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Sample records for privatization push mode

  1. Tank 241-AY-101 Privatization Push Mode Core Sampling and Analysis Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TEMPLETON, A.M.

    2000-01-01

    This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) identifies characterization objectives pertaining to sample collection, laboratory analytical evaluation, and reporting requirements for samples obtained from tank 241-AY-101. The purpose of this sampling event is to obtain information about the characteristics of the contents of 241-AY-101 required to satisfy Data Quality Objectives For RPP Privatization Phase I: Confirm Tank T Is An Appropriate Feed Source For High-Level Waste Feed Batch X(HLW DQO) (Nguyen 1999a), Data Quality Objectives For TWRS Privatization Phase I : Confirm Tank T Is An Appropriate Feed Source For Low-Activity Waste Feed Batch X (LAW DQO) (Nguyen 1999b), Low Activity Waste and High-Level Waste Feed Data Quality Objectives (L and H DQO) (Patello et al. 1999), and Characterization Data Needs for Development, Design, and Operation of Retrieval Equipment Developed through the Data Quality Objective Process (Equipment DQO) (Bloom 1996). Special instructions regarding support to the LAW and HLW DQOs are provided by Baldwin (1999). Push mode core samples will be obtained from risers 15G and 150 to provide sufficient material for the chemical analyses and tests required to satisfy these data quality objectives. The 222-S Laboratory will extrude core samples; composite the liquids and solids; perform chemical analyses on composite and segment samples; archive half-segment samples; and provide subsamples to the Process Chemistry Laboratory. The Process Chemistry Laboratory will prepare test plans and perform process tests to evaluate the behavior of the 241-AY-101 waste undergoing the retrieval and treatment scenarios defined in the applicable DQOs. Requirements for analyses of samples originating in the process tests will be documented in the corresponding test plans and are not within the scope of this SAP

  2. Tank 241-AY-101 Privatization Push Mode Core Sampling and Analysis Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TEMPLETON, A.M.

    2000-01-01

    This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) identifies characterization objectives pertaining to sample collection, laboratory analytical evaluation, and reporting requirements for samples obtained from tank 241-AY-101. The purpose of this sampling event is to obtain information about the characteristics of the contents of 241-AY-101 required to satisfy ''Data Quality Objectives For RPP Privatization Phase I: Confirm Tank T Is An Appropriate Feed Source For High-Level Waste Feed Batch X(HLW DQO)' (Nguyen 1999a), ''Data Quality Objectives For TWRS Privatization Phase I: Confirm Tank T Is An Appropriate Feed Source For Low-Activity Waste Feed Butch X (LAW DQO) (Nguyen 1999b)'', ''Low Activity Waste and High-Level Waste Feed Data Quality Objectives (L and H DQO)'' (Patello et al. 1999), and ''Characterization Data Needs for Development, Design, and Operation of Retrieval Equipment Developed through the Data Quality Objective Process (Equipment DQO)'' (Bloom 1996). Special instructions regarding support to the LAW and HLW DQOs are provided by Baldwin (1999). Push mode core samples will be obtained from risers 15G and 150 to provide sufficient material for the chemical analyses and tests required to satisfy these data quality objectives. The 222-S Laboratory will extrude core samples; composite the liquids and solids; perform chemical analyses on composite and segment samples; archive half-segment samples; and provide sub-samples to the Process Chemistry Laboratory. The Process Chemistry Laboratory will prepare test plans and perform process tests to evaluate the behavior of the 241-AY-101 waste undergoing the retrieval and treatment scenarios defined in the applicable DQOs. Requirements for analyses of samples originating in the process tests will be documented in the corresponding test plans and are not within the scope of this SAP

  3. Tank 241-AZ-102 Privatization Push Mode Core Sampling and Analysis Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RASMUSSEN, J.H.

    1999-01-01

    This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) identifies characterization objectives pertaining to sample collection, laboratory analytical evaluation, and reporting requirements for samples obtained from tank 241-AZ-102. The purpose of this sampling event is to obtain information about the characteristics of the contents of 241-AZ-102 required to satisfy the Data Quality Objectives For TWRS Privatization Phase I : Confirm Tank TIS An Appropriate Feed Source For High-Level Waste Feed Batch X(HLW DQO) (Nguyen 1999a), Data Quality Objectives For TWRS Privatization Phase 1: Confirm Tank TIS An Appropriate Feed Source For Low-Activity Waste Feed Batch X (LAW DQO) (Nguyen 1999b), Low Activity Waste and High Level Waste Feed Data Quality Objectives (L and H DQO) (Patello et al. 1999) and Characterization Data Needs for Development, Design, and Operation of Retrieval Equipment Developed through the Data Quality Objective Process (Equipment DQO) (Bloom 1996). The Tank Characterization Technical Sampling Basis document (Brown et al. 1998) indicates that these issues, except the Equipment DQO apply to tank 241-AZ-102 for this sampling event. The Equipment DQO is applied for shear strength measurements of the solids segments only. Poppiti (1999) requires additional americium-241 analyses of the sludge segments. Brown et al. (1998) also identify safety screening, regulatory issues and provision of samples to the Privatization Contractor(s) as applicable issues for this tank. However, these issues will not be addressed via this sampling event. Reynolds et al. (1999) concluded that information from previous sampling events was sufficient to satisfy the safety screening requirements for tank 241-AZ-102. Push mode core samples will be obtained from risers 15C and 24A to provide sufficient material for the chemical analyses and tests required to satisfy these data quality objectives. The 222-S Laboratory will extrude core samples, composite the liquids and solids, perform chemical analyses

  4. Tank 241-AZ-102 Privatization Push Mode Core Sampling and Analysis Plan; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TEMPLETON, A.M.

    1999-01-01

    This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) identifies characterization objectives pertaining to sample collection, laboratory analytical evaluation, and reporting requirements for samples obtained from tank 241-AZ-102. The purpose of this sampling event is to obtain information about the characteristics of the contents of 241-AZ-102. Push mode core samples will be obtained from risers 15C and 24A to provide sufficient material for the chemical analyses and tests required to satisfy these data quality objectives. The 222-S Laboratory will extrude core samples, composite the liquids and solids, perform chemical analyses, and provide subsamples to the Process Chemistry Laboratory. The Process Chemistry Laboratory will prepare test plans and perform process tests to evaluate the behavior of the 241-AZ-102 waste undergoing the retrieval and treatment scenarios defined in the applicable DQOs. Requirements for analyses of samples originating in the process tests will be documented in the corresponding test plan

  5. Apaches push privatization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniels, S.

    1994-01-01

    Trying to drum up business for what would be the first private temporary storage facility for spent nuclear fuel rods, the Mescalero Apaches are inviting officials of 30 utilities to convene March 10 at the tribe's New Mexico reservation. The state public utilities commission will also attend the meeting, which grew from an agreement the tribe signed last month with Minneapolis-based Northern States Power Co

  6. Safety analysis for push-mode and rotary-mode core sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milliken, N.J.; Geschke, G.R.

    1995-01-01

    This safety analysis analyzes using the push-mode core sampling truck in the push-mode and the rotary-mode core sampling trucks in both the push- and rotary-modes to retrieve core samples that, once taken and analyzed, will yield waste characterization data for the hazardous waste tanks at the Hanford Site. Operation of the core sampling trucks in both the push- and rotary-modes was reviewed to determine whether the release of radioactive materials could occur during operation. It was concluded that there are three credible scenarios: a sample spill outside of the tank, a steam release event, and an unfiltered release to the environment during continuous exhauster operation. The probability of a sample spill was found to be 10 -4 /event, the probability of a steam release event was determined to fall in the unlikely range (10 -2 /event to 10 -4 /event), and the probability of an unfiltered release was calculated to be 5 x 10 -3 /year. Typically, events with probabilities of 10 -6 /event or less are not considered to be risk significant, and the consequences usually are not analyzed. The three accident scenarios were analyzed to calculate the dose consequences. It was determined that the steam release event is the bounding accident. The onsite and offsite dose consequences for this event are calculated to be 0.24 Sv (24 rem) and 3.2 x 10 -4 Sv (32 mrem), respectively. These consequences are below the risk acceptance guidelines for an unlikely event, as established in WHC-CM-4-46, Nonreactor Facility Safety Analysis Manual. With the design features and the use of the controls presented in Section 8.0, this operation represents a minimal risk

  7. Tank 241-SY-101 push mode core sampling and analysis plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CONNER, J.M.

    1998-01-01

    This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) identifies characterization objectives pertaining to sample collection, laboratory analytical evaluation, and reporting requirements for push mode core samples from tank 241-SY-101 (SY-101). It is written in accordance with Data Quality Objective to Support Resolution of the Flammable Gas Safety Issue (Bauer 1998), Low Activity Waste Feed Data Quality Objectives (Wiemers and Miller 1997 and DOE 1998), Data Quality Objectives for TWRS Privatization Phase I: Confirm Tank T is an Appropriate Feed Source for Low-Activity Waste Feed Batch X (Certa 1998), and the Tank Safety Screening Data Quality Objective (Dukelow et al. 1995). The Tank Characterization Technical Sampling Basis document (Brown et al. 1998) indicates that these issues apply to tank SY-101 for this sampling event. Brown et al. also identifies high-level waste, regulatory, pretreatment and disposal issues as applicable issues for this tank. However, these issues will not be addressed via this sampling event

  8. Tank 241-B-203 push mode core sampling and analysis plan. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, J.

    1995-01-01

    This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) identifies characterization objectives pertaining to sample collection, laboratory analytical evaluation, and reporting requirements for two push-mode core samples from tank 241-B-203 (B-203)

  9. Tank 241-B-204 push mode core sampling and analysis plan. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, L.M.

    1995-01-01

    This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) identifies characterization objectives pertaining to sample collection, laboratory analytical evaluation, and reporting requirements for two push-mode core samples from tank 241-B-204 (B-204)

  10. Tank 241-U-105 push mode core sampling and analysis plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, K.E.

    1995-01-01

    This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) will identify characterization objectives pertaining to sample collection, laboratory analytical evaluation, and reporting requirements for vapor samples and two push mode core samples from tank 241-U-105 (U-105)

  11. Do PhDs Voluntarily Opt for Private Sector Employment? Evidence of Push and Pull Effects on Mobility Choices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Heidi Skovgaard

    2014-01-01

    In Denmark, policy makers have increased admissions to PhD programs to ensure the flow of researchers into the private sector, thereby increasing knowledge transfer. However, we know little about the factors influencing the sector mobility of PhD graduates. While opting for employment...... in the private sector might be driven by personal preferences, there might also be external factors pushing PhDs to choose the private sector. This article examines the push and pull effects on mobility choices using duration models to estimate the transition rates to private sector employment. The analyses show...... that the preference for and ability to do academic science reduces transition rates to the private sector, whereas being in a research position and earnings potential are attractors to the private sector. Hence, both push and pull effects determine sector mobility. Once the initial sector choice has been made...

  12. Waste compatibility safety issues and final results for tank 241-T-110 push mode samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuzum, J.L.

    1997-01-01

    This document is the final laboratory report for Tank 241-T-110. Push mode core segments were removed from risers 2 and 6 between January 29, 1997, and February 7, 1997. Segments were received and extruded at 222-S Laboratory. Analyses were performed in accordance with Tank 241-T-110 Push Mode Core Sampling and analysis Plan (TSAP) and Safety Screening Data Quality Objective (DQO). None of the subsamples submitted for total alpha activity (AT) or differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analyses exceeded the notification limits stated in DQO

  13. Thermal modeling of core sampling in flammable gas waste tanks. Part 1: Push-mode sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unal, C.; Stroh, K.; Pasamehmetoglu, K.O.

    1997-01-01

    The radioactive waste stored in underground storage tanks at Hanford site is routinely being sampled for waste characterization purposes. The push- and rotary-mode core sampling is one of the sampling methods employed. The waste includes mixtures of sodium nitrate and sodium nitrite with organic compounds that can produce violent exothermic reactions if heated above 160 C during core sampling. A self-propagating waste reaction would produce very high temperatures that eventually result in failure of the tank and radioactive material releases to environment. A two-dimensional thermal model based on a lumped finite volume analysis method is developed. The enthalpy of each node is calculated from the first law of thermodynamics. A flash temperature and effective contact area concept were introduced to account the interface temperature rise. No maximum temperature rise exceeding the critical value of 60 C was found in the cases studied for normal operating conditions. Several accident conditions are also examined. In these cases it was found that the maximum drill bit temperature remained below the critical reaction temperature as long as a 30 scfm purge flow is provided the push-mode drill bit during sampling in rotary mode. The failure to provide purge flow resulted in exceeding the limiting temperatures in a relatively short time

  14. 45-Day safety screening results for tank 241-U-102, push mode cores 143 and 144

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steen, F.H.

    1996-01-01

    This document is the 45-day report deliverable for tank 241-U-102 push mode core segments collected between April 16, 1996 and May 6, 1996 and received by the 222-S Laboratory between April 17, 1996 and May 8, 1996. The segments were subsampled and analyzed in accordance, with the Tank 241-U-102 Push Mode Core Sampling and analysis Plan (TSAP) (Hu, 1996) and the Safety Screening Data Quality Objective (DQO) (Dukelow, et al., 1995). The analytical results are included in Table 1. Attachment I is a cross reference to relate the tank farm identification numbers to the 222-S Laboratory LabCore sample numbers. The subsamples generated in the laboratory for analysis are identified in these diagrams with their sources shown. The diagram identifying the hydrostatic head fluid (HHF) blank is also included, Primary safety screening results and the raw data from Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) analyses are included in this report. Two of the samples submitted for DSC analysis exceeded notification limits as stated in the Safety Screening DQO (Dukelow, et al., 1995). Cyanide analysis was requested on these samples and a Reactive System Screening Tool analysis was requested for the sample exhibiting the highest exothenn in accordance with the TSAP (Hu, 1996). The results for these analyses will be reported in a revision to this document

  15. Final report for tank 241-B-203, push mode cores 115, 120 and 122

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, J.

    1996-01-01

    This is the final laboratory report for tank 241-B-203 (B-203), cores 115, 120 and 122. Two fourteen-segment and one eleven-segment push-mode core samples from tank B-203 and a field blank sample were received at the 222-S Laboratory. Cores 115 (11 segments) and 120 (14 segments) were obtained from riser 2 and core 122 (14 segments) was obtained from riser 7. Core 115 was archived due to poor sample recovery and not analyzed (with an exception of liner liquid). The other two core samples underwent safety screening analyses in accordance with the sampling and analysis plan, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), total alpha analysis, and bulk density measurements. Bromide analysis by ion chromatography (IC) and lithium analysis by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP) were performed to determine if the samples were contaminated with any lithium bromide solution that may have been used during sampling. Total organic carbon (TOC) and cyanide (CN) analyses were completed for two samples with high exotherms. In addition to the core sample analysis, the tank headspace flammability was measured prior to core sampling as required by the SAP and Safety Screening DQO. None of the data indicate that the tank is unsafe when compared to the criteria in the Safety Screening Data Quality Objective. The tank has a high moisture content (approximately 75%). Two samples exceeded the DSC notification limit. However, re-analysis of these samples could not reproduce the same results (no exotherms detected). Also, secondary TOC and CN analyses on these samples indicated negligible fuel content. The one-sided 95-percent confidence intervals for total alpha results are well below the notification limit. Furthermore, the vapor in the tank B-203 dome space is far below the 25% lower flammability limit (LFL) stated in the SAP. Therefore, the results show that this tank may be considered safe. Water with a lithium bromide tracer, was

  16. Tank 241-AZ-102 Privatization Push Mode Core Sampling and Analysis Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TEMPLETON, A.M.

    1999-01-01

    This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) identifies characterization objectives pertaining to sample collection, laboratory analytical evaluation, and reporting requirements for samples obtained from tank 241-AZ-102

  17. Tank 241-AZ-102 Privatization Push Mode Core Sampling and Analysis Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RASMUSSEN, J.H.

    2000-01-01

    This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) identifies characterization objectives pertaining to sample collection, laboratory analytical evaluation, and reporting requirements for samples obtained from tank 241-AZ-102

  18. 45-Day safety screen results for Tank 241-U-201, push mode, cores 70, 73 and 74

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sathyanarayana, P.

    1995-01-01

    Three core samples, each having two segments, from Tank 241-U-201 (U-201) were received by the 222-S Laboratories. Safety screening analysis, such as differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and total alpha activity were conducted on Core 70, Segment 1 and 2 and on Core 73, Segment 1 and 2. Core 74, Segment 1 and 2 were taken to test rotary bit in push mode sampling. No analysis was requested on Core 74, Segment 1 and 2. Analytical results for the TGA analyses for Core 70, Segment 1, Upper half solid sample was less than the safety screening notification limit of 17 percent water. Notification was made on April 27, 1995. No exotherm was associated with this sample. Analytical results are presented in Tables 1 to 4, with the applicable notification limits shaded

  19. Trip Generation by Transportation Mode of Private School, Semi-private and Public. Case Study in Merida-Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quintero Petit, A.M.; Diaz Gallardo, M.I.; Moreno Gonzalez, E.G.

    2016-07-01

    The trip generation model (TGM) is the first step in transportation forecasting, this is useful for estimating travel demand because it can predict travel from or to a particular land use. Typically, the analysis focuses in residential trip generation as a function of the social and economic attributes of households, but nonresidential land use suggests others variables. Travel generator poles such as: Private school, Semi-private and Public, have not been studied in Venezuela. The TGMs that shows the Institute of Transportation Engineers (ITE), EE.UU, are used typically and could be not appropriate. By using stepwise regression and transformation of data, high correlation coefficients and substantial improvements in the variability of data from several schools they were found. The trip generation rates (TGRs) by transportation mode: walking, motorcycle, public transport and cars, can be compared and be included in the Ibero-American Network of travel attractors poles. (Author)

  20. Knowledge Management in the Network Mode: The Case of Private Equity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Britta Klagge

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There has been an ongoing debate on the changing geographical organization of the financial sector and the decreasing importance of regional financial centres. Our contribution explores a fresh perspective on this issue by looking at knowledge and risk management in different parts of the financial sector with an empirical focus on private equity in Germany. The argument we put forward is that the ways in which providers of finance manage knowledge and risk shape their organizational and geographical structure. In our analytical framework we distinguish between three ideal-type modes of knowledge management: the relationship, the data and the network mode. These modes differ in the types of knowledge exchanged, the actors involved and in the role and nature of relevant contacts and relationships. The shift from relationship to data mode in credit provision in Germany serves an example of how a new mode of knowledge management is associated with changes in the geographical organization of financial actors and activities. To illustrate the network mode we then focus on knowledge management in private equity in Germany, which involves a variety of different actors and links both regional and interregional networks. Our empirical research shows that the resulting organizational and geographical struc¬tures are rather complex and have nodes in regional financial centres. While these centres benefit from private equity activities, their chances for re-vitalization and a re-regionalization of financial expertise on the basis of private equity are nonetheless limited. So far, Munich seems to be the (only one location where private equity – cross-fertilized by other local financial actors – has initiated a self-supported development which strengthens Munich as a financial centre.

  1. Women's preferences and mode of delivery in public and private hospitals: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoni, Agustina; Althabe, Fernando; Gutierrez, Laura; Gibbons, Luz; Liu, Nancy H; Bonotti, Ana María; Izbizky, Gustavo H; Ferrary, Marta; Viergue, Nora; Vigil, Silvia I; Zalazar Denett, Gabriela; Belizán, José M

    2016-02-08

    Rates of caesarean section have steadily increased in most middle- and high-income countries over the last few decades without medical justification. Maternal request is one of the frequently cited non-medical factors contributing to this trend. The objectives of this study were to assess pregnant women's preferences regarding mode of delivery and to compare actual caesarean section rates in the public and private sectors. A prospective cohort study was conducted in two public and three private hospitals in Buenos Aires, Argentina. 382 nulliparous pregnant women (183 from the private sector and 199 from the public sector) aged 18 to 35 years, with single pregnancies over 32 weeks of gestational age were enrolled during antenatal care visits between October 2010 and September 2011. We excluded women with pregnancies resulting from assisted fertility, women with known pre-existing major diseases or, with pregnancy complications, or with a medical indication of elective cesarean section. We used two different approaches to assess women's preferences: a survey using a tailored questionnaire, and a discrete choice experiment. Only 8 and 6% of the healthy nulliparous women in the public and private sectors, respectively, expressed a preference for caesarean section. Fear of pain and safety were the most frequently expressed reasons for preferring caesarean section. When reasons for delivery mode were assessed by a discrete choice experiment, women placed the most emphasis on sex after childbirth. Of women who expressed their preference for vaginal delivery, 34 and 40% ended their pregnancies by caesarean section in public and private hospitals, respectively. The preference for caesarean section is low among healthy nulliparous women in Buenos Aires. The reasons why these women had a rate of more than 35% caesarean sections are unlikely related to their preferences for mode of delivery.

  2. Effect of polymerization mode of two adhesive systems on push-out bond strength of fiber post to different regions of root canal dentin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahram Farzin Ebrahimi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A few studies have investigated the effect of the activation mode of adhesive systems on bond strength of fiber posts to root canal dentin. This study investigated the push-out bond strengths of a glass fiber post to different root canal regions with the use of two adhesives with light- and dual-cure polymerization modes. Materials and Methods: In this in vitro study, 40 maxillary central incisors were decoronated at cement-enamel junction with 15 ± 1 mm root length. After root canal therapy and post space preparations, they were randomly divided into four groups. Post spaces were treated with four different adhesives: Excite, Excite Dual cure Single Component (DSC, self-etch adhesive (AdheSE, and AdheSE dual-cure. Then the fiber-reinforced composite (FRC post, Postec Plus, was cemented with dual-cure resin cement, Variolink II. The roots were cut into three 2-mm-thick slices. Push-out tests were performed with a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. The mode of failures was determined under a stereomicroscope. Data were analyzed by three-way analysis of variance (ANOVA and Tukey test was conducted to compare post hoc with P < 0.05 as the level of significance. Results: The highest bond strength was obtained for AdheSE dual-cure (15.54 ± 6.90 MPa and the lowest was obtained for Excite light-cure (10.07 ± 7.45 MPa and only the bond strength between these two adhesives had significant difference (P = 0.02. Bond strength decreased from the coronal to the apical in all groups and this was significant in Excite (group 1 and AdheSE (group 3 (P < 0.001. In apical regions, bond strength of dual-cure adhesives was significantly higher than light-cure adhesives (P < 0.001. Conclusion: Push-out bond strength of fiber post to different regions of root canal dentin was affected by both adhesive systems and their polymerization modes.

  3. Report on ignitability testing of ''no-flow'' push bit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witwer, K.S.

    1997-01-01

    Testing was done to determine if an ignition occurs during a sixty foot drop of a Universal Sampler onto a push-mode bit in a flammable gas environment. Ten drops each of the sampler using both a push-mode and rotary mode insert onto a push-mode bit were completed. No ignition occurred during any of the drops

  4. Pushing the boundaries of the social: private agri-food standards and the governance of Fair Trade in European public procurement

    OpenAIRE

    Fisher, Eleanor; Sheppard, Hannah

    2013-01-01

    The article explores how fair trade and associated private agri-food standards are incorporated into public procurement in Europe. Procurement law is underpinned by principles of equity, non-discrimination and transparency; one consequence is that legal obstacles exist to fair trade being privileged within procurement practice. These obstacles have pragmatic dimensions, concerning whether and how procurement can be used to fulfil wider social policy objectives or to incorporate private standa...

  5. Review of Regulatory Emphasis on Transportation Safety in the United States, 2002-2009: Public versus Private Modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waycaster, Garrett C; Matsumura, Taiki; Bilotkach, Volodymyr; Haftka, Raphael T; Kim, Nam H

    2018-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Transportation is responsible for implementing new safety improvements and regulations with the goal of ensuring limited funds are distributed to where they can have the greatest impact on safety. In this work, we conduct a study of new regulations and other reactions (such as recalls) to fatal accidents in several different modes of transportation implemented from 2002 to 2009. We find that in the safest modes of commercial aviation and bus transport, the amount of spending on new regulations is high in relation to the number of fatalities compared to the regulatory attention received by less safe modes of general aviation and private automobiles. Additionally, we study two major fatal accident investigations from commercial aviation and two major automotive recalls associated with fatal accidents. We find differences in the cost per expected fatality prevented for these reactions, with the airline accident investigations being more cost effective. Overall, we observe trends in both the automotive and aviation sectors that suggest that public transportation receives more regulatory attention than private transport. We also observe that the types of safety remedies utilized, regulation versus investigation, have varying levels of effectiveness in different transport modes. We suggest that these differences are indicative of increased public demand for safety in modes where a third party may be held responsible, even for those not participating in the transportation. These findings have important implications for the transportation industry, policymakers, and for estimating the public demand for safety in new transport modes. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  6. The Role of the Regulated Sector in the UK Anti-Money Laundering Framework: Pushing the Boundaries of the Private Police

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mo Egan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This article argues that the conceptualisation of private police in current academic literature requires expansion to accommodate the role of the regulated sector in the Anti- Money Laundering (AML framework. Firstly, it evaluates the literature on ‘private police’ and argues that its current parameters are too narrow to accommodate the ‘policing’ role of the regulated sector. Secondly, it lays out the legislative framework that has developed to deal with the problem of money laundering. Thirdly, it contextualises the role of the regulated sector, examining the domestic inter-agency policing relationships within the suspicious activity regime as operationalised in Scotland. Finally, it takes a closer look at how the courts have interpreted the ‘failure to report offence’ under s330 of the Proceeds of Crime Act (POCA 2002 and its consequential effect on the engagement of the regulated sector with the SARs regime.

  7. [Study on medical service supply public-private partnership mode: based on the view of public economics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yue; Sun, Hong; Zhou, Li

    2015-02-01

    Due to the quasi-public attributes of medical service, the supply mode and system could influence equity and fairness of general people's health. Based on the view of public economics, the purpose of this paper was to explain the economic nature of medical service supply. By analyzing the practice of public-private partnership (PPP) mode in medical care supply and the related public economic issues, we summarized the feasibility and risks of PPP model in Chinese medical care supply market. Finally, we discussed the innovative medical service system provided by government, public hospitals, and social capitals together. Therefore, to guarantee further development of this new medical service supply--PPP mode, we should pay attention to some practical problems, such as the share of cooperation cost and the balance between the benefit and risk among all partners.

  8. International migration of health professionals and the marketization and privatization of health education in India: from push-pull to global political economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton-Roberts, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    Health worker migration theories have tended to focus on labour market conditions as principal push or pull factors. The role of education systems in producing internationally oriented health workers has been less explored. In place of the traditional conceptual approaches to understanding health worker, especially nurse, migration, I advocate global political economy (GPE) as a perspective that can highlight how educational investment and global migration tendencies are increasing interlinked. The Indian case illustrates the globally oriented nature of health care training, and informs a broader understanding of both the process of health worker migration, and how it reflects wider marketization tendencies evident in India's education and health systems. The Indian case also demonstrates how the global orientation of education systems in source regions is increasingly central to comprehending the place of health workers in the global and Asian rise in migration. The paper concludes that Indian corporate health care training systems are increasingly aligned with the production of professionals orientated to globally integrated health human resource labour markets, and our conceptual analysis of such processes must effectively reflect these tendencies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The effect of different irrigating solutions on the push out bond strength of endodontic sealer to dentin and assessing the fracture modes: An In-vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasundhara Shivanna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the effect of smear clear, 7% maleic acid, 10% citric acid, and 17% EDTA on the push-out bond strength of epoxy resin-based endodontic sealer to dentin. Materials and Methodos: Fifty extracted mandibular premolars were collected. After decoronation using a diamond disc and water spray to obtain approximately 14 mm long root segments, canal patency and working length were established by inserting K file #15 (Mani. The root canals were enlarged using Protaper nickel-titanium rotary instruments to size #F3 at the working length irrigating with 3 mL of 2.6% sodium hypochlorite between each file size. The roots were then randomly divided into four groups (n = 10 according to the final irrigation regimen Group1: Saline (control. Group 2: 17% EDTA, Group 3: 7% maleic acid, Group 4: 10% citric acid, Group 5: Smear clear. Obturation was done using gutta-percha with AH Plus sealer. Each root section was then subjected to a compressive load via a universal testing machine, to measure the push out bond strength followed by assessment of fracture pattern under stereomicroscope. Results: The data was collected and submitted to statistical analysis by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA test. Group 3: NaOCl/maleic acid/distilled water showed greater bond strength (2.2+/-0.278 MPa as compared to other groups. Mixed type of bond failure was predominant. Conclusion: Removal of smear layer with maleic acid as a final rinse enhanced the adhesive ability of AH plus sealer, followed by EDTA and smear clear.

  10. Human push capability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Ralph L; Liber, Theodore

    2006-02-22

    Use of unassisted human push capability arises from time to time in the areas of crowd and animal control, the security of locked doors, the integrity of railings, the removal of tree stumps and entrenched vehicles, the manoeuvering of furniture, and athletic pursuits such as US football or wrestling. Depending on the scenario, human push capability involves strength, weight, weight distribution, push angle, footwear/floor friction, and the friction between the upper body and the pushed object. Simple models are used to establish the relationships among these factors.

  11. Maternal and Neonatal Outcomes With Early Compared With Delayed Pushing Among Nulliparous Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Lynn M; Sandoval, Grecio; Bailit, Jennifer; Reddy, Uma M; Wapner, Ronald J; Varner, Michael W; Caritis, Steve N; Prasad, Mona; Tita, Alan T N; Saade, George; Sorokin, Yoram; Rouse, Dwight J; Blackwell, Sean C; Tolosa, Jorge E

    2016-11-01

    To describe factors associated with delayed pushing and evaluate the relationship between delayed pushing and perinatal outcomes in nulliparous women with singleton term gestations. This was a secondary analysis of the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Assessment of Perinatal Excellence cohort of 115,502 women and their neonates born in 25 U.S. hospitals from 2008 to 2011. Nulliparous women with singleton, cephalic, nonanomalous term births who achieved 10-cm cervical dilation were included. Women in whom pushing was delayed by 60 minutes or greater (delayed group) were compared with those who initiated pushing within 30 minutes (early group). Multivariable regression analyses were used to assess the independent association of delayed pushing with mode of delivery, length of the second stage, and other maternal and perinatal outcomes (significance defined as Ppushing was delayed in 18.4% (n=3,870). Women who were older, privately insured, or non-Hispanic white as well as those who had induction or augmentation of labor, diabetes, or epidural analgesia were more likely to have delayed pushing. Delayed pushing was more common when the second stage began during daytime hours or in hospitals with dedicated 24-hour obstetric anesthesia, although differences were small. After adjusting for differences in baseline and labor characteristics including center, women in the delayed group had longer mean durations of the second stage (191 compared with 84 minutes, Ppushing (86 compared with 76 minutes, Ppushing was associated with greater rates of cesarean delivery (11.2% compared with 5.1%; adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.86, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.63-2.12), operative vaginal delivery (adjusted OR 1.26, 95% CI 1.14-1.40), postpartum hemorrhage (adjusted OR 1.43, 95% CI 1.05-1.95), and blood transfusion (adjusted OR 1.51, 95% CI 1.04-2.17). Delayed pushing was not associated with increased odds of adverse neonatal outcomes

  12. PushPull++

    KAUST Repository

    Lipp, Markus; Wonka, Peter; Mü ller, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    PushPull tools are implemented in most commercial 3D modeling suites. Their purpose is to intuitively transform a face, edge, or vertex, and then to adapt the polygonal mesh locally. However, previous approaches have limitations: Some allow

  13. Particle Engulfment and Pushing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    As a liquefied metal solidifies, particles dispersed in the liquid are either pushed ahead of or engulfed by the moving solidification front. Similar effects can be seen when the ground freezes and pushes large particles out of the soil. The Particle Engulfment and Pushing (PEP) experiment, conducted aboard the fourth U.S. Microgravity Payload (USMP-4) mission in 1997, used a glass and plastic beads suspended in a transparent liquid. The liquid was then frozen, trapping or pushing the particles as the solidifying front moved. This simulated the formation of advanced alloys and composite materials. Such studies help scientists to understand how to improve the processes for making advanced materials on Earth. The principal investigator is Dr. Doru Stefanescu of the University of Alabama. This image is from a video downlink.

  14. From habits of attrition to modes of inclusion: enhancing the role of private practitioners in routine disease surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phalkey, Revati K; Butsch, Carsten; Belesova, Kristine; Kroll, Marieke; Kraas, Frauke

    2017-08-25

    Private practitioners are the preferred first point of care in a majority of low and middle-income countries and in this position, best placed for the surveillance of diseases. However their contribution to routine surveillance data is marginal. This systematic review aims to explore evidence with regards to the role, contribution, and involvement of private practitioners in routine disease data notification. We examined the factors that determine the inclusion of, and the participation thereof of private practitioners in disease surveillance activities. Literature search was conducted using the PubMed, Web of Knowledge, WHOLIS, and WHO-IRIS databases to identify peer-reviewed and gray full-text documents in English with no limits for year of publication or study design. Forty manuscripts were reviewed. The current participation of private practitioners in disease surveillance efforts is appalling. The main barriers to their participation are inadequate knowledge leading to unsatisfactory attitudes and misperceptions that influence their practices. Complicated reporting mechanisms with unclear guidelines, along with unsatisfactory attitudes on behalf of the government and surveillance program managers also contribute to the underreporting of cases. Infrastructural barriers especially the availability of computers and skilled human resources are critical to improving private sector participation in routine disease surveillance. The issues identified are similar to those for underreporting within the Integrated infectious Disease Surveillance and Response systems (IDSR) which collects data mainly from public healthcare facilities. We recommend that surveillance program officers should provide periodic training, supportive supervision and offer regular feedback to the practitioners from both public as well as private sectors in order to improve case notification. Governments need to take leadership and foster collaborative partnerships between the public and private

  15. PushPull++

    KAUST Repository

    Lipp, Markus

    2014-07-22

    PushPull tools are implemented in most commercial 3D modeling suites. Their purpose is to intuitively transform a face, edge, or vertex, and then to adapt the polygonal mesh locally. However, previous approaches have limitations: Some allow adjustments only when adjacent faces are orthogonal; others support slanted surfaces but never create new details. Moreover, self-intersections and edge-collapses during editing are either ignored or work only partially for solid geometry. To overcome these limitations, we introduce the PushPull++ tool for rapid polygonal modeling. In our solution, we contribute novel methods for adaptive face insertion, adjacent face updates, edge collapse handling, and an intuitive user interface that automatically proposes useful drag directions. We show that PushPull++ reduces the complexity of common modeling tasks by up to an order of magnitude when compared with existing tools. Copyright © ACM.

  16. Trustworthy content push

    OpenAIRE

    Kuntze, Nicolai; Schmidt, Andreas U.

    2006-01-01

    Delivery of content to mobile devices gains increasing importance in industrial environments to support employees in the field. An important application are e-mail push services like the fashionable Blackberry. These systems are facing security challenges regarding data transport to, and storage of the data on the end user equipment. The emerging Trusted Computing technology offers new answers to these open questions.

  17. Push-Back Leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetenbaum, Toby J.; Tetenbaum, Hilary

    2003-01-01

    Describes push-back leadership, a model of leadership based on the work of Ronald Heifetz and Martin Linksky. Argues that the two key roles of the leader are to give the work back to people and to keep them within a healthy range of disequilibrium that generates creativity and innovation to solve organizational problems. (Author/LRW)

  18. Does delayed pushing in the second stage of labor impact perinatal outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Heather A; Tuuli, Methodius G; Cortez, Sarah; Odibo, Anthony O; Roehl, Kimberly A; Shanks, Anthony L; Macones, George A; Cahill, Alison G

    2012-11-01

    To estimate maternal, neonatal, and labor outcomes associated with delayed pushing. A retrospective cohort study of all consecutive women admitted to a single institution in labor at term who reached the second stage of labor. Pregnancies with multiple fetuses or major anomalies were excluded. Delayed pushing was defined as initiation of pushing ≥60 minutes after complete dilatation. Primary outcome was mode of delivery. Multivariable logistic regression was used to control for confounding. Of the 5290 women who met inclusion criteria, 471 (8.9%) employed delayed pushing, and 4819 (91.1%) pushed immediately. Delayed pushing was associated with increased rates of cesarean, operative vaginal delivery, maternal fever, and lower arterial cord pH. Duration of the second stage and length of time spent pushing were significantly longer with delayed pushing. Delayed pushing is associated with lower rates of spontaneous vaginal delivery and increased adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  19. Push Attack: Binding Virtual and Real Identities Using Mobile Push Notifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierpaolo Loreti

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Popular mobile apps use push notifications extensively to offer an “always connected” experience to their users. Social networking apps use them as a real-time channel to notify users about new private messages or new social interactions (e.g., friendship request, tagging, etc.. Despite the cryptography used to protect these communication channels, the strict temporal binding between the actions that trigger the notifications and the reception of the notification messages in the mobile device may represent a privacy issue. In this work, we present the push notification attack designed to bind the physical owners of mobile devices with their virtual identities, even if pseudonyms are used. In an online attack, an active attacker triggers a push notification and captures the notification packets that transit in the network. In an offline attack, a passive attacker correlates the social network activity of a user with the received push notification. The push notification attack bypasses the standard ways of protecting user privacy based on the network layer by operating at the application level. It requires no additional software on the victim’s mobile device.

  20. Boris push with spatial stepping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penn, G; Stoltz, P H; Cary, J R; Wurtele, J

    2003-01-01

    The Boris push is commonly used in plasma physics simulations because of its speed and stability. It is second-order accurate, requires only one field evaluation per time step, and has good conservation properties. However, for accelerator simulations it is convenient to propagate particles in z down a changing beamline. A 'spatial Boris push' algorithm has been developed which is similar to the Boris push but uses a spatial coordinate as the independent variable, instead of time. This scheme is compared to the fourth-order Runge-Kutta algorithm, for two simplified muon beam lattices: a uniform solenoid field, and a 'FOFO' lattice where the solenoid field varies sinusoidally along the axis. Examination of the canonical angular momentum, which should be conserved in axisymmetric systems, shows that the spatial Boris push improves accuracy over long distances

  1. Private Schools

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This Private Schools feature dataset is composed of all Private elementary and secondary education features in the United States as defined by the Private School...

  2. Private placements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bugeaud, G. J. R.

    1998-01-01

    The principles underlying private placements in Alberta, and the nature of the processes employed by the Alberta Securities Commission in handling such transactions were discussed. The Alberta Securities Commission's mode of operation was demonstrated by the inclusion of various documents issued by the Commission concerning (1) special warrant transactions prior to listing, (2) a decision by the Executive Director refusing to issue a receipt for the final prospectus for a distribution of securities of a company and the reasons for the refusal, (3) the Commission's decision to interfere with the Executive Director's decision not to issue a receipt for the final prospectus, with full citation of the Commission's reasons for its decision, (4) and a series of proposed rules and companion policy statements regarding trades and distributions outside and in Alberta. Text of a sample 'short form prospectus' was also included

  3. Push piece for spent fuel elements magazine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griveau, R.; Kerlau, D.; Tucoulat, D.; Colas, J.; Pellier, R.

    1989-01-01

    The push piece permits the displacement of little section elements in a magazine of high section. At the end of cut, the push piece leans its flank against an auxiliary blank holder and the element is pushed by a paddle, the push piece being immobilized [fr

  4. Pushing nanoparticles of La0.7Sr0.3MnO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Y.-R.; Liou Yung; Yao, Y.-D.

    2004-01-01

    Pushing nanoparticles of La 0.7 Sr 0.3 MnO 3 (LSMO) on a native SiO 2 surface using atomic force microscopy (AFM) in the tapping mode is presented. The pushing is accompanied by a repulsive tip-sample interaction between the AFM tip and the LSMO nanoparticles and the physisorption of the LSMO on the SiO 2 surface. The AFM images show scratch artifacts on the surface, indicating that artificial scratches are strongly related to the pushing of the LSMO nanoparticles. A possible approach to pushing nanoparticles is proposed

  5. Management, entrepreneurship and private service orientation : a framework for undergraduate veterinary education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ban, van den A.W.; Sasidhar, P.V.K.

    2006-01-01

    The changing nature of livestock outreach service delivery, manpower requirements and opportunities in the private sector provide both push and pull dynamics for veterinary graduates to engage in managerial, entrepreneurial, public and private service activities. The veterinary schools should

  6. Pushing Boundaries while Maintaining Stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lippke, Lena; Wegener, Charlotte

    at the same time. The exploration of transforming practices shows how disturbances in relation to the ‘normal’ practices are created and thus makes invisible conventions which are taken for granted visible. Thus, this paper addresses two types of invisibility: the unnoticed boundary-pushing practices...

  7. 'Mister Badger' Pushing Mars Rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    Viking's soil sampler collector arm successfully pushed a rock on the surface of Mars during the afternoon of Friday, October 8. The irregular-shaped rock was pushed several inches by the Lander's collector arm, which displaced the rock to the left of its original position, leaving it cocked slightly upward. Photographs and other information verified the successful rock push. Photo at left shows the soil sampler's collector head pushing against the rock, named 'Mister Badger' by flight controllers. Photo at right shows the displaced rock and the depression whence it came. Part of the soil displacement was caused by the collector s backhoe. A soil sample will be taken from the site Monday night, October 11. It will then be delivered to Viking s organic chemistry instrument for a series of analyses during the next few weeks. The sample is being sought from beneath a rock because scientists believe that, if there are life forms on Mars, they may seek rocks as shelter from the Sun s intense ultraviolet radiation.

  8. Push for the Second Screen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jannick Kirk; Sørensen, Lene Tolstrup

    Users’ perception of the relation between the TV screen and a secondary screen (e.g. smartphone or tablet) is examined empirically in a pilot project through a low-fi prototype and interviews. Early observations indicate that the user value/acceptance of push-messages delivered to the second screen...

  9. PUSH-ing Construction Communications & Going Viral for Safety

    OpenAIRE

    Prevost, Dan; McCall, Bill

    2018-01-01

    Over the past 2 years, the Indiana Toll Road Concession Co. (ITRCC) and its contractors have delivered the 80/90 PUSH project, an ambitious rehabilitation of 70 miles of the Indiana Toll Road. The team developed an aggressive communications program to keep its customers and community stakeholders informed, partnering with the Indiana Motor Truck Association to take its Put the Phone Down campaign to social media. Join us for a discussion.

  10. Push-pull quinoidal porphyrins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Martin J; Blake, Iain M; Clegg, William; Anderson, Harry L

    2018-05-01

    A family of push-pull quinoidal porphyrin monomers has been prepared from a meso-formyl porphyrin by bromination, thioacetal formation, palladium-catalyzed coupling with malononitrile and oxidation with DDQ. Attempts at extending this synthesis to a push-pull quinoidal/cumulenic porphyrin dimer were not successful. The crystal structures of the quinoidal porphyrins indicate that there is no significant contribution from singlet biradical or zwitterionic resonance forms. The crystal structure of an ethyne-linked porphyrin dimer shows that the torsion angle between the porphyrin units is only about 3°, in keeping with crystallographic results on related compounds, but contrasting with the torsion angle of about 35° predicted by computational studies. The free-base quinoidal porphyrin monomers form tightly π-stacked layer structures, despite their curved geometries and bulky aryl substituents.

  11. Pushing hard on the accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1987-09-15

    The quest for new techniques to drive future generations of particle accelerators has been pushed hard in recent years, efforts having been highlighted by workshops in Europe, organized by the European Committee for Future Accelerators, and in the US. The latest ECFA Workshop on New Developments in Particle Acceleration Techniques, held at Orsay from 29 June to 4 July, showed how the initial frantic search for innovation is now maturing.

  12. 33 CFR 90.3 - Pushing vessel and vessel being pushed: Composite unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pushing vessel and vessel being... HOMELAND SECURITY INLAND NAVIGATION RULES INLAND RULES: INTERPRETATIVE RULES § 90.3 Pushing vessel and vessel being pushed: Composite unit. Rule 24(b) of the Inland Rules states that when a pushing vessel and...

  13. 33 CFR 82.3 - Pushing vessel and vessel being pushed: Composite unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pushing vessel and vessel being... HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES 72 COLREGS: INTERPRETATIVE RULES § 82.3 Pushing vessel and vessel being pushed: Composite unit. Rule 24(b) of the 72 COLREGS states that when a pushing vessel and a...

  14. CSS3 pushing the limits

    CERN Document Server

    Greig, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Push CSS3 and your design skills to the limit-and beyond! Representing an evolutionary leap forward for CSS, CSS3 is chock-full of new capabilities that dramatically expand the boundaries of what a styling language can do. But many of those new features remain undocumented, making it difficult to learn what they are and how to use them to create the sophisticated sites and web apps clients demand and users have grown to expect. Until now. This book introduces you to all of CSS3's new and advanced features, and, with the help of dozens of real-world examples and live

  15. SA in nuclear power push

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    Uranium research takes on a new lease of life as South Africa pushes ahead with a two-pronged attack on future energy needs. The recent allocation to the Department of Mineral and Energy Affairs of more than R106 million for atomic energy research indicates that South Africa's heavy commitment to nuclear spending involves not only the Koeberg power station, with its two pressurised water reactors, but also a uranium enrichment plant that is expected to be in commercial production by 1985. Other countries' expenditures on nuclear activities are also discussed

  16. Association of Prehospital Mode of Transport With Mortality in Penetrating Trauma: A Trauma System-Level Assessment of Private Vehicle Transportation vs Ground Emergency Medical Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandling, Michael W; Nathens, Avery B; Shapiro, Michael B; Haut, Elliott R

    2018-02-01

    Time to definitive care following injury is important to the outcomes of trauma patients. Prehospital trauma care is provided based on policies developed by individual trauma systems and is an important component of the care of injured patients. Given a paucity of systems-level trauma research, considerable variability exists in prehospital care policies across trauma systems, potentially affecting patient outcomes. To evaluate whether private vehicle prehospital transport confers a survival advantage vs ground emergency medical services (EMS) transport following penetrating injuries in urban trauma systems. Retrospective cohort study of data included in the National Trauma Data Bank from January 1, 2010, through December 31, 2012, comprising 298 level 1 and level 2 trauma centers that contribute data to the National Trauma Data Bank that are located within the 100 most populous metropolitan areas in the United States. Of 2 329 446 patients assessed for eligibility, 103 029 were included in this study. All patients were 16 years or older, had a gunshot wound or stab wound, and were transported by ground EMS or private vehicle. In-hospital mortality. Of the 2 329 446 records assessed for eligibility, 103 029 individuals at 298 urban level 1 and level 2 trauma centers were included in the analysis. The study population was predominantly male (87.6%), with a mean age of 32.3 years. Among those included, 47.9% were black, 26.3% were white, and 18.4% were Hispanic. Following risk adjustment, individuals with penetrating injuries transported by private vehicle were less likely to die than patients transported by ground EMS (odds ratio [OR], 0.38; 95% CI, 0.31-0.47). This association remained statistically significant on stratified analysis of the gunshot wound (OR,  0.45; 95% CI, 0.36-0.56) and stab wound (OR,  0.32; 95% CI, 0.20-0.52) subgroups. Private vehicle transport is associated with a significantly lower likelihood of death when compared with

  17. Private Labels

    OpenAIRE

    Kolmačková, Zuzana

    2013-01-01

    This Bachelor Thesis titled Private labels deals with distribution strategy based on the introduction of private labels especially in retail chains. At the beginning it is focused on the general concept of private label offered by retailers, where is mentioned basic characteristics, history and structuring of distribution brands. Subsequently this thesis informs readers about the introduction of new special distribution brands, which focus primarily on the new consumption habits of customers....

  18. Privat boligudlejning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hans Skifter

    2008-01-01

    for private udlejningsboligers pris, økonomi og kvalitet. Det økonomiske afkast af investering i private udlejningsejendomme har været højt i de sidste 10 år, men fortrinsvist pga. værdistigninger. For tiden er disse gået i stå, hvilket gør den økonomiske fremtid for den private udlejningssektor mindre...

