumption of a seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) plant. In this study, it is projected that 25.6-40.7millionkWh/day of energy can be recovered globally, if the brines from SWRO are used as the draw solution and diluted to the seawater level in a PRO system. Detailed integrated SWRO-PRO processes are developed in this study with the option to form a closed-loop SWRO-PRO process that can substantially reduce the pretreatment cost of desalination. The governing mathematical models that describe both the transport phenomena on a module level and the energy flow on a system level are developed to evaluate the performances of the SWRO-PRO processes. The model aims to investigate the performance of the hollow fibers as dilution occurs and provides guidelines on hollow fiber module design and process operation. Determining the dilution factor and the corresponding operating pressure of PRO is the key to optimize the integrated process. The specific energy consumptions of three SWRO-involved processes; namely, (1) SWRO without a pressure exchanger, (2) SWRO with a pressure exchanger, and (3) SWRO with pressure exchangers and PRO are compared. The results show that the specific energy consumptions for the above three processes are 5.51, 1.79 and 1.08kWh/(m of desalinated water) for a 25% recovery SWRO plant; and 4.13, 2.27 and 1.14kWh/(m of desalinated water) for a 50% recovery SWRO plant, using either freshwater or wastewater as the feed solution in PRO.

  10. Distribution of Gram Negative Bacteria and Evaluation of Resistance Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serap Pamukcuoglu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: In this study, we aimed to examine the distributon of Gram negative bacteria isolated from urine cultures of out-patients in Afyonkarahisar State Hospital and evaluate the antimicrobial resistance rates of these pathogens. Material and Method: Urine samples of out-patients which were sent to microbiology laboratory between 2012-2013 were retrospectively evaluated. The isolates were identified using conventional methods and/or automated Vitec 2.0 system. Antibiogram sensitivities were determined by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method or automated system and interpreted on the basis of Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CSI criteria. Double disc sinergy test (DDST or Vitec 2.0 system was used to detect extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL.When conventional methods could%u2019t be clarified according to their colony morphologies, gram staining patterns, biochemical test; automated system has been used. Results: A total of 671 isolates acquired from urine samples were studied. 427 Escherichia coli (63.6 %, 165 Klebsiella spp. (24.6 %, 22 Pseudomonas spp. (3.3 %, nine Acinetobacter spp. (1.3 %, 41 Proteus spp. (6.1 % and seven Serratia (1.0 % strains were identified among isolates. 97 E.coli (22.8 % and 41 Klebsiella (24.8 % isolates were ESBL positive. Most common bacteria were E.coli, 31.1 % of which were resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, 16 % to ciprofloxacin and 3.6 % to nitrofurantoin. Among Enterobacteriaceae, no resistance aganist carbapenems were detected. Moreover, aminoglicoside sensitivity rate was significantly high in this group. Discussion: Microorganisms that have progressively increasing antimicrobial resistance should be considered in the treatment of urinary tract infections. It is also important to use the most appropriate antibiotics to avoid unnecessary usage of these drugs in order to decrease drug resistance rates and ESBL production which may effect the success of the treatment.

  11. Gram-Negative Bacterial Sensors for Eukaryotic Signal Molecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Lesouhaitier

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Ample evidence exists showing that eukaryotic signal molecules synthesized and released by the host can activate the virulence of opportunistic pathogens. The sensitivity of prokaryotes to host signal molecules requires the presence of bacterial sensors. These prokaryotic sensors, or receptors, have a double function: stereospecific recognition in a complex environment and transduction of the message in order to initiate bacterial physiological modifications. As messengers are generally unable to freely cross the bacterial membrane, they require either the presence of sensors anchored in the membrane or transporters allowing direct recognition inside the bacterial cytoplasm. Since the discovery of quorum sensing, it was established that the production of virulence factors by bacteria is tightly growth-phase regulated. It is now obvious that expression of bacterial virulence is also controlled by detection of the eukaryotic messengers released in the micro-environment as endocrine or neuro-endocrine modulators. In the presence of host physiological stress many eukaryotic factors are released and detected by Gram-negative bacteria which in return rapidly adapt their physiology. For instance, Pseudomonas aeruginosa can bind elements of the host immune system such as interferon-γ and dynorphin and then through quorum sensing circuitry enhance its virulence. Escherichia coli sensitivity to the neurohormones of the catecholamines family appears relayed by a recently identified bacterial adrenergic receptor. In the present review, we will describe the mechanisms by which various eukaryotic signal molecules produced by host may activate Gram-negative bacteria virulence. Particular attention will be paid to Pseudomonas, a genus whose representative species, P. aeruginosa, is a common opportunistic pathogen. The discussion will be particularly focused on the pivotal role played by these new types of pathogen sensors from the sensing to the transduction

  12. Price reactions when consumers are concerned about pro-social reputation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kahsay, Goytom Abraha; Andersen, Laura Mørch; Hansen, Lars Gårn

    In this paper, we propose a reputation-signalling model of demand for consumer goods containing pro-social characteristics such as a ‘fair trade’ or ‘organic’ certification. We show that reputation signalling can reverse price reactions resembling the crowding-out of pre-existing motives for pro-......-social behavior seen in situations of volunteering and charitable giving. Finally, using a unique combination of questionnaire and purchase panel data, we present evidence of such reputation-driven reversal of price reactions in the Danish market for organic milk....

  13. Platelet lysate-based pro-angiogenic nanocoatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Sara M; Pirraco, Rogério P; Marques, Alexandra P; Santo, Vítor E; Gomes, Manuela E; Reis, Rui L; Mano, João F

    2016-03-01

    Human platelet lysate (PL) is a cost-effective and human source of autologous multiple and potent pro-angiogenic factors, such as vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF A), fibroblast growth factor b (FGF b) and angiopoietin-1. Nanocoatings previously characterized were prepared by layer-by-layer assembling incorporating PL with marine-origin polysaccharides and were shown to activate human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Within 20 h of incubation, the more sulfated coatings induced the HUVECS to the form tube-like structures accompanied by an increased expression of angiogenic-associated genes, such as angiopoietin-1 and VEGF A. This may be a cost-effective approach to modify 2D/3D constructs to instruct angiogenic cells towards the formation of neo-vascularization, driven by multiple and synergistic stimulations from the PL combined with sulfated polysaccharides. The presence, or fast induction, of a stable and mature vasculature inside 3D constructs is crucial for new tissue formation and its viability. This has been one of the major tissue engineering challenges, limiting the dimensions of efficient tissue constructs. Many approaches based on cells, growth factors, 3D bioprinting and channel incorporation have been proposed. Herein, we explored a versatile technique, layer-by-layer assembling in combination with platelet lysate (PL), that is a cost-effective source of many potent pro-angiogenic proteins and growth factors. Results suggest that the combination of PL with sulfated polyelectrolytes might be used to introduce interfaces onto 2D/3D constructs with potential to induce the formation of cell-based tubular structures. Copyright © 2015 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. ClubSub-P: Cluster-based subcellular localization prediction for Gram-negative bacteria and Archaea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagarajan eParamasivam

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The subcellular localization of proteins provides important clues to their function in a cell. In our efforts to predict useful vaccine targets against Gram-negative bacteria, we noticed that misannotated start codons frequently lead to wrongly assigned subcellular localizations. This and other problems in subcellular localization prediction, such as the relatively high false positive and false negative rates of some tools, can be avoided by applying multiple prediction tools to groups of homologous proteins. Here we present ClubSub-P, an online database that combines existing subcellular localization prediction tools into a consensus pipeline from more than 600 proteomes of fully sequenced microorganisms. On top of the consensus prediction at the level of single sequences, the tool uses clusters of homologous proteins from Gram-negative bacteria and from Archaea to eliminate false positive and false negative predictions. ClubSub-P can assign the subcellular localization of proteins from Gram-negative bacteria and Archaea with high precision. The database is searchable, and can easily be expanded using either new bacterial genomes or new prediction tools as they become available. This will further improve the performance of the subcellular localization prediction, as well as the detection of misannotated start codons and other annotation errors. ClubSub-P is available online at http://toolkit.tuebingen.mpg.de/clubsubp/

  15. Cadmium Toxicity Induced Alterations in the Root Proteome of Green Gram in Contrasting Response towards Iron Supplement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sowbiya Muneer

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium signifies a severe threat to crop productivity and green gram is a notably iron sensitive plant which shows considerable variation towards cadmium stress. A gel-based proteomics analysis was performed with the roots of green gram exposed to iron and cadmium combined treatments. The resulting data show that twenty three proteins were down-regulated in iron-deprived roots either in the absence (−Fe/−Cd or presence (−Fe/+Cd of cadmium. These down-regulated proteins were however well expressed in roots under iron sufficient conditions, even in the presence of cadmium (+Fe/+Cd. The functional classification of these proteins determined that 21% of the proteins are associated with nutrient metabolism. The other proteins in higher quantities are involved in either transcription or translation regulation, and the rest are involved in biosynthesis metabolism, antioxidant pathways, molecular chaperones and stress response. On the other hand, several protein spots were also absent in roots in response to iron deprivation either in absence (−Fe/−Cd or presence (−Fe/+Cd of cadmium but were well expressed in the presence of iron (+Fe/+Cd. Results suggest that green gram plants exposed to cadmium stress are able to change the nutrient metabolic balance in roots, but in the mean time regulate cadmium toxicity through iron supplements.

  16. ClubSub-P: Cluster-Based Subcellular Localization Prediction for Gram-Negative Bacteria and Archaea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paramasivam, Nagarajan; Linke, Dirk

    2011-01-01

    The subcellular localization (SCL) of proteins provides important clues to their function in a cell. In our efforts to predict useful vaccine targets against Gram-negative bacteria, we noticed that misannotated start codons frequently lead to wrongly assigned SCLs. This and other problems in SCL prediction, such as the relatively high false-positive and false-negative rates of some tools, can be avoided by applying multiple prediction tools to groups of homologous proteins. Here we present ClubSub-P, an online database that combines existing SCL prediction tools into a consensus pipeline from more than 600 proteomes of fully sequenced microorganisms. On top of the consensus prediction at the level of single sequences, the tool uses clusters of homologous proteins from Gram-negative bacteria and from Archaea to eliminate false-positive and false-negative predictions. ClubSub-P can assign the SCL of proteins from Gram-negative bacteria and Archaea with high precision. The database is searchable, and can easily be expanded using either new bacterial genomes or new prediction tools as they become available. This will further improve the performance of the SCL prediction, as well as the detection of misannotated start codons and other annotation errors. ClubSub-P is available online at http://toolkit.tuebingen.mpg.de/clubsubp/ PMID:22073040

  17. NT-proBNP in unstable coronary artery disease--experiences from the FAST, GUSTO IV and FRISC II trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jernberg, Tomas; James, Stefan; Lindahl, Bertil; Stridsberg, Mats; Venge, Per; Wallentin, Lars

    2004-03-15

    Risk stratification is important in patients with unstable coronary artery disease (CAD), i.e. unstable angina or non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction. This article focuses on the emerging role of N-terminal pro brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and the results from the FAST, GUSTO IV and FRISC II trials. In the FAST study, NT-proBNP was measured on admission in 755 patients admitted because of symptoms suggestive of unstable CAD. Follow up was performed after 40 months. The GUSTO IV and the FRISC II-trials included patients with unstable CAD and NT-proBNP was analyzed in 6806 and 2019 patients, with follow up after 1 and 2 years, respectively. In the FAST study, patients in the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th NT-proBNP quartile had a relative risk of subsequent death of 4.2 (1.6-11.1), 10.7 (4.2-26.8) and 26.6 (10.8-65.5), respectively. In the GUSTO IV trial, increasing quartiles of NT-proBNP were related to short and long term mortality which at 1 year was; 1.8%, 3.9%, 7.7% and 19.2% (P<0.001), respectively. In multivariable analyses including well-known predictors of outcome, NT-proBNP level was independently associated to mortality in all three studies. In the FRISC II trial, the NT-proBNP level, especially if combined with a marker of inflammation, identified those with the greatest benefit from an early invasive strategy. NT-proBNP is strongly associated with mortality in patients with suspected or confirmed unstable CAD and, combined with a marker of inflammation, seems helpful in identifying those with greatest benefit from an early invasive strategy.

  18. ProCKSI: a decision support system for Protein (Structure Comparison, Knowledge, Similarity and Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Błażewicz Jacek

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We introduce the decision support system for Protein (Structure Comparison, Knowledge, Similarity and Information (ProCKSI. ProCKSI integrates various protein similarity measures through an easy to use interface that allows the comparison of multiple proteins simultaneously. It employs the Universal Similarity Metric (USM, the Maximum Contact Map Overlap (MaxCMO of protein structures and other external methods such as the DaliLite and the TM-align methods, the Combinatorial Extension (CE of the optimal path, and the FAST Align and Search Tool (FAST. Additionally, ProCKSI allows the user to upload a user-defined similarity matrix supplementing the methods mentioned, and computes a similarity consensus in order to provide a rich, integrated, multicriteria view of large datasets of protein structures. Results We present ProCKSI's architecture and workflow describing its intuitive user interface, and show its potential on three distinct test-cases. In the first case, ProCKSI is used to evaluate the results of a previous CASP competition, assessing the similarity of proposed models for given targets where the structures could have a large deviation from one another. To perform this type of comparison reliably, we introduce a new consensus method. The second study deals with the verification of a classification scheme for protein kinases, originally derived by sequence comparison by Hanks and Hunter, but here we use a consensus similarity measure based on structures. In the third experiment using the Rost and Sander dataset (RS126, we investigate how a combination of different sets of similarity measures influences the quality and performance of ProCKSI's new consensus measure. ProCKSI performs well with all three datasets, showing its potential for complex, simultaneous multi-method assessment of structural similarity in large protein datasets. Furthermore, combining different similarity measures is usually more robust than

  19. Value of amino-terminal pro B-natriuretic peptide in diagnosing Kawasaki disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeal-Davidson, Ariane; Fournier, Anne; Spigelblatt, Linda; Saint-Cyr, Claire; Mir, Thomas S; Nir, Amiram; Dallaire, Frédéric; Cousineau, Jocelyne; Delvin, Edgard; Dahdah, Nagib

    2012-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the diagnostic value of the N-terminal B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) in acute Kawasaki disease (KD) given that the clinical criteria and the current basic laboratory tests lack the necessary specificity for accurate diagnosis. Basic biological tests and serum NT-proBNP levels obtained from acute KD patients were compared to that of febrile controls. NT-proBNP was considered abnormal based on the following definitions: above a cut-off determined on receiver operator characteristic (ROC) analysis, above the upper limit for age, or above 2 SD calculated from healthy children. Analyses were also performed for KD cases with complete or incomplete criteria combined and separately. There were 81 patients and 49 controls aged 3.60 ± 2.77 versus 4.25 ± 3.88 years (P= 0.69). ROC analysis yielded significant area under the curve for NT-proBNP. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were 70.4-88.9%, 69.4-91.8%, 82.8-93.4%, and 65.2-79.1%. The odds ratios based on NT-proBNP definitions varied between 18.13 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 7.21-45.57), 20.82 (95%CI: 8.18-53.0), and 26.71 (95%CI: 8.64-82.57; P < 0.001). Results were reproducible for cases with complete or incomplete criteria separately. NT-proBNP is a reliable marker for the diagnosis of KD. Prospective clinical studies with emphasis on NT-proBNP in a diagnostic algorithm are needed. © 2012 The Authors. Pediatrics International © 2012 Japan Pediatric Society.

  20. A thermostable Salmonella phage endolysin, Lys68, with broad bactericidal properties against gram-negative pathogens in presence of weak acids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Oliveira

    Full Text Available Resistance rates are increasing among several problematic Gram-negative pathogens, a fact that has encouraged the development of new antimicrobial agents. This paper characterizes a Salmonella phage endolysin (Lys68 and demonstrates its potential antimicrobial effectiveness when combined with organic acids towards Gram-negative pathogens. Biochemical characterization reveals that Lys68 is more active at pH 7.0, maintaining 76.7% of its activity when stored at 4°C for two months. Thermostability tests showed that Lys68 is only completely inactivated upon exposure to 100°C for 30 min, and circular dichroism analysis demonstrated the ability to refold into its original conformation upon thermal denaturation. It was shown that Lys68 is able to lyse a wide panel of Gram-negative bacteria (13 different species in combination with the outer membrane permeabilizers EDTA, citric and malic acid. While the EDTA/Lys68 combination only inactivated Pseudomonas strains, the use of citric or malic acid broadened Lys68 antibacterial effect to other Gram-negative pathogens (lytic activity against 9 and 11 species, respectively. Particularly against Salmonella Typhimurium LT2, the combinatory effect of malic or citric acid with Lys68 led to approximately 3 to 5 log reductions in bacterial load/CFUs after 2 hours, respectively, and was also able to reduce stationary-phase cells and bacterial biofilms by approximately 1 log. The broad killing capacity of malic/citric acid-Lys68 is explained by the destabilization and major disruptions of the cell outer membrane integrity due to the acidity caused by the organic acids and a relatively high muralytic activity of Lys68 at low pH. Lys68 demonstrates good (thermostability properties that combined with different outer membrane permeabilizers, could become useful to combat Gram-negative pathogens in agricultural, food and medical industry.

  1. MacBook Pro portable genius

    CERN Document Server

    Gruman, Galen

    2013-01-01

    Learn the skills, tools and shortcuts you need in order to make the most of your MacBook Pro This easy-to-use, compact guide skips the fluff and gets right to the essentials so that you can maximize all the latest features of the MacBook Pro. Packed with savvy insights and tips on key tools and shortcuts, this handy book aims to help you increase your productivity and save you time and hassle. From desktop sharing and wireless networking to running Windows applications and more, this book shows you what you want to know. Includes the latest version of OS X, iCloud, FaceTime, and moreCovers al

  2. The Chemical Product Simulator - ProCAPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalakul, Sawitree; Eden, Mario Richard; Gani, Rafiqul

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, a chemical product design simulator called ProCAPD is presented. ProCAPD works in the same way as a chemical process simulator, that is, it helps to verify product design decisions and generates information that can be used to make design decisions. Like the contents of the process...... simulator, the product simulator needs a database of chemicals and properties, a library of models, numerical routines to solve mathematical problems as well as various calculation options. Also, like the process simulator, the product simulator comes with a user-interface to describe the problems.......); calculation tools (product attributes, blend compositions, environmental impact, etc.); design templates (single molecules, blends, formulations, emulsions, devices); and, design-simulation-analysis functions. All these capabilities are based on the prototype tool developed by Kalakul et al. (2017...

  3. Flow cytometric evaluation of physico-chemical impact on Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fröhling, Antje; Schlüter, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Since heat sensitivity of fruits and vegetables limits the application of thermal inactivation processes, new emerging inactivation technologies have to be established to fulfill the requirements of food safety without affecting the produce quality. The efficiency of inactivation treatments has to be ensured and monitored. Monitoring of inactivation effects is commonly performed using traditional cultivation methods which have the disadvantage of the time span needed to obtain results. The aim of this study was to compare the inactivation effects of peracetic acid (PAA), ozonated water (O3), and cold atmospheric pressure plasma (CAPP) on Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria using flow cytometric methods. E. coli cells were completely depolarized after treatment (15 s) with 0.25% PAA at 10°C, and after treatment (10 s) with 3.8 mg l−1 O3 at 12°C. The membrane potential of CAPP treated cells remained almost constant at an operating power of 20 W over a time period of 3 min, and subsequently decreased within 30 s of further treatment. Complete membrane permeabilization was observed after 10 s O3 treatment, but treatment with PAA and CAPP did not completely permeabilize the cells within 2 and 4 min, respectively. Similar results were obtained for esterase activity. O3 inactivates cellular esterase but esterase activity was detected after 4 min CAPP treatment and 2 min PAA treatment. L. innocua cells and P. carotovorum cells were also permeabilized instantaneously by O3 treatment at concentrations of 3.8 ± 1 mg l−1. However, higher membrane permeabilization of L. innocua and P. carotovorum than of E. coli was observed at CAPP treatment of 20 W. The degree of bacterial damage due to the inactivation processes is highly dependent on treatment parameters as well as on treated bacteria. Important information regarding the inactivation mechanisms can be obtained by flow cytometric measurements and this enables the definition of critical process parameters. PMID

  4. Flow cytometric evaluation of physico-chemical impact on Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antje eFröhling

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Since heat sensitivity of fruits and vegetables limits the application of thermal inactivation processes, new emerging inactivation technologies have to be established to fulfil the requirements of food safety without affecting the produce quality. The efficiency of inactivation treatments has to be ensured and monitored. Monitoring of inactivation effects is commonly performed using traditional cultivation methods which have the disadvantage of the time span needed to obtain results.The aim of this study was to compare the inactivation effects of peracetic acid (PAA, ozonated water (O3 and cold atmospheric pressure plasma (CAPP on Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria using flow cytometric methods. E. coli cells were completely depolarized after treatment (15 s with 0.25 % PAA at 10 °C, and after treatment (10 s with 3.8 mg l-1 O3 at 12°C. The membrane potential of CAPP treated cells remained almost constant at an operating power of 20 W over a time period of 3 min, and subsequently decreased within 30 s of further treatment. Complete membrane permeabilization was observed after 10 s O3 treatment, but treatment with PAA and CAPP did not completely permeabilize the cells within 2 min and 4 min, respectively. Similar results were obtained for esterase activity. O3 inactivates cellular esterase but esterase activity was detected after 4 min CAPP treatment and 2 min PAA treatment. L. innocua cells and P. carotovorum cells were also permeabilized instantaneously by O3 treatment at concentrations of 3.8 ± 1 mg l-1. However, higher membrane permeabilization of L. innocua and P. carotovorum than of E. coli was observed at CAPP treatment of 20 W. The degree of bacterial damage due to the inactivation processes is highly dependent on treatment parameters as well as on treated bacteria. Important information regarding the inactivation mechanisms can be obtained by flow cytometric measurements and this enables the definition of critical process

  5. An unusual class of anthracyclines potentiate Gram-positive antibiotics in intrinsically resistant Gram-negative bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Georgina; Koteva, Kalinka; Wright, Gerard D

    2014-07-01

    An orthogonal approach taken towards novel antibacterial drug discovery involves the identification of small molecules that potentiate or enhance the activity of existing antibacterial agents. This study aimed to identify natural-product rifampicin adjuvants in the intrinsically resistant organism Escherichia coli. E. coli BW25113 was screened against 1120 actinomycete fermentation extracts in the presence of subinhibitory (2 mg/L) concentrations of rifampicin. The active molecule exhibiting the greatest rifampicin potentiation was isolated using activity-guided methods and identified using mass and NMR spectroscopy. Susceptibility testing and biochemical assays were used to determine the mechanism of antibiotic potentiation. The anthracycline Antibiotic 301A(1) was isolated from the fermentation broth of a strain of Streptomyces (WAC450); the molecule was shown to be highly synergistic with rifampicin (fractional inhibitory concentration index = 0.156) and moderately synergistic with linezolid (FIC index = 0.25) in both E. coli and Acinetobacter baumannii. Activity was associated with inhibition of efflux and the synergistic phenotype was lost when tested against E. coli harbouring mutations within the rpoB gene. Structure-activity relationship studies revealed that other anthracyclines do not synergize with rifampicin and removal of the sugar moiety of Antibiotic 301A(1) abolishes activity. Screening only a subsection of our natural product library identified a small-molecule antibiotic adjuvant capable of sensitizing Gram-negative bacteria to antibiotics to which they are ordinarily intrinsically resistant. This result demonstrates the great potential of this approach in expanding antibiotic effectiveness in the face of the growing challenge of resistance in Gram-negatives. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. An unusual class of anthracyclines potentiate Gram-positive antibiotics in intrinsically resistant Gram-negative bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Georgina; Koteva, Kalinka; Wright, Gerard D.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives An orthogonal approach taken towards novel antibacterial drug discovery involves the identification of small molecules that potentiate or enhance the activity of existing antibacterial agents. This study aimed to identify natural-product rifampicin adjuvants in the intrinsically resistant organism Escherichia coli. Methods E. coli BW25113 was screened against 1120 actinomycete fermentation extracts in the presence of subinhibitory (2 mg/L) concentrations of rifampicin. The active molecule exhibiting the greatest rifampicin potentiation was isolated using activity-guided methods and identified using mass and NMR spectroscopy. Susceptibility testing and biochemical assays were used to determine the mechanism of antibiotic potentiation. Results The anthracycline Antibiotic 301A1 was isolated from the fermentation broth of a strain of Streptomyces (WAC450); the molecule was shown to be highly synergistic with rifampicin (fractional inhibitory concentration index = 0.156) and moderately synergistic with linezolid (FIC index = 0.25) in both E. coli and Acinetobacter baumannii. Activity was associated with inhibition of efflux and the synergistic phenotype was lost when tested against E. coli harbouring mutations within the rpoB gene. Structure–activity relationship studies revealed that other anthracyclines do not synergize with rifampicin and removal of the sugar moiety of Antibiotic 301A1 abolishes activity. Conclusions Screening only a subsection of our natural product library identified a small-molecule antibiotic adjuvant capable of sensitizing Gram-negative bacteria to antibiotics to which they are ordinarily intrinsically resistant. This result demonstrates the great potential of this approach in expanding antibiotic effectiveness in the face of the growing challenge of resistance in Gram-negatives. PMID:24627312

  7. Towards ProAlcool II - a review of the Brazilian bioethanol programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosillo-Calle, F.; Cortez, L.A.B.

    1998-01-01

    Since the creation of the National Alcohol Programme (NAP) in 1975, commonly known as ''ProAlcool'', it has gone through a number of fluctuations reflecting Brazilian political, economic and energy priorities. In 1996-1997 over 175 Mt of sugarcane (65% of 270 Mt harvested) was converted to ethanol fuel. The ProAlcool started as a highly innovative programme, but in recent years has lost part of its technological zeal and in certain areas is becoming stagnant. This is due to a combination of reasons, e.g. unclear energy policy, high sugar prices in the international market and lower investment in ethanol production as a result of low international oil prices. A new impetus is needed to reflect changing economic and energy policy in Brazil. This paper reviews the implications for ProAlcool of the new economic policies and the possibilities for restructuring the programme to guarantee its survival as a pioneering and sustainable renewable energy source. (author)

  8. Nouvelles mythologies : La GoPro

    OpenAIRE

    Tomasovic, Dick

    2015-01-01

    A la manière des mythologies de Roland Barthes, et à la demande de la rédaction du Focus Vif, une analyse des discours accompagnant la caméra "GoPro", mais aussi des pratiques audiovisuelles liées à cette caméra ultraportable ainsi qu'à l'esthétique et la circulation de ses images.

  9. The milk-derived peptides Val-Pro-Pro and Ile-Pro-Pro attenuate arterial dysfunction in L-NAME-treated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonaka, Atsuko; Nakamura, Teppei; Hirota, Tatsuhiko; Matsushita, Akiko; Asakura, Masanori; Ohki, Kohji; Kitakaze, Masafumi

    2014-08-01

    Both endothelial dysfunction and arterial stiffness are surrogate markers of atherosclerosis and thus cardiovascular (CV) events. The milk-derived peptides Val-Pro-Pro (VPP) and Ile-Pro-Pro (IPP) inhibit angiotensin-converting enzyme, dilate blood vessels ex vivo and stimulate nitric oxide (NO) production in cells. In this study, we investigated the effects of either VPP or IPP on arterial function and on target organ damage in vivo. Male Wistar rats were treated with N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME, 1 g l(-1)), L-NAME+VPP (0.3 g l(-1)) or L-NAME+IPP (0.3 g l(-1)) in their drinking water for 8 weeks. Plasma nitrite and nitrate (NOx) levels were significantly increased in normal Wistar rats after supplementation with either VPP or IPP but not in rats that were chronically treated with L-NAME. Acetylcholine-induced vasorelaxation in the thoracic aorta ring was impaired by L-NAME, whereas vasorelaxation was significantly greater in mice treated with L-NAME+VPP for 1 or 4 weeks or L-NAME+IPP for 4 weeks than in mice treated with L-NAME alone. Four weeks of treatment with either VPP or IPP attenuated the increase in pulse wave velocity (PWV) that was induced by L-NAME. Cardiac and renal damage were observed after 8 weeks of treatment with L-NAME, and either VPP or IPP attenuated this damage. These results show that VPP or IPP attenuates arterial dysfunction and suggest that milk-derived peptides might prevent CV damage.

  10. Type I and Type II mechanisms of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy: an in vitro study on gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Liyi; Xuan, Yi; Koide, Yuichiro; Zhiyentayev, Timur; Tanaka, Masamitsu; Hamblin, Michael R

    2012-08-01

    Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (APDT) employs a non-toxic photosensitizer (PS) and visible light, which in the presence of oxygen produce reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as singlet oxygen ((1) O(2), produced via Type II mechanism) and hydroxyl radical (HO(.), produced via Type I mechanism). This study examined the relative contributions of (1) O(2) and HO(.) to APDT killing of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Fluorescence probes, 3'-(p-hydroxyphenyl)-fluorescein (HPF) and singlet oxygen sensor green reagent (SOSG) were used to determine HO(.) and (1) O(2) produced by illumination of two PS: tris-cationic-buckminsterfullerene (BB6) and a conjugate between polyethylenimine and chlorin(e6) (PEI-ce6). Dimethylthiourea is a HO(.) scavenger, while sodium azide (NaN(3)) is a quencher of (1) O(2). Both APDT and killing by Fenton reaction (chemical generation of HO(.)) were carried out on Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis) and Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa). Conjugate PEI-ce6 mainly produced (1) O(2) (quenched by NaN(3)), while BB6 produced HO(.) in addition to (1) O(2) when NaN(3) potentiated probe activation. NaN(3) also potentiated HPF activation by Fenton reagent. All bacteria were killed by Fenton reagent but Gram-positive bacteria needed a higher concentration than Gram-negatives. NaN(3) potentiated Fenton-mediated killing of all bacteria. The ratio of APDT killing between Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria was 2 or 4:1 for BB6 and 25:1 for conjugate PEI-ce6. There was a NaN(3) dose-dependent inhibition of APDT killing using both PEI-ce6 and BB6 against Gram-negative bacteria while NaN(3) almost failed to inhibit killing of Gram-positive bacteria. Azidyl radicals may be formed from NaN(3) and HO(.). It may be that Gram-negative bacteria are more susceptible to HO(.) while Gram-positive bacteria are more susceptible to (1) O(2). The differences in Na

  11. Potential strategies for the eradication of multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacterial infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huwaitat, Rawan; McCloskey, Alice P; Gilmore, Brendan F; Laverty, Garry

    2016-07-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is one of the leading threats to society. The increasing burden of multidrug-resistant Gram-negative infection is particularly concerning as such bacteria are demonstrating resistance to nearly all currently licensed therapies. Various strategies have been hypothesized to treat multidrug-resistant Gram-negative infections including: targeting the Gram-negative outer membrane; neutralization of lipopolysaccharide; inhibition of bacterial efflux pumps and prevention of protein folding. Silver and silver nanoparticles, fusogenic liposomes and nanotubes are potential strategies for extending the activity of licensed, Gram-positive selective, antibiotics to Gram-negatives. This may serve as a strategy to fill the current void in pharmaceutical development in the short term. This review outlines the most promising strategies that could be implemented to solve the threat of multidrug-resistant Gram-negative infections.