  19. Private prisons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimovski Darko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The author, based on the circumstances that contributed to the creation of private prisons, has explained the historical development of private prisons in the United States and Great Britain. After that, the author has analyzed the strengths and weaknesses of the prison run by private companies. Namely, the author has, stating the benefits of private prisons (reduced overcrowding penitencijarnih institution, cheaper accommodation cost per prisoner, provide better services, the possibility of applying a new philosophy in the manner of execution of sentence, with modern Penitentiary program, with the aim of re-socialization and the reduction of recidivism and weaknesses of the private prisons (the question of legitimac, a chronic lack of space in the Penitentiary system is not solved, business-oriented policies of private prisons, less salaries, poor performance of the security service, worst food, weak enforcement of parole, lack of appropriate penitentiary program, wanted to draw attention to the professional public about controversy of the introduction private companies in the management structure of penitentiary institutions . As the Republic of Serbia is, constantly in the last twenty years, faced with the increasing number of inmates, as well as the chronic shortage of money, which affects on the situation in industrial areas of prisons, there are options to give licenses to private companies to manage prisons. Therefore, the author has paid special attention to potential problems of introducing private prisons in the penitentiary system in Serbia.

  20. Private Roads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoef, Erik T.

    2007-01-01

    This paper studies the efficiency impacts of private toll roads in initially untolled networks. The analysis allows for capacity and toll choice by private operators, and endogenizes entry and therewith the degree of competition, distinguishing and allowing for both parallel and serial competition.

  1. Foot placement strategy in pushing and pulling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tzu-Hsien

    2018-01-01

    Pushing and pulling tasks are very common in daily and industrial workplaces. They are one major source of musculoskeletal complaints. This study aimed to examine the foot placement strategy while pushing and pulling. Thirteen young males and ten young females were recruited as participants. A two (pushing and pulling) by four (48 cm, 84 cm, 120 cm, and 156 cm) factorial design was used. Exertion direction and exertion height significantly affected foot placement strategy. Pushing task needed more anteroposterior space than pulling task. The percentages of female/male for trailing foot position ranged from 77% to 90% (pushing) and from 80% to 93% (pulling) across the exertion heights. Practitioners should provide an anteroposterior space approximately to 70% body stature for workers to exert their maximum pulling and pushing strengths.

  2. Argentina's YPF hones in on privatization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on Argentina's push to privatize and attract more foreign investment to its petroleum sector which continues to gather momentum. The Argentine government plans by year end 1992 to sell unprofitable assets of Yacimientos Petroliferos Fiscales, then sell as much as 50% of the state oil company through an international stock offering. If privatization proceeds as expected, YPF Pres. Jose Estenssoro the, the company's stock will be offered to private investors early in 1993. The company was founded in 1922. By March 1992, Argentina also will begin selling all assets of state owned Gas del Estado (GDE) through an international bidding process expected to take about 18 months

  3. Android programming pushing the limits

    CERN Document Server

    Hellman, Erik

    2013-01-01

    Unleash the power of the Android OS and build the kinds of brilliant, innovative apps users love to use If you already know your way around the Android OS and can build a simple Android app in under an hour, this book is for you. If you're itching to see just how far you can push it and discover what Android is really capable of, it's for you. And if you're ready to learn how to build advanced, intuitive, innovative apps that are a blast to use, this book is definitely for you. From custom views and advanced multi-touch gestures, to integrating online web services and exploiting the latest

  4. Privatization costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, I.

    2007-01-01

    The efforts in progress now in Great Britain to liberalize the nuclear decommissioning activity market imply that by 2012 the competitive commercial private companies will lead the national nuclear decommissioning and decontamination related activity market. Paper dwells upon the new market peculiar features and upon some peculiar features of the new market related activities [ru

  5. Import-push or Export-pull?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jäkel, Ina Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    predictions regarding the export market and the role of product differentiation. Empirical results for a sample of Danish manufacturing industries confirm the import- "push" hypothesis as well as the export- "pull" hypothesis, but also reveal differences across industries. The selection effect of trade...... is mainly driven by the "import-push" if product differentiation is high, whereas it is driven by the "export-pull" if goods are homogeneous....

  6. Import-push or Export-pull?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jäkel, Ina Charlotte

    predictions regarding the export market and the role of product differentiation. Empirical results for a sample of Danish manufacturing industries confirm the import-"push" hypothesis as well as the export-"pull" hypothesis, but also reveal differences across industries. The selection effect of trade...... is mainly driven by the "import-push" if product differentiation is high, whereas it is driven by the "export-pull" if goods are homogeneous....

  7. Private power in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniel, Martin

    1999-10-01

    Contains Executive Summary and Chapters on: Introduction; Political and economic background; Energy supply; The Chinese electricity sector; Private power in China; Issues for private investors; Fuel choice in private projects; Private investors in China; Listed Chinese generators; Private power prospects; Implemented private generation projects; Planned private Generation Projects; Plants owned by listed Chinese generators. (Author)

  8. Nuclear privatization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeffs, E.

    1995-01-01

    The United Kingdom government announced in May 1995 plans to privatize the country's two nuclear generating companies, Nuclear Electric and Scottish Nuclear. Under the plan, the two companies will become operating divisions of a unified holding company, to be called British Electric, with headquarters in Scotland. Britain's nuclear plants were left out of the initial privatization in 1989 because the government believed the financial community would be unwilling to accept the open-ended liability of decommissioning the original nine stations based on the Magnox gas-cooled reactor. Six years later, the government has found a way around this by retaining these power stations in state ownership, leaving the new nuclear company with the eight Advanced Gas-cooled Reactor (AGR) stations and the recently completed Sizewell B PWR stations. The operating Magnox stations are to be transferred to BNFL, which operates two Magnox stations of their own at Calder Hall and Chapelcross

  9. Private law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    working and researching in the key areas of law, security and privacy in IT, international trade and private law. Now, in 2010 and some seven conferences later, the event moves to Barcelona and embraces for the first time the three conference tracks just described. The papers in this work have all been...... blind reviewed and edited for quality. They represent the contributions of leading academics, early career researchers and others from an increasing number of countries, universities and institutions around the world. They set a benchmark for discussion of the current issues arising in the subject area...... and continue to offer an informed and relevant contribution to the policy making agenda. As Chair of the Conference Committee, I am once more very proud to endorse this work "Private Law: Rights, Duties & Conflicts" to all those seeking an up to date and informed evaluation of the leading issues. This work...

  10. Two-Man Bobsled Push Start Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopes Alexandre Dias

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The importance of push start times on bobsled performance was evidenced by some studies, but at this moment there is no article to the authors’ knowledge that describes the bobsled push start. Thus, the objectives of this study were to describe the two-man bobsled push start, analyze the differences between teams, and estimate the most important variable analyzed. We hypothesized that the pilot and brakeman athletes’ movement patterns during a bobsled pushing start can be described. The images used in this study were obtained during the men’s two-man XIV World Championship of Bobsled (2004. Fifteen best teams participating in the championship were recorded, and four start runs for each team were analyzed. The videos were captured by two digital video cameras. The pilot athletes were analyzed during the moment that they touched the lateral push bar of the sled, and the brakemen were analyzed during the first take-off and first landing. The teams were pooled in three groups of five teams using the final ranking of pushing time. We concluded that there was a distinct pattern movement for pilots and brakemen. The initial position of the majority of the pilots was localized slightly behind the bar. After touching the lateral bar, the pilots remained in a semi-squat position, pushing the sled forward in a pattern of marching movement. All brakemen used the board attached to the track as a support for both feet at the start. The brakeman gave the greatest contribution to break the inertia of the sled. There was no significant difference of movement between the three groups analyzed for the pilot and the brakeman.

  11. 33 CFR 83.24 - Towing and pushing (Rule 24).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Towing and pushing (Rule 24). 83... NAVIGATION RULES RULES Lights and Shapes § 83.24 Towing and pushing (Rule 24). (a) A power-driven vessel when... it can best be seen. (b) Pushing vessel and pushed vessel rigidly connected in composite unit. When a...

  12. Low-Back Biomechanics and Static Stability During Isometric Pushing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granata, Kevin P.; Bennett, Bradford C.

    2006-01-01

    Pushing and pulling tasks are increasingly prevalent in industrial workplaces. Few studies have investigated low-back biomechanical risk factors associated with pushing, and we are aware of none that has quantified spinal stability during pushing exertions. Data recorded from 11 healthy participants performing isometric pushing exertions demonstrated that trunk posture, vector force direction of the applied load, and trunk moment were influenced (p pushing task, and foot position. A biomechanical model was used to analyze the posture and hand force data gathered from the pushing exertions. Model results indicate that pushing exertions provide significantly (p pushing exertions. If one maintains stability by means of cocontraction, additional spinal load is thereby created, increasing the risk of overload injury. Thus it is important to consider muscle cocontraction when evaluating the biomechanics of pushing exertions. Potential applications of this research include improved assessment of biomechanical risk factors for the design of industrial pushing tasks. PMID:16435695

  13. Effect of push handle height on net moments and forces on the musculoskeletal system during standardized wheelchair pushing tasks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Der Woude, L H; Van Koningsbruggen, C M; Kroes, A L; Kingma, I

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to analyze the external forces and biomechanical loading on the musculoskeletal system during wheelchair pushing, in relation to different push handle heights. In addition, recommendations for wheelchair pushing in accordance with push handle height are made. Eight

  14. Motivation and Psychological Contract in the Singapore Private Banking Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Poh, Din Kiat

    2008-01-01

    This management project seeks to understand the sources of motivation and the types of psychological contracts prevalent amongst employees in Singapore's private banking industry. Singapore's private banking industry had seen tremendous growth in the last few years with the Government's push to make it the Switzerland of Asia. This growth has resulted in high demand for talent and high turnover rates. It is often said that money is not the key reason why people stayed motivated. Part of this ...

  15. The Uneven Legal Push for Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wind, Marlene; Martinsen, Dorte Sindbjerg; Rotger, Gabriel Pons

    2009-01-01

    National courts have been key players in the legal push for Europe, though notably to varying degrees. This paper examines the persisting variations in the referral rates of national courts and the underlying causal factors, aiming to better understand why some member states' courts have been more...... reluctant to join in the legal push for Europe. By using econometric methods, it challenges the modified neofunctionalist argument that the extent of intra-EC trade explains the referral practice of the individual member states. Majoritarian democracy is hypothesized as a causal factor in the low referral...... of majoritarian democracy on the number of referrals. The paper concludes that, owing to the uneven legal push for Europe, some member states and their citizens remain at arms' length from the legal integration process - and, in consequence, from the full impact of European integration....

  16. Developing technology pushed breakthroughs: an empirical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jari Sarja

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Developing a technology push product that brings real novelty to the market is difficult, risky and costly. This case study analyzes success factors defined by the literature. True industrial cases, representing Finnish ICT firms in their early phase after a successful market entry, were researched for the success factor analysis. The whole set of the previously introduced success factors were variably supported, and three new factors arose. Because the technology pushed development processes are risky with high failure rates, the validated success factors are valuable knowledge for the developments intensive firm’s management.

  17. Push Characteristics in Wheelchair Court Sport Sprinting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Slikke, Rienk M A; Berger, Monique; Bregman, Daan; Veeger, Dirkjan

    2016-01-01

    Short sprints are important components of most wheelchair court sports, since being faster than the opponent often determines keeping ball possession or not. Sprinting capacity is best measured during a field test, allowing the athlete to freely choose push strategies adapted to their own wheelchair

  18. Push characteristics in wheelchair court sport sprinting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Slikke, R.M.A.; Berger, Monique; Bregman, D.J.J.; Veeger, H.E.J.; van der Helm, FCT; Jansen, AJ

    2016-01-01

    Short sprints are important components of most wheelchair court sports, since being faster than the opponent often determines keeping ball possession or not. Sprinting capacity is best measured during a field test, allowing the athlete to freely choose push strategies adapted to their own

  19. The Transnational State and the Infrastructure Push

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ougaard, Morten

    2018-01-01

    In 2010, the G20, in cooperation with major international organisations, launched a comprehensive effort – here labelled the infrastructure push – to promote infrastructure investments around the world. Using selected transnationalised elements from historical materialism, this is explained as a ....... In this cooperation, the international organisations have a relatively autonomous role in line with a historical materialist understanding of state apparatuses....

  20. The Transnational State and the Infrastructure Push

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ougaard, Morten

    In 2010 the G20 in cooperation with major international organizations launched a comprehensive effort - here labelled the infrastructure push – to promote infrastructure investments around the world. Using selected transnationalised elements from historical materialism, this is explained as a tra....... In this cooperation, the international organizations have a relatively autonomous role in line with a historical materialist understanding of state apparatuses....

  1. Octopus movement: push right, go left.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Scott L

    2015-05-04

    Octopus arms have essentially infinite degrees of freedom. New research shows that, despite this potentially great complexity, to locomote octopuses simply elongate one or more arms, thus pushing the body in the opposite direction, and do so without activating the arms in an ordered pattern. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Pushing the Limit: A Class Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odafe, Victor U.

    2012-01-01

    Instructors are constantly struggling to help students understand mathematical concepts as well as the relevance of mathematics to the real world. In calculus, students possess misconceptions of the limit concept. "Pushing the Limit" refers to a semester-long calculus class project that required students to read about, interview calculus…

  3. Management, Entrepreneurship and Private Service Orientation: A Framework for Undergraduate Veterinary Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasidhar, P. V. K.; Van Den Ban, Anne W.

    2006-01-01

    The changing nature of livestock outreach service delivery, manpower requirements and opportunities in the private sector provide both push and pull dynamics for veterinary graduates to engage in managerial, entrepreneurial, public and private service activities. The veterinary schools should support this transition by integrating Managerial,…

  4. Stockholders' interests in the energy system privatization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matei, Magdalena; Matei, Lucian

    2004-01-01

    The paper highlights the benefits and objectives of competition and privatization in the power sector. The reasons for electric utility privatization are numerous and vary from country to country. Some of the more evident reasons include the following: - Raising revenues for the state through asset sales; - Acquiring investment capital; - Improving managerial performance; - Moving toward market-determined prices; - Technology transfer; - Reducing the frequency of power shortages; - Reducing the cost of electricity to consumers through efficiency gain; - Taking advantage of creating national and regional power grids. Several objectives commonly associated with privatization, includes: - Improving access to private capital resources for the rehabilitation, replacement and eventual expansion of the electric power infrastructure; - Improving access to new technology and management practices designed to improve the performance of the sector; - Reducing corruption through the introduction of commercial practices which will lead to strengthened collections, transparent and accountable delivery of electricity and reduced political interference in commercial operations; - Improving customer service and customer choice through continued reform of the power sector as a result of innovation and reform introduced by the new owners; - Human resources development; - Improving environmental performance . The paper addresses the following items: - Some elements of a successful power sector privatization; - Stockholders' position versus privatization in Romania; - Managing 'The Change'; - Power sector privatization in Romania. The paper demonstrates that the power sector privatization is a key condition for EU's support for Romania accession. The international organization push towards this essential economic change, which will guarantee a real competition and a liberalized energy market in facto. Strategic privatization can be a positive step in improving energy service and

  5. Pengaruh Latihan Traditional Push Up, Plyometric Push Up, dan Incline Push Up Terhadap Kekuatan Otot Lengan, Power Otot Lengan, dan Daya Tahan Otot Lengan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Febriyan Dwi Cahyono

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk peningkatan performa fisik otot lengan siswa ekstrakulikuler putra SMAN 2 Lamongan yang memiliki kelemahan saat dilakukan evaluasi fisik. Empat puluh siswa sehat dengan melihat status gizi melalui indeks masa tubuh (IMT dipilih sesuai dengan kriteria dan dilakukan pretest dan pemeringkatan sehingga masuk dalam pengelompokan traditional push up, plyometric push up, incline push up dan kelompok kontrol. Push up 30 detik, push up 60 detik dan medicine ball test digunakan untuk mengukur peningkatan kinerja. Ketiga kelompok berpartisipasi dalam penelitian tiga hari dalam seminggu selama enam minggu dan menyelesaikan 18 sesi pelatihan, pada frekuensi 3 sesi per minggu. Hasil uji paired sample t-test dalam kelompok traditional push up menunjukkan pengaruh yang signifikan pada variabel kekuatan dan daya tahan, kelompok plyometric push up menunjukkan pengaruh yang signifikan pada variabel kekuatan dan power, dan kelompok incline push up menunjukkan pengaruh yang signifikan pada variabel kekuatan dan daya tahan.  Disimpulkan dari penelitian ini bahwa pelatihan traditional push up, plyometric push up dan incline push up ketiganya efektif untuk peningkatan kinerja tubuh bagian atas.

  6. Cohesive Zone Model Based Numerical Analysis of Steel-Concrete Composite Structure Push-Out Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Lin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Push-out tests were widely used to determine the shear bearing capacity and shear stiffness of shear connectors in steel-concrete composite structures. The finite element method was one efficient alternative to push-out testing. This paper focused on a simulation analysis of the interface between concrete slabs and steel girder flanges as well as the interface of the shear connectors and the surrounding concrete. A cohesive zone model was used to simulate the tangential sliding and normal separation of the interfaces. Then, a zero-thickness cohesive element was implemented via the user-defined element subroutine UEL in the software ABAQUS, and a multiple broken line mode was used to define the constitutive relations of the cohesive zone. A three-dimensional numerical analysis model was established for push-out testing to analyze the load-displacement curves of the push-out test process, interface relative displacement, and interface stress distribution. This method was found to accurately calculate the shear capacity and shear stiffness of shear connectors. The numerical results showed that the multiple broken lines mode cohesive zone model could describe the nonlinear mechanical behavior of the interface between steel and concrete and that a discontinuous deformation numerical simulation could be implemented.

  7. To push or not to push? Affective influences on moral judgment depend on decision frame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastötter, Bernhard; Gleixner, Sabine; Neuhauser, Theresa; Bäuml, Karl-Heinz T

    2013-03-01

    People's moods can influence moral judgment. Such influences may arise because moods affect moral emotion, or because moods affect moral thought. The present study provides evidence that, at least in the footbridge dilemma, moods affect moral thought. The results of two experiments are reported in which, after induction of positive, negative, or neutral moods and presentation of the footbridge scenario, participants were asked one of two differentially framed closing questions. In the active frame, participants were asked whether they would be active and push the man, making thoughts about pushing accessible; in the passive frame, they were asked whether they would be passive and not push the man, making thoughts about not pushing accessible. The results show that affective influences on moral judgment depended on participants' decision frame. Compared to neutral moods, positive moods induced utilitarian responding - i.e., deciding to push - in the active decision frame, but induced nonutilitarian responding - i.e., deciding to not push - in the passive decision frame; in negative moods, exactly the opposite picture arose. The results suggest that people's moods affect moral judgment by conferring value on moral thought. Positive moods promote and negative moods inhibit accessible thoughts. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Push technology at Argonne National Laboratory.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noel, R. E.; Woell, Y. N.

    1999-04-06

    Selective dissemination of information (SDI) services, also referred to as current awareness searches, are usually provided by periodically running computer programs (personal profiles) against a cumulative database or databases. This concept of pushing relevant content to users has long been integral to librarianship. Librarians traditionally turned to information companies to implement these searches for their users in business, academia, and the science community. This paper describes how a push technology was implemented on a large scale for scientists and engineers at Argonne National Laboratory, explains some of the challenges to designers/maintainers, and identifies the positive effects that SDI seems to be having on users. Argonne purchases the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) Current Contents data (all subject areas except Humanities), and scientists no longer need to turn to outside companies for reliable SDI service. Argonne's database and its customized services are known as ACCESS (Argonne-University of Chicago Current Contents Electronic Search Service).

  9. Body pushing, prescription drugs and hospital admission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byard, Roger W; Kenneally, Michaela

    2017-09-01

    A 39-year-old man died of multi-organ failure complicating mixed drug toxicity that included methadone, oxazepam, oxycodone and nitrazepam. His past medical history involved alcohol and poly-substance abuse with chronic self-harm and suicidal ideation. There had been multiple hospital admissions for drug overdoses. At autopsy the most unusual finding was of two packages of 10 tablets each, wrapped in thin plastic film within the rectum. The insertion of drugs into body orifices and cavities has been termed body pushing to distinguish it from body packing where illicit drugs are wrapped and swallowed for transport and smuggling, and body stuffing where small amounts of loosely wrapped or unwrapped drugs are swallowed to conceal evidence from police. This case demonstrates that body pushing may not always involve illicit drugs or attempted concealment from police or customs officials. It appears that the drugs had been hidden to ensure an additional supply during the time of residence in hospital. The extent to which body pushing is currently being used by patients to smuggle drugs into secure medical facilities is yet to be determined.

  10. 49 CFR 218.99 - Shoving or pushing movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shoving or pushing movements. 218.99 Section 218... Derails § 218.99 Shoving or pushing movements. (a)(1) Each railroad shall adopt and comply with an... violated the requirements of this section. (2) The following requirements for shoving or pushing movements...

  11. 49 CFR 392.63 - Towing or pushing loaded buses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Towing or pushing loaded buses. 392.63 Section 392... COMMERCIAL MOTOR VEHICLES Prohibited Practices § 392.63 Towing or pushing loaded buses. No disabled bus with... passengers aboard for the purpose of towing or pushing any disabled motor vehicle, except in such...

  12. Scapular kinematics and muscle activities during pushing tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chun-Kai; Siu, Ka-Chun; Lien, Hen-Yu; Lee, Yun-Ju; Lin, Yang-Hua

    2013-01-01

    Pushing tasks are functional activities of daily living. However, shoulder complaints exist among workers exposed to regular pushing conditions. It is crucial to investigate the control of shoulder girdles during pushing tasks. The objective of the study was to demonstrate scapular muscle activities and motions on the dominant side during pushing tasks and the relationship between scapular kinematics and muscle activities in different pushing conditions. Thirty healthy adults were recruited to push a four-wheel cart in six pushing conditions. The electromyographic signals of the upper trapezius (UT) and serratus anterior (SA) muscles were recorded. A video-based system was used for measuring the movement of the shoulder girdle and scapular kinematics. Differences in scapular kinematics and muscle activities due to the effects of handle heights and weights of the cart were analyzed using two-way ANOVA with repeated measures. The relationships between scapular kinematics and muscle activities were examined by Pearson's correlation coefficients. The changes in upper trapezius and serratus anterior muscle activities increased significantly with increased pushing weights in the one-step pushing phase. The UT/SA ratio on the dominant side decreases significantly with increased handle heights in the one-step pushing phase. The changes in upward rotation, lateral slide and elevation of the scapula decreased with increased pushing loads in the trunk-forward pushing phase. This study indicated that increased pushing loads result in decreased motions of upward rotation, lateral slide and elevation of the scapula; decreased handle heights result in relatively increased activities of the serratus anterior muscles during pushing tasks.

  13. Delayed versus immediate pushing in second stage of labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Mary; Johnson, Eileen; Lee, Vickie; Massey, Liz; Purser, Debbie; Ring, Karen; Sanderson, Stephanye; Styles, Juanita; Wood, Deb

    2010-01-01

    Comparison of two different methods for management of second stage of labor: immediate pushing at complete cervical dilation of 10 cm and delayed pushing 90 minutes after complete cervical dilation. This study was a randomized clinical trial in a labor and delivery unit of a not-for-profit community hospital. A sample of 44 nulliparous mothers with continuous epidural anesthesia were studied after random assignment to treatment groups. Subjects were managed with either immediate or delayed pushing during the second stage of labor at the time cervical dilation was complete. The primary outcome measure was the length of pushing during second stage of labor. Secondary outcomes included length of second stage of labor, maternal fatigue and perineal injuries, and fetal heart rate decelerations. Two-tailed, unpaired Student's t-tests and Chi-square analysis were used for data analysis. Level of significance was set at p pushing; N = 16 delayed pushing). The delayed pushing group had significantly shorter amount of time spent in pushing compared with the immediate pushing group (38.9 +/- 6.9 vs. 78.7 +/- 7.9 minutes, respectively, p = .002). Maternal fatigue scores, perineal injuries, and fetal heart rate decelerations were similar for both groups. Delaying pushing for up to 90 minutes after complete cervical dilation resulted in a significant decrease in the time mothers spent pushing without a significant increase in total time in second stage of labor.In clinical practice, healthcare providers sometimes resist delaying the onset of pushing after second stage of labor has begun because of a belief it will increase labor time. This study's finding of a 51% reduction in pushing time when mothers delay pushing for up to 90 minutes, with no significant increase in overall time for second stage of labor, disputes that concern.

  14. Privatization and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Neena

    2009-01-01

    This paper highlights emerging trends, programmes and policies in privatization of education in Western countries. These trends are educational vouchers, choice of private schools, private school liberalization, private contracting of specific services, tuition tax credits and deductions for parents ,subsidies and assistance grants to private…

  15. Private Water Projects

    OpenAIRE

    Izaguirre, Ada Karina; Hunt, Catherine

    2005-01-01

    Drawing on the World Bank's Private Participation in Infrastructure Project Database, this Note reviews developments in the water and sewerage sector of developing countries in 2004 and changes in private participation in the sector since 2001. Data for 2004 show that total investment in water and sewerage projects with private participation amounted to nearly US$2 billion. Recent private ...

  16. Pushing the Limits of Kinetic Arts: Strandbeests

    KAUST Repository

    Jansen, Theo

    2017-01-01

    In 1990, Dutch artist Theo Jansen introduced the world to his newest creation, the strandbeests. Kenetic sculptures created from plastic tubing, water bottles, and pipes, these beests survive on their own. These herds live on beaches all around the world, surviving on their waterfeelers and sandfeelers to remain safely on the sand. Powered by wind, these new life forms do not require food! Join us for a keynote lecture with Theo as he discusses the story behind the strandbeests as he pushes the limits with these beautiful and unique animals.

  17. Pushing the Limits of Kinetic Arts: Strandbeests

    KAUST Repository

    Jansen, Theo

    2017-01-12

    In 1990, Dutch artist Theo Jansen introduced the world to his newest creation, the strandbeests. Kenetic sculptures created from plastic tubing, water bottles, and pipes, these beests survive on their own. These herds live on beaches all around the world, surviving on their waterfeelers and sandfeelers to remain safely on the sand. Powered by wind, these new life forms do not require food! Join us for a keynote lecture with Theo as he discusses the story behind the strandbeests as he pushes the limits with these beautiful and unique animals.

  18. Effect of push frequency on the economy of wheelchair racers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goosey, V L; Campbell, I G; Fowler, N E

    2000-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the effect of varying push frequency on pushing economy (oxygen uptake at a given speed). Eight male wheelchair racers completed a series of exercise bouts on a wheelchair ergometer (Bromking Turbo Trainer, Bromakin, UK) at 6.58 m x s(-1). Initially, subjects self-selected their freely chosen push frequency (FCF); this was followed by 4 random trials pushing at 60, 80, 120, and 140% of this FCF. Steady state VO2 was determined using Douglas bags, and heart rate was recorded by telemetry. After each condition, a small capillary blood sample was obtained and analyzed for blood lactate concentration (BLa) and a rating of perceived exertion (RPE) was recorded. At 6.58 m x s(-1) oxygen uptake, RPE, and gross mechanical efficiency were nonlinearly related to push frequency. Analysis of variance showed a significant effect (P push frequency had little effect on HR although BLa increased linearly and was higher at the 140% FCF condition compared with 60% FCF (P push frequency increased. The start angle and end angle of hand contact were similar for conditions, whereas the range of trunk motion decreased with push frequency (P push frequency had an effect on pushing economy, and that the athletes' FCF was the most economical.

  19. f-electron systems: pushing band theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koelling, D.D.

    1991-01-01

    The f-electron orbitrals have always been the ''incomplete atomic shells acting as local moments, and weakly interacting with the remaining electronic structure'' in the minds of most people. So examining them using a band theory where one views them as itinerant was once - and to some extent even today still is - considered with some skepticism. Nonetheless, a very significant community has successfully utilized band theory as a probe of the electronic structure of the appropriate actinides and rare earths. Those people actually using the approach would be the first to declare that it is not the whole solution. Instead, one is pushing and even exceeding its limit of applicability. However, the apropriate procedure is to push the model consistently to its limits, patch where possible, and then look to see where discrepancies remain. I propose to offer a selected review of past developments (emphasizing the career to data of A.J. Freeman in this area), offer a list of interesting puzzles for the future, and then make some guesses as to the techniques one might want to use. (orig.)

  20. Pushing Back against Push-In: ESOL Teacher Resistance and the Complexities of Coteaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Greg; Cahnmann-Taylor, Melisa

    2010-01-01

    As U. S. school districts struggle to address persistent achievement gaps between increasing numbers of English language learners (ELLs) and their native-English-speaking counterparts, many districts are moving away from segregative models like pull-out to implement more collaborative approaches such as coteaching, or push-in. In contrast to…

  1. Push-Pull Laser-Atomic Oscillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jau, Y.-Y.; Happer, W.

    2007-01-01

    A vapor of alkali-metal atoms in the external cavity of a semiconductor laser, pumped with a time-independent injection current, can cause the laser to self-modulate at the 'field-independent 0-0 frequency' of the atoms. Push-pull optical pumping by the modulated light drives most of the atoms into a coherent superposition of the two atomic sublevels with an azimuthal quantum number m=0. The atoms modulate the optical loss of the cavity at the sharply defined 0-0 hyperfine frequency. As in a maser, the system is not driven by an external source of microwaves, but a very stable microwave signal can be recovered from the modulated light or from the modulated voltage drop across the laser diode. Potential applications for this new phenomenon include atomic clocks, the production of long-lived coherent atomic states, and the generation of coherent optical combs

  2. Private Water Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Private Water District boundaries are areas where private contracts provide water to the district in California. This database is designed as a regions polygon...

  3. Private Equity Waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.T.J. Smit (Han); W.A. van den Berg (Ward)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractThis study presents a dynamic model for the private equity market in which information revelation and uncertainty rationally explain the cyclical pattern of investment flows into private equity. The net benefit of private equity over public equity is i) uncertain and ii) agents have

  4. Rotary Mode Core Sample System availability improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, W.W.; Bennett, K.L.; Potter, J.D.; Cross, B.T.; Burkes, J.M.; Rogers, A.C.

    1995-01-01

    The Rotary Mode Core Sample System (RMCSS) is used to obtain stratified samples of the waste deposits in single-shell and double-shell waste tanks at the Hanford Site. The samples are used to characterize the waste in support of ongoing and future waste remediation efforts. Four sampling trucks have been developed to obtain these samples. Truck I was the first in operation and is currently being used to obtain samples where the push mode is appropriate (i.e., no rotation of drill). Truck 2 is similar to truck 1, except for added safety features, and is in operation to obtain samples using either a push mode or rotary drill mode. Trucks 3 and 4 are now being fabricated to be essentially identical to truck 2

  5. Kinematics of the field hockey penalty corner push-in.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Rebecca; Ness, Kevin

    2006-01-01

    The aims of the study were to determine those variables that significantly affect push-in execution and thereby formulate coaching recommendations specific to the push-in. Two 50 Hz video cameras recorded transverse and longitudinal views of push-in trials performed by eight experienced and nine inexperienced male push-in performers. Video footage was digitized for data analysis of ball speed, stance width, drag distance, drag time, drag speed, centre of massy displacement and segment and stick displacements and velocities. Experienced push-in performers demonstrated a significantly greater (p push-in and a significantly faster ball speed than inexperienced performers. In addition, the experienced performers showed a significant positive correlation between ball speed and playing experience and tended to adopt a combination of simultaneous and sequential segment rotation to achieve accuracy and fast ball speed. The study yielded the following coaching recommendations for enhanced push-in performance: maximize drag distance by maximizing front foot-ball distance at the start of the push-in; use a combination of simultaneous and sequential segment rotations to optimise both accuracy and ball speed and maximize drag speed.

  6. Pushing and pulling in relation to musculoskeletal complaints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoozemans, M. J M; Van Der Beek, Allard J.; Frings-Dresen, M. H. W.

    2000-01-01

    The first cross-sectional analyses are presented of a longitudinal study regarding the relationship between pushing and pulling and musculoskeletal disorders. Workers exposed to pushing and pulling and workers who had administrative tasks received a questionnaire. A significant association between

  7. How private are Europe's private forests?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nichiforel, Liviu; Keary, Kevin; Deuffic, Philippe

    2018-01-01

    Private forests are widespread in Europe providing a range of ecosystem services of significant value to society, and there are calls for novel policies to enhance their provision and to face the challenges of environmental changes. Such policies need to acknowledge the importance of private...... across jurisdictions, we constructed an original Property Rights Index for Forestry encompassing five rights domains (access, withdrawal, management, exclusion and alienation). We documented substantial variation of the private forest owners' rights, and notably to i) make decisions in operational...... management and the formulation of management goals, ii) withdraw timber resources from their forest, and iii) exclude others from the use of forest resources. We identified broad relations between the scope for decision making of private forest owners and jurisdictions' former socio-political background...

  8. Tracer gas evaluations of push-pull ventilation system performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojima, Jun

    2009-01-01

    A push-pull ventilation system is effective for hazardous material exhaustion. Although a push-pull ventilation system has advantages over a local exhaust hood, some laborious adjustments are required. The pertinence of the adjustments is uncertain because it is difficult to evaluate the performance of a push-pull ventilation system quantitatively. In this study, a measurement of the capture efficiency of a push-pull ventilation system was carried out by means of a tracer gas method. The capture efficiency decreased to 39.3-78.5% when blockage material, a dummy worker and a cross draft, were set in the ventilation zone, but the efficiency was 95.1-97.9% when the cross draft was stopped. The results suggest that the uniform flow of a push-pull ventilation system will detour a blockage and the performance of the system will not be reduced unless a cross draft disturbs the uniform flow.

  9. Pushing, pulling and manoeuvring an industrial cart: a psychophysiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giagloglou, Evanthia; Radenkovic, Milan; Brankovic, Sasa; Antoniou, Panagiotis; Zivanovic-Macuzic, Ivana

    2017-09-18

    One of the most frequent manual occupational tasks involves the pushing and pulling of a cart. Although several studies have associated health risks with pushing and pulling, the effects are not clear since occupational tasks have social, cognitive and physical components. The present work investigates a real case of a pushing and pulling occupational task from a manufacturing company. The study initially characterizes the case in accordance with Standard No. ISO 11228-2:2007 as low risk. An experiment with 14 individuals during three modalities of pushing and pulling was performed in order to further investigate the task with the application of electrophysiology. At the end, a simple questionnaire was given. The results show electrophysiological differences among the three modalities of pushing and pulling, with a major difference between action with no load and fully loaded with a full range of motions on the cart to handle.

  10. Young entrepreneurs pushed by necessity and pulled by opportunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheraghi, Maryam

    2017-01-01

    The vocational choice to be an entrepreneur is made in a social context of institutions in society, which channel, regulate, enable and constrain life, with pushes and pulls. The necessity to make a living may push the entrepreneur, or an opportunity for business may pull the entrepreneur to start....... The push by necessity and pull by opportunity are exerted by institutions in society such as its economy and culture. The purpose here is to account for how young entrepreneurs' experiences of opportunity-pull and necessity-push are influenced by society's economic wealth and culture, as traditional versus...... secular-rational culture and as survival versus self-expression culture. - A sample of 41,281 young entrepreneurs in 93 countries was surveyed in Global Entrepreneurship Monitor. - Analyses show that young entrepreneurs' experience of opportunity-pull rather than necessity-push is not distinctly...

  11. [Development of Biliary Contrast Agents Remote Pushing Device].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Haoyang; Dong, Dinghui; Luo, Yu; Ren, Fenggang; Zhang, Jing; Tan, Wenjun; Shi, Aihua; Hu, Liangshuo; Wu, Rongqian; Lyu, Yi

    2018-01-30

    A biliary contrast agents pushing device, including a syringe pushing system and a remote controller is introduced. The syringe pushing system comprises an injector card slot, a support platform and an injection bolus fader. A 20 mL syringe can be fitted on the syringe pushing system and kept with the ground about 30 degree. This system can perform air bubble pumping back and contrast agents bolus injection as well as speed adjustment. Remote controller is an infrared remote control which can start and stop the syringe pushing system. With this device, the remote controlled cholangiography technology can be achieved, which can not only protect doctors from X-ray radiation but also improve the traditional T-tube cholangiography and the contrast effect, reduce postoperative complications in patients as well. The application of this device will improve the current diagnosis and treatment system, the device will benefit the majority of doctors and patients.

  12. Association of the Duration of Active Pushing With Obstetric Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grobman, William A; Bailit, Jennifer; Lai, Yinglei; Reddy, Uma M; Wapner, Ronald J; Varner, Michael W; Caritis, Steve N; Prasad, Mona; Tita, Alan T N; Saade, George; Sorokin, Yoram; Rouse, Dwight J; Blackwell, Sean C; Tolosa, Jorge E

    2016-04-01

    To estimate the associations between the duration of active pushing during the second stage of labor and maternal and neonatal outcomes. We performed an observational study in which data were obtained by trained abstractors from maternal and neonatal charts of deliveries at 25 hospitals over a 3-year period. In this secondary analysis, women with no prior cesarean delivery who had a term, singleton, cephalic gestation and reached complete dilation were analyzed. The duration of pushing, defined as the time from initiation of pushing to either vaginal delivery or the decision to proceed with a cesarean delivery, was determined. The primary maternal outcome was cesarean delivery and the primary neonatal outcome was a composite that included: mechanical ventilation, proven sepsis, brachial plexus palsy, clavicular fracture, skull fracture, other fracture, seizures, hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, or death. Nulliparous and parous women were analyzed separately in univariable and then multivariable analyses. A total of 53,285 women were analyzed. In both nulliparous and parous women, longer duration of pushing was associated with increased odds of both cesarean delivery and the neonatal adverse outcome composite. Nevertheless, even after 4 hours of pushing, approximately 78% of nulliparous women who continued with active pushing had a vaginal delivery and more than 97% did not have the composite adverse neonatal outcome. Similarly, after more than 2 hours of pushing, approximately 82% of parous women who continued active pushing delivered vaginally and more than 97% did not have the adverse neonatal outcome. A longer duration of pushing is associated with an increased relative risk, but small absolute difference in risk, of neonatal complications. Approximately 78% of nulliparous women delivered vaginally even after 4 hours of pushing.

  13. The limits to biocatalysis: pushing the envelope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, Roger A; Brady, Dean

    2018-06-12

    In the period 1985 to 1995 applications of biocatalysis, driven by the need for more sustainable manufacture of chemicals and catalytic, (enantio)selective methods for the synthesis of pharmaceutical intermediates, largely involved the available hydrolases. This was followed, in the next two decades, by revolutionary developments in protein engineering and directed evolution for the optimisation of enzyme function and performance that totally changed the biocatalysis landscape. In the same period, metabolic engineering and synthetic biology revolutionised the use of whole cell biocatalysis in the synthesis of commodity chemicals by fermentation. In particular, developments in the enzymatic enantioselective synthesis of chiral alcohols and amines are highlighted. Progress in enzyme immobilisation facilitated applications under harsh industrial conditions, such as in organic solvents. The emergence of biocatalytic or chemoenzymatic cascade processes, often with co-immobilised enzymes, has enabled telescoping of multi-step processes. Discovering and inventing new biocatalytic processes, based on (meta)genomic sequencing, evolving enzyme promiscuity, chemomimetic biocatalysis, artificial metalloenzymes, and the introduction of non-canonical amino acids into proteins, are pushing back the limits of biocatalysis function. Finally, the integral role of biocatalysis in developing a biobased carbon-neutral economy is discussed.

  14. Push-out bond strength of bioceramic materials in a synthetic tissue fluid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noushin Shokouhinejad

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the push-out bond strength of EndoSequence Root Repair Material (ERRM and Bioaggregate (BA, new bioceramic materials, to that of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA after incubation in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS, a synthetic tissue fluid, for either 1 week or 2 months.One-hundred and twenty root sections were filled with ProRoot MTA, BA, or ERRM. Each tested material was then randomly divided into two subgroups (n = 20: root sections were immersed in PBS for 1 week or 2 months. The bond strengths were measured using a universal testing machine. After that, the failure modes were examined with stereomicroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The push-out data and failure mode categories were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and chi-square tests, respectively.The bond strength of ERRM was significantly higher than that of BA and MTA at both incubation periods. No significant difference was found between the bond strength of MTA and BA at either 1 week or 2 months. Increasing the incubation time to 2 months resulted in a significant increase in bond strength of all the materials. The failure mode was mainly mixed for MTA and BA, but cohesive for ERRM at both incubation periods.ERRM had significantly higher bond strength to root canal walls compared to MTA and BA. Increasing the incubation time significantly improved the bond strength and bioactive reaction products of all materials.

  15. Implementation of Public-private Partnership Mode in the Re-construction of Public Hospital in Lesotho%PPP模式改建莱索托公立医院的实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖毅; 曾永强; 田时明; 徐安辉; 项涛; 李舟; 彭健; 闫学军; 邵世文; 钱霜

    2016-01-01

    Because of the outdated facilities and equipment, and poor operation efficiency in the largest public hospital in Lesotho named Queen Elizabeth II, Lesotho government urgently sought the solution to replace this public hospital for many years. After completing the repair of this hospital, the management of all facilities, equipment and delivery of all clinical services have been totally carried out by a private institutional operator. An independent institution conducts regular assessment of the new hospital and clinics, and the government will pay the bills based on the assessment results. The contract between the government and the private institutional operator lasts for 18 years. The application of this public-private partnerships (PPP) in health service network and the contracting mechanism have increased accountability for health service quality, where the government strengthened its strategic role, and may benefit other public health institutions in Lesotho. If the project can achieve success, the Lesotho government will consider applying PPPs in the reform of other public health institutions.%由于莱索托最大的Queen Elizabeth II公立医院设施、设备陈旧及运行效率低下,莱索托政府多年来迫切寻求可以替代该公立医院的解决方案。对该院进行了修缮,完成后全权由私立机构经营者进行设施、设备的管理和提供医疗服务,由独立机构对新的医院和门诊定期进行评估,政府根据评估的结果来支付费用,政府与私立机构经营者签订的合同为18年。创建政府与私立机构合作(PPP)的卫生服务网络和承包机制增加了对医疗服务质量的问责制,政府在其中加强了其战略性地位,并且这种模式可以让莱索托其他的公共医疗机构受益。如果这个项目能够成功,莱索托政府会考虑将PPPs模式用于其他公共卫生机构的改造。

  16. Privatization in economic theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drakić Maja

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In reality privatization has never occurred according to the handbook rules of ordinary market transactions. Not even in advanced market economies can privatization transactions be described by the Walrasian or Arrowian, or Leontiefian equilibrium models, or by the equilibrium models of the game theory. In these economies transactions of privatization take place in a fairly organic way – which means that those are driven by the dominance of private property rights and in a market economy. But despite this fact Western privatization also some peculiar features as compared to ordinary company takeovers, since the state as the seller may pursue non – economic goals. Changes in the dominant form of property change positions and status of many individuals and groups in the society. That’s why privatization can even less be explained by ordinary market mechanisms in transition countries where privatizing state-owned property have happened in a mass scale and where markets and private property rights weren't established at the time process of privatization began. In this paper I’ll discuss and analyze the phenomenon of privatization in context of different economic theories arguing that empirical results go in favor of the public choice theory (Buchanan, 1978, theory of "economic constitution" (Brennan and Buchanan 1985, (Buchanan and Tullock, 1989, and theory of "collective action" (Olson, 1982. These theories argues that transition from one economic system into another, for example transition from collectivistic, socialistic system into capitalism and free market economy with dominant private property, will not happen through isolated changes of only few economic institutions, no matter how deep that changes would be. In other words privatization can not give results if it's not followed by comprehensive change of economic system because privatized companied wouldn't be able to operate in old environment.

  17. A new soft switched push pull current fed converter for fuel cell applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delshad, Majid; Farzanehfard, Hosein

    2011-01-01

    In this paper a new zero voltage switching current fed push pull dc-dc converter is proposed for fuel cell generation system. The auxiliary circuit in this converter, not only absorbs the voltage surge across the switches at turn off instance, but also provides zero voltage switching condition for all converter switches. Therefore, the converter efficiency is increased and size and weight of the converter can be decreased. Also implementation of control circuit is very simple since the converter is PWM controlled. In this paper, the proposed dc-dc converter operating modes are analyzed and to verify the converter operation a laboratory prototype is implemented and the experimental results are presented.

  18. Ground reaction force characteristics of Tai Chi push hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yao-Ting; Chang, Jia-Hao; Huang, Chen-Fu

    2014-01-01

    Push Hand is an advanced training technique for the Yang-style old frame 108 forms Tai Chi Chuan. It is performed by two practitioners. To clarify how people use forces during Push Hand training, it is important to review the ground reaction force (GRF). Here, we quantify the characteristics of the GRF during Push Hand training. Kinematic data and GRF data from 10 Tai Chi Chuan practitioners (29.9 ± 7.87 years) were synchronously recorded using a three-dimensional motion analysis system (200 frames · s(-1)) and three-dimensional force plates (1000 Hz). The resultant GRF for both feet for the 0%, 50% and 100% phases of attack and defence were compared to body weight using a paired-samples t-test. The differences in the resultant GRF between the 0%, 50% and 100% phases of attack and defence were tested by one-way repeated-measures ANOVA. The significance level was set to 0.05. The total resultant GRF was almost equal to the participant's body weight in push hand. This result was consistent throughout the entire push hand process. Our results revealed that the GRF was comparable to the body weight, implying that practitioners do not push or resist their opponents during the push hand process.

  19. Fuzzy Based PC-PUSH in CR-MANETs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Nejatian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In cognitive radio (CR, the secondary user (SU needs to hand off its ongoing communication to an idle channel in order to avoid interference to the primary user (PU. Spectrum hand off issue becomes challenging in CR mobile ad hoc networks (CR-MANETs because of the uncertainty in spectrum availability, broad range of spectrum bands and lack of central entity. The purpose of this study is to design a unified spectrum handoff (USH scheme for CR-MANETs that considers the spectrum heterogeneity and its availability over time and space. A local flow hand off is performed when spectrum hand off cannot be carried out due to the SUs mobility. To improve further USH, preemptive unified spectrum handoff (PUSH algorithm is proposed in which two different preemptive hand off threshold regions are defined. The PUSH algorithm also predicts the cognitive link availability considering the PU interference boundary. Although the PUSH scheme improves the hand off performance, the number of spectrum hand offs due to the PU activity should be reduced in this scheme. Therefore, the PC-PUSH (Power Controller-PUSH scheme is proposed in which the fuzzy logic is used to improve the PUSH in terms of the number of spectrum handoffs because of the PU activity. The PC-PUSH decreases the interference to the PUs, while reducing the number of spectrum handoffs. The results show that the proposed scheme improves the link maintenance probability, decreases the hand off delay, and reduces the number of spectrum handoffs.

  20. Prone positioning reduces severe pushing behavior: three case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujino, Yuji; Amimoto, Kazu; Sugimoto, Satoshi; Fukata, Kazuhiro; Inoue, Masahide; Takahashi, Hidetoshi; Makita, Shigeru

    2016-09-01

    [Purpose] Pushing behavior is classically described as a disorder of body orientation in the coronal plane. Most interventions for pushing behavior have focused on correcting the deviation in vertical perception. However, pushing behavior seems to involve erroneous movements associated with excessive motor output by the non-paretic limbs and trunk. The present study aimed to inhibit muscular hyper-activity by placing the non-paretic limbs and trunk in the prone position. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects of the present study were 3 acute stroke patients with severe pushing behavior. The study consisted of the following 3 phases: baseline, intervention, and follow-up. In addition to conventional therapy, patients received relaxation therapy in the prone position for 10 minutes a day over 2 days. The severity of pushing behavior was assessed using the scale for contraversive pushing, and truncal balance was evaluated using the trunk control test. These assessments were performed before and after the baseline phase, and after the intervention and follow-up phases. [Results] At the baseline phase, both scores were poor. Both scores improved after the intervention and follow-up phases, and all the patients could sit independently. [Conclusion] Relaxation therapy in the prone position might ameliorate pushing behavior and impaired truncal balance.