  12. Some problems with pro-competition reforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agich, G J; Begley, C E

    1985-01-01

    As the search for effective cost-containment policies continues, health care reform along pro-competition lines has gained considerable backing in the United States. By offering market competition to achieve allocational efficiency and vouchers and tax credits to achieve distributional equity, pro-competition reforms appear to satisfy what many believed were incommensurable goals. A critical review of this strategy reveals two practical difficulties, however. The first concerns the ambiguity arising from the proposals' reliance on the concept of equal access to some basic level of health care as its distributional objective and the second concerns the ethical dilemma arising from the proposals' reliance on physicians as rationers of health care. In considering the distributional goal of guaranteeing access to a basic minimum of health care, we argue that, despite its theoretical attractiveness, there exists no acceptable way of determining or justifying its content, and without a clear definition of the basic minimum there is no guarantee that any equity objective will be achieved under the pro-competition strategy. With regard to the use of physicians and other providers as society's gatekeepers, we point out that this role is in direct conflict with traditional responsibilities that patients expect providers to assume. Requiring doctors to ration services in response to market incentives may further erode the trust relationship between physicians and patients, and clearly puts the more seriously ill at a disadvantage.

  13. 48 CFR 352.237-70 - Pro-Children Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pro-Children Act. 352.237...-Children Act. As prescribed in 337.103-70(a), the Contracting Officer shall insert the following clause: Pro-Children Act (January 2006) (a) Public Law 103-227, Title X, Part C, also known as the Pro...

  14. HyPro: A Multi-DoF Hybrid-Powered Transradial Robotic Prosthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. L. Semasinghe

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a multi-DoF hybrid-powered transradial robotic prosthesis, named HyPro. The HyPro consists of two prosthetic units: hand and wrist that can achieve five grasping patterns such as power grasp, tip grasp, lateral grasp, hook grasp, and index point. It is an underactuated device with 15 degrees of freedom. A hybrid powering concept is proposed and implemented on hand unit of HyPro where the key focus is on restoration of grasp functions of biological hand. A novel underactuated mechanism is introduced to achieve the required hand preshaping for a given grasping pattern using electric power in the pregrasp stage and body power is used in grasp stage to execute the final grasping action with the selected fingers. Unlike existing hybrid prostheses where each of the joints is separately controlled by either electric or body power, the proposed prosthesis is capable of delivering grasping power in combination. The wrist unit of HyPro is designed and developed to achieve flexion-extension and supination-pronation using electric power. Experiments were carried out to evaluate the functionality and performance of the proposed hybrid-powered robotic prosthesis. The results verified the potential of HyPro to perform intended grasping patterns effectively and efficiently.

  15. Epidemiology and molecular characterization of multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria in Southeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuntra Suwantarat

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria (MDRGN, including extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs and multidrug-resistant glucose-nonfermenting Gram-negative bacilli (nonfermenters, have emerged and spread throughout Southeast Asia. Methods We reviewed and summarized current critical knowledge on the epidemiology and molecular characterization of MDRGN in Southeast Asia by PubMed searches for publications prior to 10 March 2016 with the term related to “MDRGN definition” combined with specific Southeast Asian country names (Thailand, Singapore, Malaysia, Vietnam, Indonesia, Philippines, Laos, Cambodia, Myanmar, Brunei. Results There were a total of 175 publications from the following countries: Thailand (77, Singapore (35, Malaysia (32, Vietnam (23, Indonesia (6, Philippines (1, Laos (1, and Brunei (1. We did not find any publications on MDRGN from Myanmar and Cambodia. We did not include publications related to Shigella spp., Salmonella spp., and Vibrio spp. and non-human related studies in our review. English language articles and abstracts were included for analysis. After the abstracts were reviewed, data on MDRGN in Southeast Asia from 54 publications were further reviewed and included in this study. Conclusions MDRGNs are a major contributor of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria in Southeast Asia. The high prevalence of ESBLs has been a major problem since 2005 and is possibly related to the development of carbapenem resistant organisms in this region due to the overuse of carbapenem therapy. Carbapenem–resistant Acinetobacter baumannii is the most common pathogen associated with nosocomial infections in this region followed by carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Although Southeast Asia is not an endemic area for carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE, recently, the rate of CRE detection has been increasing. Limited infection control measures, lack of antimicrobial control, such as the presence of

  16. Phenotypic and Genotypic Detection of Metallo-beta-lactamases among Imipenem-Resistant Gram Negative Isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mohammadzadeh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background:   Imipenem-resistant gram negative bacteria, resulting from metallo-beta-lactamase (MBLs-producing strains have been reported to be among the important causes of nosocomial infections and of serious therapeutic problem worldwide. Because of their broad range, potent carbapenemase activity and resistance to inhibitors, these enzymes can confer resistance to almost all beta-lactams. The prevalence of metallo-beta-lactamase among imipenem-resistant Acinetobacter spp., Pseudomonas spp. and Enerobacteriaceae isolates is determined.Methods:   In this descriptive study 864 clinical isolates of Acinetobacter spp., Pseudomonas spp. and Enterobacteriaceae, were initially tested for imipenem susceptibility. The metallo-beta-lactamase production was detected using combined disk diffusion, double disk synergy test, and Hodge test. Then all imipenem resistant isolates were tested by PCR for imp, vim and ndm genes. Results:   Among 864 isolates, 62 (7.17 % were imipenem-resistant. Positive phonetypic test for metallo-beta-lactamase was 40 (64.5%, of which 24 (17.1% and 16 (9.2% isolates were Acinetobacter spp. and Pseudomonas spp., respectively. By PCR method 30 (48.4% of imipenem resistant Acinetobacter, and Pseudomonas isolates were positive for MBL-producing genes. None of the Enterobacteriaceae isolates were positive for metallo-beta-lactamase activity. Conclusion:   The results of this study are indicative of the growing number of nosocomial infections associated with multidrug-resistant gram negative bacteria in this region leading to difficulties in antibiotic therapy. Thereby, using of phenotypic methods can be helpful for management of this problem.

  17. Intrathecal or intraventricular therapy for post-neurosurgical Gram-negative meningitis: matched cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shofty, B; Neuberger, A; Naffaa, M E; Binawi, T; Babitch, T; Rappaport, Z H; Zaaroor, M; Sviri, G; Paul, M

    2016-01-01

    Gram-negative post-operative meningitis due to carbapenem-resistant bacteria (CR-GNPOM) is a dire complication of neurosurgical procedures. We performed a nested propensity-matched historical cohort study aimed at examining the possible benefit of intrathecal or intraventricular (IT/IV) antibiotic treatment for CR-GNPOM. We included consecutive adults with GNPOM in two centres between 2005 and 2014. Patients receiving combined systemic and IT/IV treatment were matched to patients receiving systemic treatment only. Matching was done based on the propensity of the patients to receive IT/IV treatment. We compared patient groups with 30-day mortality defined as the primary outcome. The cohort included 95 patients with GNPOM. Of them, 37 received IT/IV therapy in addition to systemic treatment (22 with colistin and 15 with amikacin), mostly as initial therapy, through indwelling cerebrospinal fluid drains. Variables associated with IT/IV therapy in the propensity score included no previous neurosurgery, time from admission to meningitis, presence of a urinary catheter and GNPOM caused by carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. Following propensity matching, 23 patients given IT/IV therapy and 27 controls were analysed. Mortality was significantly lower with IT/IV therapy: 2/23 (8.7%) versus 9/27 (33.3%), propensity-adjusted OR 0.19, 95% CI 0.04-0.99. Death or neurological deterioration at 30 days, 14-day and in-hospital mortality were lower with IT/IV therapy (OR <0.4 for all) without statistically significant differences. Among patients discharged alive, those receiving IT/IV therapy did not experience more neurological deterioration. Serious adverse events with IT/IV therapy were not documented. Our results support the early use of IT antibiotic treatment for CR-GNPOM when a delivery method is available. Copyright © 2015 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The target of daptomycin is absent from Escherichia coli and other gram-negative pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, Christopher P; Mariner, Katherine R; Chopra, Ian; O'Neill, Alex J

    2013-01-01

    Antistaphylococcal agents commonly lack activity against Gram-negative bacteria like Escherichia coli owing to the permeability barrier presented by the outer membrane and/or the action of efflux transporters. When these intrinsic resistance mechanisms are artificially compromised, such agents almost invariably demonstrate antibacterial activity against Gram negatives. Here we show that this is not the case for the antibiotic daptomycin, whose target appears to be absent from E. coli and other Gram-negative pathogens.

  19. Technical Training: Programmation Unity-Pro pour utilisateurs de Schneider PL7-Pro et Concept

    CERN Multimedia

    Monique Duval

    2005-01-01

    Un nouveau cours pratique sur les environnements Premium et Quantum de Schneider est proposé aux automaticiens concepteurs ou installateurs, et aux techniciens de bureau d'études, pour découvrir l'outil de programmation Unity. La prochaine session aura lieu du 24 au 28 janvier 2005. Le cours est ouvert aux personnes capables de développer sous PL7-Pro ou Concept. Objectifs : Maîtriser les différences fonctionnelles d'Unity-Pro par rapport à PL7 et Concept ; programmer en Unity-Pro sur Base Premium et Quantum. Programme : Environnement Quantum et Coupleur Profibus (1 journée) : configuration d'un automate sous Unity Pro et d'un coupleur Profibus DP. Conversion à Unity sur base Quantum et Premium (3,5 jours) : l'offre globale Unity, evolution par rapport à PL7 et Concept ; conversion d'application depuis PL7 Pro ; outils de mise au point ; manipulation des variables structurées ; utilisation des fonctions ; gestion des DF...

  20. Emerging Gram negative resistance to last-line antimicrobial agents fosfomycin, colistin and ceftazidime-avibactam - epidemiology, laboratory detection and treatment implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherry, Norelle; Howden, Benjamin

    2018-04-01

    Multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively-drug-resistant (XDR) Gram-negative bacteria have emerged as a major threat to human health globally. This has resulted in the 're-discovery' of some older antimicrobials and development of new agents, however resistance has also rapidly emerged to these agents. Areas covered: Here we describe recent developments in resistance to three of the most important last-line antimicrobials for treatment of MDR and XDR Gram negatives: fosfomycin, colistin and ceftazidime-avibactam. Expert commentary: A key challenge for microbiologists and clinicians using these agents for treating patients with MDR and XDR Gram negative infections is the need to ensure appropriate reference methods are being used to test susceptibility to these agents, especially colistin and fosfomycin. These methods are not available in all laboratories meaning accurate results are either delayed, or potentially inaccurate as non-reference methods are employed. Combination therapy for MDR and XDR Gram negatives is likely to become more common, and future studies should focus on the clinical effects of monotherapy vs combination therapy, as well as validation of synergy testing methods. Effective national and international surveillance systems to detect and respond to resistance to these last line agents are also critical.

  1. Pro Tools 9 music production, recording, editing and mixing

    CERN Document Server

    Collins, Mike

    2012-01-01

    Prepare yourself to be a great producer when using Pro Tools in your studio. Pro Tools 9: Music Production, Recording, Editing & Mixing is the definitive guide to the software for new and professional users, providing you with all the vital techniques that you need to know. Covering both Pro Tools HD 9 and Pro Tools 9 software, this book is extensively illustrated in color and packed with time saving hints and tips - making it a great reference to keep on hand.* Become an expert Pro Tools user and fully unlock the potential of your system! * Discover how to achieve complete co

  2. Querying and Serving N-gram Language Models with Python

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Statistical n-gram language modeling is a very important technique in Natural Language Processing (NLP and Computational Linguistics used to assess the fluency of an utterance in any given language. It is widely employed in several important NLP applications such as Machine Translation and Automatic Speech Recognition. However, the most commonly used toolkit (SRILM to build such language models on a large scale is written entirely in C++ which presents a challenge to an NLP developer or researcher whose primary language of choice is Python. This article first provides a gentle introduction to statistical language modeling. It then describes how to build a native and efficient Python interface (using SWIG to the SRILM toolkit such that language models can be queried and used directly in Python code. Finally, it also demonstrates an effective use case of this interface by showing how to leverage it to build a Python language model server. Such a server can prove to be extremely useful when the language model needs to be queried by multiple clients over a network: the language model must only be loaded into memory once by the server and can then satisfy multiple requests. This article includes only those listings of source code that are most salient. To conserve space, some are only presented in excerpted form. The complete set of full source code listings may be found in Volume 1 of The Python Papers Source Codes Journal.

  3. Streptococcus mutans: a new Gram-positive paradigm?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quivey, Robert G.; Koo, Hyun; Abranches, Jacqueline

    2013-01-01

    Despite the enormous contributions of the bacterial paradigms Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis to basic and applied research, it is well known that no single organism can be a perfect representative of all other species. However, given that some bacteria are difficult, or virtually impossible, to cultivate in the laboratory, that some are recalcitrant to genetic and molecular manipulation, and that others can be extremely dangerous to manipulate, the use of model organisms will continue to play an important role in the development of basic research. In particular, model organisms are very useful for providing a better understanding of the biology of closely related species. Here, we discuss how the lifestyle, the availability of suitable in vitro and in vivo systems, and a thorough understanding of the genetics, biochemistry and physiology of the dental pathogen Streptococcus mutans have greatly advanced our understanding of important areas in the field of bacteriology such as interspecies biofilms, competence development and stress responses. In this article, we provide an argument that places S. mutans, an organism that evolved in close association with the human host, as a novel Gram-positive model organism. PMID:23393147

  4. Genetic improvement of black gram using induced mutations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pawar, S.E.; Manjaya, J.G.; Souframanien, J.; Bhatkar, S.M.

    2000-01-01

    Induced mutagenesis is an important tool for creating genetic variability in crop plants and has played a significant role in the development of many crop varieties. Genetic improvement of black gram (Vigna mungo L. Hepper) through induced mutations has been in progress at BARC for the past three decades. Mutation studies of genotype EC-168200 have resulted in isolating large number of mutants with distinct morphological characters. TAU-5, an early maturing mutant was identified as a resistant donor for yellow mosaic virus (YMV) disease by the All India Pulse Improvement Project, ICAR, Kanpur. TAU-5 was used in cross breeding with elite cultivars like T-9, TPU-4 and LBG-17. Twelve selections with high yield potential suitable for both kharif and rabi cultivation have been developed. One of the selections TU94-2 has been released for commercial cultivation for southern zone during 1999. The work on the development of YMV resistant genotypes is in progress and will be discussed. (author)

  5. High-level fluorescence labeling of gram-positive pathogens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Aymanns

    Full Text Available Fluorescence labeling of bacterial pathogens has a broad range of interesting applications including the observation of living bacteria within host cells. We constructed a novel vector based on the E. coli streptococcal shuttle plasmid pAT28 that can propagate in numerous bacterial species from different genera. The plasmid harbors a promoterless copy of the green fluorescent variant gene egfp under the control of the CAMP-factor gene (cfb promoter of Streptococcus agalactiae and was designated pBSU101. Upon transfer of the plasmid into streptococci, the bacteria show a distinct and easily detectable fluorescence using a standard fluorescence microscope and quantification by FACS-analysis demonstrated values that were 10-50 times increased over the respective controls. To assess the suitability of the construct for high efficiency fluorescence labeling in different gram-positive pathogens, numerous species were transformed. We successfully labeled Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus anginosus and Staphylococcus aureus strains utilizing the EGFP reporter plasmid pBSU101. In all of these species the presence of the cfb promoter construct resulted in high-level EGFP expression that could be further increased by growing the streptococcal and enterococcal cultures under high oxygen conditions through continuous aeration.

  6. TSTA loop operation with 100 grams-level of tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Hiroshi; Hirata, Shingo; Naito, Taisei

    1988-10-01

    The first loop operation tests of Tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA) with 100 grams-level of tritium were carried out at Los Alamos National Laboratory(LANL) on June and July, 1987. The tests were one of the milestones for TSTA goal scheduled in June, 1987 through June, 1988. The objectives were (i) to operate TSTA process loop composed of tritium supply system, fuel gas purification system, hydrogen isotope separation system, etc, (ii) to demonstrate TSTA safety subsystems such as secondary containment system, tritium waste treatment system and tritium monitoring system, and (iii) to accumulate handling experience of a large amount of tritium. This report describes the plan and procedures of the milestone run done in June and the summary results especially on the safety aspects. Analysis of the emergency shutdown of the process loop, which happened in the June run, is also reported. A brief description of the process and safety subsystems as well as the summary of the TSTA safety analysis report is included. (author)

  7. The use of Gram stain and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry on positive blood culture: synergy between new and old technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuglsang-Damgaard, David; Nielsen, Camilla Houlberg; Mandrup, Elisabeth; Fuursted, Kurt

    2011-10-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) is promising as an alternative to more costly and cumbersome methods for direct identifications in blood cultures. We wanted to evaluate a simplified pre-treatment method for using MALDI-TOF-MS directly on positive blood cultures using BacT/Alert blood culture system, and to test an algorithm combining the result of the initial microscopy with the result suggested by MALDI-TOF-MS. Using the recommended cut-off score of 1.7 the best results were obtained among Gram-negative rods with correct identifications in 91% of Enterobacteriaceae, 83% in aerobic/non-fermentative Gram-negative rods, whereas results were more modest among Gram-positive cocci with correct identifications in 52% of Staphylococci, 54% in Enterococci and only 20% in Streptococci. Combining the results of Gram stain with the top reports by MALDI-TOF-MS, increased the sensitivity from 91% to 93% in the score range from 1.5 to 1.7 and from 48% to 85% in the score range from 1.3 to 1.5. Thus, using this strategy and accepting a cut-off at 1.3 instead of the suggested 1.7, overall sensitivity could be increased from 88.1% to 96.3%. MALDI-TOF-MS is an efficient method for direct routine identification of bacterial isolates in blood culture, especially when combined with the result of the Gram stain. © 2011 The Authors. APMIS © 2011 APMIS.

  8. Detection and Antibiotic Susceptibility Pattern of Biofilm Producing Gram Positive and Gram Negative Bacteria Isolated From a Tertiary Care Hospital of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iqbal, M.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms adhere to non-living material or living tissue, and form biofilms made up of extracellular polymers/slime. Biofilm-associated microorganisms behave differently from free-floating bacteria with respect to growth rates and ability to resist antimicrobial treatments and therefore pose a public health problem. The objective of this study is to detect the prevalence of biofilm producers among Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria isolated from clinical specimens, and to study their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern. The study was carried out from October 2009 to March 2010, at the Department of Microbiology, Army Medical College/ National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST, Rawalpindi, Pakistan. Clinical specimens were received from various wards of a tertiary care hospital. These were dealt by standard microbiological procedures. Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria isolated were subjected to biofilm detection by congo red agar method (CRA. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of those isolates, which showed positive results (slime production, was done according to the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion technique. A total of 150 isolates were tested for the production of biofilm/slime. Among them, 81 isolates showed positive results. From these 81, 51 were Gram positive and 30 were Gram negative. All the 81(54% slime producers showed reduced susceptibility to majority of antibiotics. Bacterial biofilms are an important virulence factor associated with chronic nosocomial infection. Detection of biofilm forming organisms can help in appropriate antibiotic choice.

  9. In vitro activity of XF-73, a novel antibacterial agent, against antibiotic-sensitive and -resistant Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, David J; Robbins, Marion; Rhys-Williams, William; Love, William G

    2010-06-01

    The antibacterial activity of XF-73, a dicationic porphyrin drug, was investigated against a range of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria with known antibiotic resistance profiles, including resistance to cell wall synthesis, protein synthesis, and DNA and RNA synthesis inhibitors as well as cell membrane-active antibiotics. Antibiotic-sensitive strains for each of the bacterial species tested were also included for comparison purposes. XF-73 was active [minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) 0.25-4 mg/L] against all of the Gram-positive bacteria tested, irrespective of the antibiotic resistance profile of the isolates, suggesting that the mechanism of action of XF-73 is unique compared with the major antibiotic classes. Gram-negative activity was lower (MIC 1 mg/L to > 64 mg/L). Minimum bactericidal concentration data confirmed that the activity of XF-73 was bactericidal. Time-kill kinetics against healthcare-associated and community-associated meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates demonstrated that XF-73 was rapidly bactericidal, with > 5 log(10) kill obtained after 15 min at 2 x MIC, the earliest time point sampled. The post-antibiotic effect (PAE) for XF-73 under conditions where the PAE for vancomycin was 5.4 h. XF-73 represents a novel broad-spectrum Gram-positive antibacterial drug with potentially beneficial characteristics for the treatment and prevention of Gram-positive bacterial infections. 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. The Neural Basis of and a Common Neural Circuitry in Different Types of Pro-social Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Luo

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Pro-social behaviors are voluntary behaviors that benefit other people or society as a whole, such as charitable donations, cooperation, trust, altruistic punishment, and fairness. These behaviors have been widely described through non self-interest decision-making in behavioral experimental studies and are thought to be increased by social preference motives. Importantly, recent studies using a combination of neuroimaging and brain stimulation, designed to reveal the neural mechanisms of pro-social behaviors, have found that a wide range of brain areas, specifically the prefrontal cortex, anterior insula, anterior cingulate cortex, and amygdala, are correlated or causally related with pro-social behaviors. In this review, we summarize the research on the neural basis of various kinds of pro-social behaviors and describe a common shared neural circuitry of these pro-social behaviors. We introduce several general ways in which experimental economics and neuroscience can be combined to develop important contributions to understanding social decision-making and pro-social behaviors. Future research should attempt to explore the neural circuitry between the frontal lobes and deeper brain areas.

  11. Bactérias gram negativas resistentes a antimicrobianos em alimentos Gram-negative bacteria resistant to antibiotics in foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Cavalcante de Albuquerque Ribeiro Dias

    1985-12-01

    Full Text Available A partir de 154 espécimens de alimentos, representados por hortaliças (alface, leite e merenda escolar, obteve-se o isolamento e identificação de 400 amostras de bacilos Gram negativos. Esta amostragem se distribuiu em 339 enterobactérias (Escherichia, Shigella, Citrobacter, Klebsiella, Enterobacter, Serratia e Proteus e 61 de gêneros afins (Acinetobacter, Flavobacterium, Aeromonas e Pseudomonas. Submetendo-se as culturas aos antimicrobianos: sulfadiazina (Su, estreptomicina (Sm, tetraciclina (Tc, cloranfenicol (Cm, canamicina (Km, ampicilina (Ap, ácido nalidíxico (Nal e gentamicina (Gm, observou-se apenas seis estirpes sensíveis a todas as drogas e sensibilidade absoluta à Gm. A predominância dos modelos Su (27,6% e Su-Ap (39,6% incidiu nas enterobactérias, enquanto que, 18,0% para Ap e 9,8% para Su-Ap foram detectados nos gêneros afins. Para caracterização da resistência foram realizados testes de conjugação e a totalidade das culturas não revelou transferência para o gene que confere resistência ao ácido nalidíxico. Relevantes são as taxas de amostras R+ observadas nos bacilos entéricos, oscilando em torno de 90% (leite e merenda escolar e alface, em torno de 70%From 154 food samples, including vegetables (lettuce, milk and meals served at school it was possible to isolate and identify 400 Gram negative bacilli distributed among 339 enteric bacteria (Escherichia, Shigella, Citrobacter, Klebsiella, Enterobacter, Serratia and Proteus and other 61 non enteric bacilli (Acinetobacter, Flavobacterium, Aeromonas and Pseudomonas. Submitting this cultures to the drugs sulfadiazine (Su, streptomycin (Sm, tetracycline (Tc, chloramphenicol (Cm, kanamycin (Km, ampicillin (Ap, nalidixic acid (Nal and gentamycin (Gm it was observed only six stocks susceptible to all drugs and total sensibility to Gm. Among enteric bacteria the profiles Su (27,6% and Su-Ap (39,6% predominated, while for the non enteric bacilli percentages of 18.0 for

  12. Lack of clinical utility of urine gram stain for suspected urinary tract infection in pediatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantey, Joseph B; Gaviria-Agudelo, Claudia; McElvania TeKippe, Erin; Doern, Christopher D

    2015-04-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common infections in children. Urine culture remains the gold standard for diagnosis, but the utility of urine Gram stain relative to urinalysis (UA) is unclear. We reviewed 312 pediatric patients with suspected UTI who had urine culture, UA, and urine Gram stain performed from a single urine specimen. UA was considered positive if ≥10 leukocytes per oil immersion field were seen or if either nitrates or leukocyte esterase testing was positive. Urine Gram stain was considered positive if any organisms were seen. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were calculated using urine culture as the gold standard. Thirty-seven (12%) patients had a culture-proven UTI. Compared to urine Gram stain, UA had equal sensitivity (97.3% versus 97.5%) and higher specificity (85% versus 74%). Empirical therapy was prescribed before the Gram stain result was known in 40 (49%) patients and after in 42 (51%) patients. The antibiotics chosen did not differ between the two groups (P=0.81), nor did they differ for patients with Gram-negative rods on urine Gram stain compared to those with Gram-positive cocci (P=0.67). From these data, we conclude that UA has excellent negative predictive value that is not enhanced by urine Gram stain and that antibiotic selection did not vary based on the urine Gram stain result. In conclusion, the clinical utility of urine Gram stain does not warrant the time or cost it requires. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  13. NT-proBNP (N-Terminal pro-B-Type Natriuretic Peptide)-Guided Therapy in Acute Decompensated Heart Failure: PRIMA II Randomized Controlled Trial (Can NT-ProBNP-Guided Therapy During Hospital Admission for Acute Decompensated Heart Failure Reduce Mortality and Readmissions?).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stienen, Susan; Salah, Khibar; Moons, Arno H; Bakx, Adrianus L; van Pol, Petra; Kortz, R A Mikael; Ferreira, João Pedro; Marques, Irene; Schroeder-Tanka, Jutta M; Keijer, Jan T; Bayés-Genis, Antoni; Tijssen, Jan G P; Pinto, Yigal M; Kok, Wouter E

    2018-04-17

    The concept of natriuretic peptide guidance has been extensively studied in patients with chronic heart failure (HF), with only limited success. The effect of NT-proBNP (N-terminal probrain natriuretic peptide)-guided therapy in patients with acute decompensated HF using a relative NT-proBNP target has not been investigated. This study aimed to assess whether NT-proBNP-guided therapy of patients with acute decompensated HF using a relative NT-proBNP target would lead to improved outcomes compared with conventional therapy. We conducted a prospective randomized controlled trial to study the impact of in-hospital guidance for acute decompensated HF treatment by a predefined NT-proBNP target (>30% reduction from admission to discharge) versus conventional treatment. Patients with acute decompensated HF with NT-proBNP levels >1700 ng/L were eligible. After achieving clinical stability, 405 patients were randomized to either NT-proBNP-guided or conventional treatment (1:1). The primary end point was dual: a composite of all-cause mortality and HF readmissions in 180 days and the number of days alive out of the hospital in 180 days. Secondary end points were all-cause mortality within 180 days, HF readmissions within 180 days, and a composite of all-cause mortality and HF readmissions within 90 days. Significantly more patients in the NT-proBNP-guided therapy group were discharged with an NT-proBNP reduction of >30% (80% versus 64%, P =0.001). Nonetheless, NT-proBNP-guided therapy did not significantly improve the combined event rate for all-cause mortality and HF readmissions (hazard ratio, 0.96; 95% confidence interval, 0.72-1.37; P =0.99) or the median number of days alive outside of the hospital (178 versus 179 days for NT-proBNP versus conventional patients, P =0.39). Guided therapy also did not significantly improve any of the secondary end points. The PRIMA II trial (Can NT-ProBNP-Guided Therapy During Hospital Admission for Acute Decompensated Heart Failure

  14. Nivalenol induces oxidative stress and increases deoxynivalenol pro-oxidant effect in intestinal epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Regno, Marisanta; Adesso, Simona; Popolo, Ada [Department of Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, University of Salerno, Via Giovanni Paolo II, 132–84084 Fisciano, Salerno (Italy); Quaroni, Andrea [Department of Biomedical Sciences, Cornell University, Veterinary Research Tower, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853–6401 (United States); Autore, Giuseppina [Department of Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, University of Salerno, Via Giovanni Paolo II, 132–84084 Fisciano, Salerno (Italy); Severino, Lorella [Department of Pathology and Animal Health, Division of Toxicology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Naples “Federico II”, Via Delpino 1, 80137 Naples (Italy); Marzocco, Stefania, E-mail: smarzocco@unisa.it [Department of Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, University of Salerno, Via Giovanni Paolo II, 132–84084 Fisciano, Salerno (Italy)

    2015-06-01

    Mycotoxins are secondary fungal metabolites often found as contaminants in almost all agricultural commodities worldwide, and the consumption of food or feed contaminated by mycotoxins represents a major risk for human and animal health. Reactive oxygen species are normal products of cellular metabolism. However, disproportionate generation of reactive oxygen species poses a serious problem to bodily homeostasis and causes oxidative tissue damage. In this study we analyzed the effect of two trichothecenes mycotoxins: nivalenol and deoxynivalenol, alone and in combination, on oxidative stress in the non-tumorigenic intestinal epithelial cell line IEC-6. Our results indicate the pro-oxidant nivalenol effect in IEC-6, the stronger pro-oxidant effect of nivalenol when compared to deoxynivalenol and, interestingly, that nivalenol increases deoxynivalenol pro-oxidative effects. Mechanistic studies indicate that the observed effects were mediated by NADPH oxidase, calcium homeostasis alteration, NF-kB and Nrf2 pathways activation and by iNOS and nitrotyrosine formation. The toxicological interaction by nivalenol and deoxynivalenol reported in this study in IEC-6, points out the importance of the toxic effect of these mycotoxins, mostly in combination, further highlighting the risk assessment process of these toxins that are of growing concern. - Highlights: • Nivalenol induces oxidative stress in intestinal epithelial cells (IECs). • Nivalenol increases deoxynivalenol pro-oxidant effects in IECs. • Nivalenol and deoxynivalenol trigger antioxidant response IECs. • These results indicate the importance of mycotoxins co-contamination.