  1. Private Funding and Its Dangers to Academia: An Experience in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugentobler, Manuela; Müller, Markus; Morrissey, Franz Andres

    2017-01-01

    Academic freedom, a deep-rooted right in the Swiss Constitution, is endangered. Private sponsorship agreements, secretly negotiated between university leaders and big companies, become increasingly vital for universities in Switzerland. Swiss authorities are pushing this development: not only are they taking austerity measures, but also rewarding…

  2. Field evaluation of a direct push deployed sensor probe for vertical soil water content profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vienken, Thomas; Reboulet, Ed; Leven, Carsten; Kreck, Manuel; Zschornack, Ludwig; Dietrich, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Reliable high-resolution information about vertical variations in soil water content, i.e. total porosity in the saturated zone, is essential for flow and transport predictions within the subsurface. However, porosity measurements are often associated with high efforts and high uncertainties, e.g. caused by soil disturbance during sampling or sensor installation procedures. In hydrogeological practice, commonly applied tools for the investigation of vertical soil water content distribution include gravimetric laboratory analyses of soil samples and neutron probe measurements. A yet less well established technique is the use of direct push-deployed sensor probes. Each of these methods is associated with inherent advantages and limitations due to their underlying measurement principles and operation modes. The presented study describes results of a joint field evaluation of the individual methods under different depositional and hydrogeological conditions with special focus on the performance on the direct push-deployed water content profiler. Therefore, direct push-profiling results from three different test sites are compared with results obtained from gravimetric analysis of soil cores and neutron probe measurements. In direct comparison, the applied direct push-based sensor probe proved to be a suitable alternative for vertical soil water content profiling to neutron probe technology, and, in addition, proved to be advantageous over gravimetric analysis in terms vertical resolution and time efficiency. Results of this study identify application-specific limitations of the methods and thereby highlight the need for careful data evaluation, even though neutron probe measurements and gravimetric analyses of soil samples are well established techniques (see Vienken et al. 2013). Reference: Vienken, T., Reboulet, E., Leven, C., Kreck, M., Zschornack, L., Dietrich, P., 2013. Field comparison of selected methods for vertical soil water content profiling. Journal of

  3. Synthesizing a novel genetic sequential logic circuit: a push-on push-off switch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Chunbo; Liu, Xili; Ni, Ming; Huang, Yiqi; Huang, Qiushi; Huang, Longwen; Jiang, Lingli; Lu, Dan; Wang, Mingcong; Liu, Chang; Chen, Daizhuo; Chen, Chongyi; Chen, Xiaoyue; Yang, Le; Ma, Haisu; Chen, Jianguo; Ouyang, Qi

    2010-01-01

    Design and synthesis of basic functional circuits are the fundamental tasks of synthetic biologists. Before it is possible to engineer higher-order genetic networks that can perform complex functions, a toolkit of basic devices must be developed. Among those devices, sequential logic circuits are expected to be the foundation of the genetic information-processing systems. In this study, we report the design and construction of a genetic sequential logic circuit in Escherichia coli. It can generate different outputs in response to the same input signal on the basis of its internal state, and 'memorize' the output. The circuit is composed of two parts: (1) a bistable switch memory module and (2) a double-repressed promoter NOR gate module. The two modules were individually rationally designed, and they were coupled together by fine-tuning the interconnecting parts through directed evolution. After fine-tuning, the circuit could be repeatedly, alternatively triggered by the same input signal; it functions as a push-on push-off switch.

  4. Privatization Framework: Political Economy Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Bastian, Indra

    2009-01-01

    Privatization has been recognized as a worldwide phenomenon. In this pa-per, a political economy approach is developed to analyze privatization. The ap-proach assumes that political economy and privatization overlap in people’s need. So, the framework of political economy in privatization is based on the ‘need’ phi-losophy. Government and private sectors are contrasted in this respect, leading to a conclusion on privatization as a method to manage the economy. Keywords: privatization, politic...

  5. Soft robot design methodology for `push-button' manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paik, Jamie

    2018-06-01

    `Push-button' or fully automated manufacturing would enable the production of robots with zero intervention from human hands. Realizing this utopia requires a fundamental shift from a sequential (design-materials-manufacturing) to a concurrent design methodology.

  6. La Push, Washington Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The La Push, Washington Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) model....

  7. Pushed news: when the news comes to the cellphone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Fidalgo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Combining two findings of recent surveys on the Internet which state that 1 “the Internet will soon surpass all other media as a main source for national and international news” and 2 “the mobile device will be the primary connection tool to the Internet in 2020” leads us to the conclusion that smartphones will soon be the primary source for news access. But if so, how will news come to the Internetconnected cellphones? In accordance with the distinction, already drawn in 1997, between push and pull technologies as two different forms of how content is delivered to the end users, cellphones are characterized as push devices (passive reception, in opposition to computers, classified as pull devices (active reception. The news items that fit cellphones are pushed news. And they will be pushed as SMS, e-mails, tweets and through news aggregators.

  8. PUSHED NEWS: When the news comes to the cellphone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Fidalgo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Combining two findings of recent surveys on the Internet whichstate that 1 “the Internet will soon surpass all other media as a main source for national and international news” and 2 “the mobile device will be the primary connection tool to the Internet in 2020” leads us to the conclusion that smartphones will soon be the primary source for news access. But if so, how will news come to the Internetconnected cellphones? In accordance with the distinction, already drawn in 1997, between push and pull technologies as two different forms of how content is delivered to the end users, cellphones are characterized as push devices (passive reception, in opposition to computers, classified as pull devices (active reception. The news items that fit cellphones are pushed news. And they will be pushed as SMS, e-mails, tweets and through news aggregators.

  9. Public private partnerships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miranda Sarmento, J.J.

    2014-01-01

    Public-private partnerships (PPPs) are increasing in number worldwide and are used to build and manage large public infrastructure projects. In PPPs, the private sector plays a role in developing and maintaining public infrastructure and services, which is usually a public sector responsibility.

  10. Women and Private Pensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Helene A.

    This speech focuses on women and private pension plans, such as private pension coverage and smaller benefit amounts. Pension issues affecting women as employees include participation in plans, vesting, break-in service, benefit accruals, integration with Social Security, sex-based actuarial tables, portability, inflation, and individual…

  11. Private pensions for Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bovenberg, L.; van Ewijk, C.

    2011-01-01

    Private pensions can enhance international and intergenerational risk-sharing and create a deeper European capital market, which allows for better diversification of country-specific risks and facilitates economic growth. Private funding of pensions creates a more integrated European capital market

  12. Private Speech in Ballet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Dale

    2006-01-01

    Authoritarian teaching practices in ballet inhibit the use of private speech. This paper highlights the critical importance of private speech in the cognitive development of young ballet students, within what is largely a non-verbal art form. It draws upon research by Russian psychologist Lev Vygotsky and contemporary socioculturalists, to…

  13. Serial private infrastructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, V.A.C.

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates private supply of two congestible infrastructures that are serial, where the consumer has to use both in order to consume. Four market structures are analysed: a monopoly and 3 duopolies that differ in how firms interact. It is well known that private supply leads too high

  14. Structural Change Out of Agriculture: Labor Push versus Labor Pull

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco Alvarez-Cuadrado; Markus Poschke

    2011-01-01

    The process of economic development is characterized by substantial rural-urban migrations and a decreasing share of agriculture in output and employment. The literature highlights two main engines behind this process of structural change: (i) improvements in agricultural technology combined with the effect of Engel's law of demand push resources out of the agricultural sector (the "labor push" hypothesis), and (ii) improvements in industrial technology attract labor into this sector (the "la...

  15. Push and pull strategies: applications for health care marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsley, B R

    1987-08-01

    As health care markets mature and expand, strategies available in other industries become useful. This article examines how traditional push-pull strategies apply to health care. Marketers using a push strategy recognize that the sale of their services or goods is dependent upon the endorsement of a middleman and promote their product through the middleman. Those using a pull strategy market directly to the consumer. In this article, the author outlines the advantages and disadvantages of using each strategy.

  16. Push-out strength of modified Portland cements and resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacono, Francesco; Gandolfi, Maria Giovanna; Huffman, Bradford; Sword, Jeremy; Agee, Kelli; Siboni, Francesco; Tay, Franklin; Prati, Carlo; Pashley, David

    2010-02-01

    Modified calcium-silicate cements derived from white Portland cement (PC) were formulated to test their push-out strength from radicular dentin after immersion for 1 month. Slabs obtained from 42 single-rooted extracted teeth were prepared with 0.6 mm diameter holes, then enlarged with rotary instruments. After immersion in EDTA and NaOC1, the holes were filled with modified PCs or ProRoot MTA, Vitrebond and Clearfil SE. Different concentrations of phyllosilicate (montmorillonite-MMT) were added to experimental cements. ProRoot MTA was also included as reference material. Vitrebond and Clearfil SE were included as controls. Each group was tested after 1 month of immersion in water or PBS. A thin-slice push-out test on a universal testing machine served to test the push-out strength of materials. Results were statistically analyzed using the least squares means (LSM) method. The modified PCs had push-out strengths of 3-9.5 MPa after 1 month of immersion in water, while ProRoot MTA had 4.8 MPa. The push-out strength of PC fell after incubation in PBS for 1 month, while the push-out strength of ProRoot MTA increased. There were no significant changes in Clearfil SE Bond or Vitrebond after water or PBS storage.

  17. Shoulder joint loading and posture during medicine cart pushing task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xu; Lin, Jia-Hua; Boyer, Jon

    2013-01-01

    Excessive physical loads and awkward shoulder postures during pushing and pulling are risk factors for shoulder pain. Pushing a medicine cart is a major component of a work shift for nurses and medical assistants in hospitals and other health care facilities. A laboratory experiment was conducted to examine the effects of common factors (e.g., lane congestion, cart load stability, floor surface friction) on shoulder joint moment and shoulder elevation angle of participants during cart pushing. Participants pushed a medicine cart on straight tracks and turning around right-angle corners. Peak shoulder joint moments reached 25.1 Nm, 20.3 Nm, and 26.8 Nm for initial, transition, and turning phases of the pushing tasks, indicating that shoulder joint loading while pushing a medical cart is comparable to levels previously reported from heavy manual activities encountered in industry (e.g., garbage collection). Also, except for user experience, all other main study factors, including congestion level, cart load stability, location of transition strip, shoulder tendency, surface friction, and handedness, significantly influenced shoulder joint moment and shoulder elevation angle. The findings provide a better understanding of shoulder exposures associated with medicine cart operations and may be helpful in designing and optimizing the physical environment where medicine carts are used.

  18. Simulation and optimization of a polymer directional coupler electro-optic switch with push pull electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Chuan-Tao; Ma, Chun-Sheng; Yan, Xin; Wang, Xian-Yin; Zhang, Da-Ming

    2008-07-01

    Structural model and design technique are proposed for a polymer directional coupler electro-optic switch with rib waveguides and push-pull electrodes, of which the electric field distribution is analyzed by the conformal transforming method and image method. In order to get the minimum mode loss and the minimum switching voltage, the parameters of the waveguide and electrode are optimized, such as the core with, core thickness, buffer layer between the core and the electrode, coupling gap between the waveguides, electrode thickness, electrode width and electrode gap. Switching Characteristics are analyzed, which include the output power, insertion loss, and crosstalk. To realize normal switching function, the fabrication error, spectrum shift, and coupling loss between a single mode fiber (SMF) and the waveguide are discussed. Simulation results show that the coupling length is 3082 μm, push-pull switching voltage is 2.14 V, insertion loss is less than 1.17 dB, and crosstalk is less than -30 dB for the designed device.

  19. Transformation from a Single Antenna to a Series Array Using Push/Pull Origami

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Imran Hussain Shah

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available We propose a push/pull origami antenna, transformable between a single antenna element and a three-element array. In limited space, the proposed origami antenna can work as a single antenna. When the space is not limited and a higher gain is required, the proposed origami antenna can be transformed to a series antenna array by pulling the frame. In order to push the antenna array back to a single antenna, the frame for each antenna element size must be different. The frame and supporting dielectric materials are built using a three-dimensional (3D printer. The conductive patterns are inkjet-printed on paper. Thus, the proposed origami antenna is built using hybrid printing technology. The 10-dB impedance bandwidth is 2.5–2.65 GHz and 2.48–2.62 GHz for the single-antenna and array mode, respectively, and the peak gains in the single-antenna and array mode are 5.8 dBi and 7.6 dBi, respectively. The proposed antenna can be used for wireless remote-sensing applications.

  20. Transformation from a Single Antenna to a Series Array Using Push/Pull Origami.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Syed Imran Hussain; Lim, Sungjoon

    2017-08-26

    We propose a push/pull origami antenna, transformable between a single antenna element and a three-element array. In limited space, the proposed origami antenna can work as a single antenna. When the space is not limited and a higher gain is required, the proposed origami antenna can be transformed to a series antenna array by pulling the frame. In order to push the antenna array back to a single antenna, the frame for each antenna element size must be different. The frame and supporting dielectric materials are built using a three-dimensional (3D) printer. The conductive patterns are inkjet-printed on paper. Thus, the proposed origami antenna is built using hybrid printing technology. The 10-dB impedance bandwidth is 2.5-2.65 GHz and 2.48-2.62 GHz for the single-antenna and array mode, respectively, and the peak gains in the single-antenna and array mode are 5.8 dBi and 7.6 dBi, respectively. The proposed antenna can be used for wireless remote-sensing applications.

  1. Setting up virtual private network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Hongmei; Zhang Chengjun

    2003-01-01

    Setting up virtual private network for business enterprise provides a low cost network foundation, increases enterprise's network function and enlarges its private scope. The text introduces virtual private network's principal, privileges and protocols that use in virtual private network. At last, this paper introduces several setting up virtual private network's technologies which based on LAN

  2. Setting up virtual private network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Hongmei; Zhang Chengjun

    2003-01-01

    Setting up virtual private network for business enterprise provides a low cost network foundation, increases enterprise network function and enlarges its private scope. This text introduces virtual private network principal, privileges and protocols applied in virtual private network. At last, this paper introduces several setting up virtual private network technologies which is based on LAN

  3. Application of product life cycle concept to private label management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Horvat

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Private labels have recorded significant growth rates worldwide, becoming a serious threat to manufacturer brands. Development of private labels in many different product categories increased the complexity of their management. Therefore, this paper examines the possibility of using the product life cycle concept in private label management. Given that private labels are a specific brand type, it is necessary to adjust certain elements of the product life cycle concept, as it was developed on the basis of manufacturer brands. For instance, in the growth stage of the product life cycle, retailers expand private labels to a number of product categories and use the push strategy while manufacturers tend to expand their distribution network in the expansion of their brands and predominantly use the pull strategy in doing so. Furthermore, there is a focus shift from low-price strategy, predominantly used in the introduction phase, to increasing the quality and private label value in the later stages of the product life cycle.

  4. Effect of surface treatment and type of cement on push-out bond strength of zirconium oxide posts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almufleh, Balqees S; Aleisa, Khalil I; Morgano, Steven M

    2014-10-01

    The effect of the surface treatment of zirconium oxide posts on their push-out bond strength is controversial. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of 2 surface treatments on the bond strength of zirconium oxide posts cemented with different cements and to assess the failure mode. Seventy extracted human teeth were divided into 7 groups (n=10). Custom zirconium oxide posts (Cercon; Degudent) were fabricated for 6 groups. Posts in 3 groups were airborne-particle abraded (A). Posts in the other 3 groups were tribochemical silica coated (T). Three cements were used. Zinc phosphate cement was used to cement the zirconium oxide posts in groups AZ and TZ, RelyX ARC cement was used in groups ARA and TRA, and RelyX Unicem cement was used in groups ARU and TRU. Group C contained custom metal posts cemented with zinc phosphate cement. Specimens were horizontally sectioned into 3 sections and subjected to a push-out test. A mixed model analysis of variance, 1-way ANOVA, and the Tukey multiple comparison tests were used for statistical analysis. The highest push-out bond strength was recorded for Group ARU (21.03 MPa), and the lowest was recorded for Group ARA (7.57 MPa). No significant difference in push-out bond strength was found among the different surface treatments and root regions (P>.05). The type of cement had a significant effect on the push-out bond strength of zirconium oxide posts (P=.049). RelyX Unicem cement recorded (19.57 ±8.83 MPa) significantly higher push-out bond strength compared with zinc phosphate (9.95 ±6.31 MPa) and RelyX ARC cements (9.39 ±5.45 MPa). Adhesive failure at the post-cement interface was recorded for 75% of the posts cemented with zinc phosphate and RelyX ARC cements, while mixed failure was recorded for 75% of the posts cemented with RelyX Unicem cement. The type of cement used resulted in a statistically significant difference in the push-out bond strength of zirconium oxide posts, while both the surface treatment

  5. A sled push stimulus potentiates subsequent 20-m sprint performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitz, Laurent B; Mina, Minas A; Haff, G Gregory

    2017-08-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the potentiating effects of performing a single sprint-style sled push on subsequent unresisted 20m sprint performance. Randomized crossover design. Following a familiarization session, twenty rugby league players performed maximal unresisted 20m sprints before and 15s, 4, 8 and 12min after a single sled push stimulus loaded with either 75 or 125% body mass. The two sled push conditions were performed in a randomized order over a one-week period. The fastest sprint time recorded before each sled push was compared to that recorded at each time point after to determine the post-activation potentiation (PAP) effect. After the 75% body mass sled push, sprint time was 0.26±1.03% slower at the 15s time point (effect size [ES]=0.07) but faster at the 4 (-0.95±2.00%; ES=-0.22), 8 (-1.80±1.43%; ES=-0.42) and 12 (-1.54±1.54%; ES=-0.36)min time points. Sprint time was slower at all the time points after the 125% body mass sled (1.36±2.36%-2.59±2.90%; ESs=0.34-0.64). Twenty-meter sprint performance is potentiated 4-12min following a sled push loaded with 75% body mass while it is impaired after a 125% body mass sled. These results are of great importance for coaches seeking to potentiate sprint performance with the sled push exercise. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. 33 CFR 164.76 - Towline and terminal gear for towing alongside and pushing ahead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... towing alongside and pushing ahead. 164.76 Section 164.76 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... Towline and terminal gear for towing alongside and pushing ahead. The owner, master, or operator of each vessel towing alongside or pushing ahead shall ensure that the face wires, spring lines, and push gear...

  7. "Private Views" Ungaris

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1999-01-01

    9. juulist Dunaujvarosi Kaasaegse Kunsti Instituudis eesti ja briti kunstnike ühisnäitus "Private Views. Ruum taasavastatud eesti ja briti kaasaegses kunstis". Kuraatorid Pam Skelton, Mare Tralla. Osalejad.

  8. "Private Views" Ungaris

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1999-01-01

    9. juulist Dunaujvarosi Kaasaegse Kunsti Instituudis eesti ja briti kunstnike ühisnäitus "Private Views. Ruum taasavastatud eesti ja briti kaasaegses kunstis" Kuraatorid Pam Skelton, Mare Tralla. Osalejad

  9. Private sector development

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Small businesses can be an important vehicle for .... Small and medium enterprises make up most of private businesses in the. Middle East ... Small businesses can drive more equi- table growth. ... patterns affect job creation and the demand ...

  10. Private Web Browsing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Syverson, Paul F; Reed, Michael G; Goldschlag, David M

    1997-01-01

    .... These are both kept confidential from network elements as well as external observers. Private Web browsing is achieved by unmodified Web browsers using anonymous connections by means of HTTP proxies...

  11. KOMPARASI SISTEM MANUFAKTUR PUSH DAN PULL MELALUI PENDEKATAN SIMULASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Wibisono

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Manufacturing systems that are often classified as push and pull often invite question: "How far do the differences between those two systems exist?" Many researches have been carried out but succinct answer to the above question is always difficult to reach. The difficulty roots from the variety of definition of the push and pull systems itself and also from the variety of complexity of a manufacturing system. This paper attempts to study the differences in performance between push and pull systems in a relatively simple model that consists of 4 serial processors with buffers located between these processors. Variations being modelled is on the setting of the system's load (high and low and the buffer size with performance being measured include machine utilization, number of outputs and mean flow time of jobs. The approach used is simulation using ProModel software as the tool. From the experiments it can be derived that buffer size turns out to be a very critical factor in system performance. Moreover, it is also proved that when the buffer size is large, push and pull systems do not differ significantly. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Sistem manufaktur yang umumnya dikategorikan menjadi sistem push dan pull sering mengundang pertanyaan: "Seberapa jauh perbedaan dari kedua sistem tersebut ada?" Banyak penelitian telah dilakukan namun jawaban yang lugas atas pertanyaan tersebut sulit diperoleh. Kesulitan ini umumnya berakar dari beragamnya definisi sistem push dan pull itu sendiri serta variasi dari kompleksitas suatu sistem manufaktur. Makalah ini mencoba melihat perbedaan antara kinerja sistem push dan pull dalam suatu model sederhana yang terdiri dari 4 prosesor serial dengan buffer yang diletakkan di antara masing-masing prosesor tersebut. Variasi yang dilakukan adalah pada setting beban kerja sistem (padat dan ringan dan ukuran buffer dengan kinerja yang diukur adalah utilisasi mesin, jumlah output dan rata-rata waktu tinggal job

  12. INTERSESSION RELIABILITY OF UPPER EXTREMITY ISOKINETIC PUSH-PULL TESTING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riemann, Bryan L; Davis, Sarah E; Huet, Kevin; Davies, George J

    2016-02-01

    Based on the frequency pushing and pulling patterns are used in functional activities, there is a need to establish an objective method of quantifying the muscle performance characteristics associated with these motions, particularly during the later stages of rehabilitation as criteria for discharge. While isokinetic assessment offers an approach to quantifying muscle performance, little is known about closed kinetic chain (CKC) isokinetic testing of the upper extremity (UE). To determine the intersession reliability of isokinetic upper extremity measurement of pushing and pulling peak force and average power at slow (0.24 m/s), medium (0.43 m/s) and fast (0.61 m/s) velocities in healthy young adults. The secondary purpose was to compare pushing and pulling peak force (PF) and average power (AP) between the upper extremity limbs (dominant, non-dominant) across the three velocities. Twenty-four physically active men and women completed a test-retest (>96 hours) protocol in order to establish isokinetic UE CKC reliability of PF and AP during five maximal push and pull repetitions at three velocities. Both limb and speed orders were randomized between subjects. High test-retest relative reliability using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC2, 1) were revealed for PF (.91-.97) and AP (.85-.95) across velocities, limbs and directions. PF typical error (% coefficient of variation) ranged from 6.1% to 11.3% while AP ranged from 9.9% to 26.7%. PF decreased significantly (p pushing were significantly greater than pulling at all velocities, however the push-pull differences in PF became less as velocity increased. There were no significant differences identified between the dominant and nondominant limbs. Isokinetically derived UE CKC push-pull PF and AP are reliable measures. The lack of limb differences in healthy normal participants suggests that clinicians can consider bilateral comparisons when interpreting test performance. The increase in pushing PF and

  13. Does Private Tutoring Payoff?

    OpenAIRE

    Gurun, Ayfer; Millimet, Daniel L.

    2008-01-01

    We assess the causal effect of private tutoring on the probability of university placement in Turkey. We find that tutoring increases the probability of being placed in a university when non-random selection is ignored. Moreover, among those utilizing private tutoring, greater expenditure on tutoring is also positively associated with university placement. However, we find evidence of positive selection into tutoring, but negative selection into greater expenditures among those receiving tuto...

  14. Areva's privatization uncertainties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jemain, A.

    2004-01-01

    The French nuclear public group Areva (the fusion of CEA-Industrie, Framatome and Cogema companies) will actively prepare its privatization and stock exchange introduction before the end of the first half of 2005, in order to re-launch its acquisitions and associations policy. However, the advantages of this privatization with a preponderant public share-holding will depend on the intentions of the French government. Short paper. (J.S.)

  15. Privatizing electricity: Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bindon, F.J.L.

    1991-01-01

    In February 1988, the Government announced their intention of privatizing the electricity supply industry of England, Wales and Scotland. The Government's proposals were outlined in two White Papers. Cm 322 covered the proposals for England and Wales and Cm 327 the proposals for Scotland. This article deals with the events covering the stages of the privatization process from just before passing of the Electricity Bill in July 1989 to December 1990. (author)

  16. Effects of Angle Variations in Suspension Push-up Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulmez, Irfan

    2017-04-01

    Gulmez, I. Effects of angle variations in suspension push-up exercise. J Strength Cond Res 31(4): 1017-1023, 2017-This study aimed to determine and compare the amount of loads on the TRX Suspension Trainer (TRX) straps and ground reaction forces at 4 different angles during TRX push-ups. Twenty-eight male (mean age, 24.1 ± 2.9 years; height, 179.4 ± 8.0 m; weight, 78.8 ± 9.8 kg) physical education and sports university students participated in this study. The subjects were tested at TRX angles (0, 15, 30, 45°) during the TRX push-ups. Force data were recorded by a force platform and load cells integrated into the TRX straps. The results show that as the TRX angle was reduced, the load applied to the TRX straps increased and simultaneously the load measured by the force platform decreased. This was true for both the elbow joint changing from flexion to extension and vice versa. When the TRX angle was set at 0° and subjects' elbows were at extension during TRX push-up, 50.4% of the subjects' body weight, and when the elbows were at flexion, 75.3% of the body weight was registered by the sensors on the TRX straps. The results of this study can be used in the calculation of the training load and volume (resistance training programming) during TRX push-up exercises at varying angles.

  17. Effect of different pushing speeds on bench press.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padulo, J; Mignogna, P; Mignardi, S; Tonni, F; D'Ottavio, S

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect on muscular strength after a 3-week training with the bench-press at a fixed pushing of 80-100% maximal speed (FPS) and self-selected pushing speed (SPS). 20 resistance-trained subjects were divided at random in 2 groups differing only regarding the pushing speed: in the FPS group (n=10) it was equal to 80-100% of the maximal speed while in the SPS group (n=10) the pushing speed was self-selected. Both groups were trained twice a week for 3 weeks with a load equal to 85% of 1RM and monitored with the encoder. Before and after the training we measured pushing speed and maximum load. Significant differences between and within the 2 groups were pointed out using a 2-way ANOVA for repeated measures. After 3 weeks a significant improvement was shown especially in the FPS group: the maximum load improved by 10.20% and the maximal speed by 2.22%, while in the SPS group the effect was <1%. This study shows that a high velocity training is required to increase the muscle strength further in subjects with a long training experience and this is possible by measuring the individual performance speed for each load. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. [Length of pushing efforts: pushing is not playing. Reply to the article of C. Le Ray and F. Audibert].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaal, J-P; Dreyfus, M; Bretelle, F; Carbonne, B; Dupuis, O; Foulhy, C; Goffinet, F; Houfflin-Debarge, V; Langer, B; Martin, A; Mercier, C; Mignon, A; Poulain, P; Simon, A; Teurnier, F; Verspyck, E; Riethmuller, D; Hoffmann, P; Pierre, F

    2008-11-01

    The aim of this work is to answer constructively to C. Le Ray and F. Audibert who were surprised that the French guidelines recommended an assisted delivery after 30 min pushing, even if the fetal heart rate is reassuring. We first resumed the definition of "second stage of labor", this word including the first phase with no pushing efforts and the second phase with active pushing of the mother. With that definition, the length of the second stage is around 60 min for the primipara and 20 min for the multipara, this length being modified by the use of peridural. We then specified the physiological mechanisms influencing the acidobasic equilibrium during the pushing time. Those mechanisms are difficult to consider because foetal heart rate monitoring is often "lost" during that phase. Altogether, these factors bring incertitude about progressive foetal acidosis and incapacity to diagnose it. Finally, the literature analysis teaches us that increasing the second stage of labor (inactive plus active phases) during the normal pregnancy seems to be at low risk for the foetus within the primiparas, but display a risk for the mother and so might be limited. Comparing the delayed pushing with the immediate pushing only lead us to conclude that delayed pushing is dangerous, as is prolonged second stage. In conclusion, we think that prolonging the second stage of labor is possible but must be by increasing the inactive first phase of the second stage, especially as long as we will not get a noninvasive and reliable method allowing assessing the well-being of the foetus.

  19. Public Supervision over Private Relationships : Towards European Supervision Private Law?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cherednychenko, O.O.

    2014-01-01

    The rise of public supervision over private relationships in many areas of private law has led to the development of what, in the author’s view, could be called ‘European supervision private law’. This emerging body of law forms part of European regulatory private law and is made up of

  20. Stroller running: Energetic and kinematic changes across pushing methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcantara, Ryan S; Wall-Scheffler, Cara M

    2017-01-01

    Running with a stroller provides an opportunity for parents to exercise near their child and counteract health declines experienced during early parenthood. Understanding biomechanical and physiological changes that occur when stroller running is needed to evaluate its health impact, yet the effects of stroller running have not been clearly presented. Here, three commonly used stroller pushing methods were investigated to detect potential changes in energetic cost and lower-limb kinematics. Sixteen individuals (M/F: 10/6) ran at self-selected speeds for 800m under three stroller conditions (2-Hands, 1-Hand, and Push/Chase) and an independent running control. A significant decrease in speed (p = 0.001) and stride length (ppushing method had a significant effect on speed (p = 0.001) and stride length (ppushing technique influences stroller running speed and kinematics. These findings suggest specific fitness effects may be achieved through the implementation of different pushing methods.

  1. The effect of public or private structures in wastewater treatment on the conditions for the design, construction and operation of wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grünebaum, T; Bode, H

    2004-01-01

    Organised in public or private structures, wastewater services have to cope with different framework conditions as regards planning, construction, financing and operation. This leads quite often to different modes of management. In recent years there has been a push for privatisation on the water sector in general, the reasons for which are manifold, ranging from access to external know-how and capital to synergistic effects through integration of wastewater treatment into other tasks of similar or equal nature. Discussed are various models of public/private partnership (PPP) in wastewater treatment, encompassing for example the delegation of partial tasks or even the proportional or entire transfer of ownership of treatment facilities to private third parties. Decisive for high performance and efficiency is not the legal or organisational form, but rather the clear and unmistakable definition of tasks which are to be assigned to the different parties, customers and all other partners involved, as well as of clear-cut interfaces. On account of the (of course legitimate) profit-oriented perspective of the private sector, some decision-making processes in relation to project implementation (design and construction) and to operational aspects will differ from those typically found on the public sector. This does apply to decisions on investments, financing and on technical solutions too. On the other hand, core competencies in wastewater treatment should not be outsourced, but remain the public bodies' responsibility, even with 'far-reaching' privatisation models. Such core competencies are all efforts geared to sustainable wastewater treatment as life-supporting provision for the future or as contribution to the protection of health and the environment and to the development of infrastructure. Major areas of wastewater treatment and other related tasks are reviewed. The paper concludes with a list of questions on the issue of outsourcing.

  2. Biomechanical study of the final push-pull in archery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroyer, P; Van Hoecke, J; Helal, J N

    1993-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse archery performance among eight archers of different abilities by means of displacement pull-hand measurements during the final push-pull phase of the shoot. The archers showed an irregular displacement negatively related to their technical level. Displacement signal analysis showed high power levels in both the 0-5 Hz and 8-12 Hz ranges. The latter peak corresponds to electromyographic tremor observed during a prolonged push-pull effort. The results are discussed in relation to some potentially helpful training procedures such as biofeedback and strength conditioning.

  3. A demonstration of NIOSH push-pull ventilation criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, M K

    1987-03-01

    This paper summarizes the results of a study performed on an actual chrome plating tank in order to validate criteria for push-pull ventilation systems developed by Huebener and Hughes at NIOSH. Validation of the criteria was made by taking area industrial hygiene samples for hexavalent and total chrome at ten locations around the plating tank. The sampling was performed during actual production runs or while the tank was operating with a dummy load. The sampling data are summarized. The data show that the push-pull system, operating at Huebener's criteria, could control emissions to below the current standards and guidelines. Conclusions and recommendations are included.

  4. Attentional Push: Augmenting Salience with Shared Attention Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Gorji, Siavash; Clark, James J.

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel visual attention tracking technique based on Shared Attention modeling. Our proposed method models the viewer as a participant in the activity occurring in the scene. We go beyond image salience and instead of only computing the power of an image region to pull attention to it, we also consider the strength with which other regions of the image push attention to the region in question. We use the term Attentional Push to refer to the power of image regions to direct and man...

  5. Restoration of Hyperspectral Push-Broom Scanner Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Rasmus; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Conradsen, Knut

    1997-01-01

    Several effects combine to distort the multispectral data that are obtained from push-broom scanners. We develop an algorithm for restoration of such data, illustrated on images from the ROSIS scanner. In push-broom scanners variation between elements in the detector array results in a strong...... back into the original spectral space results in noise corrected variables. The noise components will now have been removed from the entire original data set by working on a smaller set of noise contaminated transformed variables only. The application of the above techniques results in a dramatic...

  6. Push-pull optical pumping of pure superposition states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jau, Y.-Y.; Miron, E.; Post, A.B.; Kuzma, N.N.; Happer, W.

    2004-01-01

    A new optical pumping method, 'push-pull pumping', can produce very nearly pure, coherent superposition states between the initial and the final sublevels of the important field-independent 0-0 clock resonance of alkali-metal atoms. The key requirement for push-pull pumping is the use of D1 resonant light which alternates between left and right circular polarization at the Bohr frequency of the state. The new pumping method works for a wide range of conditions, including atomic beams with almost no collisions, and atoms in buffer gases with pressures of many atmospheres

  7. 14 mrad Extraction Line Optics for Push-Pull

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nosochkov, Y.; Moffeit, K.; Seryi, A.; Morse, W.; Parker, B.

    2007-01-01

    The ILC design is based on a single Interaction Region (IR) with 14 mrad crossing angle and two detectors in the 'push-pull' configuration, where the detectors can alternately occupy the Interaction Point (IP). Consequently, the IR optics must be compatible with different size detectors designed for different distance L* between the IP and the nearest quadrupole. This paper presents the push-pull optics for the ILC extraction line compatible with L*= 3.5 m to 4.5 m, and the simulation results of extraction beam loss at 500 GeV CM with detector solenoid

  8. Push-out bond strengths of different dental cements used to cement glass fiber posts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Jefferson Ricardo; Lins do Valle, Accácio; Ghizoni, Janaina Salomon; Lorenzoni, Fábio César; Ramos, Marcelo Barbosa; Barbosa, Marcelo Ramos; Dos Reis Só, Marcus Vinícius

    2013-08-01

    Since the introduction of glass fiber posts, irreversible vertical root fractures have become a rare occurrence; however, adhesive failure has become the primary failure mode. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the push-out bond strength of glass fiber posts cemented with different luting agents on 3 segments of the root. Eighty human maxillary canines with similar root lengths were randomly divided into 8 groups (n=10) according to the cement assessed (Rely X luting, Luting and Lining, Ketac Cem, Rely X ARC, Biscem, Duo-link, Rely X U100, and Variolink II). After standardized post space preparation, the root dentin was pretreated for dual-polymerizing resin cements and untreated for the other cements. The mixed luting cement paste was inserted into post spaces with a spiral file and applied to the post surface that was seated into the canal. After 7 days, the teeth were sectioned perpendicular to their long axis into 1-mm-thick sections. The push-out test was performed at a speed of 0.5 mm/min until extrusion of the post occurred. The results were evaluated by 2-way ANOVA and the all pairwise multiple comparison procedures (Tukey test) (α=.05). ANOVA showed that the type of interaction between cement and root location significantly influenced the push-out strength (Pcements and glass ionomer cements showed significantly higher values compared to dual-polymerizing resin cements. In all root segments, dual-polymerizing resin cements provided significantly lower bond strength. Significant differences among root segments were found only for Duo-link cement. Copyright © 2013 The Editorial Council of the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Private Sector Savings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pitonáková Renáta

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The majority of household savings are in the form of bank deposits. It is therefore of interest for credit institutions to tailor their deposit policy for getting finances from non-banking entities and to provide the private sector with the loans that are necessary for investment activities and consumption. This paper deals with the determinants of the saving rate of the private sector of Slovakia. Economic, financial and demographic variables influence savings. Growth of income per capita, private disposable income, elderly dependency ratio, real interest rate and inflation have a positive impact on savings, while increases in public savings indicate a crowding out effect. The inflation rate implies precautionary savings, and dependency ratio savings for bequest. There are also implications for governing institutions deciding on the implementation of appropriate fiscal and monetary operations.

  10. PRIVATE SECURITY IN SPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Vukasović

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Given the importance of sport for international integration, affirmation, a sense of belonging and other values of general interest, in order to maintain and open new prospects of development, it is necessary to form the private security system along with state security system, with a view to creating conditions for development sports athletes to achieve better results both in domestic and international competitions. Private security is only one element of an integrated security system which, with its efficient organization with the use of adequate means and measures should provide answers to new challenges, risks and threats. Private security in line with the new understanding of the concept of security has an important role in providing athletes.

  11. Private Tutoring: Evidence from India

    OpenAIRE

    Azam, Mehtabul

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on the nationally representative "Participation and Expenditure in Education" surveys, we document the incidence and cost of private tutoring at different stages of schooling over the last two decades in India. As private tutoring involve two decisions: a) whether to take private tuition or not, and b) how much to spend on private tutoring conditional on positive decision in (a), we analyze the determinants of the two decisions separately using a Hurdle model. We find that private tut...

  12. Final report for Tank 241-B-101, push mode cores 90 and 91. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiber, R.D.

    1995-11-01

    This is the final report for tank 241-at sign 101, cores 90 and 91. Samples from these cores were analyzed for safety screening purposes in accordance with the Tank 241-B-101 Tank Characterization Plan (TCP) (Reference 1). This final report contains the results for three sets of TGA and gravimetric analyses performed after the 90-day report was issued. Two of these TGA/gravimetric percent water sets of analyses were done because low original TGA results were obtained for the lower half segment of core 90, segment 2 and the facie of core 91, segment 2; the third set of analyses were performed because the TGA and gravimetric percent water results for the upper half segment of core 90, segment 2 differed by approximately a factor of three and further investigation was warranted

  13. Final report for tank 241-BX-104 push mode core 126 and 127

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, T.A.

    1996-01-01

    This is the final sample analysis report for tank 241-BX-104 (BX-104), cores 126 and 127. Two segments from each core yielded a total of 11 samples which were analyzed. The data quality objectives (DQOs) applicable to this sampling event were the Safety Screening DQO (Dukelow et al. 1995) and the Organic Safety DQO (Turner et al. 1995). The samples were received, extruded and analyzed at PNNL 325 Analytical Chemistry Laboratory (ACL). The analyses were performed in accordance with the Sample Analysis Plan (Gretsinger 1996) and indicated that the tank is safe with respect to the criteria in the Safety Screening and Organic DQO. Detailed analytical results were described in the analytical laboratory 45-day Report (Attachment 1, WHC-SD-WM-DP-171, REV. 0) and final report (Attachment 2, PNL-BX-104 REV.1) prepared by PNNL, 325 Laboratory. Corrections and/or exceptions to the PNNL final report are provided

  14. Final report for tank 241-BX-109, push mode cores 84 and 85

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiber, R.D.

    1996-01-01

    This document summarizes the sampling activities for tank 241-BX-109. This report contains tables of the analytical results on total organic compounds and total inorganic compounds in the radioactive wastes. Tank 241-BX-109 has not been on a Watch List

  15. 45-Day safety screen results for tank 241-U-202, push mode, cores 75 and 78

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, J.

    1995-01-01

    This document is a report of the analytical results for samples collected from the radioactive wastes in Tank 241-U-202 at the Hanford Reservation. Core samples were collected from the solid wastes in the tank and underwent safety screening analyses including differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis, and total alpha analysis. Results indicate that no safety screening notification limits were exceeded

  16. Peruvian projects, privatization proceeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that Petroleos del Peru is forging ahead on several fronts despite Peru's political turmoil and uncertainty over where government ordered-privatization will take it. The state oil company: is expected to sign contract soon related to development of Chambira oil field in the northern jungle; let contract to a group of Peruvian and Brazilian companies for construction of an oil terminal at Talara on the Pacific coast; and received expressions of interest in participating in an operating contract on an offshore block operated by its Petromar SA offshore subsidiary under the government's privatization program

  17. Peruvian projects, privatization proceeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-10-19

    This paper reports that Petroleos del Peru is forging ahead on several fronts despite Peru's political turmoil and uncertainty over where government ordered-privatization will take it. The state oil company: is expected to sign contract soon related to development of Chambira oil field in the northern jungle; let contract to a group of Peruvian and Brazilian companies for construction of an oil terminal at Talara on the Pacific coast; and received expressions of interest in participating in an operating contract on an offshore block operated by its Petromar SA offshore subsidiary under the government's privatization program.

  18. At private den

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Ida

    2006-01-01

    ?To go private? As an object the cell phone is a diminutive phenomenon, but its power and importance in the social space is infinite. What happens in the social space when the cell phone is used and when it is turned off? As a point of departure observations from a field study conducted in a youth...... club (teens between 12-16 years) in Denmark will be presented. The teens are always situated end located when they use the cell phone. When they use it, temporary personal reserves are created, in which they do territorial demands. As the most obvious they forget themselves and ?go private?. It has...

  19. Modelling a technology push by using hybrid franchising

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fredriks, Jan; Pennink, Bartjan; Simaputang, T.; Siswanto, J.

    2014-01-01

    Introducing a technology push to stimulate entrepreneurship in remote areas in developing countries can be examined in the context of a franchising model (social or commercial franchising). The results of this study (fieldwork in Kalimantan, Indonesia) point to a high feasibility of introducing a

  20. Nuclear fuel cycle: research and development and push technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Wagner dos Santos

    2002-01-01

    The scope of this work is to show the importance of 'push technologies in the development of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle more specifically the so called 'Projeto Conversao' PROCON. This R and D activities lead to the design of special equipment, new metallic and polymer materials. (author)

  1. Push an pull forces in the building and construction industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frings-Dresen, M. H. W.; Windhorst, Judith; Hoozemans, M. J M; Van Der Beek, Allard J.; Van der Molen, Henk F.

    2000-01-01

    Push and pull activities are increasing in the building and construction industry. These activities can be assumed as one of the risk factors for the development of low back and upper extremity complaints. For a risk evaluation, besides the frequency and the duration of the activities, information

  2. Development of remote fuel pushing system in Reprocessing Plant, Tarapur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandra, Munish; Coelho, G.; Kodilkar, S.S.; Mishra, A.K.; Bajpai, D.D.; Nair, M.K.T.

    1990-01-01

    Power Reactor Fuel Reprocessing Plant (PREFRE), Tarapur has been processing spent fuel arising from Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors for quite some time. The process adopted in the plant is purex process with chopleach head end treatment. The head end treatment involves loading of ten spent fuel bundles in the charging cask at a time in the fuel bay and aligning the cask with the transfer port and subsequently pushing all the ten bundles together into the fuel magazine. At present the fuel is pushed into the magazine manually. Since the ten bundles weigh approximately 200 Kg. and involves pushing of 9.4 meters length, the operation is carried out using stainless steel screwed pipes, in steps of five lengths. The entire operation requires a large number of trained skilled workers and is found to be tedious. To solve this problem a hydraulic cum pneumatic fuel pushing system has been designed, fabricated, tested and is in the process of installation in the fuel handling area. This paper describes various requirements, constraints and dimensional details arising in the incorporation of such a system to be back fitted in an existing plant, though many of these constraints can be avoided in future plants. Further, complete sequence of operations, technical specifications regarding the telescopic hydraulic power pack and associated controls incorporated in the system are highlighted. (author). 2 figs

  3. Optical Pushing: A Tool for Parallelized Biomolecule Manipulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sitters, G.; Laurens, N.; de Rijk, E.J.; Kress, H.; Peterman, E.J.G.; Wuite, G.J.L.

    2016-01-01

    The ability to measure and manipulate single molecules has greatly advanced the field of biophysics. Yet, the addition of more single-molecule tools that enable one to measure in a parallel fashion is important to diversify the questions that can be addressed. Here we present optical pushing (OP), a

  4. 'Pushing the boundaries of interpretation': The link between the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    'Pushing the boundaries of interpretation': The link between the nature and purpose of missionary records and the underutilisation of the Roman Catholic missionary ... The article uses the author's experience with Roman Catholic missionary archives in South-western as a window through which to project into the general ...

  5. Pushing Firm Boundaries through Research and Open Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borup Lynggaard, Aviaja

    2011-01-01

    provide into the company and bring forward the effect it has inside a company when performing open innovation together with research partners. We seek to bring forward how performing university-research collaboration can also change the practices inside a company and thus push the firm boundaries in new...

  6. NASA Green Propulsion Technologies Pushing Aviation to New Heights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Free, James M.; Jennings, Francis T.; Adanich, Emery; Del Rosario, Ruben; Felder, James L.

    2014-01-01

    Center Director Free is providing the Keynote at the Disruptive Propulsion Conference, sponsored by Cranfield University, Cranfield, Bedfordshire, England in November. Director Free will be presenting a PowerPoint presentation titled, NASA Green Propulsion Technologies Pushing Aviation to New Heights at both the conference and a meeting at the Royal Aeronautical Society.

  7. "Location is surprisingly a lot more important than you think": a critical thematic analysis of push and pull factor messaging used on Caribbean offshore medical school websites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Jeffrey; Crooks, Valorie A; Sampson, Carla Jackie; Snyder, Jeremy

    2017-06-02

    Offshore medical schools are for-profit, private enterprises located in the Caribbean that provide undergraduate medical education to students who must leave the region for postgraduate training and also typically to practice. This growing industry attracts many medical students from the US and Canada who wish to return home to practice medicine. After graduation, international medical graduates can encounter challenges obtaining residency placements and can face other barriers related to practice. We conducted a qualitative thematic analysis to discern the dominant messages found on offshore medical school websites. Dominant messages included frequent references to push and pull factors intended to encourage potential applicants to consider attending an offshore medical school. We reviewed 38 English-language Caribbean offshore medical school websites in order to extract and record content pertaining to push and pull factors. We found two push and four pull factors present across most offshore medical school websites. Push factors include the: shortages of physicians in the US and Canada that require new medical trainees; and low acceptance rates at medical schools in intended students' home countries. Pull factors include the: financial benefits of attending an offshore medical school; geographic location and environment of training in the Caribbean; training quality and effectiveness; and the potential to practice medicine in one's home country. This analysis contributes to our understanding of some of the factors behind students' decisions to attend an offshore medical school. Importantly, push and pull factors do not address the barriers faced by offshore medical school graduates in finding postgraduate residency placements and ultimately practicing elsewhere. It is clear from push and pull factors that these medical schools heavily focus messaging and marketing towards students from the US and Canada, which raises questions about who benefits from this

  8. Privatization of Brazil's petroleum sector on track despite scandal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that the push to privatize Brazil's petroleum sector remains on track despite the taint of scandal that hit state oil company Petroleos Brasileiro SA and the ensuing political crisis for the administration of President Fernando Collor de Mello. Collor's efforts to reform Brazil's beleaguered economy have focused heavily on privatizing state-owned companies by selling assets or ending monopolies. Nowhere is that task more daunting than with Petrobras, one of the world's biggest petroleum companies, which has an entrenched monopoly over most upstream and downstream operations in the country. Collor and the energy ministers and chiefs of Petrobras during his administration have pressed measured to inject free market principles in Brazil's petroleum sector. The Collor administration earlier this year sent a bill to Brazil's Congress calling for a constitutional amendment to end Petrobras monopoly over exploration, production, transportation, refining, and exports and imports of oil and gas. The amendment is expected to be voted upon in 1993

  9. Push-out Bond Strength of Calcium Enriched Mixture Exposed to Alkaline Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sobhnamayan F

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Calcium hydroxide which is commonly used as an intracanal medicament, changes the pH of dentin and periradicular tissues to an alkaline pH. In some clinical situations, endodontic reparative cements like calcium enriched mixture cement are used after calcium hydroxide therapy. However, the alkaline pH may affect the physical properties of this cement. Objectives: This study was designed to evaluate the effect of alkaline pH on the push-out bond strength of calcium enriched mixture. Materials and Methods: 80 root slices were prepared from single-rooted human teeth and their lumens were instrumented to achieve a diameter of 1.3mm. Calcium enriched mixture (CEM was mixed according to the manufacturer’s instruction and introduced into the lumens of root slices. The specimens were then randomly divided into 4 groups (n = 20 and wrapped in pieces of gauze soaked in synthetic tissue fluid (STF buffered in potassium hydroxide at pH values of 7.4, 8.4, 9.4, or 10.4. The samples were incubated for 4 days at 37°C. The push-out bond strengths were then measured using a universal testing machine. Failure modes were examined under a light microscope at ×20 magnification. The data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and Tukey’s post hoc tests. Results: The greatest (1.41 ± 0.193 MPa and lowest (0.8 ± 0.06 MPa mean push-out bond strengths were observed after exposure to pH values of 7.4 and 8.4, respectively. There were significant differences between the neutral group and the groups with pH of 8.4 (p = 0.008 and 10.4 (p = 0.022. The bond failure was predominantly of cohesive type for all experimental groups. Conclusions: Under the condition of this study, alkaline pH adversely affected the Push-out bond strength of CEM cement.

  10. Predicting Bobsled Pushing Ability from Various Combine Testing Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasevicz, Curtis L; Ransone, Jack W; Bach, Christopher W

    2018-03-12

    The requisite combination of speed, power, and strength necessary for a bobsled push athlete coupled with the difficulty in directly measuring pushing ability makes selecting effective push crews challenging. Current practices by USA Bobsled and Skeleton (USABS) utilize field combine testing to assess and identify specifically selected performance variables in an attempt to best predict push performance abilities. Combine data consisting of 11 physical performance variables were collected from 75 subjects across two winter Olympic qualification years (2009 and 2013). These variables were sprints of 15-, 30-, and 60 m, a flying 30 m sprint, a standing broad jump, a shot toss, squat, power clean, body mass, and dry-land brake and side bobsled pushes. Discriminant Analysis (DA) in addition to Principle Component Analysis (PCA) was used to investigate two cases (Case 1: Olympians vs. non-Olympians; Case 2: National Team vs. non-National Team). Using these 11 variables, DA led to a classification rule that proved capable of identifying Olympians from non-Olympians and National Team members from non-National Team members with 9.33% and 14.67% misclassification rates, respectively. The PCA was used to find similar test variables within the combine that provided redundant or useless data. After eliminating the unnecessary variables, DA on the new combinations showed that 8 (Case 1) and 20 (Case 2) other combinations with fewer performance variables yielded misclassification rates as low as 6.67% and 13.33% respectively. Utilizing fewer performance variables can allow governing bodies in many other sports to create more appropriate combine testing that maximize accuracy, while minimizing irrelevant and redundant strategies.

  11. Incorporating pushing in exclusion-process models of cell migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Christian A; Parker, Andrew; Baker, Ruth E

    2015-05-01

    The macroscale movement behavior of a wide range of isolated migrating cells has been well characterized experimentally. Recently, attention has turned to understanding the behavior of cells in crowded environments. In such scenarios it is possible for cells to interact, inducing neighboring cells to move in order to make room for their own movements or progeny. Although the behavior of interacting cells has been modeled extensively through volume-exclusion processes, few models, thus far, have explicitly accounted for the ability of cells to actively displace each other in order to create space for themselves. In this work we consider both on- and off-lattice volume-exclusion position-jump processes in which cells are explicitly allowed to induce movements in their near neighbors in order to create space for themselves to move or proliferate into. We refer to this behavior as pushing. From these simple individual-level representations we derive continuum partial differential equations for the average occupancy of the domain. We find that, for limited amounts of pushing, comparison between the averaged individual-level simulations and the population-level model is nearly as good as in the scenario without pushing. Interestingly, we find that, in the on-lattice case, the diffusion coefficient of the population-level model is increased by pushing, whereas, for the particular off-lattice model that we investigate, the diffusion coefficient is reduced. We conclude, therefore, that it is important to consider carefully the appropriate individual-level model to use when representing complex cell-cell interactions such as pushing.

  12. 科技进步拓展意思自治之适用空间-论代孕中亲子关系的认定的规制模式选择%The Improvement of Science and Technology Expands the Applicability of Private Autonomy:On the Mode Selection of the Regulation that Identiifes Parent-child Relationship in Surrogacy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关剑夫

    2016-01-01

    人工辅助生殖技术的进步使得人类获得了前所未有的操纵生殖过程的自由。这一自由正在我国被大量利用,以帮助众多家庭克服不孕不育的困境。然而私法规制的缺位导致当事人,尤其是代孕生育子女的权利难以得到保障。在规制代孕中的亲子关系时,“事实行为”模式呆板僵化,无法满足现实需求;“法律行为”模式,立足于科技进步带来的伦理物可支配性,采取尊重当事人的自由意志的态度,将科技催生的新生事物纳入社会家庭伦常的轨道,既具有可行性,又具有必要性。%The improvement of artiifcial reproductive technology allows human beings to get unprecedented freedom to manipulate the reproductive process. This freedom is frequently utilized to help many families overcome infertility. However, the absence of private regulation leads to the dififculties in guaranteeing the rights of parties of surrogacy contracts, especially the rights of the babies. The regulation mode of “the factual act” and “the legal act” are optional. While the mode of “the factual act” is too ossiifcation to meet the needs of the lfexible reality, the mode of “the legal act” is rather optimal, as it is based on the fact that the new technologies allows the ethical things to be deposited, and it take the attitude of respect the will of the parties of surrogacy contracts, which would lead the surrogacy into the track of the traditional moral system of our society.

  13. Plasma Modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubin, D. H. E.

    This chapter explores several aspects of the linear electrostatic normal modes of oscillation for a single-species non-neutral plasma in a Penning trap. Linearized fluid equations of motion are developed, assuming the plasma is cold but collisionless, which allow derivation of the cold plasma dielectric tensor and the electrostatic wave equation. Upper hybrid and magnetized plasma waves in an infinite uniform plasma are described. The effect of the plasma surface in a bounded plasma system is considered, and the properties of surface plasma waves are characterized. The normal modes of a cylindrical plasma column are discussed, and finally, modes of spheroidal plasmas, and finite temperature effects on the modes, are briefly described.

  14. Small public private partnerships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Christian; Jensen, Jesper Ole

    2009-01-01

    Public Private Partnerships (PPP) are frequently mobilized as a purchasing form suitable for large infrastructure projects. And it is commonly assumed that transaction costs linked to the establishment of PPP make them prohibitive in small sizes. In a Danish context this has been safeguarded by t...

  15. Secure quantum private comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yuguang; Cao Weifeng; Wen Qiaoyan

    2009-01-01

    We propose a two-party quantum private comparison protocol using single photons, in which two distrustful parties can compare whether their secrets are equal with the help of a third party (TP). Any information about the values of their respective secrets will not be leaked out even with a compromised TP. Security is also discussed.

  16. Secure quantum private comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Yuguang [College of Computer Science and Technology, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124 (China); Cao Weifeng [College of Electric and Information Engineering, Zhengzhou University of Light Industry, Zhengzhou 450002 (China); Wen Qiaoyan [State Key Laboratory of Networking and Switching Technology, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876 (China)], E-mail: yangyang7357@bjut.edu.cn

    2009-12-15

    We propose a two-party quantum private comparison protocol using single photons, in which two distrustful parties can compare whether their secrets are equal with the help of a third party (TP). Any information about the values of their respective secrets will not be leaked out even with a compromised TP. Security is also discussed.

  17. Future Of Privatized Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-26

    including Bosnia, Ukraine, Chile , and others made up the largest portion of private contractors in Iraq.43 Mercenary...56 movements, schools are now advocating “diversity rather than unity” and make “little effort to inculcate immigrants in American culture...identities are becoming increasingly important as a result of failures to assimilate new immigrants . Huntington highlights that immigrants from Mexico

  18. Cart pushing: the effect of magnitude and direction of push force, and of trunk inclination on low back loading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoozemans, M.J.M.; Faber, G.S.; Slaghuis, W.; van Dieen, J.H.

    2007-01-01

    The primary objective of the present study was to quantify the relative effect of the magnitude and direction of the exerted push force and of trunk inclination on the mechanical load at the low back using a regression analysis for correlated data. In addition, we explored the effects of handle

  19. Transformation and Modes of Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høst, Jeppe Engset

    2015-01-01

    modes of production and examine the ways of life that are enabled by the two modes of production. The central questions are around how market-based fisheries management transforms the principal preconditions for the self-employed fishers; and, in turn, why capitalist organized large-scale fisheries......The introduction of private and individual transferable quotas is widely considered to have a negative impact on small- and medium-sized fishing operations. In this chapter, I set out to explore this in a theoretical manner. I discuss the differences in the fishing operations as two contrasting...

  20. Push-pull alkenes: structure and p-electron distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ERICH KLEINPETER

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Push-pull alkenes are substituted alkenes with one or two electron-donating substituents on one end of C=C double bond and with one or two electron-accepting substituents at the other end. Allowance for p-electron delocalization leads to the central C=C double bond becoming ever more polarized and with rising push-pull character, the p-bond order of this double bond is reduced and, conversely, the corresponding p-bond orders of the C–Don and C–Acc bonds are accordingly increased. This push-pull effect is of decisive influence on both the dynamic behavior and the chemical reactivity of this class of compounds and thus it is of considerable interest to both determine and to quantify the inherent push-pull effect. Previously, the barriers to rotation about the C=C, C–Don and/or C–Acc partial double bonds (DG±, as determined by dynamic NMR spectroscopy or the 13C chemical shift difference of the polarized C=C partial double bond (DdC=C were employed for this purpose. However, these parameters can have serious limitations, viz. the barriers can be immeasurable on the NMR timescale (either by being too high or too low; heavily-biased conformers are present, etc. or DdC=C behaves in a non-additive manner with respect to the combination of the four substituents. Hence, a general parameter to quantify the push-pull effect is not yet available. Ab initio MO calculations on a collection of compounds, together with NBO analysis, provided valuable information on the structure, bond energies, electron occupancies and bonding/antibonding interactions. In addition to DG±C=C (either experimentally determined or theoretically calculated and DdC=C, the bond length of the C=C partial double bond was also examined and it proved to be a reliable parameter to quantify the push-pull effect. Equally so, the quotient of the occupation numbers of the antibonding andbonding p orbitals of the central C=C partial double bond ( p*C=C/ pC=C could also be employed for

  1. Privately Provided Accommodation Service Quality and Customer Satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Mugambwa

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Privately provided accommodation is a growing service in Uganda’s higher education sector due to education liberalization and demand for education. This research took a case study of Nsamizi Training Institute of Social Development (NTISD to determine the relationship between privately provided accommodation service quality and customer satisfaction. Specifically, the objectives of the study were (a to find out the relationship between security and NTISD students’ satisfaction with privately provided accommodation, and (b to find out the hierarchical level of importance of NTISD student satisfaction of the three service quality dimensions (reliability, security, and tangibles with privately provided accommodation. Using quantitative and qualitative modes of data analysis and a sample of 300 students from 20 private hostels, this study established a strong positive significant relationship between security and satisfaction regarding privately provided accommodation. This implies that accommodation service providers should increase the quality of security so as to increase the satisfaction of students regarding privately provided accommodation. The study established the hierarchical order of importance from the most important service quality dimension, respectively, as follows: reliability, security, and tangibles. Therefore, private accommodation service managers should pay extra attention to the dimensions in the same order.

  2. Valuing Private Equity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Morten; Wang, Neng; Yang, Jinqiang

    2014-01-01

    We investigate whether the performance of private equity (PE) investments is sufficient to compensate investors (LPs) for risk, long-term illiquidity, management, and incentive fees charged by the general partner (GP).We analyze the LPs’ portfolio-choice problem and find that management fees, car....... On average, LPs may just break even, net of management fees, carry, risk, and costs of illiquidity.......We investigate whether the performance of private equity (PE) investments is sufficient to compensate investors (LPs) for risk, long-term illiquidity, management, and incentive fees charged by the general partner (GP).We analyze the LPs’ portfolio-choice problem and find that management fees......, carried interest, and illiquidity are costly, and GPs must generate substantial alpha to compensate LPs for bearing these costs. Debt is cheap and reduces these costs, potentially explaining the high leverage of buyout transactions. Conventional interpretations of PE performance measures appear optimistic...

  3. Tacoma mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courant, E.D.; Ruth, R.D.; Wang, J.M.

    1979-01-01

    The name Tacoma refers to the Tacoma Narrows Bridge which collapsed on November 8, 1940 due to massive oscillations caused by high winds. One of the destructive modes was a torsion mode which was excited by transverse wind, a dipole force, and continued until the bridge collapsed. The name is used to refer to a coherent mode of oscillation of a spectrum of oscillators in which the amplitude vs frequency graph contains one node, where the node occurs near the driving frequency and a ω is not symmetric about zero. When this result is applied to vertical instabilities in coasting beams, it implies the existence of a coherent skew quadrupole moment, Q/sub xy/, whenever a coherent dipole oscillation exists

  4. Tacoma mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courant, E.D.; Ruth, R.D.; Wang, J.M.

    1979-01-01

    The name Tacoma refers to the Tacoma Narrows Bridge which collapsed on November 8, 1940 due to massive oscillations caused by high winds. One of the destructive modes was a torsion mode which was excited by transverse wind, a dipole force, and continued until the bridge collapsed. The name is used to refer to a coherent mode of oscillation of a spectrum of oscillators in which the amplitude vs frequency graph contains one node, where the node occurs near the driving frequency and a(ω) is not symmetric about zero. When this result is applied to vertical instabilities in coasting beams, it implies the existence of a coherent skew quadrupole moment, whenever a coherent dipole oscillation exists

  5. Privatization in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Kjellstrom, Sven B.

    1990-01-01

    State capitalism has been a basic tenet of the developing strategy for Turkey for half a century, with import-substituting industrialization through state economic enterprises (SEEs) as a guiding principle. By 1980 a serious economic and political crisis called for a reassessment of economic policies. Policy reorientation was radical : from import substitution to export promotion, from interventionism to market forces, and from promotion of SEEs to promotion of the private sector. The state's...

  6. Privatized multipurpose reactor initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, G.A.

    1995-01-01

    ABB Combustion Engineering (ABB CE) and seven other companies have submitted a plan to the DOE for deploying a multipurpose reactor at the Savannah River Plant. The facility would consume excess plutonium as fuel, irradiate tritium producing targets, and generate electricity. The plan proposes to establish a consortium that would privately finance and own two System 80+ nuclear units and a mixed oxide fuel fabrication facility

  7. Privatized Military Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    environment such as that in Abu Grahib prison , where military personnel tasked with similar duties to that of contractors have been held legally accountable... Grahib Prison . The Washington Post. Office of Management and Budget Circular A-76. (August 4, 1988. Revised 1999). Performance of Commercial...downsizes the military after the Global War on Terror as it did after the Cold War. Private contractors depend largely upon former service members to

  8. Agriculture and private sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahin, Sila; Prowse, Martin Philip; Weigh, Nadia

    and this looks set to remain for the next two decades at least. The agriculture and growth evidence paper series has been developed to cover a range of issues that are of most relevance to DFID staff. The paper is not intended to be a comprehensive overview of all issues relating to agriculture and the private...... sector. It concentrates on those areas that are of particular focus for DFID policy and strategy....

  9. Privatize Candu (question mark)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, Thomas.

    1981-01-01

    A report sponsored by a group of nuclear suppliers and the Royal Bank suggested that the Candu reactor system would sell better if it were owned by a private company. Licensing of a Candu reactor in the U.S.A. was also suggested. The author of this article agrees with these points, but disagrees with the suggestion that safeguards should be relaxed. He suggests that contracts should stipulate that instrumentation should be supplied as much as possible from Canadian sources

  10. Public-Private Partnerships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehmann, Martin; Jeppesen, S.

    2006-01-01

    Public-private partnerships in the environmental field have emerged as one option in the pursuit of sustainable development. So-called ‘Green Networks’, ‘Cleaner Production Centres’, ‘Waste Minimisation Clubs’ are among others highlighted as alternatives to governmental regulation. While being...... these initiatives in an institutional framework and suggest how the experiences can be understood in their own rights....

  11. Virtual private network (VPN)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caskey, Susan

    2006-01-01

    A virtual private network (VPN) is the essential security feature that allows remote monitoring systems to take advantage of the low communications cost of the internet. This paper introduces the VPN concept and summarizes the networking and security principles. The mechanics of security, for example, types of encryption and protocols for exchange of keys between partners, are explained. Important issues for partners in different countries include the interoperability and mutual accreditations of systems. (author)

  12. Financial Private Regulation and Enforcement

    OpenAIRE

    MILLER, Geoffrey

    2011-01-01

    This paper has been delivered within the context of the research project "Transnational Private Regulatory Regimes: Constitutional foundations and governance design". This paper considers the topic of private regulation and enforcement for internationally active financial services firms. The paper documents the following types of regulation and enforcement that involve significant private input: house rules, contracts, internal compliance, management-based regulation, private standard-sett...

  13. Modelling the behaviour of the push-pull gel dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosi, S.G.; Davies, J.B.; Gorjiara, T.; Baldock, C.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Recent development of a gel dosimeter based on the radiobleaching pigment, genipin, allows development of a new 3D optically scanned gel dosimeter-the p ush-pull g el. This gel would contain two spectrally complementary pigments, one which darkens with dose and another (e.g. genipin) which bleaches. The two pigments deal separately with the high and low dose ends of the dosimeter's dynamic range. The bleaching pigment would be optimised for high sensitivity and the darkening pigment for low. Employing dual pigments, optimised independently, relaxes the need for compromise between sensitivity at low dose and accuracy at high dose. Such a gel, after exposure, would be read using two successive optical CT scans, at two different wavelengths. The reduction in sensitivity of the darkening pigment (allowed by the use of push-pull) would reduce the occurrence of regions of high optical attenuation which can generate optical CT artefacts. Simulated optical CT reconstructions of the optical density map (Fig. La) scanned at the darkening pigment wavelength of a hypothetical push-pull gel, confirms the reduction in susceptibility to artefacts. Fig. I b shows a profile through the map with no stray light added. The centre of the profile in Fig. I d shows a cupping artefact produced by 10 ppm of stray light. The similarity of Fig. Ic and b show that a 30% sensitivity reduction allowed by push-pull, renders the artefact negligible. This paper presents the results of' these simulations of a push-pull gel scanned using optical CT and also some results of experiments with genipin gel. (author)

  14. Gender Inequality and Emigration: Push factor or Selection process?

    OpenAIRE

    Baudassé, Thierry; Bazillier, Rémi

    2012-01-01

    Our objective in this research is to provide empirical evidence relating to the linkages between gender equality and international emigration. Two theoretical hypotheses can be made for the purpose of analyzing such linkages. The fi rst is that gender inequality in origin countries could be a push factor for women. The second one is that gender inequality may create a \\gender bias" in the selection of migrants within a household or a community. An improvement of gender equality would then inc...

  15. Dielectric films for solar and laser-pushed lightsails

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.

    2000-01-01

    This project analyzed the potential use of dielectric thin films for solar and laser sails. Such light-pushed sails allow the possibility of fuel-free propulsion in space. This makes possible missions of extremely high delta-V, potentially as high as 30,000 km/sec (0.1c), which is required for a fly-by mission to a nearby star

  16. From Social to Private Ownership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregoric, Aleksandra; Masten, Arjana Brezigar; Zajc, Katarina

    2011-01-01

    of the multiple blockholder structures that these firms were assigned at privatization. We observe significant path dependence: patterns of ownership and control are in part determined by the persistence of the initial privatization owners (state funds, privatization investment funds, employees, and managers...

  17. An Extra Push from Entrance-Channel Effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grar, Nabila; Rowley, Neil

    2006-01-01

    The fusion probability for heavy symmetric systems is known to show certain very specific features. Apart from the large variance of the fusion barrier distribution, it is found that the energy at which the s-wave transmission is 0.5 is shifted to an energy significantly higher than the nominal (e.g. Bass) Coulomb barrier. This last feature is referred to in the literature as the 'extra push' effect. Many models have been devised to explain the origin of these findings. It is worth noting, however, that despite the extra push, the capture cross section is still greatly enhanced at the very lowest energies. This fact cannot be explained within the framework of macroscopic theories involving conditional saddle points or frictional forces. We have performed full coupled-channel calculations for heavy, symmetric systems treating correctly the long-range Coulomb excitations of the collective quadrupole- and octupole-phonon states in the target and projectile. The results obtained show that the extra push and the overall shape of the fusion probability are simply explained by these entrance-channel effects

  18. Push Off 2000 : new oilfield safety device catching on

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mowers, J.

    2006-12-15

    Fuel gas scrubbers use production gas to operate oil batteries, well separators, dehydrators, compressors, and pneumatic and pressure controls. Once an internal float gets stuck, production is stopped. The Push Off 2000 is a new safety device for fuel gas scrubbers which allows operators to easily dislodge a stuck internal float by activating the tool, which is mounted on top of the vessel. The device was developed after an operator suffered burns from a flash explosion that occurred after using a hammer to strike the fuel gas scrubber. The hammer method is the usual method of dealing with stuck internal floats, and can also jeopardize the integrity of the vessel, releasing gas or liquid hydrocarbons into the environment. The Push Off 2000 is expected to reduce costly facility downtime and increase revenue generating production time. Over 50 oil and gas companies have the Push Off 2000 device installed on fuel gas scrubber units at their facilities, and have recognized the safety and economic merits of the tool. The patented device has been approved by the Alberta Boilers Safety Association, the British Columbia Boiler and Elevator Safety Branch, and the Saskatchewan Boiler and Pressure Vessel Safety Unit. 1 fig.

  19. Modeling and Simulation of Two Wheelchair Accessories for Pushing Doors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Soran Jalal; Shaikh Mohammed, Javeed

    2017-03-27

    Independent mobility is vital to individuals of all ages, and wheelchairs have proven to be great personal mobility devices. The tasks of opening and navigating through a door are trivial for healthy people, while the same tasks could be difficult for some wheelchair users. A wide range of intelligent wheelchair controllers and systems, robotic arms, or manipulator attachments integrated with wheelchairs have been developed for various applications, including manipulating door knobs. Unfortunately, the intelligent wheelchairs and robotic attachments are not widely available as commercial products. Therefore, the current manuscript presents the modeling and simulation of a novel but simple technology in the form of a passive wheelchair accessory (straight, arm-like with a single wheel, and arc-shaped with multiple wheels) for pushing doors open from a wheelchair. From the simulations using different wheel shapes and sizes, it was found that the arc-shaped accessory could push open the doors faster and with almost half the required force as compared to the arm-like accessory. Also, smaller spherical wheels were found to be best in terms of reaction forces on the wheels. Prototypes based on the arc-shaped accessory design will be manufactured and evaluated for pushing doors open and dodging or gliding other obstacles.

  20. 49 CFR 220.49 - Radio communication used in shoving, backing or pushing movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... pushing movements. 220.49 Section 220.49 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... Wireless Communication Procedures § 220.49 Radio communication used in shoving, backing or pushing movements. When radio communication is used in connection with the shoving, backing or pushing of a train...

  1. Manual handling: differences in perceived effort, success rate and kinematics between three different pushing techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varcin, Lynn; Claus, Andrew; van den Hoorn, Wolbert; Hodges, Paul

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the perceived effort, success rates and kinematics for three push strategies in a simulated lateral patient transfer (horizontal slide). Thirteen healthy subjects (four males) completed three repetition pushing loads of 6, 10 and 14 kg in random order; with a spontaneous push strategy, then with a straight-back bent-knees (squat) strategy and the preparatory pelvic movement ('rockback') strategy in random order. Perceived effort and kinematic parameters measured at the onset of movement and at maximum push excursion were compared between strategies and between loads with repeated measures ANOVA. The spontaneous and 'rockback' strategies achieved the pushing task with less perceived effort across all loads than the squat push (P pushing the 14 kg load using a squat strategy, which contrasted with 12/13 participants when the spontaneous strategy or the 'rockback' strategy was used. Forward movement of the pelvis and forward trunk inclination may be positively associated with lower perceived effort in the push task. Practitioner Summary: In a manual-handling task that simulated a lateral patient transfer (horizontal slide), perceived effort and success rates of three push strategies were compared. A straight-back bent-knees push (squat) strategy demonstrated greater perceived effort and lower success rates than a spontaneous push strategy, or a push strategy with preparatory 'rockback' pelvic movement.

  2. Effects of pushing techniques during the second stage of labor: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyucu, Refika Genç; Demirci, Nurdan

    2017-10-01

    Spontaneous pushing is a method that is used in the management of the second stage of labor and suggested to be more physiological for the mother and infant. The present study aims to evaluate the effects of pushing techniques on the mother and newborn. This randomized prospective study was performed between June 2013-March 2014 in a tertiary maternity clinic in Istanbul. 80 low risk, nulliparous cases were randomized to pushing groups. Valsalva pushing group was told to hold their breath while pushing. No visual-verbal instructions were given to spontaneous pushing group and they were encouraged to push without preventing respiration. Demographic data, second stage period, perineal laceration rates, fetal heart rate patterns, presence of meconium stained amniotic liquid, newborn APGAR scores, POP-Q examination and Q-tip test results were evaluated in these cases. The second stage of labor was significantly longer with spontaneous pushing. Decrease in Hb levels in valsalva pushing group was determined to be higher than spontaneous pushing group. An increased urethral mobility was observed in valsalva pushing group. Although the duration of the second stage of labor was longer compared to valsalva pushing technique, women were able to give birth without requiring any verbal or visual instruction, without exceeding the limit value of two hours and without affecting fetal wellness and neonatal results. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Contribution of limb momentum to power transfer in athletic wheelchair pushing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masson, G; Bégin, M-A; Lopez Poncelas, M; Pelletier, S-K; Lessard, J-L; Laroche, J; Berrigan, F; Langelier, E; Smeesters, C; Rancourt, D

    2016-09-06

    Pushing capacity is a key parameter in athletic racing wheelchair performance. This study estimated the potential contribution of upper limb momentum to pushing. The question is relevant since it may affect the training strategy adopted by an athlete. A muscle-free Lagrangian dynamic model of the upper limb segments was developed and theoretical predictions of power transfer to the wheelchair were computed during the push phase. Results show that limb momentum capacity for pushing can be in the order of 40J per push cycle at 10m/s, but it varies with the specific pushing range chosen by the athlete. Although use of momentum could certainly help an athlete improve performance, quantifying the actual contribution of limb momentum to pushing is not trivial. A preliminary experimental investigation on an ergometer, along with a simplified model of the upper limb, suggests that momentum is not the sole contributor to power transfer to a wheelchair. Muscles substantially contribute to pushing, even at high speeds. Moreover, an optimal pushing range is challenging to find since it most likely differs if an athlete chooses a limb momentum pushing strategy versus a muscular exertion pushing strategy, or both at the same time. The study emphasizes the importance of controlling pushing range, although one should optimize it while also taking the dynamics of the recovery period into account. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Private political archives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemar Chorążyczewski

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available "Private political archives" are understood by me as all acts collected intently by a private person. These acts are connected with the person's participation in political life and gathered in order to be used in public activity as the source of argumentation and information about factors and mechanisms of political processes. Private political archives of the first half of the XVI century were mainly created by royal servants, often with reference to their job duties. These duties could inspire to collect political acts for private purposes. During the reign of Sigismund Augustus, archives of gentry activists were developed to small extent and they mainly focused on parliamentary life. Private political archives were created outside the executionist movement, namely in the community gathered around the royal court. After 1572, Crown and Lithuanian magnates greatly influenced the creation of political archives. Archives of lesser gentry, scarce and poor, did not disappear completely. However, they became difficult for identification. Therefore, developmental process concerned exclusively documentary "treasure troves" created by magnates. They had the financial means and possibilities to create truly valuable political archives. The same as in the previous period the dynamisms of executionist movement was reflected in political archival documentation, now the creation of patronage system and clientele, or traditionally understood magnate oligarchy, (depending on the point of view corresponded best to archives development. The heritage of previous generations was the treasure trove of patterns and solutions. However, this trove was used selectively, on one hand giving up patterns and rights that were uncomfortable, and, on the other, giving the value of precedence to unexpected acts that gained more importance or even new content in changed political conditions. The application of interpretation principle raised interest in old acts and patterns

  5. Failure Modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, K. P.; Burcharth, H. F.; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    1999-01-01

    The present appendix contains the derivation of ten different limit state equations divided on three different failure modes. Five of the limit state equations can be used independently of the characteristics of the subsoil, whereas the remaining five can be used for either drained or undrained s...

  6. Effect of External Loading on Force and Power Production During Plyometric Push-ups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinshaw, Taylour J; Stephenson, Mitchell L; Sha, Zhanxin; Dai, Boyi

    2018-04-01

    Hinshaw, TJ, Stephenson, ML, Sha, Z, and Dai, B. Effect of external loading on force and power production during plyometric push-ups. J Strength Cond Res 32(4): 1099-1108, 2018-One common exercise to train upper-body strength and power is the push-up. Training at the loads that would produce the greatest power is an effective way to increase peak power. The purpose of the current study was to quantify the changes in peak force, peak power, and peak velocity among a modified plyometric push-up and plyometric push-ups with or without external loading in physically active young adults. Eighteen male and 17 female participants completed 4 push-ups: (a) modified plyometric push-up on the knees, (b) plyometric push-up without external loading, (c) plyometric push-up with an external load of 5% of body weight, and (d) plyometric push-up with an external load of 10% of body weight. Two force platforms were set up to collect vertical ground reaction forces at the hands and feet. The modified plyometric push-up demonstrated the lowest force, power, and velocity (5.4≥ Cohen's dz ≥1.2). Peak force and force at peak velocity increased (3.8≥ Cohen's dz ≥0.3) and peak velocity and velocity at peak power decreased (1.4≥ Cohen's dz ≥0.8) for the push-up without external loading compared with the 2 push-ups with external loading. No significant differences were observed for peak power among the push-ups with or without external loading (0.4≥ Cohen's dz ≥0.1). Although peak power is similar with or without external loading, push-ups without external loading may be more beneficial for a quick movement, and push-ups with external loading may be more beneficial for a greater force production.

  7. Public-private partnerships in China's urban water sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhong, L.; Mol, A.P.J.; Fu, T.

    2008-01-01

    During the past decades, the traditional state monopoly in urban water management has been debated heavily, resulting in different forms and degrees of private sector involvement across the globe. Since the 1990s, China has also started experiments with new modes of urban water service management

  8. Privatization an a national business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Tokarski

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Privatization is a very complicated process that builds a market economy. It entails numerous problems, the overcoming of which depends on the pace and scale of privatization in a particular country. The privatization process of the Polish economy is assessed differently, and still raises a lot of controversy and debate, not only for the economy, but also politics. This is particularly the privatization of state assets. Privatization was one of the foundations for political transformation in Poland and other Central- and Eastern European countries. Some say that was a great success, while for others it was a field for plunder and affairs. Who is right? Is privatization a success or a failure? This paper aims to present the arguments posed by both supporters and opponents of the privatization in Poland.

  9. Mobile Virtual Private Networking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulkkis, Göran; Grahn, Kaj; Mårtens, Mathias; Mattsson, Jonny

    Mobile Virtual Private Networking (VPN) solutions based on the Internet Security Protocol (IPSec), Transport Layer Security/Secure Socket Layer (SSL/TLS), Secure Shell (SSH), 3G/GPRS cellular networks, Mobile IP, and the presently experimental Host Identity Protocol (HIP) are described, compared and evaluated. Mobile VPN solutions based on HIP are recommended for future networking because of superior processing efficiency and network capacity demand features. Mobile VPN implementation issues associated with the IP protocol versions IPv4 and IPv6 are also evaluated. Mobile VPN implementation experiences are presented and discussed.

  10. Private Sector Involvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Annette Skovsted

    New and independent donors are adding their own twist to the experiences of receiving ODA and their examples are already inspiring the DAC, UN, and other multiple- and bilateral aid relationships. Rather than competition among development paradigms, I see negotiations of ideas of development and ...... and a co-existence of a multiplicity of approaches. I will argue that a trend of new and old actors inspiring each other will continue and the explicit focus on private sector development is just a first outcome....

  11. Private information retrieval

    CERN Document Server

    Yi, Xun; Bertino, Elisa

    2013-01-01

    This book deals with Private Information Retrieval (PIR), a technique allowing a user to retrieve an element from a server in possession of a database without revealing to the server which element is retrieved. PIR has been widely applied to protect the privacy of the user in querying a service provider on the Internet. For example, by PIR, one can query a location-based service provider about the nearest car park without revealing his location to the server.The first PIR approach was introduced by Chor, Goldreich, Kushilevitz and Sudan in 1995 in a multi-server setting, where the user retriev

  12. Effect of spontaneous pushing versus Valsalva pushing in the second stage of labour on mother and fetus: a systematic review of randomised trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prins, M; Boxem, J; Lucas, C; Hutton, E

    2011-05-01

    To critically evaluate any benefit or harm for the mother and her baby of Valsalva pushing versus spontaneous pushing in the second stage of labour. Electronic databases from MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were systematically searched (last search May 2010). The reference lists of retrieved studies were searched by hand and an internet hand search of master theses and dissertations was performed. No date or language restriction was used. Randomised controlled trials that compared instructed pushing with spontaneous pushing in the second stage of labour were considered. Studies were evaluated independently for methodological quality and appropriateness for inclusion by two authors (MP and JB). The primary outcome was instrumental/operative delivery. Other outcomes were length of labour, any perineal repair, bladder function, maternal satisfaction. Infant outcomes included low Apgar score pushing technique (three studies; 425 women; mean difference 18.59 minutes; 95% CI 0.46-36.73 minutes). Neonatal outcomes did not differ significantly. Urodynamic factors measured 3 months postpartum were negatively affected by Valsalva pushing. Measures of first urge to void and bladder capacity were decreased (one study; 128 women; mean difference respectively 41.50 ml, 95% CI 8.40-74.60, and 54.60 ml, 95% CI 13.31-95.89). The evidence from our review does not support the routine use of Valsalva pushing in the second stage of labour. The Valsalva pushing method has a negative effect on urodynamic factors according to one study. The duration of the second stage of labour is shorter with Valsalva pushing but the clinical significance of this finding is uncertain. The primary studies are sparse, diverse and some flawed. Further research seems warranted. In the mean time supporting spontaneous pushing and encouraging women to choose their own method of pushing should be accepted as best clinical practice. © 2011 The Authors BJOG An

  13. Psychophysical basis for maximum pushing and pulling forces: A review and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Arun; Waters, Thomas; Kapellusch, Jay; Karwowski, Waldemar

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this paper was to perform a comprehensive review of psychophysically determined maximum acceptable pushing and pulling forces. Factors affecting pushing and pulling forces are identified and discussed. Recent studies show a significant decrease (compared to previous studies) in maximum acceptable forces for males but not for females when pushing and pulling on a treadmill. A comparison of pushing and pulling forces measured using a high inertia cart with those measured on a treadmill shows that the pushing and pulling forces using high inertia cart are higher for males but are about the same for females. It is concluded that the recommendations of Snook and Ciriello (1991) for pushing and pulling forces are still valid and provide reasonable recommendations for ergonomics practitioners. Regression equations as a function of handle height, frequency of exertion and pushing/pulling distance are provided to estimate maximum initial and sustained forces for pushing and pulling acceptable to 75% male and female workers. At present it is not clear whether pushing or pulling should be favored. Similarly, it is not clear what handle heights would be optimal for pushing and pulling. Epidemiological studies are needed to determine relationships between psychophysically determined maximum acceptable pushing and pulling forces and risk of musculoskeletal injuries, in particular to low back and shoulders.

  14. Effects of pushing techniques in birth on mother and fetus: a randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, Gulay; Beji, Nezihe Kizilkaya

    2008-03-01

    The Valsalva pushing technique is used routinely in the second stage of labor in many countries, and it is accepted as standard obstetric management in Turkey. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of pushing techniques on mother and fetus in birth in this setting. This randomized study was conducted between July 2003 and June 2004 in Bakirkoy Maternity and Children's Teaching Hospital in Istanbul, Turkey. One hundred low-risk primiparas between 38 and 42 weeks' gestation, who expected a spontaneous vaginal delivery, were randomized to either a spontaneous pushing group or a Valsalva-type pushing group. Spontaneous pushing women were informed during the first stage of labor about spontaneous pushing technique (open glottis pushing while breathing out) and were supported in pushing spontaneously in the second stage of labor. Similarly, Valsalva pushing women were informed during the first stage of labor about the Valsalva pushing technique (closed glottis pushing while holding their breath) and were supported in using Valsalva pushing in the second stage of labor. Perineal tears, postpartum hemorrhage, and hemoglobin levels were evaluated in mothers; and umbilical artery pH, Po(2) (mmHg), and Pco(2) (mmHg) levels and Apgar scores at 1 and 5 minutes were evaluated in newborns in both groups. No significant differences were found between the two groups in their demographics, incidence of nonreassuring fetal surveillance patterns, or use of oxytocin. The second stage of labor and duration of the expulsion phase were significantly longer with Valsalva-type pushing. Differences in the incidence of episiotomy, perineal tears, or postpartum hemorrhage were not significant between the groups. The baby fared better with spontaneous pushing, with higher 1- and 5-minute Apgar scores, and higher umbilical cord pH and Po(2) levels. After the birth, women expressed greater satisfaction with spontaneous pushing. Educating women about the spontaneous pushing

  15. Effect of Financial Constraint and Financial Incentive on Supply Efficient of Providing Public Goods in Public-Private-Partnership Mode: General Equilibrium Analysis Based on Incomplete Contracting Theory%融资激励和融资约束对PPP模式下公共产品提供效率的影响——基于不完全契约理论的一般均衡分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡东方; 孔淑红

    2017-01-01

    This paper compares the effects of financial constraint and financial incentive in public-private-partnership(PPP) mode on the supply efficient of public goods and social welfare,and analyzes the efficiency loss under financial constraints by constructing a general equilibrium model based on the incomplete contracting theory.The result shows as follows:depending on the professionalization,financial incentives from private sectors could improve the productivity of public goods,but financial constraints eliminate the benefit of professionalization,which results in the loss of social welfare.Finally,it suggests that the government should break the financial constraints and institutional discrimination,and improve financial market,and introduce specialized private sectors into the various industries of public goods in fair and competitive market environment.%通过构建不完全契约理论下的一般均衡模型,对比分析了PPP模式中的融资约束和融资激励对公共产品提供效率和社会福利的影响,并探讨了融资约束条件下的效率损失.结果显示:私人融资的专业性可以提高公共产品合意程度,但是私人部门的融资约束会抵消其专业性带来的好处,导致社会福利损失.最后针对民营企业参与PPP项目对政府提出建议:必须打破融资约束和制度歧视,完善和规范金融市场,在公平、竞争的市场环境下引入专业机构参与公共产品提供的各个领域.

  16. Effect of spontaneous pushing versus Valsalva pushing in the second stage of labour on mother and fetus: a systematic review of randomised trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, M. [=Marianne; Boxem, J.; Lucas, C.; Hutton, E.

    2011-01-01

    To critically evaluate any benefit or harm for the mother and her baby of Valsalva pushing versus spontaneous pushing in the second stage of labour. Electronic databases from MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were systematically searched (last search May

  17. Free-Electron Lasers Push Into New Frontiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benson, Stephen V.

    2003-01-01

    From the early days of the development of free-electron lasers (FELs) the promise of high power and short wavelengths has tantalized physicists and other scientists. Recent developments in accelerator technologies and some new discoveries about the physics of FELs have allowed researchers to push the performance of FELs into new frontiers of high power, short wavelength, and ultra-short pulses. Spin-offs from the FELs have also opened up new radiation sources in the THz, X-ray and gamma ray wavelength ranges

  18. N -annulated perylene-based push-pull-type sensitizers

    KAUST Repository

    Qi, Qingbiao; Wang, Xingzhu; Fan, Li; Zheng, Bin; Zeng, Wangdong; Luo, Jie; Huang, Kuo-Wei; Wang, Qing; Wu, Jishan

    2015-01-01

    Alkoxy-wrapped N-annulated perylene (NP) was synthesized and used as a rigid and coplanar π-linker for three push-pull type metal-free sensitizers QB1-QB3. Their optical and electrochemical properties were tuned by varying the structure of acceptor. These new dyes were applied in Co(II)/(III) based dye-sensitized solar cells, and power conversion efficiency up to 6.95% was achieved, indicating that NP could be used as a new building block for the design of high-performance sensitizers in the future.

  19. N -annulated perylene-based push-pull-type sensitizers

    KAUST Repository

    Qi, Qingbiao

    2015-02-06

    Alkoxy-wrapped N-annulated perylene (NP) was synthesized and used as a rigid and coplanar π-linker for three push-pull type metal-free sensitizers QB1-QB3. Their optical and electrochemical properties were tuned by varying the structure of acceptor. These new dyes were applied in Co(II)/(III) based dye-sensitized solar cells, and power conversion efficiency up to 6.95% was achieved, indicating that NP could be used as a new building block for the design of high-performance sensitizers in the future.

  20. Perceptions of Nongovernmental Organization (NGO Staff about Water Privatization in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellis A. Adams

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Almost a billion people globally lack access to potable water. In the early 1990’s, attempts to improve potable water access in the global south included a massive push for water services privatization, often involving the transfer of public water services to private companies. Critics of water privatization claim it rarely improves access to water, and in most cases, unfairly affect poor people. Proponents on the other hand argue that it is necessary for efficient management and capital investment in the water sector. Although development NGOs play an important role in developing country water provision, hardly any studies have sought to understand their perceptions about the potential role of water privatization towards improving access to potable water in developing countries. We interviewed the key staff among 28 international and national NGO staff about water privatization, its opportunities and constraints. Their perceptions were mixed. While most criticized water privatization as increasing water costs to the poor, some noted that privatization is necessary for improving water access through increased capital investment. We present the findings and discuss larger implications for water policies and reforms in developing countries.

  1. Spin modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaarde, C.

    1985-01-01

    An analysis of spectra of (p,n) reactions showed that they were very selective in exciting spin modes. Charge exchange reactions at intermediate energies give important new understanding of the M1-type of excitations and of the spin structure of continuum p spectra in general. In this paper, the author discusses three charge exchange reactions: (p,n); ( 3 H,t); and (d,2p) at several targets. Low-lying states and the Δ region are discussed separately. Finally, the charge exchange reaction with heavy ion beams is briefly discussed. (G.J.P./Auth.)

  2. Private Equity and Industry Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernstein, Shai; Lerner, Josh; Sørensen, Morten

    2017-01-01

    The growth of the private equity industry has spurred concerns about its impact on the economy. This analysis looks across nations and industries to assess the impact of private equity on industry performance. We find that industries where private equity funds invest grow more quickly in terms...... of total production and employment and appear less exposed to aggregate shocks. Our robustness tests provide some evidence that is consistent with our effects being driven by our preferred channel....

  3. Public-Private Partnerships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helby Petersen, Ole

    This PhD dissertation studies national similarities and differences in policy and regulation of public-private partnerships (PPPs), with an empirical focus on Denmark and Ireland. The starting point and motivation for the study is the observation that whereas PPPs are often depicted in the academic...... time, and how can their similarities and differences be explained?; (iii) how do differing national policy and regulation frameworks serve to facilitate or hinder the formation of PPPs, exemplified by four case studies from the schools sector?; (iv) what framework conditions does the EU set for PPP...... literature and in policy practice as a globally disseminated governance scheme, in reality, a closer examination of the PPP reform landscape reveals significant differences in national governments’ PPP policy and regulation and in the amount of actually implemented PPP projects. By comparing the initiatives...

  4. TWRS privatization bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-02-01

    The purpose of this bibliography is to present a select set of documents that may be of interest to the Offeror, covering a variety of subject areas related to the TWRS Privatization Project. The organization of this bibliography is by subject area. Some of the documents overlap subject areas, and may be presented in more than one. Additionally, assignment of a document to one subject area does not necessarily preclude that document from containing information relevant to other subject areas not identified. The subject areas include, in order of presentation:. Waste Characterization; Pre-treatment; High-level Waste Immobilization; Low-level Waste Immobilization; Low-level Waste Melter Test Program; Performance Assessment; and General Safety

  5. TWRS privatization bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-03-01

    The purpose of this bibliography is to present a select set of documents that may be of interest to the Offeror, covering a variety of subject areas related to the TWRS Privatization Project. This bibliography is not, nor is intended to be, exhaustive or complete. It was prepared with the intent of providing a sampling of representative documents potentially helpful to Offerors. The documents referenced herein have been identified as representative of those potentially helpful to Offerors. This list of documents does not represent the full extent of available and potentially helpful information, nor should it be taken as a representation of documents determined to be of greater importance than other documents not referenced herein. There are numerous documents available to the public that are NOT cited in this bibliography; the Offeror is encouraged to perform searches for alternate sources of information

  6. Heating plant privatization stagnates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janoska, J.; Benka, M.; Sobinkovic, B.; Haluza, I.

    2005-01-01

    The state has been talking about privatization of 6 municipal heating plants since 2001. The tenders were to start last year. But nothing has happened and the future is uncertain. The city councils would prefer to receive, if not 100%, then at least a majority stake in the heating plants free of charge. But the Cabinet has decided to sell 51% to investors. The privatization agency - the National Property Fund (FNM) is preparing a proposal to increase the stake offered for sale to 67%. According to information provided by the FNM the sale will begin after Cabinet approval. The Fund intends to apply the same model to the sale of all the heating plants. Last year, a major German company Verbundnetz Gas declared its interest in purchasing large municipal heating plants in Slovakia. But it has been waiting for a response ever since. The French company - Dalkia, which has 10-years' experience of doing business in Slovakia, is interested in all the heating plants to be offered for sale. The Austrian company - Stefe is not new to the business either, it is interested mainly in the regions where it has already established itself - Central and Eastern Slovakia. Strategic investors expect financial groups to show interest too. The Penta Group has not hid its ambitions - it has already privatised a company which represents the key to the future development of heat management in Bratislava - Paroplynovy cyklus. Whereas Penta is not new to the heat production business another financial group - Slavia Capital is still surveying the sector. Should it not succeed, it plans several projects that would allow it to take a stake in the sector

  7. Control of vertical posture while standing on a sliding board and pushing an object.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yun-Ju; Chen, Bing; Liang, Jing-Nong; Aruin, Alexander S

    2018-03-01

    Voluntary pushing or translation perturbation of the support surface each induces a body perturbation that affects postural control. The objective of the study was to investigate anticipatory (APA) and compensatory (CPA) postural adjustments when pushing an object (that induces self-initiated perturbation) and standing on a sliding board (that induces translational perturbation). Thirteen healthy young participants were instructed to push a handle with both hands while standing on a sliding board that was either free to move in the anterior-posterior direction or stationary. Electromyographic activity (EMG) of trunk and lower extremity muscles, center of pressure (COP) displacements, and the forces exerted by the hand were recorded and analyzed during the APA and CPA phases. When the sliding board was free to move during pushing (translation perturbation), onsets of activity of ventral leg muscles and COP displacement were delayed as compared to pushing when standing on a stationary board. Moreover, magnitudes of shank muscle activity and the COP displacement were decreased. When pushing heavier weight, magnitudes of muscle activity, COP displacement, and pushing force increased. The magnitude of activity of the shank muscles during the APA and CPA phases in conditions with translational perturbation varied with the magnitude of the pushing weight. The outcome of the study suggests that the central nervous system prioritizes the pushing task while attenuates the source of additional perturbation induced by translation perturbation. These results could be used in the development of balance re-training paradigms involving pushing weight while standing on a sliding surface.

  8. Medical and Non-Medical Factors Influencing Utilization of Delayed Pushing in the Second Stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    FREY, Heather A.; TUULI, Methodius G.; CORTEZ, Sarah; ODIBO, Anthony O.; ROEHL, Kimberly A.; SHANKS, Anthony L.; MACONES, George A.; CAHILL, Alison G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate factors impacting selection to delayed pushing in the second stage of labor. Study design This case-control study was a secondary analysis of a large retrospective cohort study. Cases included women who delayed pushing for 60 minutes or more in the second stage of labor. Controls began pushing prior to 60 minutes from the time of diagnosis of complete dilation. Demographic, labor, and nonmedical factors were compared among cases and controls. Logistic regression modelling was used to identify factors independently associated with delayed pushing. Results We identified 471 women who delayed pushing and 4,819 controls. Nulliparity, maternal body mass index > 25, high fetal station at complete dilation, regional anesthesia use, and start of second stage during staffing shift change were independent factors associated with increased use of delayed pushing. On the other hand, black race and second stage management during night shift were associated with lower odds of employing delayed pushing. Delayed pushing was more commonly employed in nulliparous women, but 38.9% of multiparous women also delayed pushing. Conclusion We identified multiple factors associated with use of delayed pushing. This study helps to define current patterns of second stage labor management. PMID:23208765

  9. Medical and nonmedical factors influencing utilization of delayed pushing in the second stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Heather A; Tuuli, Methodius G; Cortez, Sarah; Odibo, Anthony O; Roehl, Kimberly A; Shanks, Anthony L; Macones, George A; Cahill, Alison G

    2013-08-01

    To evaluate factors impacting selection to delayed pushing in the second stage of labor. This case-control study was a secondary analysis of a large retrospective cohort study. Cases included women who delayed pushing for 60 minutes or more in the second stage of labor. Controls began pushing prior to 60 minutes from the time of diagnosis of complete dilation. Demographic, labor, and nonmedical factors were compared among cases and controls. Logistic regression modeling was used to identify factors independently associated with delayed pushing. We identified 471 women who delayed pushing and 4819 controls. Nulliparity, maternal body mass index > 25, high fetal station at complete dilation, regional anesthesia use, and start of second stage during staffing shift change were independent factors associated with increased use of delayed pushing. On the other hand, black race and second-stage management during night shift were associated with lower odds of employing delayed pushing. Delayed pushing was more commonly employed in nulliparous women, but 38.9% of multiparous women also delayed pushing. We identified multiple factors associated with use of delayed pushing. This study helps to define current patterns of second-stage labor management. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  10. Microtearing modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garbet, X.; Mourgues, F.; Samain, A.; Zou, X.