  15. Biofortified cassava with pro-vitamin A is sensory and culturally acceptable for consumption by primary school children in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talsma, Elise F; Melse-Boonstra, Alida; de Kok, Brenda P H; Mbera, Gloria N K; Mwangi, Alice M; Brouwer, Inge D

    2013-01-01

    Biofortification of cassava with pro-vitamin A can potentially reduce vitamin A deficiency in low-income countries. However, little is known about consumer acceptance of this deep yellow variety of cassava compared to the commonly available white varieties. We aimed to determine the sensory and cultural acceptability of the consumption of pro-vitamin A rich cassava in order to identify key factors predicting the intention to consume pro-vitamin A rich cassava by families with school-aged children in Eastern Kenya. Sensory acceptability was measured by replicated discrimination tests and paired preference tests among 30 children (7-12 yr) and 30 caretakers (18-45 yr) in three primary schools. Cultural acceptability was assessed with a questionnaire based on the combined model of The Theory of Planned Behavior and The Health Belief Model in one primary school among 140 caretakers of children aged 6 to 12 years. Correlations and multivariate analyses were used to determine associations between summed scores for model constructs. Caretakers and children perceived a significant difference in taste between white and pro-vitamin A rich cassava. Both preferred pro-vitamin A rich cassava over white cassava because of its soft texture, sweet taste and attractive color. Knowledge about pro-vitamin A rich cassava and it's relation to health ('Knowledge' ((β = 0.29, P = behavior identity'. Worries related to bitter taste and color ('Perceived barriers 1' (β = -0.21, P = .02)), the belief of the caretaker about having control to prepare cassava ('Control beliefs' (β = 0.18, P = .02)) and activities like information sessions about pro-vitamin A rich cassava and recommendations from health workers ('Cues to action'(β = 0.51, P = consume pro-vitamin A rich cassava. Pro-vitamin A rich cassava is well accepted by school children in our study population.

  16. iPro user : a case study of pro-am photographers in Malaysia travel magazine

    OpenAIRE

    Teh, Chree Yee

    2012-01-01

    In the digital era, centralized media is moving towards de-centralized and globalized network. This development changes the relationship between mass media and their audiences, remodels the connection among media users and expands traditional roles of consumers. Consumer behavior changes blur the distinction between producer-consumer, professional-amateur, and work-leisure. With a title of ‘iPro User’ which refers to ‘I am a productive and professional user’, this paper is applying ‘pro-am’ m...

  17. Induction of intestinal pro-inflammatory immune responses by lipoteichoic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zadeh Mojgan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cellular and molecular mechanisms of inflammatory bowel disease are not fully understood; however, data indicate that uncontrolled chronic inflammation induced by bacterial gene products, including lipoteichoic acid (LTA, may trigger colonic inflammation resulting in disease pathogenesis. LTA is a constituent glycolipid of Gram-positive bacteria that shares many inflammatory properties with lipopolysaccharide and plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of severe inflammatory responses via Toll-like receptor 2. Accordingly, we elucidate the role of LTA in immune stimulation and induced colitis in vivo. Methods To better understand the molecular mechanisms utilized by the intestinal microbiota and their gene products to induce or subvert inflammation, specifically the effect(s of altered surface layer protein expression on the LTA-mediated pro-inflammatory response, the Lactobacillus acidophilus surface layer protein (Slp genes encoding SlpB and SlpX were deleted resulting in a SlpB- and SlpX- mutant that continued to express SlpA (assigned as NCK2031. Results Our data show profound activation of dendritic cells by NCK2031, wild-type L. acidophilus (NCK56, and purified Staphylococcus aureus-LTA. In contrary to the LTA-deficient strain NCK2025, the LTA-expressing strains NCK2031 and NCK56, as well as S. aureus-LTA, induce pro-inflammatory innate and T cell immune responses in vivo. Additionally, neither NCK2031 nor S. aureus-LTA supplemented in drinking water protected mice from DSS-colitis, but instead, induced significant intestinal inflammation resulting in severe colitis and tissue destruction. Conclusions These findings suggest that directed alteration of two of the L. acidophilus NCFM-Slps did not ameliorate LTA-induced pro-inflammatory signals and subsequent colitis.

  18. Educational Opportunities in Pro-Am Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fienberg, R. T.; Stencel, R. E.

    2006-08-01

    While many backyard stargazers take up the hobby just for fun, many others are attracted to it because of their keen interest in learning more about the universe. The best way to learn science is to do science. Happily, the technology available to today's amateur astronomers — including computer-controlled telescopes, CCD cameras, powerful astronomical software, and the Internet — gives them the potential to make real contributions to scientific research and to help support local educational objectives. Meanwhile, professional astronomers are losing access to small telescopes as funding is shifted to larger projects, including survey programs that will soon discover countless interesting objects needing follow-up observations. Clearly the field is ripe with opportunities for amateurs, professionals, and educators to collaborate. Amateurs will benefit from mentoring by expert professionals, pros will benefit from observations and data processing by increasingly knowledgeable amateurs, and educators will benefit from a larger pool of skilled talent to help them carry out astronomy-education initiatives. We will look at some successful pro-am collaborations that have already borne fruit and examine areas where the need and/or potential for new partnerships is especially large. In keeping with the theme of this special session, we will focus on how pro-am collaborations in astronomy can contribute to science education both inside and outside the classroom, not only for students of school age but also for adults who may not have enjoyed particularly good science education when they were younger. Because nighttime observations with sophisticated equipment are not always possible in formal educational settings, we will also mention other types of pro-am partnerships, including those involving remote observing, data mining, and/or distributed computing.

  19. Pro CSS for High Traffic Websites

    CERN Document Server

    Kennedy, A

    2011-01-01

    Although web standards-based websites can scale effectively - and basic CSS will give you basic results - there are considerations and obstacles that high traffic websites must face to keep your development and hosting costs to a minimum. There are many tips and tricks, as well as down-to-earth best practice information, to make sure that everything runs quickly and efficiently with the minimum amount of fuss or developer intervention. Targeted at "high traffic" websites - those receiving over 10,000 unique visitors a day - Pro CSS for High Traffic Websites gives you inside informati

  20. Pro SharePoint 2013 administration

    CERN Document Server

    Garrett, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Pro SharePoint 2013 Administration is a practical guide to SharePoint 2013 for intermediate to advanced SharePoint administrators and power users, covering the out-of-the-box feature set and capabilities of Microsoft's collaboration and business productivity platform. SharePoint 2013 is an incredibly complex product, with many moving parts, new features, best practices, and 'gotchas.' Author Rob Garrett distills SharePoint's portfolio of features, capabilities, and utilities into an in-depth professional guide-with no fluff and copious advice-that is designed from scratch to be the manual Micr

  1. Pro Android C++ with the NDK

    CERN Document Server

    Cinar, Onur

    2012-01-01

    Android is one of the major players in the mobile phone market. Android is a mobile platform that is built on the top of Linux operating system. The native-code support on Android offers endless opportunities to application developers, not limited the functionality that is provided by Android framework. Pro Android C++ with the NDK is an advanced tutorial and professional reference for today's more sophisticated app developers now porting, developing or employing C++ and other native code to integrate into the Android platform to run sophisticated native apps and better performing apps in gene

  2. Pro REST API development with nodejs

    CERN Document Server

    Doglio, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Pro REST API Development with Node.js is your guide to managing and understanding the full capabilities of successful REST development. API design is a hot topic in the programming world, but not many resources exist for developers to really understand how you can leverage the advantages. This book will provide a brief background on REST and the tools it provides (well known and not so well known). Understand how there is more to REST than just JSON and URLs. You will then cover and compare the maintained modules currently available in the npm community, including Express, Restify, Vatican,

  3. Bureaucracy and Pro-poor Change

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Cheema; Asad Sayeed

    2006-01-01

    Based on the premise that a functioning state is a necessary pre-requisite for pro-poor change, it is critical to investigate the role of the bureaucracy as a key catalyst in this process. Weber (1968) ascribes bureaucracies to be anchors of the modern nation state as their conduct is based on rational-legal norms. Bureaucracies, according to this ideal type, temper the populist urges of politicians who wish to execute policy unencumbered by rules and procedures. State success or failure in m...

  4. Pro SharePoint 2010 Search

    CERN Document Server

    Noble, J; Bakman-Mikalski, Dan

    2011-01-01

    Pro SharePoint 2010 Search gives you expert advice on planning, deploying and customizing searches in SharePoint 2010. Drawing on the authors' extensive experience of working with real-world SharePoint deployments, this book teaches everything you'll need to know to create well-designed SharePoint solutions that always keep the end-user's experience in mind. Increase your search efficiency with SharePoint 2010's search functionality: extend the search user interface using third-party tools, and utilize analytics to improve relevancy. This practical hands-on book is a must-have resource for any

  5. The utility of Pro Forma Income Statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiboldt, Max; Reiboldt, John

    2002-01-01

    Recent headlines surrounding the financial demise of the nation's seventh largest company, Enron, and its subsequent entanglements with its accounting and consulting firm, Arthur Andersen, have placed a cloud of suspicion upon many reasonable business practices that otherwise are considered standard procedure. The proforma income statement is one of those practices. An oft-used tool in financial management, pro formas play a useful role for projecting financial performance based on predictable forecasts or assumptions. Regardless of the current scrutiny, there is still a valid use for accurately prepared statements.

  6. GPU Pro 4 advanced rendering techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Engel, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    GPU Pro4: Advanced Rendering Techniques presents ready-to-use ideas and procedures that can help solve many of your day-to-day graphics programming challenges. Focusing on interactive media and games, the book covers up-to-date methods producing real-time graphics. Section editors Wolfgang Engel, Christopher Oat, Carsten Dachsbacher, Michal Valient, Wessam Bahnassi, and Sebastien St-Laurent have once again assembled a high-quality collection of cutting-edge techniques for advanced graphics processing unit (GPU) programming. Divided into six sections, the book begins with discussions on the abi

  7. Pro SQL Server 2008 Analysis Services

    CERN Document Server

    Janus, Philo B

    2009-01-01

    Every business has a reams of business data locked away in databases, business systems, and spreadsheets. While you may be able to build some reports by pulling a few of these repositories together, actually performing any kind of analysis on the data that runs your business can range from problematic to impossible. Pro SQL Server 2008 Analysis Services will show you how to pull that data together and present it for reporting and analysis in a way that makes the data accessible to business users, instead of needing to rely on the IT department every time someone needs a different report. * Acc

  8. GPU Pro 5 advanced rendering techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Engel, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    In GPU Pro5: Advanced Rendering Techniques, section editors Wolfgang Engel, Christopher Oat, Carsten Dachsbacher, Michal Valient, Wessam Bahnassi, and Marius Bjorge have once again assembled a high-quality collection of cutting-edge techniques for advanced graphics processing unit (GPU) programming. Divided into six sections, the book covers rendering, lighting, effects in image space, mobile devices, 3D engine design, and compute. It explores rasterization of liquids, ray tracing of art assets that would otherwise be used in a rasterized engine, physically based area lights, volumetric light

  9. A Comparison of Heat versus Methanol Fixation for Gram Staining Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnerath, Jeanne M.; Roland, Jenna M.; Rossi, Lucas C.; Weishalla, Steven R.; Wolf, Melissa M.

    2009-01-01

    Gram staining bacteria is a fundamental technique introduced in general biology and microbiology laboratory courses. Two common problems students encounter when Gram staining bacteria are (1) having a difficult time locating bacterial cells on the microscope slide and (2) over-decolorizing bacterial cells during the staining procedure such that…

  10. Tundmatud kohad ja asjade loomus / Katrine Gram Sloth, Johna Hansen ; intervjueerinud Laura Põld

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Gram Sloth, Katrine, 1983-

    2016-01-01

    Taani kunstnik Katrine Gram Sloth ja Rootsi arhitekt Johna Hansen räägivad oma lapsepõlvest, kunstnikuteest, loomingust. Johna Hanseni jaapanipärasest einelaua installatsioonist "Laud" (2015-2016), Katrine Gram Slothi Islandil loodud teosest "Vista Revisited" (2015)

  11. Gram-scale fractionation of nanodiamonds by density gradient ultracentrifugation

    KAUST Repository

    Peng, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Size is a defining characteristic of nanoparticles; it influences their optical and electronic properties as well as their interactions with molecules and macromolecules. Producing nanoparticles with narrow size distributions remains one of the main challenges to their utilization. At this time, the number of practical approaches to optimize the size distribution of nanoparticles in many interesting materials systems, including diamond nanocrystals, remains limited. Diamond nanocrystals synthesized by detonation protocols-so-called detonation nanodiamonds (DNDs)-are promising systems for drug delivery, photonics, and composites. DNDs are composed of primary particles with diameters mainly <10 nm and their aggregates (ca. 10-500 nm). Here, we introduce a large-scale approach to rate-zonal density gradient ultracentrifugation to obtain monodispersed fractions of nanoparticles in high yields. We use this method to fractionate a highly concentrated and stable aqueous solution of DNDs and to investigate the size distribution of various fractions by dynamic light scattering, analytical ultracentrifugation, transmission electron microscopy and powder X-ray diffraction. This fractionation method enabled us to separate gram-scale amounts of DNDs into several size ranges within a relatively short period of time. In addition, the high product yields obtained for each fraction allowed us to apply the fractionation method iteratively to a particular size range of particles and to collect various fractions of highly monodispersed primary particles. Our method paves the way for in-depth studies of the physical and optical properties, growth, and aggregation mechanism of DNDs. Applications requiring DNDs with specific particle or aggregate sizes are now within reach. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  12. Extended-spectrum ß-lactamases in gram negative bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepti Rawat

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Extended-spectrum ß-lactamases (ESBLs are a group of plasmid-mediated, diverse, complex and rapidly evolving enzymes that are posing a major therapeutic challenge today in the treatment of hospitalized and community-based patients. Infections due to ESBL producers range from uncomplicated urinary tract infections to life-threatening sepsis. Derived from the older TEM is derived from Temoniera, a patient from whom the strain was first isolated in Greece. ß-lactamases, these enzymes share the ability to hydrolyze third-generation cephalosporins and aztreonam and yet are inhibited by clavulanic acid. In addition, ESBL-producing organisms exhibit co-resistance to many other classes of antibiotics, resulting in limitation of therapeutic option. Because of inoculum effect and substrate specificity, their detection is also a major challenge. At present, however, organizations such as the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (formerly the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards provide guidelines for the detection of ESBLs in Klebsiella pneumoniae, K. oxytoca, Escherichia coli and Proteus mirabilis. In common to all ESBL-detection methods is the general principle that the activity of extended-spectrum cephalosporins against ESBL-producing organisms will be enhanced by the presence of clavulanic acid. Carbapenems are the treatment of choice for serious infections due to ESBL-producing organisms, yet carbapenem-resistant isolates have recently been reported. ESBLs represent an impressive example of the ability of gram-negative bacteria to develop new antibiotic-resistance mechanisms in the face of the introduction of new antimicrobial agents. Thus there is need for efficient infection-control practices for containment of outbreaks; and intervention strategies, e.g., antibiotic rotation to reduce further selection and spread of these increasingly resistant pathogens.

  13. Utility of Procalcitonin (PCT and Mid regional pro-Adrenomedullin (MR-proADM in risk stratification of critically ill febrile patients in Emergency Department (ED. A comparison with APACHE II score

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Travaglino Francesco

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of our study was to evaluate the prognostic value of MR-proADM and PCT levels in febrile patients in the ED in comparison with a disease severity index score, the APACHE II score. We also evaluated the ability of MR-proADM and PCT to predict hospitalization. Methods This was an observational, multicentric study. We enrolled 128 patients referred to the ED with high fever and a suspicion of severe infection such as sepsis, lower respiratory tract infections, urinary tract infections, gastrointestinal infections, soft tissue infections, central nervous system infections, or osteomyelitis. The APACHE II score was calculated for each patient. Results MR-proADM median values in controls were 0.5 nmol/l as compared with 0.85 nmol/l in patients (P P . MR-proADM and PCT levels were significantly increased in accordance with the Apache II quartiles (P  respectively. In the respiratory infections, urinary infections, and sepsis-septic shock groups we found a correlation between the Apache II and MR-proADM respectively and MR-proADM and PCT respectively. We evaluated the ability of MR-proADM and PCT to predict hospitalization in patients admitted to our emergency departments complaining of fever. MR-proADM alone had an AUC of 0.694, while PCT alone had an AUC of 0.763. The combined use of PCT and MR-proADM instead showed an AUC of 0.79. Conclusions The present study highlights the way in which MR-proADM and PCT may be helpful to the febrile patient’s care in the ED. Our data support the prognostic role of MR-proADM and PCT in that setting, as demonstrated by the correlation with the APACHE II score. The combined use of the two biomarkers can predict a subsequent hospitalization of febrile patients. The rational use of these two molecules could lead to several advantages, such as faster diagnosis, more accurate risk stratification, and optimization of the treatment, with consequent benefit to the patient and

  14. Multidirectional testing of one- and two-level ProDisc-L versus simulated fusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panjabi, Manohar; Henderson, Gweneth; Abjornson, Celeste; Yue, James

    2007-05-20

    An in vitro human cadaveric biomechanical study. To evaluate intervertebral rotation changes due to lumbar ProDisc-L compared with simulated fusion, using follower load and multidirectional testing. Artificial discs, as opposed to the fusions, are thought to decrease the long-term accelerated degeneration at adjacent levels. A biomechanical assessment can be helpful, as the long-term clinical evaluation is impractical. Six fresh human cadaveric lumbar specimens (T12-S1) underwent multidirectional testing in flexion-extension, bilateral lateral bending, and bilateral torsion using the Hybrid test method. First, intact specimen total range of rotation (T12-S1) was determined. Second, using pure moments again, this range of rotation was achieved in each of the 5 constructs: A) ProDisc-L at L5-S1; B) fusion at L5-S1; C) ProDisc-L at L4-L5 and fusion at L5-S1; D) ProDisc-L at L4-L5 and L5-S1; and E) 2-level fusion at L4-L5 to L5-S1. Significant changes in the intervertebral rotations due to each construct were determined at the operated and nonoperated levels using repeated measures single factor ANOVA and Bonferroni statistical tests (P < 0.05). Adjacent-level effects (ALEs) were defined as the percentage changes in intervertebral rotations at the nonoperated levels due to the constructs. One- and 2-level ProDisc-L constructs showed only small ALE in any of the 3 rotations. In contrast, 1- and 2-level fusions showed increased ALE in all 3 directions (average, 7.8% and 35.3%, respectively, for 1 and 2 levels). In the disc plus fusion combination (construct C), the ALEs were similar to the 1-level fusion alone. In general, ProDisc-L preserved physiologic motions at all spinal levels, while the fusion simulations resulted in significant ALE.

  15. Comparison of Gram and Kopeloff stains in the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libman, Michael D; Kramer, Michael; Platt, Robert

    2006-03-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is commonly diagnosed by using the Nugent score, a semiquantitative scoring system to evaluate bacterial morphotypes on Gram stain of vaginal secretions. Some authors have suggested using the Kopeloff modification of the Gram stain. Asymptomatic BV in pregnancy has been associated with adverse outcomes. We performed both stains on simultaneously collected vaginal smears from 2652 women at 24-26 weeks of gestation. Gram staining gave significantly higher (more abnormal) Nugent scores than Kopeloff staining. Compared to the Kopeloff stain, the number of specimens graded as indeterminate or consistent with BV by Gram stain increased by 29% (469 versus 364, Pstaining was significantly better than Gram staining (agreement=74% versus 63%, intraclass correlation coefficient=0.87 versus 0.79, P<.05, 95% confidence intervals 0.85-0.89 and 0.75-0.82, respectively).

  16. Gram-negative folliculitis. A rare problem or is it underdiagnosed? Case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sierra-Téllez Daniela, Ponce-Olivera Rosa María, Tirado-Sánchez Andrés

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available AbstractGram-negative folliculitis may be the result of prolonged antibacterial treatments in patients with acne and rosacea. It is caused by alteration of facial skin flora and the nasal mucous, a decrease of Gram-positive bacteria and a proliferation of Gram-negative bacteria (for example Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Serratia marcescens, Klebsiella sp. and Proteus mirabilis. It should be considered in patients with acne who have not had a clinical improvement after 3-6 months of treatment with tetracyclines. The disease is underestimated, probably because bacteriological studies are rarely requested and the increased use of oral isotretinoin for acne management. One of the most effective treatments for Gram-negative folliculitis is oral isotretinoin (0.5-1 mg / kg / day for 4-5 months. We report the case of Gram negative folliculitis successfully treated with oral isotretinoin.

  17. [Leu31, Pro34]neuropeptide Y

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuhlendorff, J; Gether, U; Aakerlund, L

    1990-01-01

    Two types of binding sites have previously been described for 36-amino acid neuropeptide Y (NPY), called Y1 and Y2 receptors. Y2 receptors can bind long C-terminal fragments of NPY-e.g., NPY-(13-36)-peptide. In contrast, Y1 receptors have until now only been characterized as NPY receptors that do...... not bind such fragments. In the present study an NPY analog is presented, [Leu31, Pro34]NPY, which in a series of human neuroblastoma cell lines and on rat PC-12 cells can displace radiolabeled NPY only from cells that express Y1 receptors and not from those expressing Y2 receptors. The radiolabeled analog......, [125I-Tyr36] monoiodo-[Leu31, Pro34]NPY, also binds specifically only to cells with Y1 receptors. The binding of this analog to Y1 receptors on human neuroblastoma cells is associated with a transient increase in cytoplasmic free calcium concentrations similar to the response observed with NPY. [Leu31...

  18. A prospective study of the diagnostic utility of sputum Gram stain in pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anevlavis, Stavros; Petroglou, Niki; Tzavaras, Athanasios; Maltezos, Efstratios; Pneumatikos, Ioannis; Froudarakis, Marios; Anevlavis, Eleftherios; Bouros, Demosthenes

    2009-08-01

    Sputum Gram stain and culture have been said to be unreliable indicators of the microbiological diagnosis of bacterial pneumonia. The etiological diagnosis of pneumonia is surrounded by great degree of uncertainty. This uncertainty should be and can be calculated and incorporated in the diagnosis and treatment. To determine the diagnostic accuracy and diagnostic value of sputum Gram stain in etiological diagnosis and initial selection of antimicrobial therapy of bacterial community acquired pneumonia (CAP). DESIGN-METHOD: Prospective study of 1390 patients with CAP admitted January 2002-June 2008, to our institutions. Of the 1390 patients, 178 (12.8%) fulfilled the criteria for inclusion into this study (good-quality sputa and presence of the same microorganism in blood and sputum cultures which was used as gold standard for assessing the diagnostic accuracy and diagnostic value of sputum Gram stain). The sensitivity of sputum Gram stain was 0.82 for Pneumococcal pneumonia, 0.76 for Staphylococcal pneumonia, 0.79 for Haemophilus influenzae pneumonia and 0.78 for Gram-negative bacilli pneumonia. The specificity of sputum Gram stain was 0.93 for Pneumococcal pneumonia, 0.96 for Staphylococcal pneumonia, 0.96 for H. influenzae pneumonia and 0.95 for Gram-negative bacilli pneumonia. The positive likelihood ratio (LR+) was 11.58 for Pneumococcal pneumonia, 19.38 for Staphylococcal pneumonia, 16.84 for H. influenzae pneumonia, 14.26 for Gram-negative bacilli pneumonia. The negative likelihood ratio (LR-) was 0.20 for Pneumococcal pneumonia, 0.25 for Staphylococcal pneumonia, 0.22 for H. influenzae pneumonia, and 0.23 for Gram-negative bacilli pneumonia. Sputum Gram stain is a dependable diagnostic test for the early etiological diagnosis of bacterial CAP that helps in choosing orthological and appropriate initial antimicrobial therapy.

  19. Should gram stains have a role in diagnosing hip arthroplasty infections?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Aaron J; Zywiel, Michael G; Stroh, D Alex; Marker, David R; Mont, Michael A

    2010-09-01

    The utility of Gram stains in diagnosing periprosthetic infections following total hip arthroplasty has recently been questioned. Several studies report low sensitivity of the test, and its poor ability to either confirm or rule out infection in patients undergoing revision total hip arthroplasty. Despite this, many institutions including that of the senior author continue to perform Gram stains during revision total hip arthroplasty. We assessed the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and positive and negative predictive values of Gram stains from surgical-site samplings taken from procedures on patients with both infected and aseptic revision total hip arthroplasties. A review was performed on patients who underwent revision total hip arthroplasty between 2000 and 2007. Eighty-two Gram stains were performed on patients who had infected total hip arthroplasties and underwent revision procedures. Additionally, of the 410 revision total hip arthroplasties performed on patients who were confirmed infection-free, 120 Gram stains were performed. Patients were diagnosed as infected using multiple criteria at the time of surgery. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and accuracy were calculated from these Gram stain results. The Gram stain demonstrated a sensitivity and specificity of 9.8% and 100%, respectively. In this series, the Gram stain had a negative predictive value of 62%, a positive predictive value of 100%, and an accuracy of 63%. Gram stains obtained from surgical-site samples had poor sensitivity and poor negative predictive value. Based on these findings, as well as those of other authors, we believe that Gram stains should no longer be considered for diagnosing infections in revision total hip arthroplasty. Level III, diagnostic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  20. Automated Interpretation of Blood Culture Gram Stains by Use of a Deep Convolutional Neural Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kenneth P; Kang, Anthony D; Kirby, James E

    2018-03-01

    Microscopic interpretation of stained smears is one of the most operator-dependent and time-intensive activities in the clinical microbiology laboratory. Here, we investigated application of an automated image acquisition and convolutional neural network (CNN)-based approach for automated Gram stain classification. Using an automated microscopy platform, uncoverslipped slides were scanned with a 40× dry objective, generating images of sufficient resolution for interpretation. We collected 25,488 images from positive blood culture Gram stains prepared during routine clinical workup. These images were used to generate 100,213 crops containing Gram-positive cocci in clusters, Gram-positive cocci in chains/pairs, Gram-negative rods, or background (no cells). These categories were targeted for proof-of-concept development as they are associated with the majority of bloodstream infections. Our CNN model achieved a classification accuracy of 94.9% on a test set of image crops. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis indicated a robust ability to differentiate between categories with an area under the curve of >0.98 for each. After training and validation, we applied the classification algorithm to new images collected from 189 whole slides without human intervention. Sensitivity and specificity were 98.4% and 75.0% for Gram-positive cocci in chains and pairs, 93.2% and 97.2% for Gram-positive cocci in clusters, and 96.3% and 98.1% for Gram-negative rods. Taken together, our data support a proof of concept for a fully automated classification methodology for blood-culture Gram stains. Importantly, the algorithm was highly adept at identifying image crops with organisms and could be used to present prescreened, classified crops to technologists to accelerate smear review. This concept could potentially be extended to all Gram stain interpretive activities in the clinical laboratory. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  1. Aplikace pro výuku jazyků pro Firefox OS

    OpenAIRE

    Chudík, Jakub

    2015-01-01

    Tato práce se zabývá vytvořením aplikace pro výuku jazyků specificky pro mobilní operační systém Firefox OS. Vzhledem k své povaze, uživatelské rozhraní aplikace se snaží uspokojit ergonomické potřeby aplikací určených pro kapesní zařízení. Aplikuje několik konceptů gamifikace ke zlepšení procesu učení, jehož výsledky jsou prezentovány a vyhodnoceny. Aplikace také přináší své vlastní jedinečné vlastnosti, které jí pomáhají vyniknout mezi ostatními aplikacemi pro výuku jazyků. This thesis d...

  2. Energy recovery by pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) in SWRO–PRO integrated processes

    KAUST Repository

    Wan, Chun Feng; Chung, Neal Tai-Shung

    2015-01-01

    Pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) is a promising technology to reduce the specific energy consumption of a seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) plant. In this study, it is projected that 25.6-40.7millionkWh/day of energy can be recovered globally

  3. Antimicrobial sensitivity pattern of gram positive CSF isolates in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    100%) to Linezolid, Vancomycin and Piperacillin-Tazobactam. However, Staphylococcus aureus were 100% sensitive to Linezolid and Vancomycin but were only 87.5% sensitive to Piperacillin-Tazobactam combination. The Streptococcus ...

  4. Prediction about severity and outcome of sepsis by pro-atrial natriuretic peptide and pro-adrenomedullin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui-lan; Kang, Fu-xin

    2010-06-01

    Measurement of biomarkers is a potential approach to early prediction of the risk of mortality in patients with sepsis. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prognostic value of pro-atrial natriuretic peptide (pro-ANP) and pro-adrenomedullin (pro-ADM) levels in a cohort of medical intensive care patients and to compare it with that of other known biomarkers and physiological scores. Blood samples of 51 consecutive critically ill patients admitted to the intensive care unit and 53 age-matched healthy control people were evaluated in this prospective study. The prognostic value of pro-ANP and pro-ADM levels was compared with that of acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHE) II scores and various biomarkers such as C-reactive protein, interleukin-6 and procalcitonin. Pro-ANP and pro-ADM were detected by a new sandwich immunoassay. On admission, 25 patients had systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), 12 sepsis, 9 severe sepsis and 5 septic shock. At that time, the median levels (ng/ml) of pro-ANP and pro-ADM were 87.22 and 0.34 respectively in patients with SIRS, 1533.30 and 2.23 in those with sepsis, 1098.73 and 4.57 in those with severe sepsis, and 1933.94 and 8.21 in those with septic shock. With the increasing severity of disease, the levels of pro-ANP and pro-ADM were gradually increased. On admission, the circulating levels of pro-ANP and pro-ADM in patients with sepsis, severe sepsis, or septic shock were significantly higher in non-survivors than in survivors (P less than 0.05). In a receiver operating characteristic curve analysis for the survival of patients with sepsis, the areas under the curve (AUCs) for pro-ANP and pro-ADM were 0.89 and 0.87 respectively, which was similar to the AUCs for procalcitonin and APACHE II scores. Pro-ANP and pro-ADM are valuable biomarkers for prediction of severity of septic patients.