    1990-01-01

    A serious degradation of confinement with additional heating is commonly observed on most tokamaks. The microtearing modes could provide an explanation for this experimental fact. They are driven linearly unstable by diamagnetism in collisional regimes, but it may be shown that the collisions in non linear regimes provide a small diffusion coefficient which can be only significant at the plasme edge. In the bulk of the plasma, the microtearing turbulence could play a basic role if it is unstable in the collisionless regime. While it is linearly stable without collisions, it could be driven unstable in realistic regimes by the radial diffusion it induces. To study this effect, we have used a model where the non linear action of the modes on a given helicity component is represented by a diffusion operator. They are found unstable for reasonable β p =2μ o nT/B 2 p , with a special radial profile of the potential vector A. The problem arises the validity of this model where non linearities in the trajectories behaviour are replaced by the diffusion which broadens resonances. To test this procedure, we calculate the actual electron distribution function when it is determined by the ergodicity of the field lines. We compute the correlations of the distribution function with the magnetic perturbation and compare them with the analytical expressions derived from the resonance broadening model. (author) 3 refs., 2 figs

  11. Simulation of push-pull inverter using wide bandgap devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-badri, Mustafa; Matin, Mohammed A.

    2016-09-01

    This paper discusses the use of wide bandgap devices (SiC-MOSFET) in the design of a push-pull inverter which provides inexpensive low power dc-ac inverters. The parameters used were 1200V SiC MOSFET(C2M0040120D) made by power company ROHM. This modeling was created using parameters that were provided from a device datasheet. The spice model is provided by this company to study the effect of adding this component on push-pull inverter ordinary circuit and compared results between SiC MOSFET and silicon MOSFET (IRFP260M). The results focused on Vout and Vmos stability as well as on output power and MOSFET power loss because it is a very crucial aspect on DC-AC inverter design. These results are done using the National Instrument simulation program (Multisim 14). It was found that power loss is better in the 12 and 15 vdc inverter. The Vout in the SIC MOSFET circuit shows more stability in the high current low resistance load in comparison to the Silicon MOSFET circuit and this will improve the overall performance of the circuit.

  12. Reduction of discomfort in pushing an industrial trolley using ergonomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, M. Wilson; Vijay, S. J.; Vasudev, K. L.; Darius Gnanaraj, S.

    2017-11-01

    Poor design of industrial trolleys lead to more compressive stress on the low back of industrial workers. The research work reported in this paper recommends a handle height of an industrial trolley for use by the local population, which reduces the compressive stress on the low back. Experiments were conducted in a laboratory on five subjects of varying stature 165, 173, 174, 175 and 182 cm, with five different handle heights 90, 95, 100, 105 and 110 cm. A four wheeled trolley has been used to conduct the experiments. Caster wheels diameters of 100, 125 and 150 mm made of polyurethane were used. It is found that a handle height of 110 cm allows the users to exert minimum force during the initial pushing. A biomechanical model was employed to calculate the compressive force experienced by L5/S1 disc and it is found that the compressive load will be the least when the handle height is 110 cm. Optimization of handle height using Genetic Algorithm approach, Heart rate analysis and EMG analysis confirm that a handle height of 110 cm and a wheel diameter of 150 mm will reduce the discomfort of industry workers pushing trolleys.

  13. Explanatory Definitions of the Technology Push Success Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jari Matti Sarja

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The main task for most development-intensive organizations is to create, develop and commercialize new products and services. Because development processes are risky and failure rates are high, especially in the case of technology pushed projects, unambiguous success factors are valuable knowledge for the management of development-intensive firms. New product development and innovation literature has presented many success factors for developed products, but, unfortunately, many of them are nebulous in nature. The aim of this paper is to clarify what elements comprise the exact factors. After an extensive review and screening of the technology push success factor related literature, a total of 13 success factors were rationalized and transcribed according the previous literature. As a result, three separate keynotes were recognized, and the survey instrument framework was proposed. The practical relevance of this study is to help firm management to recognize the real actions needed to reduce product development risks and also to help scholars to focus on key issues when studying the key factors of breakthrough development cases.

  14. Digital holograms for laser mode multiplexing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mhlanga, T

    2014-10-02

    Full Text Available multiplexing Thandeka Mhlangaa, b, Abderrahmen Trichilic, Angela Dudleya, Darryl Naidooa, b, Mourad Zghalc and Andrew Forbesa, b aCSIR National Laser Centre, P.O. Box 395, Pretoria 0001, South Africa bSchool of Physics, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Private Bag... problems. In this context, we demonstrate a method of multiplexing laser modes using spatial light modulators (SLMs). In our proposed technique, we use Laguerre Gaussian (LG) modes, which form a complete basis set; hence multi-mode masks can be created...

  15. Public-Private Partnerships in China’s Urban Water Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mol, Arthur P. J.; Fu, Tao

    2008-01-01

    During the past decades, the traditional state monopoly in urban water management has been debated heavily, resulting in different forms and degrees of private sector involvement across the globe. Since the 1990s, China has also started experiments with new modes of urban water service management and governance in which the private sector is involved. It is premature to conclude whether the various forms of private sector involvement will successfully overcome the major problems (capital shortage, inefficient operation, and service quality) in China’s water sector. But at the same time, private sector involvement in water provisioning and waste water treatments seems to have become mainstream in transitional China. PMID:18256780

  16. Implementation of Quantum Private Queries Using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Chuan; Hao Liang; Zhao Lian-Jie

    2011-01-01

    We present a modified protocol for the realization of a quantum private query process on a classical database. Using one-qubit query and CNOT operation, the query process can be realized in a two-mode database. In the query process, the data privacy is preserved as the sender would not reveal any information about the database besides her query information, and the database provider cannot retain any information about the query. We implement the quantum private query protocol in a nuclear magnetic resonance system. The density matrix of the memory registers are constructed. (general)

  17. Nr 150 - Private bill introducing a progressive energy tariff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brottes, Francois; Le Roux, Bruno

    2012-01-01

    This document presents a private bill which, by introducing a progressive energy tariff, aims at speeding up energy transition (by inciting households to reduce their consumption, notably by insulating their housing), and at addressing the ineluctable issue of energy price increase. This private bill notably applies a bonus-malus concept by defining an energy consumption threshold which is to be determined by means of several parameters related to climate, housing occupancy, heating mode. This raises several issues concerning for example housing insulation of rented housing. All these aspects lead to a rather complex process to define and implement such a progressive pricing approach

  18. Push Recovery for Humanoid Robot in Dynamic Environment and Classifying the Data Using K-Mean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anubha Parashar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Push recovery is prime ability that is essential to be incorporated in the process of developing a robust humanoid robot to support bipedalism. In real environment it is very essential for humanoid robot to maintain balance. In this paper we are generating a control system and push recovery controller for humanoid robot walking. We apply different kind of pushes to humanoid robot and the algorithm that can bring a change in the walking stage to sustain walking. The simulation is done in 3D environment using Webots. This paper describes techniques for feature selection to foreshow push recovery for hip, ankle and knee joint. We train the system by K-Mean algorithm and testing is done on crouch data and tested results are reported. Random push data of humanoid robot is collected and classified to see whether push lie in safer region and then tested on given proposed system.

  19. Advanced Introduction to Private Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, Jan

    2017-01-01

    In this Advanced Introduction, the reader is taken on an intellectual journey through the different facets and dimensions of private law, from the family home to Kuta Beach and from Thomas Piketty to Nina Hagen. This concise book provides an accessible and fresh introduction to private law,

  20. The structure of privatization plans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perotti, E.C.; Guney, S.E.

    1992-01-01

    In recent years a vast transfer of state-owned assets to the private sector has taken place in many countries, irrespective of their level of development or the political affiliation of their government. Privatization is believed to improve economic incentives; attract managerial and technological

  1. Is Nordic Private Equity Different?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spliid, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Most research on private equity is based on American theory, tested on American empirical data. Nevertheless, the private equity concept has gained a solid foothold in the Nordic region, especially in Sweden. This article analyzes whether American-biased assumptions prevail in the Nordic countries...

  2. Entrepreneurial Crowdfunding without Private Claims

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boudreau, Kevin J.; Jeppesen, Lars Bo; Reichstein, Toke

    Today's crowdfunding raises funds for tiny, private entrepreneurial ventures without granting funders private claims to a project's future value. Rather than “investments,” these are “contributions.” This paper argues that for such crowdfunding neither producer nor consumer surplus – i.e., project...

  3. Private Military and Security Contractors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    In Private Military and Security Contractors: Controlling the Corporate Warrior a multinational team of 16 scholars and a practitioner from political science, sociology, and law address a developing phenomenon: controlling the use of privatized force by states in international politics. Robust...

  4. Private Loans: Facts and Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Institute for College Access & Success, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Private loans are one of the riskiest ways to finance a college education. Like credit cards, they typically have variable interest rates. Both variable and fixed rates are higher for those who can least afford them--as high as 13% in June 2014. Private loans are not eligible for the important deferment, income-based repayment, or loan forgiveness…

  5. Public Sector Unions and Privatization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, Søren Kjær; Aaskoven, Lasse

    2016-01-01

    Privatization varies considerably among local governments. One of the oft-listed explanations is the ability of public employees to block privatization. However, many studies on the influence of public employees on privatization do not use very precise measures of the influence of public employees...... Danish municipalities in 2012, we are able to measure the strength of the public eldercare union as well as the number of the public eldercare workers relative to the number of local voters. We find that the increased union strength measured in terms of union density at the municipal level leads...... to substantially and significantly less privatization through the voucher market. By comparison, the estimated relationship between the relative number of public workers and privatization does not reach statistical significance. Features of the voucher market and qualitative evidence suggest that the union...

  6. Range of Motion of the Ankle According to Pushing Force, Gender and Knee Position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Kang Hee; Jeon, Yumi; Lee, Hyunkeun

    2016-04-01

    To investigate the difference of range of motion (ROM) of ankle according to pushing force, gender and knee position. One hundred and twenty-eight healthy adults (55 men, 73 women) between the ages of 20 and 51, were included in the study. One examiner measured the passive range of motion (PROM) of ankle by Dualer IQ Inclinometers and Commander Muscle Testing. ROM of ankle dorsiflexion (DF) and plantarflexion (PF) according to change of pushing force and knee position were measured at prone position. There was significant correlation between ROM and pushing force, the more pushing force leads the more ROM at ankle DF and ankle PF. Knee flexion of 90° position showed low PF angle and high ankle DF angle, as compared to the at neutral position of knee joint. ROM of ankle DF for female was greater than for male, with no significant difference. ROM of ankle PF for female was greater than male regardless of the pushing force. To our knowledge, this is the first study to assess the relationship between pushing force and ROM of ankle joint. There was significant correlation between ROM of ankle and pushing force. ROM of ankle PF for female estimated greater than male regardless of the pushing force and the number of measurement. The ROM of the ankle is measured differently according to the knee joint position. Pushing force, gender and knee joint position are required to be considered when measuring the ROM of ankle joint.

  7. Variations of the ionization push frequency in the ASK-1 chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krivoshapkin, P.A.; Mamrukova, V.P.; Skripin, G.V.; Shafer, G.V.

    1997-01-01

    The data on frequency push in the ASK-1 chamber at the Yakutsk station for 1954-1994 are analyzed. The observed eleven-year and half-year push variations are related to the solar activity. The narrowly directed galactic anisotropy with 6-8 h direction, coinciding with the direction of the helio-magnetosphere tail, formed by the solar system motion relative to stars is identified in a daily motion by sidereal time. The great barometric and temperature coefficients of the frequency pushes are obtained. This indicates the prevailing role of the nuclear-active particles in formation of pushes

  8. Upper Extremity Muscle Activity During In-Phase and Anti-Phase Continuous Pushing Tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruevski, Kristina M; Hodder, Joanne N; Keir, Peter J

    2017-11-01

    To determine the effect of anti-phase, in-phase bimanual and unimanual simulated industrial pushing tasks and frequency on upper extremity muscle activity. Research investigating symmetrical (in-phase) and asymmetrical (anti-phase) pushing exertions is limited despite a high prevalence in industry. Fifteen female participants completed five pushing tasks using a dual handle apparatus at three frequencies: 15 cycles per minute (cpm), 30 cpm, and self-selected. Tasks included two bimanual symmetrical pushes (constrained and unconstrained), two bimanual asymmetrical pushes (reciprocating and continuous), and one right unimanual push. Surface electromyography (EMG) from the right anterior, middle, and posterior deltoid (AD, MD, and PD); right and left trapezius (RT and LT); right pectoralis major (PM); and right and left external obliques (REO and LEO) was collected and normalized to maximum voluntary effort. There was a task by frequency interaction in the AD, MD, PD, and RT ( p pushes and constrained, in-phase pushes had the highest muscle activity demands and the least amount of variability in muscle activity and therefore may present the greatest risk of injury. Anti-phase pushing is known to have a greater cognitive demand, and this study demonstrated that it also has a greater physical demand when performed continuously.

  9. Wheelchair pushing and turning: lumbar spine and shoulder loads and recommended limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston, Eric B; Khan, Safdar N; Marras, William S

    2017-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine how simulated manual wheelchair pushing influences biomechanical loading to the lumbar spine and shoulders. Sixty-two subjects performed simulated wheelchair pushing and turning in a laboratory. An electromyography-assisted biomechanical model was used to estimate spinal loads. Moments at the shoulder joint, external hand forces and net turning torque were also assessed. Multiple linear regression techniques were employed to develop biomechanically based wheelchair pushing guidelines relating resultant hand force or net torque to spinal load. Male subjects experienced significantly greater spinal loading (p pushing (p pushing and turning can pose biomechanical risk to the lumbar spine and shoulders. Psychophysically determined maximum acceptable push forces do not appear to be protective enough of this biomechanical risk. Practitioner Summary: This laboratory study investigated biomechanical risk to the low back and shoulders during simulated wheelchair pushing. Manual wheelchair pushing posed biomechanical risk to the lumbar spine (in compression and A/P shear) and to the shoulders. Biomechanically determined wheelchair pushing thresholds are presented and are more protective than the closest psychophysically determined equivalents.

  10. Global Models of Ridge-Push Force, Geoid, and Lithospheric Strength of Oceanic plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahatsente, Rezene

    2017-12-01

    An understanding of the transmission of ridge-push related stresses in the interior of oceanic plates is important because ridge-push force is one of the principal forces driving plate motion. Here, I assess the transmission of ridge-push related stresses in oceanic plates by comparing the magnitude of the ridge-push force to the integrated strength of oceanic plates. The strength is determined based on plate cooling and rheological models. The strength analysis includes low-temperature plasticity (LTP) in the upper mantle and assumes a range of possible tectonic conditions and rheology in the plates. The ridge-push force has been derived from the thermal state of oceanic lithosphere, seafloor depth and crustal age data. The results of modeling show that the transmission of ridge-push related stresses in oceanic plates mainly depends on rheology and predominant tectonic conditions. If a lithosphere has dry rheology, the estimated strength is higher than the ridge-push force at all ages for compressional tectonics and at old ages (>75 Ma) for extension. Therefore, under such conditions, oceanic plates may not respond to ridge-push force by intraplate deformation. Instead, the plates may transmit the ridge-push related stress in their interior. For a wet rheology, however, the strength of young lithosphere (stress may dissipate in the interior of oceanic plates and diffuses by intraplate deformation. The state of stress within a plate depends on the balance of far-field and intraplate forces.

  11. State Government, Its Relationship to Private Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Joseph M.; Kenyon, Regan

    1982-01-01

    In examining the state's role in private education, this article discusses court cases bearing on state services to private schools, state regulation of different types of private schools, collaborative efforts between public and private schools, and emerging state attitudes toward private education. (Author/WD)

  12. Sleeve Push Technique: A Novel Method of Space Gaining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Sanjeev; Bhupali, Nameksh Raj; Gupta, Deepak Kumar; Singh, Sombir; Singh, Satinder Pal

    2018-01-01

    Space gaining is frequently required in orthodontics. Multiple loops were initially used for space gaining and alignment. The most common used mechanics for space gaining is the use of nickel-titanium open coil springs. The disadvantage of nickel-titanium coil spring is that they cannot be used until the arches are well aligned to receive the stiffer stainless steel wires. Therefore, a new method of gaining space during initial alignment and leveling has been developed and named as sleeve push technique (SPT). The nickel-titanium wires, i.e. 0.012 inches and 0.014 inches along with archwire sleeve (protective tubing) can be used in a modified way to gain space along with alignment. This method helps in gaining space right from day 1 of treatment. The archwire sleeve and nickel-titanium wire in this new SPT act as a mutually synergistic combination and provide the orthodontist with a completely new technique for space opening.

  13. Laser pushing or pulling of absorbing airborne particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Chuji, E-mail: cw175@msstate.edu; Gong, Zhiyong [Mississippi State University, Starkville, Mississippi 39759 (United States); Pan, Yong-Le; Videen, Gorden [U.S. Army Research Laboratory, 2800 Powder Mill Road, Adelphi, Maryland 20783 (United States)

    2016-07-04

    A single absorbing particle formed by carbon nanotubes in the size range of 10–50 μm is trapped in air by a laser trapping beam and concurrently illuminated by another laser manipulating beam. When the trapping beam is terminated, the movement of the particle controlled by the manipulating beam is investigated. We report our observations of light-controlled pushing and pulling motions. We show that the movement direction has little relationship with the particle size and manipulating beam's parameters but is dominated by the particle's orientation and morphology. With this observation, the controllable optical manipulation is now able to be generalized to arbitrary particles, including irregularly shaped absorbing particles that are shown in this work.

  14. Pushing Firm Boundaries through Research and Open Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borup Lynggaard, Aviaja

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we will exemplify open innovation through a university-industry collaboration called Mobile Home Center (MHC). We will demonstrate how the model by Chesbrough can be used as a tool for mapping out a research process and furthermore illustrate what kind of outcast such project can...... provide into the company and bring forward the effect it has inside a company when performing open innovation together with research partners. We seek to bring forward how performing university-research collaboration can also change the practices inside a company and thus push the firm boundaries in new...... directions. Rather than looking at the firm as something static we will demonstrate how Chesbrough’s model on Open Innovation can be used to illustrate the dynamics of a company’s boundaries through Open Innovation....

  15. SWOT analysis & privatization in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Družić Ivo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Legal framework for privatization in Croatia was based on two key laws: the Transformation Act of 1991, and the Privatization Act of 1993, amended in 1996. Early start of privatization process in 1990s in Croatia was marked by the transformation of socially-owned companies into stock holding companies or limited liability companies. The first step (1991-1993 of this process of almost 2700 companies which entered privatization was their evaluation and transformation into private ownership entities. The second step (1994- 1997 consisted of privatization of CPF portfolio. The portfolios change constantly, not only as a result of privatization but also because companies themselves change, as does their position in the market. The third step (1998 in the privatization process was voucher privatization. Privatization of large infrastructure and utility companies designated as public enterprises began in 1999 (Croatian Telecom and INA in 2002 (public enterprises are privatized on the basis of separate laws. Attempts to discuss privatization in Croatia in terms of SWOT analysis have been motivated by the stark difference among Croatian professional economists in an appraisal of Croatia's performance during the transition process in general and of the privatization process in particular. Therefore we considered the elements of SWOT analysis to be an acceptable way to delve into the confusing world of bickering arguments on the state and perspective of the Croatia's privatization process. In this paper we have tried to provide an impartial approach by employing two criteria i.e. strength and weaknesses in judging the events and results of the privatization process in Croatia. Strength of the overall privatization process can be mostly ascribed to the institutional swiftness on micro as well as on macro level. On the micro level 80% of the companies were formally privatized in the first two years despite unfavorable external conditions comprising the

  16. Comb-push ultrasound shear elastography of breast masses: initial results show promise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denis, Max; Mehrmohammadi, Mohammad; Song, Pengfei; Meixner, Duane D; Fazzio, Robert T; Pruthi, Sandhya; Whaley, Dana H; Chen, Shigao; Fatemi, Mostafa; Alizad, Azra

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the performance of Comb-push Ultrasound Shear Elastography (CUSE) for classification of breast masses. CUSE is an ultrasound-based quantitative two-dimensional shear wave elasticity imaging technique, which utilizes multiple laterally distributed acoustic radiation force (ARF) beams to simultaneously excite the tissue and induce shear waves. Female patients who were categorized as having suspicious breast masses underwent CUSE evaluations prior to biopsy. An elasticity estimate within the breast mass was obtained from the CUSE shear wave speed map. Elasticity estimates of various types of benign and malignant masses were compared with biopsy results. Fifty-four female patients with suspicious breast masses from our ongoing study are presented. Our cohort included 31 malignant and 23 benign breast masses. Our results indicate that the mean shear wave speed was significantly higher in malignant masses (6 ± 1.58 m/s) in comparison to benign masses (3.65 ± 1.36 m/s). Therefore, the stiffness of the mass quantified by the Young's modulus is significantly higher in malignant masses. According to the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC), the optimal cut-off value of 83 kPa yields 87.10% sensitivity, 82.61% specificity, and 0.88 for the area under the curve (AUC). CUSE has the potential for clinical utility as a quantitative diagnostic imaging tool adjunct to B-mode ultrasound for differentiation of malignant and benign breast masses.

  17. Comb-push ultrasound shear elastography of breast masses: initial results show promise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Denis

    Full Text Available To evaluate the performance of Comb-push Ultrasound Shear Elastography (CUSE for classification of breast masses.CUSE is an ultrasound-based quantitative two-dimensional shear wave elasticity imaging technique, which utilizes multiple laterally distributed acoustic radiation force (ARF beams to simultaneously excite the tissue and induce shear waves. Female patients who were categorized as having suspicious breast masses underwent CUSE evaluations prior to biopsy. An elasticity estimate within the breast mass was obtained from the CUSE shear wave speed map. Elasticity estimates of various types of benign and malignant masses were compared with biopsy results.Fifty-four female patients with suspicious breast masses from our ongoing study are presented. Our cohort included 31 malignant and 23 benign breast masses. Our results indicate that the mean shear wave speed was significantly higher in malignant masses (6 ± 1.58 m/s in comparison to benign masses (3.65 ± 1.36 m/s. Therefore, the stiffness of the mass quantified by the Young's modulus is significantly higher in malignant masses. According to the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC, the optimal cut-off value of 83 kPa yields 87.10% sensitivity, 82.61% specificity, and 0.88 for the area under the curve (AUC.CUSE has the potential for clinical utility as a quantitative diagnostic imaging tool adjunct to B-mode ultrasound for differentiation of malignant and benign breast masses.

  18. Peru turnaround tied to privatization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Petroleos del Peru predicts a 10% increase in Peru's oil production this year and a further increase in 1994. Petroperu also forecasts a sharp increase in drilling in Peru this year. After several years of declining oil production, a gradual turnaround in the cash strapped country's petroleum industry is largely tied to its progress in privatization. The government last year began a campaign to privatize all state owned companies by the end of July 1995. The paper discusses forecasts by Petroperu; the contract of Occidental del Amazonas Inc.; the Petromar privatization; Great Western's contract; development of the Aguaytia gas field; and refinery contracts

  19. Comparison of delayed versus immediate pushing during second stage of labor for nulliparous women with epidural anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillesby, Erica; Burns, Suzan; Dempsey, Amy; Kirby, Shirley; Mogensen, Kami; Naylor, Kelly; Petrella, Joann; Vanicelli, Rebecca; Whelan, Breon

    2010-01-01

    To determine if the use of delayed pushing after the onset of the second stage of labor decreases the time of active pushing and decreases maternal fatigue. Randomized clinical trial. Labor and delivery unit of a not-for-profit community hospital. Convenience sample of nulliparous laboring women with epidural anesthesia. Immediate or delayed pushing (2 hours) during the second stage of labor at the time of complete cervical dilatation. The length of pushing, total length of the second stage, and maternal fatigue. A total of 77 women were studied (immediate pushing group=39; delayed pushing=38). The immediate pushing group averaged 94 (± 57) minutes in active pushing, while the delayed pushing group averaged 68 (± 46) minutes, a statistically significant difference (p=.04). No significant differences were found in fatigue scores between the immediate and delayed pushing groups (p>.05). We found that by delaying the onset of active pushing for 2 hours after the beginning of the second stage of labor, the time that nulliparous women with epidural anesthesia spent in active pushing was significantly decreased by 27%. Although the delayed pushing group rested for up to 2 hours, the total time in the second stage of labor averaged only 59 minutes longer than the immediate pushing group. © 2010 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  20. 76 FR 71329 - Request for Information Regarding Private Education Loans and Private Educational Lenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-17

    ... Regarding Private Education Loans and Private Educational Lenders AGENCY: Bureau of Consumer Financial... Justice and the Federal Trade Commission, to prepare a Report on Private Education Loans and Private... Justice and the Federal Trade Commission, to prepare a Report on Private Education Loans and Private...

  1. Private sector in public health care systems

    OpenAIRE

    Matějusová, Lenka

    2008-01-01

    This master thesis is trying to describe the situation of private sector in public health care systems. As a private sector we understand patients, private health insurance companies and private health care providers. The focus is placed on private health care providers, especially in ambulatory treatment. At first there is a definition of health as a main determinant of a health care systems, definition of public and private sectors in health care systems and the difficulties at the market o...

  2. "Private Views" Ungaris / Katrin Kivimaa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kivimaa, Katrin, 1969-

    1999-01-01

    Inglise ja eesti kunstnike ühisprojekt 8. augustini Dunaujvarosi Kaasaegse Kunsti Instituudis Ungaris. Kuraatorid Pam Skelton, Mare Tralla. "Private Views" ülesandeks on keskenduda ruumi mõistele naiskunstniku pilgu läbi

  3. Business associations and private ordering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prüfer, Jens

    We study the capacity of business associations—private, formal, noncommercial organizations designed to promote the common business interests of their members—to support contract enforcement and collective action. Inspired by recent empirical literature, our theoretical framework connects the

  4. 'Private Views' Ungaris / Katrin Kivimaa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kivimaa, Katrin, 1969-

    1999-01-01

    Inglise js eesti kunstnike ühisprojekt 8. augustini Dunaujvarosi Kaasaegse Kunsti Instituudis Ungaris. Kuraatorid Pam Skelton, Mare Tralla. 'Private Views' ülesandeks on keskenduda ruumi mõistele naiskunstniku pilgu läbi.

  5. Private Military Companies: An Assessment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    O'Brien, II, James M

    2008-01-01

    ...) as defense contractors. The history of privatized security, consideration of ethical and legal issues, and examination of three case studies allows assessment of PMCs in accordance with five criteria for success...

  6. Private Well Water and Fluoride

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Private Wells Infant Formula Fluorosis Public Health Service Recommendation Water Operators & Engineers Water Fluoridation Additives Shortages of Fluoridation Additives Drinking Water Pipe Systems CDC-Sponsored Water Fluoridation Training Links to Other ...

  7. House Calls in Private Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittington, Ronaele

    1985-01-01

    Relates the experiences of a social worker in private practice who offered house calls as an ongoing setting for counseling and psychotherapy to individuals and families. Describes advantages and disadvantages, liability, and target populations. (JAC)

  8. Bolivian petroleum privatization taking shape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    Bolivia is boldly embracing a free market philosophy that extends to liberalization of the country's petroleum sector. Although petroleum industry privatization is being considered by several South American countries, only Argentina has so far completely opened its oil sector and fully privatized its state oil company. The Bolivian government's own version of privatization, capitalization, is a groundbreaking attempt to attract massive investment from the private sector without leaving the government open to accusations of stripping the country's assets for short term electoral gain. The paper discusses the government's strategy to sell the state owned company either as a single unit or to split it into upstream and downstream units. Questions still to be resolved, international interest in the move, bolivian potential, and the gas supply infrastructure are also discussed

  9. Private Security Contractors in Darfur

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leander, Anna

    2006-01-01

    This article argues that the role of Private Security Contractors in Darfur reflects and reinforces neo-liberal governmentality in contemporary security governance. It is an argument (in line with other articles in this special issue) which is more interested in discussing how the privatization....... It underlines that governance is increasingly taking place through a set of (quasi-) markets, it is marked by entrepreneurial values, and a hands off approach to governance. We then discuss the way this overall change is reflected in and reinforced by the role of private security contractors in Darfur. Drawing...... at these processes is necessary to understand the role of private security contractors in Darfur. But more than this, practices in Darfur entrench neo-liberal governmentality in security more generally. The managerial and `de-politicizing' approach to security in Darfur displaces alternative views not only...

  10. Cabo Verde - Private Sector Development

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The objective of the Private Sector Development Project activities of the 2005-2010 Cabo Verde Compact was to support Cabo Verde's long-term economic transformation...

  11. The push factors of intra-urban residential mobility in Calabar, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper takes a critical look at the push factors of intra-urban residential mobility in Calabar. Push factors are defined as those which operate to induce or encourage households to change their residence in the city. The paper notes that changing of residence by urban households in Western cities is a common ...

  12. Educational Exclusion: Drop Out, Push Out, and School-to-Prison Pipeline among LGBTQ Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, Lesbian and Straight Education Network (GLSEN), 2016

    2016-01-01

    "Educational Exclusion: Drop Out, Push Out, and the School-to-Prison Pipeline among LGBTQ Youth" provides an in-depth look at the conditions that effectively push LGBTQ youth out of school and potentially into the criminal justice system. The report provides specific, real world guidance to address the hostile school climates and…

  13. On Reducing Delay in Mesh-Based P2P Streaming: A Mesh-Push Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zheng; Xue, Kaiping; Hong, Peilin

    The peer-assisted streaming paradigm has been widely employed to distribute live video data on the internet recently. In general, the mesh-based pull approach is more robust and efficient than the tree-based push approach. However, pull protocol brings about longer streaming delay, which is caused by the handshaking process of advertising buffer map message, sending request message and scheduling of the data block. In this paper, we propose a new approach, mesh-push, to address this issue. Different from the traditional pull approach, mesh-push implements block scheduling algorithm at sender side, where the block transmission is initiated by the sender rather than by the receiver. We first formulate the optimal upload bandwidth utilization problem, then present the mesh-push approach, in which a token protocol is designed to avoid block redundancy; a min-cost flow model is employed to derive the optimal scheduling for the push peer; and a push peer selection algorithm is introduced to reduce control overhead. Finally, we evaluate mesh-push through simulation, the results of which show mesh-push outperforms the pull scheduling in streaming delay, and achieves comparable delivery ratio at the same time.

  14. Push plate, mounting assembly, circuit board, and method of assembling thereof for ball grid array packages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, Mark R.; Montague, Stephen

    2017-05-16

    A push plate that includes springs in the form of cantilever flexures and an inspection window is disclosed. The push plate provides a known, uniform, down force and minimal torque to a package to be tested. The cantilevers have a known, calculable down force producing stiffness. The window provides for viewing of the package during testing.

  15. Quantifying muscle patterns and spine load during various forms of the push-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Stephanie; Karpowicz, Amy; Gray, John; McGill, Stuart

    2006-03-01

    This study was conducted to quantify the normalized amplitudes of the abdominal wall and back extensor musculature during a variety of push-up styles. We also sought to quantify their impact on spinal loading by calculating spinal compression and torque generation in the L4-5 area. Ten university-age participants, nine males and one female, in good to excellent condition, volunteered to participate in this study. All participants were requested to perform a maximum of 12 different push-up exercises, three trials per exercise. Surface electromyographic data (EMG) were collected bilaterally on rectus abdominis, external oblique, internal oblique, latissimus dorsi, and erector spinae muscles, and unilaterally (right side) on pectoralis major, triceps brachii, biceps brachii, and anterior deltoid muscles. Spine kinetics were obtained using an anatomically detailed model of the torso/spine. This study revealed that more dynamic push-ups (i.e., ballistic, with hand movement) required more muscle activation and higher spine load, whereas placing labile balls under the hands only resulted in modest increases in spine load. Right rectus abdominis (RA) activation was significantly higher than left RA activation during the left hand forward push-up and vice versa for the right hand forward push-up (P push-ups (P push-up resulted in the highest spine compression. Skilled participants showed greater synchronicity with peak muscle activation (plyometric type of contractions) during ballistic push-ups. These data will help guide exercise selection for individuals with differing training objectives and injury history.

  16. Optimal regenerative braking with a push-belt CVT: an experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkel, van K.; Hofman, T.; Vroemen, B.G.; Steinbuch, M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the approach and the results of efficiency experiments on a push-belt Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT) in a new hybrid drive train. The hybrid drive train uses the push-belt CVT to charge a flywheel, with the kinetic energy of the vehicle during regenerative braking and

  17. Optimal regenerative braking with a push-belt CVT : an experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Berkel, K.; Hofman, T.; Vroemen, B.; Steinbuch, M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the approach and the results of efficiency experiments on a push-belt Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT) in a new hybrid drive train. The hybrid drive train uses the push-belt CVT to “charge” a flywheel, with the kinetic energy of the vehicle during regenerative braking

  18. Beyond Knut Holt's fusion model, balancing market pull and technology push

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagel, A.P.

    2003-01-01

    Should a firm rely on market pull or on technology push? Some scholars have extreme opinions on this and firms do switch emphasis on push and pull over time. Knut Holt, the first president of ISPIM, presented his so-called Fusion Model in the early 1970s to shed light onto this debate. This paper

  19. Muscular contribution to low-back loading and stiffness during standard and suspended push-ups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, Tyson A C; Howarth, Samuel J; Callaghan, Jack P

    2008-06-01

    Push-up exercises are normally performed to challenge muscles that span upper extremity joints. However, it is also recognized that push-ups provide an effective abdominal muscle challenge, especially when the hands are in contact with a labile support surface. The purpose of this study was to compare trunk muscle activation levels and resultant intervertebral joint (IVJ) loading when standard and suspended push-ups were performed, and to quantify and compare the contribution of trunk muscles to IVJ rotational stiffness in both exercises. Eleven recreationally trained male volunteers performed sets of standard and suspended push-ups. Upper body kinematic, kinetic, and EMG data were collected and input into a 3D biomechanical model of the lumbar torso to quantify lumbar IVJ loading and the contributions of trunk muscles to IVJ rotational stiffness. When performing suspended push-ups, muscles of the abdominal wall and the latissimus dorsi were activated to levels that were significantly greater than those elicited when performing standard push-ups (ppush-ups. Also directly resulting from the increased activation levels of the abdominal muscles and the latissimus dorsi during suspended push-ups was increased muscular contribution to lumbar IVJ rotational stiffness (ppush-ups appear to provide a superior abdominal muscle challenge. However, for individuals unable to tolerate high lumbar IVJ compressive loads, potential benefits gained by incorporating suspended push-ups into their resistance training regimen may be outweighed by the risk of overloading low-back tissues.

  20. Push-Pull Ventilation in a Painting Shop for Large Steel Constructions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svidt, Kjeld; Heiselberg, Per

    This paper describes the analysis of a push-pull ventilation system for a painting shop that is used for painting steel chimneys and windmill towers.......This paper describes the analysis of a push-pull ventilation system for a painting shop that is used for painting steel chimneys and windmill towers....

  1. Positive Harris recurrence and diffusion scale analysis of a push pull queueing network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nazarathy, J.; Weiss, G.

    2010-01-01

    We consider a push pull queueing network with two servers and two types of job which are processed by the two servers in opposite order, with stochastic generally distributed processing times. This push pull network was introduced by Kopzon and Weiss, who assumed exponential processing times. It is

  2. What Explains the Survival Gap of Pushed and Pulled Corporate Spin-offs?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rocha, Vera; Carneiro, Anabela; Varum, Celeste

    2015-01-01

    Unconditionally, pushed spin-offs are found to survive longer than their pulled counterparts. Using matched employer-employee data and novel multivariate decomposition techniques, we show that pushed spin-offs’ relative survival advantage is mostly explained by their larger human capital endowments...

  3. Low-back and shoulder complaints among workers with pushing and pulling tasks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoozemans, Marco J. M.; van der Beek, Allard J.; Fring-Dresen, Monique H. W.; van der Woude, Luc H. V.; van Dijk, Frank J. H.

    2002-01-01

    Objectives Low-back and shoulder complaints were examined in relation to self-reported and objectively assessed exposure to work-related pushing and pulling. Methods Workers from several companies (eg, nursing homes and flower auctions) with pushing and pulling tasks and, as reference, workers

  4. Spontaneous pushing to prevent postpartum urinary incontinence: a randomized, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Lisa Kane; Miller, Janis M; Guo, Ying; Ashton-Miller, James A; DeLancey, John O L; Sampselle, Carolyn M

    2013-03-01

    The risk for urinary incontinence can be 2.6-fold greater in women after pregnancy and childbirth compared with their never-pregnant counterparts, with the incidence increasing with parity. We tested the hypothesis that the incidence of de novo postpartum urinary incontinence in primiparous women is reduced with the use of spontaneous pushing alone or in combination with perineal massage compared with women who experienced traditional directed pushing for second-stage management. This was a prospective clinical trial enrolling and randomizing 249 women into a four-group design: (1) routine care with coached or directed pushing, (2) spontaneous self-directed pushing, (3) prenatal perineal massage initiated in the third trimester, and (4) the combination of spontaneous pushing plus perineal massage. Self-report of incontinence was assessed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and covariance (ANCOVA) models in 145 remaining women at 12 months postpartum using the Leakage Index, which is sensitive to minor leakage. No statistical difference in the incidence of de novo postpartum incontinence was found based on method of pushing (spontaneous/directed) (P value = 0.57) or in combination with prenatal perineal massage (P value = 0.57). Fidelity to pushing treatment of type was assessed and between-groups crossover detected. Spontaneous pushing did not reduce the incidence of postpartum incontinence experienced by women 1 year after their first birth due to high cross-over between randomization groups.

  5. Force direction in pushing and pulling and Musculo-Skeletal load

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Looze, M.P. de; Kuijer, P.P.F.M.

    1999-01-01

    In pushing and pulling wheeled objects, the effect of the exerted force on local musculo-skeletal loads depends on the direction of force exertion. Several questions about the direction of force exertion in pushing and pulling, the effects of handle height and force level on force direction, and the

  6. Assessment of a Geothermal Doublet in the Malm Aquifer Using a Push-Pull Tracer Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafogler, Mark; Somogyi, Gabriella; Nießner, Reinhard; Baumann, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    Geothermal exploration of the Malm aquifer in Bavaria is highly successful. Data about the long-term operation, however, is still scarce, although detailed knowledge about the processes occurring in the aquifer is a key requirement to run geothermal facilities efficiently and economically. While there usually is a constant flow of data from the production well (temperatures, hydraulic data, hydrochemical conditions, gas composition) not even the temperatures in the immediate surrounding of the reinjection well are accessible or known. In 2011 the geothermal facility in Pullach was extended with a third geothermal well reaching into the Malm aquifer which is now used as a reinjection well. The former reinjection well was converted to a production well after 5 years of operation. This setting offers a unique opportunity to study the processes in the vicinity of a reinjection well and provides the data base to describe the hydraulic, thermal and hydrochemical performance of the reservoir. The viscosity of the reinjected cold water is increasing by 60% compared to the production well, thus one would expect an increase of the reinjection pressure as the cold water plume spreads around the reinjection well. Measurements, however, show a significant decrease of the reinjection pressure, suggesting processes in the aquifer which positively change the hydraulic properties and overcompensate the viscosity effects. Hydrochemical data and modeling indicate that a dissolution of the matrix along the flow pathways is responsible for the decreasing reinjection pressures. The change of the flow direction from reinjection to production was used to conduct a push-pull tracer test. Here, a series of fluorescent dye pulses was added to the reinjected water before the former reinjection well was shut down (push phase). These tracers included a conservative tracer (Fluorescein), surface-sensitive tracers (Eosin/Sulforhodamin B), and a NAPL-sensitive tracer (Na-Naphthionate). After

  7. STATE PENSION OR PRIVATE PENSION?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MANGRA MĂDĂLINA GIORGIANA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The lack of sustainability of the public pension system brings into attention the private pension system, either mandatory (Pillar II or optional (Pillar III. Young employees do not perceive the future in bright colours while seeking solutions to shift from consumption to saving for retirement period. As long as the public pension system is weak, an important milestone for individual savings is represented by the private pension.

  8. Technology and trend management at the interface of technology push and market pull

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maier, Maximilian; Hofmann, Maximilian; Brem, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Technology push and market pull innovation strategies are playing an important role for the effective management of ideas, technologies, and trends. The coexistence of these two approaches led to many debates and the focus switched several times from putting more effort into technology push aspects...... to fostering market pull approaches in the last decades. Still, there is no in-depth exploration of the interface of technology push and market pull and only few conceptual models are dealing with the connection between technology push and market pull in particular. Therefore, this study puts an exploratory...... focus on the innovation management processes of a global outdoor manufacturer with a special emphasis on the interface between technology push and market pull. From the case findings and our literature we conceptualise a non-linear innovation model that systematically integrates market pull...

  9. Theory and simulations of electron vortices generated by magnetic pushing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richardson, A. S.; Angus, J. R.; Swanekamp, S. B.; Schumer, J. W. [Plasma Physics Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Ottinger, P. F. [An Independent Consultant through ENGILITY, Chantilly, Virginia 20151 (United States)

    2013-08-15

    Vortex formation and propagation are observed in kinetic particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations of magnetic pushing in the plasma opening switch. These vortices are studied here within the electron-magnetohydrodynamic (EMHD) approximation using detailed analytical modeling. PIC simulations of these vortices have also been performed. Strong v×B forces in the vortices give rise to significant charge separation, which necessitates the use of the EMHD approximation in which ions are fixed and the electrons are treated as a fluid. A semi-analytic model of the vortex structure is derived, and then used as an initial condition for PIC simulations. Density-gradient-dependent vortex propagation is then examined using a series of PIC simulations. It is found that the vortex propagation speed is proportional to the Hall speed v{sub Hall}≡cB{sub 0}/4πn{sub e}eL{sub n}. When ions are allowed to move, PIC simulations show that the electric field in the vortex can accelerate plasma ions, which leads to dissipation of the vortex. This electric field contributes to the separation of ion species that has been observed to occur in pulsed-power experiments with a plasma-opening switch.

  10. CERN's surveyors are pushing back the frontiers of precision

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    Aiming at a target on the other side of the Alps, 730 kilometres from CERN, or controlling the positions of thousands of devices to a precision of one tenth of a millimetre, these are just some of the painstaking tasks undertaken by the surveyors in the Positioning Metrology and Surveying Group. These masters of measurement are pushing precision to its very limit.Go down into the LEP tunnel, walk about half a mile and then try to imagine how you could possibly take precise aim at something hundreds of kilometres away without any reference to the surface. Absurd, you might think? Not entirely, for that, in a nutshell, is the geodetic challenge of the Gran Sasso project. Indeed it is just one of the challenges faced by the surveyors in CERN's Positioning Metrology and Surveying Group, whose task it will be to aim a neutrino beam at a detector located in an underground cavern 732 kilometres away at INFN's Gran Sasso laboratory in Italy. The tools for solving such problems are provided by geodetics, the branch of...

  11. On push-forward representations in the standard gyrokinetic model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyato, N.; Yagi, M.; Scott, B. D.

    2015-01-01

    Two representations of fluid moments in terms of a gyro-center distribution function and gyro-center coordinates, which are called push-forward representations, are compared in the standard electrostatic gyrokinetic model. In the representation conventionally used to derive the gyrokinetic Poisson equation, the pull-back transformation of the gyro-center distribution function contains effects of the gyro-center transformation and therefore electrostatic potential fluctuations, which is described by the Poisson brackets between the distribution function and scalar functions generating the gyro-center transformation. Usually, only the lowest order solution of the generating function at first order is considered to explicitly derive the gyrokinetic Poisson equation. This is true in explicitly deriving representations of scalar fluid moments with polarization terms. One also recovers the particle diamagnetic flux at this order because it is associated with the guiding-center transformation. However, higher-order solutions are needed to derive finite Larmor radius terms of particle flux including the polarization drift flux from the conventional representation. On the other hand, the lowest order solution is sufficient for the other representation, in which the gyro-center transformation part is combined with the guiding-center one and the pull-back transformation of the distribution function does not appear

  12. On push-forward representations in the standard gyrokinetic model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyato, N., E-mail: miyato.naoaki@jaea.go.jp; Yagi, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-116 Omotedate, Obuchi, Rokkasho, Aomori 039-3212 (Japan); Scott, B. D. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2015-01-15

    Two representations of fluid moments in terms of a gyro-center distribution function and gyro-center coordinates, which are called push-forward representations, are compared in the standard electrostatic gyrokinetic model. In the representation conventionally used to derive the gyrokinetic Poisson equation, the pull-back transformation of the gyro-center distribution function contains effects of the gyro-center transformation and therefore electrostatic potential fluctuations, which is described by the Poisson brackets between the distribution function and scalar functions generating the gyro-center transformation. Usually, only the lowest order solution of the generating function at first order is considered to explicitly derive the gyrokinetic Poisson equation. This is true in explicitly deriving representations of scalar fluid moments with polarization terms. One also recovers the particle diamagnetic flux at this order because it is associated with the guiding-center transformation. However, higher-order solutions are needed to derive finite Larmor radius terms of particle flux including the polarization drift flux from the conventional representation. On the other hand, the lowest order solution is sufficient for the other representation, in which the gyro-center transformation part is combined with the guiding-center one and the pull-back transformation of the distribution function does not appear.

  13. Reversing one's fortune by pushing away bad luck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Risen, Jane L; Hosey, Christine

    2014-06-01

    Across cultures, people try to "undo" bad luck with superstitious rituals such as knocking on wood, spitting, or throwing salt. We suggest that these rituals reduce the perceived likelihood of anticipated negative outcomes because they involve avoidant actions that exert force away from one's representation of self, which simulates the experience of pushing away bad luck. Five experiments test this hypothesis by having participants tempt fate and then engage in avoidant actions that are either superstitious (Experiment 1, knocking on wood) or nonsuperstitious (Experiments 2-5, throwing a ball). We find that participants who knock down (away from themselves) or throw a ball think that a jinxed negative outcome is less likely than participants who knock up (toward themselves) or hold a ball. Experiments 3 and 4 provide evidence that after tempting fate, engaging in an avoidant action leads to less clear mental representations for the jinxed event, which, in turn, leads to lower perceived likelihoods. Finally, we demonstrate that engaging in an avoidant action-rather than creating physical distance-is critical for reversing the perceived effect of the jinx. Although superstitions are often culturally defined, the underlying psychological processes that give rise to them may be shared across cultures. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  14. Security-Enhanced Push Button Configuration for Home Smart Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Junghee; Park, Taejoon

    2017-06-08

    With the emergence of smart and converged home services, the need for the secure and easy interplay of various devices has been increased. Push Button Configuration (PBC) is one of the technologies proposed for easy set-up of a secure session between IT and consumer devices. Although the Wi-Fi Direct specification explicitly states that all devices must support the PBC method, its applicability is very limited. This is because the security vulnerability of PBC can be maliciously exploited so that attackers can make illegitimate sessions with consumer devices. To address this problem, this paper proposes a novel Security-enhanced PBC (SePBC) scheme with which we can uncover suspicious or malicious devices. The proposed mechanism has several unique features. First, we develop a secure handshake distance measurement protocol by preventing an adversary sitting outside the region from maliciously manipulating its distance to be fake. Second, it is compatible with the original Wi-Fi PBC without introducing a brand-new methodology. Finally, SePBC uses lightweight operations without CPU-intensive cryptography computation and employs inexpensive H/W. Moreover, it needs to incur little overhead when there is no attack. This paper also designs and implements the proposed SePBC in the real world. Our experimental results and analysis show that the proposed SePBC scheme effectively defeats attacks on PBC while minimizing the modification of the original PBC equipment.