  5. Pleural effusion adenosine deaminase: a candidate biomarker to discriminate between Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacterial infections of the pleural space

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    Ruolin Li

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Delay in the treatment of pleural infection may contribute to its high mortality. In this retrospective study, we aimed to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of pleural adenosine deaminase in discrimination between Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacterial infections of the pleural space prior to selecting antibiotics. METHODS: A total of 76 patients were enrolled and grouped into subgroups according to Gram staining: 1 patients with Gram-negative bacterial infections, aged 53.2±18.6 years old, of whom 44.7% had empyemas and 2 patients with Gram-positive bacterial infections, aged 53.5±21.5 years old, of whom 63.1% had empyemas. The pleural effusion was sampled by thoracocentesis and then sent for adenosine deaminase testing, biochemical testing and microbiological culture. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to examine the differences in adenosine deaminase levels between the groups. Correlations between adenosine deaminase and specified variables were also quantified using Spearman’s correlation coefficient. Moreover, receiver operator characteristic analysis was performed to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of pleural effusion adenosine deaminase. RESULTS: Mean pleural adenosine deaminase levels differed significantly between Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacterial infections of the pleural space (191.8±32.1 U/L vs 81.0±16.9 U/L, p<0.01. The area under the receiver operator characteristic curve was 0.689 (95% confidence interval: 0.570, 0.792, p<0.01 at the cutoff value of 86 U/L. Additionally, pleural adenosine deaminase had a sensitivity of 63.2% (46.0-78.2%; a specificity of 73.7% (56.9-86.6%; positive and negative likelihood ratios of 2.18 and 0.50, respectively; and positive and negative predictive values of 70.6% and 66.7%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Pleural effusion adenosine deaminase is a helpful alternative biomarker for early and quick discrimination of Gram-negative from Gram-positive bacterial infections of the

  6. Rapid and reliable identification of Gram-negative bacteria and Gram-positive cocci by deposition of bacteria harvested from blood cultures onto the MALDI-TOF plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnini, Simona; Ghelardi, Emilia; Brucculeri, Veronica; Morici, Paola; Lupetti, Antonella

    2015-06-18

    Rapid identification of the causative agent(s) of bloodstream infections using the matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) methodology can lead to increased empirical antimicrobial therapy appropriateness. Herein, we aimed at establishing an easier and simpler method, further referred to as the direct method, using bacteria harvested by serum separator tubes from positive blood cultures and placed onto the polished steel target plate for rapid identification by MALDI-TOF. The results by the direct method were compared with those obtained by MALDI-TOF on bacteria isolated on solid media. Identification of Gram-negative bacilli was 100 % concordant using the direct method or MALDI-TOF on isolated bacteria (96 % with score > 2.0). These two methods were 90 % concordant on Gram-positive cocci (32 % with score > 2.0). Identification by the SepsiTyper method of Gram-positive cocci gave concordant results with MALDI-TOF on isolated bacteria in 87 % of cases (37 % with score > 2.0). The direct method herein developed allows rapid identification (within 30 min) of Gram-negative bacteria and Gram-positive cocci from positive blood cultures and can be used to rapidly report reliable and accurate results, without requiring skilled personnel or the use of expensive kits.

  7. Mezclas de Alfalfa y Gramíneas en la Serie Sabana de Bogotá Tipo Franco Arcilloso.

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    Chaverra Gil. Hernán

    1960-06-01

    Full Text Available En el Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Agrícolas, Tibaitatá, y en la serie de suelos Sabana de Bogotá, tipo frnaco arcilloso, se llevaron a cabo dos experimentos con mezclas de alfalfa y gramíneas. En el primer ensayo, se sembraron simultáneamente con la alfalfa, ryegrass inglés, rygrass anual y orchoso. Los métodos de siembra utilizados fueron: a alfalfa y gramíneas sembradas al voleo, b alfalfa y gramíneas en el mismo surco, c alfalfa y gramíneas en surcos alternos, d alfalfa en surcos y gramíneas al voleo y e alfalfa en surcos y trébol blanco al voleo. En el segundo experimento se sembró la alfalfa en surcos separados 25 cm. Después de establecida la alfalfa e inmediatamente después del 4° corte se sembraron al voleo las siguientes gramíneas: ryegrass inglés, rygrass anual, orchoro, festuca media, pasto cinta y pasto rescate. Las finalidades del estudio fueron las de valorar el comportamiento de las gramíneas en mezcla con la alfalfa, mediante la determinación progresiva de la composición botánica y el rendimiento de forraje seco de las mezclas. La siembra simultánea de ryegrass inglés y ryegrass anual con la alfalfa dio como resultado una mala población de la leguminosa, especialmente en los dos primeros cortes. La competencia ejercida por estas dos gramíneas a la alfalfa, se redujo casi completamente, cuando se sembraron en surcos alternos o en la alfalfa establecida. Sea cual fuere el pasto sembrado, la siembra de gramíneas en alfalfa establecida, redujo la competencia entre los pastos asociados. En este ensayo el factor más importante en el establecimiento de las gramíneas, fue el agua disponible en el suelo. Bajo las condiciones del primer experimento el orchoro fue la gramínea que mejor creció en asocio de la alfalfa en todos los métodos de siembra estudiado. La producción promedia de la mezcla varió entre 2600 y 3145 Kg/hect. De forreje seco por corte y la proporción de orchoro entre

  8. 'Trial Exegesis': Methods for Synthesizing Clinical and Patient Reported Outcome (PRO Data in Trials to Inform Clinical Practice. A Systematic Review.

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    Angus G K McNair

    Full Text Available The CONSORT extension for patient reported outcomes (PROs aims to improve reporting, but guidance on the optimal integration with clinical data is lacking. This study examines in detail the reporting of PROs and clinical data from randomized controlled trials (RCTs in gastro-intestinal cancer to inform design and reporting of combined PRO and clinical data from trials to improve the 'take home' message for clinicians to use in practice.The case study was undertaken in gastro-intestinal cancer trials. Well-conducted RCTs reporting PROs with validated instruments were identified and categorized into those combining PRO and clinical data in a single paper, or those separating data into linked primary and supplemental papers. Qualitative methods were developed to examine reporting of the critical interpretation of the trial results (trial exegesis in the papers in relation of the PRO and clinical outcomes and applied to each publication category. Results were used to inform recommendations for practice.From 1917 screened abstracts, 49 high quality RCTs were identified reported in 36 combined and 15 linked primary and supplemental papers. In-depth analysis of manuscript text identified three categories for understanding trial exegesis: where authors reported a "detailed", "general", or absent PRO rationale and integrated interpretation of clinical and PRO results. A total of 11 (30% and 6 (16% combined papers reported "detailed" PRO rationale and integrated interpretation of results although only 2 (14% and 1 (7% primary papers achieved the same standard respectively. Supplemental papers provide better information with 11 (73% and 3 (20% achieving "detailed" rationale and integrated interpretation of results. Supplemental papers, however, were published a median of 20 months after the primary RCT data in lower impact factor journals (median 16.8 versus 5.2.It is recommended that single papers, with detailed PRO rationale and integrated PRO and

  9. Trajectories in higher education: ProUni in focus

    OpenAIRE

    Felicetti,Vera Lucia; Cabrera,Alberto F.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Trajectories in higher education and the University for All Program (ProUni) are the central theme of this paper. The research question was: To what extent were some factors experienced during university difficulties in the academic trajectory of ProUni and non-ProUni graduates? The approach was quantitative with an explanatory goal. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used in the data analysis. The research subjects were 197 higher education graduates from a Southern Brazil ...

  10. Employee-Organization Pro-environmental Values Fit and Pro-environmental Behavior: The Role of Supervisors' Personal Values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hui; Liu, Xia; Chen, Hong; Long, Ruyin

    2017-12-18

    This study examines the relationship among the employees-organization pro-environmental values fit (E-O PEVs fit), supervisors' PEVs and employees' pro-environmental behaviors (PEB). Informed by the PEB, organizational values and employee-organization fit literature, we propose and test hypotheses that under egoistic, altruistic and biosphere-value orientations, E-O PEVs fit versus non-fit have significant effects on employees' private-sphere PEB and public-sphere PEB, identifying supervisors' PEVs as a moderator. An empirical investigation indicates that the effect of E-O PEVs fit on employees' private-sphere PEB and public-sphere PEB varies as the value orientation differs. More specifically, under the context of altruistic and biosphere-value orientations, if the organizational PEVs do not match the employees' PEVs, especially when the former exceeds the latter, employees' PEB will rise as the organizational PEVs increase. As for egoistic value orientation, when organizational PEVs exceed employees' PEVs, not only will public-sphere PEB stop decreasing and tend to stabilize, but also private-sphere PEB will rise to a slight degree. Furthermore, compared with altruistic and biospheric values dimensions, supervisors who promote egoistic PEVs will have a more significant effect on the relationship between global E-O PEVs fit and employees' PEB. Finally, we suggest that the goals of an organization and its supervisors need to be combined within the actual situation of Chinese corporations to truly implement corporate green practices by balancing the profit goal and the environmental goal.

  11. Evaluation of the Combined Therapy of DA-7218, a New Oxazolidinone, and Trimethoprim/ Sulfamethoxazole in the Treatment of Experimental Actinomycetoma by Nocardia brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza-Gonzalez, N A; Welsh, O; Ocampo-Candiani, J; Said-Fernandez, S; Lozano-Garza, G; Choi, S H; Vera-Cabrera, L

    2010-07-01

    Currently, for actinomycetoma, combined antimicrobial therapy is preferred to the use of a single compound. This is in order to provide a broader-spectrum coverage due to a combinatory or synergistic effect between the drugs, and to decrease the possibility of emergence of natural resistant strains. A new oxazolidinone pro-drug, DA-7218 [(R)-3-(4-(2-(2-methyltetrazol-5-yl)-pyridin-5-yl)-3-fluorophenyl)-2-oxo-5-oxazolidinyl) methyl-disodium-phosphate] (recently re-named TR-701), has shown very good in vitro and in vivo activities against several gram-positive bacteria including Nocardia spp. In the present work we evaluated the effect of DA-7218 at two different doses, alone and combined with trimethoprim/ sulfamethoxazole (SXT), in an experimental Nocardia brasiliensis actinomycetoma murine model. We also included a negative and a positive control group (linezolid and saline solution respectively). At the end of the treatment period, we observed a clinically and statistically significant difference among the drug receiving groups (combined, alone and linezolid) and the control group (P=0.004). The difference was higher (P= 0.004) between the groups receiving DA-7218 (25mg/kg) alone or combined with SXT, and the control group (saline solution). In this work we proved that DA-7218 alone and combined with SXT is effective in the treatment of experimental actinomycetoma by Nocardia brasiliensis and that it could be potentially useful in the treatment of human actinomycetoma.

  12. EFFECT OF SILICATE ON GRAM STAINING AND VIABILITY OF PNEUMOCOCCI AND OTHER BACTERIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLeod, Colin M.; Roe, Amy S.

    1956-01-01

    Application of silicate solutions to living or heat-killed pneumococci and to certain "viridans" streptococci causes their conversion from a Gram-positive to a Gram-negative state. The original staining properties can be restored by suspending the silicate-treated bacteria in alkaline solutions of various salts but not by simple washing in water. Living pneumococci and the strains of streptococci whose staining properties are similarly affected are killed when suspended in silicate solutions. In other Gram-positive species silicate causes conversion to Gram negativity but restoration to positivity occurs upon washing in water. In a third group of Gram-positive organisms silicate has no effect on the Gram reaction. The viability of organisms in these two groups is unaffected by silicate under the conditions employed. No effect on staining or viability of Gram-negative bacteria has been observed. The effects of silicate on staining and viability are inhibited by nutrient broth or whole serum but not by purified serum albumin. Lecithin, choline, and other substituted ammonium compounds also inhibit the effects of silicate on pneumococci. PMID:13306854

  13. Improving Gram stain proficiency in hospital and satellite laboratories that do not have microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarner, Jeannette; Street, Cassandra; Matlock, Margaret; Cole, Lisa; Brierre, Francoise

    2017-03-01

    Consolidation of laboratories has left many hospitals and satellite laboratories with minimal microbiologic testing. In many hospitals and satellite laboratories, Gram stains on primary specimens are still performed despite difficultly in maintaining proficiency. To maintain Gram stain proficiency at a community 450-bed hospital with an active emergency room we designed bimonthly challenges that require reporting Gram staining and morphology of different organisms. The challenges consist of five specimens prepared by the reference microbiology laboratory from cultures and primary specimens. Twenty to 23 medical laboratory scientists participate reading the challenges. Results from the challenges are discussed with each medical laboratory scientists. In addition, printed images from the challenges are presented at huddle to add microbiology knowledge. On the first three challenges, Gram staining was read correctly in 71%-77% of the time while morphology 53%-66%. In the last six challenges correct answers for Gram stain were 77%-99% while morphology 73%-96%. We observed statistically significant improvement when reading Gram stains by providing frequent challenges to medical laboratory scientists. The clinical importance of Gram stain results is emphasized during huddle presentations increasing knowledge and motivation to perform the test for patients.

  14. Resistance trends in gram-negative bacteria: surveillance results from two Mexican hospitals, 2005–2010

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    Morfin-Otero Rayo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hospital-acquired infections caused by multiresistant gram-negative bacteria are difficult to treat and cause high rates of morbidity and mortality. The analysis of antimicrobial resistance trends of gram-negative pathogens isolated from hospital-acquired infections is important for the development of antimicrobial stewardship programs. The information obtained from antimicrobial resistant programs from two hospitals from Mexico will be helpful in the selection of empiric therapy for hospital-acquired gram-negative infections. Findings Two thousand one hundred thirty two gram-negative bacteria collected between January 2005 and December 2010 from hospital-acquired infections occurring in two teaching hospitals in Mexico were evaluated. Escherichia coli was the most frequently isolated gram-negative bacteria, with >50% of strains resistant to ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin. Klebsiella spp. showed resistance rates similar to Escherichia coli for ceftazidime (33.1% vs 33.2%, but exhibited lower rates for levofloxacin (18.2% vs 56%. Of the samples collected for the third most common gram-negative bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, >12.8% were resistant to the carbapenems, imipenem and meropenem. The highest overall resistance was found in Acinetobacter spp. Enterobacter spp. showed high susceptibility to carbapenems. Conclusions E. coli was the most common nosocomial gram-negative bacilli isolated in this study and was found to have the second-highest resistance to fluoroquinolones (>57.9%, after Acinetobacter spp. 81.2%. This finding represents a disturbing development in a common nosocomial and community pathogen.

  15. Gram negative wound infection in hospitalised adult burn patients--systematic review and metanalysis-.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzopardi, Ernest A; Azzopardi, Elayne; Camilleri, Liberato; Villapalos, Jorge; Boyce, Dean E; Dziewulski, Peter; Dickson, William A; Whitaker, Iain S

    2014-01-01

    Gram negative infection is a major determinant of morbidity and survival. Traditional teaching suggests that burn wound infections in different centres are caused by differing sets of causative organisms. This study established whether Gram-negative burn wound isolates associated to clinical wound infection differ between burn centres. Studies investigating adult hospitalised patients (2000-2010) were critically appraised and qualified to a levels of evidence hierarchy. The contribution of bacterial pathogen type, and burn centre to the variance in standardised incidence of Gram-negative burn wound infection was analysed using two-way analysis of variance. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumanni, Enterobacter spp., Proteus spp. and Escherichia coli emerged as the commonest Gram-negative burn wound pathogens. Individual pathogens' incidence did not differ significantly between burn centres (F (4, 20) = 1.1, p = 0.3797; r2 = 9.84). Gram-negative infections predominate in burn surgery. This study is the first to establish that burn wound infections do not differ significantly between burn centres. It is the first study to report the pathogens responsible for the majority of Gram-negative infections in these patients. Whilst burn wound infection is not exclusive to these bacteria, it is hoped that reporting the presence of this group of common Gram-negative "target organisms" facilitate clinical practice and target research towards a defined clinical demand.

  16. Gram negative wound infection in hospitalised adult burn patients--systematic review and metanalysis-.

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    Ernest A Azzopardi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Gram negative infection is a major determinant of morbidity and survival. Traditional teaching suggests that burn wound infections in different centres are caused by differing sets of causative organisms. This study established whether Gram-negative burn wound isolates associated to clinical wound infection differ between burn centres. METHODS: Studies investigating adult hospitalised patients (2000-2010 were critically appraised and qualified to a levels of evidence hierarchy. The contribution of bacterial pathogen type, and burn centre to the variance in standardised incidence of Gram-negative burn wound infection was analysed using two-way analysis of variance. PRIMARY FINDINGS: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumanni, Enterobacter spp., Proteus spp. and Escherichia coli emerged as the commonest Gram-negative burn wound pathogens. Individual pathogens' incidence did not differ significantly between burn centres (F (4, 20 = 1.1, p = 0.3797; r2 = 9.84. INTERPRETATION: Gram-negative infections predominate in burn surgery. This study is the first to establish that burn wound infections do not differ significantly between burn centres. It is the first study to report the pathogens responsible for the majority of Gram-negative infections in these patients. Whilst burn wound infection is not exclusive to these bacteria, it is hoped that reporting the presence of this group of common Gram-negative "target organisms" facilitate clinical practice and target research towards a defined clinical demand.

  17. Pro-Anorexia and Anti-Pro-Anorexia Videos on YouTube: Sentiment Analysis of User Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oksanen, Atte; Garcia, David; Sirola, Anu; Näsi, Matti; Kaakinen, Markus; Keipi, Teo; Räsänen, Pekka

    2015-11-12

    Pro-anorexia communities exist online and encourage harmful weight loss and weight control practices, often through emotional content that enforces social ties within these communities. User-generated responses to videos that directly oppose pro-anorexia communities have not yet been researched in depth. The aim was to study emotional reactions to pro-anorexia and anti-pro-anorexia online content on YouTube using sentiment analysis. Using the 50 most popular YouTube pro-anorexia and anti-pro-anorexia user channels as a starting point, we gathered data on users, their videos, and their commentators. A total of 395 anorexia videos and 12,161 comments were analyzed using positive and negative sentiments and ratings submitted by the viewers of the videos. The emotional information was automatically extracted with an automatic sentiment detection tool whose reliability was tested with human coders. Ordinary least squares regression models were used to estimate the strength of sentiments. The models controlled for the number of video views and comments, number of months the video had been on YouTube, duration of the video, uploader's activity as a video commentator, and uploader's physical location by country. The 395 videos had more than 6 million views and comments by almost 8000 users. Anti-pro-anorexia video comments expressed more positive sentiments on a scale of 1 to 5 (adjusted prediction [AP] 2.15, 95% CI 2.11-2.19) than did those of pro-anorexia videos (AP 2.02, 95% CI 1.98-2.06). Anti-pro-anorexia videos also received more likes (AP 181.02, 95% CI 155.19-206.85) than pro-anorexia videos (AP 31.22, 95% CI 31.22-37.81). Negative sentiments and video dislikes were equally distributed in responses to both pro-anorexia and anti-pro-anorexia videos. Despite pro-anorexia content being widespread on YouTube, videos promoting help for anorexia and opposing the pro-anorexia community were more popular, gaining more positive feedback and comments than pro-anorexia videos

  18. Investigational drugs for the treatment of infections caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, Lindsay M; Nicolau, David P

    2018-04-01

    Infections caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria (MDR-GNB) are associated with significant mortality and costs. New drugs in development to combat these difficult-to-treat infections primarily target carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, MDR Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and MDR Acinetobacter baumannii. Areas covered: The authors summarize in vitro and in vivo efficacy studies, as well as available clinical trial findings, for new agents in development for treatment of infection caused by MDR-GNB. Information regarding dosage regimens utilized in clinical trials and key pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic considerations are provided if available. A summary of recently approved agents, delafloxacin and meropenem/vaborbactam, is also included. Expert opinion: The development of multiple novel agents to fight MDR-GNB is promising to help save the lives of patients who acquire infection, and judicious use of these agents is imperative once they come to market to prevent the development of resistance. The other component paramount to this field of research is implementation of effective infection control policies and carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) carrier screening protocols to mitigate the worldwide spread of MDR-GNB. Further investigation of anti-infective synergistic combinations will also be important, as well as support for economic research to reveal the true cost-benefit of utilization of the new agents discussed herein.

  19. A higher yielding mutant of black gram with improved nodule formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, R.K.; Raghuvanshi, S.S.

    1987-01-01

    Dry seeds of black gram (Vigna mungo (L) Hopper) var. T 9 with 12.2% moisture content were irradiated at 10, 20 and 30 krad of gamma rays. This was followed by combined treatment of one set in each dose with freshly prepared 0. 25% EMS in phosphate buffer at 7.0 pH at 30± deg. C for 6 hours. In M 2 population of 20 krad two mutants with pentafoliate instead of trifoliate leaves were found. This character was true breeding in M 3 M 6 generation. Crosses revealed monogenic recessive inheritance of this character. The proposed gene symbol is p5. This mutant has normal maturity period and the plant height is the same as T 9 (ca. 50 cm). Preliminary yield trials indicate superiority of the mutant line over control. The mutant line also shows a significant improvement in number and weight of root nodules, potentially improving green manuring value. Improvement of root nodulation in mungbean mutants was reported before by others

  20. The TFPI-2 derived peptide EDC34 improves outcome of gram-negative sepsis.

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    Praveen Papareddy

    Full Text Available Sepsis is characterized by a dysregulated host-pathogen response, leading to high cytokine levels, excessive coagulation and failure to eradicate invasive bacteria. Novel therapeutic strategies that address crucial pathogenetic steps during infection are urgently needed. Here, we describe novel bioactive roles and therapeutic anti-infective potential of the peptide EDC34, derived from the C-terminus of tissue factor pathway inhibitor-2 (TFPI-2. This peptide exerted direct bactericidal effects and boosted activation of the classical complement pathway including formation of antimicrobial C3a, but inhibited bacteria-induced activation of the contact system. Correspondingly, in mouse models of severe Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection, treatment with EDC34 reduced bacterial levels and lung damage. In combination with the antibiotic ceftazidime, the peptide significantly prolonged survival and reduced mortality in mice. The peptide's boosting effect on bacterial clearance paired with its inhibiting effect on excessive coagulation makes it a promising therapeutic candidate for invasive Gram-negative infections.

  1. Performing Gram stain directly on catheter tips: assessment of the quality of the observation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guembe, M; Pérez-Granda, M J; Rivera, M L; Martín-Rabadán, P; Bouza, E

    2015-06-01

    A previous study performed in our institution showed that catheter tip (CT) staining by combining acridine orange and Gram stain (GS) before culture anticipated catheter colonization with exhaustive and careful observation by a highly trained technician. Our objective was to assess the validity values of GS without acridine orange on an external smear of CT for predicting catheter colonization and catheter-related bloodstream infection (C-RBSI). We compared different periods of observation and the results of two technicians with different levels of professional experience. Over a 5-month period, the roll-plate technique was preceded by direct GS of all CTs sent to the microbiology laboratory. The reading was taken at ×100 by two observers with different skill levels. Each observer performed a routine examination (3 min along three longitudinal lines) and an exhaustive examination (5 min along five longitudinal lines). The presence of at least one cell was considered positive. All slides were read before culture results were known. We included a total of 271 CTs from 209 patients. The prevalence of catheter colonization and C-RBSI was 16.2 % and 5.1 %, respectively. Routine and exhaustive examinations revealed only 29.5 % and 40.9 % of colonized catheters, respectively (p staining is performed exhaustively. However, the decision to implement this approach in daily routine will depend on the prevalence rate of catheter colonization at each institution.

  2. RND-type Drug Efflux Pumps from Gram-negative bacteria: Molecular Mechanism and Inhibition

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    Henrietta eVenter

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Drug efflux protein complexes confer multidrug resistance on bacteria by transporting a wide spectrum of structurally diverse antibiotics. Moreover, organisms can only acquire resistance in the presence of an active efflux pump. The substrate range of drug efflux pumps is not limited to antibiotics, but it also includes toxins, dyes, detergents, lipids and molecules involved in quorum sensing; hence efflux pumps are also associated with virulence and biofilm formation. Inhibitors of efflux pumps are therefore attractive compounds to reverse multidrug resistance and to prevent the development of resistance in clinically relevant bacterial pathogens. Recent successes on the structure determination and functional analysis of the AcrB and MexB components of the AcrAB-TolC and MexAB-OprM drug efflux systems as well as the structure of the fully assembled, functional triparted AcrAB-TolC complex significantly contributed to our understanding of the mechanism of substrate transport and the options for inhibition of efflux. These data, combined with the well-developed methodologies for measuring efflux pump inhibition, could allow the rational design and subsequent experimental verification of potential efflux pump inhibitors. In this review we will explore how the available biochemical and structural information can be translated into the discovery and development of new compounds that could reverse drug resistance in Gram-negative pathogens. The current literature on efflux pump inhibitors will also be analysed and the reasons why no compounds have yet progressed into clinical use will be explored.

  3. Small-Molecule Inhibitors of Gram-Negative Lipoprotein Trafficking Discovered by Phenotypic Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Paul R.; MacCormack, Kathleen; McLaughlin, Robert E.; Whiteaker, James D.; Narita, Shin-ichiro; Mori, Makiko; Tokuda, Hajime; Miller, Alita A.

    2015-01-01

    In Gram-negative bacteria, lipoproteins are transported to the outer membrane by the Lol system. In this process, lipoproteins are released from the inner membrane by the ABC transporter LolCDE and passed to LolA, a diffusible periplasmic molecular chaperone. Lipoproteins are then transferred to the outer membrane receptor protein, LolB, for insertion in the outer membrane. Here we describe the discovery and characterization of novel pyridineimidazole compounds that inhibit this process. Escherichia coli mutants resistant to the pyridineimidazoles show no cross-resistance to other classes of antibiotics and map to either the LolC or LolE protein of the LolCDE transporter complex. The pyridineimidazoles were shown to inhibit the LolA-dependent release of the lipoprotein Lpp from E. coli spheroplasts. These results combined with bacterial cytological profiling are consistent with LolCDE-mediated disruption of lipoprotein targeting to the outer membrane as the mode of action of these pyridineimidazoles. The pyridineimidazoles are the first reported inhibitors of the LolCDE complex, a target which has never been exploited for therapeutic intervention. These compounds open the door to further interrogation of the outer membrane lipoprotein transport pathway as a target for antimicrobial therapy. PMID:25583975

  4. A higher yielding mutant of black gram with improved nodule formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, R K; Raghuvanshi, S S [Plant Genetic Unit, Department of Botany, University of Lucknow (India)

    1987-07-01

    Dry seeds of black gram (Vigna mungo (L) Hopper) var. T{sub 9} with 12.2% moisture content were irradiated at 10, 20 and 30 krad of gamma rays. This was followed by combined treatment of one set in each dose with freshly prepared 0. 25% EMS in phosphate buffer at 7.0 pH at 30{+-} deg. C for 6 hours. In M{sub 2} population of 20 krad two mutants with pentafoliate instead of trifoliate leaves were found. This character was true breeding in M{sub 3} M{sub 6} generation. Crosses revealed monogenic recessive inheritance of this character. The proposed gene symbol is p5. This mutant has normal maturity period and the plant height is the same as T{sub 9} (ca. 50 cm). Preliminary yield trials indicate superiority of the mutant line over control. The mutant line also shows a significant improvement in number and weight of root nodules, potentially improving green manuring value. Improvement of root nodulation in mungbean mutants was reported before by others.

  5. Small-molecule inhibitors of gram-negative lipoprotein trafficking discovered by phenotypic screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Sarah M; Fleming, Paul R; MacCormack, Kathleen; McLaughlin, Robert E; Whiteaker, James D; Narita, Shin-Ichiro; Mori, Makiko; Tokuda, Hajime; Miller, Alita A

    2015-03-01

    In Gram-negative bacteria, lipoproteins are transported to the outer membrane by the Lol system. In this process, lipoproteins are released from the inner membrane by the ABC transporter LolCDE and passed to LolA, a diffusible periplasmic molecular chaperone. Lipoproteins are then transferred to the outer membrane receptor protein, LolB, for insertion in the outer membrane. Here we describe the discovery and characterization of novel pyridineimidazole compounds that inhibit this process. Escherichia coli mutants resistant to the pyridineimidazoles show no cross-resistance to other classes of antibiotics and map to either the LolC or LolE protein of the LolCDE transporter complex. The pyridineimidazoles were shown to inhibit the LolA-dependent release of the lipoprotein Lpp from E. coli spheroplasts. These results combined with bacterial cytological profiling are consistent with LolCDE-mediated disruption of lipoprotein targeting to the outer membrane as the mode of action of these pyridineimidazoles. The pyridineimidazoles are the first reported inhibitors of the LolCDE complex, a target which has never been exploited for therapeutic intervention. These compounds open the door to further interrogation of the outer membrane lipoprotein transport pathway as a target for antimicrobial therapy. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  6. Interventional strategies and current clinical experience with carbapenemase-producing Gram-negative bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akova, M; Daikos, G L; Tzouvelekis, L; Carmeli, Y

    2012-05-01

    The wide dissemination of carbapenemase-producing Gram-negatives (CPGNs), including enterobacterial species and non-fermenters, has caused a public health crisis of global dimensions. These organisms cause serious infections in hospitalized patients, and are associated with increased mortality. Cross-transmission is common, and outbreaks may occur in healthcare facilities where the infection control practices are inadequate. CPGNs exhibit extensive drug-resistant phenotypes, complicate therapy, and limit treatment options. Systematic data on therapy are limited. However, regimens combining two or more active agents seem to be more efficacious than monotherapy in carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae infections. Strict infection control measures, including active surveillance for timely detection of colonized patients, separation of carriers from non-carriers, and contact precautions, are of utmost importance, and may be the only effective way of preventing the introduction and transmission of these bacteria in healthcare settings. © 2012 The Authors. Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2012 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  7. Re-Factoring Glycolytic Genes for Targeted Engineering of Catabolism in Gram-Negative Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Pascuala, Alberto; Nikel, Pablo I; de Lorenzo, Víctor

    2018-01-01

    The Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas (EMP) pathway is widely accepted to be the biochemical standard of glucose catabolism. The well-characterized glycolytic route of Escherichia coli, based on the EMP catabolism, is an example of an intricate pathway in terms of genomic organization of the genes involved and patterns of gene expression and regulation. This intrinsic genetic and metabolic complexity renders it difficult to engineer glycolytic activities and transfer them onto other microbial cell factories, thus limiting the biotechnological potential of bacterial hosts that lack the route. Taking into account the potential applications of such a portable tool for targeted pathway engineering, in the present protocol we describe how the genes encoding all the enzymes of the linear EMP route have been individually recruited from the genome of E. coli K-12, edited in silico to remove their endogenous regulatory signals, and synthesized de novo following a standard (i.e., GlucoBrick) that facilitates their grouping in the form of functional modules that can be combined at the user's will. This novel genetic tool allows for the à la carte implementation or boosting of EMP pathway activities into different Gram-negative bacteria. The potential of the GlucoBrick platform is further illustrated by engineering novel glycolytic activities in the most representative members of the Pseudomonas genus (Pseudomonas putida and Pseudomonas aeruginosa).

  8. Detection of AmpC β lactamases in gram-negative bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunjan Gupta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Amp C β-lactamases are clinically important cephalosporinases encoded on the chromosomes of many Enterobacteriaceae and a few other organisms, where they mediate resistance to cephalothin, cefazolin, cefoxitin, most penicillins, and β-lactamase inhibitor/β-lactam combinations. The increase in antibiotic resistance among Gram-negative bacteria is a notable example of how bacteria can procure, maintain and express new genetic information that can confer resistance to one or several antibiotics. Detection of organisms producing these enzymes can be difficult, because their presence does not always produce a resistant phenotype on conventional disc diffusion or automated susceptibility testing methods. These enzymes are often associated with potentially fatal laboratory reports of false susceptibility to β-lactams phenotypically. With the world-wide increase in the occurrence, types and rate of dissemination of these enzymes, their early detection is critical. AmpC β-lactamases show tremendous variation in geographic distribution. Thus, their accurate detection and characterization are important from epidemiological, clinical, laboratory, and infection control point of view. This document describes the methods for detection for AmpC β-lactamases, which can be adopted by routine diagnostic laboratories.