  15. The Geostrategic, Techno-Nationalist Push Into Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Johnson-Freese

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The technological benefits of space hardware are universally recognized. One is hard pressed to find an area of the world where satellite dishes for television reception, satellite use for data transmission, or the Global Positioning System (GPS for multiple purposes are not utilized. But utilization of commercial or of other countries’ space assets does not equate to being a space-faring nation. Space-faring nations have, to varying degrees, their own capabilities. The importance of status as a space-faring nation comes from two sources: not having to rely on others for access to the benefits of space assets, and prestige that can translate into geopolitical influence. Beyond users and space-faring nations, there are those countries actively asserting space leadership in some form, whether regional or global. What pushes countries to go beyond being a spacefaring nation and assert leadership potential, including potentially engaging in an implicit or explicit space race, is techno-nationalism, which for the purposes of this paper refers to nationalism that becomes the impetus for technology development as an indicator of geostrategic power. It is often triggered by a threat or perception of a threat, including a threat to perceived leadership. Techno-nationalism carries with it an inherent quest for leadership, by some definition.

  16. Sleeve push technique: A novel method of space gaining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev Verma

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Space gaining is frequently required in orthodontics. Multiple loops were initially used for space gaining and alignment. The most common used mechanics for space gaining is the use of nickel–titanium open coil springs. The disadvantage of nickel–titanium coil spring is that they cannot be used until the arches are well aligned to receive the stiffer stainless steel wires. Therefore, a new method of gaining space during initial alignment and leveling has been developed and named as sleeve push technique (SPT. The nickel–titanium wires, i.e. 0.012 inches and 0.014 inches along with archwire sleeve (protective tubing can be used in a modified way to gain space along with alignment. This method helps in gaining space right from day 1 of treatment. The archwire sleeve and nickel–titanium wire in this new SPT act as a mutually synergistic combination and provide the orthodontist with a completely new technique for space opening.

  17. Feasibility of selected private money

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukáš Nevěděl

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the entry: “Feasibility of selected private money” is the assessment of practicability of selected private money types as future currency especially in terms of attributes that the currency should meet to fulfil all claims required by its users. In the first step the features that the widely used currency has to have will be described and it will be analysed which of these features are characteristic for nowadays currencies (Czech crown and Euro too. In the second step private (unnationalized money will be described as well as several concepts derived from it. The paper will concern mainly on Hayek’s concept of private money and on particular variations of Local exchange trading systems. In the next part there will be pointed out good and bad features of these types of money, mainly from the view of characteristics that the proper currency should have. At the end it will be carried out the comparison of bad and good effects resulting from using of particular currencies types and I will decide about the applicability of analysed private money types. The paper uses the standard methods of scientific work. Firstly, the method of description is used to describe the development of private money concepts and characteristic features that the currency should have. Then, a comparative analysis is used to discuss the differences between contemporary currencies and unnationalized currencies as well as between required and real features of particular private money. At the end the method of synthesis, deduction and induction is used.

  18. From the Private to the Public to the Private?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Poul F.

    2018-01-01

    A central assumption in much contemporary scholarship is that a central shift has taken place over the course of the last four decades: a shift from a world largely centered on public authority to a world that is increasingly dominated by private authority. The central expression of this shift...... is seen to be a concurring move from public to private law and thus from legislation to contract as the central legal instrument structuring economic as well as other social processes. While developments in this direction can certainly be observed, this article provides a more nuanced perspective....... Outlining a long-term historical perspective, this article reconstructs the manifold and volatile dynamic between institutionalized forms of public and private authority. It does soon the basis of the argument that, in the course of this evolutionary process, the very function and meaning of both public...

  19. Shoulder muscle activation during stable and suspended push-ups at different heights in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borreani, Sebastien; Calatayud, Joaquin; Colado, Juan C; Tella, Victor; Moya-Nájera, Diego; Martin, Fernando; Rogers, Michael E

    2015-08-01

    To analyze shoulder muscle activation when performing push-ups under different stability conditions and heights. Comparative study by repeated measures. Valencia University laboratory. 29 healthy males participated. Subjects performed 3 push-ups each with their hands at 2 different heights (10 vs. 65 cm) under stable conditions and using a suspension device. Push-up speed was controlled and the testing order was randomized. The average amplitudes of the electromyographic root mean square of the long head of the triceps brachii (TRICEP), upper trapezius (TRAPS), anterior deltoid (DELT) and clavicular pectoralis (PEC) were recorded. The electromyographic signals were normalized to the maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC). Suspended push-ups at 10 cm resulted in greater activation in the TRICEP (17.14 ± 1.31 %MVIC vs. 37.03 ± 1.80 %MVIC) and TRAPS (5.83 ± 0.58 %MVIC vs. 14.69 ± 1.91 %MVIC) than those performed on the floor. For DELT and PEC similar or higher activation was found performing the push-ups on the floor, respectively. Height determines different muscle activation patterns. Stable push-ups elicit similar PEC and higher DELT muscle activation, being greater at 10 cm; whereas suspended push-ups elicit greater TRAPS and TRICEP muscle activation, being greater at 65 cm. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Methods of pushing during vaginal delivery and pelvic floor and perineal outcomes: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Tayrac, Renaud; Letouzey, Vincent

    2016-12-01

    Over the past 20 years, several randomized studies have compared Valsalva and spontaneous pushing techniques during vaginal delivery. This review summarizes current medical knowledge concerning their maternal and fetal consequences, focusing on pelvic and perineal outcomes. We selected nine randomized controlled trials comparing Valsalva and spontaneous pushing, and a secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial comparing different methods of perineal protection. Two trials showed that spontaneous pushing reduces the risk of perineal tears, but no firm conclusions can be drawn given the heterogeneity and inconsistent results of these studies. Conflicting results have been reported regarding the duration of the second stage of labor. Pushing technique does not seem to affect episiotomy, instrumental delivery or cesarean rates. Maternal satisfaction seems to be better after spontaneous pushing. Spontaneous pushing appears to have no adverse effects on neonatal well being, and one study showed a significant improvement in prenatal fetal parameters during the expulsive phase. Valsalva and spontaneous pushing techniques currently appear comparable in terms of duration, pelvic floor, perineal, and neonatal outcomes. In the absence of strong evidence in favor of either technique, the decision should be guided by patient preference and the clinical situation. Additional, well-designed randomized controlled trials are required.

  1. Positioning of microtubule organizing centers by cortical pushing and pulling forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavin, Nenad; Ma Rui; Jülicher, Frank; Laan, Liedewij; Dogterom, Marileen

    2012-01-01

    Positioning of microtubule (MT) organizing centers with respect to the confining geometry of cells depends on pushing and/or pulling forces generated by MTs that interact with the cell cortex (Dogterom et al 2005 Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 17 67–74). How, in living cells, these forces lead to proper positioning is still largely an open question. Recently, it was shown by in vitro experiments using artificial microchambers that in a square geometry, MT asters center more reliably by a combination of pulling and pushing forces than by pushing forces alone (Laan et al 2012a Cell 148 502–14). These findings were explained by a physical description of aster mechanics that includes slipping of pushing MT ends along chamber boundaries. In this paper, we extend that theoretical work by studying the influence of the shape of the confining geometry on the positioning process. We find that pushing and pulling forces can have centering or off-centering behavior in different geometries. Pushing forces center in a one-dimensional and a square geometry, but lead to off-centering in a circle if slipping is sufficiently pronounced. Pulling forces, however, do not center in a one-dimensional geometry, but improve centering in a circle and a square. In an elongated stadium geometry, positioning along the short axis depends mainly on pulling forces, while positioning along the long axis depends mainly on pushing forces. Our theoretical results suggest that different positioning strategies could be used by different cell types. (paper)

  2. Arterial cord blood lactate at birth correlates with duration of pushing efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessolle, Lionel; Lebrec, Jeremie; Daraï, Emile

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of the duration of pushing efforts on arterial cord blood lactate values. This was a prospective observational study of 124 consecutive normal vaginal deliveries in a tertiary teaching hospital. Arterial cord blood lactate was determined immediately at birth with a test strip method. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to check for clinical determinants of lactate levels. The main measure was lactate according to the duration of pushing efforts. Arterial cord lactates increased significantly and were strongly correlated with the duration of pushing efforts, independent of gestational age and birthweight. Women pushing for more than 20 min had higher arterial cord blood lactates (4.9 +/- 1.4 vs. 3.3 +/- 1.16 mM, respectively) and a higher rate of lactates >6 mM (18 vs. 3%) than those pushing for less than 20 min. At normal delivery, arterial cord blood lactates increase significantly with the duration of pushing efforts. Pushing for more than 20 min is associated with an increased risk of metabolic acidosis in the neonate. Further studies are required to evaluate the clinical significance of these observations. 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. [Methods of pushing at vaginal delivery and pelvi-perineal consequences. Review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratier, N; Balenbois, E; Letouzey, V; Marès, P; de Tayrac, R

    2015-03-01

    The main objective of that review was to evaluate the pelvi-perineal consequences of the different methods of pushing at vaginal delivery. A review on PubMed, the Cochrane Library and EM-Premium was performed from 1984 to 2014. Among 29 manuscripts analysed, only nine randomised controlled trials (including one meta-analysis of three trials) comparing Valsalva and spontaneous pushing were selected. A 10 th study, secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial comparing different methods of perineal protection (warm compresses, massage and manual protection), was also selected. Two trials have shown that spontaneous pushing reduces the risk of perineal tears, but studies were heterogeneous and discordant results do not allowed definitive conclusions. Results on the duration of the second stage of labour are conflicting. The method of pushing does not seem to affect the rate of episiotomy, instrumental delivery and cesarean section. Maternal satisfaction seems to be better after spontaneous pushing. It seems that there is no negative effect of spontaneous pushing on neonate well-being, and one study has shown a significant improvement of prenatal fetal parameters during the expulsive phase. According to current knowledge, both techniques of pushing during the expulsive phase at delivery seem comparable in terms of duration, risk of perineal tears and neonatal outcome. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Control of trunk motion following sudden stop perturbations during cart pushing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yun-Ju; Hoozemans, Marco J M; van Dieën, Jaap H

    2011-01-04

    External perturbations during pushing tasks have been suggested to be a risk factor for low-back symptoms. An experiment was designed to investigate whether self-induced and externally induced sudden stops while pushing a high inertia cart influence trunk motions, and how flexor and extensor muscles counteract these perturbations. Twelve healthy male participants pushed a 200 kg cart at shoulder height and hip height. Pushing while walking was compared to situations in which participants had to stop the cart suddenly (self-induced stop) or in which the wheels of the cart were unexpectedly blocked (externally induced stop). For the perturbed conditions, the peak values and the maximum changes from the reference condition (pushing while walking) of the external moment at L5/S1, trunk inclination and electromyographic amplitudes of trunk muscles were determined. In the self-induced stop, a voluntary trunk extension occurred. Initial responses in both stops consisted of flexor and extensor muscle cocontraction. In self-induced stops this was followed by sustained extensor activity. In the externally induced stops, an external extension moment caused a decrease in trunk inclination. The opposite directions of the internal moment and trunk motion in the externally induced stop while pushing at shoulder height may indicate insufficient active control of trunk posture. Consequently, sudden blocking of the wheels in pushing at shoulder height may put the low back at risk of mechanical injury. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Understanding consumer and clinician preferences and decision making for rehabilitation following arthroplasty in the private sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhagiar, Mark A; Naylor, Justine M; Simpson, Grahame; Harris, Ian A; Kohler, Friedbert

    2017-06-19

    To understand private consumer and clinician preferences towards different rehabilitation modes following knee or hip arthroplasty, and identify factors which influence the chosen rehabilitation pathway. Mixed methods cross-sectional study involving 95 semi-structured interviews of consumers (patients and carers) and clinicians (arthroplasty surgeons, physiotherapists and rehabilitation physicians) in Sydney, Australia, during 2014-2015. Participants were asked about the acceptability of different modes of rehabilitation provision, and factors influencing their chosen rehabilitation pathway. Interviews were in person or via the telephone. Qualitative analysis software was used to electronically manage qualitative data. An analytical approach guided data analysis. Pre-operative preferences strongly influenced the type of rehabilitation chosen by consumers. Key factors that influenced this were both intrinsic and extrinsic, including; the previous experience of self or known others, the perceived benefits of the chosen mode, a sense of entitlement, the role of orthopaedic surgeons and influence of patient preference, a patient's clinical status post-surgery, the private hospital business model and insurance provider involvement. The acceptability of rehabilitation modes varied between clinician groups. No one rehabilitation mode provided following arthroplasty is singularly preferred by stakeholders. Factors other than the belief that a particular mode was more effective than another appear to dominate the pathway followed by private arthroplasty consumers, indicating evidence-based policies around rehabilitation provision may have limited appeal in the private sector.

  6. Muscle Activation during Push-Ups with Different Suspension Training Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calatayud, Joaquin; Borreani, Sebastien; Colado, Juan C; Martín, Fernando F; Rogers, Michael E; Behm, David G; Andersen, Lars L

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze upper extremity and core muscle activation when performing push-ups with different suspension devices. Young fit male university students (n = 29) performed 3 push-ups each with 4 different suspension systems. Push-up speed was controlled using a metronome and testing order was randomized. Average amplitude of the electromyographic root mean square of Triceps Brachii, Upper Trapezius, Anterior Deltoid, Clavicular Pectoralis, Rectus Abdominis, Rectus Femoris, and Lumbar Erector Spinae was recorded. Electromyographic signals were normalized to the maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC). Electromyographic data were analyzed with repeated-measures analysis of variance with a Bonferroni post hoc. Based upon global arithmetic mean of all muscles analyzed, the suspended push-up with a pulley system provided the greatest activity (37.76% of MVIC; p push-up with a pulley system also provided the greatest triceps brachii, upper trapezius, rectus femoris and erector lumbar spinae muscle activation. In contrast, more stable conditions seem more appropriate for pectoralis major and anterior deltoid muscles. Independent of the type of design, all suspension systems were especially effective training tools for reaching high levels of rectus abdominis activation. Key PointsCompared with standard push-ups on the floor, suspended push-ups increase core muscle activation.A one-anchor system with a pulley is the best option to increase TRICEP, TRAPS, LUMB and FEM muscle activity.More stable conditions such as the standard push-up or a parallel band system provide greater increases in DELT and PEC muscle activation.A suspended push-up is an effective method to achieve high muscle activity levels in the ABS.

  7. Psychophysically determined forces of dynamic pushing for female industrial workers: Comparison of two apparatuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciriello, Vincent M; Maikala, Rammohan V; Dempsey, Patrick G; O'Brien, Niall V

    2010-01-01

    Using psychophysics, the maximum acceptable forces for pushing have been previously developed using a magnetic particle brake (MPB) treadmill at the Liberty Mutual Research Institute for Safety. The objective of this study was to investigate the reproducibility of maximum acceptable initial and sustained forces while performing a pushing task at a frequency of 1min(-1) both on a MPB treadmill and on a high-inertia pushcart. This is important because our pushing guidelines are used extensively as a ergonomic redesign strategy and we would like the information to be as applicable as possible to cart pushing. On two separate days, nineteen female industrial workers performed a 40-min MPB treadmill pushing task and a 2-hr pushcart task, in the context of a larger experiment. During pushing, the subjects were asked to select a workload they could sustain for 8h without "straining themselves or without becoming unusually tired, weakened, overheated or out of breath." The results demonstrated that maximum acceptable initial and sustained forces of pushing determined on the high inertia pushcart were 0.8% and 2.5% lower than the MPB treadmill. The results also show that the maximum acceptable sustained force of the MPB treadmill task was 0.5% higher than the maximum acceptable sustained force of Snook and Ciriello (1991). Overall, the findings confirm that the existing pushing data developed by the Liberty Mutual Research Institute for Safety still provides an accurate estimate of maximal acceptable forces for the selected combination of distance and frequency of push for female industrial workers.

  8. Oblique abdominal muscle activity in response to external perturbations when pushing a cart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yun-Ju; Hoozemans, Marco J M; van Dieën, Jaap H

    2010-05-07

    Cyclic activation of the external and internal oblique muscles contributes to twisting moments during normal gait. During pushing while walking, it is not well understood how these muscles respond to presence of predictable (cyclic push-off forces) and unpredictable (external) perturbations that occur in pushing tasks. We hypothesized that the predictable perturbations due to the cyclic push-off forces would be associated with cyclic muscle activity, while external perturbations would be counteracted by cocontraction of the oblique abdominal muscles. Eight healthy male subjects pushed at two target forces and two handle heights in a static condition and while walking without and with external perturbations. For all pushing tasks, the median, the static (10th percentile) and the peak levels (90th percentile) of the electromyographic amplitudes were determined. Linear models with oblique abdominal EMGs and trunk angles as input were fit to the twisting moments, to estimate trunk stiffness. There was no significant difference between the static EMG levels in pushing while walking compared to the peak levels in pushing while standing. When pushing while walking, the additional dynamic activity was associated with the twisting moments, which were actively modulated by the pairs of oblique muscles as in normal gait. The median and static levels of trunk muscle activity and estimated trunk stiffness were significantly higher when perturbations occurred than without perturbations. The increase baseline of muscle activity indicated cocontraction of the antagonistic muscle pairs. Furthermore, this cocontraction resulted in an increased trunk stiffness around the longitudinal axis. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Energy privatization: sensitivities and realities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, P. [University of Dundee, Dundee (United Kingdom). Centre for Petroleum and Mineral Law and Policy

    1997-12-31

    It is a commonly held belief at present that privatization will improve the efficiency of the state run energy sector, and benefit customers as well as the new owners, and the government selling the industry. Experience so far has been in well run Western economies, in particular in the UK, and even here many mistakes have been made, leading to increasingly strong intervention by regulators. In developing countries, where corruption is pervasive, efficient regulation is unlikely. Thus, privatisation may prove to be far worse for the consumer than the original state monopoly. The drive for privatization appears to be part ideological, part greed, as far as developing countries are considered. Certainly, political reform is needed before privatization can work in favour of the consumer. Examples are given from the UK electricity, gas, coal and rail industries.

  10. The effect of klapskate hinge position on push-off performance: a simulation study

    OpenAIRE

    Houdijk, J.H.P.; Bobbert, M.F.; de Koning, J.J.; de Groot, G.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: The introduction of the klapskate in speed skating confronts skaters with the question of how to adjust the position of the hinge in order to maximize performance. The purpose of this study was to reveal the constraint that klapskate hinge position imposes on push-off performance in speed skating. Method: For this purpose, a model of the musculoskeletal system was designed to simulate a simplified, two-dimensional skating push off. To capture the essence of a skating push off, this m...

  11. Interfacial push-out measurements of fully-bonded SiC/SiC composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snead, L.L.; Steiner, D.; Zinkle, S.J.

    1990-01-01

    The direct measurement of interfacial bond strength and frictional resistance to sliding in a fully-bonded SiC/SiC composite is measured. It is shown that a fiber push-out technique can be utilized for small diameter fibers and very thin composite sections. Results are presented for a 22 micron thick section for which 37 out of 44 Nicalon fibers tested were pushed-out within the maximum nanoindentor load of 120 mN. Fiber interfacial yielding, push-out and sliding resistance were measured for each fiber. The distribution of interfacial strengths is treated as being Weibull in form. 14 refs., 5 figs

  12. Effect of a powered drive on pushing and pulling forces when transporting bariatric hospital beds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggermann, Neal

    2017-01-01

    Powered drives designed to assist with moving hospital beds are commercially available but no studies have evaluated whether they reduce the push and pull forces likely contributing to injury in caregivers. This study measured hand forces of 10 caregivers maneuvering a manual and powered bariatric bed through simulated hospital environments (hallway, elevator, and ramp). Peak push and pull forces exceeded previously established psychophysical limits for all activities with the manual bed. For the powered bed, peak forces were significantly (p pushing did not differ between beds. Powered drive may reduce the risk of injury or the number of caregivers needed for transport. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Private equity and public-to-private transactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.G.J. Roosenboom (Peter)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractWhat considerations lie behind the decision to mount a management buy-out of a publicly listed firm, and should third party investors be involved? Indeed, does the involvement of private equity investors actually aid company performance after a deal is done?

  14. Privately issued money reduces GDP.

    OpenAIRE

    Musgrave, Ralph S.

    2017-01-01

    The majority of the money supply is issued by private banks, not central banks. However a system that restricts money creation to central banks has been advocated for many years by leading economists. There is no reason interest rates would not be at some sort of genuine free market rate under the latter system. In contrast, when private bank money is allowed, those banks undercut the free market rate of interest because it costs them nothing to come by the money they lend out: they effective...

  15. The Impunity of Private Authority

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leander, Anna

    2007-01-01

    . It begins by pointing to the tension involved in any effort to hold an authority (private or public) accountable, namely the tension between the centrality of acceptance for authority and accountability measures that necessarily involve contestation. It then proceeds to analyse this tension in the case...... of private security companies (PSCs). PSCs have become authorities in their own right in the security sphere. This has raised the question of their accountability and also resulted in considerable efforts to improve the accountability of the firms. This paper looks at why these efforts bear so little fruit...

  16. Private support and social security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dijk, F

    1998-01-01

    "The issue is addressed whether assistance to persons in need can be left to the ¿family' and the ¿community'. In that case people depend on their social networks. The support a person receives through a given network of social ties is examined. However, ties are diverse and subject to change. By means of a model of the dynamics of social ties, the conditions for adequate private support are analyzed. The sustainability of private support over time is examined by incorporating the impact on social ties of lending and receiving support. It is shown that support is only an effective alternative in a limited number of situations." excerpt

  17. Effects of synchronous versus asynchronous mode of propulsion on wheelchair basketball sprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faupin, Arnaud; Borel, Benoit; Meyer, Christophe; Gorce, Philippe; Watelain, Eric

    2013-11-01

    This study aimed to first investigate synchronous (SYN) versus asynchronous (ASY) mode of propulsion and, second, investigate the wheel camber effects on sprinting performance as well as temporal parameters. Seven wheelchair basketball players performed four maximal eight-second sprints on a wheelchair ergometer. They repeated the test according to two modes of propulsion (SYN and ASY) and two wheel cambers (9° and 15°). The mean maximal velocity and push power output was greater in the synchronous mode compared to the asynchronous mode for both camber angles. However, the fluctuation in the velocity profile is inferior for ASY versus SYN mode for both camber angles. Greater push time/cycle time (Pt/Ct) and arm frequency (AF) for synchronous mode versus asynchronous mode and inversely, lesser Ct and rest time (Rt) values for the synchronous mode, for which greater velocity were observed. SYN mode leads to better performance than ASY mode in terms of maximal propulsion velocity. However, ASY propulsion allows greater continuity of the hand-rim force application, reducing fluctuations in the velocity profile. The camber angle had no effect on ASY and SYN mean maximal velocity and push power output. The study of wheelchair propulsion strategies is important for better understanding physiological and biomechanical impacts of wheelchair propulsion for individuals with disabilities. From a kinematical point of view, this study highlights synchronous mode of propulsion to be more efficient, with regards to mean maximal velocity reaching during maximal sprinting exercises. Even if this study focuses on well-trained wheelchair athletes, results from this study could complement the knowledge on the physiological and biomechanical adaptations to wheelchair propulsion and therefore, might be interesting for wheelchair modifications for purposes of rehabilitation.

  18. Effect of different light curing methods on the push-out bond strength of glass fiber post to different root canal regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Eskandarizadeh

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Slow polymerization rate in early stage of light curing process leads to higher monomers movement and entering in polymer network that cause higher mechanical properties.The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of light activation methodes (immediate, 5 and 10 minutes delay on the push-out bond strength of cemented fiber posts in different regions of root canal with two types of resin cements. Materials and Methods: In sixty extracted human single canal, the teeth were decoronated from cement enamel junction and after root canal therapy, FRC postec plus were cemented with two resin cements, Duolink and Variolink 2, in three curing methods; immediate, 5 and 10 minutes of delay. After storing in a dark place for 24 hours, they were cut into three sections: coronal, middle and apical. The push-out bond strength test was performed using a universal testing machine. The failure modes were observed using a stereomicroscope. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey post hoc test (P0.05. In immediate light curing method, regardless of root region, Duolink had higher push-out bond strength than that of Variolink 2 (P=0.02. In all subgroups, there were reductions in the bond strengths from coronal to apical. Mixed failure at the cement-fiber post interface was predominent in all groups. Conclusion: 5 and 10 minutes delay caused reduction in the push-out bond strength for Variolink 2 but did not have significant effect for Duolink resin cement.

  19. Influence of Er,Cr:YSGG Laser Surface Treatments on Micro Push-Out Bond Strength of Fiber Posts to Composite Resin Core Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrsima Ghavami-Lahiji

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Statement of problem: The bonding of fiber post to resin core or root dentin is challenged by limited penetration of resin material to the polymeric matrix of fiber posts. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of Er,Cr:YSGG on micro push-out bond strength of glass fiber posts to resin core material. Materials and Methods: We used 2 commercially available fiber posts, Exacto (Angelus and White Post DC (FGM, which had similar coronal diameters. Specimens of each fiber post (n=36 were randomly divided into three subgroups (n=12 posts per group according to different surface treatment methods: control (no surface treatment, irradiation by 1W Er,Cr:YSGG, and irradiation by 1.5W Er,Cr:YSGG. A cylindrical plastic tube was placed around the post. Resin core material was filled into the tube and cured. Coronal portions of the posts were sectioned into 1-mm-thick slices. Then, the specimens were subjected to a thermocyling device for 3000 cycles. The micro push-out test was carried out using a Universal Testing Machine. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey’s HSD post hoc test to investigate the effect of different surface treatments on each type of fiber post. Results: The 1.5W Er,Cr:YSGG laser statistically reduced micro push-out bond strength values in the Exacto groups (P0.05. Mode of failure analysis showed that mixed failure was the predominant failure type for all surface treatment groups. Conclusions: The beneficial effect of Er,Cr:YSGG laser application could not be confirmed based on the results of this in vitro study. Er,Cr:YSGG laser could not significantly enhance the bond strength values. However, the 1.5W laser statistically decreased micro push-out bond strength in the Exacto fiber posts.

  20. Diagnostic features of quantitative comb-push shear elastography for breast lesion differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayat, Mahdi; Denis, Max; Gregory, Adriana; Mehrmohammadi, Mohammad; Kumar, Viksit; Meixner, Duane; Fazzio, Robert T; Fatemi, Mostafa; Alizad, Azra

    2017-01-01

    Lesion stiffness measured by shear wave elastography has shown to effectively separate benign from malignant breast masses. The aim of this study was to evaluate different aspects of Comb-push Ultrasound Shear Elastography (CUSE) performance in differentiating breast masses. With written signed informed consent, this HIPAA- compliant, IRB approved prospective study included patients from April 2014 through August 2016 with breast masses identified on conventional imaging. Data from 223 patients (19-85 years, mean 59.93±14.96 years) with 227 suspicious breast masses identifiable by ultrasound (mean size 1.83±2.45cm) were analyzed. CUSE was performed on all patients. Three regions of interest (ROI), 3 mm in diameter each, were selected inside the lesion on the B-mode ultrasound which also appeared in the corresponding shear wave map. Lesion elasticity values were measured in terms of the Young's modulus. In correlation to pathology results, statistical analyses were performed. Pathology revealed 108 lesions as malignant and 115 lesions as benign. Additionally, 4 lesions (BI-RADS 2 and 3) were considered benign and were not biopsied. Average lesion stiffness measured by CUSE resulted in 84.26% sensitivity (91 of 108), 89.92% specificity (107 of 119), 85.6% positive predictive value, 89% negative predictive value and 0.91 area under the curve (P 0.21). CUSE was able to distinguish between benign and malignant breast masses with high sensitivity and specificity. Continuity of stiffness maps allowed for choosing multiple quantification ROIs which covered large areas of lesions and resulted in similar diagnostic performance based on average and maximum elasticity. The overall results of this study, highlights the clinical value of CUSE in differentiation of breast masses based on their stiffness.

  1. Diagnostic features of quantitative comb-push shear elastography for breast lesion differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Bayat

    Full Text Available Lesion stiffness measured by shear wave elastography has shown to effectively separate benign from malignant breast masses. The aim of this study was to evaluate different aspects of Comb-push Ultrasound Shear Elastography (CUSE performance in differentiating breast masses.With written signed informed consent, this HIPAA- compliant, IRB approved prospective study included patients from April 2014 through August 2016 with breast masses identified on conventional imaging. Data from 223 patients (19-85 years, mean 59.93±14.96 years with 227 suspicious breast masses identifiable by ultrasound (mean size 1.83±2.45cm were analyzed. CUSE was performed on all patients. Three regions of interest (ROI, 3 mm in diameter each, were selected inside the lesion on the B-mode ultrasound which also appeared in the corresponding shear wave map. Lesion elasticity values were measured in terms of the Young's modulus. In correlation to pathology results, statistical analyses were performed.Pathology revealed 108 lesions as malignant and 115 lesions as benign. Additionally, 4 lesions (BI-RADS 2 and 3 were considered benign and were not biopsied. Average lesion stiffness measured by CUSE resulted in 84.26% sensitivity (91 of 108, 89.92% specificity (107 of 119, 85.6% positive predictive value, 89% negative predictive value and 0.91 area under the curve (P 0.21.CUSE was able to distinguish between benign and malignant breast masses with high sensitivity and specificity. Continuity of stiffness maps allowed for choosing multiple quantification ROIs which covered large areas of lesions and resulted in similar diagnostic performance based on average and maximum elasticity. The overall results of this study, highlights the clinical value of CUSE in differentiation of breast masses based on their stiffness.

  2. Peru steps up push to attract oil investment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that Peru's government is stepping up efforts to attract more foreign investment in its oil and gas sector. Since taking over in July 1990, the government of President Alberto Fujimori has taken a number of steps to privatize the oil sector, improve the fiscal regime for oil investment, and streamline regulations on oil and gas investment. In the most dramatic step, the Fujimori administration ended state oil company Petroleos del Peru's monopoly on downstream operations as well as imports and exports of oil and gas as part of sweeping new oil and gas legislation. In addition, officials of the Fujimori administration have been traveling to key oil centers around the world with a presentation on Peru's hydrocarbon potential, trying to spark interest in E and D investment there

  3. The Interplay of Institutional Logics in IT Public–Private Partnerships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck, Roman; Marschollek, Oliver; Gregory, Robert

    2015-01-01

    - and private-side stakeholders. Our case study of an IT PPP reveals public- and private-side differences that initially impeded the establishment of a partnership; using institutional logics theory as meta-theoretical lens, we propose a model that explains how public and private parties managed to negotiate...... their mode of collaboration by balancing their competing institutional norms and practices which ultimately resulted in the convergence of the two divergent logics. Our paper contributes to theory and practice by (1) elucidating the theoretical foundations and role of institutional logics for IT project...

  4. Renegotiating Public-Private Partnerships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miranda Sarmento, J.J.; Renneboog, Luc

    2017-01-01

    The renegotiations of public–private partnership (PPP) contracts are commonly considered to be one of the pitfalls of PPPs, as they tend to undermine their (ex ante) efficiency. A renegotiation occurs when specific events change the conditions of a concession, frequently leading to a financial claim

  5. Pemex sets petchem privatization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, C.

    1993-01-01

    Last week, Mexico's state-owned oil company, Petroleos Mexicanos (Pemex), was scheduled to unveil plans for the sale of basic petrochemical plants. The first privatization package - Pemex ammonia plants at Cosoleacaque and Camargo - will involve the sale of securities on the Mexican Stock Exchange, allowing a large number of Mexican investors to acquire parts of the business

  6. The structure of privatization plans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perotti, E.C.; Guney, S.E.

    1993-01-01

    In the last decade, large-scale privatization programs have transformed the structure of corporate ownership in many countries, and are a major cause of the development of their capital markets. They have contributed to nondebt financing of the public deficit, attracted foreign capital and

  7. Private Equity and Regulatory Capital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongaerts, D.; Charlier, E.

    2008-01-01

    Regulatory Capital requirements for European banks have been put forward in the Basel II Capital Framework and subsequently in the Capital Requirements Directive (CRD) of the EU. We provide a detailed discussion of the capital requirements for private equity investments under the simple risk weight

  8. Contemporary Public-private Partnership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hodge, Graeme; Greve, Carsten

    2018-01-01

    This paper reviews the research agenda lineage on public-private partnerships (PPPs) from Broadbent and Laughlin's seminal piece in 1999. The PPP phenomenon is viewed at five levels: project delivery, organisational form, policy, governance tool and as a phenomenon within a broader historical and...

  9. Private Sector and Enterprise Development

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Ministry of Technical Education and Vocational Training ..... and ..structures that offer services to private sector enterprises and represent .... investment climate reform and the adoption of good governance practices. ..... Over two-thirds of the labour force in Jordan, the West Bank & Gaza, Iraq and Syria is in the service sector.

  10. Private sector finance for adaptation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atteridge, A.; Pauw, W.P.; Terpstra, P.; Bedini, F.; Bosi, L; Costella, C.

    2016-01-01

    An emphasis on private finance has emerged in climate finance discussions, particularly in the context of international climate change negotiations. This is partly because the overall volume of finance needed to support adaptation in developing countries is beyond what many expect public finance to

  11. Public vs. Private (and beyond)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poliniak, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Different types of schools make for different experiences. Pros and cons abound, whether one teaches at a public, private, magnet, or charter school. Although it's certainly true that some individual schools may offer better environments for music education than others, no type of school is categorically the "best." Still, it can be instructive to…

  12. Private lenders’ demand for audit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baylis, R.M.; Burnap, P.; Clatworthy, M.A.; Gad, Mahmoud; Pong, C.K.M.

    We study clauses in private lending agreements requiring auditors to assure lenders of borrowers’ compliance with financial covenants. Auditors are required under general purpose financial reporting to review covenant compliance. However, by informing lenders directly that they have no knowledge of

  13. Private Tutoring and Social Cohesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyneman, Stephen P.

    2011-01-01

    Mastering the public school curriculum is so important to a child's occupational future that in many regions of the world "shadow" education outside of the public system has now become the norm. In one way, this is excellent news because private investment in human capital is a strong contributor to economic and social development.…

  14. Security for Virtual Private Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Magdalena Nicoleta Iacob

    2015-01-01

    Network security must be a permanent concern for every company, given the fact that threats are evolving today more rapidly than in the past. This paper contains a general classification of cryptographic algorithms used in today networks and presents an implementation of virtual private networks using one of the most secure methods - digital certificates authentication.

  15. The Problem of Private Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A Abdollahi

    2014-09-01

    This language is, according to Wittgenstein, impossible because it leads to epistemological and semantic skepticism. The definition of private language contains two elements: the “privacy” and “referring to”. Wittgenstein shows how we may be trapped in solipsism and the only way to avoid this problem is to consider language as a social phenomenon.

  16. Public Schools: Make Them Private.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Milton

    1997-01-01

    A voucher system enabling parents to choose freely the schools their children attend is the most feasible way to improve education. Vouchers will encourage privatization. That will unleash the drive, imagination, and energy of competitive free enterprise to revolutionize the education process. Government schools will be forced to improve to retain…

  17. Public interests in private hands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bijkerk, W.; Poort, J.; Schuurman, A.

    2003-03-01

    In this study several actual problems with respect to privatization in the Netherlands are discussed, focusing on the production and distribution of electricity, the harbour in Rotterdam and the airport Schiphol, the railway sector, and the waste management and processing sector. For each sector it is discussed what level of government and market involvement is required to give the best results [nl

  18. Privatization, convergence, and institutional autonomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooijen, van M.

    2011-01-01

    Some of the trends incoming for 2011 – greater institutional autonomy, public/private convergence, entrepreneurial management, civic engagement – suggest innovation for hard times, with socio-economic and political rationales increasingly driving borderless developments. Others – open learning and

  19. Style drift in private equity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cumming, D.; Fleming, G.; Schwienbacher, A.

    2009-01-01

    We introduce the concept of style drift to private equity investment. We present theory and evidence pertaining to style drifts in terms of a fund manager's stated focus on particular stages of entrepreneurial development. We develop a model that derives conditions under which style drifts are less

  20. Private governance of ocean resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groeneveld, R.A.; Bush, S.R.; Bailey, M.L.

    2017-01-01

    The United Nations (UN) post-2015 development agenda (United Nations 2015) calls for the establishment of a global partnership for sustainable development, ‘bringing together Governments, civil society, the private sector, the United Nations system and other actors and mobilizing all available

  1. Pushing and pulling in relation to musculoskeletal disorders : a review of risk factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoozemans, M J; Van Der Beek, Allard J.; Frings-Dresen, M. H. W.; Dijk, F.J.H.; van der Woude, L H

    The objective was to review the literature on risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders related to pushing and pulling. The risk factors have been described and evaluated from four perspectives: epidemiology, psychophysics, physiology, and biomechanics. Epidemiological studies have shown, based on

  2. Pushing and pulling in relation to musculoskeletal disorders: a review of risk factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoozemans, Marco; van der Beek, A.J.; Frings-Dresen, M.H.W.; Dijk, F.J.H.

    1998-01-01

    The objective was to review the literature on risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders related to pushing and pulling. The risk factors have been described and evaluated from four perspectives: epidemiology, psychophysics, physiology, and biomechanics. Epidemiological studies have shown, based on

  3. Lower limb joint kinetics and ankle joint stiffness in the sprint start push-off.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charalambous, Laura; Irwin, Gareth; Bezodis, Ian N; Kerwin, David

    2012-01-01

    Sprint push-off technique is fundamental to sprint performance and joint stiffness has been identified as a performance-related variable during dynamic movements. However, joint stiffness for the push-off and its relationship with performance (times and velocities) has not been reported. The aim of this study was to quantify and explain lower limb net joint moments and mechanical powers, and ankle stiffness during the first stance phase of the push-off. One elite sprinter performed 10 maximal sprint starts. An automatic motion analysis system (CODA, 200 Hz) with synchronized force plates (Kistler, 1000 Hz) collected kinematic profiles at the hip, knee, and ankle and ground reaction forces, providing input for inverse dynamics analyses. The lower-limb joints predominately extended and revealed a proximal-to-distal sequential pattern of maximal extensor angular velocity and positive power production. Pearson correlations revealed relationships (P push-off in different ways, depending on the phase of stance considered.

  4. How does the duration of active pushing in labor affect neonatal outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yli, Branka M; Kro, Grete A Birkeland; Rasmussen, Svein; Khoury, Janette; Norèn, Håkan; Amer-Wåhlin, Isis; Saugstad, Ola Didrik; Stray-Pedersen, Babill

    2011-11-19

    To assess the effect of time of active pushing (TAP) on neonatal outcome. The study population (n=36,432) was taken from a Swedish randomized control trial on intrapartum monitoring, a European Union fetal electrocardiogram trial, and from Mölndal Hospital. After validation of acid-base samples and TAP, 22,812 cases were accepted for analysis. The median active TAP was 36 min for P0 and 13 min for P≥1 (Ppushing for 15-29 min (n=6589) relative to pushing for 12 mmol/L to 3.5 (95% CI 1.3-9.0). The group with a cord artery pH of 15 min), while the probability of a spontaneous vaginal delivery decreased with the duration of pushing. We suggest active physiological evaluation of the labor progress together with continuous electronic fetal monitoring during pushing irrespective of guideline thresholds.

  5. Pushing and pulling: an assessment tool for occupational health and safety practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Carl Mikael

    2018-03-01

    A tool has been developed for supporting practitioners when assessing manual pushing and pulling operations based on an initiative by two global companies in the manufacturing industry. The aim of the tool is to support occupational health and safety practitioners in risk assessment and risk management of pushing and pulling operations in the manufacturing and logistics industries. The tool is based on a nine-multiplier equation that includes a wide range of factors affecting an operator's health risk and capacity in pushing and pulling. These multipliers are based on psychophysical, physiological and biomechanical studies in combination with judgments from an expert group consisting of senior researchers and ergonomists. In order to consider usability, more than 50 occupational health and safety practitioners (e.g., ergonomists, managers, safety representatives and production personnel) participated in the development of the tool. An evaluation by 22 ergonomists supports that the push/pull tool is user friendly in general.

  6. Determinants and magnitudes of manual force strengths and joint moments during two-handed standing maximal horizontal pushing and pulling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Amy Y; Dickerson, Clark R

    2016-04-01

    Pushing and pulling are common occupational exertions that are increasingly associated with musculoskeletal complaints. This study focuses on the sensitivity of shoulder capacity to gender, handle height, exertion type (push or pull) and handle orientation for these tasks. All factors except for handle orientation influenced unilateral and total manual force strength (p pushing and pulling tasks for a diverse population. Practitioner Summary: pushing and pulling comprise nearly half of all manual materials handling tasks. Practitioners often assess, design or modify these tasks while incorporating constraints, including manual force direction and handle interface. This study provides guidance to aid design of pushing and pulling tasks in the context of shoulder physical capacity.

  7. Rock pushing and sampling under rocks on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, H.J.; Liebes, S.; Crouch, D.S.; Clark, L.V.

    1978-01-01

    from under a rock to the aqueous nutrient in the Gas Exchange instrument indicates that adsorbed water and hydrates play an important role in the oxidation potential of the soil. The rock surfaces are strong, because they did not scratch, chip or spall when the sampler pushed them. Fresh surfaces of soil and the undersides of rocks were exposed so that they could be imaged in color. A ledge of soil adhered to one rock that tilted, showing that a crust forms near the surface of Mars. The reason for low amounts of iron in the sampIes from under the rocks is not known at this time.

  8. Relationship between push phase and final race time in skeleton performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanoletti, Costanza; La Torre, Antonio; Merati, Giampiero; Rampinini, Ermanno; Impellizzeri, Franco M

    2006-08-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between push-time and final race time in skeleton participants during a series of major international competitions to determine the importance of the push phase in skeleton performance. Correlations were computed from the first and second heat split data measured during 24 men and 24 women skeleton competitions. Body mass, height, age, and years of experience of the first 30 men and women athletes of the skeleton, bobsleigh and luge 2003-2004 World Cup ranking were used for the comparison between sliding sports. Moderate but significant correlations (p push-time and final race time in men (r(mean) = 0.48) and women (r(mean) = 0.63). No correlations were found between changes in the individual push-time between the first and second heat with the corresponding changes in final race time. The bobsleigh sliders are heavier than the athletes of the other sliding disciplines. Luge athletes have more experience and are younger than bobsleigh and skeleton sliders. The results of this study suggest that a fast push phase is a prerequisite to success in competition and confirms that the selection of skeleton athletes based on the ability to accelerate to a maximum speed quickly could be valid. However, a good or improved push-time does not ensure a placement in the top finishing positions. On the basis of these results, we suggest that strength and power training is necessary to maintain a short push-time but additional physical training aimed to enhance the push phase might not reflect performance improvements. The recruitment of younger athletes and an increase of youthful competitive activity may be another effective way to reach international competitive results.

  9. A unified perspective on ankle push-off in human walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelik, Karl E; Adamczyk, Peter G

    2016-12-01

    Muscle-tendon units about the ankle joint generate a burst of positive power during the step-to-step transition in human walking, termed ankle push-off, but there is no scientific consensus on its functional role. A central question embodied in the biomechanics literature is: does ankle push-off primarily contribute to leg swing, or to center of mass (COM) acceleration? This question has been debated in various forms for decades. However, it actually presents a false dichotomy, as these two possibilities are not mutually exclusive. If we ask either question independently, the answer is the same: yes! (1) Does ankle push-off primarily contribute to leg swing acceleration? Yes. (2) Does ankle push-off primarily contribute to COM acceleration? Yes. Here, we summarize the historical debate, then synthesize the seemingly polarized perspectives and demonstrate that both descriptions are valid. The principal means by which ankle push-off affects COM mechanics is by a localized action that increases the speed and kinetic energy of the trailing push-off limb. Because the limb is included in body COM computations, this localized segmental acceleration also accelerates the COM, and most of the segmental energy change also appears as COM energy change. Interpretation of ankle mechanics should abandon an either/or contrast of leg swing versus COM acceleration. Instead, ankle push-off should be interpreted in light of both mutually consistent effects. This unified perspective informs our fundamental understanding of the role of ankle push-off, and has important implications for the design of clinical interventions (e.g. prostheses, orthoses) intended to restore locomotor function to individuals with disabilities. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  10. Causal assessment of occupational pushing or pulling and low back pain: results of a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roffey, Darren M; Wai, Eugene K; Bishop, Paul; Kwon, Brian K; Dagenais, Simon

    2010-06-01

    Low back pain (LBP) is a prevalent and expensive musculoskeletal condition that predominantly occurs in working-age individuals of industrialized nations. Although numerous occupational physical activities have been implicated in its etiology, determining the causation of occupational LBP still remains a challenge. To conduct a systematic review evaluating the causal relationship between occupational pushing or pulling and LBP. Systematic review of the literature. Studies reporting an association between occupational pushing or pulling and LBP. Numerical association between exposure to pushing or pulling and the presence of LBP. A systematic review was performed to identify, evaluate, and summarize the literature related to establishing a causal relationship, according to Bradford-Hill criteria for causation for occupational pushing or pulling and LBP. A search was conducted using Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, and OSH-ROM, gray literature, hand-searching occupational health journals, reference lists of included studies, and expert knowledge. Methodological quality was assessed using a modified Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. This search yielded 2,766 citations. Thirteen studies met the inclusion criteria. Eight were high-quality studies and five were low-quality studies. There was conflicting evidence with one high-quality study demonstrating a positive association between occupational pushing or pulling and LBP and five studies showing no relationship. One study reported a nonstatistically significant dose-response trend, four studies discussed temporality of which one indicated a positive finding, two studies discussed the biological plausibility of a causal link between occupational pushing or pulling and LBP, and no evidence was uncovered to assess the experiment criterion. A qualitative summary of existing studies was not able to find any high-quality studies that fully satisfied any of the Bradford-Hill causation criteria for occupational pushing or

  11. Gender comparison of psychophysical forces, cardiopulmonary, and muscle metabolic responses during a simulated cart pushing task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maikala, Rammohan V; Ciriello, Vincent M; Dempsey, Patrick G; O'Brien, Niall V

    2010-10-01

    The purpose was to compare psychophysiological responses between healthy male and female workers during dynamic pushing. Using a psychophysical approach, 27 participants chose an acceptable force that they could push over a 7.6m distance at a frequency of 1 push per min on a treadmill. On a separate day, cardiopulmonary (e.g., whole-body oxygen uptake, heart rate, ventilation volume) and muscle metabolic measurements (change in muscle blood volume [ΔtHb] and Tissue Oxygenation Index [TOI]) from the right and left gastrocnemius muscles were collected simultaneously while participants pushed the previously chosen acceptable force on the treadmill at a similar frequency and distance for 2h. Results showed no significant difference between men and women for integrated force exerted on the instrumented treadmill handle and cardiopulmonary responses. In contrast, women demonstrated 45.7% lower ΔtHb but 3.6% higher TOI in the gastrocnemius region as compared to men, suggesting a lower hemoglobin concentration in women and high venous oxygen saturation during pushing. When ΔtHb and TOI were corrected for both body mass and pushing force, the disparity in gender was retained, implying an increased muscle oxygen saturation per force development in women than men during pushing. In the left gastrocnemius region, ΔtHb was 60% lower and TOI was 5.7% higher in women than men, suggesting an uneven muscle loading during pushing. Overall, the gender similarity in cardiopulmonary responses versus disparity in muscle metabolic responses suggest the importance of evaluating human performance during physical work at both whole-body and localized muscle levels. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Is perception of vertical impaired in individuals with chronic stroke with a history of 'pushing'?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansfield, Avril; Fraser, Lindsey; Rajachandrakumar, Roshanth; Danells, Cynthia J; Knorr, Svetlana; Campos, Jennifer

    2015-03-17

    Post-stroke 'pushing' behaviour appears to be caused by impaired perception of vertical in the roll plane. While pushing behaviour typically resolves with stroke recovery, it is not known if misperception of vertical persists. The purpose of this study was to determine if perception of vertical is impaired amongst stroke survivors with a history of pushing behaviour. Fourteen individuals with chronic stroke (7 with history of pushing) and 10 age-matched healthy controls participated. Participants sat upright on a chair surrounded by a curved projection screen in a laboratory mounted on a motion base. Subjective visual vertical (SVV) was assessed using a 30 trial, forced-choice protocol. For each trial participants viewed a line projected on the screen and indicated if the line was tilted to the right or the left. For the subjective postural vertical (SPV), participants wore a blindfold and the motion base was tilted to the left or right by 10-20°. Participants were asked to adjust the angular movements of the motion base until they felt upright. SPV was not different between groups. SVV was significantly more biased towards the contralesional side for participants with history of pushing (-3.6 ± 4.1°) than those without (-0.1 ± 1.4°). Two individuals with history of pushing had SVV or SPV outside the maximum for healthy controls. Impaired vertical perception may persist in some individuals with prior post-stroke pushing, despite resolution of pushing behaviours, which could have consequences for functional mobility and falls. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Study on pollution control in residential kitchen based on the push-pull ventilation system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Bin; Chen, Feng; Dong, Zhibo

    2016-01-01

    Highlights •The push-pull ventilation system is proposed to improve IAQ inside kitchen, where air is supplied through slot air curtain and then exhausted through range hood. •CO2 reduction efficiency with application of air curtain in experiment and simulation in breathing zone was 23.7% and 23.......1%, respectively. •By orthogonal method, the influence of factors on pollution control of the push-pull ventilation system was presented....