  9. Complicated urinary tract infections: practical solutions for the treatment of multiresistant Gram-negative bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallett, Ann; Hand, Kieran

    2010-11-01

    Resistance in Gram-negative bacteria has been increasing, particularly over the last 6 years. This is mainly due to the spread of strains producing extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) such as CTX-M enzymes or AmpC β-lactamases. Many of the isolates producing these enzymes are also resistant to trimethoprim, quinolones and aminoglycosides, often due to plasmid co-expression of other resistance mechanisms. CTX-M-producing Escherichia coli often occurs in the community and as E. coli is one of the commonest organisms causing urinary tract infections (UTIs) the choice of agents to treat these infections is diminishing. Novel combinations of antibiotics are being used in the community and broad-spectrum agents such as carbapenems are being used increasingly as empirical treatment for severe infections. Of particular concern therefore are reports in the UK of organisms that produce carbapenemases. As resistance is becoming more widespread, prudent use of antimicrobials is imperative and, as asymptomatic bacteriuria is typically benign in the elderly, antibiotics should not be prescribed without clinical signs of UTI. The use of antibiotics as suppressive therapy or long-term prophylaxis may no longer be defensible.

  10. Pro Tools All-in-One For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Strong, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    A professional musician guides serious hobbyists through Pro Tool Pro Tools puts professional recording and music production software in the hands of anyone with the appropriate hardware and the knowledge to use it. Musician and recording engineer Jeff Strong guides you through the latest version of this complex program, offering twice the content of the official guide at a lower price. Eight minibooks cover recording basics, getting started with Pro Tools, recording audio, editing audio, managing MIDI, mixing, mastering, and getting your music to the masses.The latest version of Pro Tools off

  11. Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin (NGAL, Pro-Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 (pro-MMP-9 and Their Complex Pro-MMP-9/NGAL in Leukaemias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandrine Bouchet

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-9 and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL have gained attention as cancer biomarkers. The inactive zymogen form of MMP-9 (pro-MMP-9 also exists as a disulphide-linked heterodimer bound to NGAL in humans. Leukaemias represent a heterogeneous group of neoplasms, which vary in their clinical behavior and pathophysiology. In this review, we summarize the current literature on the expression profiles of pro-MMP-9 and NGAL as prognostic factors in leukaemias. We also report the expression of the pro-MMP-9/NGAL complex in these diseases. We discuss the roles of (pro-MMP-9 (active and latent forms and NGAL in tumour development, and evaluate the mechanisms by which pro-MMP-9/NGAL may influence the actions of (pro-MMP-9 and NGAL in cancer. Emerging knowledge about the coexpression and the biology of (pro-MMP-9, NGAL and their complex in cancer including leukaemia may improve treatment outcomes.

  12. Personal and social factors that influence pro-environmental concern and behaviour: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gifford, Robert; Nilsson, Andreas

    2014-06-01

    We review the personal and social influences on pro-environmental concern and behaviour, with an emphasis on recent research. The number of these influences suggests that understanding pro-environmental concern and behaviour is far more complex than previously thought. The influences are grouped into 18 personal and social factors. The personal factors include childhood experience, knowledge and education, personality and self-construal, sense of control, values, political and world views, goals, felt responsibility, cognitive biases, place attachment, age, gender and chosen activities. The social factors include religion, urban-rural differences, norms, social class, proximity to problematic environmental sites and cultural and ethnic variations We also recognize that pro-environmental behaviour often is undertaken based on none of the above influences, but because individuals have non-environmental goals such as to save money or to improve their health. Finally, environmental outcomes that are a result of these influences undoubtedly are determined by combinations of the 18 categories. Therefore, a primary goal of researchers now should be to learn more about how these many influences moderate and mediate one another to determine pro-environmental behaviour. © 2014 International Union of Psychological Science.

  13. Antibiotic susceptibility of Gram-negatives isolated from bacteremia in children with cancer. Implications for empirical therapy of febrile neutropenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castagnola, Elio; Caviglia, Ilaria; Pescetto, Luisa; Bagnasco, Francesca; Haupt, Riccardo; Bandettini, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Monotherapy is recommended as the first choice for initial empirical therapy of febrile neutropenia, but local epidemiological and antibiotic susceptibility data are now considered pivotal to design a correct management strategy. To evaluate the proportion of Gram-negative rods isolated in bloodstream infections in children with cancer resistant to antibiotics recommended for this indication. The in vitro susceptibility to ceftazidime, piperacillin-tazobactam, meropenem and amikacin of Gram-negatives isolated in bacteremic episodes in children with cancer followed at the Istituto "Giannina Gaslini", Genoa, Italy in the period of 2001-2013 was retrospectively analyzed using the definitions recommended by EUCAST in 2014. Data were analyzed for any single drug and to the combination of amikacin with each β-lactam. The combination was considered effective in absence of concomitant resistance to both drugs, and not evaluated by means of in vitro analysis of antibiotic combinations (e.g., checkerboard). A total of 263 strains were evaluated: 27% were resistant to piperacillin-tazobactam, 23% to ceftazidime, 12% to meropenem and 13% to amikacin. Concomitant resistance to β-lactam and amikacin was detected in 6% of strains for piperacillin-tazobactam, 5% for ceftazidime and 5% for meropenem. During the study period there was a nonsignificant increase in the proportions of strains resistant to β-lactams indicated for monotherapy, and also increase in the resistance to combined therapies. in an era of increasing resistance to antibiotics guideline-recommended monotherapy could be not appropriate for initial empirical therapy of febrile neutropenia. Strict local survey on etiology and antibiotic susceptibility is mandatory for a correct management of this complication in cancer patients.

  14. Gram staining of protected pulmonary specimens in the early diagnosis of ventilator-associated pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimoz, O; Karim, A; Mazoit, J X; Edouard, A; Leprince, S; Nordmann, P

    2000-11-01

    We evaluated prospectively the use of Gram staining of protected pulmonary specimens to allow the early diagnosis of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), compared with the use of 60 bronchoscopic protected specimen brushes (PSB) and 126 blinded plugged telescopic catheters (PTC) obtained from 134 patients. Gram stains were from Cytospin slides; they were studied for the presence of microorganisms in 10 and 50 fields by two independent observers and classified according to their Gram stain morphology. Quantitative cultures were performed after serial dilution and plating on appropriate culture medium. A final diagnosis of VAP, based on a culture of > or = 10(3) c.f.u. ml-1, was established after 81 (44%) samplings. When 10 fields were analysed, a strong relationship was found between the presence of bacteria on Gram staining and the final diagnosis of VAP (for PSB and PTC respectively: sensitivity 74 and 81%, specificity 94 and 100%, positive predictive value 91 and 100%, negative predictive value 82 and 88%). The correlation was less when we compared the morphology of microorganisms observed on Gram staining with those of bacteria obtained from quantitative cultures (for PSB and PTC respectively: sensitivity 54 and 69%, specificity 86 and 89%, positive predictive value 72 and 78%, negative predictive value 74 and 84%). Increasing the number of fields read to 50 was associated with a slight decrease in specificity and positive predictive value of Gram staining, but with a small increase in its sensitivity and negative predictive value. The results obtained by the two observers were similar to each other for both numbers of fields analysed. Gram staining of protected pulmonary specimens performed on 10 fields predicted the presence of VAP and partially identified (using Gram stain morphology) the microorganisms growing at significant concentrations, and could help in the early choice of the treatment of VAP. Increasing the number of fields read or having the Gram

  15. Multiplex identification of sepsis-causing Gram-negative pathogens from the plasma of infected blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Boram; Park, Chulmin; Cho, Sung-Yeon; Shin, Juyoun; Shin, Sun; Yim, Seon-Hee; Lee, Dong-Gun; Chung, Yeun-Jung

    2018-02-01

    Early and accurate detection of bacterial pathogens in the blood is the most crucial step for sepsis management. Gram-negative bacteria are the most common organisms causing severe sepsis and responsible for high morbidity and mortality. We aimed to develop a method for rapid multiplex identification of clinically important Gram-negative pathogens and also validated whether our system can identify Gram-negative pathogens with the cell-free plasm DNA from infected blood. We designed five MLPA probe sets targeting the genes specific to major Gram-negative pathogens (uidA and lacY for E. coli, ompA for A. baumannii, phoE for K. pneumoniae, and ecfX for P. aeruginosa) and one set targeting the CTX-M group 1 to identify the ESBL producing Gram-negative pathogens. All six target-specific peaks were clearly separated without any non-specific peaks in a multiplex reaction condition. The minimum detection limit was 100 fg of pathogen DNA. When we tested 28 Gram-negative clinical isolates, all of them were successfully identified without any non-specific peaks. To evaluate the clinical applicability, we tested seven blood samples from febrile patients. Three blood culture positive cases showed E. coli specific peaks, while no peak was detected in the other four culture negative samples. This technology can be useful for detection of major sepsis-causing, drug-resistant Gram-negative pathogens and also the major ESBL producing Gram-negatives from the blood of sepsis patients in a clinical setting. This system can help early initiation of effective antimicrobial treatment against Gram-negative pathogens for sepsis patients, which is very crucial for better treatment outcomes. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Extruded black gram flour: Partial substitute for improving quality characteristics of Indian traditional snack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laxmi Ananthanarayan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: During extrusion of black gram flour, formation of amylose-lipid complexes lowers down the gelatinization enthalpy of extrudates, and the partially gelatinized black gram starch leads to lowering down the water-holding capacity and alters functional properties resulting in changing quality attributes of the end product on frying/microwaving/roasting. Methods: Attempts have been made to improve the quality of an Indian traditional snack (e.g., papad by incorporating extruded black gram flour as partial substitute for raw (unextruded black gram flour. In present work, overall quality improvement was achieved by analyzing prefrying and postfrying characteristics (diameter, moisture content, expansion ratio, oil uptake, texture, and color of papad and physical properties (color and viscosity of fried oil. Results: Four different papad samples were prepared (control papads without addition of papadkhar, papads with use of 3% papadkhar, papads with incorporation of extruded black gram flour at 25% concentration, papads with incorporation of extruded black gram flour at 50% concentration along with 1% papadkhar and analyzed along standard market sample. Incorporation of extruded black gram flour in papad resulted in greater expansion with less oil uptake in fried papad. Further addition of extruded black gram flour permitted the use of lower concentration of papadkhar. After frying, the quality of oil was characterized after numerous frying cycles. Conclusion: Oil used for frying of papads containing highest concentration of papadkhar was effective only up to two frying cycles, after which color and viscosity increased significantly, adversely affecting the quality of fried oil. Keywords: Black gram flour, Extrusion, Prefrying and postfrying characteristics of papad, Quality of fried oil

  17. Miniaturized bead-beating device to automate full DNA sample preparation processes for gram-positive bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Kyu-Youn; Kwon, Sung Hong; Jung, Sun-Ok; Lim, Hee-Kyun; Jung, Won-Jong; Park, Chin-Sung; Kim, Joon-Ho; Suh, Kahp-Yang; Huh, Nam

    2011-11-07

    We have developed a miniaturized bead-beating device to automate nucleic acids extraction from Gram-positive bacteria for molecular diagnostics. The microfluidic device was fabricated by sandwiching a monolithic flexible polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) membrane between two glass wafers (i.e., glass-PDMS-glass), which acted as an actuator for bead collision via its pneumatic vibration without additional lysis equipment. The Gram-positive bacteria, S. aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus, were captured on surface-modified glass beads from 1 mL of initial sample solution and in situ lyzed by bead-beating operation. Then, 10 μL or 20 μL of bacterial DNA solution was eluted and amplified successfully by real-time PCR. It was found that liquid volume fraction played a crucial role in determining the cell lysis efficiency in a confined chamber by facilitating membrane deflection and bead motion. The miniaturized bead-beating operation disrupted most of S. aureus within 3 min, which turned out to be as efficient as the conventional benchtop vortexing machine or the enzyme-based lysis technique. The effective cell concentration was significantly enhanced with the reduction of initial sample volume by 50 or 100 times. Combination of such analyte enrichment and in situ bead-beating lysis provided an excellent PCR detection sensitivity amounting to ca. 46 CFU even for the Gram-positive bacteria. The proposed bead-beating microdevice is potentially useful as a nucleic acid extraction method toward a PCR-based sample-to-answer system. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011

  18. Pharmacodynamic profiling of doripenem, imipenem and meropenem against prevalent Gram-negative organisms in the Asia-Pacific region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiratisin, Pattarachai; Keel, Rebecca A; Nicolau, David P

    2013-01-01

    Carbapenems are increasingly being utilised owing to the escalating prevalence of antimicrobial-resistant Gram-negative bacteria from community and hospital settings. In this study, pharmacodynamic profiles of doripenem, imipenem and meropenem were evaluated against Gram-negative bacteria isolated from hospitalised patients. MICs for carbapenems were determined for Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii obtained from the COMPACT II programme conducted in the Asia-Pacific region. Monte Carlo simulations were undertaken to assess the pharmacodynamic profile of carbapenems against each of the pathogens. All carbapenem regimens achieved optimal exposures [cumulative fraction of response (CFR) ≥90%] against E. coli and K. pneumoniae. Against P. aeruginosa, doripenem achieved 81.3-95.3% CFR, imipenem achieved 55.2-77.9% CFR and meropenem achieved 71.9-91.3% CFR; only doripenem regimens of 4-h infusion of 1000 mg every 8h (q8h) and 1-h and 4-h infusion of 2000 mg q8h and a meropenem regimen of 3-h infusion of 2000 mg q8h obtained optimal exposures; all carbapenem regimens showed slight (1-7%) improvement in CFRs in favour of isolates collected from ICU sources. Against A. baumannii, CFRs were much lower (25.9-46.7% CFR) and no carbapenem regimens achieved optimal exposure in or outside the ICU. Owing to the high potency of carbapenems against these Enterobacteriaceae populations, standard regimens are likely to perform well in the Asia-Pacific region. However, larger doses combined with prolonged infusions will be required to increase the CFR for these carbapenems against resistant non-fermenting Gram-negatives such as P. aeruginosa and A. baumannii that are prevalent in these countries. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of the renal natriuretic peptide, ularitide, alone or combined ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of the renal natriuretic peptide, ularitide, alone or combined with ... inhibitor, Omapatrilat, on experimental volume overloadinduced congestive heart failure in ... N-terminal pro–brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and high-sensitivity ...

  20. Clinical utility of an automated instrument for gram staining single slides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Ellen Jo; Mix, Samantha; Moradi, Wais

    2010-06-01

    Gram stains of 87 different clinical samples were prepared by the laboratory's conventional methods (automated or manual) and by a new single-slide-type automated staining instrument, GG&B AGS-1000. Gram stains from either heat- or methanol-fixed slides stained with the new instrument were easy to interpret, and results were essentially the same as those from the methanol-fixed slides prepared as a part of the routine workflow. This instrument is well suited to a rapid-response laboratory where Gram stain requests are commonly received on a stat basis.

  1. Clinical Utility of an Automated Instrument for Gram Staining Single Slides ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Ellen Jo; Mix, Samantha; Moradi, Wais

    2010-01-01

    Gram stains of 87 different clinical samples were prepared by the laboratory's conventional methods (automated or manual) and by a new single-slide-type automated staining instrument, GG&B AGS-1000. Gram stains from either heat- or methanol-fixed slides stained with the new instrument were easy to interpret, and results were essentially the same as those from the methanol-fixed slides prepared as a part of the routine workflow. This instrument is well suited to a rapid-response laboratory where Gram stain requests are commonly received on a stat basis. PMID:20410348

  2. Effect of gamma radiation on physico-chemical characteristics of red gram (Cajanus cajan) starch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nene, S.P.; Vakil, U.K.; Sreenivasan, A.

    1975-01-01

    Total reducing and nonreducing sugars in red gram (Cajanus cajan) are not affected by radiation treatment (1 Mrad). Oligosaccharides, reported as flatulence factors in legumes, namely stachyose and raffinose, are slightly decreased on cooking the irradiated samples. Irradiated and cooked red gram starch is more susceptible to alpha-amylase action than the unirradiated sample. Rheological properties of red gram starch, such as gelatinization viscosity, swelling power and solubility improve on irradiation resulting in a final cooked product with better textural properties. (U.S.)

  3. Mining for constructions in texts using N-gram and network analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shibuya, Yoshikata; Jensen, Kim Ebensgaard

    2015-01-01

    N-gram analysis to Lewis Carroll's novel Alice's Adventures in Wonderland and Mark Twain's novelThe Adventures of Huckleberry Finn and extrapolate a number of likely constructional phenomena from recurring N-gram patterns in the two texts. In addition to simple N-gram analysis, the following....... The main premise is that, if constructions are functional units, then configurations of words that tend to recur together in discourse are likely to have some sort of function that speakers utilize in discourse. Writers of fiction, for instance, may use constructions in characterizations, mind-styles, text...

  4. Gramáticas de grafos y su aplicación en inferencia gramatical

    OpenAIRE

    Jeltsch F., Eric

    1997-01-01

    En este trabajo se presentan las gramáticas de grafos en particular un tipo de gramáticas de grafo las cuales tienen un contexto libre en el mecanismo de derivación al igual que las gramáticas de Chomsky proporcionando de esta manera un simple mecanismo para generar lenguajes de grafos. Para hacer transparente el proceso de generación de grafos se introducen los grafos decorados que son grafos equipados con una información adicional llamada hiperlíneal las cuales al ser reemplazadas en forma ...

  5. Physico-Chemical-Managed Killing of Penicillin-Resistant Static and Growing Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Vegetative Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Robert Chaffee (Inventor); Schramm, Jr., Harry F. (Inventor); Defalco, Francis G. (Inventor); Farris, III, Alex F. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Systems and methods for the use of compounds from the Hofmeister series coupled with specific pH and temperature to provide rapid physico-chemical-managed killing of penicillin-resistant static and growing Gram-positive and Gram-negative vegetative bacteria. The systems and methods represent the more general physico-chemical enhancement of susceptibility for a wide range of pathological macromolecular targets to clinical management by establishing the reactivity of those targets to topically applied drugs or anti-toxins.

  6. Antithrombotic Protective Effects of Arg-Pro-Gly-Pro Peptide during Emotional Stress Provoked by Forced Swimming Test in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigor'eva, M E; Lyapina, L A

    2017-01-01

    Blood coagulation was enhanced and all factors (total, enzyme, and non-enzyme) of the fibrinolytic system were suppressed in rats in 60 min after forced swimming test. Argininecontaining tetrapeptide glyproline Arg-Pro-Gly-Pro administered prior to this test activated fibrinolysis and prevented hypercoagulation. Administration of this peptide in 5 min after swimming test also enhanced anticoagulant, fibrinolytic, and antithrombotic activity of the blood. Therefore, glyproline Arg-Pro-Gly-Pro exerted both preventive and curative effects on the hemostasis system and prevented enhancement of blood coagulation provoked by emotional stress modeled by forced swimming test.

  7. [Expression of proBNP and NT-proBNP in Sudden Death of Coronary Heart Disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Q; Sun, R F; Li, Z; Zhai, L Q; Liu, M Z; Guo, X J; Gao, C R

    2017-10-01

    To study the expression change of pro-brain natriuretic peptide (proBNP) and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) in sudden death of coronary atherosclerotic heart disease, and to explore its application in forensic diagnosis. Myocardial and blood samples were collected from normal control group, sudden death of coronary atherosclerotic heart disease group and single coronary stenosis group (20 cases in each group). The expression of proBNP in myocardial samples were detected by immunohistochemical staining and Western blotting, and that of BNP mRNA were detected by reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR). The content of NT-proBNP in plasma were detected by ELISA. Immunohistochemical staining showed positive expression of proBNP in both sudden death of coronary atherosclerotic heart disease group and single coronary stenosis group. There was no positive expression in normal control group. For sudden death of coronary atherosclerotic heart disease group and single coronary stenosis group, the relative expression of proBNP protein and BNP mRNA in myocardial tissue and the NT-proBNP content in plasma were higher than that of normal control group ( P heart disease group was higher than that of single coronary stenosis group ( P heart disease and determine whether the sudden death due to coronary atherosclerotic heart disease. Copyright© by the Editorial Department of Journal of Forensic Medicine

  8. The additive value of N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide testing at the emergency department in patients with acute dyspnoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Burg-de Graauw, N; Cobbaert, C M; Middelhoff, C J F M; Bantje, T A; van Guldener, C

    2009-05-01

    B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and its inactive counterpart NT-proBNP can help to identify or rule out heart failure in patients presenting with acute dyspnoea. It is not well known whether measurement of these peptides can be omitted in certain patient groups. We conducted a prospective observational study of 221 patients presenting with acute dyspnoea at the emergency department. The attending physicians estimated the probability of heart failure by clinical judgement. NT-proBNP was measured, but not reported. An independent panel made a final diagnosis of all available data including NT-proBNP level and judged whether and how NT-proBNP would have altered patient management. NT-proBNP levels were highest in patients with heart failure, alone or in combination with pulmonary failure. Additive value of NT-proBNP was present in 40 of 221 (18%) of the patients, and it mostly indicated that a more intensive treatment for heart failure would have been needed. Clinical judgement was an independent predictor of additive value of NT-proBNP with a maximum at a clinical probability of heart failure of 36%. NT-proBNP measurement has additive value in a substantial number of patients presenting with acute dyspnoea, but can possibly be omitted in patients with a clinical probability of heart failure of >70%.

  9. Controlling the spread of carbapenemase-producing Gram-negatives: therapeutic approach and infection control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmeli, Y; Akova, M; Cornaglia, G; Daikos, G L; Garau, J; Harbarth, S; Rossolini, G M; Souli, M; Giamarellou, H

    2010-02-01

    Although the rapid spread of carbapenemase-producing Gram-negatives (CPGNs) is providing the scientific community with a great deal of information about the molecular epidemiology of these enzymes and their genetic background, data on how to treat multidrug-resistant or extended drug-resistant carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae and how to contain their spread are still surprisingly limited, in spite of the rapidly increasing prevalence of these organisms and of their isolation from patients suffering from life-threatening infections. Limited clinical experience and several in vitro synergy studies seem to support the view that antibiotic combinations should be preferred to monotherapies. But, in light of the data available to date, it is currently impossible to quantify the real advantage of drug combinations in the treatment of these infections. Comprehensive clinical studies of the main therapeutic options, broken down by pathogen, enzyme and clinical syndrome, are definitely lacking and, as carbapenemases keep spreading, are urgently needed. This spread is unveiling the substantial unpreparedness of European public health structures to face this worrisome emergency, although experiences from different countries-chiefly Greece and Israel-have shown that CPGN transmission and cross-infection can cause a substantial threat to the healthcare system. This unpreparedness also affects the treatment of individual patients and infection control policies, with dramatic scarcities of both therapeutic options and infection control measures. Although correct implementation of such measures is presumably cumbersome and expensive, the huge clinical and public health problems related to CPGN transmission, alongside the current scarcity of therapeutic options, seem to fully justify this choice.

  10. Technical Training: Programmation Unity-Pro pour utilisateurs de Schneider PL7-Pro

    CERN Multimedia

    Monique Duval

    2004-01-01

    Annonce de nouveau cours pour l'environnement d'automatisme Schneider Un nouveau cours sur les environnements d'automatisme Premium et Quantum de Schneider est maintenant offert dans le cadre de l'Enseignement technique du CERN, afin de découvrir le nouvel outil de programmation Unity. Cette formation, mise en place par le GUAPI (Groupe des utilisateurs d'automates programmables industriels du CERN), sera essentiellement technique et pratique, destinée aux automaticiens concepteurs, metteurs en oeuvre, installateurs, intégrateurs et techniciens de bureau d'études. Ce cours est ouvert aux personnes étant déjà capables de développer une application PL7-Pro sur TSX Premium, ou ayant suivi le stage AP571. Objectifs : Maîtriser rapidement les différences fonctionnelles d'Unity-Pro par rapport à PL7-Pro; programmer en PLC TSX Premium sous Unity, et notamment connaître l'ensemble des l...

  11. A New Family of Capsule Polymerases Generates Teichoic Acid-Like Capsule Polymers in Gram-Negative Pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litschko, Christa; Oldrini, Davide; Budde, Insa; Berger, Monika; Meens, Jochen; Gerardy-Schahn, Rita; Berti, Francesco; Schubert, Mario; Fiebig, Timm

    2018-05-29

    Group 2 capsule polymers represent crucial virulence factors of Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria. They are synthesized by enzymes called capsule polymerases. In this report, we describe a new family of polymerases that combine glycosyltransferase and hexose- and polyol-phosphate transferase activity to generate complex poly(oligosaccharide phosphate) and poly(glycosylpolyol phosphate) polymers, the latter of which display similarity to wall teichoic acid (WTA), a cell wall component of Gram-positive bacteria. Using modeling and multiple-sequence alignment, we showed homology between the predicted polymerase domains and WTA type I biosynthesis enzymes, creating a link between Gram-negative and Gram-positive cell wall biosynthesis processes. The polymerases of the new family are highly abundant and found in a variety of capsule-expressing pathogens such as Neisseria meningitidis , Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae , Haemophilus influenzae , Bibersteinia trehalosi , and Escherichia coli with both human and animal hosts. Five representative candidates were purified, their activities were confirmed using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and their predicted folds were validated by site-directed mutagenesis. IMPORTANCE Bacterial capsules play an important role in the interaction between a pathogen and the immune system of its host. During the last decade, capsule polymerases have become attractive tools for the production of capsule polymers applied as antigens in glycoconjugate vaccine formulations. Conventional production of glycoconjugate vaccines requires the cultivation of the pathogen and thus the highest biosafety standards, leading to tremendous costs. With regard to animal husbandry, where vaccines could avoid the extensive use of antibiotics, conventional production is not sufficiently cost-effective. In contrast, enzymatic synthesis of capsule polymers is pathogen-free and fast, offers high stereo- and regioselectivity, and works with high efficacy

  12. Experience With Rapid Microarray-Based Diagnostic Technology and Antimicrobial Stewardship for Patients With Gram-Positive Bacteremia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuner, Elizabeth A; Pallotta, Andrea M; Lam, Simon W; Stowe, David; Gordon, Steven M; Procop, Gary W; Richter, Sandra S

    2016-11-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe the impact of rapid diagnostic microarray technology and antimicrobial stewardship for patients with Gram-positive blood cultures. DESIGN Retrospective pre-intervention/post-intervention study. SETTING A 1,200-bed academic medical center. PATIENTS Inpatients with blood cultures positive for Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, E. faecium, Streptococcus pneumoniae, S. pyogenes, S. agalactiae, S. anginosus, Streptococcus spp., and Listeria monocytogenes during the 6 months before and after implementation of Verigene Gram-positive blood culture microarray (BC-GP) with an antimicrobial stewardship intervention. METHODS Before the intervention, no rapid diagnostic technology was used or antimicrobial stewardship intervention was undertaken, except for the use of peptide nucleic acid fluorescent in situ hybridization and MRSA agar to identify staphylococcal isolates. After the intervention, all Gram-positive blood cultures underwent BC-GP microarray and the antimicrobial stewardship intervention consisting of real-time notification and pharmacist review. RESULTS In total, 513 patients with bacteremia were included in this study: 280 patients with S. aureus, 150 patients with enterococci, 82 patients with stretococci, and 1 patient with L. monocytogenes. The number of antimicrobial switches was similar in the pre-BC-GP (52%; 155 of 300) and post-BC-GP (50%; 107 of 213) periods. The time to antimicrobial switch was significantly shorter in the post-BC-GP group than in the pre-BC-GP group: 48±41 hours versus 75±46 hours, respectively (P<.001). The most common antimicrobial switch was de-escalation and time to de-escalation, was significantly shorter in the post-BC-GP group than in the pre-BC-GP group: 53±41 hours versus 82±48 hours, respectively (P<.001). There was no difference in mortality or hospital length of stay as a result of the intervention. CONCLUSIONS The combination of a rapid microarray diagnostic test with an antimicrobial

  13. Cardiolipin, a major phospholipid of gram-positive bacteria that is not readily extractable

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Filgueiras, M.H.; Kamp, J.A.F. op den

    1980-01-01

    Extraction of phospholipids from stationary phase grown cells of the Gram+ bacteria, Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus and Micrococcus lysodeikticus was found to be incomplete with various commonly used extraction procedures. Phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidyl-ethanolamine

  14. One Small Step for the Gram Stain, One Giant Leap for Clinical Microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Richard B

    2016-06-01

    The Gram stain is one of the most commonly performed tests in the clinical microbiology laboratory, yet it is poorly controlled and lacks standardization. It was once the best rapid test in microbiology, but it is no longer trusted by many clinicians. The publication by Samuel et al. (J. Clin. Microbiol. 54:1442-1447, 2016, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JCM.03066-15) is a start for those who want to evaluate and improve Gram stain performance. In an age of emerging rapid molecular results, is the Gram stain still relevant? How should clinical microbiologists respond to the call to reduce Gram stain error rates? Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  15. Septicemia caused by the gram-negative bacterium CDC IV c-2 in an immunocompromised human.

    OpenAIRE

    Dan, M; Berger, S A; Aderka, D; Levo, Y

    1986-01-01

    A 37-year-old man with plasma cell leukemia developed nonfatal septicemia caused by the gram-negative bacterium CDC IV c-2. Recovery followed appropriate treatment with antibiotics. The biochemical features of this organism are reviewed.

  16. European surveillance study on antimicrobial susceptibility of Gram-positive anaerobic cocci

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brazier, J; Chmelar, D; Dubreuil, L

    2008-01-01

    Gram-positive anaerobic cocci (GPAC) are a heterogeneous group of microorganisms frequently isolated from local and systemic infections. In this study, the antimicrobial susceptibilities of clinical strains isolated in 10 European countries were investigated. After identification of 299 GPAC...

  17. Breeding high yielding varieties of pigeon pea, mungbean and black gram using induced mutations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pawar, S.E.; Wanjari, K.B.

    1994-01-01

    The present communication emphasis the developing of high yielding varieties of pigeon pea, mungbean and black gram using induced mutation with disease resistance in these crops. This would help in stabilisation of the higher yield potential

  18. Cystic neutrophilic granulomatous mastitis: an underappreciated pattern strongly associated with gram-positive bacilli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renshaw, Andrew A; Derhagopian, Robert P; Gould, Edwin W

    2011-09-01

    Although granulomatous lobular mastitis is associated with gram-positive bacilli such as Corynebacterium, this association is not well known. We report 3 cases of mastitis caused by gram-positive bacilli. All 3 abscesses were suppurative with distinct enlarged cystic spaces in which rare gram-positive bacilli were identified. Two cases were also granulomatous. Cultures in all 3 cases were negative. All 3 patients recovered after biopsy and tetracycline-based therapy. Infection in the breast by gram-positive bacilli is associated with a distinct histologic pattern, including cystic spaces in the setting of neutrophilic/granulomatous inflammation that can be recognized and should prompt careful search for the organism within enlarged vacuoles.

  19. Rapid, highly sensitive detection of Gram-negative bacteria with lipopolysaccharide based disposable aptasensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian; Oueslati, Rania; Cheng, Cheng; Zhao, Ling; Chen, Jiangang; Almeida, Raul; Wu, Jayne

    2018-07-30

    Gram-negative bacteria are one of the most common microorganisms in the environment. Their differential detection and recognition from Gram-positive bacteria has been attracting much attention over the years. Using Escherichia coli (E. coli) as a model, we demonstrated on-site detection of Gram-negative bacteria by an AC electrokinetics-based capacitive sensing method using commercial microelectrodes functionalized with an aptamer specific to lipopolysaccharides. Dielectrophoresis effect was utilized to enrich viable bacteria to the microelectrodes rapidly, achieving a detection limit of 10 2 cells/mL within a 30 s' response time. The sensor showed a negligible response to Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), a Gram-positive species. The developed sensor showed significant advantages in sensitivity, selectivity, cost, operation simplicity, and response time. Therefore, this sensing method has shown great application potential for environmental monitoring, food safety, and real-time diagnosis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Separation of bismuth from gram amounts of thallium and silver by cation-exchange chromatography in nitric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meintjies, E; Strelow, F W; Victor, A H

    1987-04-01

    Traces and small amounts of bismuth can be separated from gram amounts of thallium and silver by successively eluting these elements with 0.3M and 0.6M nitric acid from a column containing 13 ml (3 g) of AG50W-X4, a cation-exchanger (100-200 mesh particle size) with low cross-linking. Bismuth is retained and can be eluted with 0.2M hydrobromic acid containing 20% v/v acetone, leaving many other trace elements absorbed. Elution of thallium is quite sharp, but silver shows a small amount of tailing (less than 1 gmg/ml silver in the eluate) when gram amounts are present, between 20 and 80 mug of silver appearing in the bismuth fraction. Relevant elution curves and results for the analysis of synthetic mixtures containing between 50 mug and 10 mg of bismuth and up to more than 1 g of thallium and silver are presented, as well as results for bismuth in a sample of thallium metal and in Merck thallium(I) carbonate. As little as 0.01 ppm of bismuth can be determined when the separation is combined with electrothermal atomic-absorption spectrometry.

  1. Incidence of carbapenem-resistant gram negatives in Italian transplant recipients: a nationwide surveillance study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanini, Simone; Costa, Alessandro Nanni; Puro, Vincenzo; Procaccio, Francesco; Grossi, Paolo Antonio; Vespasiano, Francesca; Ricci, Andrea; Vesconi, Sergio; Ison, Michael G; Carmeli, Yehuda; Ippolito, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial infections remain a challenge to solid organ transplantation. Due to the alarming spread of carbapenem-resistant gram negative bacteria, these organisms have been frequently recognized as cause of severe infections in solid organ transplant recipients. Between 15 May and 30 September 2012 we enrolled 887 solid organ transplant recipients in Italy with the aim to describe the epidemiology of gram negative bacteria spreading, to explore potential risk factors and to assess the effect of early isolation of gram negative bacteria on recipients' mortality during the first 90 days after transplantation. During the study period 185 clinical isolates of gram negative bacteria were reported, for an incidence of 2.39 per 1000 recipient-days. Positive cultures for gram negative bacteria occurred early after transplantation (median time 26 days; incidence rate 4.33, 1.67 and 1.14 per 1,000 recipient-days in the first, second and third month after SOT, respectively). Forty-nine of these clinical isolates were due to carbapenem-resistant gram negative bacteria (26.5%; incidence 0.63 per 1000 recipient-days). Carbapenems resistance was particularly frequent among Klebsiella spp. isolates (49.1%). Recipients with longer hospital stay and those who received either heart or lung graft were at the highest risk of testing positive for any gram negative bacteria. Moreover recipients with longer hospital stay, lung recipients and those admitted to hospital for more than 48h before transplantation had the highest probability to have culture(s) positive for carbapenem-resistant gram negative bacteria. Forty-four organ recipients died (0.57 per 1000 recipient-days) during the study period. Recipients with at least one positive culture for carbapenem-resistant gram negative bacteria had a 10.23-fold higher mortality rate than those who did not. The isolation of gram-negative bacteria is most frequent among recipient with hospital stays >48 hours prior to transplant and in those

  2. Incidence of carbapenem-resistant gram negatives in Italian transplant recipients: a nationwide surveillance study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Lanini

    Full Text Available Bacterial infections remain a challenge to solid organ transplantation. Due to the alarming spread of carbapenem-resistant gram negative bacteria, these organisms have been frequently recognized as cause of severe infections in solid organ transplant recipients.Between 15 May and 30 September 2012 we enrolled 887 solid organ transplant recipients in Italy with the aim to describe the epidemiology of gram negative bacteria spreading, to explore potential risk factors and to assess the effect of early isolation of gram negative bacteria on recipients' mortality during the first 90 days after transplantation. During the study period 185 clinical isolates of gram negative bacteria were reported, for an incidence of 2.39 per 1000 recipient-days. Positive cultures for gram negative bacteria occurred early after transplantation (median time 26 days; incidence rate 4.33, 1.67 and 1.14 per 1,000 recipient-days in the first, second and third month after SOT, respectively. Forty-nine of these clinical isolates were due to carbapenem-resistant gram negative bacteria (26.5%; incidence 0.63 per 1000 recipient-days. Carbapenems resistance was particularly frequent among Klebsiella spp. isolates (49.1%. Recipients with longer hospital stay and those who received either heart or lung graft were at the highest risk of testing positive for any gram negative bacteria. Moreover recipients with longer hospital stay, lung recipients and those admitted to hospital for more than 48h before transplantation had the highest probability to have culture(s positive for carbapenem-resistant gram negative bacteria. Forty-four organ recipients died (0.57 per 1000 recipient-days during the study period. Recipients with at least one positive culture for carbapenem-resistant gram negative bacteria had a 10.23-fold higher mortality rate than those who did not.The isolation of gram-negative bacteria is most frequent among recipient with hospital stays >48 hours prior to transplant

  3. Embodied Interaction Design in Engineering Education using Asus Xtion Pro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majgaard, Gunver

    2013-01-01

    How does a design of emerging embodied technologies, such as Asus Xtion Pro, enrich the HCI learning processes in Engineering Education? The fifth semester engineering students used the motion sensing input device, Asus Xtion Pro (similar to Microsoft’s Kinect), for the design of an embodied...

  4. Peanuts & Crackerjacks: Economics of Pro Team Sports. Teacher's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federal Reserve Bank of Boston, MA.

    This teacher's guide presents instructional materials which examine issues in professional sports for students in high school economics and social studies classes. The issues include how the pro sports market evolved; how leagues gained market power; why athletes earn as much as they do; what are the sources of pro sports revenues; why tickets…

  5. Pro-torus actions on Poincaré duality spaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    duality spaces, Borel's dimension formula and topological splitting principle to local weights, hold if 'torus' is replaced by 'pro-torus'. Keywords. Pro-torus; Poincaré duality space; local weight. 1. Introduction. In the theory of linear representations of compact connected Lie groups, the crucial first step is restriction to the ...

  6. Pro-Market Educational Governance: Is Argentina a Black Swan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beech, Jason; Barrenechea, Ignacio

    2011-01-01

    In this article we explore ways in which pro-market discourses have been interpreted in policy initiatives in Argentina since the 1970s. Our argument is that even though pro-market discourses have guided reforms in many aspects of public policies in Argentina, the arena of education has overall been resistant to taking them up. The first part of…

  7. Oxidized LDL Promotes Apoptosis and Expression of Pro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Accumulation of lipid within non-adipose tissues can induce inflammation by promoting macrophage infiltration and activation. Oxidized lipoproteins (oxLDL) have been known to induce cellular dysfunction in resident macrophages through pro-inflammatory and pro-apoptotic properties. However research into the ...

  8. Legal Understanding of "Quid Pro Quo" Sexual Harassment in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahlangu, Vimbi Petrus

    2017-01-01

    This paper highlights legal understanding of quid pro quo sexual harassment in schools. Quid pro quo sexual harassment implies abuse of authority or position to gain something sexual. A duty of care rests on teachers, Schools Governing Bodies and the Department of Education to provide and maintain safe schools that are free from all forms of…

  9. Intracerebroventricular Infusion of the (Pro)renin Receptor Antagonist PRO20 Attenuates Deoxycorticosterone Acetate-Salt–Induced Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wencheng; Sullivan, Michelle N.; Zhang, Sheng; Worker, Caleb J.; Xiong, Zhenggang; Speth, Robert C.; Feng, Yumei

    2016-01-01

    We previously reported that binding of prorenin to the (pro)renin receptor (PRR) plays a major role in brain angiotensin II formation and the development of deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt hypertension. Here, we designed and developed an antagonistic peptide, PRO20, to block prorenin binding to the PRR. Fluorescently labeled PRO20 bound to both mouse and human brain tissues with dissociation constants of 4.4 and 1.8 nmol/L, respectively. This binding was blocked by coincubation with prorenin and was diminished in brains of neuron-specific PRR-knockout mice, indicating specificity of PRO20 for PRR. In cultured human neuroblastoma cells, PRO20 blocked prorenin-induced calcium influx in a concentration- and AT1 receptor–dependent manner. Intracerebroventricular infusion of PRO20 dose-dependently inhibited prorenin-induced hypertension in C57Bl6/J mice. Furthermore, acute intracerebroventricular infusion of PRO20 reduced blood pressure in both DOCA-salt and genetically hypertensive mice. Chronic intracerebroventricular infusion of PRO20 attenuated the development of hypertension and the increase in brain hypothalamic angiotensin II levels induced by DOCA-salt. In addition, chronic intracerebroventricular infusion of PRO20 improved autonomic function and spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity in mice treated with DOCA-salt. In summary, PRO20 binds to both mouse and human PRRs and decreases angiotensin II formation and hypertension induced by either prorenin or DOCA-salt. Our findings highlight the value of the novel PRR antagonist, PRO20, as a lead compound for a novel class of antihypertensive agents and as a research tool to establish the validity of brain PRR antagonism as a strategy for treating hypertension. PMID:25421983

  10. Intracerebroventricular infusion of the (Pro)renin receptor antagonist PRO20 attenuates deoxycorticosterone acetate-salt-induced hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wencheng; Sullivan, Michelle N; Zhang, Sheng; Worker, Caleb J; Xiong, Zhenggang; Speth, Robert C; Feng, Yumei

    2015-02-01

    We previously reported that binding of prorenin to the (pro)renin receptor (PRR) plays a major role in brain angiotensin II formation and the development of deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt hypertension. Here, we designed and developed an antagonistic peptide, PRO20, to block prorenin binding to the PRR. Fluorescently labeled PRO20 bound to both mouse and human brain tissues with dissociation constants of 4.4 and 1.8 nmol/L, respectively. This binding was blocked by coincubation with prorenin and was diminished in brains of neuron-specific PRR-knockout mice, indicating specificity of PRO20 for PRR. In cultured human neuroblastoma cells, PRO20 blocked prorenin-induced calcium influx in a concentration- and AT(1) receptor-dependent manner. Intracerebroventricular infusion of PRO20 dose-dependently inhibited prorenin-induced hypertension in C57Bl6/J mice. Furthermore, acute intracerebroventricular infusion of PRO20 reduced blood pressure in both DOCA-salt and genetically hypertensive mice. Chronic intracerebroventricular infusion of PRO20 attenuated the development of hypertension and the increase in brain hypothalamic angiotensin II levels induced by DOCA-salt. In addition, chronic intracerebroventricular infusion of PRO20 improved autonomic function and spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity in mice treated with DOCA-salt. In summary, PRO20 binds to both mouse and human PRRs and decreases angiotensin II formation and hypertension induced by either prorenin or DOCA-salt. Our findings highlight the value of the novel PRR antagonist, PRO20, as a lead compound for a novel class of antihypertensive agents and as a research tool to establish the validity of brain PRR antagonism as a strategy for treating hypertension. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  11. Energy consumption of ProTaper Next X1 after glide path with PathFiles and ProGlider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berutti, Elio; Alovisi, Mario; Pastorelli, Michele Angelo; Chiandussi, Giorgio; Scotti, Nicola; Pasqualini, Damiano

    2014-12-01

    Instrument failure caused by excessive torsional stress can be controlled by creating a manual or mechanical glide path. The ProGlider single-file system (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland) was recently introduced to perform a mechanical glide path. This study was designed to compare the effect of a glide path performed with PathFiles (Dentsply Maillefer) and ProGlider on torque, time, and pecking motion required for ProTaper Next X1 (Dentsply Maillefer) to reach the full working length in simulated root canals. Forty Endo Training Blocks (Dentsply Maillefer) were used. Twenty were prepared with a mechanical glide path using PathFiles 1 and 2 (the PathFile group), and 20 were prepared with a mechanical glide path using a ProGlider single file (the ProGlider group). All samples were shaped with ProTaper Next X1 driven by an endodontic motor connected to a digital wattmeter. The required torque for root canal instrumentation was analyzed by evaluating the electrical power consumption of the endodontic engine. Electric power consumption (mW/h), elapsed time (seconds), and number of pecking motions required to reach the full working length with ProTaper Next X1 were calculated. Differences among groups were analyzed with the parametric Student t test for independent data (P < .05). Elapsed time and electric power consumption were significantly different between groups (P = .0001 for both). ProGlider appears to perform more efficiently than PathFiles in decreasing electric power consumption of ProTaper Next X1 to reach the full working length. This study confirmed the ability of ProGlider to reduce stress in ProTaper Next X1 during shaping through a glide path and preliminary middle and coronal preflaring. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Prognostic value of plasma midregional pro-adrenomedullin and C-terminal-pro-endothelin-1 in chronic heart failure outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adlbrecht, Christopher; Hülsmann, Martin; Strunk, Guido; Berger, Rudolf; Mörtl, Deddo; Struck, Joachim; Morgenthaler, Nils G; Bergmann, Andreas; Jakowitsch, Johannes; Maurer, Gerald; Lang, Irene M; Pacher, Richard

    2009-04-01

    The identification of chronic heart failure (CHF) patients at high risk of adverse outcome remains a challenge. New peptides are emerging that may give additional information. In CHF patients, endothelin (ET) levels predict mortality risk. Adrenomedullin has been shown to predict mortality in ischaemic heart failure, but not in unselected or non-ischaemic CHF patients. Moreover, ADM and ET have never been assessed in one model. The aim of the present study was to assess the prognostic value of midregional-pro-adrenomedullin (MR-proADM) and C-terminal-pro-endothelin-1 (CT-proET-1) in outpatients with CHF. We measured plasma MR-proADM and CT-proET-1 levels in 786 consecutive CHF outpatients and compared them with B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels. At 24-month follow-up, 233 patients had died. A stepwise forward Cox regression model with age, sex, estimated glomerular filtration rate, NYHA > II, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), MR-proADM, CT-proET-1, and BNP as possible predictors revealed that MR-proADM levels [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.77, P II (HR = 1.86, P < 0.001) were predictors of death at 24 months. When the analysis was repeated dependent on NYHA-stage, MR-proADM (HR = 2.12, P < 0.001) and LVEF (HR = 0.96, P = 0.006) were significant markers, but only in patients with mild/moderate CHF. Our data suggest that MR-proADM may be an important prognostic humoral marker, especially in mild/moderately symptomatic and non-ischaemic CHF patients.

  13. Exact closed-form expression for the inverse moments of one-sided correlated Gram matrices

    KAUST Repository

    Elkhalil, Khalil

    2016-08-15

    In this paper, we derive a closed-form expression for the inverse moments of one sided-correlated random Gram matrices. Such a question is mainly motivated by applications in signal processing and wireless communications for which evaluating this quantity is a question of major interest. This is for instance the case of the best linear unbiased estimator, in which the average estimation error corresponds to the first inverse moment of a random Gram matrix.

  14. Exact closed-form expression for the inverse moments of one-sided correlated Gram matrices

    KAUST Repository

    Elkhalil, Khalil; Kammoun, Abla; Al-Naffouri, Tareq Y.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we derive a closed-form expression for the inverse moments of one sided-correlated random Gram matrices. Such a question is mainly motivated by applications in signal processing and wireless communications for which evaluating this quantity is a question of major interest. This is for instance the case of the best linear unbiased estimator, in which the average estimation error corresponds to the first inverse moment of a random Gram matrix.

  15. A classification system for plasmids from Enterococci and other Gram-positive bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars Bogø; Garcia-Migura, Lourdes; Valenzuela, Antonio Jesus Sanchez

    2010-01-01

    A classification system for plasmids isolated from enterococci and other Gram-positive bacteria was developed based on 111 published plasmid sequences from enterococci and other Gram-positive bacteria; mostly staphylococci. Based on PCR amplification of conserved areas of the replication initiating....... Furthermore, conjugation experiments were performed obtaining 30 transconjugants when selecting for antimicrobial resistance. Among them 19 gave no positive amplicons indicating presence of rep-families not tested for in this experimental setup....

  16. Gram-Positive Uropathogens, Polymicrobial Urinary Tract Infection, and the Emerging Microbiota of the Urinary Tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, Kimberly A; Lewis, Amanda L

    2016-04-01

    Gram-positive bacteria are a common cause of urinary-tract infection (UTI), particularly among individuals who are elderly, pregnant, or who have other risk factors for UTI. Here we review the epidemiology, virulence mechanisms, and host response to the most frequently isolated Gram-positive uropathogens: Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Enterococcus faecalis, and Streptococcus agalactiae. We also review several emerging, rare, misclassified, and otherwise underreported Gram-positive pathogens of the urinary tract including Aerococcus, Corynebacterium, Actinobaculum, and Gardnerella. The literature strongly suggests that urologic diseases involving Gram-positive bacteria may be easily overlooked due to limited culture-based assays typically utilized for urine in hospital microbiology laboratories. Some UTIs are polymicrobial in nature, often involving one or more Gram-positive bacteria. We herein review the risk factors and recent evidence for mechanisms of bacterial synergy in experimental models of polymicrobial UTI. Recent experimental data has demonstrated that, despite being cleared quickly from the bladder, some Gram-positive bacteria can impact pathogenic outcomes of co-infecting organisms. When taken together, the available evidence argues that Gram-positive bacteria are important uropathogens in their own right, but that some can be easily overlooked because they are missed by routine diagnostic methods. Finally, a growing body of evidence demonstrates that a surprising variety of fastidious Gram-positive bacteria may either reside in or be regularly exposed to the urinary tract and further suggests that their presence is widespread among women, as well as men. Experimental studies in this area are needed; however, there is a growing appreciation that the composition of bacteria found in the bladder could be a potentially important determinant in urologic disease, including susceptibility to UTI.

  17. Gram-negative and -positive bacteria differentiation in blood culture samples by headspace volatile compound analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolch, Michael E; Janitza, Silke; Boulesteix, Anne-Laure; Graßmann-Lichtenauer, Carola; Praun, Siegfried; Denzer, Wolfgang; Schelling, Gustav; Schubert, Sören

    2016-12-01

    Identification of microorganisms in positive blood cultures still relies on standard techniques such as Gram staining followed by culturing with definite microorganism identification. Alternatively, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry or the analysis of headspace volatile compound (VC) composition produced by cultures can help to differentiate between microorganisms under experimental conditions. This study assessed the efficacy of volatile compound based microorganism differentiation into Gram-negatives and -positives in unselected positive blood culture samples from patients. Headspace gas samples of positive blood culture samples were transferred to sterilized, sealed, and evacuated 20 ml glass vials and stored at -30 °C until batch analysis. Headspace gas VC content analysis was carried out via an auto sampler connected to an ion-molecule reaction mass spectrometer (IMR-MS). Measurements covered a mass range from 16 to 135 u including CO2, H2, N2, and O2. Prediction rules for microorganism identification based on VC composition were derived using a training data set and evaluated using a validation data set within a random split validation procedure. One-hundred-fifty-two aerobic samples growing 27 Gram-negatives, 106 Gram-positives, and 19 fungi and 130 anaerobic samples growing 37 Gram-negatives, 91 Gram-positives, and two fungi were analysed. In anaerobic samples, ten discriminators were identified by the random forest method allowing for bacteria differentiation into Gram-negative and -positive (error rate: 16.7 % in validation data set). For aerobic samples the error rate was not better than random. In anaerobic blood culture samples of patients IMR-MS based headspace VC composition analysis facilitates bacteria differentiation into Gram-negative and -positive.

  18. Lung cancer risk associated with Thr495Pro polymorphism of GHR in Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Guochun; Lu, Hongna; Feng, Jifeng; Shu, Jian; Zheng, Datong; Hou, Yayi

    2008-04-01

    The incidence of lung cancer has been increasing over recent decades. Previous studies showed that polymorphisms of the genes involved in carcinogen-detoxication, DNA repair and cell cycle control comprise risk factors for lung cancer. Recent observations revealed that the growth hormone receptor (GHR) might play important roles in carcinogenesis and Rudd et al. found that the Thr495Pro polymorphism of GHR was strongly associated with lung cancer risk in Caucasians living in the UK (OR = 12.98, P = 0.0019, 95% CI: 1.77-infinity). To test whether this variant of GHR would modify the risk of lung cancer in Chinese population, we compared the polymorphism between 778 lung cancer patients and 781 healthy control subjects. Our results indicate that the frequency of 495Thr (2.8%) allele in cases was significantly higher than in controls (OR = 2.04, P = 0.006, 95% CI: 1.21-3.42) which indicated this allele might be a risk factor for lung cancer. Further analyses revealed Thr495Pro variant was associated with lung cancer in the subpopulation with higher risk for lung cancer: male subpopulation, still-smokers subpopulation and the subpopulation with familial history of cancer. In different histological types of lung cancer, Thr495Pro SNP was significantly associated with small cell and squamous cell lung cancer, but not with adenocarcinoma, which suggested a potential interaction between this polymorphism and metabolic pathways related to smoking. The potential gene-environment interaction on lung cancer risk was evaluated using MDR software. A significant redundant interaction between Thr495Pro polymorphism and smoking dose and familial history of cancer was identified and the combination of genetic factors and smoking status or familial history of cancer barely increased the cancer risk prediction accuracy. In conclusion, our results suggested that the Thr495Pro polymorphism of GHR was associated with the risk of lung cancer in a redundant interaction with smoking and

  19. Profiling the ‘Pro-environmental Individual’: A Personality Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowitz, Ezra M.; Goldberg, Lewis R.; Ashton, Michael C.; Lee, Kibeom

    2011-01-01

    There is considerable scientific interest in the psychological correlates of pro-environmental behaviors. Much research has focused on demographic and social-psychological characteristics of individuals who consistently perform such actions. Here, we report the results of two studies in which we explored relations between broad personality traits and pro-environmental actions. Using a wide variety of behavior and personality measures, we consistently found moderate positive relations between Openness to Experience and pro-environmental activities in both a community sample (Study 1: N = 778) and an undergraduate student sample (Study 2: N = 115). In Study 2 we showed that the effect of Openness on pro-environmental behaviors was fully mediated by individuals’ environmental attitudes and connection to nature. Our findings suggest that high levels of aesthetic appreciation, creativity, and inquisitiveness, but not personality traits associated with altruism, may have motivated the performance of pro-environmental actions among our respondents. Implications for intervention development are discussed. PMID:21241310

  20. Sistema de tareas para la enseñanza combinada de la gramática comunicativa y la gramática tradicional de lengua inglesa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy del Carmen Jiménez Figueredo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó el diseño de un sistema de tareas para la enseñanza combinada de la gramática comunicativa y la gramática tradicional de lengua inglesa, con metodología cuali-cuantitativa, en la Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Zoilo Marinello Vidaurreta” de la Universidad de Ciencias Médicas de Las Tunas, durante el período comprendido entre septiembre de 2011 y julio de 2014. El objetivo estuvo direccionado a perfeccionar la corrección lingüística en el proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje del idioma Inglés. La realización del diseño contó con: una revisión bibliográfica de los principales enfoques utilizados en la enseñanza-aprendizaje del Inglés; la revisión documental, que permitió determinar las insuficiencias lingüísticas y la necesidad de combinar la gramática comunicativa con la gramática tradicional, en los estudiantes del cuarto año de la carrera de Estomatología; el intercambio con profesionales con más de quince años de experiencia, para obtener información acerca del proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje de la gramática; y la aplicación de una valoración equivalente al juicio de expertos, método de agregados individuales, para valorar la propuesta. Los principales resultados fueron: la caracterización de las insuficiencias provocadas por la absolutización del enfoque comunicativo en la enseñanza de la gramática de la lengua inglesa y el diseño de un sistema de tareas para el proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje de la gramática inglesa en estos estudiantes

  1. Widespread Fosfomycin Resistance in Gram-Negative Bacteria Attributable to the Chromosomal fosA Gene

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    Ryota Ito

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Fosfomycin is a decades-old antibiotic which is being revisited because of its perceived activity against many extensively drug-resistant Gram-negative pathogens. FosA proteins are Mn2+ and K+-dependent glutathione S-transferases which confer fosfomycin resistance in Gram-negative bacteria by conjugation of glutathione to the antibiotic. Plasmid-borne fosA variants have been reported in fosfomycin-resistant Escherichia coli strains. However, the prevalence and distribution of fosA in other Gram-negative bacteria are not known. We systematically surveyed the presence of fosA in Gram-negative bacteria in over 18,000 published genomes from 18 Gram-negative species and investigated their contribution to fosfomycin resistance. We show that FosA homologues are present in the majority of genomes in some species (e.g., Klebsiella spp., Enterobacter spp., Serratia marcescens, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, whereas they are largely absent in others (e.g., E. coli, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Burkholderia cepacia. FosA proteins in different bacterial pathogens are highly divergent, but key amino acid residues in the active site are conserved. Chromosomal fosA genes conferred high-level fosfomycin resistance when expressed in E. coli, and deletion of chromosomal fosA in S. marcescens eliminated fosfomycin resistance. Our results indicate that FosA is encoded by clinically relevant Gram-negative species and contributes to intrinsic fosfomycin resistance.

  2. [Comparison of the quick Gram stain method to the B&M modified and favor methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osawa, Kayo; Kataoka, Nobumasa; Maruo, Toshio

    2011-01-01

    The Gram stain is an established method for bacterial identification, but the time needed to carry out this stain is 2-3 min. We attempted to shorten this time and stained a total of 70 clinical specimens isolated from using the Bartholomew & Mittwer (B&M) modified or Favor methods with a 3 s duration for washing and staining steps. Results were plotted and analyzed using a Hue Saturation Intensity (HSI) model. The range based on a plot of the two methods with the HSI model was presented as a reference interval. Our results indicated that 100% (35/35) of strains were Gram positive and 97.1% (34/35) were Gram negative for the quick B&M modified method. In the quick Favor method, 80.0% (28/35) were Gram positive and 68.6% (24/35) of strains were Gram negative. We propose that the quick B&M modified method is equivalent to the standard Gram staining method and is superior to the quick Favor method.

  3. Breaking barriers: expansion of the use of endolysins as novel antibacterials against Gram-negative bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briers, Yves; Lavigne, Rob

    2015-01-01

    The emergence and spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria drives the search for novel classes of antibiotics to replenish our armamentarium against bacterial infections. This is particularly critical for Gram-negative pathogens, which are intrinsically resistant to many existing classes of antibiotics due to the presence of a protective outer membrane. In addition, the antibiotics development pipeline is mainly oriented to Gram-positive pathogens such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. A promising novel class of antibacterials is endolysins. These enzymes encoded by bacterial viruses hydrolyze the peptidoglycan layer with high efficiency, resulting in abrupt osmotic lysis and cell death. Their potential as novel antibacterials to treat Gram-positive bacteria has been extensively demonstrated; however, the Gram-negative outer membrane has presented a formidable barrier for the use of endolysins against Gram-negatives until recently. This review reports on the most recent advances in the development of endolysins to kill Gram-negative species with a special focus on endolysin-engineered Artilysins(®).

  4. The Interplay among Environmental Attitudes, Pro-Environmental Behavior, Social Identity, and Pro-Environmental Institutional Climate. A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prati, Gabriele; Albanesi, Cinzia; Pietrantoni, Luca

    2017-01-01

    By using a panel design in a sample of 298 undergraduate/master students at an Italian public university, the present study aimed to test longitudinally the interplay among environmental attitudes, pro-environmental behavior, social identity, and pro-environmental institutional climate. The relationships were tested with cross-lagged analysis…

  5. Test Reviews: Reynolds, C., & Voress, J. K. (2007). "Test of Memory and Learning: Second Edition." Austin, TX: PRO-ED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Ara J.; Decker, Scott L.

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews the Test of Memory and Learning: Second Edition (TOMAL-2), published by PRO-ED, which constitutes a recent revision of the Test of Memory and Learning (TOMAL; Reynolds & Bigler, 1994). Advertised as the "single most comprehensive memory battery available for the entire age range of 5 years through 59 years of age", the TOMAL-2…

  6. Is the Pro-Network Bias Justified?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Pardo

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The academic literature, policy makers, and international organizations often emphasize the value of networks that, allegedly, may contribute to subcontractor upgrading, innovation, and economic welfare. By contrast, it is difficult to assess whether engagement in production outsourcing networks also accrues some advantages to outsourcers (contractors. To research differences between these organizations and vertically integrated organizations, we analyzed a sample of 1,031 industrial plants, statistically representative of firms with more than 50 employees in Spain’s manufacturing industry. We used t-tests, nonparametric tests, and chi-square tests, and hypotheses were tested for three subsets of companies, classified by the R&D intensity of the industry. In each set of industries, subcontracting is systematically associated with small batch production. By contrast, vertically integrated plants are more inclined to use mass production. In every type of industry, subcontracting is a form of governance especially efficient for the diffusion of new technology. Plants that subcontract production are more likely than integrated plants to adopt advanced manufacturing technology, whatever the R&D intensity of the industry. We conclude that outsourcers seem better prepared than vertically integrated organizations to meet customers’ requirements but employment of subcontracting do not lower necessarily their technology needs—a widespread “pro-network” argument.