  14. Determination of extra-push energies for fusion from differential fission cross-section measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramamurthy, V.S.; Kapoor, S.S.

    1993-01-01

    Apparent discrepancies between values of extra-push energies for fusion of two heavy nuclei derived through measurements of fusion evaporation residue cross sections and of differential fission cross sections have been reported by Keller et al. We show here that with the inclusion of the recently proposed preequilibrium fission decay channel in the analysis, there is no inconsistency between the two sets of data in terms of the deduced extra-push energies

  15. Entry modes of European firms in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Simonet

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to explore the entry modes of EU firms setting up operations in Vietnam. Design/methodology/approach: we use a case study approach on Haymarket, Cadbury, Creative Education, Fairchild, Aventis and Artemisinin and Farming International using interviews from managerial professionals in Vietnam. Findings: Despite the fact that Vietnam has been opening up for more than 20 years, licensing is the preferred entry mode because of the risks involved in venturing with local firms; that preference signals a low level commitment and a high perception of risk and state interference. In line with Vietnam transition to state - rather than private market - capitalism, a foreign company opting for a joint-venture will do so with a state-owned rather than privately-owned company. The choice of a subsidiary can be explained by the lack of trust in partners and institutions, not by improvement in the socio-political environment. Limitations: In determining the entry mode strategy, the paper focuses on the Uppsala school’s “psychic distance” (e.g. cultural distance, lack of trust rather than on firm-specific advantages (Rugman, 1980; 2006. Key-words: international entry mode; emerging markets; subsidiary; joint-venture; India; Vietnam

  16. H-mode physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Sanae.

    1991-06-01

    After the discovery of the H-mode in ASDEX ( a tokamak in Germany ) the transition between the L-mode ( Low confinement mode ) and H-mode ( High confinement mode ) has been observed in many tokamaks in the world. The H-mode has made a breakthrough in improving the plasma parameters and has been recognized to be a universal phenomena. Since its discovery, the extensive studies both in experiments and in theory have been made. The research on H-mode has been casting new problems of an anomalous transport across the magnetic surface. This series of lectures will provide a brief review of experiments for explaining H-mode and a model theory of H-mode transition based on the electric field bifurcation. If the time is available, a new theoretical model of the temporal evolution of the H-mode will be given. (author)

  17. Effects of Different Relative Loads on Power Performance During the Ballistic Push-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ran; Hoffman, Jay R; Sadres, Eliahu; Bartolomei, Sandro; Muddle, Tyler W D; Fukuda, David H; Stout, Jeffrey R

    2017-12-01

    Wang, R, Hoffman, JR, Sadres, E, Bartolomei, S, Muddle, TWD, Fukuda, DH, and Stout, JR. Effects of different relative loads on power performance during the ballistic push-up. J Strength Cond Res 31(12): 3411-3416, 2017-The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effect of load on force and power performance during a ballistic push-up. Sixty (24.5 ± 4.3 years, 1.75 ± 0.07 m, and 80.8 ± 13.5 kg) recreationally active men who participated in this investigation completed all testing and were included in the data analysis. All participants were required to perform a 1 repetition maximum bench press, and ballistic push-ups without external load (T1), with 10% (T2) and 20% (T3) of their body mass. Ballistic push-ups during T2 and T3 were performed using a weight loaded vest. Peak and mean force, power, as well as net impulse and flight time were determined for each ballistic push-up. Peak and mean force were both significantly greater (p ballistic push-up, regardless of the participants' level of strength.

  18. The impact of pushed output on accuracy and fluency of Iranian EFL learners’ speaking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aram Reza Sadeghi Beniss

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The current study attempted to establish baseline quantitative data on the impacts of pushed output on two components of speaking (i.e., accuracy and fluency. To achieve this purpose, 30 female EFL learners were selected from a whole population pool of 50 based on the standard test of IELTS interview and were randomly assigned into an experimental group and a control group. The participants in the experimental group received pushed output treatment while the students in the control group received non-pushed output instruction. The data were collected through IELTS interview and then the interview of each participant was separately tape-recorded and later transcribed and coded to measure accuracy and fluency. Then, the independent samples t-test was employed to analyze the collected data. The results revealed that the experimental group outperformed the control group in accuracy. In contrast, findings substantiated that pushed output had no impact on fluency. The positive impact of pushed output demonstrated in this study is consistent with the hypothesized function of Swain’s (1985 pushed output. The results can provide some useful insights into syllabus design and English language teaching.

  19. Optimization of ramp area aircraft push back time windows in the presence of uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coupe, William Jeremy

    It is well known that airport surface traffic congestion at major airports is responsible for increased taxi-out times, fuel burn and excess emissions and there is potential to mitigate these negative consequences through optimizing airport surface traffic operations. Due to a highly congested voice communication channel between pilots and air traffic controllers and a data communication channel that is used only for limited functions, one of the most viable near-term strategies for improvement of the surface traffic is issuing a push back advisory to each departing aircraft. This dissertation focuses on the optimization of a push back time window for each departing aircraft. The optimization takes into account both spatial and temporal uncertainties of ramp area aircraft trajectories. The uncertainties are described by a stochastic kinematic model of aircraft trajectories, which is used to infer distributions of combinations of push back times that lead to conflict among trajectories from different gates. The model is validated and the distributions are included in the push back time window optimization. Under the assumption of a fixed taxiway spot schedule, the computed push back time windows can be integrated with a higher level taxiway scheduler to optimize the flow of traffic from the gate to the departure runway queue. To enable real-time decision making the computational time of the push back time window optimization is critical and is analyzed throughout.

  20. Three components of postural control associated with pushing in symmetrical and asymmetrical stance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yun-Ju; Aruin, Alexander S

    2013-07-01

    A number of occupational and leisure activities that involve pushing are performed in symmetrical or asymmetrical stance. The goal of this study was to investigate early postural adjustments (EPAs), anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs), and compensatory postural adjustments (CPAs) during pushing performed while standing. Ten healthy volunteers stood in symmetrical stance (with feet parallel) or in asymmetrical stance (staggered stance with one foot forward) and were instructed to use both hands to push forward the handle of a pendulum attached to the ceiling. Bilateral EMG activity of the trunk and leg muscles and the center of pressure (COP) displacements in the anterior-posterior (AP) and medial-lateral (ML) directions were recorded and analyzed during the EPAs, APAs, and CPAs. The EMG activity and the COP displacement were different between the symmetrical and asymmetrical stance conditions. The COP displacements in the ML direction were significantly larger in staggered stance than in symmetrical stance. In staggered stance, the EPAs and APAs in the thigh muscles of the backward leg were significantly larger, and the CPAs were smaller than in the forward leg. There was no difference in the EMG activity of the trunk muscles between the stance conditions. The study outcome confirmed the existence of the three components of postural control (EPAs, APAs, and CPAs) in pushing. Moreover, standing asymmetrically was associated with asymmetrical patterns of EMG activity in the lower extremities reflecting the stance-related postural control during pushing. The study outcome provides a basis for studying postural control during other daily activities involving pushing.

  1. Discontinuous Mode Power Supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagadinos, John; Poulos, Ethel

    2012-01-01

    A document discusses the changes made to a standard push-pull inverter circuit to avoid saturation effects in the main inverter power supply. Typically, in a standard push-pull arrangement, the unsymmetrical primary excitation causes variations in the volt second integral of each half of the excitation cycle that could lead to the establishment of DC flux density in the magnetic core, which could eventually cause saturation of the main inverter transformer. The relocation of the filter reactor normally placed across the output of the power supply solves this problem. The filter reactor was placed in series with the primary circuit of the main inverter transformer, and is presented as impedance against the sudden changes on the input current. The reactor averaged the input current in the primary circuit, avoiding saturation of the main inverter transformer. Since the implementation of the described change, the above problem has not reoccurred, and failures in the main power transistors have been avoided.

  2. Cost comparison between private and public collection of residual household waste: multiple case studies in the Flemish region of Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, R; Buysse, J; Gellynck, X

    2013-01-01

    The rising pressure in terms of cost efficiency on public services pushes governments to transfer part of those services to the private sector. A trend towards more privatizing can be noticed in the collection of municipal household waste. This paper reports the findings of a research project aiming to compare the cost between the service of private and public collection of residual household waste. Multiple case studies of municipalities about the Flemish region of Belgium were conducted. Data concerning the year 2009 were gathered through in-depth interviews in 2010. In total 12 municipalities were investigated, divided into three mutual comparable pairs with a weekly and three mutual comparable pairs with a fortnightly residual waste collection. The results give a rough indication that in all cases the cost of private service is lower than public service in the collection of household waste. Albeit that there is an interest in establishing whether there are differences in the costs and service levels between public and private waste collection services, there are clear difficulties in establishing comparisons that can be made without having to rely on a large number of assumptions and corrections. However, given the cost difference, it remains the responsibility of the municipalities to decide upon the service they offer their citizens, regardless the cost efficiency: public or private. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Regional Integration, Trade and Private Sector Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Regional Integration, Trade and Private Sector Development Program (Namibia) ... (NEPRU's other clients include regional and private sector institutions.) ... New Dutch-Canadian funding for the Climate and Development Knowledge Network.

  4. Investigation of privatization by level crossing approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahabi, M.; Jafari, G. R.

    2009-09-01

    Privatization - a political as well as an economic policy - is generally defined as the transfer of a property or the responsibility for it from the public to the private sector. But privatization is not merely the transfer of the ownership and efficiency of the market should be considered. A successful privatization program induces better profitability and efficiency, higher output, more investment, etc. The main method of privatization is through introducing new stocks to the market to motivate competition. However, for a successful privatization the capability of a market for absorbing the new stock should also be considered. Without paying attention to this aspect, privatization through the introduction of new stocks may lead to reduced market efficiency. We study, based on the complexity theory and in particular the concept of Level Crossing, the effect of the stages of the development, activity, risk, and the waiting times for special events on the privatization.

  5. Private Practice Is Alive and Well

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Arnold M.

    1976-01-01

    Is private practice a superior service delivery mechanism? The author contends that, in affording the client his choice of a helper, private practice embodies the basic values of social work and stimulates workers to become more responsible and knowledgeable.

  6. Privatization and subsidization in a leadership duopoly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Fernanda A.

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, we consider a competition in both mixed and privatized markets, in which the firms set prices in a sequential way. We study the effects of optimal production subsidies in both mixed and privatized duopoly.

  7. Privatization, political risk and stock market development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perotti, E.C.; van Oijen, P.H.

    1999-01-01

    This paper investigates whether privatization in emerging economies has a significant indirect effect on local stock market development through the resolution of political risk. We argue that a sustained privatization program represents a major political test which gradually resolves uncertainty

  8. Offentlig privat samarbejde i Senegal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prag, Ebbe

    2012-01-01

    Artiklen undersøger baggrunden for Senegals regering og præsident Wades bestræbelser på at fremme ”privatisering” af nationalparken ”Niokolo Koba” og andre naturparker i Senegal gennem ”Public Private Partnership” (PPP) – det man på dansk vil kalde udlicitering. Jeg fokuserer på, hvilken form denne...... delvise privatisering tager, under påvirkning af de barrierer og interessekampe den støder på under den igangværende politiske proces. Det er i særdeleshed interessant, hvordan samspillet mellem internationale aktører på naturbevaringsområdet, udenlandske donorer, private investorer, Senegals regering...

  9. Pharmaceutical Public-Private Partnerships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagley, Constance; Tvarnø, Christina D.

    2014-01-01

    This article provides a game theory and law-and-management analysis of for- profit pharmaceutical public-private partnerships, a complex type of legal arrangement in the highly regulated pharmaceutical industry. A pharmaceutical public-private partnership (PPPP) agreement is a legally binding...... and a practical perspective on how properly crafted PPPP arrangements can promote innovation more efficiently than traditional self-optimizing contracts. In particular, a properly framed binding contract, coupled with respect for positive incentives, can move the parties away from an inefficient prisoners...... systems to build and share innovation. When coupled with appropriate attention to the difficult task of coordinating the actions of interdependent actors, a PPPP arrangement can enhance the likelihood of successful commercialization of pharmacological discoveries by flipping the par- ties’ incentives...

  10. Efficient, Differentially Private Point Estimators

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Adam

    2008-01-01

    Differential privacy is a recent notion of privacy for statistical databases that provides rigorous, meaningful confidentiality guarantees, even in the presence of an attacker with access to arbitrary side information. We show that for a large class of parametric probability models, one can construct a differentially private estimator whose distribution converges to that of the maximum likelihood estimator. In particular, it is efficient and asymptotically unbiased. This result provides (furt...

  11. Defining the private partners in PPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Vleuten-Balkema, F.; Stam, N.

    2004-01-01

    Now that the public private partnerships are seen to be the way forward in solar electrification in developing countries, it is important to question who will be the private partner in the partnership? For decentralized energy technologies such as solar home systems, that are being disseminated to vast numbers of highly dispersed end-users, the private partners of today are the hundreds or thousands of often non specialized local entrepreneurs. The public private partnerships of tomorrow should be reoriented accordingly. (authors)

  12. Private school location and neighborhood characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Lisa Barrow

    2002-01-01

    Any voucher program that is going to have a major impact on the public education system is likely to require an expansion of private schools in order to accommodate increased demand; however, very little is known about where private schools open and, therefore, how a major voucher program might affect private school availability in various communities. This article examines the relationship between the location of private schools and local neighborhood characteristics, hoping to shed some lig...

  13. India's petroleum privatization gathering speed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    Privatization of India's petroleum industry is seen as inevitable, even by the staunchest supporters of the state owned sector there. What has become clear is that the huge investments required for Indian exploration, refining, and marketing are beyond the scope of even the biggest state owned firms, such as Oil and Natural Gas Commission (ONGC) and Indian Oil Corp. (IOC). A proposal was put forth last fall to offer Bombay High offshore oil fields to leading multinationals for redevelopment to stem the production slide in India's mainstay producing area. Some of those projects could entail capital outlays of as much as $1 billion. In another step to attract foreign investment to the petroleum sector, India last month decided to take steps for phased decontrol of domestic crude oil prices to bring them in line with world market levels and help set the stage for privatization of ONGC. The paper describes major projects, the slide in oil production, price changes, the need for privatization, and the lukewarm interest in exploration

  14. CRIMINAL PROTECTION OF PRIVATE LIFE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RADU SLAVOIU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This study is meant, first of all, to analyze the incriminations that the new Romanian Criminal Code sets for the protection of a person’s private life as a social value of maximum significance both for the human being and for any democratic society as a whole.There are two criminal offences treated in this study that are not to be found in the current criminal legislation: violation of private life and criminal trespassing of a legal person’s property. Likewise, the study will bring forth the novelties and the differences regarding the offences of criminal trespassing of a natural person’s property, disclosure of professional secret, violation of secret correspondence, illegal access to computerized system and illegal interception of electronic data transfer – acts that when, directly or indirectly, committed can cause harm to the intimacy of a person’s life.As an expression of the interdisciplinary nature of this subject, the study also sets out, as a subsidiary aspect, an evaluation of the circumstances under which the new criminal proceeding legislation allows public authorities to interfere with an individual’s private life. Thus, the emphasis is on the analysis of the circumstances under which special surveillance and investigation techniques can be used as evidence proceedings regulated by the new Romanian Criminal Procedure Code.

  15. European Private Law - Survey 1998-2000

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hondius, E.H.

    2000-01-01

    From its conception, the European Review of Private Law has tried, sometimes in vain, to publish Chronicles (‘Chroniques’) or Surveys of the main areas of private law: Contract, Inheritance, Property, Tort, etc. The idea of these Chronicles or Surveys is that, within a specific area of private

  16. 77 FR 58208 - Airport Privatization Pilot Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-19

    ... Privatization Pilot Program AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of receipt of... International Airport, San Juan, Puerto Rico (SJU) in the Airport Privatization Pilot Program and has determined....S.C. Section 47134 establishes an airport privatization pilot program and authorizes the Department...

  17. Resources to Manage a Private Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aigner, John; Cheek, Fredricka; Donati, Georgia; Zuravicky, Dori

    1997-01-01

    Includes four theme articles: "The Digital Toolkit: Electronic Necessities for Private Practice" (John Aigner); "Organizing a Private Practice: Forms, Fees, and Physical Set-up (Fredricka Cheek); "Career Development Resources: Guidelines for Setting Up a Private Practice Library" (Georgia Donati); and "Books to…

  18. 45 CFR 605.39 - Private education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Private education. 605.39 Section 605.39 Public..., Elementary, and Secondary Education § 605.39 Private education. (a) A recipient that provides private elementary or secondary education may not, on the basis of handicap, exclude a qualified handicapped person...

  19. 38 CFR 18.439 - Private education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Private education. 18.439... Adult Education § 18.439 Private education. (a) A recipient that provides private elementary or secondary education may not on the basis of handicap, exclude a qualified handicapped person if the person...

  20. 45 CFR 84.39 - Private education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Private education. 84.39 Section 84.39 Public... Secondary Education § 84.39 Private education. (a) A recipient that provides private elementary or secondary education may not, on the basis of handicap, exclude a qualified handicapped person if the person can, with...

  1. 7 CFR 15b.28 - Private education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Private education. 15b.28 Section 15b.28 Agriculture... Education § 15b.28 Private education. (a) A recipient that provides private elementary or secondary education may not, on the basis of handicap, exclude a qualified handicapped person if the person can, with...

  2. Mental Health Services at Selected Private Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hoof, Thomas J.; Sherwin, Tierney E.; Baggish, Rosemary C.; Tacy, Peter B.; Meehan, Thomas P.

    2004-01-01

    Private schools educate a significant percentage of US children and adolescents. Private schools, particularly where students reside during the academic year, assume responsibility for the health and well-being of their students. Children and adolescents experience mental health problems at a predictable rate, and private schools need a mechanism…

  3. Mathematic Achievement of Canadian Private School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadigan, Francoise Jane; Wei, Yichun; Clifton, Rodney A.

    2013-01-01

    Very little Canadian research has examined the academic achievement of private school students. Data from The Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2003 were used to examine the achievement of private school students. The study found that private school students outperformed their public school peers. In addition, the students'…

  4. On the Real Effects of Private Equity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.G.J. Roosenboom (Peter)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractPrivate equity has become an increasingly important part of our economy. Around the world the companies owned by private equity investors account for a substantial percentage of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and private sector employment. These investors have recently been under fire in

  5. Private vs. Public Higher Education Budgeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beamer, Sarah A.

    2011-01-01

    Private higher education institutions are those entities owned and operated by the private sector, while public institutions are those established, supported, and controlled by a governmental agency, most often a state. Key differences exist between private and public institutions that affect budgeting in critical ways. Such differences include…

  6. Private quantum subsystems and quasiorthogonal operator algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levick, Jeremy; Kribs, David W; Pereira, Rajesh; Jochym-O’Connor, Tomas; Laflamme, Raymond

    2016-01-01

    We generalize a recently discovered example of a private quantum subsystem to find private subsystems for Abelian subgroups of the n-qubit Pauli group, which exist in the absence of private subspaces. In doing so, we also connect these quantum privacy investigations with the theory of quasiorthogonal operator algebras through the use of tools from group theory and operator theory. (paper)

  7. Private labels : The brands of the future

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keller, Kristopher

    2017-01-01

    This dissertation consists of three essays that study private labels’ evolution from private labels as brand class to individual private-label brands from three different perspectives. In the second chapter of this dissertation (essay 1), I study the antecedents and performance implications of

  8. Research on the Mechanism of Science and Technology Infrastructure Resource Sharing Service Based on PPP (Public-Private Partnership) Mode Selection: Taking Chongqing as an Example%基于PPP(公私合作)视角的科技资源共享服务机制研究——以重庆为例的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾琼; 张小波

    2017-01-01

    The study found that the root cause of the problems of the existing sharing service management lies in the failure to properly deal with the contradiction between the dual value attributes of public goods and private goodsof science and technology resource.Accordingly,based on the dual value attributesof science and technology infrastructure resource and national policies to encourage social capital to involve in public services,taking Chongqing as a case study,the thesisputs forward the suggestions includingconstructing the management model of sharing service of science and technology infrastructure resourcebased on PPP (public-private partnership) perspective,and setting up the cost-benefit distribution mechanism,coordination management mechanism,resource integration mechanism,reward mechanism,incentive and constraint mechanism and corresponding system to ensure the successful operation of this model.%研究发现,现有科技资源共享服务管理出现问题的根源在于未正确处理好科技资源“公共品”和“私人品”的双重价值属性矛盾.基于此,以重庆为例,充分考虑科技基础资源双重价值属性,结合国家鼓励社会资本参与科研基础设施社会化服务的政策要求,从PPP(公私合作)的视角,构建科技资源共享服务管理模式,建立保证该模式成功运行的成本收益分配机制、协调管理机制、资源整合机制、回报机制、激励与约束机制和相应制度.

  9. Double-push skating versus V2 and V1 skating on uphill terrain in cross-country skiing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöggl, Thomas; Kampel, Wolfgang; Müller, Erich; Lindinger, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    The aims of the study were a) to compare the double-push skating technique with the V2 and the V1 skating techniques on an uphill terrain by a kinematic and kinetic analysis, b) to provide kinetic and kinematic data of the V1 technique at maximal skiing speeds, and c) to test the hypotheses that the double-push skating technique is faster compared with the V2 and the V1 skating techniques. Six elite skiers performed maximum speed sprints over a 60-m uphill section (7 degrees -10 degrees) using the double-push, the V2, and the V1 techniques. Pole and plantar forces and cycle characteristics were analyzed. The double-push skating technique was approximately 4.3% faster (P push and the V2 techniques demonstrated longer cycle lengths, lower cycle rates (both P push technique compared with the V2 technique (all P values push technique compared with the other two techniques (P push techniques compared with the V2 technique stress the mechanical advantage of those techniques on uphill terrain. Because of larger cycle lengths, lower cycle rate, longer recovery times, and equal poling frequency, the double-push technique might be seen as more economic on steep uphills compared with the V1 technique. From a tactical point of view compared with the V1 technique, the double-push technique needs less space due to less lateral displacement, and no technique transitions are necessary when entering and leaving an uphill section.

  10. The Effect of Variation of Plyometric Push-Ups on Force-Application Kinetics and Perception of Intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhahbi, Wissem; Chaouachi, Anis; Dhahbi, Anis Ben; Cochrane, Jodie; Chèze, Laurence; Burnett, Angus; Chamari, Karim

    2017-02-01

    To examine differences between ground-reaction-force (GRF)-based parameters collected from 5 types of plyometric push-ups. Between-trials reliability and the relationships between parameters were also assessed. Thirty-seven highly active commando soldiers performed 3 trials of 5 variations of the plyometric push-up in a counterbalanced order: standard countermovement push-up (SCPu), standard squat push-up (SSPu), kneeling countermovement push-up (KCPu), kneeling squat push-up (KSPu), and drop-fall push-up (DFPu). Vertical GRF was measured during these exercises using a portable Kistler force plate. The GRF applied by the hands in the starting position (initial force supported), peak GRF and rate of force development during takeoff, flight time, impact force, and rate of force development impact on landing were determined. During standard-position exercises (SCPu and SSPu) the initial force supported and impact force were higher (P push-up exercises ([CMP] SCPu, KCPu, and DFPu) than squat push-up exercises ([SP] SSPu and KSPu). Furthermore, the flight time was greater (P push-up exercises and train athletes' muscle power by correctly interpreting GRF-based parameters. However, caution is required as some parameters had marginal absolute reliability.

  11. Effects of a pushing intervention on pain, fatigue and birthing experiences among Taiwanese women during the second stage of labour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Su-Chuan; Chou, Min-Min; Lin, Kuan-Chia; Lin, Lie-Chu; Lin, Yu-Lan; Kuo, Su-Chen

    2011-12-01

    To evaluate maternal labour pain, fatigue, duration of the second stage of labour, the women's bearing-down experiences and the newborn infant Apgar scores when spontaneous pushing is used in an upright position. Quasi-experimental study. Medical centre in Taichung, Taiwan. 66 Women giving birth at the hospital, with 33 primigravidas assigned to each group. During the second stage of labour, the women in the experimental group pushed from an upright position and were given support to push spontaneously; the women in the control group pushed from a supine position and were supported via Valsalva pushing. Pain scores were recorded at two evaluation time points: at 10 cm of cervical dilation and one hour after the first pain score evaluation. One to four hours after childbirth, the trained nurses collected the fatigue and pushing experience scores. The women in the experimental group had a lower pain index (5.67 versus 7.15, p = 0.01), lower feelings of fatigue post birth (53.91 versus 69.39, p pushing intervention during the second stage of labour lessened pain and fatigue, shortened the pushing time and enhanced the pushing experience. Pushing interventions can yield increased satisfaction levels for women giving birth. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The push-pull tactic for mitigation of mountain pine beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) damage in lodgepole and whitebark pines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillette, Nancy E; Mehmel, Constance J; Mori, Sylvia R; Webster, Jeffrey N; Wood, David L; Erbilgin, Nadir; Owen, Donald R

    2012-12-01

    In an attempt to improve semiochemical-based treatments for protecting forest stands from bark beetle attack, we compared push-pull versus push-only tactics for protecting lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Douglas ex Loudon) and whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis Engelm.) stands from attack by mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) in two studies. The first was conducted on replicated 4.04-ha plots in lodgepole pine stands (California, 2008) and the second on 0.81-ha plots in whitebark pine stands (Washington, 2010). In both studies, D. ponderosae population levels were moderate to severe. The treatments were 1) push-only (D. ponderosae antiaggregant semiochemicals alone); 2) push-pull (D. ponderosae antiaggregants plus perimeter traps placed at regular intervals, baited with four-component D. ponderosae aggregation pheromone); and 3) untreated controls. We installed monitoring traps baited with two-component D. ponderosae lures inside each plot to assess effect of treatments on beetle flight. In California, fewer beetles were collected in push-pull treated plots than in control plots, but push-only did not have a significant effect on trap catch. Both treatments significantly reduced the rate of mass and strip attacks by D. ponderosae, but the difference in attack rates between push-pull and push-only was not significant. In Washington, both push-pull and push-only treatments significantly reduced numbers of beetles caught in traps. Differences between attack rates in treated and control plots in Washington were not significant, but the push-only treatment reduced attack rates by 30% compared with both the control and push-pull treatment. We conclude that, at these spatial scales and beetle densities, push-only may be preferable for mitigating D. ponderosae attack because it is much less expensive, simpler, and adding trap-out does not appear to improve efficacy.

  13. Responsibility for private sector adaptation to climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Schneider

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (2007 indicates that vulnerable industries should adapt to the increasing likelihood of extreme weather events along with slowly shifting mean annual temperatures and precipitation patterns, to prevent major damages or periods of inoperability in the future. Most articles in the literature on business management frame organizational adaptation to climate change as a private action. This makes adaptation the sole responsibility of a company, for its sole benefit, and overlooks the fact that some companies provide critical goods and services such a food, water, electricity, and medical care, that are so vital to society that even a short-term setback in operations could put public security at risk. This raises the following questions: (1 Who is responsible for climate change adaptation by private-sector suppliers of critical infrastructure? (2 How can those who are identified to be responsible, actually be held to assume their responsibility for adapting to climate change? These questions will be addressed through a comprehensive review of the literature on business management, complemented by a review of specialized literature on public management. This review leads to several conclusions. Even though tasks that formerly belonged to the state have been taken over by private companies, the state still holds ultimate responsibility in the event of failure of private-sector owned utilities, insofar as they are "critical infrastructure." Therefore, it remains the state's responsibility to foster adaptation to climate change with appropriate action. In theory, effective ways of assuming this responsibility, while enabling critical infrastructure providers the flexibility adapt to climate change, would be to delegate adaptation to an agency, or to conduct negotiations with stakeholders. In view of this theory, Germany will be used as a case study to demonstrate how private-sector critical infrastructure

  14. Interaction of tearing modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satya, Y.; Schmidt, G.

    1979-01-01

    A fully developed tearing mode modifies the magnetic field profile. The effect of this profile modification on the linear growth rate of a different tearing mode in a slab and cylindrical geometry is investigated

  15. A hybrid discrete choice model to assess the effect of awareness and attitude towards environmentally friendly travel modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sottile, Eleonora; Meloni, Italo; Cherchi, Elisabetta

    2015-01-01

    The need to reduce private vehicle use has led to the development of soft measures aimed at re-educating car users through information processes that raise their awareness regarding the benefits of environmentally friendly modes, encouraging them to voluntarily change their mode choice behaviour......&R) instead of their car, we estimated a hybrid mode choice model....

  16. Kenya geothermal private power project: A prefeasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-10-01

    Twenty-eight geothermal areas in Kenya were evaluated and prioritized for development. The prioritization was based on the potential size, resource temperature, level of exploration risk, location, and exploration/development costs for each geothermal area. Suswa, Eburru and Arus are found to offer the best short-term prospects for successful private power development. It was found that cost per kill developed are significantly lower for the larger (50MW) than for smaller-sized (10 or 20 NW) projects. In addition to plant size, the cost per kill developed is seen to be a function of resource temperature, generation mode (binary or flash cycle) and transmission distance.

  17. Push-out bond strength and SEM evaluation of a new bonding approach into the root canal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Augusto Carvalho

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the performance of different adhesive systems in fiber post placement aiming to clarify the influence of different hydrophobic experimental blend adhesives, and of one commercially available adhesive on the frictional retention during a luting procedure. MATERIAL AND METHODS: One luting agent (70 Wt% BisGMA, 28.5% TEGDMA; 1.5% p-tolyldiethanolamine to cement fiber posts into root canals was applied with 4 different adhesive combinations: Group 1: The etched roots were rinsed with water for 30 s to remove the phosphoric acid, then rinsed with 99.6% ethanol for 30 s, and blotdried. A trial adhesive (base to catalyst on a 1:1 ratio was used with an experimental luting agent (35% Bis-GMA, 14.37% TeGDMA, 0.5% eDMAB, 0.13% CQ; Group 2: A trial adhesive (base to catalyst on a 1:2 ratio was luted as in Group 1; Group 3: One-Step Plus (OSP, Bisco Inc. following the ethanol bonding technique in combination with the luting agent as in Group 1; Group 4: OSP strictly following the manufacturer's instructions using the luting agent as in Group 1. The groups were challenged with push-out tests. Posted root slices were loaded until post segment extrusion in the apical-coronal direction. Failure modes were analyzed under scanning electron microscopy. RESULTS: Push-out strength was not significantly influenced by the luting agent (p>0.05. No statistically significant differences among the tested groups were found as Group 1 (exp 1 - ethanol-wet bonding technique=Group 2 (exp 2 - ethanol-wet bonding technique=Group 3 (OSP - ethanol-wet bonding technique=Group 4 (control, OSP - water-wet bonding technique (p>0.05. The dominating failure modes in all the groups were cohesive/adhesive failures, which were predominantly observed on the post/luting agent interface. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study support the hypothesis that the proposal to replace water with ethanol to bond fiber posts to the root canal using highly hydrophobic

  18. Privatization of oil companies in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsyth, A.; Mommer, B.; McBeth, B.

    1995-01-01

    Three linked articles explore the current movement towards privatization in the various countries of South America. While the progress away from state control varies from country to country, the first article argues that the movement will offer economic benefits to the Latin American petroleum industry as a whole, despite the political difficulties which must be overcome. In the second article, public distaste for the nationalization of the Venezuelan oil industry back in 1943, petroleum engineers, economists, private sector representatives and oil industry employees all oppose wholesale privatization, favouring national and private investment within Venezuela. The last author argues for an efficient regulatory framework to oversee privatization schemes. (UK)

  19. Muscle Activation during Push-Ups with Different Suspension Training Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquin Calatayud, Sebastien Borreani, Juan C. Colado, Fernando F Martín, Michael E. Rogers

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to analyze upper extremity and core muscle activation when performing push-ups with different suspension devices. Young fit male university students (n = 29 performed 3 push-ups each with 4 different suspension systems. Push-up speed was controlled using a metronome and testing order was randomized. Average amplitude of the electromyographic root mean square of Triceps Brachii, Upper Trapezius, Anterior Deltoid, Clavicular Pectoralis, Rectus Abdominis, Rectus Femoris, and Lumbar Erector Spinae was recorded. Electromyographic signals were normalized to the maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC. Electromyographic data were analyzed with repeated-measures analysis of variance with a Bonferroni post hoc. Based upon global arithmetic mean of all muscles analyzed, the suspended push-up with a pulley system provided the greatest activity (37.76% of MVIC; p < 0.001. Individually, the suspended push-up with a pulley system also provided the greatest triceps brachii, upper trapezius, rectus femoris and erector lumbar spinae muscle activation. In contrast, more stable conditions seem more appropriate for pectoralis major and anterior deltoid muscles. Independent of the type of design, all suspension systems were especially effective training tools for reaching high levels of rectus abdominis activation.

  20. The defence technique in Tai Chi Push Hands: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui-Chuan; Cheng, Kuang-You B; Liu, Yu-Jen; Chiu, Hung-Ta; Cheng, Kuang-Yu

    2010-12-01

    Developed from traditional Chinese martial arts, Tai Chi exercise includes different forms and interactive Push Hands but biomechanical analyses have focused on the former only. To analyse the techniques of Push Hands, an experienced master was asked to defend pushing by four opponents. Movements were videotaped and digitized using a motion analysis system. Surface electrodes were used to record the electromyographic activity of ten muscle groups. Two force plates were used to measure the ground reaction force on each foot. Inexperienced individuals performed the same procedure to serve as the control group. The results indicate that the master adopted a postural adjustment to maintain balance. A clear shift of body weight from the front to the rear foot and mediolateral displacement of the centre of gravity was observed. Low electromyographic activity was observed in the upper body muscle groups, while high electromyographic activity was observed in the right rectus femoris and very high activity in the left rectus femoris during the defence. All inexperienced participants lost their balance in resisting pushing. It is concluded that the Tai Chi defensive technique includes a subtle postural adjustment that slightly changes the pushing force direction, and allows the rear leg to resist the incoming force.

  1. Optical micromanipulation of active cells with minimal perturbations: direct and indirect pushing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chenlu; Chowdhury, Sagar; Gupta, Satyandra K; Losert, Wolfgang

    2013-04-01

    The challenge to wide application of optical tweezers in biological micromanipulation is the photodamage caused by high-intensity laser exposure to the manipulated living systems. While direct exposure to infrared lasers is less likely to kill cells, it can affect cell behavior and signaling. Pushing cells with optically trapped objects has been introduced as a less invasive alternative, but the technique includes some exposure of the biological object to parts of the optical tweezer beam. To keep the cells farther away from the laser, we introduce an indirect pushing-based technique for noninvasive manipulation of sensitive cells. We compare how cells respond to three manipulation approaches: direct manipulation, pushing, and indirect pushing. We find that indirect manipulation techniques lessen the impact of manipulation on cell behavior. Cell survival increases, as does the ability of cells to maintain shape and wiggle. Our experiments also demonstrate that indirect pushing allows cell-cell contacts to be formed in a controllable way, while retaining the ability of cells to change shape and move.

  2. Duration of Second Stage of Labour at Term and Pushing Time: Risk Factors for Postpartum Haemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looft, Emelie; Simic, Marija; Ahlberg, Mia; Snowden, Jonathan M; Cheng, Yvonne W; Stephansson, Olof

    2017-03-01

    Prolonged labour is associated with increased risk of postpartum haemorrhage (PPH), but the role of active pushing time and the relation with management during labour remains poorly understood. A population-based cohort study from electronic medical record data in the Stockholm-Gotland Region, Sweden. We included 57 267 primiparous women with singleton, term gestation, livebirths delivered vaginally in cephalic presentation in 2008-14. We performed multivariable Poisson regression to estimate the association between length of second stage, pushing time, and PPH (estimated blood loss >500 mL during delivery), adjusting for maternal, delivery, and fetal characteristics as potential confounders. The incidence of PPH was 28.9%. The risk of PPH increased with each passing hour of second stage: compared with a second stage pushing time exceeding 30 min. Compared to pushing time between 15 and 29 min, the RR for PPH were for pushing time during labour are both associated with increased risk of PPH. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. The effect of second-stage pushing and body mass index on postdural puncture headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Amber M; Jia, Shawn Y; Bahnson, Henry T; Goel, Akash; Habib, Ashraf S

    2017-02-01

    To explore how pushing during labor and body mass index affect the development of postdural puncture headache in parturients who experienced dural puncture with Tuohy needles. Retrospective cohort. Obstetric ward and operating rooms at a university-affiliated hospital. One hundred ninety parturients who had witnessed dural puncture with 17 or 18 gauge Tuohy needles from 1999-2014. Patients were categorized by pushing status and body mass index (kg/m 2 ): nonobese push, women who pushed during labor had increased risk of postdural puncture headache (odds ratio [OR], 2.1 [1.1-4.0]; P=.02), more days of headache (P=.02), and increased epidural blood patch placement (P=.02). Super obese patients were less likely to develop headache compared with nonobese (OR, 0.33 [0.13-0.85]; P=.02), obese (OR, 0.37 [0.14-0.98]; P=.045], and morbidly obese patients (OR, 0.20 [0.05-0.68]; Ppushing (OR, 0.57 [0.29-1.10]; P=.096) and super obesity (OR, 0.41 [0.16-1.02]; P=.056] were no longer significantly associated with reduced risk of postdural puncture headache. Parturients who did not push before delivery and parturients with body mass index ≥50kg/m 2 were less likely to develop postdural puncture headache in a univariate analysis. Similar trends were demonstrated in a multivariate model, but were no longer statistically significant. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Community Wind: Once Again Pushing the Envelope of Project Finance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    bolinger, Mark A.

    2011-01-18

    In the United States, the 'community wind' sector - loosely defined here as consisting of relatively small utility-scale wind power projects that sell power on the wholesale market and that are developed and owned primarily by local investors - has historically served as a 'test bed' or 'proving grounds' for up-and-coming wind turbine manufacturers that are trying to break into the U.S. wind power market. For example, community wind projects - and primarily those located in the state of Minnesota - have deployed the first U.S. installations of wind turbines from Suzlon (in 2003), DeWind (2008), Americas Wind Energy (2008) and later Emergya Wind Technologies (2010), Goldwind (2009), AAER/Pioneer (2009), Nordic Windpower (2010), Unison (2010), and Alstom (2011). Thus far, one of these turbine manufacturers - Suzlon - has subsequently achieved some success in the broader U.S. wind market as well. Just as it has provided a proving grounds for new turbines, so too has the community wind sector served as a laboratory for experimentation with innovative new financing structures. For example, a variation of one of the most common financing arrangements in the U.S. wind market today - the special allocation partnership flip structure (see Figure 1 in Section 2.1) - was first developed by community wind projects in Minnesota more than a decade ago (and is therefore sometimes referred to as the 'Minnesota flip' model) before being adopted by the broader wind market. More recently, a handful of community wind projects built over the past year have been financed via new and creative structures that push the envelope of wind project finance in the U.S. - in many cases, moving beyond the now-standard partnership flip structures involving strategic tax equity investors. These include: (1) a 4.5 MW project in Maine that combines low-cost government debt with local tax equity, (2) a 25.3 MW project in Minnesota using a sale/leaseback structure

  5. Privatization and the globalization of energy markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    This report reviews recent global efforts to privatize energy resources and outlines the opportunities and challenges privatization has presented to U.S. and foreign multinational energy companies. The group of energy companies studied in this report includes the major U.S. petroleum companies and many foreign companies. The foreign companies reviewed include state-run energy enterprises, recently privatized energy enterprises, and foreign multinationals that have been privately held. The privatization of non-petroleum energy industries, such as electricity generation and transmission, natural gas transmission, and coal mining, are also discussed. Overseas investments made by electric companies, natural gas companies, and coal companies are included. The report is organized into six chapters: (1) economics of privatization; (2) petroleum privatization efforts among non-U.S. Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development nations; (3) petroleum privatization efforts in Latin America; (4) privatization in socialist and former socialist regimes; (5) privatization efforts in global electric power generation, transmission, and distribution industries; and (6) privatization and globalization of world coal.

  6. Research of private label development in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Horvat

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Private labels have been present on the market since 19th century but their intensive market growth began in the last thirty years after retailers realized what their potential could be in the fight against ever-growing competition. Their market growth has not been distributed equally thought the world so Europe became the region with the highest private label market share, which exceeds 40% on some markets. Although the private label market share in Croatia is considerably smaller, it has also increased steadily over the last decade since private labels were introduced on the market. This paper presents the findings of a research conducted for the purpose of identifying trends in private label development on the Croatian market. The research was conducted through in-depth interviews with private label managers in retail companies in Croatia, and with the managers responsible for private label production in manufacturing companies. The research identified three expected trends of private label development in Croatia and these are: an increase in private label quality, the maintenance of a price gap between private labels and manufacturers’ brands and a further increase in the private label market share.

  7. Pushing/bearing down methods for the second stage of labour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, Andrea; Amorim, Melania Mr; Dornelas de Andrade, Armele; de Souza, Ariani I; Cabral Filho, José Eulálio; Correia, Jailson B

    2017-03-26

    Maternal pushing during the second stage of labour is an important and indispensable contributor to the involuntary expulsive force developed by uterine contraction. There is no consensus on an ideal strategy to facilitate these expulsive efforts and there are contradictory results about the influence on the mother and fetus. To evaluate the benefits and possible disadvantages of different kinds of techniques regarding maternal pushing/breathing during the expulsive stage of labour on maternal and fetal outcomes. We searched Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth's Trials Register (19 September 2016) and reference lists of retrieved studies. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs assessing the effects of pushing/bearing down techniques (type and/or timing) performed during the second stage of labour on maternal and neonatal outcomes. Cluster-RCTs were eligible for inclusion, but none were identified. Studies using a cross-over design and those published in abstract form only were not eligible for inclusion in this review. Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion, extracted data and assessed risk of bias. Data were checked for accuracy. In this updated review, we included 21 studies in total, eight (884 women) comparing spontaneous pushing versus directed pushing, with or without epidural analgesia and 13 (2879 women) comparing delayed pushing versus immediate pushing with epidural analgesia. Our GRADE assessments of evidence ranged from moderate to very low quality; the main reasons for downgrading were study design limitations and imprecision of effect estimates. Overall, the included studies varied in their risk of bias; most were judged to be at unclear risk of bias. Comparison 1: types of pushing: spontaneous pushing versus directed pushingThere was no clear difference in the duration of the second stage of labour (mean difference (MD) 10.26 minutes; 95% confidence interval (CI) -1.12 to 21.64 minutes, six studies, 667 women, random

  8. Syntetiske pyrethroider i private hjem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karl-Martin Vagn; Fomsgaard, Inge S.; Kilpinen, Ole Østerlund

    2015-01-01

    A number of different methods are tested to elucidate the accumulation of synthetic pyrethroids in private homes. When the target pest is resistant, there is a potential risk that persistent synthetic pyrethroids accumulate because of repeated treatments. The highest residue found was 8260 µg lam...... lambda-cyhalothrin in a vacuum-cleaner sample (vacuumed for 10 minutes) and 1252 µg lambda-cyhalothrin in a “cotton sock dosimeter” sample. Similar data for deltamethrin was 805 µg in a vacuum-cleaner sample and 806 µg in a “cotton sock dosimeter” sample....

  9. TWRS privatization bibliography. Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    The purpose of this bibliography is to present a select set of documents that may be of interest to the Offeror, covering a variety of subject areas related to the TWRS Privatization Project. This bibliography is not, nor is it intended to be, exhaustive or complete. It was prepared with the intent of providing a sampling of representative documents potentially helpful to Offerors. This bibliography is organized by subject area. The subjects covered are: waste characterization; pre-treatment; high-level waste immobilization; low-level waste immobilization; low-level waste melter test program; performance assessment; general; and safety.

  10. Private Observatories in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijsdijk, C.

    2016-12-01

    Descriptions of private observatories in South Africa, written by their owners. Positions, equipment descriptions and observing programmes are given. Included are: Klein Karoo Observatory (B. Monard), Cederberg Observatory (various), Centurion Planetary and Lunar Observatory (C. Foster), Le Marischel Observatory (L. Ferreira), Sterkastaaing Observatory (M. Streicher), Henley on Klip (B. Fraser), Archer Observatory (B. Dumas), Overbeek Observatory (A. Overbeek), Overberg Observatory (A. van Staden), St Cyprian's School Observatory, Fisherhaven Small Telescope Observatory (J. Retief), COSPAR 0433 (G. Roberts), COSPAR 0434 (I. Roberts), Weltevreden Karoo Observatory (D. Bullis), Winobs (M. Shafer)

  11. Inviting In the Private Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-10-01

    private sector . After all, corruption does not just involve government. Business people and lawyers and citizens pay the bribes, even as they condemn bribery. They should be invited to become part of the solution. But how? The first point to note is that business people and citizens know where corruption exists and how corrupt systems work. Citizens understand how bribery shapes the services they receive or don’t receive. Accountants know the illicit games played with audits and taxes. Lawyers understand corrupt legal practices. Business people know all about corrupt

  12. Modeling the impact of pedestrian behavior diversity on traffic dynamics at a crosswalk with push button

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Dong-Fan; Zhao, Xiao-Mei; Li, Xin-Gang; Zhu, Tai-Lang

    2016-01-01

    Crosswalk with push button is prevalent in lots of cities for the purpose of promoting the efficiency of the crosswalk, and thus the delays of both vehicles and pedestrians can be reduced. This strategy has been confirmed to be effective in several developed countries. However, it is a pity that application of push button is aborted in some cities in China. In this work, diverse behaviors of vehicles and pedestrians are analyzed and discussed. Then, a microscopic model is developed by incorporating the interaction between vehicles and pedestrians. Numerical simulations are performed to reveal the characteristics of traffic flow and the efficiency of the signal control strategy. Also, the impacts of risker proportion and button reaction time, as well as the impacts of various behaviors as mass behavior, the patience of pedestrian and push button habit are investigated. It is expected that the results will be helpful to the strategy design of a signalized crosswalk in such developing countries as China.

  13. Micro/nano-mechanical test system employing tensile test holder with push-to-pull transformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Yunje; Cyrankowski, Edward; Shan, Zhiwei; Asif, Syed Amanula Syed

    2013-05-07

    A micromachined or microelectromechanical system (MEMS) based push-to-pull mechanical transformer for tensile testing of micro-to-nanometer scale material samples including a first structure and a second structure. The second structure is coupled to the first structure by at least one flexible element that enables the second structure to be moveable relative to the first structure, wherein the second structure is disposed relative to the first structure so as to form a pulling gap between the first and second structures such that when an external pushing force is applied to and pushes the second structure in a tensile extension direction a width of the pulling gap increases so as to apply a tensile force to a test sample mounted across the pulling gap between a first sample mounting area on the first structure and a second sample mounting area on the second structure.

  14. Accuracy of clinical observations of push-off during gait after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinley, Jennifer L; Morris, Meg E; Greenwood, Ken M; Goldie, Patricia A; Olney, Sandra J

    2006-06-01

    To determine the accuracy (criterion-related validity) of real-time clinical observations of push-off in gait after stroke. Criterion-related validity study of gait observations. Rehabilitation hospital in Australia. Eleven participants with stroke and 8 treating physical therapists. Not applicable. Pearson product-moment correlation between physical therapists' observations of push-off during gait and criterion measures of peak ankle power generation from a 3-dimensional motion analysis system. A high correlation was obtained between the observational ratings and the measurements of peak ankle power generation (Pearson r =.98). The standard error of estimation of ankle power generation was .32W/kg. Physical therapists can make accurate real-time clinical observations of push-off during gait following stroke.