  7. LiF Reduces MICs of Antibiotics against Clinical Isolates of Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Bacteria

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    H. C. Syed

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotic resistance is an ever-growing problem yet the development of new antibiotics has slowed to a trickle, giving rise to the use of combination therapy to eradicate infections. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the combined inhibitory effect of lithium fluoride (LiF and commonly used antimicrobials on the growth of the following bacteria: Enterococcus faecalis, Staphyloccoccus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Serratia marcescens, and Streptococcus pneumoniae. The in vitro activities of ceftazidime, sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim, streptomycin, erythromycin, amoxicillin, and ciprofloxacin, doxycycline, alone or combined with LiF were performed by microdilution method. MICs were determined visually following 18–20 h of incubation at 37°C. We observed reduced MICs of antibiotics associated with LiF ranging from two-fold to sixteen-fold. The strongest decreases of MICs observed were for streptomycin and erythromycin associated with LiF against Acinetobacter baumannii and Streptococcus pneumoniae. An eight-fold reduction was recorded for streptomycin against S. pneumoniae whereas an eight-fold and a sixteen-fold reduction were obtained for erythromycin against A. baumannii and S. pneumoniae. This suggests that LiF exhibits a synergistic effect with a wide range of antibiotics and is indicative of its potential as an adjuvant in antibiotic therapy.

  8. Allelopathic effects of eucalyptus camaldulensis leaf leachate on the growth of wheat and green gram and its control by farm yard manure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, S.; Bibi, S.

    2012-01-01

    Farm Yard Manure (FYM) significantly reduced the allelopathic effects of Eucalyptus camaldulensis leachate. This influence was studied on morphological and physiological aspect of two taxonomically different plants (wheat and green gram). E. camaldulensis aqueous leachate applied (4), 1% and 5% alone and together with FYM and the results showed that E. camaldulensis leaf leachate had inhibitory effects on wheat growth, while promoted shoot and root growth in green gram when supplied in low concentration. The combined effects of litter and FYM reduced the inhibitory effects of leachate and supported the growth of both plants. These results suggested that, if both studied crops have to be cultivated in an agricultural land surrounded by E. camaldulensis tree, the possible growth rate could be supported by the application of FYM. But in the absence of this support, the plant growth was significantly arrested due to allelopathic effect of E. ctunaldulensis leaf leachate. (author)

  9. Allelopathic effects of eucalyptus camaldulensis leaf leachate on the growth of wheat and green gram and its control by farm yard manure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, S.; Bibi, S.

    2012-01-01

    Farm Yard Manure (FYM) significantly reduced the allelopathic effects of Eucalyptus camaldulensis leachate. This influence was studied on morphological and physiological aspect of two taxonomically different plants (wheat and green gram). E. camaldtllensis aqueous leachate applied at the rate of 1% and 5% alone and together with FYM and the results showed that E. camaldulensis leaf leachate had inhibitory effects on wheat growth, while promoted shoot and root growth in green gram when supplied in low concentration. The combined effects of litter and FYM reduced the inhibitory effects of leachate and supported the growth of both plants. These results suggested that, if both studied crops have to be cultivated in an agricultural land surrounded by E. camaldulensis tree, the possible growth rate could be supported by the application Of FYM. But in the absence of this support, the plant growth was significantly arrested due to allelopathic effect of E. camaldulensis leaf leachate. (author)

  10. Surface Chirality of Gly-Pro Dipeptide Adsorbed on a Cu(110) Surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruguel, Hervé; Méthivier, Christophe; Pradier, Claire-Marie; Humblot, Vincent

    2015-07-01

    The adsorption of chiral Gly-Pro dipeptide on Cu(110) has been characterized by combining in situ polarization modulation infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (PM-RAIRS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The chemical state of the dipeptide, and its anchoring points and adsorption geometry, were determined at various coverage values. Gly-Pro molecules are present on Cu(110) in their anionic form (NH2 /COO(-)) and adsorb under a 3-point binding via both oxygen atoms of the carboxylate group and via the nitrogen atom of the amine group. Low-energy electron diffraction (LEED) and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) have shown the presence of an extended 2D chiral array, sustained via intermolecular H-bonds interactions. Furthermore, due to the particular shape of the molecule, only one homochiral domain is formed, creating thus a truly chiral surface. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. The Experience of Bulimic College Students Who Use "Pro-Ana/Pro-Mia" Web Sites: A Two-Phase Mixed-Method Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Blair J.

    2010-01-01

    Eating disorders (EDs) are a serious problem in the U.S. due to their rise in prevalence during the 20th century and high morbidity and mortality rates. A relatively new, controversial phenomenon, "pro-Ana" (pro-anorexia) and "pro-Mia" (pro-bulimia) Web sites, came to the public's attention around 2000. These sites are created by and for people…

  12. Studies on chlorophyll and viable mutations in green gram (Vigna radiata L. Wilczek) II: Response to mutagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnaswami, S; Rathinam, M [Tamil Nadu Agricultural Univ., Coimbatore (India). Dept. of Agricultural Botany

    1980-09-01

    The frequency and spectrum of chlorophyll and viable mutations in relation to type and dose of mutagen and cluster progenies were studied in four green gram cultivars viz., Kopergaon, Pusa Baisakhi, L. 24/2 and Sel. 122 subjected to two levels of EMS and gamma irradiation, severally and in conjunction. While chlorophyll mutations did not vary with the mutagen dose, viable mutations exhibited a direct relationship. Combinations of the mutagens were more effective in mutation induction. While no difference was manifested between the cluster families in respect of chlorophyll mutations, progenies of the second cluster recorded less viable mutations than either the first or the third. Viridis and xanthoviridis among chlorophyll mutations, and those affecting plant duration and stature among viable were more predominant.

  13. Pro-Lie Groups: A Survey with Open Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl H. Hofmann

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A topological group is called a pro-Lie group if it is isomorphic to a closed subgroup of a product of finite-dimensional real Lie groups. This class of groups is closed under the formation of arbitrary products and closed subgroups and forms a complete category. It includes each finite-dimensional Lie group, each locally-compact group that has a compact quotient group modulo its identity component and, thus, in particular, each compact and each connected locally-compact group; it also includes all locally-compact Abelian groups. This paper provides an overview of the structure theory and the Lie theory of pro-Lie groups, including results more recent than those in the authors’ reference book on pro-Lie groups. Significantly, it also includes a review of the recent insight that weakly-complete unital algebras provide a natural habitat for both pro-Lie algebras and pro-Lie groups, indeed for the exponential function that links the two. (A topological vector space is weakly complete if it is isomorphic to a power RX of an arbitrary set of copies of R. This class of real vector spaces is at the basis of the Lie theory of pro-Lie groups. The article also lists 12 open questions connected to pro-Lie groups.

  14. Undergraduate Students' Pro-Environmental Behavior in Daily Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewi, Widiaswati; Sawitri, Dian R.

    2018-02-01

    Pro-environmental behavior is an individual action as a manifestation of one's responsibility to create a sustainable environment. University students as one of the agent of change can adopt pro-environmental behaviors concept, even through simple things to do on daily activities such as ride a bicycle or walk for short distance, reuse the shopping bags, separate waste, learn about environmental issues etc. Many studies have examined pro-environmental behavior from various approaches. However, the study about university students' pro-environmental behavior is lacking. The aim of this paper is to examine the undergraduate students' pro-environmental behaviors level. We surveyed 364 first year undergraduate students from a state university in Semarang. The survey included six aspects of pro-environmental behavior in daily practice which include energy conservation, mobility and transportation, waste avoidance, recycling, consumerism, and vicarious behaviors toward conservation. Findings of this study showed the level of pro-environmental behavior of first year undergraduate students is medium. Recommendations for undergraduate students and future researchers are discussed.

  15. Can venous ProBNP levels predict placenta accreta?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersoy, Ali Ozgur; Oztas, Efser; Ozler, Sibel; Ersoy, Ebru; Erkenekli, Kudret; Uygur, Dilek; Caglar, Ali Turhan; Danisman, Nuri

    2016-12-01

    Placenta previa (PP) is a potential life-threatening pregnancy complication. Pro-brain natriuretic peptide (ProBNP), creatine kinase (CK), cardiac form of CK (CK-MB) and Troponin I are circulatory biomarkers related to cardiac functions. We aimed to determine whether these biomarkers are related to PP and placenta accreta. In this case-control study, fifty-four pregnant women who attended our tertiary care center for perinatology with the diagnosis of PP totalis, and of them, 14 patients with placenta accreta were recruited as the study groups. Forty-six uncomplicated control patients who were matched for age, BMI were also included. Maternal venous ProBNP, CK, CK-MB and Troponin I levels were compared between the three groups. Obstetric history characteristics were comparable among groups, generally. CK and CK-MB levels were similar among three groups. Troponin I levels in the previa and accreta groups were significantly higher than the controls. ProBNP levels in the accreta group were significantly higher than other two groups. The multivariate regression model revealed that ProBNP could predict placental adhesion anomalies. Troponin I and ProBNP levels in PP cases were higher than controls and ProBNP could predict placenta accreta.

  16. Gram stains: a resource for retrospective analysis of bacterial pathogens in clinical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Usha; Ponnaluri, Sreelatha; Villareal, Lisa; Gillespie, Brenda; Wen, Ai; Miles, Arianna; Bucholz, Brigette; Marrs, Carl F; Iyer, Ram K; Misra, Dawn; Foxman, Betsy

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate the feasibility of using qPCR on DNA extracted from vaginal Gram stain slides to estimate the presence and relative abundance of specific bacterial pathogens. We first tested Gram stained slides spiked with a mix of 10(8) cfu/ml of Escherichia coli and 10(5) cfu/ml of Lactobacillus acidophilus. Primers were designed for amplification of total and species-specific bacterial DNA based on 16S ribosomal gene regions. Sample DNA was pre-amplified with nearly full length 16S rDNA ribosomal gene fragment, followed by quantitative PCR with genera and species-specific 16S rDNA primers. Pre-amplification PCR increased the bacterial amounts; relative proportions of Escherichia coli and Lactobacillus recovered from spiked slides remained unchanged. We applied this method to forty two archived Gram stained slides available from a clinical trial of cerclage in pregnant women at high risk of preterm birth. We found a high correlation between Nugent scores based on bacterial morphology of Lactobacillus, Gardenerella and Mobiluncus and amounts of quantitative PCR estimated genus specific DNA (rrn copies) from Gram stained slides. Testing of a convenience sample of eight paired vaginal swabs and Gram stains freshly collected from healthy women found similar qPCR generated estimates of Lactobacillus proportions from Gram stained slides and vaginal swabs. Archived Gram stained slides collected from large scale epidemiologic and clinical studies represent a valuable, untapped resource for research on the composition of bacterial communities that colonize human mucosal surfaces.

  17. Gram and acridine orange staining for diagnosis of septic arthritis in different patient populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Gregory; Seghrouchni, Khalid; Ruffieux, Etienne; Vaudaux, Pierre; Gayet-Ageron, Angèle; Cherkaoui, Abdessalam; Godinho, Eduardo; Lew, Daniel; Hoffmeyer, Pierre; Uçkay, Ilker

    2014-06-01

    The sensitivity of Gram staining is known to be suboptimal for the diagnosis of native joint septic arthritis. We lack information about the accuracy of Gram compared to other microscopic staining techniques for predicting infection in different patient populations. This was a cohort study with cost evaluations at the Orthopaedic Service of Geneva University Hospitals (January 1996-October 2012). Among 500 episodes of arthritis (196 with immunosuppression, 227 with underlying arthroplasties and 69 with gout or other crystals in synovial fluid), Gram staining revealed pathogens in 146 episodes (146/500, 29 %) or in 146 of the 400 culture-positive episodes (37 %). Correlation between the Gram and acridine staining of the same sample was good (Spearman 0.85). Overall, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of Gram stain for rapid diagnosis of septic arthritis was 0.37, 0.99, 0.99 and 0.28, respectively, compared to microbiological cultures. Quite similar values were recorded across the different patient subpopulations, in particular for sensitivity values that were 0.33 for patients with prosthetic joint infections, 0.40 for immunosuppressed patients, 0.36 for patients under antibiotic administration and 0.52 for patients with concomitant crystalline disease. The sensitivity of Gram or acridine orange staining for a rapid diagnosis of episodes of septic arthritis is suboptimal compared to microbiological culture, regardless of underlying conditions, immunosuppression or antibiotic therapy. The sensitivity in the presence of synovial fluid crystals is moderate. Acridine orange and Gram stains are equivalent.

  18. Phosphorus Response and Amino Acid Composition of Different Green Gram (Vigna radiata L. Genotypes from Myanmar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kywe

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Mungbean or green gram (Vigna radiata L. is an important component of rice-based cropping systems in Myanmar, where grain yields of around 800 kg ha^(-1 are much below its yield potential of 3000 kg ha^(-1. The reasons for this shortfall are as under-investigated as is the genotype-specific response of this crop to phosphorus (P application, which is critically low in many Myanmar soils, and the genetic variation in grain quality. For green gram quality, the concentration of lysine, an essential amino acid is particularly important given its scarcity in many cereal-based diets of Southeast Asia. The purpose of this study therefore was to investigate the effects of P application on the root and shoot growth, yield and its components for a range of green gram varieties, and to analyse the protein concentration and amino acid composition in green gram seed of different origins. To this end from 2001 to 2003, field experiments were conducted under rain-fed conditions in Yezin and Nyaung Oo. Fifteen landraces and five introduced green gram cultivars were grown at two levels of P (0 and 15 kg ha^(-1. There were large genotypic differences in P effects and a significant interaction between green gram genotypes and P for shoot and root growth. An unexpected benefit of P application was a reduction of pest and plant virus infestation in the field. Significant genotypic differences in the amino acid profile of seeds were also observed. The results indicate the potential for breeding efforts to increase seed yield and protein quality in green gram.

  19. Multi-location gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial protein subcellular localization using gene ontology and multi-label classifier ensemble.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao; Zhang, Jun; Li, Guo-Zheng

    2015-01-01

    It has become a very important and full of challenge task to predict bacterial protein subcellular locations using computational methods. Although there exist a lot of prediction methods for bacterial proteins, the majority of these methods can only deal with single-location proteins. But unfortunately many multi-location proteins are located in the bacterial cells. Moreover, multi-location proteins have special biological functions capable of helping the development of new drugs. So it is necessary to develop new computational methods for accurately predicting subcellular locations of multi-location bacterial proteins. In this article, two efficient multi-label predictors, Gpos-ECC-mPLoc and Gneg-ECC-mPLoc, are developed to predict the subcellular locations of multi-label gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial proteins respectively. The two multi-label predictors construct the GO vectors by using the GO terms of homologous proteins of query proteins and then adopt a powerful multi-label ensemble classifier to make the final multi-label prediction. The two multi-label predictors have the following advantages: (1) they improve the prediction performance of multi-label proteins by taking the correlations among different labels into account; (2) they ensemble multiple CC classifiers and further generate better prediction results by ensemble learning; and (3) they construct the GO vectors by using the frequency of occurrences of GO terms in the typical homologous set instead of using 0/1 values. Experimental results show that Gpos-ECC-mPLoc and Gneg-ECC-mPLoc can efficiently predict the subcellular locations of multi-label gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial proteins respectively. Gpos-ECC-mPLoc and Gneg-ECC-mPLoc can efficiently improve prediction accuracy of subcellular localization of multi-location gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial proteins respectively. The online web servers for Gpos-ECC-mPLoc and Gneg-ECC-mPLoc predictors are freely accessible

  20. Developing an Integrated Conceptual Framework of Pro-Environmental Behavior in the Workplace through Synthesis of the Current Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faye V. McDonald

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have begun to bridge the gap between general and workplace pro-environmental behavior by adapting specific existing behavioral models to the workplace environment. This conceptual article proposes a different approach by synthesizing the current general and workplace literature to develop a new model of the antecedents to pro-environmental behavior. Guided by this approach, this paper combines the insights of the current general and workplace models to develop an integrated framework of pro-environmental behavior in the workplace. In doing so, an overview of the current general and workplace literatures will be provided as well as their similarities and differences highlighted. The proposed framework will provide further insights into the antecedents of workplace pro-environmental behavior and identify common findings across the different existing workplace models. This theory can be the basis for further research in order to provide a comprehensive picture of the antecedents of pro-environmental behavior in the workplace. Lastly, implications for specific interventions to develop targeted Human Resource Management practices and work towards achieving environmental sustainability will be discussed.

  1. PPARγ Pro12Ala and ACE ID polymorphisms are associated with BMI and fat distribution, but not metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Passaro Angela

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metabolic Syndrome (MetS results from the combined effect of environmental and genetic factors. We investigated the possible association of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ2 (PPARγ2 Pro12Ala and Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE I/D polymorphisms with MetS and interaction between these genetic variants. Methods Three hundred sixty four unrelated Caucasian subjects were enrolled. Waist circumference, blood pressure, and body mass index (BMI were recorded. Body composition was estimated by impedance analysis; MetS was diagnosed by the NCEP-ATPIII criteria. A fasting blood sample was obtained for glucose, insulin, lipid profile determination, and DNA isolation for genotyping. Results The prevalence of MetS did not differ across PPARγ2 or ACE polymorphisms. Carriers of PPARγ2 Ala allele had higher BMI and fat-mass but lower systolic blood pressure compared with Pro/Pro homozygotes. A significant PPARγ2 gene-gender interaction was observed in the modulation of BMI, fat mass, and blood pressure, with significant associations found in women only. A PPARγ2-ACE risk genotype combination for BMI and fat mass was found, with ACE DD/PPARγ2 Ala subjects having a higher BMI (p = 0.002 and Fat Mass (p = 0.002. Pro12Ala was independently associated with waist circumference independent of BMI and gender. Conclusions Carriers of PPARγ2 Ala allele had higher BMI and fat-mass but not a worse metabolic profile, possibly because of a more favorable adipose tissue distribution. A gene interaction exists between Pro12Ala and ACE I/D on BMI and fat mass. Further studies are needed to assess the contribution of Pro12Ala polymorphism in adiposity distribution.

  2. Is there an additional benefit of serial NT-proBNP measurements in patients with stable chronic heart failure receiving individually optimized therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, Jennifer; Frankenstein, Lutz; Schellberg, Dieter; Bajrovic, Amer; Wolter, Jan Sebastian; Ehlermann, Philipp; Doesch, Andreas O; Nelles, Manfred; Katus, Hugo A; Zugck, Christian

    2011-12-01

    The role of serial NT-proBNP measurements in patients suffering from chronic systolic heart failure (CHF) who already receive individually optimized pharmacotherapy is still unresolved. NT-proBNP was assessed at baseline and at 6 months follow-up in 504 stable CHF patients treated with individually optimized pharmacotherapy. After assessment of clinical stability at 6 months, patients were followed up for at least 1 year. The combined primary endpoint was defined as death, hospitalization due to cardiac reasons or heart transplantation in 1-year follow-up. We stratified our patients according to two principles: first, a percent change of value (CV) between the first and second measurement of NT-proBNP and secondly, the transformed logarithm of NT-proBNP measured at 6 months. During the follow-up period of 1 year, 50 patients (9.9%) reached the combined primary endpoint. Stratification according to percentage CV was less accurate in predicting endpoint-free survival compared to a classification in categories of lnNT-proBNP measured at 6 months (ROC AUC = 0.615; 95% CI 0.525-0.70 vs. ROC AUC = 0.790; 95% CI 0.721-0.856, respectively). When entered into proportional hazard regression analysis, lnNT-proBNP measured at 6 months remained an independent predictor of the combined primary endpoint with an associated HR of 2.53 (95% CI 1.385-4.280). To date, this is the largest analysis of serial NT-proBNP measurements in patients with CHF receiving individually optimized medical therapy. These data suggest that a single NT-proBNP measurement after 6 months in stable clinical conditions may have higher predictive value than stratification of change in serial measurements.

  3. Development of the Porosity Calculation Procedure using Pro/E and Pro/Tool kit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sangyong; Park, Chaneok; Sohn, Jongjoo

    2013-01-01

    When the number of cells is greater than several hundreds, and/or, the complexity of the system is very high like the reactor system, there may be some problems that have to be solved for the successful customization. The first problem that comes with large number of mesh cells is the time to finish the calculation is too long. The second problem that comes with the complex system, which means that the data base of the solid model is too big, and prohibits this approach altogether. The reason for this is that simply the Pro/E cannot handle too complex geometry. For example, a desktop workstation that has a 3.3 GHz CPU and a Quadrol FX 5600 graphic card cannot handle a system that has more than 150000 solid parts because it takes too long time to regenerate model data and it takes to long time to manipulating graphic data by graphic processor. Another problem is identified with the Pro/Tool kit API routines. The maximum memory size of the array that can be handled by the API is 4 mega bytes. Therefore, a limited number of solid parts can be handled in one time. Some more efforts should be exercised to solve these problems to get a powerful porosity calculation procedure

  4. Development of the Porosity Calculation Procedure using Pro/E and Pro/Tool kit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sangyong; Park, Chaneok; Sohn, Jongjoo [Korea Power Engineering Company, Inc., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    When the number of cells is greater than several hundreds, and/or, the complexity of the system is very high like the reactor system, there may be some problems that have to be solved for the successful customization. The first problem that comes with large number of mesh cells is the time to finish the calculation is too long. The second problem that comes with the complex system, which means that the data base of the solid model is too big, and prohibits this approach altogether. The reason for this is that simply the Pro/E cannot handle too complex geometry. For example, a desktop workstation that has a 3.3 GHz CPU and a Quadrol FX 5600 graphic card cannot handle a system that has more than 150000 solid parts because it takes too long time to regenerate model data and it takes to long time to manipulating graphic data by graphic processor. Another problem is identified with the Pro/Tool kit API routines. The maximum memory size of the array that can be handled by the API is 4 mega bytes. Therefore, a limited number of solid parts can be handled in one time. Some more efforts should be exercised to solve these problems to get a powerful porosity calculation procedure.

  5. Determination of the irradiation dose for the inhibition (D-10 radiation doses) of some gram negative and gram positive bacteria in peptone saline water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayhan, H.; Tutluer, H.

    1994-01-01

    Determination of the irradiation dose for the inhibition of some pathogenic bacteria which cause food poisoning and spoilage were aimed. For this purpose, Salmonella typhi, Salmonella typhimurium,Salmonella enteridits,Klebsiella pneumonia, Pseudomonas fluorescence,Proteus vulgaris, Aeromonas hydrophila ,(gram-negative bacteria) and Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus strain 24,Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538 P,Staphylococcus epidermidis strain 115 and Clostridium perfringens A4TTK,(gram-positive bacteria) were used.Sensitivity of above mentioned bacteria to gamma rays (source Cs-137) was examined in saline with 0.1% peptone at different temperatures.Survivor plots (log.10 number of survivors versus dose) were determined by regression analysis of the data.Decimal reduction doses (D values in kGy) were calculated as the slope obtained from the regression analysis

  6. [Influence of serious infections due to Gram-negative bacteria on the hospital economy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, B; Gómez, J; Gómez Vargas, J; Guerra, B; Ruiz Gómez, J; Simarro, E; Baños, V; Canteras, M; Valdes, M

    2000-12-01

    Nosocomial infections due to Gram-negative bacteria are very important since they are associated with high morbidity and high hospital costs. A prospective study of 250 inpatients was carried out, 200 of whom had Gram-negative bacterial infections. Patients were divided into groups of 50 according to the localization of the infection (urinary, surgical wound, respiratory tract and bacteremia), with a control group of 50 patients with similar characteristics but no infection. We calculated the cost for the different groups by multiplying the average length of hospital stay in days by the daily cost of the stay. Significant differences were observed in the average length of stay per patient according to the type of infection and how it was acquired. In terms of cost, nosocomial infection due to Gram-negative bacteria was 1,049,139 pesetas more expensive than community-acquired infection. The cost of the stay for patients with postsurgical infection due to Gram-negative bacteria was 1,108, 252 pesetas more expensive than for the group of control patients. Nosocomial infection due to Gram-negative bacteria is associated with a prolongation in hospital stay of 9 to 28 days, which is the factor that most reflects the cost that can be attributed to nosocomial infection. Consensual and protocolized measures which allow for better clinical management need to be developed.

  7. Clinical update on linezolid in the treatment of Gram-positive bacterial infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ager, Sally; Gould, Kate

    2012-01-01

    Gram-positive pathogens are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in both community and health care settings. Glycopeptides have traditionally been the antibiotics of choice for multiresistant Gram-positive pathogens but there are problems with their use, including the emergence of glycopeptide-resistant strains, tissue penetration, and achieving and monitoring adequate serum levels. Newer antibiotics such as linezolid, a synthetic oxazolidinone, are available for the treatment of resistant Gram-positive bacteria. Linezolid is active against a wide range of Gram-positive bacteria and has been generally available for the treatment of Gram-positive infections since 2000. There are potential problems with linezolid use, including its bacteriostatic action and the relatively high incidence of reported adverse effects, particularly with long-term use. Long-term use may also be complicated by the development of resistance. However, linezolid has been shown to be clinically useful in the treatment of several serious infections where traditionally bacteriocidal agents have been required and many of its adverse effects are reversible on cessation. It has also been shown to be a cost-effective treatment option in several studies, with its high oral bioavailability allowing an early change from intravenous to oral formulations with consequent earlier patient discharge and lower inpatient costs. PMID:22787406

  8. Green Gram Rotation Effects on Maize Growth Parameters and Soil Quality in Myanmar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myo Kywe

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available At present maize–green gram crop rotations are not widely practiced among farmers in Myanmar. However, this cropping system might become more popular in the future given raising prices for green gram and maize grain and scarcity of mineral nitrogen (N fertilizers in this Asian country. The results of a cropping systems experiment with continuous maize versus a green gram-maize rotation, manure application (0 and 2 t ha−1 and phosphorus (P fertilization (0 and 15 kg P ha−1 in each of five consecutive seasons revealed a strong decline in total dry matter and grains yields for both crops irrespective of the treatment. Treatment effects on yield components, nutrient concentrations, mycorrhizal infection and nematode infestation were small or negligible. The data show that in addition to manure used at 2 t ha−1, application of mineral N fertilizers is essential to maintain particularly maize yields. A comparison of different green gram cultivars did not indicate genotype specific effects on maize growth. The incorporation of legume residues, unless they are used as animal feed, is recommended to increase the recycling of N and to balance N fluxes when green gram is cultivated for seed.

  9. Gram-typing of mastitis bacteria in milk samples using flow cytometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langerhuus, Sine Nygaard; Ingvartsen, Klaus Lønne; Bennedsgaard, Torben Werner

    2013-01-01

    Fast identification of pathogenic bacteria in milk samples from cows with clinical mastitis is central to proper treatment. In Denmark, time to bacterial diagnosis is typically 24 to 48 h when using traditional culturing methods. The PCR technique provides a faster and highly sensitive identifica......Fast identification of pathogenic bacteria in milk samples from cows with clinical mastitis is central to proper treatment. In Denmark, time to bacterial diagnosis is typically 24 to 48 h when using traditional culturing methods. The PCR technique provides a faster and highly sensitive...... cytometry-based method, which can detect and distinguish gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria in mastitis milk samples. The differentiation was based on bacterial fluorescence intensities upon labeling with biotin-conjugated wheat germ agglutinin and acridine orange. Initially 19 in-house bacterial...... characteristic curves for the 19 bacterial cultures. The method was then tested on 53 selected mastitis cases obtained from the department biobank (milk samples from 6 gram-negative and 47 gram-positive mastitis cases). Gram-negative bacteria in milk samples were detected with a sensitivity of 1...

  10. Bacteremias in liver transplant recipients: shift toward gram-negative bacteria as predominant pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nina; Wagener, Marilyn M; Obman, Asia; Cacciarelli, Thomas V; de Vera, Michael E; Gayowski, Timothy

    2004-07-01

    During the 1990s, gram-positive bacteria emerged as major pathogens after liver transplantation. We sought to determine whether the pathogens associated with bacteremias in liver transplant recipients have changed. Patients included 233 liver transplant recipients transplanted between 1989 and 2003. The proportion of all infections due to bacteremias increased significantly over time (P gram-negatives increased from 25% in the period of 1989-1993 to 51.8% in 1998-03, that of gram-positive bacteria decreased from 75% in the period of 1989-93 to 48.2% in the period of 1998-2003. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were the most frequent pathogens in bacteremic patients. The incidence of bacteremias due to MRSA and Pseudomonas aeruginosa has remained unchanged (P gram-negative bacteria, particularly Klebsiella pneumoniae has increased (P =.02). Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates in the current quartile were not clonally related. In conclusion, bacteremias as a proportion of all infections in liver transplant recipients have increased significantly over time, due in part to a decline in infections due to other major pathogens, e.g., fungi, primarily Candida species, and CMV. Gram-negative bacteria have emerged as predominant pathogens in bacteremic liver transplant recipients.

  11. Bruchid egg induced transcript dynamics in developing seeds of black gram (Vigna mungo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indrani K Baruah

    Full Text Available Black gram (Vigna mungo seeds are a rich source of digestible proteins, however, during storage these seeds are severely damaged by bruchids (Callosobruchus spp., reducing seed quality and yield losses. Most of the cultivated genotypes of black gram are susceptible to bruchids, however, few tolerant genotypes have also been identified but the mechanism of tolerance is poorly understood. We employed Suppression Subtractive Hybridization (SSH to identify specifically, but rarely expressed bruchid egg induced genes in black gram. In this study, Suppression Subtractive Hybridization (SSH library was constructed to study the genes involved in defense response in black gram against bruchid infestation. An EST library of 277 clones was obtained for further analyses. Based on CAP3 assembly, 134 unigenes were computationally annotated using Blast2GOPRO software. In all, 20 defense related genes were subject to quantitative PCR analysis (qPCR out of which 12 genes showed up-regulation in developing seeds of the pods oviposited by bruchids. Few major defense genes like defensin, pathogenesis related protein (PR, lipoxygenase (LOX showed high expression levels in the oviposited population when compared with the non-oviposited plants. This is the first report on defense related gene transcript dynamics during the bruchid-black gram interaction using SSH library. This library would be useful to clone defense related gene(s such as defensin as represented in our library for crop improvement.

  12. Fast Structural Alignment of Biomolecules Using a Hash Table, N-Grams and String Descriptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Preissner

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a generalized approach for the fast structural alignment of thousands of macromolecular structures. The method uses string representations of a macromolecular structure and a hash table that stores n-grams of a certain size for searching. To this end, macromolecular structure-to-string translators were implemented for protein and RNA structures. A query against the index is performed in two hierarchical steps to unite speed and precision. In the first step the query structure is translated into n-grams, and all target structures containing these n-grams are retrieved from the hash table. In the second step all corresponding n-grams of the query and each target structure are subsequently aligned, and after each alignment a score is calculated based on the matching n-grams of query and target. The extendable framework enables the user to query and structurally align thousands of protein and RNA structures on a commodity machine and is available as open source from http://lajolla.sf.net.

  13. NHash: Randomized N-Gram Hashing for Distributed Generation of Validatable Unique Study Identifiers in Multicenter Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guo-Qiang; Tao, Shiqiang; Xing, Guangming; Mozes, Jeno; Zonjy, Bilal; Lhatoo, Samden D; Cui, Licong

    2015-11-10

    A unique study identifier serves as a key for linking research data about a study subject without revealing protected health information in the identifier. While sufficient for single-site and limited-scale studies, the use of common unique study identifiers has several drawbacks for large multicenter studies, where thousands of research participants may be recruited from multiple sites. An important property of study identifiers is error tolerance (or validatable), in that inadvertent editing mistakes during their transmission and use will most likely result in invalid study identifiers. This paper introduces a novel method called "Randomized N-gram Hashing (NHash)," for generating unique study identifiers in a distributed and validatable fashion, in multicenter research. NHash has a unique set of properties: (1) it is a pseudonym serving the purpose of linking research data about a study participant for research purposes; (2) it can be generated automatically in a completely distributed fashion with virtually no risk for identifier collision; (3) it incorporates a set of cryptographic hash functions based on N-grams, with a combination of additional encryption techniques such as a shift cipher; (d) it is validatable (error tolerant) in the sense that inadvertent edit errors will mostly result in invalid identifiers. NHash consists of 2 phases. First, an intermediate string using randomized N-gram hashing is generated. This string consists of a collection of N-gram hashes f1, f2, ..., fk. The input for each function fi has 3 components: a random number r, an integer n, and input data m. The result, fi(r, n, m), is an n-gram of m with a starting position s, which is computed as (r mod |m|), where |m| represents the length of m. The output for Step 1 is the concatenation of the sequence f1(r1, n1, m1), f2(r2, n2, m2), ..., fk(rk, nk, mk). In the second phase, the intermediate string generated in Phase 1 is encrypted using techniques such as shift cipher. The result

  14. A Trojan-Horse Strategy Including a Bacterial Suicide Action for the Efficient Use of a Specific Gram-Positive Antibiotic on Gram-Negative Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalk, Isabelle J

    2018-05-10

    In the alarming context of rising bacterial antibiotic resistance, there is an urgent need to discover new antibiotics or increase and/or enlarge the activity of those currently in use. The need for new antibiotics is even more urgent in the case of Gram-negative bacteria, such as Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas, and Enterobacteria, which have become resistant to many antibiotics and have an outer membrane with very low permeability to drugs. Vectorization of antibiotics using siderophores may be a solution to bypass such a bacterial wall: the drugs use the iron transporters of the outer membrane as gates to enter bacteria in a Trojan-horse strategy. Designing siderophore-antibiotics that can cross outer membranes has become almost routine, but their transport across the inner membrane is still a limiting step, as well as a strategy that allows dissociation of the antibiotic from the siderophore once inside the bacteria. Liu et al. ( J. Med. Chem. 2018 , DOI: 10.1021/acs.jmedchem.8b00218 ) report the synthesis of a siderophore-cephalosporin compound and demonstrate that β-lactams, such as cephalosporins, can serve as β-lactamase-triggered releasable linkers to allow intracellular delivery of Gram-positive antibiotics to Gram-negative bacteria.

  15. Macrophage pro-inflammatory response to Francisella novicida infection is regulated by SHIP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kishore V L Parsa

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Francisella tularensis, a Gram-negative facultative intracellular pathogen infecting principally macrophages and monocytes, is the etiological agent of tularemia. Macrophage responses to F. tularensis infection include the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL-12, which is critical for immunity against infection. Molecular mechanisms regulating production of these inflammatory mediators are poorly understood. Herein we report that the SH2 domain-containing inositol phosphatase (SHIP is phosphorylated upon infection of primary murine macrophages with the genetically related F. novicida, and negatively regulates F. novicida-induced cytokine production. Analyses of the molecular details revealed that in addition to activating the MAP kinases, F. novicida infection also activated the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K/Akt pathway in these cells. Interestingly, SHIP-deficient macrophages displayed enhanced Akt activation upon F. novicida infection, suggesting elevated PI3K-dependent activation pathways in absence of SHIP. Inhibition of PI3K/Akt resulted in suppression of F. novicida-induced cytokine production through the inhibition of NFkappaB. Consistently, macrophages lacking SHIP displayed enhanced NFkappaB-driven gene transcription, whereas overexpression of SHIP led to decreased NFkappaB activation. Thus, we propose that SHIP negatively regulates F. novicida-induced inflammatory cytokine response by antagonizing the PI3K/Akt pathway and suppressing NFkappaB-mediated gene transcription. A detailed analysis of phosphoinositide signaling may provide valuable clues for better understanding the pathogenesis of tularemia.

  16. Hepatic lipase: a pro- or anti-atherogenic protein?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Jansen (Hans); A.J.M. Verhoeven (Adrie); E.J.G. Sijbrands (Eric)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractHepatic lipase (HL) plays a role in the metabolism of pro- and anti-atherogenic lipoproteins affecting their plasma level and composition. However, there is controversy regarding whether HL accelerates or retards atherosclerosis. Its effects on different

  17. Biblio-Link and Pro-Cite: The Searcher's Workstation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyle, Norman; McNamara, Kathleen

    1987-01-01

    Describes the Biblio-Link and Pro-Cite software packages, which can be used together to create local databases with downloaded records, or to reorganize and repackage downloaded records for client reports. (CLB)

  18. Exercises in Pro/Engineer Wildfire 4.0

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Georg Kronborg

    2009-01-01

    Excercises in the CAD system ProEngineer corresponding to an introduction covering basic functionality. The exercises take up 5 DTU-modules of 4 hours. Part- and assembly modelling. Drawing fabrication....

  19. Measuring the Level of Agreement Between Cloacal Gram's Stains and Bacterial Cultures in Hispaniolan Amazon Parrots ( Amazona ventralis ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Erika E; Mitchell, Mark A; Whittington, Julia K; Roy, Alma; Tully, Thomas N

    2014-12-01

    Cloacal or fecal Gram's stains and bacterial cultures are routinely performed during avian physical examinations to assess the microbial flora of the gastrointestinal tract. Although cloacal or fecal Gram's stains and bacterial cultures are considered routine diagnostic procedures, the level of agreement between the individual tests has not been determined. To investigate the level of agreement between results from Gram's stain and bacterial culture when used to assess cloacal or fecal samples from psittacine birds, samples were taken from 21 clinically healthy Hispaniolan Amazon parrots ( Amazona ventralis ) and tested by Gram's stain cytology and bacterial culture. Most bacteria (97.2%) identified by Gram's stain were gram positive. However, gram-negative organisms were identified in 7 of 21 (33.3%; 95% confidence interval: 13.3%-53.3%) birds. Escherichia coli was the only gram-negative organism identified on culture. Agreement between results of Gram's stain and culture was fair (weighted κ = 0.27). The results of this study suggest that Gram's stains and bacterial culture may need to be performed with a parallel testing strategy to limit the likelihood of misclassifying the microbial flora of psittacine patients.

  20. A molecular gram stain using broad range PCR and pyrosequencing technology: a potentially useful tool for diagnosing orthopaedic infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Naomi; Bauer, Thomas W; Togawa, Daisuke; Lieberman, Isador H; Sakai, Hiroshige; Fujishiro, Takaaki; Tuohy, Marion J; Procop, Gary W

    2005-06-01

    The bacteria associated with orthopaedic infections are usually common gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. This fundamental grouping of bacteria is a necessary first step in the selection of appropriate antibiotics. Since polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is more rapid and may be more sensitive than culture, we developed a postamplification pyrosequencing method to subcategorize bacteria based on a few nucleotide polymorphisms in the 16S rRNA gene. We validated this method using well-characterized strains of bacteria and applied it to specimens from spinal surgery cases with suspected infections. Lysates of 114 bacteria including 75 species were created following standard cultivation to obtain DNA. The DNA was amplified by a broad-range real-time PCR. The amplicons were evaluated by pyrosequencing and were classified as gram-positive, gram-negative, or acid-fast bacilli based on the first three to five nucleotides sequenced. In addition, clinical cases of suspected infection were obtained from spinal surgery. The results of the "molecular Gram stain" were compared with the results of traditional Gram stain and culture. The lysates of 107 (93.9%) of the bacteria extracts tested were appropriately categorized as gram-positive and gram-negative or as acid-fast bacilli on the basis of this assay. The sensitivity and specificity of this assay were 100% and 97.4% for gram-positive and 88.3% and 100% for gram-negative isolates. All of the five clinical samples were appropriately categorized as containing gram-positive or gram-negative bacteria with this assay. This study demonstrates that high sensitivity and specificity of a molecular gram stain may be achieved using broad-range real-time PCR and pyrosequencing.

  1. Dogs do not show pro-social preferences towards humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mylène Quervel-Chaumette

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Pro-social behaviors are defined as voluntary actions that benefit others. Comparative studies have mostly focused on investigating the presence of pro-sociality across species in an intraspecific context. Taken together, results on both primates and non-primate species indicate that reliance on cooperation may be at work in the selection and maintenance of pro-social sentiments. Dogs appear to be the ideal model when investigating a species’ propensity for pro-sociality in an interspecific context since it has been suggested that as a consequence of domestication, they evolved an underlying temperament encouraging greater propensity to cooperate with human partners. In a recent study, using a food delivery paradigm, dogs were shown to preferentially express pro-social choices towards familiar compared to unfamiliar conspecifics. Using the same set-up and methods in the current study, we investigated dogs’ pro-social preferences towards familiar and unfamiliar human partners. We found that dogs’ pro-social tendencies did not extend to humans and the identity of the human partners did not influence the rate of food delivery. Interestingly, dogs tested with their human partners spent more time gazing at humans, and did so for longer after food consumption had ended than dogs tested with conspecific partners in the initial study. To allow comparability between results from dogs tested with a conspecific and a human partner, the latter were asked not to communicate with dogs in any way. However, this lack of communication from the human may have been aversive to dogs, leading them to cease performing the task earlier compared to the dogs paired with familiar conspecifics in the prior study. This is in line with previous findings suggesting that human communication in such contexts highly affects dogs’ responses. Consequently, we encourage further studies to examine dogs’ pro-social behavior towards humans taking into consideration their

  2. How pride and guilt guide pro-environmental behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Onwezen, M.C.

    2014-01-01

    The world is currently confronted with environmental problems such as water pollution, loss of biodiversity, and air pollution. A promising way to reduce environmental problems is to encourage consumers towards more sustainable consumption patterns. Pro-environmental consumer choices involve a tradeoff between environmental motives and more personally related motives such as healthiness, convenience, and price. In this dissertation we explore how feeling good about oneself influences pro-env...

  3. The ProVent model learns to speak French.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Christopher E

    2014-10-20

    Leroy and colleagues report on the accuracy of the Prolonged Mechanical Ventilation Prognostic Model ('ProVent') in a cohort study of patients ventilated for at least 21 days in one of three hospitals in the north of France. This study is noteworthy because it is the first to describe the performance of the ProVent model both outside the US and in a community hospital-based setting.

  4. Nucleotide sequence alignment of hdcA from Gram-positive bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Maria; Ladero, Victor; Redruello, Begoña; Sanchez-Llana, Esther; Del Rio, Beatriz; Fernandez, Maria; Martin, Maria Cruz; Alvarez, Miguel A

    2016-03-01

    The decarboxylation of histidine -carried out mainly by some gram-positive bacteria- yields the toxic dietary biogenic amine histamine (Ladero et al. 2010 〈10.2174/157340110791233256〉 [1], Linares et al. 2016 〈http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2015.11.013〉〉 [2]). The reaction is catalyzed by a pyruvoyl-dependent histidine decarboxylase (Linares et al. 2011 〈10.1080/10408398.2011.582813〉 [3]), which is encoded by the gene hdcA. In order to locate conserved regions in the hdcA gene of Gram-positive bacteria, this article provides a nucleotide sequence alignment of all the hdcA sequences from Gram-positive bacteria present in databases. For further utility and discussion, see 〈http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1016/j.foodcont.2015.11.035〉〉 [4].

  5. [Antimicrobial therapy in severe infections with multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacterias].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duszyńska, Wiesława

    2010-01-01

    Multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria pose a serious and rapidly emerging threat to patients in healthcare settings, and are especially prevalent and problematic in intensive therapy units. Recently, the emergence of pandrug-resistance in Gram-negative bacteria poses additional concerns. This review examines the clinical impact and epidemiology of multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria as a cause of increased morbidity and mortality among ITU patients. Beta-lactamases, cephalosporinases and carbapenemases play the most important role in resistance to antibiotics. Despite the tendency to increased resistance, carbapenems administered by continuous infusion remain the most effective drugs in severe sepsis. Drug concentration monitoring, albeit rarely used in practice, is necessary to ensure an effective therapeutic effect.

  6. Efficient n-gram, Skipgram and Flexgram Modelling with Colibri Core

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten van Gompel

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Counting n-grams lies at the core of any frequentist corpus analysis and is often considered a trivial matter. Going beyond consecutive n-grams to patterns such as skipgrams and flexgrams increases the demand for efficient solutions. The need to operate on big corpus data does so even more. Lossless compression and non-trivial algorithms are needed to lower the memory demands, yet retain good speed. Colibri Core is software for the efficient computation and querying of n-grams, skipgrams and flexgrams from corpus data. The resulting pattern models can be analysed and compared in various ways. The software offers a programming library for C++ and Python, as well as command-line tools.

  7. In vitro activity of daptomycin against clinical isolates of Gram-positive bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, Kerryl E; Steckelberg, James M; Patel, Robin

    2005-08-01

    We determined the activity of daptomycin, a recently FDA-approved antimicrobial agent, against clinical isolates of Gram-positive bacteria, including viridans group streptococci (16 Streptococcus mitis species group, 12 S. mutans species group, 9 S. anginosus species group, 8 S. sanguinis species group, 5 S. salivarius species group) from patients with infective endocarditis, 32 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, 32 high-level penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae, 38 vancomycin-resistant enterococci (including 1 linezolid-resistant isolate), and the following unusual Gram-positive bacteria: 3 Listeria monocytogenes, 4 Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae, 9 Corynebacterium species, 10 Abiotrophia/Granulicatella species, 2 Rothia (Stomatococcus) mucilaginosus, and 4 Gemella morbillorum. Daptomycin minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC)(90) values for the viridans group streptococci, methicillin-resistant S. aureus, penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae, and Enterococcus species were 0.5, 0.5, endocarditis as well as against several types of unusual Gram-positive bacteria that can cause endocarditis.

  8. Electrochemical reduction of oxygen catalyzed by a wide range of bacteria including Gram-positive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cournet, Amandine [Universite de Toulouse, UPS, LU49, Adhesion Bacterienne et Formation de Biofilms, 35 chemin des Maraichers, 31 062 Toulouse cedex 09 (France); Laboratoire de Genie Chimique CNRS, Universite de Toulouse, 4 allee Emile Monso, BP 84234, 31432 Toulouse cedex 04 (France); Delia, Marie-Line; Bergel, Alain [Laboratoire de Genie Chimique CNRS, Universite de Toulouse, 4 allee Emile Monso, BP 84234, 31432 Toulouse cedex 04 (France); Roques, Christine; Berge, Mathieu [Universite de Toulouse, UPS, LU49, Adhesion Bacterienne et Formation de Biofilms, 35 chemin des Maraichers, 31 062 Toulouse cedex 09 (France)

    2010-04-15

    Most bacteria known to be electrochemically active have been harvested in the anodic compartments of microbial fuel cells (MFCs) and are able to use electrodes as electron acceptors. The reverse phenomenon, i.e. using solid electrodes as electron donors, is not so widely studied. To our knowledge, most of the electrochemically active bacteria are Gram-negative. The present study implements a transitory electrochemical technique (cyclic voltammetry) to study the microbial catalysis of the electrochemical reduction of oxygen. It is demonstrated that a wide range of aerobic and facultative anaerobic bacteria are able to catalyze oxygen reduction. Among these electroactive bacteria, several were Gram-positive. The transfer of electrons was direct since no activity was obtained with the filtrate. These findings, showing a widespread property among bacteria including Gram-positive ones, open new and interesting routes in the field of electroactive bacteria research. (author)

  9. Epidemiology of infections caused by multiresistant gram-negatives: ESBLs, MBLs, panresistant strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossolini, Gian Maria; Mantengoli, Elisabetta; Docquier, Jean-Denis; Musmanno, Rosa Anna; Coratza, Grazietta

    2007-07-01

    Microbial drug resistance is a growing problem of global magnitude. In gram-negative pathogens, the most important resistance problems are encountered in Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter, with increasing trends observed for all major anti-gram-negative agents (beta-lactams, fluoroquinolones and aminoglycosides). A matter of major concern is the emergence of new beta-lactamases capable of degrading the expanded-spectrum cephalosporins and/or carbapenems, such as the extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) and the carbapenemases. These beta-lactamase genes are often associated with resistance determinants to non-beta-lactam agents (e.g. aminoglycosides and fluoroquinolones), and strains producing ESBLs or carbapenemases often exhibit complex multidrug resistant phenotypes and sometimes are panresistant. The problem is worsened by the dearth of new agents active on multidrug-resistant Gram-negatives in the pipeline. The importance to develop better strategies to control resistance is underscored.

  10. STUDY ON SURGICAL SITE INFECTIONS CAUSED BY ESBL PRODUCING GRAM NEGATIVE BACTERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rambabu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Surgical site infections have been a major problem, because of the emergence of drug resistant bacteria, in particular B - lactamase producing bacteria. Extended spectrum beta lactamase producing gram negative organisms pose a great challenge in treatment o f SSI present study is aimed at determining multiple drug resistance in gram negative bacteria & to find out ESBL producers, in correlation with treatment outcome. A total of 120 wound infected cases were studied. Staphylococcus aureus was predominant bact erium - 20.Among gram negative bacteria, Pseudomonas species is predominant (14 followed by Escherichia coli (13 , Klebsiella species (12 , Proteus (9 Citrobacter (4 Providencia (2 & Acinetobacter species (2 . Out of 56 gramnegative bacteria isolated, 20 were i dentified as ESBL producers, which was statistically significant. Delay in wound healing correlated with infection by ESBL producers, which alarms the need of abstinence from antibiotic abuse

  11. The Toll pathway underlies host sexual dimorphism in resistance to both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria in mated Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duneau, David F; Kondolf, Hannah C; Im, Joo Hyun; Ortiz, Gerardo A; Chow, Christopher; Fox, Michael A; Eugénio, Ana T; Revah, J; Buchon, Nicolas; Lazzaro, Brian P

    2017-12-21

    Host sexual dimorphism is being increasingly recognized to generate strong differences in the outcome of infectious disease, but the mechanisms underlying immunological differences between males and females remain poorly characterized. Here, we used Drosophila melanogaster to assess and dissect sexual dimorphism in the innate response to systemic bacterial infection. We demonstrated sexual dimorphism in susceptibility to infection by a broad spectrum of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. We found that both virgin and mated females are more susceptible than mated males to most, but not all, infections. We investigated in more detail the lower resistance of females to infection with Providencia rettgeri, a Gram-negative bacterium that naturally infects D. melanogaster. We found that females have a higher number of phagocytes than males and that ablation of hemocytes does not eliminate the dimorphism in resistance to P. rettgeri, so the observed dimorphism does not stem from differences in the cellular response. The Imd pathway is critical for the production of antimicrobial peptides in response to Gram-negative bacteria, but mutants for Imd signaling continued to exhibit dimorphism even though both sexes showed strongly reduced resistance. Instead, we found that the Toll pathway is responsible for the dimorphism in resistance. The Toll pathway is dimorphic in genome-wide constitutive gene expression and in induced response to infection. Toll signaling is dimorphic in both constitutive signaling and in induced activation in response to P. rettgeri infection. The dimorphism in pathway activation can be specifically attributed to Persephone-mediated immune stimulation, by which the Toll pathway is triggered in response to pathogen-derived virulence factors. We additionally found that, in absence of Toll signaling, males become more susceptible than females to the Gram-positive Enterococcus faecalis. This reversal in susceptibility between male and female Toll

  12. Risk factors for multidrug-resistant Gram-negative infection in burn patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickers, Mark L; Dulhunty, Joel M; Ballard, Emma; Chapman, Paul; Muller, Michael; Roberts, Jason A; Cotta, Menino O

    2018-05-01

    Infection with multidrug-resistant (MDR) Gram-negative organisms leads to poorer outcomes in the critically ill burn patient. The aim of this study was to identify the risk factors for MDR Gram-negative pathogen infection in critically ill burn patients admitted to a major tertiary referral intensive care unit (ICU) in Australia. A retrospective case-control study of all adult burn patients admitted over a 7-year period was conducted. Twenty-one cases that cultured an MDR Gram-negative organism were matched with 21 controls of similar age, gender, burn size and ICU stay. Multivariable conditional logistic regression was used to individually assess risk factors after adjusting for Acute Burn Severity Index. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) were reported. P-values negative infection included superficial partial thickness burn size (OR: 1.08; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.01-1.16; P-value: 0.034), prior meropenem exposure (OR: 10.39; 95% CI: 0.96-112.00; P-value: 0.054), Gram-negative colonization on admission (OR: 9.23; 95% CI: 0.65-130.15; P-value: 0.10) and escharotomy (OR: 2.66; 95% CI: 0.52-13.65; P-value: 0.24). For cases, mean age was 41 (SD: 13) years, mean total body surface area burned was 47% (SD: 18) and mean days in ICU until MDR specimen collection was 17 (SD: 10) days. Prior meropenem exposure, Gram-negative colonization on admission, escharotomy and superficial partial thickness burn size may be potentially important factors for increasing the risk of MDR Gram-negative infection in the critically ill burn patient. © 2017 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  13. Extended spectrum beta-lactamases in urinary gram-negative bacilli and their susceptibility pattern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mumtaz, S.

    2008-01-01

    Beta-lactamases of gram-negative bacteria are the most important mechanism of resistance against beta lactams. Two types of beta-lactamases can confer resistance against third generation cephalosporins inducible Chromosomal beta -lactamases and extended-spectrum beta-lactamases. The extended-spectrum beta lactamases producing Strains of Enterobacteriaceae have emerged as a major problem in hospitalized as well as community based infections resulting in range of infections from uncomplicated urinary tract infection to life threatening sepsis. The study was conducted at the Microbiology Department of Fauji Foundation Hospital, Rawalpindi over a period of two years (April 2004-March 2006). Multidrug resistance and extended spectrum beta-lactamases production was studied in 111 enteric Gram-negative bacilli isolated from urine of symptomatic patients (1- 70 years) including males and females from indoor and outdoor patients by using double disc diffusion technique. Prevalence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases production was seen in 71 (61.2%) enteric gram-negative organisms, the most prevalent gram-negative organism was Klebsiella pneumoniae 40 (71.4%) followed by Escherichia coli 27 (62.8%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa 3 (25%). The extended-spectrum beta-lactamases producers were more prevalent in indoor patients 63 (88.7%) compared to outdoor patients 8 (11.3%), more in females 43 (60.6%) than males, 28 (39.4%). The extended-spectrum beta-lactamases producing gram-negative rods had more antibiotic-resistant profile than non-producers. All enteric gram negative rods should be tested for the production of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases in routine microbiology laboratory. (author)

  14. c-di-GMP Regulates Various Phenotypes and Insecticidal Activity of Gram-Positive Bacillus thuringiensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Fu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available C-di-GMP has been well investigated to play significant roles in the physiology of many Gram-negative bacteria. However, its effect on Gram-positive bacteria is less known. In order to more understand the c-di-GMP functions in Gram-positive bacteria, we have carried out a detailed study on the c-di-GMP-metabolizing enzymes and their physiological functions in Bacillus thuringiensis, a Gram-positive entomopathogenic bacterium that has been applied as an insecticide successfully. We performed a systematic study on the ten putative c-di-GMP-synthesizing enzyme diguanylate cyclases (DGCs and c-di-GMP-degrading enzyme phosphodiesterases (PDEs in B. thuringiensis BMB171, and artificially elevated the intracellular c-di-GMP level in BMB171 by deleting one or more pde genes. We found increasing level of intracellular c-di-GMP exhibits similar activities as those in Gram-negative bacteria, including altered activities in cell motility, biofilm formation, and cell-cell aggregation. Unexpectedly, we additionally found a novel function exhibited by the increasing level of c-di-GMP to promote the insecticidal activity of this bacterium against Helicoverpa armigera. Through whole-genome transcriptome profile analyses, we found that 4.3% of the B. thuringiensis genes were differentially transcribed when c-di-GMP level was increased, and 77.3% of such gene products are involved in some regulatory pathways not reported in other bacteria to date. In summary, our study represents the first comprehensive report on the c-di-GMP-metabolizing enzymes, their effects on phenotypes, and the transcriptome mediated by c-di-GMP in an important Gram-positive bacterium.

  15. Biofortified cassava with pro-vitamin A is sensory and culturally acceptable for consumption by primary school children in Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise F Talsma

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Biofortification of cassava with pro-vitamin A can potentially reduce vitamin A deficiency in low-income countries. However, little is known about consumer acceptance of this deep yellow variety of cassava compared to the commonly available white varieties. We aimed to determine the sensory and cultural acceptability of the consumption of pro-vitamin A rich cassava in order to identify key factors predicting the intention to consume pro-vitamin A rich cassava by families with school-aged children in Eastern Kenya. METHODS: Sensory acceptability was measured by replicated discrimination tests and paired preference tests among 30 children (7-12 yr and 30 caretakers (18-45 yr in three primary schools. Cultural acceptability was assessed with a questionnaire based on the combined model of The Theory of Planned Behavior and The Health Belief Model in one primary school among 140 caretakers of children aged 6 to 12 years. Correlations and multivariate analyses were used to determine associations between summed scores for model constructs. RESULTS: Caretakers and children perceived a significant difference in taste between white and pro-vitamin A rich cassava. Both preferred pro-vitamin A rich cassava over white cassava because of its soft texture, sweet taste and attractive color. Knowledge about pro-vitamin A rich cassava and it's relation to health ('Knowledge' ((β = 0.29, P = <.01 was a strong predictor of 'Health behavior identity'. Worries related to bitter taste and color ('Perceived barriers 1' (β = -0.21, P = .02, the belief of the caretaker about having control to prepare cassava ('Control beliefs' (β = 0.18, P = .02 and activities like information sessions about pro-vitamin A rich cassava and recommendations from health workers ('Cues to action'(β = 0.51, P = <.01 were the best predictors of intention to consume pro-vitamin A rich cassava. CONCLUSIONS: Pro-vitamin A rich cassava is well

  16. Biofortified Cassava with Pro-Vitamin A Is Sensory and Culturally Acceptable for Consumption by Primary School Children in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talsma, Elise F.; Melse-Boonstra, Alida; de Kok, Brenda P. H.; Mbera, Gloria N. K.; Mwangi, Alice M.; Brouwer, Inge D.

    2013-01-01

    Background Biofortification of cassava with pro-vitamin A can potentially reduce vitamin A deficiency in low-income countries. However, little is known about consumer acceptance of this deep yellow variety of cassava compared to the commonly available white varieties. We aimed to determine the sensory and cultural acceptability of the consumption of pro-vitamin A rich cassava in order to identify key factors predicting the intention to consume pro-vitamin A rich cassava by families with school-aged children in Eastern Kenya. Methods Sensory acceptability was measured by replicated discrimination tests and paired preference tests among 30 children (7–12 yr) and 30 caretakers (18–45 yr) in three primary schools. Cultural acceptability was assessed with a questionnaire based on the combined model of The Theory of Planned Behavior and The Health Belief Model in one primary school among 140 caretakers of children aged 6 to 12 years. Correlations and multivariate analyses were used to determine associations between summed scores for model constructs. Results Caretakers and children perceived a significant difference in taste between white and pro-vitamin A rich cassava. Both preferred pro-vitamin A rich cassava over white cassava because of its soft texture, sweet taste and attractive color. Knowledge about pro-vitamin A rich cassava and it's relation to health (‘Knowledge’ ((β = 0.29, P = behavior identity’. Worries related to bitter taste and color (‘Perceived barriers 1’ (β = −0.21, P = .02)), the belief of the caretaker about having control to prepare cassava (‘Control beliefs’ (β = 0.18, P = .02)) and activities like information sessions about pro-vitamin A rich cassava and recommendations from health workers (‘Cues to action’(β = 0.51, P = consume pro-vitamin A rich cassava. Conclusions Pro-vitamin A rich cassava is well accepted by school children in our study population. PMID:24023681

  17. Forecast Combinations

    OpenAIRE

    Timmermann, Allan G

    2005-01-01

    Forecast combinations have frequently been found in empirical studies to produce better forecasts on average than methods based on the ex-ante best individual forecasting model. Moreover, simple combinations that ignore correlations between forecast errors often dominate more refined combination schemes aimed at estimating the theoretically optimal combination weights. In this paper we analyse theoretically the factors that determine the advantages from combining forecasts (for example, the d...

  18. Mucositis and oral infections secondary to gram negative rods in patients with prolonged neutropenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mindy M. Sampson

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with prolonged neutropenia are at risk for a variety of complications and infections including the development of mucositis and oral ulcers. The changes in oral flora during chemotherapy and its effects on the development of infections of the oral cavity have been studied with inconsistent results. However, there is evidence that supports the colonization of gram negative rods in patients undergoing chemotherapy. In this report, we present two leukemic patients who developed oral ulcers secondary to multi-drug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa. It is important to suspect multi-drug resistant gram negative rods in patients with prolonged neutropenia who develop gum infections despite appropriate antibiotic coverage.

  19. Numerically Stable Evaluation of Moments of Random Gram Matrices With Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Elkhalil, Khalil; Kammoun, Abla; Al-Naffouri, Tareq Y.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2017-01-01

    This paper focuses on the computation of the positive moments of one-side correlated random Gram matrices. Closed-form expressions for the moments can be obtained easily, but numerical evaluation thereof is prone to numerical stability, especially in high-dimensional settings. This letter provides a numerically stable method that efficiently computes the positive moments in closed-form. The developed expressions are more accurate and can lead to higher accuracy levels when fed to moment based-approaches. As an application, we show how the obtained moments can be used to approximate the marginal distribution of the eigenvalues of random Gram matrices.

  20. Numerically Stable Evaluation of Moments of Random Gram Matrices With Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Elkhalil, Khalil

    2017-07-31

    This paper focuses on the computation of the positive moments of one-side correlated random Gram matrices. Closed-form expressions for the moments can be obtained easily, but numerical evaluation thereof is prone to numerical stability, especially in high-dimensional settings. This letter provides a numerically stable method that efficiently computes the positive moments in closed-form. The developed expressions are more accurate and can lead to higher accuracy levels when fed to moment based-approaches. As an application, we show how the obtained moments can be used to approximate the marginal distribution of the eigenvalues of random Gram matrices.