  15. Push-out tests and evaluation of FRP perfobond rib shear connectors performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolpasky, Ludvik; Ryjacek, Pavel

    2017-09-01

    The behavioural characteristics of FRP (fibre-reinforced polymer) perfobond rib shear connector was examined through push-out tests in order to verify the applicability for pedestrian bridge structure. The aim of this study is to determine interaction between high performance concrete slab and handmade FRP plate which represent web of the composite beam. Combination of these modern materials leads to structural system with both great load bearing capacity and also sufficient flexural stiffness of the composite element. Openings cut into the GFRP plate at a variable spacing allow GFRP reinforcement bars to be inserted to act as shear studs. Hand lay-up process can increase suitable properties of FRP for connection by perfobond rib shear connectors. In this study, three push-out tests on fiber-reinforced polymer were performed to investigate their shear behaviour. The results of the push-out tests on FRP perfobond rib shear connector indicates great promise for application in full scale structures.

  16. Motivation and Perception of Tourists as Push and Pull Factors to Visit National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, Jumrin; Maryono

    2018-02-01

    Push-pull theoretical framework is a popular theory to explain the reason why the tourists decide to visit the destination rather than other place, the kind of experience they want to get and the type of activity they want to do. In this paper, it is explained the motivation as push factors and the perception as pull factors of the tourist in deciding the destination based on previous literature and research using descriptive method. The framework asumed that tourists are motivated to fulfill their needs, including to reduce the psychological imbalance and to gain recognition of social status. National Park is one of destination based on nature or commonly knowns as ecotourism. In choosing the destination, the tourists tend to classify their alternative choice based on several criteria, such as the domination perception of tourist from one destination (pull factor), self motivation (push factor) and the available time and money (situational constraints).

  17. Removal of Airborne Contaminants from a Surface Tank by a Push-Pull System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per; Topp, Claus

    Open surface tanks are used in many industrial processes, and local exhaust systems are often designed to capture and remove toxic fumes diffused from materials in the tanks prior to their escape into the workplace environment. The push-pull system seems to be the most efficient local exhaust...... system, but proper design is required to ensure health and safety of the workers and, furthermore, it is very desirable from an energy conservation point of view to determine an optimum and -an efficient design of push-pull hoods which can exhaust all contaminants with a minimum quantity of volume flow....... The paper describes and discusses different design methods and compares designed values with results from a measurement series of push-pull system efficiency....

  18. Pulse width modulated push-pull driven parallel resonant converter with active free-wheel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reass, William A.; Schrank, Louis

    2004-06-22

    An apparatus and method for high frequency alternating power generation to control kilowatts of supplied power in microseconds. The present invention includes a means for energy storage, push-pull switching means, control electronics, transformer means, resonant circuitry and means for excess energy recovery, all in electrical communication. A push-pull circuit works synchronously with a force commutated free-wheel transistor to provide current pulses to a transformer. A change in the conduction angle of the push-pull circuit changes the amount of energy coupled into the transformer's secondary oscillating circuit, thereby altering the induced secondary resonating voltage. At the end of each pulse, the force commutated free-wheel transistor causes residual excess energy in the primary circuit to be transmitted back to the storage capacitor for later use.

  19. Prosthetic ankle push-off work reduces metabolic rate but not collision work in non-amputee walking

    OpenAIRE

    Caputo, Joshua M.; Collins, Steven H.

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with unilateral below-knee amputation expend more energy than non-amputees during walking and exhibit reduced push-off work and increased hip work in the affected limb. Simple dynamic models of walking suggest a possible solution, predicting that increasing prosthetic ankle push-off should decrease leading limb collision, thereby reducing overall energy requirements. We conducted a rigorous experimental test of this idea wherein ankle-foot prosthesis push-off work was incrementall...

  20. Streaming tearing mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigeta, M.; Sato, T.; Dasgupta, B.

    1985-01-01

    The magnetohydrodynamic stability of streaming tearing mode is investigated numerically. A bulk plasma flow parallel to the antiparallel magnetic field lines and localized in the neutral sheet excites a streaming tearing mode more strongly than the usual tearing mode, particularly for the wavelength of the order of the neutral sheet width (or smaller), which is stable for the usual tearing mode. Interestingly, examination of the eigenfunctions of the velocity perturbation and the magnetic field perturbation indicates that the streaming tearing mode carries more energy in terms of the kinetic energy rather than the magnetic energy. This suggests that the streaming tearing mode instability can be a more feasible mechanism of plasma acceleration than the usual tearing mode instability.

  1. Cost comparison between private and public collection of residual household waste: Multiple case studies in the Flemish region of Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobsen, R.; Buysse, J.; Gellynck, X.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► The goal is to compare collection costs for residual household waste. ► We have clustered all municipalities in order to find mutual comparable pairs. ► Each pair consists of one private and one public operating waste collection program. ► All cases show that private service has lower costs than public service. ► Municipalities were contacted to identify the deeper causes for the waste management program. - Abstract: The rising pressure in terms of cost efficiency on public services pushes governments to transfer part of those services to the private sector. A trend towards more privatizing can be noticed in the collection of municipal household waste. This paper reports the findings of a research project aiming to compare the cost between the service of private and public collection of residual household waste. Multiple case studies of municipalities about the Flemish region of Belgium were conducted. Data concerning the year 2009 were gathered through in-depth interviews in 2010. In total 12 municipalities were investigated, divided into three mutual comparable pairs with a weekly and three mutual comparable pairs with a fortnightly residual waste collection. The results give a rough indication that in all cases the cost of private service is lower than public service in the collection of household waste. Albeit that there is an interest in establishing whether there are differences in the costs and service levels between public and private waste collection services, there are clear difficulties in establishing comparisons that can be made without having to rely on a large number of assumptions and corrections. However, given the cost difference, it remains the responsibility of the municipalities to decide upon the service they offer their citizens, regardless the cost efficiency: public or private.

  2. Cost comparison between private and public collection of residual household waste: Multiple case studies in the Flemish region of Belgium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobsen, R., E-mail: ray.jacobsen@ugent.be [Department of Agricultural Economics, Ghent University, Coupure Links 653, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Buysse, J., E-mail: j.buysse@ugent.be [Department of Agricultural Economics, Ghent University, Coupure Links 653, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Gellynck, X., E-mail: xavier.gellynck@ugent.be [Department of Agricultural Economics, Ghent University, Coupure Links 653, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The goal is to compare collection costs for residual household waste. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We have clustered all municipalities in order to find mutual comparable pairs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Each pair consists of one private and one public operating waste collection program. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer All cases show that private service has lower costs than public service. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Municipalities were contacted to identify the deeper causes for the waste management program. - Abstract: The rising pressure in terms of cost efficiency on public services pushes governments to transfer part of those services to the private sector. A trend towards more privatizing can be noticed in the collection of municipal household waste. This paper reports the findings of a research project aiming to compare the cost between the service of private and public collection of residual household waste. Multiple case studies of municipalities about the Flemish region of Belgium were conducted. Data concerning the year 2009 were gathered through in-depth interviews in 2010. In total 12 municipalities were investigated, divided into three mutual comparable pairs with a weekly and three mutual comparable pairs with a fortnightly residual waste collection. The results give a rough indication that in all cases the cost of private service is lower than public service in the collection of household waste. Albeit that there is an interest in establishing whether there are differences in the costs and service levels between public and private waste collection services, there are clear difficulties in establishing comparisons that can be made without having to rely on a large number of assumptions and corrections. However, given the cost difference, it remains the responsibility of the municipalities to decide upon the service they offer their citizens, regardless the cost efficiency: public or private.

  3. Gait strategy changes with acceleration to accommodate the biomechanical constraint on push-off propulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Keonyoung; Baek, Juhyun; Park, Sukyung

    2012-11-15

    To maintain steady and level walking, push-off propulsion during the double support phase compensates for the energy loss through heel strike collisions in an energetically optimal manner. However, a large portion of daily gait activities also contains transient gait responses, such as acceleration or deceleration, during which the observed dominance of the push-off work or the energy optimality may not hold. In this study, we examined whether the push-off propulsion during the double support phase served as a major energy source for gait acceleration, and we also studied the energetic optimality of accelerated gait using a simple bipedal walking model. Seven healthy young subjects participated in the over-ground walking experiments. The subjects walked at four different constant gait speeds ranging from a self-selected speed to a maximum gait speed, and then they accelerated their gait from zero to the maximum gait speed using a self-selected acceleration ratio. We measured the ground reaction force (GRF) of three consecutive steps and the corresponding leg configuration using force platforms and an optical marker system, respectively, and we compared the mechanical work performed by the GRF during each single and double support phase. In contrast to the model prediction of an increase in the push-off propulsion that is proportional to the acceleration and minimizes the mechanical energy cost, the push-off propulsion was slightly increased, and a significant increase in the mechanical work during the single support phase was observed. The results suggest that gait acceleration occurs while accommodating a feasible push-off propulsion constraint. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Force-velocity properties' contribution to bilateral deficit during ballistic push-off.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samozino, Pierre; Rejc, Enrico; di Prampero, Pietro Enrico; Belli, Alain; Morin, Jean-Benoît

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study is to quantify the contribution of the force-velocity (F-v) properties to bilateral force deficit (BLD) in ballistic lower limb push-off and to relate it to individual F-v mechanical properties of the lower limbs. The F-v relation was individually assessed from mechanical measurements for 14 subjects during maximal ballistic lower limb push-offs; its contribution to BLD was then investigated using a theoretical macroscopic approach, considering both the mechanical constraints of movement dynamics and the maximal external capabilities of the lower limb neuromuscular system. During ballistic lower limb push-off, the maximum force each lower limb can produce was lower during bilateral than unilateral actions, thus leading to a BLD of 36.7% ± 5.7%. The decrease in force due to the F-v mechanical properties amounted to 19.9% ± 3.6% of the force developed during BL push-offs, which represents a nonneural contribution to BLD of 43.5% ± 9.1%. This contribution to BLD that cannot be attributed to changes in neural features was negatively correlated to the maximum unloaded extension velocity of the lower limb (r = -0.977, P push-off, BLD is due to both neural alterations and F-v mechanical properties, the latter being associated with the change in movement velocity between bilateral and unilateral actions. The level of the contribution of the F-v properties depends on the individual F-v mechanical profile of the entire lower limb neuromuscular system: the more the F-v profile is oriented toward velocity capabilities, the lower the loss of force from unilateral to bilateral push-offs due to changes in movement velocity.

  5. Effects of asymmetrical stance and movement on body rotation in pushing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yun-Ju; Aruin, Alexander S

    2015-01-21

    Pushing objects in the presence of body asymmetries could increase the risk of back injury. Furthermore, when the object is heavy, it could exacerbate the effects induced by asymmetrical posture. We investigated how the use of asymmetrical posture and/or upper extremity movement affect vertical torque (Tz) and center of pressure (COP) displacement during pushing. Ten healthy volunteers were instructed to push objects of three different weights using two hands (symmetrical hand use) or one hand (asymmetrical hand use) while standing in symmetrical or asymmetrical foot-positions. The peak values of Tz and COP displacement in the medial-lateral direction (COPML) were analyzed. In cases of isolated asymmetry, changes in the Tz were mainly linked with effects of hand-use whereas effects of foot-position dominated changes in the COPML displacement. In cases of a combined asymmetry, the magnitudes of both Tz and COPML were additive when asymmetrical hand-use and foot-position induced the rotation of the lower and upper body in the same direction or subtractive when asymmetries resulted in the rotation of the body segments in the opposite directions. Moreover, larger Tz and COP displacements were seen when pushing the heavy weight. The results point out the importance of using Tz and COPML to describe the isolated or combined effects of asymmetrical upper extremity movement and asymmetrical posture on body rotation during pushing. Furthermore, it suggests that a proper combination of unilateral arm movement and foot placements could help to reduce body rotation even when pushing heavy objects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Chemo-mechanical pushing of proteins along single-stranded DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokoloski, Joshua E; Kozlov, Alexander G; Galletto, Roberto; Lohman, Timothy M

    2016-05-31

    Single-stranded (ss)DNA binding (SSB) proteins bind with high affinity to ssDNA generated during DNA replication, recombination, and repair; however, these SSBs must eventually be displaced from or reorganized along the ssDNA. One potential mechanism for reorganization is for an ssDNA translocase (ATP-dependent motor) to push the SSB along ssDNA. Here we use single molecule total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy to detect such pushing events. When Cy5-labeled Escherichia coli (Ec) SSB is bound to surface-immobilized 3'-Cy3-labeled ssDNA, a fluctuating FRET signal is observed, consistent with random diffusion of SSB along the ssDNA. Addition of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Pif1, a 5' to 3' ssDNA translocase, results in the appearance of isolated, irregularly spaced saw-tooth FRET spikes only in the presence of ATP. These FRET spikes result from translocase-induced directional (5' to 3') pushing of the SSB toward the 3' ssDNA end, followed by displacement of the SSB from the DNA end. Similar ATP-dependent pushing events, but in the opposite (3' to 5') direction, are observed with EcRep and EcUvrD (both 3' to 5' ssDNA translocases). Simulations indicate that these events reflect active pushing by the translocase. The ability of translocases to chemo-mechanically push heterologous SSB proteins along ssDNA provides a potential mechanism for reorganization and clearance of tightly bound SSBs from ssDNA.

  7. M/G/1/K system with push-out scheme under vacation policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoji Kasahara

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider an M/G/1/K system with push-out scheme and multiple vacations. This model is particularly important in situations where it is essential to provide short waiting times to messages which are selected for service. We analyze the behavior of two types of messages: one that succeeds in transmission and the other that fails. We derive the Laplace-Stieltjes transform of the waiting time distribution for the message which is eventually served. Finally, we show some numerical results including the comparisons between the push-out and the ordinary blocking models.

  8. Push-and-stick mechanism for charged and excited small cluster emission under ion bombardment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bitensky, I.S.; Parilis, E.S.; Wojciechowski, I.A.

    1992-01-01

    The mechanism for the formation, excitation and ionization of small clusters emitted under ion bombardment is discussed. It is shown that the increased degree of ionization for the transition metal dimers, trimers and tetramers can be explained by the existence of an additional effective channel for their formation, namely the associative ionization process. A simple estimate shows that the sticking together of a fast cascade atom and the pushed out surface atom is 30-40 times more effective for dimer formation, than the recombination of two fast atoms. This push-and-stick mechanism of cluster formation could also be effective for the formation of trimers and tetramers. (orig.)

  9. A unified perspective on ankle push-off in human walking

    OpenAIRE

    Zelik, Karl E.; Adamczyk, Peter G.

    2016-01-01

    Muscle–tendon units about the ankle joint generate a burst of positive power during the step-to-step transition in human walking, termed ankle push-off, but there is no scientific consensus on its functional role. A central question embodied in the biomechanics literature is: does ankle push-off primarily contribute to leg swing, or to center of mass (COM) acceleration? This question has been debated in various forms for decades. However, it actually presents a false dichotomy, as these two p...

  10. Correcting errors in a quantum gate with pushed ions via optimal control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poulsen, Uffe V.; Sklarz, Shlomo; Tannor, David; Calarco, Tommaso

    2010-01-01

    We analyze in detail the so-called pushing gate for trapped ions, introducing a time-dependent harmonic approximation for the external motion. We show how to extract the average fidelity for the gate from the resulting semiclassical simulations. We characterize and quantify precisely all types of errors coming from the quantum dynamics and reveal that slight nonlinearities in the ion-pushing force can have a dramatic effect on the adiabaticity of gate operation. By means of quantum optimal control techniques, we show how to suppress each of the resulting gate errors in order to reach a high fidelity compatible with scalable fault-tolerant quantum computing.

  11. Correcting errors in a quantum gate with pushed ions via optimal control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Uffe Vestergaard; Sklarz, Shlomo; Tannor, David

    2010-01-01

    We analyze in detail the so-called pushing gate for trapped ions, introducing a time-dependent harmonic approximation for the external motion. We show how to extract the average fidelity for the gate from the resulting semiclassical simulations. We characterize and quantify precisely all types...... of errors coming from the quantum dynamics and reveal that slight nonlinearities in the ion-pushing force can have a dramatic effect on the adiabaticity of gate operation. By means of quantum optimal control techniques, we show how to suppress each of the resulting gate errors in order to reach a high...

  12. Investigation of the extra-extra-push by pre-scission neutron measurements with DEMON

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudolf, Gerard

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this talk is to present a simple method to calculate pre- and post-scission neutron multiplicities in the frame of the Bass model. This method is of particular interest for very heavy systems for which an extra-extra-push is supposed to hinder fusion. The multiplicities calculated by the model are compared to published data covering a broad range of projectile and target masses, and to more recent ones obtained with the help of the Demon detector and addressing specifically the existence of the extra-extra-push

  13. Catheter Entrapment During Posterior Mitral Leaflet Pushing Maneuver for MitraClip Implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castrodeza, Javier; Amat-Santos, Ignacio J; Tobar, Javier; Varela-Falcón, Luis H

    2016-06-01

    MitraClip (Abbott Vascular) therapy has been reported to be an effective procedure for mitral regurgitation, especially in high-risk patients. Recently, the novel pushing maneuver technique has been described for approaching restricted and short posterior leaflets with a pigtail catheter in order to facilitate grasping of the clip. However, complications or unexpected situations may occur. We report the case of an 84-year-old patient who underwent MitraClip implantation wherein the pushing maneuver was complicated by the clip accidentally gripping the pigtail catheter along with the two leaflets.

  14. Neonatal outcomes of deliveries in occiput posterior position when delayed pushing is practiced: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlqvist, Kristina; Jonsson, Maria

    2017-11-14

    To examine the impact of occiput posterior position, compared to occiput anterior position, on neonatal outcomes in a setting where delayed pushing is practiced. The specific aim was to estimate the risk of acidaemia. Cohort study from a university hospital in Sweden between 2004 and 2012. Information was collected from a local database of 35,546 births. Umbilical artery sampling was routine. Outcomes were: umbilical artery pH pushing, birth in occiput posterior compared with anterior position is not associated with acidaemia. The higher risk of neonatal morbidity is of concern and any long-term consequences need to be investigated in future studies.

  15. Mobilizing the private sector. Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraz-tabor, L

    1993-12-01

    The national diarrheal disease control program has made progress against diarrheal illness in Indonesia, but diarrhea still accounts for 130,000 deaths of under-5 year olds annually. The potential of the private sector had been virtually untapped until the PRITECH Project designed and implemented a private sector based program to complement government efforts to reduce childhood morbidity and mortality related to diarrhea. PRITECH wanted to motivate commercial firms to invest the capital necessary to commercialize oral rehydration salts (ORS) so that program self-sufficiency would be maximized over the long term without depending upon donor support. Sections describe the lack of commercial sector ORS promotion, supply and demand factors, raising interest in ORS, conditions for change, the potential market for ORS, demand, production capacity, previous collaborative efforts, areas for improvement, PRITECH's role as catalyst, coordination with commercial companies, marketing workshops, collaboration with the Indonesian Medical Association, the handwashing campaign, and program impact. Although the program has been in place for just 1 year, sales of ORS have increased along with the degree of sustainable collaboration among local institutions. The author stresses that for the model to be successfully replicated elsewhere, the government, medical and pediatric associations, the World Health Organization, UNICEF, groups which can promote oral rehydration therapy, and opinion leaders in the medical community must be involved. Finally, note is made that the image of ORS must be improved and that the work of the public and commercial sectors can be complementary.

  16. Single-Mode VCSELs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Anders; Gustavsson, Johan S.

    The only active transverse mode in a truly single-mode VCSEL is the fundamental mode with a near Gaussian field distribution. A single-mode VCSEL produces a light beam of higher spectral purity, higher degree of coherence and lower divergence than a multimode VCSEL and the beam can be more precisely shaped and focused to a smaller spot. Such beam properties are required in many applications. In this chapter, after discussing applications of single-mode VCSELs, we introduce the basics of fields and modes in VCSELs and review designs implemented for single-mode emission from VCSELs in different materials and at different wavelengths. This includes VCSELs that are inherently single-mode as well as inherently multimode VCSELs where higher-order modes are suppressed by mode selective gain or loss. In each case we present the current state-of-the-art and discuss pros and cons. At the end, a specific example with experimental results is provided and, as a summary, the most promising designs based on current technologies are identified.

  17. Cluster secondary ion mass spectrometry microscope mode mass spectrometry imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, András; Smith, Donald F; Jungmann, Julia H; Heeren, Ron M A

    2013-12-30

    Microscope mode imaging for secondary ion mass spectrometry is a technique with the promise of simultaneous high spatial resolution and high-speed imaging of biomolecules from complex surfaces. Technological developments such as new position-sensitive detectors, in combination with polyatomic primary ion sources, are required to exploit the full potential of microscope mode mass spectrometry imaging, i.e. to efficiently push the limits of ultra-high spatial resolution, sample throughput and sensitivity. In this work, a C60 primary source was combined with a commercial mass microscope for microscope mode secondary ion mass spectrometry imaging. The detector setup is a pixelated detector from the Medipix/Timepix family with high-voltage post-acceleration capabilities. The system's mass spectral and imaging performance is tested with various benchmark samples and thin tissue sections. The high secondary ion yield (with respect to 'traditional' monatomic primary ion sources) of the C60 primary ion source and the increased sensitivity of the high voltage detector setup improve microscope mode secondary ion mass spectrometry imaging. The analysis time and the signal-to-noise ratio are improved compared with other microscope mode imaging systems, all at high spatial resolution. We have demonstrated the unique capabilities of a C60 ion microscope with a Timepix detector for high spatial resolution microscope mode secondary ion mass spectrometry imaging. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Stability and Scalability of the CMS Global Pool: Pushing HTCondor and GlideinWMS to New Limits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balcas, J. [Caltech; Bockelman, B. [Nebraska U.; Hufnagel, D. [Fermilab; Hurtado Anampa, K. [Notre Dame U.; Aftab Khan, F. [NCP, Islamabad; Larson, K. [Fermilab; Letts, J. [UC, San Diego; Marra da Silva, J. [Sao Paulo, IFT; Mascheroni, M. [Fermilab; Mason, D. [Fermilab; Perez-Calero Yzquierdo, A. [Madrid, CIEMAT; Tiradani, A. [Fermilab

    2017-11-22

    The CMS Global Pool, based on HTCondor and glideinWMS, is the main computing resource provisioning system for all CMS workflows, including analysis, Monte Carlo production, and detector data reprocessing activities. The total resources at Tier-1 and Tier-2 grid sites pledged to CMS exceed 100,000 CPU cores, while another 50,000 to 100,000 CPU cores are available opportunistically, pushing the needs of the Global Pool to higher scales each year. These resources are becoming more diverse in their accessibility and configuration over time. Furthermore, the challenge of stably running at higher and higher scales while introducing new modes of operation such as multi-core pilots, as well as the chaotic nature of physics analysis workflows, places huge strains on the submission infrastructure. This paper details some of the most important challenges to scalability and stability that the CMS Global Pool has faced since the beginning of the LHC Run II and how they were overcome.

  19. Steady-state Manoeuvring of a Generic ASD Tug in Escort Pull and Bow-rope Aided Push Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslaw Artyszuk

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to expand the very promising research undertaken in the author's previous work, basically done on simplified modelling the escort push operation. Now, the other two modes of a tug's employment, as stated in the title, are covered. The special focus is again set on the indirect towing in that the towline force is much higher than the thruster force. The ratio of these two forces, referred to as the relative towing force (or amplification ratio is evaluated together with the hull drift angle and the thruster(-s angle for a given escort speed. This mutual relationship is known as the tug performance diagram. Although rather generic (container-type formulas are derived, they are supplied for exemplification purposes with simple, analytically given hull hydrodynamic forces. The aim is also here to provide a basis for further sensitivity analysis of the model and possible improvement/optimisation to the tug design. The obtained charts also could serve as rough and clear guidance for towmasters while escorting.

  20. Privatization and Political Power in Representative Democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten Balle

    One of the main endeavors within ”New Public Management” (NPM) since the 1980s has been to encourage various forms of privatization in the public sector. In recent years, the involvement of private players in the provision of services in Danish municipalities has thus been increased, which makes...... it important to study the consequences of this development. In the present article, privatization is understood as the use of private service providers to provide services and focus is on what privatization means for the power of local political players. The point of departure is an expectation that a high...... degree of privatization can have far-reaching consequences for the distribution of local political power. This is illustrated empirically by a questionnaire survey of 896 municipal leaders. The main findings are that the local political actors generally have less power in municipalities with high degrees...

  1. Private Sector Credit and Inflation Volatility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorna Katusiime

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effect of inflation volatility on private sector credit growth. The results indicate that private sector credit growth is positively linked to the one period lagged inflation volatility. Given that past monetary policy actions continue to affect the targeted variables due to the substantial lags in the transmission mechanism, the positive response of private sector credit growth to past inflation volatility suggests a credible monetary policy regime in Uganda, which has led to a reduction in the level of macroeconomic uncertainty and the restoration of favorable economic conditions and prospects, thus increasing the demand for credit. Further, the study finds that the lagged private sector credit growth, nominal exchange rate, and inflation have a statistically significant effect on private sector credit growth while financial innovation, interest rates, and GDP growth appear not to be important determinants of private sector credit growth. The robustness of our findings is confirmed by sensitivity checks.

  2. Double-mode pulsation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, A.N.

    1982-01-01

    Double mode pulsation is a very pervasive phenomenon in stars all over the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram. In order of increasing radius, examples are: ZZ Ceti stars, the sun, the delta Scuti stars, RR Lyrae variables, the β Cephei variables and those related to them, Cepheids, and maybe even the Mira stars. These many modes have been interpreted as both radial and nonradial modes, but in many cases the actual mode has not been clearly identified. Yellow giants seem to be the most simple pulsators with a large majority of the RR Lyrae variables and Cepheids showing only one pulsation period. We limit this review to those very few cases for classical Cepheids and RR Lyrae variables which display two modes. For these we know many facts about these stars, but the actual cause of the pulsation in two modes simultaneously remains unknown

  3. The effect of prosthetic foot push-off on mechanical loading associated with knee osteoarthritis in lower extremity amputees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenroth, David C; Segal, Ava D; Zelik, Karl E; Czerniecki, Joseph M; Klute, Glenn K; Adamczyk, Peter G; Orendurff, Michael S; Hahn, Michael E; Collins, Steven H; Kuo, Art D

    2011-10-01

    Lower extremity amputation not only limits mobility, but also increases the risk of knee osteoarthritis of the intact limb. Dynamic walking models of non-amputees suggest that pushing-off from the trailing limb can reduce collision forces on the leading limb. These collision forces may determine the peak knee external adduction moment (EAM), which has been linked to the development of knee OA in the general population. We therefore hypothesized that greater prosthetic push-off would lead to reduced loading and knee EAM of the intact limb in unilateral transtibial amputees. Seven unilateral transtibial amputees were studied during gait under three prosthetic foot conditions that were intended to vary push-off. Prosthetic foot-ankle push-off work, intact limb knee EAM and ground reaction impulses for both limbs during step-to-step transition were measured. Overall, trailing limb prosthetic push-off work was negatively correlated with leading intact limb 1st peak knee EAM (slope=-.72±.22; p=.011). Prosthetic push-off work and 1st peak intact knee EAM varied significantly with foot type. The prosthetic foot condition with the least push-off demonstrated the largest knee EAM, which was reduced by 26% with the prosthetic foot producing the most push-off. Trailing prosthetic limb push-off impulse was negatively correlated with leading intact limb loading impulse (slope=-.34±.14; p=.001), which may help explain how prosthetic limb push-off can affect intact limb loading. Prosthetic feet that perform more prosthetic push-off appear to be associated with a reduction in 1st peak intact knee EAM, and their use could potentially reduce the risk and burden of knee osteoarthritis in this population. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Functional Requirements on the Design of the Detectors and the Interaction Region of an e+e- Linear Collider with a Push-Pull Arrangement of Detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markiewicz, T.

    2009-01-01

    The Interaction Region of the International Linear Collider is based on two experimental detectors working in a push-pull mode. A time efficient implementation of this model sets specific requirements and challenges for many detector and machine systems, in particular the IR magnets, the cryogenics and the alignment system, the beamline shielding, the detector design and the overall integration. This paper attempts to separate the functional requirements of a push pull interaction region and machine detector interface from any particular conceptual or technical solution that might have been proposed to date by either the ILC Beam Delivery Group or any of the three detector concepts. As such, we hope that it provides a set of ground rules for interpreting and evaluating the MDI parts of the proposed detector concept's Letters of Intent, due March 2009. The authors of the present paper are the leaders of the IR Integration Working Group within Global Design Effort Beam Delivery System and the representatives from each detector concept submitting the Letters Of Intent.

  5. Streaming gravity mode instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shui.

    1989-05-01

    In this paper, we study the stability of a current sheet with a sheared flow in a gravitational field which is perpendicular to the magnetic field and plasma flow. This mixing mode caused by a combined role of the sheared flow and gravity is named the streaming gravity mode instability. The conditions of this mode instability are discussed for an ideal four-layer model in the incompressible limit. (author). 5 refs

  6. Social Security privatization: balancing efficiency and fairness

    OpenAIRE

    C. Alan Garner

    1997-01-01

    This article examines these fundamental issues of economic efficiency and fairness that should be weighed when considering Social Security privatization. The first section summarizes the challenges to the current system and outlines various options for reform. The second section explains how privatization could improve economic efficiency, and briefly considers the difficult issue of the transition costs in moving from the current system to full privatization. The third section discusses impo...

  7. PRIVATE SECTOR DEVELOPMENT AND COMPETITIVENESS IN GHANA

    OpenAIRE

    Wolf, Susanna

    2003-01-01

    Ghana has a relatively good international reputation with respect to political stability and macroeconomic reforms. However, its success with developing the private sector and attracting investment has at best been mixed. Therefore the new government that came into power in 2001 proclaimed a "Golden Age of Business". Competitiveness and private sector development are closely interlinked. On the one hand the factors that influence the competitiveness of a country are a precondition for private...

  8. Europeanisation of private law and English law

    OpenAIRE

    Beale, Hugh

    2003-01-01

    To what extent is English Private Law being affected by the United Kingdom’s membership of the European Union? I think we can try to answer this at three levels: (i) The United Kingdom’s compliance with EU legislation; (ii) the influence of European ideas on English Private Law; (iii) the attitude in England towards greater harmonisation or possible unification of European Private Law

  9. Private events: from methodological behaviorism to interbehaviorism

    OpenAIRE

    Bueno, Roberto; Universidad de San Martín de Porres / Universidad Nacional Federico Villarreal

    2010-01-01

    As supposed events being accessible to a unique observer, private events posit an interesting challenge to a behavioristic psychology. Three historical variants of behaviorism dealt with the problem of private events: methodological behaviorism, radical behaviorism and interbehaviorism. The basic argument of the two last views, and that distinguishes them from the former, is that private events are comprised into the scope of an objective science of behavior. The analysis of these accounts pe...

  10. The emergence of integrated private reporting

    OpenAIRE

    Atkins, Jill; Solomon, A.; Norton, S. D.; Joseph, N. L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Private social and environmental reporting (SER) has grown considerably in recent years, consistent with a rise in institutional investor engagement and dialogue with investee companies. We interpret the emergence of integrated private reporting through the lens of institutional logics. We frame the emergence of integrated private reporting as a merging of two hitherto separate and possibly rival institutional logics.\\ud Methodology/Approach: We interviewed 19 companies listed on the...

  11. Review of Private Sector Personnel Screening Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-10-01

    private sector investigative sources or methods would be useful to the DoD for conducting national security background investigations. The federal government by and large examines more sources and conducts more thorough investigations than industry. In general, private employers (1) have less access to information about applicants...outsource many elements of background checks. It is recommended that the DoD periodically evaluate private sector screening programs and data sources in order to monitor

  12. Dual-Mode Combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trefny, Charles J (Inventor); Dippold, Vance F (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A new dual-mode ramjet combustor used for operation over a wide flight Mach number range is described. Subsonic combustion mode is usable to lower flight Mach numbers than current dual-mode scramjets. High speed mode is characterized by supersonic combustion in a free-jet that traverses the subsonic combustion chamber to a variable nozzle throat. Although a variable combustor exit aperture is required, the need for fuel staging to accommodate the combustion process is eliminated. Local heating from shock-boundary-layer interactions on combustor walls is also eliminated.

  13. Antipastorialism : Resistant Georgic Mode

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zimmerman, Donald

    2000-01-01

    .... Abolitionists, women, Afro-British slaves, and those who protested land enclosure developed a multivalent, resistant mode of writing, which I name 'antipastoralism', that countered orthodox, poetical...

  14. Nonlinear drift tearing mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelenyj, L.M.; Kuznetsova, M.M.

    1989-01-01

    Nonlinear study of magnetic perturbation development under single-mode conditions in collision-free plasma in configurations with the magnetic field shear is investigated. Results are obtained with regard of transverse component of electrical field and its effect on ion dynamics within wide range of ion Larmor radius value and values of magnetic field shear. Increments of nonlinear drift tearing mode are obtained and it is shown that excitation drastic conditions of even linearly stable modes are possible. Mechanism of instability nonlinear stabilization is considered and the value of magnetic island at the saturation threshold is estimeted. Energy of nonlinear drift tearing mode is discussed

  15. Privatizing community animal health worker based veterinary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Privatizing community animal health worker based veterinary services delivery system in West Kordofan, Southern Sudan; The needed roles of community animal health assistant (CAHA) and Pastoral unions.

  16. Comparing public and private sector switchers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Anders; Hansen, Jesper Rosenberg; Bozeman, Barry

    are related to sector switching and the pattern of sector switch, public to private versus private to public. We propose a life stage model arguing that people's needs change in different life stages of their lives. We further suggest that this can help explain why they switch sector. We use unique Danish...... labor market data that include information on all employees in Denmark (both private and public sector). The data are for the period 1980 to 2006, and this longitudinal database includes abundant information about job changes, including sector switching. Our findings indicate mixed support....... Finally, we find that people with more education are likely to switch from private to public sector....

  17. Student Dissertation Explores Privatization of Global Security

    OpenAIRE

    Naval Postgraduate School Public Affairs Office

    2012-01-01

    NPS national security affairs doctoral student Cmdr. Dan Straub weighs the benefits and challenges of using private security contractors for United Nations peacekeeping efforts in his upcoming dissertation.

  18. Balancing Public and Private Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martijn Scheltema

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Voluntary Sustainability Standards (VSS might develop into a viable alternative to public regulation. However, it turns on the (regulatory circumstances whether that holds true in practice. If public regulation on CSR topics is lacking, governments are unable to agree upon certain topics on a global level or diverging public regulation exists, VSS can be helpful to set global standards. Obviously, private standards will especially be helpful if they are commensurate with local public legislation (and e.g. treaties and/or are accepted by local governments. If one neglects this, numerous domestic structures might exist that frustrate VSS. Furthermore, governments have to remain vigilant as to whether these private regimes do not result in market disruption, consumer detriment or hamper trade. VSS might also compete with public arrangements which might limit the uptake of VSS. However, if public regulation exists VSS might be a viable alternative if compliance with not too compelling public norms by market participants is rather poor and the public policymaker is aiming to incentivize the better performing part of the market to embark on higher standards and thus only desires to regulate the less performing part of the market. However, of paramount importance is the effectiveness of VSS in order to be a viable alternative to public regulation. The effectiveness of VSS should be assessed using an integrated multi-disciplinary (comparative approach entailing legal, impact-assessment, legitimacy, governance and behavioural aspects. Only effective VSS in the aforementioned sense are a true alternative to public regulation.Beyond that, the legal perspective in connection with (the effectiveness of VSS is discussed, featuring FSC and UTZ Certified as an example. It is important from this perspective that VSS have a clear and sufficiently selective objective and sufficiently specific norms, are regularly evaluated, entail ‘conflict of law rules’ and

  19. Evaluation of methods to assess push/pull forces in a construction task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoozemans, M J; Van Der Beek, Allard J.; Frings-Dresena, M H; Van der Molen, Henk F.

    2001-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the validity of methods to assess push/pull forces exerted in a construction task. Forces assessed using a hand-held digital force gauge were compared to those obtained using a highly accurate measuring frame. No significant differences were found

  20. From the Push of Fear, to the Pull of Hope: Learning by design ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    From the Push of Fear, to the Pull of Hope: Learning by design. S Sterling. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.

  1. "You Hafta Push": Using Sapphire's Novel to Teach Introduction to American Government

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, Christine

    2007-01-01

    Using fiction in the classroom can dramatize public policy issues and political science concepts, therefore, making them more real and relevant to students. Sapphire's 1996 novel "Push" puts a face on welfare, rape, incest, child abuse, educational inequalities, homophobia, and AIDS. I also use this novel to discuss the public policy process,…

  2. A push-pull system to reduce house entry of malaria mosquitoes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menger, D.J.; Otieno, B.; Rijk, de M.; Mukabana, W.R.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Takken, W.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Mosquitoes are the dominant vectors of pathogens that cause infectious diseases such as malaria, dengue, yellow fever and filariasis. Current vector control strategies often rely on the use of pyrethroids against which mosquitoes are increasingly developing resistance. Here, a push-pull

  3. Voices from the "Working Lives" Project: The Push-Pull of Work and Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehring, Heather; Herring, Katherine

    2012-01-01

    A recent policy direction in many OECD countries has been to increase workforce participation for women of childbearing age; a policy direction which seemingly runs counter to a need for improved work-life balance for women themselves. This article explores the impact of this somewhat contradictory "push-pull" of policy by examining some…

  4. [Autoshaping of a button-push response and eye movement in human subjects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, H; Fukui, I; Inaki, K

    1990-12-01

    Two experiments were conducted with human subjects to investigate the similarities and differences between animal and human behaviors under autoshaping procedures. In these experiments, light served as CS, and display on TV served as US. Whether the pushing button response or gazing response to CS could be obtained in human subjects under Pavlovian conditioning procedure was examined. In Experiment 1, uninstructed naive subjects were placed in a room containing a push-button and a TV display. Within the experimental sessions, the push-button was lit for 8 s as CS, and then paired with the display of a soft pornographic program on TV for 10 s. The result indicated that the modeling of pushing button promoted the increase of response probability among the subjects. The trials conducted after the rest period indicated an increase of response probability. In Experiment 2, a 4 cm square translucent panel was lit for 20 s as CS, and then paired with the display of a computer graphic picture on TV for 8 s as US. Some subjects started gazing at the CS for several seconds. These results indicated that some subjects could acquire the gazing response under the autoshaping procedure.

  5. An innovative and efficient method to control the shape of push-pull membrane deformable mirror

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polo, A.; Haber, A.; Pereira, S.F.; Verhaegen, M.H.G.; Urbach, H.P.

    2012-01-01

    We carry out performance characterisation of a commercial push and pull deformable mirror with 48 actuators (Adaptica Srl). We present a detailed description of the system as well as a statistical approach on the identification of the mirror influence function. A new efficient control algorithm to

  6. Ergonomic study regarding sport training – Push-ups simulation and analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion S. BOROZAN

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Some of the most common and helpful physical exercises used in sport training are the push-ups. Their biomechanics is analyzed in the paper and the author also gives an ergonomical study of this particular exercise with a complete simulation of the process.

  7. A polynomial-time algorithm to design push plans for sensorless parts sorting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, de M.; Goaoc, X.; van der Stappen, A.F.

    2005-01-01

    We consider the efficient computation of sequences of push actions that simultaneously orient two different polygons. Our motivation for studying this problem comes from the observation that appropriately oriented parts admit simple sensorless sorting. We study the sorting of two polygonal parts by

  8. 'We don´t want to be pushed by outsiders' the international ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is argued that the IAAF´s organisational readmission strategy went through three phases. Firstly, it followed the overall policies of the International Olympics Committee (IOC) by taking a careful approach guided by African IAAF Council members; then it pushed South Africa towards participation in the 1991 Athletics World ...

  9. The Impact of Pushed Output on Accuracy and Fluency of Iranian EFL Learners' Speaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi Beniss, Aram Reza; Edalati Bazzaz, Vahid

    2014-01-01

    The current study attempted to establish baseline quantitative data on the impacts of pushed output on two components of speaking (i.e., accuracy and fluency). To achieve this purpose, 30 female EFL learners were selected from a whole population pool of 50 based on the standard test of IELTS interview and were randomly assigned into an…

  10. Mechanical loading of the low back and shoulders during pushing and pulling activities.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoozemans, M.J.M.; Kingma, I.; Dieen, van J.H.; Vries, de W.K.H.; Woude, van der L.H.V.; Veeger, H.E.J.; Frings-Dresen, M.H.W.; Beek, van der A.J.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this study was to quantify the mechanical load on the low back and shoulders during pushing and pulling in combination with three task constraints: the use of one or two hands, three cart weights, and two handle heights. The second objective was to explore the relation between the

  11. Push-out bond strength of different tricalcium silicate-based filling materials to root dentin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Henrique Stefaneli Marques

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate the bond strength of different triccalcium silicate cements to retrograde cavity using a push out test. Thirty maxillary central incisors were shaped using #80 hand files and sectioned transversally. Root slices were obtained from the apical 4 mm after eliminating the apical extremity. The specimens were embedded in acrylic resin and positioned at 45° to the horizontal plane for preparation of root-end cavities with a diamond ultrasonic retrotip. The samples were divided into three groups according to the root-end filling material (n = 10: MTA Angelus, ProRoot MTA and Biodentine. A gutta-percha cone (#80 was tugged-back at the limit between the canal and the root-end cavity. The root-end cavity was filled and the gutta-percha cone was removed after complete setting of the materials. The specimens were placed in an Instron machine with the root-end filling turned downwards. The push-out shaft was inserted in the space previously occupied by the gutta-percha cone and push out testing was performed at a crosshead speed of 1.0 mm/min. There was no statistically significant difference in resistance to push out by the materials tested (p > 0.01. MTA Angelus and ProRoot MTA showed predominantly mixed failure while Biodentine exhibited mixed and cohesive failures. The tricalcium silicate-based root-end filling materials showed similar bond strength retrograde cavity.

  12. Push-out bond strength of different tricalcium silicate-based filling materials to root dentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefaneli Marques, Jorge Henrique; Silva-Sousa, Yara Teresinha Corrêa; Rached-Júnior, Fuad Jacob Abi; Macedo, Luciana Martins Domingues de; Mazzi-Chaves, Jardel Francisco; Camilleri, Josette; Sousa-Neto, Manoel Damião

    2018-03-08

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the bond strength of different triccalcium silicate cements to retrograde cavity using a push out test. Thirty maxillary central incisors were shaped using #80 hand files and sectioned transversally. Root slices were obtained from the apical 4 mm after eliminating the apical extremity. The specimens were embedded in acrylic resin and positioned at 45° to the horizontal plane for preparation of root-end cavities with a diamond ultrasonic retrotip. The samples were divided into three groups according to the root-end filling material (n = 10): MTA Angelus, ProRoot MTA and Biodentine. A gutta-percha cone (#80) was tugged-back at the limit between the canal and the root-end cavity. The root-end cavity was filled and the gutta-percha cone was removed after complete setting of the materials. The specimens were placed in an Instron machine with the root-end filling turned downwards. The push-out shaft was inserted in the space previously occupied by the gutta-percha cone and push out testing was performed at a crosshead speed of 1.0 mm/min. There was no statistically significant difference in resistance to push out by the materials tested (p > 0.01). MTA Angelus and ProRoot MTA showed predominantly mixed failure while Biodentine exhibited mixed and cohesive failures. The tricalcium silicate-based root-end filling materials showed similar bond strength retrograde cavity.

  13. Morphisms of Extensions of C*-algebras: Pushing Forward the Busby Invariant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eilers, Søren; Loring, Terry A.; Pedersen, Gert Kjærgård

    1999-01-01

    of varying severity, on the given vertical maps and describe the solutions in terms of push-outs and pull-backs of certain diagrams. Our characterization of the universal solution to one of the diagrams yields a concrete description of various amalgamated free products. This leads to new results about the K...

  14. Mechanical loading of the low back and shoulders during pushing and pulling activities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoozemans, Marco J. M.; Kuijer, P. Paul F. M.; Kingma, Idsart; van Dieën, Jaap H.; de Vries, Wiebe H. K.; van der Woude, Luc H. V.; Veeger, Dirk Jan H. E. J.; van der Beek, Allard J.; Frings-Dresen, Monique H. W.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this study was to quantify the mechanical load on the low back and shoulders during pushing and pulling in combination with three task constraints: the use of one or two hands, three cart weights, and two handle heights. The second objective was to explore the relation between the

  15. The effect of klapskate hinge position on push-off performance: a simulation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houdijk, J.H.P.; Bobbert, M.F.; de Koning, J.J.; de Groot, G.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: The introduction of the klapskate in speed skating confronts skaters with the question of how to adjust the position of the hinge in order to maximize performance. The purpose of this study was to reveal the constraint that klapskate hinge position imposes on push-off performance in speed

  16. The pushing gate in a planar Coulomb crystal using a flat-top laser beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitaoka, M.; Buluta, I.M.; Hasegawa, S.

    2009-01-01

    We propose a pushing gate for entangling two ions in a planar Coulomb crystal in the view of realizing large-scale quantum simulations. A tightly focused laser is irradiated from the direction perpendicular to the crystal plane and its spatial intensity profile generates a state-dependent force. We analyze the error sources in this scheme and obtain low infidelity.

  17. Targeted Drug Delivery in the Suprachoroidal Space by Swollen Hydrogel Pushing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jae Hwan; Desit, Patcharin; Prausnitz, Mark R.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose The purpose is to target model drug particles to the posterior region of the suprachoroidal space (SCS) of the eye controlled via pushing by hydrogel swelling. Methods A particle formulation containing 1% hyaluronic acid (HA) with fluorescent polymer particles and a hydrogel formulation containing 4% HA were introduced in a single syringe as two layers without mixing, and injected sequentially into the SCS of the rabbit eye ex vivo and in vivo using a microneedle. Distribution of particles in the eye was determined by microscopy. Results During injection, the particle formulation was pushed toward the middle of the SCS by the viscous hydrogel formulation, but less than 12% of particles reached the posterior SCS. After injection, the particle formulation was pushed further toward the macula and optic nerve in the posterior SCS by hydrogel swelling and spreading. Heating the eye to 37°C, or injecting in vivo decreased viscosity and mechanical strength of the hydrogel, thereby allowing it to swell and flow further in the SCS. A high salt concentration (9% NaCl) in the hydrogel formulation further increased hydrogel swelling due to osmotic flow into the hydrogel. In this way, up to 76% of particles were delivered to the posterior SCS from an injection made near the limbus. Conclusions This study shows that model drug particles can be targeted to the posterior SCS by HA hydrogel swelling and pushing without particle functionalization or administering external driving forces. PMID:29677369

  18. Trials and Tribulations: Student Approaches and Difficulties with Proposing Mechanisms Using the Electron-Pushing Formalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Gautam

    2014-01-01

    The skill of proposing mechanisms of reactions using the electron-pushing formalism (EPF) is not only of value to practicing organic chemists but it is also emphasized to students enrolled in organic chemistry courses at all levels. Several research studies in the past decade have documented the difficulties that undergraduate, and even graduate…

  19. From Source to Sink: Mechanistic Reasoning Using the Electron-Pushing Formalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Gautam

    2013-01-01

    Since the introduction of Morrison and Boyd's textbook in organic chemistry over 50 years ago, reaction mechanisms and mechanistic reasoning using the electron-pushing formalism (EPF) have become a mainstay of organic chemistry courses. In recent years there have even been several papers in this Journal and others detailing research on how…

  20. Targeted Drug Delivery in the Suprachoroidal Space by Swollen Hydrogel Pushing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jae Hwan; Desit, Patcharin; Prausnitz, Mark R

    2018-04-01

    The purpose is to target model drug particles to the posterior region of the suprachoroidal space (SCS) of the eye controlled via pushing by hydrogel swelling. A particle formulation containing 1% hyaluronic acid (HA) with fluorescent polymer particles and a hydrogel formulation containing 4% HA were introduced in a single syringe as two layers without mixing, and injected sequentially into the SCS of the rabbit eye ex vivo and in vivo using a microneedle. Distribution of particles in the eye was determined by microscopy. During injection, the particle formulation was pushed toward the middle of the SCS by the viscous hydrogel formulation, but less than 12% of particles reached the posterior SCS. After injection, the particle formulation was pushed further toward the macula and optic nerve in the posterior SCS by hydrogel swelling and spreading. Heating the eye to 37°C, or injecting in vivo decreased viscosity and mechanical strength of the hydrogel, thereby allowing it to swell and flow further in the SCS. A high salt concentration (9% NaCl) in the hydrogel formulation further increased hydrogel swelling due to osmotic flow into the hydrogel. In this way, up to 76% of particles were delivered to the posterior SCS from an injection made near the limbus. This study shows that model drug particles can be targeted to the posterior SCS by HA hydrogel swelling and pushing without particle functionalization or administering external driving forces.